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Sample records for factor nsf sorting

  1. REQUIREMENTS FOR THE CATALYTIC CYCLE OF THE N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTOR (NSF)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunxia; Smith, Everett C.; Whiteheart, Sidney W.

    2014-01-01

    The N-ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor (NSF) was one of the initial members of the ATPases Associated with various cellular Activities Plus (AAA+) family. In this review, we discuss what is known about the mechanism of NSF action and how that relates to the mechanisms of other AAA+ proteins. Like other family members, NSF binds to a protein complex (i.e., SNAP-SNARE complex) and utilizes ATP hydrolysis to affect the conformations of that complex. SNAP-SNARE complex disassembly is essential for SNARE recycling and sustained membrane trafficking. NSF is a homo-hexamer; each protomer is composed of an N-terminal domain, NSF-N, and two adjacent AAA-domains, NSF-D1 and NSF-D2. Mutagenesis analysis has established specific roles for many of the structural elements of NSF-D1, the catalytic ATPase domain, and NSF-N, the SNAP-SNARE binding domain. Hydrodynamic analysis of NSF, labeled with (Ni2+-NTA)2-Cy3, detected conformational differences in NSF, in which the ATP-bound conformation appears more compact than the ADP-bound form. This indicates that NSF undergoes significant conformational changes as it progresses through its ATP-hydrolysis cycle. Incorporating these data, we propose a sequential mechanism by which NSF uses NSF-N and NSF-D1 to disassemble SNAP-SNARE complexes. We also illustrate how analytical centrifugation might be used to study other AAA+ proteins. PMID:21689688

  2. Review: Progresses in understanding N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor (NSF) mediated disassembly of SNARE complexes.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Je-Kyung; Jahn, Reinhard; Yoon, Tae-Young

    2016-08-01

    N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor (NSF) is a key protein of intracellular membrane traffic. NSF is a highly conserved protein belonging to the ATPases associated with other activities (AAA+ proteins). AAA+ share common domains and all transduce ATP hydrolysis into major conformational movements that are used to carry out conformational work on client proteins. Together with its cofactor SNAP, NSF is specialized on disassembling highly stable SNARE complexes that form after each membrane fusion event. Although essential for all eukaryotic cells, however, the details of this reaction have long been enigmatic. Recently, major progress has been made in both elucidating the structure of NSF/SNARE complexes and in understanding the reaction mechanism. Advances in both cryo EM and single molecule measurements suggest that NSF, together with its cofactor SNAP, imposes a tight grip on the SNARE complex. After ATP hydrolysis and phosphate release, it then builds up mechanical tension that is ultimately used to rip apart the SNAREs in a single burst. Because the AAA domains are extremely well-conserved, the molecular mechanism elucidated for NSF is presumably shared by many other AAA+ ATPases. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 518-531, 2016. PMID:27062050

  3. N-Ethylmaleimide Sensitive Factor (NSF) Inhibition Prevents Vascular Instability following Gram-Positive Pulmonary Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Young; Linge, Helena M.; Ochani, Kanta; Lin, Ke; Miller, Edmund J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Pneumonia and sepsis are leading causes of ARDS, the pathophysiology of which includes increased pulmonary microvascular permeability and hemodynamic instability resulting in organ dysfunction. We hypothesized that N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor (NSF) regulates exocytosis of inflammatory mediators, such as Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), and cytoskeletal stability by modulating myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation. Therefore, we challenged pulmonary cells, in vivo and in vitro, with Gram Positive bacterial cell wall components, lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and peptidoglycan (PGN) and examined the effects of NSF inhibition. Methods Mice were pre-treated with an inhibitor of NSF, TAT-NSF700 (to prevent Ang-2 release). After 30min, LTA and PGN (or saline alone) were instilled intratracheally. Pulse oximetry was assessed in awake mice prior to, and 6 hour post instillation. Post mortem, tissues were collected for studies of inflammation and Ang-2. In vitro, pulmonary endothelial cells were assessed for their responses to LTA and PGN. Results Pulmonary challenge induced signs of airspace and systemic inflammation such as changes in neutrophil counts and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and tissue Ang-2 concentration, and decreased physiological parameters including oxygen saturation and pulse distention. TAT-NSF700 pre-treatment reduced LTA-PGN induced changes in lung tissue Ang-2, oxygen saturation and pulse distention. In vitro, LTA-PGN induced a rapid (<2 min) release of Ang-2, which was significantly attenuated by TAT-NSF700 or anti TLR2 antibody. Furthermore, TAT-NSF700 reduced LTA-PGN-induced MLC phosphorylation at low concentrations of 1–10 nM. Conclusions TAT-NSF700 decreased Ang-2 release, improved oxygen saturation and pulse distention following pulmonary challenge by inhibiting MLC phosphorylation, an

  4. Recent Advances in Deciphering the Structure and Molecular Mechanism of the AAA+ ATPase N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor (NSF).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Minglei; Brunger, Axel T

    2016-05-01

    N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), first discovered in 1988, is a key factor for eukaryotic trafficking, including protein and hormone secretion and neurotransmitter release. It is a member of the AAA+ family (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities). NSF disassembles soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes in conjunction with soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein (SNAP). Structural studies of NSF and its complex with SNAREs and SNAPs (known as 20S supercomplex) started about 20years ago. Crystal structures of individual N and D2 domains of NSF and low-resolution electron microscopy structures of full-length NSF and 20S supercomplex have been reported over the years. Nevertheless, the molecular architecture of the 20S supercomplex and the molecular mechanism of NSF-mediated SNARE complex disassembly remained unclear until recently. Here we review recent atomic-resolution or near-atomic resolution structures of NSF and of the 20S supercomplex, as well as recent insights into the molecular mechanism and energy requirements of NSF. We also compare NSF with other known AAA+ family members. PMID:26546278

  5. Processive ATP-driven Substrate Disassembly by the N-Ethylmaleimide-sensitive Factor (NSF) Molecular Machine*♦

    PubMed Central

    Cipriano, Daniel J.; Jung, Jaemyeong; Vivona, Sandro; Fenn, Timothy D.; Brunger, Axel T.; Bryant, Zev

    2013-01-01

    SNARE proteins promote membrane fusion by forming a four-stranded parallel helical bundle that brings the membranes into close proximity. Post-fusion, the complex is disassembled by an AAA+ ATPase called N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF). We present evidence that NSF uses a processive unwinding mechanism to disassemble SNARE proteins. Using a real-time disassembly assay based on fluorescence dequenching, we correlate NSF-driven disassembly rates with the SNARE-activated ATPase activity of NSF. Neuronal SNAREs activate the ATPase rate of NSF by ∼26-fold. One SNARE complex takes an average of ∼5 s to disassemble in a process that consumes ∼50 ATP. Investigations of substrate requirements show that NSF is capable of disassembling a truncated SNARE substrate consisting of only the core SNARE domain, but not an unrelated four-stranded coiled-coil. NSF can also disassemble an engineered double-length SNARE complex, suggesting a processive unwinding mechanism. We further investigated processivity using single-turnover experiments, which show that SNAREs can be unwound in a single encounter with NSF. We propose a processive helicase-like mechanism for NSF in which ∼1 residue is unwound for every hydrolyzed ATP molecule. PMID:23775070

  6. NSF appointment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    President Ronald Reagan has announced his intention to nominate Richard S. Nicholson as assistant director of the National Science Foundation (NSF) for mathematical and physical sciences. Nicholson has been acting deputy director and staff director of NSF since 1983.A research chemist by training, Nicholson was an associate professor of chemistry at Michigan State University before joining NSF in 1970. He served in a number of capacities at NSF, including executive director of the National Science Board commission on precollege education in mathematics, science, and technology, deputy assistant director for the mathematical and physical sciences, and senior planning officer for mathematical and physical sciences. The nomination is subject to Senate confirmation.

  7. Adolescent Sex Offenders' Rankings of Therapeutic Factors Using the Yalom Card Sort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sribney, Christine L.; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    Following 11-98 weeks of inpatient residential treatment, 69 male adolescent sex offenders completed the 60-item, 12-factor Yalom Card Sort. The rank orders were compared to adult sex offenders and a psychiatric adult outpatient group. Relative to adult psychiatric outpatients, the adolescent sex offenders had rated Instillation of Hope three…

  8. Nominations for NSF, NSB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    President Ronald Reagan plans to nominate William J. Merrell, Jr., to be assistant director of the National Science Foundation (NSF) for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO), according to an announcement by NSF. The President also has announced his intention to nominate Craig C. Black and Charles L. Hosier to the National Science Board (NSB), NSF said. The president's nominations are subject to Senate confirmation.

  9. A role for sorting nexin 2 in epidermal growth factor receptor down-regulation: evidence for distinct functions of sorting nexin 1 and 2 in protein trafficking.

    PubMed

    Gullapalli, Anuradha; Garrett, Tiana A; Paing, May M; Griffin, Courtney T; Yang, Yonghua; Trejo, JoAnn

    2004-05-01

    Sorting nexin 1 (SNX1) and SNX2, homologues of the yeast vacuolar protein-sorting (Vps)5p, contain a phospholipid-binding motif termed the phox homology (PX) domain and a carboxyl terminal coiled-coil region. A role for SNX1 in trafficking of cell surface receptors from endosomes to lysosomes has been proposed; however, the function of SNX2 remains unknown. Toward understanding the function of SNX2, we first examined the distribution of endogenous protein in HeLa cells. We show that SNX2 resides primarily in early endosomes, whereas SNX1 is found partially in early endosomes and in tubulovesicular-like structures distributed throughout the cytoplasm. We also demonstrate that SNX1 interacts with the mammalian retromer complex through its amino terminal domain, whereas SNX2 does not. Moreover, activated endogenous epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) colocalizes markedly with SNX2-positive endosomes, but minimally with SNX1-containing vesicles. To assess SNX2 function, we examined the effect of a PX domain-mutated SNX2 that is defective in vesicle localization on EGFR trafficking. Mutant SNX2 markedly inhibited agonist-induced EGFR degradation, whereas internalization remained intact. In contrast, SNX1 PX domain mutants failed to effect EGFR degradation, whereas a SNX1 deletion mutant significantly inhibited receptor down-regulation. Interestingly, knockdown of SNX1 and SNX2 expression by RNA interference failed to alter agonist-induced EGFR down-regulation. Together, these findings suggest that both SNX1 and SNX2 are involved in regulating lysosomal sorting of internalized EGFR, but neither protein is essential for this process. These studies are the first to demonstrate a function for SNX2 in protein trafficking. PMID:14978220

  10. NSF Director to resign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Edward A. Knapp, director of the National Science Foundation (NSF) since late 1982, will resign his post later this year to return to research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. President Ronald Reagan has announced his intention to nominate Erich Bloch, vice president for technical personnel development at the IBM Corp., as Knapp's successor.Following formal nomination by President Reagan, the Senate must confirm Bloch as NSF director. If Bloch is confirmed, he is likely to bring to NSF the greater emphasis on engineering that the agency has sought in response to requests from Congress and the engineering community during the last year.

  11. Protected programs at NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Many scientists and science administrators say they are disturbed by the fact that Congress “protected” funding for some National Science Foundation (NSF) programs in the fiscal year (FY) 1987 budget at a cost to other NSF programs. Especially disturbing to some was the notion that the earmarking reportedly occurred as a result of special interest lobbying efforts by their fellow scientists. The favored programs, and those that were cut back to compensate for them, were mostly related to geophysics. The protection of these programs is likely to have some impact on the size and number of grants awarded in some other areas.

  12. Congress trims NSF budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    The last-minute spending bill adopted by Congress just before its 1987 holiday recess provides $1,717 billion for the National Science Foundation (NSF) for fiscal year (FY) 1988. The approved figure is more than 9% lower than the request in President Reagan's budget plan. In addition, wording in the House version of the bill that mandated protection of ocean science and women and minorities programs did not appear in the final product that was approved by Congress and signed into law.In absolute terms, NSF's budget will be 6% more than in 1987, far less than expected by the agency and the White House, which had proposed a doubling of NSF's budget over the next several years. The Research and Related Activities section of the budget, out of which comes the bulk of NSF's support of basic research, was funded at $1,453 billion, $200 million less than its $1,653 billion request, and the Antarctic Research section received $124.8 million of $143 million in the President's budget. Science Education, on the other hand, was budgeted for $139.2 million, $25 million more than requested.

  13. NSF announces diversity programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruesi, Liz

    2016-04-01

    The US National Science Foundation (NSF) has initiated a new funding programme that will create schemes to increase diversity in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The initiative – Inclusion across the Nation of Communities of Learners of Underrepresented Discoverers in Engineering and Science (INCLUDES) – aims to increase the participation of women, those with a low socioeconomic status, people with disabilities and those from minority racial backgrounds.

  14. Benefits of NSF work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packard, Ted

    This fall I will leave my rotatorship as Associate Director for Chemical Oceanography at the National Science Foundation. I have very much enjoyed my duty and want to outline for those who may become “rotators” some of the job's benefits, since NSF is now seeking applicants to replace me. Batiza, Rea and Rumble [Eos, 69, 801, 1988] have discussed the rotator's experience; my comments supplement their points.The most important benefit in working at NSF is the breadth of vision you acquire. This is important for researchers, because it pulls you away from your narrowly focused subfield and forces you to review again, as you did as a graduate student, your entire field. For teachers, this benefit is equally important, because you will keep up with current research even while away from teaching your up-to-date balanced courses. During my stay here I have reviewed proposals to study trace metals scavenging, gas exchange, sediment traps, biochemical cycling, stable and unstable isotopes, lipid biomarkers, sediment diagenesis, anoxic redox processes, and many other exciting topics. Some research areas, such as the vent and seep studies, had not been conceived when I was a graduate student in the sixties, so my experience here has been, in fact, a real sabbatical.

  15. New directions at NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Albert B.

    1995-10-01

    The mission and scope of the National Science Foundation (NSF) and lightwave technology will be very briefly discussed. The focus of the presentation will be directed toward changes in research support that are taking place and the opportunities we have for aiming our research to meet the challenges and needs that face the nation. In the USA it is very clear that defense oriented research is downsizing and is being redirected into economy driven aresas, such as manufacturing, business, and industry. For those researchers who are willing to move into these areas and find a niche, the rewards may be very great. Industrial research partners should also seize these opportunities to enhance their resources in an otherwise bleak future for industrial support of basic research in lightwave technology and many other reserach disciplines. These activities of bringing together industry and academia will have the value added benefit of providing increased job opportunities for students. An outline of some of these opportunities and incentives will be presented. On the international front, there has never been a better time for the encouragement of joint research and collaboration across borders. The economic potential for involvement in Eastern Europe and Asia are enormous. Agencies like ourselves are open to help support of visiting scientist/engineer exchange, international conferences and forums and support of innovative ideas to help further enhance economic developemnt of the world and hence the quality of life. The presence of the Russian delegation here at these SPIE meetings in in part the result of NSF support. Concomitant with these changes is a growing interest in education. Academia is gradually realizing that education includes training for students to acquire jobs and hence we complete the cycle of the importance of interacting with industry. At the NSF a major new initiative is being introduced in Optical Science and Engineering (OSE). This effort has been

  16. Political Winds Still Buffeting NSF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Reviews the current status of the Bauman amendment that would have all National Science Foundation (NSF) grants subjected to prior Congressional approval on a monthly basis and discusses possible developments that may arise from pressure by conservative political organizations to make NSF funding more responsive to Congressional review. (GS)

  17. Astrophysicist nominated to head NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2013-09-01

    US president Barack Obama has nominated astrophysicist France Córdova as the next director of the National Science Foundation (NSF) - the country's biggest funder of basic research with an annual budget of 7bn.

  18. Knapp confirmed as NSF Director

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edward A. Knapp was confirmed by the Senate in a voice vote on April 15 as the director of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The Senate vote followed a confirmation hearing by the Senate Labor and Human Resources Committee. Knapp, who was nominated by President Reagan to head the foundation in November, had been assistant director for NSF's mathematical and physical sciences (MPS) directorate since July 1982.Allegations that he has been politicizing NSF have beleaguered Knapp since he asked for resignations or firm commitments to leave from three NSF top administrators in December (two of these administrators had been planning to leave, though no resignation dates had been set). Knapp assured the Senate committee during the April 13 confirmation hearings that he made the decision to ask for the resignations and that, although he had discussed his plan with Office of Science and Technology Policy officials, they did not request that certain people be removed in exchange for particular increases in the NSF budget. Knapp consistently has defended himself against the allegations by saying that he wants his own team at the agency.

