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Sample records for factor a1 htra1

  1. Age-Related Macular Degeneration-Associated Silent Polymorphisms in HtrA1 Impair Its Ability To Antagonize Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Jacobo, Sarah Melissa P.; DeAngelis, Margaret M.; Kim, Ivana K.

    2013-01-01

    Synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within a transcript's coding region produce no change in the amino acid sequence of the protein product and are therefore intuitively assumed to have a neutral effect on protein function. We report that two common variants of high-temperature requirement A1 (HTRA1) that increase the inherited risk of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NvAMD) harbor synonymous SNPs within exon 1 of HTRA1 that convert common codons for Ala34 and Gly36 to less frequently used codons. The frequent-to-rare codon conversion reduced the mRNA translation rate and appeared to compromise HtrA1's conformation and function. The protein product generated from the SNP-containing cDNA displayed enhanced susceptibility to proteolysis and a reduced affinity for an anti-HtrA1 antibody. The NvAMD-associated synonymous polymorphisms lie within HtrA1's putative insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) binding domain. They reduced HtrA1's abilities to associate with IGF-1 and to ameliorate IGF-1-stimulated signaling events and cellular responses. These observations highlight the relevance of synonymous codon usage to protein function and implicate homeostatic protein quality control mechanisms that may go awry in NvAMD. PMID:23478260

  2. Protoporphyrins Enhance Oligomerization and Enzymatic Activity of HtrA1 Serine Protease

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hakryul; Patterson, Victoria; Stoessel, Sean; Kuan, Chia-Yi; Hoh, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    High temperature requirement protein A1 (HtrA1), a secreted serine protease of the HtrA family, is associated with a multitude of human diseases. However, the exact functions of HtrA1 in these diseases remain poorly understood. We seek to unravel the mechanisms of HtrA1 by elucidating its interactions with chemical or biological modulators. To this end, we screened a small molecule library of 500 bioactive compounds to identify those that alter the formation of extracellular HtrA1 complexes in the cell culture medium. An initial characterization of two novel hits from this screen showed that protoporphyrin IX (PPP-IX), a precursor in the heme biosynthetic pathway, and its metalloporphyrin (MPP) derivatives fostered the oligomerization of HtrA1 by binding to the protease domain. As a result of the interaction with MPPs, the proteolytic activity of HtrA1 against Fibulin-5, a specific HtrA1 substrate in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), was increased. This physical interaction could be abolished by the missense mutations of HtrA1 found in patients with cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CARASIL). Furthermore, knockdown of HtrA1 attenuated apoptosis induced by PPP-IX. These results suggest that PPP-IX, or its derivatives, and HtrA1 may function as co-factors whereby porphyrins enhance oligomerization and the protease activity of HtrA1, while active HtrA1 elevates the pro-apoptotic actions of porphyrin derivatives. Further analysis of this interplay may shed insights into the pathogenesis of diseases such as AMD, CARASIL and protoporphyria, as well as effective therapeutic development. PMID:25506911

  3. HtrA1: Its future potential as a novel biomarker for cancer.

    PubMed

    Altobelli, Emma; Marzioni, Daniela; Lattanzi, Amedeo; Angeletti, Paolo Matteo

    2015-08-01

    HtrA1 appears to be involved in several physiological processes as well as in the pathogenesis of conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and osteoarthritis. It has also been hypothesized to play a role as a tumor suppressor. This manuscript reviews the current cancer-related HtrA1 research from the methodological and clinical standpoints including studies regarding its potential role as a tumor marker and/or prognostic factor. PRISMA method was used for study selection. The articles thus collected were examined and selected by two independent reviewers; any disagreement was resolved by a methodologist. A laboratory researcher reviewed the methods and laboratory techniques. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria and concerned the following cancer sites: the nervous system, bladder, breast, esophagus, stomach, liver, endometrium, thyroid, ovaries, pleura, lung and skin. Most articles described in vivo studies using a morphological approach and immunohistochemistry, whereas protein expression was quantified as staining intensity scored by two raters. Often the results were not comparable due to the different rating scales and study design. Current research on HtrA1 does not conclusively support its role as a tumor suppressor. PMID:26035313

  4. HtrA1: Its future potential as a novel biomarker for cancer

    PubMed Central

    ALTOBELLI, EMMA; MARZIONI, DANIELA; LATTANZI, AMEDEO; ANGELETTI, PAOLO MATTEO

    2015-01-01

    HtrA1 appears to be involved in several physiological processes as well as in the pathogenesis of conditions such as Alzheimers disease and osteoarthritis. It has also been hypothesized to play a role as a tumor suppressor. This manuscript reviews the current cancer-related HtrA1 research from the methodological and clinical standpoints including studies regarding its potential role as a tumor marker and/or prognostic factor. PRISMA method was used for study selection. The articles thus collected were examined and selected by two independent reviewers; any disagreement was resolved by a methodologist. A laboratory researcher reviewed the methods and laboratory techniques. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria and concerned the following cancer sites: the nervous system, bladder, breast, esophagus, stomach, liver, endometrium, thyroid, ovaries, pleura, lung and skin. Most articles described in vivo studies using a morphological approach and immunohistochemistry, whereas protein expression was quantified as staining intensity scored by two raters. Often the results were not comparable due to the different rating scales and study design. Current research on HtrA1 does not conclusively support its role as a tumor suppressor. PMID:26035313

  5. The Novel Role of HtrA1 in Gingivitis, Chronic and Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Zizzi, Antonio; Lorenzi, Maria; Paolinelli, Francesca; Aspriello, Simone Domenico; Bani??, Monica; Cr?i?oiu, ?tefania; Goteri, Gaia; Barbatelli, Giorgio; Lombardi, Tommaso; Di Felice, Roberto; Marzioni, Daniela; Rubini, Corrado; Castellucci, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Proteolytic tissue degradation is a typical phenomenon in inflammatory periodontal diseases. HtrA1 (High temperature requirement A 1) has a serine protease activity and is able to degrade fibronectin whose fragments induce the expression and secretion of several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time if HtrA1 has a role in gingivitis and in generalized forms of chronic and aggressive periodontitis. Expression of HtrA1 was investigated in 16 clinically healthy gingiva, 16 gingivitis, 14 generalized chronic periodontitis and 10 generalized aggressive periodontitis by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. Statistical comparisons were performed by the Kruskall-Wallis test. Significantly higher levels of HtrA1 mRNA and protein expression were observed in pathological respect to healthy tissues. In particular, we detected an increase of plasma cell HtrA1 immunostaining from gingivitis to chronic and aggressive periodontitis, with the higher intensity in aggressive disease. In addition, we observed the presence of HtrA1 in normal and pathological epithelium, with an increased expression, particularly in its superficial layer, associated with increasingly severe forms of periodontal disease. We can affirm that HtrA1 expression in plasma cells could be correlated with the destruction of pathological periodontal tissue, probably due to its ability to trigger the overproduction of MMPs and to increase the inflammatory mediators TNF-? and IL-1? by inhibition of TGF-?. Moreover, epithelial HtrA1 immunostaining suggests a participation of the molecule in the host inflammatory immune responses necessary for the control of periodontal infection. PMID:24979214

  6. The autolysis of human HtrA1 is governed by the redox state of its N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Risr, Michael W; Poulsen, Ebbe Toftgaard; Thomsen, Line R; Dyrlund, Thomas F; Nielsen, Tania A; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Sanggaard, Kristian W; Enghild, Jan J

    2014-06-17

    Human HtrA1 (high-temperature requirement protein A1) belongs to a conserved family of serine proteases involved in protein quality control and cell fate. The homotrimeric ubiquitously expressed protease has chymotrypsin-like specificity and primarily targets hydrophobic stretches in selected or misfolded substrate proteins. In addition, the enzyme is capable of exerting autolytic activity by removing the N-terminal insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)/Kazal-like tandem motif without affecting the protease activity. In this study, we have addressed the mechanism governing the autolytic activity and find that it depends on the integrity of the disulfide bonds in the N-terminal IGFBP/Kazal-like domain. The specificity of the autolytic cleavage reveals a strong preference for cysteine in the P1 position of HtrA1, explaining the lack of autolysis prior to disulfide reduction. Significantly, the disulfides were reduced by thioredoxin, suggesting that autolysis of HtrA1 in vivo is linked to the endogenous redox balance and that the N-terminal domain acts as a redox-sensing switch. PMID:24846539

  7. Alpha-1-Antitrypsin: A Novel Human High Temperature Requirement Protease A1 (HTRA1) Substrate in Human Placental Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Frochaux, Violette; Hildebrand, Diana; Talke, Anja; Linscheid, Michael W.; Schlüter, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    The human serine protease high temperature requirement A1 (HTRA1) is highly expressed in the placental tissue, especially in the last trimester of gestation. This suggests that HTRA1 is involved in placental formation and function. With the aim of a better understanding of the role of HTRA1 in the placenta, candidate substrates were screened in a placenta protein extract using a gel-based mass spectrometric approach. Protease inhibitor alpha-1-antitrypsin, actin cytoplasmic 1, tropomyosin beta chain and ten further proteins were identified as candidate substrates of HTRA1. Among the identified candidate substrates, alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) was considered to be of particular interest because of its important role as protease inhibitor. For investigation of alpha-1-antitrypsin as substrate of HTRA1 synthetic peptides covering parts of the sequence of alpha-1-antitrypsin were incubated with HTRA1. By mass spectrometry a specific cleavage site was identified after met-382 (AIPM382↓383SIPP) within the reactive centre loop of alpha-1-antitrypsin, resulting in a C-terminal peptide comprising 36 amino acids. Proteolytic removal of this peptide from alpha-1-antitrypsin results in a loss of its inhibitor function. Beside placental alpha-1-antitrypsin the circulating form in human plasma was also significantly degraded by HTRA1. Taken together, our data suggest a link between the candidate substrates alpha-1-antitrypsin and the function of HTRA1 in the placenta in the syncytiotrophoblast, the cell layer attending to maternal blood in the villous tree of the human placenta. Data deposition: Mass spectrometry (MS) data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000473. PMID:25329061

  8. The trimeric serine protease HtrA1 forms a cage-like inhibition complex with an anti-HtrA1 antibody.

    PubMed

    Ciferri, Claudio; Lipari, Michael T; Liang, Wei-Ching; Estevez, Alberto; Hang, Julie; Stawicki, Scott; Wu, Yan; Moran, Paul; Elliott, Mike; Eigenbrot, Charles; Katschke, Kenneth J; van Lookeren Campagne, Menno; Kirchhofer, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    High temperature requirement A1 (HtrA1) is a trypsin-fold serine protease implicated in the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Our interest in an antibody therapy to neutralize HtrA1 faces the complication that the target adopts a trimeric arrangement, with three active sites in close proximity. In the present study, we describe antibody 94, obtained from a human antibody phage display library, which forms a distinct macromolecular complex with HtrA1 and inhibits the enzymatic activity of recombinant and native HtrA1 forms. Using biochemical methods and negative-staining EM we were able to elucidate the molecular composition of the IgG94 and Fab94 complexes and the associated inhibition mechanism. The 246-kDa complex between the HtrA1 catalytic domain trimer (HtrA1_Cat) and Fab94 had a propeller-like organization with one Fab bound peripherally to each protomer. Low-resolution EM structures and epitope mapping indicated that the antibody binds to the surface-exposed loops B and C of the catalytic domain, suggesting an allosteric inhibition mechanism. The HtrA1_Cat-IgG94 complex (636kDa) is a cage-like structure with three centrally located IgG94 molecules co-ordinating two HtrA1_Cat trimers and the six active sites pointing into the cavity of the cage. In both complexes, all antigen-recognition regions (paratopes) are found to bind one HtrA1 protomer and all protomers are bound by a paratope, consistent with the complete inhibition of enzyme activity. Therefore, in addition to its potential therapeutic usefulness, antibody 94 establishes a new paradigm of multimeric serine protease inhibition. PMID:26385991

  9. BMP-2, hypoxia, and COL1A1/HtrA1 siRNAs favor neo-cartilage hyaline matrix formation in chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ollitrault, David; Legendre, Florence; Drougard, Carole; Briand, Mlanie; Benateau, Herv; Goux, Didier; Chajra, Hanane; Poulain, Laurent; Hartmann, Daniel; Vivien, Denis; Shridhar, Vijayalakshmi; Baldi, Alfonso; Mallein-Gerin, Frdric; Boumediene, Karim; Demoor, Magali; Galera, Philippe

    2015-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is an irreversible pathology that causes a decrease in articular cartilage thickness, leading finally to the complete degradation of the affected joint. The low spontaneous repair capacity of cartilage prevents any restoration of the joint surface, making OA a major public health issue. Here, we developed an innovative combination of treatment conditions to improve the human chondrocyte phenotype before autologous chondrocyte implantation. First, we seeded human dedifferentiated chondrocytes into a collagen sponge as a scaffold, cultured them in hypoxia in the presence of a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), BMP-2, and transfected them with small interfering RNAs targeting two markers overexpressed in OA dedifferentiated chondrocytes, that is, type I collagen and/or HtrA1 serine protease. This strategy significantly decreased mRNA and protein expression of type I collagen and HtrA1, and led to an improvement in the chondrocyte phenotype index of differentiation. The effectiveness of our in vitro culture process was also demonstrated in the nude mouse model in vivo after subcutaneous implantation. We, thus, provide here a new protocol able to favor human hyaline chondrocyte phenotype in primarily dedifferentiated cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Our study also offers an innovative strategy for chondrocyte redifferentiation and opens new opportunities for developing therapeutic targets. PMID:24957638

  10. BMP-2, Hypoxia, and COL1A1/HtrA1 siRNAs Favor Neo-Cartilage Hyaline Matrix Formation in Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ollitrault, David; Legendre, Florence; Drougard, Carole; Briand, Mlanie; Benateau, Herv; Goux, Didier; Chajra, Hanane; Poulain, Laurent; Hartmann, Daniel; Vivien, Denis; Shridhar, Vijayalakshmi; Baldi, Alfonso; Mallein-Gerin, Frdric; Boumediene, Karim; Demoor, Magali

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is an irreversible pathology that causes a decrease in articular cartilage thickness, leading finally to the complete degradation of the affected joint. The low spontaneous repair capacity of cartilage prevents any restoration of the joint surface, making OA a major public health issue. Here, we developed an innovative combination of treatment conditions to improve the human chondrocyte phenotype before autologous chondrocyte implantation. First, we seeded human dedifferentiated chondrocytes into a collagen sponge as a scaffold, cultured them in hypoxia in the presence of a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), BMP-2, and transfected them with small interfering RNAs targeting two markers overexpressed in OA dedifferentiated chondrocytes, that is, type I collagen and/or HtrA1 serine protease. This strategy significantly decreased mRNA and protein expression of type I collagen and HtrA1, and led to an improvement in the chondrocyte phenotype index of differentiation. The effectiveness of our in vitro culture process was also demonstrated in the nude mouse model in vivo after subcutaneous implantation. We, thus, provide here a new protocol able to favor human hyaline chondrocyte phenotype in primarily dedifferentiated cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Our study also offers an innovative strategy for chondrocyte redifferentiation and opens new opportunities for developing therapeutic targets. PMID:24957638

  11. Downregulation of Serine Protease HTRA1 Is Associated with Poor Survival in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lehner, Anna; Magdolen, Viktor; Schuster, Tibor; Kotzsch, Matthias; Kiechle, Marion; Meindl, Alfons; Sweep, Fred C. G. J.; Span, Paul N.; Gross, Eva

    2013-01-01

    HTRA1 is a highly conserved serine protease which has been implicated in suppression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) and cell motility in breast cancer. Its prognostic relevance for breast cancer is unclear so far. Therefore, we evaluated the impact of HTRA1 mRNA expression on patient outcome using a cohort of 131 breast cancer patients as well as a validation cohort including 2809 publically available data sets. Additionally, we aimed at investigating for the presence of promoter hypermethylation as a mechanism for silencing the HTRA1 gene in breast tumors. HTRA1 downregulation was detected in more than 50% of the breast cancer specimens and was associated with higher tumor stage (p?=?0.025). By applying Cox proportional hazard models, we observed favorable overall (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) related to high HTRA1 expression (HR?=?0.45 [CI 0.230.90], p?=?0.023; HR?=?0.55 [CI 0.320.94], p?=?0.028, respectively), with even more pronounced impact in node-positive patients (HR?=?0.21 [CI 0.070.63], p?=?0.006; HR?=?0.29 [CI 0.130.65], p?=?0.002, respectively). Moreover, HTRA1 remained a statistically significant factor predicting DFS among established clinical parameters in the multivariable analysis. Its impact on patient outcome was independently confirmed in the validation set (for relapse-free survival (n?=?2809): HR?=?0.79 [CI 0.70.9], log-rank p?=?0.0003; for OS (n?=?971): HR?=?0.63 [CI 0.480.83], log-rank p?=?0.0009). In promoter analyses, we in fact detected methylation of HTRA1 in a small subset of breast cancer specimens (two out of a series of 12), and in MCF-7 breast cancer cells which exhibited 22-fold lower HTRA1 mRNA expression levels compared to unmethylated MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, we show that downregulation of HTRA1 is associated with shorter patient survival, particularly in node-positive breast cancer. Since HTRA1 loss was demonstrated to induce EMT and cancer cell invasion, these patients might benefit from demethylating agents or histone deacetylase inhibitors previously reported to lead to HTRA1 upregulation, or from novel small-molecule inhibitors targeting EMT-related processes. PMID:23580433

  12. Association of Htra1 gene polymorphisms with the risk of developing AMD in Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Askari, Mohammad; Nikpoor, Amin Reza; Gorjipour, Fazel; Mazidi, Mohsen; Sanati, Mohammad Hosein; Aryan, Hajar; Irani, Alireza; Ghasemi Falavarjani, Khalil; Nazari, Hossein; Mousavizadeh, Kazem

    2015-01-01

    Background: Half of the cases of vision loss in people under 60 years of age have been attributed to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This is a multifactorial disease with late onset. It has been demonstrated that many different genetic loci are implicated in the risk of developing AMD in different populations. In the current study, we investigated the association of high-temperature ‎requirement A-1 (HTRA1) gene polymorphisms with the risk of developing AMD in the Iranian population. Methods: Genomic DNA samples were extracted from 120 patients with AMD and 120 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. A 385 base-pair fragment of the HTRA1 gene promoter region was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique and sequenced. The frequencies of the alleles were calculated and statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results: Our study demonstrated that the rate of polymorphisms rs11200638 -625 G>A and rs2672598 -487T>C were significantly greater in AMD patients than in healthy controls from the Iranian population. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that HTRA1 gene promoter region polymorphisms are associated with the risk of developing AMD in the Iranian population.

  13. HTRA1 (High Temperature Requirement A Serine Peptidase 1) Gene Is Transcriptionally Regulated by Insertion/Deletion Nucleotides Located at the 3? End of the ARMS2 (Age-related Maculopathy Susceptibility 2) Gene in Patients with Age-related Macular Degeneration*

    PubMed Central

    Iejima, Daisuke; Itabashi, Takeshi; Kawamura, Yuich; Noda, Toru; Yuasa, Shinsuke; Fukuda, Keiichi; Oka, Chio; Iwata, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) accounts for over 85% of AMD cases in the United States, whereas Japanese AMD patients predominantly progress to wet AMD or polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Recent genome-wide association studies have revealed a strong association between AMD and an insertion/deletion sequence between the ARMS2 (age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2) and HTRA1 (high temperature requirement A serine peptidase 1) genes. Transcription regulator activity was localized in mouse retinas using heterozygous HtrA1 knock-out mice in which HtrA1 exon 1 was replaced with ?-galactosidase cDNA, thereby resulting in dominant expression of the photoreceptors. The insertion/deletion sequence significantly induced HTRA1 transcription regulator activity in photoreceptor cell lines but not in retinal pigmented epithelium or other cell types. A deletion construct of the HTRA1 regulatory region indicated that potential transcriptional suppressors and activators surround the insertion/deletion sequence. Ten double-stranded DNA probes for this region were designed, three of which interacted with nuclear extracts from 661W cells in EMSA. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of these EMSA bands subsequently identified a protein that bound the insertion/deletion sequence, LYRIC (lysine-rich CEACAM1 co-isolated) protein. In addition, induced pluripotent stem cells from wet AMD patients carrying the insertion/deletion sequence showed significant up-regulation of the HTRA1 transcript compared with controls. These data suggest that the insertion/deletion sequence alters the suppressor and activator cis-elements of HTRA1 and triggers sustained up-regulation of HTRA1. These results are consistent with a transgenic mouse model that ubiquitously overexpresses HtrA1 and exhibits characteristics similar to those of wet AMD patients. PMID:25519903

  14. Joint Effect of CFH and ARMS2/HTRA1 Polymorphisms on Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Fang, Kai; Gao, Pei; Tian, Jun; Qin, Xueying; Yu, Wenzhen; Li, Juan; Chen, Qing; Huang, Lvzhen; Chen, Dafang; Hu, Yonghua; Li, Xiaoxin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The etiology of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) cannot be completely explained by identified environmental risk factors or single-locus gene variants. This study was to explore the potential interactions among gene variants on nAMD in Chinese population. Methods. 43 SNPs located in different genes were genotyped in 932 Chinese individuals (464 nAMD patients and 468 controls). We explored the potential interactions among gene variants using generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) algorithm and the method to measure the departure from the additivity model. Results. The joint effect that involved CFH rs1061170 and HTRA1 rs3793917 was shown statistically significant (P < 0.001) with the highest cross-validation consistency (10/10) and the best testing balanced accuracy (64.50%). In addition, based on the method to measure the departure from the additivity model, the synergy index (S) was 2.63 (1.09-6.38) and the attributable proportion due to interaction (AP) was 55.7% (21.4%-89.9%), which suggested that a common pathway may exist for these genes for nAMD. Those who carried CC for rs3793917 and TC/CC for rs1061170 were at the highest risk of nAMD (OR: 9.76, 95% CI: 4.65-20.51). Conclusions. Evidence that the joint effect that involved CFH and ARMS2/HTRA1 may contribute to the risk of neovascular AMD in Chinese population was obtained. PMID:25883802

  15. A Next-Generation Sequencing of the NOTCH3 and HTRA1 Genes in CADASIL Patients.

    PubMed

    Fernndez, Angela; Gmez, Juan; Alonso, Beln; Iglesias, Sara; Coto, Eliecer

    2015-07-01

    Our purpose was to develop a next-generation sequencing procedure to search for NOTCH3 and HTRA1 mutations in patients with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) features. A total of 70 patients were sequenced with semiconductor chips in an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. The putative mutations were confirmed through Sanger sequencing of the corresponding patient. Six patients had a typical cysteine-involving NOTCH3 mutation. A new non-reported NOTCH3 variant (p.Pro2178Ser) was found in two patients. One patient was heterozygous for a non-reported HTRA1 variant, likely non-pathogenic (p.Ser139Ala). We found a typical NOTCH3 mutation in 9 % of the patients. None of the patients had HTRA1 variants with likely pathogenic effect. The next-generation sequencing (NGS) procedure here described would facilitate the rapid and cost-effective screening of large cohorts of CADASIL patients. PMID:25929831

  16. Heterozygous HTRA1 mutations are associated with autosomal dominant cerebral small vessel disease.

    PubMed

    Verdura, Edgard; Herv, Dominique; Scharrer, Eva; Amador, Maria Del Mar; Guyant-Marchal, Lucie; Philippi, Anne; Corlob, Astrid; Bergametti, Franoise; Gazal, Steven; Prieto-Morin, Carol; Beaufort, Nathalie; Le Bail, Benoit; Viakhireva, Irina; Dichgans, Martin; Chabriat, Hugues; Haffner, Christof; Tournier-Lasserve, Elisabeth

    2015-08-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease represents a heterogeneous group of disorders leading to stroke and cognitive impairment. While most small vessel diseases appear sporadic and related to age and hypertension, several early-onset monogenic forms have also been reported. However, only a minority of patients with familial small vessel disease carry mutations in one of known small vessel disease genes. We used whole exome sequencing to identify candidate genes in an autosomal dominant small vessel disease family in which known small vessel disease genes had been excluded, and subsequently screened all candidate genes in 201 unrelated probands with a familial small vessel disease of unknown aetiology, using high throughput multiplex polymerase chain reaction and next generation sequencing. A heterozygous HTRA1 variant (R166L), absent from 1000 Genomes and Exome Variant Server databases and predicted to be deleterious by in silico tools, was identified in all affected members of the index family. Ten probands of 201 additional unrelated and affected probands (4.97%) harboured a heterozygous HTRA1 mutation predicted to be damaging. There was a highly significant difference in the number of likely deleterious variants in cases compared to controls (P = 4.2 10(-6); odds ratio = 15.4; 95% confidence interval = 4.9-45.5), strongly suggesting causality. Seven of these variants were located within or close to the HTRA1 protease domain, three were in the N-terminal domain of unknown function and one in the C-terminal PDZ domain. In vitro activity analysis of HTRA1 mutants demonstrated a loss of function effect. Clinical features of this autosomal dominant small vessel disease differ from those of CARASIL and CADASIL by a later age of onset and the absence of the typical extraneurological features of CARASIL. They are similar to those of sporadic small vessel disease, except for their familial nature. Our data demonstrate that heterozygous HTRA1 mutations are an important cause of familial small vessel disease, and that screening of HTRA1 should be considered in all patients with a hereditary small vessel disease of unknown aetiology. PMID:26063658

  17. Joint Effect of CFH and ARMS2/HTRA1 Polymorphisms on Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Pei; Tian, Jun; Yu, Wenzhen; Li, Juan; Chen, Qing; Huang, Lvzhen; Chen, Dafang; Hu, Yonghua; Li, Xiaoxin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The etiology of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) cannot be completely explained by identified environmental risk factors or single-locus gene variants. This study was to explore the potential interactions among gene variants on nAMD in Chinese population. Methods. 43 SNPs located in different genes were genotyped in 932 Chinese individuals (464 nAMD patients and 468 controls). We explored the potential interactions among gene variants using generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) algorithm and the method to measure the departure from the additivity model. Results. The joint effect that involved CFH rs1061170 and HTRA1 rs3793917 was shown statistically significant (P < 0.001) with the highest cross-validation consistency (10/10) and the best testing balanced accuracy (64.50%). In addition, based on the method to measure the departure from the additivity model, the synergy index (S) was 2.63 (1.09–6.38) and the attributable proportion due to interaction (AP) was 55.7% (21.4%–89.9%), which suggested that a common pathway may exist for these genes for nAMD. Those who carried CC for rs3793917 and TC/CC for rs1061170 were at the highest risk of nAMD (OR: 9.76, 95% CI: 4.65–20.51). Conclusions. Evidence that the joint effect that involved CFH and ARMS2/HTRA1 may contribute to the risk of neovascular AMD in Chinese population was obtained. PMID:25883802

  18. High Temperature Requirement A1, Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1, phosphoSmad2 and Ki67 in Eutopic and Ectopic Endometrium of Women With Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Goteri, G.; Altobelli, E.; Tossetta, G.; Zizzi, A.; Avellini, C.; Licini, C.; Lorenzi, T.; Castellucci, M.; Ciavattini, A.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that TGF?1 signalling may be mediated by high temperature requirement A1 (HtrA1) serine protease, acting on important regulatory mechanisms such as cell proliferation and mobility. Evidence is now accumulating to suggest that HtrA1 is involved in the development and progression of several pathologies. The aim of this study was to evaluate: i) if HtrA1 and TGF?1 expressions differ in eutopic and ectopic endometrium in women with endometriosis; ii) if HtrA1 correlates to TGF?1, pSmad and Ki67. This study was carried out including 10 women with ovarian endometriosis (cases) and 10 women with non endometriotic diseases (controls). Endometrial tissue underwent immunohistochemical H-score analysis for HtrA1, TGF?1, pSmad and Ki67 molecules. Data evaluation was performed by a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman correlation was applied to evaluate the relationship among the molecules investigated in the epithelial and in the stromal compartment. The HtrA1 was significantly decreased in ectopic and eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis when compared with control endometrium in epithelial compartment. TGF?1was significantly increased in eutopic endometrium and decreased in ectopic endometrium in epithelial and stromal compartment. In addition, Ki67 was significantly increased and an increase, but not significant, was detected for pSMAd2 in eutopic and ectopic endometrium compared to control one. In summary, the significant direct correlation between TGF?1 and pSmad2 as well as between HtrA1 and TGF?1 and the very significant increase of Ki67 in stromal compartment of eutopic endometrium suggest a possible involvement of HtrA1 in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. PMID:26708185

  19. Differential Expression of HrtA1 and ADAM12 in Placentas from Preeclamptic and Normotensive Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Hevner, Karin; Qiu, Chunfang; Abetew, Dejene F.; Sorensen, Tanya K.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Background High temperature requirement factor A 1 (HtrA1) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 12 (ADAM12), which play roles in placental implantation and placental growth, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Methods We investigated relative mRNA expression of both genes in placental tissues from women with preeclampsia (N=18) (average gestational age 36 weeks) and an equal number of women with normotensive pregnancies (average gestational age 39 weeks). Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to measure mRNA extracted from term placental biopsies. Differential gene expression was evaluated using Student’s T-test and fold change analyses. Results Statistically significant increases in placental HtRA1 (1.69-fold, p=0.030) and ADAM12 (1.48-fold, p=0.010) mRNA expression were observed among preeclamptic cases as compared with normotensive controls. HtrA1 expression was correlated with maternal age (p-value <0.01) among preeclampsia cases. Conclusion Increases in HtRA1 and ADAM12 placental gene expression in placentas from preeclamptic pregnancies are consistent with some earlier reports of altered serum protein concentrations in preeclamptic pregnancies. This adds to the literature suggesting that defects in placentation (e.g. involving trophoblast invasion) are of etiologic importance in preeclampsia. PMID:24860691

  20. Gene Structure of the 10q26 Locus: A Clue to Cracking the ARMS2/HTRA1 Riddle?

    PubMed

    Kortvely, Elod; Ueffing, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a sight-threatening disorder of the central retina. Being the leading cause of visual impairment in senior citizens, it represents a major public health issue in developed countries. Genetic studies of AMD identified two major susceptibility loci on chromosomes 1 and 10. The high-risk allele of the 10q26 locus encompasses three genes, PLEKHA1, ARMS2, and HTRA1 with high linkage disequilibrium and the individual contribution of the encoded proteins to disease etiology remains controversial. While PLEKHA1 and HTRA1 are highly conserved proteins, ARMS2 is only present in primates and can be detected by using RT-PCR. On the other hand, there is no unequivocal evidence for the existence of the encoded protein. However, it has been reported that risk haplotypes only affect the expression of ARMS2 (but not of HTRA1), making ARMS2 the best candidate for being the genuine AMD gene within this locus. Yet, homozygous carriers of a common haplotype carry a premature stop codon in the ARMS2 gene (R38X) and therefore lack ARMS2, but this variant is not associated with AMD. In this work we aimed at characterizing the diversity of transcripts originating from this locus, in order to find new hints on how to resolve this perplexing paradox. We found chimeric transcripts originating from the PLEKHA1 gene but ending in ARMS2. This finding may give a new explanation as to how variants in this locus contribute to AMD. PMID:26427389

  1. Cumulative association between age-related macular degeneration and less studied genetic variants in PLEKHA1/ARMS2/HTRA1: a meta and gene-cluster analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Weihong; Dong, Shuqian; Zhao, Chuntao; Wang, Haina; Dai, Fei; Yang, Jingyun

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the cumulative effect of the less studied genetic variants in PLEKHA1/ARMS2/HTRA1 on age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We performed an extensive literature search for studies on the association between AMD and the less studied genetic variants in PLEKHA1/ARMS2/HTRA1. Multiple meta-analyses were performed to evaluate the association between individual genetic variants and AMD. A gene-cluster analysis was used to investigate the cumulative effect of these less studied genetic variants on AMD. A total of 23 studies from 20 published papers met the eligibility criteria and were included in our analyses. Several genetic variants in the gene cluster are significantly associated with AMD in our meta-analyses or in individual studies. Gene-cluster analysis reveals a strong cumulative association between these genetic variants in this gene cluster and AMD (p<10?5). However, two previously suspected SNPs in ARMS2, including rs2736911, the SNP having the largest number of studies in our meta-analyses; and rs3793917, the SNP with the largest sample size, were not significantly associated with AMD (both ps>0.12). Sensitivity analyses reveal significant association of AMD with rs2736911 in Chinese but not in Caucasian, with c.372_815del443ins54 in Caucasian but not in Chinese, and with rs1049331 in both ethnic groups. These less studied genetic variants have a significant cumulative effect on wet AMD. Our study provides evidence of the joint contribution of genetic variants in PLEKHA1/ARMS2/HTRA1 to AMD risk, in addition to the two widely studied genetic variants whose association with AMD was well established. PMID:24013816

  2. Phospholipase A1: a novel virulence factor in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Belaunzarn, Mara Laura; Wilkowsky, Silvina Elizabeth; Lammel, Estela Mara; Gimnez, Guadalupe; Bott, Emanuel; Barbieri, Manuel Alejandro; de Isola, Elvira Luisa Durante

    2013-02-01

    Phospholipase A1 (PLA1) has been described in the infective stages of Trypanosoma cruzi as a membrane-bound/secreted enzyme that significantly modified host cell lipid profile with generation of second lipid messengers and concomitant activation of protein kinase C. In the present work we determined higher levels of PLA1 expression in the infective amastigotes and trypomastigotes than in the non-infective epimastigotes of lethal RA strain. In addition, we found similar expression patterns but distinct PLA1 activity levels in bloodstream trypomastigotes from Cvd and RA (lethal) and K98 (non-lethal) T. cruzi strains, obtained at their corresponding parasitemia peaks. This fact was likely due to the presence of different levels of anti-T. cruzi PLA1 antibodies in sera of infected mice, that modulated the enzyme activity. Moreover, these antibodies significantly reduced in vitro parasite invasion indicating the participation of T. cruzi PLA1 in the early events of parasite-host cell interaction. We also demonstrated the presence of lysophospholipase activity in live infective stages that could account for self-protection against the toxic lysophospholipids generated by T. cruzi PLA1 action. At the genome level, we identified at least eight putative genes that codify for T. cruzi PLA1 with high amino acid sequence variability in their amino and carboxy-terminal regions; a putative PLA1 selected gene was cloned and expressed as a recombinant protein that possessed PLA1 activity. Collectively, the results presented here point out at T. cruzi PLA1 as a novel virulence factor implicated in parasite invasion. PMID:23275096

  3. Translation elongation factor-1A1 (eEF1A1) localizes to the spine by domain III.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sun-Jung; Lee, Hyunsook; Dutta, Samikshan; Seog, Dae-Hyun; Moon, Il Soo

    2012-04-01

    In vertebrates, there are two variants of eukaryotic peptide elongation factor 1A (eEF1A; formerly eEF-1?), eEF1A1 and eEF1A2, which have three well-conserved domains (D(I), D(II), and D(III)). In neurons, eEF1A1 is the embryonic type, which is expressed during embryonic development as well as the first two postnatal weeks. In the present study, EGFP-tagged eEF1A1 truncates were expressed in cortical neurons isolated from rat embryo (E18-19). Live cell images of transfected neurons showed that D(III)-containing EGFP-fusion proteins (EGFP-D(III), -D(II)-III, -D(I)-III) formed clusters that were confined within somatodendritic domains, while D(III)-missing ones (EGFP-D(I), -D(II), -D(I)-II) and control EGFP were homogeneously D(I)spersed throughout the neuron incluD(I)ng axons. In dendrites, EGFP-D(III) was targeted to the heads of spine- and filopoD(I)a-like protrusions, where it was colocalized with SynGAP?, a postsynaptic marker. Our data inD(I)cate that D(III) of eEF1A1 meD(I)ates formation of clusters and localization to spines. PMID:22531132

  4. Elongation factor-1A1 is a novel substrate of the protein phosphatase 1-TIMAP complex.

    PubMed

    Boratk, Anita; Pter, Margit; Thalwieser, Zsfia; Kovcs, El?d; Csortos, Csilla

    2015-12-01

    TIMAP (TGF-? inhibited membrane associated protein) is a protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) regulatory subunit highly abundant in endothelial cells and it is involved in the maintenance of pulmonary endothelial barrier function. It localizes mainly in the plasma membrane, but it is also present in the nuclei and cytoplasm. Direct interaction of TIMAP with the eukaryotic elongation factor 1 A1 (eEF1A1) is shown by pull-down, LC-MS/MS, Far-Western and immunoprecipitations. In connection with the so called moonlighting functions of the elongation factor, eEF1A is thought to establish protein-protein interactions through a transcription-dependent nuclear export motif, TD-NEM, and to aid nuclear export of TD-NEM containing proteins. We found that a TD-NEM-like motif of TIMAP has a critical role in its specific binding to eEF1A1. However, eEF1A1 is not or not exclusively responsible for the nuclear export of TIMAP. On the contrary, TIMAP seems to regulate membrane localization of eEF1A1 as the elongation factor co-localized with TIMAP in the plasma membrane fraction of control endothelial cells, but it has disappeared from the membrane in TIMAP depleted cells. It is demonstrated that membrane localization of eEF1A1 depends on the phosphorylation state of its Thr residue(s); and ROCK phosphorylated eEF1A1 is a novel substrate for TIMAP-PP1 underlining the complex regulatory role of TIMAP in the endothelium. The elongation factor seems to be involved in the regulation of endothelial cell attachment and spreading as silencing of eEF1A1 positively affected these processes which were monitored by transendothelial resistance measurements. PMID:26497934

  5. Orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 regulates transforming growth factor-β signaling and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Palumbo-Zerr, Katrin; Zerr, Pawel; Distler, Alfiya; Fliehr, Judith; Mancuso, Rossella; Huang, Jingang; Mielenz, Dirk; Tomcik, Michal; Fürnrohr, Barbara G; Scholtysek, Carina; Dees, Clara; Beyer, Christian; Krönke, Gerhard; Metzger, Daniel; Distler, Oliver; Schett, Georg; Distler, Jörg H W

    2015-02-01

    Mesenchymal responses are an essential aspect of tissue repair. Failure to terminate this repair process correctly, however, results in fibrosis and organ dysfunction. Therapies that block fibrosis and restore tissue homeostasis are not yet available for clinical use. Here we characterize the nuclear receptor NR4A1 as an endogenous inhibitor of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling and as a potential target for anti-fibrotic therapies. NR4A1 recruits a repressor complex comprising SP1, SIN3A, CoREST, LSD1, and HDAC1 to TGF-β target genes, thereby limiting pro-fibrotic TGF-β effects. Even though temporary upregulation of TGF-β in physiologic wound healing induces NR4A1 expression and thereby creates a negative feedback loop, the persistent activation of TGF-β signaling in fibrotic diseases uses AKT- and HDAC-dependent mechanisms to inhibit NR4A1 expression and activation. Small-molecule NR4A1 agonists can overcome this lack of active NR4A1 and inhibit experimentally-induced skin, lung, liver, and kidney fibrosis in mice. Our data demonstrate a regulatory role of NR4A1 in TGF-β signaling and fibrosis, providing the first proof of concept for targeting NR4A1 in fibrotic diseases. PMID:25581517

  6. A Direct Role for ATP1A1 in Unconventional Secretion of Fibroblast Growth Factor 2*

    PubMed Central

    Zacherl, Sonja; La Venuta, Giuseppe; Mller, Hans-Michael; Wegehingel, Sabine; Dimou, Eleni; Sehr, Peter; Lewis, Joe D.; Erfle, Holger; Pepperkok, Rainer; Nickel, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies proposed a role for the Na/K-ATPase in unconventional secretion of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). This conclusion was based upon pharmacological inhibition of FGF2 secretion in the presence of ouabain. However, neither independent experimental evidence nor a potential mechanism was provided. Based upon an unbiased RNAi screen, we now report the identification of ATP1A1, the ?1-chain of the Na/K-ATPase, as a factor required for efficient secretion of FGF2. As opposed to ATP1A1, down-regulation of the ?1- and ?3-chains (ATP1B1 and ATP1B3) of the Na/K-ATPase did not affect FGF2 secretion, suggesting that they are dispensable for this process. These findings indicate that it is not the membrane potential-generating function of the Na/K-ATPase complex but rather a so far unidentified role of potentially unassembled ?1-chains that is critical for unconventional secretion of FGF2. Consistently, in the absence of ?-chains, we found a direct interaction between the cytoplasmic domain of ATP1A1 and FGF2 with submicromolar affinity. Based upon these observations, we propose that ATP1A1 is a recruitment factor for FGF2 at the inner leaflet of plasma membranes that may control phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-dependent membrane translocation as part of the unconventional secretory pathway of FGF2. PMID:25533462

  7. Low HbA1c and Increased Mortality Risk-is Frailty a Confounding Factor?

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhafiz, Ahmed H; Sinclair, Alan J

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is increasingly becoming an older person disease due to the increased survival and aging of the population. Previous studies which showed benefits of tight glycemic control and a linear relationship between HbA1c and mortality have largely included younger patients newly diagnosed with diabetes and with less comorbidities. Recent studies, which included older population with diabetes, have shown a U-shaped relationship of increased mortality associated with low HbA1c. The mechanism of such relationship is unclear. There was no direct causal link between low HbA1c and mortality. It appears that malnutrition, inflammation and functional decline are characteristics shared by the populations that showed increased mortality and low HbA1c. In these studies functional status, disability or frailty was not routinely measured. Therefore, although adjustment for comorbidities was made there may be a residual confounding by unmeasured factors such as frailty. Thus, frailty or decline in functional reserve may be the main confounding factor explaining the relationship between increased mortality risk and low HbA1c. PMID:26236548

  8. Beyond HbA1c: Environmental Risk Factors for Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Nwanyanwu, Kristen Harris; Newman-Casey, Paula-Anne; Gardner, Thomas W; Lim, Jennifer I

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy affects 4.2 million people in the United States and is the leading cause of blindness in working-aged people. As the prevalence of diabetes continues to rise, cost-effective interventions to decrease blindness from diabetic retinopathy will be paramount. While HbA1c and duration of disease are known risk factors, they account for only 11% of the risk of developing microvascular complications from the disease. The assessment of environmental risk factors for diabetic eye disease allows for the determination of modifiable population-level challenges that may be addressed to facilitate the end of blindness from diabetes. PMID:26973797

  9. Differential surface activation of the A1 domain of von Willebrand factor.

    PubMed

    Tronic, Elaine H; Yakovenko, Olga; Weidner, Tobias; Baio, Joe E; Penkala, Rebecca; Castner, David G; Thomas, Wendy E

    2016-01-01

    The clotting protein von Willebrand factor (VWF) binds to platelet receptor glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα) when VWF is activated by chemicals, high shear stress, or immobilization onto surfaces. Activation of VWF by surface immobilization is an important problem in the failure of cardiovascular implants, but is poorly understood. Here, the authors investigate whether some or all surfaces can activate VWF at least in part by affecting the orientation or conformation of the immobilized GPIbα-binding A1 domain of VWF. Platelets binding to A1 adsorbed onto polystyrene surfaces translocated rapidly at moderate and high flow, but detached at low flow, while platelets binding to A1 adsorbed onto glass or tissue-culture treated polystyrene surfaces translocated slowly, and detached only at high flow. Both x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and conformation independent antibodies reported comparable A1 amounts on all surfaces. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectra suggested differences in orientation on the three surfaces, but none that could explain the biological data. Instead, ToF-SIMS data and binding of conformation-dependent antibodies were consistent with the stabilization of an alternative more activated conformation of A1 by tissue culture polystyrene and especially glass. These studies demonstrate that different material surfaces differentially affect the conformation of adsorbed A1 domain and its biological activity. This is important when interpreting or designing in vitro experiments with surface-adsorbed A1 domain, and is also of likely relevance for blood-contacting biomaterials. PMID:26968213

  10. Differential surface activation of the A1 domain of von Willebrand factor

    PubMed Central

    Tronic, Elaine H.; Yakovenko, Olga; Weidner, Tobias; Baio, Joe E.; Penkala, Rebecca; Castner, David G.; Thomas, Wendy E.

    2016-01-01

    The clotting protein von Willebrand factor (VWF) binds to platelet receptor glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα) when VWF is activated by chemicals, high shear stress, or immobilization onto surfaces. Activation of VWF by surface immobilization is an important problem in the failure of cardiovascular implants, but is poorly understood. Here, the authors investigate whether some or all surfaces can activate VWF at least in part by affecting the orientation or conformation of the immobilized GPIbα-binding A1 domain of VWF. Platelets binding to A1 adsorbed onto polystyrene surfaces translocated rapidly at moderate and high flow, but detached at low flow, while platelets binding to A1 adsorbed onto glass or tissue-culture treated polystyrene surfaces translocated slowly, and detached only at high flow. Both x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and conformation independent antibodies reported comparable A1 amounts on all surfaces. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectra suggested differences in orientation on the three surfaces, but none that could explain the biological data. Instead, ToF-SIMS data and binding of conformation-dependent antibodies were consistent with the stabilization of an alternative more activated conformation of A1 by tissue culture polystyrene and especially glass. These studies demonstrate that different material surfaces differentially affect the conformation of adsorbed A1 domain and its biological activity. This is important when interpreting or designing in vitro experiments with surface-adsorbed A1 domain, and is also of likely relevance for blood-contacting biomaterials. PMID:26968213

  11. The eukaryotic elongation factor eEF1A1 interacts with SAMHD1.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Catherine; Schwefel, David; Ennis-Adeniran, Valerie; Taylor, Ian A; Crow, Yanick J; Webb, Michelle

    2015-02-15

    Mutations in SAMHD1 cause Aicardi-Goutires syndrome (AGS), a Mendelian inflammatory disease which displays remarkable clinical and biochemical overlap with congenital viral infection. SAMHD1 (SAM domain and HD domain-containing protein 1) has also been defined as an HIV-1 restriction-factor that, through a novel triphosphohydrolase activity, inhibits early stage HIV-1 replication in myeloid-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs), macrophages and resting CD4+ T-cells. The potent activity of SAMHD1 is likely to be the subject of a variety of regulatory mechanisms. Knowledge of proteins that interact with SAMHD1 may not only enhance our understanding of the pathogenesis of AGS, but may also provide further details on the link between the regulation of cellular dNTPs and HIV-1 restriction. In the present study, we used a yeast two-hybrid screen and pull-down analysis followed by MS to identify the eukaryotic elongation factor 1A1 (eEF1A1) as a potential interaction partner of SAMHD1. This interaction was confirmed by unbiased co-immunoprecipitation and demonstrated in situ by a proximity ligation assay (PLA). We show that this interaction is enhanced in mutant SAMHD1 cell lines and suggest that eEF1A1 may mediate SAMHD1 turnover by targeting it to the proteosome for degradation through association with Cullin4A and Rbx1. PMID:25423367

  12. Effect of the Gas6 c.834+7G>A polymorphism and the interaction of known risk factors on AMD pathogenesis in Hungarian patients.

    PubMed

    Losonczy, Gergely; Vajas, Attila; Takcs, Lili; Dzsudzsk, Erika; Fekete, Agnes; Mrhoffer, Eva; Kardos, Lszl; Ajzner, Eva; Hurtado, Begoa; de Frutos, Pablo Garcia; Berta, Andrs; Balogh, Istvn

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly in the developed world. Numerous genetic factors contribute to the development of the multifactorial disease. We performed a case-control study to assess the risk conferred by known and candidate genetic polymorphisms on the development of AMD. We searched for genetic interactions and for differences in dry and wet AMD etiology. We enrolled 213 patients with exudative, 67 patients with dry AMD and 106 age and ethnically matched controls. Altogether 12 polymorphisms in Apolipoprotein E, complement factor H, complement factor I, complement component 3, blood coagulation factor XIII, HTRA1, LOC387715, Gas6 and MerTK genes were tested. No association was found between either the exudative or the dry form and the polymorphisms in the Apolipoprotein E, complement factor I, FXIII and MerTK genes. Gas6 c.834+7G>A polymorphism was found to be significantly protective irrespective of other genotypes, reducing the odds of wet type AMD by a half (OR?=?0.50, 95%CI: 0.26-0.97, p?=?0.04). Multiple regression models revealed an interesting genetic interaction in the dry AMD subgroup. In the absence of C3 risk allele, mutant genotypes of both CFH and HTRA1 behaved as strongly significant risk factors (OR?=?7.96, 95%CI: 2.39?=?26.50, p?=?0.0007, and OR?=?36.02, 95%CI: 3.30-393.02, p?=?0.0033, respectively), but reduced to neutrality otherwise. The risk allele of C3 was observed to carry a significant risk in the simultaneous absence of homozygous CFH and HTRA1 polymorphisms only, in which case it was associated with a near-five-fold relative increase in the odds of dry type AMD (OR?=?4.93, 95%CI: 1.98-12.25, p?=?0.0006). Our results suggest a protective role of Gas6 c.834+7G>A polymorphism in exudative AMD development. In addition, novel genetic interactions were revealed between CFH, HTRA1 and C3 polymorphisms that might contribute to the pathogenesis of dry AMD. PMID:23209669

  13. Steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1, NR5A1) and human disease

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz-de-Souza, Bruno; Lin, Lin; Achermann, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1, Ad4BP, encoded by NR5A1) is a key regulator of adrenal and reproductive development and function. Based upon the features found in Nr5a1 null mice, initial attempts to identify SF-1 changes in humans focused on those rare individuals with primary adrenal failure, a 46,XY karyotype, complete gonadal dysgenesis and Mllerian structures. Although alterations affecting DNA-binding of SF-1 were found in two such cases, disruption of SF-1 is not commonly found in patients with adrenal failure. In contrast, it is emerging that variations in SF-1 can be found in association with a range of human reproductive phenotypes such as 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSD), hypospadias, anorchia, male factor infertility, or primary ovarian insufficiency in women. Overexpression or overactivity of SF-1 is also reported in some adrenal tumors or endometriosis. Therefore, the clinical spectrum of phenotypes associated with variations in SF-1 is expanding and the importance of this nuclear receptor in human endocrine disease is now firmly established. PMID:21078366

  14. The transcription factor NR4A1 is essential for the development of a novel macrophage subset in the thymus

    PubMed Central

    Tacke, Robert; Hilgendorf, Ingo; Garner, Hannah; Waterborg, Claire; Park, Kiwon; Nowyhed, Heba; Hanna, Richard N.; Wu, Runpei; Swirski, Filip K.; Geissmann, Frederic; Hedrick, Catherine C.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue macrophages function to maintain homeostasis and regulate immune responses. While tissue macrophages derive from one of a small number of progenitor programs, the transcriptional requirements for site-specific macrophage subset development are more complex. We have identified a new tissue macrophage subset in the thymus and have discovered that its development is dependent on transcription factor NR4A1. Functionally, we find that NR4A1-dependent macrophages are critically important for clearance of apoptotic thymocytes. These macrophages are largely reduced or absent in mice lacking NR4A1, and Nr4a1-deficient mice have impaired thymocyte engulfment and clearance. Thus, NR4A1 functions as a master transcription factor for the development of this novel thymus-specific macrophage subset. PMID:26091486

  15. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 stabilizes transcription factor Gli2 and enhances the activity of Hedgehog signaling in hepatocellular cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhengwei; Xu, Liyao; Zhang, Junyan; Lu, Quqin; Luo, Shiwen; Xu, Linlin

    2016-03-18

    The Gli transcription factors are primary transcriptional regulators that mediate the activation of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Recent studies have revealed that Gli proteins are also regulated transcriptionally and post-translationally through noncanonical mechanisms, independent of Hh signaling. However, the precise mechanisms involved in the regulation of Gli proteins remain unclear. Using a differential mass-spectrometry approach, we found that aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) is associated with transcription factor Gli2. Overexpression of ALDH1A1 increased Gli2 protein levels; in contrast, ALDH1A1 depletion facilitated Gli2 degradation. In addition, Gli2 mRNA expression was not affected by ectopic expression of ALDH1A1, indicating the role of ALDH1A1 in the stabilization of Gli2. Further investigation showed that ALDH1A1 prolonged the stability of Gli2 protein in a catalytic-independent manner. Finally, we showed that overexpression of ALDH1A1 activated the Hh signaling pathway and promoted cell growth, migration and invasion in hepatocellular cancer cells. Together, these results illustrate regulatory roles of ALDH1A1 in the activation of the Hh signaling pathway and highlight a novel mechanism for the aberrant activation of the Hh signaling pathway in hepatocellular cancer cells. PMID:26896768

  16. Analysis of Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors and Their Interactions in Korean Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Margaux A.; Ahn, So Yeon; Lee, Jaebong; Kim, Ki Woong; DeAngelis, Margaret M.; Park, Kyu Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association of genetic and environmental factors, and their interactions in Korean patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods A total of 314 robustly characterized exudative AMD patients, including 111 PCV (polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy) and 154 typical choroidal neovascularization (CNV), and 395 control subjects without any evidence of AMD were enrolled. Full ophthalmologic examinations including fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICG) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were done, according to which patients were divided into either PCV or typical CNV. Standardized questionnaires were used to collect information regarding underlying systemic diseases, dietary habits, smoking history and body mass index (BMI). A total of 86 SNPs from 31 candidate genes were analyzed. Genotype association and logistic regression analyses were done and stepwise regression models to best predict disease for each AMD subtype were constructed. Results Age, spherical equivalent, myopia, and ever smoking were associated with exudative AMD. Age, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, spherical equivalent, and myopia were risk factors for typical CNV, while increased education and ever smoking were significantly associated with PCV (p<.05 for all). Four SNPs, ARMS2/HTRA1 rs10490924, rs11200638, and rs2736911, and CFH rs800292, showed association with exudative AMD. Two of these SNPs, ARMS2/HTRA1 rs10490924 and rs11200638, showed significant association with typical CNV and PCV specifically. There were no significant interactions between environmental and genetic factors. The most predictive disease model for exudative AMD included age, spherical equivalent, smoking, CFH rs800292, and ARMS2 rs10490924 while that for typical CNV included age, hyperlipidemia, spherical equivalent, and ARMS2 rs10490924. Smoking, spherical equivalent, and ARMS2 rs10490924 were the most predictive variables for PCV. When comparing PCV cases to CNV cases, age, BMI, and education were the most predictive risk factors of PCV. Conclusions Only one locus, the ARMS2/HTRA1 was a significant genetic risk factor for Korean exudative AMD, including its subtypes, PCV and typical CNV. Stepwise regression revealed that CFH was important to risk of exudative AMD in general but not to any specific subtype. While increased education was a unique risk factor to PCV when compared to CNV, this association was independent of refractive error in this homogenous population from South Korea. No significant interactions between environmental and genetic risk factors were observed. PMID:26171855

  17. Elongation Factor 1A-1 Is a Mediator of Hepatocyte Lipotoxicity Partly through Its Canonical Function in Protein Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Stoianov, Alexandra M; Robson, Debra L; Hetherington, Alexandra M; Sawyez, Cynthia G; Borradaile, Nica M

    2015-01-01

    Elongation factor 1A-1 (eEF1A-1) has non-canonical functions in regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and apoptosis. It was previously identified through a promoter-trap screen as a mediator of fatty acid-induced cell death (lipotoxicity), and was found to participate in this process downstream of ER stress. Since ER stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), we investigated the mechanism of action of eEF1A-1 in hepatocyte lipotoxicity. HepG2 cells were exposed to excess fatty acids, followed by assessments of ER stress, subcellular localization of eEF1A-1, and cell death. A specific inhibitor of eEF1A-1 elongation activity, didemnin B, was used to determine whether its function in protein synthesis is involved in lipotoxicity. Within 6 h, eEF1A-1 protein was modestly induced by high palmitate, and partially re-localized from its predominant location at the ER to polymerized actin at the cell periphery. This early induction and subcellular redistribution of eEF1A-1 coincided with the onset of ER stress, and was later followed by cell death. Didemnin B did not prevent the initiation of ER stress by high palmitate, as indicated by eIF2? phosphorylation. However, consistent with sustained inhibition of eEF1A-1-dependent elongation activity, didemnin B prevented the recovery of protein synthesis and increase in GRP78 protein that are normally associated with later phases of the response to ongoing ER stress. This resulted in decreased palmitate-induced cell death. Our data implicate eEF1A-1, and its function in protein synthesis, in hepatocyte lipotoxicity. PMID:26102086

  18. Elongation Factor 1A-1 Is a Mediator of Hepatocyte Lipotoxicity Partly through Its Canonical Function in Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Stoianov, Alexandra M.; Robson, Debra L.; Hetherington, Alexandra M.; Sawyez, Cynthia G.; Borradaile, Nica M.

    2015-01-01

    Elongation factor 1A-1 (eEF1A-1) has non-canonical functions in regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and apoptosis. It was previously identified through a promoter-trap screen as a mediator of fatty acid-induced cell death (lipotoxicity), and was found to participate in this process downstream of ER stress. Since ER stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), we investigated the mechanism of action of eEF1A-1 in hepatocyte lipotoxicity. HepG2 cells were exposed to excess fatty acids, followed by assessments of ER stress, subcellular localization of eEF1A-1, and cell death. A specific inhibitor of eEF1A-1 elongation activity, didemnin B, was used to determine whether its function in protein synthesis is involved in lipotoxicity. Within 6 h, eEF1A-1 protein was modestly induced by high palmitate, and partially re-localized from its predominant location at the ER to polymerized actin at the cell periphery. This early induction and subcellular redistribution of eEF1A-1 coincided with the onset of ER stress, and was later followed by cell death. Didemnin B did not prevent the initiation of ER stress by high palmitate, as indicated by eIF2? phosphorylation. However, consistent with sustained inhibition of eEF1A-1-dependent elongation activity, didemnin B prevented the recovery of protein synthesis and increase in GRP78 protein that are normally associated with later phases of the response to ongoing ER stress. This resulted in decreased palmitate-induced cell death. Our data implicate eEF1A-1, and its function in protein synthesis, in hepatocyte lipotoxicity. PMID:26102086

  19. Improvement of enzymatic saccharification yield in Arabidopsis thaliana by ectopic expression of the rice SUB1A-1 transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Nez-Lpez, Lizeth; Aguirre-Cruz, Andrs; Barrera-Figueroa, Blanca Estela; Pea-Castro, Julin Mario

    2015-01-01

    Saccharification of polysaccharides releases monosaccharides that can be used by ethanol-producing microorganisms in biofuel production. To improve plant biomass as a raw material for saccharification, factors controlling the accumulation and structure of carbohydrates must be identified. Rice SUB1A-1 is a transcription factor that represses the turnover of starch and postpones energy-consuming growth processes under submergence stress. Arabidopsis was employed to test if heterologous expression of SUB1A-1 or SUB1C-1 (a related gene) can be used to improve saccharification. Cellulolytic and amylolytic enzymatic treatments confirmed that SUB1A-1 transgenics had better saccharification yield than wild-type (Col-0), mainly from accumulated starch. This improved saccharification yield was developmentally controlled; when compared to Col-0, young transgenic vegetative plants yielded 200-300% more glucose, adult vegetative plants yielded 40-90% more glucose and plants in reproductive stage had no difference in yield. We measured photosynthetic parameters, starch granule microstructure, and transcript abundance of genes involved in starch degradation (SEX4, GWD1), juvenile transition (SPL3-5) and meristematic identity (FUL, SOC1) but found no differences to Col-0, indicating that starch accumulation may be controlled by down-regulation of CONSTANS and FLOWERING LOCUS T by SUB1A-1 as previously reported. SUB1A-1 transgenics also offered less resistance to deformation than wild-type concomitant to up-regulation of AtEXP2 expansin and BGL2 glucan-1,3,-beta-glucosidase. We conclude that heterologous SUB1A-1 expression can improve saccharification yield and softness, two traits needed in bioethanol production. PMID:25780769

  20. Improvement of enzymatic saccharification yield in Arabidopsis thaliana by ectopic expression of the rice SUB1A-1 transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Núñez-López, Lizeth; Aguirre-Cruz, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Saccharification of polysaccharides releases monosaccharides that can be used by ethanol-producing microorganisms in biofuel production. To improve plant biomass as a raw material for saccharification, factors controlling the accumulation and structure of carbohydrates must be identified. Rice SUB1A-1 is a transcription factor that represses the turnover of starch and postpones energy-consuming growth processes under submergence stress. Arabidopsis was employed to test if heterologous expression of SUB1A-1 or SUB1C-1 (a related gene) can be used to improve saccharification. Cellulolytic and amylolytic enzymatic treatments confirmed that SUB1A-1 transgenics had better saccharification yield than wild-type (Col-0), mainly from accumulated starch. This improved saccharification yield was developmentally controlled; when compared to Col-0, young transgenic vegetative plants yielded 200–300% more glucose, adult vegetative plants yielded 40–90% more glucose and plants in reproductive stage had no difference in yield. We measured photosynthetic parameters, starch granule microstructure, and transcript abundance of genes involved in starch degradation (SEX4, GWD1), juvenile transition (SPL3-5) and meristematic identity (FUL, SOC1) but found no differences to Col-0, indicating that starch accumulation may be controlled by down-regulation of CONSTANS and FLOWERING LOCUS T by SUB1A-1 as previously reported. SUB1A-1 transgenics also offered less resistance to deformation than wild-type concomitant to up-regulation of AtEXP2 expansin and BGL2 glucan-1,3,-beta-glucosidase. We conclude that heterologous SUB1A-1 expression can improve saccharification yield and softness, two traits needed in bioethanol production. PMID:25780769

  1. Assessing and targeting key lifestyle cardiovascular risk factors at the workplace: Effect on hemoglobin A1c levels.

    PubMed

    Lvesque, Valrie; Poirier, Paul; Desprs, Jean-Pierre; Almras, Natalie

    2015-11-01

    Purpose Despite the key role played by lifestyle habits in the epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2D), nutritional quality and physical activity are not systematically considered in clinical practice. The project was conducted to verify whether assessing/targeting lifestyle habits could reduce hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels of employees. Methods The intervention consisted of a 3-month competition among teams of five employees to favor peer-based support in the adoption of healthier lifestyle habits (Eat better, Move more, and Quit smoking) (n?=?900). A comprehensive cardiometabolic/cardiorespiratory health assessment was conducted before and after the contest (nutrition/physical activity questionnaires, blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, lipid profile, HbA1c, fitness). HbA1c levels were used to identify individuals with prediabetes (5.7%-6.4%) or T2D (?6.5%). Results At baseline, 51% of the employees had increased HbA1c levels (?5.7%). The HbA1c levels were associated with waist circumference, independently of body mass index. Subjects with prediabetes showed a higher waist circumference as well as a more deteriorated cardiometabolic profile compared to workers with normal HbA1c levels. After the intervention, employees with elevated HbA1c significantly reduced their HbA1c levels. Conclusion Results suggest that assessing/targeting key lifestyle correlates of the cardiometabolic profile represents a relevant approach to target abdominal obesity and fitness with a significant impact on HbA1c levels. Key Messages The prevalence of employees with prediabetes or undiagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D) was rather high in our cohort, suggesting that, from a public health standpoint, identification of those individuals is not optimal. Employees with prediabetes or T2D showed a higher waist circumference and a more deteriorated cardiometabolic risk profile compared to those with normal HbA1c levels. The significant reduction in HbA1c levels observed in response to the 3-month intervention supports the notion that a program which assesses and manages cardiometabolic risk at the workplace by also focusing on key lifestyle factors (nutritional quality and physical activity levels) represents an interesting option to reduce the risk of developing diabetes among high-risk individuals or to improve glycemic control and related cardiometabolic risk in patients with T2D. PMID:26542534

  2. Identification and characterization of a novel heat shock transcription factor gene, GmHsfA1, in soybeans (Glycine max).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Baoge; Ye, Chunjiang; L, Huiying; Chen, Xiaojun; Chai, Guohua; Chen, Jiannan; Wang, Chao

    2006-05-01

    Plants have a large family of HSFs with different roles in the heat shock response that mediate the expression of HSP regulated genes. The HSF encoding genes are easily identified by their highly conserved modular structure and motifs. In the present study, a putative GmHsfA1 was identified and characterized from the soybean expressed sequence tag (EST) database by sequence comparison with the functionally well-characterized LpHsfA1 and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Multiple alignment showed that the amino acid sequence of GmHSFA1, matching best with LpHSFA1 (52.2% similarity), was obviously different from that of each of several HSFA1s from other plant species. The GmHsfA1 has a constitutive expression profile in the different tissues examined. The overexpression of GmHsfA1 in transgenic soybean plants led to the activation of GmHsp70 under normal temperature and the overexpression of GmHsp70 under high temperature. Furthermore, transgenic soybean plants with GmHsfA1 overexpression showed obvious enhancement of thermotolerance under heat stress in comparison with non-transgenic plants. The experimental results suggested that GmHSFA1 is a novel and functional heat-shock transcription factor. PMID:16570125

  3. ASP514 within the A1 domain of bovine von Willebrand factor is required for interaction with platelet glycoprotein Ib.

