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Sample records for factor governing multiple

  1. Multiple-camera tracking: UK government requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosmer, Paul

    2007-10-01

    The Imagery Library for Intelligent Detection Systems (i-LIDS) is the UK government's new standard for Video Based Detection Systems (VBDS). The standard was launched in November 2006 and evaluations against it began in July 2007. With the first four i-LIDS scenarios completed, the Home Office Scientific development Branch (HOSDB) are looking toward the future of intelligent vision in the security surveillance market by adding a fifth scenario to the standard. The fifth i-LIDS scenario will concentrate on the development, testing and evaluation of systems for the tracking of people across multiple cameras. HOSDB and the Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (CPNI) identified a requirement to track targets across a network of CCTV cameras using both live and post event imagery. The Detection and Vision Systems group at HOSDB were asked to determine the current state of the market and develop an in-depth Operational Requirement (OR) based on government end user requirements. Using this OR the i-LIDS team will develop a full i-LIDS scenario to aid the machine vision community in its development of multi-camera tracking systems. By defining a requirement for multi-camera tracking and building this into the i-LIDS standard the UK government will provide a widely available tool that developers can use to help them turn theory and conceptual demonstrators into front line application. This paper will briefly describe the i-LIDS project and then detail the work conducted in building the new tracking aspect of the standard.

  2. Sequence Factorization with Multiple References

    PubMed Central

    Wandelt, Sebastian; Leser, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The success of high-throughput sequencing has lead to an increasing number of projects which sequence large populations of a species. Storage and analysis of sequence data is a key challenge in these projects, because of the sheer size of the datasets. Compression is one simple technology to deal with this challenge. Referential factorization and compression schemes, which store only the differences between input sequence and a reference sequence, gained lots of interest in this field. Highly-similar sequences, e.g., Human genomes, can be compressed with a compression ratio of 1,000:1 and more, up to two orders of magnitude better than with standard compression techniques. Recently, it was shown that the compression against multiple references from the same species can boost the compression ratio up to 4,000:1. However, a detailed analysis of using multiple references is lacking, e.g., for main memory consumption and optimality. In this paper, we describe one key technique for the referential compression against multiple references: The factorization of sequences. Based on the notion of an optimal factorization, we propose optimization heuristics and identify parameter settings which greatly influence 1) the size of the factorization, 2) the time for factorization, and 3) the required amount of main memory. We evaluate a total of 30 setups with a varying number of references on data from three different species. Our results show a wide range of factorization sizes (optimal to an overhead of up to 300%), factorization speed (0.01 MB/s to more than 600 MB/s), and main memory usage (few dozen MB to dozens of GB). Based on our evaluation, we identify the best configurations for common use cases. Our evaluation shows that multi-reference factorization is much better than single-reference factorization. PMID:26422374

  3. Environmental factors in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pantazou, Vasiliki; Schluep, Myriam; Du Pasquier, Renaud

    2015-04-01

    Although multiple sclerosis (MS) is recognized as a disorder involving the immune system, the interplay of environmental factors and individual genetic susceptibility seems to influence MS onset and clinical expression, as well as therapeutic responsiveness. Multiple human epidemiological and animal model studies have evaluated the effect of different environmental factors, such as viral infections, vitamin intake, sun exposure, or still dietary and life habits on MS prevalence. Previous Epstein-Barr virus infection, especially if this infection occurs in late childhood, and lack of vitamin D (VitD) currently appear to be the most robust environmental factors for the risk of MS, at least from an epidemiological standpoint. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) activates VitD production but there are also some elements supporting the fact that insufficient UVR exposure during childhood may represent a VitD-independent risk factor of MS development, as well as negative effect on the clinical and radiological course of MS. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the gut-brain axis, a bidirectional neuro-hormonal communication system between the intestinal microbiota and the central nervous system (CNS). Indeed, components of the intestinal microbiota may be pro-inflammatory, promote the migration of immune cells into the CNS, and thus be a key parameter for the development of autoimmune disorders such as MS. Interestingly most environmental factors seem to play a role during childhood. Thus, if childhood is the most fragile period to develop MS later in life, preventive measures should be applied early in life. For example, adopting a diet enriched in VitD, playing outdoor and avoiding passive smoking would be extremely simple measures of primary prevention for public health strategies. However, these hypotheses need to be confirmed by prospective evaluations, which are obviously difficult to conduct. In addition, it remains to be determined whether and how Vit

  4. Multiple factors drive regional agricultural abandonment.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Takeshi; Kohyama, Kazunori; Mitsuhashi, Hiromune

    2016-01-15

    An understanding of land-use change and its drivers in agroecosystems is important when developing adaptations to future environmental and socioeconomic pressures. Agricultural abandonment occurs worldwide with multiple potentially positive and negative consequences; however, the main factors causing agricultural abandonment in a country i.e., at the macro scale, have not been identified. We hypothesized that socio-environmental factors driving agricultural abandonment could be summarized comprehensively into two, namely "natural" and "social", and the relative importance of these differs among regions. To test this postulate, we analyzed the factors currently leading to agricultural abandonment considering ten natural environment variables (e.g., temperature) and five social variables (e.g., number of farmers) using the random forest machine learning method after dividing Japan into eight regions. Our results showed that agricultural abandonment was driven by various socio-environmental factors, and the main factors leading to agricultural abandonment differed among regions, especially in Hokkaido in northern Japan. Hokkaido has a relatively large area of concentrated farmland, and abandonment might have resulted from the effectiveness of cultivation under specific climate factors, whereas the other regions have relatively small areas of farmland with many elderly part-time farmers. In such regions, abandonment might have been caused by the decreasing numbers of potential farmers. Thus, two different drivers of agricultural abandonment were found: inefficient cultivation and decreasing numbers of farmers. Therefore, agricultural abandonment cannot be prevented by adopting a single method or policy. Agricultural abandonment is a significant problem not only for food production but also for several ecosystem services. Governments and decision-makers should develop effective strategies to prevent further abandonment to ensure sustainable future management of agro

  5. GEOCHEMICAL FACTORS GOVERNING METHYL MERCURY PRODUCTION IN MERCURY CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench scale experiments were conducted to improve our understanding of aquatic mercury transformation processes (biotic and abiotic), specifically those factors which govern the production of methyl mercury (MeHg) in sedimentary environments. The greatest cause for concern regar...

  6. Mapping of government land encroachment in Cameron Highlands using multiple remote sensing datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zin, M. H. M.; Ahmad, B.

    2014-02-01

    The cold and refreshing highland weather is one of the factors that give impact to socio-economic growth in Cameron Highlands. This unique weather of the highland surrounded by tropical rain forest can only be found in a few places in Malaysia. It makes this place a famous tourism attraction and also provides a very suitable temperature for agriculture activities. Thus it makes agriculture such as tea plantation, vegetable, fruits and flowers one of the biggest economic activities in Cameron Highlands. However unauthorized agriculture activities are rampant. The government land, mostly forest area have been encroached by farmers, in many cases indiscriminately cutting down trees and hill slopes. This study is meant to detect and assess this encroachment using multiple remote sensing datasets. The datasets were used together with cadastral parcel data where survey lines describe property boundary, pieces of land are subdivided into lots of government and private. The general maximum likelihood classification method was used on remote sensing image to classify the land-cover in the study area. Ground truth data from field observation were used to assess the accuracy of the classification. Cadastral parcel data was overlaid on the classification map in order to detect the encroachment area. The result of this study shows that there is a land cover change of 93.535 ha in the government land of the study area between years 2001 to 2010, nevertheless almost no encroachment took place in the studied forest reserve area. The result of this study will be useful for the authority in monitoring and managing the forest.

  7. Prognostic factors and classification in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed Central

    San Miguel, J. F.; Sànchez, J.; Gonzalez, M.

    1989-01-01

    Analyses of prognostic factors have allowed the design of staging systems in different haematological disorders. In a series of 220 patients with multiple myeloma, univariate analysis showed that nine parameters had a significant adverse effect on survival; poor performance status (Karnowsky scaling system less than 70%), infections before diagnosis, renal impairment (assessed either by creatinine clearance greater than 2 mg dl-1 or urea greater than 40 mg dl-1), serum calcium (greater than 10 mg dl-1), severe anaemia (less than 8.5 g dl-1), the presence of Bence-Jones proteinuria, failure to achieve complete remission, more than 40% plasma cells in bone marrow and a low paraprotein index (monoclonal component/% plasma cells: P less than 0.09). In addition, this index correlated significantly with all the other prognostic factors except performance status. The best combination of disease characteristics selected by means of the Cox regression proportional hazards method were performance status and creatinine levels. Additionally, by factor analysis of principal components we obtained a regression equation that included creatinine levels, haemoglobin, performance status and paraprotein index. Using this it was possible to separate the series of patients into three risk categories: A (65 patients), B (69 patients) and C (65 patients) with a median survival of 41, 24 and 12 months, respectively. The model provided similar results to those of the British Medical Research Council, whereas the staging systems proposed by Durie and Salmon, Merlin et al. and Carbone et al. had a lower discriminant value in our series. PMID:2757917

  8. Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academe, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Over the last 75 years the AAUP has made progress in specifying its standards of governance and in reconciling traditional governance with collective bargaining. Excerpts from the "Joint Statement on Government of Colleges and Universities" and the "Statement on Academic Government for Institutions Engaged in Collective Bargaining" are presented.…

  9. Multiple Interacting Risk Factors: On Methods for Allocating Risk Factor Interactions.

    PubMed

    Price, Bertram; MacNicoll, Michael

    2015-05-01

    A persistent problem in health risk analysis where it is known that a disease may occur as a consequence of multiple risk factors with interactions is allocating the total risk of the disease among the individual risk factors. This problem, referred to here as risk apportionment, arises in various venues, including: (i) public health management, (ii) government programs for compensating injured individuals, and (iii) litigation. Two methods have been described in the risk analysis and epidemiology literature for allocating total risk among individual risk factors. One method uses weights to allocate interactions among the individual risk factors. The other method is based on risk accounting axioms and finding an optimal and unique allocation that satisfies the axioms using a procedure borrowed from game theory. Where relative risk or attributable risk is the risk measure, we find that the game-theory-determined allocation is the same as the allocation where risk factor interactions are apportioned to individual risk factors using equal weights. Therefore, the apportionment problem becomes one of selecting a meaningful set of weights for allocating interactions among the individual risk factors. Equal weights and weights proportional to the risks of the individual risk factors are discussed. PMID:25644783

  10. Multiple Rescue Factors Within a Wolbachia Strain

    PubMed Central

    Zabalou, Sofia; Apostolaki, Angeliki; Pattas, Savvas; Veneti, Zoe; Paraskevopoulos, Charalampos; Livadaras, Ioannis; Markakis, George; Brissac, Terry; Merçot, Hervé; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2008-01-01

    factors specific to each variant. This study shows that a given Wolbachia variant can possess multiple rescue determinants corresponding to different CI systems. In addition, our results: (a) suggest that wTei appears to behave in D. simulans as a suicide mod+ resc− strain, (b) unravel unique CI properties, and (c) provide a framework to understand the diversity and the evolution of new CI-compatibility types. PMID:18430940

  11. Factors Associated with Multiple-Partner Fertility among Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manlove, Jennifer; Logan, Cassandra; Ikramullah, Erum; Holcombe, Emily

    2008-01-01

    This article uses a sample of 1,731 fathers aged 16 - 45 from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth to identify factors associated with multiple-partner fertility. Almost one third of fathers who reported multiple-partner fertility did so across a series of nonmarital relationships, and nonmarital-only multiple-partner fertility has been…

  12. Factors governing the deep ventilation of the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Vassilis P.; Zhan, Peng; Sofianos, Sarantis S.; Raitsos, Dionysios E.; Qurban, Mohammed; Abualnaja, Yasser; Bower, Amy; Kontoyiannis, Harilaos; Pavlidou, Alexandra; Asharaf, T. T. Mohamed; Zarokanellos, Nikolaos; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-11-01

    A variety of data based on hydrographic measurements, satellite observations, reanalysis databases, and meteorological observations are used to explore the interannual variability and factors governing the deep water formation in the northern Red Sea. Historical and recent hydrographic data consistently indicate that the ventilation of the near-bottom layer in the Red Sea is a robust feature of the thermohaline circulation. Dense water capable to reach the bottom layers of the Red Sea can be regularly produced mostly inside the Gulfs of Aqaba and Suez. Occasionally, during colder than usual winters, deep water formation may also take place over coastal areas in the northernmost end of the open Red Sea just outside the Gulfs of Aqaba and Suez. However, the origin as well as the amount of deep waters exhibit considerable interannual variability depending not only on atmospheric forcing but also on the water circulation over the northern Red Sea. Analysis of several recent winters shows that the strength of the cyclonic gyre prevailing in the northernmost part of the basin can effectively influence the sea surface temperature (SST) and intensify or moderate the winter surface cooling. Upwelling associated with periods of persistent gyre circulation lowers the SST over the northernmost part of the Red Sea and can produce colder than normal winter SST even without extreme heat loss by the sea surface. In addition, the occasional persistence of the cyclonic gyre feeds the surface layers of the northern Red Sea with nutrients, considerably increasing the phytoplankton biomass.

  13. Multiple factor analysis with continuous and dichotomous variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanoon, Thanoon Y.; Adnan, Robiah; Saffari, Seyed Ehsan

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, continuous and dichotomous variables are used in multiple factor analysis method. When all variables within the same group are continuous, we use principal component analysis method in factor analysis, if all variables within the same group are dichotomous we use multiple correspondence analysis method in factor analysis. Statistical analyses, which involve Eigen roots, Eigen vectors, multiple factor loadings, correlation coefficient RV, contribution table, are discussed. The proposed procedure is illustrated by a lung cancer data consists of four groups "group of personal variables", "group of therapeutic variables", "group of nutritional variables", "group of genetic variables". Analysis are done by using XLSTAT program.

  14. Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, K. D.

    The author notes that two trends appear to be developing in litigation over the governance of the public schools. One trend is increasing participation of organized groups in suits against the schools. The other is a greater volume of litigation dealing with open meeting laws and freedom of information acts. Reflecting the second trend, the…

  15. Risk Governance of Multiple Natural Hazards: Centralized versus Decentralized Approach in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komendantova, Nadejda; Scolobig, Anna; Vinchon, Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    The multi-risk approach is a relatively new field and its definition includes the need to consider multiple hazards and vulnerabilities in their interdependency (Selva, 2013) and the current multi-hazards disasters, such as the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, tsunami and nuclear catastrophe, showed the need for a multi-risk approach in hazard mitigation and management. Our knowledge about multi-risk assessment, including studies from different scientific disciplines and developed assessment tools, is constantly growing (White et al., 2001). However, the link between scientific knowledge, its implementation and the results in terms of improved governance and decision-making have gained significantly less attention (IRGC, 2005; Kappes et al., 2012), even though the interest to risk governance, in general, has increased significantly during the last years (Verweiy and Thompson, 2006). Therefore, the key research question is how risk assessment is implemented and what is the potential for the implementation of a multi-risk approach in different governance systems across Europe. More precisely, how do the characteristics of risk governance, such as the degree of centralization versus decentralization, influence the implementation of a multi-risk approach. The methodology of this research includes comparative case study analysis of top-down and bottom-up interactions in governance in the city of Naples, (Italy), where the institutional landscape is marked by significant autonomy of Italian regions in decision-making processes for assessing the majority of natural risks, excluding volcanic, and in Guadeloupe, French West Indies, an overseas department of France, where the decision-making process is marked by greater centralization in decision making associated with a well established state governance within regions, delegated to the prefect and decentralised services of central ministries. The research design included documentary analysis and extensive empirical work involving

  16. Factors Governing Surface Form Accuracy In Diamond Machined Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myler, J. K.; Page, D. A.

    1988-10-01

    Manufacturing methods for diamond machined optical surfaces, for application at infrared wavelengths, require that a new set of criteria must be recognised for the specification of surface form. Appropriate surface form parameters are discussed with particular reference to an XY cartesian geometry CNC machine. Methods for reducing surface form errors in diamond machining are discussed for certain areas such as tool wear, tool centring, and the fixturing of the workpiece. Examples of achievable surface form accuracy are presented. Traditionally, optical surfaces have been produced by use of random polishing techniques using polishing compounds and lapping tools. For lens manufacture, the simplest surface which could be created corresponded to a sphere. The sphere is a natural outcome of a random grinding and polishing process. The measurement of the surface form accuracy would most commonly be performed using a contact test gauge plate, polished to a sphere of known radius of curvature. QA would simply be achieved using a diffuse monochromatic source and looking for residual deviations between the polished surface and the test plate. The specifications governing the manufacture of surfaces using these techniques would call for the accuracy to which the generated surface should match the test plate as defined by a spherical deviations from the required curvature and a non spherical astigmatic error. Consequently, optical design software has tolerancing routines which specifically allow the designer to assess the influence of spherical error and astigmatic error on the optical performance. The creation of general aspheric surfaces is not so straightforward using conventional polishing techniques since the surface profile is non spherical and a good approximation to a power series. For infra red applications (X = 8-12p,m) numerically controlled single point diamond turning is an alternative manufacturing technology capable of creating aspheric profiles as well as

  17. Risk Governance of Multiple Natural Hazards: Centralized versus Decentralized Approach in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komendantova, Nadejda; Scolobig, Anna; Vinchon, Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    The multi-risk approach is a relatively new field and its definition includes the need to consider multiple hazards and vulnerabilities in their interdependency (Selva, 2013) and the current multi-hazards disasters, such as the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, tsunami and nuclear catastrophe, showed the need for a multi-risk approach in hazard mitigation and management. Our knowledge about multi-risk assessment, including studies from different scientific disciplines and developed assessment tools, is constantly growing (White et al., 2001). However, the link between scientific knowledge, its implementation and the results in terms of improved governance and decision-making have gained significantly less attention (IRGC, 2005; Kappes et al., 2012), even though the interest to risk governance, in general, has increased significantly during the last years (Verweiy and Thompson, 2006). Therefore, the key research question is how risk assessment is implemented and what is the potential for the implementation of a multi-risk approach in different governance systems across Europe. More precisely, how do the characteristics of risk governance, such as the degree of centralization versus decentralization, influence the implementation of a multi-risk approach. The methodology of this research includes comparative case study analysis of top-down and bottom-up interactions in governance in the city of Naples, (Italy), where the institutional landscape is marked by significant autonomy of Italian regions in decision-making processes for assessing the majority of natural risks, excluding volcanic, and in Guadeloupe, French West Indies, an overseas department of France, where the decision-making process is marked by greater centralization in decision making associated with a well established state governance within regions, delegated to the prefect and decentralised services of central ministries. The research design included documentary analysis and extensive empirical work involving

  18. Multiplication factors in ethylene-filled proportional counters.

    PubMed

    Loyola, H; Birstein, L; Hevia, A

    2008-01-01

    Gas multiplication factors were measured in a proportional counter filled with high-purity ethylene in the pressure range 10-40 Torr. The multiplication factors were measured as a function of the reduced electric field S(a). The results show that, within the range of the high values of reduced electric field applied in this work (2648 < or = S(a) < or = 6455 V cm(-1) Torr(-1)), the reduced first Townsend coefficient alpha/P for ethylene may still be considered a function of S(a) alone. Good agreement was found with a model proposed by Akande. PMID:18682404

  19. Factors Governing Fibrillogenesis of Polypeptide Chains Revealed by Lattice Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mai Suan; Co, Nguyen Truong; Reddy, Govardhan; Hu, Chin-Kun; Straub, J. E.; Thirumalai, D.

    2010-11-01

    Using lattice models we explore the factors that determine the tendencies of polypeptide chains to aggregate by exhaustively sampling the sequence and conformational space. The morphologies of the fibril-like structures and the time scales (τfib) for their formation depend on a balance between hydrophobic and Coulomb interactions. The extent of population of an ensemble of N* structures, which are fibril-prone structures in the spectrum of conformations of an isolated protein, is the major determinant of τfib. This observation is used to determine the aggregating sequences by exhaustively exploring the sequence space, thus providing a basis for genome wide search of fragments that are aggregation prone.

  20. Factors governing water condensation in the Martian atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colburn, David S.; Pollack, J. B.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    Modeling results are presented suggesting a diurnal condensation cycle at high altitudes at some seasons and latitudes. In a previous paper, the use of atmospheric optical depth measurements at the Viking lander site to show diurnal variability of water condensation at different seasons of the Mars year was described. Factors influencing the amount of condensation include latitude, season, atmospheric dust content and water vapor content at the observation site. A one-dimensional radiative-convective model is used herein based on the diabatic heating routines under development for the Mars General Circulation Model. The model predicts atmospheric temperature profiles at any latitude, season, time of day and dust load. From these profiles and an estimate of the water vapor, one can estimate the maximum occurring at an early morning hour (AM) and the minimum in the late afternoon (PM). Measured variations in the atmospheric optical density between AM and PM measurements were interpreted as differences in AM and PM condensation.

  1. Factors governing sustainable groundwater pumping near a river

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Hubbard, S.S.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-01-15

    The objective of this paper is to provide new insights into processes affecting riverbank filtration (RBF). We consider a system with an inflatable dam installed for enhancing water production from downstream collector wells. Using a numerical model, we investigate the impact of groundwater pumping and dam operation on the hydrodynamics in the aquifer and water production. We focus our study on two processes that potentially limit water production of an RBF system: the development of an unsaturated zone and riverbed clogging. We quantify river clogging by calibrating a time-dependent riverbed permeability function based on knowledge of pumping rate, river stage, and temperature. The dynamics of the estimated riverbed permeability reflects clogging and scouring mechanisms. Our results indicate that (1) riverbed permeability is the dominant factor affecting infiltration needed for sustainable RBF production; (2) dam operation can influence pumping efficiency and prevent the development of an unsaturated zone beneath the riverbed only under conditions of sufficient riverbed permeability; (3) slow river velocity, caused by dam raising during summer months, may lead to sedimentation and deposition of fine-grained material within the riverbed, which may clog the riverbed, limiting recharge to the collector wells and contributing to the development of an unsaturated zone beneath the riverbed; and (4) higher river flow velocities, caused by dam lowering during winter storms, scour the riverbed an thus increase its permeability. These insights can be used as the basis for developing sustainable water management of a RBF system.

  2. Factors governing risk of cougar attacks on humans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, David; Logan, Kenneth; Sweanor, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1980s wildlife managers in the United States and Canada have expressed increasing concern about the physical threat posed by cougars (Puma concolor) to humans. We developed a conceptual framework and analyzed 386 human–cougar encounters (29 fatal attacks, 171 instances of nonfatal contact, and 186 close-threatening encounters) to provide information relevant to public safety. We conceived of human injury and death as the outcome of 4 transitions affected by different suites of factors: (1) a human encountering a cougar: (2) given an encounter, odds that the cougar would be aggressive; (3) given aggression, odds that the cougar would attack; and (4) given an attack, odds that the human would die. We developed multivariable logistic regression models to explain variation in odds at transitions three and four using variables pertaining to characteristics of involved people and cougars. Young (≤ 2.5 years) or unhealthy (by weight, condition, or disease) cougars were more likely than any others to be involved in close (typically <5 m) encounters that threatened the involved person. Of cougars in close encounters, females were more likely than males to attack, and of attacking animals, adults were more likely than juveniles to kill the victim (32% versus 9% fatality, respectively). During close encounters, victims who used a weapon killed the involved cougar in 82% of cases. Other mitigating behaviors (e.g., yelling, backing away, throwing objects, increasing stature) also substantially lessened odds of attack. People who were moving quickly or erratically when an encounter happened (running, playing, skiing, snowshoeing, biking, ATV-riding) were more likely to be attacked and killed compared to people who were less active (25% versus 8% fatality). Children (≤ 10 years) were more likely than single adults to be attacked, but intervention by people of any age reduced odds of a child’s death by 4.6×. Overall, cougar attacks on people in Canada and the

  3. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha and multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Tiwary, Bhupendra Nath

    2016-01-01

    Rapid tumor growth creates a state of hypoxia in the tumor microenvironment and results in release of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HiF-1α) in the local milieu. Hypoxia inducible factor activity is deregulated in many human cancers, especially those that are highly hypoxic. In multiple myeloma (MM) in initial stages of disease establishment, the hypoxic bone marrow microenvironment supports the initial survival and growth of the myeloma cells. Hypoxic tumour cells are usually resistant to radiotherapy and most conventional chemotherapeutic agents, rendering them highly aggressive and metastatic. Therefore, HIF is an attractive, although challenging, therapeutic target in MM directly or indirectly in recent years. PMID:26900575

  4. Factors associated with reporting multiple causes of death

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Melanie M; Huang, Jinzhou; Oswald, John; McCullen, Diane

    2005-01-01

    Background There is analytical potential for multiple cause of death data collected from death certificates. This study examines relationships of multiple causes of death as a function of factors available on the death certificate (demographics of decedent, place of death, type of certifier, disposal method, whether an autopsy was performed, and year of death). Methods Data from 326,332 Minnesota death certificates from 1990–1998 are examined. Underlying and non-underlying causes of death are examined (based on record axis codes) as well as demographic and death-related covariates. Associations between covariates and prevalence of multiple causes of death and conditional probability of underlying compared to non-underlying causes of death are examined. The occurrence of ischemic heart disease or diabetes as underlying causes are specifically examined. Results Both the probability of multiple causes of death and the proportion of underlying cause compared to non-underlying cause of death are associated with demographic characteristics of the deceased and other non-medical conditions related to filing death certificate such as place of death. Conclusions Multiple cause of death data provide a potentially useful way of looking for inaccuracies in reporting of causes of death. Differences across demographics in the proportion of time a cause is selected as underlying compared to non-underlying exist and can potentially provide useful information about the overall impact of causes of death in different populations. PMID:15655070

  5. Forecast of irrigation water demand considering multiple factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Lei, X.; Guo, X.; You, J.; Wang, H.

    2015-05-01

    Many factors influence irrigation water requirement on the basin scale, which make it difficult to obtain comprehensive data. Despite the advantage of less needing historical data, the prediction precision of traditional trend prediction methods is hard to guarantee. For water scarce basins, the artificial influence on irrigation requirement should be thought of as important impact factors. In this paper, the PCA (principal component analysis) method is used to identify the main influencing factors, such as precipitation, irrigation area, water saving technology and so on. Based on that, an irrigation water demand prediction model considering multiple factors is developed for water shortage regions. The method is applied in the Haihe River basin as an example. The study results show that the irrigation water demand forecasting method considering multiple factors in this paper can achieve higher modelling accuracy, compared with the traditional trend prediction method and the method that does not consider the human influence. In view of the small average relative error, 1.32%, it has good values for application.

  6. Space adaptation syndrome: multiple etiological factors and individual differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; DiZio, P.

    1991-01-01

    Space motion sickness is a significant operational concern in the American and Soviet space programs. Nearly 70% of all astronauts and cosmonauts are affected to some degree during their first several days of flight. It is now beginning to appear that space motion sickness like terrestrial motion sickness is the consequence of multiple etiological factors. As we come to understand basic mechanisms of spatial orientation and sensory-motor adaptation we can begin to predict etiological factors in different motion environments. Individuals vary greatly in the extent to which they are susceptible to these different factors. However, individuals seem to be relatively self-consistent in terms of their rates of adaptation to provocative stimulation and their retention of adaptation. Attempts to relate susceptibility to motion sickness during the microgravity phases of parabolic flight maneuvers to vestibular function under 1G and 0G test conditions are described.

  7. Modifiable factors influencing relapses and disability in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    D'hooghe, M B; Nagels, G; Bissay, V; De Keyser, J

    2010-07-01

    A growing body of literature indicates that the natural course of multiple sclerosis can be influenced by a number of factors. Strong evidence suggests that relapses can be triggered by infections, the postpartum period and stressful life events. Vaccinations against influenza, hepatitis B and tetanus appear to be safe. Surgery, general and epidural anaesthesia, and physical trauma are not associated with an increased risk of relapses. Factors that have been associated with a reduced relapse rate are pregnancy, exclusive breastfeeding, sunlight exposure and higher vitamin D levels. A number of medications, including hormonal fertility treatment, seem to be able to trigger relapses. Factors that may worsen progression of disability include stressful life events, radiotherapy to the head, low levels of physical activity and low vitamin D levels. Strong evidence suggests that smoking promotes disease progression, both clinically and on brain magnetic resonance imaging. There is no evidence for an increased progression of disability following childbirth in women with multiple sclerosis. Moderate alcohol intake and exercise might have a neuroprotective effect, but this needs to be confirmed. PMID:20483884

  8. Potential Risk Factors of Death in Multiple Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jelodar, Sina; Jafari, Peyman; Yadollahi, Mahnaz; Sabetian Jahromi, Golnar; Khalili, Hoseynali; Abbasi, Hamidreza; Bolandparvaz, Shahram; Paydar, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: rauma has been recognized as one of the leading causes of death in many countries for decades. Reduction in mortality and morbidity rate of trauma cases is one of the most important attitudes in this field. Evaluation of different risk factors have been considered as the main goal of some studies. The purpose of this study was determining potential risk factors of death in trauma patients. Method: In a retrograde study, data of 740 patients admitted during three years (2009-2011) were studied. Demographic data (sex and age), clinical factors (blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate, Glasgow coma scale (GCS)), trauma characteristics (location, type of injury, etc.), as well as outcome of patients were evaluated. Data analyses was done using SPSS 18.0. Stepwise multivariate regression analysis was used for recognition of independent predictive factors of death in multiple trauma patients. Results: Of those admitted, majority of patients were male (81.4%), 68% between 18 to 60 years, and 11.2% of them died during the course of treatment. Age; type of trauma; abnormal respiration rate, pulse rate, blood pressure; total GCS ≤8; abnormal pupil size; and head and neck; vertebral, and extremities fractures were obtained as significant predictive factor of death. GCS≤8, head and neck fracture, and abnormal pulse rate were independent death predictors. Conclusion: We identified GCS≤8, head and neck fracture, and abnormal pulse rate as predictive factors of mortality after trauma, which remained independent in the presence of all other factors and potentially treatable. PMID:26495375

  9. Multiple response optimization for higher dimensions in factors and responses

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lu, Lu; Chapman, Jessica L.; Anderson-Cook, Christine M.

    2016-07-19

    When optimizing a product or process with multiple responses, a two-stage Pareto front approach is a useful strategy to evaluate and balance trade-offs between different estimated responses to seek optimum input locations for achieving the best outcomes. After objectively eliminating non-contenders in the first stage by looking for a Pareto front of superior solutions, graphical tools can be used to identify a final solution in the second subjective stage to compare options and match with user priorities. Until now, there have been limitations on the number of response variables and input factors that could effectively be visualized with existing graphicalmore » summaries. We present novel graphical tools that can be more easily scaled to higher dimensions, in both the input and response spaces, to facilitate informed decision making when simultaneously optimizing multiple responses. A key aspect of these graphics is that the potential solutions can be flexibly sorted to investigate specific queries, and that multiple aspects of the solutions can be simultaneously considered. As a result, recommendations are made about how to evaluate the impact of the uncertainty associated with the estimated response surfaces on decision making with higher dimensions.« less

  10. Factors in the Transfer of Governance-Facilitation Skills within Farmers' Marketing Organizations in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miiro, Richard F.; Mazur, Robert E.; Matsiko, Frank B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Training transfer has been examined for formal industrial and service organizations in developed countries but rarely for rural organizations in sub-Saharan Africa. This study sought to identify transfer system factors that best explain the transfer of governance-facilitation skills provided to leaders of farmers' marketing organizations…

  11. Factors Influencing the Design, Establishment, Administration, and Governance of Correctional Education for Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Johnica; McFadden, Cheryl; Colaric, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of a study conducted to investigate factors influencing the organizational design, establishment, administration, and governance of correctional education for females. The research involved interviews with correctional and community college administrators and practitioners representing North Carolina female…

  12. Online Workforce Development in Community Colleges: Connection with Community, Institutional, and Governance Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Githens, Rod Patrick; Sauer, Timothy M.; Crawford, Fashaad L.; Cumberland, Denise M.; Wilson, Kristin B.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined community and institutional factors that influence offering online workforce development programs in community colleges. The study included a random sample of 321 community college in the United States. Findings conclude that colleges operating under statewide governance structures and in states with more highly centralized…

  13. pH-Dependent Interactions in Dimers Govern the Mechanics and Structure of von Willebrand Factor.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jochen P; Löf, Achim; Mielke, Salomé; Obser, Tobias; Bruetzel, Linda K; Vanderlinden, Willem; Lipfert, Jan; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Benoit, Martin

    2016-07-26

    Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a multimeric plasma glycoprotein that is activated for hemostasis by increased hydrodynamic forces at sites of vascular injury. Here, we present data from atomic force microscopy-based single-molecule force measurements, atomic force microscopy imaging, and small-angle x-ray scattering to show that the structure and mechanics of VWF are governed by multiple pH-dependent interactions with opposite trends within dimeric subunits. In particular, the recently discovered strong intermonomer interaction, which induces a firmly closed conformation of dimers and crucially involves the D4 domain, was observed with highest frequency at pH 7.4, but was essentially absent at pH values below 6.8. However, below pH 6.8, the ratio of compact dimers increased with decreasing pH, in line with a previous transmission electron microscopy study. These findings indicated that the compactness of dimers at pH values below 6.8 is promoted by other interactions that possess low mechanical resistance compared with the strong intermonomer interaction. By investigating deletion constructs, we found that compactness under acidic conditions is primarily mediated by the D4 domain, i.e., remarkably by the same domain that also mediates the strong intermonomer interaction. As our data suggest that VWF has the highest mechanical resistance at physiological pH, local deviations from physiological pH (e.g., at sites of vascular injury) may represent a means to enhance VWF's hemostatic activity where needed. PMID:27463134

  14. Factors Associated with Employment Status in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Arnett, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background: Unemployment is common in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) and is associated with substantial socioeconomic burden. Several MS-related factors have been found to be associated with employment status, including fatigue, depression, cognitive problems, and motor difficulties. However, few studies have examined these factors collectively in predicting employment. The present study aimed to explore these variables together in predicting employment status in MS. Methods: Fifty-three individuals with MS participating in a research study of cognitive, emotional, and social factors related to MS were examined. Composite scores were created using factor analysis that represented cognition, fatigue, depression, and motor function. These composite scores, along with the Expanded Disability Status Scale score, were explored as predictors of employment status (working, not working) via logistic regression. Models of mediation were also investigated. Results: A model including composite scores of motor function, cognition, depression, and fatigue significantly distinguished those who are unemployed versus employed. However, only the cognitive, motor, and fatigue composite scores were found to be significantly associated with unemployment individually. Results of a mediation analysis using 1000 bootstrap samples indicated that the cognitive and fatigue composite scores significantly mediated the effect of disability on work status. Conclusions: Cognitive function and fatigue mediate the effect of MS disability on employment status. Interventions targeting cognitive difficulties and fatigue in MS may be effective in helping individuals maintain employment. PMID:26664334

  15. The Role of Multiple Transcription Factors In Archaeal Gene Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Charles J. Daniels

    2008-09-23

    Since the inception of this research program, the project has focused on two central questions: What is the relationship between the 'eukaryal-like' transcription machinery of archaeal cells and its counterparts in eukaryal cells? And, how does the archaeal cell control gene expression using its mosaic of eukaryal core transcription machinery and its bacterial-like transcription regulatory proteins? During the grant period we have addressed these questions using a variety of in vivo approaches and have sought to specifically define the roles of the multiple TATA binding protein (TBP) and TFIIB-like (TFB) proteins in controlling gene expression in Haloferax volcanii. H. volcanii was initially chosen as a model for the Archaea based on the availability of suitable genetic tools; however, later studies showed that all haloarchaea possessed multiple tbp and tfb genes, which led to the proposal that multiple TBP and TFB proteins may function in a manner similar to alternative sigma factors in bacterial cells. In vivo transcription and promoter analysis established a clear relationship between the promoter requirements of haloarchaeal genes and those of the eukaryal RNA polymerase II promoter. Studies on heat shock gene promoters, and the demonstration that specific tfb genes were induced by heat shock, provided the first indication that TFB proteins may direct expression of specific gene families. The construction of strains lacking tbp or tfb genes, coupled with the finding that many of these genes are differentially expressed under varying growth conditions, provided further support for this model. Genetic tools were also developed that led to the construction of insertion and deletion mutants, and a novel gene expression scheme was designed that allowed the controlled expression of these genes in vivo. More recent studies have used a whole genome array to examine the expression of these genes and we have established a linkage between the expression of specific tfb