  19. Sorting protein-related receptor SorLA controls regulated secretion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Geng, Zhao; Xu, Feng-Yi; Huang, Shu-Hong; Chen, Zhe-Yu

    2011-12-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), after secreted from cells, plays a critical role in central and peripheral neuron survival and function. The secretion of GDNF can be either constitutive or regulated by physiological stimuli; however, the detailed mechanism driving GDNF secretion is still unknown. Here, we report that sorting protein-related receptor with A-type repeats (SorLA), a member of the mammal Vps10p domain receptor, interacts with GDNF and is localized to GDNF-containing vesicles. Overexpression of SorLA significantly increases, and knockdown of SorLA by siRNA decreases, the regulated secretion of GDNF in PC12 and MN9D cells but has no effect on GDNF constitutive secretion. In addition, overexpression of a truncated form of SorLA also impairs GDNF-regulated secretion. Finally, we found that the prodomain of GDNF mediates the interaction of GDNF with SorLA under acidic conditions. Moreover, overexpression of SorLA could enhance the regulated secretion of the GDNF prodomain-GFP fusion protein, suggesting that the prodomain of GDNF is responsible for its regulated secretion. Together, these findings will advance our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying GDNF-regulated secretion. PMID:21994944

  20. Sorting choanoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marconi, Veronica I.; Miño, Gaston L.; Sparacino, Javier; Banchio, Adolfo J.; Condat, Carlos A.; Koehl, Mimi A. R.; King, Nicole; Stocker, Roman

    2015-03-01

    In freshwater environments, as well as in oceans, environmental conditions are in constant fluctuation. Some heterotrophic plankton must adapt their swimming behavior in order to survive under these conditions. In the case of the choanoflagellate, the closest animal ancestor, the ability to forage for food is given not only by its single flagellum, but also by its differentiation between fast and slow swimmers. The understanding of how these cells with different strategies to swim search for food can give us a better insight into how eukaryotes respond to different stimuli. In this work, we have designed a microfluidic device that sorts choanoflagellates by their speed. The optimal geometry was found by a numerical model using the experimentally determined motilities of each swimmer type.

  1. Histidine-domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase regulates platelet-derived growth factor receptor intracellular sorting and degradation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Haisha; Wardega, Piotr; Mazaud, David; Klosowska-Wardega, Agnieszka; Jurek, Aleksandra; Engström, Ulla; Lennartsson, Johan; Heldin, Carl-Henrik

    2015-11-01

    Histidine domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (HD-PTP) is a putative phosphatase that has been shown to affect the signaling and downregulation of certain receptor tyrosine kinases. To investigate if HD-PTP affects platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) signaling, we employed the overexpression of HA-tagged HD-PTP, as well as siRNA-mediated and lentivirus shRNA-mediated silencing of HD-PTP in NIH3T3 cells. We found that HD-PTP was recruited to the PDGFRβ in a ligand-dependent manner. Depletion of HD-PTP resulted in an inability of PDGF-BB to promote tyrosine phosphorylation of the ubiquitin ligases c-Cbl and Cbl-b, with a concomitant missorting and reduction of the degradation of activated PDGFRβ. In contrast, ligand-induced internalization of PDGFRβ was unaffected by HD-PTP silencing. Furthermore, the levels of STAM and Hrs of the ESCRT0 machinery were decreased, and immunofluorescence staining showed that in HD-PTP-depleted cells, PDGFRβ accumulated in large aberrant intracellular structures. After the reduction of HD-PTP expression, an NIH3T3-derived cell line that has autocrine PDGF-BB signaling (sis-3T3) showed increased ability of anchorage-independent growth. However, exogenously added PDGF-BB promoted efficient additional colony formation in control cells, but was not able to do so in HD-PTP-depleted cells. Furthermore, cells depleted of HD-PTP migrated faster than control cells. In summary, HD-PTP affects the intracellular sorting of activated PDGFRβ and the migration, proliferation and tumorigenicity of cells stimulated by PDGF. PMID:26232618

  2. NSF directors asked to resign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edward A. Knapp, the Reagan administration's appointee to replace former NSF Director John Slaughter, who left the post to become chancellor o f the University of Maryland, has asked for, and received, the resignation of Deputy Director Donald N. Langenberg. Knapp has also requested the resignations of Assistant Directors Francis S. Johnson (astronomical, atmosphere, earth, and ocean sciences) and Eloise E. Clark (biological, behavioral, and social sciences). This leaves only one post at the top management levels o f NSF: the assistant director for mathematics and physical sciences—a post held, until Slaughter's resignation, by Knapp. The new director is the only one of the former top managers remaining; no assistant directors have yet been named.

  3. NSF and NASA budgets increased

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Research budgets of several of the federal government agencies were increased significantly over the Reagan administration's requests in the House of Representative's appropriations bill H.R. 4034. These budgets had been removed from the Reagan administration's omnibus reconciliation bill, and thus there were worries expressed that certain research funding could be in jeopardy. The rationale was that because the requests were voted on individually on the floor of the House, many sections of the budgets would be subjected to extra scrutiny, which would lead to more cuts.The National Science Foundation (NSF) budget request had been cut and reordered by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) by making sharp reductions in programs of the social sciences and in programs of science and engineering education. There were fears that these programs would be reinstated to the original request level, at the expense of the budgets of other research activities. These fears materialized, but only momentarily. Efforts to cut the research activities by the House Appropriations Committee were soundly defeated. The budget was supported, with additional increases to provide for the education programs, by a high margin, which included most Republican and Democratic members of the House of Representatives. The overall NSF budget, as passed, has a total appropriation of $1103.5 million, compared with the Administration's request of $1033.5 million (the Fiscal Year 1981 appropriation for the NSF was $1022.4 million). The House approved budget included increases of $44.9 million in research and $25.1 million in science and engineering education. Included in the research budget increase were recommendations by the House Appropriations Committee for support of the social sciences and for the international affairs programs. Also included in the recommendations was support of interdisciplinary research programs that cut across the directorates of the NSF.

  4. Derivation of sorting programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varghese, Joseph; Loganantharaj, Rasiah

    1990-01-01

    Program synthesis for critical applications has become a viable alternative to program verification. Nested resolution and its extension are used to synthesize a set of sorting programs from their first order logic specifications. A set of sorting programs, such as, naive sort, merge sort, and insertion sort, were successfully synthesized starting from the same set of specifications.

  5. Factors affecting carcass value and profitability in early-weaned Simmental steers: II. Days on feed endpoints and sorting strategies.

    PubMed

    Pyatt, N A; Berger, L L; Faulkner, D B; Walker, P M; Rodriguez-Zas, S L

    2005-12-01

    In a 4-yr study, early-weaned Simmental steers (n = 192) of known genetics were individually fed to determine EPD, performance, and carcass measurements explaining variation in carcass value and profitability across incremental days on feed (DOF) when sorted by HCW, calculated yield grade (YG), or at their highest profit endpoint (BEST). Steers were weaned at 88.0 +/- 1.1 d of age, pen-fed a high-concentrate diet for 84.5 +/- 0.4 d, individually fed for 249.7 +/- 0.7 d, and slaughtered at 423.3 +/- 1.4 d of age. Carcass weight, YG, and marbling score (MS) were predicted using real-time ultrasound throughout the finishing period to calculate carcass value and profitability at 90, 60, 30 d preslaughter and under three individual sorting strategies. Sorting strategies included marketing the 25 and 50% heaviest HCW, the highest YG at d 60 and 30, or the remaining 25% at 0-d endpoints. Independent variables were year, weaning weight EPD, yearling weight EPD, marbling EPD, DMI, ADG, HCW, YG, and MS. Profit was quadratic in response to increased DOF; the greatest economic return was noted on d 30 (pre-slaughter). Final weight, DMI, HCW, MS, and YG increased (linear; P < 0.001) with additional DOF, and ADG and G:F decreased (linear; P < 0.001). Total cost of gain was quadratic (P < 0.001), and incremental cost of gain rose at an increasing rate (quadratic; P < 0.001) with increased DOF. With increasing DOF, HCW importance decreased from 58 to 21%; MS was variable, ranging from 18 to 23%; and YG and DMI were minor contributors to profit variation. Among sorting strategies, final BW and HCW were greater for BEST, whereas other measurements were similar. Sorting individuals by HCW, YG, or at BEST increased profitability 3.70 dollars, 2.52 dollars, or 30.65 dollars over the optimal group DOF endpoint (d 30). Retrospective analyses illustrated that sorting does not need to pinpoint each animal's profit optimum to result in economic gains; rather, increasing HCW and decreasing

  6. Subcommittee on science reviews NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Richard M.

    With most attention focused on the appropriations legislation funding the National Science Foundation next year, less notice has been given to the agency's reauthorization legislation. During the last few months, the House Subcommittee on Science has held two hearings on this legislation to solicit views about the agency.Nine witnesses testified at a May 20 hearing. They were asked to address six questions, including some dealing with the balance between curiosity-driven research and strategic research, and between research and education activities. Views were also solicited on the modernization of academic research facilities, inadequately funded fields, international involvement in NSF-supported research, and academic block grants.

  7. NSF reviewed—An analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The awarding of scientific research grants jointly to investigators and their academic institutions by the National Science Foundation (NSF) (see news item above) is based on a concept of high ideals; review of proposed research ploys is done by peers selected from the academic community. The peer review process and the way awards of funds are made to an investigator's institution are often mildly criticized, but among members of the community there has long been an underlying respect of the concepts, a recognition that the process tends to lead to high standards in research. As peers are chosen, a certain degree of unevenness in the review process is to be expected. Just how much unevenness has been revealed in a recent study sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Science and Public Policy (COSPUP). The results indicate that the peer review process is random and unbiased. The results show some tendency toward unevenness between groups of peers, but the NSF process evidently is a finely tuned one, especially when compared with other more or less subjective methods of evaluation.

  8. Opportunities for Funding at NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafafi, Zakya H.

    2009-03-01

    lead to a better quality of life and improved economic development for people all over the world will also be given. As science is becoming increasingly global, DMR is particularly interested in preparing students to be agile thinkers in this universal environment and in forging collaborations and cooperation among scientists and engineers around the world. Free movement of knowledge without any obstacles can only be achieved through a more coordinated approach for international collaboration. Following the presentation there will be a question-and-answer period. For additional information, visit the DMR Web page at www.nsf.gov/materials

  9. NSF Acting Head Mulls Job, Science Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerkel, Fred H.

    1976-01-01

    Richard C. Atkinson, acting head of the National Science Foundation, gives his views on problems facing NSF and the science community and predicts growing support for basic research in the next decade. (MLH)

  10. A novel Sec18p/NSF-dependent complex required for Golgi-to-endosome transport in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Burd, C G; Peterson, M; Cowles, C R; Emr, S D

    1997-01-01

    The vacuolar protein-sorting (VPS) pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mediates localization of proteins from the trans-Golgi to the vacuole via a prevacuolar endosome compartment. Mutations in class D vacuolar protein-sorting (vps) genes affect vesicle-mediated Golgi-to-endosome transport and result in secretion of vacuolar proteins. Temperature-sensitive-for-function (tsf) and dominant negative mutations in PEP12, encoding a putative SNARE vesicle receptor on the endosome, and tsf mutations in VAC1, a gene implicated in vacuole inheritance and vacuolar protein sorting, were constructed and used to demonstrate that Pep12p and Vac1p are components of the VPS pathway. The sequence of Vac1p contains two putative zinc-binding RING motifs, a zinc finger motif, and a coiled-coil motif. Site-directed mutations in the carboxyl-terminal RING motif strongly affected vacuolar protein sorting. Vac1p was found to be tightly associated with membranes as a monomer and in a large SDS-resistant complex. By using Pep12p affinity chromatography, we found that Vac1p, Vps45p (SEC1 family member), and Sec18p (yeast N-ethyl maleimide-sensitive factor, NSF) bind Pep12p. Consistent with a functional role for this complex in vacuolar protein sorting, double pep12tsfvac1tsf and pep12tsf vps45tsf mutants exhibited synthetic Vps- phenotypes, the tsf phenotype of the vac1tsf mutant was rescued by overexpression of VPS45 or PEP12, overexpression of a dominant pep12 allele in a sec18-1 strain resulted in a severe synthetic growth defect that was rescued by deletion of PEP12 or VAC1, and subcellular fractionation of vac1 delta cells revealed a striking change in the fractionation of Pep12p and Vps21p, a rab family GTPase required for vacuolar protein sorting. The functions of Pep12p, Vps45p, and Vps21p indicate that key aspects of Golgi-to-endosome trafficking are similar to other vesicle-mediated transport steps, although the role of Vac1p suggests that there are also novel components of the VPS

  11. Scalable, Multithreaded, Partially-in-Place Sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Haglin, David J.; Adolf, Robert D.; Mackey, Greg E.

    2013-05-20

    A recent trend in hardware development is producing computing systems that are stretching the number of cores and size of shared-memory beyond where most fundamental serial algorithms perform well. The expectation is that this trend will continue. So it makes sense to rethink our fundamental algorithms such as sorting. There are many situations where data that needs to be sorted will actually fit into the shared memory so applications could benefit from an efficient parallel sorting algorithm. When sorting large data (at least hundreds of Gigabytes) in a single shared memory, there are two factors that affect the algorithm choice. First, does the algorithm sort in-place? And second, does the algorithm scale well beyond tens of threads? Surprisingly, existing algorithms posses either one of these factors, but not both. We present an approach that gracefully degrades in performance as the amount of available working memory decreases relative to the size of the input.

  12. Demonstration of differential quantitative requirements for NSF among multiple vesicle fusion pathways of GLUT4 using a dominant-negative ATPase-deficient NSF

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xiaoli; Matsumoto, Hideko; Hinck, Cynthia S.; Al-Hasani, Hadi; St-Denis, Jean-Francois; Whiteheart, Sidney W.; Cushman, Samuel W. . E-mail: sam_cushman@nih.gov

    2005-07-22

    In this study, we investigated the relative participation of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) in vivo in a complex multistep vesicle trafficking system, the translocation response of GLUT4 to insulin in rat adipose cells. Transfections of rat adipose cells demonstrate that over-expression of wild-type NSF has no effect on total, or basal and insulin-stimulated cell-surface expression of HA-tagged GLUT4. In contrast, a dominant-negative NSF (NSF-D1EQ) can be expressed at a low enough level that it has little effect on total HA-GLUT4, but does reduce both basal and insulin-stimulated cell-surface HA-GLUT4 by {approx}50% without affecting the GLUT4 fold-translocation response to insulin. However, high expression levels of NSF-D1EQ decrease total HA-GLUT4. The inhibitory effect of NSF-D1EQ on cell-surface HA-GLUT4 is reversed when endocytosis is inhibited by co-expression of a dominant-negative dynamin (dynamin-K44A). Moreover, NSF-D1EQ does not affect cell-surface levels of constitutively recycling GLUT1 and TfR, suggesting a predominant effect of low-level NSF-D1EQ on the trafficking of GLUT4 from the endocytic recycling compared to the intracellular GLUT4-specific compartment. Thus, our data demonstrate that the multiple fusion steps in GLUT4 trafficking have differential quantitative requirements for NSF activity. This indicates that the rates of plasma and intracellular membrane fusion reactions vary, leading to differential needs for the turnover of the SNARE proteins.

  13. NSF's Career-Life Balance Initiative and the NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajhar, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    In the fall of 2011, the National Science Foundation (NSF) began the Career-Life Balance Initiative to support graduate students, postdoctoral students, and early-career researchers in STEM fields. NSF is focusing first on its most prestigious programs for early-career scientists---the CAREER program and the postdoctoral programs, including the NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowships (AAPF)---where career-life balance opportunities can help retain a significant fraction of early career talent. Subject to budget constraints, NSF plans to further integrate and enhance career-life balance opportunities over time through other programs, like the Graduate Research Fellowships Program and ADVANCE, and subsequently through the broader portfolio of NSF activities. In addition, to comply with Title IX, NSF has regulations to ensure that educational programs that receive NSF funds are free of gender discrimination and harassment. A primary goal of this presentation is to put facts about NSF into the hands of students, faculty, staff, administrators and other policy makers to benefit the advancement of career-life balance in the astronomical community. The presentation focus areas will (1) address common misconceptions about NSF rules regarding parental leave; (2) discuss benefits already available through the AAPF program, Graduate Research Fellowships, and other programs; and (3) listen to community concerns and issues to bring these back to the foundation for consideration. Did you know that NSF allows paid parental leave under many circumstances? For example, the AAPF program currently allows two months of paid parental leave during the fellow's tenure. What are the rules for NSF Graduate Research Fellowships? Come to the session and find out; the answers to such questions might surprise you.