    PubMed

    Sinha, D; Bakhshi, M; Kunapuli, S; Vora, R; Gabriel, J L; Kirby, E P; Budzynski, A Z

    1994-09-15

    A mutant PAD-1 (D514-->Q) of the recombinant fragment PAD-1 comprising Leu469-Ser723 of the A1 domain of bovine von Willebrand factor (vWF) neither inhibited the binding of [125I]vWF to platelets nor the agglutination of human platelets induced by bovine vWF. PAD-1, on the other hand, inhibited human platelet agglutination induced by bovine vWF and [125I]vWF binding to human platelets. Collagen binding properties of the mutant, however, were indistinguishable from those of PAD-1. These results suggested that Asp514 within the A1 domain of vWF is required for interaction of bovine vWF with GPIb receptor on human platelets. PMID:8093071

  4. DAX-1 (NR0B1) and steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1, NR5A1) in human disease.

    PubMed

    Suntharalingham, Jenifer P; Buonocore, Federica; Duncan, Andrew J; Achermann, John C

    2015-08-01

    DAX-1 (NR0B1) and SF-1 (NR5A1) are two nuclear receptor transcription factors that play a key role in human adrenal and reproductive development. Loss of DAX-1 function is classically associated with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita. This condition typically affects boys and presents as primary adrenal insufficiency in early infancy or childhood, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism at puberty and impaired spermatogenesis. Late onset forms of this condition and variant phenotypes are increasingly recognized. In contrast, disruption of SF-1 only rarely causes adrenal insufficiency, usually in combination with testicular dysgenesis. Variants in SF-1/NR5A1 more commonly cause a spectrum of reproductive phenotypes ranging from 46,XY DSD (partial testicular dysgenesis or reduced androgen production) and hypospadias to male factor infertility or primary ovarian insufficiency. Making a specific diagnosis of DAX-1 or SF-1 associated conditions is important for long-term monitoring of endocrine and reproductive function, appropriate genetic counselling for family members, and for providing appropriate informed support for young people. PMID:26303087

  5. Lon Mutant of Brucella abortus Induces Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Murine J774.A1 Macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sungdo; Choi, Young-Sill; Park, Sang-Hee; Kim, Young-Rok; Chu, Hyuk; Hwang, Kyu-Jam; Park, Mi-Yeoun

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to isolate a Brucella lon mutant and to analyze the cytokine response of B. lon mutant during macrophage infection. Methods A wild-type Brucella abortus strain was mutagenized by Tn5 transposition. From the mouse macrophage J774.A1 cells, total RNA was isolated at 0 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours after infection with Brucella. Using mouse cytokine microarrays, we measured transcriptional levels of the cytokine response, and validated our results with a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay to confirm the induction of cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA). Results In host J774.A1 macrophages, mRNA levels of T helper 1 (Th1)-type cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interferon-gamma (IFN-?), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and IL-3, were significantly higher in the lon mutant compared to wild-type Brucella and the negative control. TNF-? levels in cell culture media were induced as high as 2?g/mL after infection with the lon mutant, a greater than sixfold change. Conclusion In order to understand the role of the lon protein in virulence, we identified and characterized a novel B. lon mutant. We compared the immune response it generates to the wild-type Brucella response in a mouse macrophage cell line. We demonstrated that the B. lon mutants induce TNF-? expression from the host J774.A1 macrophage. PMID:24524018

  6. The translation elongation factor eEF1A1 couples transcription to translation during heat shock response

    PubMed Central

    Vera, Maria; Pani, Bibhusita; Griffiths, Lowri A; Muchardt, Christian; Abbott, Catherine M; Singer, Robert H; Nudler, Evgeny

    2014-01-01

    Translation elongation factor eEF1A has a well-defined role in protein synthesis. In this study, we demonstrate a new role for eEF1A: it participates in the entire process of the heat shock response (HSR) in mammalian cells from transcription through translation. Upon stress, isoform 1 of eEF1A rapidly activates transcription of HSP70 by recruiting the master regulator HSF1 to its promoter. eEF1A1 then associates with elongating RNA polymerase II and the 3?UTR of HSP70 mRNA, stabilizing it and facilitating its transport from the nucleus to active ribosomes. eEF1A1-depleted cells exhibit severely impaired HSR and compromised thermotolerance. In contrast, tissue-specific isoform 2 of eEF1A does not support HSR. By adjusting transcriptional yield to translational needs, eEF1A1 renders HSR rapid, robust, and highly selective; thus, representing an attractive therapeutic target for numerous conditions associated with disrupted protein homeostasis, ranging from neurodegeneration to cancer. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03164.001 PMID:25233275

  7. Mutational analysis of steroidogenic factor 1 (NR5a1) in 24 boys with bilateral anorchia: a French collaborative study

    PubMed Central

    Philibert, Pascal; Zenaty, Delphine; Lin, Lin; Soskin, Sylvie; Audran, Franoise; Lger, Juliane; Achermann, John C.; Sultan, Charles

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1/AdBP4/FTZF1, NR5A1) is a nuclear receptor transcription factor that plays a key role in regulating adrenal and gonadal development, steroidogenesis and reproduction. Recently, haploin-sufficiency of SF1 has been described in several 46,XY individuals with mild gonadal dysgenesis and impaired androgenization, but normal adrenal function, suggesting that dosage-sensitive or domain-specific effects of SF1 action are important in human testicular development and function. Our objective was to investigate whether partial defects in SF1 function might be associated with milder male reproductive phenotypes, such as bilateral anorchia (vanishing testis syndrome) and micropenis. METHODS This study involved mutational analysis of NR5A1 in 24 individuals with bilateral anorchia and micropenis from the French Collaborative Anorchia study, as well as in vitro functional studies of SF1-dependent transcriptional activation and computer modeling. RESULTS A novel heterozygous missense mutation (V355M) in SF1 was found in one boy with a micropenis and testicular regression syndrome. This non-synonymous change was found to affect a highly conserved amino acid within helix 7 of the ligand-binding domain of SF1. This V355M mutation did not affect stability or nuclear localization, but did result in an ~50% reduction in SF1 activity in several different assay systems. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, heterozygous partial loss of function mutations in SF1 may be associated with bilateral anorchia (vanishing testis syndrome) and micropenis in humans. PMID:17940071

  8. Garlic (Allium sativum) stimulates lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from J774A.1 murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jessica; Harfouche, Youssef; De La Cruz, Melissa; Zamora, Martha P; Liu, Yan; Rego, James A; Buckley, Nancy E

    2015-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is known to have many beneficial attributes such as antimicrobial, antiatherosclerotic, antitumorigenetic, and immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effects of an aqueous garlic extract on macrophage cytokine production by challenging the macrophage J774A.1 cell line with the garlic extract in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under different conditions. The effect of allicin, the major component of crushed garlic, was also investigated. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, it was found that garlic and synthetic allicin greatly stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) production in macrophages treated with LPS. The TNF-? secretion levels peaked earlier and were sustained for a longer time in cells treated with garlic and LPS compared with cells treated with LPS alone. Garlic acted in a time-dependent manner. We suggest that garlic, at least partially via its allicin component, acts downstream from LPS to stimulate macrophage TNF-? secretion. PMID:25366263

  9. Melatonin induces class A1 heat-shock factors (HSFA1s) and their possible involvement of thermotolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haitao; Tan, Dun-Xian; Reiter, Russel J; Ye, Tiantian; Yang, Fan; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-04-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) serves as an important signal molecule during plant developmental processes and multiple abiotic stress responses. However, the involvement of melatonin in thermotolerance and the underlying molecular mechanism in Arabidopsis were largely unknown. In this study, we found that the endogenous melatonin level in Arabidopsis leaves was significantly induced by heat stress treatment, and exogenous melatonin treatment conferred improved thermotolerance in Arabidopsis. The transcript levels of class A1 heat-shock factors (HSFA1s), which serve as the master regulators of heat stress responses, were significantly upregulated by heat stress and exogenous melatonin treatment in Arabidopsis. Notably, exogenous melatonin-enhanced thermotolerance was largely alleviated in HSFA1s quadruple knockout (QK) mutants, and HSFA1s-activated transcripts of heat-responsive genes (HSFA2, heat stress-associated 32 (HSA32), heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90), and 101 (HSP101)) might be contributed to melatonin-mediated thermotolerance. Taken together, this study provided direct link between melatonin and thermotolerance and indicated the involvement of HSFA1s-activated heat-responsive genes in melatonin-mediated thermotolerance in Arabidopsis. PMID:25711624

  10. Pediatric diabetes consortium type 1 diabetes new onset (NeOn) study: Factors associated with HbA1c levels one year after diagnosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To identify determinants of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels 1 yr after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in participants in the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium (PDC) T1D New Onset (NeOn) Study. Diabetes-specific as well as socioeconomic factors during the first year following diagnosis were analyze...

  11. Correlation of CYP1A1 and GSTM1 gene polymorphisms and environmental factors to familial aggregation of esophageal cancer among the Kazakh ethnic group in Xinjiang.

    PubMed

    Zeng, M; Lv, Y; Wang, H F; Yiguli, H A; Zhang, J R; Yisikandaer, A

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the correlation of CYP1A1 and GSTM1 gene polymorphisms and environmental factors to familial aggregation of esophageal cancer (EC) among the Kazakh ethnic group in Xinjiang. CYP1A1 and GSTM1 gene polymorphisms were detected using peripheral blood from 86 subjects belonging to families with EC and 82 control subjects. Additionally, a questionnaire survey was conducted to ascertain environmental risk factors. Combined effects of CYP1A1 and GSTM1 gene polymorphisms and environmental factors in familial aggregation of EC were evaluated. Distribution frequencies of CYP1A1 MspI and GSTM1 genotypes between EC and control families showed significant differences (P = 0.002, P = 0.001). Contribution of interaction between CYP1A1 MspI mutant and GSTM1 deletion polymorphisms to familial aggregation of EC was significant, with OR = 3.571 (95%CI = 1.738-3.346). Logistic multivariate analysis indicated that familial aggregation of EC is correlated with 3 factors: drinking water, intake of fresh vegetables and fruits, and CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism (P = 0.005, P = 0.013, and P = 0.001). Sufficient intake of fresh vegetables and fruits (OR = 0.278, 95%CI = 0.137-0.551) protected against familial aggregation of EC, while drinking water (OR = 3.468, 95%CI = 1.562-6.551) and CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism (OR = 2.732, 95%CI = 1.741-3.886) were the risk factors. In conclusion, CYP1A1 and GSTM1 gene polymorphisms affect familial aggregation of EC among the Kazakh ethnic group in Xinjiang. River water intake and CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism were risk factors that likely contributed to high incidence of EC among families. PMID:26782562

  12. Transposon insertions in the promoter of the Zea mays a1 gene differentially affect transcription by the Myb factors P and C1.

    PubMed Central

    Pooma, Wilailak; Gersos, Christos; Grotewold, Erich

    2002-01-01

    The understanding of control of gene regulation in higher eukaryotes relies heavily on results derived from non-in vivo studies, but rarely can the significance of these approximations be established in vivo. Here, we investigated the effect of Mutator and Spm insertions on the expression of the flavonoid biosynthetic gene a1, independently regulated by the transcription factors C1 and P. The a1-mum2 and a1-m2 alleles carry Mu1 and Spm insertions, respectively, in a cis-element (ARE) of unknown function located between the P- and C1-binding sites. We show that the insertions of Mu1 and Spm similarly influence the expression of a1 controlled by C1 or P. The P-controlled a1 expression in a1-m2 is Spm dependent, and the mutant phenotype of a1-mum2 is suppressed in the pericarp in the absence of the autonomous MuDR element. Footprints within the ARE affect the regulation of a1 by C1 and P differently, providing evidence that these factors control a1 expression using distinct cis-acting regulatory elements. Together, our findings contribute significantly to one of the best-described plant regulatory systems, while stressing the need to complement with in vivo experiments current approaches used for the study of control of gene expression. PMID:12072474

  13. A molten globule intermediate of the Von Willebrand Factor A1 domain firmly tethers platelets under shear flow

    PubMed Central

    Tischer, Alexander; Madde, Pranathi; Blancas-Mejia, Luis. M.; Auton, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Clinical mutations in patients diagnosed with Type 2A von Willebrand disease (vWD) have been identified that break the single disulfide bond linking N- and C-termini in the vWF A1 domain. We have modeled the effect of these mutations on the disulfide-bonded structure of A1 by reducing and carboxy-amidating these cysteines. Solution biophysical studies show that loss of this disulfide bond induces a molten globule conformational state lacking global tertiary structure but retaining residual secondary structure. The conformational dependence of platelet adhesion to these native and molten globule states of A1 is quantitatively compared using real-time high-speed video microscopy analysis of platelet translocation dynamics under shear flow in a parallel plate micro-fluidic flow chamber. While normal platelets translocating on surface-captured native A1 domain retain the catch-bond character of pause times that increase as a function of shear rate at low shear and decrease as a function of shear rate at high shear, platelets that interact with A1 lacking the disulfide bond remain stably attached and do not translocate. Based on these findings, we propose that the shear stress-sensitive regulation of the A1-GPIb interaction is due to folding the tertiary structure of this domain. Removal of the tertiary structure by disrupting the disulfide bond destroys this regulatory mechanism resulting in high-strength interactions between platelets and vWF A1 that are dependent only on residual secondary structure elements present in the molten globule conformation. PMID:24265179

  14. Analysis of Slovak Spotted breed for bovine beta casein A1 variant as risk factor for human health.

    PubMed

    Miluchov, Martina; Gbor, Michal; Trakovick, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The goal of work was identification A1 variant of bovine beta casein which involves ischemic heart disease and diabetes mellitus in human. The digestion of A1beta casein can result in the production of bioactive beta casomorphin-7 (BCM-7); this is not the case with A2. This bioactive peptide has been linked to physiological traits that may elicit effects on components of the vascular and immune systems. The material involved 111 Slovak Spotted breed. Bovine genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood by using commercial kit, and used in order to estimate beta-casein genotypes by means of PCR-RFLP method. The PCR products were digested with DdeI restriction enzyme. In the population included in the study were detected all three genotypes, homozygote genotype A1A1 (14 animals), heterozygote genotype A1A2 (37 animals) and homozygote genotype A2A2 (60 animals). In the total population of cattle homozygotes A2A2-0.5405 were the most frequent, while homozygotes A1A1-0.1261 were the least frequent ones. This suggests a superiority of allele A2 (0.7072) which does not produce BCM-7, and thus is safe for human consumption. The expected homozygosity for gene CSN2 is in the population stated a slight increase in homozygosity (0.5858). This caused a slight decrease in the level of possible variability realization (41.80%), which corresponds to the effective number of alleles (1.7071). PMID:24432335

  15. Individual, physical and psychological risk factors for neck pain in Australian office workers: a 1-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Michaleff, Zoe; Maher, Christopher G.; Refshauge, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Neck pain is more prevalent in office workers than in the general community. To date, findings from prospective studies that investigated causal relationships between putative risk factors and the onset of neck pain in this population have been limited by high loss to follow-up. The aim of this research was to prospectively evaluate a range of risk factors for neck pain in office workers, using validated and reliable objective measures as well as attain an estimate of 1-year incidence. We assembled a cohort of 53 office workers without neck pain and measured individual, physical, workplace and psychological factors at baseline. We followed participants for 1 year to measure the incidence of neck pain. We achieved 100% participant follow-up. Cox regression analysis was applied to examine the relationship between the putative risk factors and the cumulative incidence of neck pain. The 1-year incidence proportion of neck pain in Australian office workers was estimated in this study to be 0.49 (95% CI 0.36–0.62). Predictors of neck pain with moderate to large effect sizes were female gender (HR: 3.07; 95% CI: 1.18–7.99) and high psychological stress (HR: 1.64; 95% CI: 0.66–4.07). Protective factors included increased mobility of the cervical spine (HR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.19–1.05) and frequent exercise (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.27–1.51). These results reveal that neck pain is common in Australian office workers and that there are risk factors that are potentially modifiable. PMID:19399537

  16. Apobec-1 Complementation Factor (A1CF) Inhibits Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Migration of Normal Rat Kidney Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liyuan; Wang, Honglian; Zhou, Yuru; Ni, Dongsheng; Hu, Yanxia; Long, Yaoshui; Liu, Jianing; Peng, Rui; Zhou, Li; Liu, Zhicheng; Lyu, Zhongshi; Mao, Zhaomin; Hao, Jin; Li, Yiman; Zhou, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Apobec-1 complementation factor (A1CF) is a member of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNP) family, which participates in site-specific posttranscriptional RNA editing of apolipoprotein B (apoB) transcript. The posttranscriptional editing of apoB mRNA by A1CF in the small intestine is required for lipid absorption. Apart from the intestine, A1CF mRNA is also reported to be highly expressed in the kidneys. However, it is remained unknown about the functions of A1CF in the kidneys. The aim of this paper is to explore the potential functions of A1CF in the kidneys. Our results demonstrated that in C57BL/6 mice A1CF was weakly expressed in embryonic kidneys from E15.5dpc while strongly expressed in mature kidneys after birth, and it mainly existed in the tubules of inner cortex. More importantly, we identified A1CF negatively regulated the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in kidney tubular epithelial cells. Our results found ectopic expression of A1CF up-regulated the epithelial markers E-cadherin, and down-regulated the mesenchymal markers vimentin and ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) in NRK52e cells. In addition, knockdown of A1CF enhanced EMT contrary to the overexpression effect. Notably, the two A1CF variants led to the similar trend in the EMT process. Taken together, these data suggest that A1CF may be an antagonistic factor to the EMT process of kidney tubular epithelial cells. PMID:26848653

  17. Apobec-1 Complementation Factor (A1CF) Inhibits Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Migration of Normal Rat Kidney Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liyuan; Wang, Honglian; Zhou, Yuru; Ni, Dongsheng; Hu, Yanxia; Long, Yaoshui; Liu, Jianing; Peng, Rui; Zhou, Li; Liu, Zhicheng; Lyu, Zhongshi; Mao, Zhaomin; Hao, Jin; Li, Yiman; Zhou, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Apobec-1 complementation factor (A1CF) is a member of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNP) family, which participates in site-specific posttranscriptional RNA editing of apolipoprotein B (apoB) transcript. The posttranscriptional editing of apoB mRNA by A1CF in the small intestine is required for lipid absorption. Apart from the intestine, A1CF mRNA is also reported to be highly expressed in the kidneys. However, it is remained unknown about the functions of A1CF in the kidneys. The aim of this paper is to explore the potential functions of A1CF in the kidneys. Our results demonstrated that in C57BL/6 mice A1CF was weakly expressed in embryonic kidneys from E15.5dpc while strongly expressed in mature kidneys after birth, and it mainly existed in the tubules of inner cortex. More importantly, we identified A1CF negatively regulated the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in kidney tubular epithelial cells. Our results found ectopic expression of A1CF up-regulated the epithelial markers E-cadherin, and down-regulated the mesenchymal markers vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in NRK52e cells. In addition, knockdown of A1CF enhanced EMT contrary to the overexpression effect. Notably, the two A1CF variants led to the similar trend in the EMT process. Taken together, these data suggest that A1CF may be an antagonistic factor to the EMT process of kidney tubular epithelial cells. PMID:26848653

  18. Menstrual and reproductive factors in women, genetic variation in CYP17A1, and pancreatic cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    PubMed

    Duell, Eric J; Travier, Nomie; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Dossus, Laure; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Franoise; Tumino, Rosario; Masala, Giovanna; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Ricceri, Fulvio; Redondo, Maria Luisa; Dorronsoro, Miren; Molina-Montes, Esther; Huerta, Jos M; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick J; Allen, Naomi E; Travis, Ruth; Siersema, Peter D; Peeters, Petra H M; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Fragogeorgi, Eirini; Oikonomou, Eleni; Boeing, Heiner; Schuetze, Madlen; Canzian, Federico; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Tjnneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gram, Inger Torhild; Lund, Eiliv; Lindkvist, Bjrn; Johansen, Dorthe; Ye, Weimin; Sund, Malin; Fedirko, Veronika; Jenab, Mazda; Michaud, Dominique S; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2013-05-01

    Menstrual and reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use have been investigated as pancreatic cancer risk factors in case-control and cohort studies, but results have been inconsistent. We conducted a prospective examination of menstrual and reproductive factors, exogenous hormone use and pancreatic cancer risk (based on 304 cases) in 328,610 women from the EPIC cohort. Then, in a case-control study nested within the EPIC cohort, we examined 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP17A1 (an essential gene in sex steroid metabolism) for association with pancreatic cancer in women and men (324 cases and 353 controls). Of all factors analyzed, only younger age at menarche (<12 vs. 13 years) was moderately associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer in the full cohort; however, this result was marginally significant (HR = 1.44; 95% CI = 0.99-2.10). CYP17A1 rs619824 was associated with HRT use (p value = 0.037) in control women; however, none of the SNPs alone, in combination, or as haplotypes were associated with pancreatic cancer risk. In conclusion, with the possible exception of an early age of menarche, none of the menstrual and reproductive factors, and none of the 12 common genetic variants we evaluated at the CYP17A1 locus makes a substantial contribution to pancreatic cancer susceptibility in the EPIC cohort. PMID:23015357

  19. The Histone Variant MacroH2A1.2 Is Necessary for the Activation of Muscle Enhancers and Recruitment of the Transcription Factor Pbx1.

    PubMed

    Dell'Orso, Stefania; Wang, A Hongjun; Shih, Han-Yu; Saso, Kayoko; Berghella, Libera; Gutierrez-Cruz, Gustavo; Ladurner, Andreas G; O'Shea, John J; Sartorelli, Vittorio; Zare, Hossein

    2016-02-01

    Histone variants complement and integrate histone post-translational modifications in regulating transcription. The histone variant macroH2A1 (mH2A1) is almost three times the size of its canonical H2A counterpart, due to the presence of an ?25kDa evolutionarily conserved non-histone macro domain. Strikingly, mH2A1 can mediate both gene repression and activation. However, the molecular determinants conferring these alternative functions remain elusive. Here, we report that mH2A1.2 is required for the activation of the myogenic gene regulatory network and muscle cell differentiation. H3K27 acetylation at prospective enhancers is exquisitely sensitive to mH2A1.2, indicating a role of mH2A1.2 in imparting enhancer activation. Both H3K27 acetylation and recruitment of the transcription factor Pbx1 at prospective enhancers are regulated by mH2A1.2. Overall, our findings indicate a role of mH2A1.2 in marking regulatory regions for activation. PMID:26832413

  20. The Histone Variant MacroH2A1.2 is Necessary for the Activation of Muscle Enhancers and Recruitment of the Transcription Factor Pbx1

    PubMed Central

    Dell’Orso, Stefania; Wang, A. Hongjun; Shih, Han-Yu; Saso, Kayoko; Berghella, Libera; Gutierrez-Cruz, Gustavo; Ladurner, Andreas G.; O’Shea, John J.; Sartorelli, Vittorio; Zare, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Histone variants complement and integrate histone post-translational modifications in regulating transcription. The histone variant macroH2A1 (mH2A1) is almost three times the size of its canonical H2A counterpart due to the presence of a ~25kDa evolutionarily conserved non-histone macro domain. Strikingly, mH2A1 can mediate both gene repression and activation. However, the molecular determinants conferring these alternative functions remain elusive. Here, we report that mH2A1.2 is required for the activation of the myogenic gene regulatory network and muscle cell differentiation. H3K27 acetylation at prospective enhancers is exquisitely sensitive to mH2A1.2, indicating a role of mH2A1.2 in imparting enhancer activation. Both H3K27 acetylation and recruitment of the transcription factor Pbx1 at prospective enhancers are regulated by mH2A1.2. Overall, our findings indicate a role of mH2A1.2 in marking regulatory regions for activation. PMID:26832413

  1. Common Variation at 1q24.1 (ALDH9A1) Is a Potential Risk Factor for Renal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Henrion, Marc Y. R.; Purdue, Mark P.; Scelo, Ghislaine; Broderick, Peter; Frampton, Matthew; Ritchie, Alastair; Meade, Angela; Li, Peng; McKay, James; Johansson, Mattias; Lathrop, Mark; Larkin, James; Rothman, Nathaniel; Wang, Zhaoming; Chow, Wong-Ho; Stevens, Victoria L.; Diver, W. Ryan; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Brennan, Paul; Eisen, Timothy; Chanock, Stephen; Houlston, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    So far six susceptibility loci for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have been discovered by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). To identify additional RCC common risk loci, we performed a meta-analysis of published GWAS (totalling 2,215 cases and 8,566 controls of Western-European background) with imputation using 1000 Genomes Project and UK10K Project data as reference panels and followed up the most significant association signals [22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 3 indels in eight genomic regions] in 383 cases and 2,189 controls from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). A combined analysis identified a promising susceptibility locus mapping to 1q24.1 marked by the imputed SNP rs3845536 (Pcombined =2.30x10-8). Specifically, the signal maps to intron 4 of the ALDH9A1 gene (aldehyde dehydrogenase 9 family, member A1). We further evaluated this potential signal in 2,461 cases and 5,081 controls from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) GWAS of RCC cases and controls from multiple European regions. In contrast to earlier findings no association was shown in the IARC series (P=0.94; Pcombined =2.73x10-5). While variation at 1q24.1 represents a potential risk locus for RCC, future replication analyses are required to substantiate our observation. PMID:25826619

  2. Critical role of eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha 1 (EEF1A1) in avian reovirus sigma-C-induced apoptosis and inhibition of viral growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Lin, Wencheng; Li, Xiaoqi; Cao, Hong; Wang, Yongqiang; Zheng, Shijun J

    2015-06-01

    Avian reovirus (ARV) causes viral arthritis, chronic respiratory diseases, retarded growth and malabsorption syndrome. It is well established that the ARV sigma-C protein induces apoptosis in host cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of this induction is still unclear. We report here the identification of eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha 1 (EEF1A1) as the interacting partner of ?C. We found that ?C-induced apoptosis in DF-1 cells could be completely abolished by knockdown of EEF1A1 by siRNA. Furthermore, knockdown of EEF1A1 markedly reduced ARV-induced apoptosis associated with decreased caspase-9 and -3 activation and cytochrome C release, leading to increased ARV growth in host cells. Thus, EEF1A1 plays a critical role in ?C-induced apoptosis and inhibition of viral growth. PMID:25854689

  3. Targets of the StBEL5 Transcription Factor Include the FT Ortholog StSP6A1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The BEL1-like family of transcription factors is ubiquitous in plants and plays important roles in regulating development. They function in tandem with KNOTTED1 types to bind to a double TTGAC motif in the upstream sequence of target genes. StBEL5 of potato (Solanum tuberosum) functions as a mobile RNA signal that is transcribed in leaves, moves down into stolons in response to short days, and induces tuber formation. Despite their importance, however, very little is known about the targets of BEL1-like transcription factors. To better understand this network, we made use of a phloem-mobile BEL5 induction model, an ethanol-inducible system coupled with RNA sequencing analysis, and a screen for tandem TTGAC cis-elements in the upstream sequence to catalog StBEL5 target genes. Induction of StBEL5 activated several genes that are also induced by StSP6A (S. tuberosum SELF-PRUNING 6A), a FLOWERING LOCUS T coregulator that functions as a signal for tuberization. Both enhancement and suppression of StBEL5 expression were also closely linked to StSP6A transcriptional activity. Site mutagenesis in tandem TTGAC motifs located in the upstream sequence of StSP6A suppressed the short day-induced activity of its promoter in both young tubers and leaves. The expression profile of StBEL5 induced in stolons from plants grown under long-day conditions revealed almost 10,000 differentially expressed genes, including important tuber marker genes and genes involved in cell growth, transcription, floral development, and hormone metabolism. In a random screen of 200 differentially expressed targets of StBEL5, 92% contained tandem TTGAC motifs in the upstream sequence within 3 kb of the transcription start site. PMID:26553650

  4. Are the Same Clinical Risk Factors Relevant for Incident Diabetes Defined by Treatment, Fasting Plasma Glucose, and HbA1c?

    PubMed Central

    Balkau, Beverley; Soulimane, Soraya; Lange, Céline; Gautier, Alain; Tichet, Jean; Vol, Sylviane

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare incidences and risk factors for diabetes using seven definitions, with combinations of pharmacological treatment, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥7.0 mmol/L, and HbA1c ≥6.5%. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants aged 30–65 years from the Data from an Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (DESIR) cohort were followed for 9 years. RESULTS More men had incident diabetes as defined by FPG ≥7.0 mmol/L and/or treatment than by HbA1c ≥6.5% and/or treatment: 7.5% (140/1,867) and 5.3% (99/1,874), respectively (P < 0.009); for women incidences were similar: 3.2% (63/1,958) and 3.4% (66/1,954). Known risk factors predicted diabetes for almost all definitions. Among those with incident diabetes by FPG alone versus HbA1c alone, there were more men (78 vs. 35%), case patients were 8 years younger, and fewer were alcohol abstainers (12 vs. 35%) (all P < 0.005). A diabetes risk score discriminated well between those with and without incident diabetes for all definitions. CONCLUSIONS In men, FPG definitions yielded more incident cases of diabetes than HbA1c definitions, in contrast with women. An FPG-derived risk score remained relevant for HbA1c-defined diabetes. PMID:21346181

  5. The VBP and a1/EBP leucine zipper factors bind overlapping subsets of avian retroviral long terminal repeat CCAAT/enhancer elements.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, C D; Baglia, L A; Curristin, S M; Ruddell, A

    1994-01-01

    Two long terminal repeat (LTR) enhancer-binding proteins which may regulate high rates of avian leukosis virus (ALV) LTR-enhanced c-myc transcription during bursal lymphomagenesis have been identified (A. Ruddell, M. Linial, and M. Groudine, Mol. Cell. Biol. 9:5660-5668, 1989). The genes encoding the a1/EBP and a3/EBP binding factors were cloned by expression screening of a lambda gt11 cDNA library from chicken bursal lymphoma cells. The a1/EBP cDNA encodes a novel leucine zipper transcription factor (W. Bowers and A. Ruddell, J. Virol. 66:6578-6586, 1992). The partial a3/EBP cDNA clone encodes amino acids 84 to 313 of vitellogenin gene-binding protein (VBP), a leucine zipper factor that binds the avian vitellogenin II gene promoter (S. Iyer, D. Davis, and J. Burch, Mol. Cell. Biol. 11:4863-4875, 1991). Multiple VBP mRNAs are expressed in B cells in a pattern identical to that previously observed for VBP in other cell types. The LTR-binding activities of VBP, a1/EBP, and B-cell nuclear extract protein were compared and mapped by gel shift, DNase I footprinting, and methylation interference assays. The purified VBP and a1/EBP bacterial fusion proteins bind overlapping but distinct subsets of CCAAT/enhancer elements in the closely related ALV and Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) LTR enhancers. Protein binding to these CCAAT/enhancer elements accounts for most of the labile LTR enhancer-binding activity observed in B-cell nuclear extracts. VBP and a1/EBP could mediate the high rates of ALV and RSV LTR-enhanced transcription in bursal lymphoma cells and many other cell types. Images PMID:8083963

  6. CagA, a major virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori, promotes the production and underglycosylation of IgA1 in DAKIKI cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Man; Li, Fu-gang; Xie, Xi-sheng; Wang, Shao-qing; Fan, Jun-ming

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • CagA stimulated cell proliferation and the production of IgA1 in DAKIKI cells. • CagA promoted the underglycosylation of IgA1 in DAKIKI cells. • CagA decreased the expression of C1GALT1 and its chaperone Cosmc in DAKIKI cells. • Helicobacter pylori infection may participate in the pathogenesis of IgAN via CagA. - Abstract: While Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection is closely associated with IgA nephropathy (IgAN), the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This study was to investigate the effect of cytotoxin associated gene A protein (CagA), a major virulence factor of Hp, on the production and underglycosylation of IgA1 in the B cell line DAKIKI cells. Cells were cultured and treated with recombinant CagA protein. We found that CagA stimulated cell proliferation and the production of IgA1 in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Moreover, CagA promoted the underglycosylation of IgA1, which at least partly attributed to the downregulation of β1,3-galactosyltransferase (C1GALT1) and its chaperone Cosmc. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Hp infection, at least via CagA, may participate in the pathogenesis of IgAN by influencing the production and glycosylation of IgA1 in B cells.

  7. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester inhibits 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 expression through induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyung Gyun; Han, Eun Hee; Im, Ji Hye; Lee, Eun Ji; Jin, Sun Woo; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2015-09-25

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a natural component of propolis, is reported to have anticarcinogenic properties, although its precise chemopreventive mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of CAPE on 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC)-induced CYP1A1 expression and activities. CAPE reduced the formation of the benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct. Moreover, CAPE inhibited 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 activity, mRNA expression, protein level, and promoter activity. CAPE treatment also decreased 3-MC-inducible xenobiotic-response element (XRE)-linked luciferase, aryl hydrocarbons receptor (AhR) transactivation and nuclear localization. CAPE induced hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein level and HIF-1α responsible element (HRE) transcriptional activity. CAPE-mediated HIF-1α reduced 3-MC-inducible CYP1A1 protein expression. Taken together, CAPE decreases 3-MC-mediated CYP1A1 expression, and this inhibitory response is associated with inhibition of AhR and HIF-1α induction. - Highlights: • CAPE reduced the formation of the benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct. • CAPE inhibited 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 expression. • CAPE induced HIF-1α induction. • CAPE-mediated HIF-1α reduced 3-MC-inducible CYP1A1 expression.

  8. HEAT-INDUCED TAS1 TARGET1 Mediates Thermotolerance via HEAT STRESS TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR A1a-Directed Pathways in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuxia; Liu, Jinxin; Liu, Zhongyuan; Li, Xiaorong; Wu, Feijie; He, Yuke

    2014-04-11

    Many heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) and heat shock proteins (Hsps) have been identified to play important roles in the heat tolerance of plants. However, many of the key factors mediating the heat response pathways remain unknown. Here, we report that two genes, which are targets of TAS1 (trans-acting siRNA precursor 1)-derived small interfering RNAs that we named HEAT-INDUCED TAS1 TARGET1 (HTT1) and HTT2, are involved in thermotolerance. Microarray analysis revealed that the HTT1 and HTT2 genes were highly upregulated in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings in response to heat shock. Overexpression of TAS1a, whose trans-acting small interfering RNAs target the HTT genes, elevated accumulation of TAS1-siRNAs and reduced expression levels of the HTT genes, causing weaker thermotolerance. By contrast, overexpression of HTT1 and HTT2 upregulated several Hsf genes, leading to stronger thermotolerance. In heat-tolerant plants overexpressing HsfA1a, the HTT genes were upregulated, especially at high temperatures. Meanwhile, HsfA1a directly activated HTT1 and HTT2 through binding to their promoters. HTT1 interacted with the heat shock proteins Hsp70-14 and Hsp40 and NUCLEAR FACTOR Y, SUBUNIT C2. Taken together, these results suggest that HTT1 mediates thermotolerance pathways because it is targeted by TAS1a, mainly activated by HsfA1a, and acts as cofactor of Hsp70-14 complexes. PMID:24728648

  9. Maternal protein restriction induces alterations in hepatic tumor necrosis factor-?/CYP7A1 signaling and disorders regulation of cholesterol metabolism in the adult rat offspring

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaomei; Qi, Ying; Tian, Baoling; Chen, Dong; Gao, Hong; Xi, Chunyan; Xing, Yanlin; Yuan, Zhengwei

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that adverse events in utero impair fetal development and lead to the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome in adulthood. To investigate the mechanisms linking impaired fetal growth to increased cholesterol, an important clinical risk factor characterizing the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, we examined the impact of maternal undernutrition on tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)/c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway and the cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) expression in the livers of the offspring with a protein restriction model. The male offspring with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) caused by the isocaloric low-protein diet showed decreased liver weight at birth and augmented circulation and hepatic cholesterol levels at 40 weeks of age. Maternal undernutrition significantly upregulated cytokine TNF-? expression and JNK phospholytion levels in the livers from fetal age to adulthood. Elevated JNK phospholytion could be linked to downregulated hepatocyte nuclear factor-4? and CYP7A1 expression, subsequently led to higher hepatic cholesterol. This work demonstrated that intrauterine malnutrition-induced IUGR might result in intrinsic disorder in hepatic TNF-?/CYP7A1 signaling, and contribute to the development of hypercholesterolemia in later life. PMID:25120278

  10. HEAT-INDUCED TAS1 TARGET1 Mediates Thermotolerance via HEAT STRESS TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR A1a–Directed Pathways in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuxia; Liu, Jinxin; Liu, Zhongyuan; Li, Xiaorong; Wu, Feijie; He, Yuke

    2014-01-01

    Many heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) and heat shock proteins (Hsps) have been identified to play important roles in the heat tolerance of plants. However, many of the key factors mediating the heat response pathways remain unknown. Here, we report that two genes, which are targets of TAS1 (trans-acting siRNA precursor 1)–derived small interfering RNAs that we named HEAT-INDUCED TAS1 TARGET1 (HTT1) and HTT2, are involved in thermotolerance. Microarray analysis revealed that the HTT1 and HTT2 genes were highly upregulated in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings in response to heat shock. Overexpression of TAS1a, whose trans-acting small interfering RNAs target the HTT genes, elevated accumulation of TAS1-siRNAs and reduced expression levels of the HTT genes, causing weaker thermotolerance. By contrast, overexpression of HTT1 and HTT2 upregulated several Hsf genes, leading to stronger thermotolerance. In heat-tolerant plants overexpressing HsfA1a, the HTT genes were upregulated, especially at high temperatures. Meanwhile, HsfA1a directly activated HTT1 and HTT2 through binding to their promoters. HTT1 interacted with the heat shock proteins Hsp70-14 and Hsp40 and NUCLEAR FACTOR Y, SUBUNIT C2. Taken together, these results suggest that HTT1 mediates thermotolerance pathways because it is targeted by TAS1a, mainly activated by HsfA1a, and acts as cofactor of Hsp70-14 complexes. PMID:24728648

  11. Analysis of GFP-FOXO3a nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling in ASTC-a-1 cells under growth factor stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianwang; Xing, Da; Chen, Wei R.

    2010-02-01

    FOXO transcription factors are important regulators of cell survival in response to a variety of stimuli, among which are hypoxic stress, oxidative stress, and growth factor deprivation. Subcellular localization of FOXO proteins plays a major role in the regulation of their activity. In this study, using confocal imaging of the cells transfected with GFP-FOXO3a and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique, we visualized the dynamic nuclear translocation of GFP-FOXO3a in ASTC-a-1 cells under growth factor stimulus. In healthy cells, GFP-FOXO3a was well-distributed in the cytoplasm or widespread distributed in the cytoplasm and the nucleus but the cytoplasm was significantly more than the nucleus. Deprivation of growth factor, we monitored the nuclear localization of GFP-FOXO3a and the dynamic translocation of it from cytoplasm to nucleus. Interestingly, upon stimulation with growth factor in cells again, we visualized the dynamic nuclear exclusion of GFP-FOXO3a and cytoplasm distribution rapidly. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that FOXO3a can reversible shuttling between cytoplasm and nucleus upon stimulation with growth factor.

  12. Cyclin A1 Modulates the Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Promotes Hormone-Dependent Growth and Angiogenesis of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kopparapu, Pradeep Kumar; Anagnostaki, Lola; Hrknen, Pirkko; Persson, Jenny Liao

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in cellular pathways related to both endocrine and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) may contribute to breast cancer progression. Inhibition of the elevated levels of these pathways is associated with clinical benefits. However, molecular mechanisms by which endocrine-related pathways and VEGF signalling cooperatively promote breast cancer progression remain poorly understood. In the present study, we show that the A-type cyclin, cyclin A1, known for its important role in the initiation of leukemia and prostate cancer metastasis, is highly expressed in primary breast cancer specimens and metastatic lesions, in contrasting to its barely detectable expression in normal human breast tissues. There is a statistically significant correlation between cyclin A1 and VEGF expression in breast cancer specimens from two patient cohorts (p<0.01). Induction of cyclin A1 overexpression in breast cancer cell line MCF-7 results in an enhanced invasiveness and a concomitant increase in VEGF expression. In addition, there is a formation of proteinprotein complexes between cyclin A1 and estrogen receptor ER-? cyclin A1 overexpression increases ER-? expression in MCF-7 and T47D cells. In mouse tumor xenograft models in which mice were implanted with MCF-7 cells that overexpressed cyclin A1 or control vector, cyclin A1 overexpression results in an increase in tumor growth and angiogenesis, which is coincident with an enhanced expression of VEGF, VEGFR1 and ER-? Our findings unravel a novel role for cyclin A1 in growth and progression of breast cancer, and suggest that multiple cellular pathways, including cell cycle regulators, angiogenesis and estrogen receptor signalling, may cooperatively contribute to breast cancer progression. PMID:23991063

  13. Post-translational S-Nitrosylation Is an Endogenous Factor Fine Tuning the Properties of Human S100A1 Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Lenarčič Živković, Martina; Zaręba-Kozioł, Monika; Zhukova, Liliya; Poznański, Jarosław; Zhukov, Igor; Wysłouch-Cieszyńska, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    S100A1 is a member of the Ca2+-binding S100 protein family. It is expressed in brain and heart tissue, where it plays a crucial role as a modulator of Ca2+ homeostasis, energy metabolism, neurotransmitter release, and contractile performance. Biological effects of S100A1 have been attributed to its direct interaction with a variety of target proteins. The (patho)physiological relevance of S100A1 makes it an important molecular target for future therapeutic intervention. S-Nitrosylation is a post-translational modification of proteins, which plays a role in cellular signal transduction under physiological and pathological conditions. In this study, we confirmed that S100A1 protein is endogenously modified by Cys85 S-nitrosylation in PC12 cells, which are a well established model system for studying S100A1 function. We used isothermal calorimetry to show that S-nitrosylation facilitates the formation of Ca2+-loaded S100A1 at physiological ionic strength conditions. To establish the unique influence of the S-nitroso group, our study describes high resolution three-dimensional structures of human apo-S100A1 protein with the Cys85 thiol group in reduced and S-nitrosylated states. Solution structures of the proteins are based on NMR data obtained at physiological ionic strength. Comparative analysis shows that S-nitrosylation fine tunes the overall architecture of S100A1 protein. Although the typical S100 protein intersubunit four-helix bundle is conserved upon S-nitrosylation, the conformation of S100A1 protein is reorganized at the sites most important for target recognition (i.e. the C-terminal helix and the linker connecting two EF-hand domains). In summary, this study discloses cysteine S-nitrosylation as a new factor responsible for increasing functional diversity of S100A1 and helps explain the role of S100A1 as a Ca2+ signal transmitter sensitive to NO/redox equilibrium within cells. PMID:22989881

  14. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester inhibits 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 expression through induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Gyun; Han, Eun Hee; Im, Ji Hye; Lee, Eun Ji; Jin, Sun Woo; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2015-09-25

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a natural component of propolis, is reported to have anticarcinogenic properties, although its precise chemopreventive mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of CAPE on 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC)-induced CYP1A1 expression and activities. CAPE reduced the formation of the benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct. Moreover, CAPE inhibited 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 activity, mRNA expression, protein level, and promoter activity. CAPE treatment also decreased 3-MC-inducible xenobiotic-response element (XRE)-linked luciferase, aryl hydrocarbons receptor (AhR) transactivation and nuclear localization. CAPE induced hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein level and HIF-1α responsible element (HRE) transcriptional activity. CAPE-mediated HIF-1α reduced 3-MC-inducible CYP1A1 protein expression. Taken together, CAPE decreases 3-MC-mediated CYP1A1 expression, and this inhibitory response is associated with inhibition of AhR and HIF-1α induction. PMID:26296470

  15. The serpin PN1 is a feedback regulator of FGF signaling in germ layer and primary axis formation.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Helena; Iliev, Dobromir; Grahn, Tan Hooi Min; Gouignard, Nadge; Maccarana, Marco; Griesbach, Julia; Herzmann, Svende; Sagha, Mohsen; Climent, Maria; Pera, Edgar M

    2015-03-15

    Germ layer formation and primary axis development rely on Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). In Xenopus, the secreted serine protease HtrA1 induces mesoderm and posterior trunk/tail structures by facilitating the spread of FGF signals. Here, we show that the serpin Protease nexin-1 (PN1) is transcriptionally activated by FGF signals, suppresses mesoderm and promotes head development in mRNA-injected embryos. An antisense morpholino oligonucleotide against PN1 has the opposite effect and inhibits ectodermal fate. However, ectoderm and anterior head structures can be restored in PN1-depleted embryos when HtrA1 and FGF receptor activities are diminished, indicating that FGF signals negatively regulate their formation. We show that PN1 binds to and inhibits HtrA1, prevents degradation of the proteoglycan Syndecan 4 and restricts paracrine FGF/Erk signaling. Our data suggest that PN1 is a negative-feedback regulator of FGF signaling and has important roles in ectoderm and head development. PMID:25758225

  16. Male germ cell expression of the PAS domain kinase PASKIN and its novel target eukaryotic translation elongation factor eEF1A1.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Katrin; Troger, Juliane; Reissmann, Jana; Katschinski, Dörthe M; Wagner, Klaus F; Stengel, Petra; Paasch, Uwe; Hunziker, Peter; Borter, Emanuela; Barth, Sandra; Schlafli, Philipp; Spielmann, Patrick; Stiehl, Daniel P; Camenisch, Gieri; Wenger, Roland H

    2007-01-01

    PASKIN links energy flux and protein synthesis in yeast, regulates glycogen synthesis in mammals, and has been implicated in glucose-stimulated insulin production in pancreatic beta-cells. Using newly generated monoclonal antibodies, PASKIN was localized in the nuclei of human testis germ cells and in the midpiece of human sperm tails. A speckle-like nuclear pattern was observed for endogenous PASKIN in HeLa cells in addition to its cytoplasmic localization. By yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified the multifunctional eukaryotic translation elongation factor eEF1A1 as a novel interaction partner of PASKIN. This interaction was mapped to the PAS A and kinase domains of PASKIN and to the C-terminus of eEF1A1 using mammalian two-hybrid and GST pull-down assays. Kinase assays, mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis revealed PASKIN auto-phosphorylation as well as eEF1A1 target phosphorylation mainly but not exclusively at Thr432. Wild-type but not kinase-inactive PASKIN increased the in vitro translation of a reporter cRNA. Whereas eEF1A1 did not localize to the nucleus, it co-localizes with PASKIN to the cytoplasm of HeLa cells. The two proteins also showed a remarkably similar localization in the midpiece of the sperm tail. These data suggest regulation of eEF1A1 by PASKIN-dependent phosphorylation in somatic as well as in sperm cells. PMID:17595531

  17. Squared form factors for the A1Π and B1Σ+ vibronic bands of carbon monoxide studied by high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Dong-Dong; Kang, Xu; Yang, Ke; Liu, Ya-Wei; Mei, Xiao-Xun; Zhao, Xiao-Li; Xu, Long-Quan; Hiraoka, Nozomu; Tsuei, Ku-Ding; Zhu, Lin-Fan

    2015-04-01

    Using the inelastic x-ray scattering with a high resolution of 70 meV, squared form factors of molecular carbon monoxide have been determined from the ground state X 1Σ+ to the vibronic states of A 1Π and B 1Σ+ . Since the first Born approximation is satisfied in inelastic x-ray scattering, the inelastic squared form factors of the valence-shell excitations of carbon monoxide measured by this work not only provide the experimental benchmark data but also serve as the high-energy limit for the electron impact method. Based on the present experimental results, the validity conditions of the previous electron impact works are discussed. It is found that for the excitations of A 1Π (ν'=0 -6 ) the first Born approximation is reached in the region of q2<0.7 a.u. at an impact electron energy of 1.5 keV, while for B 1Σ+ (ν'=0 ) the first Born approximation does not fully hold at the impact electron energy of 1.5 keV except for the q2<0.15 a.u. The large discrepancies between the present inelastic x-ray scattering results and the theoretical calculations for most transitions suggest that the formerly reported calculations are not accurate enough.

  18. Correction factors for A1SL ionization chamber dosimetry in TomoTherapy: Machine-specific, plan-class, and clinical fields

    SciTech Connect

    Gago-Arias, Araceli; Rodriguez-Romero, Ruth; Sanchez-Rubio, Patricia; Miguel Gonzalez-Castano, Diego; Gomez, Faustino; Nunez, Luis; Palmans, Hugo; Sharpe, Peter; Pardo-Montero, Juan

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: Recently, an international working group on nonstandard fields presented a new formalism for ionization chamber reference dosimetry of small and nonstandard fields [Alfonso et al., Med. Phys. 35, 5179-5186 (2008)] which has been adopted by AAPM TG-148. This work presents an experimental determination of the correction factors for reference dosimetry with an Exradin A1SL thimble ionization chamber in a TomoTherapy unit, focusing on: (i) machine-specific reference field, (ii) plan-class-specific reference field, and (iii) two clinical treatments. Methods: Ionization chamber measurements were performed in the TomoTherapy unit for intermediate (machine-specific and plan-class-specific) calibration fields, based on the reference conditions defined by AAPM TG-148, and two clinical treatments (lung and head-and-neck). Alanine reference dosimetry was employed to determine absorbed dose to water at the point of interest for the fields under investigation. The corresponding chamber correction factors were calculated from alanine to ionization chamber measurements ratios. Results: Two different methods of determining the beam quality correction factor k{sub Q,Q{sub 0}} for the A1SL ionization chamber in this TomoTherapy unit, where reference conditions for conventional beam quality determination cannot be met, result in consistent values. The observed values of overall correction factors obtained for intermediate and clinical fields are consistently around 0.98 with a typical expanded relative uncertainty of 2% (k = 2), which when considered make such correction factors compatible with unity. However, all of them are systematically lower than unity, which is shown to be significant when a hypothesis test assuming a t-student distribution is performed (p=1.8x10{sup -2}). Correction factors k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub p{sub c{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub p}{sub c}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}}} and k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}}, which are needed for the computation of field factors for relative dosimetry of clinical beams, have been found to be very close to unity for two clinical treatments. Conclusions: The results indicate that the helical field deliveries in this study (including two clinical fields) do not introduce changes on the ion chamber correction factors for dosimetry. For those two specific clinical cases, ratios of chamber readings accurately represent field output factors. The values observed here for intermediate calibration fields are in agreement with previously published data based on alanine dosimetry but differ from values recently reported obtained via radiochromic dosimetry.

  19. ADP-Ribosylation Factor 6 Acts as an Allosteric Activator for the Folded but not Disordered Cholera Toxin A1 Polypeptide

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Tuhina; Taylor, Michael; Jobling, Michael G.; Burress, Helen; Yang, ZhiJie; Serrano, Albert; Holmes, Randall K.; Tatulian, Suren A.; Teter, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Summary The catalytic A1 subunit of cholera toxin (CTA1) has a disordered structure at 37C. An interaction with host factors must therefore place CTA1 in a folded conformation for the modification of its Gs? target which resides in a lipid raft environment. Host ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) act as in vitro allosteric activators of CTA1, but the molecular events of this process are not fully characterized. Isotope-edited Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy monitored ARF6-induced structural changes to CTA1, which were correlated to changes in CTA1 activity. We found ARF6 prevents the thermal disordering of structured CTA1 and stimulates the activity of stabilized CTA1 over a range of temperatures. Yet ARF6 alone did not promote the refolding of disordered CTA1 to an active state. Instead, lipid rafts shifted disordered CTA1 to a folded conformation with a basal level of activity that could be further stimulated by ARF6. Thus, ARF alone is unable to activate disordered CTA1 at physiological temperature: additional host factors such as lipid rafts place CTA1 in the folded conformation required for its ARF-mediated activation. Interaction with ARF is required for in vivo toxin activity, as enzymatically active CTA1 mutants that cannot be further stimulated by ARF6 fail to intoxicate cultured cells. PMID:25257027

  20. Factors associated with adherence to nucleos(t)ide analogs in chronic hepatitis B patients: results from a 1-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jie; Yin, Junhua; Cai, Shaohang; Yu, Tao; Zhong, Chunxiu

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the factors associated with patient compliance with nucleos(t)ide analog (NUC) treatment for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The purpose of this study was to examine the association between sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and adherence to NUCs among patients with CHB. A total of 211 CHB patients receiving NUC monotherapy were asked to report the number of prescribed doses of medication they had taken during the last 90 days. A total of four 3-month adherence scores were averaged to obtain a combined rate of NUC adherence during a 1-year follow up period. The mean age of the patients was 29.6 years, 79% were men, and 68% had no prior NUC treatment for CHB. Females, patients without a previous NUC treatment, and those who had NUC drug resistance showed better adherence to NUC treatment, and compliance was better with telbivudine than with lamivudine and entecavir. PMID:25609925

  1. Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease and the Apolipoprotein B / Apolipoprotein A-1 Ratio in Obese Woman

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Young; Jung, Sun-Young

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to confirm whether consistent aerobic exercise has an effect on the apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-1 ratio or reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease in obese women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants included 32 obese women between the ages of 40 and 49. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups (n = 16 in each group): the control group and the exercise group. The exercise program in this study corresponded to an intensity of 50 to 60% of the maximum volume of minute oxygen consumption and was performed three times per week over 12 weeks. Physical measurements, measurement of cardiorespiratory fitness and blood pressure, and blood collection were done before and after the 12 weeks of exercise at the same time and under the same conditions. [Results] Based on the results of this study, there were significant interaction effects in both time and group weight, for body mass index, percent body fat, maximum volume of minute oxygen consumption, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-1 ratio. Moreover, waist circumference, total cholesterol, and the atherogenic index decreased significantly after 12 weeks of aerobic exercise. [Conclusion] Regular aerobic exercise effectively improved cardiovascular risk factors and decreased the obesity index in obese women. PMID:25435709

  2. Forkhead transcription factor FoxA1 regulates sweat secretion through Bestrophin 2 anion channel and Na-K-Cl cotransporter 1.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chang-Yi; Childress, Victoria; Piao, Yulan; Michel, Marc; Johnson, Adiv A; Kunisada, Makoto; Ko, Minoru S H; Kaestner, Klaus H; Marmorstein, Alan D; Schlessinger, David

    2012-01-24

    Body temperature is maintained in a narrow range in mammals, primarily controlled by sweating. In humans, the dynamic thermoregulatory organ, comprised of 2-4 million sweat glands distributed over the body, can secrete up to 4 L of sweat per day, thereby making it possible to withstand high temperatures and endure prolonged physical stress (e.g., long-distance running). The genetic basis for sweat gland function, however, is largely unknown. We find that the forkhead transcription factor, FoxA1, is required to generate mouse sweating capacity. Despite continued sweat gland morphogenesis, ablation of FoxA1 in mice results in absolute anihidrosis (lack of sweating). This inability to sweat is accompanied by down-regulation of the Na-K-Cl cotransporter 1 (Nkcc1) and the Ca(2+)-activated anion channel Bestrophin 2 (Best2), as well as glycoprotein accumulation in gland lumens and ducts. Furthermore, Best2-deficient mice display comparable anhidrosis and glycoprotein accumulation. These findings link earlier observations that both sodium/potassium/chloride exchange and Ca(2+) are required for sweat production. FoxA1 is inferred to regulate two corresponding features of sweat secretion. One feature, via Best2, catalyzes a bicarbonate gradient that could help to drive calcium-associated ionic transport; the other, requiring Nkcc1, facilitates monovalent ion exchange into sweat. These mechanistic components can be pharmaceutical targets to defend against hyperthermia and alleviate defective thermoregulation in the elderly, and may provide a model relevant to more complex secretory processes. PMID:22223659

  3. Common and Distinct Functions of Arabidopsis Class A1 and A2 Heat Shock Factors in Diverse Abiotic Stress Responses and Development1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hsiang-chin; Charng, Yee-yung

    2013-01-01

    There are 21 heat shock factor (HSF) homologs in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), of which members of class A1 (HSFA1a/HSFA1b/HSFA1d/HSFA1e) play the major role in activating the transcription of heat-induced genes, including HSFA2. Once induced, HSFA2 becomes the dominant HSF and is able to form heterooligomeric complexes with HSFA1. However, whether HSFA2 could function independently as a transcription regulator in the absence of the HSFA1s was undetermined. To address this question, we introduced a Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter:HSFA2 construct into hsfa1a/hsfa1b/hsfa1d/hsfa1e quadruple knockout (QK) and wild-type (Wt) backgrounds to yield transgenic lines A2QK and A2Wt, respectively. Constitutive expression of HSFA2 rescued the developmental defects of the QK mutant and promoted callus formation in A2QK, but not in A2Wt, after heat treatment. Transcriptome analysis showed that heat stress response genes are differentially regulated by the HSFA1s and HSFA2; the genes involved in metabolism and redox homeostasis are preferentially regulated by HSFA2, while HSFA1-preferring genes are enriched in transcription function. Ectopic expression of HSFA2 complemented the defects of QK in tolerance to different heat stress regimes, and to hydrogen peroxide, but not to salt and osmotic stresses. Furthermore, we showed that HSFA1a/HSFA1b/HSFA1d are involved in thermotolerance to mild heat stress at temperatures as low as 27°C. We also noticed subfunctionalization of the four Arabidopsis A1-type HSFs in diverse abiotic stress responses. Overall, this study reveals the overlapping and distinct functions of class A1 and A2 HSFs and may enable more precise use of HSFs in engineering stress tolerance in the future. PMID:23832625

  4. Azathioprine desensitizes liver cancer cells to insulin-like growth factor 1 and causes apoptosis when it is combined with bafilomycin A1

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández-Breijo, Borja; Monserrat, Jorge; Román, Irene D.; González-Rodríguez, Águeda; Fernández-Moreno, M. Dolores; and others

    2013-11-01

    Hepatoblastoma is a primary liver cancer that affects children, due to the sensitivity of this tumor to insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). In this paper we show that azathioprine (AZA) is capable of inhibiting IGF1-mediated signaling cascade in HepG2 cells. The efficiency of AZA on inhibition of proliferation differs in the evaluated cell lines as follows: HepG2 (an experimental model of hepatoblastoma) > Hep3B (derived from a hepatocellular carcinoma) > HuH6 (derived from a hepatoblastoma) ≫ HuH7 (derived from a hepatocellular carcinoma) = Chang Liver cells (a non-malignant cellular model). The effect of AZA in HepG2 cells has been proven to derive from activation of Ras/ERK/TSC2, leading to activation of mTOR/p70S6K in a sustained manner. p70S6K phosphorylates IRS-1 in serine 307 which leads to the uncoupling between IRS-1 and p85 (the regulatory subunit of PI3K) and therefore causing the lack of response of HepG2 to IGF-1. As a consequence, proliferation induced by IGF-1 is inhibited by AZA and autophagy increases leading to senescence of HepG2 cells. Our results suggest that AZA induces the autophagic process in HepG2 activating senescence, and driving to deceleration of cell cycle but not to apoptosis. However, when simultaneous to AZA treatment the autophagy was inhibited by bafilomycin A1 and the degradation of regulatory proteins of cell cycle (e.g. Rb, E2F, and cyclin D1) provoked apoptosis. In conclusion, AZA induces resistance in hepatoblastoma cells to IGF-1, which leads to autophagy activation, and causes apoptosis when it is combined with bafilomycin A1. We are presenting here a novel mechanism of action of azathioprine, which could be useful in treatment of IGF-1 dependent tumors, especially in its combination with other drugs. - Highlights: • Azathioprine activated Ras/ERK/TSC-2/mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway in HepG2 cells. • Azathioprine inhibited IGF-1-mediated signaling cascade. • Azathioprine induced autophagy leading to cell cycle arrest. • Cells died by apoptosis when azathioprine was combined with bafilomycin A1.

  5. Age-Related Nuclear Translocation of P2X6 Subunit Modifies Splicing Activity Interacting with Splicing Factor 3A1

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Hernández, Juan Ignacio; Sebastián-Serrano, Álvaro; Gómez-Villafuertes, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    P2X receptors are ligand-gated ion channels sensitive to extracellular nucleotides formed by the assembling of three equal or different P2X subunits. In this work we report, for the first time, the accumulation of the P2X6 subunit inside the nucleus of hippocampal neurons in an age-dependent way. This location is favored by its anchorage to endoplasmic reticulum through its N-terminal domain. The extracellular domain of P2X6 subunit is the key to reach the nucleus, where it presents a speckled distribution pattern and is retained by interaction with the nuclear envelope protein spectrin α2. The in vivo results showed that, once inside the nucleus, P2X6 subunit interacts with the splicing factor 3A1, which ultimately results in a reduction of the mRNA splicing activity. Our data provide new insights into post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA splicing, describing a novel mechanism that could explain why this process is sensitive to changes that occur with age. PMID:25874565

  6. Identification of Scedosporium boydii catalase A1 gene, a reactive oxygen species detoxification factor highly expressed in response to oxidative stress and phagocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Mina, Sara; Staerck, Cindy; d'Almeida, Snan M; Marot, Agns; Delneste, Yves; Calenda, Alphonse; Tabiasco, Julie; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Fleury, Maxime J J

    2015-12-01

    Scedosporium boydii is an opportunistic filamentous fungus which may be responsible for a large variety of infections in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. This fungus belongs to the Scedosporium apiospermum species complex which usually ranks second among the filamentous fungi colonizing the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Species of the S. apiospermum complex are able to chronically colonize the CF airways suggesting pathogenic mechanisms allowing persistence and growth of these fungi in the respiratory tract. Few putative virulence factors have been purified and characterized so far in the S. apiospermum complex including a cytosolic Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and a monofunctional catalase (catalase A1). Upon microbial infection, host phagocytes release reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide, as part of the antimicrobial response. Catalases are known to protect pathogens against ROS by degradation of the hydrogen peroxide. Here, we identified the S. boydii catalase A1 gene (CATA1) and investigated its expression in response to the environmental conditions encountered in the CF airways and to the oxidative stress. Results showed that S. boydii CATA1 gene expression is not affected by hypoxia, hypercapnia or pH changes. In contrast, CATA1 gene was overexpressed in response to a chemically induced oxidative stress with a relative gene expression 37-fold higher in the presence of 250?MH2O2, 20-fold higher with 250?M menadione and 5-fold higher with 2mM paraquat. Moreover, S. boydii CATA1 gene expression progressively increased upon exposure to activated THP-1-derived macrophages, reaching a maximum after 12h (26 fold). Activated HL60-derived neutrophils and activated human peripheral blood neutrophils more rapidly induced S. boydii CATA1 gene overexpression, a maximum gene expression level being reached at 75min (17 fold) and 60min (15 fold), respectively. In contrast expression of the gene encoding the Cu,Zn-SOD (SODC gene) was not affected by H2O2, menadione, paraquat or in co-culture with phagocytic cells. These results suggest that S. boydii CATA1 gene is highly stimulated by the oxidative burst response whereas SODC gene is constitutively expressed. PMID:26615753

  7. A parametric study of the factors affecting the fatigue strength of porous coated Ti-6A1-4V implant alloy.

    PubMed

    Kohn, D H; Ducheyne, P

    1990-11-01

    The high cycle fatigue strength of porous coated Ti-6A1-4V is approximately 75% less than the fatigue strength of uncoated Ti-6A1-4V. This study separates the effects of three parameters thought to be responsible for this reduction: interfacial geometry, microstructure, and surface alterations brought about by sintering. To achieve the goal of one parameter variations, hydrogen-alloying treatments, which refined the lamellar microstructure of beta-annealed and porous coated Ti-6A1-4V, were formulated. The fatigue strength of smooth-surfaced Ti-6A1-4V subjected to hydrogen-alloying treatments is 643-669 MPa, significantly greater than the fatigue strength of beta-annealed Ti-6A1-4V (497 MPa) and also greater than the fatigue strength of pre-annealed, equiaxed Ti-6A1-4V (590 MPa). The fatigue strength of porous coated Ti-6A1-4V, however, is independent of microstructure. This leads to the conclusion that the notch effect of the surface porosity does not allow the material to take advantage of the superior fatigue crack initiation resistance of a refined alpha-grain size. Thus, sinternecks acts as initiated microcracks and fatigue of porous coated Ti-6A1-4V is propagation controlled. PMID:2279982

  8. Spuriously High Prevalence of Prediabetes Diagnosed by HbA1c in Young Indians Partly Explained by Hematological Factors and Iron Deficiency Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Hardikar, Pallavi S.; Joshi, Suyog M.; Bhat, Dattatray S.; Raut, Deepa A.; Katre, Prachi A.; Lubree, Himangi G.; Jere, Abhay; Pandit, Anand N.; Fall, Caroline H.D.; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the influence of glycemic and nonglycemic parameters on HbA1c concentrations in young adults, the majority of whom had normal glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We compared the diagnosis of normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, and diabetes between a standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; World Health Organization 2006 criteria) and HbA1c concentrations (American Diabetes Association [ADA] 2009 criteria) in 116 young adults (average age 21.6 years) from the Pune Childrens Study. We also studied the contribution of glycemic and nonglycemic determinants to HbA1c concentrations. RESULTS The OGTT showed that 7.8% of participants were prediabetic and 2.6% were diabetic. By ADA HbA1c criteria, 23.3% were prediabetic and 2.6% were diabetic. The negative predictive value of HbA1c was 93% and the positive predictive value was 20% (only 20% had prediabetes or diabetes according to the OGTT; this figure was 7% in anemic participants). Of participants, 34% were anemic, 37% were iron deficient (ferritin <15 ng/mL), 40% were vitamin B12 deficient (<150 pmol/L), and 22% were folate deficient (<7 nmol/L). On multiple linear regression analysis, HbA1c was predicted by higher 2-h glucose (R2 = 25.6%) and lower hemoglobin (R2 = 7.7%). When hematological parameters were replaced by ferritin, vitamin B12, and folate, HbA1c was predicted by higher glycemia (R2 = 25.6%) and lower ferritin (R2 = 4.3%). CONCLUSIONS The use of HbA1c to diagnose prediabetes and diabetes in iron-deficient populations may lead to a spuriously exaggerated prevalence. Further investigation is required before using HbA1c as a screening tool in nutritionally compromised populations. PMID:22323413

  9. Identification of the collagen type 1 alpha 1 gene (COL1A1) as a candidate survival-related factor associated with hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the major causes of cancer-related death especially among Asian and African populations. It is urgent that we identify carcinogenesis-related genes to establish an innovative treatment strategy for this disease. Methods Triple-combination array analysis was performed using one pair each of HCC and noncancerous liver samples from a 68-year-old woman. This analysis consists of expression array, single nucleotide polymorphism array and methylation array. The gene encoding collagen type 1 alpha 1 (COL1A1) was identified and verified using HCC cell lines and 48 tissues from patients with primary HCC. Results Expression array revealed that COL1A1 gene expression was markedly decreased in tumor tissues (log2 ratio 1.1). The single nucleotide polymorphism array showed no chromosomal deletion in the locus of COL1A1. Importantly, the methylation value in the tumor tissue was higher (0.557) than that of the adjacent liver tissue (0.008). We verified that expression of this gene was suppressed by promoter methylation. Reactivation of COL1A1 expression by 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine treatment was seen in HCC cell lines, and sequence analysis identified methylated CpG sites in the COL1A1 promoter region. Among 48 pairs of surgical specimens, 13 (27.1%) showed decreased COL1A1 mRNA expression in tumor sites. Among these 13 cases, 10 had promoter methylation at the tumor site. The log-rank test indicated that mRNA down-regulated tumors were significantly correlated with a poor overall survival rate (P = 0.013). Conclusions Triple-combination array analysis successfully identified COL1A1 as a candidate survival-related gene in HCCs. Epigenetic down-regulation of COL1A1 mRNA expression might have a role as a prognostic biomarker of HCC. PMID:24552139

  10. HbA1c Variability as an Independent Risk Factor for Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 1 Diabetes: A German/Austrian Multicenter Analysis on 35,891 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Julia M.; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Rami-Merhar, Birgit; Rosenbauer, Joachim; Schtt, Morten; Siegel, Erhard; Holl, Reinhard W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to analyze the effect of HbA1c variability on the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy in type 1 diabetes patients. Patients and Methods 35,891 patients with childhood, adolescent or adult onset of type 1 diabetes from a large multicentre survey, the German/Austrian prospective documentation system (DPV), were analysed. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine whether intra-individual HbA1c variability expressed as variation coefficient is an independent risk factor for the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy. Results Kaplan-Meier curves stratified by median HbA1c and variation coefficient revealed that retinopathy-free survival probability is lower when both median HbA1c and HbA1c variability are above the 50th percentile. Cox regression models confirmed this finding: After adjustment for age at diabetes onset, gender and median HbA1c, HbA1c variability was independently associated with the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy. Time-covariate interactions used to model non-proportionality indicated an effect decreasing with duration of diabetes for both median HbA1c and HbA1c variability. Predictive accuracy increased significantly when adding HbA1c variability to the Cox regression model. Conclusions In patients with type 1 diabetes, HbA1c variability adds to the risk of diabetic retinopathy independently of average metabolic control. PMID:24609115

  11. Modulation of insulin-like growth factor actions in L6A1 myoblasts by insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-4 and IGFBP-5: a dual role for IGFBP-5.