  16. Environmental Factors and Multiple Sclerosis Severity: A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Mandia, Daniele; Ferraro, Ottavia E.; Nosari, Guido; Montomoli, Cristina; Zardini, Elisabetta; Bergamaschi, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that environmental factors play a key role in the onset of multiple sclerosis (MS). This study was conducted to examine whether environmental factors may also be associated with the evolution of the disease. We collected data on smoking habits, sunlight exposure and diet (particularly consumption of vitamin D-rich foods) from a sample of 131 MS patients. We also measured their serum vitamin D concentration. The clinical impact of MS was quantified using the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS); MS was considered “severe” in patients with MSSS ≥ 6, and “mild” in patients with MSSS ≤ 1. The results showed a strong association between serum vitamin D concentration and both sunlight exposure (26.4 ± 11.9 ng/mL vs. 16.5 ± 12.1 ng/mL, p = 0.0004) and a fish-rich diet (23.5 ± 12.1 ng/mL vs. 16.1 ± 12.4 ng/mL, p = 0.005). Patients reporting frequent sunlight exposure had a lower MSSS (2.6 ± 2.4 h vs. 4.6 ± 2.6 h, p < 0.001). The mild MS patients reported much more frequent sunlight exposure (75% mild MS vs. 25% severe MS p = 0.004, Chi square test). A higher serum vitamin D concentration determined a lower risk of developing severe MS, adjusted for sunlight exposure (OR = 0.92 for one unit increase in vitamin D, 95% CI: 0.86–0.97, p = 0.005). A stronger inverse association emerged between frequent sunlight exposure and the risk of severe MS (OR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.09–0.71, p = 0.009). Our data show that an appropriate diet and adequate expose to sunlight are associated with less aggressive MS. PMID:24950063

  17. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 coordinates multiple processes in a model of intestinal epithelial cell function.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui; Kerschner, Jenny L; Harris, Ann

    2016-04-01

    Mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 transcription factors (HNF1α/β) are associated with diabetes. These factors are well studied in the liver, pancreas and kidney, where they direct tissue-specific gene regulation. However, they also have an important role in the biology of many other tissues, including the intestine. We investigated the transcriptional network governed by HNF1 in an intestinal epithelial cell line (Caco2). We used chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by direct sequencing (ChIP-seq) to identify HNF1 binding sites genome-wide. Direct targets of HNF1 were validated using conventional ChIP assays and confirmed by siRNA-mediated depletion of HNF1, followed by RT-qPCR. Gene ontology process enrichment analysis of the HNF1 targets identified multiple processes with a role in intestinal epithelial cell function, including properties of the cell membrane, cellular response to hormones, and regulation of biosynthetic processes. Approximately 50% of HNF1 binding sites were also occupied by other members of the intestinal transcriptional network, including hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A (HNF4A), caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2), and forkhead box A2 (FOXA2). Depletion of HNF1 in Caco2 cells increases FOXA2 abundance and decreases levels of CDX2, illustrating the coordinated activities of the network. These data suggest that HNF1 plays an important role in regulating intestinal epithelial cell function, both directly and through interactions with other intestinal transcription factors. PMID:26855178

  18. Photonic-assisted microwave frequency multiplication with a tunable multiplication factor.

    PubMed

    Gao, Liang; Liu, Weilin; Chen, Xiangfei; Yao, Jianping

    2013-11-01

    Photonic-assisted microwave frequency multiplication with a tunable multiplication factor (MF) based on an optical comb generator and an embedded single-passband microwave photonic filter (MPF) is proposed and demonstrated. The optical comb is generated using two cascaded modulators which are driven by a microwave reference signal. By applying the optical comb to a photodetector, a fundamental frequency corresponding to the comb spacing and its harmonics is generated. Thanks to the embedded single-passband MPF, only one harmonic is selected by the single-passband MPF. Thus, a single-frequency frequency-multiplied microwave signal is generated. In the proposed system, the embedded single-passband MPF is formed by using a sliced broadband optical source and a section of dispersion-compensating fiber (DCF). By tuning the central frequency of the passband at a frequency corresponding to that of a specific harmonic, a microwave signal at that specific frequency is generated. The proposed system is experimentally demonstrated. A frequency-multiplied microwave signal with an MF from 1 to 5 is generated. The phase noise and frequency tunability of the generated microwave signal are also investigated. PMID:24177126

  19. The multiple meanings of global health governance: a call for conceptual clarity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The term global health governance (GHG) is now widely used, with over one thousand works published in the scholarly literature, almost all since 2002. Amid this rapid growth there is considerable variation in how the term is defined and applied, generating confusion as to the boundaries of the subject, the perceived problems in practice, and the goals to be achieved through institutional reform. Methodology This paper is based on the results of a separate scoping study of peer reviewed GHG research from 1990 onwards which undertook keyword searches of public health and social science databases. Additional works, notably books, book chapters and scholarly articles, not currently indexed, were identified through Web of Science citation searches. After removing duplicates, book reviews, commentaries and editorials, we reviewed the remaining 250 scholarly works in terms of how the concept of GHG is applied. More specifically, we identify what is claimed as constituting GHG, how it is problematised, the institutional features of GHG, and what forms and functions are deemed ideal. Results After examining the broader notion of global governance and increasingly ubiquitous term “global health”, the paper identifies three ontological variations in GHG scholarship - the scope of institutional arrangements, strengths and weaknesses of existing institutions, and the ideal form and function of GHG. This has produced three common, yet distinct, meanings of GHG that have emerged – globalisation and health governance, global governance and health, and governance for global health. Conclusions There is a need to clarify ontological and definitional distinctions in GHG scholarship and practice, and be critically reflexive of their normative underpinnings. This will enable greater precision in describing existing institutional arrangements, as well as serve as a prerequisite for a fuller debate about the desired nature of GHG. PMID:24775919

  20. Factors governing phytoplankton biomass and production in tropical estuaries of western Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Ching-Wen; Chuang, Yi-Li; Chou, Lien-Siang; Chen, Meng-Hsien; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2016-04-01

    Factors governing phytoplankton community composition and production in tropical estuaries remain mostly unknown. We aimed to quantify phytoplankton biomass, production, and community composition seasonally in 2 tropical estuaries with different levels of nutrient concentrations and turbidity, and we compared them with an offshore control site on the western coast of central Taiwan for two years. Phytoplankton biomass and production varied with season and site. Annual integrated primary production showed that these three sites were mesotrophic systems. Spearman rank correlations showed that phytoplankton biomass and production were positively correlated with water temperature, but negatively correlated with turbidity. The threshold of turbidity was 12 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU), above which phytoplankton chlorophyll a concentrations were <0.5 mg m-3, and gross production rate was <100 mg C m-3 d-1. The results of nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS) showed that the community was primarily structured by season and secondarily by site. The functional traits further showed that turbidity, water temperature, and SiO2 concentration were governing factors for the variations in the community. In summary, turbidity was the main factor governing phytoplankton biomass and production, whereas water temperature and SiO2 concentration had both a direct effect on production and an indirect effect by changing community composition.

  1. Do climate factors govern soil microbial community composition and biomass at a regional scale?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L.; Guo, C.; Lü, X.; Yuan, S.; Wang, R.

    2014-12-01

    Soil microbial communities play important role in organic matter decomposition, nutrient cycling and vegetation dynamic. However, little is known about factors driving soil microbial community composition at large scales. The objective of this study was to determine whether climate dominates among environmental factors governing microbial community composition and biomass at a regional scale. Here, we compared soil microbial communities using phospholipid fatty acid method across 7 land use types from 23 locations in North-East China Transect (850 km x 50 km). The results showed that soil water availability and land use changes exhibited the dominant effects on soil microbial community composition and biomass at the regional scale, while climate factors (expressed as a function of large-scale spatial variation) did not show strong relationships with distribution of microbial community composition. Likewise, factors such as spatial structure, soil texture, nutrient availability and vegetation types were not important. Wetter soils had higher contributions of gram-positive bacteria, whereas drier soils had higher contributions of gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Heavily disturbed soils had lower contributions of gram-negative bacteria and fungi than historically disturbed and undisturbed soils. The lowest microbial biomass appeared in the wettest and driest soils. In conclusion, dominant climate factors, commonly known to structure distribution of macroorganisms, were not the most important drivers governing regional pattern of microbial communities because of inclusion of irrigated and managed practices. In comparison, soil water regime and land use types appear to be primary determinants of microbial community composition and biomass.

  2. Analysis of the financial factors governing the profitability of lunar helium-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulcinski, G. L.; Thompson, H.; Ott, S.

    1989-01-01

    Financial factors influencing the profitability of the mining and utilization of lunar helium-3 are examined. The analysis addressed the following questions: (1) which financial factors have the greatest leverage on the profitability of He-3; (2) over what range can these factors be varied to keep the He-3 option profitable; and (3) what ultimate effect could this energy source have on the price of electricity for U.S. consumers. Two complementary methods of analysis were used in the assessment: rate of return on incremental investment required and reduction revenue requirements (total cost to customers) achieved. Some of the factors addressed include energy demand, power generation costs with and without fusion, profitability for D-He(3) fusion, annual capital and operating costs, launch mass and costs, He-3 price, and government funding. Specific conclusions are made with respect to each of the companies considered: utilities, lunar mining company, and integrated energy company.

  3. Assessing social capacity and vulnerability of private households to natural hazards - integrating psychological and governance factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werg, J.; Grothmann, T.; Schmidt, P.

    2013-06-01

    People are unequally affected by extreme weather events in terms of mortality, morbidity and financial losses; this is the case not only for developing, but also for industrialized countries. Previous research has established indicators for identifying who is particularly vulnerable and why, focusing on socio-demographic factors such as income, age, gender, health and minority status. However, these factors can only partly explain the large disparities in the extent to which people are affected by natural hazards. Moreover, these factors are usually not alterable in the short to medium term, which limits their usefulness for strategies of reducing social vulnerability and building social capacity. Based on a literature review and an expert survey, we propose an approach for refining assessments of social vulnerability and building social capacity by integrating psychological and governance factors.

  4. Beyond job security and money: driving factors of motivation for government doctors in India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite many efforts from government to address the shortage of medical officers (MOs) in rural areas, rural health centres continue to suffer from severe shortage of MOs. Lack of motivation to join and continue service in rural areas is a major reason for such shortage. In the present study, we aimed to assess and rank the driving factors of motivation important for in-service MOs in their current job. Methods The study participants included ninety two in-service government MOs from three states in India. The study participants were required to rank 14 factors of motivation important for them in their current job. The factors for the study were selected using Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation and the data were collected using an instrument that has an established reliability and validity. Test of Kendall’s coefficient of concordance (W) was carried out to assess the agreement in ranks assigned by participants to various motivation factors. Next, we studied the distributions of ranks of different motivating factors using standard descriptive statistics and box plots, which gave us interesting insights into the strength of agreement of the MOs in assigning ranks to various factors. And finally to assess whether MOs are more intrinsically motivated or extrinsically motivated, we used Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Results The (W) test indicated statistically significant (P < 0.01) agreement of the participants in assigning ranks. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test indicated that from policy perspectives, MOs place significantly more motivational importance to intrinsic factors than to extrinsic factors. The study results indicate that job security was the most important factor related to motivation, closely followed by interesting work and respect and recognition. Among the top five preferred factors, three were intrinsic factors indicating a great importance given by MOs to factors beyond money and job security. Conclusion To address the issue of

  5. Multiple Sclerosis Associated Risk Factors: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    POOROLAJAL, Jalal; MAZDEH, Mehrdokht; SAATCHI, Mohammad; TALEBI GHANE, Elaheh; BIDERAFSH, Azam; LOTFI, Bahar; FERYADRES, Mohammad; PAJOHI, Khabat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hamadan Province is one of the high-risk regions in Iran for Multiple sclerosis (MS). A majority of the epidemiological studies conducted in Iran addressing MS are descriptive. This study was conducted to assess MS and its associated risk factors in Hamadan Province, the west of Iran. Methods: This case-control study compared 100 patients with MS (case group) and 100 patients with acute infectious diseases (control group) from September 2013 to March 2014. A checklist was used to assess the demographic, medical, and family history of the patients. The Friedman-Rosenman questionnaire was also used to assess personality type. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression model with Stata 11 software program. Results: The adjusted odds ratio (OR) estimate of MS was 4.37 (95% CI: 2.33, 8.20) for females compared to males; 0.15 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.43) for people aged above 50 years compared to aged 14 to 29 years; 0.44 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.91) for overweight or obese people compared to normal weights. Crude OR indicated a significant association between the occurrence of MS and exclusive breast feeding, season of birth, and smoking. However, the association was not statistically significant after adjustment for other covariates. Conclusion: The risk of MS is significantly lower in male gender, obese/overweight, and old people. Furthermore, non-smoking, non-exclusive breast-feeding, and born in autumn may increase the risk of MS but need further investigation. However, long-term large prospective cohort studies are needed to investigate the true effect of the potential risk factors on MS. PMID:26744707

  6. Multiple Factors Drive Replicating Strand Composition Bias in Bacterial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hai-Long; Xia, Zhong-Kui; Zhang, Fa-Zhan; Ye, Yuan-Nong; Guo, Feng-Biao

    2015-01-01

    Composition bias from Chargaff’s second parity rule (PR2) has long been found in sequenced genomes, and is believed to relate strongly with the replication process in microbial genomes. However, some disagreement on the underlying reason for strand composition bias remains. We performed an integrative analysis of various genomic features that might influence composition bias using a large-scale dataset of 1111 genomes. Our results indicate (1) the bias was stronger in obligate intracellular bacteria than in other free-living species (p-value = 0.0305); (2) Fusobacteria and Firmicutes had the highest average bias among the 24 microbial phyla analyzed; (3) the strength of selected codon usage bias and generation times were not observably related to strand composition bias (p-value = 0.3247); (4) significant negative relationships were found between GC content, genome size, rearrangement frequency, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) functional subcategories A, C, I, Q, and composition bias (p-values < 1.0 × 10−8); (5) gene density and COG functional subcategories D, F, J, L, and V were positively related with composition bias (p-value < 2.2 × 10−16); and (6) gene density made the most important contribution to composition bias, indicating transcriptional bias was associated strongly with strand composition bias. Therefore, strand composition bias was found to be influenced by multiple factors with varying weights. PMID:26404268

  7. Environmental Factors Related to Multiple Sclerosis in Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    D’Cunha, Anita; Mustafa, Sharik

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is less prevalent among Indians when compared to white populations. Genetic susceptibility remaining the same it is possible that environmental associations may have a role in determining disease prevalence. Aims To determine whether childhood infections, vaccination status, past infection with Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori), diet, socioeconomic and educational status were associated with MS. Material and Methods 139 patients and 278 matched control subjects were selected. A validated environmental exposure questionnaire was administered. Estimation of serum H.pylori IgG antibody was done by ELISA. Patients and controls were genotyped for HLA-DRB1*15:01. Results In our cohort a significant association was seen with measles (p <0.007), vegetarian diet (p < 0.001, higher educational status (p <0.0001) and urban living (p <0.0001). An inverse relationship was seen with H.Pylori infection and MS (p <0.001). Measles infection (OR 6.479, CI 1.21- 34.668, p< 0.029) and high educational status (OR 3.088, CI 1.212- 7.872, p< 0.018) were significant risk factors associated with MS. H.pylori infection was inversely related to MS (OR 0. 319, CI 0.144- 0.706, p <0.005). Conclusions Environmental influences may be important in determining MS prevalence. PMID:25902359

  8. [Factors of multiple resistance to antibiotics in nodule bacteria].

    PubMed

    Pariĭskaia, A N; Gorelova, O P

    1976-01-01

    Multiple resistance to antibiotics (penicillin, levomycetin, neomycin, tetracycline) was found in 15% of collection strains of nodule bacteria and in strains isolated from natural environment. PMID:1050635

  9. Is Hypovitaminosis D One of the Environmental Risk Factors for Multiple Sclerosis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierrot-Deseilligny, Charles; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    The role of hypovitaminosis D as a possible risk factor for multiple sclerosis is reviewed. First, it is emphasized that hypovitaminosis D could be only one of the risk factors for multiple sclerosis and that numerous other environmental and genetic risk factors appear to interact and combine to trigger the disease. Secondly, the classical…

  10. Identifying cooperative transcription factors in yeast using multiple data sources

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcriptional regulation of gene expression is usually accomplished by multiple interactive transcription factors (TFs). Therefore, it is crucial to understand the precise cooperative interactions among TFs. Various kinds of experimental data including ChIP-chip, TF binding site (TFBS), gene expression, TF knockout and protein-protein interaction data have been used to identify cooperative TF pairs in existing methods. The nucleosome occupancy data is not yet used for this research topic despite that several researches have revealed the association between nucleosomes and TFBSs. Results In this study, we developed a novel method to infer the cooperativity between two TFs by integrating the TF-gene documented regulation, TFBS and nucleosome occupancy data. TF-gene documented regulation and TFBS data were used to determine the target genes of a TF, and the genome-wide nucleosome occupancy data was used to assess the nucleosome occupancy on TFBSs. Our method identifies cooperative TF pairs based on two biologically plausible assumptions. If two TFs cooperate, then (i) they should have a significantly higher number of common target genes than random expectation and (ii) their binding sites (in the promoters of their common target genes) should tend to be co-depleted of nucleosomes in order to make these binding sites simultaneously accessible to TF binding. Each TF pair is given a cooperativity score by our method. The higher the score is, the more likely a TF pair has cooperativity. Finally, a list of 27 cooperative TF pairs has been predicted by our method. Among these 27 TF pairs, 19 pairs are also predicted by existing methods. The other 8 pairs are novel cooperative TF pairs predicted by our method. The biological relevance of these 8 novel cooperative TF pairs is justified by the existence of protein-protein interactions and co-annotation in the same MIPS functional categories. Moreover, we adopted three performance indices to compare our predictions

  11. Processes and their explanatory factors governing distribution of organic phosphorous pools in lake sediments.

    PubMed

    Lü, Changwei; He, Jiang; Zuo, Le; Vogt, Rolf D; Zhu, Liang; Zhou, Bin; Mohr, Christian W; Guan, Rui; Wang, Weiying; Yan, Daohao

    2016-02-01

    The amount of organic phosphorus (OP) and its distribution among different pools in lake sediments depends on biotic and abiotic processes driving the OP fractionation. Key environmental factors governing these transformations processes between OP fractionations in sediments were studied on the basis of geochemical characteristics of OP pools in relation to environmental factors in the sediments. The results illustrate that the factors influencing the accumulation or depletion of different OP pools were intrinsically dependent on the composition of the deposited organic matter (OM). During the mineralization of the OM the microorganisms excrete the enzyme alkaline phosphatase, accelerating the OP hydrolysis, and thereby setting the grounds for the bacterially-mediated oxidation of OM. There are two main degradation products of the labile OP pool (LOP) and the moderately labile OP pool (MLOP): Either the OP is transformed to a dissolved organic or inorganic P form, and thereby released to water column, or OP is transformed to a non-labile OP pool and stored in the sediments. A comparative study showed that oxy-hydroxides of iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) only played an important role in influencing OP fractionation in Lake Wuliangsuhai, while the complexation reactions of OP with calcium ions and sorption to its minerals are key factors governing the OP fractionation in the two alkaline lakes. It is worth noting that a significant correlation between the Fe-P pool and the pools of LOP and MLOP indicates that the degradation of the rather labile OP pools are highly dependent on the iron redox reaction. PMID:26688248

  12. Molecular mechanisms of multiple toxin–antitoxin systems are coordinated to govern the persister phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Fasani, Rick A.; Savageau, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Toxin–antitoxin systems are ubiquitous and have been implicated in persistence, the multidrug tolerance of bacteria, biofilms, and, by extension, most chronic infections. However, their purpose, apparent redundancy, and coordination remain topics of debate. Our model relates molecular mechanisms to population dynamics for a large class of toxin–antitoxin systems and suggests answers to several of the open questions. The generic architecture of toxin–antitoxin systems provides the potential for bistability, and even when the systems do not exhibit bistability alone, they can be coupled to create a strongly bistable, hysteretic switch between normal and toxic states. Stochastic fluctuations can spontaneously switch the system to the toxic state, creating a heterogeneous population of growing and nongrowing cells, or persisters, that exist under normal conditions, rather than as an induced response. Multiple toxin–antitoxin systems can be cooperatively marshaled for greater effect, with the dilution determined by growth rate serving as the coordinating signal. The model predicts and elucidates experimental results that show a characteristic correlation between persister frequency and the number of toxin–antitoxin systems. PMID:23781105

  13. Novel Drosophila receptor that binds multiple growth factors

    SciTech Connect

    Rosner, M.R.; Thompson, K.L.; Garcia, V.; Decker, S.J.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have recently reported the identification of a novel growth factor receptor from Drosophila cell cultures that has dual binding specificity for both insulin and epidermal growth factor (EGF). This 100 kDa protein is also antigenically related to the cytoplasmic region of the mammalian EGF receptor-tyrosine kinase. They now report that this protein binds to mammalian nerve growth factor and human transforming growth factor alpha as well as insulin and EGF with apparent dissociation constants ranging from 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -8/ M. The 100 kDa protein can be affinity-labeled with these /sup 125/I-labeled growth factors after immunoprecipitation with anti-EGF receptor antiserum. These four growth factors appear to share a common binding site, as evidenced by their ability to block affinity labelling by /sup 125/I-insulin. No significant binding to the 100 kDa protein was observed with platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor beta, or glucagon. The 100 kDa Drosophila protein has a unique ligand-binding spectrum with no direct counterpart in mammalian cells and may represent an evolutionary precursor of the mammalian receptors for these growth factors.

  14. Multiplicity in Supervision Relationships: A Factor in Improving throughput Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Biljon, J. A.; de Kock, E.

    2011-01-01

    Supervision has been identified as an important factor in the success of postgraduate students, even as the most significant variable and a large number of studies have been conducted to identify factors that contribute to supervision success. However the dependent variable in these studies--supervision success--has been an elusive one to define.…

  15. Critical parameters governing energy density of Li-storage cathode materials unraveled by confirmatory factor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Kee-Sun; Han, Su Cheol; Park, Woon Bae; Pyo, Myoungho

    2016-03-01

    Despite extensive effort during the past few decades, a comprehensive understanding of the key variables governing the electrochemical properties of cathode materials in Li-ion batteries is still far from complete. To elucidate the critical parameters affecting energy density (ED) and capacity (Q) retention in layer and spinel cathodes, we data-mine the existing experimental data via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) based on a structural equation model (SEM), which is a proven, versatile tool in understanding complex problems in the social science. The data sets are composed of 18 and 15 parameters extracted from 38 layer and 33 spinel compounds, respectively. CFA reveals the irrelevance of Q retention to all the parameters we adopt, but it also reveals the sensitive variations of ED with specific parameters. We validate the usefulness of CFA in material science and pinpointed critical parameters for high-ED cathodes, hoping to suggest a new insight in materials design.

  16. Different Factors Govern Chlorination and Encapsulation in Fullerenes: The Case of C66.

    PubMed

    Alegret, Núria; Abella, Laura; Azmani, Khalid; Rodríguez-Fortea, Antonio; Poblet, Josep M

    2015-08-01

    C66 is one of the smallest fullerenes that is able to encapsulate more than one metal atom, as in Sc2@C66, as well as to get chlorinated at a low level, C66Cl10 or C66Cl6. We show here, with the help of computations at density functional theory level, that these two means of obtaining derivatives of non-isolated pentagon rule fullerenes are dictated by different factors. Chlorination takes place at temperatures lower than 2000 K, once the neutral fullerenes are formed. Encapsulation is, however, mainly governed by the charge transfer, although the Sc···Sc distance is also playing a role in the stability of Sc2@C66. PMID:26176335

  17. Growth factor- and cytokine-driven pathways governing liver stemness and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Aránzazu; Fabregat, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Liver is unique in its capacity to regenerate in response to injury or tissue loss. Hepatocytes and other liver cells are able to proliferate and repopulate the liver. However, when this response is impaired, the contribution of hepatic progenitors becomes very relevant. Here, we present an update of recent studies on growth factors and cytokine-driven intracellular pathways that govern liver stem/progenitor cell expansion and differentiation, and the relevance of these signals in liver development, regeneration and carcinogenesis. Tyrosine kinase receptor signaling, in particular, c-Met, epidermal growth factor receptors or fibroblast growth factor receptors, contribute to proliferation, survival and differentiation of liver stem/progenitor cells. Different evidence suggests a dual role for the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling pathway in liver stemness and differentiation. On the one hand, TGF-β mediates progression of differentiation from a progenitor stage, but on the other hand, it contributes to the expansion of liver stem cells. Hedgehog family ligands are necessary to promote hepatoblast proliferation but need to be shut off to permit subsequent hepatoblast differentiation. In the same line, the Wnt family and β-catenin/T-cell factor pathway is clearly involved in the maintenance of liver stemness phenotype, and its repression is necessary for liver differentiation during development. Collectively, data indicate that liver stem/progenitor cells follow their own rules and regulations. The same signals that are essential for their activation, expansion and differentiation are good candidates to contribute, under adequate conditions, to the paradigm of transformation from a pro-regenerative to a pro-tumorigenic role. From a clinical perspective, this is a fundamental issue for liver stem/progenitor cell-based therapies. PMID:21049549

  18. Occupational Stress and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in High-Ranking Government Officials and Office Workers

    PubMed Central

    Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Taheri, Mahmoud; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Heydari, Mohammad; Saadati Kanafi, Ali; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases are among the most important sources of mortality and morbidity, and have a high disease burden. There are some major well-known risk factors, which contribute to the development of these diseases. Occupational stress is caused due to imbalance between job demands and individual’s ability, and it has been implicated as an etiology for cardiovascular diseases. Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the cardiovascular risk factors and different dimensions of occupational stress in high-ranking government officials, comparing an age and sex-matched group of office workers with them. Patients and Methods: We invited 90 high-ranking officials who managed the main governmental offices in a city, and 90 age and sex-matched office workers. The subjects were required to fill the occupational role questionnaire (Osipow) which evaluated their personal and medical history as well as occupational stress. Then, we performed physical examination and laboratory tests to check for cardiovascular risk factors. Finally, the frequency of cardiovascular risk factors and occupational stress of two groups were compared. Results: High-ranking officials in our study had less work experience in their current jobs and smoked fewer pack-years of cigarette, but they had higher waist and hip circumference, higher triglyceride level, more stress from role overload and responsibility, and higher total stress score. Our group of office workers had more occupational stress because of role ambiguity and insufficiency, but their overall job stress was less than officials. Conclusions: The officials have higher scores in some dimensions of occupational stress and higher overall stress score. Some cardiovascular risk factors were also more frequent in managers. PMID:25389469

  19. RepA-WH1 prionoid: Clues from bacteria on factors governing phase transitions in amyloidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Rafael; Fernández, Cristina; Moreno-del Álamo, María; Molina-García, Laura; Revilla-García, Aída; Sánchez-Martínez, María Cruz; Giménez-Abián, Juan F; Moreno-Díaz de la Espina, Susana

    2016-01-01

    In bacterial plasmids, Rep proteins initiate DNA replication by undergoing a structural transformation coupled to dimer dissociation. Amyloidogenesis of the 'winged-helix' N-terminal domain of RepA (WH1) is triggered in vitro upon binding to plasmid-specific DNA sequences, and occurs at the bacterial nucleoid in vivo. Amyloid fibers are made of distorted RepA-WH1 monomers that assemble as single or double intertwined tubular protofilaments. RepA-WH1 causes in E. coli an amyloid proteinopathy, which is transmissible from mother to daughter cells, but not infectious, and enables conformational imprinting in vitro and in vivo; i.e. RepA-WH1 is a 'prionoid'. Microfluidics allow the assessment of the intracellular dynamics of RepA-WH1: bacterial lineages maintain two types (strains-like) of RepA-WH1 amyloids, either multiple compact cytotoxic particles or a single aggregate with the appearance of a fluidized hydrogel that it is mildly detrimental to growth. The Hsp70 chaperone DnaK governs the phase transition between both types of RepA-WH1 aggregates in vivo, thus modulating the vertical propagation of the prionoid. Engineering chimeras between the Sup35p/[PSI(+)] prion and RepA-WH1 generates [REP-PSI(+)], a synthetic prion exhibiting strong and weak phenotypic variants in yeast. These recent findings on a synthetic, self-contained bacterial prionoid illuminate central issues of protein amyloidogenesis. PMID:27040981

  20. RepA-WH1 prionoid: Clues from bacteria on factors governing phase transitions in amyloidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Giraldo, Rafael; Fernández, Cristina; Moreno-del Álamo, María; Molina-García, Laura; Revilla-García, Aída; Sánchez-Martínez, María Cruz; Giménez-Abián, Juan F.; Moreno-Díaz de la Espina, Susana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In bacterial plasmids, Rep proteins initiate DNA replication by undergoing a structural transformation coupled to dimer dissociation. Amyloidogenesis of the ‘winged-helix’ N-terminal domain of RepA (WH1) is triggered in vitro upon binding to plasmid-specific DNA sequences, and occurs at the bacterial nucleoid in vivo. Amyloid fibers are made of distorted RepA-WH1 monomers that assemble as single or double intertwined tubular protofilaments. RepA-WH1 causes in E. coli an amyloid proteinopathy, which is transmissible from mother to daughter cells, but not infectious, and enables conformational imprinting in vitro and in vivo; i.e. RepA-WH1 is a ‘prionoid’. Microfluidics allow the assessment of the intracellular dynamics of RepA-WH1: bacterial lineages maintain two types (strains-like) of RepA-WH1 amyloids, either multiple compact cytotoxic particles or a single aggregate with the appearance of a fluidized hydrogel that it is mildly detrimental to growth. The Hsp70 chaperone DnaK governs the phase transition between both types of RepA-WH1 aggregates in vivo, thus modulating the vertical propagation of the prionoid. Engineering chimeras between the Sup35p/[PSI+] prion and RepA-WH1 generates [REP-PSI+], a synthetic prion exhibiting strong and weak phenotypic variants in yeast. These recent findings on a synthetic, self-contained bacterial prionoid illuminate central issues of protein amyloidogenesis. PMID:27040981

  1. Multiple Transcription Factor Families Regulate Axon Growth and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Darcie L.; Goldberg, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding axon regenerative failure remains a major goal in neuroscience, and reversing this failure remains a major goal for clinical neurology. While an inhibitory CNS environment clearly plays a role, focus on molecular pathways within neurons has begun to yield fruitful insights. Initial steps forward investigated the receptors and signaling pathways immediately downstream of environmental cues, but recent work has also shed light on transcriptional control mechanisms that regulate intrinsic axon growth ability, presumably through whole cassettes of gene target regulation. Here we will discuss transcription factors that regulate neurite growth in vitro and in vivo, including p53, SnoN, E47, CREB, STAT3, NFAT, c-Jun, ATF3, Sox11, NFκB, and Kruppel-like factors (KLFs). Revealing the similarities and differences among the functions of these transcription factors may further our understanding of the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation in axon growth and regeneration. PMID:21674813

  2. Factors Governing the Impact of Emerged Salt Diapirs on Water Resources.

    PubMed

    Zarei, M

    2016-05-01

    Salt diapirs in southern Iran are typically in contact with karstic and alluvial aquifers and consequently they are the most likely sources of groundwater salinization in this arid region. However, there are some salt diapirs that have no significant degradation effect on adjacent aquifers. Assessments of 62 of 122 Iranian-emerged salt diapirs based on geological, geomorphological, hydrogeological, and hydrochemical investigations indicated that 45% of the studied salt diapirs did not have a negative impact on surrounding water resources, whereas 55% of the salt diapirs have degraded water quality of adjacent aquifers. The impacts ranged from low- to high-grade salinization. We characterize here four major factors that control the impact of salt diapirs on surrounding water resources: (1) the evolutionary stage of the diapir, (2) the geological and (3) hydrogeological setting of the diapir, and (4) human activities. Identification of the major factors governing the influence of salt diapirs on the adjacent aquifers is necessary to understand the mechanism of salt diapir impact on adjacent aquifers, and subsequently to decide how to mitigate the deteriorating effect of the diapirs on the surrounding water resources. PMID:26394154

  3. Teachers' Grading Decision Making: Multiple Influencing Factors and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Liying; Sun, Youyi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated Chinese secondary school English language teachers' grading decision making, focusing on the factors they considered and types of assessment they used for grading. A questionnaire was issued to 350 secondary school English language teachers in China. Descriptive analyses of the questionnaire data showed that these teachers…

  4. Investigation of Multiple Human Factors in Personalized Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Sherry Y.; Huang, Pei-Ren; Shih, Yu-Cheng; Chang, Li-Ping

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, a number of personalized learning systems have been developed and they mainly focus on learners' prior knowledge. On the other hand, previous research suggested that gender differences and cognitive styles have great effects on student learning. To this end, this study examines how human factors, especially gender differences…

  5. Multiple jeopardy: Risk and protective factors among addicted mothers' offspring

    PubMed Central

    LUTHAR, SUNIYA S.; CUSHING, GRETTA; MERIKANGAS, KATHLEEN R.; ROUNSAVILLE, BRUCE J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to ascertain risk and protective factors in the adjustment of 78 school-age and teenage offspring of opioid- and cocaine-abusing mothers. Using a multimethod, multiinformant approach, child outcomes were operationalized via lifetime psychiatric diagnoses and everyday social competence (each based on both mother and child reports), and dimensional assessments of symptoms (mother report). Risk/protective factors examined included the child sociodemographic attributes of gender, age, and ethnicity, aspects of maternal psychopathology, and both mother's and children's cognitive functioning. Results revealed that greater child maladjustment was linked with increasing age, Caucasian (as opposed to African American) ethnicity, severity of maternal psychiatric disturbance, higher maternal cognitive abilities (among African Americans) and lower child cognitive abilities (among Caucasians). Limitations of the study are discussed, as are implications of findings for future research. PMID:9524811

  6. Multiple risk factor evaluation in a hypertension clinic.

    PubMed

    Thom, S; Bunker, J; Callister, W; Poulter, N; Sever, P; Zographos, D

    1989-12-01

    Hypertension is associated with abnormal lipoprotein metabolism, which may be exacerbated by some groups of antihypertensive drugs and represents an additional powerful coronary heart disease risk factor. Of our Hypertension Clinic population, 75% had a total fasting serum cholesterol greater than 5.2 mmol/l. Dietary advice and adjustment of antihypertensive therapy has achieved significant reductions in total cholesterol, serum triglycerides and body weight (14%, 18% and 4.3%, respectively) in a cohort of 65 patients reassessed over a period of 3-21 months. The reduction in cholesterol is likely to represent at least a 28% reduction in the risk of a major coronary heart disease event, even before taking account of any improvement in other coronary heart disease risk factors. PMID:2632734

  7. Multiple birth risk factors and the distribution of handedness.

    PubMed

    Hicks, R A; Elliott, D; Garbesi, L; Martin, S

    1979-03-01

    In this study, we attempted to maximize the likelihood of replicating Bakan's (1971, 1977a) observations that left-handedness was more probable in college students who were the progeny of "high-risk" births. To do this, the relationships between handedness and a combination of factors known to be associated with birth risk were computed. The observed relationships proved to be trivial and thus the validity of Bakan's hypothesis was questionned. PMID:571779

  8. Impact of Multiple Factors on the Degree of Tinnitus Distress

    PubMed Central

    Brüggemann, Petra; Szczepek, Agnieszka J.; Rose, Matthias; McKenna, Laurence; Olze, Heidi; Mazurek, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The primary cause of subjective tinnitus is a dysfunction of the auditory system; however, the degree of distress tinnitus causes depends largely on the psychological status of the patient. Our goal was to attempt to associate the grade of tinnitus-related distress with the psychological distress, physical, or psychological discomfort patients experienced, as well as potentially relevant social parameters, through a simultaneous analysis of these factors. Methods: We determined the level of tinnitus-related distress in 531 tinnitus patients using the German version of the tinnitus questionnaire (TQ). In addition, we used the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ); General Depression Scale Allgemeine Depression Skala (ADS), Berlin Mood Questionnaire (BSF); somatic symptoms inventory (BI), and SF-8 health survey as well as general information collected through a medical history. Results: The TQ score significantly correlated with a score obtained using PSQ, ADS, BSF, BI, and SF-8 alongside psychosocial factors such as age, gender, and marital status. The level of hearing loss and the auditory properties of the specific tinnitus combined with perceived stress and the degree of depressive mood and somatic discomfort of a patient were identified as medium-strong predictors of chronic tinnitus. Social factors such as gender, age, or marital status also had an impact on the degree of tinnitus distress. The results that were obtained were implemented in a specific cortical distress network model. Conclusions: Using a large representative sample of patients with chronic tinnitus permitted a simultaneous statistical measurement of psychometric and audiological parameters in predicting tinnitus distress. We demonstrate that single factors can be distinguished in a manner that explains their causative association and influence on the induction of tinnitus-related distress. PMID:27445776

  9. On Studying Common Factor Variance in Multiple-Component Measuring Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Pohl, Steffi

    2013-01-01

    A method for examining common factor variance in multiple-component measuring instruments is outlined. The procedure is based on an application of the latent variable modeling methodology and is concerned with evaluating observed variance explained by a global factor and by one or more additional component-specific factors. The approach furnishes…