  14. Sorting to Extremes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy; McPherson, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    The world of higher education is a world of sorting, selecting, and ranking--on both sides of the market. Colleges select students to recruit and then to admit; students choose where to apply and which offer to accept. The sorting process that gets the most attention is in the higher reaches of the market, where it is not too much to say that…

  15. NSF cuts likely, says House panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Richard M.

    At key congressional hearings held recently on the National Science Foundation's budget for fiscal year 1993, the bottom line was clear: the agency should not expect the 18% increase it has requested.The chair of the House VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Subcommitee, Bob Traxler (D.-Mich.), indicated his support for NSF, but added that his subcommittee “lives and dies by its 602(b) allocation.” This is the amount with which the subcommittee funds programs under its jurisdiction, including veterans' health care and housing support. Traxler said the administration had “shortchanged” some activities to provide the NSF increase, and that money would have to be returned to other programs. Throughout the hearings, Traxler spoke of a possible 4-6% increase for NSF in fiscal 1993, less than one-third the amount requested.

  16. Sorting nexin 9 differentiates ligand-activated Smad3 from Smad2 for nuclear import and transforming growth factor β signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wilkes, Mark C.; Repellin, Claire E.; Kang, Jeong-Han; Andrianifahanana, Mahefatiana; Yin, Xueqian; Leof, Edward B.

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) is a pleiotropic protein secreted from essentially all cell types and primary tissues. While TGFβ’s actions reflect the activity of a number of signaling networks, the primary mediator of TGFβ responses are the Smad proteins. Following receptor activation, these cytoplasmic proteins form hetero-oligomeric complexes that translocate to the nucleus and affect gene transcription. Here, through biological, biochemical, and immunofluorescence approaches, sorting nexin 9 (SNX9) is identified as being required for Smad3-dependent responses. SNX9 interacts with phosphorylated (p) Smad3 independent of Smad2 or Smad4 and promotes more rapid nuclear delivery than that observed independent of ligand. Although SNX9 does not bind nucleoporins Nup153 or Nup214 or some β importins (Imp7 or Impβ), it mediates the association of pSmad3 with Imp8 and the nuclear membrane. This facilitates nuclear translocation of pSmad3 but not SNX9. PMID:26337383

  17. NSF program gives research experience to undergrads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, Daniel W.

    Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) is a new National Science Foundation (NSF) program designed to attract talented undergraduates into research careers in science, engineering, and mathematics. The program is intended to provide active research experience to students while they are still in their undergraduate years. There are two categories of support under this program: REU Sites and REU Supplements. The supplement, as the name implies, is to supplement existing NSF grants to permit an investigator to hire an undergraduate assistant. Here, I will report o n the REU site award made to the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska for summer 1987.

  18. Receptor-Mediated Uptake and Intracellular Sorting of Multivalent Lipid Nanoparticles Against the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and the Human EGFR 2 (HER2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, David Tu

    In the area of receptor-targeted lipid nanoparticles for drug delivery, efficiency has been mainly focused on cell-specificity, endocytosis, and subsequently effects on bioactivity such as cell growth inhibition. Aspects of targeted liposomal uptake and intracellular sorting are not well defined. This dissertation assessed a series of ligands as targeted functional groups against HER2 and EGFR for liposomal drug delivery. Receptor-mediated uptake, both mono-targeted and dual-targeted to multiple receptors of different ligand valence, and the intracellular sorting of lipid nanoparticles were investigated to improve the delivery of drugs to cancer cells. Lipid nanoparticles were functionalized through a new sequential micelle transfer---conjugation method, while the micelle transfer method was extended to growth factors. Through a combination of both techniques, anti-HER2 and anti-EGFR dual-targeted immunoliposomes with different combinations of ligand valence were developed for comparative studies. With the array of lipid nanoparticles, the uptake and cytotoxicity of lipid nanoparticles in relationship to ligand valence, both mono-targeting and dual-targeting, were evaluated on a small panel of breast cancer cell lines that express HER2 and EGFR of varying levels. Comparable uptake ratios of ligand to expressed receptor and apparent cooperativity were observed. For cell lines that express both receptors, additive dose-uptake effects were also observed with dual-targeted immunoliposomes, which translated to marginal improvements in cell growth inhibition with doxorubicin delivery. Colocalization analysis revealed that ligand-conjugated lipid nanoparticles settle to endosomal compartments similar to their attached ligands. Pathway transregulation and pathway saturation were also observed to affect trafficking. In the end, liposomes routed to the recycling endosomes were never observed to traffic beyond the endosomes nor to be exocytose like recycled ligands. Based on

  19. Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Induces Genes Associated with Inflammation and Gliosis in the Retina: A Gene Profiling Study of Flow-Sorted, Müller Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, V. Joseph; Brooks, Matthew; Swaroop, Anand; Sarthy, Vijay P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a member of the interleukin-6 cytokine family, has been implicated in the development, differentiation and survival of retinal neurons. The mechanisms of CNTF action as well as its cellular targets in the retina are poorly understood. It has been postulated that some of the biological effects of CNTF are mediated through its action via retinal glial cells; however, molecular changes in retinal glia induced by CNTF have not been elucidated. We have, therefore, examined gene expression dynamics of purified Müller (glial) cells exposed to CNTF in vivo. Methodology/Principal Findings Müller cells were flow-sorted from mgfap-egfp transgenic mice one or three days after intravitreal injection of CNTF. Microarray analysis using RNA from purified Müller cells showed differential expression of almost 1,000 transcripts with two- to seventeen-fold change in response to CNTF. A comparison of transcriptional profiles from Müller cells at one or three days after CNTF treatment showed an increase in the number of transcribed genes as well as a change in the expression pattern. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis showed that the differentially regulated genes belong to distinct functional types such as cytokines, growth factors, G-protein coupled receptors, transporters and ion channels. Interestingly, many genes induced by CNTF were also highly expressed in reactive Müller cells from mice with inherited or experimentally induced retinal degeneration. Further analysis of gene profiles revealed 20–30% overlap in the transcription pattern among Müller cells, astrocytes and the RPE. Conclusions/Significance Our studies provide novel molecular insights into biological functions of Müller glial cells in mediating cytokine response. We suggest that CNTF remodels the gene expression profile of Müller cells leading to induction of networks associated with transcription, cell cycle regulation and inflammatory response. CNTF also appears to

  20. Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back to Health Library Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies Sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion. Symptoms of the common ... simple preventive measures, you can help reduce your sneezing, coughing and general stuffiness, according to Pamela A. ...

  1. Critical time for NSF, NASA funding bills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Richard

    Although the new fiscal year does not start until October, the next few weeks will be critical in determining the amount of money which the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration receive. Scientists who want to communicate their views to key representatives and senators about these agencies should do so now.Every year Congress must pass new funding, or appropriations, legislation. Both NSF and NASA funding come under the jurisdiction of the House and Senate appropriations subcommittees for the Veterans Administration, Department of Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies. These two subcommittees have already heard from NSF officials, and will wrap-up official NASA testimony this week. Several days of hearings from public witnesses are also scheduled.

  2. Clinton seeks additional funds for NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    A $207 million fiscal year 1993 supplemental appropriation for the National Science Foundation has been proposed by President Clinton for strategic research and core research programs. The funds would increase the agency's 1993 budget to $2.04 billion, a 14% increase over the fiscal 1992 budget. The request is part of a $16.3 billion supplemental bill awaiting action by Congress that would also create 500,000 new jobs.On February 23, NSF Director Walter E. Massey testified before the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Veterans Affairs, HUD, and Independent Agencies to support the supplement. “NSF's activities contribute to improving the nation's productivity by generating new knowledge and investing in the future by training the current and next generation of scientists and engineers,” he said.

  3. Microfluidic sorting of microtissues.

    PubMed

    Buschke, D G; Resto, P; Schumacher, N; Cox, B; Tallavajhula, A; Vivekanandan, A; Eliceiri, K W; Williams, J C; Ogle, B M

    2012-03-01

    Increasingly, invitro culture of adherent cell types utilizes three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds or aggregate culture strategies to mimic tissue-like, microenvironmental conditions. In parallel, new flow cytometry-based technologies are emerging to accurately analyze the composition and function of these microtissues (i.e., large particles) in a non-invasive and high-throughput way. Lacking, however, is an accessible platform that can be used to effectively sort or purify large particles based on analysis parameters. Here we describe a microfluidic-based, electromechanical approach to sort large particles. Specifically, sheath-less asymmetric curving channels were employed to separate and hydrodynamically focus particles to be analyzed and subsequently sorted. This design was developed and characterized based on wall shear stress, tortuosity of the flow path, vorticity of the fluid in the channel, sorting efficiency and enrichment ratio. The large particle sorting device was capable of purifying fluorescently labelled embryoid bodies (EBs) from unlabelled EBs with an efficiency of 87.3% ± 13.5%, and enrichment ratio of 12.2 ± 8.4 (n = 8), while preserving cell viability, differentiation potential, and long-term function. PMID:22505992

  4. AGU acts on NSF Page Charge Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fast action by Headquarters alerted AGU members to a proposed change to the National Science Foundation's page charge policy that would weaken the ability of scientific societies to serve the scientific community.If adopted, NSF's new policy, announced in the Federal Register December 18, would remove the prohibition against allowing page charges to commercially produced journals. The proposal for the change was supposedly put forth to obtain a reaction from the scientific community.

  5. Status of NSF's polar programs office raised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. Catherine

    Walter Massey, Director of the National Science Foundation, announced on January 13 that he has elevated the status of the Division of Polar Programs (DPP). It is now the Office of Polar Programs and, organizationally, part of the Office of the Director. Effective immediately, the newly created office began reporting to NSF's deputy director. Massey is also reactivating the Board's Committee on Polar Programs to provide NSF with continuing policy guidance and advice.In announcing the program's move, Massey said that NSF's Antarctic and Arctic activities have grown increasingly prominent in recent years as international attention has focused on research programs, environmental concerns, law enforcement, and other issues in both polar regions. “With the increased responsibility we have been given [in the polar regions] comes increased accountability,” Massey said. “I believe that heightening the stewardship for polar programs is an important way to help ensure that we meet the expectations and needs of the polar research communities and others,” he added.

  6. Flow cytometry and cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Sherrif F; van den Engh, Ger

    2007-01-01

    Flow cytometry and cell sorting are well-established technologies in clinical diagnostics and biomedical research. Heterogeneous mixtures of cells are placed in suspension and passed single file across one or more laser interrogation points. Light signals emitted from the particles are collected and correlated to entities such as cell morphology, surface and intracellular protein expression, gene expression, and cellular physiology. Based on user-defined parameters, individual cells can then be diverted from the fluid stream and collected into viable, homogeneous fractions at exceptionally high speeds and a purity that approaches 100%. As such, the cell sorter becomes the launching point for numerous downstream studies. Flow cytometry is a cornerstone in clinical diagnostics, and cheaper, more versatile machines are finding their way into widespread and varied uses. In addition, advances in computing and optics have led to a new generation of flow cytometers capable of processing cells at orders of magnitudes faster than their predecessors, and with staggering degrees of complexity, making the cytometer a powerful discovery tool in biotechnology. This chapter will begin with a discussion of basic principles of flow cytometry and cell sorting, including a technical description of factors that contribute to the performance of these instruments. The remaining sections will then be divided into clinical- and research-based applications of flow cytometry and cell sorting, highlighting salient studies that illustrate the versatility of this indispensable technology. PMID:17728993

  7. 48 CFR 2515.215-70 - NSF negotiation authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... an NSF contract is for scientific activities which are determined by the NSF contracting officer to... Secretary of State or Secretary of Defense, specific scientific activities in connection with...

  8. 48 CFR 2515.215-70 - NSF negotiation authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... an NSF contract is for scientific activities which are determined by the NSF contracting officer to... Secretary of State or Secretary of Defense, specific scientific activities in connection with...

  9. 48 CFR 2515.215-70 - NSF negotiation authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... an NSF contract is for scientific activities which are determined by the NSF contracting officer to... Secretary of State or Secretary of Defense, specific scientific activities in connection with...

  10. 48 CFR 2515.215-70 - NSF negotiation authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... an NSF contract is for scientific activities which are determined by the NSF contracting officer to... Secretary of State or Secretary of Defense, specific scientific activities in connection with...

  11. Dielectrophoretic Sorting of Membrane Protein Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Bahige G.; Chao, Tzu-Chiao; Kupitz, Christopher; Fromme, Petra; Ros, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Structure elucidation of large membrane protein complexes still comprises a considerable challenge yet is a key factor in drug development and disease combat. Femtosecond nanocrystallography is an emerging technique with which structural information of membrane proteins is obtained without the need to grow large crystals, thus overcoming the experimental riddle faced in traditional crystallography methods. Here, we demonstrate for the first time a microfluidic device capable of sorting membrane protein crystals based on size using dielectrophoresis. We demonstrate the excellent sorting power of this new approach with numerical simulations of selected sub-micrometer beads in excellent agreement with experimental observations. Crystals from batch crystallization broths of the huge membrane protein complex photosystem I were sorted without further treatment, resulting in a high degree of monodispersity and crystallinity in the ~ 100 nm size range. Microfluidic integration, continuous sorting, and nanometer-sized crystal fractions make this method ideal for direct coupling to femtosecond nanocrystallography. PMID:24004002

  12. The NSF Science Education Controversy: Issues, Events, Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Karen B.

    Discussion of National Science Foundation (NSF) funding of precollege science education revolves around the controversy of whether NSF should fund "Man: A Course of Study" (MACOS). NSF had funded MACOS' curriculum development, implementation, and postevaluation during 1963-1975. The controversy began in March 1975 when U.S. Congressman John Conlan…

  13. Rubric Sorting Astronomy Essays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Len, P. M.

    2014-07-01

    Student essays on introductory astronomy exams can be consistently and efficiently graded by a single instructor, or by multiple graders for a large class. This is done by constructing a robust outcome rubric while sorting exams into separate stacks, then checking each stack for consistency. Certain online resources readily provide primary source prompts for writing astronomy exam essay questions.

  14. NSF to receive 10% funding increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Richard M.

    Work is almost complete on the fiscal year 1994 funding bill for the National Science Foundation. On October 1, Conference Committee Chairs Louis Stokes (D-Ohio) and Barbara Mikulski (D-Md.) and their colleagues completed work on the final version of HR2491, the VA, HUD, Independent Agencies Appropriations Bill. The House and Senate will soon give their final approval to the conference report for HR2491, after which it will lack only the president's signature. NSF's overall budget increase of 10%, raising total funding to %3,005.3 million, is the highest increase among all departments and agencies. Last year's increase in NSF funding was 6.3%.Funding for research and related activities will increase 7% to $1,986 million, a compromise between the 10% House increase and the 4% Senate figure. Last year's bill cut research funding. Education and human resources funding will increase 17% to $569.6 million. This is $13.5 million above the Clinton administration's request. Last year's increase for education and human resources was 4.7%.

  15. The NSF PAARE Projects at SC State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Donald K.; Brittain, Sean D.; Cash, Jennifer; Hartmann, Dieter; Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Ho, Shirley; Howell, Steve B.; King, Jeremy R.; Leising, Mark D.; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Smith, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    We review our progress over the past 7.5 years and the path forward under the NSF program "Partnerships in Astronomy and Astrophysics Research and Education (PAARE)". Our first project, "A Partnership in Observational and Computational Astronomy (POCA)" was a part of the 2008 PAARE cohort which we finished on September 30, 2015. We will summarize the results of those years and look at our way forward under a second PAARE award made in August 2014 (POCA II). Our partnership under the second PAARE award includes South Carolina State University (a Historically Black College/University), Clemson University (a Ph.D. granting institution) as well as individual investigators at NASA Ames and Carnegie Mellon University. Our recent work on variable and peculiar stars, work with the Kepler Observatory and our educational products in cosmology for non-STEM majors will be presented as well as our success with undergraduate and graduate students. We will also discuss how we are sharing resources with Clemson through distance learning and undergraduate research projects. Our support includes NSF awards AST-0750814 and AST-1358913 to South Carolina State University as well as resources and support provided by Clemson University and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Support for the Kepler observations is provided by NASA to South Carolina State University under awards NNX11AB82G and NNX13AC24G. Additional details can be found at: http://physics.scsu.edu/paare/

  16. Lipoprotein sorting in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Suguru; Tokuda, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are synthesized as precursors in the cytoplasm and processed into mature forms on the cytoplasmic membrane. A lipid moiety attached to the N terminus anchors these proteins to the membrane surface. Many bacteria are predicted to express more than 100 lipoproteins, which play diverse functions on the cell surface. The Lol system, composed of five proteins, catalyzes the localization of Escherichia coli lipoproteins to the outer membrane. Some lipoproteins play vital roles in the sorting of other lipoproteins, lipopolysaccharides, and β-barrel proteins to the outer membrane. On the basis of results from biochemical, genetic, and structural studies, we discuss the biogenesis of lipoproteins in bacteria, their importance in cellular functions, and the molecular mechanisms underlying efficient sorting of hydrophobic lipoproteins to the outer membrane through the hydrophilic periplasm. PMID:21663440

  17. Sorting quantum systems efficiently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionicioiu, Radu

    2016-05-01

    Measuring the state of a quantum system is a fundamental process in quantum mechanics and plays an essential role in quantum information and quantum technologies. One method to measure a quantum observable is to sort the system in different spatial modes according to the measured value, followed by single-particle detectors on each mode. Examples of quantum sorters are polarizing beam-splitters (PBS) – which direct photons according to their polarization – and Stern-Gerlach devices. Here we propose a general scheme to sort a quantum system according to the value of any d-dimensional degree of freedom, such as spin, orbital angular momentum (OAM), wavelength etc. Our scheme is universal, works at the single-particle level and has a theoretical efficiency of 100%. As an application we design an efficient OAM sorter consisting of a single multi-path interferometer which is suitable for a photonic chip implementation.