    PubMed

    Ewton, D Z; Coolican, S A; Mohan, S; Chernausek, S D; Florini, J R

    1998-10-01

    We have previously shown that the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) stimulate both proliferation and differentiation of skeletal muscle cells in culture, and that these actions in L6A1 muscle cells may be modulated by three secreted IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), IGFBP-4, -5, and -6. Since we found that the temporal expression pattern of IGFBP-4 and IGFBP-5 differed dramatically during the transition from proliferating myoblasts to differentiated myotubes, we undertook the current study to examine the effects of purified IGFBP-4 and IGFBP-5 on IGF-stimulated actions in L6A1 muscle cells. As has been shown for other cell types, we found that IGFBP-4 had only inhibitory actions, inhibiting IGF-I and IGF-II-stimulated proliferation and differentiation. In contrast, IGFBP-5 exhibited both inhibitory and stimulatory actions. When added in the presence of 30 ng/ml IGF-I, IGFBP-5 (250 ng/ml) inhibited all markers of the early proliferative response: the tyrosine phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic signaling molecules IRS-1 and Shc, the activation of the MAP kinases, ERK1 and 2, the elevation of c-fos mRNA, the early inhibition of the elevation in myogenin mRNA, and the increase in cell number. In contrast, IGFBP-5 stimulated all aspects of the myogenic response to IGF-I: the later rise in myogenin mRNA, the elevation of creatine kinase activity, and the fusion of myoblasts into myotubes. This dual response to IGFBP-5 was greatest when it was added at a molar ratio of IGFBP-5 to IGF-I of 2:1. In contrast, when IGFBP-5 was added in the presence of IGF-II, it inhibited both proliferation and differentiation. Neither IGFBP had any effect when added in the presence of R3 IGF-I, an analog with substantially reduced affinity for IGFBPs. Our results suggest that the role of IGFBP-4 is mainly to sequester excess IGFs, and thus inhibit all actions. IGFBP-5, however, is capable of eliciting a dual response, possibly due to its unique ability to associate with the cell membrane. PMID:9731744

  12. PapA1 and PapA2 are acyltransferases essential for the biosynthesis of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence factor Sulfolipid-1

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pawan; Schelle, Michael W.; Jain, Madhulika; Lin, Fiona L.; Petzold, Christopher J.; Leavell, Michael D.; Leary, Julie A.; Cox, Jeffery S.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2007-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces numerous exotic lipids that have been implicated as virulence determinants. One such glycolipid, Sulfolipid-1 (SL-1), consists of a trehalose-2-sulfate (T2S) core acylated with four lipid moieties. A diacylated intermediate in SL-1 biosynthesis, SL1278, has been shown to activate the adaptive immune response in human patients. Although several proteins involved in SL-1 biosynthesis have been identified, the enzymes that acylate the T2S core to form SL1278 and SL-1, and the biosynthetic order of these acylation reactions, are unknown. Here we demonstrate that PapA2 and PapA1 are responsible for the sequential acylation of T2S to form SL1278 and are essential for SL-1 biosynthesis. In vitro, recombinant PapA2 converts T2S to 2?-palmitoyl T2S, and PapA1 further elaborates this newly identified SL-1 intermediate to an analog of SL1278. Disruption of papA2 and papA1 in M. tuberculosis confirmed their essential role in SL-1 biosynthesis and their order of action. Finally, the ?papA2 and ?papA1 mutants were screened for virulence defects in a mouse model of infection. The loss of SL-1 (and SL1278) did not appear to affect bacterial replication or trafficking, suggesting that the functions of SL-1 are specific to human infection. PMID:17592143

  13. Insulin-like growth factor I gene promoter polymorphism, collagen type II α1 (COL2A1) gene, and the prevalence of radiographic osteoarthritis: the Rotterdam Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, G; Rivadeneira, F; Houwing-Duisterma..., J; Meulenbelt, I; Bijkerk, C; Hofman, A; van Meurs, J B J; Uitterlinden, A; Pols, H; Slagboom, P; van Duijn, C M

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the role of an IGF-I gene promoter polymorphism in the prevalence of radiographic osteoarthritis (ROA), and study its interaction with the COL2A1 gene. Methods: Individuals genotyped for IGF-I (n = 1546) and COL2A1 gene polymorphisms (n = 808) were selected from a random sample (n = 1583) derived from the Rotterdam study. The presence of ROA was defined as a Kellgren score of 2 or more in at least one of four joints (knee, hip, hand, and spine). Genotype specific odds ratios (OR) were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and bone mineral density using logistic regression. Interaction with the COL2A1 genotype was tested. Results: Overall, no association was found between the IGF-I polymorphism and ROA. In subjects aged 65 years or younger (n = 971), the prevalence of ROA increased with the absence of the 192 base pair (bp) allele (p for trend = 0.03). Compared with homozygotes for the 192 bp allele, the prevalence of ROA was 1.4 times higher in heterozygotes (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 1.8) and 1.9 times higher in non-carriers (1.1 to 3.3). There was evidence of interaction between the IGF-I and COL2A1 genes. Individuals with the risk genotype of both genes had an increased prevalence of ROA (OR 3.4 (1.1 to 10.7)). No effect was observed in subjects older than 65 years. Conclusions: Subjects with genetically determined low IGF-I expression (non-carriers of the 192 bp allele) may be at increased risk of ROA before the age of 65 years. Furthermore, an interaction between the IGF-I and COL2A1 genes is suggested. PMID:15082485

  14. Evaluation of proton-coupled folate transporter (SLC46A1) polymorphisms as risk factors for neural tube defects and oral clefts.

    PubMed

    VanderMeer, Julia E; Carter, Tonia C; Pangilinan, Faith; Mitchell, Adam; Kurnat-Thoma, Emma; Kirke, Peadar N; Troendle, James F; Molloy, Anne M; Munger, Ronald G; Feldkamp, Marcia L; Mansilla, Maria A; Mills, James L; Murray, Jeff C; Brody, Lawrence C

    2016-04-01

    Many folate-related genes have been investigated for possible causal roles in neural tube defects (NTDs) and oral clefts. However, no previous reports have examined the major gene responsible for folate uptake, the proton-coupled folate transporter (SLC46A1). We tested for association between these birth defects and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SLC46A1 gene. The NTD study population included 549 complete and incomplete case-family triads, and 999 controls from Ireland. The oral clefts study population comprised a sample from Utah (495 complete and incomplete case-family triads and 551 controls) and 221 Filipino multiplex cleft families. There was suggestive evidence of increased NTD case risk with the rs17719944 minor allele (odds ratio (OR): 1.29; 95% confidence intervals (CI): [1.00-1.67]), and decreased maternal risk of an NTD pregnancy with the rs4795436 minor allele (OR: 0.62; [0.39-0.99]). In the Utah sample, the rs739439 minor allele was associated with decreased case risk for cleft lip with cleft palate (genotype relative risk (GRR): 0.56 [0.32-0.98]). Additionally, the rs2239907 minor allele was associated with decreased case risk for cleft lip with cleft palate in several models, and with cleft palate only in a recessive model (OR: 0.41; [0.20-0.85]). These associations did not remain statistically significant after correcting for multiple hypothesis testing. Nominal associations between SLC46A1 polymorphisms and both Irish NTDs and oral clefts in the Utah population suggest some role in the etiology of these birth defects, but further investigation in other populations is needed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26789141

  15. Haploinsufficiency of the nerve growth factor beta gene in a 1p13 deleted female child with an insensitivity to pain.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbon, Gregory J; Kingston, Helen; Needham, Margaret; Gaunt, Lorraine

    2009-10-01

    Pain insensitivity is mediated at the genetic level by the disruption of specific genes associated with neuronal development. Mammalian in vivo and in vitro studies have shown the nerve growth factor (NGF) gene to play an integral role in nerve maintenance and function. Pain insensitivity in humans can be attributed to hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) of which there are five classes (HSAN I - HSAN V). The human nerve growth factor beta gene (NGFB) located on chromosome 1p13.2 has been found to cause HSAN V within individuals homozygous for a point mutation in NGFB. Although heterozygotes can display a milder phenotype, this has only been observed in adults. We report a karyotypically normal 5-year-old female with developmental delay, mild facial dysmorphism, and unsteady gait. Pain and thermal insensitivity were noted as were recurrent mouth ulcers, facial flushing, recurrent episodes of increased body temperature and unexplained sweating, indicative of a sensory neuropathy with mild autonomic involvement. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis revealed a de-novo deletion within chromosome 1p13 of the child involving the NGFB gene. Sequence analysis of the homologous NGFB gene identified no mutation, implying that sensory neuropathy was caused by haploinsufficiency of the NGFB gene. PMID:19183217

  16. The ratio of FoxA1 to FoxA2 in lung adenocarcinoma is regulated by LncRNA HOTAIR and chromatin remodeling factor LSH

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ranran; Shi, Ying; Chen, Ling; Jiang, Yiqun; Mao, Chao; Yan, Bin; Liu, Shuang; Shan, Bin; Tao, Yongguang; Wang, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    The lncRNA HOTAIR is a critical regulator of cancer progression. Chromatin remodeling factor LSH is critical for normal development of plants and mammals. However, the underlying mechanisms causing this in cancer are not entirely clear. The functional diversification of the FOXA1 and FOXA2 contributes to the target genes during evolution and carcinogenesis. Little is known about the ratio of FOXA1 to FOXA2 in cancer. We here found that both HOTAIR and LSH overexpression was significantly correlated with poor survival in patients with lung adenocarcinoma cancer (ADC). Also, the ratio of FOXA1 and FOXA2 is linked with poor survival in patients with lung ADC. HOTAIR regulates the ratio of FOXA1 to FOXA2 and migration and invasion. HOTAIR and the ratio of FOXA1 to FOXA2 are negatively correlated. HOTAIR knockdown inhibits migration and invasion. HOTAIR is associated with LSH, and this association linked with the binding of LSH in the promoter of FOXA1, not FOXA2. Targeted inhibition of HOTAIR suppresses the migratory and invasive properties. These data suggest that HOTAIR is an important mediator of the ratio of FOXA1 and FOXA2 and LSH involves in, and suggest that HOTAIR inhibition may represent a promising therapeutic option for suppressing lung ADC progression. PMID:26658322

  17. Factors related to changes in the quality of life among Polish adolescents and adults with cystic fibrosis over a 1-year period

    PubMed Central

    D?bska, Gra?yna; Mazurek, Henryk

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the effects of clinical factors, physical activity, and sociodemographic variables on 1-year changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Polish adolescents and adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). Method The study included 67 subjects with CF (mean age 21.15.1 years; range 1437 years; 34 males and 33 females). The Cystic Fibrosis Quality of Life Questionnaire was used at baseline and after 1 year. Lung function data, body weight, and body height were extracted from medical records. Clinical assessment was performed with the ShwachmanKulczycki scale. Results The highest scores in both HRQoL examinations came from the domains of physical and social functioning, and the lowest from future concerns, body image, and career concerns. No significant changes of Cystic Fibrosis Quality of Life Questionnaire scores were documented over a period of 1 year. Patients with better baseline spirometry results more frequently reported an improvement in the treatment issues (subjects with FEV1 >50% of predicted, P=0.020) and in the career concerns (patients with FVC >50% of predicted, P=0.039). The improvement in the career concerns also depended upon daily physical activity (P=0.024), which was shown to modulate future concerns (P=0.032), along with place of residence and living conditions (P=0.003). Moreover, the time elapsed from the last pulmonary exacerbation was related to the change in social functioning (P=0.026). Conclusion When planning treatment, attention should be paid to interventions which may improve HRQoL. Systematic chronic therapy improves lung function, related to treatment issues and career concerns. Maintaining good physical condition and activity may positively influence future and career concerns. Special attention must be devoted to patients living in rural areas and enduring difficult living conditions, as they are especially vulnerable to deterioration in future concerns. PMID:26719679

  18. Rare Complement Factor H Variant Associated With Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Amish

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Joshua D.; CookeBailey, Jessica N.; D'Aoust, Laura; Cade, William; Ayala-Haedo, Juan; Fuzzell, Denise; Laux, Renee; Adams, Larry D.; Reinhart-Mercer, Lori; Caywood, Laura; Whitehead-Gay, Patrice; Agarwal, Anita; Wang, Gaofeng; Scott, William K.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Haines, Jonathan L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness among the adult population in the developed world. To further the understanding of this disease, we have studied the genetically isolated Amish population of Ohio and Indiana. Methods. Cumulative genetic risk scores were calculated using the 19 known allelic associations. Exome sequencing was performed in three members of a small Amish family with AMD who lacked the common risk alleles in complement factor H (CFH) and ARMS2/HTRA1. Follow-up genotyping and association analysis was performed in a cohort of 973 Amish individuals, including 95 with self-reported AMD. Results. The cumulative genetic risk score analysis generated a mean genetic risk score of 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10, 1.13) in the Amish controls and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.22) in the Amish cases. This mean difference in genetic risk scores is statistically significant (P = 0.0042). Exome sequencing identified a rare variant (P503A) in CFH. Association analysis in the remainder of the Amish sample revealed that the P503A variant is significantly associated with AMD (P = 9.27 10?13). Variant P503A was absent when evaluated in a cohort of 791 elderly non-Amish controls, and 1456 non-Amish cases. Conclusions. Data from the cumulative genetic risk score analysis suggests that the variants reported by the AMDGene consortium account for a smaller genetic burden of disease in the Amish compared with the non-Amish Caucasian population. Using exome sequencing data, we identified a novel missense mutation that is shared among a densely affected nuclear Amish family and located in a gene that has been previously implicated in AMD risk. PMID:24906858

  19. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? (HNF4?) in coordination with retinoic acid receptors increases all-trans-retinoic acid-dependent CYP26A1 gene expression in HepG2 human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Zolfaghari, Reza; Ross, A Catharine

    2014-10-01

    CYP26A1 expression is very highly induced by retinoic acid (RA) in the liver, compared to most other tissues, suggesting that a liver-enriched factor may be required for its physiological transcriptional response. HNF4? is a highly conserved liver-specific/enriched member of nuclear receptor superfamily. In this study, we hypothesized that HNF4? and RARs may cooperate in an RA-dependent manner to induce a high level of CYP26A1 expression in liver cells. Partial inhibition of endogenous HNF4? by siRNA reduced the level of RA-induced CYP26A1 mRNA in HepG2 cells. Cotransfection of HNF4?, with or without RARs, demonstrated RA-dependent activation of a human CYP26A1 promoter-luciferase construct. Analysis of a 2.5-kbp putative CYP26A1 promoter sequence identified five potential HNF4? DNA response elements: H1 located in a proximal region overlapping with an RAR element-1 (RARE1 or R1); H2 and H3 in the distal region, close to RARE2 (R2) and RARE3 (R3); and H4 and H5 in intermediary regions. In EMSA and ChIP analyses HNF4? and RARs binding in the proximal and distal CYP26A1 promoter regions was significantly higher in RA-treated cells. Mutational analysis of the individual HNF4? DNA-response elements identified H1 as the major site for HNF4? binding because mutation of H1 inhibited the promoter activity by ~90%, followed by H2 mutation with less than 40% inhibition. Our results indicate that HNF4? coordinates with RARs in an RA-dependent manner to strongly induce CYP26A1 gene expression in the liver, which may explain the high level of response to RA observed in vivo. PMID:24819304

  20. Human NR5A1/SF-1 Mutations Show Decreased Activity on BDNF (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor), an Important Regulator of Energy Balance: Testing Impact of Novel SF-1 Mutations Beyond Steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Malikova, Jana; Camats, Nria; Fernndez-Cancio, Mnica; Heath, Karen; Gonzlez, Isabel; Caimar, Mara; del Campo, Miguel; Albisu, Marian; Kolouskova, Stanislava; Aud, Laura; Flck, Christa E.

    2014-01-01

    Context Human NR5A1/SF-1 mutations cause 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD) with broad phenotypic variability, and rarely cause adrenal insufficiency although SF-1 is an important transcription factor for many genes involved in steroidogenesis. In addition, the Sf-1 knockout mouse develops obesity with age. Obesity might be mediated through Sf-1 regulating activity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an important regulator of energy balance in the ventromedial hypothalamus. Objective To characterize novel SF-1 gene variants in 4 families, clinical, genetic and functional studies were performed with respect to steroidogenesis and energy balance. Patients 5 patients with 46,XY DSD were found to harbor NR5A1/SF-1 mutations including 2 novel variations. One patient harboring a novel mutation also suffered from adrenal insufficiency. Methods SF-1 mutations were studied in cell systems (HEK293, JEG3) for impact on transcription of genes involved in steroidogenesis (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B2) and in energy balance (BDNF). BDNF regulation by SF-1 was studied by promoter assays (JEG3). Results Two novel NR5A1/SF-1 mutations (Glu7Stop, His408Profs*159) were confirmed. Glu7Stop is the 4th reported SF-1 mutation causing DSD and adrenal insufficiency. In vitro studies revealed that transcription of the BDNF gene is regulated by SF-1, and that mutant SF-1 decreased BDNF promoter activation (similar to steroid enzyme promoters). However, clinical data from 16 subjects carrying SF-1 mutations showed normal birth weight and BMI. Conclusions Glu7Stop and His408Profs*159 are novel SF-1 mutations identified in patients with 46,XY DSD and adrenal insufficiency (Glu7Stop). In vitro, SF-1 mutations affect not only steroidogenesis but also transcription of BDNF which is involved in energy balance. However, in contrast to mice, consequences on weight were not found in humans with SF-1 mutations. PMID:25122490

  1. Role of von Willebrand Factor-A1 Domain Variants P1266L, H1268D, C1272R, and C1272F in VWD: A Molecular Modeling and Simulation Analysis Approach.

    PubMed

    George Priya Doss, C; Ali, Shabana Kouser

    2016-01-01

    von Willebrand disease (VWD) is an autosomal inherited disorder related to trauma-related bleeding in affected people. VWD results from deficiency of von Willebrand factor (VWF)-a glycoprotein involved in hemostasis and carrier for factor VIII (FVIII). Mutations in A1 domain of von Willebrand factor (VWD) gene are exceptionally polymorphic and associated with adhesion movement, clearance, and binding properties that could be interfaced with thrombosis. To address this issue, we implemented in silico prediction algorithms, namely, SIFT, PolyPhen 2.0, I-Mutant 3.0, SNAP, Align GVGD, PhD-SNP, SNPs&GO, and MutPred to classify the variants as pathogenic and affecting protein stability. Based on prediction scores, four variants, namely, P1266L, H1268D, C1272R, and C1272F, were predicted as highly deleterious from a pool of 72 nsSNPs/variants in A1 domain of VWD belonging to type 2A and 2B. Upon literature survey, amino acid substitution (P?L) at position 1266 is involved in improving the connection with platelets, substitution (C?F) at position 1272 results in extreme bleeding in patients, and substitution (H?D) at position 1268 disturbs the salt bridge scaffold were considered for further analysis. Through molecular dynamic simulation analysis over a period of 100ns showed that four mutations near N-terminal region bring about a change in structure and function of the native VWD protein. PMID:26827609

  2. High resolution spectral analysis of oxygen. IV. Energy levels, partition sums, band constants, RKR potentials, Franck-Condon factors involving the X3? -g, a1?g and b1? +g states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shanshan; Drouin, Brian J.; Miller, Charles E.

    2014-11-01

    We have updated the isotopically invariant Dunham fit of O2 with newly reported literature transitions to derive (1) the energy levels, partition sums, band-by-band molecular constants, and RKR potentials for the X3? -g, a1?g, and b1? +g states of the six O2 isotopologues: 16O16O, 16O17O, 16O18O, 17O17O, 17O18O, and 18O18O; (2) Franck-Condon factors for their a1? g-X3? -g, b1? +g-X3? -g, and a1? g-b1? +g band systems. This new spectroscopic parameterization characterizes all known transitions within and between the X3? -g, a1?g, and b1? +g states within experimental uncertainty and can be used for accurate predictions of as yet unmeasured transitions. All of these results are necessary to provide a consistent linelist of all transitions which will be reported in a followup paper.

  3. ChIP-on-chip analysis reveals angiopoietin 2 (Ang2, ANGPT2) as a novel target of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1, NR5A1) in the human adrenal gland

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz-de-Souza, Bruno; Lin, Lin; Shah, Sonia; Jina, Nipurna; Hubank, Mike; Dattani, Mehul T.; Achermann, John C.

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1, NR5A1) is a key regulator of adrenal and gonadal biology. Disruption of SF-1 can lead to disorders of adrenal development, while increased SF-1 dosage has been associated with adrenocortical tumorigenesis. We aimed to identify a novel subset of SF-1 target genes in the adrenal by using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) microarrays (ChIP-on-chip) combined with systems analysis. SF-1 ChIP-on-chip was performed in NCI-H295R human adrenocortical cells using promoter tiling arrays, leading to the identification of 445 gene loci where SF-1-binding regions were located from 10 kb upstream to 3 kb downstream of a transcriptional start. Network analysis of genes identified as putative SF-1 targets revealed enrichment for angiogenic process networks. A 1.1-kb SF-1-binding region was identified in the angiopoietin 2 (Ang2, ANGPT2) promoter in a highly repetitive region, and SF-1-dependent activation was confirmed in luciferase assays. Angiogenesis is paramount in adrenal development and tumorigenesis, but until now a direct link between SF-1 and vascular remodeling has not been established. We have identified Ang2 as a potentially important novel target of SF-1 in the adrenal gland, indicating that regulation of angiogenesis might be an important additional mechanism by which SF-1 exerts its actions in the adrenal gland.Ferraz-de-Souza, B., Lin, L., Shah, S., Jina, N., Hubank, M., Dattani, M. T., Achermann, J. C. ChIP-on-chip analysis reveals angiopoietin 2 (Ang2, ANGPT2) as a novel target of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1, NR5A1) in the human adrenal gland. PMID:21163858

  4. Exenatide once weekly improved glycaemic control, cardiometabolic risk factors and a composite index of an HbA1c < 7%, without weight gain or hypoglycaemia, over 52 weeks

    PubMed Central

    Bergenstal, R M; Li, Y; Porter, T K Booker; Weaver, C; Han, J

    2013-01-01

    Aims Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is often associated with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors such as obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate potential effects of exenatide once weekly (ExQW), a GLP-1 receptor agonist, on glycaemic control and CV risk factors. Methods This analysis included 675 Intent-to-Treat patients with T2DM [baseline (mean ± SD) HbA1c, 8.1 ± 1.2%; fasting blood glucose (FBG), 166 ± 48 mg/dl; weight, 94.3 ± 19.4 kg; systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP), 129 ± 15/78 ± 9 mm Hg; total cholesterol, 178.5 ± 41.9 mg/dl; low-density lipoprotein (LDL), 100.1 ± 35.0 mg/dl; high-density lipoprotein (HDL), 44.5 ± 11.6 mg/dl; triglycerides, 155.6 ± 3.3 mg/dl; alanine aminotransferase (ALT), 32.1 ± 19.5 U/l] treated with diet and exercise alone or in combination with metformin, sulfonylurea, and/or thiazolidinedione who received 52 weeks of ExQW in four clinical trials. Results At 52 weeks, ExQW significantly improved HbA1c [mean (SE) change from baseline, −1.3 (0.05)%], FBG [−36.3 (2.02) mg/dl], body weight [−2.6 (0.19) kg], SBP/DBP [−3.6 (0.56) mm Hg/−1.2 (0.34) mm Hg], total cholesterol, −4.4 (1.33) mg/dl; LDL, −2.6 (1.08) mg/dl; HDL, 1.1 (0.31) mg/dl; triglycerides, −7 (1.6)%], and ALT [−4.3 (0.71) IU/l] concentrations, with greater improvements in patients with elevated analyte levels at baseline. Improvements were observed across a range of background antihyperglycaemia therapies. Of patients completing 52 weeks, 19% achieved the composite American Diabetes Association goal (HbA1c < 7.0%, BP < 130/80 mm Hg, LDL < 100 mg/dl), compared to 1% at baseline. Nearly half (48%) achieved HbA1c < 7.0% without weight gain or major/minor hypoglycaemia. Nausea was the most frequent adverse event and was predominantly mild. Hypoglycaemia was infrequent, and more common with a sulfonylurea. Conclusions With 52 weeks of ExQW, patients experienced sustained improvements in glycaemic control and CV risk factors, with an increased likelihood of achieving both a clinically relevant composite outcome (HbA1c < 7% without weight gain or increased risk of hypoglycaemia) and a composite of key therapeutic goals (HbA1c < 7%, BP < 130/80 mm Hg, LDL < 100 mg/dl). PMID:23078638

  5. Analysis of DAX1 (NR0B1) and steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1/Ad4BP, NR5A1) in children and adults with primary adrenal failure: ten years' experience

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lin; Gu, Wen-Xia; Ozisik, Gokhan; To, Wing S.; Owen, Catherine J.; Jameson, J. Larry; Achermann, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Context Primary adrenal failure is a life-threatening condition that can be caused by a range of etiologies, including autoimmune, metabolic, and developmental disorders. The nuclear receptors DAX1 (NR0B1) and steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1/Ad4BP, NR5A1) play an important role in adrenal development and function, and mutations in these transcription factors have been found in patients with adrenal hypoplasia. Objective To investigate the prevalence of DAX1 and SF1 mutations in children and adults with primary adrenal failure of unknown etiology (i.e., not caused by congenital adrenal hyperplasia, adrenoleukodystrophy, autoimmune disease). Patients One-hundred and seventeen patients were included. Eighty-eight individuals presented in infancy or childhood with adrenal hypoplasia or primary adrenal failure of unknown etiology (n=64, 46,XY phenotypic males; n=17, 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis/impaired androgenization; n=7, 46,XX females). Twenty-nine individuals presented in adulthood with Addison disease of unknown etiology. Methods Mutational analysis of DAX1 (NR0B1) (including exon 2?/1A) and SF1 (NR5A1) by direct sequencing. Results DAX1 mutations were found in 58% (37/64) of 46,XY phenotypic boys referred with adrenal hypoplasia, and in all boys (8/8) with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and a family history suggestive of adrenal failure in males. SF1 mutations causing adrenal failure were found only in two patients with 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. No DAX1 or SF1 mutations were identified in the adult-onset group. Conclusions DAX1 mutations are a relatively frequent cause of adrenal failure in this group of boys. SF1 mutations causing adrenal failure in humans are rare and are more likely to be associated with significant underandrogenization and gonadal dysfunction in 46,XY individuals. PMID:16684822

  6. Multiple molecular dynamics simulation of the isoforms of human translation elongation factor 1A reveals reversible fluctuations between "open" and "closed" conformations and suggests specific for eEF1A1 affinity for Ca2+-calmodulin

    PubMed Central

    Kanibolotsky, Dmitry S; Novosyl'na, Oleksandra V; Abbott, Catherine M; Negrutskii, Boris S; El'skaya, Anna V

    2008-01-01

    Background Eukaryotic translation elongation factor eEF1A directs the correct aminoacyl-tRNA to ribosomal A-site. In addition, eEF1A is involved in carcinogenesis and apoptosis and can interact with large number of non-translational ligands. There are two isoforms of eEF1A, which are 98% similar. Despite the strong similarity, the isoforms differ in some properties. Importantly, the appearance of eEF1A2 in tissues in which the variant is not normally expressed can be coupled to cancer development. We reasoned that the background for the functional difference of eEF1A1 and eEF1A2 might lie in changes of dynamics of the isoforms. Results It has been determined by multiple MD simulation that eEF1A1 shows increased reciprocal flexibility of structural domains I and II and less average distance between the domains, while increased non-correlated diffusive atom motions within protein domains characterize eEF1A2. The divergence in the dynamic properties of eEF1A1 and eEF1A2 is caused by interactions of amino acid residues that differ between the two variants with neighboring residues and water environment. The main correlated motion of both protein isoforms is the change in proximity of domains I and II which can lead to disappearance of the gap between the domains and transition of the protein into a "closed" conformation. Such a transition is reversible and the protein can adopt an "open" conformation again. This finding is in line with our earlier experimental observation that the transition between "open" and "closed" conformations of eEF1A could be essential for binding of tRNA and/or other biological ligands. The putative calmodulin-binding region Asn311-Gly327 is less flexible in eEF1A1 implying its increased affinity for calmodulin. The ability of eEF1A1 rather than eEF1A2 to interact with Ca2+/calmodulin is shown experimentally in an ELISA-based test. Conclusion We have found that reversible transitions between "open" and "close" conformations of eEF1A provide a molecular background for the earlier observation that the eEF1A molecule is able to change the shape upon interaction with tRNA. The ability of eEF1A1 rather than eEF1A2 to interact with calmodulin is predicted by MD analysis and showed experimentally. The differential ability of the eEF1A isoforms to interact with signaling molecules discovered in this study could be associated with cancer-related properties of eEF1A2. PMID:18221514

  7. A1C test

    MedlinePLUS

    HbA1C test; Glycated hemoglobin test; Glycosylated hemoglobin test; Hemoglobin glycosylated test; Glycohemoglobin test ... have recently eaten does not affect the A1C test, so you do not need to fast to ...

  8. A1C Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eAG on their DiabetesPro web site . The NGSP web site also provides a calculator to convert hemoglobin A1c in SI units mmol/mol into percentage. ^ Back to top Is there anything else I should know? The A1c test will not reflect temporary, acute blood glucose increases ...

  9. A1C

    MedlinePLUS

    A1C is a blood test for type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. It measures your average blood glucose, or blood sugar, level over the past 3 ... A1C alone or in combination with other diabetes tests to make a diagnosis. They also use the ...

  10. Persistent inflammation-induced up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes synaptic delivery of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor GluA1 subunits in descending pain modulatory circuits.

    PubMed

    Tao, Wenjuan; Chen, Quan; Zhou, Wenjie; Wang, Yunping; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Zhi

    2014-08-01

    The enhanced AMPA receptor phosphorylation at GluA1 serine 831 sites in the central pain-modulating system plays a pivotal role in descending pain facilitation after inflammation, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We show here that, in the rat brain stem, in the nucleus raphe magnus, which is a critical relay in the descending pain-modulating system of the brain, persistent inflammatory pain induced by complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) can enhance AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents and the GluA2-lacking AMPA receptor-mediated rectification index. Western blot analysis showed an increase in GluA1 phosphorylation at Ser-831 but not at Ser-845. This was accompanied by an increase in distribution of the synaptic GluA1 subunit. In parallel, the level of histone H3 acetylation at bdnf gene promoter regions was reduced significantly 3 days after CFA injection, as indicated by ChIP assays. This was correlated with an increase in BDNF mRNA levels and BDNF protein levels. Sequestering endogenous extracellular BDNF with TrkB-IgG in the nucleus raphe magnus decreased AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and GluA1 phosphorylation at Ser-831 3 days after CFA injection. Under the same conditions, blockade of TrkB receptor functions, phospholipase C, or PKC impaired GluA1 phosphorylation at Ser-831 and decreased excitatory postsynaptic currents mediated by GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors. Taken together, these results suggest that epigenetic up-regulation of BDNF by peripheral inflammation induces GluR1 phosphorylation at Ser-831 sites through activation of the phospholipase C-PKC signaling cascade, leading to the trafficking of GluA1 to pain-modulating neuronal synapses. PMID:24966334

  11. Led Astray by Hemoglobin A1c

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jean; Diesburg-Stanwood, Amy; Bodor, Geza; Rasouli, Neda

    2016-01-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (A1c) is used frequently to diagnose and treat diabetes mellitus. Therefore, it is important be aware of factors that may interfere with the accuracy of A1c measurements. This is a case of a rare hemoglobin variant that falsely elevated a nondiabetic patient’s A1c level and led to a misdiagnosis of diabetes. A 67-year-old male presented to endocrine clinic for further management after he was diagnosed with diabetes based on an elevated A1c of 10.7%, which is approximately equivalent to an average blood glucose of 260 mg/dL. Multiple repeat A1c levels remained >10%, but his home fasting and random glucose monitoring ranged from 92 to 130 mg/dL. Hemoglobin electrophoresis and subsequent genetic analysis diagnosed the patient with hemoglobin Wayne, a rare hemoglobin variant. This variant falsely elevates A1c levels when A1c is measured using cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography. When the boronate affinity method was applied instead, the patient’s A1c level was actually 4.7%. Though hemoglobin Wayne is clinically silent, this patient was erroneously diagnosed with diabetes and started on an antiglycemic medication. Due to this misdiagnosis, the patient was at risk of escalation in his “diabetes management” and hypoglycemia. Therefore, it is important that providers are aware of factors that may result in hemoglobin A1c inaccuracy including hemoglobin variants. PMID:26848480

  12. Inflammatory markers associated with osteoarthritis after destabilization surgery in young mice with and without Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products (RAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, D. Justin; Kartchner, Jeffrey Z.; Doxey, Alexander S.; Hollis, Weston R.; Rees, Jeffrey L.; Wilhelm, Spencer K.; Draper, Christian S.; Peterson, Danielle M.; Jackson, Gregory G.; Ingersoll, Chelsey; Haynie, S. Scott; Chavez, Elizabeth; Reynolds, Paul R.; Kooyman, David L.

    2013-01-01

    HtrA1, Ddr-2, and Mmp-13 are reliable biomarkers for osteoarthritis (OA), yet the exact mechanism for the upregulation of HtrA-1 is unknown. Some have shown that chondrocyte hypertrophy is associated with early indicators of inflammation including TGF-β and the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products (RAGE). To examine the correlation of inflammation with the expression of biomarkers in OA, we performed right knee destabilization surgery on 4-week-old-wild type and RAGE knock-out (KO) mice. We assayed for HtrA-1, TGF-β1, Mmp-13, and Ddr-2 in articular cartilage at 3, 7, 14, and 28 days post-surgery by immunohistochemistry on left and right knee joints. RAGE KO and wild type mice both showed staining for key OA biomarkers. However, RAGE KO mice were significantly protected against OA compared to controls. We observed a difference in the total number of chondrocytes and percentage of chondrocytes staining positive for OA biomarkers between RAGE KO and control mice. The percentage of cells staining for OA biomarkers correlated with severity of cartilage degradation. Our results indicate that the absence of RAGE did protect against the development of advanced OA. We conclude that HtrA-1 plays a role in lowering TGF-β1 expression in the process of making articular cartilage vulnerable to damage associated with OA progression. PMID:23755017

  13. Effects of Thyroxine Exposure on Osteogenesis in Mouse Calvarial Pre-Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Cray, James J.; Khaksarfard, Kameron; Weinberg, Seth M.; Elsalanty, Mohammed; Yu, Jack C.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of craniosynostosis is one in every 1,800–2500 births. The gene-environment model proposes that if a genetic predisposition is coupled with environmental exposures, the effects can be multiplicative resulting in severely abnormal phenotypes. At present, very little is known about the role of gene-environment interactions in modulating craniosynostosis phenotypes, but prior evidence suggests a role for endocrine factors. Here we provide a report of the effects of thyroid hormone exposure on murine calvaria cells. Murine derived calvaria cells were exposed to critical doses of pharmaceutical thyroxine and analyzed after 3 and 7 days of treatment. Endpoint assays were designed to determine the effects of the hormone exposure on markers of osteogenesis and included, proliferation assay, quantitative ALP activity assay, targeted qPCR for mRNA expression of Runx2, Alp, Ocn, and Twist1, genechip array for 28,853 targets, and targeted osteogenic microarray with qPCR confirmations. Exposure to thyroxine stimulated the cells to express ALP in a dose dependent manner. There were no patterns of difference observed for proliferation. Targeted RNA expression data confirmed expression increases for Alp and Ocn at 7 days in culture. The genechip array suggests substantive expression differences for 46 gene targets and the targeted osteogenesis microarray indicated 23 targets with substantive differences. 11 gene targets were chosen for qPCR confirmation because of their known association with bone or craniosynostosis (Col2a1, Dmp1, Fgf1, 2, Igf1, Mmp9, Phex, Tnf, Htra1, Por, and Dcn). We confirmed substantive increases in mRNA for Phex, FGF1, 2, Tnf, Dmp1, Htra1, Por, Igf1 and Mmp9, and substantive decreases for Dcn. It appears thyroid hormone may exert its effects through increasing osteogenesis. Targets isolated suggest a possible interaction for those gene products associated with calvarial suture growth and homeostasis as well as craniosynostosis. PMID:23935926

  14. A new idea for simple and rapid monitoring of gene expression: requirement of nucleotide sequences encoding an N-terminal HA tag in the T7 promoter-driven expression in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jeong-Mi; Kim, Goo-Young; Rhim, Hyangshuk

    2012-10-01

    Mammalian expression vectors are used to overexpress genes of interest in mammalian cells. High temperature requirement protein A1 (HtrA1), used as a specific target, was expressed from the pHA-M-HtrA1 plasmid in HEK293T cells, inducing cell death. Expression of HtrA1 was driven by the pHA-M-HtrA1 mammalian expression vector in E. coli resulting in growth suppression of E. coli in an HtrA1 serine protease-dependent manner. By using various combinations of promoters, target genes and N-terminal tags, the T7 promoter and N-terminal HA tag in the mammalian expression vector were shown to be responsible for expression of target genes in E. coli. Thus the pHA-M-HtrA1 plasmid can be used as a novel, rapid pre-test system for expression and cytotoxicity of the specific target gene in E. coli before assessing its functions in mammalian cells. PMID:22714269

  15. A-1 Test Stand work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    A structural steel beam to support the new thrust measurement system on the A-1 Test Stand at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center is lifted to waiting employees for installation. The beam is part of the thrust takeout structure needed to support the new measurement system. Four such beams have been installed at the stand in preparation for installation of the system in upcoming weeks. Operators are preparing the stand for testing the next generation of rocket engines for the U.S. space program.

  16. The a1 in ? decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isgur, Nathan; Morningstar, Colin; Reader, Cathy

    1989-03-01

    The decay ?-->????? provides a potentially powerful means of observing the axial-vector isovector state expected in the region of 1.2 GeV. Extraction of the properties of this resonance is, however, complicated by its broad width. We examine the problems of studying such a resonance, especially the model dependence of its deduced mass and width. Within a clearly defined and well-tested model we find ma1=1220+/-15 MeV and ?a1=420+/-40 MeV.

  17. A-1 Test Stand work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Employees at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center work to maneuver a structural steam beam into place on the A-1 Test Stand on Jan. 13. The beam was one of several needed to form the thrust takeout structure that will support a new thrust measurement system being installed on the stand for future rocket engine testing. Once lifted onto the stand, the beams had to be hoisted into place through the center of the test stand, with only two inches of clearance on each side. The new thrust measurement system represents a state-of-the-art upgrade from the equipment installed more than 40 years ago when the test stand was first constructed.

  18. Led Astray by Hemoglobin A1c: A Case of Misdiagnosis of Diabetes by Falsely Elevated Hemoglobin A1c.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jean; Diesburg-Stanwood, Amy; Bodor, Geza; Rasouli, Neda

    2016-01-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (A1c) is used frequently to diagnose and treat diabetes mellitus. Therefore, it is important be aware of factors that may interfere with the accuracy of A1c measurements. This is a case of a rare hemoglobin variant that falsely elevated a nondiabetic patient's A1c level and led to a misdiagnosis of diabetes. A 67-year-old male presented to endocrine clinic for further management after he was diagnosed with diabetes based on an elevated A1c of 10.7%, which is approximately equivalent to an average blood glucose of 260 mg/dL. Multiple repeat A1c levels remained >10%, but his home fasting and random glucose monitoring ranged from 92 to 130 mg/dL. Hemoglobin electrophoresis and subsequent genetic analysis diagnosed the patient with hemoglobin Wayne, a rare hemoglobin variant. This variant falsely elevates A1c levels when A1c is measured using cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography. When the boronate affinity method was applied instead, the patient's A1c level was actually 4.7%. Though hemoglobin Wayne is clinically silent, this patient was erroneously diagnosed with diabetes and started on an antiglycemic medication. Due to this misdiagnosis, the patient was at risk of escalation in his "diabetes management" and hypoglycemia. Therefore, it is important that providers are aware of factors that may result in hemoglobin A1c inaccuracy including hemoglobin variants. PMID:26848480

  19. Factor XII (Hageman factor) deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    Factor XII deficiency is an inherited disorder that affects a protein (factor XII) involved in blood clotting. ... It involves special proteins called coagulation, or clotting, factors. You may have a higher chance of excess ...

  20. Mutations in NR5A1 Associated with Ovarian Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Loureno, Diana; Brauner, Raja; Lin, Lin; De Perdigo, Arantzazu; Weryha, Georges; Muresan, Mihaela; Boudjenah, Radia; Guerra-Junior, Gil; Maciel-Guerra, Andra T.; Achermann, John C.; McElreavey, Ken; Bashamboo, Anu

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND The genetic causes of nonsyndromic ovarian insufficiency are largely unknown. A nuclear receptor, NR5A1 (also called steroidogenic factor 1), is a key transcriptional regulator of genes involved in the hypothalamicpituitarysteroidogenic axis. Mutation of NR5A1 causes 46,XY disorders of sex development, with or without adrenal failure, but growing experimental evidence from studies in mice suggests a key role for this factor in ovarian development and function as well. METHODS To test the hypothesis that mutations in NR5A1 cause disorders of ovarian development and function, we sequenced NR5A1 in four families with histories of both 46,XY disorders of sex development and 46,XX primary ovarian insufficiency and in 25 subjects with sporadic ovarian insufficiency. None of the affected subjects had clinical signs of adrenal insufficiency. RESULTS Members of each of the four families and 2 of the 25 subjects with isolated ovarian insufficiency carried mutations in the NR5A1 gene. In-frame deletions and frameshift and missense mutations were detected. Functional studies indicated that these mutations substantially impaired NR5A1 transactivational activity. Mutations were associated with a range of ovarian anomalies, including 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis and 46,XX primary ovarian insufficiency. We did not observe these mutations in more than 700 control alleles. CONCLUSIONS NR5A1 mutations are associated with 46,XX primary ovarian insufficiency and 46,XY disorders of sex development. PMID:19246354

  1. A1C Test and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tests. [ Top ] How does the A1C relate to estimated average glucose? Estimated average glucose (eAG) is calculated from the A1C. ... levels have the A1C test twice a year. Estimated average glucose (eAG) is calculated from the A1C ...

  2. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and/or soluble IL-6 receptor down-regulation of human type II collagen gene expression in articular chondrocytes requires a decrease of Sp1.Sp3 ratio and of the binding activity of both factors to the COL2A1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Pore, Benot; Kypriotou, Magdalini; Chadjichristos, Christos; Beauchef, Gallic; Renard, Emmanuelle; Legendre, Florence; Melin, Martine; Gueret, Sylviane; Hartmann, Daniel-Jean; Mallin-Gerin, Frdric; Pujol, Jean-Pierre; Boumediene, Karim; Galra, Philippe

    2008-02-22

    Type II collagen is composed of alpha1(II) chains encoded by the COL2A1 gene. Alteration of this cartilage marker is a common feature of osteoarthritis. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that needs a soluble form of receptor called sIL-6R to exert its effects in some cellular models. In that case, sIL-6R exerts agonistic action. This mechanism can make up for the partial or total absence of membrane-anchored IL-6 receptors in some cell types, such as chondrocytes. Our study shows that IL-6, sIL-6R, or both inhibit type II collagen production by rabbit articular chondrocytes through a transcriptional control. The cytokine and/or sIL-6R repress COL2A1 transcription by a -63/-35 sequence that binds Sp1.Sp3. Indeed, IL-6 and/or sIL-6R inhibit Sp1 and Sp3 expression and their binding activity to the 63-bp promoter. In chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, IL-6.sIL-6R induced an increase in Sp3 recruitment to the detriment of Sp1. Knockdown of Sp1.Sp3 by small interference RNA and decoy strategies were found to prevent the IL-6- and/or sIL-6R-induced inhibition of COL2A1 transcription, indicating that each of these Sp proteins is required for down-regulation of the target gene and that a heterotypic Sp1.Sp3 complex is involved. Additionally, Sp1 was shown to interact with Sp3 and HDAC1. Indeed, overexpression of a full-length Sp3 cDNA blocked the Sp1 up-regulation of the 63-bp COL2A1 promoter activity, and by itself, inhibits COL2A1 transcription. We can conclude that IL-6, sIL-6R, or both in combination decrease both the Sp1.Sp3 ratio and DNA-binding activities, thus inhibiting COL2A1 transcription. PMID:18065760

  3. 45 CFR 12a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 12a.1 Section 12a.1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION USE OF FEDERAL REAL PROPERTY TO ASSIST THE HOMELESS § 12a.1 Definitions. Applicant means any representative of the homeless which has submitted an application to the Department of...

  4. 14 CFR 374a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Purpose. 374a.1 Section 374a.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS EXTENSION OF CREDIT BY AIRLINES TO FEDERAL POLITICAL CANDIDATES § 374a.1 Purpose. Section 401...

  5. 14 CFR 374a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose. 374a.1 Section 374a.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS EXTENSION OF CREDIT BY AIRLINES TO FEDERAL POLITICAL CANDIDATES § 374a.1 Purpose. Section 401...

  6. 46 CFR 147A.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 147A.1 Section 147A.1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION General § 147A.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to prescribe the requirements for shipboard fumigation that are critical for the health...

  7. 42 CFR 2a.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability. 2a.1 Section 2a.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.1 Applicability. (a) Section 303(a) of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C....

  8. 18 CFR 3a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purpose. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General 3a.1 Purpose. This part 3a describes...

  9. 18 CFR 3a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General 3a.1 Purpose. This part 3a describes...

  10. 18 CFR 3a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Purpose. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General 3a.1 Purpose. This part 3a describes...

  11. 18 CFR 3a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purpose. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General 3a.1 Purpose. This part 3a describes...

  12. 12 CFR 708a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions. 708a.1 Section 708a.1 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS BANK CONVERSIONS AND MERGERS Conversion of Insured Credit Unions to Mutual Savings Banks 708a.1 Definitions. As used in...

  13. S100A1: Structure, Function, and Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Nathan T.; Cannon, Brian R.; Zimmer, Danna B.; Weber, David J.

    2009-01-01

    S100A1 is a member of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins. As with most S100 proteins, S100A1 undergoes a large conformational change upon binding calcium as necessary to interact with numerous protein targets. Targets of S100A1 include proteins involved in calcium signaling (ryanidine receptors 1 & 2, Serca2a, phopholamban), neurotransmitter release (synapsins I & II), cytoskeletal and filament associated proteins (CapZ, microtubules, intermediate filaments, tau, mocrofilaments, desmin, tubulin, F-actin, titin, and the glial fibrillary acidic protein GFAP), transcription factors and their regulators (e.g. myoD, p53), enzymes (e.g. aldolase, phosphoglucomutase, malate dehydrogenase, glycogen phosphorylase, photoreceptor guanyl cyclases, adenylate cyclases, glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, twitchin kinase, Ndr kinase, and F1 ATP synthase), and other Ca2+-activated proteins (annexins V & VI, S100B, S100A4, S100P, and other S100 proteins). There is also a growing interest in developing inhibitors of S100A1 since they may be beneficial for treating a variety of human diseases including neurological diseases, diabetes mellitus, heart failure, and several types of cancer. The absence of significant phenotypes in S100A1 knockout mice provides some early indication that an S100A1 antagonist could have minimal side effects in normal tissues. However, development of S100A1-mediated therapies is complicated by S100A1’s unusual ability to function as both an intracellular signaling molecule and as a secreted protein. Additionally, many S100A1 protein targets have only recently been identified, and so fully characterizing both these S100A1-target complexes and their resulting functions is a necessary prerequisite. PMID:19890475

  14. Reversibility of Intersystem Crossing in the {a}1A1(000) and {a}1A1(010) States of Methylene, CH_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Anh T.; Sears, Trevor; Hall, Gregory

    2015-06-01

    The lowest energy singlet ( {a}1A1) and triplet ( {X}3B1) electronic states of methylene, CH_2, are only separated by 3150 wn, but differ greatly in chemical reactivity. Overall methylene reaction rates and chemical behavior are therefore strongly dependent on collisionally-mediated singlet-triplet interconversion. Collisions with inert partners tend to depopulate the excited singlet state and populate vibrationally excited triplet levels in CH_2. This process is generally considered as irreversible for large molecules, however, this is not the case for small molecules such as CH_2. An investigation of the decay kinetics of CH_2 in the presence of argon and various amounts of oxygen has been carried out using transient frequency modulation (FM) absorption spectroscopy, to monitor ortho and para rotational levels in both the {a}1A1(000) and {a}1A1(010) states. In the {a}1A1(000) state, all observed rotational levels follow double exponential decay kinetics, a direct consequence of reversible intersystem crossing. The relative amplitude of the slower decay component is an indicator of how quickly the reverse crossing from excited triplet levels becomes significant during the reaction and relaxation of singlet methylene. The para rotational levels show more obvious signs of reversibility than ortho rotational levels. Adding oxygen enhances the visibility of reversibility for both ortho and para levels. However, in the {a}1A1(010) state where the FM signal is 5-10 times smaller than the {a}1A1(000) state, there is no evidence of double exponential decay kinetics. Acknowledgments: Work at Brookhaven National Laboratory was carried out under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 and DE-SC0012704 with the U.S. Department of Energy and supported by its Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences.

  15. Quality factors

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    The quality factor, Q, is a dimensionless modifier used in converting absorbed dose, expressed in rads (or grays), to dose equivalent, expressed in rems (or seiverts). The dose equivalent is used in radiation protection to account for the biological effectiveness of different kinds of radiation. The quality factor is related to both the linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE). The RBE's obtained from biological experiments depend in a complex way on the observed biological effect, the specific test organism, and the experimental conditions. Judgement is involved, therefore, in the choice of the quality factor. Questions regarding the adequacy of current Q values for neutrons were raised first in a 1980 statement by the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) and later in a 1985 statement by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). In 1980, the NCRP alerted the technical community to possible future increases between a factor of three and ten in the Q for neutrons, and in 1985, the ICRP suggested an increase by a factor of two in Q for neutrons. Both the ICRP and NRCP are now recommending essentially the same guidance with regard to Q for neutrons: an increase by a factor of two. The Q for neutrons is based on a large, albeit unfocused, body of experimental data. In spite of the lack of focus, the data supporting a change in the neutron quality factor are substantial. However, the proposed doubling of Q for neutrons is clouded by other issues regarding its application. 33 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1C

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may send blood samples to a lab for analysis. Generally, as hemoglobin A1c levels increase, so does the risk of complications. However, it's important to know that since labs and offices may use different methods to measure HbA1c, the range of normal values ...

  17. 32 CFR 169a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161 2 See footnote 1 to... and Industrial Activities Cost Comparison Handbook.” 4 See footnote 1 to § 169a.1(a)....

  18. A-1 modification work under way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Phil Schemanski of Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne removes equipment inside the thrust drum on the A-1 Test Stand as part of a comprehensive modification project to prepare for testing the new J-2X engine.

  19. Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1C

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the person's average blood sugar levels over that time. Why It's Done Doctors use the hemoglobin A1c test to determine if your child's diabetes management plan needs to be adjusted. Typically the test ...

  20. TMS installation at A-1 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Stennis Space Center employees maneuver a new thrust measurement system in preparation for its installation on the A-1 Test Stand on March 3. The system was fabricated by Thrust Measurement Systems in Illinois and represents a state-of-the-art upgrade from the equipment used on the stand for more than 40 years. The A-1 Test Stand is being upgraded to provide testing for the next generation of rocket engines for America's space program.

  1. Spin Polarized Superfluid 3He A1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Harry; Ishimoto, Hidehiko

    2008-11-01

    Under applied magnetic field, the originally single superfluid 3He transition near 3 mK in zero field splits into two transitions between which a new A1 phase emerges. The two second order transitions are marked by abrupt changes in viscosity, zero sound attenuation and nuclear magnetic resonance. To date, the maximum magnetic field for producing A1 phase is 15 T. The A1 phase has been identified with a spin-polarized (ferromagnetic) superfluid system which breaks the relative symmetry between spin, orbit and gauge spaces. A superfluid mass current in A1 is simultaneously a spin current resulting in the propagation of spin-entropy wave. Experiments with spin-entropy wave provide measurements of anisotropic superfluid density and strong coupling parameters, spin diffusion coefficient and texture transformations. Owing to the spin-polarized nature, superflows may be generated by applied magnetic field gradients and measured from the induced magnetic fountain pressure. The mechanical spin density detector is developed to measure the spin relaxation in A1 phase. The observed unexpected temperature dependence of the spin relaxation time gives evidence that the A1 phase contains a small amount of the predicted minority spin condensate from dipolar interaction energy.

  2. Nature of the a1(1420 )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhasenko, M.; Ketzer, B.; Sarantsev, A.

    2015-05-01

    The resonancelike signal with axial-vector quantum numbers JP C=1++ at a mass of 1420 MeV and a width of 140 MeV, recently observed by the COMPASS and VES experiments in the f0(980 )? final state and tentatively called a1(1420 ), is discussed. Instead of a genuine new meson, we interpret this signal as a dynamical effect due to a singularity (branching point) in the triangle diagram formed by the processes a1(1260 )?K?K , K??K ? , and K K ?f0(980 ) (+c .c ). The amplitude for this diagram is calculated. The result exhibits a peak in the intensity with a sharp phase motion with respect to the dominant a1(1260 )?? ? S -wave decay, in good agreement with the data. The branching ratio of a1(1260 )?f0(980 )? via the triangle diagram is estimated and compared to the dominant decay a1(1260 )?? ? .

  3. The linker between the D3 and A1 domains of vWF suppresses A1-GPIbα catch bonds by site-specific binding to the A1 domain

    PubMed Central

    Tischer, Alexander; Cruz, Miguel A; Auton, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Platelet attachment to von Willebrand factor (vWF) requires the interaction between the platelet GP1bα and exposed vWF-A1 domains. Structural insights into the mechanism of the A1-GP1bα interaction have been limited to an N-terminally truncated A1 domain that lacks residues Q1238 − E1260 that make up the linker between the D3 and A1 domains of vWF. We have demonstrated that removal of these residues destabilizes quaternary interactions in the A1A2A3 tridomain and contributes to platelet activation under high shear (Auton et al., J Biol Chem 2012;287:14579–14585). In this study, we demonstrate that removal of these residues from the single A1 domain enhances platelet pause times on immobilized A1 under rheological shear. A rigorous comparison between the truncated A1-1261 and full length A1-1238 domains demonstrates a kinetic stabilization of the A1 domain induced by these N-terminal residues as evident in the enthalpy of the unfolding transition. This stabilization occurs through site and sequence-specific binding of the N-terminal peptide to A1. Binding of free N-terminal peptide to A1-1261 has an affinity and this binding although free to dissociate is sufficient to suppress the platelet pause times to levels comparable to A1-1238 under shear stress. Our results support a dual-structure/function role for this linker region involving a conformational equilibria that maintains quaternary A domain associations in the inactive state of vWF at low shear and an intra-A1-domain conformation that regulates the strength of platelet GP1bα-vWF A1 domain associations in the active state of vWF at high shear. PMID:23775931

  4. 8 CFR 245a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., if any, or (2) a crime treated as a misdemeanor under 8 CFR 245a.1(p). For purposes of this... CFR part 245a, the crime shall be treated as a misdemeanor. (q) Subject of an Order to Show Cause... whose cooperative agreements were not suspended or terminated by the Service or those whose...

  5. Percutaneous release of A1 pulley.

    PubMed

    Slesarenko, Yury A; Mallo, Gregory; Hurst, Lawrence C; Sampson, Steven P; Serra-Hsu, Frederick

    2006-03-01

    We performed 100 percutaneous releases of the trigger digits in a cadaveric model using an 18-gauge needle. Successful percutaneous release was achieved for only 59 digits (59%). No neurovascular injury occurred. We found that a percutaneous trigger digit release resulted in high percentage of incomplete releases of A1 pulley, especially in the thumb, index, and little fingers. PMID:16628121

  6. 38 CFR 8a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 8a.1 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE... title to the housing unit for which his or her grant was made. (b) The term Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance (VMLI) means the mortgage protection life insurance authorized for veterans under 38 U.S.C....

  7. 38 CFR 8a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 8a.1 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE... title to the housing unit for which his or her grant was made. (b) The term Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance (VMLI) means the mortgage protection life insurance authorized for veterans under 38 U.S.C....

  8. 38 CFR 8a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 8a.1 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE... title to the housing unit for which his or her grant was made. (b) The term Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance (VMLI) means the mortgage protection life insurance authorized for veterans under 38 U.S.C....

  9. 38 CFR 8a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 8a.1 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE... title to the housing unit for which his or her grant was made. (b) The term Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance (VMLI) means the mortgage protection life insurance authorized for veterans under 38 U.S.C....

  10. 38 CFR 8a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 8a.1 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE... title to the housing unit for which his or her grant was made. (b) The term Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance (VMLI) means the mortgage protection life insurance authorized for veterans under 38 U.S.C....

  11. 45 CFR 12a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HOMELESS § 12a.1 Definitions. Applicant means any representative of the homeless which has submitted an... assist the homeless. Checklist or property checklist means the form developed by HUD for use by... or a private non-profit organization which provides assistance to the homeless, and which...

  12. 8 CFR 245a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... crime treated as a misdemeanor under 8 CFR 245a.1(p). For purposes of this definition, any crime... the term such alien actually served. Under this exception, for purposes of 8 CFR part 245a, the crime.../citizenship course prescribed by the recognized program in which he or she is enrolled (as long as...

  13. 8 CFR 245a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... crime treated as a misdemeanor under 8 CFR 245a.1(p). For purposes of this definition, any crime... the term such alien actually served. Under this exception, for purposes of 8 CFR part 245a, the crime.../citizenship course prescribed by the recognized program in which he or she is enrolled (as long as...

  14. 8 CFR 245a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... English language competency, and attainment of these skills is measured either by successful completion of... enroll foreign students under § 214.3 which establishes that the said school forwarded to the Service a..., if any, or (2) a crime treated as a misdemeanor under 8 CFR 245a.1(p). For purposes of...

  15. Chemical factors.

    PubMed

    Lussi, Adrian; Jaeggi, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    pH value, calcium, and phosphate and to a lesser extent fluoride content of a drink or foodstuff are important factors explaining erosive attack. They determine the degree of saturation with respect to tooth minerals, which is the driving force for dissolution. Solutions oversaturated with respect to dental hard tissue will not dissolve it. Addition of calcium (and phosphate) salts to erosive drinks showed protection of surface softening. Today, several Ca-enriched soft drinks are on the market or products with naturally high content in Ca and P are available (such as yoghurt), which do not soften the dental hard tissue. The greater the buffering capacity of the drink or food, the longer it will take for the saliva to neutralize the acid. The buffer capacity of a solution has a distinct effect on the erosive attack when the solution remains adjacent to the tooth surface and is not replaced by saliva. A higher buffer capacity of a drink or foodstuff will enhance the processes of dissolution because more ions from the tooth mineral are needed to render the acid inactive for further demineralization. Further, the amount of drink in the mouth in relation to the amount of saliva present will modify the process of dissolution. There is no clear-cut critical pH for erosion as there is for caries. Even at a low pH, it is possible that other factors are strong enough to prevent erosion. PMID:16687886

  16. AME survey-003 A1-part 2: the motivation factors of medical doctors in China

    PubMed Central

    Káplár, Zoltán; Lǐ, Yáo T.

    2015-01-01

    Background The professional moral and job satisfaction of medical profession remain highly disputed in media in China. On the other hand, there is wide disaffection of patients toward doctors in China. This survey aims to obtain a better understanding of the motivation of Chinese medical professionals. Methods An anonymous online cross-sectional survey, AME survey III, was conducted using the platform provided by DXY (www.dxy.cn) during the period of September 10-23, 2015. In total 2,356 DXY users completed the survey, including 1,740 males and 617 females, with a mean age of 31.96±7.03 yrs. Results The reasons (multiple choices) for career disaffection included poor patient/doctor relationship (88.6%), imbalance between workload and pay (79.5%), could not enter the preferred specialty (14.14%), and working in small clinics with no career progress (11.17%). If given the choice to enter the specialty as well as the hospital grade of their choice, 73.8% dissatisfied respondents replied they would like to be a doctor. For the dis-satisfied respondents, university teacher appeared to be the most popular career choice. The cited high workload was considered to be due to (I) imbalance in geographical allocation of doctors and insufficient training of doctors; (II) many red-tapism formalities; (III) Chinese patients often have unreasonable requests; (IV) over-examination and over-treatment; (V) high pressure to publish papers. One hundred and twelve respondents have their child/children attending university or graduated from university, 25.0% of them are pursuing a career in medicine. Nine hundred and ninety respondents have child/children while did not reach university age yet, among them 23.62% would like their child/children to study medicine. 64.87% of the 2,356 participants favor China to open up medical market to qualified foreign medical organizations to take part in fair competition, and 57.91% favor the government supporting regulated private hospitals. Conclusions The moral and motivation of medical doctors in China are likely to be similar to other continuously evolving societies. Cost-effective use of existing resources should be explored as the first priority. PMID:26807373

  17. TMS installation at A-1 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Employees at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center complete installation of the new thrust measurement system on the A-1 Test Stand. The new TMS is a state-of-the-art upgrade from the previous system, which was installed when the testing structure was built in the 1960s. It is an advanced calibration system capable of measuring vertical and horizontal thrust loads with accuracy within 0.15 percent at 225,000 pounds. It also will allow engineers to measure thrust as they gimbal (or tilt) engines during tests. The new TMS is part of upgrades for the A-1 Test Stand in preparation for testing the next generation of American space program rocket engines.

  18. 8 CFR 213a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... who meets the requirements of section 213A(f)(1)(A), (B), (C), and (E) of the Act and 8 CFR 213a.2(c... 213A(f)(1)(A), (B), (C), and (E) of the Act and 8 CFR 213a.2(c)(1)(i), who is related to the principal... BEHALF OF IMMIGRANTS 213a.1 Definitions. As used in this part, the term: Domicile means the place...

  19. TMS installation at A-1 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    A new thrust measurement system is lifted onto the A-1 Test Stand deck at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in preparation for its installation. The new system is a state-of-the-art upgrade for the testing structure, which is being prepared for testing of next-generation rocket engines. The system was fabricated by Thrust Measurement Systems in Illinois at a cost of about $3.5 million.

  20. Decommissioning Project of Bohunice A1 NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Stubna, M.; Pekar, A.; Moravek, J.; Spirko, M.

    2002-02-26

    The first (pilot) nuclear power plant A1 in the Slovak Republic, situated on Jaslovske Bohunice site (60 km from Bratislava) with the capacity of 143 MWel, was commissioned in 1972 and was running with interruptions till 1977. A KS 150 reactor (HWGCR) with natural uranium as fuel, D2O as moderator and gaseous CO2 as coolant was installed in the A1 plant. Outlet steam from primary reactor coolant system with the temperature of 410 C was led to 6 modules of steam generators and from there to turbine generators. Refueling was carried out on-line at plant full power. The first serious incident associated with refueling occurred in 1976 when a locking mechanism at a fuel assembly failed. The core was not damaged during that incident and following a reconstruction of the damaged technology channel, the plant continued in operation. However, serious problems were occurring with the integrity of steam generators (CO2 gas on primary side, water and steam on secondary side) when the plant had to be shut down frequently due to failures and subsequent repairs. The second serious accident occurred in 1977 when a fuel assembly was overheated with a subsequent release of D2O into gas cooling circuit due to a human failure in the course of replacement of a fuel assembly. Subsequent rapid increase in humidity of the primary system resulted in damages of fuel elements in the core and the primary system was contaminated by fission products. In-reactor structures had been damaged, too. Activity had penetrated also into certain parts of the secondary system via leaking steam generators. Radiation situation in the course of both events on the plant site and around it had been below the level of limits specified. Based on a technical and economical justification of the demanding character of equipment repairs for the restoration of plant operation, and also due to a decision made not to continue with further construction of gas cooled reactors in Czechoslovakia, a decision was made in 1977 to terminate plant operation. The decision on the A1 plant decommissioning was issued in 1979.