  10. Factors Governing the Germination of Sulfate-Reducing Desulfotomaculum Endospores Involved in Oil Reservoir Souring.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherry, A.; Bell, E.; Cueto, G.; Suarez-Suarez, A.; Pilloni, G.; Hubert, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    Reservoir souring is caused by the activity of sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) in subsurface oil reservoirs, and is often induced by seawater injection during secondary oil recovery. Souring can potentially contribute to corrosion of infrastructure, health and safety hazards to the workforce, and reduction in value by increasing refining costs associated with producing the oil resource. Souring causes annual losses in the billions of dollars to the oil industry. Endospore-forming SRM, such as Desulfotomaculum spp., are often suspected culprits in reservoir souring. Endospores can survive unfavourable conditions for long periods, yet remain poised to germinate and become active if conditions become more favourable. Factors governing endospore germination are poorly understood, but are thought to include availability of nutrients, possibly metabolic by products of other anaerobic bioprocesses, and/or variations in temperature. Most research has focused on aerobic Bacillus spp., with very few studies dedicated to spore germination among anaerobes (order Clostridiales) including the sulfate-reducing Desulfotomaculum found in anoxic subsurface petroleum reservoirs. For Desulfotomaculum spores in deep hot oil reservoirs, cold seawater introduction during secondary oil recovery may create thermal viability zones for sulfate reduction near the injection wellbore. To evaluate these processes, sulfate-containing microcosms were prepared with different marine sediments as a source of spores, and amended with organic substrates in the presence or absence of oil. Incubation at 80°C for six days was followed by a down-shift in temperature to 60°C to mimic cold seawater injection into a hot reservoir. Souring did not occur at 80°C, but commenced within hours at 60°C. Microcosms were monitored for sulfate reduction and organic acids in combination with next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA genes (Ion Torrent, Illumina MiSeq). Through a combination of high

  11. Genetic factors influencing the risk of multiple myeloma bone disease

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, D C; Weinhold, N; Mitchell, J; Chen, B; Stephens, O W; Försti, A; Nickel, J; Kaiser, M; Gregory, W A; Cairns, D; Jackson, G H; Hoffmann, P; Noethen, M M; Hillengass, J; Bertsch, U; Barlogie, B; Davis, F E; Hemminki, K; Goldschmidt, H; Houlston, R S; Morgan, G J

    2016-01-01

    A major complication of multiple myeloma (MM) is the development of osteolytic lesions, fractures and bone pain. To identify genetic variants influencing the development of MM bone disease (MBD), we analyzed MM patients of European ancestry (totaling 3774), which had been radiologically surveyed for MBD. Each patient had been genotyped for ~6 00 000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms with genotypes for six million common variants imputed using 1000 Genomes Project and UK10K as reference. We identified a locus at 8q24.12 for MBD (rs4407910, OPG/TNFRSF11B, odds ratio=1.38, P=4.09 × 10–9) and a promising association at 19q13.43 (rs74676832, odds ratio=1.97, P=9.33 × 10–7). Our findings demonstrate that germline variation influences MBD and highlights the importance of RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway in MBD development. These findings will contribute to the development of future strategies for prevention of MBD in the early precancerous phases of MM. PMID:26669972

  12. Sociodemographic predictors of multiple non-communicable disease risk factors among older adults in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Peltzer, Karl; Chirinda, Witness; Musekiwa, Alfred; Kose, Zamakayise

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours are important risk factors of morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to explore the sociodemographic predictors of multiple non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors experienced by elderly South Africans. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional survey with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or above in South Africa in 2008. The outcome variable was the co-existence of multiple NCD risk factors (tobacco use, alcohol, physical inactivity, fruit and vegetable intake, overweight or obesity, and hypertension) in each individual. The exposure variables were sociodemographic characteristics, namely, age, gender, education, wealth status, population group, marital status, and residence. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the association between sociodemographic variables and multiple NCD risk factors. Results The mean number of NCD risk factors among all participants was three (95% confidence interval: 2.81–3.10). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that being female, being in the age group of 60–69 years, and being from the Coloured and Black African race were associated with a higher number of NCD risk factors. Marital status, educational level, wealth, and residence were not significantly associated with the number of NCD risk factors experienced. Conclusions The co-existence of multiple lifestyle NCD risk factors among the elderly is a public health concern. Comprehensive health-promotion interventions addressing the co-existence of multiple NCD risk factors tailored for specific sociodemographic groups are needed. PMID:24044582

  13. Complete Effect-Profile Assessment in Association Studies with Multiple Genetic and Multiple Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi; Maity, Arnab; Luo, Yiwen; Neely, Megan L.; Tzeng, Jung-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Studying complex diseases in the post GWAS era has led to developing methods that consider factor-sets rather than individual genetic/environmental factors (i.e., Multi-G-Multi-E studies), and mining for potential gene-environment (GxE) interactions has proven to be an invaluable aid in both discovery and deciphering underlying biological mechanisms. Current approaches for examining effect profiles in Multi-G-Multi-E analyses are either underpowered due to large degrees of freedom, ill-suited for detecting GxE interactions due to imprecise modeling of the G and E effects, or lack of capacity for modeling interactions between two factor sets (e.g., existing methods focus primarily on a single E factor). In this work, we illustrate the issues encountered in constructing kernels for investigating interactions between two factor-sets, and propose a simple yet intuitive solution to construct the GxE kernel that retains the ease-of-interpretation of classic regression. We also construct a series of KM score tests to evaluate the complete effect profile (i.e., the G, E, and GxE effects individually or in combination). We show, via simulations and a data application, that the proposed KM methods outperform the classic and PC regressions across a range of scenarios, including varying effect size, effect structure, and interaction complexity. The largest power gain was observed when the underlying effect structure involved complex GxE interactions; however, the proposed methods have consistent, powerful performance when the effect profile is simple or complex, suggesting that the proposed method could be a useful tool for exploratory or confirmatory GxE analysis. PMID:25538034

  14. Molecular and Physicochemical Factors Governing Solubility of the HIV gp41 Ectodomain.

    PubMed

    Manssour-Triedo, Fadia; Crespillo, Sara; Morel, Bertrand; Casares, Salvador; Mateo, Pedro L; Notka, Frank; Roger, Marie G; Mouz, Nicolas; El-Habib, Raphaelle; Conejero-Lara, Francisco

    2016-08-23

    The HIV gp41 ectodomain (e-gp41) is an attractive target for the development of vaccines and drugs against HIV because of its crucial role in viral fusion to the host cell. However, because of the high insolubility of e-gp41, most biophysical and structural analyses have relied on the production of truncated versions removing the loop region of gp41 or the utilization of nonphysiological solubilizing conditions. The loop region of gp41 is also known as principal immunodominant domain (PID) because of its high immunogenicity, and it is essential for gp41-mediated HIV fusion. In this study we identify the aggregation-prone regions of the amino acid sequence of the PID and engineer a highly soluble mutant that preserves the trimeric structure of the wild-type e-gp41 under physiological pH. Furthermore, using a reverse mutagenesis approach, we analyze the role of mutated amino acids upon the physicochemical factors that govern solubility of e-gp41. On this basis, we propose a molecular model for e-gp41 self-association, which can guide the production of soluble e-gp41 mutants for future biophysical analyses and biotechnological applications. PMID:27558714

  15. Crepuscular Flight Activity of an Invasive Insect Governed by Interacting Abiotic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yigen; Seybold, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal and diurnal flight patterns of the invasive walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, were assessed between 2011 and 2014 in northern California, USA in the context of the effects of ambient temperature, light intensity, wind speed, and barometric pressure. Pityophthorus juglandis generally initiated flight in late January and continued until late November. This seasonal flight could be divided approximately into three phases (emergence: January–March; primary flight: May–July; and secondary flight: September–October). The seasonal flight response to the male-produced aggregation pheromone was consistently female-biased (mean of 58.9% females). Diurnal flight followed a bimodal pattern with a minor peak in mid-morning and a major peak at dusk (76.4% caught between 1800 and 2200 h). The primarily crepuscular flight activity had a Gaussian relationship with ambient temperature and barometric pressure but a negative exponential relationship with increasing light intensity and wind speed. A model selection procedure indicated that the four abiotic factors collectively and interactively governed P. juglandis diurnal flight. For both sexes, flight peaked under the following second-order interactions among the factors when: 1) temperature between was 25 and 30°C and light intensity was less than 2000 lux; 2) temperature was between 25 and 35°C and barometric pressure was between 752 and 762 mba (and declined otherwise); 3) barometric pressure was between 755 and 761 mba and light intensity was less than 2000 lux (and declined otherwise); and 4) temperature was ca. 30°C and wind speed was ca. 2 km/h. Thus, crepuscular flight activity of this insect can be best explained by the coincidence of moderately high temperature, low light intensity, moderate wind speed, and low to moderate barometric pressure. The new knowledge provides physical and temporal guidelines for the application of semiochemical-based control techniques as part of an IPM program for

  16. Crepuscular flight activity of an invasive insect governed by interacting abiotic factors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Seybold, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal and diurnal flight patterns of the invasive walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, were assessed between 2011 and 2014 in northern California, USA in the context of the effects of ambient temperature, light intensity, wind speed, and barometric pressure. Pityophthorus juglandis generally initiated flight in late January and continued until late November. This seasonal flight could be divided approximately into three phases (emergence: January-March; primary flight: May-July; and secondary flight: September-October). The seasonal flight response to the male-produced aggregation pheromone was consistently female-biased (mean of 58.9% females). Diurnal flight followed a bimodal pattern with a minor peak in mid-morning and a major peak at dusk (76.4% caught between 1800 and 2200 h). The primarily crepuscular flight activity had a Gaussian relationship with ambient temperature and barometric pressure but a negative exponential relationship with increasing light intensity and wind speed. A model selection procedure indicated that the four abiotic factors collectively and interactively governed P. juglandis diurnal flight. For both sexes, flight peaked under the following second-order interactions among the factors when: 1) temperature between was 25 and 30 °C and light intensity was less than 2000 lux; 2) temperature was between 25 and 35 °C and barometric pressure was between 752 and 762 mba (and declined otherwise); 3) barometric pressure was between 755 and 761 mba and light intensity was less than 2000 lux (and declined otherwise); and 4) temperature was ca. 30 °C and wind speed was ca. 2 km/h. Thus, crepuscular flight activity of this insect can be best explained by the coincidence of moderately high temperature, low light intensity, moderate wind speed, and low to moderate barometric pressure. The new knowledge provides physical and temporal guidelines for the application of semiochemical-based control techniques as part of an IPM program for this

  17. Peak Stress Intensity Factor Governs Crack Propagation Velocity In Crosslinked UHMWPE

    PubMed Central

    Sirimamilla, P. Abhiram; Furmanski, Jevan; Rimnac, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been successfully used as a bearing material in total joint replacement components. However, these bearing materials can fail as a result of in vivo static and cyclic loads. Crack propagation behavior in this material has been considered using the Paris relationship which relates fatigue crack growth rate, da/dN (mm/cycle) versus the stress intensity factor range, ΔK (Kmax-Kmin, MPa√m). However, recent work suggests that the crack propagation velocity of conventional UHMWPE is driven by the peak stress intensity (Kmax), not ΔK. The hypothesis of this study is that the crack propagation velocity of highly crosslinked and remelted UHMWPE is also driven by the peak stress intensity, Kmax, during cyclic loading, rather than by ΔK. To test this hypothesis, two highly crosslinked (65 kGy and 100 kGy) and remelted UHMWPE materials were examined. Frequency, waveform and R-ratio were varied between test conditions to determine the governing factor for fatigue crack propagation. It was found that the crack propagation velocity in crosslinked UHMWPE is also driven by Kmax and not ΔK, and is dependent on loading waveform and frequency in a predictable quasi-static manner. The current study supports that crack growth in crosslinked UHMWPE materials, even under cyclic loading conditions, can be described by a relationship between the velocity of crack growth, da/dt and the peak stress intensity, Kmax. The findings suggest that stable crack propagation can occur as a result of static loading only and this should be taken into consideration in design of UHMWPE total joint replacement components. PMID:23165898

  18. Single and Multiple Suicide Attempts and Associated Health Risk Factors in New Hampshire Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Harriet J.; Jankowski, Mary K.; Sengupta, Anjana; Wolfe, Rosemarie S.; Wolford, George L., II; Rosenberg, Stanley D.

    2005-01-01

    In this study we examined self-reported suicide attempts and their relationship to other health risk factors in a community sample of 16,644 adolescents. Fifteen percent endorsed suicide attempts (10% single; 5% multiple attempts). We hypothesized that multiple attempters would show higher prevalence of comorbid health risks than single or…

  19. Dynamic Visual Computer Design for Factors and Multiples Word Problem Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Chejen; Lin, Shouhua

    2008-01-01

    This study employs the Excel function to design dynamic visual activities for factors and multiples word problem learning. A teaching experiment was carried out eight times in 4 weeks on three fifth grade students. The result showed that after using multiple-linked representations activities, students made greater progress in understanding target…

  20. Multiple Weather Factors Affect Apparent Survival of European Passerine Birds

    PubMed Central

    Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for

  1. Factors Influencing the Selection of the Systems Integration Organizational Model Type for Planning and Implementing Government High-Technology Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Leann; Utley, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    While there has been extensive research in defining project organizational structures for traditional projects, little research exists to support high technology government project s organizational structure definition. High-Technology Government projects differ from traditional projects in that they are non-profit, span across Government-Industry organizations, typically require significant integration effort, and are strongly susceptible to a volatile external environment. Systems Integration implementation has been identified as a major contributor to both project success and failure. The literature research bridges program management organizational planning, systems integration, organizational theory, and independent project reports, in order to assess Systems Integration (SI) organizational structure selection for improving the high-technology government project s probability of success. This paper will describe the methodology used to 1) Identify and assess SI organizational structures and their success rate, and 2) Identify key factors to be used in the selection of these SI organizational structures during the acquisition strategy process.

  2. Multiple genetic factors in the heterogeneity of thyroid hormone resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, R.E.; Refetoff, S. ); Marcocci, C.; Bruno-Bossio, G. )

    1993-01-01

    Generalized resistance to thyroid hormone (GRTH), a syndrome of inherited tissue hyposensitivity to thyroid hormone, is linked to thyroid hormone receptor (TR) mutations. A typical feature of GRTH is variable severity of organ involvement among families that, surprisingly, does not correlate with the degree of T[sub 3]-binding impairment of the corresponding in vitro synthesized mutant TRs. Furthermore, variations in the clinical severity among family members harboring identical TR[beta] mutations have been reported. The authors compared serum levels of thyroid hormones that maintained a normal TSH in members of a large family with GRTH divided in three groups: Group A, 8 affected subjects with a mutation replacing arginine-320 with a histidine in the T[sub 3]-binding domain of TR[beta]; Group B, 11 first degree relatives (sibs and children of affected subjects) with no TR[beta] mutation; Group C, 16 controls related by marriage. TSH values were not different among the three groups. As expected, total and free T[sub 4] and T[sub 3], and rT[sub 3] levels were significantly higher in Group A vs Groups B and C. However, with the exception of T[sub 3], the same tests were also significantly higher in Group B vs Group C. The latter differences are not due to thyroid hormone transport in serum since TBG concentrations were not different. It is postulated that genetic variability of factors that contribute to the action of thyroid hormone modulate the phenotype of GRTH associated with TR[beta] mutations. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. E-Government and Citizen Adoption of Innovations: Factors Underlying Citizen Use of the Internet for State Tax Filing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Electronic government has been embraced by many organizations seeking to dramatically improve service delivery, but results to date have often fallen short of expectations. This dissertation is focused on state revenue agencies and their electronic tax filing mechanisms for state individual income taxes. It asks: What factors best explain whether…

  4. Methane oxidation potential of boreal landfill cover materials: The governing factors and enhancement by nutrient manipulation.

    PubMed

    Maanoja, Susanna T; Rintala, Jukka A

    2015-12-01

    Methanotrophs inhabiting landfill covers are in a crucial role in mitigating CH4 emissions, but the characteristics of the cover material or ambient temperature do not always enable the maximal CH4 oxidation potential (MOP). This study aimed at identifying the factors governing MOPs of different materials used for constructing biocovers and other cover structures. We also tested whether the activity of methanotrophs could be enhanced at cold temperature (4 and 12°C) by improving the nutrient content (NO3(-), PO4(3-), trace elements) of the cover material. Compost samples from biocovers designed to support CH4 oxidation were exhibiting the highest MOPs (4.16 μmol CH4 g dw(-1) h(-1)), but also the soil samples collected from other cover structures were oxidising CH4 (0.41 μmol CH4 g dw(-1) h(-1)). The best predictors for the MOPs were the NO3(-) content and activity of heterotrophic bacteria at 72.8%, which were higher in the compost samples than in the soil samples. The depletion of NO3(-) from the landfill cover material limiting the activity of methanotrophs could not be confirmed by the nutrient manipulation assay at 4°C as the addition of nitrogen decreased the MOPs from 0.090 μmol CH4 g dw(-1) h(-1) to <0.085 μmol CH4 g dw(-1) h(-1). At 12°C, all nutrient additions reduced the MOPs. The inhibition was believed to result from high ionic concentration caused by nutrient addition. At 4°C, the addition of trace elements increased the MOPs (>0.096 μmol CH4 g dw(-1)h(-1)) suggesting that this was attributable to stimulation of the enzymatic activity of the psychrotolerant methanotrophs. PMID:26298483

  5. Governance factors in the identification of global conservation priorities for mammals.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Johanna; Arponen, Anni; Visconti, Piero; Cabeza, Mar

    2011-09-27

    Global conservation priorities have often been identified based on the combination of species richness and threat information. With the development of the field of systematic conservation planning, more attention has been given to conservation costs. This leads to prioritizing developing countries, where costs are generally low and biodiversity is high. But many of these countries have poor governance, which may result in ineffective conservation or in larger costs than initially expected. We explore how the consideration of governance affects the selection of global conservation priorities for the world's mammals in a complementarity-based conservation prioritization. We use data on Control of Corruption (Worldwide Governance Indicators project) as an indicator of governance effectiveness, and gross domestic product per capita as an indicator of cost. We show that, while core areas with high levels of endemism are always selected as important regardless of governance and cost values, there are clear regional differences in selected sites when biodiversity, cost or governance are taken into account separately. Overall, the analysis supports the concentration of conservation efforts in most of the regions generally considered of high priority, but stresses the need for different conservation approaches in different continents owing to spatial patterns of governance and economic development. PMID:21844045

  6. Governance factors in the identification of global conservation priorities for mammals

    PubMed Central

    Eklund, Johanna; Arponen, Anni; Visconti, Piero; Cabeza, Mar

    2011-01-01

    Global conservation priorities have often been identified based on the combination of species richness and threat information. With the development of the field of systematic conservation planning, more attention has been given to conservation costs. This leads to prioritizing developing countries, where costs are generally low and biodiversity is high. But many of these countries have poor governance, which may result in ineffective conservation or in larger costs than initially expected. We explore how the consideration of governance affects the selection of global conservation priorities for the world's mammals in a complementarity-based conservation prioritization. We use data on Control of Corruption (Worldwide Governance Indicators project) as an indicator of governance effectiveness, and gross domestic product per capita as an indicator of cost. We show that, while core areas with high levels of endemism are always selected as important regardless of governance and cost values, there are clear regional differences in selected sites when biodiversity, cost or governance are taken into account separately. Overall, the analysis supports the concentration of conservation efforts in most of the regions generally considered of high priority, but stresses the need for different conservation approaches in different continents owing to spatial patterns of governance and economic development. PMID:21844045

  7. Science Teaching Efficacy of Preservice Elementary Teachers: Examination of the Multiple Factors Reported as Influential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tastan Kirik, Özgecan

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the science teaching efficacy beliefs of preservice elementary teachers and the relationship between efficacy beliefs and multiple factors such as antecedent factors (participation in extracurricular activities and number of science and science teaching methods courses taken), conceptual understanding, classroom management…

  8. Investigating the Nature of Method Factors through Multiple Informants: Evidence for a Specific Factor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alessandri, Guido; Vecchione, Michele; Tisak, John; Barbaranelli, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    When a self-report instrument includes a balanced number of positively and negatively worded items, factor analysts often use method factors to aid model fitting. The nature of these factors, often referred to as acquiescence, is still debated. Relying upon previous results (Alessandri et al., 2010; DiStefano & Motl, 2006, 2008; Rauch, Schweizer,…

  9. Therapeutic targets of multiple angiogenic factors for the treatment of cancer and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yihai; Liu, Qi

    2007-01-01

    Like any growing healthy tissues, tumors build up their blood vessels by three mechanisms: angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, and intersucception. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is one of the key factors responsible for stimulation and maintenance of the disorganized, leaky, and torturous tumor vasculature. In addition to VEGF-A, tumors produce multiple other factors to stimulate blood vessel growth. These include members in the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), VEGF-C, insulin-like growth factor (IGF), angiopoietin (Ang), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) families. Recent studies show that these angiogenic factors can also promote lymphangiogenesis and potentially lymphatic metastasis. Understanding the roles of individual and combined angiogenic factors in promoting tumor angiogenesis is crucial for defining therapeutic targets and antiangiogenic drug development for the treatment of cancer. PMID:17419947

  10. Multiple NUCLEAR FACTOR Y transcription factors respond to abiotic stress in Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Lin, Zhongyuan; Tao, Qing; Liang, Mingxiang; Zhao, Gengmao; Yin, Xiangzhen; Fu, Ruixin

    2014-01-01

    Members of the plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) family are composed of the NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC subunits. In Brassica napus (canola), each of these subunits forms a multimember subfamily. Plant NF-Ys were reported to be involved in several abiotic stresses. In this study, we demonstrated that multiple members of thirty three BnNF-Ys responded rapidly to salinity, drought, or ABA treatments. Transcripts of five BnNF-YAs, seven BnNF-YBs, and two BnNF-YCs were up-regulated by salinity stress, whereas the expression of thirteen BnNF-YAs, ten BnNF-YBs, and four BnNF-YCs were induced by drought stress. Under NaCl treatments, the expression of one BnNF-YA10 and four NF-YBs (BnNF-YB3, BnNF-YB7, BnNF-YB10, and BnNF-YB14) were greatly increased. Under PEG treatments, the expression levels of four NF-YAs (BnNF-YA9, BnNF-YA10, BnNF-YA11, and BnNF-YA12) and five NF-YBs (BnNF-YB1, BnNF-YB8, BnNF-YB10, BnNF-YB13, and BnNF-YB14) were greatly induced. The expression profiles of 20 of the 27 salinity- or drought-induced BnNF-Ys were also affected by ABA treatment. The expression levels of six NF-YAs (BnNF-YA1, BnNF-YA7, BnNF-YA8, BnNF-YA9, BnNF-YA10, and BnNF-YA12) and seven BnNF-YB members (BnNF-YB2, BnNF-YB3, BnNF-YB7, BnNF-YB10, BnNF-YB11, BnNF-YB13, and BnNF-YB14) and two NF-YC members (BnNF-YC2 and BnNF-YC3) were greatly up-regulated by ABA treatments. Only a few BnNF-Ys were inhibited by the above three treatments. Several NF-Y subfamily members exhibited collinear expression patterns. The promoters of all stress-responsive BnNF-Ys harbored at least two types of stress-related cis-elements, such as ABRE, DRE, MYB, or MYC. The cis-element organization of BnNF-Ys was similar to that of Arabidopsis thaliana, and the promoter regions exhibited higher levels of nucleotide sequence identity with Brassica rapa than with Brassica oleracea. This work represents an entry point for investigating the roles of canola NF-Y proteins during abiotic stress responses and provides insight into

  11. [A factor analysis method for contingency table data with unlimited multiple choice questions].

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Hideki; Haiden, Reina; Kubo, Saori; Ikehara, Kazuya; Isobe, Yurie

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a method of factor analysis for analyzing contingency tables developed from the data of unlimited multiple-choice questions. This method assumes that the element of each cell of the contingency table has a binominal distribution and a factor analysis model is applied to the logit of the selection probability. Scree plot and WAIC are used to decide the number of factors, and the standardized residual, the standardized difference between the sample, and the proportion ratio, is used to select items. The proposed method was applied to real product impression research data on advertised chips and energy drinks. Since the results of the analysis showed that this method could be used in conjunction with conventional factor analysis model, and extracted factors were fully interpretable, and suggests the usefulness of the proposed method in the study of psychology using unlimited multiple-choice questions. PMID:26964368

  12. Protective Factors Associated with Fewer Multiple Problem Behaviors Among Homeless/Runaway Youth

    PubMed Central

    Lightfoot, Marguerita; Stein, Judith A.; Tevendale, Heather; Preston, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Although homeless youth exhibit numerous problem behaviors, protective factors that can be targeted and modified by prevention programs to decrease the likelihood of involvement in risky behaviors are less apparent. The current study tested a model of protective factors for multiple problem behavior in a sample of 474 homeless youth (42% girls; 83% minority) ages 12 to 24 years. Higher levels of problem solving and planning skills were strongly related to lower levels of multiple problem behaviors in homeless youth, suggesting both the positive impact of preexisting personal assets of these youth and important programmatic targets for further building their resilience and decreasing problem behaviors. Indirect relationships between the background factors of self-esteem and social support and multiple problem behaviors were significantly mediated through protective skills. The model suggests that helping youth enhance their skills in goal setting, decision making, and self-reliant coping could lessen a variety of problem behaviors commonly found among homeless youth. PMID:22023279

  13. Are major behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors for mortality additive or multiplicative in their effects?

    PubMed

    Mehta, Neil; Preston, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    All individuals are subject to multiple risk factors for mortality. In this paper, we consider the nature of interactions between certain major sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors associated with all-cause mortality in the United States. We develop the formal logic pertaining to two forms of interaction between risk factors, additive and multiplicative relations. We then consider the general circumstances in which additive or multiplicative relations might be expected. We argue that expectations about interactions among socio-demographic variables, and their relation to behavioral variables, have been stated in terms of additivity. However, the statistical models typically used to estimate the relation between risk factors and mortality assume that risk factors act multiplicatively. We examine empirically the nature of interactions among five major risk factors associated with all-cause mortality: smoking, obesity, race, sex, and educational attainment. Data were drawn from the cross-sectional NHANES III (1988-1994) and NHANES 1999-2010 surveys, linked to death records through December 31, 2011. Our analytic sample comprised 35,604 respondents and 5369 deaths. We find that obesity is additive with each of the remaining four variables. We speculate that its additivity is a reflection of the fact that obese status is generally achieved later in life. For all pairings of socio-demographic variables, risks are multiplicative. For survival chances, it is much more dangerous to be poorly educated if you are black or if you are male. And it is much riskier to be a male if you are black. These traits, established at birth or during childhood, literally result in deadly combinations. We conclude that the identification of interactions among risk factors can cast valuable light on the nature of the process being studied. It also has public health implications by identifying especially vulnerable groups and by properly identifying the proportion of deaths

  14. An Exploration of the Factors Influencing the Adoption of an IS Governance Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Sharon L.

    2013-01-01

    This research explored IT governance framework adoption, leveraging established IS theories. It applied both the technology acceptance model (TAM) and the technology, organization, environment (TOE) models. The study consisted of developing a model utilizing TOE and TAM, deriving relevant hypotheses. Interviews with a group of practitioners…

  15. Stress Intensity Factor Solutions for Multiple Edge Cracks in Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosn, Louis

    1997-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center conducted a study to determine the stress intensity factor solutions for periodic arrays of bridged cracks for various crack spacings and crack lengths. Initially, the stress intensity factor of an array of unbridged multiple edge cracks was determined under constant global displacement as well as at a point load along the crack wake. These solutions are expected to contribute toward the development of a damage-based life-prediction methodology for CMC engine components.

  16. Mathematical Model for Addiction: Application to Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Data for Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, David P.; Elketroussi, Mehdi

    1989-01-01

    Describes habituation and addiction, both psychological and physiological, using simple equations of mathematical model of ideodynamics, optimized to smoking data from Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT) program. With only four constant parameters, it was possible to calculate accurate time trends for recidivism to smoking among…

  17. Primary Factors Related to Multiple Placements for Children in Out-of-Home Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggertsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Using an ecological framework, this study identified which factors related to out-of-home placements significantly influenced multiple placements for children in Utah during 2000, 2001, and 2002. Multinomial logistic regression statistical procedures and a geographical information system (GIS) were used to analyze the data. The final model…

  18. On Highest Common Factor and Least Common Multiple in the Secondary School Mathematics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    Attention is drawn to an ancient Greek method for finding the least common multiple (LCM) of two numbers. A link is established between this method and a well-known method of obtaining the highest common factor (HCF) numbers. This leads to consideration of some relationships between HCF and LCM. (Author/MK)

  19. The Effect of Auxiliary Variables and Multiple Imputation on Parameter Estimation in Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Jin Eun

    2009-01-01

    This Monte Carlo study investigates the beneficiary effect of including auxiliary variables during estimation of confirmatory factor analysis models with multiple imputation. Specifically, it examines the influence of sample size, missing rates, missingness mechanism combinations, missingness types (linear or convex), and the absence or presence…

  20. C/EBPβ regulates transcription factors critical for proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma cells

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Rekha; Janz, Martin; Galson, Deborah L.; Gries, Margarete; Li, Shirong; Jöhrens, Korinna; Anagnostopoulos, Ioannis; Dörken, Bernd; Mapara, Markus Y.; Borghesi, Lisa; Kardava, Lela; Roodman, G. David; Milcarek, Christine

    2009-01-01

    CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ), also known as nuclear factor–interleukin-6 (NF-IL6), is a transcription factor that plays an important role in the regulation of growth and differentiation of myeloid and lymphoid cells. Mice deficient in C/EBPβ show impaired generation of B lymphocytes. We show that C/EBPβ regulates transcription factors critical for proliferation and survival in multiple myeloma. Multiple myeloma cell lines and primary multiple myeloma cells strongly expressed C/EBPβ, whereas normal B cells and plasma cells had little or no detectable levels of C/EBPβ. Silencing of C/EBPβ led to down-regulation of transcription factors such as IRF4, XBP1, and BLIMP1 accompanied by a strong inhibition of proliferation. Further, silencing of C/EBPβ led to a complete down-regulation of antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) expression. In chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, C/EBPβ directly bound to the promoter region of IRF4, BLIMP1, and BCL2. Our data indicate that C/EBPβ is involved in the regulatory network of transcription factors that are critical for plasma cell differentiation and survival. Targeting C/EBPβ may provide a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of multiple myeloma. PMID:19717648

  1. Effects of dietary factors on energy regulation: Consideration of multiple- versus single-dietary-factor models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While short-term studies demonstrate consistent effects of dietary protein, fiber, glycemic index and energy density on energy intake, long-term effectiveness trials typically indicate small or non-significant effects of these dietary factors on long-term weight change. In consequence, most lifestyl...

  2. Multiple Motives, Conflicting Conceptions: Parsing the Contexts of Differentiated Access to Scientific Information in the Federal Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oltmann, Shannon M.

    2012-01-01

    Scientific information, used by the U.S. federal government to formulate public policy in many arenas, is frequently contested and sometimes altered, blocked from publication, deleted from reports, or restricted in some way. This dissertation examines how and why restricted access to science policy (RASP) occurs through a comparative case study.…

  3. Genetic, Epigenetic, and Environmental Factors Influencing Neurovisceral Integration of Cardiovascular Modulation: Focus on Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Zohara

    2016-03-01

    Thought to be an autoimmune inflammatory CNS disease, multiple sclerosis (MS) involves multiple pathologies with heterogeneous clinical presentations. An impaired neurovisceral integration of cardiovascular modulation, indicated by sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction, is among common MS clinical presentations. ANS dysfunction could not only enhance MS inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes, but can also lead to clinical symptoms such as depression, fatigue, sleep disorder, migraine, osteoporosis, and cerebral hemodynamic impairments. Therefore, factors influencing ANS functional activities, in one way or another, will have a significant impact on MS disease course. This review describes the genetic and epigenetic factors, and their interactions with a number of environmental factors contributing to the neurovisceral integration of cardiovascular modulation, with a focus on MS. Future studies should investigate the improvement in cardiovascular ANS function, as a strategy for preventing and minimizing MS-related morbidities, and improving patients' quality of life. PMID:26502224

  4. Environmental factors in multiple sclerosis: Epstein-Barr virus, vitamin D, and cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Wingerchuk, Dean M

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Although its cause is not known, genetic and environmental factors both influence susceptibility to the disease. From the large array of environmental risk factors that have been examined over the past century, infection with Epstein-Barr virus, ultraviolet light exposure/vitamin D status, and cigarette smoking stand out because of the strength of supporting evidence. Epstein-Barr virus infection early in life appears to be necessary permissive step for disease development and probably acts in adolescence and early adulthood. Vitamin D-related mechanisms and cigarette smoking probably modify baseline disease risk and could plausibly do so at several stages of life; smoking appears to negatively affect disease course. This review summarizes current evidence for these 3 putative multiple sclerosis risk factors and early attempts to develop risk models and examine gene-environment interactions for this complex disease. PMID:21425266

  5. Stakeholder Perceptions of Governance: Factors Influencing Presidential Perceptions of Board Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proper, Eve; Willmer, Wesley K.; Hartley, Harold V., III; Caboni, Timothy C.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the factors that influence presidents' perceptions of board effectiveness in relation to their boards' fundraising role. Data from a survey of small college presidents are used to see what factors influence each of four areas of satisfaction: deciding policy, making financial contributions, referring donor prospects and…

  6. Factors to consider in developing individual pharmaceutical product quality risk profiles useful to government procurement agencies

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Boehm, Garth; Zheng, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Governments that procure pharmaceutical products from an Essential Medicine List (EML) bear special responsibility for the quality of these products. In this article we examine the possibility of developing a pharmaceutical product quality risk assessment scheme for use by government procurement officials. We use the Chinese EML as a basis, and US recall data is examined as it is publically available.This is justified as the article is only concerned with inherent product quality risks. After establishing a link between Chinese essential medicines and those available in the US, we examine US recall data to separate product specific recalls. We conclude that, in addition to existing manufacturing based risks, there are two other product specific risks that stand out from all others, degradation and dissolution failure. Methodology for relative product risk for degradation is needed to be developed and further work is required to better understand dissolution failures which largely occur with modified-release solid oral products. We conclude that a product specific quality risk profile would be enhanced by including a risk assessment for degradation for all products, and in the case of solid oral products, dissolution. PMID:26904402

  7. Multiple substitutions in the von Willebrand factor gene that mimic the pseudogene sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Eikenboom, J.C.; Brieet, E.; Reitsma, P.H.; Vink, T.; Sixma, J.J.

    1994-03-15

    The authors have analyzed a type IIB and a type I von Willebrand disease family for the presence of mutations in the region coding for the glycoprotein Ib binding domain of the von Willebrand factor. Since this sequence is also present in the highly homologous von Willebrand factor pseudogene, the authors have studied genomic DNA as well as cDNA, which was produced from RNA isolated from endothelial cells or platelets. In both families, they have detected multiple consecutive nucleotide substitutions in the 5{prime} end of exon 28 that result in a sequence identical to the von Willebrand factor pseudogene. These substitutions were also found in cDNA, which proves that they are present in the active gene. The occurrence of multiple adjacent substitutions that exactly reflect a part of the sequence of the von Willebrand factor pseudogene is difficult to reconcile with sequential single mutational events. They therefore hypothesize that each of these multiple substitutions arose from one recombinational event between gene and pseudogene. 34 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Incidence and risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity in multiple gestations: a Chinese population study.