  18. Sorting quantum systems efficiently.

    PubMed

    Ionicioiu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the state of a quantum system is a fundamental process in quantum mechanics and plays an essential role in quantum information and quantum technologies. One method to measure a quantum observable is to sort the system in different spatial modes according to the measured value, followed by single-particle detectors on each mode. Examples of quantum sorters are polarizing beam-splitters (PBS) - which direct photons according to their polarization - and Stern-Gerlach devices. Here we propose a general scheme to sort a quantum system according to the value of any d-dimensional degree of freedom, such as spin, orbital angular momentum (OAM), wavelength etc. Our scheme is universal, works at the single-particle level and has a theoretical efficiency of 100%. As an application we design an efficient OAM sorter consisting of a single multi-path interferometer which is suitable for a photonic chip implementation. PMID:27142705

  19. Sorting quantum systems efficiently

    PubMed Central

    Ionicioiu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the state of a quantum system is a fundamental process in quantum mechanics and plays an essential role in quantum information and quantum technologies. One method to measure a quantum observable is to sort the system in different spatial modes according to the measured value, followed by single-particle detectors on each mode. Examples of quantum sorters are polarizing beam-splitters (PBS) – which direct photons according to their polarization – and Stern-Gerlach devices. Here we propose a general scheme to sort a quantum system according to the value of any d-dimensional degree of freedom, such as spin, orbital angular momentum (OAM), wavelength etc. Our scheme is universal, works at the single-particle level and has a theoretical efficiency of 100%. As an application we design an efficient OAM sorter consisting of a single multi-path interferometer which is suitable for a photonic chip implementation. PMID:27142705

  20. Event shape sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopečná, Renata; Tomášik, Boris

    2016-04-01

    We propose a novel method for sorting events of multiparticle production according to the azimuthal anisotropy of their momentum distribution. Although the method is quite general, we advocate its use in analysis of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions where a large number of hadrons is produced. The advantage of our method is that it can automatically sort out samples of events with histograms that indicate similar distributions of hadrons. It takes into account the whole measured histograms with all orders of anisotropy instead of a specific observable ( e.g., v_2 , v_3 , q_2 . It can be used for more exclusive experimental studies of flow anisotropies which are then more easily compared to theoretical calculations. It may also be useful in the construction of mixed-events background for correlation studies as it allows to select events with similar momentum distribution.

  1. Chip-based droplet sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham; Hatch, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    A non-contact system for sorting monodisperse water-in-oil emulsion droplets in a microfluidic device based on the droplet's contents and their interaction with an applied electromagnetic field or by identification and sorting.

  2. Sorting out Ideas about Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillen, Amy F.; Malik, LuAnn

    2013-01-01

    Card sorting has the potential to provide opportunities for exploration of a variety of topics and levels. In a card-sorting task, each participant is presented with a set of cards--each of which depicts a relationship--and is asked to sort the cards into categories that make sense to him or her. The concept of function is critical to…

  3. Weekly Log Record Sort (WLSORT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Thomas

    Computer routines to sort the weekly log records submitted by teachers participating in the Southwest Regional Laboratory's communications skills monitoring program are described. Written in Univac FORTRAN V, Weekly Log Record Sort (WLSORT) sorts log records on magnetic tape to enable subsequent computer programs to interpret the input data by…

  4. Solar-terrestrial news from NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, Dennis

    This is a difficult time for solar-terrestrial (S/T) research. The loss of the shuttle Challenger has disrupted the entire short-range launch schedule at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Gramm-Rudman-Hollings (GRH) Deficit Reduction Act has affected virtually all programs in fiscal year (FY) 1986 and no doubt will affect 1987 and beyond. Then again, every year has its own special problems, and even this year's difficulties could turn to our advantage. For example, GRH has demanded a serious rethinking of budgets and priorities. One outcome of this is the President's budget to Congress in 1987, which requests increases of 8.4% and 8.9% for the National Science Foundation (NSF) and NASA (research and development), respectively.

  5. The U.S.-NSF/NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The five-year research and development plan of the NSF/NASA Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) program is outlined. The program includes mission studies to determine energy use patterns and requirements and define specific applications for wind energy systems, wind energy resource assessment and development, and development of cost-effective components and subsystems. The program is also directed towards the development of energy storage systems to make wind powered systems firm power sources where appropriate. A 100 kW experimental wind generator (Model Zero) is being designed as a flexible test bed for a variety of system components. Designs will be developed for units in the 50 to 200 kW and 500 to 3000 kW size ranges.

  6. NSF assistant director for geosciences announces resignation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinki, Sarah

    Margaret Leinen, assistant director for geosciences at the U.S. National Science Foundation, announced on 7 December that she will be leaving NSF in January 2007 to become the chief science officer and vice president of Climos, a new company based in San Francisco, Calif., that plans to develop solutions to reduce greenhouse gases. Leinen will oversee efforts to better understand the planet's carbon cycle to address global climate change issues.Leinen has managed the Directorate for Geosciences since 2000. She also served as vice chair of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program, which coordinates federal climate change research, and as co-chair of the National Science and Technology Council's Joint Committee on Ocean Science and Technology.

  7. Effect of liquid storage on sorted boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Spinaci, M; Vallorani, C; Bucci, D; Bernardini, C; Tamanini, C; Seren, E; Galeati, G

    2010-09-15

    A routine use of boar sexed semen is far from being a reality due to many limiting factors among which is the long sorting time necessary to obtain the adequate number of sexed spermatozoa for artificial insemination and the high susceptibility to damages induced by cryopreservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the modification induced by 24-26 h storage on sorted boar spermatozoa on the basis of their viability, acrosome status, Hsp70 presence, and in vitro fertilizing ability. The percentage of viable cells, according to SYBR green/PI staining, was negatively affected (P < 0.05) by sorting procedure. Moreover, liquid storage significantly (P < 0.05) reduced membrane integrity of sorted spermatozoa as compared to all the other groups. Neither sorting nor storage influenced the percentage of live cells with reacted acrosome, according to FITC-PNA/PI staining. Sorted samples, after 24-26 h storage, were characterized by an increase (P < 0.05) of sperm cells negative for Hsp70, as observed by immunofluorescence, and by a decrease (P < 0.05) in Hsp70 content, as evidenced by western blot. While sorting procedure did not adversely affect both penetration rate and total efficiency of fertilization, these parameters were negatively (P < 0.05) influenced by storage after sorting. In order to minimize damages that compromise fertility and function of sex-sorted boar spermatozoa, the mechanisms by which sorting and liquid storage cause these injures require further study. PMID:20570336

  8. Multiple sort flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Van den Engh, Ger; Esposito, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane.

  9. Multiple sort flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Engh, G. van den; Esposito, R.J.

    1996-01-09

    A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane. 8 figs.

  10. Fluorescence activated cell sorting.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, W. A.; Hulett, H. R.; Sweet, R. G.; Herzenberg, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    An instrument has been developed for sorting biological cells. The cells are rendered differentially fluorescent and incorporated into a small liquid stream illuminated by a laser beam. The cells pass sequentially through the beam, and fluorescent light from the cells gives rise to electrical signals. The stream is broken into a series of uniform size drops downstream of the laser. The cell signals are used to give appropriate electrostatic charges to drops containing the cells. The drops then pass between two charged plates and are deflected to appropriate containers. The system has proved capable of providing fractions containing large numbers of viable cells highly enriched in a particular functional type.

  11. 2001 BUDGET: NSF and NASA Score Last-Minute Victories.

    PubMed

    Lawler, A; Mervis, J

    2000-10-27

    Congress last week gave both NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF) significant hikes for 2001: NSF got $4.42 billion, a $522 million boost over this year that nearly matched NSF's 17% request, and NASA received $14.3 billion, nearly twice the White House's request for a 3% boost-but with hundreds of millions of dollars in earmarks added on. PMID:17780498

  12. ESO and NSF Sign Agreement on ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-02-01

    Green Light for World's Most Powerful Radio Observatory On February 25, 2003, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the US National Science Foundation (NSF) are signing a historic agreement to construct and operate the world's largest and most powerful radio telescope, operating at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength. The Director General of ESO, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of the NSF, Dr. Rita Colwell, act for their respective organizations. Known as the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), the future facility will encompass sixty-four interconnected 12-meter antennae at a unique, high-altitude site at Chajnantor in the Atacama region of northern Chile. ALMA is a joint project between Europe and North America. In Europe, ESO is leading on behalf of its ten member countries and Spain. In North America, the NSF also acts for the National Research Council of Canada and executes the project through the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) operated by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI). The conclusion of the ESO-NSF Agreement now gives the final green light for the ALMA project. The total cost of approximately 650 million Euro (or US Dollars) is shared equally between the two partners. Dr. Cesarsky is excited: "This agreement signifies the start of a great project of contemporary astronomy and astrophysics. Representing Europe, and in collaboration with many laboratories and institutes on this continent, we together look forward towards wonderful research projects. With ALMA we may learn how the earliest galaxies in the Universe really looked like, to mention but one of the many eagerly awaited opportunities with this marvellous facility". "With this agreement, we usher in a new age of research in astronomy" says Dr. Colwell. "By working together in this truly global partnership, the international astronomy community will be able to ensure the research capabilities needed to meet the long-term demands of our scientific enterprise, and

  13. The NSF Condensed Matter Physics Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, Paul

    The Condensed Matter Physics (CMP) program in the NSF Division of Materials Research (DMR) supports experimental, as well as combined experiment and theory projects investigating the fundamental physics behind phenomena exhibited by condensed matter systems. CMP is the largest Individual Investigator Award program in DMR and supports a broad portfolio of research spanning both hard and soft condensed matter. Representative research areas include: 1) phenomena at the nano- to macro-scale including: transport, magnetic, and optical phenomena; classical and quantum phase transitions; localization; electronic, magnetic, and lattice structure or excitations; superconductivity; topological insulators; and nonlinear dynamics. 2) low-temperature physics: quantum fluids and solids; 1D & 2D electron systems. 3) soft condensed matter: partially ordered fluids, granular and colloid physics, liquid crystals, and 4) understanding the fundamental physics of new states of matter as well as the physical behavior of condensed matter under extreme conditions e.g., low temperatures, high pressures, and high magnetic fields. In this talk I will review the current CMP portfolio and discuss future funding trends for the program. I will also describe recent activities in the program aimed at addressing the challenges facing current and future principal investigators.

  14. Teleoperated robotic sorting system

    DOEpatents

    Roos, Charles E.; Sommer, Jr., Edward J.; Parrish, Robert H.; Russell, James R.

    2008-06-24

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for classifying materials utilizing a computerized touch sensitive screen or other computerized pointing device for operator identification and electronic marking of spatial coordinates of materials to be extracted. An operator positioned at a computerized touch sensitive screen views electronic images of the mixture of materials to be sorted as they are conveyed past a sensor array which transmits sequences of images of the mixture either directly or through a computer to the touch sensitive display screen. The operator manually "touches" objects displayed on the screen to be extracted from the mixture thereby registering the spatial coordinates of the objects within the computer. The computer then tracks the registered objects as they are conveyed and directs automated devices including mechanical means such as air jets, robotic arms, or other mechanical diverters to extract the registered objects.

  15. Teleoperated robotic sorting system

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, Charles E.; Sommer, Edward J.; Parrish, Robert H.; Russell, James R.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for classifying materials utilizing a computerized touch sensitive screen or other computerized pointing device for operator identification and electronic marking of spatial coordinates of materials to be extracted. An operator positioned at a computerized touch sensitive screen views electronic images of the mixture of materials to be sorted as they are conveyed past a sensor array which transmits sequences of images of the mixture either directly or through a computer to the touch sensitive display screen. The operator manually "touches" objects displayed on the screen to be extracted from the mixture thereby registering the spatial coordinates of the objects within the computer. The computer then tracks the registered objects as they are conveyed and directs automated devices including mechanical means such as air jets, robotic arms, or other mechanical diverters to extract the registered objects.

  16. 45 CFR 674.6 - Submission of information to NSF.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Submission of information to NSF. 674.6 Section 674.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ANTARCTIC METEORITES § 674.6 Submission of information to NSF. A copy of the written procedures developed...

  17. 45 CFR 674.6 - Submission of information to NSF.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Submission of information to NSF. 674.6 Section 674.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ANTARCTIC METEORITES § 674.6 Submission of information to NSF. A copy of the written procedures developed...

  18. Challenges and Opportunities for Engineering Education: An NSF Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Nam P.

    1985-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) believes three areas of engineering education require attention: (1) lack of qualified faculty; (2) updating and maintaining instructional instrumentation, equipment, and facilities; and (3) inability to transmit knowledge of some engineering disciplines to students. NSF approaches to solving these problems…

  19. What NSF Expects in Project Evaluations for Educational Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannah, Judith L.

    1996-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsors a range of programs to fund innovative approaches to teaching and learning. Focuses on NSF's expectations for project evaluation beginning with a definition of evaluation and a discussion of why evaluation is needed. Also describes planning, formative, and summative evaluation stages and concludes…

  20. 78 FR 62609 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of... that the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) will be renewed for a two-year period. The... within the field of basic nuclear science research. Additionally, the renewal of the DOE/NSF...

  1. 75 FR 71425 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    .../NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory... nuclear science research. Tentative Agenda: Agenda will include discussions of the following:...

  2. 78 FR 69658 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    .../NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory... within the field of basic nuclear science research. Tentative Agenda: Agenda will include discussions...

  3. 78 FR 716 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    .../NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, DOE. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC). DATES... advice and guidance on a continuing basis to the Department of Energy and the National Science...

  4. 48 CFR 2527.7002 - NSF patent policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false NSF patent policy. 2527... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Disposition of Rights in Inventions 2527.7002 NSF patent policy. As authorized by the National Science Board at its 230th meeting, October 15-16, 1981,...

  5. 48 CFR 2527.7002 - NSF patent policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false NSF patent policy. 2527... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Disposition of Rights in Inventions 2527.7002 NSF patent policy. As authorized by the National Science Board at its 230th meeting, October 15-16, 1981,...

  6. 48 CFR 2527.7002 - NSF patent policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false NSF patent policy. 2527... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Disposition of Rights in Inventions 2527.7002 NSF patent policy. As authorized by the National Science Board at its 230th meeting, October 15-16, 1981,...

  7. 48 CFR 2527.7002 - NSF patent policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false NSF patent policy. 2527... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Disposition of Rights in Inventions 2527.7002 NSF patent policy. As authorized by the National Science Board at its 230th meeting, October 15-16, 1981,...

  8. 48 CFR 2527.7002 - NSF patent policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NSF patent policy. 2527... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Disposition of Rights in Inventions 2527.7002 NSF patent policy. As authorized by the National Science Board at its 230th meeting, October 15-16, 1981,...

  9. Cellular Functions of NSF: Not Just SNAPs and SNAREs

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunxia; Slevin, John T.; Whiteheart, Sidney W.

    2007-01-01

    NSF is an AAA protein, broadly required for intracellular membrane fusion. NSF functions as a SNARE chaperone which binds, through SNAPs, to SNARE complexes and utilizes the energy of ATP hydrolysis to disassemble them thus facilitating SNARE recycling. While this is a major function of NSF, it does seem to interact with other proteins, such as the AMPA receptor subunit, GluR2, and β2-AR and is thought to affect their trafficking patterns. New data suggest that NSF may be regulated by transient post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and nitrosylation. These new aspects of NSF function as well as its role in SNARE complex dynamics will be discussed. PMID:17397838

  10. Cyberinfrastructure for the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, J. A.; Vernon, F. L.; Arrott, M.; Chave, A.; Krueger, I.; Schofield, O.; Glenn, S.; Peach, C.; Nayak, A.