  1. PLC Software Program for Leak Detector Station A1 SALW-LD-ST-A1

    SciTech Connect

    KOCH, M.R.

    2001-01-25

    This document describes the software program for the programmable logic controller for the leak detector station ''SALW-LD-ST-A1''. The appendices contains a copy of the printout of the software program.

  2. A 1-D dusty plasma photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Mitu, M. L.; Ticoş, C. M.; Toader, D.; Banu, N.; Scurtu, A.; Department of Physics, University of Bucharest, 077125 Bucharest

    2013-09-21

    It is demonstrated numerically that a 1-D plasma crystal made of micron size cylindrical dust particles can, in principle, work as a photonic crystal for terahertz waves. The dust rods are parallel to each other and arranged in a linear string forming a periodic structure of dielectric-plasma regions. The dispersion equation is found by solving the waves equation with the boundary conditions at the dust-plasma interface and taking into account the dielectric permittivity of the dust material and plasma. The wavelength of the electromagnetic waves is in the range of a few hundred microns, close to the interparticle separation distance. The band gaps of the 1-D plasma crystal are numerically found for different types of dust materials, separation distances between the dust rods and rod diameters. The distance between levitated dust rods forming a string in rf plasma is shown experimentally to vary over a relatively wide range, from 650 μm to about 1350 μm, depending on the rf power fed into the discharge.

  3. Development of a Neutron Detector for A1 at MAMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Zoe

    2015-04-01

    The Mainz A1 spectrometers perform high precision measurements to investigate the structure of the nucleus and its constituents. Previous knowledge of the neutron form factor (FF) is limited due to poor detection efficiencies. Our goal is to create a neutron detector with an efficiency better than 80%, leading to the improvement of the measurements of the neutron electric FF and reducing systematic uncertainties. This new detector would also open up the possibility to study non-mesonic two-body weak decays. The neutron detector should have a large active detector volume, a high detection efficiency (>80%), a good resolution (<.5 ns), and must be low in cost. The proposed design of the detector follows a modular concept with an active detector volume of approximately one cubic meter. In order to allow high beam currents and their resulting high rates, this detector will be highly segmented using 32 crossed layers consisting of 64 bars, utilizing solid and liquid organic scintillators, with dimensions (15 x 30 x 960) mm3. In total 4096 channels have to be read out via WLS fibers using silicon multi pixel photon counters (MPPC). Funded by NSF IRES Award IIA-1358175 Collaboration: MAMI A1 Collaboration.

  4. Three Major Loci Involved in Age-Related Macular Degeneration are also Associated with Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Luiz H.; Schubert, Carl; Ferrara, Daniela C.; Merriam, Joanna E.; Imamura, Yutaka; Freund, K. Bailey; Spaide, Richard F.; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A.; Allikmets, Rando

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the frequency of variants in three major age-related macular degeneration (AMD)-associated loci in patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) of European-American descent. Design Cross-sectional case-control association study. Participants Fifty-five patients with PCV, 368 patients with advanced AMD and 368 age- and ethnically-matched unaffected controls of European-American descent. Methods Association analysis of allele and genotype frequencies, determined by TaqMan assays, was performed for the following haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs): risk alleles in the complement factor H (CFH) gene (Y402H and IVS14) in the ARMS2/HTRA1 locus on 10q26 (A69S) and protective alleles in CFH (IVS1 and IVS6) and in the complement factor B/complement component C2 (CFB/C2) locus (IVS10 and H9L). Main Outcome Measures Allele and genotype frequencies of the htSNPs in the CFH, CFB/C2, and ARMS2/HTRA1 loci. Results Four AMD-associated haplotype-tagging alleles (rs547154, rs1061170, rs1410996, rs10490924) in the three major loci, CFH, CFB/C2 and ARMS2/HTRA1, were statistically significantly associated also with the PCV phenotype (P<0.05). Three other alleles from the same loci (rs4151667, rs529825, rs3766404) showed a trend towards association (P<0.2), but did not reach statistical significance possibly because of the combined effects of a relatively small sample size and low minor allele frequency in the screened populations. Conclusion The PCV phenotype in Caucasian patients is associated with the major alleles/genotypes in the AMD-associated loci, suggesting that PCV and AMD are genetically similar in the tested loci. PMID:20378180

  5. Architecture for a 1-GHz Digital RADAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallik, Udayan

    2011-01-01

    An architecture for a Direct RF-digitization Type Digital Mode RADAR was developed at GSFC in 2008. Two variations of a basic architecture were developed for use on RADAR imaging missions using aircraft and spacecraft. Both systems can operate with a pulse repetition rate up to 10 MHz with 8 received RF samples per pulse repetition interval, or at up to 19 kHz with 4K received RF samples per pulse repetition interval. The first design describes a computer architecture for a Continuous Mode RADAR transceiver with a real-time signal processing and display architecture. The architecture can operate at a high pulse repetition rate without interruption for an infinite amount of time. The second design describes a smaller and less costly burst mode RADAR that can transceive high pulse repetition rate RF signals without interruption for up to 37 seconds. The burst-mode RADAR was designed to operate on an off-line signal processing paradigm. The temporal distribution of RF samples acquired and reported to the RADAR processor remains uniform and free of distortion in both proposed architectures. The majority of the RADAR's electronics is implemented in digital CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor), and analog circuits are restricted to signal amplification operations and analog to digital conversion. An implementation of the proposed systems will create a 1-GHz, Direct RF-digitization Type, L-Band Digital RADAR--the highest band achievable for Nyquist Rate, Direct RF-digitization Systems that do not implement an electronic IF downsample stage (after the receiver signal amplification stage), using commercially available off-the-shelf integrated circuits.

  6. HDL/ApoA-1 infusion and ApoA-1 gene therapy in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Chyu, Kuang-Yuh; Shah, Prediman K.

    2015-01-01

    The HDL hypothesis stating that simply raising HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) may produce cardiovascular benefits has been questioned recently based on several randomized clinical trials using CETP inhibitors or niacin to raise HDL-C levels. However, extensive pre-clinical data support the vascular protective effects of administration of exogenous ApoA-1 containing pre?-HDL like particles. Several small proof-of-concept clinical trials using such HDL/ApoA-1 infusion therapy have shown encouraging results but definitive proof of efficacy must await large scale clinical trials. In addition to HDL infusion therapy an alternative way to exploit beneficial cardiovascular effects of HDL/ApoA-1 is to use gene transfer. Preclinical studies have shown evidence of benefit using this approach; however clinical validation is yet lacking. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the aforementioned strategies. PMID:26388776

  7. Development of a Neutron Detector for A1 at MAMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Zoe; A1 MAMI Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The Mainz A1 spectrometers perform high precision measurements to investigate the structure of the nucleus and its constituents. Previous knowledge of the neutron form factor (FF) is limited due to poor detection efficiencies. Our goal is to create a neutron detector with an efficiency better than 80%, leading to the improvement of the measurements of the neutron electric FF and reducing systematic uncertainties. This new detector would also open up the possibility to study non-mesonic two-body weak decays. The neutron detector should have a large active detector volume, a high detection efficiency (>80%), a good resolution (<.5 ns), and must be low in cost. The proposed design of the detector follows a modular concept with an active detector volume of approximately one cubic meter. In order to allow high beam currents and their resulting high rates, this detector will be highly segmented using 32 crossed layers consisting of 64 bars, utilizing solid and liquid organic scintillators, with dimensions (15 x 30 x 960) mm3. In total 4096 channels have to be read out via WLS fibers using silicon multi pixel photon counters (MPPC). The Mainz A1 spectrometers perform high precision measurements to investigate the structure of the nucleus and its constituents. Previous knowledge of the neutron form factor (FF) is limited due to poor detection efficiencies. Our goal is to create a neutron detector with an efficiency better than 80%, leading to the improvement of the measurements of the neutron electric FF and reducing systematic uncertainties. This new detector would also open up the possibility to study non-mesonic two-body weak decays. The neutron detector should have a large active detector volume, a high detection efficiency (>80%), a good resolution (<.5 ns), and must be low in cost. The proposed design of the detector follows a modular concept with an active detector volume of approximately one cubic meter. In order to allow high beam currents and their resulting high rates, this detector will be highly segmented using 32 crossed layers consisting of 64 bars, utilizing solid and liquid organic scintillators, with dimensions (15 x 30 x 960) mm3. In total 4096 channels have to be read out via WLS fibers using silicon multi pixel photon counters (MPPC). Funded by NSF IRES Award IIA-1358175 MAMI A1 Collaboration.

  8. A Study of Serum Apolipoprotein A1, Apolipoprotein B and Lipid Profile in Stroke

    PubMed Central

    AS, Shilpasree; Sahukar, Savitri; Murthy, Jayaprakash; Kumar, Kiran

    2013-01-01

    Background: Role of Serum Lipids, Lipoproteins and Lipoprotein related variables in the prediction of Stroke is less clear. Abnormalities in plasma Lipoproteins are the most firmly established and best understood risk factors for Atherosclerosis and they are probable risk factors for Ischaemic stroke, largely by their link to Atherosclerosis. Apo B reflects the concentration of potentially atherogenic particles (LDL), and Apo A1 reflects the corresponding concentration of anti- atherogenic particles (HDL), represent additional lipoprotein related variables that may indicate the vascular risk. Aim: To study serum concentration of Apolipoprotein A1, Apolipoprotein B, Apo B/Apo A1 ratio and Lipid profile in Stroke Cases and to compare with healthy controls. Design: A total number of 100 subjects within 30 70 years were considered for the study. 50 subjects with Stroke (both clinically as well as Computed tomographically proven cases) and 50 age and sex matched healthy individuals were taken for the study. Material and Methods: Total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and Triglycerides are estimated by Enzymatic method using Semiautoanalyser. LDL cholesterol is estimated by Friedewald formula. Apo B and Apo A1 are estimated by Immunoturbidimetric method using Semiautoanalyser. Statistical Analysis: Student t test was used to compare the data between cases and controls. Diagnostic validity tests were conducted to assess the Diagnostic efficiency of Apo A1, Apo B and Apo B/Apo A1 ratio. Results: Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and Triglycerides are significantly increased in Cases compared to Controls. HDL cholesterol is significantly decreased in Cases compared to Controls. Apo B and Apo B/Apo A1 ratio are significantly increased and Apo A1 is significantly decreased in Cases compared to Controls. Diagnostic validity tests showed that, Apo B , Apo A1 and Apo B /Apo A1 ratio have highest Sensitivity, Specificity and Diagnostic efficiency. Conclusion: Apo B , Apo A1 and Apo B / Apo A1 ratio can be used as predictors of stroke along with traditional lipid profile components. PMID:23998051

  9. Role of the a1(1260) resonance in multipion decays of light vector mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achasov, N. N.; Kozhevnikov, A. A.

    2005-02-01

    The contribution of the a1(1260) meson to the amplitudes of the decays ?(770)?4?, ?(782)?5?, and ?(1020)?5? is analyzed in the chiral model of pseudoscalar, vector, and axial vector mesons based on the generalized hidden local symmetry added with the anomalous terms. The analysis shows that inclusion of a1 meson in the intermediate states results in enhancement of the branching ratios of the above decays by the factor ranging from 1.3 to 1.9 depending on the mass of a1 meson ranging from 1.23 GeV to ma1=m??(2)=1.09 GeV, the greater factor standing in case of lower mass of the a1.

  10. Total synthesis of hyacinthacine A1 and 3-epi-hyacinthacine A1.

    PubMed

    Chabaud, Laurent; Landais, Yannick; Renaud, Philippe

    2005-06-23

    [reaction: see text] Total synthesis of hyacinthacine A(1) and its epimer at C3 is described. The synthesis includes a stereocontrolled carboazidation of a chiral allylsilane as a key step. C-Si bond oxidation and reduction of the azide, with ring-closure, complete the total synthesis, which establishes the absolute configuration of 3. PMID:15957897

  11. Interplay between the prostaglandin transporter OATP2A1 and prostaglandin E2-mediated cellular effects.

    PubMed

    Bujok, Krystyna; Glaeser, Hartmut; Schuh, Wolfgang; Rau, Tilman T; Schmidt, Ingrid; Fromm, Martin F; Mandery, Kathrin

    2015-03-01

    Prostaglandins such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) play a pivotal role in physiological and pathophysiological pathways in gastric mucosa. Little is known about the interrelation of the prostaglandin E (EP) receptors with the prostaglandin transporter OATP2A1 in the gastric mucosa and gastric carcinoma. Therefore, we first investigated the expression of OATP2A1 and EP4 in normal and carcinoma gastric mucosa. Different PGE2-mediated cellular pathways and mechanisms were investigated using human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) and the human gastric carcinoma cell line AGS stably transfected with OATP2A1. Colocalization and expression of OATP2A1 and EP4 were detected in mucosa of normal gastric tissue and of gastric carcinomas. OATP2A1 reduced the PGE2-mediated cAMP production in HEK293 and AGS cells overexpressing EP4 and OATP2A1. The expression of OATP2A1 in AGS cells resulted in a reduction of [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation which was in line with a higher accumulation of AGS-OATP2A1 cells in S-phase of the cell cycle compared to control cells. In contrast, the expression of OATP2A1 in HEK293 cells had no influence on the distribution in the S-phase compared to control cells. OATP2A1 also diminished the PGE2-mediated expression of interleukin-8 mRNA (IL-8) and hypoxia-inducible-factor 1? (HIF1?) protein in AGS-OATP2A1 cells. The expression of OATP2A1 increased the sensitivity of AGS cells against irinotecan which led to reduced cell viability. Taken together, these data show that OATP2A1 influences PGE2-mediated cellular pathways. Therefore, OATP2A1 needs to be considered as a key determinant for the understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of prostaglandins in healthy and tumorous gastric mucosa. PMID:25433165

  12. Chlamydia infection status, genotype, and age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Khandhadia, Sam; Foster, Sebastian; Cree, Angela; Griffiths, Helen; Osmond, Clive; Goverdhan, Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether Chlamydia (C.) infections are associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and to assess if this association is influenced by the complement factor H (CFH) Y402H or the high temperature requirement A serine peptidase 1 (HTRA1) rs11200638 risk genotypes. Methods One hundred ninety-nine AMD patients with early and late forms of the disease and 100 unaffected controls, at least 50 years old were included in the study. Patients in the AMD and control groups were selected based on known CFH Y402H variant genotype status (one third homozygous CC, one third heterozygous CT, and one third wild-type TT). Plasma from all patients and controls was tested for C. pneumoniae, C. trachomatis, and C. psittaci IgG seropositivity using a micro-immunofluorescent assay to establish previous infection status. Assays were conducted blind to risk genotypes and the results analyzed using univariate and multivariate (logistic regression) analysis. Results IgG seropositivity to C. pneumoniae was most prevalent (69.2%, n=207), followed by C. trachomatis (7.4%, n=22) and C. psittaci (3.3%, n=10). No association was found between each of the three Chlamydia species IgG seropositivity and AMD status or severity (early/late). There was also no significant association between Chlamydia species IgG seropositivity and AMD status or severity, in patients carrying at least one CFH Y402H risk allele (C) or HTRA1 rs11200638 risk allele (A), with univariate or logistic regression analysis. Conclusions Chlamydia infection status does not appear to be associated with AMD status or severity. The presence of CFH Y402H and HTRA1 rs11200638 risk genotypes does not alter this negative association. PMID:22259222

  13. Modulation of the Bacillus anthracis Secretome by the Immune Inhibitor A1 Protease

    PubMed Central

    Pflughoeft, Kathryn J.; Swick, Michelle C.; Engler, David A.; Yeo, Hye-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    The Bacillus anthracis secretome includes protective antigen, lethal factor, and edema factor, which are the components of anthrax toxin, and other proteins with known or potential roles in anthrax disease. Immune inhibitor A1 (InhA1) is a secreted metalloprotease that is unique to pathogenic members of the Bacillus genus and has been associated with cleavage of host proteins during infection. Here, we report the effect of InhA1 on the B. anthracis secretome. Differential in-gel electrophoresis of proteins present in culture supernatants from a parent strain and an isogenic inhA1-null mutant revealed multiple differences. Of the 1,340 protein spots observed, approximately one-third were less abundant and one-third were more abundant in the inhA1 secretome than in the parent strain secretome. Proteases were strongly represented among those proteins exhibiting a 9-fold or greater change. InhA1 purified from a B. anthracis culture supernatant directly cleaved each of the anthrax toxin proteins as well as an additional secreted protease, Npr599. The conserved zinc binding motif HEXXH of InhA1 (HEYGH) was critical for its proteolytic activity. Our data reveal that InhA1 directly and indirectly modulates the form and/or abundance of over half of all the secreted proteins of B. anthracis. The proteolytic activity of InhA1 on established secreted virulence factors, additional proteases, and other secreted proteins suggests that this major protease plays an important role in virulence not only by cleaving mammalian substrates but also by modulating the B. anthracis secretome itself. PMID:24214942

  14. Knowledge of A1c Predicts Diabetes Self-Management and A1c Level among Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hsue, Cunyi; Fish, Anne F.; Chen, Yufeng; Guo, Xiaohui; Lou, Qingqing; Anderson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This study was to identify current A1c understanding status among Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes, assess if knowledge of A1c affects their diabetes self-management and their glycemic control and recognize the factors influencing knowledge of A1c among patients with type 2 diabetes. A multi-center, cross-sectional survey was conducted between April and July 2010 in 50 medical centers in the Mainland China. Participants were recruited from inpatients and outpatients who were admitted to or visited those medical centers. The survey included core questions about their demographic characteristics, diabetes self-management behavior, and A1c knowledge. Overall, of 5957 patients, the percentage of patients with good understanding was 25.3%. In the multivariable logistic regression model, the variables related to the knowledge of A1c status are presented. We discovered that patients with longer diabetes duration (OR = 1.05; 95%CI = 1.04–1.06) and having received diabetes education (OR = 1.80; 95%CI = 1.49–2.17) were overrepresented in the good understanding of A1c group. In addition, compared to no education level, higher education level was statistically associated with good understanding of A1c (P<0.001). The percentage of patients with good understanding varied from region to region (P<0.001), with Eastern being highest (OR = 1.54; 95%CI = 1.32–1.80), followed by Central (OR = 1.25; 95%CI = 1.02–1.53), when referring to Western. Only a minority of patients with type 2 diabetes in China understood their A1c value. The patients who had a good understanding of their A1c demonstrated significantly better diabetes self-management behavior and had lower A1c levels than those who did not. PMID:26959422

  15. Diagnosis and Management of Patients with a1-Antitrypsin (A1AT) Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, David; Teckman, Jeffrey; Di Bisceglie, Adrian; Brenner, David A.

    2012-01-01

    ?1-antitrypsin (A1AT) deficiency is an autosomal co-dominant disease that can cause chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in children and adults and increases risk for emphysema in adults. The development of symptomatic disease variessome patients have life-threatening symptoms in childhood whereas others remain asymptomatic and healthy into old age. As a result of this variability, patients present across multiple disciplines, including pediatrics, adult medicine, hepatology, genetics, and pulmonology. This can give physicians the mistaken impression that the condition is less common than it actually is, and can lead to fragmented care that omits critical interventions commonly performed other specialists. We sought to present a rational approach for hepatologists to manage adult patients with A1AT deficiency. PMID:22200689

  16. [Determination of the A1 and A2 subgroups in hair].

    PubMed

    Klr, P

    1986-11-01

    The authors discuss possibilities of assessment of group substances (sub-groups) A1 and A2 and A1B and A2B resp. in hair by means of serum anti -A1 and lectin anti-H. It was found that in some instances this assessment is successful, however, introduction into common practice is so far, e. g. without the use of monoclonal sera, hardly possible. Possibilities of detection are influenced by several factors, obviously in particular by the quantitative expression of the group substance in hair, by the quality of the sera used (lectins) and indicator blood cells. PMID:3798172

  17. Apolipoprotein a1 increases mitochondrial biogenesis through AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Song, Parkyong; Kwon, Yonghoon; Yea, Kyungmoo; Moon, Hyo-Youl; Yoon, Jong Hyuk; Ghim, Jaewang; Hyun, Hyunjung; Kim, Dayea; Koh, Ara; Berggren, Per-Olof; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2015-09-01

    Apolipoprotein a1, which is a major lipoprotein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), was reported to decrease plasma glucose in type 2 diabetes. Although recent studies also have shown that apolipoprotein a1 is involved in triglyceride (TG) metabolism, the mechanisms by which apolipoprotein a1 modulates TG levels remain largely unexplored. Here we demonstrated that apolipoprotein a1 increased mitochondrial DNA and mitochondria contents through sustained AMPK activation in myotubes. This resulted in enhanced fatty acid oxidation and attenuation of free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance features in skeletal muscle. The increment of mitochondria was mediated through induction of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1?) and nuclear transcription factor 1 (NRF-1). The inhibition of AMPK by a pharmacological agent inhibited the induction of mitochondrial biogenesis. Increase of AMPK phosphorylation by apolipoprotein a1 occurs through activation of upstream kinase LKB1. Finally, we confirmed that scavenger receptor Class B, type 1 (SR-B1) is an important receptor for apolipoprotein a1 in stimulating AMPK pathway and mitochondrial biogenesis. Our study suggests that apolipoprotein a1 can alleviate obesity related metabolic disease by inducing AMPK dependent mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:25982508

  18. FoxA1 as a lineage-specific oncogene in luminal type breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Ito, Emi; Azuma, Sakura; Honma, Reiko; Yanagisawa, Yuka; Nishikawa, Akira; Kawamura, Mika; Imai, Jun-ichi

    2008-01-25

    The forkhead transcription factor FoxA1 is thought to be involved in mammary tumorigenesis. However, the precise role of FoxA1 in breast cancer development is controversial. We examined expression of FoxA1 in 35 human breast cancer cell lines and compared it with that of ErbB2, a marker of poor prognosis in breast cancer. We found that FoxA1 is expressed at high levels in all ErbB2-positive cell lines and a subset of ErbB2-negative cell lines. Down-regulation of FoxA1 by RNA interference significantly suppressed proliferation of ErbB2-negative and FoxA1-positive breast cancer cell lines. Down-regulation of FoxA1 also enhanced the toxic effect of Herceptin on ErbB2-positive cell lines through induction of apoptosis. Taken together with previous data that FoxA1 is a marker of luminal cells in mammary gland, our present results suggest that FoxA1 plays an important role as a lineage-specific oncogene in proliferation of cancer cells derived from mammary luminal cells.

  19. Is There a Role for HbA1c in Pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Hughes, Ruth C E; Rowan, Janet; Florkowski, Chris M

    2016-01-01

    Outside pregnancy, HbA1c analysis is used for monitoring, screening for and diagnosing diabetes and prediabetes. During pregnancy, the role for HbA1c analysis is not yet established. Physiological changes lower HbA1c levels, and pregnancy-specific reference ranges may need to be recognised. Other factors that influence HbA1c are also important to consider, particularly since emerging data suggest that, in early pregnancy, HbA1c elevations close to the reference range may both identify women with underlying hyperglycaemia and be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. In later pregnancy, HbA1c analysis is less useful than an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at detecting gestational diabetes. Postpartum, HbA1c analysis detects fewer women with abnormal glucose tolerance than an OGTT, but the ease of testing may improve follow-up rates and combining HbA1c analysis with fasting plasma glucose or waist circumference may improve detection rates. This article discusses the relevance of HbA1c testing at different stages of pregnancy. PMID:26739347

  20. Factor X deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    Factor X (ten) deficiency is a disorder caused by a lack of a protein called factor X in the blood. It leads to problems with ... or are not functioning like they should. Factor X is one such coagulation factor. Factor X deficiency ...

  1. Methylation of the Cyclin A1 Promoter Correlates with Gene Silencing in Somatic Cell Lines, while Tissue-Specific Expression of Cyclin A1 Is Methylation Independent

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Carsten; Readhead, Carol; Diederichs, Sven; Idos, Gregory; Yang, Rong; Tidow, Nicola; Serve, Hubert; Berdel, Wolfgang E.; Koeffler, H. Phillip

    2000-01-01

    Gene expression in mammalian organisms is regulated at multiple levels, including DNA accessibility for transcription factors and chromatin structure. Methylation of CpG dinucleotides is thought to be involved in imprinting and in the pathogenesis of cancer. However, the relevance of methylation for directing tissue-specific gene expression is highly controversial. The cyclin A1 gene is expressed in very few tissues, with high levels restricted to spermatogenesis and leukemic blasts. Here, we show that methylation of the CpG island of the human cyclin A1 promoter was correlated with nonexpression in cell lines, and the methyl-CpG binding protein MeCP2 suppressed transcription from the methylated cyclin A1 promoter. Repression could be relieved by trichostatin A. Silencing of a cyclin A1 promoter-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgene in stable transfected MG63 osteosarcoma cells was also closely associated with de novo promoter methylation. Cyclin A1 could be strongly induced in nonexpressing cell lines by trichostatin A but not by 5-aza-cytidine. The cyclin A1 promoter-EGFP construct directed tissue-specific expression in male germ cells of transgenic mice. Expression in the testes of these mice was independent of promoter methylation, and even strong promoter methylation did not suppress promoter activity. MeCP2 expression was notably absent in EGFP-expressing cells. Transcription from the transgenic cyclin A1 promoter was repressed in most organs outside the testis, even when the promoter was not methylated. These data show the association of methylation with silencing of the cyclin A1 gene in cancer cell lines. However, appropriate tissue-specific repression of the cyclin A1 promoter occurs independently of CpG methylation. PMID:10757815

  2. Methylation of the cyclin A1 promoter correlates with gene silencing in somatic cell lines, while tissue-specific expression of cyclin A1 is methylation independent.

    PubMed

    Müller, C; Readhead, C; Diederichs, S; Idos, G; Yang, R; Tidow, N; Serve, H; Berdel, W E; Koeffler, H P

    2000-05-01

    Gene expression in mammalian organisms is regulated at multiple levels, including DNA accessibility for transcription factors and chromatin structure. Methylation of CpG dinucleotides is thought to be involved in imprinting and in the pathogenesis of cancer. However, the relevance of methylation for directing tissue-specific gene expression is highly controversial. The cyclin A1 gene is expressed in very few tissues, with high levels restricted to spermatogenesis and leukemic blasts. Here, we show that methylation of the CpG island of the human cyclin A1 promoter was correlated with nonexpression in cell lines, and the methyl-CpG binding protein MeCP2 suppressed transcription from the methylated cyclin A1 promoter. Repression could be relieved by trichostatin A. Silencing of a cyclin A1 promoter-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgene in stable transfected MG63 osteosarcoma cells was also closely associated with de novo promoter methylation. Cyclin A1 could be strongly induced in nonexpressing cell lines by trichostatin A but not by 5-aza-cytidine. The cyclin A1 promoter-EGFP construct directed tissue-specific expression in male germ cells of transgenic mice. Expression in the testes of these mice was independent of promoter methylation, and even strong promoter methylation did not suppress promoter activity. MeCP2 expression was notably absent in EGFP-expressing cells. Transcription from the transgenic cyclin A1 promoter was repressed in most organs outside the testis, even when the promoter was not methylated. These data show the association of methylation with silencing of the cyclin A1 gene in cancer cell lines. However, appropriate tissue-specific repression of the cyclin A1 promoter occurs independently of CpG methylation. PMID:10757815

  3. Identification of Cross-Reactive Epitopes on the Conserved 47-Kilodalton Antigen of Orientia tsutsugamushi and Human Serine Protease?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hua-Wei; Zhang, Zhiwen; Huber, Erin; Chao, Chien-Chung; Wang, Hui; Dasch, Gregory A.; Ching, Wei-Mei

    2009-01-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi is the causative agent of scrub typhus. One of the protein antigens of this species, the conserved 47-kDa protein (HtrA), has been shown to induce an antibody response in patients and can provide protective immunity against live challenge by Orientia in mice. Pepscan experiments identified many peptide epitope clusters in different parts of this protein. The majority of the most reactive epitopes are located at the C terminus of the protein (from amino acid 333 to amino acid 430). Protein sequence analysis revealed that the 47-kDa protein contains a trypsin domain and has sequence homology to human serine protease HtrA1 (hHtrA1). As the 47-kDa protein is a potential vaccine candidate and its ability to induce autoimmunity is a concern, the reactivity of scrub typhus patient sera with purified recombinant 47-kDa and hHtrA1 proteins was tested. A significant percentage (>20%) of scrub typhus patient sera reacted strongly with recombinant hHTRA1 and two of the antigenic polypeptide epitopes in hHtrA1. These findings suggest that the safety of the full-length 47-kDa antigen as a vaccine candidate is a significant issue due to its cross-reactivity with a human protein, which may also contribute to autoimmune responses or enhanced pathology in some scrub typhus patients. PMID:19289508

  4. 29 CFR 2550.404a-1 - Investment duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Investment duties. 2550.404a-1 Section 2550.404a-1 Labor... FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY 2550.404a-1 Investment duties. (a) In general. Section 404(a)(1)(B) of the... use in the conduct of an enterprise of a like character and with like aims. (b) Investment duties....

  5. 29 CFR 2550.404a-1 - Investment duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Investment duties. 2550.404a-1 Section 2550.404a-1 Labor... FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY 2550.404a-1 Investment duties. (a) In general. Section 404(a)(1)(B) of the... use in the conduct of an enterprise of a like character and with like aims. (b) Investment duties....

  6. Acidic Residue Glu199 Increases SUMOylation Level of Nuclear Hormone Receptor NR5A1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chiung-Min; Liu, Runhua; Wang, Lizhong; Yang, Wei-Hsiung

    2013-01-01

    Steroidogenic factor 1 (NR5A1/SF1) is a well-known master regulator in controlling adrenal and sexual development, as well as regulating numerous genes involved in adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis. Several studies including ours have demonstrated that NR5A1 can be SUMOylated on lysine 194 (K194, the major site) and lysine 119 (K119, the minor site), and the cycle of SUMOylation regulates NR5A1s transcriptional activity. An extended consensus negatively charged amino acid-dependent SUMOylation motif (NDSM) enhances the specificity of substrate modification by SUMO has been reported; however, the mechanism of NDSM for NR5A1 remains to be clarified. In this study, we investigated the functional significance of the acidic residue located downstream from the core consensus SUMO site of NR5A1. Here we report that E199A (glutamic acid was replaced with alanine) of NR5A1 reduced, but not completely abolished, its SUMOylation level. We next characterized the functional role of NR5A1 E199A on target gene expression and protein levels. We found that E199A alone, as well as combination with K194R, increased Mc2r and Cyp19a1 reporter activities. Moreover, E199A alone as well as combination with K194R enhanced NR5A1-mediated STAR protein levels in mouse adrenocortical cancer Y1 cells. We also observed that E199A increased interaction of NR5A1 with CDK7 and SRC1. Overall, we provide the evidence that the acidic residue (E199) located downstream from the core consensus SUMO site of NR5A1 is, at least in part, required for SUMOylation of NR5A1 and for its mediated target gene and protein expression. PMID:24232453

  7. Characterization of Prohibitin 1 as a Host Partner of Vibrio vulnificus RtxA1 Toxin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo A; Lim, Ju Young; Rhee, Joon Haeng; Kim, Young Ran

    2016-01-01

    RtxA1 toxin, which results in cytoskeletal rearrangement, contact cytotoxicity, hemolysis, tissue invasion, and lethality in mice, is the most potent cytotoxic virulence factor of Vibrio vulnificus. Bioinformatics analysis of rtxA1 predicted 4 functional domains that presumably performed discrete functions during host cell killing. V. vulnificus RtxA1 has a unique domain designated as RtxA1-D2, corresponding to amino acids 1951-2574, which is absent in Vibrio cholerae multifunctional-autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin, suggesting that this domain confers specific biological functions to V. vulnificus RtxA1. HeLa cells expressing green fluorescent protein-RtxA1-D2 became round and lost their viability. A yeast 2-hybrid system identified prohibitin (PHB) 1 as the host partner of RtxA1-D2. The specific interaction of RtxA1-D2 with PHB1 was confirmed by performing immunoprecipitation. Interestingly, V. vulnificus RtxA1 up-regulated PHB1 expression on the cytoplasmic membrane of host cells. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways were confirmed as being important in the up-regulation of PHB1 by using inhibitors. Down-regulation of PHB1 by small interfering RNAs decreased the cytotoxicity of RtxA1-D2 against HeLa cells. The pretreatment of an anti-PHB1 antibody impaired the cytotoxicity of V. vulnificus RtxA1. These results suggest that the involvement PHB1 in the RtxA1 cytotoxicity has significant implications for the pathogenesis of V. vulnificus infections. PMID:26136468

  8. Annexin A1 in primary tumors promotes melanoma dissemination.

    PubMed

    Boudhraa, Zied; Rondepierre, Fabien; Ouchchane, Lemlih; Kintossou, Roselyne; Trzeciakiewicz, Anna; Franck, Frederic; Kanitakis, Jean; Labeille, Bruno; Joubert-Zakeyh, Juliette; Bouchon, Bernadette; Perrot, Jean Luc; Mansard, Sandrine; Papon, Janine; Dechelotte, Pierre; Chezal, Jean-Michel; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Bonnet, Mathilde; D'Incan, Michel; Degoul, Françoise

    2014-10-01

    Metastatic melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of skin cancer and has a poor prognosis. We have previously identified Annexin A1 (ANXA1) as a potential murine melanoma-spreading factor that may modulate cell invasion by binding to formyl peptide receptors (FPRs). Here, we report that (1) in a B16Bl6 spontaneous metastasis model, a siRNA-induced decrease in tumoral ANXA1 expression significantly reduced tumoral MMP2 activity and number of lung metastases; (2) in a retrospective study of 61 patients, metastasis-free survival was inversely related to ANXA1 expression levels in primary tumors (HR 3.15 [1.03-9.69], p = 0.045); (3) in human melanoma cell lines, ANXA1 level was positively correlated with in vitro invasion capacity whereas normal melanocytes contained low ANXA1 levels, and (4) the ANXA1 N-terminal peptide ANXA12-26 stimulated MMP2 activity after interaction with FPRs and significantly stimulated the in vitro invasion of melanomas by acting on FPRs. These findings identify ANXA1 as a proinvasive protein in melanoma that holds promise as a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target. PMID:24997993

  9. Diagnostics for a 1.2 kA, 1 MeV, electron induction injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houck, T. L.; Anderson, D. E.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S. M.; Vanecek, D. L.; Westenskow, G. A.; Yu, S. S.

    1998-12-01

    We are constructing a 1.2 kA, 1 MeV, electron induction injector as part of the RTA program, a collaborative effort between LLNL and LBNL to develop relativistic klystrons for Two-Beam Accelerator applications. The RTA injector will also be used in the development of a high-gradient, low-emittance, electron source and beam diagnostics for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility. The electron source will be a 3.5?-diameter, thermionic, flat-surface, m-type cathode with a maximum shroud field stress of approximately 165 kV/cm. Additional design parameters for the injector include a pulse length of over 150 ns flat top (1% energy variation), and a normalized edge emittance of less than 200 ?-mm-mr. Precise measurement of the beam parameters is required so that performance of the RTA injector can be confidently scaled to the 4 kA, 3 MeV, and 2-microsecond pulse parameters of the DARHT injector. Planned diagnostics include an isolated cathode with resistive divider for direct measurement of current emission, resistive wall and magnetic probe current monitors for measuring beam current and centroid position, capacitive probes for measuring A-K gap voltage, an energy spectrometer, and a pepperpot emittance diagnostic. Details of the injector, beam line, and diagnostics are presented.

  10. Effects of a 1-wk spaceflight on morphological and mechanical properties of growing bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, S. R.; Vailas, A. C.; Grindeland, R. E.; Zernicke, R. F.

    1988-01-01

    The morphological and mechanical responses of tibia and humerus were assessed in growing male rats after a 1-wk spaceflight aboard NASA Spacelab 3. In contrast to flights of longer duration, changes in middiaphysial cross-sectional morphology were minimal. Inhibition of longitudinal growth was not found in the tibia but was apparent in the humerus. The normal age-related increase in tibial middiaphysial density was not observed in the flight animals. Three-point bending tests indicated that a 1-wk spaceflight impeded the maturation of bone strength and stiffness, with the effects more pronounced in the tibia than in the humerus. Material property alterations in bone thus overshadowed morphological factors in determining the bone's mechanical response. It is likely that deprivation of normal weight-bearing loads was a major factor contributing to the observed changes, but endocrine and other local factors must also be considered.

  11. Nkx3.2 Promotes Primary Chondrogenic Differentiation by Upregulating Col2a1 Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Kawato, Yoshitaka; Hirao, Makoto; Ebina, Kosuke; Shi, Kenrin; Hashimoto, Jun; Honjo, Yui; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Myoui, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Background The Nkx3.2 transcription factor promotes chondrogenesis by forming a positive regulatory loop with a crucial chondrogenic transcription factor, Sox9. Previous studies have indicated that factors other than Sox9 may promote chondrogenesis directly, but these factors have not been identified. Here, we test the hypothesis that Nkx3.2 promotes chondrogenesis directly by Sox9-independent mechanisms and indirectly by previously characterized Sox9-dependent mechanisms. Methodology/Principal Findings C3H10T1/2 pluripotent mesenchymal cells were cultured with bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) to induce endochondral ossification. Overexpression of wild-type Nkx3.2 (WT-Nkx3.2) upregulated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) production and expression of type II collagen α1 (Col2a1) mRNA, and these effects were evident before WT-Nkx3.2-mediated upregulation of Sox9. RNAi-mediated inhibition of Nkx3.2 abolished GAG production and expression of Col2a1 mRNA. Dual luciferase reporter assays revealed that WT-Nkx3.2 upregulated Col2a1 enhancer activity in a dose-dependent manner in C3H10T1/2 cells and also in N1511 chondrocytes. In addition, WT-Nkx3.2 partially restored downregulation of GAG production, Col2 protein expression, and Col2a1 mRNA expression induced by Sox9 RNAi. ChIP assays revealed that Nkx3.2 bound to the Col2a1 enhancer element. Conclusions/Significance Nkx3.2 promoted primary chondrogenesis by two mechanisms: Direct and Sox9-independent upregulation of Col2a1 transcription and upregulation of Sox9 mRNA expression under positive feedback system. PMID:22511961

  12. beta-casein A1, ischaemic heart disease mortality, and other illnesses.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, C N

    2001-02-01

    The risk factors identified with cardiovascular disease studied in the WHO MONICA project have been shown to have a limited relationship with the coronary heart disease mortality rates between centres, and in mirroring the historical rise and decline in deaths from the disease. Here we show that correlation of the calculated consumption of the milk protein, beta-casein A1 (excluding milk protein in cheese) against ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality has a r2 = 0.86. In the states of the former West Germany, where the breed composition of regional cattle herds has remained virtually constant since the 1950s, IHD mortality by state correlates with the estimated consumption of beta-casein A1. Information on other recognized dietary risk factors does not indicate any significant regional difference. Similarly, the populations of Toulouse in France and Belfast in Northern Ireland have almost identical collective 'traditional' risk factors for heart disease, yet the respective mortality rates vary more than threefold. People from Northern Ireland are estimated to consume 3.23 times more beta-casein A1, excluding cheese, than the French. The remarkable agreement between mortality and the consumption of this allele suggests that this factor is worthy of serious consideration as a potential source of cardiovascular disease when taken in conjunction with regional variations in the traditional risk factors. beta-casein A1 consumption also correlates strongly with type 1 diabetes incidence in 0-14-year-olds, suggesting that IHD and diabetes may share at least one causative risk factor. PMID:11425301

  13. Multiple and additive functions of ALDH3A1 and ALDH1A1: cataract phenotype and ocular oxidative damage in Aldh3a1(-/-)/Aldh1a1(-/-) knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Natalie; Bateman, J Bronwyn; Estey, Tia; Kuszak, Jer R; Nees, David W; Piatigorsky, Joram; Duester, Gregg; Day, Brian J; Huang, Jie; Hines, Lisa M; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2007-08-31

    ALDH3A1 (aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1) is abundant in the mouse cornea but undetectable in the lens, and ALDH1A1 is present at lower (catalytic) levels in the cornea and lens. To test the hypothesis that ALDH3A1 and ALDH1A1 protect the anterior segment of the eye against environmentally induced oxidative damage, Aldh1a1(-/-)/Aldh3a1(-/-) double knock-out and Aldh1a1(-/-) and Aldh3a1(-/-) single knock-out mice were evaluated for biochemical changes and cataract formation (lens opacification). The Aldh1a1/Aldh3a1- and Aldh3a1-null mice develop cataracts in the anterior and posterior subcapsular regions as well as punctate opacities in the cortex by 1 month of age. The Aldh1a1-null mice also develop cataracts later in life (6-9 months of age). One- to three-month-old Aldh-null mice exposed to UVB exhibited accelerated anterior lens subcapsular opacification, which was more pronounced in Aldh3a1(-/-) and Aldh3a1(-/-)/Aldh1a1(-/-) mice compared with Aldh1a1(-/-) and wild type animals. Cataract formation was associated with decreased proteasomal activity, increased protein oxidation, increased GSH levels, and increased levels of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal- and malondialdehyde-protein adducts. In conclusion, these findings support the hypothesis that corneal ALDH3A1 and lens ALDH1A1 protect the eye against cataract formation via nonenzymatic (light filtering) and enzymatic (detoxification) functions. PMID:17567582

  14. FoxA1 binding to the MMTV LTR modulates chromatin structure and transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Holmqvist, Per-Henrik; Belikov, Sergey; Zaret, Kenneth S.; Wrange, Oerjan . E-mail: orjan.wrange@cmb.ki.se

    2005-04-01

    Novel binding sites for the forkhead transcription factor family member Forkhead box A (FoxA), previously referred to as Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3 (HNF3), were found within the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat (MMTV LTR). The effect of FoxA1 on MMTV LTR chromatin structure, and expression was evaluated in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Mutagenesis of either of the two main FoxA binding sites showed that the distal site, -232/-221, conferred FoxA1-dependent partial inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) driven MMTV transcription. The proximal FoxA binding segment consisted of two individual FoxA sites at -57/-46 and -45/-34, respectively, that mediated an increased basal MMTV transcription. FoxA1 binding altered the chromatin structure of both the inactive- and the hormone-activated MMTV LTR. Hydroxyl radical foot printing revealed FoxA1-mediated changes in the nucleosome arrangement. Micrococcal nuclease digestion showed the hormone-dependent sub-nucleosome complex, containing {approx}120 bp of DNA, to be expanded by FoxA1 binding to the proximal segment into a larger complex containing {approx}200 bp. The potential function of the FoxA1-mediated expression of the MMTV provirus for maintenance of expression in different tissues is discussed.

  15. Lattice equations arising from discrete Painlevé systems. I. (A2 + A1)(1) and ( A 1 + A1 ' ) ( 1 ) cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Nalini; Nakazono, Nobutaka; Shi, Yang

    2015-09-01

    We introduce the concept of ω-lattice, constructed from τ functions of Painlevé systems, on which quad-equations of ABS (Adler-Bobenko-Suris) type appear. In particular, we consider the A5 ( 1 ) - and A6 ( 1 ) -surface q-Painlevé systems corresponding affine Weyl group symmetries are of (A2 + A1)(1)- and (A1 + A1)(1)-types, respectively.

  16. Col4a1 mutations cause progressive retinal neovascular defects and retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Marcel V.; Mao, Mao; Pawlikowski, Bradley T.; Kvezereli, Manana; Duncan, Jacque L.; Libby, Richard T.; John, Simon W. M.; Gould, Douglas B.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in collagen, type IV, alpha 1 (COL4A1), a major component of basement membranes, cause multisystem disorders in humans and mice. In the eye, these include anterior segment dysgenesis, optic nerve hypoplasia and retinal vascular tortuosity. Here we investigate the retinal pathology in mice carrying dominant-negative Col4a1 mutations. To this end, we examined retinas longitudinally in vivo using fluorescein angiography, funduscopy and optical coherence tomography. We assessed retinal function by electroretinography and studied the retinal ultrastructural pathology. Retinal examinations revealed serous chorioretinopathy, retinal hemorrhages, fibrosis or signs of pathogenic angiogenesis with chorioretinal anastomosis in up to approximately 90% of Col4a1 mutant eyes depending on age and the specific mutation. To identify the cell-type responsible for pathogenesis we generated a conditional Col4a1 mutation and determined that primary vascular defects underlie Col4a1-associated retinopathy. We also found focal activation of Müller cells and increased expression of pro-angiogenic factors in retinas from Col4a1+/Δex41mice. Together, our findings suggest that patients with COL4A1 and COL4A2 mutations may be at elevated risk of retinal hemorrhages and that retinal examinations may be useful for identifying patients with COL4A1 and COL4A2 mutations who are also at elevated risk of hemorrhagic strokes. PMID:26813606

  17. Targeting NR4A1 (TR3) in Cancer Cells and Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Syng-Ook; Li, Xi; Khan, Shaheen; Safe, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction NR4A1 (TR3, Nur77) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors and there is evidence that this receptor is highly expressed in multiple tumor types. Moreover, RNA interference studies indicate that NR4A1 exhibits growth promoting, angiogenic and prosurvival activity in most cancers. Areas Covered This review summarizes studies on several apoptosis-inducing agents that activate nuclear export of NR4A1 which subsequently forms a mitochondrial NR4A1-bcl-2 complex that induces the intrinsic pathway for apoptosis. Cytosporone B and related compounds that induce NR4A1-dependent apoptosis in cancer cells through both modulation of nuclear NR4A1 and nuclear export are also discussed. A relatively new class of diindolylmethane analogs (C-DIMs) including 1,1-bis(3′-indolyl)-1-(p-methoxyphenyl)methane (DIM-C-pPhOCH3) (NR4A1 activator) and 1,1-bis(3′-indolyl)-1-(p-hydroxyphenyl)methane (DIM-C-pPhOH) (NR4A1 deactivator) are discussed in more detail. These anticancer drugs (C-DIMs) act strictly through nuclear NR4A1 and induce apoptosis in cancer cells and tumors. Expert Opinion It is clear that NR4A1 plays an important pro-oncogenic role in cancer cells and tumors, and there is increasing evidence that this receptor can be targeted by anticancer drugs that induce cell death via NR4A1-dependent and -independent pathways. Moreover, since many of these compounds exhibit relatively low toxicity, they represent an important class of mechanism-based anticancer drugs with excellent potential for clinical applications. PMID:21204731

  18. Type 1 diabetes, the A1 milk hypothesis and vitamin D deficiency.

    PubMed

    Merriman, Tony R

    2009-02-01

    The 'A1' genetic variant of beta-casein in milk has been linked to type 1 diabetes (T1D). The keystone piece of supporting evidence is an ecological study positively correlating the incidence of T1D with amount of A1 beta-casein consumption per capita. Of relevance, A1 beta-casein consumption is also positively correlated with latitude, itself implicated in T1D through vitamin D deficiency. Ecological and biological evidence convincingly implicate vitamin D deficiency in T1D. Latitude is a confounder of the ecological data that underpin the hypothesis that A1 beta-casein in cow's milk is a causative factor in T1D. PMID:19100644

  19. 29 CFR 2550.403a-1 - Establishment of trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Establishment of trust. 2550.403a-1 Section 2550.403a-1... REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY 2550.403a-1 Establishment of trust. (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in 403b-1, all assets of an employee benefit plan shall be held in trust by one or...

  20. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 associates with prostate tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, J; De Melo, J; Cutz, J-C; Aziz, T; Tang, D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence demonstrates high levels of aldehyde dehydrogense (ALDH) activity in human cancer types, in part, because of its association with cancer stem cells. Whereas ALDH1A1 and ALDH7A1 isoforms were reported to associate with prostate tumorigenesis, whether other ALDH isoforms are associated with prostate cancer (PC) remains unclear. Methods: ALDH3A1 expression was analysed in various PC cell lines. Xenograft tumours and 54 primary and metastatic PC tumours were stained using immunohistochemistry for ALDH3A1 expression. Results: In comparison with the non-stem counterparts, a robust upregulation of ALDH3A1 was observed in DU145-derived PC stem cells (PCSCs). As DU145 PCSCs produced xenograft tumours with more advanced features compared with those derived from DU145 cells, higher levels of ALDH3A1 were detected in the former; a dramatic elevation of ALDH3A1 occurred in DU145 cell-derived lung metastasis compared with local xenograft tumours. Furthermore, while ALDH3A1 was not observed in prostate glands, ALDH3A1 was clearly present in PIN, and further increased in carcinomas. In comparison with the paired local carcinomas, ALDH3A1 was upregulated in lymph node metastatic tumours; the presence of ALDH3A1 in bone metastatic PC was also demonstrated. Conclusions: We report here the association of ALDH3A1 with PC progression. PMID:24762960

  1. 26 CFR 1.1311(a)-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 1.1311(a)-1 Section 1.1311(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Readjustment of Tax Between Years and Special Limitations § 1.1311(a)-1 Introduction....

  2. 26 CFR 1.512(a)-1 - Definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition. 1.512(a)-1 Section 1.512(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.512(a)-1 Definition. (a) In general. Except as...

  3. 42 CFR 5a.1 - Statutory basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Statutory basis and purpose. 5a.1 Section 5a.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN TRAINING GRANT PROGRAM 5a.1 Statutory basis and purpose. This part implements section 749B(f) of the Public Health Service Act....

  4. 26 CFR 1.501(a)-1 - Exemption from taxation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Exemption from taxation. 1.501(a)-1 Section 1.501(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations 1.501(a)-1 Exemption from taxation. (a)...

  5. 5 CFR Appendix A-1 to Subpart I... - Windchill Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Pay for Duty Involving Physical Hardship or Hazard Pt. 550, Subpt. I, App. A-1 Appendix A-1 to Subpart I of Part 550Windchill Chart EC01SE91.002 windchill chart in non-metric units... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Windchill Chart A Appendix A-1 to...

  6. 26 CFR 1.501(a)-1 - Exemption from taxation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exemption from taxation. 1.501(a)-1 Section 1.501(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations 1.501(a)-1 Exemption from taxation. (a)...

  7. The salt-sensitive structure and zinc inhibition of Borrelia burgdorferi protease BbHtrA.

    PubMed

    Russell, Theresa M; Tang, Xiaoling; Goldstein, Jason M; Bagarozzi, Dennis; Johnson, Barbara J B

    2016-02-01

    HtrA serine proteases are highly conserved and essential ATP-independent proteases with chaperone activity. Bacteria express a variable number of HtrA homologues that contribute to the virulence and pathogenicity of bacterial pathogens. Lyme disease spirochetes possess a single HtrA protease homologue, Borrelia burgdorferi HtrA (BbHtrA). Previous studies established that, like the human orthologue HtrA1, BbHtrA is proteolytically active against numerous extracellular proteins in vitro. In this study, we utilized size exclusion chromatography and blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) to demonstrate BbHtrA oligomeric structures that were substrate independent and salt sensitive. Examination of the influence of transition metals on the activity of BbHtrA revealed that this protease is inhibited by Zn(2+)  > Cu(2+)  > Mn(2+) . Extending this analysis to two other HtrA proteases, E. coli DegP and HtrA1, revealed that all three HtrA proteases were reversibly inhibited by ZnCl2 at all micro molar concentrations examined. Commercial inhibitors for HtrA proteases are not available and physiologic HtrA inhibitors are unknown. Our observation of conserved zinc inhibition of HtrA proteases will facilitate structural and functional studies of additional members of this important class of proteases. PMID:26480895

  8. Harman induces CYP1A1 enzyme through an aryl hydrocarbon receptor mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    El Gendy, Mohamed A.M.; El-Kadi, Ayman O.S.

    2010-11-15

    Harman is a common compound in several foods, plants and beverages. Numerous studies have demonstrated its mutagenic, co-mutagenic and carcinogenic effects; however, the exact mechanism has not been fully identified. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor regulating the expression of the carcinogen-activating enzyme; cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1). In the present study, we examined the ability of harman to induce AhR-mediated signal transduction in human and rat hepatoma cells; HepG2 and H4IIE cells. Our results showed that harman significantly induced CYP1A1 mRNA in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Similarly, harman significantly induced CYP1A1 at protein and activity levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the AhR antagonist, resveratrol, inhibited the increase in CYP1A1 activity by harman. The RNA polymerase inhibitor, actinomycin D, completely abolished the CYP1A1 mRNA induction by harman, indicating a transcriptional activation. The role of AhR in CYP1A1 induction by harman was confirmed by using siRNA specific for human AhR. The ability of harman to induce CYP1A1 was strongly correlated with its ability to stimulate AhR-dependent luciferase activity and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. At post-transcriptional and post-translational levels, harman did not affect the stability of CYP1A1 at the mRNA and the protein levels, excluding other mechanisms participating in the obtained effects. We concluded that harman can directly induce CYP1A1 gene expression in an AhR-dependent manner and may represent a novel mechanism by which harman promotes mutagenicity, co-mutagenicity and carcinogenicity.

  9. Association between Insomnia Symptoms and Hemoglobin A1c Level in Japanese Men

    PubMed Central

    Kachi, Yuko; Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Takeuchi, Takeaki; Yano, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    Background The evidence for an association between insomnia symptoms and blood hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level has been limited and inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess whether each symptom of initial, middle, and terminal insomnia influences HbA1c level in Japanese men. Methods This cross-sectional study examined 1,022 male workers aged 2269 years with no history of diabetes at a Japanese company's annual health check-up in April 2010. High HbA1c was defined as a blood level of HbA1c ?6.0%. Three types of insomnia symptoms (i.e., difficulty in initiating sleep, difficulty in maintaining sleep, and early morning awakening) from the previous month were assessed by 3 responses (i.e., lasting more than 2 weeks, sometimes, and seldom or never [reference group]). Results The overall prevalence of high HbA1c was 5.2%. High HbA1c was positively and linearly associated with both difficulty in maintaining sleep (P for trend ?=?.002) and early morning awakening (P for trend ?=?.007). More specifically, after adjusting for potential confounding factors, high HbA1c was significantly associated with difficulty in maintaining sleep lasting more than 2 weeks (adjusted odds ratio, 6.79 [95% confidence interval, 1.8624.85]) or sometimes (2.33 [1.194.55]). High HbA1c was also significantly associated with early morning awakening lasting more than 2 weeks (3.96 [1.2412.59]). Conclusion Insomnia symptoms, particularly difficulty in maintaining sleep and early morning awakening, were found to have a close association with high HbA1c in a dose-response relationship. PMID:21747936

  10. Relationship Between A1C and Fasting Plasma Glucose in Dysglycemia or Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Ambady; Riddle, Matthew C.; Kabali, Conrad; Gerstein, Hertzel C.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE A1C measurement has advantages over measures of plasma glucose. Few studies have evaluated the A1C–fasting plasma glucose (FPG) relationship and whether oral antidiabetes drugs (OADs) and ethnic or geographic variations affect the relationship. Baseline A1C and FPG data from the Outcome Reduction with Initial Glargine Intervention (ORIGIN) trial participants were analyzed to 1) elucidate the relationship between A1C and FPG in people with moderate dysglycemia (A1C 5.6–9.0% [38–75 mmol/mol]) and additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, 2) determine whether this relationship is altered by use of an OAD, and 3) study whether geographic and ethnic differences exist. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Analysis was performed of 12,527 participants with dysglycemia or early type 2 diabetes recruited in North America, South America, Europe, Australia, and Asia who comprised white, Latin American, Asian, black, and other ethnicities. The A1C-FPG relationships were analyzed using cubic B spline curves in all participants and in subgroups not using an OAD or using an OAD and comprising persons of different ethnic or geographic origin. RESULTS A strong relationship between FPG in the range of 5.6–9.0 mmol/L and the corresponding A1C was seen across different geographic regions and ethnic groups. A smaller increase in A1C per unit increase in FPG occurred for persons taking an OAD versus those not taking an OAD. CONCLUSIONS The strong relationship between A1C and FPG in moderate dysglycemia is not significantly affected by ethnic or geographic differences. Use of an OAD alters the relationship and should be considered when interpreting A1C level. PMID:22323416

  11. Cytoplasmic Relocalization of Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein A1 Controls Translation Initiation of Specific mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Cammas, Anne; Pileur, Frdric; Bonnal, Sophie; Lewis, Stephen M.; Lvque, Nicolas; Holcik, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein that regulates gene expression through its action on mRNA metabolism and translation. The cytoplasmic redistribution of hnRNP A1 is a regulated process during viral infection and cellular stress. Here, we show that hnRNP A1 is an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) trans-acting factor that binds specifically to the 5? untranslated region of both the human rhinovirus-2 and the human apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1 (apaf-1) mRNAs, thereby regulating their translation. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic redistribution of hnRNP A1 after rhinovirus infection leads to enhanced rhinovirus IRES-mediated translation, whereas the cytoplasmic relocalization of hnRNP A1 after UVC irradiation limits the UVC-triggered translational activation of the apaf-1 IRES. Therefore, this study provides a direct demonstration that IRESs behave as translational enhancer elements regulated by specific trans-acting mRNA binding proteins in given physiological conditions. Our data highlight a new way to regulate protein synthesis in eukaryotes through the subcellular relocalization of a nuclear mRNA-binding protein. PMID:17898077

  12. Chiral dynamics of a1(1260) ? 3?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegen, R.; Greiner, W.

    2003-06-01

    We calculate the sequential decays a1 rightarrow pisigma rightarrow 3pi and a1 rightarrow pirho rightarrow 3pi using chiral SU(2) otimes SU(2) current commutation relations. Proper vertices a1pisigma, sigmapipi, a1pirho, rhopipi are derived from Ward identities and yield energy-dependent decay widths Gammarhorightarrowpipi and Gammasigmarightarrowpipi necessary for the total Gammaa1rightarrow3pi decay width. Both sequential decays (via pisigma and pirho) are necessary to reproduce Gammatota1. We find evidence for a substantial quenching of the sigma rightarrow pipi decay width in a1 rightarrow pisigma rightarrow 3pi.

  13. Methods for Tumor Targeting with Salmonella typhimurium A1-R.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert M; Zhao, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (S. typhimurium A1-R) has shown great preclinical promise as a broad-based anti-cancer therapeutic (please see Chapter 1 ). The present chapter describes materials and methods for the preclinical study of S. typhimurium A1-R in clinically-relevant mouse models. Establishment of orthotopic metastatic mouse models of the major cancer types is described, as well as other useful models, for efficacy studies of S. typhimurium A1-R or other tumor-targeting bacteria, as well. Imaging methods are described to visualize GFP-labeled S. typhimurium A1-R, as well as GFP- and/or RFP-labeled cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, which S. typhimurium A1-R targets. The mouse models include metastasis to major organs that are life-threatening to cancer patients including the liver, lung, bone, and brain and how to target these metastases with S. typhimurium A1-R. Various routes of administration of S. typhimurium A1-R are described with the advantages and disadvantages of each. Basic experiments to determine toxic effects of S. typhimurium A1-R are also described. Also described are methodologies for combining S. typhimurium A1-R and chemotherapy. The testing of S. typhimurium A1-R on patient tumors in patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) mouse models is also described. The major methodologies described in this chapter should be translatable for clinical studies. PMID:26846809

  14. Crystal Structure of Human Factor VIII: Implications for the Formation of the Factor IXa-Factor VIIIa Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Chi Ki Ngo,J.; Huang, M.; Roth, D.; Furie, B.; Furie, B.

    2008-01-01

    Factor VIII is a procofactor that plays a critical role in blood coagulation, and is missing or defective in hemophilia A. We determined the X-ray crystal structure of B domain-deleted human factor VIII. This protein is composed of five globular domains and contains one Ca(2+) and two Cu(2+) ions. The three homologous A domains form a triangular heterotrimer where the A1 and A3 domains serve as the base and interact with the C2 and C1 domains, respectively. The structurally homologous C1 and C2 domains reveal membrane binding features. Based on biochemical studies, a model of the factor IXa-factor VIIIa complex was constructed by in silico docking. Factor IXa wraps across the side of factor VIII, and an extended interface spans the factor VIII heavy and light chains. This model provides insight into the activation of factor VIII and the interaction of factor VIIIa with factor IXa on the membrane surface.

  15. Crystal Structure of Human Factor VIII: Implications for the Formation of the Factor IXa-Factor VIIIa Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Ngo, J.C.; Huang, M.; Roth, D.A.; Furie, B.C.; Furie, B.

    2008-06-03

    Factor VIII is a procofactor that plays a critical role in blood coagulation, and is missing or defective in hemophilia A. We determined the X-ray crystal structure of B domain-deleted human factor VIII. This protein is composed of five globular domains and contains one Ca{sup 2+} and two Cu{sup 2+} ions. The three homologous A domains form a triangular heterotrimer where the A1 and A3 domains serve as the base and interact with the C2 and C1 domains, respectively. The structurally homologous C1 and C2 domains reveal membrane binding features. Based on biochemical studies, a model of the factor IXa-factor VIIIa complex was constructed by in silico docking. Factor IXa wraps across the side of factor VIII, and an extended interface spans the factor VIII heavy and light chains. This model provides insight into the activation of factor VIII and the interaction of factor VIIIa with factor IXa on the membrane surface.

  16. Annexin A1 Is Increased in the Plasma of Preeclamptic Women

    PubMed Central

    Perucci, Luiza O.; Carneiro, Fernanda S.; Ferreira, Cláudia N.; Sugimoto, Michelle A.; Soriani, Frederico M.; Martins, Gustavo G.; Lima, Kátia M.; Guimarães, Flávia L.; Teixeira, Antônio L.; Dusse, Luci M.; Gomes, Karina B.; Sousa, Lirlândia P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy disease associated with exacerbated inflammatory response. Annexin A1 (AnxA1) is a glucocorticoid-regulated protein endowed with anti-inflammatory and proresolving properties that has been much studied in various animal models of inflammation but poorly studied in the context of human inflammatory diseases. The main objective of this study was to measure AnxA1 levels in PE women and to compare those levels in normotensive pregnant and non-pregnant women. We evaluated the association among AnxA1, ultrasensitive C reactive protein (us-CRP) and soluble tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor type 1 (sTNF-R1) plasma levels of the study participants. Methods This study included 40 non-pregnant, 38 normotensive pregnant and 51 PE women. PE women were stratified in early (N = 23) and late (N = 28) subgroups, according to gestational age (GA) at onset of clinical symptoms. Protein AnxA1 and us-CRP plasma levels were determined by ELISA and immunoturbidimetric assays, respectively. Transcript levels of AnxA1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were measured by real time RT-PCR. Results Increased levels of AnxA1 coincided with higher us-CRP levels in the plasma of PE women. Pregnant women with early PE had higher levels of AnxA1 and us-CRP than normotensive pregnant women with GA <34 weeks. No significant difference was found for AnxA1 and us-CRP, comparing late PE and normotensive pregnant women with GA ≥34 weeks. AnxA1 mRNA levels in PBMC were similar among the studied groups. AnxA1 was positively correlated with sTNF-R1, but not with us-CRP. Conclusions Our data show that increased AnxA1 levels were associated with a systemic inflammatory phenotype in PE, suggesting AnxA1 deregulation in PE pathogenesis. However, more studies are needed to clarify the role of AnxA1 and other proresolving molecules in the context of the systemic inflammatory response in this intriguing disease. PMID:26398190

  17. Col11a1 Regulates Bone Microarchitecture during Embryonic Development

    PubMed Central

    Hafez, Anthony; Squires, Ryan; Pedracini, Amber; Joshi, Alark; Seegmiller, Robert E.; Oxford, Julia Thom

    2016-01-01

    Collagen XI alpha 1 (Col11a1) is an extracellular matrix molecule required for embryonic development with a role in both nucleating the formation of fibrils and regulating the diameter of heterotypic fibrils during collagen fibrillar assembly. Although found in many different tissues throughout the vertebrate body, Col11a1 plays an essential role in endochondral ossification. To further understand the function of Col11a1 in the process of bone formation, we compared skeletal mineralization in wild-type (WT) mice and Col11a1-deficient mice using X-ray microtomography (micro-CT) and histology. Changes in trabecular bone microstructure were observed and are presented here. Additionally, changes to the periosteal bone collar of developing long bones were observed and resulted in an increase in thickness in the case of Col11a1-deficient mice compared to WT littermates. Vertebral bodies were incompletely formed in the absence of Col11a1. The data demonstrate that Col11a1 depletion results in alteration to newly-formed bone and is consistent with a role for Col11a1 in mineralization. These findings indicate that expression of Col11a1 in the growth plate and perichondrium is essential for trabecular bone and bone collar formation during endochondral ossification. The observed changes to mineralized tissues further define the function of Col11a1. PMID:26779434

  18. Immunoglobulins in Nasal Secretions of Healthy Humans: Structural Integrity of Secretory Immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) and Occurrence of Neutralizing Antibodies to IgA1 Proteases of Nasal Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kirkeby, Line; Rasmussen, Trine Tang; Reinholdt, Jesper; Kilian, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    Certain bacteria, including overt pathogens as well as commensals, produce immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases. By cleaving IgA1, including secretory IgA1, in the hinge region, these enzymes may interfere with the barrier functions of mucosal IgA antibodies, as indicated by experiments in vitro. Previous studies have suggested that cleavage of IgA1 in nasal secretions may be associated with the development and perpetuation of atopic disease. To clarify the potential effect of IgA1 protease-producing bacteria in the nasal cavity, we have analyzed immunoglobulin isotypes in nasal secretions of 11 healthy humans, with a focus on IgA, and at the same time have characterized and quantified IgA1 protease-producing bacteria in the nasal flora of the subjects. Samples in the form of nasal wash were collected by using a washing liquid that contained lithium as an internal reference. Dilution factors and, subsequently, concentrations in undiluted secretions could thereby be calculated. IgA, mainly in the secretory form, was found by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to be the dominant isotype in all subjects, and the vast majority of IgA (median, 91%) was of the A1 subclass, corroborating results of previous analyses at the level of immunoglobulin-producing cells. Levels of serum-type immunoglobulins were low, except for four subjects in whom levels of IgG corresponded to 20 to 66% of total IgA. Cumulative levels of IgA, IgG, and IgM in undiluted secretions ranged from 260 to 2,494 (median, 777) ?g ml?1. IgA1 protease-producing bacteria (Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Streptococcus mitis biovar 1) were isolated from the nasal cavities of seven subjects at 2.1 103 to 7.2 106 CFU per ml of undiluted secretion, corresponding to 0.2 to 99.6% of the flora. Nevertheless, ?-chain fragments characteristic of IgA1 protease activity were not detected in secretions from any subject by immunoblotting. Neutralizing antibodies to IgA1 proteases of autologous isolates were detected in secretions from five of the seven subjects but not in those from two subjects harboring IgA1 protease-producing S. mitis biovar 1. ?-chain fragments different from Fc? and Fd? were detected in some samples, possibly reflecting nonspecific proteolytic activity of microbial or host origin. These results add to previous evidence for a role of secretory immunity in the defense of the nasal mucosa but do not help identify conditions under which bacterial IgA1 proteases may interfere with this defense. PMID:10618273

  19. An abundant dysfunctional apolipoprotein A1 in human atheroma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Levison, Bruce S.; Schmitt, Dave; Li, Lin; Wu, Yuping; Buffa, Jennifer; Kim, Timothy; Gerstenecker, Gary; Gu, Xiaodong; Kadiyala, Chandra; Wang, Zeneng; Culley, Miranda K.; Hazen, Jennie E.; DiDonato, Anthony J.; Fu, Xiaoming; Berisha, Stela; Peng, Daoquan; Nguyen, Truc; Liang, Shaohong; Chuang, Chia-Chi; Cho, Leslie; Plow, Edward F.; Fox, Paul L.; Gogonea, Valentin; Tang, W.H. Wilson; Parks, John S.; Fisher, Edward A.; Smith, Jonathan D.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate high density lipoproteins (HDL) and their major structural protein, apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1), recovered from human atheroma, are dysfunctional and extensively oxidized by myeloperoxidase (MPO), while in vitro oxidation of apoA1/HDL by MPO impairs its cholesterol acceptor function. We developed a high affinity monoclonal antibody (mAb) that specifically recognizes apoA1/HDL modified by the MPO/H2O2/Cl-system using phage display affinity maturation. An oxindolyl alanine (2-OH-Trp) moiety at tryptophan 72 of apoA1 is the immunogenic epitope. Mutagenesis studies confirm a critical role for apoA1 Trp72 in MPO-mediated inhibition of ABCA1-dependent cholesterol acceptor activity of apoA1 in vitro and in vivo. ApoA1 containing a 2-OH-Trp72 group (oxTrp72-apoA1) is in low abundance within the circulation, but accounts for 20% of the apoA1 in atherosclerotic plaque. OxTrp72-apoA1 recovered from human atheroma or plasma was lipid-poor, virtually devoid of cholesterol acceptor activity, and demonstrated both potent pro-inflammatory activities on endothelial cells and impaired HDL biogenesis activity in vivo. Elevated oxTrp72-apoA1 levels in subjects presenting to a cardiology clinic (n=627) were associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Circulating oxTrp72-apoA1 levels may serve as a way to monitor a pro-atherogenic process in the artery wall. PMID:24464187

  20. Factor V deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    Blood clotting is a complex process involving as many as 20 different proteins in blood plasma. These proteins ... by a lack of Factor V. When certain blood clotting factors are low or missing, your blood does ...