    PubMed

    Yau, Gordon S K; Lee, Jacky W Y; Tam, Victor T Y; Yip, Stan; Cheng, Edith; Liu, Catherine C L; Chu, Benjamin C Y; Wong, Ian Y H

    2015-05-01

    To determine the incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) among new-born Chinese infants of multiple gestations.A retrospective review of medical records was performed for all neonates of multiple gestations screened for ROP between January 2007 and December 2012 in 2 neonatal intensive care units in Hong Kong. Screening was offered to very low birth weight (VLBW; ≤1500 g) and/or preterm (gestation ≤32 weeks) neonates using the Royal College of Ophthalmologists ROP guideline and the International Classification of ROP by 3 pediatric ophthalmologists. Maternal and neonatal covariates were analyzed using univariate and multivariate regression analyses for both ROP and Type 1 ROP.A total of 153 Chinese infants of multiple gestations were included in the study. The mean gestational age (GA) was 30.8 ± 2.4 weeks and the mean birth weight (BW) was 1284.8 ± 267.4 g. The incidence of ROP and Type 1 ROP was 11.8% and 3.9%, respectively. On univariate analysis, younger GA, lighter birth weight, postnatal hypotension, inotropes use, bronchopulmonary disease, and intraventricular hemorrhage were common independent risk factors for the development of ROP and Type 1 ROP (all P ≤ 0.04). On multivariate analysis, younger GA, surfactant use, invasive mechanical ventilation, higher mean oxygen concentration, thrombocytopenia, intraventricular hemorrhage, total parental nutrition, and hypoglycemia were significant risk factors for ROP. For Type 1 ROP, there were no significant dependent risk factors.In preterm Chinese infants born from multiple gestations, prematurity, lighter weight, postnatal hypotension, inotropes use, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and an intraventricular hemorrhage were common independent risk factors for the development of ROP and Type 1 ROP. PMID:25950699

  9. A Hematological Menace: Multiple Venous Thrombosis Complicated by Acquired Factor VIII Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Paudel, Robin; Dominguez, Luis W.; Dogra, Prerna; Suman, Saurav; Badin, Simon; Wasserman, Carrie

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 21 Final Diagnosis: Acquired Factor VIII Deficiency Symptoms: Abdominal hematoma • DVT • life threatening bleeding Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Life saving medical therapy Specialty: Hematology Objective: Rare disease Background: Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) classically presents with spontaneous bleeding of mucosal sites, GI tract, and sub-cutaneous tissues, often leading to large hematomas and ecchymosis. Among documented cases, 50% are idiopathic and few have been associated with trauma or surgery. We present a case of life-threatening bleeding caused by AHA, following trauma and complicated by multiple venous thrombi. Case Report: A 21-year-old man presented with multiple injuries secondary to trauma leading to extensive life-saving surgery. Two weeks post-operatively, he developed multiple deep venous thrombi and was started on anticoagulation. Twenty-four days post-operatively, he started bleeding from multiple mucosal sites and developed an abdominal hematoma. Anticoagulation was stopped, with administration of fresh frozen plasma and vitamin K. Diagnosis of AHA was made based on low factor VIII level and presence of factor VIII inhibitors after an appropriate battery of tests ruled out other possible diagnoses. He was started on steroids and recombinant factor VIIa, leading to immediate improvement. Once stable, Rituximab infusions resulted in decreasing factor VIII inhibitor levels, with gradual normalization of PTT. Conclusions: AHA remains a diagnostic challenge because of its rarity, leading to delay in diagnosis and causing significant morbidity and mortality. Elevated PTT relative to PT/INR is a strong clue which should be followed by mixing studies. Very few cases have been associated with surgery or trauma and relatively few large, controlled trials have compared different treatment modalities for AHA. Growing evidence supports anti-CD20 (Rituximab) as an effective treatment option, as in this case. PMID:27040655

  10. Mercury and plants in contaminated soils. 2: Environmental and physiological factors governing mercury flux to the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, T.L.; Gustin, M.S.; Fernandez, G.C.J.; Taylor, G.E. Jr.

    1998-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of physiological and environmental factors in governing the flux of elemental mercury from plants to the atmosphere. Five species (Lepidium latifolium, Artemisia douglasiana, Caulanthus sp., Fragaria vesca, and Eucalyptus globulus) with different ecological and physiological attributes and growing in soils with high levels of mercury contamination were examined. Studies were conducted in a whole-plant, gas-exchange chamber providing precise control of environmental conditions, and mercury flux was estimated using the mass balance approach. Mercury flux increased linearly as a function of temperature within the range of 20 to 40 C, and the mean temperature coefficient (Q{sub 10}) was 2.04. The temperature dependence of mercury flux was attributed to changes in the contaminant`s vapor pressure in the leaf interior. Mercury flux from foliage increased linearly as a function of irradiance within the range of 500 to 1,500 {micro}mol m/s, and the light enhancement of mercury flux was within a factor of 2.0 to 2.5 for all species. Even though the leaf-to-atmosphere diffusive path for mercury vapor from foliage is similar to that of water vapor, stomatal conductance played a secondary role in governing mercury flux. In a quantitative comparison with other studies in both laboratory and field settings, a strong linear relationship is evident between mercury vapor flux and the natural logarithm of soil mercury concentration, and this relationship may have predictive value in developing regional- and continental-scale mercury budgets. The most critical factors governing mercury flux from plants are mercury concentration in the soil, leaf area index, temperature, and irradiance.

  11. Outrage Factors in Government Press Releases of Food Risk and Their Influence on News Media Coverage.

    PubMed

    Ju, Youngkee; Lim, Jeongsub; Shim, Minsun; You, Myoungsoon

    2015-08-01

    An appropriate level of risk perception should be a critical issue in modern "risk society." There have been many studies on the influences on risk perception. This study investigates whether risk communication scholar Dr. Peter Sandman's outrage factors intensify journalistic attention to health risks from food consumption. A content analysis of a health institution's press releases was conducted to examine 15 outrage factors of food risks conveyed in the governmental risk communication. In addition, the news stories covering the food risks informed by the press releases were calculated to evaluate the relation between outrage factors of a risk and the number of news stories covering the risk. Results showed that controllability was the most salient outrage factor, followed by trust, voluntariness, familiarity, and human origin; the greater the outrage score of a risk, the more news stories of the risk. For individual outrage factors, a risk with an implication of catastrophic potential was associated with an increase of news stories. Food providers' distrustful behaviors also influenced journalistic attention to the food risks. The implication of the findings to health message designers is discussed. PMID:26065830

  12. Comparison of different multiple flow algorithms for topographic RUSLE factor (LS) calculation in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bircher, Pascal; Liniger, Hanspeter; Prasuhn, Volker

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion is a well-known challenge both from a global perspective and in Switzerland, and it is assessed and discussed in many projects (e.g. national or European erosion risk maps). Meaningful assessment of soil erosion requires models that adequately reflect surface water flows. Various studies have attempted to achieve better modelling results by including multiple flow algorithms in the topographic length and slope factor (LS-factor) of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). The choice of multiple flow algorithms is wide, and many of them have been implemented in programs or tools like Saga-Gis, GrassGis, ArcGIS, ArcView, Taudem, and others. This study compares six different multiple flow algorithms with the aim of identifying a suitable approach to calculating the LS factor for a new soil erosion risk map of Switzerland. The comparison of multiple flow algorithms is part of a broader project to model soil erosion for the entire agriculturally used area in Switzerland and to renew and optimize the current erosion risk map of Switzerland (ERM2). The ERM2 was calculated in 2009, using a high resolution digital elevation model (2 m) and a multiple flow algorithm in ArcView. This map has provided the basis for enforcing soil protection regulations since 2010 and has proved its worth in practice, but it has become outdated (new basic data are now available, e.g. data on land use change, a new rainfall erosivity map, a new digital elevation model, etc.) and is no longer user friendly (ArcView). In a first step towards its renewal, a new data set from the Swiss Federal Office of Topography (Swisstopo) was used to generate the agricultural area based on the existing field block map. A field block is an area consisting of farmland, pastures, and meadows which is bounded by hydrological borders such as streets, forests, villages, surface waters, etc. In our study, we compared the six multiple flow algorithms with the LS factor calculation approach used in

  13. Race/Ethnicity and Multiple Cancer Risk Factors among Individuals Seeking Smoking Cessation Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Costello, Tracy J.; Li, Yisheng; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Mazas, Carlos A.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Businelle, Michael S.; Wetter, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking in combination with other behavioral risk factors is known to have a negative influence on health, and individuals who smoke typically engage in multiple risk behaviors. However, little is known about the clustering of risk behaviors among smokers of varying race/ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of cancer risk behaviors and to identify predictors of multiple risk behaviors in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of individuals seeking smoking cessation treatment. Overweight/obesity, at-risk alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity were measured in 424 smokers (African American, n = 144; Latino, n = 141; Caucasian, n = 139). Results indicated that 90% of participants reported behavioral cancer risk factors in addition to smoking. Approximately 70% of participants were overweight or obese, 48% engaged in at-risk drinking, and 27% were insufficiently physically active. Univariate analyses indicated that race/ethnicity, p < .001, smoking level, p = .03, and marital status, p = .04, were significant predictors of multiple risk behaviors, although only race/ethnicity remained a significant predictor, p < .001, when gender, smoking level, age, education, household income, marital status, and health insurance status were included in a multivariate model. Multivariate analysis indicated that the odds of engaging in multiple risk behaviors were significantly higher among Latinos, OR = 2.85, and African Americans, OR = 1.86, than Caucasians. Our findings highlight the need for research aimed at identifiying determinants of racial/ethnic differences in multiple risk behaviors, and indicate the importance of developing culturally sensitive interventions that target multiple risk behaviors. PMID:18990734

  14. Using multiple risk factors to assess the behavioral, cognitive, and affective effects of learned helplessness.

    PubMed

    McKean, K J

    1994-03-01

    Rather than examining the effect of the pessimistic explanatory style on an outcome variable reflecting a single domain, I studied the effects of multiple learned-helplessness risk factors on behavioral, cognitive, and affective variables. Undergraduate students completed the Learned Helplessness Scale (Quinless & McDermott-Nelson, 1988) as a measure of their expectation of uncontrollability and the Explanatory Style Questionnaire (Peterson et al., 1982) to determine their explanations for both positive and negative events. Results revealed a significant effect for risk level, with students at greater risk of helplessness reporting significantly more procrastination, lower grade point averages, and more dysphoria. These results support the use of multiple risk factors representing all learned-helplessness precursors and the assessment of learned-helplessness deficits drawn simultaneously from behavioral, cognitive, and affective domains. PMID:8189396

  15. The Causal Factors Associated with the Loving Care of the Mothers of Children with Multiple Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Sadati, Ahmad Kalateh; Salehzade, Hamze; Hemmati, Soroor; Darvish, Manijeh; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Tabrizi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Families with disabled children need more psycho-social considerations. Motherhood care of the children with multiple disabilities is difficult. Due to its importance, the aim of this study was to investigate the causal factors affecting loving care of mothers of children with multiple disabilities. Methods: The study used a cross-sectional method in which 75 mothers of exceptional children with multiple disabilities (physical and mental) in elementary schools in Shiraz, Iran. The data were collected through questionnaires which, besides demographical factors, evaluated the relationship between mothers’ loving care of children with multiple disabilities and four other variables including purpose in life, life satisfaction, religious attitude, and sense of coherence. Mann-Whitney U was used for comparison between mothers’ loving care and other variables. Results: Results revealed that demographic variables did not have a significant relationship with loving care. In the case of social variables, there was a significant relationship between mothers’ loving care and purpose in life (P<0.001), religious attitude (P<0.001), and life satisfaction (P=0.01). Conclusion: Motherhood care of disabled children is a unique phenomenon which is due to attachment of mother-child situation. Nevertheless, these mothers are vulnerable and marginalized people who need more attention and social supports provided by related governmental institutions and also NGOs actors. PMID:26448958

  16. Study of Core Competency Elements and Factors Affecting Performance Efficiency of Government Teachers in Northeastern Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chansirisira, Pacharawit

    2012-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate the core competency elements and the factors affecting the performance efficiency of the civil service teachers in the northeastern region, Thailand. The research procedure consisted of two steps. In the first step, the data were collected using a questionnaire with the reliability (Cronbach's Alpha) of 0.90. The…

  17. The bHLH Transcription Factor NeuroD Governs Photoreceptor Genesis and Regeneration Through Delta-Notch Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Scott M.; Alvarez-Delfin, Karen; Saade, Carole J.; Thomas, Jennifer L.; Thummel, Ryan; Fadool, James M.; Hitchcock, Peter F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Photoreceptor genesis in the retina requires precise regulation of progenitor cell competence, cell cycle exit, and differentiation, although information around the mechanisms that govern these events currently is lacking. In zebrafish, the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor NeuroD governs photoreceptor genesis, but the signaling pathways through which NeuroD functions are unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify these pathways, and during photoreceptor genesis, Notch signaling was investigated as the putative mediator of NeuroD function. Methods In embryos, genetic mosaic analysis was used to determine if NeuroD functions is cell- or non–cell-autonomous. Morpholino-induced NeuroD knockdown, CRISPR/Cas9 mutation, and pharmacologic and transgenic approaches were used, followed by in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry, and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), to identify mechanisms through which NeuroD functions. In adults, following photoreceptor ablation and NeuroD knockdown, similar methods as above were used to identify NeuroD function during photoreceptor regeneration. Results In embryos, NeuroD function is non–cell-autonomous, NeuroD knockdown increases Notch pathway gene expression, Notch inhibition rescues the NeuroD knockdown-induced deficiency in cell cycle exit but not photoreceptor maturation, and Notch activation and CRISPR/Cas9 mutation of neurod recapitulate NeuroD knockdown. In adults, NeuroD knockdown prevents cell cycle exit and photoreceptor regeneration and increases Notch pathway gene expression, and Notch inhibition rescues this phenotype. Conclusions These data demonstrate that during embryonic development, NeuroD governs photoreceptor genesis via non–cell-autonomous mechanisms and that, during photoreceptor development and regeneration, Notch signaling is a mechanistic link between NeuroD and cell cycle exit. In contrast, during embryonic development, NeuroD governs photoreceptor maturation via mechanisms

  18. Critical review of factors governing data quality of integrative samplers employed in environmental water monitoring.

    PubMed

    Roll, Isaac B; Halden, Rolf U

    2016-05-01

    Integrative sampling enables the collection of analyte mass from environmental liquids over extended timeframes from hours to months. While the incentives to complement or replace conventional, time-discrete sampling have been widely discussed, the data quality implications of employing alternative, integrative methods have not yet been systematically studied. A critical analysis of contemporary literature reports showed the data quality of integrative samplers, whether active-advection or passive-diffusion, to be governed by uncertainty in both sampling rate and analyte recovery. Derivation of two lumped parameters, representing the coefficient of accumulation (α) of a contaminant from an environmental fluid and the coefficient of subsequent recovery (ρ) of its mass from the sampler, produced a conceptual framework for quantifying error sources in concentration data derived from accumulative samplers. Whereas the precision associated with recovery was found to be fairly consistent across eight passive-diffusion and active-advection devices (averaging 5-16% relative standard deviation, RSD), active-advection samplers effectively improve precision in sampling rate (analyte uptake), as determined for two active-advection devices (2-7% average RSD) and five passive devices (12-42% average RSD). In summary, an approach is presented whereby the data quality implications of integrative sampler design can be compared, which can inform the selection, optimization, and development of sampling systems to complement the state of the art. PMID:26945963

  19. Temporally controlled release of multiple growth factors from a self-assembling peptide hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Bruggeman, Kiara F; Rodriguez, Alexandra L; Parish, Clare L; Williams, Richard J; Nisbet, David R

    2016-09-23

    Protein growth factors have demonstrated great potential for tissue repair, but their inherent instability and large size prevents meaningful presentation to biologically protected nervous tissue. Here, we create a nanofibrous network from a self-assembling peptide (SAP) hydrogel to carry and stabilize the growth factors. We significantly reduced growth factor degradation to increase their lifespan by over 40 times. To control the temporal release profile we covalently attached polysaccharide chitosan molecules to the growth factor to increase its interactions with the hydrogel nanofibers and achieved a 4 h delay, demonstrating the potential of this method to provide temporally controlled growth factor delivery. We also describe release rate based analysis to examine the growth factor delivery in more detail than standard cumulative release profiles allow and show that the chitosan attachment method provided a more consistent release profile with a 60% reduction in fluctuations. To prove the potential of this system as a complex growth factor delivery platform we demonstrate for the first time temporally distinct release of multiple growth factors from a single tissue specific SAP hydrogel: a significant goal in regenerative medicine. PMID:27517970

  20. Temporally controlled release of multiple growth factors from a self-assembling peptide hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggeman, Kiara F.; Rodriguez, Alexandra L.; Parish, Clare L.; Williams, Richard J.; Nisbet, David R.

    2016-09-01

    Protein growth factors have demonstrated great potential for tissue repair, but their inherent instability and large size prevents meaningful presentation to biologically protected nervous tissue. Here, we create a nanofibrous network from a self-assembling peptide (SAP) hydrogel to carry and stabilize the growth factors. We significantly reduced growth factor degradation to increase their lifespan by over 40 times. To control the temporal release profile we covalently attached polysaccharide chitosan molecules to the growth factor to increase its interactions with the hydrogel nanofibers and achieved a 4 h delay, demonstrating the potential of this method to provide temporally controlled growth factor delivery. We also describe release rate based analysis to examine the growth factor delivery in more detail than standard cumulative release profiles allow and show that the chitosan attachment method provided a more consistent release profile with a 60% reduction in fluctuations. To prove the potential of this system as a complex growth factor delivery platform we demonstrate for the first time temporally distinct release of multiple growth factors from a single tissue specific SAP hydrogel: a significant goal in regenerative medicine.

  1. To Fish or Not to Fish: Factors at Multiple Scales Affecting Artisanal Fishers' Readiness to Exit a Declining Fishery

    PubMed Central

    Daw, Tim M.; Cinner, Joshua E.; McClanahan, Timothy R.; Brown, Katrina; Stead, Selina M.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Maina, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Globally, fisheries are challenged by the combined impacts of overfishing, degradation of ecosystems and impacts of climate change, while fisheries livelihoods are further pressured by conservation policy imperatives. Fishers' adaptive responses to these pressures, such as exiting from a fishery to pursue alternative livelihoods, determine their own vulnerability, as well as the potential for reducing fishing effort and sustaining fisheries. The willingness and ability to make particular adaptations in response to change, such as exiting from a declining fishery, is influenced by economic, cultural and institutional factors operating at scales from individual fishers to national economies. Previous studies of exit from fisheries at single or few sites, offer limited insight into the relative importance of individual and larger-scale social and economic factors. We asked 599 fishers how they would respond to hypothetical scenarios of catch declines in 28 sites in five western Indian Ocean countries. We investigated how socioeconomic variables at the individual-, household- and site-scale affected whether they would exit fisheries. Site-level factors had the greatest influence on readiness to exit, but these relationships were contrary to common predictions. Specifically, higher levels of infrastructure development and economic vitality - expected to promote exit from fisheries - were associated with less readiness to exit. This may be due to site level histories of exit from fisheries, greater specialisation of fishing households, or higher rewards from fishing in more economically developed sites due to technology, market access, catch value and government subsidies. At the individual and household scale, fishers from households with more livelihood activities, and fishers with lower catch value were more willing to exit. These results demonstrate empirically how adaptive responses to change are influenced by factors at multiple scales, and highlight the importance

  2. To fish or not to fish: factors at multiple scales affecting artisanal fishers' readiness to exit a declining fishery.

    PubMed

    Daw, Tim M; Cinner, Joshua E; McClanahan, Timothy R; Brown, Katrina; Stead, Selina M; Graham, Nicholas A J; Maina, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Globally, fisheries are challenged by the combined impacts of overfishing, degradation of ecosystems and impacts of climate change, while fisheries livelihoods are further pressured by conservation policy imperatives. Fishers' adaptive responses to these pressures, such as exiting from a fishery to pursue alternative livelihoods, determine their own vulnerability, as well as the potential for reducing fishing effort and sustaining fisheries. The willingness and ability to make particular adaptations in response to change, such as exiting from a declining fishery, is influenced by economic, cultural and institutional factors operating at scales from individual fishers to national economies. Previous studies of exit from fisheries at single or few sites, offer limited insight into the relative importance of individual and larger-scale social and economic factors. We asked 599 fishers how they would respond to hypothetical scenarios of catch declines in 28 sites in five western Indian Ocean countries. We investigated how socioeconomic variables at the individual-, household- and site-scale affected whether they would exit fisheries. Site-level factors had the greatest influence on readiness to exit, but these relationships were contrary to common predictions. Specifically, higher levels of infrastructure development and economic vitality - expected to promote exit from fisheries - were associated with less readiness to exit. This may be due to site level histories of exit from fisheries, greater specialisation of fishing households, or higher rewards from fishing in more economically developed sites due to technology, market access, catch value and government subsidies. At the individual and household scale, fishers from households with more livelihood activities, and fishers with lower catch value were more willing to exit. These results demonstrate empirically how adaptive responses to change are influenced by factors at multiple scales, and highlight the importance

  3. Analysis of mutant platelet-derived growth factor receptors expressed in PC12 cells identifies signals governing sodium channel induction during neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Fanger, G R; Vaillancourt, R R; Heasley, L E; Montmayeur, J P; Johnson, G L; Maue, R A

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms governing neuronal differentiation, including the signals underlying the induction of voltage-dependent sodium (Na+) channel expression by neurotrophic factors, which occurs independent of Ras activity, are not well understood. Therefore, Na+ channel induction was analyzed in sublines of PC12 cells stably expressing platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) beta receptors with mutations that eliminate activation of specific signalling molecules. Mutations eliminating activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), phospholipase C gamma (PLC gamma), the GTPase-activating protein (GAP), and Syp phosphatase failed to diminish the induction of type II Na+ channel alpha-subunit mRNA and functional Na+ channel expression by PDGF, as determined by RNase protection assays and whole-cell patch clamp recording. However, mutation of juxtamembrane tyrosines that bind members of the Src family of kinases upon receptor activation inhibited the induction of functional Na+ channels while leaving the induction of type II alpha-subunit mRNA intact. Mutation of juxtamembrane tyrosines in combination with mutations eliminating activation of PI3K, PLC gamma, GAP, and Syp abolished the induction of type II alpha-subunit mRNA, suggesting that at least partially redundant signaling mechanisms mediate this induction. The differential effects of the receptor mutations on Na+ channel expression did not reflect global changes in receptor signaling capabilities, as in all of the mutant receptors analyzed, the induction of c-fos and transin mRNAs still occurred. The results reveal an important role for the Src family in the induction of Na+ channel expression and highlight the multiplicity and combinatorial nature of the signaling mechanisms governing neuronal differentiation. PMID:8972189

  4. Mining 3D genome structure populations identifies major factors governing the stability of regulatory communities

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Chao; Li, Wenyuan; Tjong, Harianto; Hao, Shengli; Zhou, Yonggang; Li, Qingjiao; Chen, Lin; Zhu, Bing; Alber, Frank; Jasmine Zhou, Xianghong

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) genome structures vary from cell to cell even in an isogenic sample. Unlike protein structures, genome structures are highly plastic, posing a significant challenge for structure-function mapping. Here we report an approach to comprehensively identify 3D chromatin clusters that each occurs frequently across a population of genome structures, either deconvoluted from ensemble-averaged Hi-C data or from a collection of single-cell Hi-C data. Applying our method to a population of genome structures (at the macrodomain resolution) of lymphoblastoid cells, we identify an atlas of stable inter-chromosomal chromatin clusters. A large number of these clusters are enriched in binding of specific regulatory factors and are therefore defined as ‘Regulatory Communities.' We reveal two major factors, centromere clustering and transcription factor binding, which significantly stabilize such communities. Finally, we show that the regulatory communities differ substantially from cell to cell, indicating that expression variability could be impacted by genome structures. PMID:27240697

  5. Orthogonal matrix factorization enables integrative analysis of multiple RNA binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Stražar, Martin; Žitnik, Marinka; Zupan, Blaž; Ule, Jernej; Curk, Tomaž

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: RNA binding proteins (RBPs) play important roles in post-transcriptional control of gene expression, including splicing, transport, polyadenylation and RNA stability. To model protein–RNA interactions by considering all available sources of information, it is necessary to integrate the rapidly growing RBP experimental data with the latest genome annotation, gene function, RNA sequence and structure. Such integration is possible by matrix factorization, where current approaches have an undesired tendency to identify only a small number of the strongest patterns with overlapping features. Because protein–RNA interactions are orchestrated by multiple factors, methods that identify discriminative patterns of varying strengths are needed. Results: We have developed an integrative orthogonality-regularized nonnegative matrix factorization (iONMF) to integrate multiple data sources and discover non-overlapping, class-specific RNA binding patterns of varying strengths. The orthogonality constraint halves the effective size of the factor model and outperforms other NMF models in predicting RBP interaction sites on RNA. We have integrated the largest data compendium to date, which includes 31 CLIP experiments on 19 RBPs involved in splicing (such as hnRNPs, U2AF2, ELAVL1, TDP-43 and FUS) and processing of 3’UTR (Ago, IGF2BP). We show that the integration of multiple data sources improves the predictive accuracy of retrieval of RNA binding sites. In our study the key predictive factors of protein–RNA interactions were the position of RNA structure and sequence motifs, RBP co-binding and gene region type. We report on a number of protein-specific patterns, many of which are consistent with experimentally determined properties of RBPs. Availability and implementation: The iONMF implementation and example datasets are available at https://github.com/mstrazar/ionmf. Contact: tomaz.curk@fri.uni-lj.si Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available

  6. Factors Governing Stemflow Production from Plantation Grown Teak Trees in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, N.; Levia, D. F., Jr.; Igarashi, Y.; Yoshifuji, N.; Tanaka, K.; Chatchai, T.; Nanko, K.; Suzuki, M.; Kumagai, T.

    2015-12-01

    Stemflow (SF) is recognized as an important process delivering water, solute, and particulate fluxes to spatially localized areas of the forest floor. Using both long-term SF data from nine even-aged deciduous teak trees grown in the same plantation and meteorological data from a nearby tower, this study seeks to better understand how: (1) specific biotic and abiotic factors control stand-scale SF production of teak; and (2) various biotic and abiotic factors affect tree-to-tree variations in teak SF production. A conventional regression analysis of SF volume against rainfall indicates that, for five individuals among the nine, SF was more efficiently produced in the leafless than in the leafed. However, for the other individuals, there was no such a relation, suggesting tree-to-tree variation in the response of SF to canopy status. A boosted regression tree (BRT) analysis setting daily basis SF funneling ratios (SFF) of the nine trees as dependent variables, indicates that SFF was intricately controlled by a variety of biotic and abiotic factors. The top six influential factors were, in descending order, rainfall duration, tree height, rainfall intensity, air temperature, wind speed, and antecedent dry period length having positive, negative, positive, negative, positive, and negative influence on SFF, respectively. Although teak exhibits drastic intra-annual changes in leaf phenology, leaf area index (LAI) had an unexpectedly small influence on SFF on a stand scale. Additional BRT analyses focusing on individuals with the maximum and the minimum SFF values (among the nine individuals) showed that there was considerable tree-to-tree variation in an array of the influential variables for SFF, even though they were planted in the same year and grown in the same plot. In addition to this difference, the BRT analyses also showed that response of SFF to LAI differs between the two individuals. The differentiating responses to LAI depending on individuals may be the

  7. The association of reproductive and lifestyle factors with a score of multiple endogenous hormones

    PubMed Central

    Shafrir, Amy L.; Zhang, Xuehong; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Tworoger, Shelley S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We recently reported that high levels of multiple sex and growth hormones were associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Limited research has explored the relationship between reproductive, anthropometric, and lifestyle factors and levels of multiple hormones simultaneously. Methods This cross-sectional analysis included 738 postmenopausal Nurses' Health Study participants who were controls in a breast cancer nested case-control study and had measured levels of estrone, estradiol, estrone sulfate, testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, prolactin and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). A score was created by summing the number of hormones a woman had above (below for SHBG) each hormone's age-adjusted geometric mean. The association between lifestyle, anthropometric, and reproductive exposures and the score was assessed using generalized linear models. Results The hormone score ranged from 0 to 8 with a mean of 4.0 (standard deviation=2.2). Body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption at blood draw were positively associated with the hormone score: a 5 unit increase in BMI was associated with a 0.79 (95%CI: 0.63, 0.95) unit increase in the score (p<0.0001) and each 15 grams/day increase in alcohol consumption was associated with a 0.41 (95%CI: 0.18, 0.63) unit increase in the score (p=0.0004). Family history of breast cancer, age at menarche, and physical activity were not associated with the score. Conclusions Reproductive breast cancer risk factors were not associated with elevated levels of multiple endogenous hormones, whereas anthropometric and lifestyle factors, particularly BMI and alcohol consumption, tended to be associated with higher levels of multiple hormones. PMID:25048255

  8. Parent Involvement in School Conceptualizing Multiple Dimensions and Their Relations with Family and Demographic Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Gwynne O; Lengua, Liliana J; McMahon, Robert J

    2000-11-01

    Parent involvement (PI) in school is associated with more positive academic performance and social competence in children. However, there are inadequacies in current measures of PI and a need for a better understanding of predictors of PI. In this study, measures were obtained from a normative sample of 387 children in kindergarten and first grade from high-risk neighborhoods in 4 different sites. First, a confirmatory factor analysis of a theoretical factor model of PI identified 6 reliable multiple-reporter PI factors: Parent-Teacher Contact, Parent Involvement at School, Quality of Parent-Teacher Relationship, Teacher's Perception of the Parent, Parent Involvement at Home, and Parent Endorsement of School. Next, the relations among 3 specific family and demographic risk factors-parental education level, maternal depression, and single-parent status-and these 6 PI factors were examined using path analyses in structural equation modeling. Results indicated that the 3 risk factors were differentially associated with the 6 PI factors: Parental education was significantly associated with 4 PI outcomes, maternal depression was significantly associated with 5 PI outcomes, and single-parent status was significantly associated with 3 PI outcomes. No significant ethnic group differences between African American and Caucasian families were found in these relations. PMID:20357900

  9. Factors influencing municipal solid waste generation in China: a multiple statistical analysis study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Wu, Xin-wu

    2011-04-01

    A relationship between the waste production and socio-economic factors is essential in waste management. In the present study, the factors influencing municipal solid waste generation in China were investigated by multiple statistical analysis. Twelve items were chosen for investigation: GDP, per capita GDP, urban population, the proportion of urban population, the area of urban construction, the area of paved roads, the area of urban gardens and green areas, the number of the large cities, annual per capita disposable income of urban households, annual per capita consumption expenditure of urban households, total energy consumption and annual per capital consumption for households. Two methodologies from multiple statistical analysis were selected; specifically principal components analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA). Three new dimensions were identified by PCA: component 1: economy and urban development; component 2: energy consumption; and component 3: urban scale. The three components together accounted for 99.1% of the initial variance. The results show that economy and urban development are important items influencing MSW generation. The proportion of urban population and urban population had the highest loadings in all factors. The relationship between growth of gross domestic product (GDP) and production of MSW was not as clear-cut as often assumed in China, a situation that is more likely to apply to developed countries. Energy consumption was another factor considered in our study of MSW generation. In addition, the annual MSW quantity variation was investigated by cluster analysis. PMID:20699292

  10. Reported Pain During Labour – A Qualitative Study of Influencing Factors among Parturient During Confinement in Private or Government Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Ravishankar, M.; Hemanthkumar, V.R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Labour pain is distressing and it produces undue side effects both to the mother and the baby. The incidence is high in developing countries like India where the awareness about labour analgesia is still lacking. Aim It is to find out the incidence of labour pain and the influence of various described factors on pain with a comparison between patients admitted in a government set up with a private set up in a south Indian semi-urban area. Materials and Methods Two hundred continuous uneventful normal deliveries each in a Government (group G) and a private hospital (group P) were enrolled for the study. The reported pain during labour was noted 6-7 hours after delivery by interacting with the patient. The factors like age of the mother, sex and weight of the baby, literacy, socioeconomic status, the use of oxytocics and analgesia were evaluated. Results The incidence of severe pain was more in group G (43.5%) than group P (12%). There was no analgesic intervention in 68.5% in group G while it was 13.5% (27/200) in group P. Even among these 27 patients who did not receive analgesics, only three parturients reported severe pain. Even administration of analgesics in a Government set up did not decrease pain to a significant extent. There were richer and more literate patients in group P. Booked cases were less in group G. Logistic regression analyses to find out factors which influenced pain in either group was used. Gravida, analgesic intervention and admission in a Govt. hospital influenced the pain experience of the parturient. There was minimal antenatal preparation in both the groups. There were no post partum complications. Conclusion Mothers suffered from labour pain to a significant extent and there is an urgent need for awareness about labour analgesia. Primigravida, admission in a Govt. set up and analgesic interventions were the factors which influenced pain than others. Patients admitted in Govt. hospitals suffered more pain with less analgesic

  11. Monitoring a Nuclear Factor-κB Signature of Drug Resistance in Multiple Myeloma*

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yun; Remily-Wood, Elizabeth R.; Oliveira, Vasco; Yarde, Danielle; He, Lili; Cheng, Jin Q.; Mathews, Linda; Boucher, Kelly; Cubitt, Christopher; Perez, Lia; Gauthier, Ted J.; Eschrich, Steven A.; Shain, Kenneth H.; Dalton, William S.; Hazlehurst, Lori; Koomen, John M.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of acquired drug resistance results from multiple compensatory mechanisms acting to prevent cell death. Simultaneous monitoring of proteins involved in drug resistance is a major challenge for both elucidation of the underlying biology and development of candidate biomarkers for assessment of personalized cancer therapy. Here, we have utilized an integrated analytical platform based on SDS-PAGE protein fractionation prior to liquid chromatography coupled to multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry, a versatile and powerful tool for targeted quantification of proteins in complex matrices, to evaluate a well-characterized model system of melphalan resistance in multiple myeloma (MM). Quantitative assays were developed to measure protein expression related to signaling events and biological processes relevant to melphalan resistance in multiple myeloma, specifically: nuclear factor-κB subunits, members of the Bcl-2 family of apoptosis-regulating proteins, and Fanconi Anemia DNA repair components. SDS-PAGE protein fractionation prior to liquid chromatography coupled to multiple reaction monitoring methods were developed for quantification of these selected target proteins in amounts of material compatible with direct translation to clinical specimens (i.e. less than 50,000 cells). As proof of principle, both relative and absolute quantification were performed on cell line models of MM to compare protein expression before and after drug treatment in naïve cells and in drug resistant cells; these liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring results are compared with existing literature and Western blots. The initial stage of a systems biology platform for examining drug resistance in MM has been implemented in cell line models and has been translated to MM cells isolated from a patient. The ultimate application of this platform could assist in clinical decision-making for individualized patient treatment. Although these specific assays have

  12. An Evaluation of Multiple Behavioral Risk Factors for Cancer in a Working Class, Multi-Ethnic Population

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Melody S.; Li, Yi; Bennett, Gary G.; Stoddard, Anne M.; Emmons, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral risk factors for cancer tend to cluster within individuals, which can compound risk beyond that associated with the individual risk factors alone. There has been increasing attention paid to the prevalence of multiple risk factors (MRF) for cancer, and to the importance of designing interventions that help individuals reduce their risks across multiple behaviors simultaneously. The purpose of this paper is to develop methodology to identify an optimal linear combination of multiple risk factors (score function) which would facilitate evaluation of cancer interventions. PMID:23227033

  13. Factors and processes governing the C-14 content of carbonate in desert soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amundson, Ronald; Wang, Yang; Chadwick, Oliver; Trumbore, Susan; Mcfadden, Leslie; Mcdonald, Eric; Wells, Steven; Deniro, Michael

    1994-01-01

    A model is presented describing the factors and processes which determine the measured C-14 ages of soil calcium carbonate. Pedogenic carbonate forms in isotopic equilium with soil CO2. Carbon dioxide in soils is a mixture of CO2 derived from two biological sources: respiration by living plant roots and respiration of microorganisms decomposing soil humus. The relative proportion of these two CO2 sources can greatly affect the initial C-14 content of pedogenic carbonate: the greater the contribution of humus-derived CO2, the greater the initial C-14 age of the carbonate mineral. For any given mixture of CO2 sources, the steady-state (14)CO2 distribution vs. soil depth can be described by a production/diffusion model. As a soil ages, the C-14 age of soil humus increases, as does the steady-state C-14 age of soil CO2 and the initial C-14 age of any pedogenic carbonate which forms. The mean C-14 age of a complete pedogenic carbonate coating or nodule will underestimate the true age of the soil carbonate. This discrepancy increases the older a soil becomes. Partial removal of outer (and younger) carbonate coatings greatly improves the relationship between measured C-14 age and true age. Although the production/diffusion model qualitatively explains the C-14 age of pedogenic carbonate vs. soil depth in many soils, other factors, such as climate change, may contribute to the observed trends, particularily in soils older than the Holocene.

  14. Pioneer factors govern super-enhancer dynamics in stem cell plasticity and lineage choice.

    PubMed

    Adam, Rene C; Yang, Hanseul; Rockowitz, Shira; Larsen, Samantha B; Nikolova, Maria; Oristian, Daniel S; Polak, Lisa; Kadaja, Meelis; Asare, Amma; Zheng, Deyou; Fuchs, Elaine

    2015-05-21

    Adult stem cells occur in niches that balance self-renewal with lineage selection and progression during tissue homeostasis. Following injury, culture or transplantation, stem cells outside their niche often display fate flexibility. Here we show that super-enhancers underlie the identity, lineage commitment and plasticity of adult stem cells in vivo. Using hair follicle as a model, we map the global chromatin domains of hair follicle stem cells and their committed progenitors in their native microenvironments. We show that super-enhancers and their dense clusters ('epicentres') of transcription factor binding sites undergo remodelling upon lineage progression. New fate is acquired by decommissioning old and establishing new super-enhancers and/or epicentres, an auto-regulatory process that abates one master regulator subset while enhancing another. We further show that when outside their niche, either in vitro or in wound-repair, hair follicle stem cells dynamically remodel super-enhancers in response to changes in their microenvironment. Intriguingly, some key super-enhancers shift epicentres, enabling their genes to remain active and maintain a transitional state in an ever-changing transcriptional landscape. Finally, we identify SOX9 as a crucial chromatin rheostat of hair follicle stem cell super-enhancers, and provide functional evidence that super-enhancers are dynamic, dense transcription-factor-binding platforms which are acutely sensitive to pioneer master regulators whose levels define not only spatial and temporal features of lineage-status but also stemness, plasticity in transitional states and differentiation. PMID:25799994

  15. Fuzzy based power factor improvement strategy for a multiple connected AC-DC converter fed drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, N.; Muthiah, Ramaswamy

    2012-01-01

    The main focus of this paper is to design a Fuzzy based control algorithm to realize an improvement in the input power factor of a multiple connected AC-DC converter fed drive system. It incorporates the role of fuzzy inference principles to generate appropriate PWM pulses for the power switches at the second stage of the power module. The philosophy is developed, with a view to reshape the input current phasor and enables it to align with the supply voltage wave in the perspective of improving the input power factor. The closed loop scheme evaluated using MATLAB based simulation exhibits an enhancement in supply power factor over a range of operating loads in addition to illustrating the speed regulating capability of the drive.