    2007-12-01

    The Internet today is vastly different than the Internet that we knew even five years ago and the changes that will be evident five years from now, when the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) prototype has been installed, are nearly unpredictable. Much of this progress is based on the exponential growth in capabilities of consumer electronics and information technology; the reality of this exponential behavior is rarely appreciated. For example, the number of transistors on a square cm of silicon will continue to double every 18 months, the density of disk storage will double every year, and network bandwidth will double every eight months. Today's desktop 2TB RAID will be 64TB and the 10Gbps Regional Scale Network fiber optical connection will be running at 1.8Tbps. The same exponential behavior characterizes the future of genome sequencing. The first two sequences of composites of individuals' genes cost tens of millions of dollars in 2001. Dr. Craig Venter just published a more accurate complete human genome (his own) at a cost on the order of 100,000. The J. Craig Venter Institute has provided support for the X Prize for Genomics offering 10M to the first successful sequencing of a human genome for $1,000. It's anticipated that the prize will be won within five years. Major advances in technology that are broadly viewed as disruptive or revolutionary rather than evolutionary will often depend upon the exploitation of exponential expansions in capability. Applications of these ideas to the OOI will be discussed. Specifically, the agile ability to scale cyberinfrastructure commensurate with the exponential growth of sensors, networks and computational capability and demand will be described.

  11. A Highly Polymorphic Copy Number Variant in the NSF Gene is Associated with Cocaine Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Cabana-Domínguez, Judit; Roncero, Carlos; Grau-López, Lara; Rodríguez-Cintas, Laia; Barral, Carmen; Abad, Alfonso C.; Erikson, Galina; Wineinger, Nathan E.; Torrico, Bàrbara; Arenas, Concepció; Casas, Miquel; Ribasés, Marta; Cormand, Bru; Fernàndez-Castillo, Noèlia

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine dependence is a complex psychiatric disorder involving both genetic and environmental factors. Several neurotransmitter systems mediate cocaine’s effects, dependence and relapse, being the components of the neurotransmitter release machinery good candidates for the disorder. Previously, we identified a risk haplotype for cocaine dependence in the NSF gene, encoding the protein N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor essential for synaptic vesicle turnover. Here we examined the possible contribution to cocaine dependence of a large copy number variant (CNV) that encompasses part of the NSF gene. We performed a case-control association study in a discovery sample (359 cases and 356 controls) and identified an association between cocaine dependence and the CNV (P = 0.013), that was confirmed in the replication sample (508 cases and 569 controls, P = 7.1e-03) and in a pooled analysis (P = 1.8e-04), with an over-representation of low number of copies in cases. Subsequently, we studied the functional impact of the CNV on gene expression and found that the levels of two NSF transcripts were significantly increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) along with the number of copies of the CNV. These results, together with a previous study from our group, support the role of NSF in the susceptibility to cocaine dependence. PMID:27498889

  12. A Highly Polymorphic Copy Number Variant in the NSF Gene is Associated with Cocaine Dependence.

    PubMed

    Cabana-Domínguez, Judit; Roncero, Carlos; Grau-López, Lara; Rodríguez-Cintas, Laia; Barral, Carmen; Abad, Alfonso C; Erikson, Galina; Wineinger, Nathan E; Torrico, Bàrbara; Arenas, Concepció; Casas, Miquel; Ribasés, Marta; Cormand, Bru; Fernàndez-Castillo, Noèlia

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine dependence is a complex psychiatric disorder involving both genetic and environmental factors. Several neurotransmitter systems mediate cocaine's effects, dependence and relapse, being the components of the neurotransmitter release machinery good candidates for the disorder. Previously, we identified a risk haplotype for cocaine dependence in the NSF gene, encoding the protein N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor essential for synaptic vesicle turnover. Here we examined the possible contribution to cocaine dependence of a large copy number variant (CNV) that encompasses part of the NSF gene. We performed a case-control association study in a discovery sample (359 cases and 356 controls) and identified an association between cocaine dependence and the CNV (P = 0.013), that was confirmed in the replication sample (508 cases and 569 controls, P = 7.1e-03) and in a pooled analysis (P = 1.8e-04), with an over-representation of low number of copies in cases. Subsequently, we studied the functional impact of the CNV on gene expression and found that the levels of two NSF transcripts were significantly increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) along with the number of copies of the CNV. These results, together with a previous study from our group, support the role of NSF in the susceptibility to cocaine dependence. PMID:27498889

  13. NSF Support for Physics at the Undergraduate Level: A View from Inside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Duncan

    2015-03-01

    NSF has supported a wide range of projects in physics that involve undergraduate students. These projects include NSF research grants in which undergraduates participate; Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) centers and supplements; and education grants that range from upper-division labs that may include research, to curriculum development for upper- and lower-level courses and labs, to courses for non-majors, to Physics Education Research (PER). The NSF Divisions of Physics, Materials Research, and Astronomy provide most of the disciplinary research support, with some from other parts of NSF. I recently retired as the permanent physicist in NSF's Division of Undergraduate Education (DUE), which supports the education grants. I was responsible for a majority of DUE's physics grants and was involved with others overseen by a series of physics rotators. There I worked in programs entitled Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement (ILI); Course and Curriculum Development (CCD); Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI); Transforming Undergraduate STEM Education (TUES); and Improving Undergraduate STEM Education (IUSE). NSF support has enabled physics Principal Investigators to change and improve substantially the way physics is taught and the way students learn physics. The most important changes are increased undergraduate participation in physics research; more teaching using interactive engagement methods in classes; and growth of PER as a legitimate field of physics research as well as outcomes from PER that guide physics teaching. In turn these have led, along with other factors, to students who are better-prepared for graduate school and work, and to increases in the number of undergraduate physics majors. In addition, students in disciplines that physics directly supports, notably engineering and chemistry, and increasingly biology, are better and more broadly prepared to use their physics education in these fields. I will describe NSF

  14. Multiphase ferrofluid flows for micro-particle sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ran; Wang, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Utilizing negative magnetophoresis, ferrofluids have demonstrated great potential for sorting nonmagnetic micro-particles by size. Most of the existing techniques use single phase ferrofluids by pushing micro-particles to channel walls; the sorting speed is thus hindered. We demonstrate a novel sorting strategy by co-flowing a ferrofluid and a non-magnetic fluid in microchannels. Due to the magnetic force, the particles migrate across the ferrofluid stream at size-dependent velocities as they travel downstream. The laminar interface between the two fluids functions as a virtual boundary to accumulate particles, resulting in effective separation of particles. A stable and sharp interface is important to the success of this sorting technique. We investigate several factors that affect sorting efficiency, including magnetic field, susceptibility difference of the fluids, flow velocity, and channel geometry.

  15. To sort or not to sort: the impact of spike-sorting on neural decoding performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorova, Sonia; Sadtler, Patrick; Batista, Aaron; Chase, Steven; Ventura, Valérie

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are a promising technology for restoring motor ability to paralyzed patients. Spiking-based BCIs have successfully been used in clinical trials to control multi-degree-of-freedom robotic devices. Current implementations of these devices require a lengthy spike-sorting step, which is an obstacle to moving this technology from the lab to the clinic. A viable alternative is to avoid spike-sorting, treating all threshold crossings of the voltage waveform on an electrode as coming from one putative neuron. It is not known, however, how much decoding information might be lost by ignoring spike identity. Approach. We present a full analysis of the effects of spike-sorting schemes on decoding performance. Specifically, we compare how well two common decoders, the optimal linear estimator and the Kalman filter, reconstruct the arm movements of non-human primates performing reaching tasks, when receiving input from various sorting schemes. The schemes we tested included: using threshold crossings without spike-sorting; expert-sorting discarding the noise; expert-sorting, including the noise as if it were another neuron; and automatic spike-sorting using waveform features. We also decoded from a joint statistical model for the waveforms and tuning curves, which does not involve an explicit spike-sorting step. Main results. Discarding the threshold crossings that cannot be assigned to neurons degrades decoding: no spikes should be discarded. Decoding based on spike-sorted units outperforms decoding based on electrodes voltage crossings: spike-sorting is useful. The four waveform based spike-sorting methods tested here yield similar decoding efficiencies: a fast and simple method is competitive. Decoding using the joint waveform and tuning model shows promise but is not consistently superior. Significance. Our results indicate that simple automated spike-sorting performs as well as the more computationally or manually intensive

  16. 48 CFR 2515.215-70 - NSF negotiation authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... is for scientific activities which are determined by the NSF contracting officer to be “necessary to... or Secretary of Defense, specific scientific activities in connection with matters relating...

  17. 45 CFR 674.6 - Submission of information to NSF.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ANTARCTIC METEORITES § 674.6 Submission of information to NSF. A copy of the written procedures developed by... sufficient to ensure that the meteorites will be properly collected, handled, documented, and curated....

  18. 45 CFR 674.6 - Submission of information to NSF.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ANTARCTIC METEORITES § 674.6 Submission of information to NSF. A copy of the written procedures developed by... sufficient to ensure that the meteorites will be properly collected, handled, documented, and curated....

  19. 45 CFR 674.6 - Submission of information to NSF.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ANTARCTIC METEORITES § 674.6 Submission of information to NSF. A copy of the written procedures developed by... sufficient to ensure that the meteorites will be properly collected, handled, documented, and curated....

  20. NSF realignment plan includes moving polar office into geosciences directorate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) announced plans on 7 September to realign four program offices that are currently within the office of the NSF director, reducing the number of NSF directorates and offices within the director's office from 16 to 13 "to maximize research and education outcomes for science and engineering while enhancing NSF's operational agility." Under the realignment, which would begin 1 October, the Office of Polar Programs (OPP) would become a division within the Directorate for Geosciences (GEO); OPP, which is currently within the office of the director, had been part of GEO until 1993. The Office of Cyberinfrastructure, also currently in the director's office, would become a division within the Directorate for Computer and Information Science and Engineering. Two other offices within the director's office—the Office of International Science and Engineering and the Office of Integrative Activities—would be merged to become the Office of International and Integrative Activities.

  1. Microspherical photonics: Sorting resonant photonic atoms by using light

    SciTech Connect

    Maslov, Alexey V.; Astratov, Vasily N.

    2014-09-22

    A method of sorting microspheres by resonant light forces in vacuum, air, or liquid is proposed. Based on a two-dimensional model, it is shown that the sorting can be realized by allowing spherical particles to traverse a focused beam. Under resonance with the whispering gallery modes, the particles acquire significant velocity along the beam direction. This opens a unique way of large-volume sorting of nearly identical photonic atoms with 1/Q accuracy, where Q is the resonance quality factor. This is an enabling technology for developing super-low-loss coupled-cavity structures and devices.

  2. ALGORITHM FOR SORTING GROUPED DATA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    It is often desirable to sort data sets in ascending or descending order. This becomes more difficult for grouped data, i.e., multiple sets of data, where each set of data involves several measurements or related elements. The sort becomes increasingly cumbersome when more than a few elements exist for each data set. In order to achieve an efficient sorting process, an algorithm has been devised in which the maximum most significant element is found, and then compared to each element in succession. The program was written to handle the daily temperature readings of the Voyager spacecraft, particularly those related to the special tracking requirements of Voyager 2. By reducing each data set to a single representative number, the sorting process becomes very easy. The first step in the process is to reduce the data set of width 'n' to a data set of width '1'. This is done by representing each data set by a polynomial of length 'n' based on the differences of the maximum and minimum elements. These single numbers are then sorted and converted back to obtain the original data sets. Required input data are the name of the data file to read and sort, and the starting and ending record numbers. The package includes a sample data file, containing 500 sets of data with 5 elements in each set. This program will perform a sort of the 500 data sets in 3 - 5 seconds on an IBM PC-AT with a hard disk; on a similarly equipped IBM PC-XT the time is under 10 seconds. This program is written in BASIC (specifically the Microsoft QuickBasic compiler) for interactive execution and has been implemented on the IBM PC computer series operating under PC-DOS with a central memory requirement of approximately 40K of 8 bit bytes. A hard disk is desirable for speed considerations, but is not required. This program was developed in 1986.

  3. NSF Funded Projects: Perspectives of Project Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custer, Rodney L.; Loepp, Franzie; Martin, G. Eugene

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 23 principal investigators of National Science Foundation-funded projects identified the chief facilitating factor to be direct contact with program officers. They had difficulties conceptualizing and envisioning their projects, finding time and confidence for writing proposals, and dealing with the complexity of the guidelines and the…

  4. NASA/NSF Workshop on Antarctic Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, Mary M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs that accompanied an Ames Research Center presentation address Ames' currently-supported life sciences activities. These include crew factor issues such as human, automation, and telecommunication systems; strategic behavior and workloads; sleep, fatigue, and circadian rhythms; and virtual reality and spatial instrumentation. The need, background, and examples of pertinent research are provided.

  5. Congressional hearing reviews NSF major research and facilities projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-03-01

    An 8 March congressional hearing about the U.S. National Science Foundation's Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction (NSF MREFC) account focused on fiscal management and accountability of projects in that account and reviewed concerns raised by NSF's Office of Inspector General (OIG). NSF established the MREFC account in 1995 to better plan and manage investments in major equipment and facilities projects, which can cost from tens of millions to hundreds of millions of dollars, and the foundation has funded 17 MREFC projects since then. The Obama administration's proposed fiscal year (FY) 2013 budget includes funding for four MREFC projects: Advanced Laser Gravitational-Wave Observatory (AdvLIGO), Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST), National Ecological Observatory (NEON), and Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI). The hearing, held by a subcommittee of the House of Representatives' Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, reviewed management oversight throughout the life cycles of MREFC projects and concerns raised in recent OIG reports about the use of budget contingency funds. NSF's February 2012 manual called "Risk management guide for large facilities" states that cost contingency is "that portion of the project budget required to cover `known unknowns,'" such as planning and estimating errors and omissions, minor labor or material price fluctuations, and design developments and changes within the project scope. Committee members acknowledged measures that NSF has made to improve the MREFC oversight process, but they also urged the agency to continue to take steps to ensure better project management.

  6. An NSF rotator's perspective: view from inside the hamster wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Gary

    2015-03-01

    Duncan McBride served as my unofficial mentor during my time at NSF as a ``rotator'' (or, in NSF-speak, an IPA, short for an Intergovernmental Personnel Act assignee), from fall 2012 through summer of 2013. A rotator's main job is to help keep the wheels of the grant submission process turning, shepherding individual proposal jackets through the submission cycle. While most proposals are eventually ``Declined'' it is the few that are funded that evoke the most vivid memories of my time there. I hope to relay a little bit about what that was like on a daily basis, to give one hamster's take on the machinations of the NSF machine, and testify to Duncan McBride's critical role in establishing physics as the leader in disciplinary based educational research (DBER). It was a heady experience in many ways, despite the sheer girth of proposal jackets to be processed and the uncertain footing upon which federal employees tread these days.

  7. Hybrid optical and acoustic force based sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Mahoney, Paul; Brodie, Graham W.; Wang, Han; Demore, Christine E. M.; Cochran, Sandy; Spalding, Gabriel C.; MacDonald, Michael P.

    2014-09-01

    We report the combined use of optical sorting and acoustic levitation to give particle sorting. Differing sizes of microparticles are sorted optically both with and without the aid of acoustic levitation, and the results compared to show that the use of acoustic trapping can increase sorting efficiency. The use of a transparent ultrasonic transducer is also shown to streamline the integration of optics and acoustics. We also demonstrate the balance of optical radiation pressure and acoustic levitation to achieve vertical sorting.

  8. All sorts of options for food product sorting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most food products undergo significant processing before arrival at the grocery store or local market. A major component of this processing includes sorting the product according to quality attributes such as size, color, sweetness, and ripeness. In addition, removal of defects or contaminants is a ...

  9. Automated Sorting of Transuranic Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Shurtliff, Rodney Marvin

    2001-03-01

    The HANDSS-55 Transuranic Waste Sorting Module is designed to sort out items found in 55-gallon drums of waste as determined by an operator. Innovative imaging techniques coupled with fast linear motor-based motion systems and a flexible end-effector system allow the operator to remove items from the waste stream by a touch of the finger. When all desired items are removed from the waste stream, the remaining objects are automatically moved to a repackaging port for removal from the glovebox/cell. The Transuranic Waste Sorting Module consists of 1) a high accuracy XYZ Stereo Measurement and Imaging system, 2) a vibrating/tilting sorting table, 3) an XY Deployment System, 4) a ZR Deployment System, 5) several user-selectable end-effectors, 6) a waste bag opening system, 7) control and instrumentation, 8) a noncompliant waste load-out area, and 9) a Human/Machine Interface (HMI). The system is modular in design to accommodate database management tools, additional load-out ports, and other enhancements. Manually sorting the contents of a 55-gallon drum takes about one day per drum. The HANDSS-55 Waste Sorting Module is designed to significantly increase the throughput of this sorting process by automating those functions that are strenuous and tiresome for an operator to perform. The Waste Sorting Module uses the inherent ability of an operator to identify the items that need to be segregated from the waste stream and then, under computer control, picks that item out of the waste and deposits it in the appropriate location. The operator identifies the object by locating the visual image on a large color display and touches the image on the display with his finger. The computer then determines the location of the object, and performing a highspeed image analysis determines its size and orientation, so that a robotic gripper can be deployed to pick it up. Following operator verification by voice or function key, the object is deposited into a specified location.