  1. Factoring Polynomials and Fibonacci.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzman, Steven

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the factoring of polynomials and Fibonacci numbers, offering several challenges teachers can give students. For example, they can give students a polynomial containing large numbers and challenge them to factor it. (JN)

  2. Factor VII assay

    MedlinePLUS

    The factor VII assay is a blood test to measure the activity of factor VII. This is one of the proteins in ... the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick ...

  3. Factor V assay

    MedlinePLUS

    The factor V assay is a blood test to measure the activity of factor V. This is one of the proteins in ... the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick ...

  4. Factor VII deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... aspx National Hemophilia Foundation: Other Factor Deficiencies -- www.hemophilia.org/Bleeding-Disorders/Types-of-Bleeding-Disorders/Other-Factor-Deficiencies Victory for Women with Blood Disorders -- www.victoryforwomen.org

  5. Factor II deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... aspx National Hemophilia Foundation: Other Factor Deficiencies -- www.hemophilia.org/Bleeding-Disorders/Types-of-Bleeding-Disorders/Other-Factor-Deficiencies Victory for Women with Blood Disorders -- www.victoryforwomen.org

  6. The fusidic acid stimulon of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Alejandro; Zaman, Shahrear; Muthaiyan, Arunachalam; Nagarajan, Vijayaraj; Elasri, Mohamed O.; Wilkinson, Brian J.; Gustafson, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Fusidic acid interferes with the release of elongation factor G (EF-G) after the translocation step of protein synthesis. The objective of this study was to characterize the fusidic acid stimulon of a fusidic acid-susceptible strain of Staphylococcus aureus (SH1000). Methods S. aureus microarrays and real-time PCR determined transcriptome alterations occurring in SH1000 grown with fusidic acid. The Staphylococcus aureus microarray meta-database (SAMMD) compared and contrasted the SH1000 fusidic stimulon with 89 other S. aureus transcriptional datasets. Fusidic acid gradient analyses with mutant-parent strain pairs were used to identify genes required for intrinsic fusidic acid susceptibility identified during transcriptional analysis. Results Many genes altered by fusidic acid challenge are associated with protein synthesis. SAMMD analysis determined that the fusidic acid stimulon has the greatest overlap with the S. aureus cold shock and stringent responses. Six out of nine peptidoglycan hydrolase genes making up the two component YycFG regulon were also up-regulated by fusidic acid, as were a carboxylesterase gene (est) and two putative drug efflux pump genes (emr-qac1 and macA). Genes down-regulated by fusidic acid induction encoded a putative secreted acid phosphatase and a number of protease genes. Roles for the agr operon, the peptidoglycan hydrolase gene isaA and two proteases (htrA1 and htrA2) in the expression of fusidic acid susceptibility were revealed. Conclusions The SH1000 fusidic acid stimulon includes genes involved with two stress responses, YycFG-regulated cell wall metabolism, drug efflux, and protein synthesis and turnover. PMID:18786940

  7. Risk Prediction for Progression of Macular Degeneration: 10 Common and Rare Genetic Variants, Demographic, Environmental, and Macular Covariates

    PubMed Central

    Seddon, Johanna M.; Silver, Rachel E.; Kwong, Manlik; Rosner, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the association between genetic variants and transition to advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and to develop a predictive model and online application to assist in clinical decision making. Methods. Among 2951 subjects in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study, 834 progressed from no AMD, early AMD, or intermediate AMD to advanced disease. Survival analysis was used to assess which genetic, demographic, environmental, and macular covariates were independently associated with progression. Attributable risk, area under the curve statistics (AUCs), and reclassification odds ratios (ORs) were calculated. Split-sample validation was performed. An online risk calculator was developed and is available in the public domain at www.seddonamdriskscore.org. Results. Ten genetic loci were independently associated with progression, including newly identified rare variant C3 K155Q (hazard ratio: 1.7, 95% confidence interval: 1.22.5, P = 0.002), three variants in CFH, and six variants in ARMS2/HTRA1, CFB, C3, C2, COL8A1, and RAD51B. Attributable risk calculations revealed that 80% of incident AMD is attributable to genetic factors, adjusting for demographic covariates and baseline macular phenotypes. In a model including 10 genetic loci, age, sex, education, body mass index, smoking, and baseline AMD status, the AUC for progression to advanced AMD over 10 years was 0.911. Split-sample validation showed a similar AUC (0.907). Reclassification analyses indicated that subjects were categorized into a more accurate risk category if genetic information was included (OR 3.2, P < 0.0001). Conclusions. Rare variant C3 K155Q was independently associated with AMD progression. The comprehensive model may be useful for identifying and monitoring high-risk patients, selecting appropriate therapies, and designing clinical trials. PMID:25655794

  8. Multilevel Mixture Factor Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varriale, Roberta; Vermunt, Jeroen K.

    2012-01-01

    Factor analysis is a statistical method for describing the associations among sets of observed variables in terms of a small number of underlying continuous latent variables. Various authors have proposed multilevel extensions of the factor model for the analysis of data sets with a hierarchical structure. These Multilevel Factor Models (MFMs)

  9. Factor II assay

    MedlinePLUS

    The factor II assay is a blood test to measure the activity of factor II. Factor II is also known as prothrombin. This is ... the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick ...

  10. Acyl-Carbon Bond Cleaving Cytochrome P450 Enzymes: CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and CYP51A1.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Muhammad; Wright, J Neville

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) enzymes in their resting state contain the heme-iron in a high-spin FeIII state. Binding of a substrate to a P450 enzyme allows transfer of the first electron, producing a Fe(II) species that reacts with oxygen to generate a low-spin iron superoxide intermediate (FeIII-O-O) ready to accept the second electron to produce an iron peroxy anion intermediate (a, FeIII-O-O-). In classical monooxygenation reactions, the peroxy anion upon protonation fragments to form the reactive Compound I intermediate (Por+FeIV=O), or its ferryl radical resonance form (FeIV-O). However, when the substrate projects a carbonyl functionality, of the type b, at the active site as is the case for reactions catalyzed by CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and CYP51A1, the peroxy anion (FeIII-O-O-) is trapped, yielding a tetrahedral intermediate (c) that fragments to an acyl-carbon cleavage product (d plus an acid). Analogous acyl-carbon cleavage reactions are also catalyzed by certain hepatic P450s and CYP125A1 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A further improvisation on the theme is provided by aldehyde deformylases that convert long-chain aliphatic aldehydes to hydrocarbons. CYP17A1 is involved in the biosynthesis of corticoids as well as androgens. The flux toward these two classes of hormones seems to be regulated by cytochrome b 5, at the level of the acyl-carbon cleavage reaction. It is this regulation of CYP17A1 that provides a safety mechanism, ensuring that during corticoid biosynthesis, which requires 17?-hydroxylation by CYP17A1, androgen formation is avoided (Fig. 4.1). PMID:26002733

  11. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)-1 - Wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wages. 31.3401(a)-1 Section 31.3401(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source 31.3401(a)-1 Wages....

  12. 17 CFR 260.7a-1 - Form for application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Form for application. 260.7a-1 Section 260.7a-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rules Under Section 307 260.7a-1 Form for application. Form T-3 shall be used...

  13. 26 CFR 1.402A-1 - Designated Roth Accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Designated Roth Accounts. 1.402A-1 Section 1.402A-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. 1.402A-1 Designated Roth Accounts. Q-1. What is a designated...

  14. 26 CFR 1.56A-1 - Imposition of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Imposition of tax. 1.56A-1 Section 1.56A-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Regulations Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning in 1969 and Ending in 1970 § 1.56A-1 Imposition of tax. (a) In general. Section 56(a) imposes an income tax...

  15. HbA1c, Fructosamine, and Glycated Albumin in the Detection of Dysglycaemic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Rogrio Tavares; Macedo, Maria Paula; Raposo, Joo Filipe

    2016-01-01

    Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is currently the gold standard for glucose monitoring in patients with diabetes, and has been increasingly adopted as a criteria for diabetes diagnosis. However, conditions that determine alterations in haemoglobin metabolism can interfere with the reliability of HbA1c measurements. Glycated albumin and fructosamine (total glycated serum proteins) are alternative markers of glycaemia, which have been recognised to provide additional information to HbA1c or to provide a reliable measure when HbA1c is observed not to be dependable. Additionally, while HbA1c monitors the exposure to circulating glycaemia in the previous 3 months, glycated albumin and fructosamine represent exposure for a shorter period, which may be beneficial to monitor rapid metabolic alterations or changes in diabetes treatment. The present review further discusses the relative value of HbA1c, glycated albumin, and fructosamine, in prediabetes and diabetes diagnosis, evaluation of glucose variability, and complications risk prediction. Also, a novel molecular role for albumin is presented by which glycated albumin contributes to glucose intolerance development and thus to progression to diabetes, besides the role of glycated albumin as a pro-atherogenic factor. PMID:26126638

  16. CYP17A1 T-34C polymorphism is not associated with endometrial cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xueying; Feng, Aihua; Liu, Fengying; Li, Qun; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Chuanhua; An, Yujun

    2013-10-01

    The association between CYP17A1 T-34C polymorphism and endometrial cancer risk has been inconsistent and underpowered. To clarify the effect of CYP17A1 T-34C polymorphism on the risk of endometrial cancer, a meta-analysis of all available studies relating CYP17A1 T-34C polymorphism to the risk of endometrial cancer was conducted. The authors searched PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and VisionCite databases updated on March 2013. Data were extracted by two independent authors and pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95 % confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Finally, seven studies with 1,570 endometrial cancer cases and 2,474 controls were included in the meta-analysis. There was no statistically significant association between CYP17A1 T-34C polymorphism and endometrial cancer under heterogeneous codominant model (OR = 0.91, 95 %CI = 0.68-1.21). Although CYP17A1 T-34C polymorphism was marginally associated with endometrial cancer risk under homogeneous codominant model (OR = 0.69, 95 %CI = 0.49-0.99), the significant association was not stable after sensitivity analysis. We concluded that CYP17A1 T-34C polymorphism might not be one risk factor in the carcinogenesis of endometrial cancer. Further large and well-designed studies are needed to confirm this association. PMID:23609033

  17. macroH2A1 histone variant represses rDNA transcription

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Rong; Das, Sadhan; Douet, Julien; Wong, Jiemin; Buschbeck, Marcus; Mongelard, Fabien; Bouvet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of ribosomal DNA transcription is an important step for the control of cell growth. Epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation and posttranslational modifications of canonical histones have been involved in this regulation, but much less is known about the role of histone variants. In this work, we show that the histone variant macroH2A1 is present on the promoter of methylated rDNA genes. The inhibition of the expression of macroH2A1 in human HeLa and HepG2 cells and in a mouse ES cell line resulted in an up to 5-fold increase of pre-rRNA levels. This increased accumulation of pre-rRNA is accompanied by an increase of the loading of RNA polymerase I and UBF on the rDNA without any changes in the number of active rDNA genes. The inhibition of RNA polymerase I transcription by actinomycin D or by knocking down nucleolin, induces the recruitment of macroH2A1 on the rDNA and the relocalization of macroH2A1 in the nucleolus. Interestingly, the inhibition of rDNA transcription induced by nucleolin depletion is alleviated by the inactivation of macroH2A1. These results demonstrate that macroH2A1 is a new factor involved in the regulation of rDNA transcription. PMID:24071584

  18. 32 CFR 809a.1 - Random installation entry point checks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION INSTALLATION ENTRY POLICY, CIVIL DISTURBANCE INTERVENTION AND DISASTER ASSISTANCE Installation Entry Policy § 809a.1 Random installation entry point checks. The installation commander determines...

  19. 32 CFR 809a.1 - Random installation entry point checks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION INSTALLATION ENTRY POLICY, CIVIL DISTURBANCE INTERVENTION AND DISASTER ASSISTANCE Installation Entry Policy § 809a.1 Random installation entry point checks. The installation commander determines...

  20. Drugs affecting HbA1c levels

    PubMed Central

    Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2012-01-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is an important indicator of glycemic control in diabetes mellitus, based on which important diagnostic and therapeutic decisions are routinely made. However, there are several situations in which the level of HbA1c may not faithfully reflect the glycemic control in a given patient. Important among these is the use of certain non-diabetic medications, which can affect the HbA1c levels in different ways. This review focuses on the non-diabetic medications which can inappropriately raise or lower the HbA1c levels, and the postulated mechanisms for the same. PMID:22837911

  1. Association of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in breast-fed infants with UGT1A1 or SLCOs polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroko; Uchida, Toshihiko; Toyota, Kentaro; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Tamiya, Gen; Kanno, Miyako; Hashimoto, Taeko; Watanabe, Masashi; Aoki, Kuraaki; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Neonates have physiologically increased bilirubin production and immature bilirubin metabolism, and present hyperbilirubinemia in association with genetic and or epigenetic factors. We previously reported that maximal body weight loss (inadequate feeding) is an independent risk factor for the development of hyperbilirubinemia in breast-fed Japanese neonates, and the UGT1A1 211G>A genotype becomes a risk factor under conditions of inadequate feeding. We extended the study to the association of other genetic factors, the UGT1A1 (TA)7 and solute-carrier organic anion transporters (SLCOs) polymorphisms with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. We enrolled 401 full-term Japanese infants who were exclusively breastfeeding and classified them into two groups based on the degree of maximal body weight loss. We analyzed the clinical characteristics and UGT1A1 and SLCOs genotypes. Statistical analysis revealed that maximal body weight loss is the only independent risk factor for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. UGT1A1, SLCO1B1 and SLCO1B3 polymorphisms become risk factors in neonates showing 10% or greater body weight loss during the neonatal period. Inadequate feeding may increase the bilirubin burden and cause apparent hyperbilirubinemia in neonates, who have a polymorphic change in the genes involved in the transport and/or metabolism of bilirubin. PMID:25391605

  2. Divergent Roles of PAX2 in the Etiology and Progression of Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Al-Hujaily, Ensaf M; Tang, Yong; Yao, De-Sheng; Carmona, Euridice; Garson, Kenneth; Vanderhyden, Barbara C

    2015-12-01

    PAX2 is an essential transcription factor for development. Aberrant PAX2 expression in adult tissues is associated with carcinogenesis and experimental evidence shows that PAX2 generally exhibits oncogenic properties. Although PAX2 is not expressed in normal ovaries, it is highly expressed in low malignant potential and low-grade epithelial ovarian tumors, suggesting that PAX2 induction in ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) may contribute to transformation. Herein, we provide evidence that expression of PAX2 in normal murine OSE cells (mOSE) enhances their proliferation and survival and, with loss of p53, induces tumorigenicity. PAX2 expression in murine ovarian cancer cells enhanced or inhibited tumorigenicity, depending on the model system. In RM cells (mOSE transformed by K-RAS and c-MYC), PAX2 expression inhibited p53 and induced pERK1/2 and COX2, resulting in enhanced angiogenesis and decreased apoptosis of tumors arising from these cells. However, in a murine model of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (STOSE), PAX2 expression improved animal survival by reducing proliferation and metastasis, which correlated with increased Htra1 and decreased COX2. Thus, PAX2 may not be a classical oncogene or tumor suppressor but instead can act in either role by differential regulation of COX2 and/or HTRA1. Cancer Prev Res; 8(12); 1163-73. 2015 AACR. PMID:26373819

  3. CADASIL and CARASIL.

    PubMed

    Tikka, Saara; Baumann, Marc; Siitonen, Maija; Pasanen, Petra; Pyhnen, Minna; Myllykangas, Liisa; Viitanen, Matti; Fukutake, Toshio; Cognat, Emmanuel; Joutel, Anne; Kalimo, Hannu

    2014-09-01

    CADASIL and CARASIL are hereditary small vessel diseases leading to vascular dementia. CADASIL commonly begins with migraine followed by minor strokes in mid-adulthood. Dominantly inherited CADASIL is caused by mutations (n?>?230) in NOTCH3 gene, which encodes Notch3 receptor expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Notch3 extracellular domain (N3ECD) accumulates in arterial walls followed by VSMC degeneration and subsequent fibrosis and stenosis of arterioles, predominantly in cerebral white matter, where characteristic ischemic MRI changes and lacunar infarcts emerge. The likely pathogenesis of CADASIL is toxic gain of function related to mutation-induced unpaired cysteine in N3ECD. Definite diagnosis is made by molecular genetics but is also possible by electron microscopic demonstration of pathognomonic granular osmiophilic material at VSMCs or by positive immunohistochemistry for N3ECD in dermal arteries. In rare, recessively inherited CARASIL the clinical picture and white matter changes are similar as in CADASIL, but cognitive decline begins earlier. In addition, gait disturbance, low back pain and alopecia are characteristic features. CARASIL is caused by mutations (presently n?=?10) in high-temperature requirement. A serine peptidase 1 (HTRA1) gene, which result in reduced function of HTRA1 as repressor of transforming growth factor-? (TGF ?) -signaling. Cerebral arteries show loss of VSMCs and marked hyalinosis, but not stenosis. PMID:25323668

  4. Bayesian Exploratory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Gabriella; Frühwirth-Schnatter, Sylvia; Heckman, James J.; Piatek, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops and applies a Bayesian approach to Exploratory Factor Analysis that improves on ad hoc classical approaches. Our framework relies on dedicated factor models and simultaneously determines the number of factors, the allocation of each measurement to a unique factor, and the corresponding factor loadings. Classical identification criteria are applied and integrated into our Bayesian procedure to generate models that are stable and clearly interpretable. A Monte Carlo study confirms the validity of the approach. The method is used to produce interpretable low dimensional aggregates from a high dimensional set of psychological measurements. PMID:25431517

  5. Aerostructural safety factor criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.

    1992-01-01

    The present modification of the conventional safety factor method for aircraft structures evaluation involves the expression of deterministic safety factors in probabilistic tolerance limit ratios; these are found to involve a total of three factors that control the interference of applied and resistive stress distributions. The deterministic expression is extended so that it may furnish a 'relative ultimate safety' index that encompasses all three distribution factors. Operational reliability is developed on the basis of the applied and the yield stress distribution interferences. Industry standards are suggested to be derivable from factor selections that are based on the consequences of failure.

  6. NR6A1 couples with cAMP response element binding protein and regulates vascular smooth muscle cell migration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinfang; Zhang, Yahui; Dai, Xiuqin; Liu, Zongjun; Yin, Peihao; Wang, Nanping; Zhang, Peng

    2015-12-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration is implicated in atherosclerosis and restenosis. Nuclear receptor subfamily 6, group A, member 1 (NR6A1) is involved in regulating embryonic stem cell differentiation, reproduction, neuronal differentiation. Functional cooperation between cAMP response element modulator tau (CREMtau) and NR6A1 can direct gene expression in cells. cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) plays a key role in VSMC migration. In this study, we sought to determine whether CREB involved in NR6A1-modulated VSMC migration. VSMCs treated with platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) displayed reduced mRNA and protein levels of NR6A1. Adenovirus-mediated expression of NR6A1 (Ad-NR6A1) could inhibit PDGF-BB- and serum-induced VSMC migration. The mRNA and protein expressions of secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) were down-regulated by NR6A1 overexpression. SPP1 promoter reporter activity was repressed by NR6A1. NR6A1 was found to physically couple with nuclear actin and the large subunit of RNA polymerase II. Furthermore, we showed that CREB interacted with NR6A1 in VSMCs. NR6A1 overexpression repressed cAMP response element (CRE) activity. ChIP assay revealed that NR6A1 bind to SPP1 promoter. Luciferase reporter assay showed that NR6A1 regulated SPP1 promoter activity via a putative CRE site. Adenovirus mediated local NR6A1 gene transfer attenuated stenosis after balloon-induced arterial injury in Sprague-Dawley rats. Taken together, this study provided experimental evidence that NR6A1 modulated SPP1 expression via its binding with CREB protein in VSMCs. We also revealed a NR6A1-CREB-SPP1 axis that serves as a regulatory mechanism for atherosclerosis and restenosis. PMID:26546462

  7. Factor VIII and glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Ekberg, M; Nilsson, I M

    1975-05-17

    To find out if determination of factor VIII,which most probably is synthetised in the intima of blood-vessesls, is of value for predicting the severity of vessel damge in glomerulonephritis, factor-VIII activity, factor-VIII-related antigen, and glomerular filtration-ratewere esto,ated om 85 patients with early glomerulonephritis on admission, and in 70 of these at follow-up for up to 4 years. The levels of factor-VIII activity and factor-VIII-related antigen on admission were normal in those patients who recovered. Where renal function was impaired on admission or becaome so during follow-up, factor VIII was high. Determination of factor VIII might thus be of prognostic value in early glomerulonephritis. PMID:49471

  8. What can we learn from B?a1(1260)(b1(1235))?(K) decays?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Run-Hui; L, Cai-Dian

    2008-10-01

    We investigate the B?a1(1260)(b1(1235))?(K) decays under the factorization scheme and find many discrepancies between theoretical predictions and the experimental data. In the tree-dominated processes, large contributions from color-suppressed tree diagrams are required in order to accommodate the large decay rates of B-?a10?- and B-?a1-?0. For Bmacr 0?(a1+,b1+)K- decays which are induced by b?s transition, theoretical predictions on their decay rates are larger than the data by a factor of 2.8 and 5.5, respectively. Large electroweak penguins or some new mechanism are expected to explain the branching ratios of B-?b10K- and B-?a1- Kmacr 0. The soft-collinear effective theory has the potential to explain large decay rates of B-?a10?- and B-?a1-?0 via a large hard-scattering form factor ?JB?a1. We will also show that, with proper charming penguins, predictions on the branching ratios of Bmacr 0?(a1+,b1+)K- can also be consistent with the data.

  9. Power factor corrector on insulated metal substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Aime, G.; Barbaroux, J.; Ferrieux, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a high density Power Factor Correction converter for AC-DC applications with sinusoidal input current. After analysis of the thermal behavior of several types of Insulated-Metal Substrates, study and design have been implemented on IMS with Surface Mount components. Experimental results are discussed for a 1 kW prototype operating at 100 kHz.

  10. Evidence for charged B meson decays to a1+/-(1260)pi0 and a1(0)(1260)pi+/-.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Lopez, L; Palano, A; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lopes Pegna, D; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Gabareen, A M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Klose, V; Kobel, M J; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Lombardo, V; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Panduro Vazquez, W; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Bquilleux, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Hcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Paramesvaran, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Zheng, Y; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Ct, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissire, Ch; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Malcls, J; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G

    2007-12-31

    We present measurements of the branching fractions for the decays B;{+/-}-->a_{1};{+/-}(1260)pi;{0} and B;{+/-}-->a_{1};{0}(1260)pi;{+/-} from a data sample of 232x10;{6} BB[over ] pairs produced in e;{+}e;{-} annihilation through the Upsilon(4S) resonance. We measure the branching fraction B(B;{+/-}-->a_{1};{+/-}(1260)pi;{0})xB(a_{1};{+/-}(1260)-->pi;{-}pi;{+}pi;{+/-})=(13.2+/-2.7+/-2.1)x10;{-6} with a significance of 4.2sigma, and the branching fraction B(B;{+/-}-->a_{1};{0}(1260)pi;{+/-})xB(a_{1};{0}(1260)-->pi;{-}pi;{+}pi;{0})=(20.4+/-4.7+/-3.4)x10;{-6} with a significance of 3.8sigma, where the first error quoted is statistical and the second is systematic. PMID:18233566

  11. TaMFT-A1 Is Associated with Seed Germination Sensitive to Temperature in Winter Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuwen; Zhu, Meirong; Carver, Brett F.; Yan, Liuling

    2013-01-01

    The ability of seed to germinate under favorable environmental conditions is critical for seedling emergence, plant establishment, subsequent development and growth of adult plants, and it is controlled by internal genetic factors and external environmental factors. Winter wheat in the southern Great Plains is often planted six weeks before the optimal planting date to produce more biomass for cattle grazing during the winter season. A high seed germination rate in this higher soil temperature environment is required for this specific management system. In this study, a major QTL for temperature-sensitive germination was mapped on the short arm of chromosome 3A (QTsg.osu-3A) in a RIL population generated from two winter wheat cultivars. Furthermore, TaMFT-A1, previously reported to regulate seed dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting in spring wheat cultivars, was mapped tightly associated with the peak of QTsg.osu-3A. However, allelic variation in TaMFT-A1 between the two winter wheat cultivars differed from that was observed in spring wheat cultivars. There were 87 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) and 12 indels (insertions/deletions) in TaMFT-A1 between the Jagger allele for high germination and the 2174 allele for low germination in the after-ripened seeds, in comparison with 2 SNPs between the two alleles for differential pre-harvest sprouting in spring wheat cultivars. The Jagger TaMFT-A1 allele is a novel haplotype and appears extensively in winter wheat cultivars. TaMFT-A1 transcript levels were up-regulated by high temperature but down-regulated by low temperature or seed storage time. These findings suggest that TaMFT-A1 may invoke different mechanisms for controlling seed dormancy/germination among winter wheat cultivars. PMID:24069187

  12. 26 CFR 1.665(a)-1 - Undistributed net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Undistributed net income. 1.665(a)-1 Section 1... Before January 1, 1969 1.665(a)-1 Undistributed net income. (a) The term undistributed net income means for any taxable year the distributable net income of the trust for that year as determined...

  13. 26 CFR 1.665(a)-1 - Undistributed net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Undistributed net income. 1.665(a)-1 Section 1... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 1.665(a)-1 Undistributed net income. (a) The term undistributed net income means for any taxable year the distributable net income of the trust for that year as...

  14. 26 CFR 1.665(a)-1 - Undistributed net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Undistributed net income. 1.665(a)-1 Section 1... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 1.665(a)-1 Undistributed net income. (a) The term undistributed net income means for any taxable year the distributable net income of the trust for that year as...

  15. 26 CFR 1.665(a)-1 - Undistributed net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Undistributed net income. 1.665(a)-1 Section 1... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 1.665(a)-1 Undistributed net income. (a) The term undistributed net income means for any taxable year the distributable net income of the trust for that year as...

  16. 26 CFR 1.665(a)-1 - Undistributed net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Undistributed net income. 1.665(a)-1 Section 1... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 1.665(a)-1 Undistributed net income. (a) The term undistributed net income means for any taxable year the distributable net income of the trust for that year as...

  17. Note on the photoproduction of the charged A1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condo, G. T.; Handler, T.

    1987-05-01

    Arguments made nearly 15 years ago by Fox and Hey are updated in the light of recent experimental findings. These indicate that the charge-exchange photoproduction of the A1 should dominate that of the A2. Consistency with the experimental data demands an A1 mass of 1335+/-20 MeV and width of 180+/-55 MeV.

  18. 42 CFR 5a.1 - Statutory basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory basis and purpose. 5a.1 Section 5a.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL... the Public Health Service Act. These provisions define “underserved rural community” for purposes...

  19. 17 CFR 260.7a-1 - Form for application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form for application. 260.7a-1... RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rules Under Section 307 260.7a-1 Form for application. Form T-3 shall be used for applications for qualification of indentures pursuant to section 307(a)....

  20. 26 CFR 1.1311(a)-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Introduction. 1.1311(a)-1 Section 1.1311(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... Introduction. (a) Part II (section 1311 and following), subchapter Q, chapter 1 of the Code, provides...

  1. 42 CFR 5a.1 - Statutory basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Statutory basis and purpose. 5a.1 Section 5a.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL... the Public Health Service Act. These provisions define underserved rural community for purposes...

  2. 42 CFR 5a.1 - Statutory basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Statutory basis and purpose. 5a.1 Section 5a.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL... the Public Health Service Act. These provisions define underserved rural community for purposes...

  3. 42 CFR 5a.1 - Statutory basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Statutory basis and purpose. 5a.1 Section 5a.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL... the Public Health Service Act. These provisions define underserved rural community for purposes...

  4. 26 CFR 1.643(a)-1 - Deduction for distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Deduction for distributions. 1.643(a)-1 Section 1.643(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME... distributions. The deduction allowable to a trust under section 651 and to an estate or trust under section...

  5. 26 CFR 1.643(a)-1 - Deduction for distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deduction for distributions. 1.643(a)-1 Section 1.643(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME... distributions. The deduction allowable to a trust under section 651 and to an estate or trust under section...

  6. 26 CFR 1.643(a)-1 - Deduction for distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Deduction for distributions. 1.643(a)-1 Section 1.643(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME... distributions. The deduction allowable to a trust under section 651 and to an estate or trust under section...

  7. 26 CFR 1.643(a)-1 - Deduction for distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Deduction for distributions. 1.643(a)-1 Section 1.643(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME... distributions. The deduction allowable to a trust under section 651 and to an estate or trust under section...

  8. 26 CFR 1.643(a)-1 - Deduction for distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deduction for distributions. 1.643(a)-1 Section 1.643(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME... distributions. The deduction allowable to a trust under section 651 and to an estate or trust under section...

  9. Attenuation of plasma annexin A1 in human obesity.

    PubMed

    Kosicka, Anna; Cunliffe, Adam D; Mackenzie, Richard; Zariwala, M Gulrez; Perretti, Mauro; Flower, Roderick J; Renshaw, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Obesity-related metabolic disorders are characterized by mild chronic inflammation, leukocyte infiltration, and tissue fibrosis as a result of adipocytokine production from the expanding white adipose tissue. Annexin A1 (AnxA1) is an endogenous glucocorticoid regulated protein, which modulates systemic anti-inflammatory processes and, therefore, may be altered with increasing adiposity in humans. Paradoxically, we found that plasma AnxA1 concentrations inversely correlated with BMI, total percentage body fat, and waist-to-hip ratio in human subjects. Plasma AnxA1 was also inversely correlated with plasma concentrations of the acute-phase protein, C-reactive protein (CRP), and the adipocytokine leptin, suggesting that as systemic inflammation increases, anti-inflammatory AnxA1 is reduced. In addition, AnxA1 gene expression and protein were significantly up-regulated during adipogenesis in a human adipocyte cell line compared to vehicle alone, demonstrating for the first time that AnxA1 is expressed and excreted from human adipocytes. These data demonstrate a failure in the endogenous anti-inflammatory system to respond to increasing systemic inflammation resulting from expanding adipose tissue, a condition strongly linked to the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. These data raise the possibility that a reduction in plasma AnxA1 may contribute to the chronic inflammatory phenotype observed in human obesity. PMID:23038751

  10. 26 CFR 49.4262(a)-1 - Taxable transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Taxable transportation. 49.4262(a)-1 Section 49...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES FACILITIES AND SERVICES EXCISE TAXES Transportation of Persons § 49.4262(a)-1 Taxable transportation. (a) In general. Unless excluded under section 4262(b) (see § 49.4262(b)-1),...

  11. 26 CFR 49.4262(a)-1 - Taxable transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Taxable transportation. 49.4262(a)-1 Section 49...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES FACILITIES AND SERVICES EXCISE TAXES Transportation of Persons § 49.4262(a)-1 Taxable transportation. (a) In general. Unless excluded under section 4262(b) (see § 49.4262(b)-1),...

  12. Role of CYP1A1 haplotypes in modulating susceptibility to coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Sana Venkata Vijaya; Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Saumya, Kankanala; Rao, Damera Seshagiri; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the role of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) haplotypes in modulating susceptibility to coronary artery disease (CAD), a case-control study was conducted by enrolling 352 CAD cases and 282 healthy controls. PCR-RFLP, multiplex PCR, competitive ELISA techniques were employed for the analysis of CYP1A1 [ml (T-->C), m2 (A-->G) and m4 (C-->A)] haplotypes, glutathione-S-transferase (GST)T1/GSTM1 null variants and plasma 8-oxo-2'deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) respectively. Two CYP1A1 haplotypes, i.e. CAC and TGC showed independent association with CAD risk, while all-wild CYP1A1 haplotype i.e. TAC showed reduced risk for CAD. All the three variants showed mild linkage disequilibrium (D': 0.05 to 0.17). GSTT1 null variant also exerted independent association with CAD risk (OR: 2.53, 95% CI 1.55-4.12). Among the conventional risk factors, smoking showed synergetic interaction with CAC haplotype of CYP1A1 and GSTT1 null genotype in inflating CAD risk. High risk alleles of this pathway showed dose-dependent association with percentage of stenosis and number of vessels affected. Elevated 8-oxodG levels were observed in subjects with CYP1A1 CAC haplotype and GSTT1 null variant. Multiple linear regression model of these xenobiotic variants explained 36% variability in 8-oxodG levels. This study demonstrated the association of CYP1A1 haplotypes and GSTT1 null variant with CAD risk and this association was attributed to increased oxidative DNA damage. PMID:23259321

  13. Regulation of translation by upstream translation initiation codons of surfactant protein A1 splice variants

    PubMed Central

    Tsotakos, Nikolaos; Silveyra, Patricia; Lin, Zhenwu; Thomas, Neal; Vaid, Mudit

    2014-01-01

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A), a molecule with roles in lung innate immunity and surfactant-related functions, is encoded by two genes in humans: SFTPA1 (SP-A1) and SFTPA2 (SP-A2). The mRNAs from these genes differ in their 5?-untranslated regions (5?-UTR) due to differential splicing. The 5?-UTR variant ACD? is exclusively found in transcripts of SP-A1, but not in those of SP-A2. Its unique exon C contains two upstream AUG codons (uAUGs) that may affect SP-A1 translation efficiency. The first uAUG (u1) is in frame with the primary start codon (p), but the second one (u2) is not. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of uAUGs on SP-A1 expression. We employed RT-qPCR to determine the presence of exon C-containing SP-A1 transcripts in human RNA samples. We also used in vitro techniques including mutagenesis, reporter assays, and toeprinting analysis, as well as in silico analyses to determine the role of uAUGs. Exon C-containing mRNA is present in most human lung tissue samples and its expression can, under certain conditions, be regulated by factors such as dexamethasone or endotoxin. Mutating uAUGs resulted in increased luciferase activity. The mature protein size was not affected by the uAUGs, as shown by a combination of toeprint and in silico analysis for Kozak sequence, secondary structure, and signal peptide and in vitro translation in the presence of microsomes. In conclusion, alternative splicing may introduce uAUGs in SP-A1 transcripts, which in turn negatively affect SP-A1 translation, possibly affecting SP-A1/SP-A2 ratio, with potential for clinical implication. PMID:25326576

  14. Effect of CYP1A1 and GSTM1 genetic polymorphisms on bone tumor susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Li, J G; Liu, C Y; Ding, Y J

    2015-01-01

    Tumor gene polymorphisms are often associated with individual susceptibility to genetic diseases. Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) and glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1) gene polymorphisms are closely related to the susceptibility of the body to chemical carcinogens in the environment. Therefore, we explored the relationship between CYP1A1 and GSTM1 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to bone tumors. Multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), allelic-specific PCR, and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques were used to analyze CYP1A1 and GSTM1 gene polymorphisms in 52 bone tumor patients and 100 healthy subjects. The allelic variation frequency of the CYP1A1 gene at exon 7 (Ile 462 Val) in bone tumor patients was 0.462, which was significantly higher than that in the normal controls (0.223). The frequency of the absence of the GSTM1 homozygous genotype in the patients (0.65) was also markedly higher than that in the control group (0.41). Subjects with CYP1A1 Val/Val homozygous mutations and absence of the GSTM1 homozygous genotype were at markedly increased risk of developing bone tumors [ORs 4.15 (95%CI: 1.268-13.30) and 2.35 (95%CI: 1.15-4.85), respectively]. The OR for the combined effect of the CYP1A1 and GSTM1 gene polymorphisms was 8.55 (95%CI: 1.75-41.50). CYP1A1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms are genetic risk factors in patients with bone tumors, and the allelic variation of these genes increases the risk of bone tumor occurrence. PMID:26681006

  15. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 7A1 (ALDH7A1) is a novel enzyme involved in cellular defense against hyperosmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Brocker, Chad; Lassen, Natalie; Estey, Tia; Pappa, Aglaia; Cantore, Miriam; Orlova, Valeria V; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Kavanagh, Kathryn L; Oppermann, Udo; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2010-06-11

    Mammalian ALDH7A1 is homologous to plant ALDH7B1, an enzyme that protects against various forms of stress, such as salinity, dehydration, and osmotic stress. It is known that mutations in the human ALDH7A1 gene cause pyridoxine-dependent and folic acid-responsive seizures. Herein, we show for the first time that human ALDH7A1 protects against hyperosmotic stress by generating osmolytes and metabolizing toxic aldehydes. Human ALDH7A1 expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells attenuated osmotic stress-induced apoptosis caused by increased extracellular concentrations of sucrose or sodium chloride. Purified recombinant ALDH7A1 efficiently metabolized a number of aldehyde substrates, including the osmolyte precursor, betaine aldehyde, lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes, and the intermediate lysine degradation product, alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde. The crystal structure for ALDH7A1 supports the enzyme's substrate specificities. Tissue distribution studies in mice showed the highest expression of ALDH7A1 protein in liver, kidney, and brain, followed by pancreas and testes. ALDH7A1 protein was found in the cytosol, nucleus, and mitochondria, making it unique among the aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes. Analysis of human and mouse cDNA sequences revealed mitochondrial and cytosolic transcripts that are differentially expressed in a tissue-specific manner in mice. In conclusion, ALDH7A1 is a novel aldehyde dehydrogenase expressed in multiple subcellular compartments that protects against hyperosmotic stress by generating osmolytes and metabolizing toxic aldehydes. PMID:20207735

  16. Observation of B+-->a1+(1260)K0 and B0-->a1-(1260)K+.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Lopez, L; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lopes Pegna, D; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Osipenkov, I L; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Tanabe, T; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Koch, H; Schroeder, T; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Barrett, M; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Vitug, G M; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Gabareen, A M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Klose, V; Kobel, M J; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Lombardo, V; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Watson, J E; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Panduro Vazquez, W; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Bquilleux, J; D'Orazio, A; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Hcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Burke, J P; Chavez, C A; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Paramesvaran, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Bailey, D; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Zheng, Y; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Ct, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Knoepfel, K J; Losecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Sekula, S J; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissire, Ch; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Malcls, J; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Prendki, J; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G

    2008-02-01

    We present branching fraction measurements of the decays B(+)-->a(1)(+)(1260)K(0) and B(0)-->a(1)(-)(1260)K(+) with a(1)(+/-)(1260)-->pi(-/+)pi(+/-)pi(+/-). The data sample corresponds to 383 x 10(6) BB pairs produced in e(+)e(-) annihilation through the Upsilon(4S) resonance. We measure the products of the branching fractions B(B(+)-->a(1)(+)(1260)K(0)B(a(1)(+)(1260)-->pi(-)pi(+)pi(+))=(17.4+/-2.5+/-2.2) x 10(-6) and B(B(0)-->a(1)(-)(1260)K(+)B(a(1)(-)(1260)-->pi(+)pi(-)pi(-)) = (8.2+/-1.5+/-1.2) x 10(-6). We also measure the charge asymmetries A(ch)(B(+)-->a(1)(+)(1260)K(0) = 0.12+/-0.11+/-0.02 and A(ch)(B(0)-->a(1)(-)(1260)K+) = -0.16+/-0.12+/-0.01. The first uncertainty quoted is statistical and the second is systematic. PMID:18352360

  17. Catalytic and immunochemical detection of hepatic and extrahepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) in white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus).

    PubMed

    Wilson, Joanna Y; Moore, Michael J; Stegeman, John J

    2010-02-18

    We have characterized microsomal systems and measured the levels of microsomal cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in multiple internal organs of male and female white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) from the northwest Atlantic Ocean. Internal organs were sampled within 24h of death, sometimes in a period of hours, collection times which are significantly less than usually seen for marine mammals. Tissue autolysis, as assessed by histological analysis of liver, was minimal to none in all individuals. Total P420 did not correlate with time from death to sampling, suggesting that it is a poor indicator of P450 degradation in cetacean tissues where perfusion is not practical. The total hepatic microsomal P450 content, cytochrome b5 content, and NADPH-cytochrome c (P450) reductase (CPR) activity averaged 0.29nmolmg(-1), 0.12nmolmg(-1), and 238nmolmg(-1)min(-1), respectively. Microsomal CPR activity in liver was higher than that in lung and kidney, and was higher than that reported in liver of most other cetacean species. Immunodetected CYP1A1 content was low in all organs, less than 3pmolesCYP1A equivalentsmg(-1). EROD activity ranged from 9 to 376pmolesmg(-1)min(-1) and was greater in liver than in other tissues. Hepatic microsomal EROD activity and CYP1A1 content did not correlate. However, hepatic EROD activity, but not CYP1A1 protein content, was well correlated with both total PCB and Sigmamono-ortho PCB concentrations in blubber. Length, as a proxy for age, did not correlate with hepatic EROD activity or CYP1A1 protein levels, and sex did not influence the relationship between EROD and contaminant concentrations. We cannot easily control for the extent of tissue degradation in cetacean studies nor do we have a complete history of these animals. Therefore, other factors such as degradation or hormonal state may have a role in the observed relationships. Yet, as in other mammals, hepatic tissues appear to be a major site of CYP1A1 expression and probably of biotransformation of CYP1A substrates in white-sided dolphin. The expression of an EROD catalyst in liver likely reflects induction by PCBs, but the P450 enzyme catalyzing hepatic EROD activity in these whales may not be CYP1A1. PMID:20005581

  18. Catalytic and Immunochemical Detection of Hepatic and Extrahepatic Microsomal Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) in White-sided Dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus)

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Joanna Y.; Moore, Michael J.; Stegeman, John J.

    2009-01-01

    We have characterized microsomal systems and measured the levels of microsomal cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in multiple internal organs of male and female white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) from the northwest Atlantic Ocean. Internal organs were sampled within 24 hours of death, sometimes in a period of hours, collection times which are significantly less than usually seen for marine mammals. Tissue autolysis, as assessed by histological analysis of liver, was minimal to none in all individuals. Total P420 did not correlate with time from death to sampling, suggesting that it is a poor indicator of P450 degradation in cetacean tissues where perfusion isnt practical. The total hepatic microsomal P450 content, cytochrome b5 content, and NADPH-cytochrome c (P450) reductase (CPR) activity averaged 0.29 nmol mg?1, 0.12 nmol mg?1, and 238 nmol mg?1 min?1, respectively. Microsomal CPR activity in liver was higher than that in lung and kidney, and was higher than that reported in liver of most other cetacean species. Immunodetected CYP1A1 content was low in all organs, less than 3 pmoles CYP1A equivalents mg?1. EROD activity ranged from 9 376 pmoles mg?1 min?1 and was greater in liver than in other tissues. Hepatic microsomal EROD activity and CYP1A1 content did not correlate. However, hepatic EROD activity, but not CYP1A1 protein content, was well correlated with both total PCB and ?mono-ortho PCB concentrations in blubber. Length, as a proxy for age, did not correlate with hepatic EROD activity or CYP1A1 protein levels, and sex did not influence the relationship between EROD and contaminant concentrations. We cannot easily control for the extent of tissue degradation in cetacean studies nor do we have a complete history of these animals. Therefore, other factors such as degradation or hormonal state may have a role in the observed relationships. Yet, as in other mammals, hepatic tissues appear to be a major site of CYP1A1 expression and probably of biotransformation of CYP1A substrates in white-sided dolphin. The expression of an EROD catalyst in liver likely reflects induction by PCBs, but the P450 enzyme catalyzing hepatic EROD activity in these whales may not be CYP1A1. PMID:20005581

  19. A1/Bfl-1 in leukocyte development and cell death

    PubMed Central

    Ottina, Eleonora; Tischner, Denise; Herold, Marco J.; Villunger, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The function of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bcl2a1/Bfl-1/A1 is poorly understood due to the lack of appropriate loss-of-function mouse models and redundant effects with other Bcl-2 pro-survival proteins upon overexpression. Expression analysis of A1 suggests predominant roles in leukocyte development, their survival upon viral or bacterial infection, as well as during allergic reactions. In addition, A1 has been implicated in autoimmunity and the pathology and therapy resistance of hematological as well as solid tumors that may aberrantly express this protein. In this review, we aim to summarize current knowledge on A1 biology, focusing on its role in the immune system and compare it to that of other pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins. PMID:22342458

  20. Identification of an evolutionarily conserved regulatory element of the zebrafish col2a1a gene.

    PubMed

    Dale, Rodney M; Topczewski, Jacek

    2011-09-15

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an excellent model organism for the study of vertebrate development including skeletogenesis. Studies of mammalian cartilage formation were greatly advanced through the use of a cartilage specific regulatory element of the Collagen type II alpha 1 (Col2a1) gene. In an effort to isolate such an element in zebrafish, we compared the expression of two col2a1 homologues and found that expression of col2a1b, a previously uncharacterized zebrafish homologue, only partially overlaps with col2a1a. We focused our analysis on col2a1a, as it is expressed in both the stacked chondrocytes and the perichondrium. By comparing the genomic sequence surrounding the predicted transcriptional start site of col2a1a among several species of teleosts we identified a small highly conserved sequence (R2) located 1.7 kb upstream of the presumptive transcriptional initiation site. Interestingly, neither the sequence nor location of this element is conserved between teleost and mammalian Col2a1. We generated transient and stable transgenic lines with just the R2 element or the entire 1.7 kb fragment 5' of the transcriptional initiation site. The identified regulatory elements enable the tracking of cellular development in various tissues by driving robust reporter expression in craniofacial cartilage, ear, notochord, floor plate, hypochord and fins in a pattern similar to the expression of endogenous col2a1a. Using a reporter gene driven by the R2 regulatory element, we analyzed the morphogenesis of the notochord sheath cells as they withdraw from the stack of initially uniform cells and encase the inflating vacuolated notochord cells. Finally, we show that like endogenous col2a1a, craniofacial expression of these reporter constructs depends on Sox9a transcription factor activity. At the same time, notochord expression is maintained after Sox9a knockdown, suggesting that other factors can activate expression through the identified regulatory element in this tissue. PMID:21723274

  1. A1-A1 mutant with improved binding and inhibition of beta2GPI/antibody complexes in antiphospholipid syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kolyada, Alexey; Karageorgos, Ioannis; Mahlawat, Pardeep; Beglova, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Beta2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) is the most common antigen for autoimmune antibodies in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Thrombosis is a clinical feature of APS. We made a molecule (A1-A1) that consists of two identical β2GPI-binding modules from ApoE receptor 2. A1-A1 binds to β2GPI/anti-β2GPI antibody complexes preventing their association with ApoER2 and anionic phospholipids, and reducing thrombus size in the mouse model of APS. Here, we describe a mutant of A1-A1 (mA1-A1ND) with improved affinity for β2GPI. mA1-A1ND inhibits the binding of β2GPI to cardiolipin in the presence of anti-β2GPI antibodies and inhibits β2GPI/antibody complexes in plasma samples of APS patients affecting the clotting time. Inhibition of the clotting time demonstrates the presence of soluble β2GPI/anti-β2GPI antibody complexes in patients’ plasma. These complexes either already exist in patients’ plasma or form rapidly in the vicinity of phospholipids. All members of the LDL receptor family can bind β2GPI. Modelling studies of A1 in a complex with domain V of β2GPI (β2GPI-DV) revealed two possible orientations of a ligand-binding module from lipoprotein receptors on β2GPI-DV. In both orientations, the ligand-binding module interferes with the binding of β2GPI to anionic phospholipids, however it interacts with two different though overlapping sets of lysine residues in β2GPI-DV, depending on the orientation. PMID:25546421

  2. An A1-A1 mutant with improved binding and inhibition of ?2GPI/antibody complexes in antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kolyada, Alexey; Karageorgos, Ioannis; Mahlawat, Pardeep; Beglova, Natalia

    2015-03-01

    ?2 glycoprotein I (?2GPI) is the most common antigen for autoimmune antibodies in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Thrombosis is a clinical feature of APS. We created a molecule (A1-A1) that consists of two identical ?2GPI-binding modules from ApoE receptor 2 (ApoER2). A1-A1 binds to ?2GPI/antibody complexes, preventing their association with ApoER2 and anionic phospholipids, and reducing thrombus size in the mouse model of APS. Here, we describe a mutant of A1-A1 (mA1-A1ND) with improved affinity for ?2GPI. mA1-A1ND inhibits the binding of ?2GPI to cardiolipin in the presence of anti-?2GPI antibodies, and inhibits the binding to phospholipids in plasma samples of APS patients, affecting the clotting time. Reduction of the clotting time demonstrates the presence of soluble ?2GPI/antibody complexes in patients' plasma. These complexes either already exist in patients' plasma or form rapidly in the proximity to phospholipids. All members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family bind ?2GPI. Modeling studies of A1 in a complex with domain V of ?2GPI (?2GPI-DV) revealed two possible modes of interaction of a ligand-binding module from lipoprotein receptors with ?2GPI-DV. In both orientations, the ligand-binding module interferes with binding of ?2GPI to anionic phospholipids; however, it interacts with two different but overlapping sets of lysine residues in ?2GPI-DV, depending on the orientation. PMID:25546421

  3. New scale factor measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousso, Raphael

    2012-07-01

    The computation of probabilities in an eternally inflating universe requires a regulator or measure. The scale factor time measure truncates the Universe when a congruence of timelike geodesics has expanded by a fixed volume factor. This definition breaks down if the generating congruence is contractinga serious limitation that excludes from consideration gravitationally bound regions such as our own. Here we propose a closely related regulator which is well defined in the entire spacetime. The new scale factor cutoff restricts to events with a scale factor below a given value. Since the scale factor vanishes at caustics and crunches, this cutoff always includes an infinite number of disconnected future regions. We show that this does not lead to divergences. The resulting measure combines desirable features of the old scale factor cutoff and of the light-cone time cutoff, while eliminating some of the disadvantages of each.

  4. Annexin A1: potential for glucocorticoid sparing in RA.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan H; Morand, Eric; Leech, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    Glucocorticoids have broad-ranging and powerful anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Unsurprisingly, therefore, glucocorticoids are widely and persistently used to treat a large number of inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), despite the well-described adverse effects of these drugs. Annexin A1 is a glucocorticoid-induced molecule that is known to replicate many of the described anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids. In addition to the well-documented roles of this protein in neutrophil function, emerging evidence suggests that annexin A1 is involved in the modulation of T-cell function and the adaptive immune responses relevant to RA. Interest in annexin A1 was renewed after the delineation of the receptors for this protein. This breakthrough also led to advances in our understanding of anti-inflammatory annexin A1 mimetic peptides and agonistic compounds targeting these receptors, particularly those specific for the receptor N-formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2). Herein, we review the current knowledge of the biological activities of annexin A1 and their relevance to RA pathogenesis. We also discuss the potential of annexin A1 mimics and strategies aimed at potentiating annexin A1 signalling to become viable approaches to minimizing glucocorticoid use in RA and other inflammatory disorders. PMID:23958797

  5. Effect of DNA methylation profile on OATP3A1 and OATP4A1 transcript levels in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Rawłuszko-Wieczorek, Agnieszka Anna; Horst, Nikodem; Horbacka, Karolina; Bandura, Artur Szymon; Świderska, Monika; Krokowicz, Piotr; Jagodziński, Paweł Piotr

    2015-08-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that 17β-estradiol (E2) prevents colorectal cancer (CRC). Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are involved in the cellular uptake of various endogenous and exogenous substrates, including hormone conjugates. Because transfer of estrone sulfate (E1-S) can contribute to intra-tissue conversion of estrone to the biologically active form -E2, it is evident that the expression patterns of OATPs may be relevant to the analysis of CRC incidence and therapy. We therefore evaluated DNA methylation and transcript levels of two members of the OATP family, OATP3A1 and OATP4A1, that may be involved in E1-S transport in colorectal cancer patients. We detected a significant reduction in OATP3A1 and a significant increase in OATP4A1 mRNA levels in cancerous tissue, compared with histopathologically unchanged tissue (n=103). Moreover, we observed DNA hypermethylation in the OATP3A1 promoter region in a small subset of CRC patients and in HCT116 and Caco-2 colorectal cancer cell lines. We also observed increased OATP3A1 transcript following treatment with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine and sodium butyrate. The OATP4A1 promoter region was hypomethylated in analyzed tissues and CRC cell lines and was not affected by these treatments. Our results suggest a potential mechanism for OATP3A1 downregulation that involves DNA methylation during colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:26349991

  6. Analytic Couple Modeling Introducing Device Design Factor, Fin Factor, Thermal Diffusivity Factor, and Inductance Factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2014-01-01

    A set of convenient thermoelectric device solutions have been derived in order to capture a number of factors which are previously only resolved with numerical techniques. The concise conversion efficiency equations derived from governing equations provide intuitive and straight-forward design guidelines. These guidelines allow for better device design without requiring detailed numerical modeling. The analytical modeling accounts for factors such as i) variable temperature boundary conditions, ii) lateral heat transfer, iii) temperature variable material properties, and iv) transient operation. New dimensionless parameters, similar to the figure of merit, are introduced including the device design factor, fin factor, thermal diffusivity factor, and inductance factor. These new device factors allow for the straight-forward description of phenomenon generally only captured with numerical work otherwise. As an example a device design factor of 0.38, which accounts for thermal resistance of the hot and cold shoes, can be used to calculate a conversion efficiency of 2.28 while the ideal conversion efficiency based on figure of merit alone would be 6.15. Likewise an ideal couple with efficiency of 6.15 will be reduced to 5.33 when lateral heat is accounted for with a fin factor of 1.0.

  7. Interaction of the CYP1A1 gene polymorphism and smoking in non-small cell lung cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Xie, Y Q; Chen, J M; Liu, Y

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown that genetic factors, environmental factors, and bad living habits, especially smoking, are risk factors for lung cancer. However, not all smokers develop lung cancer, which may be related to different genetic backgrounds. Currently, most research has investigated the GSTM1, XRCC1, XRCC3, CYP2D6, and C188T genes. Little research has been done on the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 gene, and results have varied. In addition, no results have been reported on the interactive effects of smoking and the CYP1A1 gene on lung cancer development. We used polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism to detect the CYP1A1 genotype, and investigate the effects of the CYP1A1 gene deletion and smoking alone, and in combination, on non-small cell lung cancer susceptibility. We enrolled 150 non-small cell lung cancer patients and 150 healthy control subjects. Subjects' smoking habits and CYP1A1 gene polymorphism were analyzed to investigate their role in the occurrence of lung cancer. The CYP1A1 gene deletion was found in 73.3% of non-small cell lung cancer patients and 20.0% of healthy subjects. The OR value was 2.28 (P < 0.05). Among smoking subjects, 77.8% exhibited non-small cell lung cancer, significantly higher than the 27.3% in non-smokers (P < 0.05). The OR value for the interaction of smoking and CYP1A1 gene deletion was 5.60, larger than the product of their individual OR values. The CYP1A1 gene deletion is a lung cancer risk factor, and interacts with smoking in non-small cell lung cancer development. PMID:26782595

  8. Factorized Weight Functions vs. Factorized Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruijsenaars, S. N. M.

    Starting from an extensive class of factorized weight functions W(p) on the N-dimensional torus ?, we construct an orthonormal base of symmetric N-variable polynomials for L2s(?,W(p)dp) via lexicographic ordering of the monomial symmetric functions (free boson states) and the Gram-Schmidt procedure. We show that the dominant asymptotics of these polynomials is factorized. As a corollary, we obtain a large class of quantum integrable soliton systems on the symmetric subspace of l2(N). The class of weight functions contains in particular the weight function yielding Macdonald polynomials. For that special case, the quantum soliton system can be viewed as the dual relativistic Calogero-Sutherland system.

  9. UV-A1 cytotoxicity and antioxidant defence in keratinocytes and fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Leccia, M T; Richard, M J; Joanny-Crisci, F; Beani, J C

    1998-01-01

    The levels of antioxidant molecules and lipid peroxidation, under basal conditions, were measured in normal, human cutaneous keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutases are significantly higher in normal keratinocytes compared to normal fibroblasts (respectively +248%, +193% and +155%). Under the same conditions, lipid peroxidation is significantly lower in basal keratinocytes compared to fibroblasts. UV-A1 cytotoxicity was investigated in both cutaneous cell types showing that diploid keratinocytes are more resistant to UV-A1 oxidative stress than fibroblasts (by a factor of around 8). We studied the same parameters in two keratinocyte cell lines, NCTC2544 and HaCaT cells, and in MRC5 fibroblasts. Antioxidant content and lipid peroxidation under basal conditions are quite different in these cell lines compared to those of the normal corresponding cells. Furthermore, NCTC2544 keratinocytes are more sensitive to UV-A1 radiation than normal keratinocytes whereas HaCaT keratinocytes are more resistant, and MRC5 fibroblasts are more resistant than normal cutaneous fibroblasts. These findings suggest that (i) cultured epidermal and dermal cells have different sensitivities to UV-A1 radiation that may be linked to different antioxidant capacities and (ii) cell line response to UV-A1 radiation may differ from that of normal cells. PMID:9854158

  10. Case of Small Vessel Disease Associated with COL4A1 Mutations following Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Plancher, Joao McONeil; Hufnagel, Robert B.; Vagal, Achala; Peariso, Katrina; Saal, Howard M.; Broderick, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    With this case report, we would like to heighten the awareness of clinicians about COL4A1 as a single-gene disorder causing cerebral small vessel disease and describe a previously unreported pathogenic missense substitution in COL4A1 (p.Gly990Val) and a new clinical presentation. We identified a heterozygous putatively pathogenic mutation of COL4A1 in a 50-year-old female with a history of congenital cataracts and glaucoma who presented with multiple diffusion-positive infarcts and areas of contrast enhancement following mild head trauma. We believe that this presentation of multiple areas of acute brain and vascular injury in the setting of mild head trauma is a new manifestation of this genetic disorder. Imaging findings of multiple acute infarcts and regions of contrast enhancement with associated asymptomatic old deep microhemorrhages and leukomalacia in adults after head trauma should raise a high suspicion for a COL4A1 genetic disorder. Radiographic patterns of significant leukoaraiosis and deep microhemorrhages can also be seen in patients with long-standing vasculopathy associated with hypertension, which our patient lacked. Our findings demonstrate the utility of genetic screening for COL4A1 mutations in young patients who have small vessel vasculopathy on brain imaging but who do not have significant cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:26120313

  11. Case of Small Vessel Disease Associated with COL4A1 Mutations following Trauma.

    PubMed

    Plancher, Joao McONeil; Hufnagel, Robert B; Vagal, Achala; Peariso, Katrina; Saal, Howard M; Broderick, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    With this case report, we would like to heighten the awareness of clinicians about COL4A1 as a single-gene disorder causing cerebral small vessel disease and describe a previously unreported pathogenic missense substitution in COL4A1 (p.Gly990Val) and a new clinical presentation. We identified a heterozygous putatively pathogenic mutation of COL4A1 in a 50-year-old female with a history of congenital cataracts and glaucoma who presented with multiple diffusion-positive infarcts and areas of contrast enhancement following mild head trauma. We believe that this presentation of multiple areas of acute brain and vascular injury in the setting of mild head trauma is a new manifestation of this genetic disorder. Imaging findings of multiple acute infarcts and regions of contrast enhancement with associated asymptomatic old deep microhemorrhages and leukomalacia in adults after head trauma should raise a high suspicion for a COL4A1 genetic disorder. Radiographic patterns of significant leukoaraiosis and deep microhemorrhages can also be seen in patients with long-standing vasculopathy associated with hypertension, which our patient lacked. Our findings demonstrate the utility of genetic screening for COL4A1 mutations in young patients who have small vessel vasculopathy on brain imaging but who do not have significant cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:26120313

  12. Vasopressin regulation of multisite phosphorylation of UT-A1 in the inner medullary collecting duct

    PubMed Central

    Hoban, Carol A.; Black, Lauren N.; Ordas, Ronald J.; Gumina, Diane L.; Pulous, Fadi E.; Sim, Jae H.; Sands, Jeff M.