  16. High-power optical millimeter-wave signal generation with tunable frequency multiplication factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yi-shi; Zheng, Zhenyu; Luo, Zhixiao; Min, Zhixuan; Xu, Ou; Liu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    This work demonstrates a simple and novel scheme for millimeter-wave (MMW) signal generation using optical multi-sidebands (OMSB) modulation. In the proposed methods, several pairs of optical sidebands can be generated by employing parallel phase modulators driven by a low frequency radio frequency (RF) signal. The optical sidebands will beat at a photodetector (PD) to generate high frequency MMW signal with tunable frequency multiplication factor, such as frequency octupling, 12-tupling, 16-tupling and 18-tupling. Since no optical filters or DC bias are used, the MMW signal has the evident character of high-power output. A generalized analytic expression and simulation verification for generating the frequency multi-tupling MMW signal are developed. The influences caused by non-ideal factors are discussed in detail, and undesired power ratios versus non-ideal factors are plotted and analyzed.

  17. An integrated approach to identify the influential priority of the factors governing anaerobic H2 production by mixed cultures.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Zeng, Raymond J; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

    2010-05-01

    An integrated approach incorporating response surface methodology, grey relational entropy, and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process is established to prioritize the influence of main factors governing the anaerobic H(2) production process and their influential priority. Response surface methodology is employed to design experiments, and the grey relational entropy is used to evaluate the influential grade of the three input factors, i.e., pH, temperature and initial substrate concentration (S(ini)), on the H(2) yield, maximum H(2) production rate and volatile fatty acid yield. In addition, through a combination of grey relational entropy, fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, which is used to determine the weight, and accelerating genetic algorithm, which is employed to minimize the nonlinear function in fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, the overall H(2) production process performance could be comprehensively evaluated. The results show that pH is the most important factor influencing the yields of H(2) and volatile fatty acids, while S(ini) has the most significant effect on the maximum H(2) production rate. Compared to pH and S(ini), temperature has a less important effect on the overall H(2) production reactor performance. This approach provides an appropriate way to identify the influential priority of input factors and to evaluate the overall performance for the anaerobic H(2) production process, and it can also be used for other complex biological and non-biological wastewater treatment systems. PMID:20347115

  18. Robustness of the fractal regime for the multiple-scattering structure factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katyal, Nisha; Botet, Robert; Puri, Sanjay

    2016-08-01

    In the single-scattering theory of electromagnetic radiation, the fractal regime is a definite range in the photon momentum-transfer q, which is characterized by the scaling-law behavior of the structure factor: S(q) ∝ 1 /q df. This allows a straightforward estimation of the fractal dimension df of aggregates in Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) experiments. However, this behavior is not commonly studied in optical scattering experiments because of the lack of information on its domain of validity. In the present work, we propose a definition of the multiple-scattering structure factor, which naturally generalizes the single-scattering function S(q). We show that the mean-field theory of electromagnetic scattering provides an explicit condition to interpret the significance of multiple scattering. In this paper, we investigate and discuss electromagnetic scattering by three classes of fractal aggregates. The results obtained from the TMatrix method show that the fractal scaling range is divided into two domains: (1) a genuine fractal regime, which is robust; (2) a possible anomalous scaling regime, S(q) ∝ 1 /qδ, with exponent δ independent of df, and related to the way the scattering mechanism uses the local morphology of the scatterer. The recognition, and an analysis, of the latter domain is of importance because it may result in significant reduction of the fractal regime, and brings into question the proper mechanism in the build-up of multiple-scattering.

  19. Uranium mass and neutron multiplication factor estimates from time-correlation coincidence counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wenxiong; Li, Jiansheng; Zhu, Jianyu

    2015-10-01

    Time-correlation coincidence counts of neutrons are an important means to measure attributes of nuclear material. The main deficiency in the analysis is that an attribute of an unknown component can only be assessed by comparing it with similar known components. There is a lack of a universal method of measurement suitable for the different attributes of the components. This paper presents a new method that uses universal relations to estimate the mass and neutron multiplication factor of any uranium component with known enrichment. Based on numerical simulations and analyses of 64 highly enriched uranium components with different thicknesses and average radii, the relations between mass, multiplication and coincidence spectral features have been obtained by linear regression analysis. To examine the validity of the method in estimating the mass of uranium components with different sizes, shapes, enrichment, and shielding, the features of time-correlation coincidence-count spectra for other objects with similar attributes are simulated. Most of the masses and multiplications for these objects could also be derived by the formulation. Experimental measurements of highly enriched uranium castings have also been used to verify the formulation. The results show that for a well-designed time-dependent coincidence-count measuring system of a uranium attribute, there are a set of relations dependent on the uranium enrichment by which the mass and multiplication of the measured uranium components of any shape and size can be estimated from the features of the source-detector coincidence-count spectrum.

  20. Targeted Quantitative Analysis of Streptococcus pyogenes Virulence Factors by Multiple Reaction Monitoring*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Vinzenz; Malmström, Johan A.; Didion, John; King, Nichole L.; Johansson, Björn P.; Schäfer, Juliane; Rameseder, Jonathan; Wong, Chee-Hong; Deutsch, Eric W.; Brusniak, Mi-Youn; Bühlmann, Peter; Björck, Lars; Domon, Bruno; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2008-01-01

    In many studies, particularly in the field of systems biology, it is essential that identical protein sets are precisely quantified in multiple samples such as those representing differentially perturbed cell states. The high degree of reproducibility required for such experiments has not been achieved by classical mass spectrometry-based proteomics methods. In this study we describe the implementation of a targeted quantitative approach by which predetermined protein sets are first identified and subsequently quantified at high sensitivity reliably in multiple samples. This approach consists of three steps. First, the proteome is extensively mapped out by multidimensional fractionation and tandem mass spectrometry, and the data generated are assembled in the PeptideAtlas database. Second, based on this proteome map, peptides uniquely identifying the proteins of interest, proteotypic peptides, are selected, and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions are established and validated by MS2 spectrum acquisition. This process of peptide selection, transition selection, and validation is supported by a suite of software tools, TIQAM (Targeted Identification for Quantitative Analysis by MRM), described in this study. Third, the selected target protein set is quantified in multiple samples by MRM. Applying this approach we were able to reliably quantify low abundance virulence factors from cultures of the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes exposed to increasing amounts of plasma. The resulting quantitative protein patterns enabled us to clearly define the subset of virulence proteins that is regulated upon plasma exposure. PMID:18408245

  1. [Constraints imposed by political factors upon government intervention and health promotion].

    PubMed

    O'Neill, M

    1987-12-01

    In this article, Michel O'Neill, Ph. D., discusses the necessity of taking political factors into consideration when embarking on preventive programmes, regardless of the level in the community in which the intervention is to take place. When using the term, "political factors", the author is referring to the powers of influence which certain individuals or groups inevitably have over members of a community, regardless of its size. The influence is thus not necessarily linked to partisan politics but potentially has extensive implications for health promotion activities. After an introduction to the history of the development of a community health oriented system in Quebec, O'Neill presents four examples (at the local, regional, provincial, and federal levels) to introduce his analysis of political influence in community health and its implications in health promotion programmes. The marketing genius and tremendous budget of a multinational, American-based fast food corporation represents the political influence contrary of health promotion interests in two of the examples: competing with nutrition education efforts at a local level and "philanthropically" supporting curative efforts at a regional level. At a provincial level, the perpetual problem of tobacco corporations influencing elected officials in their social policies is presented while the aberration between rhetoric vis à vis policy and the reality of non-action is cited as political influence at a federal level. The examples cited are only four among "dozens and dozens" and serve as a reminder that health promotion professionals must take political influences into account if they wish to implement effective policies and programmes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3428906

  2. Edaphic factors do not govern the ectomycorrhizal specificity of Pisonia grandis (Nyctaginaceae).

    PubMed

    Hayward, Jeremy A; Horton, Thomas R

    2012-11-01

    Pisonia grandis (Nyctaginaceae), a widespread tree of Pacific coral atolls and islands, displays one of the more restrictive ranges of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus associates among autotrophic plants. Only five ECM fungi are currently known associates; our study adds one. In many habitats, P. grandis is restricted to large seabird colonies where nitrogen and phosphorus inputs in the form of guano are substantial. It has been suggested that the ECM specificity displayed by P. grandis is the result of the unusual nutrient-rich habitat in which P. grandis grows. On Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, P. grandis grows in habitats heavily influenced by guano additions and also in upland forests where seabirds do not roost or nest. To test the hypothesis that the ECM specificity displayed by P. grandis is the result of nutrient-related or toxicity-related factors associated with guano inputs, we sampled P. grandis growing in both guano-rich and guano-poor habitats on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. We identified ECM symbionts of P. grandis from both habitats as well as two symbionts of Intsia bijuga (Fabaceae) from nutrient-rich habitats. We identified three ECM symbionts of P. grandis from Rota; all three were found in both guano-rich and guano-poor habitats. No differences in community diversity were detected between guano-rich and guano-poor habitats. We also detected two ECM fungal species associating with I. bijuga but not associating with P. grandis inside guano-rich habitats. From these results, we infer that edaphic factors are not responsible for limiting the ECM community associating with P. grandis to its observed level of specificity. PMID:22569801

  3. Multiple risk factor interventions for primary prevention of coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahim, Shah; Beswick, Andrew; Burke, Margaret; Smith, George Davey

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary prevention programmes in many countries attempt to reduce mortality and morbidity due to coronary heart disease (CHD) through risk factor modification. It is widely believed that multiple risk factor intervention using counselling and educational methods is efficacious and cost-effective and should be expanded. Recent trials examining risk factor changes have cast considerable doubt on the effectiveness of these multiple risk factor interventions. Objectives To assess the effects of multiple risk factor intervention for reducing cardiovascular risk factors, total mortality, and mortality from CHD among adults without clinical evidence of established cardiovascular disease. Search strategy MEDLINE was searched for the original review to 1995. This was updated by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials on The Cochrane Library Issue 3 2001, MEDLINE(2000 to September 2001) and EMBASE (1998 to September 2001). Selection criteria Intervention studies using counselling or education to modify more than one cardiovascular risk factor in adults from general populations, occupational groups, or high risk groups. Trials of less than 6 months duration were excluded. Data collection and analysis Data were extracted by two reviewers independently. Investigators were contacted to obtain missing information. Main results A total of 39 trials were found of which ten reported clinical event data. In the ten trials with clinical event end-points, the pooled odds ratios for total and CHD mortality were 0.96 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.92 to 1.01) and 0.96 (95% CI 0.89 to 1.04) respectively. Net changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and blood cholesterol were (weighted mean differences) −3.6 mmHg (95% CI −3.9 to −3.3 mmHg), −2.8 mmHg (95% CI −2.9 to −2.6 mmHg) and −0.07 mMol/l (95% CI −0.8 to −0.06 mMol/l) respectively. Odds of reduction in smoking prevalence was 20% (95% CI 8% to 31%). Statistical heterogeneity

  4. Lenalidomide inhibits osteoclastogenesis, survival factors and bone-remodeling markers in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Breitkreutz, I; Raab, M S; Vallet, S; Hideshima, T; Raje, N; Mitsiades, C; Chauhan, D; Okawa, Y; Munshi, N C; Richardson, P G; Anderson, K C

    2008-10-01

    Osteolytic bone disease in multiple myeloma (MM) is caused by enhanced osteoclast (OCL) activation and inhibition of osteoblast function. Lenalidomide and bortezomib have shown promising response rates in relapsed and newly diagnosed MM, and bortezomib has recently been reported to inhibit OCLs. We here investigated the effect of lenalidomide on OCL formation and osteoclastogenesis in comparison with bortezomib. Both drugs decreased alpha V beta 3-integrin, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive cells and bone resorption on dentin disks. In addition, both agents decreased receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) secretion of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) derived from MM patients. We identified PU.1 and pERK as major targets of lenalidomide, and nuclear factor of activated T cells of bortezomib, resulting in inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. Furthermore, downregulation of cathepsin K, essential for resorption of the bone collagen matrix, was observed. We demonstrated a significant decrease of growth and survival factors including macrophage inflammatory protein-alpha, B-cell activating factor and a proliferation-inducing ligand. Importantly, in serum from MM patients treated with lenalidomide, the essential bone-remodeling factor RANKL, as well as the RANKL/OPG ratio, were significantly reduced, whereas osteoprotegerin (OPG) was increased. We conclude that both agents specifically target key factors in osteoclastogenesis, and could directly affect the MM-OCL-BMSCs activation loop in osteolytic bone disease. PMID:18596740

  5. Prediagnosis biomarkers of insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin, and interleukin-6 dysregulation and multiple myeloma risk in the Multiple Myeloma Cohort Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Neuhouser, Marian L.; Rosner, Bernard; Albanes, Demetrius; Buring, Julie E.; Giles, Graham G.; Lan, Qing; Lee, I-Min; Purdue, Mark P.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Severi, Gianluca; Yuan, Jian-Min; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Pollak, Michael; Rifai, Nader; Hartge, Patricia; Landgren, Ola; Lessin, Lawrence; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wallace, Robert B.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Colditz, Graham A.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin, and IL-6 are dysregulated in multiple myeloma pathogenesis and may also contribute to multiple myeloma etiology. To examine their etiologic role, we prospectively analyzed concentrations of serologic markers in 493 multiple myeloma cases and 978 controls from 8 cohorts in the Multiple Myeloma Cohort Consortium. We computed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for multiple myeloma per 1-SD increase in biomarker concentration using conditional logistic regression. We examined heterogeneity by time since blood collection (≤ 3, 4- ≤ 6, and > 6 years) in stratified models. Fasting IGF binding protein-1 concentration was associated with multiple myeloma risk within 3 years (OR, 95% CI per 1-SD increase: 2.3, 1.4-3.8, P = .001) and soluble IL-6 receptor level was associated within 6 years after blood draw (OR ≤ 3 years, 95% CI, 1.4, 1.1-1.9, P = .01; OR4- ≤ 6 years, 95% CI, 1.4, 1.1-1.7, P = .002). No biomarker was associated with longer-term multiple myeloma risk (ie, > 6 years). Interactions with time were statistically significant (IGF binding protein-1, P-heterogeneity = .0016; sIL6R, P-heterogeneity = .016). The time-restricted associations probably reflect the bioactivity of tumor and microenvironment cells in transformation from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance or smoldering multiple myeloma to clinically manifest multiple myeloma. PMID:23074271

  6. Structural factors governing steel resistance during operation in corrosive media under cavitation conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Berezovskaya, V.V.

    1988-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of structural factors on the corrosion resistance of steel under cavitation, a study was made of the effect of cavitation on chromium (95Kh18) and chromium-nickel (12Kh18N9T) corrosion-resistant steels and also on maraging steel 03Kh10N5K5M3KTYuS, specially developed for the loading conditions being studied, together with the austenitic steel 03Kh23N28M3D3T. A study of the effect of martensite content on corrosion and cavitation-corrosion resistance was carried out on steels 12Kh18N9T and 95Kh18 after different treatments. Corrosion tests were conducted in solutions of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ and scanning electron microscopy was used to assess phase and corrosion behavior. Maraging steels treated for maximum hardness and overaging exhibited high cavitation-corrosion resistance in acid solutions owing to high strength and resistance to microcrack initiation and propagation. It was recommended that under cavitation conditions in corrosive media, high alloy austenitic corrosion-resistant steels are substituted by maraging steels.

  7. Pioneer factors govern super-enhancer dynamics in stem cell plasticity and lineage choice

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Rene C.; Yang, Hanseul; Rockowitz, Shira; Larsen, Samantha B.; Nikolova, Maria; Oristian, Daniel S.; Polak, Lisa; Kadaja, Meelis; Asare, Amma; Zheng, Deyou; Fuchs, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Adult stem cells (SCs) reside in niches which balance self-renewal with lineage selection and progression during tissue homeostasis. Following injury, culture or transplantation, SCs outside their niche often display fate flexibility1-4. Here we show that super-enhancers5 underlie the identity, lineage commitment and plasticity of adult SCs in vivo. Using hair follicle (HF) as model, we map the global chromatin domains of HFSCs and their committed progenitors in their native microenvironments. We show that super-enhancers and their dense clusters (‘epicenters’) of transcription factor (TF) binding sites change upon lineage progression. New fate is acquired by decommissioning old and establishing new super-enhancers and/or epicenters, an auto-regulatory process that abates one master regulator subset while enhancing another. We further show that when outside their niche, either in vitro or in wound-repair, HFSCs dynamically remodel super-enhancers in response to changes in their microenvironment. Intriguingly, some key super-enhancers shift epicenters, enabling them to remain active and maintain a transitional state in an ever-changing transcriptional landscape. Finally, we identify SOX9 as a crucial chromatin rheostat of HFSC super-enhancers, and provide functional evidence that super-enhancers are dynamic, dense TF-binding platforms which are acutely sensitive to pioneer master regulators whose levels define not only spatial and temporal features of lineage-status, but also stemness, plasticity in transitional states and differentiation. PMID:25799994

  8. Evaluation of the factors governing metal biosorption and metal toxicity in acidic soil isolates

    SciTech Connect

    Pradhan, A.A.

    1992-06-09

    This research project was designed to determine the feasibility of microbial biosorption processes for removing metal ions from aqueous systems. A culture of acidic soil actinomycetes, grown in an aerobic environment in a completely mixed, semibatch culture reactor, was used for the study. The experiments were based on removal of copper and lead from test solutions. The anionic systems tested were nitrate, sulfate, and chloride. To determine the factors influencing biosorption and to characterize metal uptake by cellular and extracellular components of the microbial system, a dialysis testing procedure was developed. The effectiveness of biosorption was influenced by pH, initial concentration of metals, type of anionic system, and organic content of the system. respirometric runs were carried out to identify potential inhibitory effects of metal accumulation on microbial activities. In general, metal accumulation resulted in a decrease in the microbial oxygen uptake rate. Also, a lag phase was observed before the onset of the respiratory activity particularly at concentrations of copper and lead greater than 100 ppM.

  9. Science Teaching Efficacy of Preservice Elementary Teachers: Examination of the Multiple Factors Reported as Influential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taştan Kırık, Özgecan

    2013-12-01

    This study explores the science teaching efficacy beliefs of pr-service elementary teachers and the relationship between efficacy beliefs and multiple factors such as antecedent factors (participation in extracurricular activities and number of science and science teaching methods courses taken), conceptual understanding, classroom management beliefs and science teaching attitudes. Science education majors ( n = 71) and elementary education majors ( n = 262) were compared with respect to these variables. Finally, the predictors of two constructs of science teaching efficacy beliefs, personal science teaching efficacy (PSTE) and science teaching outcome expectancy (STOE), were examined by multiple linear regression analysis. According to the results, participation in extracurricular activities has a significant but low correlation with science concept knowledge, science teaching attitudes, PSTE and STOE. In addition, there is a small but significant correlation between science concept knowledge and outcome expectancy, which leads the idea that preservice elementary teachers' conceptual understanding in science contributes to their science teaching self-efficacy. This study reveals a moderate correlation between science teaching attitudes and STOE and a high correlation between science teaching attitudes and PSTE. Additionally, although the correlation coefficient is low, the number of methodology courses was found to be one of the correlates of science teaching attitudes. Furthermore, students of both majors generally had positive self-efficacy beliefs on both the STOE and PSTE. Specifically, science education majors had higher science teaching self-efficacy than elementary education majors. Regression results showed that science teaching attitude is the major factor in predicting both PSTE and STOE for both groups.

  10. E-government factors to reduce administrative and finance corruption in Arab countries: Case study Iraqi oil sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, M. A.; Eman, Y.; Hussein, A. H.; Hasson, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Arab countries face the corruption issues in its several public organizations. The corruption in these countries is considered as the main challenge. The oil sector is one of the public sectors that have huge level of corruption. However, the Iraqi economy had become dependable on oil sector daring the last three decades, and on the contrary, of what other oil countries did. The capital is considered as one of the essential factor for economic development. The revenues of oil exports will stay the essential source for economic development in Iraq in the future in order to reduce being dependable on oil. Since the beginning of the 3rd thousands, the world witnessed great rise in the demand on oil, but the Iraqi exports of crude oil come to be less than its similarities in the seventeenths of last century. So our oil sector is still in need of deep study. This study focuses on technological technique that can make huge decrease for corruption in oil sector in Iraq. However, e-government is considered as the best techniques that can decrease the corruption. Thus, this study bases on challenges that effect on build successful e-government project in Iraqi oil industry.

  11. Factors governing selection of operating frequency for subsurface- imaging synthetic-aperture radar

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, B.C.; Patitz, W.E.

    1993-12-31

    A subsurface-imaging synthetic-aperture radar (SISAR) has potential for application in areas as diverse as non-proliferation programs for nuclear weapons to environmental monitoring. However, subsurface imaging is complicated by propagation loss in the soil and surface-clutter response. Both the loss and surface-clutter response depend on the operating frequency. This paper examines several factors which provide a basis for determining optimum frequencies and frequency ranges which will allow synthetic-aperture imaging of buried targets. No distinction can be made between objects at different heights when viewed with a conventional imaging radar (which uses a one-dimensional synthetic aperture), and the return from a buried object must compete with the return from the surface clutter. Thus, the signal-to-clutter ratio is an appropriate measure of performance for a SISAR. A parameter-based modeling approach is used to model the complex dielectric constant of the soil from measured data obtained from the literature. Theoretical random-surface scattering models, based on statistical solutions to Maxwell`s equations, are used to model the clutter. These models are combined to estimate the signal-to-clutter ratio for canonical targets buried in several soil configurations. Results indicate that the HF spectrum (3--30), although it could be used to detect certain targets under some conditions, has limited practical value for use with SISAR, while the upper VIHF through UHF spectrum ({approximately}100 MHz - 1 GHz) shows the most promise for a general purpose SISAR system. Recommendations are included for additional research.

  12. Goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) as a model system to study the growth factors, receptors and transcription factors that govern myelopoiesis in fish.

    PubMed

    Katzenback, Barbara A; Katakura, Fumihiko; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2016-05-01

    The process of myeloid cell development (myelopoiesis) in fish has mainly been studied in three cyprinid species: zebrafish (Danio rerio), ginbuna carp (Carassius auratus langsdorfii) and goldfish (C. auratus, L.). Our studies on goldfish myelopoiesis have utilized in vitro generated primary kidney macrophage (PKM) cultures and isolated primary kidney neutrophils (PKNs) cultured overnight to study the process of macrophage (monopoiesis) and neutrophil (granulopoiesis) development and the key growth factors, receptors, and transcription factors that govern this process in vitro. The PKM culture system is unique in that all three subpopulations of macrophage development, namely progenitor cells, monocytes, and mature macrophages, are simultaneously present in culture unlike mammalian systems, allowing for the elucidation of the complex mixture of cytokines that regulate progressive and selective macrophage development from progenitor cells to fully functional mature macrophages in vitro. Furthermore, we have been able to extend our investigations to include the development of erythrocytes (erythropoiesis) and thrombocytes (thrombopoiesis) through studies focusing on the progenitor cell population isolated from the goldfish kidney. Herein, we review the in vitro goldfish model systems focusing on the characteristics of cell sub-populations, growth factors and their receptors, and transcription factors that regulate goldfish myelopoiesis. PMID:26546240

  13. Multiple roles of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in fracture healing.

    PubMed

    Karnes, Jonathan M; Daffner, Scott D; Watkins, Colleen M

    2015-09-01

    This review presents a summary of basic science evidence examining the influence of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) on secondary fracture healing. Multiple studies suggest that TNF-α, in combination with the host reservoir of peri-fracture mesenchymal stem cells, is a main determinant in the success of bone healing. Disease states associated with poor bone healing commonly have inappropriate TNF-α responses, which likely contributes to the higher incidence of delayed and nonunions in these patient populations. Appreciation of TNF-α in fracture healing may lead to new therapies to augment recovery and reduce the incidence of complications. PMID:25959413

  14. Epidemiology of Multiple Sclerosis: From Risk Factors to Prevention-An Update.

    PubMed

    Ascherio, Alberto; Munger, Kassandra L

    2016-04-01

    Although genetic susceptibility explains the clustering of multiple sclerosis (MS) within families and the sharp decline in risk with increasing genetic distance, it cannot fully explain the geographical variations in MS frequency and the changes in risk that occur with migration, which support the action of strong environmental factors. Among these, vitamin D status, obesity in early life, infection with the Epstein-Barr virus, and cigarette smoking are the most consistent environmental predictors of MS risk. The authors review the epidemiological data, critically discuss the evidence for causality of these and other associations, and briefly review the possibility of interventions to reduce MS risk. PMID:27116717

  15. Hydroecological factors governing surface water flow on a low-gradient floodplain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, J.W.; Schaffranek, R.W.; Noe, G.B.; Larsen, L.G.; Nowacki, D.J.; O'Connor, B.L.

    2009-01-01

    Interrelationships between hydrology and aquatic ecosystems are better understood in streams and rivers compared to their surrounding floodplains. Our goal was to characterize the hydrology of the Everglades ridge and slough floodplain ecosystem, which is valued for the comparatively high biodiversity and connectivity of its parallel-drainage features but which has been degraded over the past century in response to flow reductions associated with flood control. We measured flow velocity, water depth, and wind velocity continuously for 3 years in an area of the Everglades with well-preserved parallel-drainage features (i.e., 200-m wide sloughs interspersed with slightly higher elevation and more densely vegetated ridges). Mean daily flow velocity averaged 0.32 cm s-1 and ranged between 0.02 and 0.79 cm s-1. Highest sustained velocities were associated with flow pulses caused by water releases from upstream hydraulic control structures that increased flow velocity by a factor of 2-3 on the floodplain for weeks at a time. The highest instantaneous measurements of flow velocity were associated with the passage of Hurricane Wilma in 2005 when the inverse barometric pressure effect increased flow velocity up to 5 cm s-1 for several hours. Time-averaged flow velocities were 29% greater in sloughs compared to ridges because of marginally higher vegetative drag in ridges compared to sloughs, which contributed modestly (relative to greater water depth and flow duration in sloughs compared to ridges) to the predominant fraction (86%) of total discharge through the landscape occurring in sloughs. Univariate scaling relationships developed from theory of flow through vegetation, and our field data indicated that flow velocity increases with the square of water surface slope and the fourth power of stem diameter, decreases in direct proportion with increasing frontal area of vegetation, and is unrelated to water depth except for the influence that water depth has in controlling

  16. Hydroecological factors governing surface water flow on a low-gradient floodplain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Schaffranek, Raymond W.; Noe, Gregory B.; Larsen, Laurel G.; Nowacki, Daniel J.; O'Connor, Ben L.

    2009-03-01

    Interrelationships between hydrology and aquatic ecosystems are better understood in streams and rivers compared to their surrounding floodplains. Our goal was to characterize the hydrology of the Everglades ridge and slough floodplain ecosystem, which is valued for the comparatively high biodiversity and connectivity of its parallel-drainage features but which has been degraded over the past century in response to flow reductions associated with flood control. We measured flow velocity, water depth, and wind velocity continuously for 3 years in an area of the Everglades with well-preserved parallel-drainage features (i.e., 200-m wide sloughs interspersed with slightly higher elevation and more densely vegetated ridges). Mean daily flow velocity averaged 0.32 cm s-1 and ranged between 0.02 and 0.79 cm s-1. Highest sustained velocities were associated with flow pulses caused by water releases from upstream hydraulic control structures that increased flow velocity by a factor of 2-3 on the floodplain for weeks at a time. The highest instantaneous measurements of flow velocity were associated with the passage of Hurricane Wilma in 2005 when the inverse barometric pressure effect increased flow velocity up to 5 cm s-1 for several hours. Time-averaged flow velocities were 29% greater in sloughs compared to ridges because of marginally higher vegetative drag in ridges compared to sloughs, which contributed modestly (relative to greater water depth and flow duration in sloughs compared to ridges) to the predominant fraction (86%) of total discharge through the landscape occurring in sloughs. Univariate scaling relationships developed from theory of flow through vegetation, and our field data indicated that flow velocity increases with the square of water surface slope and the fourth power of stem diameter, decreases in direct proportion with increasing frontal area of vegetation, and is unrelated to water depth except for the influence that water depth has in controlling

  17. Spatiotemporal patterns of evapotranspiration in response to multiple environmental factors simulated by the Community Land Model

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Xiaoying; Mao, Jiafu; Thornton, Peter E; Huang, Maoyi; Hoffman, Forrest

    2013-01-01

    In this study, spatial and temporal patterns of evapotranspiration (ET) over the period of 1982-2008 are investigated and attributed to multiple environmental factors using the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4). Our results show that CLM4 captures the spatial distribution and interannual variability of ET well when compared to observation-based estimates derived from the FLUXNET network of eddy covariance towers using the model tree ensembles (MTE) approach. We find that climate trends and variability dominate predicted variability in ET. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration also plays an important role in modulating the trend of predicted ET over most land areas, and functions as the dominant factor controlling ET changes over North America, South America and Asia regions. Compared to the effect of climate change and CO2 concentration, the roles of other factors such as nitrogen deposition, land use change and aerosol deposition are less pronounced and regionally dependent. For example, the aerosol deposition contribution is the third-most important factor for trends of ET over Europe, while it has the smallest impact on ET trend over other regions. As ET is a dominant component of the terrestrial water cycle, our results suggest that environmental factors like elevated CO2, nitrogen and aerosol depositions, and land use and land cover change, in addition to climate, could have significant impact on future projections of water resources and water cycle dynamics at global and regional scales.

  18. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Evapotranspiration in Response to Multiple Environmental Factors Simulated by the Community Land Model

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Xiaoying; Mao, Jiafu; Thornton, P.; Huang, Maoyi

    2013-04-25

    Spatiotemporal patterns of evapotranspiration (ET) over the period from 1982 to 2008 are investigated and attributed to multiple environmental factors using the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4). Our results show that CLM4 captures the spatial distribution and interannual variability of ET well when compared to observation-based estimates. We find that climate dominates the predicted variability in ET. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration also plays an important role in modulating the trend of predicted ET over most land areas, and replaces climate to function as the dominant factor controlling ET changes over the North America, South America and Asia regions. Compared to the effect of climate and CO2 concentration, the roles of other factors such as nitrogen deposition, land use change and aerosol deposition are less pronounced and regionally dependent. The aerosol deposition contribution is the third most important factor for trends of ET over Europe, while it has the smallest impact over other regions. As ET is a dominant component of the terrestrial water cycle, our results suggest that environmental factors like elevated CO2, nitrogen and aerosol depositions, and land use change, in addition to climate, could have significant impact on future projections of water resources and water cycle dynamics at global and regional scales.

  19. Identification of subunits of gonococcal RNA polymerase by immunoblot analysis: evidence for multiple sigma factors.

    PubMed Central

    Klimpel, K W; Lesley, S A; Clark, V L

    1989-01-01

    Heparin-agarose and single-stranded DNA-cellulose chromatography were used to purify RNA polymerase 25-fold from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and the activity of the polymerase was characterized in altered assay systems. The core subunits (beta, beta', and alpha) were tentatively identified as major proteins copurifying with polymerase activity. The identification of the core subunits was confirmed by Western (immunoblot) analysis with polyclonal antisera to Escherichia coli core RNA polymerase. Gonococcal sigma factor heterogeneity was examined by Western blot analysis with polyclonal antiserum to the major E. coli sigma factor, sigma 70, to the E. coli heat shock sigma factor, sigma 32, and with a monoclonal antiserum to Salmonella typhimurium NtrA (sigma 54). Purified RNA polymerase and whole-cell extracts from type 1, type 4, heat-shocked, and anaerobically grown gonococci were examined. Four putative gonococcal sigma factors were detected in purified RNA polymerase preparations and in whole-cell extracts from all cell types. Two of these bands appeared as a doublet, which had an estimated Mr of 80,000. A single lower-Mr band, estimated to be 40,000, was also present. All three of these bands reacted with antisera to E. coli sigma 70 and to E. coli sigma 32. A fourth gonococcal protein reacted solely with a highly specific monoclonal antibody to sigma 54 and had an Mr of 90,000. We conclude that N. gonorrhoeae may contain multiple sigma factors, which it may use to regulate gene expression. Images PMID:2472377

  20. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE CHOICE OF HEALTH CARE PROVIDING FACILITY AMONG WORKERS IN A LOCAL GOVERNMENT SECRETARIAT IN SOUTH WESTERN NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Uchendu, O.C.; Ilesanmi, O.S.; Olumide, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is increasing interest in the choice of health care providing facility in Nigeria. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the factors influencing choice and satisfaction with health service providers among local government staff. Methods: A cross sectional survey of all 312 workers in a Local Government Secretariat in South West Nigeria was done. Chi Square and logistic regression analysis was done. Results: The mean age was 38.6 ± 7.5 years, 55% were females and 71.7% had tertiary education. The median monthly family income of the respondents was N 28, 000 (N3,000 – N500,000), with 24.4% earning a monthly income of N21, 000 to N30, 000. Many (72.3%) utilized public health facilities attributing the choice to the low cost of services. Respondents who are satisfied with their usual care providing facilities are 12.2 times more likely to have used public facilities than private facilities (95%, CI 3.431 – 43.114). Respondents who described the quality with ease of getting care/short waiting times as being good are 3.9 times more likely to have private facilities as their chosen health care providing facility (95%, CI 1.755 – 8.742). Cost/payment for service is 2.9 times more likely to predict the use of public health facility as the usual health care provider. Conclusion: Private facilities though costlier do not appear to be providing better services than public facilities. To increase access to health care the cost of services and the waiting time are important factors to address. PMID:25161426

  1. Risk factors for neutropenia with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone therapy for multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Mitani, Y; Usami, E; Kimura, M; Nakao, T; Okada, K; Matsuoka, T; Kokuryou, T; Yoshimura, T; Yamakawa, M

    2016-06-01

    Neutropenia may develop as an adverse event in patients with multiple myeloma receiving lenalidomide (LEN) plus dexamethasone (DEX) therapy. In the present study, we examined the risk factors associated with grade 3/4 neutropenia during the first cycle of LEN plus DEX therapy. We observed that hemoglobin level (≤ 8.5 g/dl) was a significant risk factor for grade 3/4 neutropenia during the first cycle of therapy (odds ratio: 19.40; 95% confidence interval: 2.68-141.00; p < 0.01). thus, our findings suggest that determining the hemoglobin level could be useful in the risk management for neutropenia in patients receiving LEN plus DEX therapy. PMID:27455556

  2. Reversal of Ischemic Cardiomyopathy with Sca-1+ Stem Cells Modified with Multiple Growth Factors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Pasha, Zeeshan; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that bone marrow derived Sca-1+ stem cells (BM Sca-1+) transduced with multiple therapeutic cytokines with diverse effects will induce faster angiomyogenic differentiation in the infarcted myocardium. Methods and Results BM Sca-1+ were purified from transgenic male mice expressing GFP. Plasmids encoding for select quartet of growth factors, i.e., human IGF-1, VEGF, SDF-1α and HGF were prepared and used for genetic modification of Sca-1+ cells (GFSca-1+). Scramble transfected cells (ScSca-1+) were used as a control. RT-PCR and western blotting showed significantly higher expression of the growth factors in GFSca-1+. Besides the quartet of the therapeutic growth factors, PCR based growth factor array showed upregulation of multiple angiogenic and prosurvival factors such as Ang-1, Ang-2, MMP9, Cx43, BMP2, BMP5, FGF2, and NGF in GFSca-1+ (p<0.01 vs ScSca-1+). LDH and TUNEL assays showed enhanced survival of GFSca-1+ under lethal anoxia (p<0.01 vs ScSca-1+). MTS assay showed significant increased cell proliferation in GFSca-1+ (p<0.05 vs ScSca-1+). For in vivo study, female mice were grouped to receive the intramyocardial injection of 15 μl DMEM without cells (group-1) or containing 2.5×105 ScSca-1+ (group-2) or GFSca-1+ (group-3) immediately after coronary artery ligation. As indicated by Sry gene, a higher survival of GFSca-1+ in group-3 on day4 (2.3 fold higher vs group-2) was observed with massive mobilization of stem and progenitor cells (cKit+, Mdr1+, Cxcr4+ cells). Heart tissue sections immunostained for actinin and Cx43 at 4 weeks post engraftment showed extensive myofiber formation and expression of gap junctions. Immunostaining for vWF showed increased blood vessel density in both peri-infarct and infarct regions in group-3. Infarct size was attenuated and the global heart function was improved in group-3 as compared to group-2. Conclusions Administration of BM Sca-1+ transduced with multiple genes is a novel approach to treat

  3. Multiple Landscape Factors Affect the Resilience of a Mixed Land Cover Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, H. E.; Lane, C.; Prues, A. G.; D'Amico, E.