  10. Research Misconduct: Policy and Practice at the NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manka, Aaron

    2004-03-01

    Under NSF's Office of Inspector General mandate to prevent fraud, waste, abuse, or mismanagement involving NSF's proposals and awards, our office also investigates allegations of research misconduct. I will discuss our office's handling of such matters, focusing on the ethical and legal obligations of proposal submitters and awardees and the role of the scientific community. To illustrate some other points that are of interest to the physics community, I will also discuss some of our investigative activities relevant to: duplicate funding, the accuracy of information in proposals, and collaborations.

  11. NSF FY 1987 budget dealt blow in Congress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Although it passed through the congressional authorization process unscathed, the budget request for the National Science Foundation (NSF) for fiscal year (FY) 1987 was dealt a serious blow on July 23, 1986, when a House appropriations subcommittee recommended that nearly $146 million be cut from the agency's request for “research and related activities” (R&RA). The full House Appropriations Committee went on to endorse this recommendation on July 31.The committee report accompanying the House appropriation bill leaves the distribution of cuts within R&RA up to the discretion of the NSF director. The report does, however, protect the budget request for the ocean drilling program from a cut.

  12. Deformability-based capsule sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Goff, Anne; Munier, Nadege; Maire, Pauline; Edwards-Levy, Florence; Salsac, Anne-Virginie

    2015-11-01

    Many microfluidic devices have been developed for cancer diagnosis applications, most of which relying on costly antibodies. Since some cancer cells display abnormal mechanical properties, new sorting tools based on mechanical sensing are of particular interest. We present a simple, passive pinched flow microfluidic system for capsule sorting. The device consists of a straight microchannel containing a cylindrical obstacle. Thanks to a flow-focusing module placed at the channel entrance, capsules arrive well-centered in the vicinity of the obstacle. Pure size-sorting can be achieved at low shear rate. When increasing the shear rate, capsules are deformed in the narrow space between the pillar and the wall. The softer the capsule, the more tightly it wraps around the obstacle. After the obstacle, streamlines diverge, allowing for the separation between soft capsules, that follow central streamlines, and stiff capsules, that drift away from the obstacle with a wider angle. This proves that we have developed a flexible multipurpose sorting microsystem based on a simple design.

  13. 78 FR 12044 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC... on scientific priorities within the field of basic nuclear science research. Tentative Agenda:...

  14. 75 FR 37783 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC... nuclear science research. Tentative Agenda: Agenda will include discussions of the following: Friday,...

  15. 77 FR 9219 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC... the National Science Foundation on scientific priorities within the field of basic nuclear...

  16. 76 FR 31945 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC... Science Foundation on scientific priorities within the field of basic nuclear science research....

  17. 76 FR 69252 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC... Energy and the National Science Foundation on scientific priorities within the field of basic...

  18. 77 FR 51791 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC... Energy and the National Science Foundation on scientific priorities within the field of basic...

  19. 76 FR 62050 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of... that the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) will be renewed for a two- year period... (National Science Foundation), on scientific priorities within the field of basic nuclear science...

  20. 76 FR 8359 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC... scientific priorities within the field of basic nuclear science research. Tentative Agenda: Agenda...

  1. 78 FR 56870 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory. Committee (NSAC... and the National Science Foundation on scientific priorities within the field of basic nuclear...

  2. 75 FR 6651 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC... the National Science Foundation on scientific priorities within the field of basic nuclear...

  3. Wakimoto discusses role as NSF's incoming assistant director of geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-12-01

    Roger Wakimoto's adrenaline “is starting to pump,” the incoming assistant director for geosciences (GEO) at the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) told Eos during an exclusive interview at this month's AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco. Wakimoto, whose scientific expertise is in extreme weather, is scheduled to take charge as head of the NSF directorate for geosciences starting in February 2013. During his 4-year appointment at NSF, Wakimoto, 59 and an avowed workaholic, will head up the GEO directorate, which has about an $880 million annual funding portfolio and provides about 55% of federal funding for geosciences basic research at U.S. academic institutions. The directorate currently includes the divisions of atmospheric and geospace sciences, Earth sciences, and ocean sciences. In addition, NSF's Office of Polar Programs is slated to become a GEO division under a realignment plan announced on 7 September; Wakimoto said that shift had “no bearing” on his decision to accept the position.

  4. NSF Anticipates Pushing Boundaries on Open-Access Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basken, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF), in carrying out the Obama administration's new push for greater public access to research published in scientific journals, will consider exclusivity periods shorter than the 12-month standard in the White House directive, as well as trade-offs involving data-sharing and considerations of publishers'…

  5. Summary Report of the NSF/EPA WATERS Network Workshop

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) and The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) organized a workshop to support The WATer and Environmental Research Systems (WATERS) Network project. The WATERS Network is a new joint initiative of the environmental engineering and hydrol...

  6. The NSF Science Development Programs, Volume I: A Documentary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This report, published in two volumes, provides a documentary record of the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Science Development Program (SDP). Information is given on overall university funding levels and on other development programs, with SDP goals and procedures described in detail. Using information on budgets and goals as well as…

  7. NSF-Sponsored Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Copley, N.; Galvarino, C.; Gegg, S. R.; Glover, D. M.; Groman, R. C.; Wiebe, P. H.; Work, T. T.; Biological; Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office

    2010-12-01

    Ocean biogeochemistry and marine ecosystem research projects are inherently interdisciplinary and benefit from improved access to well-documented data. Improved data sharing practices are important to the continued exploration of research themes that are a central focus of the ocean science community and are essential to interdisciplinary and international collaborations that address complex, global research themes. In 2006, the National Science Foundation Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE) funded the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) to serve the data management requirements of scientific investigators funded by the National Science Foundation’s Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections. BCO-DMO staff members work with investigators to manage marine biogeochemical, ecological, and oceanographic data and information developed in the course of scientific research. These valuable data sets are documented, stored, disseminated, and protected over short and intermediate time frames. One of the goals of the BCO-DMO is to facilitate regional, national, and international data and information exchange through improved data discovery, access, display, downloading, and interoperability. In May 2010, NSF released a statement to the effect that in October 2010, it is planning to require that all proposals include a data management plan in the form of a two-page supplementary document. The data management plan would be an element of the merit review process. NSF has long been committed to making data from NSF-funded research publicly available and the new policy will strengthen this commitment. BCO-DMO is poised to assist in creating the data management plans and in ultimately serving the data and information resulting from NSF OCE funded research. We will present an overview of the data management system capabilities including: geospatial and text-based data discovery and access systems; recent enhancements to data search tools; data

  8. NCALM: NSF Supported Center for Airborne Laser Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, R. L.; Carter, W. E.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2003-12-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) recently awarded a grant to create a research center to support the use of airborne laser mapping technology in the scientific community. The NSF supported Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM) will be operated jointly by the Department of Civil & Coastal Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Florida (UF) and the Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California-Berkeley (UCB). NCALM will use the Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM) system jointly owned by UF and Florida International University (FIU), based at the UF Geosensing Engineering and Mapping (GEM) Research Center. The state-of-the-art laser surveying instrumentation, GPS systems, which are installed in a Cessna 337 Skymaster aircraft, will collect research grade data in areas selected through the competitive NSF grant review process. The ALSM observations will be analyzed both at UF and UCB, and made available to the PI through an archiving and distribution center at UCB-building upon the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL) Northern California Earthquake Data Center system. The purpose of NCALM is to provide research grade data from ALSM technology to NSF supported research studies in geosciences. The Center will also contribute to software development that will increase the processing speed and data accuracy. This presentation will discuss NCALM operation and the process of submitting proposals to NSF. In addition, it will outline the process to request available NCALM seed project funds to help jump-start small scientific research studies. Funds are also available for travel by academic researchers and students for hands-on knowledge and experience in ALSM technology at UF and UCB.

  9. Application and commercialization of flow cytometrically sex-sorted semen.

    PubMed

    Rath, D; Johnson, L A

    2008-07-01

    The current technology to sort X and Y chromosome bearing sperm population requires individual identification and selection of spermatozoa in a modified high-speed flow cytometer. For farm animal species, the technology is capable of producing sexed sperm at greater than 90% purity. However, only in the bovine, the technology has reached a developmental level that allows its commercial application. Meanwhile, the demand for female calves has grown rapidly, which encourages the demand for sex-sorted semen from high genetic value bulls. The success of the technology will depend mainly on the fertilizing capacity of the sorted spermatozoa, as this is the most affecting and economically relevant factor. To date, fertility is still variable and is quite dependent on post-sort processing. New processing techniques are under investigation and will likely be able to improve the fertility rates after AI with sex-sorted semen. It is of great importance to select the right bulls and to test the sorted samples on a routine basis. In addition to the demand for sex-sorted semen by the cattle industry, there is also a significant demand expressed by pig farmers. However, it is still unknown if the use of sex-sorted semen through commercial pig AI will be economically feasible. For the pig, the combination of in vitro fertilization with sexed semen and non-surgical embryo transfer is an alternative that merits further scientific attention. Recent developments in ovine AI and ET will make it very likely that commercial sheep industry will adopt the sexing technology in their breeding concepts. PMID:18638144

  10. Sorted.

    PubMed

    Towers, S

    1997-04-01

    Each year in Accident and Emergency an increasing number of young people present with acute problems related to social drugs. These problems range from mild symptoms to life-threatening conditions, many of which can be extremely difficult and time consuming for staff to manage. It has become apparent that as with sex the experimental age for taking drugs is getting younger as youths are now far more 'streetwise' than their predecessors. This is one of the main reasons for this paper being written; it is imperative that staff are equipped with the appropriate knowledge to deal with the challenge and are educated about the problems associated with current drug trends. This potentially improves the quality of care and, in turn, good communication improves relationships. Ecstasy is once again becoming increasingly popular within mainstream clubs, as recently highlighted in the media, and with it reappear its problems. This article discusses the historical aspects of Ecstasy and aims to educate staff about its use and effects and provides health promotion advice for those who are involved in the care of people who take Ecstasy. PMID:9171546

  11. Sorting of solid radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, J.; Pecival, I.; Hejtman, J.; Wildman, J.; Cechak, T.

    1993-12-31

    In the nuclear power plants solid radioactive wastes are produced during regular operation and during small repairs. It is necessary to sort them into the highly contaminated wastes for which a special procedure for storage is necessary and waste that is not radioactive and can be stored in the environment under specific regulations. The aim of the project was to propose and to construct equipment, which is able to sort the waste with a high degree of reliability and to distinguish highly contaminated wastes from wastes which are less dangerous to the environment. The sensitivity of the detection system was tested by a mathematical model. The radioactive wastes from the primary part of the nuclear power plant can have three composition types. Details of the composition of the radioisotopes mixture are presented.

  12. Sorting fluorescent nanocrystals with DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Gerion, Daniele; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Williams, Shara C.; Zanchet, Daniela; Micheel, Christine M.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2001-12-10

    Semiconductor nanocrystals with narrow and tunable fluorescence are covalently linked to oligonucleotides. These biocompounds retain the properties of both nanocrystals and DNA. Therefore, different sequences of DNA can be coded with nanocrystals and still preserve their ability to hybridize to their complements. We report the case where four different sequences of DNA are linked to four nanocrystal samples having different colors of emission in the range of 530-640 nm. When the DNA-nanocrystal conjugates are mixed together, it is possible to sort each type of nanoparticle using hybridization on a defined micrometer -size surface containing the complementary oligonucleotide. Detection of sorting requires only a single excitation source and an epifluorescence microscope. The possibility of directing fluorescent nanocrystals towards specific biological targets and detecting them, combined with their superior photo-stability compared to organic dyes, opens the way to improved biolabeling experiments, such as gene mapping on a nanometer scale or multicolor microarray analysis.

  13. N-Ethylmaleimide Dissociates α7 ACh Receptor from a Complex with NSF and Promotes Its Delivery to the Presynaptic Membrane.

    PubMed

    Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2016-08-01

    N-Ethylmaleimide (NEM)-sensitive factor (NSF) associates with soluble NSF attachment protein (SNAP), that binds to SNAP receptors (SNAREs) including syntaxin, SNAP25, and synaptobrevin. The complex of NSF/SNAP/SNAREs plays a critical role in the regulation of vesicular traffic. The present study investigated NEM-regulated α7 ACh receptor translocation. NSF associated with β-SNAP and the SNAREs syntaxin 1 and synaptobrevin 2 in the rat hippocampus. NSF also associated with the α7 ACh receptor subunit, the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunits GluA1 and GluA2, and the γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor γ2 subunit. NEM, an inhibitor of NSF, significantly dissociated the α7 ACh receptor subunit from a complex with NSF and increased cell surface localization of the receptor subunit, but such effect was not obtained with the GluA1, GluA2 or γ2 subunits. NEM, alternatively, dissociated synaptobrevin 2 from an assembly of NSF/β-SNAP/syntaxin 1/synaptobrevin 2. NEM significantly increased the rate of nicotine-triggered AMPA receptor-mediated miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents, without affecting the amplitude, in rat hippocampal slices. The results of the present study indicate that NEM releases the α7 ACh receptor subunit and synaptobrevin 2 from an assembly of α7 ACh receptor subunit/NSF/β-SNAP/syntaxin 1/synaptobrevin 2, thereby promoting delivery of the α7 ACh receptor subunit to presynaptic membrane. PMID:27105867

  14. Word Sorts for General Music Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2015-01-01

    Word sorts are standard practice for aiding children in acquiring skills in English language arts. When included in the general music classroom, word sorts may aid students in acquiring a working knowledge of music vocabulary. The author shares a word sort activity drawn from vocabulary in John Lithgow's children's book "Never Play…

  15. Improved Access to NSF Funded Ocean Research Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, C. L.; Groman, R. C.; Kinkade, D.; Shepherd, A.; Rauch, S.; Allison, M. D.; Gegg, S. R.; Wiebe, P. H.; Glover, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Data from NSF-funded, hypothesis-driven research comprise an essential part of the research results upon which we base our knowledge and improved understanding of the impacts of climate change. Initially funded in 2006, the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) works with marine scientists to ensure that data from NSF-funded ocean research programs are fully documented and freely available for future use. BCO-DMO works in partnership with information technology professionals, other marine data repositories and national data archive centers to ensure long-term preservation of these valuable environmental research data. Data contributed to BCO-DMO by the original investigators are enhanced with sufficient discipline-specific documentation and published in a variety of standards-compliant forms designed to enable discovery and support accurate re-use.

  16. NSF's Handling of Allegations of Misconduct in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manka, Aaron

    2000-03-01

    Under NSF's Office of Inspector General mandate to prevent fraud, waste, abuse, or mismanagement involving NSF's proposals and awards, our office is unique in that it also investigates allegations of misconduct in science. I will discuss our office's handling of such matters, focusing on the ethical and legal obligations of proposal submitters and awardees and the role of the scientific community. To illustrate some of these points that are of interest to the physics community, I will discuss some of our investigative activities relevant to: duplicate funding, cost sharing, and the accuracy of information in proposals. If the OSTP policy on research misconduct has been released for public comment, I will briefly discuss this policy, which is meant to be adopted by all federal funding agencies, and what it will mean for us and the community we serve.

  17. Report: NSF Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement Grants in Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    The 1996 awards in chemistry under the Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement Program (ILI) of the Division of Undergraduate Education (DUE) have been announced and are listed below. The ILI program provides matching funds in the range of 5,000 to 100,000 for purchasing equipment for laboratory improvement. Since the recipient institution must provide matching funds equaling or exceeding the NSF award, the supported projects range in cost from 10,000 to over 200,000. The 311 chemistry proposals requesting 13 million constituted 21% of the total number of proposals submitted to the ILI program. A total of 3.9 million was awarded in support of 110 projects in chemistry. The instruments requested most frequently were high field NMRs, GC/MS instruments, computers for data analysis, and FT-IRs; next most commonly requested were UV-vis spectrophotometers, followed by HPLCs, lasers, computers for molecular modeling, AAs, and GCs. In addition, one award was made this year in chemistry within the Leadership in Laboratory Development category. The next deadline for submission of ILI proposals is November 14, 1997. Guidelines for the preparation of proposals are found in the DUE Program Announcement (NSF 96-10), which may be obtained by calling (703) 306-1666 or by e-mail: undergrad@nsf.gov. Other information about DUE programs and activities and abstracts of the funded proposals can be found on the DUE Home Page at http://www.ehr.nsf.gov/EHR/DUE/start.htm. We thank Sandra D. Nelson, Science Education Analyst in DUE, for assistance in data gathering.