    2014-01-01

    Vasopressin signaling is critical for the regulation of urea transport in the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD). Increased urea permeability is driven by a vasopressin-mediated elevation of cAMP that results in the direct phosphorylation of urea transporter (UT)-A1. The identification of cAMP-sensitive phosphorylation sites, Ser486 and Ser499, in the rat UT-A1 sequence was the first step in understanding the mechanism of vasopressin action on the phosphorylation-dependent modulation of urea transport. To investigate the significance of multisite phosphorylation of UT-A1 in response to elevated cAMP, we used highly specific and sensitive phosphosite antibodies to Ser486 and Ser499 to determine cAMP action at each phosphorylation site. We found that phosphorylation at both sites was rapid and sustained. Furthermore, the rate of phosphorylation of the two sites was similar in both mIMCD3 cells and rat inner medullary tissue. UT-A1 localized to the apical membrane in response to vasopressin was phosphorylated at Ser486 and Ser499. We confirmed that elevated cAMP resulted in increased phosphorylation of both sites by PKA but not through the vasopressin-sensitive exchange protein activated by cAMP pathway. These results elucidate the multisite phosphorylation of UT-A1 in response to cAMP, thus providing the beginning of understanding the intracellular factors underlying vasopressin stimulation of urea transport in the IMCD. PMID:25377918

  13. A1M/?1-microglobulin is proteolytically activated by myeloperoxidase, binds its heme group and inhibits low density lipoprotein oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Cederlund, Martin; Deronic, Adnan; Pallon, Jan; Srensen, Ole E.; kerstrm, Bo

    2015-01-01

    ?1-microglobulin (A1M) is a 26 kDa plasma and tissue protein with reductase activity and radical- and heme-binding anti-oxidative functions. In addition, exposure of A1M to hemoglobin has been shown to induce proteolytic elimination of a C-terminal tetrapeptide yielding a heme-degrading form, truncated A1M (t-A1M). Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a heme-containing enzyme that catalyzes the production of free radicals and hypochlorite, is released by neutrophils during the inflammatory response to bacterial infections. MPO-induced low density lipoprotein (LDL)-oxidation in blood has been suggested as a causative factor in atherosclerosis. In this study we have hypothesized that A1M interacts with MPO in a similar mode as with hemoglobin, and is a regulator of its activity. The results show that A1M is proteolytically cleaved, with formation of t-A1M, after exposure to MPO, and that t-A1M contains iron and heme-degradation products. The reaction is dependent of pH, time and concentration of substrates and a pH-value around 7 is shown to be optimal for cleavage. Furthermore, A1M inhibits MPO- and hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidation of LDL. The results suggest that A1M may have a role as an inhibitor of the damaging effects of the neutrophil respiratory burst on bystander tissue components. PMID:25698971

  14. ALDH1A1 mediates resistance of diffuse large B cell lymphoma to the CHOP regimen.

    PubMed

    Song, Ying-Hui; Zhong, Mei-Zuo; Gan, Ping-Ping; Yi, Ping-Yong; Tang, You-Hong; Liu, Yi-Ping; Jiang, Jin-Qiong; Li, Li

    2014-12-01

    Although there have been substantial advances in our knowledge of the resistance of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) to chemotherapy, there are few efficient treatment strategies for recurrent/refractory DLBCL. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 1A1 in the resistance of diffuse large B cell lymphoma to the chemotherapeutic mixture consisting of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP). The involvement of ALDH1A1 in DLBCL was elucidated by knockdown and pharmacologic inhibition; Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and clone formation assays were used to determine its role in CHOP sensitivity and clone formation ability. Caspase colorimetric assay was used to measure the extent of apoptosis. Western blot analysis was used to measure signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) signaling proteins, and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was used to measure the differential expression of ALDH1A1 of DLBCL patients and healthy donors. ALDH1A1 showed a 5.64-fold higher expression in malignant B cells than in normal B cells. Diethylaminobenzaldehyde (DEAB) decreased the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the CHOP regimen in Farage cells from 344.78??65.75 to 183.88??49.75ng/ml (P?=?0.004). Both knockdown and inhibition of ALDH1A1 reduced clonogenicity, increased caspase-3/caspase-9 activity, and attenuated the phosphorylation status of STAT3/NF-?B. The prognosis of patients with a high level of ALDH1A1 expression was poor compared with that of patients with low levels of expression (P?=?0.044). ALDH1A1 is a new mediator for resistance of DLBCL to CHOP; it is a predictor of clinical prognosis and may serve as a potential target to improve chemotherapy responsiveness of human DLBCL. PMID:25344211

  15. S100A1 DNA-based Inotropic Therapy Protects Against Proarrhythmogenic Ryanodine Receptor 2 Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ritterhoff, Julia; Vlkers, Mirko; Seitz, Andreas; Spaich, Kristin; Gao, Erhe; Peppel, Karsten; Pleger, Sven T; Zimmermann, Wolfram H; Friedrich, Oliver; Fink, Rainer H A; Koch, Walter J; Katus, Hugo A; Most, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    Restoring expression levels of the EF-hand calcium (Ca(2+)) sensor protein S100A1 has emerged as a key factor in reconstituting normal Ca(2+) handling in failing myocardium. Improved sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function with enhanced Ca(2+) resequestration appears critical for S100A1's cyclic adenosine monophosphate-independent inotropic effects but raises concerns about potential diastolic SR Ca(2+) leakage that might trigger fatal arrhythmias. This study shows for the first time a diminished interaction between S100A1 and ryanodine receptors (RyR2s) in experimental HF. Restoring this link in failing cardiomyocytes, engineered heart tissue and mouse hearts, respectively, by means of adenoviral and adeno-associated viral S100A1 cDNA delivery normalizes diastolic RyR2 function and protects against Ca(2+)- and ?-adrenergic receptor-triggered proarrhythmogenic SR Ca(2+) leakage in vitro and in vivo. S100A1 inhibits diastolic SR Ca(2+) leakage despite aberrant RyR2 phosphorylation via protein kinase A and calmodulin-dependent kinase II and stoichiometry with accessory modulators such as calmodulin, FKBP12.6 or sorcin. Our findings demonstrate that S100A1 is a regulator of diastolic RyR2 activity and beneficially modulates diastolic RyR2 dysfunction. S100A1 interaction with the RyR2 is sufficient to protect against basal and catecholamine-triggered arrhythmic SR Ca(2+) leak in HF, combining antiarrhythmic potency with chronic inotropic actions. PMID:26005840

  16. Association of Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia with UGT1A1 Gene Polymorphisms: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zibi; Zhu, Kaichang; Wang, Li; Liu, Ying; Sun, Jianmei

    2015-01-01

    Background The results of studies on association between the polymorphisms in the coding region and the promoter of uridine diphosphateglucuronosyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia are controversial. This study aimed to determine whether the UGT1A1 gene polymorphisms of Gly71Arg and TATA promoter were significant risk factors associated with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Material/Methods The PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases were searched for papers that describe the association between UGT1A1 polymorphisms and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Summary odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated based on a fixed-effects model or random-effects model, depending on the absence or presence of significant heterogeneity. Results A total of 32 eligible studies and 6520 participants were identified. Among them, 24 studies focused on the association of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia with UGT1A1 Gly71Arg polymorphisms, and a significant difference was found for the comparison of AA vs. AG+GG (OR=3.47, 95% CI=2.295.28, P<0.0001). We included 19 studies on the association of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia with UGT1A1 TATA promoter polymorphism, which also found a statistically significant difference between 7/7 and 6/7 + 6/6 (OR=2.24, 95% CI=1.293.92, P=0.004). Conclusions This meta-analysis demonstrated that UGT1A1 polymorphisms (Gly71Arg and TATA promoter) significantly increase the risk of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. PMID:26467199

  17. Investigation of CCL18 and A1AT as potential urinary biomarkers for bladder cancer detection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In this study, we further investigated the association of two biomarkers, CCL18 and A1AT, with bladder cancer (BCa) and evaluated the influence of potentially confounding factors in an experimental model. Methods In a cohort of 308 subjects (102 with BCa), urinary concentrations of CCL18 and A1AT were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In an experimental model, benign or cancerous cells, in addition to blood, were added to urines from healthy controls and analyzed by ELISA. Lastly, immunohistochemical staining for CCL18 and A1AT in human bladder tumors was performed. Results Median urinary protein concentrations of CCL18 (52.84 pg/ml vs. 11.13 pg/ml, p < 0.0001) and A1AT (606.4 ng/ml vs. 120.0 ng/ml, p < 0.0001) were significantly elevated in BCa subjects compared to controls. Furthermore, the addition of whole blood to pooled normal urine resulted in a significant increase in both CCL18 and A1AT. IHC staining of bladder tumors revealed CCL18 immunoreactivity in inflammatory cells only, and there was no significant increase in these immunoreactive cells within benign and cancerous tissue and no association with BCa grade nor stage was noted. A1AT immunoreactivity was observed in the cytoplasm of epithelia cells and intensity of immunostaining increased with tumor grade, but not tumor stage. Conclusions Further development of A1AT as a diagnostic biomarker for BCa is warranted. PMID:24011266

  18. Exploratory Bi-Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennrich, Robert I.; Bentler, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Bi-factor analysis is a form of confirmatory factor analysis originally introduced by Holzinger. The bi-factor model has a general factor and a number of group factors. The purpose of this article is to introduce an exploratory form of bi-factor analysis. An advantage of using exploratory bi-factor analysis is that one need not provide a specific…

  19. Exploratory Bi-Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennrich, Robert I.; Bentler, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Bi-factor analysis is a form of confirmatory factor analysis originally introduced by Holzinger. The bi-factor model has a general factor and a number of group factors. The purpose of this article is to introduce an exploratory form of bi-factor analysis. An advantage of using exploratory bi-factor analysis is that one need not provide a specific

  20. Commentary: improving persistently elevated HbA1c in diabetes mellitus patients in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oghagbon, Efosa K

    2014-01-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level in patients with diabetes reflects quality of disease control and propensity to develop hyperglycemic complications. During more than 12 years of using HbA1c for monitoring of glycemic control among patients at Nigerian hospitals, the mean glycated hemoglobin ranged from 7.9% 2.4 to 8.3% 2.2. Most of these patients (63% to 68%) had poor glycemic controls with mean HbA1c greater than 7%. Factors that are implicated in this scenario are: 1) high cost of HbA1c testing, 2) ineffective management of risk factors, 3) poor patient compliance, 4) improperly managed diabetes education program, and 5) health care system defect. Central to improving diabetes glycemia is education of doctors, other health workers and patients, within the confines of an overhauled national health system. Physicians need to increase adherence to diabetes mellitus management guidelines and patients must be enrolled into a well-structured education program at health centers. Doctors, as leader of the health team, should drive such education schemes, which must be based on standard training curriculum, sufficient number of trained diabetes educators, and effective monitoring of patients. The most appropriate diabetes education model features small-to-moderate sized participant groups and makes use of motivational interviewing rather than a traditional advice-giving format. Improved health care funding is mandatory given the issue of cost and this can be helped by increased participation of patients in Nigeria's National Health Insurance Scheme. Failure to address the persistently elevated HbA1c will affect long-term quality of life, longevity and health care services in Nigeria. PMID:25417436

  1. Commentary: improving persistently elevated HbA1c in diabetes mellitus patients in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oghagbon, Efosa K

    2014-01-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level in patients with diabetes reflects quality of disease control and propensity to develop hyperglycemic complications. During more than 12 years of using HbA1c for monitoring of glycemic control among patients at Nigerian hospitals, the mean glycated hemoglobin ranged from 7.9% 2.4 to 8.3% 2.2. Most of these patients (63% to 68%) had poor glycemic controls with mean HbA1c greater than 7%. Factors that are implicated in this scenario are: 1) high cost of HbA1c testing, 2) ineffective management of risk factors, 3) poor patient compliance, 4) improperly managed diabetes education program, and 5) health care system defect. Central to improving diabetes glycemia is education of doctors, other health workers and patients, within the confines of an overhauled national health system. Physicians need to increase adherence to diabetes mellitus management guidelines and patients must be enrolled into a well-structured education program at health centers. Doctors, as leader of the health team, should drive such education schemes, which must be based on standard training curriculum, sufficient number of trained diabetes educators, and effective monitoring of patients. The most appropriate diabetes education model features small-to-moderate sized participant groups and makes use of motivational interviewing rather than a traditional advice-giving format. Improved health care funding is mandatory given the issue of cost and this can be helped by increased participation of patients in Nigeria's National Health Insurance Scheme. Failure to address the persistently elevated HbA1c will affect long-term quality of life, longevity and health care services in Nigeria. PMID:25507164

  2. A 1K Shadow RAM for circumvention applications

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    A 1K bit Shadow RAM has been developed for storage of critical data in a high transient radiation environment. The circuit includes a 1K bit (128 {times} 8) static RAM with two non-volatile (NV) shadows. The NV shadows are used to back-up the data in the static RAM allowing the circuit to be powered down during transient radiation without losing critical data. This paper will describe the circuit's operation and characterization results.

  3. Brain Tumor Risk Factors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Donate Now Menu Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor ... Financials News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor ...

  4. Exposure Factors Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of the latest version of the Exposure Factors Handbook (EFH): 2011 Edition (EPA/600/R-09/052F) has maintained the need for a more comprehensive program that addresses issues related to exposure factors. Since the first version of the EFH was r...

  5. Overview of environmental factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purvis, C. K.

    1989-01-01

    The orbital environment is complex, dynamic, and comprised of both natural and system-induced components. Several environment factors are important for materials. Materials selection/suitability determination requires consideration of each and all factors, including synergisms among them. Understanding and evaluating these effects will require ground testing, modeling, and focused flight experimentation.

  6. FACTORS AFFECTING PITCH DISCRIMINATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BERGAN, JOHN R.

    EFFECTS OF TONAL MEMORY OF TWO KINDS OF FACTORS WERE STUDIED. THE FACTORS WERE (1) THE CHARACTERISTICS OF STIMULI PRESENTED TO THE SUBJECT IN A PITCH IDENTIFICATION TASK, AND (2) THOSE EFFECTING THE RESPONSE THAT THE SUBJECT MAKES IN SUCH A TASK. FIVE HYPOTHESES WERE ADVANCED FOR STUDY. THE UNDERLYING ASSUMPTION WAS THAT THERE ARE IMPORTANT

  7. Block LU factorization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demmel, James W.; Higham, Nicholas J.; Schreiber, Robert S.

    1992-01-01

    Many of the currently popular 'block algorithms' are scalar algorithms in which the operations have been grouped and reordered into matrix operations. One genuine block algorithm in practical use is block LU factorization, and this has recently been shown by Demmel and Higham to be unstable in general. It is shown here that block LU factorization is stable if A is block diagonally dominant by columns. Moreover, for a general matrix the level of instability in block LU factorization can be founded in terms of the condition number kappa(A) and the growth factor for Gaussian elimination without pivoting. A consequence is that block LU factorization is stable for a matrix A that is symmetric positive definite or point diagonally dominant by rows or columns as long as A is well-conditioned.

  8. Glycated haemoglobin A1c is associated with low-grade albuminuria in Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Yulin; Xu, Baihui; Sun, Wanwan; Lin, Lin; Sun, Jichao; Xu, Min; Lu, Jieli; Bi, Yufang; Wang, Weiqing; Xu, Yu; Ning, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Diabetes is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, whereas few studies have investigated simultaneously the associations of glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose (fasting plasma glucose (FPG)) and 2 h postload blood glucose (2 h PG) with low-grade albuminuria, which is an earlier marker of cardiovascular diseases in the general population. Our study aimed to investigate and compare associations of HbA1c, FPG, and 2 h PG levels with risks of low-grade albuminuria in the middle-aged and elderly Chinese. Design and methods This was a cross-sectional study involving 9188 participants aged 40 years or older. All participants underwent a standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Low-grade albuminuria was defined as the highest quartile of urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) (>6.10 mg/g in males and >8.76 mg/g in females) in respondents without microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria. Results HbA1c, FPG and 2 h PG were all significantly correlated with urinary ACR after adjustment for confounders (all p values <0.0001). After adjustment for HbA1c, the relationships of FPG and 2 h PG with ACR reduced to null. HbA1c levels were still significantly associated with ACR after further adjustment for FPG and 2 h PG. Multiple logistic regression showed that risks of low-grade albuminuria were positively associated with HbA1c levels in a dose–response manner. Compared with participants with HbA1c ≤37 mmol/mol (5.5%), ORs (95% CIs) for low-grade albuminuria were 1.05 (0.94 to 1.18), 1.25 (1.04 to 1.50), 1.40 (1.04 to 1.90) and 2.21 (1.61 to 3.03) for HbA1c categories of 38–42 mmol/mol (5.6–6.0%), 43–48 mmol/mol (6.1–6.5%), 49–53 mmol/mol (6.6–7.0%), and >53 mmol/mol (7.0%), respectively (pfor trend <0.0001). Conclusions HbA1c, but not FPG or 2 h PG, was independently associated with an increased risk of low-grade albuminuria in the middle-aged and elderly Chinese. PMID:26243552

  9. Identification and characterization of the novel Col10a1 regulatory mechanism during chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Gu, J; Lu, Y; Li, F; Qiao, L; Wang, Q; Li, N; Borgia, J A; Deng, Y; Lei, G; Zheng, Q

    2014-01-01

    The majority of human skeleton develops through the endochondral pathway, in which cartilage-forming chondrocytes proliferate and enlarge into hypertrophic chondrocytes that eventually undergo apoptosis and are replaced by bone. Although at a terminal differentiation stage, hypertrophic chondrocytes have been implicated as the principal engine of bone growth. Abnormal chondrocyte hypertrophy has been seen in many skeletal dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Meanwhile, as a specific marker of hypertrophic chondrocytes, the type X collagen gene (COL10A1) is also critical for endochondral bone formation, as mutation and altered COL10A1 expression are often accompanied by abnormal chondrocyte hypertrophy in many skeletal diseases. However, how the type X collagen gene is regulated during chondrocyte hypertrophy has not been fully elucidated. We have recently demonstrated that Runx2 interaction with a 150-bp mouse Col10a1 cis-enhancer is required but not sufficient for its hypertrophic chondrocyte-specific reporter expression in transgenic mice, suggesting requirement of additional Col10a1 regulators. In this study, we report in silico sequence analysis of this 150-bp enhancer and identification of its multiple binding factors, including AP1, MEF2, NFAT, Runx1 and TBX5. Using this enhancer as bait, we performed yeast one-hybrid assay and identified multiple candidate Col10a1-interacting genes, including cyclooxygenase 1 (Cox-1) and Cox-2. We have also performed mass spectrometry analysis and detected EF1-alpha, Fus, GdF7 and Runx3 as components of the specific complex formed by the cis-enhancer and nuclear extracts from hypertrophic MCT (mouse chondrocytes immortalized with large T antigen) cells that express Col10a1 abundantly. Notably, some of the candidate genes are differentially expressed in hypertrophic MCT cells and have been associated with chondrocyte hypertrophy and Runx2, an indispensible Col10a1 regulator. Intriguingly, we detected high-level Cox-2 expression in hypertrophic MCT cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed the interaction between Cox-2 and Col10a1 cis-enhancer, supporting its role as a candidate Col10a1 regulator. Together, our data support a Cox-2-containing, Runx2-centered Col10a1 regulatory mechanism, during chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation. PMID:25321476

  10. Identification and characterization of the novel Col10a1 regulatory mechanism during chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gu, J; Lu, Y; Li, F; Qiao, L; Wang, Q; Li, N; Borgia, J A; Deng, Y; Lei, G; Zheng, Q

    2014-01-01

    The majority of human skeleton develops through the endochondral pathway, in which cartilage-forming chondrocytes proliferate and enlarge into hypertrophic chondrocytes that eventually undergo apoptosis and are replaced by bone. Although at a terminal differentiation stage, hypertrophic chondrocytes have been implicated as the principal engine of bone growth. Abnormal chondrocyte hypertrophy has been seen in many skeletal dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Meanwhile, as a specific marker of hypertrophic chondrocytes, the type X collagen gene (COL10A1) is also critical for endochondral bone formation, as mutation and altered COL10A1 expression are often accompanied by abnormal chondrocyte hypertrophy in many skeletal diseases. However, how the type X collagen gene is regulated during chondrocyte hypertrophy has not been fully elucidated. We have recently demonstrated that Runx2 interaction with a 150-bp mouse Col10a1 cis-enhancer is required but not sufficient for its hypertrophic chondrocyte-specific reporter expression in transgenic mice, suggesting requirement of additional Col10a1 regulators. In this study, we report in silico sequence analysis of this 150-bp enhancer and identification of its multiple binding factors, including AP1, MEF2, NFAT, Runx1 and TBX5. Using this enhancer as bait, we performed yeast one-hybrid assay and identified multiple candidate Col10a1-interacting genes, including cyclooxygenase 1 (Cox-1) and Cox-2. We have also performed mass spectrometry analysis and detected EF1-alpha, Fus, GdF7 and Runx3 as components of the specific complex formed by the cis-enhancer and nuclear extracts from hypertrophic MCT (mouse chondrocytes immortalized with large T antigen) cells that express Col10a1 abundantly. Notably, some of the candidate genes are differentially expressed in hypertrophic MCT cells and have been associated with chondrocyte hypertrophy and Runx2, an indispensible Col10a1 regulator. Intriguingly, we detected high-level Cox-2 expression in hypertrophic MCT cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed the interaction between Cox-2 and Col10a1 cis-enhancer, supporting its role as a candidate Col10a1 regulator. Together, our data support a Cox-2-containing, Runx2-centered Col10a1 regulatory mechanism, during chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation. PMID:25321476

  11. Characterization of recombinant shrimp allergen Pen a 1 (tropomyosin).

    PubMed

    Reese, G; Jeoung, B J; Daul, C B; Lehrer, S B

    1997-01-01

    Tropomyosin (Pen a 1) from brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus, has been identified as the only major shrimp allergen. Since beef, pork and chicken are other tropomyosin-containing foods that are not very allergenic, tropomyosins can serve to investigate the contribution of the structural properties of a protein to its allergenicity. The aim of this study was to determine the primary structure of Pen a 1 and to identify IgE-binding epitopes. The screening of a unidirectional expression cDNA library from shrimp tail muscle with the Pen-a-1-specific monoclonal antibody 4.9.5 resulted in 4 positive Escherichia coli clones. Immunoblot analysis with human sera from shrimp-allergic subjects demonstrated IgE binding of all 4 recombinant shrimp proteins. Three of 4 expressed recombinant proteins have a molecular weight of approximately 36 kD, consistent with the molecular weight of natural Pen a 1. The DNA sequence analysis identified these recombinant shrimp proteins as tropomyosin and could be aligned with the sequence of greasyback shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis) tropomyosin (Met e 1). In order to characterize contiguous IgE-binding epitopes of Pen a 1, a peptide library (Novagen epitope mapping system) expressing 10-30 amino-acid-residue-long recombinant Pen a 1 peptides was constructed and screened with human IgE. Four recombinant, IgE-reactive Pen a 1 peptides were selected and sequenced. They show various degrees of sequence identity with tropomyosins of other arthropods, such as fruitfly and house dust mite, helminths and vertebrates. PMID:9130534

  12. The diverse chemistry of cytochrome P450 17A1 (P450c17, CYP17A1).

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Francis K; Auchus, Richard J

    2015-07-01

    The steroid hydroxylation and carbon-carbon bond cleavage activities of cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) are responsible for the production of glucocorticoids and androgens, respectively. The inhibition of androgen synthesis is an important strategy to treat androgen-dependent prostate cancer. We discuss the different enzymatic activities towards the various substrates of CYP17A1, demonstrating its promiscuity. Additionally, a novel interhelical interaction is proposed between the F-G loop and the B'-helix to explain the 16?-hydroxylase activity of human CYP17A1 with progesterone as the substrate. The techniques used by biochemists to study this important enzyme are also summarized. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Steroid/Sterol signaling'. PMID:25482340

  13. LHC discovery potential of the lightest NMSSM Higgs boson in the h1?a1a1?4? channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, Alexander; Pivarski, Jim; Safonov, Alexei; Senkin, Sergey; Tatarinov, Aysen

    2010-04-01

    We explore the potential of the Large Hadron Collider to observe the h1?a1a1?4? signal from the lightest scalar Higgs boson (h1) decaying into the two lightest pseudoscalar Higgs bosons (a1), followed by their decays into four muons in the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM). The signature under study applies to the region of the NMSSM parameter space in which ma1<2m?, which has not been studied previously. In such a scenario, the suggested strategy of searching for a four-muon signal with the appropriate background suppression would provide a powerful method to discover the lightest CP-even and CP-odd NMSSM Higgs bosons h1 and a1.

  14. Factors augmenting allergic reactions.

    PubMed

    Niggemann, B; Beyer, K

    2014-12-01

    Elicitors of anaphylactic reactions are any sources of protein with allergenic capacity. However, not all allergic reactions end up in the most severe form of anaphylaxis. Augmenting factors may explain why certain conditions lead to anaphylaxis. Augmenting factors may exhibit three effects: lowering the threshold, increasing the severity, and reversing acquired clinical tolerance. Common augmenting factors are physical exercise, menstruation, NSAIDs, alcohol, body temperature, acute infections, and antacids. Therapeutic options may address causative, preventive, pragmatic, or symptomatic considerations: avoid the eliciting food, take an antihistamine before any situation with a possible risk of augmentation, separate food and sport (at least for 2h), and carry an adrenaline autoinjector at all times. Individual patterns include summation effects and specific patterns. In conclusion, in the case of a suggestive history but a negative oral challenge, one should consider the possible involvement of augmenting factors; after anaphylactic reactions, always ask for possible augmentation and other risk factors during the recent past; if augmentation is suspected, oral food challenges should be performed in combination with augmenting factors; and in the future, standardized challenge protocols including augmenting factors should be established. PMID:25306896

  15. Risk Factors for Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Padmanesan; Wood, James; MacIntyre, Chandini Raina; Mathai, Dilip

    2013-01-01

    The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk factors. Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. Similarly endogenous factors lead in progression from infection to active TB disease. Along with well-established risk factors (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malnutrition, and young age), emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors are also shown to increase the susceptibility to infection. Specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are also at an increased risk of TB infection and disease. This paper summarizes these factors along with health system issues such as the effects of delay in diagnosis of TB in the transmission of the bacilli. PMID:23476764

  16. Precipitating factors of insomnia.

    PubMed

    Bastien, Célyne H; Vallières, Annie; Morin, Charles M

    2004-01-01

    Insomnia is a prevalent health complaint whose onset is precipitated by a variety of factors. There is an important need to identify and describe these factors to improve our understanding of risk factors and the natural history of insomnia. This article is aimed at identifying and describing the types of precipitating factors related to the onset of insomnia. A total of 345 patients evaluated for insomnia at a sleep-disorders clinic completed a sleep survey and underwent a semistructured clinical interview. As part of the evaluation, the specific precipitating events related to the onset of insomnia were identified. Subsequently, these factors were categorized (work-school, family, physical or psychological health, or indeterminate), and their affective valence (negative, positive, or indeterminate) was coded. The most common precipitating factors of insomnia were related to family, health, and work-school events. Sixty-five percent of precipitating events had a negative valence. These events differed with the age of onset of insomnia but not with the gender of participants. These findings are useful to identify potential risk factors for insomnia and improve our understanding of the natural history of insomnia. PMID:15600224

  17. Environmental Factors in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Grabrucker, Andreas M.

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication and social behavior, and by repetitive behaviors. Although genetic factors might be largely responsible for the occurrence of autism they cannot fully account for all cases and it is likely that in addition to a certain combination of autism-related genes, specific environmental factors might act as risk factors triggering the development of autism. Thus, the role of environmental factors in autism is an important area of research and recent data will be discussed in this review. Interestingly, the results show that many environmental risk factors are interrelated and their identification and comparison might unveil a common scheme of alterations on a contextual as well as molecular level. For example, both, disruption in the immune system and in zinc homeostasis may affect synaptic transmission in autism. Thus, here, a model is proposed that interconnects the most important and scientifically recognized environmental factors. Moreover, similarities in how these risk factors impact synapse function are discussed and a possible influence on an already well described genetic pathway leading to the development of autism via zinc homeostasis is proposed. PMID:23346059

  18. Recombinant clotting factors.

    PubMed

    Pipe, Steven W

    2008-05-01

    The recombinant era for haemophilia began in the early 1980s with the cloning and subsequent expression of functional proteins for both factors VIII and IX. Efficient production of recombinant clotting factors in mammalian cell culture systems required overcoming significant challenges due to the complex post-translational modifications that were integral to their pro-coagulant function. The quick development and commercialization of recombinant clotting factors was, in part, facilitated by the catastrophic impact of viral contamination of plasma-derived clotting factor concentrates at the time. Since their transition into the clinic, the recombinant versions of both factor VIII and IX have proven to be remarkable facsimiles of their plasma-derived counterparts. The broad adoption of recombinant therapy throughout the developed world has significantly increased the supply of clotting factor concentrates and helped advance aggressive therapeutic interventions such as prophylaxis. The development of recombinant VIIa was a further advance bringing a recombinant option to haemophilia patients with inhibitors. Recombinant DNA technology remains the platform to address ongoing challenges in haemophilia care such as reducing the costs of therapy, increasing the availability to the developing world, and improving the functional properties of these proteins. In turn, the ongoing development of new recombinant clotting factor concentrates is providing alternatives for patients with other inherited bleeding disorders. PMID:18449413

  19. The Impact of HbA1c Testing on Total Annual Healthcare Expenditures Among Newly Diagnosed Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bhounsule, Prajakta; Peterson, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2010, diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death in the United States. Diabetes also imposes a huge financial burden on the US economy. In 2009, the American Diabetes Association International Expert Committee recommended the use of the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) test as a uniform diagnostic measure to identify patients with diabetes. Although HbA1c is a convenient diagnostic test, it is also more expensive than older tests and could, therefore, have an impact on patients’ healthcare expenditures. Objectives To determine if HbA1c testing has an impact on total annual healthcare expenditures among newly diagnosed patients with diabetes and to analyze the factors that are associated with the total healthcare expenditures among diabetic patients before and after HbA1c was implemented as a standard diagnostic factor. Methods This was an observational, retrospective, cross-sectional study. The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Household Component 2009 and 2011 databases were used to form the study cohort of patients with diabetes. The total mean healthcare expenditures among patients with diabetes formed the dependent variable. A proxy variable representing a diagnosis of diabetes with and without the use of HbA1c testing in 2009 and in 2011, respectively, formed the main independent variable along with demographic factors, comorbidities, and healthcare services utilization in both years. A generalized linear regression was conducted to determine the association of HbA1c testing with total diabetes-related healthcare expenditures. Results The mean total healthcare expenditure decreased in 2011 compared with 2009. The HbA1c test did not show an association with the total healthcare expenditures versus earlier diabetes-related diagnostic factors. The total expenditures were associated with private insurance, the incidence of a previous heart attack, prescription drug refills, inpatient hospital stays, home care, hospital discharges, and visits to outpatient providers and physicians in both years. Conclusions The HbA1c diagnostic factor did not yield any association with diabetes healthcare expenditures. Although the total healthcare expenditures were reduced in 2011 compared with 2009, it cannot be established that the reduction in costs is solely attributed to the implementation of the HbA1c diagnostic criteria. Further research on healthcare expenditures for diabetic patients diagnosed with and without the use of HbA1c testing is warranted to establish any possible association. PMID:26557226

  20. Introduction to Human Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Eric

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to “human factors engineering,” an applied science that seeks to optimize usability and safety of systems. Human factors engineering pursues this goal by aligning system design with the perceptual, cognitive, and physical capabilities of users. Human factors issues loom large in the diabetes management domain because patients and health care professionals interact with a complex variety of systems, including medical device hardware and software, which are themselves embedded within larger systems of institutions, people, and processes. Usability considerations must be addressed in these systems and devices to ensure safe and effective diabetes management. PMID:22538128

  1. Factorizations in finite groups

    SciTech Connect

    Kulikov, Viktor S

    2013-02-28

    A necessary condition for uniqueness of factorizations of elements of a finite group G with factors belonging to a union of some conjugacy classes of G is given. This condition is sufficient if the number of factors belonging to each conjugacy class is big enough. The result is applied to the problem on the number of irreducible components of the Hurwitz space of degree d marked coverings of P{sup 1} with given Galois group G and fixed collection of local monodromies. Bibliography: 9 titles.

  2. The complex understanding of Annexin A1 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    D'Acunto, Cosimo Walter; Gbelcova, Helena; Festa, Michela; Ruml, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is the first characterized member of the annexins superfamily. It binds the cellular membrane phospholipids in Ca(2+) regulated manner. Annexin A1 has been found in several tissues and many physiological roles as hormones secretion, vesiculation, inflammatory response, apoptosis and differentiation have been shown. Its subcellular localization and binding with many partner proteins are altered accordingly with its physiological role. The Annexin A1 membrane localization is crucial for binding to receptors, suggesting a paracrine and juxtacrine extracellular action. Annexin A1 is subjected to several post-translational modifications. In particular the protein is phosphorylated on several residues both on the N-terminal functional domain and on the C-terminus core. Different kinases have been identified as responsible for the phosphorylation status of selective residues. The specific change in the phosphorylation status on the different sites alters ANXA1 localization, binding properties and functions. This review shows the physiological relevance of the ANXA1 phosphorylation leading to the conclusion that numerous and different roles of Annexin A1 could be associated with different phosphorylations to alter not only intracellular localization and bindings to its partners but also the extracellular receptor interactions. PMID:24103589

  3. Prostaglandin transporter, SLCO2A1, mediates the invasion and apoptosis of lung cancer cells via PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qiaoliang; Liang, Xiang; Dai, Jing; Guan, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of lung cancer involves regulation of various key factors in many signaling pathways. The prostaglandin transporter, solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2A1 (SLCO2A1), is a promising regulatory factor of cancer cells. By analyzing the invasion and apoptosis status of lung cancer cells, and detecting the expression changes of key factors in PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway after overexpression and knockdown of SLCO2A1 in vitro, this study intended to investigate the function of SLCO2A1 in mediating lung cancer cells. Results showed overexpression of SLCO2A1 could induce the invasion of lung cancer cells, and its knockdown inhibited the invasion and induced the apoptosis of cells. mTOR, AKT and S6 in PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway were not affected by SLCO2A1. But the expression levels of p-mTOR, p-AKT and p-S6 were up-regulated or down-regulated with the overexpression or knockdown of SLCO2A1. Thus SLCO2A1 was inferred to mediate the invasion and apoptosis of lung cancer cells via PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. These results implied SLCO2A1 could be a regulatory factor of the invasion and apoptosis of lung cancer cells and serve as a promising target for lung cancer therapy. PMID:26464663

  4. CYP24A1 is a potential biomarker for the progression and prognosis of human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongyan; Wang, Chuanwen; Hao, Miao; Sun, Ran; Wang, Yuqian; Liu, Tie; Cong, Xianling; Liu, Ya

    2016-04-01

    Our study aims to fully evaluate clinicopathological and prognostic values of CYP24A1 in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Tissue microarrays of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumor samples and matched adjacent nontumor colorectal tissues from 99 CRC patients were studied for CYP24A1 protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Messenger RNA expression of CYP24A1 was further evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in 12 pairs of fresh frozen CRC samples. CYP24A1 expression was significantly higher in CRC tissues compared to corresponding noncancerous tissues. The expression of CYP24A1 protein in CRC was correlated with the depth of tumor invasion (P = .000), lymph node metastasis (P = .030), venous permeation (P = .016), and overall survival (P = .008). A Kaplan-Meier analysis of the CRC patients with high CYP24A1 expression showed significantly reduced overall survival and disease-free survival compared to the patients with low expression (P = 0.026 and .009). A prognostic significance of CYP24A1 was also found in the subgroup of venous permeation condition classification. A multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that CYP24A1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for CRC recurrence (P = .032). In conclusion, CYP24A1 expression is closely associated with CRC progression, and it might be a novel prognostic biomarker for CRC. PMID:26997443

  5. A Function for the hnRNP A1/A2 Proteins in Transcription Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux, Bruno; Blanchette, Marco; Monette, Anne; Mouland, Andrew J.; Wellinger, Raymund J.; Chabot, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    The hnRNP A1 and A2 proteins regulate processes such as alternative pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA stability. Here, we report that a reduction in the levels of hnRNP A1 and A2 by RNA interference or their cytoplasmic retention by osmotic stress drastically increases the transcription of a reporter gene. Based on previous work, we propose that this effect may be linked to a decrease in the activity of the transcription elongation factor P-TEFb. Consistent with this hypothesis, the transcription of the reporter gene was stimulated when the catalytic component of P-TEFb, CDK9, was inhibited with DRB. While low levels of A1/A2 stimulated the association of RNA polymerase II with the reporter gene, they also increased the association of CDK9 with the repressor 7SK RNA, and compromised the recovery of promoter-distal transcription on the Kitlg gene after the release of pausing. Transcriptome analysis revealed that more than 50% of the genes whose expression was affected by the siRNA-mediated depletion of A1/A2 were also affected by DRB. RNA polymerase II-chromatin immunoprecipitation assays on DRB-treated and A1/A2-depleted cells identified a common set of repressed genes displaying increased occupancy of polymerases at promoter-proximal locations, consistent with pausing. Overall, our results suggest that lowering the levels of hnRNP A1/A2 elicits defective transcription elongation on a fraction of P-TEFb-dependent genes, hence favoring the transcription of P-TEFb-independent genes. PMID:26011126

  6. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336

  7. Automated Factor Slice Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Tibbits, Matthew M.; Groendyke, Chris; Haran, Murali; Liechty, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms offer a very general approach for sampling from arbitrary distributions. However, designing and tuning MCMC algorithms for each new distribution, can be challenging and time consuming. It is particularly difficult to create an efficient sampler when there is strong dependence among the variables in a multivariate distribution. We describe a two-pronged approach for constructing efficient, automated MCMC algorithms: (1) we propose the factor slice sampler, a generalization of the univariate slice sampler where we treat the selection of a coordinate basis (factors) as an additional tuning parameter, and (2) we develop an approach for automatically selecting tuning parameters in order to construct an efficient factor slice sampler. In addition to automating the factor slice sampler, our tuning approach also applies to the standard univariate slice samplers. We demonstrate the efficiency and general applicability of our automated MCMC algorithm with a number of illustrative examples. PMID:24955002

  8. Automated Factor Slice Sampling.

    PubMed

    Tibbits, Matthew M; Groendyke, Chris; Haran, Murali; Liechty, John C

    2014-01-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms offer a very general approach for sampling from arbitrary distributions. However, designing and tuning MCMC algorithms for each new distribution, can be challenging and time consuming. It is particularly difficult to create an efficient sampler when there is strong dependence among the variables in a multivariate distribution. We describe a two-pronged approach for constructing efficient, automated MCMC algorithms: (1) we propose the "factor slice sampler", a generalization of the univariate slice sampler where we treat the selection of a coordinate basis (factors) as an additional tuning parameter, and (2) we develop an approach for automatically selecting tuning parameters in order to construct an efficient factor slice sampler. In addition to automating the factor slice sampler, our tuning approach also applies to the standard univariate slice samplers. We demonstrate the efficiency and general applicability of our automated MCMC algorithm with a number of illustrative examples. PMID:24955002

  9. von Willebrand Factor Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Function Tests , Complete Blood Count , Coagulation Factor VIII , PT , PTT At a Glance Test Sample The Test ... platelet function tests (e.g., platelet aggregation, etc.), PT (prothrombin time) , and/or PTT (partial thromboplastin time) . ...

  10. Aerospace Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    The following contains the final report on the activities related to the Cooperative Agreement between the human factors research group at NASA Ames Research Center and the Psychology Department at San Jose State University. The participating NASA Ames division has been, as the organization has changed, the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division (ASHFRD and Code FL), the Flight Management and Human Factors Research Division (Code AF), and the Human Factors Research and Technology Division (Code IH). The inclusive dates for the report are November 1, 1984 to January 31, 1999. Throughout the years, approximately 170 persons worked on the cooperative agreements in one capacity or another. The Cooperative Agreement provided for research personnel to collaborate with senior scientists in ongoing NASA ARC research. Finally, many post-MA/MS and post-doctoral personnel contributed to the projects. It is worth noting that 10 former cooperative agreement personnel were hired into civil service positions directly from the agreements.

  11. Internal velocity factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cathcart, J. R.; Frank, A. J.; Massaglia, J. L.

    1968-01-01

    Computer program analyzes the entries and planetary trajectories of space vehicles. It obtains the equivalence of altitude and flight path angle, respectively, to acceleration load factor with respect to velocity for a given inertial velocity.

  12. New microbial growth factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bok, S. H.; Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A screening procedure was used to isolate from soil a Penicillium sp., two bacterial isolates, and a Streptomyces sp. that produced a previously unknown microbial growth factor. This factor was an absolute growth requirement for three soil bacteria. The Penicillium sp. and one of the bacteria requiring the factor, an Arthrobacter sp., were selected for more extensive study concerning the production and characteristics of the growth factor. It did not seem to be related to the siderochromes. It was not present in soil extract, rumen fluid, or any other medium component tested. It appears to be a glycoprotein of high molecular weight and has high specific activity. When added to the diets for a meadow-vole mammalian test system, it caused an increased consumption of diet without a concurrent increase in rate of weight gain.

  13. Tracking Diabetes: New York City's A1C Registry

    PubMed Central

    Chamany, Shadi; Silver, Lynn D; Bassett, Mary T; Driver, Cynthia R; Berger, Diana K; Neuhaus, Charlotte E; Kumar, Namrata; Frieden, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    Context: In December 2005, in characterizing diabetes as an epidemic, the New York City Board of Health mandated the laboratory reporting of hemoglobin A1C laboratory test results. This mandate established the United States’ first population-based registry to track the level of blood sugar control in people with diabetes. But mandatory A1C reporting has provoked debate regarding the role of public health agencies in the control of noncommunicable diseases and, more specifically, both privacy and the doctor-patient relationship. Methods: This article reviews the rationale for adopting the rule requiring the reporting of A1C test results, experience with its implementation, and criticisms raised in the context of the history of public health practice. Findings: For many decades, public health agencies have used identifiable information collected through mandatory laboratory reporting to monitor the population's health and develop programs for the control of communicable and noncommunicable diseases. The registry program sends quarterly patient rosters stratified by A1C level to more than one thousand medical providers, and it also sends letters, on the provider's letterhead whenever possible, to patients at risk of diabetes complications (A1C level >9 percent), advising medical follow-up. The activities of the registry program are similar to those of programs for other reportable conditions and constitute a joint effort between a governmental public health agency and medical providers to improve patients’ health outcomes. Conclusions: Mandatory reporting has proven successful in helping combat other major epidemics. New York City's A1C Registry activities combine both traditional and novel public health approaches to reduce the burden of an epidemic chronic disease, diabetes. Despite criticism that mandatory reporting compromises individuals’ right to privacy without clear benefit, the early feedback has been positive and suggests that the benefits will outweigh the potential harms. Further evaluation will provide additional information that other local health jurisdictions may use in designing their strategies to address chronic disease. PMID:19751279

  14. An Autoregulatory Loop Controlling CYP1A1 Gene Expression: Role of H2O2 and NFI

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Yannick; Mermod, Nicolas; Barouki, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), like many monooxygenases, can produce reactive oxygen species during its catalytic cycle. Apart from the well-characterized xenobiotic-elicited induction, the regulatory mechanisms involved in the control of the steady-state activity of CYP1A1 have not been elucidated. We show here that reactive oxygen species generated from the activity of CYP1A1 limit the levels of induced CYP1A1 mRNAs. The mechanism involves the repression of the CYP1A1 gene promoter activity in a negative-feedback autoregulatory loop. Indeed, increasing the CYP1A1 activity by transfecting CYP1A1 expression vectors into hepatoma cells elicited an oxidative stress and led to the repression of a reporter gene driven by the CYP1A1 gene promoter. This negative autoregulation is abolished by ellipticine (an inhibitor of CYP1A1) and by catalase (which catalyzes H2O2 catabolism), thus implying that H2O2 is an intermediate. Down-regulation is also abolished by the mutation of the proximal nuclear factor I (NFI) site in the promoter. The transactivating domain of NFI/CTF was found to act in synergy with the arylhydrocarbon receptor pathway during the induction of CYP1A1 by 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-p-dibenzodioxin. Using an NFI/CTF-Gal4 fusion, we show that NFI/CTF transactivating function is decreased by a high activity of CYP1A1. This regulation is also abolished by catalase or ellipticine. Consistently, the transactivating function of NFI/CTF is repressed in cells treated with H2O2, a novel finding indicating that the transactivating domain of a transcription factor can be targeted by oxidative stress. In conclusion, an autoregulatory loop leads to the fine tuning of the CYP1A1 gene expression through the down-regulation of NFI activity by CYP1A1-based H2O2 production. This mechanism allows a limitation of the potentially toxic CYP1A1 activity within the cell. PMID:10490621

  15. FGF growth factor analogs

    DOEpatents

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua; Takahashi, Kazuyuki

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  16. The collective excitations in3He-A1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusov, P. B.; Lomakov, M. V.

    1991-10-01

    The collective mode spectrum of the superfluid A1-phase of3He is calculated by a path integration technique. It is shown that there is one pairbreaking mode E(k=0)?0 (1, 96-i0, 31) and two clapping modes E(k=0)?0(1, 17-i0, 13), eight modes E=2H and one goldstone mode E=0. Six other modes have an imaginary spectrum. This fact is connected with the instability of the A1-phase under small perturbations.

  17. HnRNP A1 controls a splicing regulatory circuit promoting mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition

    PubMed Central

    Bonomi, Serena; di Matteo, Anna; Buratti, Emanuele; Cabianca, Daphne S.; Baralle, Francisco E.; Ghigna, Claudia; Biamonti, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an embryonic program used by cancer cells to acquire invasive capabilities becoming metastatic. ?Ron, a constitutively active isoform of the Ron tyrosine kinase receptor, arises from skipping of Ron exon 11 and provided the first example of an alternative splicing variant causatively linked to the activation of tumor EMT. Splicing of exon 11 is controlled by two adjacent regulatory elements, a silencer and an enhancer of splicing located in exon 12. The alternative splicing factor and oncoprotein SRSF1 directly binds to the enhancer, induces the production of ?Ron and activates EMT leading to cell locomotion. Interestingly, we now find an important role for hnRNP A1 in controlling the activity of the Ron silencer. HnRNP A1 is able to antagonize the binding of SRSF1 and prevent exon skipping. Notably, hnRNP A1, by inhibiting the production of ?Ron, activates the reversal program, namely the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, which instead occurs at the final metastasis sites. Also, hnRNP A1 affects Ron splicing by regulating the expression level of hnRNP A2/B1, which similarly to SRSF1 can promote ?Ron production. These results shed light on how splicing regulation contributes to the tumor progression and provide potential targets to develop anticancer therapies. PMID:23863836

  18. Cytochrome P450 CYP1A1: wider roles in cancer progression and prevention

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    CYP1A1 is one of the main cytochrome P450 enzymes, examined extensively for its capacity to activate compounds with carcinogenic properties. Continuous exposure to inhalation chemicals and environmental carcinogens is thought to increase the level of CYP1A1 expression in extrahepatic tissues, through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Although the latter has long been recognized as a ligand-induced transcription factor, which is responsible for the xenobiotic activating pathway of several phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes, recent evidence suggests that the AhR is involved in various cell signaling pathways critical to cell cycle regulation and normal homeostasis. Disregulation of these pathways is implicated in tumor progression. In addition, it is becoming increasingly evident that CYP1A1 plays an important role in the detoxication of environmental carcinogens, as well as in the metabolic activation of dietary compounds with cancer preventative activity. Ultimately the contribution of CYP1A1 to cancer progression or prevention may depend on the balance of procarcinogen activation/detoxication and dietary natural product extrahepatic metabolism. PMID:19531241

  19. hnRNP A1: the Swiss army knife of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Jean-Philippe, Jacques; Paz, Sean; Caputi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells express a large variety of RNA binding proteins (RBPs), with diverse affinities and specificities towards target RNAs. These proteins play a crucial role in almost every aspect of RNA biogenesis, expression and function. The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are a complex and diverse family of RNA binding proteins. hnRNPs display multiple functions in the processing of heterogeneous nuclear RNAs into mature messenger RNAs. hnRNP A1 is one of the most abundant and ubiquitously expressed members of this protein family. hnRNP A1 plays multiple roles in gene expression by regulating major steps in the processing of nascent RNA transcripts. The transcription, splicing, stability, export through nuclear pores and translation of cellular and viral transcripts are all mechanisms modulated by this protein. The diverse functions played by hnRNP A1 are not limited to mRNA biogenesis, but extend to the processing of microRNAs, telomere maintenance and the regulation of transcription factor activity. Genomic approaches have recently uncovered the extent of hnRNP A1 roles in the development and differentiation of living organisms. The aim of this review is to highlight recent developments in the study of this protein and to describe its functions in cellular and viral gene expression and its role in human pathologies. PMID:24065100

  20. Crucial role for the VWF A1 domain in binding to type IV collagen.

    PubMed

    Flood, Veronica H; Schlauderaff, Abraham C; Haberichter, Sandra L; Slobodianuk, Tricia L; Jacobi, Paula M; Bellissimo, Daniel B; Christopherson, Pamela A; Friedman, Kenneth D; Gill, Joan Cox; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Montgomery, Robert R

    2015-04-01

    Von Willebrand factor (VWF) contains binding sites for platelets and for vascular collagens to facilitate clot formation at sites of injury. Although previous work has shown that VWF can bind type IV collagen (collagen 4), little characterization of this interaction has been performed. We examined the binding of VWF to collagen 4 in vitro and extended this characterization to a murine model of defective VWF-collagen 4 interactions. The interactions of VWF and collagen 4 were further studied using plasma samples from a large study of both healthy controls and subjects with different types of von Willebrand disease (VWD). Our results show that collagen 4 appears to bind VWF exclusively via the VWF A1 domain, and that specific sequence variations identified through VWF patient samples and through site-directed mutagenesis in the VWF A1 domain can decrease or abrogate this interaction. In addition, VWF-dependent platelet binding to collagen 4 under flow conditions requires an intact VWF A1 domain. We observed that decreased binding to collagen 4 was associated with select VWF A1 domain sequence variations in type 1 and type 2M VWD. This suggests an additional mechanism through which VWF variants may alter hemostasis. PMID:25662333

  1. Interest rates factor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangwook; Kim, Min Jae; Kim, Soo Yong

    2011-07-01

    Interdependence of the interest rates of the US, the UK, and Japan is analyzed in this work by means of spectral analysis and network methods. A predominant effective factor in the interest rate market is which country floats a bond issue, and a minor effective factor is time to maturity of bonds. Power-law cross-correlation among different countries is analyzed by the detrended cross-correlation analysis method. Long-range cross-correlation is found between the first factors of interest rate, while there is no cross-correlation between some of the second factors. The tail dependency is indicated by tail indices from Archimedean copulas, including an empirical copula. In contrast to other pairs, the US-UK first factor pair has tail dependencies in both the upper-tail and lower-tail. Dynamic properties of interest rate are modeled by a stochastic volatility model. The properties of mean reverting and volatility clustering are observed and reflected in this model. The proposed simulation method combines the dependence structures and the factor dynamics model; it simultaneously describes the interest rates of different countries.

  2. [Laryngeal cancer risk factors].

    PubMed

    Jurkiewicz, Dariusz; Dzaman, Karolina; Rapiejko, Piotr

    2006-07-01

    Laryngeal cancer is the most common of head and neck cancers. Neoplasm used to develop basing on DNA mutation which leads to uncontrolled growth and cells' division. It is due to spontaneous mutations or influence of chemical, biological and physical factors. Laryngeal cancer generation is conditioned by many synergic factors. Some of them certainly participate in cancer genesis and this thesis is accepted by medical environment and other of them have been discussed giving different information. Definition of the risk factors role in laryngeal cancer etiology is very difficult especially regarding their contemporary occurrence in one person. Most common risk factors are environmental factors, gastroesophageal reflux, viral infections, diet, radiation, individual predisposition. Some of them, such as cigarette smoking and abuse alcohol are significantly oftener confirmed in patients with neoplasm diagnosis and others' role in developing of illness has been still researched. Thus the purpose of the study was to present so far achievements in laryngeal cancer etiology and to emphasize controversies relating to some factors' role in cancer genesis. PMID:17007303

  3. Analysis of energy production at a 1 MW CPV site in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, John; Jensen, Steffen; Melia, Jane

    2012-10-01

    SolFocus has been operating a 1 MW CPV site at Victor Valley College in the southern Mojave Desert of California for over 21 months. Data gathered from site monitoring equipment as well as from nearby weather stations has enabled a detailed analysis of energy production and an in-depth evaluation of our energy prediction model. This paper reviews the results of this analysis, and presents our detailed findings on the relationships between energy production and several environmental factors such as wind speed and humidity.

  4. Energetic Cavitation Collapse Generates 3.2 Mbar Plasma with a 1.4 J Driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, Marc C.; Pitz, Robert W.

    2013-04-01

    A tabletop device uses 1.4 J to drive the symmetric collapse of a 1.8 mm radius vapor bubble in water at 22 bar. Single shot streak imaging reveals a stagnation plasma of 28 micron radius at over 12 000 K and an unprecedented pressure of 3.2 Mbar. Compared to sonoluminescence, the most commonly studied cavitation mechanism, this event is greater by factors of 30-40 in size, 1 000 000 in energy, and 100 in stagnation pressure. This regime of high energy density has previously been accessible only in massive facilities with very low repetition rates.

  5. Purification and structural characterisation of phospholipase A1 (Vespapase, Ves a 1) from Thai banded tiger wasp (Vespa affinis) venom.

    PubMed

    Sukprasert, Sophida; Rungsa, Prapenpuksiri; Uawonggul, Nunthawun; Incamnoi, Paroonkorn; Thammasirirak, Sompong; Daduang, Jureerut; Daduang, Sakda

    2013-01-01

    The Thai banded tiger wasp (Vespa affinis) is one of the most dangerous vespid species in Southeast Asia, and stinging accidents involving this species still cause fatalities. In the present study, four forms of V. affinis phospholipase A(1) were identified through a proteomics approach. Two of these enzymes were purified by reverse-phase chromatography, and their biochemical properties were characterised. These enzymes, designated Ves a 1s, are not glycoproteins and exist as 33441.5 and 33474.4 Da proteins, which corresponded with the 34-kDa band observed via SDS-PAGE. The thermal stabilities of these enzymes were stronger than snake venom. Using an in vivo assay, no difference was found in the toxicities of the different isoforms. Furthermore, the toxicity of these enzymes does not appear to be correlated with their PLA(1) activity. The cDNAs of the full-length version of Ves a 1s revealed that the Ves a 1 gene consists of a 1005-bp ORF, which encodes 334 amino acid residues, and 67- and 227-bp 5' and 3' UTRs, respectively. The two isoforms are different by three nucleotide substitutions, resulting in the replacement of two amino acids. Through sequence alignment, these enzymes were classified as members of the pancreatic lipase family. The structural modelling of Ves a 1 used the rat pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (1bu8A) as a template because it has PLA(1) activity, which demonstrated that this enzyme belongs to the α/β hydrolase fold family. The Ves a 1 structure, which is composed of seven α-helixes and eleven β-strands, contains the β-strand/ɛSer/α-helix structural motif, which contains the Gly-X-Ser-X-Gly consensus sequence. The typical surface structures that play important roles in substrate selectivity (the lid domain and the β9 loop) were shortened in the Ves a 1 structure, which suggests that this enzyme may only exhibit phospholipase activity. Moreover, the observed insertion of proline into the lid domain of the Ves a 1 structure is rare. We therefore propose that this proline residue might be involved in the stability and activity of Ves a 1s. PMID:23159790

  6. Benzodi(pyridothiophene): a novel acceptor unit for application in A1-A-A1 type photovoltaic small molecules.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianhua; Xiao, Manjun; Duan, Linrui; Wang, Qiong; Tan, Hua; Su, Ning; Liu, Yu; Yang, Renqiang; Zhu, Weiguo

    2016-01-21

    A series of novel A1-A-A1 type small molecules (SMs) of BDPT-2BT, BDPT-2FBT and BDPT-2DPP were designed and synthesized, in which benzodi(pyridothiophene) (BDPT) was used as a novel weak central acceptor (A) unit, and benzothiadiazole (BT), fluorinated benzothiadiazole (FBT) and diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) were used as terminal acceptor (A1) units, respectively. The pentacyclic BDPT aromatic unit can form big conjugated and planar SMs with the A1 unit, resulting in enhanced π-π stacking and crystallinity. The effect of the A1 unit on the optical, electrochemical and photovoltaic properties of three SMs was observed. The broader absorption spectrum, lower HOMO energy level, higher photo-response efficiency and better photovoltaic properties were exhibited for BDPT-2DPP. A maximum PCE of 3.97% with a Voc of 0.84 V, a Jsc of 9.0 mA cm(-2) and a FF of 52.37% was obtained in the BDPT-2DPP/PC71BM-based solar cells, which is 1.8 and 1.5 times the values of the BDPT-2BT and BDPT-2FBT-based cells, respectively. PMID:26667581

  7. Induction and regulation of the carcinogen-metabolizing enzyme CYP1A1 by marijuana smoke and delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Roth, M D; Marques-Magallanes, J A; Yuan, M; Sun, W; Tashkin, D P; Hankinson, O

    2001-03-01

    Induction of the carcinogen-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) is a key step in the development of tobacco-related cancers. To determine if marijuana smoke activates CYP1A1, a murine hepatoma cell line expressing an inducible CYP1A1 gene (Hepa-1) was exposed in vitro to tar extracts prepared from either tobacco, marijuana, or placebo marijuana cigarettes. Marijuana tar induced higher levels of CYP1A1 messenger RNA (mRNA) than did tobacco tar, yet resulted in much lower CYP1A1 enzyme activity. These differences between marijuana and tobacco were primarily due to Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana. Here we show that Delta(9)-THC acts through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor complex to activate transcription of CYP1A1. A 2-microg/ml concentration of Delta(9)-THC produced an average 2.5-fold induction of CYP1A1 mRNA, whereas a 10- microg/ml concentration of Delta(9)-THC produced a 4.3-fold induction. No induction was observed in Hepa-1 mutants lacking functional aryl-hydrocarbon receptor or aryl-hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator genes. At the same time, Delta(9)-THC competitively inhibited the CYP1A1 enzyme, reducing its ability to metabolize other substrates. Spiking tobacco tar with Delta(9)-THC resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the ability to generate CYP1A1 enzyme activity as measured by the ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) assay. This inhibitory effect was confirmed by Michaelis-Menton kinetic analyses using recombinant human CYP1A1 enzyme expressed in insect microsomes. This complex regulation of CYP1A1 by marijuana smoke and the Delta(9)-THC that it contains has implications for the role of marijuana as a cancer risk factor. PMID:11245634

  8. Role of extrahepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1: Advances in understanding breast milk-induced neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Ryoichi; Maruo, Yoshihiro; Chen, Shujuan; Tukey, Robert H

    2015-11-15

    Newborns commonly develop physiological hyperbilirubinemia (also known as jaundice). With increased bilirubin levels being observed in breast-fed infants, breast-feeding has been recognized as a contributing factor for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Bilirubin undergoes selective metabolism by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 and becomes a water soluble glucuronide. Although several factors such as gestational age, dehydration and weight loss, and increased enterohepatic circulation have been associated with breast milk-induced jaundice (BMJ), deficiency in UGT1A1 expression is a known cause of BMJ. It is currently believed that unconjugated bilirubin is metabolized mainly in the liver. However, recent findings support the concept that extrahepatic tissues, such as small intestine and skin, contribute to bilirubin glucuronidation during the neonatal period. We will review the recent advances made towards understanding biological and molecular events impacting BMJ, especially regarding the role of extrahepatic UGT1A1 expression. PMID:26342858

  9. POSS dendrimers constructed from a 1 ? 7 branching monomer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing; Yang, Yanyu; Gao, Peiyuan; Li, Dan; Yang, Fei; Shen, Hong; Guo, Hongxia; Xu, Fujian; Wu, Decheng

    2014-06-11

    Here, we demonstrate the first known approach to create G1 and G2 POSS dendrimers with 9 and 65 POSS units, and 56 and 392 terminal vinyl groups from a 1 ? 7 branching monomer in only one and three steps. PMID:24776952

  10. The Heart of a 1:1 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulbert, Carrie Ann

    2012-01-01

    Many educators believe that the act of building relationships is the core of learning. When technology is integrated into every classroom, do relationships improve or disintegrate among the key stakeholders in an educational environment? The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which technology in a 1:1 school district can alter

  11. Regulatory analysis for USI A-1, Water Hammer

    SciTech Connect

    Serkiz, A.W.

    1984-03-01

    This is the staff's regulatory analysis dealing with the resolution of the Unresolved Safety Issue A-1, Water Hammer. This report contains the value-impact analysis for this issue, public comments received, and staff response, or action taken, in response to those comments. The staff's technical findings regarding water hammer in nuclear power plants are contained in NUREG-0927.

  12. Milk A1 and A2 peptides and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Roger A

    2011-01-01

    Food-derived peptides, specifically those derived from milk, may adversely affect health by increasing the risk of insulin-dependent diabetes. This position is based on the relationship of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and the consumption of variants A1 and B ?-casein from cow's milk. It appears that ?-casomorphin-7 (BCM-7) from ?-casein may function as an immunosuppressant and impair tolerance to dietary antigens in the gut immune system, which, in turn, may contribute to the onset of T1D. There are thirteen genetic variants of ?-casein in dairy cattle. Among those variants are A1, A2, and B, which are also found in human milk. The amino acid sequences of ?-casomorphins among these bovine variants and those found in human milk are similar, often differing only by a single amino acid. In vitro studies indicate BCM-7 can be produced from A1 and B during typical digestive processes; however, BCM-7 is not a product of A2 digestion. Evidence from several epidemiological studies and animal models does not support the association of milk proteins, even proteins in breast milk, and the development of T1D. Ecological data, primarily based on A1/ A2 variations among livestock breeds, do not demonstrate causation, even among countries where there is considerable dairy consumption. PMID:21335999

  13. 29 CFR 1912a.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH 1912a.1 Purpose and scope. (a) Section 7(a) of the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 establishes a...

  14. 26 CFR 1.926(a)-1 - Distributions to shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... either of the administrative pricing methods of section 925(a)(1) or (2), (D) Out of earnings and profits... income and other exempt foreign trade income determined under either of the administrative pricing... earnings and profits attributable to other exempt foreign trade income determined under the...

  15. 26 CFR 1.926(a)-1 - Distributions to shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... either of the administrative pricing methods of section 925(a)(1) or (2), (D) Out of earnings and profits... income and other exempt foreign trade income determined under either of the administrative pricing... earnings and profits attributable to other exempt foreign trade income determined under the...

  16. 26 CFR 1.926(a)-1 - Distributions to shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... either of the administrative pricing methods of section 925(a)(1) or (2), (D) Out of earnings and profits... income and other exempt foreign trade income determined under either of the administrative pricing... earnings and profits attributable to other exempt foreign trade income determined under the...

  17. 26 CFR 1.926(a)-1 - Distributions to shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... either of the administrative pricing methods of section 925(a)(1) or (2), (D) Out of earnings and profits... income and other exempt foreign trade income determined under either of the administrative pricing... earnings and profits attributable to other exempt foreign trade income determined under the...

  18. 26 CFR 1.926(a)-1 - Distributions to shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the administrative pricing methods of section 925(a)(1) or (2), (D) Out of earnings and profits... income and other exempt foreign trade income determined under either of the administrative pricing... earnings and profits attributable to other exempt foreign trade income determined under the...

  19. The allosteric binding sites of sulfotransferase 1A1.

    PubMed

    Cook, Ian; Wang, Ting; Falany, Charles N; Leyh, Thomas S

    2015-03-01

    Human sulfotransferases (SULTs) comprise a small, 13-member enzyme family that regulates the activities of thousands of compounds-endogenous metabolites, drugs, and other xenobiotics. SULTs transfer the sulfuryl-moiety (-SO3) from a nucleotide donor, PAPS (3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate), to the hydroxyls and primary amines of acceptors. SULT1A1, a progenitor of the family, has evolved to sulfonate compounds that are remarkably structurally diverse. SULT1A1, which is found in many tissues, is the predominant SULT in liver, where it is a major component of phase II metabolism. Early work demonstrated that catechins and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs inhibit SULT1A1 and suggested that the inhibition was not competitive versus substrates. Here, the mechanism of inhibition of a single, high affinity representative from each class [epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and mefenamic acid] is determined using initial-rate and equilibrium-binding studies. The findings reveal that the inhibitors bind at sites separate from those of substrates, and at saturation turnover of the enzyme is reduced to a nonzero value. Further, the EGCG inhibition patterns suggest a molecular explanation for its isozyme specificity. Remarkably, the inhibitors bind at sites that are separate from one another, and binding at one site does not affect affinity at the other. For the first time, it is clear that SULT1A1 is allosterically regulated, and that it contains at least two, functionally distinct allosteric sites, each of which responds to a different class of compounds. PMID:25534770

  20. 17 CFR 240.14a-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14a: Solicitation of Proxies § 240.14a-1 Definitions. Unless the context... proxies are to be solicited or if the solicitation involves written authorizations or consents in lieu of a meeting, the earliest date they may be used to effect corporate action. (f) Proxy. The term...

  1. 26 CFR 1.402A-1 - Designated Roth Accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.402A-1 Designated Roth Accounts... accounting for designated Roth contributions as investment in the contract for purposes of section 72 and...)? A-8. (a) There is no relationship between the accounting for designated Roth contributions...

  2. 26 CFR 1.402A-1 - Designated Roth Accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.402A-1 Designated... Roth account. Q-8. What is the relationship between the accounting for designated Roth contributions as... accounting for designated Roth contributions as investment in the contract for purposes of section 72...

  3. 26 CFR 1.167(a)-1 - Depreciation in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Depreciation in general. 1.167(a)-1 Section 1... Depreciation in general. (a) Reasonable allowance. Section 167(a) provides that a reasonable allowance for the... the taxpayer for the production of income shall be allowed as a depreciation deduction. The...

  4. 26 CFR 1.167(a)-1 - Depreciation in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Depreciation in general. 1.167(a)-1 Section 1... Depreciation in general. (a) Reasonable allowance. Section 167(a) provides that a reasonable allowance for the... the taxpayer for the production of income shall be allowed as a depreciation deduction. The...

  5. 26 CFR 1.167(a)-1 - Depreciation in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Depreciation in general. 1.167(a)-1 Section 1... Depreciation in general. (a) Reasonable allowance. Section 167(a) provides that a reasonable allowance for the... the taxpayer for the production of income shall be allowed as a depreciation deduction. The...

  6. 26 CFR 1.167(a)-1 - Depreciation in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Depreciation in general. 1.167(a)-1 Section 1... Depreciation in general. (a) Reasonable allowance. Section 167(a) provides that a reasonable allowance for the... the taxpayer for the production of income shall be allowed as a depreciation deduction. The...

  7. 26 CFR 1.167(a)-1 - Depreciation in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Depreciation in general. 1.167(a)-1 Section 1... Depreciation in general. (a) Reasonable allowance. Section 167(a) provides that a reasonable allowance for the... the taxpayer for the production of income shall be allowed as a depreciation deduction. The...