    2015-12-01

    Human activities can stimulate the physical and chemical properties of streams to move beyond their background conditions, thereby facilitating the transition of these factors to stressors that affect watershed resilience. This is particularly true in mixed land cover watersheds. We quantify and explore the statistical nonlinear relationships between watershed and buffer-scale factors and nutrient (nitrite-nitrate (NO2-NO3), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total phosphorus (TP)) concentrations, in addition to a multi-metric Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI), in a mesoscale mixed land cover watershed. Our goal is to contribute to a better understanding of the potentially numerous landscape and near-stream hydrological and biogeochemical factors that affect watershed resiliency - as inferred from in-stream nutrient levels and biological condition. We used a boosted regression tree approach, which quantifies nonlinear relationships and variable interactions, to develop watershed and 200 m buffer scale models for each chemical constituent and the annual IBI score. We developed nutrient models for the spring and summer seasons. Two primary factors - location within the watershed and percentage of urban land cover in the watershed or buffer - emerged as important explanatory variables in most nutrient and IBI models. Geographic location (i.e., latitude and longitude) interacted with other factors to explain the variability in summer NO2-NO3 concentrations and IBI scores and suggested that location might be associated with indicators of sources (e.g., land cover) and runoff potential (e.g., soil and topographic factors). Runoff indicators (e.g., Hydrologic Soil Group D and Topographic Wetness Indices) explained a substantial portion of the variability in nutrient concentrations as did point sources for TP in the summer months. Our overall approach confirms that it is important to consider multiple and often interacting factors when managing for watershed resilience.

  4. Infections in Hospitalised Patients with Multiple Myeloma: Main Characteristics and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Valković, Toni; Gačić, Vedrana; Ivandić, Jelena; Petrov, Božo; Dobrila-Dintinjana, Renata; Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta; Načinović-Duletić, Antica

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Multiple myeloma is a common haematological malignancy and immune dysfunction is the hallmark of the disease. It leads to an increased infection risk, which is still a major cause of mortality. The infection spectrum and characteristics have evolved with the introduction of novel agents. An understanding of risk factors that increase susceptibility to infections is critical in fighting them. This retrospective investigation aimed to establish the incidence and main characteristics of infections in non-transplanted hospitalised myeloma patients in our department over a 3-year period, as well as factors associated with infections. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 hospitalised patients with multiple myeloma (120 males and 120 females; average age: 69 years, range: 41-89 years) who were diagnosed or treated in our department from January 2008 to December 2010 were included in this study and their data were retrospectively analysed. Results: Infections were identified in 17.9% of hospitalised patients. The most common pathogen found was Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The frequency of gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens was similar. In 37.2% of cases, the agent was not isolated. The most common sites of infections were the urinary system and the blood (septicemia). The frequency of infection increased with duration of disease and the rate of reinfection was 41.9%. The patients treated with bortezomib had the highest infection occurrence. Fatal outcome occurred in 9.3% of cases. Conclusion: The factors associated with infections in this investigation were female sex, 3B clinical stage of disease, increased serum creatinine and ferritin levels, neutropenia, poor general condition, and presence of catheters. Myeloma patients with one or more of these mentioned risk factors should be monitored with particular care in order to decrease the incidence and severity of infective complications. PMID:26376590

  5. Positive regulatory domain I binding factor 1 silences class II transactivator expression in multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, N; Gyory, I; Wright, G; Wood, J; Wright, K L

    2001-05-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II transactivator (CIITA) acts as a master switch to activate expression of the genes required for MHC-II antigen presentation. During B-cell to plasma cell differentiation, MHC-II expression is actively silenced, but the mechanism has been unknown. In plasma cell tumors such as multiple myeloma the repression of MHC-II is associated with the loss of CIITA. We have identified that positive regulatory domain I binding factor 1 (PRDI-BF1), a transcriptional repressor, inhibits CIITA expression in multiple myeloma cell lines. Repression of CIITA depends on the DNA binding activity of PRDI-BF1 and its specific binding site in the CIITA promoter. Deletion of a histone deacetylase recruitment domain in PRDI-BF1 does not inhibit repression of CIITA nor does blocking histone deacetylase activity. This is in contrast to PRDI-BF1 repression of the c-myc promoter. Repression of CIITA requires either the N-terminal acidic and conserved PR motif or the proline-rich domain. PRDI-BF1 has been shown to be a key regulator of B-cell and macrophage differentiation. These findings now indicate that PRDI-BF1 has at least two mechanisms of repression whose function is dependent on the nature of the target promoter. Importantly, PRDI-BF1 is defined as the key molecule in silencing CIITA and thus MHC-II in multiple myeloma cells. PMID:11279146

  6. NAC transcription factors in plant multiple abiotic stress responses: progress and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Hongyan; Tang, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses adversely affect plant growth and agricultural productivity. According to the current climate prediction models, crop plants will face a greater number of environmental stresses, which are likely to occur simultaneously in the future. So it is very urgent to breed broad-spectrum tolerant crops in order to meet an increasing demand for food productivity due to global population increase. As one of the largest families of transcription factors (TFs) in plants, NAC TFs play vital roles in regulating plant growth and development processes including abiotic stress responses. Lots of studies indicated that many stress-responsive NAC TFs had been used to improve stress tolerance in crop plants by genetic engineering. In this review, the recent progress in NAC TFs was summarized, and the potential utilization of NAC TFs in breeding abiotic stress tolerant transgenic crops was also be discussed. In view of the complexity of field conditions and the specificity in multiple stress responses, we suggest that the NAC TFs commonly induced by multiple stresses should be promising candidates to produce plants with enhanced multiple stress tolerance. Furthermore, the field evaluation of transgenic crops harboring NAC genes, as well as the suitable promoters for minimizing the negative effects caused by over-expressing some NAC genes, should be considered. PMID:26579152

  7. Hydrogeological factors affecting the multiple plumes of chlorinated contaminants in an industrial complex, Wonju, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Kaown, D.; Lee, H.; Lee, K.

    2010-12-01

    Apparent plume attenuations of multiple chlorinated contaminants such as TCE, carbon tetrachloride, and its daughter products at an industrial complex, Wonju, Korea were examined through various hydraulic tests and six rounds of groundwater quality analyses. Aquifer media properties and hydrogeologic factors affecting the distribution and attenuation of multiple contaminants were investigated and key attributes were evaluated. The study area has vertically heterogeneous properties from top alluvial layer to crystalline rocks while the weathered fractured layer above intact Jurassic biotite granite acts as the main layer for groundwater flow and aqueous phase multiple contaminants migration. Aerial heterogeneity in surface conditions plays an important role for groundwater recharge because the industrial complex is mostly paved by asphalt and concrete. Due to limited recharge area and concentrated precipitation in summer season, seasonal effects of contaminant plume distribution diminish as the distance increase from the area of recharge. This study analyzed how differently the solute and contaminant concentrations response to the seasonal recharge. For the analyses, the study site was divided into three zones and four transects were established. Groundwater and solute mass balances were estimated by computing groundwater and solute mass flux through transects. The effects of groundwater pumping, groundwater flow and contaminant degradation were examined to simulate the solutes and contaminant concentrations. General tendency of the water quality and contaminant concentration were reproducible with the effects of major components such as groundwater recharge, pumping and estimated degradation rate.

  8. Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of multiple risk factor interventions for preventing coronary heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahim, S.; Smith, G. D.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of multiple risk factor intervention in reducing cardiovascular risk factors, total mortality, and mortality from coronary heart disease among adults. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials in workforces and in primary care in which subjects were randomly allocated to more than one of six interventions (stopping smoking, exercise, dietary advice, weight control, antihypertensive drugs, and cholesterol lowering drugs) and followed up for at least six months. SUBJECTS: Adults aged 17-73 years, 903000 person years of observation were included in nine trials with clinical event outcomes and 303000 person years in five trials with risk factor outcomes alone. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, smoking rates, blood cholesterol concentrations, total mortality, and mortality from coronary heart disease. RESULTS: Net decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, smoking prevalence, and blood cholesterol were 4.2 mm Hg (SE 0.19 mm Hg), 2.7 mm Hg (0.09 mm Hg), 4.2% (0.3%), and 0.14 mmol/l (0.01 mmol/l) respectively. In the nine trials with clinical event end points the pooled odds ratios for total and coronary heart disease mortality were 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.92 to 1.02) and 0.96 (0.88 to 1.04) respectively. Statistical heterogeneity between the studies with respect to changes in mortality and risk factors was due to trials focusing on hypertensive participants and those using considerable amounts of drug treatment, with only these trials showing significant reductions in mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The pooled effects of multiple risk factor intervention on mortality were insignificant and a small, but potentially important, benefit of treatment (about a 10% reduction in mortality) may have been missed. Changes in risk factors were modest, were related to the amount of pharmacological treatment used, and in some cases may have been overestimated

  9. Transarterial chemoembolization in the treatment of patients with unresectable cholangiocarcinoma: Results and prognostic factors governing treatment success.

    PubMed

    Vogl, Thomas J; Naguib, Nagy N N; Nour-Eldin, Nour-Eldin A; Bechstein, Wolf O; Zeuzem, Stefan; Trojan, Jörg; Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with four chemotherapeutic protocols in terms of local tumor control and survival of patients with unresectable cholangiocarcinoma (CCC) and to identify the prognostic factors governing treatment success. In the single-centre study, 115 patients (mean ages = 60.4 years) with unresectable CCC were repeatedly treated with TACE. In total, 819 chemoembolization sessions were performed in 4 week intervals with a mean of 7.1 (range, 3-30) sessions per patient. The chemotherapeutic used was Mitomycin C only in 20.9% of patients, Gemcitabine only in 7%, Mitomycin C with Gemcitabine in 47% and combination of Gemcitabine, Mitomycin C and Cisplatin in 25.1%. Local tumor response was evaluated by MRI according to RECIST. Survival data were calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Prognostic factors for patient's survival were evaluated using log-rank-test. The local tumor controls were: partial response 8.7%, stable disease 57.4% and progressive disease 33.9% of patients. The median and mean survival times from the start of TACE were 13 and 20.8 months. Survival rate from the start of TACE was 52% after 1-year, 29% after 2-years and 10% after 3-years. Initial tumor response, high tumor vascularity and Child-Pugh class A were statistically significant factors for patient's survival. No statistically significant difference between patients treated with different chemotherapy protocols was noted. In conclusion, TACE is a palliative and safe treatment option for patients with unresectable CCC. Child Pugh class B, tumor hypovascularity and initially progressive disease were poor prognostic factors for patient survival. PMID:21976289

  10. SOA governance in healthcare organisations.

    PubMed

    Koumaditis, Konstantinos; Themistocleous, Marinos; Vassilakopoulos, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is increasingly adopted by many sectors, including healthcare. Due to the nature of healthcare systems there is a need to increase SOA adoption success rates as the non integrated nature of healthcare systems is responsible for medical errors that cause the loss of tens of thousands patients per year. Following our previous research [1] we propose that SOA governance is a critical success factor for SOA success in healthcare. Literature reports multiple SOA governance models that have limitations and they are confusing. In addition to this, there is a lack of healthcare specific SOA governance models. This highlights a literature void and thus the purpose of this paper is to proposed a healthcare specific SOA governance framework. PMID:23823423

  11. Associated Risk Factors of STIs and Multiple Sexual Relationships among Youths in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    N, Wilson Chialepeh; A, Sathiyasusuman

    2015-01-01

    Background Having unprotected sex with multiple sexual partners (MSP) is the greatest risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among youths. Young people with MSPs are less likely to use a condom and the greater the risk for STIs. This study examines the associated risk factors of STIs and multiple sexual partnerships among youths aged 15–24 years. Data and Methods The Malawi Demographic Health Survey 2010 data was used. Out of a sample of 2,987 males and 9,559 females aged 15–24 years, 2,026 males and 6,470 females were considered in the study. Chi square test and logistic regression techniques were performed. Analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22. Findings The results indicate that 1,399 (69.0%) males and 2,290 (35.4%) females reported multiple sexual partnerships (MSP). Within the rural area, females (n = 1779) were more likely to report MSP than males (n = 1082) and within the urban areas, a higher proportion of females (n = 511) still reported MSP, with males (n = 316). About 78% rural females aged 20–24 years, and about 79% rural males aged 15–19 years reported MSP. The likelihood of MSP was higher among females in the poorest households (OR = 1.31), being married (OR = 5.71) and Catholic males (OR = 1.63), who were married (OR = 1.59). Catholic males (OR = 1.82) in the rural areas, who were married (OR = 1.80) and rural females in the northern region (OR = 1.26) were more likely to have MSP. The odds ratios were higher among urban females in the poorest (OR = 3.45) households who were married (OR = 4.22). Conclusions Having more than one sexual partner increases the risk of STIs and sexuality education programs should be introduced that emphasize the danger that surrounds MSP. PMID:26248328

  12. Population Heterogeneity in the Salience of Multiple Risk Factors for Adolescent Delinquency

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, Stephanie T.; Cooper, Brittany R.; Bray, Bethany C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To present mixture regression analysis as an alternative to more standard regression analysis for predicting adolescent delinquency. We demonstrate how mixture regression analysis allows for the identification of population subgroups defined by the salience of multiple risk factors. Methods We identified population subgroups (i.e., latent classes) of individuals based on their coefficients in a regression model predicting adolescent delinquency from eight previously established risk indices drawn from the community, school, family, peer, and individual levels. The study included N = 37,763 tenth-grade adolescents who participated in the Communities that Care Youth Survey. Standard, zero-inflated, and mixture Poisson and negative binomial regression models are considered. Results Standard and mixture negative binomial regression models are selected as optimal. The five-class regression model is interpreted based on the class-specific regression coefficients, indicating that risk factors have varying salience across classes of adolescents. Conclusions Standard regression shows that all risk factors are significantly associated with delinquency. Mixture regression provides more nuanced information, suggesting a unique set of risk factors that are salient for different subgroups of adolescents. Implications for the design of subgroup-specific interventions are discussed. PMID:24231260

  13. Multiple risk factors for work-related injuries and illnesses in korean-chinese migrant workers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Chae, Duckhee; Yi, Kwan Hyung; Im, Soye; Cho, Sung Hye

    2015-01-01

    Korean-Chinese currently represent the largest group of migrant workers in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of risk factors on the occurrence of work-related injuries and illnesses (WII). Data for 486 Korean-Chinese migrant workers were drawn from the 2010 Migrant Workers' Health and Safety Survey in Korea. Logistic regression was used to identify the association between WII and multiple risk factors. Individual health status (OR = 3.83, 95% CI [2.01, 7.30]), safety training (OR = 0.39, 95% CI [0.18, 0.85]), job satisfaction (OR = 1.90, 95% CI [1.07, 3.38]), physical and chemical hazard exposure (OR = 1.05, 95% CI [1.02, 1.08]), and length of stay (OR = 1.01, 95% CI [1.00, 1.01]) were identified as risk factors for WII. The findings suggest the need for a comprehensive approach to assess WII risk factors, including personal, work organization and psychosocial demands, and acculturation in Korean-Chinese migrant workers. PMID:25791407

  14. Multiple pregnancy: factors contributing to early infant's breast-feeding--own experience.

    PubMed

    Czeszyńska, M B; Kowalik, K

    1998-01-01

    The aims of the study were as follows: 1. to evaluate the effectiveness of current program to promote breast-feeding in our population of infants from multiple pregnancy; 2. to define factors responsible for failure in early breast-feeding establishing and/or maintaining breast-feed during the hospitalization of the babies in neonatal department. 122 newborn infants (2 sets of triplets and 58 twin pairs) born in the Clinic for Pathology of Pregnancy and Labor in Szczecin, Poland, in the years 1995 (January)-1999 (May) from multiple pregnancy were included in the study. In the examined material there were estimated neonatal conditions at birth, neonatal complications, which may disturb successful breast-feeding as well as other factors contributing to early breast-feeding, the way of feeding the babies during neonatal period and the mean time of starting breast-feeding. It was found that most of the examined babies were born with the features of prematurity: mean gestational age was 35.6 +/- 2.2 weeks and mean birthweight--2225.3 +/- 193.2 grams. Only 57.4% of babies were born in good conditions according to Apgar scores. Factors which influence in a negative way early breast-feeding were as follows: respiratory disturbance (22.1%), temporary oral nutrition intolerance due to sickness of the baby or early onset of infections (27.5%), operative delivery (62.3%), medicine taken by mothers (13.9%) and failure in maternal lactation (8.2%). Factors disturbing a normal course of breast-feeding were: phototherapy due to hyperbilirubinemia (20.5%) and late onset of infections (1.6%). In most cases breast-feeding was started 3-4 days after birth and the most frequent way of feeding was formula followed or in combination with maternal milk (at discharge in 86.9% of babies). We concluded that exclusive breast-feeding, despite program of promotion, is a rarity in population of newborn babies born from multiple pregnancy; time to start breast-feeding in this population is

  15. Spatially distributed influence of agro-environmental factors governing nitrate fate and transport in an irrigated stream-aquifer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, R. T.; Ahmadi, M.; Gates, T. K.; Arabi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Elevated levels of nitrate (NO3) in groundwater systems pose a serious risk to human populations and natural ecosystems. As part of an effort to remediate NO3 contamination in irrigated stream-aquifer systems, this study elucidates agricultural and environmental parameters and processes that govern NO3 fate and transport at the regional (500 km2), local (50 km2), and field scales (< 1 km2). Specifically, the revised Morris sensitivity analysis method was applied to a finite-difference nitrogen cycling and reactive transport model of a regional-scale study site in the lower Arkansas River valley in southeastern Colorado. The method was used to rank the influence of anthropogenic activities and natural chemical processes on NO3 groundwater concentration, NO3 mass leaching, and NO3 mass loading to the Arkansas River from the aquifer. Sensitivity indices were computed for the entire study area in aggregate as well as each canal command area, crop type, and individual grid cells. Results suggest that fertilizer loading, crop uptake, and heterotrophic denitrification govern NO3 fate and transport for the majority of the study area, although their order of influence on NO3 groundwater concentration and mass leaching varies according to crop type and command area. Canal NO3 concentration and rates of autotrophic denitrification, nitrification, and humus decomposition also dominate or partially dominate in other locations. Each factor, with the exception of O2 reduction rate, is the dominating influence on NO3 groundwater concentration at one or more locations within the study area. Results can be used to determine critical processes and key management actions for future data collection and remediation strategies, with efforts able to be focused on localized areas.

  16. Modelling University Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trakman, Leon

    2008-01-01

    Twentieth century governance models used in public universities are subject to increasing doubt across the English-speaking world. Governments question if public universities are being efficiently governed; if their boards of trustees are adequately fulfilling their trust obligations towards multiple stakeholders; and if collegial models of…

  17. Analytical expressions for the gate utilization factors of passive multiplicity counters including signal build-up

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, Stephen; Evans, Louise G; Schear, Melissa A

    2010-01-01

    In the realm of nuclear safeguards, passive neutron multiplicity counting using shift register pulse train analysis to nondestructively quantify Pu in product materials is a familiar and widely applied technique. The approach most commonly taken is to construct a neutron detector consisting of {sup 3}He filled cylindrical proportional counters embedded in a high density polyethylene moderator. Fast neutrons from the item enter the moderator and are quickly slowed down, on timescales of the order of 1-2 {micro}s, creating a thermal population which then persists typically for several 10's {micro}s and is sampled by the {sup 3}He detectors. Because the initial transient is of comparatively short duration it has been traditional to treat it as instantaneous and furthermore to approximate the subsequent capture time distribution as exponential in shape. With these approximations simple expressions for the various Gate Utilization Factors (GUFs) can be obtained. These factors represent the proportion of time correlated events i.e. Doubles and Triples signal present in the pulse train that is detected by the coincidence gate structure chosen (predelay and gate width settings of the multiplicity shift register). More complicated expressions can be derived by generalizing the capture time distribution to multiple time components or harmonics typically present in real systems. When it comes to applying passive neutron multiplicity methods to extremely intense (i.e. high emission rate and highly multiplying) neutron sources there is a drive to use detector types with very fast response characteristics in order to cope with the high rates. In addition to short pulse width, detectors with a short capture time profile are also desirable so that a short coincidence gate width can be set in order to reduce the chance or Accidental coincidence signal. In extreme cases, such as might be realized using boron loaded scintillators, the dieaway time may be so short that the build

  18. The environmental risk factors in multiple sclerosis susceptibility: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Shaygannejad, Vahid; Rezaie, Nooshin; Paknahad, Zamzam; Ashtari, Freshteh; Maghzi, Helia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating and degenerating disease which involves central nervous system. Environmental risk factors have a key role in MS susceptibility. Here we aim to investigate different risk factors effect on MS susceptibility in a large population of MS patients in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional hospital-based study, which was conducted on a large group of MS patients registered in Kashani hospital and a control group from normal healthy population. Demographic data, age at onset of the disease, history of viral infections, vaccination, history of trauma to head, recent stressful events, alimentation, familial history, method of delivery (caesarean section, normal vaginal delivery), disability score and history of smoking were gathered using a designed questionnaire. Results: Totally 536 MS patient with the mean age of 34.37 ± 9.22 and 399 individuals from healthy population with the mean age of 32.53 ± 9.91 were recruited. Significant difference in history of measles infection (control = 15.5%, case = 22.4%, P = 0.009), consumption of dairy products (case = 56.6%, control = 67.5%, P = 0.01) and major stressful life events (case = 62.2%, control = 52.7%, P < 0.05) between these two groups were demonstrated. Conclusion: A significant relation between stress, history of infection and milk consumption was reached that highlights the importance of environmental risk factors in MS pathogenesis. PMID:27376037

  19. Multiple factors contribute to anautogenous reproduction by the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Gulia-Nuss, Monika; Elliot, Anne; Brown, Mark R; Strand, Michael R

    2015-11-01

    Aedes aegypti is an anautogenous mosquito that must blood feed on a vertebrate host to produce and lay a clutch of eggs. The rockpool mosquito, Georgecraigius atropalpus, is related to A. aegypti but is a facultatively autogenous species that produces its first clutch of eggs shortly after emerging without blood feeding. Consumption of a blood meal by A. aegypti triggers the release of ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone (OEH) and insulin-like peptide 3 (ILP3) from the brain, which stimulate egg formation. OEH and ILP3 also stimulate egg formation in G. atropalpus but are released at eclosion independently of blood feeding. These results collectively suggest that blood meal dependent release of OEH and ILP3 is one factor that prevents A. aegypti from reproducing autogenously. Here, we examined two other factors that potentially inhibit autogeny in A. aegypti: teneral nutrient reserves and the ability of OEH and ILP3 to stimulate egg formation in the absence of blood feeding. Measures of nutrient reserves showed that newly emerged A. aegypti females had similar wet weights but significantly lower protein and glycogen reserves than G. atropalpus females when larvae were reared under identical conditions. OEH stimulated non-blood fed A. aegypti females to produce ecdysteroid hormone and package yolk into oocytes more strongly than ILP3. OEH also reduced host seeking and blood feeding behavior, yet females produced few mature eggs. Overall, our results indicate that multiple factors prevent A. aegypti from reproducing autogenously. PMID:26255841

  20. Serum Parathyroid Hormone Is a New Potential Risk Factor in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Won, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Hye-Ran; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Park, Hye-Ri; Shin, Jong-Hee; Suh, Soon-Pal; Ryang, Dong-Wook; Shin, Myung-Geun

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that serum PTH might be associated with various clinicopathological parameters in multiple myeloma (MM). So we investigated the implications of serum PTH in MM patients and the relationship with other risk factors of MM. A total of 115 patients who were newly diagnosed with MM were enrolled. Serum PTH level was 24.7 ± 34.9 (ranged 0.0–284.1) pg/mL. Serum levels of IgG, IgM, FLC-lambda, albumin, and LDH were in positive correlation with serum PTH. Compared to non-high PTH (<68.3 pg/mL) group, the hazard ratio (HR) for overall survival was higher for group with high PTH level (≥68.3 pg/mL) (HR, 1.710). Furthermore, the patient group with high PTH level showed inferior progression-free survival than non-high PTH group (P = 0.056). Interestingly, subgroup analysis showed that serum PTH level at diagnosis was associated with risk factors and clinical outcome in MM patients, especially in complete remission group, transplantation cases, ISS stage II cases, and cases without chromosome abnormality. In conclusion, this study showed that blood PTH level in MM at diagnosis was associated with risk factors and clinical outcome in MM patients. PMID:24967406

  1. [Multiple stepwise regression analysis of etiological factors of esophageal cancer in Cixian county].

    PubMed

    Hou, J

    1989-01-01

    Cixian county, one of the high-risk counties of esophageal cancer in the world, has a standardized mortality of 142.19/10(5) population, 1969-1971. The incidence of esophageal cancer had dropped year by year from 1974 to 1982. The significance of the incidence tendency was studied. The results are highly significant (P less than 0.001). The causative factors of esophageal cancer including five independent variables: X1 (number of people taking sanitized water), X2 (number of people on pickled Chinese cabbage), X3 (annual output of fruit), X4 (annual output of fresh vegetable) and X5 (annual output of sweet potato) and one dependent variable Y (morbidity of esophageal cancer) were studied by correlative analysis and multiple stepwise regression. Three correlative factors (X1, X2, and X5) with significant effect on the esophageal cancer were selected from the five suspected factors. The result indicated that taking sanitized water, reducing the number of people on pickled Chinese cabbage, changing the structure of food and keeping the nutrient balance, might decrease the incidence of esophageal cancer. PMID:2789130

  2. Shared Service Center vs. Shared Service Network: A Multiple Case Study Analysis of Factors Impacting on Shared Service Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Jörg; Niehaves, Björn; Krause, Andreas

    Shared services have proven to be a key element when it comes to increasing government efficiency by collaboration. Here, we seek to investigate into the shared services phenomenon in the context of government reforms. For this purpose, an interview and document analysis-based multiple case study has been conducted in Germany. The qualitative analysis covers two shared service implementations on the local government level and identifies important preconditions for shared service emergence, namely cost pressure as motive, the existence of key actors promoting the topic and the existence of prior cooperation. Moreover, it is shown that the structure of such previous cooperation determines, if shared services are being organised in a centralised (shared service centre) or decentralised format (shared service network).

  3. Factor Configurations with Governance as Conditions for Low HIV/AIDS Prevalence in HIV/AIDS Recipient Countries: Fuzzy-set Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Kang, Minah

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate whether good governance of a recipient country is a necessary condition and what combinations of factors including governance factor are sufficient for low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in HIV/AIDS aid recipient countries during the period of 2002-2010. For this, Fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) was used. Nine potential attributes for a causal configuration for low HIV/AIDS prevalence were identified through a review of previous studies. For each factor, full membership, full non-membership, and crossover point were specified using both author's knowledge and statistical information of the variables. Calibration and conversion to a fuzzy-set score were conducted using Fs/QCA 2.0 and probabilistic tests for necessary and sufficiency were performed by STATA 11. The result suggested that governance is the necessary condition for low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in a recipient country. From sufficiency test, two pathways were resulted. The low level of governance can lead to low level of HIV/AIDS prevalence when it is combined with other favorable factors, especially, low economic inequality, high economic development and high health expenditure. However, strengthening governance is a more practical measure to keep low prevalence of HIV/AIDS because it is hard to achieve both economic development and economic quality. This study highlights that a comprehensive policy measure is the key for achieving low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in recipient country. PMID:26617451

  4. Factor Configurations with Governance as Conditions for Low HIV/AIDS Prevalence in HIV/AIDS Recipient Countries: Fuzzy-set Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Yang, Bong-Min; Kang, Minah

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims to investigate whether good governance of a recipient country is a necessary condition and what combinations of factors including governance factor are sufficient for low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in HIV/AIDS aid recipient countries during the period of 2002-2010. For this, Fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) was used. Nine potential attributes for a causal configuration for low HIV/AIDS prevalence were identified through a review of previous studies. For each factor, full membership, full non-membership, and crossover point were specified using both author's knowledge and statistical information of the variables. Calibration and conversion to a fuzzy-set score were conducted using Fs/QCA 2.0 and probabilistic tests for necessary and sufficiency were performed by STATA 11. The result suggested that governance is the necessary condition for low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in a recipient country. From sufficiency test, two pathways were resulted. The low level of governance can lead to low level of HIV/AIDS prevalence when it is combined with other favorable factors, especially, low economic inequality, high economic development and high health expenditure. However, strengthening governance is a more practical measure to keep low prevalence of HIV/AIDS because it is hard to achieve both economic development and economic quality. This study highlights that a comprehensive policy measure is the key for achieving low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in recipient country. PMID:26617451

  5. Mathematical model for addiction: application to multiple risk factor intervention trial data for smoking.

    PubMed

    Fan, D P; Elketroussi, M

    1989-06-01

    Describes habituation and addiction, both psychological and physiological, using the simple equations of the mathematical model of ideodynamics. The parameters in these equations were optimized to smoking data from the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT) program. With only 4 constant parameters, it was possible to calculate accurate time trends for recidivism to smoking among quitters, time trends for secondary cessation among recidivists, and final percentage of smokers in a population with both recidivism and secondary cessation occurring simultaneously. These same parameters further permit predictions for the long-range success of intervention programs to decrease substance dependency. Ideodynamics can also predict time trends of public opinion based on stories in the mass media. PMID:2661613

  6. Scattering from phase-separated vesicles. I. An analytical form factor for multiple static domains

    SciTech Connect

    Heberle, Frederick A.; Anghel, Vinicius N. P.; Katsaras, John

    2015-08-18

    This is the first in a series of studies considering elastic scattering from laterally heterogeneous lipid vesicles containing multiple domains. Unique among biophysical tools, small-angle neutron scattering can in principle give detailed information about the size, shape and spatial arrangement of domains. A general theory for scattering from laterally heterogeneous vesicles is presented, and the analytical form factor for static domains with arbitrary spatial configuration is derived, including a simplification for uniformly sized round domains. The validity of the model, including series truncation effects, is assessed by comparison with simulated data obtained from a Monte Carlo method. Several aspects of the analytical solution for scattering intensity are discussed in the context of small-angle neutron scattering data, including the effect of varying domain size and number, as well as solvent contrast. Finally, the analysis indicates that effects of domain formation are most pronounced when the vesicle's average scattering length density matches that of the surrounding solvent.

  7. The multiple lives of NMD factors: balancing roles in gene and genome regulation

    PubMed Central

    Isken, Olaf; Maquat, Lynne E.

    2013-01-01

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) largely functions to ensure the quality of gene expression. However, NMD is also crucial to regulating appropriate expression levels for certain genes and for maintaining genome stability. Furthermore, just as NMD serves cells in multiple ways, so do its constituent proteins. Recent studies have clarified that UPF and SMG proteins, which were originally discovered to function in NMD, also have roles in other pathways, including specialized pathways of mRNA decay, DNA synthesis and cell-cycle progression, and the maintenance of telomeres. These findings suggest a delicate balance of metabolic events — some not obviously related to NMD — that can be influenced by the cellular abundance, location and activity of NMD factors and their binding partners. PMID:18679436

  8. Multiple infections and associated risk factors among non-injecting cocaine users in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Diana; Radulich, Graciela; Muzzio, Estela; Naveira, Jorge; Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Rey, Jorge; Griemberg, Gloria; Friedman, Samuel R; Martínez-Peralta, Liliana; Weissenbacher, Mercedes

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV, core antibody), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis infections and analyze associated risk factors among 504 non-injecting cocaine users (NICU) in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Participants were interviewed in face-to-face sessions through a short structured questionnaire. Using venipuncture, 10 mL of blood was collected. Seroprevalence rates were: HIV (6.3%), HBV (9%), HCV (7.5%), and VDRL (4.2%). The risk of being infected with HIV, HBV, and HCV was significantly associated with having had a sex partner who was either a drug injector or who was known to be HIV positive. HIV and HCV infections were associated with former imprisonment, and HCV was associated with having been tattooed. Because of the rising number of NICU and the multiple infections detected, it is essential to implement prevention strategies focused on this population. PMID:18461225

  9. Accelerated multiplicative updates and hierarchical ALS algorithms for nonnegative matrix factorization.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Nicolas; Glineur, François

    2012-04-01

    Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) is a data analysis technique used in a great variety of applications such as text mining, image processing, hyperspectral data analysis, computational biology, and clustering. In this letter, we consider two well-known algorithms designed to solve NMF problems: the multiplicative updates of Lee and Seung and the hierarchical alternating least squares of Cichocki et al. We propose a simple way to significantly accelerate these schemes, based on a careful analysis of the computational cost needed at each iteration, while preserving their convergence properties. This acceleration technique can also be applied to other algorithms, which we illustrate on the projected gradient method of Lin. The efficiency of the accelerated algorithms is empirically demonstrated on image and text data sets and compares favorably with a state-of-the-art alternating nonnegative least squares algorithm. PMID:22168561

  10. Statistical mechanical model of coupled transcription from multiple promoters due to transcription factor titration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydenfelt, Mattias; Cox, Robert Sidney, III; Garcia, Hernan; Phillips, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) with regulatory action at multiple promoter targets is the rule rather than the exception, with examples ranging from the cAMP receptor protein (CRP) in E. coli that regulates hundreds of different genes simultaneously to situations involving multiple copies of the same gene, such as plasmids, retrotransposons, or highly replicated viral DNA. When the number of TFs heavily exceeds the number of binding sites, TF binding to each promoter can be regarded as independent. However, when the number of TF molecules is comparable to the number of binding sites, TF titration will result in correlation (“promoter entanglement”) between transcription of different genes. We develop a statistical mechanical model which takes the TF titration effect into account and use it to predict both the level of gene expression for a general set of promoters and the resulting correlation in transcription rates of different genes. Our results show that the TF titration effect could be important for understanding gene expression in many regulatory settings.

  11. Young adult Ecstasy users and multiple sexual partners: understanding the factors underlying this HIV risk practice.

    PubMed

    Sterk, Claire E; Klein, Hugh; Elifson, Kirk W

    2008-09-01

    The purposes of this study are to (1) examine the extent to which young adult Ecstasy users recently reported having had multiple sex partners and (2) identify the factors predictive of engaging in this behavior. Potential predictors included demographic characteristics, background and experiences measures, childhood maltreatment experiences, substance use variables, and measures assessing psychological/psychosocial functioning. This research is based on a sample of 283 young adult recurrent users of the drug, Ecstasy. Study participants were recruited in Atlanta, Georgia between August 2002 and August 2004 using a targeted sampling and ethnographic mapping approach. Interviews took approximately two hours to complete. Nearly one-third of the study participants had more than one sex partner during the preceding month, and sexual protection rates tended to be low. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed seven predictors associated with an increased likelihood of having multiple sex partners: (1) being nonwhite, (2) knowing someone who was HIV-positive, (3) younger age of first sexual experience, (4) using Ecstasy for its touch-enhancing qualities, (5) higher self-esteem, (6) handling disagreements more dysfunctionally, and (7) not being involved in a romantic relationship. The HIV prevention- and intervention-related implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19004415

  12. The multiple life of nerve growth factor: tribute to rita levi-montalcini (1909-2012).

    PubMed

    Aloe, Luigi; Chaldakov, George N

    2013-03-01

    At the end of the 19(th) century, it was envisaged by Santiago Ramon y Cajal, but not, proven, that life at the neuronal level requires trophic support. The proof was obtained in the early 1950's by work initiated by Rita Levi-Montalcini (RLM) discovering the nerve growth factor (NGF). Today, NGF and its relatives, collectively designated neurotrophins, are well recognized as mediators of multiple biological phenomena in health and disease, ranging from the neurotrophic through immunotrophic and epitheliotrophic to metabotrophic effects. Consequently, NGF and other neurotrophins are implicated in the pathogenesis of a large spectrum of neuronal and non-neuronal diseases, from Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases to atherosclerosis and other cardiometabolic diseases. Recent studies demonstrated the therapeutic potentials of NGF in these diseases, including ocular and cutaneous diseases. Furthermore, NGF TrkA receptor antagonists emerged as novel drugs for pain, prostate and breast cancer, melanoma, and urinary bladder syndromes. Altogether, NGF's multiple potential in health and disease is briefly described here. PMID:25207059

  13. Young Adult Ecstasy Users and Multiple Sexual Partners: Understanding the Factors Underlying this HIV Risk Practice†

    PubMed Central

    Sterk, Claire E.; Klein, Hugh; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to (1) examine the extent to which young adult Ecstasy users recently reported having had multiple sex partners and (2) identify the factors predictive of engaging in this behavior. Potential predictors included demographic characteristics, background and experiences measures, childhood maltreatment experiences, substance use variables, and measures assessing psychological/psychosocial functioning. This research is based on a sample of 283 young adult recurrent users of the drug, Ecstasy. Study participants were recruited in Atlanta, Georgia between August 2002 and August 2004 using a targeted sampling and ethnographic mapping approach. Interviews took approximately two hours to complete. Nearly one-third of the study participants had more than one sex partner during the preceding month, and sexual protection rates tended to be low. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed seven predictors associated with an increased likelihood of having multiple sex partners: (1) being nonwhite, (2) knowing someone who was HIV-positive, (3) younger age of first sexual experience, (4) using Ecstasy for its touch-enhancing qualities, (5) higher self-esteem, (6) handling disagreements more dysfunctionally, and (7) not being involved in a romantic relationship. The HIV prevention- and intervention-related implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19004415

  14. Multiple Nuclear Localization Signals Mediate Nuclear Localization of the GATA Transcription Factor AreA

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Cameron C.; Siebert, Kendra S.; Downes, Damien J.; Wong, Koon Ho; Kreutzberger, Sara D.; Fraser, James A.; Clarke, David F.; Hynes, Michael J.; Davis, Meryl A.