  18. Congressional geohazards showcase presented by NSF and AGU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlenbrock, Kristan

    2011-10-01

    On Wednesday, 7 September 2011, two weeks after the magnitude 5.8 earthquake in Mineral, Va., and a week after Hurricane Irene struck the U.S. East Coast, AGU cosponsored a showcase of National Science Foundation (NSF)—funded hazards research in recognition of National Preparedness Month. This annual event highlights NSF—funded hazards research from all over the United States, with more than 30 exhibitors demonstrating the latest research and technology on hurricanes, earthquakes, tornadoes, volcanoes, tsunamis, and oil spills, as well as emergency and social responses to these events. The event took place at the Hart Senate Office Building, where many members of Congress and their staff could attend and discuss the importance of hazards research with the researchers and NSF staff. Sen. Bill Nelson (D-Fla.) kicked off with a panel of speakers, which included remarks by Mary Voytek, a member of the AGU Board of Directors, and Subra Suresh, director of NSF. Expert presentations were also given on hazard prediction, human safety, and social response. Following the event, Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid (D-Nev.) hosted a small event to meet directly with a few of the exhibitors to discuss the importance of investment in scientific research and development.

  19. NSF funding opportunities in the behavioral and cognitive sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Philip

    2003-04-01

    This presentation will provide a brief overview of existing and emerging funding opportunities at the National Science Foundation (NSF). The Division of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences (BCS) at the NSF supports research to develop and advance scientific knowledge focusing on human cognition, language, social behavior and culture, as well as research on the interactions between human societies and the physical environment. BCS programs consider proposals that fall squarely within disciplines, but they also encourage and support interdisciplinary projects, which are evaluated through joint review among Programs in BCS, as well as a joint review with programs in other Divisions, and NSF-wide multi-disciplinary panels, as appropriate. All programs in BCS consider proposals for research projects, conferences, and workshops. Some programs also consider proposals for doctoral dissertation improvement assistance, the acquisition of specialized research and computing equipment, group international travel, and large-scale data collection. BCS participates in special initiatives and competitions on a number of topics, including cognitive neuroscience, children's research, human origins, and the development of infrastructure to improve data resources, data archives, collaboratories, and centers.

  20. Former NSF assistant director Killeen reflects on geosciences and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-12-01

    “This is prime time for the geosciences,” Tim Killeen, former assistant director for geosciences at the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF GEO), told Eos during a recent exclusive interview. Killeen, who served at NSF from July 2008 until his term expired in June 2012, oversaw a number of new initiatives and an expansion of the geoscience directorate's annual funding portfolio from $752 million to about $880 million. NSF announced on 7 November that Roger Wakimoto, director of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, will start as the new geosciences assistant director in February 2013 (see related article, this page, and Eos, 93(47), 475, doi:10.1029/ 2012EO470004). During the broad-ranging interview, Killeen reflected on the importance of the geosciences and their relationship to society. Killeen has been president of the Research Foundation for the State University of New York (RFSUNY) and SUNY vice chancellor for research since 9 July. He took the helm of RFSUNY after some personnel there “took advantage of lax oversight to cheat taxpayers,” according to New York State comptroller Thomas DiNapoli. Killeen, who was AGU president from 2006 to 2008, is responsible for the supervision and operation of RFSUNY, which supports about $1 billion in research at SUNY, an institution with 64 campuses and nearly 470,000 students.

  1. Integrating Research and Education in NSF's Office of Polar Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wharton, R. A.; Crain, R. D.

    2003-12-01

    The National Science Foundation invests in activities that integrate research and education, and that develop reward systems to support teaching, mentoring and outreach. Effective integration of research and education at all levels can infuse learning with the excitement of discovery. It can also ensure that the findings and methods of research are quickly and effectively communicated in a broader context and to a larger audience. This strategy is vital to the accomplishment of NSF's strategic goals of ensuring a world-class science and engineering workforce, new knowledge across the frontiers of science and engineering, and the tools to get the job done efficiently and effectively. The NSF's Office of Polar Programs sponsors educational projects at all levels of learning, making full use of the variety of disciplinary and interdisciplinary studies in the polar regions to attract and invigorate students. An array of efforts from the Arctic and Antarctic scientific communities link research activities with education. There has been an advance from the beneficial but isolated impacts of individual researcher visits to K-12 classrooms to large-scale developments, such as field research experiences for teachers and undergraduate students, online sharing of polar field experiences with rural classrooms, the institution of interdisciplinary graduate research programs through NSF initiatives, and opportunities for minority and underrepresented groups in polar sciences. The NSF's criterion for evaluating proposals based upon the broader impacts of the research activity has strengthened efforts to link research and education, resulting in partnerships and innovations that infuse research into education from kindergarten through postdoctoral studies and reaching out to the general public. In addition, the Office of Polar Programs partners with other directorates at NSF to broaden OPP's efforts and benefit from resources and experience in the Education and Human Resources

  2. Viability and DNA fragmentation in differently sorted boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    De Ambrogi, M; Spinaci, M; Galeati, G; Tamanini, C

    2006-11-01

    Sperm cell defense against DNA damage relies on two factors: the tight packaging of chromatin, based on condensation and substitution of histones with protamines, and the antioxidant agents present in seminal plasma. These defenses are extremely important as mature sperm is unable to repair DNA damage and even if a successful fertilization occurs, embryo undergoes apoptosis at the time of genomic activation. Sex-sorting exposes spermatozoa to stress sources such as high pressure, laser beam and electrical charge. The aim of this work was to determine how sorting procedures affect viability and DNA integrity in boar spermatozoa, by using the newly developed Sperm-Sus-Halomax. Four sperm populations were considered: CONTROL (no treatment), REAL (sex-sorted semen), BULK (semen sorted without sex separation) and NO LASER (semen only exposed to the high pressure, but including also cells normally discarded from sex-sorting). A significantly (P=0.019) lower viability in NO LASER (64.71%) than in CONTROL (78.6%) and REAL (80.5%) groups was found; this was accompanied by a significantly (P=0.001) higher DNA fragmentation index (DFI) in NO LASER group (6.86%) respect to CONTROL (3.30%) and REAL (3.42%) groups. BULK group did not show any difference in viability or DFI as compared to the other groups. In conclusion, we may believe that sex-sorting procedure as a whole does not affect either viability or DFI and that shear mechanical forces are a relevant source of DNA damage for sorted semen. PMID:16814375

  3. Retromer-Mediated Protein Sorting and Vesicular Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-Jia

    2016-04-20

    Retromer is an evolutionarily conserved multimeric protein complex that mediates intracellular transport of various vesicular cargoes and functions in a wide variety of cellular processes including polarized trafficking, developmental signaling and lysosome biogenesis. Through its interaction with the Rab GTPases and their effectors, membrane lipids, molecular motors, the endocytic machinery and actin nucleation promoting factors, retromer regulates sorting and trafficking of transmembrane proteins from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the plasma membrane. In this review, I highlight recent progress in the understanding of retromer-mediated protein sorting and vesicle trafficking and discuss how retromer contributes to a diverse set of developmental, physiological and pathological processes. PMID:27157806

  4. 45 CFR 689.5 - Initial NSF handling of misconduct matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Initial NSF handling of misconduct matters. 689.5 Section 689.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 689.5 Initial NSF handling of misconduct matters. (a) NSF staff who learn of alleged misconduct will promptly...

  5. 45 CFR 689.5 - Initial NSF handling of misconduct matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Initial NSF handling of misconduct matters. 689.5 Section 689.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 689.5 Initial NSF handling of misconduct matters. (a) NSF staff who learn...

  6. 45 CFR 689.5 - Initial NSF handling of misconduct matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Initial NSF handling of misconduct matters. 689.5 Section 689.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 689.5 Initial NSF handling of misconduct matters. (a) NSF staff who learn...

  7. 45 CFR 689.5 - Initial NSF handling of misconduct matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Initial NSF handling of misconduct matters. 689.5 Section 689.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 689.5 Initial NSF handling of misconduct matters. (a) NSF staff who learn of alleged misconduct will promptly...

  8. 45 CFR 689.5 - Initial NSF handling of misconduct matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Initial NSF handling of misconduct matters. 689.5 Section 689.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 689.5 Initial NSF handling of misconduct matters. (a) NSF staff who learn...

  9. 45 CFR 681.6 - When may NSF issue a complaint?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When may NSF issue a complaint? 681.6 Section 681.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... may NSF issue a complaint? NSF may issue a complaint: (a) If the Attorney General (or...

  10. 45 CFR 681.6 - When may NSF issue a complaint?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When may NSF issue a complaint? 681.6 Section 681.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... may NSF issue a complaint? NSF may issue a complaint: (a) If the Attorney General (or...

  11. 45 CFR 681.6 - When may NSF issue a complaint?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When may NSF issue a complaint? 681.6 Section 681.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... may NSF issue a complaint? NSF may issue a complaint: (a) If the Attorney General (or...

  12. 45 CFR 681.6 - When may NSF issue a complaint?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When may NSF issue a complaint? 681.6 Section 681.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... may NSF issue a complaint? NSF may issue a complaint: (a) If the Attorney General (or...

  13. 45 CFR 681.6 - When may NSF issue a complaint?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When may NSF issue a complaint? 681.6 Section 681.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... may NSF issue a complaint? NSF may issue a complaint: (a) If the Attorney General (or...

  14. Redox sorting of carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Gui, Hui; Streit, Jason K; Fagan, Jeffrey A; Hight Walker, Angela R; Zhou, Chongwu; Zheng, Ming

    2015-03-11

    This work expands the redox chemistry of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by investigating its role in a number of SWCNT sorting processes. Using a polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran (DX) aqueous two-phase system, we show that electron-transfer between redox molecules and SWCNTs triggers reorganization of the surfactant coating layer, leading to strong modulation of nanotube partition in the two phases. While the DX phase is thermodynamically more favored by an oxidized SWCNT mixture, the mildly reducing PEG phase is able to recover SWCNTs from oxidation and extract them successively from the DX phase. Remarkably, the extraction order follows SWCNT bandgap: semiconducting nanotubes of larger bandgap first, followed by semiconducting nanotubes of smaller bandgap, then nonarmchair metallic tubes of small but nonvanishing bandgap, and finally armchair metallic nanotubes of zero bandgap. Furthermore, we show that redox-induced surfactant reorganization is a common phenomenon, affecting nanotube buoyancy in a density gradient field, affinity to polymer matrices, and solubility in organic solvents. These findings establish redox modulation of surfactant coating structures as a general mechanism for tuning a diverse range of SWCNT sorting processes and demonstrate for the first time that armchair and nonarmchair metallic SWCNTs can be separated by their differential response to redox. PMID:25719939

  15. Recyclable Waste Paper Sorting Using Template Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osiur Rahman, Mohammad; Hussain, Aini; Scavino, Edgar; Hannan, M. A.; Basri, Hassan

    This paper explores the application of image processing techniques in recyclable waste paper sorting. In recycling, waste papers are segregated into various grades as they are subjected to different recycling processes. Highly sorted paper streams will facilitate high quality end products, and save processing chemicals and energy. Since 1932 to 2009, different mechanical and optical paper sorting methods have been developed to fill the demand of paper sorting. Still, in many countries including Malaysia, waste papers are sorted into different grades using manual sorting system. Due to inadequate throughput and some major drawbacks of mechanical paper sorting systems, the popularity of optical paper sorting systems is increased. Automated paper sorting systems offer significant advantages over human inspection in terms of fatigue, throughput, speed, and accuracy. This research attempts to develop a smart vision sensing system that able to separate the different grades of paper using Template Matching. For constructing template database, the RGB components of the pixel values are used to construct RGBString for template images. Finally, paper object grade is identified based on the maximum occurrence of a specific template image in the search image. The outcomes from the experiment in classification for White Paper, Old Newsprint Paper and Old Corrugated Cardboard are 96%, 92% and 96%, respectively. The remarkable achievement obtained with the method is the accurate identification and dynamic sorting of all grades of papers using simple image processing techniques.

  16. Neonatal Intensive-Care Unit Graduates Show Persistent Difficulties in an Intradimensional Shift Card Sort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittler, Phyllis M.; Brooks, Patricia J.; Rossi, Vanessa; Karmel, Bernard Z.; Gardner, Judith M.; Flory, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU) graduates, a group at risk for attention problems and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, performed an intradimensional shift card sort at 34, 42, 51, and 60 months to assess executive function and to examine effects of individual risk factors. In the "silly" game, children sorted cards…

  17. Viable cell sorting of dinoflagellates by multi-parametric flow cytometry.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electronic cell sorting for isolation and culture of dinoflagellates and other marine eukaryotic phytoplankton was compared to the traditional method of manually picking of cells using a micropipette. Trauma to electronically sorted cells was not a limiting factor as fragile dinoflagellates, such a...

  18. Supporting Geoscientists in Partnerships for K-12 Education at NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinen, M.

    2001-12-01

    NSF Directorate for Geosciences (GEO) education activities have evolved over the last decade based on advice from a broad segment of the geosciences community. These activities gained momentum when a Geosciences Education Working Group (GEWG, 1996) recognized the shift from traditional priorities that emphasized only research, to those that support education in geosciences as well. The GEWG report embraced this increased emphasis on education as a component of NSF's role in assuring the long-term health of the geosciences and endorsed the principle that research and education should be well integrated. While many geosciences education activities are funded by the Education and Human Resources Directorate (EHR) of NSF, the GEWG report highlighted the need to have more active participation by research geoscientists in K-12 education activities, and the need to train them to be able to do so. While some roles in education are clearly best left to educational professionals (e.g. large-scale systemic reform projects, pedagogical development at the K-12 level, and many teacher enhancement projects), activities such as undergraduate research, technology advancement, curriculum content development and informal science are ones in which GEO should actively seek to collaborate with programs in EHR. The GEO education program has expanded over the last decade. Our first education activity, Awards to Facilitate Geoscience Education (AFGE), was very successful in attracting some of the leading researchers in geosciences. This program evolved to become the Geoscience Education Program. An important program funded by GEO that developed from community activity is the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE). This program grew out of a joint EHR/GEO award and a series of community workshops. The program will establish an Internet portal for geoscience curricular materials and other teacher resources that will enable further collaboration between the research and education

  19. Systemic Education Reform: Links from the NSF Web Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wink, Donald J.

    1999-02-01

    In the late 1980s, the National Science Foundation began a process of including large, systematic-change grants in several of its education programs. The fruits of these are a major resouce of multi-institutional reform efforts, often with a great variety of materials, ideas, and research that is applicable to K-16 education in science and mathematics. Information about the recipients of these systemic-change grants is often available directly from NSF, which also hosts links on special Web pages.