  8. Design and Interpretation of Human Sulfotransferase A1 Assays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Cook, Ian; Leyh, Thomas S

    2016-04-01

    The human sulfotransferases (SULTs) regulate the activities of hundreds, if not thousands, of small molecule metabolites via transfer of the sulfuryl-moiety (-SO3) from the nucleotide donor, 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) to the hydroxyls and amines of the recipients. Our understanding of the molecular basis of SULT catalysis has expanded considerably in recent years. The basic kinetic mechanism of these enzymes, previously thought to be ordered, has been redefined as random for SULT2A1, a representative member of the superfamily. An active-site cap whose structure and dynamics are highly responsive to nucleotides was discovered and shown to be critical in determining SULT selectivity, a topic of longstanding interest to the field. We now realize that a given SULT can operate in two specificity modes-broad and narrow-depending on the disposition of the cap. More recent work has revealed that the caps of the SULT1A1 are controlled by homotropic allosteric interactions between PAPS molecules bound at the dimer's active sites. These interactions cause the catalytic efficiency of SULT1A1 to vary in a substrate-dependent fashion by as much as two orders of magnitude over a range of PAPS concentrations that spans those found in human tissues. SULT catalysis is further complicated by the fact that these enzymes are frequently inhibited by their substrates. This review provides an overview of the mechanistic features of SULT1A1 that are important for the design and interpretation of SULT1A1 assays. PMID:26658224

  9. Craniofacial cartilage morphogenesis requires zebrafish col11a1 activity.

    PubMed

    Baas, Dominique; Malbouyres, Maryline; Haftek-Terreau, Zofia; Le Guellec, Dominique; Ruggiero, Florence

    2009-10-01

    The zebrafish ortholog of the human COL11A1 gene encoding the cartilage collagen XI proalpha1 chain was characterized to explore its function in developing zebrafish using the morpholino-based knockdown strategy. We showed that its expression in zebrafish is developmentally regulated. A low expression level was detected by real-time PCR during the early stages of development. At 24 hpf, a sharp peak of expression was observed. At that stage, in situ hybridization indicated that col11a1 transcripts are restricted to notochord. At 48 hpf, they were exclusively detected in the craniofacial skeleton, endoskeleton of pectoral fins and in otic vesicles. Collagen XI alpha1-deficient zebrafish embryos developed defects in craniofacial cartilage formation and in notochord morphology. Neural crest specification and mesenchymal condensation occurred normally in morpholino-injected embryos. Col11a1 depletion affected the spatial organization of chondrocytes, the shaping of cartilage elements, and the maturation of chondrocytes to hypertrophy. Knockdown of col11a1 in embryos stimulated the expression of the marker of chondrocyte differentiation col2a1, resulting in the deposit of abnormally thick and sparse fibrils in the cartilage extracellular matrix. The extracellular matrix organization of the perichordal sheath was also altered and led to notochord distortion. The data underscore the importance of collagen XI in the development of a functional cartilage matrix. Moreover, the defects observed in cartilage formation resemble those observed in human chondrodysplasia such as the Stickler/Marshall syndrome. Zebrafish represent a novel reliable vertebrate model for collagen XI collagenopathies. PMID:19638309

  10. Vibration-rotational intensities for the X 1Sigma(+) state of A1H and A1D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tipping, R. H.; Pineiro, A. Lopez; Chackerian, C., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    In the present calculation of vibrational-rotational line strengths for the ground electronic state of A1H and A1D, the vibrational and rotational quantum numbers used are respectively in the Delta-v zero-5 range for v-prime between zero and 15, and J-prime-J of + or - 1 for J-prime in the zero-50 range. The transition matrix elements were obtained on the basis of the Meyer and Rosmus (1975) ab initio dipole-moment function, together with the numerical vibrational-rotational energy function.

  11. Anxiety Sensitivity and Panic Attacks: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wen; Zinbarg, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis that anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a risk factor for panic genesis has obtained compelling support, but the clinical/practical importance of AS in panic genesis has been questioned. In addition, the association between panic experience and AS increase has not been clearly demonstrated. Through this 1-year longitudinal study among

  12. Breast cancer risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ciszewski, Tomasz; Łopacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miotła, Paweł; Starosławska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110

  13. Breast cancer risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kami?ska, Marzena; Ciszewski, Tomasz; ?opacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miot?a, Pawe?; Staros?awska, El?bieta

    2015-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110

  14. A load factor formula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Roy G

    1927-01-01

    The ultimate test of a load factor formula is experience. The chief advantages of a semi rational formula over arbitrary factors are that it fairs in between points of experience and it differentiates according to variables within a type. Structural failure of an airplane apparently safe according to the formula would call for a specific change in the formula. The best class of airplanes with which to check a load factor formula seems to be those which have experienced structural failure. Table I comprises a list of the airplanes which have experienced failure in flight traceable to the wing structure. The load factor by formula is observed to be greater than the designed strength in each case, without a single exception. Table II comprises the load factor by formula with the designed strength of a number of well-known service types. The formula indicates that by far the majority of these have ample structural strength. One case considered here in deriving a suitable formula is that of a heavy load carrier of large size and practically no reserve power.

  15. The Orphan Nuclear Receptor NR4A1 (Nur77) Regulates Oxidative and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeong Han; Kim, Sang Bae; Guthrie, Aaron S.; Sreevalsan, Sandeep; Lee, Ju-Seog; Safe, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    NR4A1 (Nur77, TR3) is an orphan nuclear receptor that is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer and exhibits pro-oncogenic activity. RNAi interference of NR4A1 expression in Panc-1 cells induced apoptosis and subsequent proteomic analysis revealed the induction of several markers of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress including glucose-related protein 78 (GRP78), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP), and activating transcription factor-4 (ATF-4). Treatment of pancreatic cancer cells with the NR4A1 antagonist 1,1-bis(3?-indolyl)-1-(p-hydroxyphenyl)methane (DIM-C-pPhOH), gave similar results. Moreover, both NR4A1 knockdown and DIM-C-pPhOH induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), and induction of ROS and ER stress by these agents was attenuated after co-treatment with antioxidants. Manipulation of NR4A1 expression coupled with gene expression profiling identified a number of ROS metabolism transcripts regulated by NR4A1. Knockdown of one of these transcripts, thioredoxin domain containing 5 (TXNDC5), recapitulated the elevated ROS and ER stress; thus, demonstrating that NR4A1 regulates levels of ER stress and ROS in pancreatic cancer cells to facilitate cell proliferation and survival. Finally, inactivation of NR4A1 by knockdown or DIM-C-pPhOH decreased TXNDC5, resulting in activation of ROS/ER stress and pro-apoptotic pathways. PMID:24515801

  16. Apolipoprotein A1 as a novel anti-implantation biomarker in polycystic ovary syndrome: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Amjadi, Fatemehsadat; Aflatoonian, Reza; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjoo; Saifi, Bita; Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome have lower pregnancy rates, possibly due to the decreased uterine receptivity. Successful implantation depends on protein networks that are essential for cross-talk between the embryo and endometrium. Apolipoprotein A1 has been proposed as a putative anti-implantation factor. In this study, we evaluated apolipoprotein A1 expression in human endometrial tissues. Materials and Methods: Endometrial apolipoprotein A1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression were investigated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot. The distribution of apolipoprotein A1 was also detected by immunostaining. Samples were obtained from 10 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and 15 healthy fertile women in the proliferative (on day 2 or day 3 before ovulation, n = 7) and secretory (on days 3-5 after ovulation, n = 8) phases. Results: Endometrial apolipoprotein A1 expression was upregulated in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome compared to normal subjects. However, apolipoprotein A1 expression in the proliferative phase was significantly higher than in the luteal phase (P value < 0.05). Conclusion: It seems that differentially expressed apolipoprotein A1 negatively affects endometrial receptivity in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. The results showed that apolipoprotein A1 level significantly changes in the human endometrium during the menstrual cycle with minimum expression in the secretory phase, coincident with the receptive phase (window of implantation). Further studies are required to clarify the clinical application of this protein. PMID:26941806

  17. Psychological Factors in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Asthma has long been considered a condition in which psychological factors have a role. As in many illnesses, psychological variables may affect outcome in asthma via their effects on treatment adherence and symptom reporting. Emerging evidence suggests that the relation between asthma and psychological factors may be more complex than that, however. Central cognitive processes may influence not only the interpretation of asthma symptoms but also the manifestation of measurable changes in immune and physiologic markers of asthma. Furthermore, asthma and major depressive disorder share several risk factors and have similar patterns of dysregulation in key biologic systems, including the neuroendocrine stress response, cytokines, and neuropeptides. Despite the evidence that depression is common in people with asthma and exerts a negative impact on outcome, few treatment studies have examined whether improving symptoms of depression do, in fact, result in better control of asthma symptoms or improved quality of life in patients with asthma. PMID:20525122

  18. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  19. Multi-factor authentication

    DOEpatents

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-10-21

    Detection and deterrence of spoofing of user authentication may be achieved by including a cryptographic fingerprint unit within a hardware device for authenticating a user of the hardware device. The cryptographic fingerprint unit includes an internal physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a PUF value. Combining logic is coupled to receive the PUF value, combines the PUF value with one or more other authentication factors to generate a multi-factor authentication value. A key generator is coupled to generate a private key and a public key based on the multi-factor authentication value while a decryptor is coupled to receive an authentication challenge posed to the hardware device and encrypted with the public key and coupled to output a response to the authentication challenge decrypted with the private key.

  20. DSN human factors project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chafin, R. L.; Martin, T. H.

    1980-01-01

    The project plan was to hold focus groups to identify the factors influencing the ease of use characteristics of software and to bond the problem. A questionnaire survey was conducted to evaluate those factors which were more appropriately measured with that method. The performance oriented factors were analyzed and relationships hypothesized. The hypotheses were put to test in the experimental phase of the project. In summary, the initial analysis indicates that there is an initial performance effect favoring computer controlled dialogue but the advantage fades fast as operators become experienced. The user documentation style is seen to have a significant effect on performance. The menu and prompt command formats are preferred by inexperienced operators. The short form mnemonic is least favored. There is no clear best command format but the short form mnemonic is clearly the worst.

  1. Growth factors and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Sizonenko, Stphane V; Bednarek, Nathalie; Gressens, Pierre

    2007-08-01

    Neuroprotective strategies can prevent lesions from getting worse but agents that have neurotrophic properties can also affect repair in a developing brain. Although prevention and treatment in the early stages of brain lesions are desirable, delayed cell death or improved post-lesion plasticity are the only realistic targets in many cases. Several trophic factors can limit delayed cell death in animal models of perinatal brain damage. In addition, melatonin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor have been shown to promote post-lesion plasticity following neonatal excitotoxic white-matter damage in newborn mice. Despite these promising results, additional preclinical data are required for most of the trophic factors that have been tested, although some candidate drugs, e.g. melatonin or erythropoietin, might reach clinical trials in the near future. PMID:17336172

  2. DRD2 A1 allele and P300 abnormalities in obesity

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, K. |; Wood, R.; Sheridan, L.P.J.

    1994-09-01

    Obesity is a heterogeneous and prevalent disorder having both inheritable and environmental components. The role of the dopamine system in P300 has been implicated. We genotyped 193 neuropsychiatrically ill patients with and without comorbid drug and alcohol/abuse/dependence and obesity for the prevalence of the A1 allele of the DRD2 gene. We found a significant linear trend ({chi}{sup 2} = 40.4, df=1, p<0.00001) where the percent prevalence of the A1 increased with increasing polysubstance abuse. Where the A1 allele was found in 44% of 40 obese subjects, the A1 allele prevalence was found in as much as 91% of 11 obese subjects with comorbid polysubstance abuse. 53 obese subjects having a mean body weight (BMI) of 34.6{+-}8.2 were mapped for brain electrical activity and compared with 15 controls with a BMI of 22.3{+-}3.0 (P<.001). The P3 amplitude was significantly different (two tailed; t=3.24, df=16.2, P = 0.005), whereas P3 latency was not significant. Preliminarily, we found a significant decreased P3 amplitude correlated with parental polysubstance abuse (p=0.4) with prolongation of P3 latency correlated with the three risk factors of parental substance abuse, chemical dependency and carbohydrate bingeing (P<0.02). Finally, in a small sample, the A1 allele was present in 25% of probands having 0 risk compared to 66% in those obese subjects with any risk. This work represents the first electrophysiological data to implicate P3 abnormalities in a subset of obesity and further confirms an association of the DRD2 gene and a electrophysiological marker previously indicated to have predictive value in vulnerability to addictive behaviors.

  3. Factor D Enzyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The trauma caused by the open heart surgery often triggers massive inflammation because the immune system overreacts. Factor D, the protein which plays a key role in the biological steps that activate this immune response prevents the imune system from inappropriately rurning out of control, allowing the patient to recover more rapidly. Factor D blockers, with their great potential to alleviate the complication of inflammation associated with heart surgery, are now being developed for clinical trials. These new drugs, developed from space research, should be commercially available as soon as year 2001.

  4. WRKY transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Madhunita; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators found exclusively in plants. They have diverse biological functions in plant disease resistance, abiotic stress responses, nutrient deprivation, senescence, seed and trichome development, embryogenesis, as well as additional developmental and hormone-controlled processes. WRKYs can act as transcriptional activators or repressors, in various homo- and heterodimer combinations. Here we review recent progress on the function of WRKY transcription factors in Arabidopsis and other plant species such as rice, potato, and parsley, with a special focus on abiotic, developmental, and hormone-regulated processes. PMID:24492469

  5. Anti-nutritional Factors.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Anti-nutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid and cyanogen are as important as nutritional content of any edible plant part. The anti-nutritional factors can be defined as those substances generated in natural food substances by the normal metabolism of species and by different mechanisms (e.g. inactivation of some nutrients, diminution of the digestive process or metabolic utilization of feed) which exert effects contrary to optimum nutrition. Hence, trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid and cyanogens present in edibles with the methods in the chapter would be helpful. PMID:26939264

  6. The Transcription Factor Encyclopedia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130 mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable features of the TFe website include a high-quality PDF generator and web API for programmatic data retrieval. TFe aims to rapidly educate scientists about the TFs they encounter through the delivery of succinct summaries written and vetted by experts in the field. TFe is available at http://www.cisreg.ca/tfe. PMID:22458515

  7. A 1-GHz-clock Josephson microcomputer system

    SciTech Connect

    Yano, S.; Hatano, Y.; Mori, H.; Yamada, H.; Wakahara, K.; Hirano, M.; Kawat, U. . Central Research Lab.)

    1991-03-01

    This paper describes a 1-GHz-clock Josephson microcomputer system developed to demonstrate the possibility of a high-speed superconducting computer system. It consists of a 4b data processor chip and a 1 Kb RAM chip. For the fabrication of these Josephson integrated circuits, a cross-shaped Nb/A10x/Nb Josephson junction process has been developed to realize small junction size and improve critical current uniformity, and has made fabrication of LSIs with several thousand gates possible. A latch-up-free DC flip-flop is an important element in the high-speed Josephson logic and memory circuits, having been newly applied to an all-Dc-powdered Josephson RAM with asynchronous access capability.

  8. Metabolism of prostaglandins A1 and E1 in man.

    PubMed Central

    Golub, M; Zia, P; Matsuno, M; Horton, R

    1975-01-01

    To investigate the in vivo whole blood metabolic clearance rates and sites of metabolism of prostaglandins A1 and E1 in man, constant infusions of the tritiated compounds were administered to normal subjects and to patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. The whole blood metabolic clearance rate of [3H]prostaglandin A1 in eight men was 5,003 +/- 864 liters/day (SD) or 2,546 +/- 513 liters/day per m2 (SD). Nonradioactive prostaglandin A1 was similarly infused in two subjects, and the metabolic clearance rates were determined, utilizing a specific radioimmunoassay. The clearance rates with this method correlated closely with those determined by the isotope infusions. Extraction studies of prostaglandin A1 showed that pulmonary, splanchnic, renal, and extremity perfusions resulted in 8.1 +/- 4.1, 56.1 +/- 10.1, 50.3 +/- 3.4, and 34.4 +/- 5.9% (SEM) removal, respectively. With [3H]=prostaglandin E1, the whole blood metabolic clearance rate was determined from the pulmonary artery concentration in three patients and averaged 4,832 +/- 1,518 liters/day (SD) or 2,686 +/- 654 liters/day per m2 (SD). Pulmonary extraction was 67.8 +/- 6.8% (SEM) and extremity removal averaged 6.6 +/- 4.9% (SEM). These results indicate that A prostaglandins are metabolized by several organs, such as the liver and kidney, and possibly by intravascular pathways as well. In man, the E prostaglandins are primarily metabolized by the lung, but extraction is not complete and approximately one-third may escape lung metabolism. Thus, these findings suggest that both E and A prostaglandins in the venous circulation may reach the systemic circulation in man. PMID:1202078

  9. SPICE macromodel for a 1-megawatt power MOSFET switch

    SciTech Connect

    Helms, C.; Ackermann, M.; Fischer, T.; Deveney, M.

    1993-08-01

    This paper presents a SPICE macromodel for a 1-megawatt high power electrical switch which uses power MOSFETs as the active switching elements. The model accurately predicts the time dependent switching current and provides a reasonable representation of the time dependent switch resistance and voltage drop across the switch. Techniques for extracting model parameters for commercial power MOSFETs are discussed along with suggestions for extending the model to spark gaps and other high power switches.

  10. The Allosteric Binding Sites of Sulfotransferase 1A1

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Ian; Wang, Ting; Falany, Charles N.

    2015-01-01

    Human sulfotransferases (SULTs) comprise a small, 13-member enzyme family that regulates the activities of thousands of compounds—endogenous metabolites, drugs, and other xenobiotics. SULTs transfer the sulfuryl-moiety (–SO3) from a nucleotide donor, PAPS (3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate), to the hydroxyls and primary amines of acceptors. SULT1A1, a progenitor of the family, has evolved to sulfonate compounds that are remarkably structurally diverse. SULT1A1, which is found in many tissues, is the predominant SULT in liver, where it is a major component of phase II metabolism. Early work demonstrated that catechins and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs inhibit SULT1A1 and suggested that the inhibition was not competitive versus substrates. Here, the mechanism of inhibition of a single, high affinity representative from each class [epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and mefenamic acid] is determined using initial-rate and equilibrium-binding studies. The findings reveal that the inhibitors bind at sites separate from those of substrates, and at saturation turnover of the enzyme is reduced to a nonzero value. Further, the EGCG inhibition patterns suggest a molecular explanation for its isozyme specificity. Remarkably, the inhibitors bind at sites that are separate from one another, and binding at one site does not affect affinity at the other. For the first time, it is clear that SULT1A1 is allosterically regulated, and that it contains at least two, functionally distinct allosteric sites, each of which responds to a different class of compounds. PMID:25534770

  11. C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring vs. Mars)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorhead, Althea; Cooke, William

    2013-01-01

    Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring): recently discovered long period comet. Will have close encounter with Mars on October 19, 2014. Collision is extremely unlikely. Passing through the coma and/or tail is likely. Increases risk to Martian spacecraft. Meteoroids (100 microns or larger): approx. or <20% chance of impact per square meter due to coma and tail. Gas may also a ect Martian atmosphere.

  12. Optimization of chitin extraction from shrimp waste with Bacillus pumilus A1 using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Ghorbel-Bellaaj, Olfa; Hajji, Sawssen; Younes, Islem; Chaabouni, Moncef; Nasri, Moncef; Jellouli, Kemel

    2013-10-01

    Chitin extraction from shrimp shells by biological treatment, using the Bacilli Bacillus pumilus A1, is a non-polluting method and offers the opportunity to preserve the exceptional qualities of chitin and its derivatives. However, the major disadvantage of the fermentative way is the low efficiency of demineralization and deproteinization. The aim of this study is to improve the yield of extraction which depends on many factors, such as the medium composition and the physical parameters. In order to look for the optimal conditions, a Plackett and Burman design was carried out to screen eight factors influencing the deproteinization and demineralization efficiencies. The four most influencing variables were then examined to achieve the optimization using a central composite design. The results obtained showed that the optimal conditions were: shrimp shell concentration of 70 g/l, glucose concentration of 50 g/l, pH of 5.0 incubated with 0.225 OD of B. pumilus A1 inoculum, at 35 C and 150 rpm for 6 days in 500 ml flask containing 100 ml of working volume. These conditions led to 88% of demineralization and 94% of deproteinization. (13)C CP/MAS NMR spectral analysis of the chitin prepared was carried out and was found to be similar to that of the commercial ?-chitin. PMID:23831901

  13. Mutations in COL1A1 Gene Change Dentin Nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaohong; Liu, Zhenxia; Gan, Yunna; Xia, Dan; Li, Qiang; Li, Yanling; Yang, Jiaji; Gao, Shan; Dong, Mingdong

    2016-04-01

    Although many studies have attempted to associate specific gene mutations with dentin phenotypic severity, it remains unknown how the mutations in COL1A1 gene influence the mechanical behavior of dentin collagen and matrix. Here, we reported one osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) pedigree caused by two new inserting mutations in exon 5 of COL1A1 (NM_000088.3:c.440_441insT;c.441_442insA), which resulted in the unstable expression of COL1A1 mRNA and half quantity of procollagen production. We investigated the morphological and mechanical features of proband's dentin using atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope. Increased D-periodic spacing, variably enlarged collagen fibrils coating with fewer minerals were found in the mutated collagen. AFM analysis demonstrated rougher dentin surface and sparsely decreased Young's modulus in proband's dentin. We believe that our findings provide new insights into the genetic-/nano- mechanisms of dentin diseases, and may well explain OI dentin features with reduced mechanical strength and a lower crosslinked density. Anat Rec, 299:511-519, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26694865

  14. Peptide growth factors, part A

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, D.; Sirbasku, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains information on the following topics: Epidermal Growth Factor;Transforming Growth Factors;Bone and Cartilage Growth Factors;Somatomedin/Insulin-Like Growth Factors;Techniques for the Study of Growth Factor Activity;Assays, Phosphorylation, and Surface Membrane Effects.

  15. Radiation View Factor With Shadowing

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-02-24

    FACET calculates the radiation geometric view factor (alternatively called shape factor, angle factor, or configuration factor) between surfaces for axisymmetric, two-dimensional planar and three-dimensional geometries with interposed third surface obstructions. FACET was developed to calculate view factors as input data to finite element heat transfer analysis codes.

  16. Factor Analysis and Counseling Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    1970-01-01

    Topics discussed include factor analysis versus cluster analysis, analysis of Q correlation matrices, ipsativity and factor analysis, and tests for the significance of a correlation matrix prior to application of factor analytic techniques. Techniques for factor extraction discussed include principal components, canonical factor analysis, alpha…

  17. The Three Faith Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiIulio, John J., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses whether religion can affect health and social welfare and what types of religious influences are most beneficial to the individual and society, identifying three separate but related faith factors: organic religion, programmatic religion, and ecological religion. Examines research on faith-based approaches to social and urban problems.

  18. Introduction to human factors

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    Some background is given on the field of human factors. The nature of problems with current human/computer interfaces is discussed, some costs are identified, ideal attributes of graceful system interfaces are outlined, and some reasons are indicated why it's not easy to fix the problems. (LEW)

  19. Factors Predicting Educational Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanes, Carol E.; Jordan, K. Forbis

    Since 1968 educational productivity studies at the University of Florida have been analyzing data from six States and one city. Linear regression was used to identify high and low productive units by measuring the relationship between statistically selected input factors and a measure of student achievement. Discriminant analysis was employed to…

  20. Prime type III factors

    PubMed Central

    Shlyakhtenko, Dimitri

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that for each 0 < ? < 1, the free ArakiWoods factor of type III? cannot be written as a tensor product of two diffuse von Neumann algebras (i.e., is prime) and does not contain a Cartan subalgebra. PMID:11058159

  1. ERYTHROPOIETIC FACTOR PURIFICATION

    DOEpatents

    White, W.F.; Schlueter, R.J.

    1962-05-01

    A method is given for purifying and concentrating the blood plasma erythropoietic factor. Anemic sheep plasma is contacted three times successively with ion exchange resins: an anion exchange resin, a cation exchange resin at a pH of about 5, and a cation exchange resin at a pH of about 6. (AEC)

  2. Robust Bayesian Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Kentaro; Yuan, Ke-Hai

    2003-01-01

    Bayesian factor analysis (BFA) assumes the normal distribution of the current sample conditional on the parameters. Practical data in social and behavioral sciences typically have significant skewness and kurtosis. If the normality assumption is not attainable, the posterior analysis will be inaccurate, although the BFA depends less on the current…

  3. Factorization and Quarkonium Production

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Z.B.; Qiu, J.W.; Sterman, G.

    2011-05-01

    It is possible to extend the formalism for high-pT heavy quarkonium factorization beyond leading power. This extension may be helpful in interpreting the relative roles of octet and singlet channels in the formalism of nonrelativistic QCD (NRQCD). It may enable us to understand the origin of the surprisingly large results for cross sections calculated in the color singlet sector of NRQCD.

  4. Inelastic Scattering Form Factors

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-01-01

    ATHENA-IV computes form factors for inelastic scattering calculations, using single-particle wave functions that are eigenstates of motion in either a Woods-Saxon potential well or a harmonic oscillator well. Two-body forces of Gauss, Coulomb, Yukawa, and a sum of cut-off Yukawa radial dependences are available.

  5. Assessment of Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, Frances; Foley, Tico

    1999-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering, often referred to as Ergonomics, is a science that applies a detailed understanding of human characteristics, capabilities, and limitations to the design, evaluation, and operation of environments, tools, and systems for work and daily living. Human Factors is the investigation, design, and evaluation of equipment, techniques, procedures, facilities, and human interfaces, and encompasses all aspects of human activity from manual labor to mental processing and leisure time enjoyments. In spaceflight applications, human factors engineering seeks to: (1) ensure that a task can be accomplished, (2) maintain productivity during spaceflight, and (3) ensure the habitability of the pressurized living areas. DSO 904 served as a vehicle for the verification and elucidation of human factors principles and tools in the microgravity environment. Over six flights, twelve topics were investigated. This study documented the strengths and limitations of human operators in a complex, multifaceted, and unique environment. By focusing on the man-machine interface in space flight activities, it was determined which designs allow astronauts to be optimally productive during valuable and costly space flights. Among the most promising areas of inquiry were procedures, tools, habitat, environmental conditions, tasking, work load, flexibility, and individual control over work.

  6. Structural and functional analysis of human HtrA3 protease and its subdomains

    SciTech Connect

    Glaza, Przemyslaw; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Wenta, Tomasz; Zurawa-Janicka, Dorota; Jarzab, Miroslaw; Lesner, Adam; Banecki, Bogdan; Skorko-Glonek, Joanna; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Lipinska, Barbara; van Raaij, Mark J.

    2015-06-25

    Human HtrA3 protease, which induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, can be a tumor suppressor and a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of cancer. However, there is little information about its structure and biochemical properties. HtrA3 is composed of an N-terminal domain not required for proteolytic activity, a central serine protease domain and a C-terminal PDZ domain. HtrA3S, its short natural isoform, lacks the PDZ domain which is substituted by a stretch of 7 C-terminal amino acid residues, unique for this isoform. This paper presents the crystal structure of the HtrA3 protease domain together with the PDZ domain (ΔN-HtrA3), showing that the protein forms a trimer whose protease domains are similar to those of human HtrA1 and HtrA2. The ΔN-HtrA3 PDZ domains are placed in a position intermediate between that in the flat saucer-like HtrA1 SAXS structure and the compact pyramidal HtrA2 X-ray structure. The PDZ domain interacts closely with the LB loop of the protease domain in a way not found in other human HtrAs. ΔN-HtrA3 with the PDZ removed (ΔN-HtrA3-ΔPDZ) and an N-terminally truncated HtrA3S (ΔN-HtrA3S) were fully active at a wide range of temperatures and their substrate affinity was not impaired. This indicates that the PDZ domain is dispensable for HtrA3 activity. As determined by size exclusion chromatography, ΔN-HtrA3 formed stable trimers while both ΔN-HtrA3-ΔPDZ and ΔN-HtrA3S were monomeric. This suggests that the presence of the PDZ domain, unlike in HtrA1 and HtrA2, influences HtrA3 trimer formation. The unique C-terminal sequence of ΔN-HtrA3S appeared to have little effect on activity and oligomerization. Additionally, we examined the cleavage specificity of ΔN-HtrA3. Results reported in this paper provide new insights into the structure and function of ΔN-HtrA3, which seems to have a unique combination of features among human HtrA proteases.

  7. Structural and functional analysis of human HtrA3 protease and its subdomains

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Glaza, Przemyslaw; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Wenta, Tomasz; Zurawa-Janicka, Dorota; Jarzab, Miroslaw; Lesner, Adam; Banecki, Bogdan; Skorko-Glonek, Joanna; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Lipinska, Barbara; et al

    2015-06-25

    Human HtrA3 protease, which induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, can be a tumor suppressor and a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of cancer. However, there is little information about its structure and biochemical properties. HtrA3 is composed of an N-terminal domain not required for proteolytic activity, a central serine protease domain and a C-terminal PDZ domain. HtrA3S, its short natural isoform, lacks the PDZ domain which is substituted by a stretch of 7 C-terminal amino acid residues, unique for this isoform. This paper presents the crystal structure of the HtrA3 protease domain together with the PDZ domain (ΔN-HtrA3), showing that themore » protein forms a trimer whose protease domains are similar to those of human HtrA1 and HtrA2. The ΔN-HtrA3 PDZ domains are placed in a position intermediate between that in the flat saucer-like HtrA1 SAXS structure and the compact pyramidal HtrA2 X-ray structure. The PDZ domain interacts closely with the LB loop of the protease domain in a way not found in other human HtrAs. ΔN-HtrA3 with the PDZ removed (ΔN-HtrA3-ΔPDZ) and an N-terminally truncated HtrA3S (ΔN-HtrA3S) were fully active at a wide range of temperatures and their substrate affinity was not impaired. This indicates that the PDZ domain is dispensable for HtrA3 activity. As determined by size exclusion chromatography, ΔN-HtrA3 formed stable trimers while both ΔN-HtrA3-ΔPDZ and ΔN-HtrA3S were monomeric. This suggests that the presence of the PDZ domain, unlike in HtrA1 and HtrA2, influences HtrA3 trimer formation. The unique C-terminal sequence of ΔN-HtrA3S appeared to have little effect on activity and oligomerization. Additionally, we examined the cleavage specificity of ΔN-HtrA3. Results reported in this paper provide new insights into the structure and function of ΔN-HtrA3, which seems to have a unique combination of features among human HtrA proteases.« less

  8. Structural and Functional Analysis of Human HtrA3 Protease and Its Subdomains

    PubMed Central

    Glaza, Przemyslaw; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Wenta, Tomasz; Zurawa-Janicka, Dorota; Jarzab, Miroslaw; Lesner, Adam; Banecki, Bogdan; Skorko-Glonek, Joanna; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Lipinska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Human HtrA3 protease, which induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, can be a tumor suppressor and a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of cancer. However, there is little information about its structure and biochemical properties. HtrA3 is composed of an N-terminal domain not required for proteolytic activity, a central serine protease domain and a C-terminal PDZ domain. HtrA3S, its short natural isoform, lacks the PDZ domain which is substituted by a stretch of 7 C-terminal amino acid residues, unique for this isoform. This paper presents the crystal structure of the HtrA3 protease domain together with the PDZ domain (ΔN-HtrA3), showing that the protein forms a trimer whose protease domains are similar to those of human HtrA1 and HtrA2. The ΔN-HtrA3 PDZ domains are placed in a position intermediate between that in the flat saucer-like HtrA1 SAXS structure and the compact pyramidal HtrA2 X-ray structure. The PDZ domain interacts closely with the LB loop of the protease domain in a way not found in other human HtrAs. ΔN-HtrA3 with the PDZ removed (ΔN-HtrA3-ΔPDZ) and an N-terminally truncated HtrA3S (ΔN-HtrA3S) were fully active at a wide range of temperatures and their substrate affinity was not impaired. This indicates that the PDZ domain is dispensable for HtrA3 activity. As determined by size exclusion chromatography, ΔN-HtrA3 formed stable trimers while both ΔN-HtrA3-ΔPDZ and ΔN-HtrA3S were monomeric. This suggests that the presence of the PDZ domain, unlike in HtrA1 and HtrA2, influences HtrA3 trimer formation. The unique C-terminal sequence of ΔN-HtrA3S appeared to have little effect on activity and oligomerization. Additionally, we examined the cleavage specificity of ΔN-HtrA3. Results reported in this paper provide new insights into the structure and function of ΔN-HtrA3, which seems to have a unique combination of features among human HtrA proteases. PMID:26110759

  9. Low Hemoglobin A1c and Risk of All-Cause Mortality Among US Adults Without Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Carson, April P.; Fox, Caroline S.; McGuire, Darren K.; Levitan, Emily B.; Laclaustra, Martin; Mann, Devin M.; Muntner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Among individuals without diabetes, elevated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality, but the literature is sparse regarding the prognostic importance of low HbA1c. Methods and Results National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III) participants, 20 years and older, were followed up to 12 years (median follow-up, 8.8 years) for all-cause mortality. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between HbA1c levels and all-cause mortality for 14 099 participants without diabetes. There were 1825 deaths during the follow-up period. Participants with a low HbA1c (<4.0%) had the highest levels of mean red blood cell volume, ferritin, and liver enzymes and the lowest levels of mean total cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure compared with their counterparts with HbA1c levels between 4.0% and 6.4%. An HbA1c <4.0% versus 5.0% to 5.4% was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 3.73; 95% CI, 1.45 to 9.63) after adjustment for age, race-ethnicity, and sex. This association was attenuated but remained statistically significant after further multivariable adjustment for lifestyle, cardiovascular factors, metabolic factors, red blood cell indices, iron storage indices, and liver function indices (HR, 2.90; 95% CI, 1.25 to 6.76). Conclusions In this nationally representative cohort, low HbA1c was associated with increased all-cause mortality among US adults without diabetes. Additional research is needed to confirm these results and identify potential mechanisms that may be underlying this association. PMID:20923991

  10. CYP24A1 Inhibition Enhances the Antitumor Activity of Calcitriol

    PubMed Central

    Muindi, Josephia R.; Yu, Wei-Dong; Ma, Yingyu; Engler, Kristie L.; Kong, Rui-Xian; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2010-01-01

    High systemic exposures to calcitriol are necessary for optimal antitumor effects. Human prostate cancer PC3 cells are insensitive to calcitriol treatment. Therefore, we investigated whether the inhibition of 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1), the major calcitriol inactivating enzyme, by ketoconazole (KTZ) or RC2204 modulates calcitriol serum pharmacokinetics and biologic effects. Dexamethasone (Dex) was added to minimize calcitriol-induced hypercalcemia and as a steroid replacement for the KTZ inhibition of steroid biosynthesis cytochrome P450 enzymes. KTZ effectively inhibited time-dependent calcitriol-inducible CYP24A1 protein expression and enzyme activity in PC3 cells and C3H/HeJ mouse kidney tissues. Systemic calcitriol exposure area under the curve was higher in mice treated with a combination of calcitriol and KTZ than with calcitriol alone. KTZ and Dex synergistically potentiated calcitriol-mediated antiproliferative effects in PC3 cells in vitro; this effect was associated with enhanced apoptosis. After treatment with calcitriol and KTZ/Dex, although caspase-9 and caspase-3 were not activated and cytochrome c was not released by mitochondria, caspase-8 was activated and the truncated Bid protein level was increased. Translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor to the nucleus was observed, indicating a role of the apoptosis-inducing factor-mediated and caspase-independent apoptotic pathways. Calcitriol and KTZ/Dex combination suppressed the clonogenic survival and enhanced the growth inhibition observed with calcitriol alone in PC3 human prostate cancer xenograft mouse model. Our results show that the administration of calcitriol in combination with CYP24A1 inhibitor enhances antiproliferative effects, increases systemic calcitriol exposure, and promotes the activation of caspase-independent apoptosis pathway. PMID:20591973

  11. Alginate-Dependent Gene Expression Mechanism in Sphingomonas sp. Strain A1

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Chie; Takase, Ryuichi; Momma, Keiko; Maruyama, Yukie; Murata, Kousaku

    2014-01-01

    Sphingomonas sp. strain A1, a Gram-negative bacterium, directly incorporates alginate polysaccharide into the cytoplasm through a periplasmic alginate-binding protein-dependent ATP-binding cassette transporter. The polysaccharide is degraded to monosaccharides via the formation of oligosaccharides by endo- and exotype alginate lyases. The strain A1 proteins for alginate uptake and degradation are encoded in both strands of a genetic cluster in the bacterial genome and inducibly expressed in the presence of alginate. Here we show the function of the alginate-dependent transcription factor AlgO and its mode of action on the genetic cluster and alginate oligosaccharides. A putative gene within the genetic cluster seems to encode a transcription factor-like protein (AlgO). Mutant strain A1 (?AlgO mutant) cells with a disrupted algO gene constitutively produced alginate-related proteins. DNA microarray analysis indicated that wild-type cells inducibly transcribed the genetic cluster only in the presence of alginate, while ?AlgO mutant cells constitutively expressed the genetic cluster. A gel mobility shift assay showed that AlgO binds to the specific intergenic region between algO and algS (algO-algS). Binding of AlgO to the algO-algS intergenic region diminished with increasing alginate oligosaccharides. These results demonstrated a novel alginate-dependent gene expression mechanism. In the absence of alginate, AlgO binds to the algO-algS intergenic region and represses the expression of both strands of the genetic cluster, while in the presence of alginate, AlgO dissociates from the algO-algS intergenic region via binding to alginate oligosaccharides produced through the lyase reaction and subsequently initiates transcription of the genetic cluster. This is the first report on the mechanism by which alginate regulates the expression of the gene cluster. PMID:24816607

  12. Alginate-dependent gene expression mechanism in Sphingomonas sp. strain A1.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Chie; Takase, Ryuichi; Momma, Keiko; Maruyama, Yukie; Murata, Kousaku; Hashimoto, Wataru

    2014-07-01

    Sphingomonas sp. strain A1, a Gram-negative bacterium, directly incorporates alginate polysaccharide into the cytoplasm through a periplasmic alginate-binding protein-dependent ATP-binding cassette transporter. The polysaccharide is degraded to monosaccharides via the formation of oligosaccharides by endo- and exotype alginate lyases. The strain A1 proteins for alginate uptake and degradation are encoded in both strands of a genetic cluster in the bacterial genome and inducibly expressed in the presence of alginate. Here we show the function of the alginate-dependent transcription factor AlgO and its mode of action on the genetic cluster and alginate oligosaccharides. A putative gene within the genetic cluster seems to encode a transcription factor-like protein (AlgO). Mutant strain A1 (?AlgO mutant) cells with a disrupted algO gene constitutively produced alginate-related proteins. DNA microarray analysis indicated that wild-type cells inducibly transcribed the genetic cluster only in the presence of alginate, while ?AlgO mutant cells constitutively expressed the genetic cluster. A gel mobility shift assay showed that AlgO binds to the specific intergenic region between algO and algS (algO-algS). Binding of AlgO to the algO-algS intergenic region diminished with increasing alginate oligosaccharides. These results demonstrated a novel alginate-dependent gene expression mechanism. In the absence of alginate, AlgO binds to the algO-algS intergenic region and represses the expression of both strands of the genetic cluster, while in the presence of alginate, AlgO dissociates from the algO-algS intergenic region via binding to alginate oligosaccharides produced through the lyase reaction and subsequently initiates transcription of the genetic cluster. This is the first report on the mechanism by which alginate regulates the expression of the gene cluster. PMID:24816607

  13. Role of human factor VIII in factor X activation.

    PubMed Central

    Hultin, M B

    1982-01-01

    The cofactor function of human Factor VIII in Factor X activation was investigated by an initial-rate assay of 3H-Factor X activation in the presence of human factor IXa, Ca2+, and either phospholipid or fresh washed human platelets. Purified Factor VIII that has not been activated by thrombin or Factor Xa supports Factor X activation after a lag of several minutes. A specific inhibitor of Factor Xa, which had no inhibitory activity against Factor IXa, markedly prolonged this lag, whereas specific thrombin inhibitors did not prolong the lag. These data support the conclusion that unactivated Factor VIII has no ability to support Factor X activation in a purified system until it is activated by Factor Xa feedback during the lag period. When Factor VIII was optimally preactivated by thrombin, the lag was completely abolished, regardless of the order of addition of the other reactants or the phospholipid source. These data indicate that there is no slow, time-dependent ordering of the reactants at the phospholipid or activated platelet surface if Factor VIII has been preactivated. Unactivated platelets did not support Factor X activation by Factors IXa and VIII. The effect of activated Factor VIII on the kinetics of bovine Factor X activation was primarily to increase the Vmax (54-fold), whereas with human Factor X, Factor VIII both increased the Vmax 56-fold and decreased the Km sixfold to 0.14 microM, similar to the plasma concentration of Factor X. Therefore, a change in the plasma factor X concentration would be expected to have a major effect on the rate of Factor X activation in vivo. PMID:6804496

  14. Microstructure study of CoPt thin film with phase change from A1 ? L11 ? A1 ? L10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, An-Cheng; Huang, Chuan-Fa

    2013-05-01

    In this study, 50-nm-thick CoPt film was sputtered on MgO(111) substrate at substrate temperature (Ts) from room temperature (RT) to 750 C. Within the temperature range, the phase evolves in the sequence of A1 (disordered) at RT, L11 (ordered), A1, and L10 (ordered) at 750 C. L11-ordering occurred in the range of 250 C ? Ts ? 500 C induces strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Microstructure results indicate that the CoPt grain size increases gradually from about 10 to 50 nm as Ts increases from RT to 600 C. Grain size significantly increases to larger than 70 nm as Ts > 600 C, which is attributed to the occurrence of L10-ordering. Further increase Ts to 750 C, isotropic L10-(111) textured CoPt forms with a higher Hc of 5.0 kOe. Detailed discussion of relation between magnetic behaviors and microstructure is given.

  15. Signal integration by the CYP1A1 promoter a quantitative study

    PubMed Central

    Schulthess, Pascal; Lffler, Alexandra; Vetter, Silvia; Kreft, Luisa; Schwarz, Michael; Braeuning, Albert; Blthgen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    Genes involved in detoxification of foreign compounds exhibit complex spatiotemporal expression patterns in liver. Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), for example, is restricted to the pericentral region of liver lobules in response to the interplay between aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathways. However, the mechanisms by which the two pathways orchestrate gene expression are still poorly understood. With the help of 29 mutant constructs of the human CYP1A1 promoter and a mathematical model that combines Wnt/?-catenin and AhR signaling with the statistical mechanics of the promoter, we systematically quantified the regulatory influence of different transcription factor binding sites on gene induction within the promoter. The model unveils how different binding sites cooperate and how they establish the promoter logic; it quantitatively predicts two-dimensional stimulus-response curves. Furthermore, it shows that crosstalk between Wnt/?-catenin and AhR signaling is crucial to understand the complex zonated expression patterns found in liver lobules. This study exemplifies how statistical mechanical modeling together with combinatorial reporter assays has the capacity to disentangle the promoter logic that establishes physiological gene expression patterns. PMID:25934798

  16. Association between UGT1A1 Polymorphism and Risk of Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huangfu, Hui; Pan, Hong; Wang, Binquan; Wen, Shuxin; Han, Rui; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    Laryngeal cancer is one of the largest subgroups of head and neck cancers. In addition to smoking and alcohol consumption, genetic polymorphisms are also risk factors for the development of laryngeal cancer. However, the exact relation between genetic variants and pathogenesis of laryngeal cancer has remained elusive. The aim of this study was to examine UGT1A1*6 (rs4148323 A/G) polymorphisms in 103 patients with laryngeal cancer and 220 controls using the high resolution melting curve (HRM) technique and to explore the association between UGT1A1*6 (rs4148323 A/G) polymorphisms and laryngeal cancer. The results showed an association between the rs4148323 G allele and increased risk of laryngeal cancer. While there was no statistically significant difference between rs4148323 genotype frequencies and different histological grades or different clinical stages of laryngeal cancer, stratification analysis indicated smoking or alcohol consumption and rs4148323 G allele combined to increase the risk of laryngeal cancer. In conclusion, the rs4148323 G allele is associated with the high UGT1A1 enzyme activity, and might increase the risk of laryngeal cancer. Furthermore, smoking or alcohol consumption and the rs4148323 G allele act synergistically to increase the risk of laryngeal cancer. PMID:26751466

  17. Association between UGT1A1 Polymorphism and Risk of Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Huangfu, Hui; Pan, Hong; Wang, Binquan; Wen, Shuxin; Han, Rui; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    Laryngeal cancer is one of the largest subgroups of head and neck cancers. In addition to smoking and alcohol consumption, genetic polymorphisms are also risk factors for the development of laryngeal cancer. However, the exact relation between genetic variants and pathogenesis of laryngeal cancer has remained elusive. The aim of this study was to examine UGT1A1*6 (rs4148323 A/G) polymorphisms in 103 patients with laryngeal cancer and 220 controls using the high resolution melting curve (HRM) technique and to explore the association between UGT1A1*6 (rs4148323 A/G) polymorphisms and laryngeal cancer. The results showed an association between the rs4148323 G allele and increased risk of laryngeal cancer. While there was no statistically significant difference between rs4148323 genotype frequencies and different histological grades or different clinical stages of laryngeal cancer, stratification analysis indicated smoking or alcohol consumption and rs4148323 G allele combined to increase the risk of laryngeal cancer. In conclusion, the rs4148323 G allele is associated with the high UGT1A1 enzyme activity, and might increase the risk of laryngeal cancer. Furthermore, smoking or alcohol consumption and the rs4148323 G allele act synergistically to increase the risk of laryngeal cancer. PMID:26751466

  18. Impaired inhibitory function of presynaptic A1-adenosine receptors in SHR mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Pereira, Carolina; Arribas, Silvia Magdalena; Fresco, Paula; Gonzlez, Maria Carmen; Gonalves, Jorge; Diniz, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    In hypertension, vascular reactivity alterations have been attributed to numerous factors, including higher sympathetic innervation/adenosine. This study examined the modulation of adenosine receptors on vascular sympathetic nerves and their putative contribution to higher noradrenaline spillover in hypertension. We assessed adenosine receptors distribution in the adventitia through confocal microscopy, histomorphometry, and their regulatory function on electrically-evoked [(3)H]-noradrenaline overflow, using selective agonists/antagonists. We found that: i) A1-adenosine receptor agonist (CPA: 100 nM) inhibited tritium overflow to a lower extent in SHR (25% 3%, n = 14) compared to WKY (38% 3%, n = 14) mesenteric arteries; ii) A2A-adenosine receptor agonist (CGS 21680: 100 nM) induced a slight increase of tritium overflow that was similar in SHR (22% 8%, n = 8) and WKY (24% 5%, n = 8) mesenteric arteries; iii) A2B- and A3-adenosine receptors did not alter tritium overflow in either strain; iv) all adenosine receptors were present on mesenteric artery sympathetic nerves and/or some adventitial cells of both strains; and v) A1-adenosine receptor staining fractional area was lower in SHR than in WKY mesenteric arteries. We conclude that there is an impaired inhibitory function of vascular presynaptic A1-adenosine receptors in SHR, likely related to a reduced presence of these receptors on sympathetic innervation, which might lead to higher levels of noradrenaline in the synaptic cleft and contribute to hypertension in this strain. PMID:23782593

  19. Signal integration by the CYP1A1 promoter--a quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Schulthess, Pascal; Löffler, Alexandra; Vetter, Silvia; Kreft, Luisa; Schwarz, Michael; Braeuning, Albert; Blüthgen, Nils

    2015-06-23

    Genes involved in detoxification of foreign compounds exhibit complex spatiotemporal expression patterns in liver. Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), for example, is restricted to the pericentral region of liver lobules in response to the interplay between aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. However, the mechanisms by which the two pathways orchestrate gene expression are still poorly understood. With the help of 29 mutant constructs of the human CYP1A1 promoter and a mathematical model that combines Wnt/β-catenin and AhR signaling with the statistical mechanics of the promoter, we systematically quantified the regulatory influence of different transcription factor binding sites on gene induction within the promoter. The model unveils how different binding sites cooperate and how they establish the promoter logic; it quantitatively predicts two-dimensional stimulus-response curves. Furthermore, it shows that crosstalk between Wnt/β-catenin and AhR signaling is crucial to understand the complex zonated expression patterns found in liver lobules. This study exemplifies how statistical mechanical modeling together with combinatorial reporter assays has the capacity to disentangle the promoter logic that establishes physiological gene expression patterns. PMID:25934798

  20. Trajectory analysis for the nucleus and dust of comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring)

    SciTech Connect

    Farnocchia, Davide; Chesley, Steven R.; Chodas, Paul W.; Tricarico, Pasquale; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Farnham, Tony L.

    2014-08-01

    Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) will experience a high velocity encounter with Mars on 2014 October 19 at a distance of 135,000 km ± 5000 km from the planet center. We present a comprehensive analysis of the trajectory of both the comet nucleus and the dust tail. The nucleus of C/2013 A1 cannot impact on Mars even in the case of unexpectedly large nongravitational perturbations. Furthermore, we compute the required ejection velocities for the dust grains of the tail to reach Mars as a function of particle radius and density and heliocentric distance of the ejection. A comparison between our results and the most current modeling of the ejection velocities suggests that impacts are possible only for millimeter to centimeter size particles released more than 13 AU from the Sun. However, this level of cometary activity that far from the Sun is considered extremely unlikely. The arrival time of these particles spans a 20-minute time interval centered at 2014 October 19 at 20:09 TDB, i.e., around the time that Mars crosses the orbital plane of C/2013 A1. Ejection velocities larger than currently estimated by a factor >2 would allow impacts for smaller particles ejected as close as 3 AU from the Sun. These particles would reach Mars from 19:13 TDB to 20:40 TDB.

  1. Peptide growth factors, part B

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, D.; Sirbasku, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the following topics: Platelet-Derived Growth Factor;Nerve and Glial Growth Factors;PC12 Pheochromocytoma Cells;Techniques for the Study of Growth Factor Activity;Genetic Approaches and Biological Effects.

  2. Collisionally-Mediated Singlet-Triplet Crossing in {a}1A1 CH_2 Revisited: (010) Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Anh T.; Hall, Gregory; Sears, Trevor

    2014-06-01

    Methylene, CH2, possesses a ground {X}3B1 ground electronic state and an excited {a}1A1 state only 3150cm-1 higher in energy. The collision-induced singlet-triplet crossing in the gaseous mixtures is important in determining overall reaction rates and chemical behavior. Accidental near-degeneracies between rotational levels of the singlet state and the vibrationally excited triplet state result in a few gateway rotational levels that mediate collision-induced intersystem crossing. The mixed states can be recognized and quantified by deperturbation, knowing the zero-order singlet and triplet energy levels. Hyperfine structure can be used as alternative indicator of singlet-triplet mixing. Non-zero mixing will induce hyperfine splittings intermediate between the unresolved hyperfine structure of pure singlet and the resolvable (?50MHz) splittings of pure triplet, arising from the (I\\cdotS) interaction in the ortho states, where nuclear spin I=1. Collision-induced intersystem crossing rates from the (010) state are comparable to those for (000), yet the identities and characters of the presumed gateway states are unknown. A new spectrometer is under construction to investigate triplet mixing rotational levels of {a}1A1(010) by sub-Doppler measurements of perturbation-induced hyperfine splittings. Their observation will permit the identification of gateway states and quantification of the degree of triplet contamination of the singlet wavefunction. Progress in the measurements and the analysis of rotational energy transfer in (010) will be reported. Acknowledgments: Work at Brookhaven National Laboratory was carried out under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy and supported by its Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences. C.-H. Chang, G. E. Hall, T. J. Sears, J. Chem. Phys 133, 144310(2010) G. E. Hall, A. V. Komissarov, and T. J. Sears, J. Phys. Chem. A 108 7922-7927 (2004)

  3. Sulfotransferase 1A1 Substrate Selectivity: A Molecular Clamp Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Cook, Ian; Wang, Ting; Leyh, Thomas S

    2015-10-01

    The human cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) regulate hundreds, perhaps thousands, of small molecule metabolites and xenobiotics via transfer of a sulfuryl moiety (-SO3) from PAPS (3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate) to the hydroxyls and primary amines of the recipients. In liver, where it is abundant, SULT1A1 engages in modifying metabolites and neutralizing toxins. The specificity of 1A1 is the broadest of any SULT, and understanding its selectivity is fundamental to understanding its biology. Here, for the first time, we show that SULT1A1 substrates separate naturally into two classes: those whose affinities are either enhanced ?20-fold (positive synergy) or unaffected (neutral synergy) by the presence of a saturating nucleotide. kcat for the positive-synergy substrates is shown to be ?100-fold greater than that of neutral-synergy compounds; consequently, the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) is approximately 3 orders of magnitude greater for the positive-synergy species. All-atom dynamics modeling suggests a molecular mechanism for these observations in which the binding of only positive-synergy compounds causes two phenylalanine residues (F81 and 84) to reposition and "sandwich" the phenolic moiety of the substrates, thus enhancing substrate affinity and positioning the nucleophilic oxygen for attack. Molecular dynamics movies reveal that the neutral-synergy compounds "wander" about the active site, infrequently achieving a reactive position. In-depth analysis of select point mutants strongly supports the model and provides an intimate view of the interdependent catalytic functions of subsections of the active site. PMID:26340710

  4. Structure of the BoNT/A1--receptor complex.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Roger M; Frey, Daniel; Wieser, Mara M; Thieltges, Katherine M; Jaussi, Rolf; Capitani, Guido; Kammerer, Richard A

    2015-12-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin A causes botulism but is also used for medical and cosmetic applications. A detailed molecular understanding of BoNT/A--host receptor interactions is therefore fundamental for improving current clinical applications and for developing new medical strategies targeting human disorders. Towards this end, we recently solved an X-ray crystal structure of BoNT/A1 in complex with its neuronal protein receptor SV2C. Based on our findings, we discuss the potential implications for BoNT/A function. PMID:26260692

  5. Elbow joint luxation in a 1-month-old foal.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Martnez, L M; Vzquez, F J; Romero, A; Ormazbal, J R

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on luxation of the elbow joint without concomitant fracture in a 1-month-old foal. Conservative treatment, with closed reduction and full-limb bandaging, including caudal and lateral splints, seemed successful initially, however, failed to provide enough stability and luxation recurred, and open reduction and surgical placement of prosthetic collateral ligaments was required. Luxation of the elbow joint should be considered when acute non-weight bearing forelimb lameness occurs associated with pain and swelling in the area of the elbow in young foals. Closed reduction failed to provide sufficient joint stability. PMID:18271829

  6. Development of a 1. 5-tonne niobium gravitational radiational antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Veitch, P.J.; Blair, D.G.; Linthorne, N.P.; Mann, L.D.; Ramm, D.K.

    1987-10-01

    A 1.5-tonne Nb gravitational radiation antenna is described. Problems associated with a noncontacting magnetically levitated parametric upconverter transducer are discussed, and a system using a bonded microwave reentrant cavity and bonded mechanical impedance transformer is described and analyzed in detail. It is shown that such an antenna can be expected to achieve a noise temperature of --1 mK. An ultralow phase noise tunable microwave source for the transducer pump signal is described, as well as precision bonding techniques which yield a mechanical positioning accuracy of 10/sup -6/ m, and a reproducibility of 10/sup -8/ m.

  7. A rapid and efficient newly established method to detect COL1A1-PDGFB gene fusion in dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, Yoko; Shimizu, Akira; Okada, Etsuko; Ishikawa, Osamu; Motegi, Sei-ichiro

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed new method to rapidly identify COL1A1-PDGFB fusion in DFSP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New PCR method using a single primer pair detected COL1A1-PDGFB fusion in DFSP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is the first report of DFSP with a novel COL1A1 breakpoint in exon 5. -- Abstract: The detection of fusion transcripts of the collagen type 1{alpha}1 (COL1A1) and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGFB) genes by genetic analysis has recognized as a reliable and valuable molecular tool for the diagnosis of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP). To detect the COL1A1-PDGFB fusion, almost previous reports performed reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using multiplex forward primers from COL1A1. However, it has possible technical difficulties with respect to the handling of multiple primers and reagents in the procedure. The objective of this study is to establish a rapid, easy, and efficient one-step method of PCR using only a single primer pair to detect the fusion transcripts of the COL1A1 and PDGFB in DFSP. To validate new method, we compared the results of RT-PCR in five patients of DFSP between the previous method using multiplex primers and our established one-step RT-PCR using a single primer pair. In all cases of DFSP, the COL1A1-PDGFB fusion was detected by both previous method and newly established one-step PCR. Importantly, we detected a novel COL1A1 breakpoint in exon 5. The newly developed method is valuable to rapidly identify COL1A1-PDGFB fusion transcripts in DFSP.

  8. Characteristics Associated With Maintenance of Mean A1C <6.5% in People With Dysglycemia in the ORIGIN Trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the success and baseline predictors of maintaining glycemic control for up to 5 years of therapy using basal insulin glargine or standard glycemic care in people with dysglycemia treated with zero or one oral glucose-lowering agents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data from 12,537 participants in the Outcome Reduction with Initial Glargine Intervention (ORIGIN) trial were examined by baseline glycemic status (with or without type 2 diabetes) and by therapeutic approach (titrated insulin glargine or standard therapy) using an intention-to-treat analysis. Median values for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and A1C and percentages with A1C <6.5% (48 mmol/mol) during randomized treatment were calculated. Factors independently associated with maintaining updated mean A1C <6.5% were analyzed with linear regression models. RESULTS Median A1C in the whole population was 6.4% at baseline; at 5 years, it was 6.2% with glargine treatment and 6.5% with standard care. Of those with diabetes at baseline, 60% using glargine and 45% using standard care had A1C <6.5% at 5 years. Lack of diabetes and lower baseline A1C were independently associated with 5-year mean A1C <6.5%. Maintaining mean A1C <6.5% was more likely with glargine (odds ratio [OR] 2.98 [95% CI 2.67–3.32], P < 0.001) than standard care after adjustment for other independent predictors. CONCLUSIONS Systematic intervention with basal insulin glargine or standard care early in the natural history of dysglycemia can maintain glycemic control near baseline levels for at least 5 years, whether diabetes is present at baseline or not. Keeping mean A1C <6.5% is more likely in people with lower baseline A1C and with the glargine-based regimen. PMID:23656980

  9. Galactose-Deficient IgA1 in African Americans with IgA Nephropathy: Serum Levels and Heritability

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, M. Colleen; Moldoveanu, Zina; Julian, Bruce A.; Novak, Jan; Sanders, John T.; McGlothan, Kim R.; Gharavi, Ali G.

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) are elevated and heritable in Caucasian and Asian patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN), but have not been characterized in African Americans (AA). Our objective was to determine whether serum Gd-IgA1 levels are increased in AA patients with IgAN and whether this is a heritable trait in this group. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Blood and urine samples were obtained from 18 adult and 11 pediatric AA patients with biopsy-proven IgAN and from 34 of their first-degree relatives. Healthy controls included 150 Caucasian adults, 65 AA adults, 45 Caucasian children, and 49 AA children. Serum total IgA and Gd-IgA1 levels were measured in patients and controls. Significant differences between patient and control groups for serum total IgA, Gd-IgA1, and ratio of Gd-IgA1/total IgA were determined by the Mann-Whitney U test. Heritability was calculated using SOLAR. Results: After stratifying by age, 7 of 11 pediatric and 9 of 18 adult AA patients with IgAN had serum Gd-IgA1 levels above the 95th percentile for age-appropriate AA controls. For first-degree relatives, the serum Gd-IgA1 level was >95th percentile for 1 of 8 when the patient's level was <95th percentile and 12 of 26 when the patient's level was >95th percentile (P = 0.116, Fisher exact test). Heritability was 0.74 (P = 0.007). Conclusions: Serum levels of Gd-IgA1 are often elevated in AA patients with IgAN and their first-degree relatives. Thus, aberrant IgA1 glycosylation is a heritable risk factor for IgAN in African Americans. PMID:20634323

  10. Bafilomycin A1 targets both autophagy and apoptosis pathways in pediatric B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Na; Song, Lin; Zhang, Suping; Lin, Weiwei; Cao, Yan; Xu, Fei; Fang, Yixuan; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Han; Li, Xin; Wang, Zhijian; Cai, Jinyang; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Yi; Mao, Xinliang; Zhao, Wenli; Hu, Shaoyan; Chen, Suning; Wang, Jianrong

    2015-03-01

    B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common type of pediatric leukemia. Despite improved remission rates, current treatment regimens for pediatric B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia are often associated with adverse effects and central nervous system relapse, necessitating more effective and safer agents. Bafilomycin A1 is an inhibitor of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase that is frequently used at high concentration to block late-phase autophagy. Here, we show that bafilomycin A1 at a low concentration (1 nM) effectively and specifically inhibited and killed pediatric B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. It targeted both early and late stages of the autophagy pathway by activating mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and by disassociating the Beclin 1-Vps34 complex, as well as by inhibiting the formation of autolysosomes, all of which attenuated functional autophagy. Bafilomycin A1 also targeted mitochondria and induced caspase-independent apoptosis by inducing the translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria to the nucleus. Moreover, bafilomycin A1 induced the binding of Beclin 1 to Bcl-2, which further inhibited autophagy and promoted apoptotic cell death. In primary cells from pediatric patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and a xenograft model, bafilomycin A1 specifically targeted leukemia cells while sparing normal cells. An in vivo mouse toxicity assay confirmed that bafilomycin A1 is safe. Our data thus suggest that bafilomycin A1 is a promising candidate drug for the treatment of pediatric B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:25512644

  11. In vitro-generated immune complexes containing galactose-deficient IgA1 stimulate proliferation of mesangial cells

    PubMed Central

    Yanagihara, Takeshi; Brown, Rhubell; Hall, Stacy; Moldoveanu, Zina; Goepfert, Alice; Tomana, Milan; Julian, Bruce A.; Mestecky, Jiri; Novak, Jan

    2012-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients have elevated serum levels of immune complexes consisting of IgA1 with galactose-deficient hinge-region O-glycans (Gd-IgA1) and anti-glycan IgG. These immune complexes deposit in the kidney and activate mesangial cells. To confirm that the activity of these immune complexes depends on the interaction of Gd-IgA1 with anti-glycan IgG, we generated in vitro analogous immune complexes using Gd-IgA1 myeloma protein and anti-glycan IgG from cord blood of healthy women. The Gd-IgA1 and anti-glycan IgG from cord-blood serum formed IgA1IgG immune complexes that resembled those in sera of patients with IgAN. Furthermore, the ability to activate cellular proliferation was dependent on a heat-sensitive serum factor. In summary, we developed a new protocol for in-vitro formation of IgA1IgG immune complexes, thus providing a new tool for studies of the pathogenesis of IgAN. PMID:24052934

  12. Expression and Sequence Evolution of Aromatase cyp19a1 and Other Sexual Development Genes in East African Cichlid Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Bhne, Astrid; Heule, Corina; Boileau, Nicolas; Salzburger, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Sex determination mechanisms are highly variable across teleost fishes and sexual development is often plastic. Nevertheless, downstream factors establishing the two sexes are presumably conserved. Here, we study sequence evolution and gene expression of core genes of sexual development in a prime model system in evolutionary biology, the East African cichlid fishes. Using the available five cichlid genomes, we test for signs of positive selection in 28 genes including duplicates from the teleost whole-genome duplication, and examine the expression of these candidate genes in three cichlid species. We then focus on a particularly striking case, the A- and B-copies of the aromatase cyp19a1, and detect different evolutionary trajectories: cyp19a1A evolved under strong positive selection, whereas cyp19a1B remained conserved at the protein level, yet is subject to regulatory changes at its transcription start sites. Importantly, we find shifts in gene expression in both copies. Cyp19a1 is considered the most conserved ovary-factor in vertebrates, and in all teleosts investigated so far, cyp19a1A and cyp19a1B are expressed in ovaries and the brain, respectively. This is not the case in cichlids, where we find new expression patterns in two derived lineages: the A-copy gained a novel testis-function in the Ectodine lineage, whereas the B-copy is overexpressed in the testis of the speciest-richest cichlid group, the Haplochromini. This suggests that even key factors of sexual development, including the sex steroid pathway, are not conserved in fish, supporting the idea that flexibility in sexual determination and differentiation may be a driving force of speciation. PMID:23883521

  13. Expression and sequence evolution of aromatase cyp19a1 and other sexual development genes in East African cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Bhne, Astrid; Heule, Corina; Boileau, Nicolas; Salzburger, Walter

    2013-10-01

    Sex determination mechanisms are highly variable across teleost fishes and sexual development is often plastic. Nevertheless, downstream factors establishing the two sexes are presumably conserved. Here, we study sequence evolution and gene expression of core genes of sexual development in a prime model system in evolutionary biology, the East African cichlid fishes. Using the available five cichlid genomes, we test for signs of positive selection in 28 genes including duplicates from the teleost whole-genome duplication, and examine the expression of these candidate genes in three cichlid species. We then focus on a particularly striking case, the A- and B-copies of the aromatase cyp19a1, and detect different evolutionary trajectories: cyp19a1A evolved under strong positive selection, whereas cyp19a1B remained conserved at the protein level, yet is subject to regulatory changes at its transcription start sites. Importantly, we find shifts in gene expression in both copies. Cyp19a1 is considered the most conserved ovary-factor in vertebrates, and in all teleosts investigated so far, cyp19a1A and cyp19a1B are expressed in ovaries and the brain, respectively. This is not the case in cichlids, where we find new expression patterns in two derived lineages: the A-copy gained a novel testis-function in the Ectodine lineage, whereas the B-copy is overexpressed in the testis of the speciest-richest cichlid group, the Haplochromini. This suggests that even key factors of sexual development, including the sex steroid pathway, are not conserved in fish, supporting the idea that flexibility in sexual determination and differentiation may be a driving force of speciation. PMID:23883521

  14. Human factors workplace considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    Computer workstations assume many different forms and play different functions today. In order for them to assume the effective interface role which they should play they must be properly designed to take into account the ubiguitous human factor. In addition, the entire workplace in which they are used should be properly configured so as to enhance the operational features of the individual workstation where possible. A number of general human factors workplace considerations are presented. This ongoing series of notes covers such topics as achieving comfort and good screen visibility, hardware issues (e.g., mouse maintenance), screen symbology features (e.g., labels, cursors, prompts), and various miscellaneous subjects. These notes are presented here in order to: (1) illustrate how one's workstation can be used to support telescience activities of many other people working within an organization, and (2) provide a single complete set of considerations for future reference.