    2014-01-01

    The Aspergillus nidulans GATA transcription factor AreA activates transcription of nitrogen metabolic genes in response to nitrogen limitation and is known to accumulate in the nucleus during nitrogen starvation. Sequence analysis of AreA revealed multiple nuclear localization signals (NLSs), five putative classical NLSs conserved in fungal AreA orthologs but not in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae functional orthologs Gln3p and Gat1p, and one putative noncanonical RRX33RXR bipartite NLS within the DNA-binding domain. In order to identify the functional NLSs in AreA, we constructed areA mutants with mutations in individual putative NLSs or combinations of putative NLSs and strains expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-AreA NLS fusion genes. Deletion of all five classical NLSs individually or collectively did not affect utilization of nitrogen sources or AreA-dependent gene expression and did not prevent AreA nuclear localization. Mutation of the bipartite NLS conferred the inability to utilize alternative nitrogen sources and abolished AreA-dependent gene expression likely due to effects on DNA binding but did not prevent AreA nuclear localization. Mutation of all six NLSs simultaneously prevented AreA nuclear accumulation. The bipartite NLS alone strongly directed GFP to the nucleus, whereas the classical NLSs collaborated to direct GFP to the nucleus. Therefore, AreA contains multiple conserved NLSs, which show redundancy and together function to mediate nuclear import. The noncanonical bipartite NLS is conserved in GATA factors from Aspergillus, yeast, and mammals, indicating an ancient origin. PMID:24562911

  15. Muscle Tissue Engineering Using Gingival Mesenchymal Stem Cells Encapsulated in Alginate Hydrogels Containing Multiple Growth Factors.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Sahar; Chen, Chider; Xu, Xingtian; Annabi, Nasim; Zadeh, Homayoun H; Wu, Benjamin M; Khademhosseini, Ali; Shi, Songtao; Moshaverinia, Alireza

    2016-06-01

    Repair and regeneration of muscle tissue following traumatic injuries or muscle diseases often presents a challenging clinical situation. If a significant amount of tissue is lost the native regenerative potential of skeletal muscle will not be able to grow to fill the defect site completely. Dental-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in combination with appropriate scaffold material, present an advantageous alternative therapeutic option for muscle tissue engineering in comparison to current treatment modalities available. To date, there has been no report on application of gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) in three-dimensional scaffolds for muscle tissue engineering. The objectives of the current study were to develop an injectable 3D RGD-coupled alginate scaffold with multiple growth factor delivery capacity for encapsulating GMSCs, and to evaluate the capacity of encapsulated GMSCs to differentiate into myogenic tissue in vitro and in vivo where encapsulated GMSCs were transplanted subcutaneously into immunocompromised mice. The results demonstrate that after 4 weeks of differentiation in vitro, GMSCs as well as the positive control human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) exhibited muscle cell-like morphology with high levels of mRNA expression for gene markers related to muscle regeneration (MyoD, Myf5, and MyoG) via qPCR measurement. Our quantitative PCR analyzes revealed that the stiffness of the RGD-coupled alginate regulates the myogenic differentiation of encapsulated GMSCs. Histological and immunohistochemical/fluorescence staining for protein markers specific for myogenic tissue confirmed muscle regeneration in subcutaneous transplantation in our in vivo animal model. GMSCs showed significantly greater capacity for myogenic regeneration in comparison to hBMMSCs (p < 0.05). Altogether, our findings confirmed that GMSCs encapsulated in RGD-modified alginate hydrogel with multiple growth factor delivery capacity is a promising

  16. Risk factors for increased multiple sclerosis susceptibility in the Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Behnam; Asadollahi, Shadi; Heidari, Kamran; Fakhri, Mohammad; Assarzadegan, Farhad; Nazari, Maryam; Divani, Afshin

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease with increasing prevalence. Many factors have been assessed in relation to its development and its worldwide geographical and racial distribution. Therefore, we decided to conduct a nationwide case-control matched study to estimate the possible influence of putative risk factors on MS status in an Iranian MS population. Between January 2008 and September 2013, 1403 patients diagnosed with MS according to the Poser or McDonald criteria and 883 controls were studied. Of all patients, there were 921 women and 296 men (ratio 3.1:1) with a mean age of 32.6 ± 8.7 years. In the multivariate model adjusted for sex and age (±2years), we found associated risk factors of MS to be: history of any allergic condition (Odds ratio (OR): 1.92, 95% Confidence interval (CI): 1.55-2.47, p<0.001), and smoking (OR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.31-2.73, p<0.001). Sunlight exposure ⩾ 3 hours was found to be associated with a reduced risk of MS (OR: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.15-0.31, p<0.001). As expected, cases were more likely to have a positive family history of MS than controls (OR: 1.91, 95% CI: 1.33-2.75, p<0.001). A significant association was found between family history of other autoimmune diseases and MS risk (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.18-2.09, p=0.002). These results support the hypothesis that sun exposure is associated with a decreased risk of MS while smoking, autoimmune family history, MS family history, and personal allergy history are risk factors for MS susceptibility. PMID:25082407

  17. Possible environmental factors underlying amphibian decline in eastern Puerto Rico: Analysis of U.S. government data archives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stallard, R.F.

    2001-01-01

    The past three decades have seen major declines in populations of several species of amphibians at high elevations in eastern Puerto Rico, a region unique in the humid tropics because of the degree of environmental monitoring that has taken place through the efforts of U.S. government agencies. I examined changes in environmental conditions by examining time-series data sets that extend back at least into the 1980s, a period when frog populations were declining. The data include forest cover; annual mean, minimum, and maximum daily temperature; annual rainfall; rain and stream chemistry; and atmospheric-dust transport. I examined satellite imagery and air-chemistry samples from a single National Aeronautics and Space Administration aircraft flight across the Caribbean showing patches of pollutants, described as thin sheets or lenses, in the lower troposphere. The main source of these pollutants appeared to be fires from land clearing and deforestation, primarily in Africa. Some pollutant concentrations were high and, in the case of ozone, approached health limits set for urban air. Urban pollution impinging on Puerto Rico, dust generation from Africa (potential soil pathogens), and tropical forest burning (gaseous pollutants) have all increased during the last three decades, overlapping the timing of amphibian declines in eastern Puerto Rico. None of the data sets pointed directly to changes so extreme that they might be considered a direct lethal cause of amphibian declines in Puerto Rico. More experimental research is required to link any of these environmental factors to this problem.

  18. An examination of the factors governing the development of karst topography in the Cumberland Valley of Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, R.V. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    The landscape of the Cumberland Valley of South Central Pennsylvania is dominated by karst topography. A study was initiated to determine if the development of karst was controlled primarily by geologic structure or by lithologic differences. Existing data concerning the geographic locations of karst features, the hydrogeologic characteristics of the Cumberland Valley, and the chemistry of the eleven carbonate formations within the 518 km[sup 2] study area were compiled. Data concerning 366 mapped sinkholes and over 9,000 additional karst features and their relations to the structural, lithological and spatial characteristics of the study area were collected and compiled into the database. Other factors contributing to karst development such as groundwater flow, soil and colluvium characteristics, and geographic distribution were considered. The data suggest that structure dominates lithology in the development of karst features within the study area. Structural features such as fractures, joints and folds, which create secondary porosity, are prerequisite for solution of the carbonate bedrock. Joint systems, fold axes, igneous intrusions, caves, springs and groundwater flow have a significant impact on the development of karst features. The presence of faults proved inconclusive. There are a greater number of karst features per unit area in areas of purer limestones (units with a lower percentage of acid insoluble residue). Lithological variations impact karst development only when structural features are present to provide secondary porosity that enhances chemical weathering. The distribution of karst features and the geologic factors governing their development and distribution should be taken into account when land-use decisions in karst terrains are made.

  19. Multiple Factors Related to the Secretion of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, XingChun; Liu, Huan; Chen, Jiaqi; Li, Yan; Qu, Shen

    2015-01-01

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 is secreted by intestinal L cells in response to nutrient ingestion. It regulates the secretion and sensitivity of insulin while suppressing glucagon secretion and decreasing postprandial glucose levels. It also improves beta-cell proliferation and prevents beta-cell apoptosis induced by cytotoxic agents. Additionally, glucagon-like peptide-1 delays gastric emptying and suppresses appetite. The impaired secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 has negative influence on diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance related diseases. Thus, glucagon-like peptide-1-based therapies (glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors) are now well accepted in the management of type 2 diabetes. The levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 are influenced by multiple factors including a variety of nutrients. The component of a meal acts as potent stimulants of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion. The levels of its secretion change with the intake of different nutrients. Some drugs also have influence on GLP-1 secretion. Bariatric surgery may improve metabolism through the action on GLP-1 levels. In recent years, there has been a great interest in developing effective methods to regulate glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion. This review summarizes the literature on glucagon-like peptide-1 and related factors affecting its levels. PMID:26366173

  20. Risk factors for multiple sclerosis and associations with anti-EBV antibody titers.

    PubMed

    Mouhieddine, Tarek H; Darwish, Hala; Fawaz, Lama; Yamout, Bassem; Tamim, Hani; Khoury, Samia J

    2015-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelination of the central nervous system. We investigated the prevalence of EBV seropositivity and other known risk factors for MS (age, smoking, low vitamin D) and their effect on anti-EBV antibody titers. We retrospectively studied 249 MS patients receiving care at the American University of Beirut Medical Center and 230 controls, during 2010-2014. EBV seropositivity was higher in MS patients compared to controls for both anti-VCA (99.5%; 97.2%) and anti-EBNA-1 (96.3%; 89.4%), and the titers were significantly higher in MS patients. MS patients had a significantly lower vitamin D level (15.5 ± 8.3 ng/ml) compared to controls (20.4 ± 11.3 ng/ml). The proportion of heavy smokers and overweight individuals was significantly higher in MS patients. Lebanese MS patients have risk factors similar to those in western countries. Older age and female gender were associated with a higher anti-VCA titer and male gender with a higher anti-EBNA-1. PMID:25805657

  1. Concomitant Factors Leading to an Atypical Osteonecrosis of the Jaw in a Patient with Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Rius, Jaume; Brunet-Llobet, Lluís; Lahor-Soler, Eduard; Giménez-Rubio, Josep Anton

    2014-01-01

    Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a site specific osseous pathology, characterized by chronic exposed bone in the mouth, which needs to be reinforced periodically within the medical literature. ONJ is a clinical entity with many possible aetiologies and its pathogenesis is not well understood. The risk factors for ONJ include bisphosphonates treatments, head and neck radiotherapy, dental procedures involving bone surgery, and trauma. Management of ONJ has centred on efforts to eliminate or reduce severity of symptoms, to slow or prevent the progression of disease, and to eradicate diseased bone. This case describes a rare case of ONJ in a 64-year-old Caucasian male diagnosed with multiple myeloma stage III. The lesion was related to a traumatic injury during mastication. Eighteen months ago in the same area the molar 37 was extracted, achieving a complete satisfactory healing, when only 2 doses of zoledronic acid had been administered. Actinomyces bacterial aggregates were also identified in the microscopic analysis. The management of this osteonecrotic lesion included antibiotic treatment and chlorhexidine topical gel administration. The evolution was monitored every two weeks until patient's death. The authors provide a discussion of the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. This case report may shed light on the controversies about concomitant factors and mechanisms inducing ONJ. PMID:25140178

  2. Multiple intrinsic factors act in concert with Lhx2 to direct retinal gliogenesis

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Jimmy; Clark, Brian S.; Blackshaw, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Müller glia (MG) are the principal glial cell type in the vertebrate retina. Recent work has identified the LIM homeodomain factor encoding gene Lhx2 as necessary for both Notch signaling and MG differentiation in late-stage retinal progenitor cells (RPCs). However, the extent to which Lhx2 interacts with other intrinsic regulators of MG differentiation is unclear. We investigated this question by investigating the effects of overexpression of multiple transcriptional regulators that are either known or hypothesized to control MG formation, in both wildtype and Lhx2-deficient RPCs. We observe that constitutively elevated Notch signaling, induced by N1ICD electroporation, inhibited gliogenesis in wildtype animals, but rescued MG development in Lhx2-deficient retinas. Electroporation of Nfia promoted the formation of cells with MG-like radial morphology, but did not drive expression of MG molecular markers. Plagl1 and Sox9 did not induce gliogenesis in wildtype animals, but nonetheless activated expression of the Müller marker P27Kip1 in Lhx2-deficient cells. Finally, Sox2, Sox8, and Sox9 promoted amacrine cell formation in Lhx2-deficient cells, but not in wildtype retinas. These findings demonstrate that overexpression of individual gliogenic factors typically regulates only a subset of characteristic MG markers, and that these effects are differentially modulated by Lhx2. PMID:27605455

  3. Multiple intrinsic factors act in concert with Lhx2 to direct retinal gliogenesis.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Jimmy; Clark, Brian S; Blackshaw, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Müller glia (MG) are the principal glial cell type in the vertebrate retina. Recent work has identified the LIM homeodomain factor encoding gene Lhx2 as necessary for both Notch signaling and MG differentiation in late-stage retinal progenitor cells (RPCs). However, the extent to which Lhx2 interacts with other intrinsic regulators of MG differentiation is unclear. We investigated this question by investigating the effects of overexpression of multiple transcriptional regulators that are either known or hypothesized to control MG formation, in both wildtype and Lhx2-deficient RPCs. We observe that constitutively elevated Notch signaling, induced by N1ICD electroporation, inhibited gliogenesis in wildtype animals, but rescued MG development in Lhx2-deficient retinas. Electroporation of Nfia promoted the formation of cells with MG-like radial morphology, but did not drive expression of MG molecular markers. Plagl1 and Sox9 did not induce gliogenesis in wildtype animals, but nonetheless activated expression of the Müller marker P27(Kip1) in Lhx2-deficient cells. Finally, Sox2, Sox8, and Sox9 promoted amacrine cell formation in Lhx2-deficient cells, but not in wildtype retinas. These findings demonstrate that overexpression of individual gliogenic factors typically regulates only a subset of characteristic MG markers, and that these effects are differentially modulated by Lhx2. PMID:27605455

  4. 'Hidden' factors influencing quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lysandropoulos, A P; Havrdova, E

    2015-10-01

    Traditional outcome measures for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), whether in clinical trials or clinical practice, are currently in question. The combination of relapses, physical disability progression and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disease activity reflect only part of the impact that MS has on a patient's daily life. Quality of life (QoL) is considered by many to be the ideal outcome measure. Since it captures the patient's own perspective of well-being, QoL should be the primary focus when evaluating a patient and the main objective of MS management. Nevertheless, whilst numerous instruments to measure QoL in MS patients are available or proposed, there is no current consensus regarding which is the best tool to use and under what circumstances. QoL in patients with MS is determined by several factors beyond the more obvious; these include coping with the MS diagnosis, understanding the disease and the disease process, dealing with so-called 'hidden' symptoms such as fatigue, cognitive impairment and sexual disturbances, and managing the many associated personal challenges such as social isolation, family issues and working difficulties. Evidence is emerging that psychological interventions may be beneficial in MS patients although more research is required to confirm their utility. This article examines some factors that influence QoL in MS patients which may be overlooked in the general busyness of routine clinical practice. PMID:26374511

  5. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha as a therapeutic target in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Terragna, Carolina; Martello, Marina; Dico, Angela F.; Solaini, Giancarlo; Baracca, Alessandra; Sgarbi, Gianluca; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Valente, Sabrina; Zamagni, Elena; Tacchetti, Paola; Martinelli, Giovanni; Cavo, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The increasing importance of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in tumorigenesis raises the possibility that agents which specifically inhibit this transcription factor, would provide significant therapeutic benefit. The constitutive expression of HIF-1α in about 35% of Multiple Myeloma (MM) patients suggests HIF-1α suppression might be part of a therapeutic strategy. Accordingly, we explored the effect of EZN-2968, a small 3rd generation antisense oligonucleotide against HIF-1α, in a panel of MM cell lines and primary patients samples. Here, we demonstrated that EZN-2968 is highly specific for HIF-1α mRNA and that exposure of MM cells to EZN-2968 resulted in an efficient and homogeneous loading of the cells showing a long lasting low HIF-1α protein level. In MM cells, HIF-1α suppression induced a permanent cell cycle arrest by prolonging S-phase through cyclin A modulation and in addition it induced a mild apoptotic cell death. Moreover, HIF-1α suppression caused a metabolic shift that leaded to increased production of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation (i.e. Warburg effect reversion), that was confirmed by the observed mitochondrial membrane potential decrease. These results show that HIF-1α is an important player in MM homeostasis and that its inhibition by small antisense oligonucleotides provides a rationale for novel therapeutic strategy to improving MM treatment. PMID:24732040

  6. Associations between the big five personality factors and multiple mini-interviews.

    PubMed

    Griffin, B; Wilson, I

    2012-08-01

    Given the accumulating evidence that performance in medical school and beyond is related to personality, it is important for research to consider how personality assessment can be included as part of the process of selecting medical students. Interviews are one way of measuring personality and this study extends prior research investigating whether the multiple mini interview (MMI) is related to the five factor model of personality. In contrast to prior results (Kulasegaram et al. in Adv Health Sci Edu 15:415-423, 2010), examination of MMI scores for 868 applicants to an Australian medical school over 3 years showed significant uncorrected correlations every year with extraversion (.19, .19, .30) and conscientiousness (.20, .22, .25) and with agreeableness in 2 years (.17, .19). Investigation of personality at a facet-level revealed differing relationships with the MMI within the five factors of personality. MMI scores were also correlated in 2 years (.17, .22) with a situational judgment test of interpersonal understanding (UMAT Section 2) but were unrelated to tests of logical reasoning ability (UMAT Section 1), non-verbal reasoning (Section 3), or past academic performance (Higher School Certificate results). PMID:21751103

  7. Multiple factors affect a population of Agassiz's desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) in the Northwestern Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berry, Kristin H.; Yee, Julie L.; Coble, Ashley A.; Perry, William M.; Shields, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous factors have contributed to declines in populations of the federally threatened Agassiz's Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) and continue to limit recovery. In 2010, we surveyed a low-density population on a military test facility in the northwestern Mojave Desert of California, USA, to evaluate population status and identify potential factors contributing to distribution and low densities. Estimated densities of live tortoises ranged spatially from 1.2/km2 to 15.1/km2. Although only one death of a breeding-age tortoise was recorded for the 4-yr period prior to the survey, remains of 16 juvenile and immature tortoises were found, and most showed signs of predation by Common Ravens (Corvus corax) and mammals. Predation may have limited recruitment of young tortoises into the adult size classes. To evaluate the relative importance of different types of impacts to tortoises, we developed predictive models for spatially explicit densities of tortoise sign and live tortoises using topography (i.e., slope), predators (Common Raven, signs of mammalian predators), and anthropogenic impacts (distances from paved road and denuded areas, density of ordnance fragments) as covariates. Models suggest that densities of tortoise sign increased with slope and signs of mammalian predators and decreased with Common Ravens, while also varying based on interaction effects involving these predictors as well as distances from paved roads, denuded areas, and ordnance. Similarly, densities of live tortoises varied by interaction effects among distances to denuded areas and paved roads, density of ordnance fragments, and slope. Thus multiple factors predict the densities and distribution of this population.

  8. Regulation of complement factor H (CFH) by multiple miRNAs in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain.

    PubMed

    Lukiw, Walter J; Alexandrov, Peter N

    2012-08-01

    Human brain cells rely on a specific subset of microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) to shape their gene expression patterns, and this is mediated through microRNA effects on messenger RNA (mRNA) speciation and complexity. In recent studies (a) in short post-mortem interval Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain tissues versus age-matched controls, and (b) in pro-inflammatory cytokine- and Aβ42 peptide-stressed human neuronal-glial (HNG) cells in primary culture, we have identified several brain-abundant miRNA species found to be significantly up-regulated, including miR-125b and miR-146a. Both of these nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-activated, 22 nucleotide small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) target the mRNA of the key, innate-immune- and inflammation-related regulatory protein, complement factor-H (CFH; chr 1q32), resulting in significant decreases in CFH expression (p < 0.01, ANOVA). Our results further indicate that HNG cells respond to IL-1β + Aβ42-peptide-induced stress by significant NF-κB-modulated up-regulation of miRNA-125b- and miRNA-146a. The complex interactive signaling of NF-κB, miR-125b, miR-146a, and perhaps other miRNAs, further illustrate interplay between inducible transcription factors and multiple pro-inflammatory sncRNAs that regulate CFH expression. The novel concept of miRNA actions involving mRNA target convergence and divergence are proposed and discussed. The combinatorial use of NF-кB inhibitors with anti-miRNAs (AMs; antagomirs) may have potential against CFH-driven pathogenic signaling in neurodegenerative disease, and may redirect our therapeutic perspectives to novel treatment strategies that have not yet been considered. PMID:22302353

  9. Ethylene Response Factors Are Controlled by Multiple Harvesting Stresses in Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Putranto, Riza-Arief; Duan, Cuifang; Kuswanhadi; Chaidamsari, Tetty; Rio, Maryannick; Piyatrakul, Piyanuch; Herlinawati, Eva; Pirrello, Julien; Dessailly, Florence; Leclercq, Julie; Bonnot, François; Tang, Chaorong; Hu, Songnian; Montoro, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Tolerance of recurrent mechanical wounding and exogenous ethylene is a feature of the rubber tree. Latex harvesting involves tapping of the tree bark and ethephon is applied to increase latex flow. Ethylene is an essential element in controlling latex production. The ethylene signalling pathway leads to the activation of Ethylene Response Factor (ERF) transcription factors. This family has been identified in Hevea brasiliensis. This study set out to understand the regulation of ERF genes during latex harvesting in relation to abiotic stress and hormonal treatments. Analyses of the relative transcript abundance were carried out for 35 HbERF genes in latex, in bark from mature trees and in leaves from juvenile plants under multiple abiotic stresses. Twenty-one HbERF genes were regulated by harvesting stress in laticifers, revealing an overrepresentation of genes in group IX. Transcripts of three HbERF-IX genes from HbERF-IXc4, HbERF-IXc5 and HbERF-IXc6 were dramatically accumulated by combining wounding, methyl jasmonate and ethylene treatments. When an ethylene inhibitor was used, the transcript accumulation for these three genes was halted, showing ethylene-dependent induction. Subcellular localization and transactivation experiments confirmed that several members of HbERF-IX are activator-type transcription factors. This study suggested that latex harvesting induces mechanisms developed for the response to abiotic stress. These mechanisms probably depend on various hormonal signalling pathways. Several members of HbERF-IX could be essential integrators of complex hormonal signalling pathways in Hevea. PMID:25906196

  10. Distribution Patterns of Infection with Multiple Types of Human Papillomaviruses and Their Association with Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Soto-De Leon, Sara; Camargo, Milena; Sanchez, Ricardo; Munoz, Marina; Perez-Prados, Antonio; Purroy, Antonio; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Background Infection with multiple types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the main risk factors associated with the development of cervical lesions. In this study, cervical samples collected from 1,810 women with diverse sociocultural backgrounds, who attended to their cervical screening program in different geographical regions of Colombia, were examined for the presence of cervical lesions and HPV by Papanicolau testing and DNA PCR detection, respectively. Principal Findings The negative binomial distribution model used in this study showed differences between the observed and expected values within some risk factor categories analyzed. Particularly in the case of single infection and coinfection with more than 4 HPV types, observed frequencies were smaller than expected, while the number of women infected with 2 to 4 viral types were higher than expected. Data analysis according to a negative binomial regression showed an increase in the risk of acquiring more HPV types in women who were of indigenous ethnicity (+37.8%), while this risk decreased in women who had given birth more than 4 times (−31.1%), or were of mestizo (−24.6%) or black (−40.9%) ethnicity. Conclusions According to a theoretical probability distribution, the observed number of women having either a single infection or more than 4 viral types was smaller than expected, while for those infected with 2–4 HPV types it was larger than expected. Taking into account that this study showed a higher HPV coinfection rate in the indigenous ethnicity, the role of underlying factors should be assessed in detail in future studies. PMID:21379574

  11. Elk-1 a Transcription Factor with Multiple Facets in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Besnard, Antoine; Galan-Rodriguez, Beatriz; Vanhoutte, Peter; Caboche, Jocelyne

    2011-01-01

    The ternary complex factor (TCF) Elk-1 is a transcription factor that regulates immediate early gene (IEG) expression via the serum response element (SRE) DNA consensus site. Elk-1 is associated with a dimer of serum response factor (SRF) at the SRE site, and its phosphorylation occurs at specific residues in response to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including c-Jun-N terminal kinase (JNK), p38/MAPK, and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK). This phosphorylation event is critical for triggering SRE-dependent transcription. Although MAPKs are fundamental actors for the instatement and maintenance of memory, and much investigation of their downstream signaling partners have been conducted, no data yet clearly implicate Elk-1 in these processes. This is partly due to the complexity of Elk-1 sub-cellular localization, and hence functions, within neurons. Elk-1 is present in its resting state in the cytoplasm, where it colocalizes with mitochondrial proteins or microtubules. In this particular sub-cellular compartment, overexpression of Elk-1 is toxic for neuronal cells. When phosphorylated by the MAPK/ERK, Elk-1 translocates to the nucleus where it is implicated in regulating chromatin remodeling, SRE-dependent transcription, and neuronal differentiation. Another post-translational modification is the conjugation to SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier), which relocalizes Elk-1 in the cytoplasm. Thus, Elk-1 plays a dual role in neuronal functions: pro-apoptotic within the cytoplasm, and pro-differentiation within the nucleus. To address the role of Elk-1 in the brain, one must be aware of its multiple facets, and design molecular tools that will shut down Elk-1 expression, trafficking, or activation, in specific neuronal compartments. We summarize in this review the known molecular functions of Elk-1, its regulation in neuronal cells, and present evidence of its possible implication in model systems of synaptic plasticity, learning, but also in

  12. Factors Contributing to the Accumulation of Primary Teacher's Debts to the Government of Tanzania: A Case Study for Dar Es Salaam Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kombo, Ibun

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the study which was conducted to determine factors contributing to the accumulation of primary school teacher's debts to the Government of Tanzania, a case study of Dar es Salaam Region in its three municipalities namely, Ilala, Kinondoni and Temeke. Data was obtained through sampling method which also helped to…

  13. Investigating the Interpersonal and Contextual Factors Govern Saudi Lecturers' Motivation in Creating Innovative Blended Learning Environment That Web 2.0-Based

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alghanmi, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    Sustaining success in higher education within an ever-changing landscape largely depends on academics' motivation to cope with it. Essentially, this study aims to explore the interpersonal and contextual factors that govern the introduction of blended learning in a Saudi context. A collective case study approach was employed with Self-…

  14. The pH-Responsive PacC Transcription Factor of Aspergillus fumigatus Governs Epithelial Entry and Tissue Invasion during Pulmonary Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Alcazar-Fuoli, Laura; Cairns, Timothy C.; Muñoz, Alberto; Walker, Louise A.; Herbst, Susanne; Safari, Maryam; Cheverton, Angela M.; Chen, Dan; Liu, Hong; Saijo, Shinobu; Fedorova, Natalie D.; Armstrong-James, Darius; Munro, Carol A.; Read, Nick D.; Filler, Scott G.; Espeso, Eduardo A.; Nierman, William C.; Haas, Hubertus; Bignell, Elaine M.

    2014-01-01

    Destruction of the pulmonary epithelium is a major feature of lung diseases caused by the mould pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Although it is widely postulated that tissue invasion is governed by fungal proteases, A. fumigatus mutants lacking individual or multiple enzymes remain fully invasive, suggesting a concomitant requirement for other pathogenic activities during host invasion. In this study we discovered, and exploited, a novel, tissue non-invasive, phenotype in A. fumigatus mutants lacking the pH-responsive transcription factor PacC. Our study revealed a novel mode of epithelial entry, occurring in a cell wall-dependent manner prior to protease production, and via the Dectin-1 β-glucan receptor. ΔpacC mutants are defective in both contact-mediated epithelial entry and protease expression, and significantly attenuated for pathogenicity in leukopenic mice. We combined murine infection modelling, in vivo transcriptomics, and in vitro infections of human alveolar epithelia, to delineate two major, and sequentially acting, PacC-dependent processes impacting epithelial integrity in vitro and tissue invasion in the whole animal. We demonstrate that A. fumigatus spores and germlings are internalised by epithelial cells in a contact-, actin-, cell wall- and Dectin-1 dependent manner and ΔpacC mutants, which aberrantly remodel the cell wall during germinative growth, are unable to gain entry into epithelial cells, both in vitro and in vivo. We further show that PacC acts as a global transcriptional regulator of secreted molecules during growth in the leukopenic mammalian lung, and profile the full cohort of secreted gene products expressed during invasive infection. Our study reveals a combinatorial mode of tissue entry dependent upon sequential, and mechanistically distinct, perturbations of the pulmonary epithelium and demonstrates, for the first time a protective role for Dectin-1 blockade in epithelial defences. Infecting ΔpacC mutants are hypersensitive to

  15. Statistical study to identify the key factors governing ground water recharge in the watersheds of the arid Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Binq-Qi; Wang, Yue-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the source and recharge of ground waters is of great significance to our knowledge in hydrological cycles in arid environments over the world. Northern Xinjiang in northwestern China is a significant repository of information relating to the hydrological evolution and climatic changes in central Asia. In this study, two multivariate statistical techniques, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were used to assess the ground water recharge and its governing factors, with the principal idea of exploring the above techniques to utilize all available hydrogeochemical variables in the quality assessment, which are not considered in the conventional techniques like Stiff and Piper diagrams. Q-mode HCA and R-mode PCA were combined to partition the water samples into seven major water clusters (C1-C7) and three principal components (PC1-PC3, PC1 salinity, PC2 hydroclimate, PC3 contaminant). The water samples C1 + C4 were classified as recharge area waters (Ca-HCO3 water), C2 + C3 as transitional zone waters (Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 water), and C5 + C6 + C7 as discharge area waters (Na-SO4 water). Based on the Q-mode PCA scores, three groups of geochemical processes influencing recharge regimes were identified: geogenic (i.e., caused by natural geochemical processes), geomorphoclimatic (caused by topography and climate), and anthropogenic (caused by ground water contamination). It is proposed that differences in recharge mechanism and ground water evolution, and possible bedrock composition difference, are responsible for the chemical genesis of these waters. These will continue to influence the geochemistry of the northern Xinjiang drainage system for a long time due to its steady tectonics and arid climate. This study proved that the chemistry differentiation of ground water can effectively support the identification of ground water recharge and evolution patterns. PMID:26718947

  16. Near-field-assisted localization: effect of size and filling factor of randomly distributed zinc oxide nanoneedles on multiple scattering and localization of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silies, Martin; Mascheck, Manfred; Leipold, David; Kollmann, Heiko; Schmidt, Slawa; Sartor, Janos; Yatsui, Takashi; Kitamura, Kokoro; Ohtsu, Motoicho; Kalt, Heinz; Runge, Erich; Lienau, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the influence of the diameter and the filling factor of randomly arranged ZnO nanoneedles on the multiple scattering and localization of light in disordered dielectrics. Coherent, ultra-broadband second-harmonic (SH) microscopy is used to probe the spatial localization of light in representative nm-sized ZnO arrays of needles. We observe strong fluctuations of the SH intensity inside different ZnO needle geometries. Comparison of the SH intensity distributions with predictions based on a one-parameter scaling model indicate that SH fluctuations can be taken as a quantitative measure for the degree of localization. Interestingly, the strongest localization signatures are found for densely packed arrays of thin needles with diameters in the range of only 30 nm range, despite the small scattering cross section of these needles. FDTD simulations indicate that in this case coupling of electric near-fields between neighbouring needles governs the localization.

  17. Multiple phosphorylation events control chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor I orphan nuclear receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Gay, Frédérique; Baráth, Peter; Desbois-Le Péron, Christine; Métivier, Raphaël; Le Guével, Rémy; Birse, Darcy; Salbert, Gilles

    2002-06-01

    Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor I (COUP-TFI) is an orphan member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily that comprises key regulators of many biological functions, such as embryonic development, metabolism, homeostasis, and reproduction. Although COUP-TFI can both actively silence gene transcription and antagonize the functions of various other nuclear receptors, the COUP-TFI orphan receptor also acts as a transcriptional activator in certain contexts. Moreover, COUP-TFI has recently been shown to serve as an accessory factor for some ligand-bound nuclear receptors, suggesting that it may modulate, both negatively and positively, a wide range of hormonal responses. In the absence of any identified cognate ligand, the mechanisms involved in the regulation of COUP-TFI activity remain unclear. The elucidation of several putative phosphorylation sites for MAPKs, PKC, and casein kinase II within the sequence of this orphan receptor led us to investigate phosphorylation events regulating the various COUP-TFI functions. After showing that COUP-TFI is phosphorylated in vivo, we provide evidence that in vivo inhibition of either MAPK or PKC signaling pathway leads to a specific and pronounced decrease in COUP-TFI-dependent transcriptional activation of the vitronectin gene promoter. Focusing on the molecular mechanisms underlying the MAPK- and PKC-mediated regulation of COUP-TFI activity, we show that COUP-TFI can be directly targeted by PKC and MAPK. These phosphorylation events differentially modulate COUP-TFI functions: PKC-mediated phosphorylation enhances COUP-TFI affinity for DNA and MAPK-mediated phosphorylation positively regulates the transactivation function of COUP-TFI, possibly through enhancing specific coactivator recruitment. These data provide evidence that COUP-TFI is likely to integrate distinct signaling pathways and raise the possibility that multiple extracellular signals influence biological processes controlled by COUP

  18. Latino risk-adjusted mortality in the men screened for the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Avis J; Eberly, Lynn E; Neaton, James D; Smith, George Davey

    2005-09-15

    Latinos are now the largest minority in the United States, but their distinctive health needs and mortality patterns remain poorly understood. Proportional hazards regressions were used to compare Latino versus White risk- and income-adjusted mortality over 25 years' follow-up from 5,846 Latino and 300,647 White men screened for the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Men were aged 35-57 years and residing in 14 states when screened in 1973-1975. Data on coronary heart disease risk factors, self-reported race/ethnicity, and home addresses were obtained at baseline; income was estimated by linking addresses to census data. Mortality follow-up through 1999 was obtained using the National Death Index. The fully adjusted Latino/White hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77, 0.87), based on 1,085 Latino and 73,807 White deaths; this pattern prevailed over time and across states (thus, likely across Latino subgroups). Hazard ratios were significantly greater than one for stroke (hazard ratio = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.68), liver cancer (hazard ratio = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.21, 3.37), and infection (hazard ratio = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.24, 2.32). A substudy found only minor racial/ethnic differences in the quality of Social Security numbers, birth dates, soundex-adjusted names, and National Death Index searches. Results were not likely an artifact of return migration or incomplete mortality data. PMID:16076831

  19. Factors influencing long-term outcomes in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis: PRISMS-15

    PubMed Central

    Kappos, Ludwig; Kuhle, Jens; Multanen, Juha; Kremenchutzky, Marcelo; Verdun di Cantogno, Elisabetta; Cornelisse, Peter; Lehr, Lorenz; Casset-Semanaz, Florence; Issard, Delphine; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J

    2015-01-01

    Aim An exploratory study of the relationship between cumulative exposure to subcutaneous (sc) interferon (IFN) β-1a treatment and other possible prognostic factors with long-term clinical outcomes in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods Patients in the original PRISMS study were invited to a single follow-up visit 15 years after initial randomisation (PRISMS-15). Outcomes over 15 years were compared in the lowest and highest quartile of the cumulative sc IFN β-1a dose groups, and according to total time receiving sc IFN β-1a as a continuous variable per 5 years of treatment. Potential prognostic factors for outcomes were analysed. Results Of 560 patients randomised in PRISMS, 291 returned for PRISMS-15 and 290 (51.8%) were analysed. Higher cumulative dose exposure and longer treatment time appeared to be associated with better outcomes on: annualised relapse rate, number of relapses, time to Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) progression, change in EDSS, proportions of patients with EDSS ≥4 or ≥6, ≤5 relapses and EDSS <4 or <6, and time to conversion to secondary-progressive MS (SPMS). Higher dose exposure was associated with lower proportions of patients with EDSS progression and conversion to SPMS, and longer time on treatment with lower risk of first relapse. Change in EDSS from baseline to 24 months was a strong predictor of evaluated clinical outcomes over 15 years. Conclusions These findings suggest that higher cumulative exposure to sc IFN β-1a may be associated with better clinical outcomes, and early change in EDSS score may have prognostic value, over many years, in RRMS. PMID:26374702

  20. Multiple post-translational modifications in hepatocyte nuclear factor 4{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, Atsushi; Katsura, Shogo; Ito, Ryo; Hashiba, Waka; Sekine, Hiroki; Fujiki, Ryoji; Kato, Shigeaki

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} We performed comprehensive PTM analysis for HNF4{alpha} protein. {yields} We identified 8 PTMs in HNF4{alpha} protein including newly identified PTMs. {yields} Among them, we found acetylation at lysine 458 was one of the prime PTMs for HNF4{alpha} function. {yields} Acetylation at lysine 458 was inhibitory for HNF4{alpha} transcription function. {yields} This modification fluctuated in response to extracellular condition. -- Abstract: To investigate the role of post-translational modifications (PTMs) in the hepatocyte nuclear factor 4{alpha} (HNF4{alpha})-mediated transcription, we took a comprehensive survey of PTMs in HNF4{alpha} protein by massspectrometry and identified totally 8 PTM sites including newly identified ubiquitilation and acetylation sites. To assess the impact of identified PTMs in HNF4{alpha}-function, we introduced point mutations at the identified PTM sites and, tested transcriptional activity of the HNF4{alpha}. Among the point-mutations, an acetylation site at lysine 458 was found significant in the HNF4{alpha}-mediated transcriptional control. An acetylation negative mutant at lysine 458 showed an increased transcriptional activity by about 2-fold, while an acetylation mimic mutant had a lowered transcriptional activation. Furthermore, this acetylation appeared to be fluctuated in response to extracellular nutrient conditions. Thus, by applying an comprehensive analysis of PTMs, multiple PTMs were newly identified in HNF4{alpha} and unexpected role of an HNF4{alpha} acetylation could be uncovered.