  15. Helicopter human factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    1988-01-01

    The state-of-the-art helicopter and its pilot are examined using the tools of human-factors analysis. The significant role of human error in helicopter accidents is discussed; the history of human-factors research on helicopters is briefly traced; the typical flight tasks are described; and the noise, vibration, and temperature conditions typical of modern military helicopters are characterized. Also considered are helicopter controls, cockpit instruments and displays, and the impact of cockpit design on pilot workload. Particular attention is given to possible advanced-technology improvements, such as control stabilization and augmentation, FBW and fly-by-light systems, multifunction displays, night-vision goggles, pilot night-vision systems, night-vision displays with superimposed symbols, target acquisition and designation systems, and aural displays. Diagrams, drawings, and photographs are provided.

  16. Factor V Leiden.

    PubMed

    Van Cott, Elizabeth M; Khor, Bernard; Zehnder, James L

    2016-01-01

    Factor V Leiden (FVLeiden ) is a common hereditary thrombophilia that causes activated protein C (APC) resistance. This review describes many of the most fascinating features of FVLeiden , including background features, mechanisms of hypercoagulability, the founder mutation concept, the "FVLeiden paradox," synergistic interaction with other thrombotic risk factors, the intertwined relationship between FVLeiden and APC resistance testing, and other, uncommon mutations implicated in causing APC resistance. In addition, there are several conditions where laboratory tests for APC resistance and FVLeiden are or can be discrepant, including lupus anticoagulants, anticoagulants such as direct thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran, argatroban, and bivalirudin) and rivaroxaban, as well as pseudohomozygous, pseudo-wildtype, liver transplant, and bone marrow transplant patients. The laboratory test error rate for FVLeiden is also presented. Am. J. Hematol. 91:46-49, 2016. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26492443

  17. [Streptococcus pyogenes pathogenic factors].

    PubMed

    Bidet, Ph; Bonacorsi, S

    2014-11-01

    The pathogenicity of -hemolytic group A streptococcus (GAS) is particularly diverse, ranging from mild infections, such as pharyngitis or impetigo, to potentially debilitating poststreptococcal diseases, and up to severe invasive infections such as necrotizing fasciitis or the dreaded streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. This variety of clinical expressions, often radically different in individuals infected with the same strain, results from a complex interaction between the bacterial virulence factors, the mode of infection and the immune system of the host. Advances in comparative genomics have led to a better understanding of how, following this confrontation, GAS adapts to the immune system's pressure, either peacefully by reducing the expression of certain virulence factors to achieve an asymptomatic carriage, or on the contrary, by overexpressing them disproportionately, resulting in the most severe forms of invasive infection. PMID:25456681

  18. Risk Factors in Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mustacchi, Piero

    1985-01-01

    In the United States, stroke accounts for 160,000 annual deaths; only 16% of the 1.8 million stroke survivors are fully independent. The incidence of stroke increases with age. Hemorrhagic strokes outnumber ischemic strokes before age 15. Japanese men in this country have a lower stroke mortality than their age peers in Japan. Excessive stroke mortality for US nonwhites may not be entirely due to the greater prevalence of hypertension among blacks. Hypertension emerges as the single most powerful and reversible risk factor in stroke and for survival after stroke. Impaired cardiac function is the second most important precursor of stroke. The recurrence of stroke in survivors is high. The frequency of completed stroke is high in persons with transient ischemic attacks, but not in those with asymptomatic carotid bruits. Other reversible risk factors are smoking, the use of oral contraceptives, alcoholic excess, a low level of physical activity, blood hyperviscosity and drug abuse. PMID:3898597

  19. Growth factors for nanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Kajander, E. Olavi

    1999-12-01

    Nanobacteria are novel microorganisms recently isolated from fetal bovine serum and blood of cows and humans. These coccoid, gram negative bacteria in alpha-2 subgroup of Proteobacteria grow slowly under mammalian cell culture conditions but not in common media for microbes. Now we have found two different kinds of culture supplement preparations that improve their growth and make them culturable in the classical sense. These are supernatant fractions of conditioned media obtained from 1 - 3 months old nanobacteria cultures and from about a 2 weeks old Bacillus species culture. Both improved multiplication and particle yields and the latter increased their resistance to gentamicin. Nanobacteria cultured with any of the methods shared similar immunological property, structure and protein pattern. The growth supporting factors were heat-stabile and nondialyzable, and dialysis improved the growth promoting action. Nanobacteria formed stony colonies in a bacteriological medium supplemented with the growth factors. This is an implication that nanobacterial growth is influenced by pre-existing bacterial flora.

  20. Factorization of simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Mortveit, H. S.; Reidys, C. M.

    2001-01-01

    A simulation is collection of agents that, according to some schedule, are making decisions based on information about other agents in that collection. In this paper we present a class of dynamical systems called Sequential Dynamical Systems (SDS) that was developed to capture these key features of computer simulations. Here, as an example of the use of SDS, we demonstrate how one can obtain information about a simulation by a factorization into smaller simulations.

  1. Concept of a (1-. cap alpha. ) performance confidence interval

    SciTech Connect

    Leong, H.H.; Johnson, G.R.; Bechtel, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    A multi-input, single-output system is assumed to be represented by some model. The distribution functions of the input and the output variables are considered to be at least obtainable through experimental data. Associated with the computer response of the model corresponding to given inputs, a conditional pseudoresponse set is generated. This response can be constructed by means of the model by using the simulated pseudorandom input variates from a neighborhood defined by a preassigned probability allowance. A pair of such pseudoresponse values can then be computed by a procedure corresponding to a (1-..cap alpha..) probability for the conditional pseudoresponse set. The range defined by such a pair is called a (1-..cap alpha..) performance confidence interval with respect to the model. The application of this concept can allow comparison of the merit of two models describing the same system, or it can detect a system change when the current response is out of the performance interval with respect to the previously identified model. 6 figures.

  2. CYP287A1 is a carotenoid 2-?-hydroxylase required for deinoxanthin biosynthesis in Deinococcus radiodurans R1.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhengfu; Zhang, Wei; Su, Shiyou; Chen, Ming; Lu, Wei; Lin, Min; Molnr, Istvn; Xu, Yuquan

    2015-12-01

    The carotenoid deinoxanthin is a crucial resistance factor against various stresses in the radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans. Disruption of the gene dr2473 encoding the cytochrome P450 CYP287A1 led to the accumulation of 2-deoxydeinoxanthin in D. radiodurans, demonstrating that CYP287A1 is a novel ?-carotene 2-hydroxylase. The dr2473 knockout mutant was shown to be more sensitive to UV radiation and oxidative stress than the wild-type strain D. radiodurans R1, indicating that the C2 alcohol of deinoxanthin is important for antioxidant activity. PMID:26311221

  3. Human Factors Review Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R.

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.

  4. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DESIGN OF BIOACCUMULATION FACTOR AND BIOTA-SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION FACTOR FIELD STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of modeling simulations were performed to develop an understanding of the underlying factors and principles involved in developing field sampling designs for measuring bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs. These simulations reveal...

  5. Nur transcription factors in stress and addiction

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Melo, Danae; Galleguillos, Danny; Sánchez, Natalia; Gysling, Katia; Andrés, María E.

    2013-01-01

    The Nur transcription factors Nur77 (NGFI-B, NR4A1), Nurr1 (NR4A2), and Nor-1 (NR4A3) are a sub-family of orphan members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. These transcription factors are products of immediate early genes, whose expression is rapidly and transiently induced in the central nervous system by several types of stimuli. Nur factors are present throughout the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis where are prominently induced in response to stress. Drugs of abuse and stress also induce the expression of Nur factors in nuclei of the motivation/reward circuit of the brain, indicating their participation in the process of drug addiction and in non-hypothalamic responses to stress. Repeated use of addictive drugs and chronic stress induce long-lasting dysregulation of the brain motivation/reward circuit due to reprogramming of gene expression and enduring alterations in neuronal function. Here, we review the data supporting that Nur transcription factors are key players in the molecular basis of the dysregulation of neuronal circuits involved in chronic stress and addiction. PMID:24348325

  6. Diabetic Retinopathy and Systemic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy, an oculardisease, is governed by systemic as well as local ocular factors. These include primarily chronic levels of blood glucose. Individuals with chronically elevated blood glucose levels have substantially more, and more severe, retinopathy than those with lower blood glucose levels. The relationship of blood glucose to retinopathy is continuous, with no threshold although individuals with hemoglobin A1c levels (a measure of chronic glycemia) <6.5%, generally develop little or no retinopathy. Blood pressure levels have been claimed to influence retinopathy development and progression, but multiple controlled clinical trials of antihypertensive agents in diabetic subjects have produced only weak evidence of benefit from blood pressure lowering on the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy. Elevated blood lipids seem to play a role in the progression of retinopathy, and two trials of fenofibrate, a lipid-lowering agent that has not proved effective in preventing cardiovascular disease, have shown benefit in preventing retinopathy progression. The mechanism of this effect may not, however, be directly related to the reduction in blood lipids. Finally, there is strong, but only circumstantial, evidence for a genetic or epigenetic influence on the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Despite the power of large-scale epidemiologic studies and modern molecular biological and computational techniques, the gene or genes, which predispose or protect against the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy remain elusive. PMID:25949071

  7. Diabetic retinopathy and systemic factors.

    PubMed

    Frank, Robert N

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy, an oculardisease, is governed by systemic as well as local ocular factors. These include primarily chronic levels of blood glucose. Individuals with chronically elevated blood glucose levels have substantially more, and more severe, retinopathy than those with lower blood glucose levels. The relationship of blood glucose to retinopathy is continuous, with no threshold although individuals with hemoglobin A1c levels (a measure of chronic glycemia) <6.5%, generally develop little or no retinopathy. Blood pressure levels have been claimed to influence retinopathy development and progression, but multiple controlled clinical trials of antihypertensive agents in diabetic subjects have produced only weak evidence of benefit from blood pressure lowering on the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy. Elevated blood lipids seem to play a role in the progression of retinopathy, and two trials of fenofibrate, a lipid-lowering agent that has not proved effective in preventing cardiovascular disease, have shown benefit in preventing retinopathy progression. The mechanism of this effect may not, however, be directly related to the reduction in blood lipids. Finally, there is strong, but only circumstantial, evidence for a genetic or epigenetic influence on the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Despite the power of large-scale epidemiologic studies and modern molecular biological and computational techniques, the gene or genes, which predispose or protect against the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy remain elusive. PMID:25949071

  8. Local Population Characteristics and Hemoglobin A1c Testing Rates among Diabetic Medicare Beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Yasaitis, Laura C.; Bubolz, Thomas; Skinner, Jonathan S.; Chandra, Amitabh

    2014-01-01

    Background Proposed payment reforms in the US healthcare system would hold providers accountable for the care delivered to an assigned patient population. Annual hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) tests are recommended for all diabetics, but some patient populations may face barriers to high quality healthcare that are beyond providers' control. The magnitude of fine-grained variations in care for diabetic Medicare beneficiaries, and their associations with local population characteristics, are unknown. Methods HbA1c tests were recorded for 480,745 diabetic Medicare beneficiaries. Spatial analysis was used to create ZIP code-level estimated testing rates. Associations of testing rates with local population characteristics that are outside the control of providers – population density, the percent African American, with less than a high school education, or living in poverty – were assessed. Results In 2009, 83.3% of diabetic Medicare beneficiaries received HbA1c tests. Estimated ZIP code-level rates ranged from 71.0% in the lowest decile to 93.1% in the highest. With each 10% increase in the percent of the population that was African American, associated HbA1c testing rates were 0.24% lower (95% CI −0.32–−0.17); for identical increases in the percent with less than a high school education or the percent living in poverty, testing rates were 0.70% lower (−0.95–−0.46) and 1.6% lower (−1.8–−1.4), respectively. Testing rates were lowest in the least and most densely populated ZIP codes. Population characteristics explained 5% of testing rate variations. Conclusions HbA1c testing rates are associated with population characteristics, but these characteristics fail to explain the vast majority of variations. Consequently, even complete risk-adjustment may have little impact on some process of care quality measures; much of the ZIP code-related variations in testing rates likely result from provider-based differences and idiosyncratic local factors not related to poverty, education, or race. PMID:25360615

  9. Pulmonary toxicity of cyclophosphamide: a 1-year study

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, C.C.; Sigler, C.; Lock, S.; Hakkinen, P.J.; Haschek, W.M.; Witschi, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The development of cyclophosphamide-induced pulmonary lesions over a 1-year period was studied in mice. Male BALB/c mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide. Within 3 weeks there were scattered foci of intraalveolar foamy macrophages. With time, these foci increased in size and, 1 year later, occupied large areas in all lung lobes. There was also diffuse interstitial fibrosis. Chemical determination done 3, 12, 24, and 52 weeks after cyclophosphamide showed that lungs of animals treated with cyclophosphamide had significantly more hydroxyproline per lung than controls. One year after cyclophosphamide pressure - volume curves measured in vivo were shifted down and to the right and total lung volumes were decreased. A single injection of cyclophosphamide produced an irreversible and progressive pulmonary lesion. 16 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  10. Underwater Imaging Using a 1 × 16 CMUT Linear Array.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Wendong; He, Changde; Zhang, Yongmei; Song, Jinlong; Xue, Chenyang

    2016-01-01

    A 1 × 16 capacitive micro-machined ultrasonic transducer linear array was designed, fabricated, and tested for underwater imaging in the low frequency range. The linear array was fabricated using Si-SOI bonding techniques. Underwater transmission performance was tested in a water tank, and the array has a resonant frequency of 700 kHz, with pressure amplitude 182 dB (μPa·m/V) at 1 m. The -3 dB main beam width of the designed dense linear array is approximately 5 degrees. Synthetic aperture focusing technique was applied to improve the resolution of reconstructed images, with promising results. Thus, the proposed array was shown to be suitable for underwater imaging applications. PMID:26938536

  11. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances

  12. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

  13. Study of the Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodniza, Alberto Q.; Pereira, Mario R.

    2014-11-01

    The comet called C/2013 A1 (SIDING SPRING) was discovered on January 3, 2013 in Australia. In January 28/2014, NASA announced that is preparing for the close encounter that will happen between the comet C/2013 A1 and Mars on October 19-2014. The Mission called “MAVEN” will insert in Mars orbit on september 21—2014. The comet will pass just 138,000 kilometers far from the surface of Mars. The probability that the comet collides with Mars is small but the dust particles emitted by the comet can cause damage to spacecrafts and probes that are in orbit around that planet. NASA is making preparations to take all precautions. If the comet is quite active, there will be almost no time to take security measures with Mars orbiters. For that reason NASA is already ahead of the facts. According to scientists of the "JET PROPULSION LABORATORY-JPL", dust particles spewing from the comet may be traveling at 56 km / sec in relation to the orbiters, fifty times faster than the speed of a bullet. From our Observatory, located in Pasto-Colombia, we captured several pictures, videos and astrometry data during several days. The pictures of the asteroid were captured with the following equipment: CGE PRO 1400 CELESTRON (f/11 Schmidt-Cassegrain Telescope) and STL-1001 SBIG camera. Astrometry was carried out, and we calculated the orbital elements.Summary And Conclusions: We obtained the following orbital parameters: eccentricity = 1.0003983, orbital inclination = 129.03078 deg, longitude of the ascending node = 300.99538 deg, argument of perihelion = 2.42310 deg, perihelion distance = 1.40023196 A.U. The parameters were calculated based on 20 observations (Jan 21 to April 02) with mean residual = 0.334 arcseconds. We also obtained the light curve of the body with our data (January to November/2014)Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank to University of Narino-Pasto-Colombia.

  14. Upregulation of COL6A1 is predictive of poor prognosis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yijun; Zhang, Hailiang; Shi, Guohai; Zhu, Yao; Dai, Bo; Ye, Dingwei

    2015-01-01

    Background: The extracellular matrix (ECM) is reported to play an important role in tumorigenesis and progression. Collagen VI is an important ECM protein. In this study, we investigated the potential role of the COL6A1 gene, which encodes the ?1 polypeptide of collagen VI, in the biological functions involved in the progression and outcome of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Materials and methods: A total of 288 ccRCC patients who underwent radical nephrectomy (RN) or nephron sparing nephrectomy (NSS) at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC) were enrolled. Total RNA was extracted from frozen samples obtained from the tissue bank of FUSCC and expression of COL6A1 was determined by qRT-PCR. The clinical relationship between COL6A1 expression and ccRCC prognosis was analyzed. These data were then validated in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort. We also investigated the effect of COL6A1 overexpression in a xenografted tumor model in nude mice in vivo. Results: In multivariate analysis of TCGA cohorts, COL6A1 high expression was predictive of poor prognosis in ccRCC patients overall survival (OS) (HR: 2.588 95%CI 1.6164.146) and disease free survival(DFS) (HR: 3.106 95%CI 1.5346.288). In FUSCC cohorts, after adjusted for relevant factors, the COL6A1 expression indicates poor prognosis in ccRCC patientss OS (HR 2.211; 95% CI, 1.3608.060) and DFS (HR 3.052; 95%CI, 1.5006.210). COL6A1 overexpression promoted tumor growth in xenografted nude mice. Conclusion: Increased COL6A1 expression correlates with poor prognosis in ccRCC patients. Moreover, COL6A1 stimulates tumor growth in vivo. PMID:26317545

  15. Association of HbA1c and cardiovascular and renal disease in an adult Mediterranean population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence suggests a mechanistic link between the glycemic environment and renal and cardiovascular events, even below the threshold for diabetes. We aimed to assess the association between HbA1c and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods A cross-sectional study involving a random representative sample of 2270 adults from southern Spain (Malaga) was undertaken. We measured HbA1c, serum creatinine and albuminuria in fasting blood and urine samples. Results Individuals without diabetes in the upper HbA1c tertile had an unfavorable cardiovascular and renal profile and shared certain clinical characteristics with the patients with diabetes. Overall, a higher HbA1c concentration was strongly associated with CKD or CVD after adjustment for traditional risk factors. The patients with known diabetes had a 2-fold higher odds of CKD or CVD. However, when both parameters were introduced in the same model, the HbA1c concentration was only significantly associated with clinical endpoints (OR: 1.4, 95% CI, 1.1-1.6, P?=?0.002). An increase in HbA1c of one percentage point was associated with a 30% to 40% increase in the rate of CKD or CVD. This relationship was apparent in persons with and without known diabetes. ROC curves illustrated that a HbA1c of 37mmol/mol (5.5%) was the optimal value in terms of sensitivity and specificity for predicting endpoints in this population. Conclusion HbA1c levels were associated with a higher prevalence of CKD and CVD cross-sectionally, regardless of diabetes status. These data support the value of HbA1c as a marker of cardiovascular and renal disease in the general population. PMID:23865389

  16. Fabrication of Nb/A1 Superconducting Tunnel Junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sung-Ik; Park, Young-Sik; Park, Jang-Hyun; Lee, Yong-Ho; Lee, Sang-Kil; Kim, Sug-Whan; Han, Won-Yong

    2004-12-01

    We report the successful fabrication and I--V curve superconductivity test results of the Nb/Al-based superconducting tunnel junctions. STJs with side-lengths of 20, 40, 60 and 80 ?m were fabricated by deposition of polycrystalline Nb/Al/AlOx/Al/Nb 5-layer thin films incorporated on a 3-inch Si wafer. STJ was designed by TannerTM L-Edit 8.3 program, and fabricated in SQUID fabrication facility, KRISS. 5-layer STJ thin-films were fabricated using UV photolithography, DC magnetron sputtering, Reactive ion etching, and CVD(Chemical Vapor Deposition) techniques. Superconducting state test for STJ was succeeded in 4K with liquid helium cooling system. Their performance indicators such as energy gap, normal resistance, normal resistivity, dynamic resistance, dynamic resistivity, and quality factor were measured from I--V curve. Fabricated Nb/Al STJ shows 11% higher FWHM energy resolution than genuine Nb STJ.

  17. Milestones and impact factors.

    PubMed

    Ozonoff, David M; Grandjean, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Environmental Health has just received its first Impact Factor by Thomson ISI. At a level of 2.48, this achievement is quite satisfactory and places Environmental Health in the top 25% of environmental science journals. When the journal was launched in 2002, it was still unclear whether the Open Access publishing model could be made into a viable commercial enterprise within the biomedical field. During the past eight years, Open Access journals have become widely available, although still covering only about 15% of journal titles. Major funding agencies and institutions, including prominent US universities, now require that researchers publish in Open Access journals. Because of the profound role of scientific journals for the sharing of results and communication between researchers, the advent of Open Access may be of as much significance as the transition from handwriting to printing via moveable type. As Environmental Health is an electronic Open Access journal, the numbers of downloads at the journal website can be retrieved. The top-20 list of articles most frequently accessed shows that all of them have been downloaded over 10,000 times. Back in 2002, the first article published was accessed only 49 times during the following month. A year later, the server had over 1,000 downloads per month, and now the total number of monthly downloads approaches 50,000. These statistics complement the Impact Factor and confirm the viability of Open Access in our field of research. The advent of digital media and its decentralized mode of distribution - the internet - have dramatically changed the control and financing of scientific information dissemination, while facilitating peer review, accelerating editorial handling, and supporting much needed transparency. Both the meaning and means of "having an impact" are therefore changing, as will the degree and way in which scientific journals remain "factors" in that impact. PMID:20615249

  18. Neutron quality factor

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    Both the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) have recommended that the radiation quality weighting factor for neutrons (Q{sub n}, or the corresponding new modifying factor, w{sub R}) be increased by a value of two for most radiation protection practices. This means an increase in the recommended value for Q{sub n} from a nominal value of 10 to a nominal value of 20. This increase may be interpreted to mean that the biological effectiveness of neutrons is two times greater than previously thought. A decision to increase the value of Q{sub n} will have a major impact on the regulations and radiation protection programs of Federal agencies responsible for the protection of radiation workers. Therefore, the purposes of this report are: (1) to examine the general concept of {open_quotes}quality factor{close_quotes} (Q) in radiation protection and the rationale for the selection of specific values of Q{sub n}; and (2) to make such recommendations to the Federal agencies, as appropriate. This report is not intended to be an exhaustive review of the scientific literature on the biological effects of neutrons, with the aim of defending a particular value for Q{sub n}. Rather, the working group examined the technical issues surrounding the current recommendations of scientific advisory bodies on this matter, with the aim of determining if these recommendations should be adopted by the Federal agencies. Ultimately, the group concluded that there was no compelling basis for a change in Q{sub n}. The report was prepared by Federal scientists working under the auspices of the Science Panel of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC).

  19. The "impact factor" revisited

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Peng; Loh, Marie; Mondry, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    The number of scientific journals has become so large that individuals, institutions and institutional libraries cannot completely store their physical content. In order to prioritize the choice of quality information sources, librarians and scientists are in need of reliable decision aids. The "impact factor" (IF) is the most commonly used assessment aid for deciding which journals should receive a scholarly submission or attention from research readership. It is also an often misunderstood tool. This narrative review explains how the IF is calculated, how bias is introduced into the calculation, which questions the IF can or cannot answer, and how different professional groups can benefit from IF use. PMID:16324222

  20. Human Factors Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Jack is an advanced human factors software package that provides a three dimensional model for predicting how a human will interact with a given system or environment. It can be used for a broad range of computer-aided design applications. Jack was developed by the computer Graphics Research Laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania with assistance from NASA's Johnson Space Center, Ames Research Center and the Army. It is the University's first commercial product. Jack is still used for academic purposes at the University of Pennsylvania. Commercial rights were given to Transom Technologies, Inc.

  1. Addictive personality factors.

    PubMed

    Kagan, D M

    1987-11-01

    This study was designed to compare mean scores obtained by alcoholics, compulsive gamblers, smokers, chronic joggers, and control subjects on six subfactors of the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale. Results indicated that some MacAndrew factors may be more sensitive to additive pathology than others. Alcoholics emerged as the most pathological group, in terms of scores on the Cognitive Impairment, Social Maladjustment, and Risk Taking scales. Gamblers and smokers appeared to be distinctly different, more socially oriented addicts. Frequency of jogging was negatively related to measures of addiction but positively related to measures of compulsiveness. PMID:3437410

  2. Psychosocial factors in obesity.

    PubMed

    Mustajoki, P

    1987-01-01

    Obese people as a group have similar mental health as normal weight people, and there are no psychiatric features characteristic of obesity in general. However, small subgroups of obese individuals may have psychiatric abnormalities which are specific for obesity, such as body image disturbance or periodic compulsive overeating (bulimia). Obesity is strongly related to sociocultural factors. In western countries obesity is commoner in lower than in higher social classes. Thus, the development of obesity is influenced by social status. However, also the converse is true: recent observations suggest that obese people lose social status. This is probably due to prejudice and discrimination against obese persons in the modern western society. PMID:3477994

  3. Nucleon elastic form factors

    SciTech Connect

    D. Day

    2007-03-01

    The nucleon form factors are still the subject of active investigation even after an experimental effort spanning 50 years. This is because they are of critical importance to our understanding of the electromagnetic properties of nuclei and provide a unique testing ground for QCD motivated models of nucleon structure. Progress in polarized beams, polarized targets and recoil polarimetry have allowed an important and precise set of data to be collected over the last decade. I will review the experimental status of elastic electron scattering from the nucleon along with an outlook for future progress.

  4. Human factors: Aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, James P.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of the Aeronautics Human Factors Research and Technology program are to provide the technology base and capability to design effective crew-cockpit systems and to advance solutions to human problems affecting air transport and rotorcraft effectiveness and safety. Advanced automation technologies, information display capabilities under computer control, and concern for the effects of human error in flight operations are elements which drive the directions of the program. Thus, the program has four thrusts: flight management, human engineering methods, rotorcraft, and subsonic transports.

  5. Acoustic testing of a 1.5 pressure ratio, low tip speed fan (QEP fan B scale model)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazin, S. B.; Minzner, W. R.; Paas, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    A scale model (0.484 scale factor) of a single stage fan designed for a 1.5 pressure ratio and 1160 ft/sec tip speed was tested to determine its noise characteristics. The fan had 26 blades and 60 outlet guide vanes, with vanes spaced two rotor blade aerodynamic chords from the blades. The effects of speed, exhaust nozzle area and fan frame acoustic treatment on the scale model's noise characteristics were investigated.

  6. Apolipoprotein A1/C3/A5 haplotypes and serum lipid levels

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the apolipoprotein (Apo) A1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster and serum lipid profiles is inconsistent. The present study was undertaken to detect the association between the ApoA1/C3/A5 gene polymorphisms and their haplotypes with serum lipid levels in the general Chinese population. Methods A total of 1030 unrelated subjects (492 males and 538 females) aged 15-89 were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the ApoA1 -75 bp G>A, ApoC3 3238C>G, ApoA5 -1131T>C, ApoA5 c.553G>T and ApoA5 c.457G>A was performed by polymerse chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Pair-wise linkage disequilibria and haplotype analysis among the five SNPs were estimated. Results The levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and ApoA1 were lower in males than in femailes (P < 0.05 for each). The allelic and genotypic frequencies of the SNPs were no significant difference between males and females except ApoC3 3238C>G. There were 11 haplotypes with a frequency >1% identified in the cluster in our population. At the global level, the haplotypes comprised of all five SNPs were significantly associated with all seven lipid traits. In particular, haplotype G-G-C-C-A (6%; in the order of ApoA5 c.553G>T, ApoA5 c.457G>A, ApoA5 -1131T>C, ApoC3 3238C>G, and ApoA1 -75bp G>A) and G-A-T-C-G (4%) showed consistent association with total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), ApoA1, ApoB, and the ApoA1/ApoB ratio. In addition, carriers of haplotype G-G-T-C-G (26%) had increased serum concentration of HDL-C and ApoA1, whereas carriers of G-G-C-G-G (15%) had high concentrations of TC, triglyceride (TG) and ApoB. We also found that haplotypes with five SNPs explain much more serum lipid variation than any single SNP alone, especially for TG (4.4% for haplotype vs. 2.4% for -1131T>C max based on R-square) and HDL-C (5.1% for haplotype vs. 0.9% for c.553G>T based on R-square). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with genotypes and several environment factors. Conclusions Several common SNPs and their haplotypes in the ApoA1/C3/A5 gene cluster are closely associated with modifications of serum lipid parameters in the general Chinese population. PMID:21854571

  7. The Protective Effect of Bafilomycin A1 Against Cobalt Nanoparticle-Induced Cytotoxicity and Aseptic Inflammation in Macrophages In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Songhua; Liu, Fan; Zeng, Zhaoxun; Yang, Huilin; Jiang, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Co ions released due to corrosion of Co nanoparticles (CoNPs) in the lysosomes of macrophages may be a factor in the particle-induced cytotoxicity and aseptic inflammation accompanying metal-on-metal (MOM) hip prosthesis failure. Here, we show that CoNPs are easily dissolved under a low pH, simulating the acidic lysosomal environment. We then used bafilomycin A1 to change the pH inside the lysosome to inhibit intracellular corrosion of CoNPs and then investigated its protective effects against CoNP-induced cytotoxicity and aseptic inflammation on murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. XTT {2,3-bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-5-[(phenylamino) carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide} assays revealed that bafilomycin A1 can significantly decrease CoNP-induced cytotoxicity in RAW264.7 cells. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed that bafilomycin A1 can significantly decrease the subtoxic concentration of CoNP-induced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1?, and interleukin-6), but has no effect on anti-inflammatory cytokines (transforming growth factor-? and interleukin-10) in RAW264.7 cells. We studied the protective mechanism of bafilomycin A1 against CoNP-induced effects in RAW264.7 cells by measuring glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase levels and employed scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometer assays to observe the ultrastructural cellular changes. The changes associated with apoptosis were assessed by examining the pAKT and cleaved caspase-3 levels using Western blotting. These data strongly suggested that bafilomycin A1 can potentially suppress CoNP-induced cytotoxicity and aseptic inflammation by inhibiting intracellular corrosion of CoNPs and that the reduction in Co ions released from CoNPs may play an important role in downregulating oxidative stress in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:26054709

  8. Virtual and In Vitro Screens Reveal a Potential Pharmacophore that Avoids the Fibrillization of A?1-42.

    PubMed

    Hernndez-Rodrguez, Maricarmen; Correa-Basurto, Jos; Nicols-Vzquez, Mara Ins; Miranda-Ruvalcaba, Ren; Bentez-Cardoza, Claudia Guadalupe; Resndiz-Albor, Aldo Arturo; Mndez-Mndez, Juan Vicente; Rosales-Hernndez, Martha C

    2015-01-01

    Among the multiple factors that induce Alzheimer's disease, aggregation of the amyloid ? peptide (A?) is considered the most important due to the ability of the 42-amino acid A? peptides (A?1-42) to form oligomers and fibrils, which constitute A? pathological aggregates. For this reason, the development of inhibitors of A?1-42 pathological aggregation represents a field of research interest. Several A?1-42 fibrillization inhibitors possess tertiary amine and aromatic moieties. In the present study, we selected 26 compounds containing tertiary amine and aromatic moieties with or without substituents and performed theoretical studies that allowed us to select four compounds according to their free energy values for A?1-42 in ?-helix (A?-?), random coil (A?-RC) and ?-sheet (A?-?) conformations. Docking studies revealed that compound 5 had a higher affinity for A?-? and A?-RC than the other compounds. In vitro, this compound was able to abolish Thioflavin T fluorescence and favored an RC conformation of A?1-42 in circular dichroism studies, resulting in the formation of amorphous aggregates as shown by atomic force microscopy. The results obtained from quantum studies allowed us to identify a possible pharmacophore that can be used to design A?1-42 aggregation inhibitors. In conclusion, compounds with higher affinity for A?-? and A?-RC prevented the formation of oligomeric species. PMID:26172152

  9. Virtual and In Vitro Screens Reveal a Potential Pharmacophore that Avoids the Fibrillization of A?142

    PubMed Central

    Hernndez-Rodrguez, Maricarmen; Correa-Basurto, Jos; Nicols-Vzquez, Mara Ins; Miranda-Ruvalcaba, Ren; Bentez-Cardoza, Claudia Guadalupe; Resndiz-Albor, Aldo Arturo; Mndez-Mndez, Juan Vicente; Rosales-Hernndez, Martha C.

    2015-01-01

    Among the multiple factors that induce Alzheimers disease, aggregation of the amyloid ? peptide (A?) is considered the most important due to the ability of the 42-amino acid A? peptides (A?142) to form oligomers and fibrils, which constitute A? pathological aggregates. For this reason, the development of inhibitors of A?142 pathological aggregation represents a field of research interest. Several A?142 fibrillization inhibitors possess tertiary amine and aromatic moieties. In the present study, we selected 26 compounds containing tertiary amine and aromatic moieties with or without substituents and performed theoretical studies that allowed us to select four compounds according to their free energy values for A?142 in ?-helix (A?-?), random coil (A?-RC) and ?-sheet (A?-?) conformations. Docking studies revealed that compound 5 had a higher affinity for A?-? and A?-RC than the other compounds. In vitro, this compound was able to abolish Thioflavin T fluorescence and favored an RC conformation of A?142 in circular dichroism studies, resulting in the formation of amorphous aggregates as shown by atomic force microscopy. The results obtained from quantum studies allowed us to identify a possible pharmacophore that can be used to design A?142 aggregation inhibitors. In conclusion, compounds with higher affinity for A?-? and A?-RC prevented the formation of oligomeric species. PMID:26172152

  10. Genetic factors in malaria*

    PubMed Central

    Luzzatto, L.

    1974-01-01

    Some of the available information on the genetics of Plasmodium is reviewed, and some of its peculiarities are emphasized. Genetic factors in the human host that may affect susceptibility to malaria are critically evaluated. Most of the studies thus far have been concerned with the genetics of host erythrocytes but there is recent evidence that genes affecting immune processes may also be involved. At least two genes affecting red cells confer relative resistance to P. falciparum: the autosomal gene for haemoglobin S (Hb S) and the sex-linked gene for the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) variant known as A-. Whereas malaria selection can be regarded as established for these genes, it still remains a hypothesis for some other polymorphic traits of red cells. Differential susceptibility to P. falciparum of red cells with different genotypes has been tested by in vitro cultures, in which the invasion of new cells and intracellular development of the parasite can be followed by parasite counts and by 14C-isoleucine uptake. A model that relates genetic factors in Plasmodium and in man and that may account for certain features of host—parasite interactions is presented. PMID:4613502

  11. SARSCEST (human factors)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, H. Mcilvaine

    1988-01-01

    People interact with the processes and products of contemporary technology. Individuals are affected by these in various ways and individuals shape them. Such interactions come under the label 'human factors'. To expand the understanding of those to whom the term is relatively unfamiliar, its domain includes both an applied science and applications of knowledge. It means both research and development, with implications of research both for basic science and for development. It encompasses not only design and testing but also training and personnel requirements, even though some unwisely try to split these apart both by name and institutionally. The territory includes more than performance at work, though concentration on that aspect, epitomized in the derivation of the term ergonomics, has overshadowed human factors interest in interactions between technology and the home, health, safety, consumers, children and later life, the handicapped, sports and recreation education, and travel. Two aspects of technology considered most significant for work performance, systems and automation, and several approaches to these, are discussed.

  12. Factors influencing glabridin stability.

    PubMed

    Ao, Mingzhang; Shi, Yue; Cui, Yongming; Guo, Wentao; Wang, Jing; Yu, Longjiang

    2010-12-01

    Glabridin, a polyphenolic isoflavan of Glycyrrhiza glabra, has shown a variety of pharmaceutical properties. We have previously studied the isolation of glabridin using macroporous resin and found that it is partially degraded, giving a dark color. To illustrate the degradation of glabridin, the present work studied the stability of glabridin under various conditions. Licorice extract containing about 20% glabridin, obtained from G. glabra by silica gel column chromatography, was used in the stability study. Seven different factors (temperature, illumination, humidity, pH, solvent, oxygen, and oxidant) were studied and content changes were determined through HPLC analysis. Except for oxygen, all the above factors had an effect on the stability of glabridin, with illumination being the main one. Moreover, the interactions between temperature and pH, temperature and humidity, and illumination and pH can promote the degradation of glabridin. In conclusion, we suggest that a dark, dry and airtight environment provides the optimized condition for the long-term storage of glabridin. PMID:21299118

  13. Factors regulating cheese shreddability.

    PubMed

    Childs, J L; Daubert, C R; Stefanski, L; Foegeding, E A

    2007-05-01

    Two sets of cheeses were evaluated to determine factors that affect shred quality. The first set of cheeses was made up of 3 commercial cheeses, Monterey Jack, Mozzarella, and process. The second set of cheeses was made up of 3 Mozzarella cheeses with varying levels of protein and fat at a constant moisture content. A shred distribution of long shreds, short shreds, and fines was obtained by shredding blocks of cheese in a food processor. A probe tack test was used to directly measure adhesion of the cheese to a stainless-steel surface. Surface energy was determined based on the contact angles of standard liquids, and rheological characterization was done by a creep and recovery test. Creep and recovery data were used to calculate the maximum and initial compliance and retardation time. Shredding defects of fines and adhesion to the blade were observed in commercial cheeses. Mozzarella did not adhere to the blade but did produce the most fines. Both Monterey Jack and process cheeses adhered to the blade and produced fines. Furthermore, adherence to the blade was correlated positively with tack energy and negatively with retardation time. Mozzarella cheese, with the highest fat and lowest protein contents, produced the most fines but showed little adherence to the blade, even though tack energy increased with fat content. Surface energy was not correlated with shredding defects in either group of cheese. Rheological properties and tack energy appeared to be the key factors involved in shredding defects. PMID:17430914

  14. Enhanced target factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Akram; Abdollahi, Hamid; Maeder, Marcel

    2016-03-10

    Target testing or target factor analysis, TFA, is a well-established soft analysis method. TFA answers the question whether an independent target test vector measured at the same wavelengths as the collection of spectra in a data matrix can be excluded as the spectrum of one of the components in the system under investigation. Essentially, TFA cannot positively prove that a particular test spectrum is the true spectrum of one of the components, it can, only reject a spectrum. However, TFA will not reject, or in other words TFA will accept, many spectra which cannot be component spectra. Enhanced Target Factor Analysis, ETFA addresses the above problem. Compared with traditional TFA, ETFA results in a significantly narrower range of positive results, i.e. the chance of a false positive test result is dramatically reduced. ETFA is based on feasibility testing as described in Refs. [16-19]. The method has been tested and validated with computer generated and real data sets. PMID:26893084

  15. The atrial natriuretic factor.

    PubMed

    Genest, J

    1986-10-01

    In less than three years since the rapid and potent natriuretic response to intravenous injection of atrial myocardial extract in rats was reported the factor responsible for the diuretic, natriuretic, and vasodilating activity of the atrial homogenates was isolated, its chemical structure elucidated, and its total synthesis achieved. Also the cDNA and the gene encoding for the atrial natriuretic factor in mice, rats, and man have been cloned and the chromosomal site identified. The major effects of this hormone are vasodilatation, prevention and inhibition of the contraction induced by noradrenaline and angiotensin II, diuresis, and natriuresis associated in most instances with a pronounced increase in glomerular filtration rate and filtration fraction, inhibition of aldosterone secretion, and considerable stimulation of particulate guanylate cyclase activity. High density specific binding sites have been demonstrated in the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex, in the renal glomeruli, and in the collecting ducts, and in the brain areas involved in the regulation of blood pressure and of sodium and water (AV3V region, subfornical organ, nucleus tractus solitarius, area postrema). PMID:2945572

  16. Factors in risk perception

    PubMed

    Sjoberg

    2000-02-01

    Risk perception is a phenomenon in search of an explanation. Several approaches are discussed in this paper. Technical risk estimates are sometimes a potent factor in accounting for perceived risk, but in many important applications it is not. Heuristics and biases, mainly availability, account for only a minor portion of risk perception, and media contents have not been clearly implicated in risk perception. The psychometric model is probably the leading contender in the field, but its explanatory value is only around 20% of the variance of raw data. Adding a factor of "unnatural risk" considerably improves the psychometric model. Cultural Theory, on the other hand, has not been able to explain more than 5-10% of the variance of perceived risk, and other value scales have similarly failed. A model is proposed in which attitude, risk sensitivity, and specific fear are used as explanatory variables; this model seems to explain well over 30-40% of the variance and is thus more promising than previous approaches. The model offers a different type of psychological explanation of risk perception, and it has many implications, e.g., a different approach to the relationship between attitude and perceived risk, as compared with the usual cognitive analysis of attitude. PMID:10795334

  17. Vascular anastomosis using a 1.9-μm laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Robert B.; Zelt, D. T.; LaMuraglia, Glenn M.; Kung, Robert T.

    1993-07-01

    A 1.9 micrometers laser is used to weld small diameter vessels. The absorption characteristic of tissues at this wavelength renders this laser suitable for welding of vessels with diameters in the 1 to 3 mm range. The appropriate laser power range for welding is 120 to 200 mW with a fluence on target of approximately 100 J/cm2. For vessel wall thicknesses matching the optical absorption depth, measured burst pressure was approximately 400 mmHg. In this case the acute weld strength is greater than 3 X 106 dynes/cm2. Anastomotic compliance of the welded zone was a factor of two lower than native vessel tissue both immediately following welding and after 10 weeks of healing. The advantages offered by this laser wavelength are convenient energy delivery via fiber optics, no irrigation needed for tissue cooling, and applicability to small vessel anastomoses.

  18. Genetic polymorphisms of serum amyloid A1 and coronary artery disease risk.

    PubMed

    Xie, X; Ma, Y-T; Yang, Y-N; Li, X-M; Zheng, Y-Y; Liu, F; Ma, X; Fu, Z-Y; Yu, Z-X; Chen, Y; Chen, B-D; Huang, Y

    2015-03-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) protein is not only an inflammatory factor but also an apolipoprotein that can replace apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) as the major apolipoprotein of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). However, the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of SAA and coronary artery disease (CAD) remains unclear. A total of four single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs12218, rs4638289, rs7131332, and rs11603089) of the SAA gene were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method in two independent case-control studies, one of the Han population (1416 CAD patients and 1373 control subjects) and the other of the Uygur population (588 CAD patients and 529 control subjects). We found that the rs12218 CC genotype was more frequent among the CAD patients than among the controls in both the Han (8.3% vs. 4.8%, P?factors, such as sex, age, smoking, drinking, hypertension, diabetes, and serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, and plasma SAA, the differences remained significant in the Han (CC vs. CT+TT, P?

  19. Aryl hydrocarbon-induced interactions at multiple DNA elements of diverse sequence--a multicomponent mechanism for activation of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) gene transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, R W; Zhang, L; Pasco, D S; Fagan, J B

    1994-01-01

    In vivo footprinting experiments, augmented with gel shift and transfection analyses suggest that activation of the CYP1A1 gene by aryl hydrocarbons may be a multicomponent process. During the first 30 minutes of exposure to aryl hydrocarbon carcinogens and environmental contaminants, in vivo footprints appear at nine distinct sites within a 281 bp region centered 950 bp upstream of the CYP1A1 transcription start site. Six of these sites are unrelated in sequence to the three xenobiotic response elements (XREs) within this region, at which the aryl hydrocarbon (AH) receptor is known to bind. These six display a variety of footprint patterns, are diverse in sequence and range in G-C content from 60 to 75%. This diversity suggests that multiple nuclear factors may be responsible for these six in vivo footprints. These observations are consistent with competition gel shift experiments showing that the nuclear factors binding at two of these sites are different from each other, as well as from the AH receptor. Gel shifts also indicate that the sequence-specific factors binding at these sites are expressed constitutively. This is consistent with a model in which in vivo footprints are induced at these six sites, not through direct activation or de novo synthesis of DNA-binding factors, but through a two phase mechanism in which binding of the nuclear AH receptor complex to XREs facilitates the binding of constitutive factors at these sites. This facilitation could be mediated either through specific protein-protein interactions or through alterations in chromatin structure that make these sites accessible to constitutive nuclear factors. A function for the sequences at which aryl hydrocarbons induce in vivo footprints is suggested by transfection experiments showing that one of these sequences cooperates with a weak XRE to confer on a reporter gene responsiveness to aryl hydrocarbons. Images PMID:8202380

  20. COL7A1 Recessive mutations in two siblings with distinct subtypes of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa: pruriginosa versus nails only.

    PubMed

    Pruneddu, Sara; Castiglia, Daniele; Floriddia, Giovanna; Cottoni, Francesca; Zambruno, Giovanna

    2011-02-01

    Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) is a rare, clinically heterogeneous, blistering genodermatosis inherited as either autosomal dominant or recessive trait. All DEB forms are caused by mutations in the COL7A1 gene, which encodes for type VII collagen, the major component of the anchoring fibrils ensuring epithelial-mesenchymal adhesion. Major determinants of clinical heterogeneity in DEB are COL7A1 mutation types and their consequences at mRNA and protein levels; nevertheless, siblings with the same genetic alterations can manifest highly variable clinical signs. Here, we report novel compound heterozygous recessive COL7A1 missense mutations in 2 siblings presenting different DEB clinical subtypes. Our findings document the rare occurrence of recessive inheritance for the nails only DEB variant and emphasize the role of acquired phenotype-modifying factors in DEB pruriginosa pathogenesis. PMID:21196708

  1. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Injection Phobia Scale-Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Sawchuk, Craig N.; Moretz, Melanie W.; David, Bieke; Armstrong, Thomas; Ciesielski, Bethany G.

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Injection Phobia Scale-Anxiety (IPS-Anx). Principal components analysis of IPS-Anx items in Study 1 (n = 498) revealed a 2-factor structure consisting of Distal Fear and Contact Fear. However, CFA results in Study 2 (n = 567) suggest that a 1-factor

  2. Crystal structure and absolute configuration of preaustinoid A1.

    PubMed

    Stierle, Andrea; Stierle, Donald; Decato, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    The absolute structure of the title compound preaustinoid A1 [systematic name: (5aR,7aS,8R,10S,12R,13aR,13bS)-methyl 10-hy-droxy-5,5,7a,10,12,13b-hexa-methyl-14-methyl-ene-3,9,11-trioxohexa-deca-hydro-8,12-methano-cyclo-octa-[3,4]benzo[1,2-c]oxepine-8-carboxyl-ate], C26H36O7, has been determined by resonant scattering using Cu Kα radiation [Flack parameter = 0.07 (15)]. The structure is consistent with that reported previously [Stierle et al. (2011). J. Nat. Prod. 74, 2272-2277], determined by detailed analysis of MS and NMR data. The mol-ecule consists of a fused four-ring arrangement. The seven-membered oxepan-2-one ring has a chair conformation, as do the central cyclo-hexane rings, while the outer cyclo-hexa-1,3-dione ring has a boat conformation. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked via O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming helical chains propagating along [100]. PMID:26396816

  3. Active flow control on a 1:4 car model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinemann, Till; Springer, Matthias; Lienhart, Hermann; Kniesburges, Stefan; Othmer, Carsten; Becker, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Lift and drag of a passenger car are strongly influenced by the flow field around its rear end. The bluff body geometry produces a detached, transient flow which induces fluctuating forces on the body, affecting the rear axle, which may distress dynamic stability and comfort significantly. The investigations presented here deal with a 1:4 scale model of a simplified test car geometry that produces fluctuating lift and drag due to its strongly rounded rear geometry. To examine the influence of active flow control on this behavior, steady air jets were realized to exhaust from thin slots across the rear in three different configurations. Investigations were performed at and included the capturing of effective integral lift and drag, velocity measurements in the surrounding flow field with Laser Doppler Anemometry, surface pressure measurements and surface oil flow visualization on the rear. The flow field was found to be dominated by two longitudinal vortices, developing from the detachment of the flow at the upper C-pillar positions, and a recirculating, transverse vortex above the rear window. With an air jet emerging from a slot across the surface right below the rear window section, tangentially directed upstream toward the roof section, total lift could be reduced by more than 7 %, with rear axle lift reduction of about 5 % and negligible drag affection (1 %).

  4. Annexin A1 localization and its relevance to cancer.

    PubMed

    Boudhraa, Zied; Bouchon, Bernadette; Viallard, Claire; D'Incan, Michel; Degoul, Françoise

    2016-02-01

    Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a Ca(2+)-regulated phospholipid-binding protein involved in various cell processes. ANXA1 was initially widely studied in inflammation resolution, but its overexpression was later reported in a large number of cancers. Further in-depth investigations have revealed that this protein could have many roles in cancer progression and act at different levels (from cancer initiation to metastasis). This is partly due to the location of ANXA1 in different cell compartments. ANXA1 can be nuclear, cytoplasmic and/or membrane associated. This last location allows ANXA1 to be proteolytically cleaved and/or to become accessible to its cognate partners, the formyl-peptide receptors. Indeed, in some cancers, ANXA1 is found at the cell surface, where it stimulates formyl-peptide receptors to trigger oncogenic pathways. In the present review, we look at the different locations of ANXA1 and their association with the deregulated pathways often observed in cancers. We have specifically detailed the non-classic pathways of ANXA1 externalization, the significance of its cleavage and the role of the ANXA1-formyl-peptide receptor complex in cancer progression. PMID:26769657

  5. Genetic determination of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-1 plasma levels in a family study of cardiac catheterization patients

    SciTech Connect

    Prenger, V.L.; Beaty, T.H.; Kwiterovich, P.O. )

    1992-11-01

    Plasma levels of two lipoprotein risk factors, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-1 (apo A-1), have been shown to be negatively associated with the risk of developing coronary artery disease, and several reports have examined familial factors in HDL-C and apo A-1 levels. A number of studies suggest that shared genes influence familial resemblance of these lipoprotein levels far more than do shared environments. Possible mechanisms for the inheritance of these risk factors (HDL-C and apo A-1 plasma levels) are explored using data from 390 individuals in 69 families ascertained through probands undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterization. Segregation analysis was used to test a series of specific models of inheritance. Evidence for single-locus control of apo A-1 levels, with Mendelian transmission of a dominant allele leading to elevated apo A-1 levels, was seen in these families, although there was additional correlation among sibs present. This locus accounted for 48.6% and 37.2% of the total variation in apo A-1 levels in males and females, respectively. Similar evidence of segregation at a single locus controlling HDL-C levels was not seen in these families. 27 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Exposure factors handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Konz, J.J.; Lisi, K.; Friebele, E.; Dixon, D.A.

    1989-07-01

    The document provides a summary of the available data on various factors used in assessing human exposure including drinking-water consumption, consumption rates of broad classes of food including fruits, vegetables, beef, dairy products, and fish; soil ingestion; inhalation rate; skin area; lifetime; activity patterns; and body weight. Additionally, a number of specific exposure scenarios are identified with recommendations for default values to use when site-specific data are not available. The basic equations using these parameters to calculate exposure levels are also presented for each scenario. Default values are presented as ranges from typical to reasonable worst case and as frequency distributions where appropriate data were available. Finally, procedures for assessing the uncertainties in exposure assessments are also presented with illustrative examples. These procedures include qualitative and quantitative methods such as Monte Carlo and sensitivity analysis.

  7. Psychosomatic factors in pruritus.

    PubMed

    Tey, Hong Liang; Wallengren, Joanna; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2013-01-01

    Pruritus and psyche are intricately and reciprocally related, with psychophysiological evidence and psychopathological explanations helping us to understand their complex association. Their interaction may be conceptualized and classified into 3 groups: pruritic diseases with psychiatric sequelae, pruritic diseases aggravated by psychosocial factors, and psychiatric disorders causing pruritus. Management of chronic pruritus is directed at treating the underlying causes and adopting a multidisciplinary approach to address the dermatologic, somatosensory, cognitive, and emotional aspects. Pharmcotherapeutic agents that are useful for chronic pruritus with comorbid depression and/or anxiety comprise selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, mirtazapine, tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline and doxepin), and anticonvulsants (gabapentin, pregabalin); the role of neurokinin receptor-1 antagonists awaits verification. Antipsychotics are required for treating itch and formication associated with schizophrenia and delusion of parasitosis (including Morgellons disease). PMID:23245971

  8. Psychosomatic factors in pruritus

    PubMed Central

    Tey, Hong Liang; Wallengren, Joanna; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2013-01-01

    Pruritus and psyche are intricately and reciprocally related, with psychophysiological evidence and psychopathological explanations helping us to understand their complex association. Their interaction may be conceptualized and classified into 3 groups: pruritic diseases with psychiatric sequelae, pruritic diseases aggravated by psychosocial factors, and psychiatric disorders causing pruritus. Management of chronic pruritus is directed at treating the underlying causes and adopting a multidisciplinary approach to address the dermatologic, somatosensory, cognitive, and emotional aspects. Pharmcotherapeutic agents that are useful for chronic pruritus with comorbid depression and/or anxiety comprise selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, mirtazapine, tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline and doxepin), and anticonvulsants (gabapentin, pregabalin); the role of neurokinin receptor-1 antagonists awaits verification. Antipsychotics are required for treating itch and formication associated with schizophrenia and delusion of parasitosis (including Morgellons disease). PMID:23245971

  9. Unity power factor converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wester, Gene W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A unity power factor converter capable of effecting either inversion (dc-to-dc) or rectification (ac-to-dc), and capable of providing bilateral power control from a DC source (or load) through an AC transmission line to a DC load (or source) for power flow in either direction, is comprised of comparators for comparing the AC current i with an AC signal i.sub.ref (or its phase inversion) derived from the AC ports to generate control signals to operate a switch control circuit for high speed switching to shape the AC current waveform to a sine waveform, and synchronize it in phase and frequency with the AC voltage at the AC ports, by selectively switching the connections to a series inductor as required to increase or decrease the current i.

  10. Applications of SRG Factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, E. R.; Bogner, S. K.; Furnstahl, R. J.; Hebeler, K.; Hergert, H.; Perry, R. J.

    2012-10-01

    Recent calculations of nuclear structure make use of the similarity renormalization group to soften the nuclear potential through a series of unitary transformations, which suppress short range correlations.footnotetextE.D. Jurgenson, P. Navr'atil, and R.J. Furnstahl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 082501 (2009).(,)footnotetextE. R. Anderson, S. K. Bogner, R. J. Furnstahl, and R. J. Perry, Phys. Rev. C 82, 054001 (2010) Not only does this lead to a decoupling of scales in the potential, but also simplifications for other operators. One consequence, in particular, is that operator expectation values of high-energy probes in low-energy nuclear states exhibit factorization. As a result, phenomena previously attributed to strong short-range correlations induced by the nucleon-nucleon interaction, such as nuclear scaling and the EMC effect, can now be understood more clearly as a result of low-momentum nuclear structure. Recent results are reported.

  11. Dietary factors in atherogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Margaret-Mary G; Thomas, David R

    2003-07-01

    Emerging evidence continues to increase our awareness of the complexity of pathologic processes involved in atherogenesis. Dietary modulation exclusively targeting cholesterol consumption is rapidly becoming an archaic mode of intervention as alternative theories of atherogenesis evolve. The interaction of nutrients that occurs with different dietary patterns has been the subject of intense research. Similarly, the effect of diet on vascular reactivity, lipid metabolic kinetics, and antioxidant potential has enormous implications for therapeutic modalities targeting atherosclerosis. Many dietary strategies aimed at inhibiting and preventing atherogenesis have resulted from ongoing research. Consensus opinions extrapolated from available data have also emerged. Regardless, the precise role of dietary modulation in atherogenesis is yet to be fully elucidated. This article reviews recent evidence relating to the interface between dietary factors and biologic models of atherogenesis. Clinical implications and practical applications are also discussed. PMID:12793974

  12. Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Marc Vanderhaeghen; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi

    2007-10-01

    There has been much activity in the measurement of the elastic electromagnetic proton and neutron form factors in the last decade, and the quality of the data has greatly improved by performing double polarization experiments, in comparison with previous unpolarized data. Here we review the experimental data base in view of the new results for the proton, and neutron, obtained at JLab, MAMI, and MIT-Bates. The rapid evolution of phenomenological models triggered by these high-precision experiments will be discussed, including the recent progress in the determination of the valence quark generalized parton distributions of the nucleon, as well as the steady rate of improvements made in the lattice QCD calculations.

  13. Human factors: Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, James P.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives are to provide a technology base for intelligent operator interfaces, especially with autonomous subsystems, and to develop a new generation of high performance space suits, gloves, and tools/end effectors to meet the requirements of advanced space missions. The technology base is intended to meet the requirements of productivity, efficiency, and safety in complex manned operations within automated onboard systems and extravehicular activities (EVA) environments. Crew station research is the first of two major areas. Development of methods for the astronaut to supervise, monitor, and evaluate the performance of robotic systems, other space subsystems, and orbital vehicles are key areas of research. The second major area is development of an EVA space suit and gloves. Emphasis in the space human factors research program is placed on technology baseline studies and development of methods, techniques, and data to support productive and safe operations by the astronaut and crew as they interface with complex systems, advance automation, and robotic assistants.

  14. [Psychological factors in hypertension].

    PubMed

    Manuck, S; Morrison, R; Bellack, A

    1986-01-01

    We briefly overview behavioral factors of possible relevance to essential hypertension. We examine, in particular, dimensions of individual differences relating to: (a) problems of anger and assertion; and (b) cardiovascular responsivity to behavioral stressors. Hypertensive patients do show larger cardiovascular reactions to common laboratory stressors than normotensive, controls, and similar differences emerge in comparisons of normotensive individuals with and without a family history of hypertension. Concerning the purported dispositional attributes of hypertensives, we also propose re-examining psychodynamic notions regarding the suppression or denial of anger within a more objective, behavioral framework-specifically, as measurable deficits in assertive skill. Preliminary observations point to the presence of lower assertiveness in some hypertensive patients and increased hostility among others. These behavioral characteristics also appear to be associated with different patterns of cardiovascular reactivity, as recorded during interpersonal encounters that call for assertive responding. PMID:3512899

  15. Regulation of AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 surface expression by PAK3 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Natasha K; Thomas, Gareth M; Luo, Junjie; Huganir, Richard L

    2015-10-27

    AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are the major excitatory receptors of the brain and are fundamental to synaptic plasticity, memory, and cognition. Dynamic recycling of AMPARs in neurons is regulated through several types of posttranslational modification, including phosphorylation. Here, we identify a previously unidentified signal transduction cascade that modulates phosphorylation of serine residue 863 (S863) in the GluA1 AMPAR subunit and controls surface trafficking of GluA1 in neurons. Activation of the EphR-Ephrin signal transduction pathway enhances S863 phosphorylation. Further, EphB2 can interact with Zizimin1, a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor that activates Cdc42 and stimulates S863 phosphorylation in neurons. Among the numerous targets downstream of Cdc42, we determined that the p21-activated kinase-3 (PAK3) phosphorylates S863 in vitro. Moreover, specific loss of PAK3 expression and pharmacological inhibition of PAK both disrupt activity-dependent phosphorylation of S863 in cortical neurons. EphB2, Cdc42, and PAKs are broadly capable of controlling dendritic spine formation and synaptic plasticity and are implicated in multiple cognitive disorders. Collectively, these data delineate a novel signal cascade regulating AMPAR trafficking that may contribute to the molecular mechanisms that govern learning and cognition. PMID:26460013

  16. Geometric frustration on a 1/9th site depleted triangular lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkinson, John; Beck, Jarrett

    2013-03-01

    In the searches both for new spin liquid and spin ice (artificial and macroscopic) candidates, geometrically frustrated two-dimensional spin systems have played a prominent role. Here we present a study of the classical antiferromagnetic Ising (AFI) model on the sorrel net, a 1/9th site depleted and 1/7th bond depleted triangular lattice. The AFI model on this corner-shared triangle net is found to have a large residual entropy per spin S/N = 0 . 48185 +/- 0 . 00008 , indicating the sorrel net is highly geometrically frustrated. Anticipating that it may be difficult to achieve perfect bond depletion, we investigate the physics resulting from turning back on the depleted bonds (J2). We present the phase diagram, analytic expressions for the long range partially ordered ground state spin structure for antiferromagnetic J2 and the short range ordered ground state spin structure for ferromagnetic J2, the magnetic susceptibility and the static structure factor. We briefly comment on the possibility that artificial spin ice on the sorrel lattice could by made, and on a recent report [T. D. Keene et al., Dalton Trans. 40 2983 (2011)] of the creation of a 1/9th depleted cobalt hydroxide oxalate. This work was supported by NSERC (JMH) and NSERC USRA (JJB)

  17. Helicopter Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Even under optimal conditions, helicopter flight is a most demanding form of human-machine interaction, imposing continuous manual, visual, communications, and mental demands on pilots. It is made even more challenging by small margins for error created by the close proximity of terrain in NOE flight and missions flown at night and in low visibility. Although technology advances have satisfied some current and proposed requirements, hardware solutions alone are not sufficient to ensure acceptable system performance and pilot workload. However, human factors data needed to improve the design and use of helicopters lag behind advances in sensor, display, and control technology. Thus, it is difficult for designers to consider human capabilities and limitations when making design decisions. This results in costly accidents, design mistakes, unrealistic mission requirements, excessive training costs, and challenge human adaptability. NASA, in collaboration with DOD, industry, and academia, has initiated a program of research to develop scientific data bases and design principles to improve the pilot/vehicle interface, optimize training time and cost, and maintain pilot workload and system performance at an acceptable level. Work performed at Ames, and by other research laboratories, will be reviewed to summarize the most critical helicopter human factors problems and the results of research that has been performed to: (1) Quantify/model pilots use of visual cues for vehicle control; (2) Improve pilots' performance with helmet displays of thermal imagery and night vision goggles for situation awareness and vehicle control; (3) Model the processes by which pilots encode maps and compare them to the visual scene to develop perceptually and cognitively compatible electronic map formats; (4) Evaluate the use of spatially localized auditory displays for geographical orientation, target localization, radio frequency separation; (5) Develop and flight test control/display concepts; (6) Quantify, model, predict, and improve pilots, workload-management strategies; and (7) Design computer-game trainers to reduce training time and cost.

  18. Implications of iron deficiency/anemia on the classification of diabetes using HbA1c

    PubMed Central

    Attard, S M; Herring, A H; Wang, H; Howard, A-G; Thompson, A L; Adair, L S; Mayer-Davis, E J; Gordon-Larsen, P

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Nonglycemic factors like iron deficiency (ID) or anemia may interfere with classification of diabetes and prediabetes using hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). However, few population-based studies of diabetes in areas with endemic ID/anemia have been conducted. We aimed to determine how mutually exclusive categories of ID alone, anemia alone and iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) were each associated with prediabetes and diabetes prevalence using fasting blood glucose (FBG) versus HbA1c in a population-based study of adults with endemic ID/anemia. Subjects/Methods: We used data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, a longitudinal, population-based study across 228 communities within nine provinces of China. This analysis included 7308 adults seen in the 2009 survey aged 1875 years. We used descriptive and covariate-adjusted models to examine relative risk of prediabetes and diabetes using FBG alone, HbA1c alone, HbA1c and FBG, or neither (normoglycemia) by anemia alone, ID alone, IDA or normal iron/hemoglobin. Results: Approximately 65% of individuals with diabetes in our sample were concordantly classified with diabetes using both FBG and HbA1c, while 35% had a discordant diabetes classification: they were classified using either FBG or HbA1c, but not both. Fewer participants with ID alone versus normal iron/hemoglobin were classified with diabetes using HbA1c only. From covariate-adjusted, multinomial regression analyses, the adjusted prevalence of prediabetes using HbA1c only was 22% for men with anemia alone, but 13% for men with normal iron/hemoglobin. In contrast, the predicted prevalence of prediabetes using HbA1c only was 8% for women with ID alone, compared with 13% for women with normal iron/hemoglobin. Conclusions: These findings suggest potential misclassification of diabetes using HbA1c in areas of endemic ID/anemia. Estimating diabetes prevalence using HbA1c may result in under-diagnosis in women with ID and over-diagnosis in men with anemia. PMID:26098445

  19. The Immune Privileged Retina Mediates an Alternative Activation of J774A.1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Chun H.; Taylor, Andrew W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We have previously found that retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells suppressed endotoxin-stimulated macrophages; moreover, it induced expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. We further assessed the possibility that the RPE is alternatively activating macrophages. Methods J774A.1 cells were stimulated with endotoxin and treated with the conditioned media (CM) of RPE, or neuroretinal eyecups from healthy mouse eyes. The supernatant was assayed for IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-6, IL-12(p70), and IL-10, and for nitric-oxide generation. The RPE conditioned media (RPE CM) was absorbed of known soluble factors to identify the factor that augments nitric-oxide generation. Results We found the RPE CM suppressed all cytokine production except IL-10, and augmented nitric-oxide generation. The augmented nitric-oxide levels were mediated by RPE derived alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH). Conclusions Healthy RPE not only suppresses inflammatory activity, it promotes an alternative activation of macrophages that can further promote immune privilege. PMID:20001256

  20. Upregulated Annexin A1 promotes cellular invasion in triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Okano, Maiko; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Saito, Motonobu; Onozawa, Hisashi; Saito, Katsuharu; Abe, Noriko; Ohtake, Tohru; Takenoshita, Seiichi

    2015-03-01

    Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a calcium-dependent phospholipid-linked protein, involved in anti-inflammatory effects, regulation of cellular differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. While many studies have investigated the ANXA1 expression in various tumor types, the role of ANXA1 is not fully understood. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the ANXA1 expression in 211 breast cancer patients and compared the levels with clinicopathological factors. ANXA1 was positively expressed in 31 (14.7%) of the 211 cases in our cohort, and these positive cases were associated with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) (P=0.007) and venous invasion (P=0.028). The in vitro cell experiment found that the MDA-MB-231 cell line, which is a TNBC cell line, highly expressed ANXA1. Using this cell line, the functional role of ANXA1 in breast cancer was revealed and the knockdown of ANXA1 by specific siRNA demonstrated a significant reduction in cellular invasion. Further experiments indicated that ANXA1 was induced by hypoxia with hypoxia-inducible factor-1α induction. These results suggested that ANXA1, which enhanced breast cancer invasion and metastasis under hypoxia, were significantly associated with the worst patient outcome. This is particularly noted in TNBC, the group of breast cancer with the worst outcome for which new therapeutic implications are required. PMID:25592491