  1. Multiplication factor for open ground storey buildings-a reliability based evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haran Pragalath, D. C.; Avadhoot, Bhosale; Robin, Davis P.; Pradip, Sarkar

    2016-06-01

    Open Ground Storey (OGS) framed buildings where the ground storey is kept open without infill walls, mainly to facilitate parking, is increasing commonly in urban areas. However, vulnerability of this type of buildings has been exposed in past earthquakes. OGS buildings are conventionally designed by a bare frame analysis that ignores the stiffness of the infill walls present in the upper storeys, but doing so underestimates the inter-storey drift (ISD) and thereby the force demand in the ground storey columns. Therefore, a multiplication factor (MF) is introduced in various international codes to estimate the design forces (bending moments and shear forces) in the ground storey columns. This study focuses on the seismic performance of typical OGS buildings designed by means of MFs. The probabilistic seismic demand models, fragility curves, reliability and cost indices for various frame models including bare frames and fully infilled frames are developed. It is found that the MF scheme suggested by the Israel code is better than other international codes in terms of reliability and cost.

  2. [Brain-derived and ciliary neurotrophic factors in patients with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Trushnikova, T N; Medvedeva, E L; Baĭdina, T V; Danilova, M A

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To study serum concentrations of BDNF and CNTF in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and compare them to clinical characteristics of MS. Material and methods. We examined 43 patients with confirmed diagnosis of MS according to McDonald's criteria with remitting type of disease course. Patients were in a stable condition and did not receive hormone treatment during the last 30 days. Serum concentrations of BDNF and CNTF were measured using ELISA. Results. Mean serum BDNF concentration was 7.9 (5.21; 14.7) ng/ml that was significantly lower (p=0.0001) compared to control values and was correlated with depression severity (r= -0.31, p=0.04) and physical asthenia (r= -0.32, p=0.04). CNTF concentration was 69.9 (31.2; 123.3) pg/ml (CNTF was not found in healthy people) and was correlated with the results of cognitive function assessment (the PASAT test) (r= -0.30, p=0.046). Conclusion. The difference in BDNF and CNTF serum concentrations between MS patients and healthy people and correlations with some clinical characteristics of MS provide evidence for the involvement of these factors in MS pathogenesis. PMID:25591532

  3. Evidence for Multiple Mediator Complexes in Yeast Independently Recruited by Activated Heat Shock Factor.

    PubMed

    Anandhakumar, Jayamani; Moustafa, Yara W; Chowdhary, Surabhi; Kainth, Amoldeep S; Gross, David S

    2016-07-15

    Mediator is an evolutionarily conserved coactivator complex essential for RNA polymerase II transcription. Although it has been generally assumed that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mediator is a stable trimodular complex, its structural state in vivo remains unclear. Using the "anchor away" (AA) technique to conditionally deplete select subunits within Mediator and its reversibly associated Cdk8 kinase module (CKM), we provide evidence that Mediator's tail module is highly dynamic and that a subcomplex consisting of Med2, Med3, and Med15 can be independently recruited to the regulatory regions of heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1)-activated genes. Fluorescence microscopy of a scaffold subunit (Med14)-anchored strain confirmed parallel cytoplasmic sequestration of core subunits located outside the tail triad. In addition, and contrary to current models, we provide evidence that Hsf1 can recruit the CKM independently of core Mediator and that core Mediator has a role in regulating postinitiation events. Collectively, our results suggest that yeast Mediator is not monolithic but potentially has a dynamic complexity heretofore unappreciated. Multiple species, including CKM-Mediator, the 21-subunit core complex, the Med2-Med3-Med15 tail triad, and the four-subunit CKM, can be independently recruited by activated Hsf1 to its target genes in AA strains. PMID:27185874

  4. Engineering Factor Xa Inhibitor with Multiple Platelet-Binding Sites Facilitates its Platelet Targeting.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuanjun; Li, Ruyi; Lin, Yuan; Shui, Mengyang; Liu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Huan; Wang, Yinye

    2016-01-01

    Targeted delivery of antithrombotic drugs centralizes the effects in the thrombosis site and reduces the hemorrhage side effects in uninjured vessels. We have recently reported that the platelet-targeting factor Xa (FXa) inhibitors, constructed by engineering one Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif into Ancylostoma caninum anticoagulant peptide 5 (AcAP5), can reduce the risk of systemic bleeding than non-targeted AcAP5 in mouse arterial injury model. Increasing the number of platelet-binding sites of FXa inhibitors may facilitate their adhesion to activated platelets, and further lower the bleeding risks. For this purpose, we introduced three RGD motifs into AcAP5 to generate a variant NR4 containing three platelet-binding sites. NR4 reserved its inherent anti-FXa activity. Protein-protein docking showed that all three RGD motifs were capable of binding to platelet receptor αIIbβ3. Molecular dynamics simulation demonstrated that NR4 has more opportunities to interact with αIIbβ3 than single-RGD-containing NR3. Flow cytometry analysis and rat arterial thrombosis model further confirmed that NR4 possesses enhanced platelet targeting activity. Moreover, NR4-treated mice showed a trend toward less tail bleeding time than NR3-treated mice in carotid artery endothelium injury model. Therefore, our data suggest that engineering multiple binding sites in one recombinant protein is a useful tool to improve its platelet-targeting efficiency. PMID:27432161

  5. Smouldering retinopathy of prematurity: a case treated by multiple antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Divya; Ambiya, Vikas; Jalali, Subhadra; Rani, Padmaja Kumari

    2016-01-01

    A 13 months old female baby born at 24 weeks of gestational age (GA) presented with stage 4A retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) with plus disease in the right eye and stage 3 with plus disease in the left eye. The baby was diagnosed with stage 3 zone 2 ROP in both eyes with plus disease at 32 weeks of GA and received intravitreal bevacizumab in both eyes. The baby received intravitreal bevacizumab and ranibizumab injections at 39 and 57 weeks of postmenstrual age (PMA), respectively for recurrence. Laser treatment to peripheral avascular retina was carried out at 67 weeks of PMA. The right eye progressed to stage 4A and left eye developed pre-retinal haemorrhages. This case reports late recurrence treated with initial multiple antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections alone. One should be cautious in using anti-VEGF agents as a monotherapy in cases of ROP that appear different from the current understanding of the natural course of the disease. PMID:27571916

  6. The Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac110 gene encodes a new per os infectivity factor.

    PubMed

    Jiantao Liu; Zhu, Leyuan; Zhang, Shan; Deng, Zihao; Huang, Zhihong; Yuan, Meijin; Wu, Wenbi; Yang, Kai

    2016-08-01

    The Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac110 gene is especially conserved in lepidopteran-specific baculoviruses and is uncharacterized. To investigate the role of ac110 in the baculovirus life cycle, an ac110-knockout (vAc110KO) and a repair (vAc110:HA) viruses were constructed in this study. Budded virion production and occlusion body formation were unaffected in vAc110KO-transfected or infected Sf9 cells. Intrahemocoelic injection of budded virions of vAc110KO killed Trichoplusia ni larvae as efficiently as the repair or the wild-type viruses. However, per os inoculation of occlusion bodies of vAc110KO failed to establish infection in T. ni larvae, while the repair virus was as efficient as the wild-type virus. Treatment with calcofluor white, a reagent that damages the peritrophic membrane, did not rescue the oral infectivity of vAc110KO. These results suggested that Ac110 is a new per os infectivity factor that may play a role after occlusion-derived virions pass through the peritrophic membrane during oral infection. PMID:27212681

  7. Multiple Signaling Pathways of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor in Protection from Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Peruzzi, Francesca; Prisco, Marco; Dews, Michael; Salomoni, Paolo; Grassilli, Emanuela; Romano, Gaetano; Calabretta, Bruno; Baserga, Renato

    1999-01-01

    The type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R), activated by its ligands, protects several cell types from a variety of apoptotic injuries. The main signaling pathway for IGF-1R-mediated protection from apoptosis has been previously elucidated and rests on the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt/protein kinase B, and the phosphorylation and inactivation of BAD, a member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins. In 32D cells (a murine hemopoietic cell line devoid of insulin receptor substrate 1 [IRS-1]), the IGF-1R activates alternative pathways for protection from apoptosis induced by withdrawal of interleukin-3. One of these pathways leads to the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase, while a third pathway results in the mitochondrial translocation of Raf and depends on the integrity of a group of serines in the C terminus of the receptor that are known to interact with 14.3.3 proteins. All three pathways, however, result in BAD phosphorylation. The presence of multiple antiapoptotic pathways may explain the remarkable efficacy of the IGF-1R in protecting cells from apoptosis. PMID:10490655

  8. [Children with Multiple Risk Factor Exposition Benefit from the German "Strengthening Families Program"].

    PubMed

    Bröning, Sonja; Sack, Peter-Michael; Thomsen, Monika; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Children with Multiple Risk Factor Exposition Benefit from the German "Strengthening Families Program" The German adaptation of the substance use-preventive family-based Strengthening Families Program 10-14 (SFP, Iowa version) was evaluated in a longitudinal two-year follow-up trial. Participants were N = 292 children with a mean age of twelve years at baseline, and N = 292 parents. We employed a multi-centric, randomized-controlled, two-armed (SFP vs. minimal control condition) study design. Following a "risk moderation hypothesis", we assumed that children with an elevated risk-exposition R(+) would benefit more than children with a low risk-exposition R(-) irrespective of the preventive intervention, and that R(+) under SFP would benefit more than R(+) under the minimal control condition. "Risk-exposition" was measured in correspondence with the Communities That Care Youth Survey-questionnaire. A total of 28 % of children were classified with an elevated risk level. Children's reports confirmed our hypothesis: R(+) report a total of eleven improvements, four of these being significantly more distinct than in the other groups (Anxiety-Depressivity, Punitive Parenting of mother, Punitive Parenting of father, Unbalanced family functioning). In three measures an improvement appears solely in R(+) under SFP (Satisfaction with family functioning, School Attachment and Peer Relationship Quality, Quality of Life). Parents' reports showed a similar tendency, but were less pronounced. PMID:27595812

  9. Multiple interdependent sequence elements control splicing of a fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 alternative exon.

    PubMed Central

    Del Gatto, F; Plet, A; Gesnel, M C; Fort, C; Breathnach, R

    1997-01-01

    The fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene contains a pair of mutually exclusive alternative exons, one of which (K-SAM) is spliced specifically in epithelial cells. We have described previously (F. Del Gatto and R. Breathnach, Mol. Cell. Biol. 15:4825-4834, 1995) some elements controlling K-SAM exon splicing, namely weak exon splice sites, an exon-repressing sequence, and an intron-activating sequence. We identify here two additional sequences in the intron downstream from the K-SAM exon which activate splicing of the exon. The first sequence (intron-activating sequence 2 [IAS2]) lies 168 to 186 nucleotides downstream from the exon's 5' splice site. The second sequence (intron-activating sequence 3 [IAS3]) lies 933 to 1,052 nucleotides downstream from the exon's 5' splice site. IAS3 is a complex region composed of several parts, one of which (nucleotides 963 to 983) can potentially form an RNA secondary structure with IAS2. This structure is composed of two stems separated by an asymmetric bulge. Mutations which disrupt either stem decrease activation, while compensatory mutations which reestablish the stem restore activation, either completely or partially, depending on the mutation. We present a model for K-SAM exon splicing involving the intervention of multiple, interdependent pre-mRNA sequence elements. PMID:9271388

  10. Engineering Factor Xa Inhibitor with Multiple Platelet-Binding Sites Facilitates its Platelet Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yuanjun; Li, Ruyi; Lin, Yuan; Shui, Mengyang; Liu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Huan; Wang, Yinye

    2016-01-01

    Targeted delivery of antithrombotic drugs centralizes the effects in the thrombosis site and reduces the hemorrhage side effects in uninjured vessels. We have recently reported that the platelet-targeting factor Xa (FXa) inhibitors, constructed by engineering one Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif into Ancylostoma caninum anticoagulant peptide 5 (AcAP5), can reduce the risk of systemic bleeding than non-targeted AcAP5 in mouse arterial injury model. Increasing the number of platelet-binding sites of FXa inhibitors may facilitate their adhesion to activated platelets, and further lower the bleeding risks. For this purpose, we introduced three RGD motifs into AcAP5 to generate a variant NR4 containing three platelet-binding sites. NR4 reserved its inherent anti-FXa activity. Protein-protein docking showed that all three RGD motifs were capable of binding to platelet receptor αIIbβ3. Molecular dynamics simulation demonstrated that NR4 has more opportunities to interact with αIIbβ3 than single-RGD-containing NR3. Flow cytometry analysis and rat arterial thrombosis model further confirmed that NR4 possesses enhanced platelet targeting activity. Moreover, NR4-treated mice showed a trend toward less tail bleeding time than NR3-treated mice in carotid artery endothelium injury model. Therefore, our data suggest that engineering multiple binding sites in one recombinant protein is a useful tool to improve its platelet-targeting efficiency. PMID:27432161

  11. Discovery of Enhancers of the Secretion of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor for the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Vela, Laura; Caballero, Iván; Fang, Leiping; Liu, Qin; Ramón, Fernando; Díez, Emilio; de Los Frailes, Maite

    2016-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune neurodegenerative disease that involves activation of T cells, microglia, and astrocytes. There is a clear unmet medical need for MS, as current therapies reduce the relapse rate, but are unable to prevent the neurological deterioration. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine that can also positively modulate the immune response, by inducing the inhibition of myelin-reactive TH17 differentiation, and by promoting oligodendrocyte-mediated myelination. The aim of this project was to find central nervous system (CNS)-permeable and orally available small molecules that upregulate production of endogenous LIF. We describe here the development of a phenotypic assay and screening of 1.7 million compounds to identify LIF enhancers using U87 MG cells. Five chemically tractable series of compounds and a few singletons were selected for further progression. Some of them were also active in a different LIF-expressing cell line and in primary rat astrocytes. Although further studies would be required to deconvolute the targets involved in LIF induction and to confirm activity of hits in more disease-relevant assays, our results have demonstrated the potential of the phenotypic approach to identify specific and chemically tractable small molecules that trigger the production of LIF in relevant cell lines. PMID:26984928

  12. Scattering from phase-separated vesicles. I. An analytical form factor for multiple static domains

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Heberle, Frederick A.; Anghel, Vinicius N. P.; Katsaras, John

    2015-08-18

    This is the first in a series of studies considering elastic scattering from laterally heterogeneous lipid vesicles containing multiple domains. Unique among biophysical tools, small-angle neutron scattering can in principle give detailed information about the size, shape and spatial arrangement of domains. A general theory for scattering from laterally heterogeneous vesicles is presented, and the analytical form factor for static domains with arbitrary spatial configuration is derived, including a simplification for uniformly sized round domains. The validity of the model, including series truncation effects, is assessed by comparison with simulated data obtained from a Monte Carlo method. Several aspects ofmore » the analytical solution for scattering intensity are discussed in the context of small-angle neutron scattering data, including the effect of varying domain size and number, as well as solvent contrast. Finally, the analysis indicates that effects of domain formation are most pronounced when the vesicle's average scattering length density matches that of the surrounding solvent.« less

  13. Rgg influences the expression of multiple regulatory loci to coregulate virulence factor expression in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Chaussee, Michael S; Sylva, Gail L; Sturdevant, Daniel E; Smoot, Laura M; Graham, Morag R; Watson, Robert O; Musser, James M

    2002-02-01

    The human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes secretes many proteins to the cell wall and extracellular environment that contribute to virulence. Rgg regulates the expression of several exoproteins including a cysteine protease (SPE B), a nuclease (MF-1), a putative nuclease (MF-3), and autolysin. The functional heterogeneity of Rgg-regulated exoproteins and the lack of a conserved regulatory motif in the promoter regions of the genes suggested that Rgg interacts with additional regulatory networks to influence gene expression. DNA microarrays were used to test this hypothesis by comparing genomewide transcript profiles of S. pyogenes NZ131 and isogenic derivative NZ131 rgg during the exponential phase of growth. Transcripts of known and putative virulence-associated genes were more abundant in the rgg mutant, including emm, scpA, orfX, scl1, hasAB, slo, sagA, ska, speH, grab, mac, mf-1, and mf-3. Increased transcription of emm, scpA, and orfX in the rgg mutant was associated with increased production of the corresponding proteins. Differences in the expression of virulence-associated genes were associated with changes in the expression of several regulatory genes, including mga, sagA, csrRS, and fasBCA. The results show that Rgg influences the expression of multiple regulatory networks to coregulate virulence factor expression in S. pyogenes. PMID:11796609

  14. Causes of Death and Prognostic Factors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tetsuhide; Igarashi, Hisato; Uehara, Hirotsugu; Berna, Marc J.; Jensen, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is classically characterized by the development of functional or nonfunctional hyperplasia or tumors in endocrine tissues (parathyroid, pancreas, pituitary, adrenal). Because effective treatments have been developed for the hormone excess state, which was a major cause of death in these patients in the past, coupled with the recognition that nonendocrine tumors increasingly develop late in the disease course, the natural history of the disease has changed. An understanding of the current causes of death is important to tailor treatment for these patients and to help identify prognostic factors; however, it is generally lacking. To add to our understanding, we conducted a detailed analysis of the causes of death and prognostic factors from a prospective long-term National Institutes of Health (NIH) study of 106 MEN1 patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (MEN1/ZES patients) and compared our results to those from the pooled literature data of 227 patients with MEN1 with pancreatic endocrine tumors (MEN1/PET patients) reported in case reports or small series, and to 1386 patients reported in large MEN1 literature series. In the NIH series over a mean follow-up of 24.5 years, 24 (23%) patients died (14 MEN1-related and 10 non-MEN1-related deaths). Comparing the causes of death with the results from the 227 patients in the pooled literature series, we found that no patients died of acute complications due to acid hypersecretion, and 8%–14% died of other hormone excess causes, which is similar to the results in 10 large MEN1 literature series published since 1995. In the 2 series (the NIH and pooled literature series), two-thirds of patients died from an MEN1-related cause and one-third from a non-MEN1-related cause, which agrees with the mean values reported in 10 large MEN1 series in the literature, although in the literature the causes of death varied widely. In the NIH and pooled

  15. [Single-donor protocol: Transfusion practices and multiple transfusion risk factors in neonatal intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Dollat, C; Pierron, C; Keslick, A; Billoir, E; François, A; Jarreau, P-H

    2016-09-01

    In France since 2002, the single-donor transfusion protocol, using four pediatric units from the same adult donor's packed red blood cells (PRBCs) in multiply transfused newborns, is recommended in preterm neonates to reduce the risks of infection and alloimmunization. This protocol is controversial, however, because it causes the transfusion of stored blood, which could have adverse consequences. Before the new recommendations of the French Haute Autorité de santé (National authority for health) in 2015, we conducted a national practice survey in 63 neonatal intensive care units (NICU) and a retrospective study of the characteristics of 103 children transfused within our unit, to better target beneficiaries. The practice survey showed that 30 % of French NICUs no longer used the protocol in 2014, due to logistical or financial problems, or concerns about the transfusion of stored blood. The practices were heterogeneous. Few NICUs used a written protocol. In our NICU, the use of single-donor protocol involved the use of units stored for more than 20 days in half of the cases beginning with the third unit used. Six-term newborns were mainly transfused once, which does not seem to warrant the single-donor transfusion protocol. The use of this protocol caused the loss of 50 % of the manufactured units, which go unused. In multivariate analysis, two factors were predictive of multiple transfusion within our population of 95 premature neonates undergoing transfusion: low-term and a high Clinical Risk Index for Babies (CRIB) score. The risk of multiple transfusions would be reduced by about 15 % for each additional week of gestation and approximately 16 % per point within the CRIB score. These variables integrated into a statistical model predict the risk of multiplying transfusions. According to the ROC curve, a calculated risk higher than 50 % is the appropriate cut-off value to transfuse with the single-donor transfusion protocol. This would limit its

  16. A structure-based Multiple-Instance Learning approach to predicting in vitro transcription factor-DNA interaction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding the mechanism of transcriptional regulation remains an inspiring stage of molecular biology. Recently, in vitro protein-binding microarray experiments have greatly improved the understanding of transcription factor-DNA interaction. We present a method - MIL3D - which predicts in vitro transcription factor binding by multiple-instance learning with structural properties of DNA. Results Evaluation on in vitro data of twenty mouse transcription factors shows that our method outperforms a method based on simple-instance learning with DNA structural properties, and the widely used k-mer counting method, for nineteen out of twenty of the transcription factors. Our analysis showed that the MIL3D approach can utilize subtle structural similarities when a strong sequence consensus is not available. Conclusion Combining multiple-instance learning and structural properties of DNA has promising potential for studying biological regulatory networks. PMID:25917392

  17. Optimization of Thermochemical, Kinetic, and Electrochemical Factors Governing Partitioning of Radionuclides during Melt Decontamination of Radioactively Contaminated Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Van Den Avyle, James A.; Melgaard, David; Molecke, Martin; Shelmidine, Greg J.; Pal, Uday; Bychkov, Sergie I.

    1999-12-31

    Metal waste generated from domestic nuclear operations for defense and commercial applications has led to a growing stockpile of radioactively contaminated scrap metal, much of which is stainless steel. This steel contains large quantities of strategic elements such as nickel and chromium and constitutes a valuable domestic resource [1]. A significant fraction of this material cannot be efficiently surface decontaminated, and burial of this material would be wasteful and expensive, since long term monitoring would be necessary in order to minimize environmental risk. Melt decontamination of this material would maintain the chemical pedigree of the stainless steel, allowing its controlled reuse within the nuclear community. This research addresses the melt decontamination of radioactively contaminated stainless steel by electroslag remelting (ESR). ESR is industrially used for the production of specialty steels and superalloys to remove a variety of contaminates and to improve metal chemistry. Correctly applied, it could maintain the specified chemistry and mechanical properties of the original material while capturing the radioactive transuranic elements in a stable slag phase. The ESR process also produces a high quality metal ingot free of porosity that can be directly forged or rolled into final shapes. The goal of this project was to optimize a melt decontamination process through a basic understanding of the factors which govern the partitioning of various radionuclides between the metal, slag, and gas phases. Radionuclides which are captured by a slag phase may be stabilized by promoting the formation of synthetic minerals within a leach resistant matrix. This research program included three segments. At Boston University, Prof. Uday Pal and his group conducted research to develop a fundamental understanding of thermochemical and electrochemical behaviors of slag/metal/radionuclide surrogate systems. This work combined experimental characterization and

  18. Endothelial dysfunction and progressive coronary atherosclerosis: sequential invasive studies in a patient with multiple cardiac risk factors.

    PubMed

    Chander, R; Kuhner, P A; Laws Houghton, J

    2001-08-01

    This manuscript describes sequential angiographic, endothelial and vasoreactivity characteristics of the coronary arterial circulation in a middle-aged patient with multiple cardiac risk factors who developed hemodynamically significant coronary atherosclerosis over a 6-year period. A 56-year-old woman demonstrated marked angiographic progression of coronary atherosclerosis over time beginning with minor luminal irregularities in the setting of severe endothelial dysfunction. The association of endothelial dysfunction, ineffective cardiac risk factor management and progressive atherosclerosis is discussed. PMID:11481511

  19. Risk Factors for Fecal Colonization with Multiple Distinct Strains of Escherichia coli Among Long-Term Care Facility Residents

    PubMed Central

    Lautenbach, Ebbing; Tolomeo, Pam; Black, Nicole; Maslow, Joel N.

    2009-01-01

    Of 49 long-term care facility residents, 21 (43%) were colonized with two or more distinct strains of Escherichia coli. There were no significant risk factors for colonization with multiple strains of E. coli. These results suggest future efforts to efficiently identify diversity of colonizing strains will be challenging. PMID:19292660

  20. Multiple-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis in R--A Tutorial in Measurement Invariance with Continuous and Ordinal Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschfeld, Gerrit; von Brachel, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA) is among the most productive extensions of structural equation modeling. Many researchers conducting cross-cultural or longitudinal studies are interested in testing for measurement and structural invariance. The aim of the present paper is to provide a tutorial in MG-CFA using the freely…

  1. Adaptation of a Counseling Intervention to Address Multiple Cancer Risk Factors among Overweight/Obese Latino Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Yessenia; Fernández, Maria E.; Strong, Larkin L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Krasny, Sarah; Hernandez Robles, Eden; Heredia, Natalia; Spears, Claire A.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Eakin, Elizabeth; Resnicow, Ken; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Wetter, David W.

    2015-01-01

    More than 60% of cancer-related deaths in the United States are attributable to tobacco use, poor nutrition, and physical inactivity, and these risk factors tend to cluster together. Thus, strategies for cancer risk reduction would benefit from addressing multiple health risk behaviors. We adapted an evidence-based intervention grounded in social…

  2. Risk factors for fecal colonization with multiple distinct strains of Escherichia coli among long-term care facility residents.

    PubMed

    Lautenbach, Ebbing; Tolomeo, Pam; Black, Nicole; Maslow, Joel N

    2009-05-01

    Of 49 long-term care facility residents, 21 (43%) were colonized with 2 or more distinct strains of Escherichia coli. There were no significant risk factors for colonization with multiple strains of E. coli. These results suggest that future efforts to efficiently identify the diversity of colonizing strains will be challenging. PMID:19292660

  3. Physical and Cognitive-Affective Factors Associated with Fatigue in Individuals with Fibromyalgia: A Multiple Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Veronica; Brooks, Jessica; Tu, Wei-Mo; Moser, Erin; Lo, Chu-Ling; Chan, Fong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this study was to determine the extent to which physical and cognitive-affective factors are associated with fibromyalgia (FM) fatigue. Method: A quantitative descriptive design using correlation techniques and multiple regression analysis. The participants consisted of 302 members of the National Fibromyalgia &…

  4. A Multiple Risk Factors Model of the Development of Aggression among Early Adolescents from Urban Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sangwon; Orpinas, Pamela; Kamphaus, Randy; Kelder, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    This study empirically derived a multiple risk factors model of the development of aggression among middle school students in urban, low-income neighborhoods, using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM). Results indicated that aggression increased from sixth to eighth grade. Additionally, the influences of four risk domains (individual, family,…

  5. Multiple Risk Factor Intervention in the Delivery of Primary Health Care to the Elderly: Lessons from Community-Based Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kligman, Evan W.

    Within the past decade the role of the primary care physician caring for older patients has expanded to include counseling and "healthy aging" education to reduce multiple behavior risk factors. Project AGE WELL was a longitudinal study of the impact of a comprehensive and team delivered health promotion program on the health status of the…

  6. Resource factors for mental health resilience in early childhood: An analysis with multiple methodologies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Given that relatively little is known about the development of resilience in early childhood, this longitudinal study aimed to identify preschool resource factors associated with young children’s mental health resilience to family adversity. Methods A community sample of 474 young Australian children was assessed in preschool (mean age 4.59 years, 49% male), and again two years later after their transition into formal schooling. At each assessment, standard questionnaires were used to obtain ratings from both parents and teachers about the quality of children’s relationships with parents and teachers, children’s self-concept and self-control, mental health (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), and family adversities (including stressful life events and socioeconomic disadvantage). Results Greater exposure to cumulative family adversities was associated with both greater teacher- and parent-reported child mental health difficulties two years later. Multiple methodologies for operationalizing resilience were used to identify resources associated with resilient mental health outcomes. Higher quality child–parent and child-teacher relationships, and greater child self-concept and self-control were associated with resilient mental health outcomes. With the exception of child-teacher relationships, these resources were also prospective antecedents of subsequent resilient mental health outcomes in children with no pre-existing mental health difficulties. Child–parent relationships and child self-concept generally had promotive effects, being equally beneficial for children facing both low- and high-adversity. Child self-control demonstrated a small protective effect on teacher-reported outcomes, with greater self-control conferring greater protection to children under conditions of high-adversity. Conclusions Findings suggest that early intervention and prevention strategies that focus on fostering child-adult relationship quality, self

  7. Global effect of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis on multiple virulence factors of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shihui; Zhang, Qiu; Guo, Jianhua; Charkowski, Amy O; Glick, Bernard R; Ibekwe, A Mark; Cooksey, Donald A; Yang, Ching-Hong

    2007-02-01

    Production of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is widespread among plant-associated microorganisms. The non-gall-forming phytopathogen Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 (strain Ech3937) possesses iaaM (ASAP16562) and iaaH (ASAP16563) gene homologues. In this work, the null knockout iaaM mutant strain Ech138 was constructed. The IAA production by Ech138 was reduced in M9 minimal medium supplemented with l-tryptophan. Compared with wild-type Ech3937, Ech138 exhibited reduced ability to produce local maceration, but its multiplication in Saintpaulia ionantha was unaffected. The pectate lyase production of Ech138 was diminished. Compared with wild-type Ech3937, the expression levels of an oligogalacturonate lyase gene, ogl, and three endopectate lyase genes, pelD, pelI, and pelL, were reduced in Ech138 as determined by a green fluorescent protein-based fluorescence-activated cell sorting promoter activity assay. In addition, the transcription of type III secretion system (T3SS) genes, dspE (a putative T3SS effector) and hrpN (T3SS harpin), was found to be diminished in the iaaM mutant Ech138. Compared with Ech3937, reduced expression of hrpL (a T3SS alternative sigma factor) and gacA but increased expression of rsmA in Ech138 was also observed, suggesting that the regulation of T3SS and pectate lyase genes by IAA biosynthesis might be partially due to the posttranscriptional regulation of the Gac-Rsm regulatory pathway. PMID:17189441

  8. Renin-angiotensin system gene polymorphisms as risk factors for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Živković, Maja; Kolaković, Ana; Stojković, Ljiljana; Dinčić, Evica; Kostić, Smiljana; Alavantić, Dragan; Stanković, Aleksandra

    2016-04-15

    The components of renin-angiotensin system, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II and angiotensin II receptor type 1 and 2 (AT1R and AT2R), are expressed in the central nervous system and leukocytes and proposed to be involved in the inflammation and pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). ACE I/D, AT1R 1166A/C and AT2R -1332A/G are functional polymorphisms associated with phenotypes of diverse chronic inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between ACE I/D, AT1R 1166A/C and AT2R -1332A/G gene polymorphisms and MS in Serbian population. A total of 470 MS patients and 478 controls participated in the study. Allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for genotyping of the ACE polymorphism. The AT1R and AT2R genotyping was done by duplex PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Both ACE homozygotes, II and DD, were significantly overrepresented in MS patients, compared to controls (χ(2) test p=0.03). Neither genotype nor allele frequencies of AT1R 1166A/C polymorphism were significantly different between patients and controls. Significant overrepresentation of AT2R -1332 AA genotype in female patients, compared to female controls, was detected (OR=1.67, 95%CI=1.13-2.49, χ(2) test p=0.01), suggesting that this genotype could be a gender-specific genetic risk factor for MS. PMID:27000216

  9. Decreased Endothelin-1 Plasma Levels in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Possible Factor of Vascular Dysregulation?

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska-Lech, Irmina; Terelak-Borys, Barbara; Grabska-Liberek, Iwona; Palasik, Witold; Bik, Wojciech; Wolińska-Witort, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system with possible involvement of vascular dysregulation secondary to endothelial dysfunction caused by destruction of the vessel wall. Vascular dysregulation leads to excessive vasoconstriction or insufficient vasodilatation, resulting in vasospasm mediated by endothelin-1 (ET-1), the most potent and long-lasting mediator. Vascular dysregulation can play an important role in the pathogenesis of some eye disorders and it has been hypothesized that it is a vascular risk factor for glaucomatous optic neuropathy. The aim of this study was to estimate endothelin-1 (ET-1) plasma levels in patients with MS. Material/Methods The MS group consisted of 39 patients (9 males, 30 females), mean age: 38.8±10.02 years, range: 22–62. The control group consisted of 27 healthy volunteers (3 males and 24 females), mean age: 37.4±10.88 years, range: 20–62; clinically, in a non-active stage of the disease. ET-1 plasma levels were measured using the Endothelin-1 ELISA Kit (Immuno-Biological Laboratories Co., Japan). Statistical analysis was performed with the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test for independent groups. Results Endothelin-1 (ET-1) plasma levels were significantly lower in MS patients compared to healthy controls: mean value 0.55±0.44 pg/ml (146.05±118.27 fmol/ml) vs. 0.95±0.48 pg/ml (252.83±127.16 fmol/ml); P=0.012. Conclusions Significantly decreased ET-1 plasma levels in the MS patients could reflect the non-active disease at the time of ET-1 measurements or the effects of immunomodulatory treatment, but it cannot be excluded that decreased ET-1 plasma levels in these patients might result from vascular dysregulation. PMID:25864450

  10. Multiple immune factors are involved in controlling acute and chronic chikungunya virus infection.

    PubMed

    Poo, Yee Suan; Rudd, Penny A; Gardner, Joy; Wilson, Jane A C; Larcher, Thibaut; Colle, Marie-Anne; Le, Thuy T; Nakaya, Helder I; Warrilow, David; Allcock, Richard; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Schroder, Wayne A; Khromykh, Alexander A; Lopez, José A; Suhrbier, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    The recent epidemic of the arthritogenic alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has prompted a quest to understand the correlates of protection against virus and disease in order to inform development of new interventions. Herein we highlight the propensity of CHIKV infections to persist long term, both as persistent, steady-state, viraemias in multiple B cell deficient mouse strains, and as persistent RNA (including negative-strand RNA) in wild-type mice. The knockout mouse studies provided evidence for a role for T cells (but not NK cells) in viraemia suppression, and confirmed the role of T cells in arthritis promotion, with vaccine-induced T cells also shown to be arthritogenic in the absence of antibody responses. However, MHC class II-restricted T cells were not required for production of anti-viral IgG2c responses post CHIKV infection. The anti-viral cytokines, TNF and IFNγ, were persistently elevated in persistently infected B and T cell deficient mice, with adoptive transfer of anti-CHIKV antibodies unable to clear permanently the viraemia from these, or B cell deficient, mice. The NOD background increased viraemia and promoted arthritis, with B, T and NK deficient NOD mice showing high-levels of persistent viraemia and ultimately succumbing to encephalitic disease. In wild-type mice persistent CHIKV RNA and negative strand RNA (detected for up to 100 days post infection) was associated with persistence of cellular infiltrates, CHIKV antigen and stimulation of IFNα/β and T cell responses. These studies highlight that, secondary to antibodies, several factors are involved in virus control, and suggest that chronic arthritic disease is a consequence of persistent, replicating and transcriptionally active CHIKV RNA. PMID:25474568