  20. Neuroendocrine transcriptional programs adapt dynamically to the supply and demand for neuropeptides as revealed in NSF mutant zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Kurrasch, Deborah M; Nevin, Linda M; Wong, Jinny S; Baier, Herwig; Ingraham, Holly A

    2009-01-01

    Background Regulated secretion of specialized neuropeptides in the vertebrate neuroendocrine system is critical for ensuring physiological homeostasis. Expression of these cell-specific peptide markers in the differentiating hypothalamus commences prior to birth, often predating the physiological demand for secreted neuropeptides. The conserved function and spatial expression of hypothalamic peptides in vertebrates prompted us to search for critical neuroendocrine genes in newly hatched zebrafish larvae. Results We screened mutant 5 days post-fertilization zebrafish larvae that fail to undergo visually mediated background adaptation for disruption in hypothalamic pomc expression. To our surprise, the ATPase N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor (nsf) was identified as an essential gene for maintenance of neuroendocrine transcriptional programs during the embryo-to-larva transition. Despite normal hypothalamic development in nsfst53 mutants, neuropeptidergic cells exhibited a dramatic loss of cell-specific markers by 5 days post-fertilization that is accompanied by elevated intracellular neuropeptide protein. Consistent with the role of NSF in vesicle-membrane fusion events and intracellular trafficking, cytoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum-like membranes accumulate in nsf-/- hypothalamic neurons similar to that observed for SEC18 (nsf ortholog) yeast mutants. Our data support a model in which unspent neuropeptide cargo feedbacks to extinguish transcription in neuropeptidergic cells just as they become functionally required. In support of this model we found that gnrh3 transcripts remained unchanged in pre-migratory, non-functional gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in nsf-/- zebrafish. Furthermore, oxytocin-like (oxtl, intp) transcripts, which are found in osmoreceptive neurons and persist in mutant zebrafish, drop precipitously after mutant zebrafish are acutely challenged with high salt. Conclusion Our analyses of nsf mutant zebrafish reveal an unexpected

  1. Abnormal expression of NSF, α-SNAP and SNAP23 in pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats treated with monocrotaline

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Liang; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Luo, Qin; Wang, Yong; Zhao, Zhi-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent researches have shown that dysfunctional intracellular vesicular trafficking exists in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, the expression of proteins involved in intracellular vesicular trafficking in pulmonary vasculature in PAH remains unclear. Objective: To elucidate possible roles of proteins involved in intracellular vesicular trafficking in the development of PAH in rats treated with monocrotaline, changes in the expression of N-ethyl-maleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), α-soluble NSF attachment protein (α-SNAP) and synaptosome-associated membrane protein (SNAP) 23 were examined together with expression of caveolin-1 (cav-1), endogenous nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), type 2 bone morphogenetic receptor (BMPR2) and cellular apoptosis. Methods: The mRNA expression was investigated by real time-PCR and protein expression by immunoblot method in rat lung. Caspase-3 was used as an indicator of cellular apoptosis and examined by immunoblot method. Results: During the development of PAH, mRNA and protein expression of NSF, α-SNAP and SNAP23 all significantly increased before pulmonary arterial pressure started to increase, then all significantly decreased when PAH established. The expression of eNOS and BMPR2 changed similarly, while the mRNA and protein of cav-1 both downregulated after monocrotaline treatment. Caspase-3 was also increased after exposure to monocrotaline. Conclusions: Since the expression of NSF, α-SNAP and SNAP23 changed greatly during the onset of PAH and accompanied with abnormal expression of eNOS, BMPR2 and cav-1 and with enhanced cellular apoptosis, NSF, α-SNAP and SNAP23 appear to be associated with the development of PAH in rats treated with monocrotaline. PMID:25932111

  2. Flow sorting of microorganisms for molecular analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Wallner, G; Fuchs, B; Spring, S; Beisker, W; Amann, R

    1997-01-01

    Not only classical cultivation-based methods but also the new molecular approaches may result in incomplete and selective information on the natural diversity of microbial communities. Flow sorting of microorganisms from environmental samples allows the deliberate selection of cell populations of interest from highly diverse systems for molecular analysis. Several cellular parameters that can be measured by flow cytometry are useful as sort criteria. Here, we report sorting of bacteria from activated sludge, lake water, and lake sediment according to differences in light scattering, DNA content, and/or affiliation to certain phylogenetic groups as assessed by fluorescein-labeled, rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. Microscopy of the sorted cells showed that populations of originally low abundance could be strongly enriched by flow sorting (up to 280-fold), depending on the original abundance of the cells of interest and the type of sample sorted. The purity of the cells of interest could be further increased by repeated sorting, but this increase was limited by cell aggregation in the case of activated-sludge samples. It was possible to amplify almost full-length 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fragments from sorted microbial cells by PCR, even after fixation with paraformaldehyde and in situ hybridization. Dot blot hybridization and sequencing demonstrated that most of the amplified rDNA originated from those cells that had been selected for by flow sorting. Comparative analysis of 16S rDNA sequences revealed previously unknown species of magnetotactic or activated-sludge bacteria. PMID:9361408

  3. Six NSF-NATO postdocs go to geoscientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six Earth scientists will study in the United Kingdom, Norway, and Italy on postdoctoral fellowships administered by the National Science Foundation (NSF) as part of a program sponsored by the North American Treaty Organization (NATO). In all, 57 NSF-NATO postdoctoral fellowships in science were awarded in March 1988 for study abroad for up to 12 months.The six students that received fellowships for study in geosciences are Henry N. (Spike) Berry (University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass.), to study geology at the University of Oslo, Norway; Marcus I. Bursik (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif.), to study geology at Cambridge University, Cambridge, U.K.; Mary S. Hubbard (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.), to study geology at the University of Leicester, Leicester, U. K.); Paul R. Lundgren (Northwestern University, Chicago, III.), to study geophysics at the National Institute of Geophysics, Rome; James Webster (U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Va.), to study experiment petrology at the University of Edinburgh, U.K.; and Joseph R. Pawlik (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif.), to study biological oceanography at the Marine Science Laboratories, Menai Bridge, U.K.

  4. NSF Geosciences Initiatives and Plans Reviewed at Advisory Committee Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-10-01

    In its semiannual meeting on 6-7 October, the U.S. National Science Foundation's (NSF) Advisory Committee for Geosciences (GEO) reviewed GEO initiatives, programs, and plans, including the GEO directorate's fast and significant response to support research related to various aspects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico through Rapid Response Research (RAPID) awards and other measures. An undercurrent during the meeting was concern about workload stress among GEO staff. Assistant director of geosciences Tim Killeen noted that the proposed budget for fiscal year (FY) 2011, which began on 1 October, would increase directorate funding 7.4% over FY 2010, if the budget is approved by Congress. A continuing resolution in Congress maintains FY 2010 funding levels until at least 3 December. Killeen said NSF's budget request for FY 2012 has been submitted to the White House Office of Management and Budget, adding that although he cannot discuss details of that budget yet, GEO Vision, a long­range strategy document for the directorate released in October 2009, “is reflected in our thinking going forward.”

  5. ORNL/NSF elementary science leadership leadership institute

    SciTech Connect

    Lashley, T.L.

    1994-12-31

    Begun as a Teacher Enhancement Project in 1990, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is now hosting as annual four-week Elementary Science Leadership summer institute for twenty-five teacher/administrator participants. During 1993-95 summer institutes, the participants receive instruction in science/math content, pedagogy, leadership training, and evaluation techniques. Science topics and instruction will be selected from the best available resources at ORNL, pedagogy and evaluation techniques will be directed by the University of Tennessee`s College of Education, and leadership training will be based on established leadership training models. During the academic year component, participants will: (1) share new math/science knowledge and curriculum with their students and fellow teachers while continuing to develop additional curriculum to share with other Leadership Institute participants, (2) work with the established state-wide advisory group to contribute to systemic reform in math/science education, and (3) prepare and deliver NSF leadership Institute-related math/science presentations at local and state educational conferences. Graduate credit for summer and academic-year participation in the NSF Leadership Institute will be offered through the University of Tennessee at Knoxville.

  6. Crystal Structures of the Sec1/Munc18 (SM) Protein Vps33, Alone and Bound to the Homotypic Fusion and Vacuolar Protein Sorting (HOPS) Subunit Vps16*

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Richard W.; Jeffrey, Philip D.; Hughson, Frederick M.

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular membrane fusion requires the regulated assembly of SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein receptor) proteins anchored in the apposed membranes. To exert the force required to drive fusion between lipid bilayers, juxtamembrane SNARE motifs zipper into four-helix bundles. Importantly, SNARE function is regulated by additional factors, none more extensively studied than the SM (Sec1/Munc18-like) proteins. SM proteins interact with both individual SNAREs and SNARE complexes, likely chaperoning SNARE complex formation and protecting assembly intermediates from premature disassembly by NSF. Four families of SM proteins have been identified, and representative members of two of these families (Sec1/Munc18 and Sly1) have been structurally characterized. We report here the 2.6 Å resolution crystal structure of an SM protein from the third family, Vps33. Although Vps33 shares with the first two families the same basic three-domain architecture, domain 1 is displaced by 15 Å, accompanied by a 40° rotation. A unique feature of the Vps33 family of SM proteins is that its members function as stable subunits within a multi-subunit tethering complex called HOPS (homotypic fusion and vacuolar protein sorting). Integration into the HOPS complex depends on the interaction between Vps33 and a second HOPS subunit, Vps16. The crystal structure of Vps33 bound to a C-terminal portion of Vps16, also at 2.6 Å resolution, reveals the structural basis for this interaction. Despite the extensive interface between the two HOPS subunits, the conformation of Vps33 is only subtly affected by binding to Vps16. PMID:23840694

  7. Design and realization of sort manipulator of crystal-angle sort machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ming-shun; Chen, Shu-ping; Guan, Shou-ping; Zhang, Yao-wei

    2005-12-01

    It is a current tendency of development in automation technology to replace manpower with manipulators in working places where dangerous, harmful, heavy or repetitive work is involved. The sort manipulator is installed in a crystal-angle sort machine to take the place of manpower, and engaged in unloading and sorting work. It is the outcome of combing together mechanism, electric transmission, and pneumatic element and micro-controller control. The step motor makes the sort manipulator operate precisely. The pneumatic elements make the sort manipulator be cleverer. Micro-controller's software bestows some simple artificial intelligence on the sort manipulator, so that it can precisely repeat its unloading and sorting work. The combination of manipulator's zero position and step motor counting control puts an end to accumulating error in long time operation. A sort manipulator's design in the practice engineering has been proved to be correct and reliable.

  8. Data parallel sorting for particle simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagum, Leonardo

    1992-01-01

    Sorting on a parallel architecture is a communications intensive event which can incur a high penalty in applications where it is required. In the case of particle simulation, only integer sorting is necessary, and sequential implementations easily attain the minimum performance bound of O (N) for N particles. Parallel implementations, however, have to cope with the parallel sorting problem which, in addition to incurring a heavy communications cost, can make the minimun performance bound difficult to attain. This paper demonstrates how the sorting problem in a particle simulation can be reduced to a merging problem, and describes an efficient data parallel algorithm to solve this merging problem in a particle simulation. The new algorithm is shown to be optimal under conditions usual for particle simulation, and its fieldwise implementation on the Connection Machine is analyzed in detail. The new algorithm is about four times faster than a fieldwise implementation of radix sort on the Connection Machine.

  9. NSF FY1982 update: Support for basic research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    When the Appropriation Committees of the House of Representatives and the Senate meet in conference this month, discussion of the Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO) sections of the National Science Foundation (NSF) will be limited. Both the House and the Senate committees made some slight increases to the Office of Management and Budget requests, and the program by program agreement between the two was unusual.The House appropriation bill, H.R. 4034, provides $70 million over the administration request of $1033.5 million. Of the increase, $44.9 million was added in the area of research and related activities and $25.1 million for science and engineering education.

  10. NSF Policies on Software and Data Sharing and their Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Since January 2011, the National Science Foundation has required a Data Management plan to be submitted with all proposals. This plan should include a description of how the proposers will share the products of the research (http://www.nsf.gov/bfa/dias/policy/dmp.jsp). What constitutes such data will be determined by the community of interest through the process of peer review and program management. This may include, but is not limited to: data, publications, samples, physical collections, software and models. In particular, “investigators and grantees are encouraged to share software and inventions created under an award or otherwise make them or their products widely available and usable.”

  11. Past and Future: NSF PAARE at SC State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Donald K.; Brittain, Sean D.; Cash, Jennifer; Hartmann, Dieter; Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Ho, Shirley; Howell, Steve B.; King, Jeremy R.; Leising, Mark D.; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Smith, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    We review our progress to date and the path forward under the NSF program 'Partnerships in Astronomy and Astrophysics Research and Education (PAARE)'. Our project 'A Partnership in Observational and Computational Astronomy (POCA)' was a part of the 2008 PAARE cohort and in August 2014 we received a second award (POCA II) to continue for another three years. Our partnership includes South Carolina State University (a Historically Black College/University), Clemson University (a Ph.D. granting institution) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory as well as individual investigators at NASA Ames and Carnegie Mellon University. We present our recent publications which include educational courseware in cosmology, a study of long-period variables using Kepler and spectroscopic variability of peculiar stars. Our graduate student successes include support for two females who have completed their Ph.Ds. in astronomy plus two additional students from underrepresented groups who have received their M.S. degrees in astronomy but are continuing their doctoral work in related fields. At SC State we have graduated 3 physics majors with the astronomy option with five more in the pipeline and review the challenges and obstacles faced along the way. We discuss our strategic plan for POCA II, which is based on lessons learned under POCA and moves us forward to the follow-on period when our efforts will be sustained by other resources.Our support includes NSF awards AST-0750814 and AST-1358913 to South Carolina State University as well as resources and support provided by Clemson University and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Support for the Kepler observations is provided by NASA to South Carolina State University under awards NNX11AB82G and NNX13AC24G. Additional details can be found at: http://physics.scsu.edu/paare/

  12. NSF ADVANCE: Institutional Transformation to Achieve Faculty Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, E. Y.

    2004-12-01

    The NSF ADVANCE initiative is designed to enhance gender equity in academic science and engineering faculty. One of its components - Institutional Transformation - has the goal of establishing strategies and policies that will revolutionize institutional climate so that diverse faculty flourish. The University of Texas at El Paso is one of 19 institutions to currently hold a 5-year grant under the Institutional Transformation program. This poster presentation highlights practices from the participating institutions. Two general aspects of the program are: 1) co-principal investigators are a blend of administrators and active researchers. This blend ensures a bottom-up, top-down approach to presenting gender equity to faculty. 2) Many of the investigators have diversity as their research focus, which is intended to result in rigorous, peer-reviewed dissemination of institutional results. Specific effors for all institutions relate to recruitment, retention, and advancement of female faculty and, by establishing equitable conditions, to improvement of the workplace for all faculty. To aid recruitment, institutions have committed faculty involved in the search process, including training of search committees in diversity strategies and interaction with candidates. A close working relationship with the campus EO officer is essential. Retention strategies center on mentoring, monetary support for research, and policy implementation. Policies focus on work-family balance. Advancement of females to important administrative and non-administrative leadership roles is the third focus. Workshops and seminars on leadership skills are common in the various institutions. Finally, a central theme of the program is that, in addition to specific strategies, institutions must articulate diversity as a core value and reflect on the means to actualize this value. More information on the NSF ADVANCE program, including links to the Institutional Transformation grantees, may be found on

  13. Geoscience Workforce Development at UNAVCO: Leveraging the NSF GAGE Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, A. R.; Charlevoix, D. J.; Miller, M.

    2013-12-01

    Global economic development demands that the United States remain competitive in the STEM fields, and developing a forward-looking and well-trained geoscience workforce is imperative. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the geosciences will experience a growth of 19% by 2016. Fifty percent of the current geoscience workforce is within 10-15 years of retirement, and as a result, the U.S. is facing a gap between the supply of prepared geoscientists and the demand for well-trained labor. Barring aggressive intervention, the imbalance in the geoscience workforce will continue to grow, leaving the increased demand unmet. UNAVCO, Inc. is well situated to prepare undergraduate students for placement in geoscience technical positions and advanced graduate study. UNAVCO is a university-governed consortium facilitating research and education in the geosciences and in addition UNAVCO manages the NSF Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope (GAGE) facility. The GAGE facility supports many facets of geoscience research including instrumentation and infrastructure, data analysis, cyberinfrastructure, and broader impacts. UNAVCO supports the Research Experiences in the Solid Earth Sciences for Students (RESESS), an NSF-funded multiyear geoscience research internship, community support, and professional development program. The primary goal of the RESESS program is to increase the number of historically underrepresented students entering graduate school in the geosciences. RESESS has met with high success in the first 9 years of the program, as more than 75% of RESESS alumni are currently in Master's and PhD programs across the U.S. Building upon the successes of RESESS, UNAVCO is launching a comprehensive workforce development program that will network underrepresented groups in the geosciences to research and opportunities throughout the geosciences. This presentation will focus on the successes of the RESESS program and plans to expand on this success with broader

  14. Association of the fusion protein NSF with clathrin-coated vesicle membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Steel, G J; Tagaya, M; Woodman, P G

    1996-01-01

    N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) is a component of intracellular transport reactions. In order to understand the role of NSF during the fusion of endocytic transport vesicles with the endosome, we have investigated the binding of NSF to purified clathrin-coated vesicle components. First, we have examined whether detergent-solubilized coated vesicle membranes will support formation of NSF-containing 'fusion complexes'. Our results show that these membranes are substantially enriched in components capable of driving formation of these complexes, when compared with membranes from other sources. Secondly, we have analysed coated vesicle preparations for their NSF content. Coated vesicle preparations contain significant amounts of NSF. This was shown to be associated with coated vesicles rather than contaminating membranes by a number of criteria, and was found to be bound in an ATP-independent manner. These findings are discussed in the light of current models for vesicle fusion. Images PMID:8631296

  15. An Unsupervised Online Spike-Sorting Framework.

    PubMed

    Knieling, Simeon; Sridharan, Kousik S; Belardinelli, Paolo; Naros, Georgios; Weiss, Daniel; Mormann, Florian; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular neuronal microelectrode recordings can include action potentials from multiple neurons. To separate spikes from different neurons, they can be sorted according to their shape, a procedure referred to as spike-sorting. Several algorithms have been reported to solve this task. However, when clustering outcomes are unsatisfactory, most of them are difficult to adjust to achieve the desired results. We present an online spike-sorting framework that uses feature normalization and weighting to maximize the distinctiveness between different spike shapes. Furthermore, multiple criteria are applied to either facilitate or prevent cluster fusion, thereby enabling experimenters to fine-tune the sorting process. We compare our method to established unsupervised offline (Wave_Clus (WC)) and online (OSort (OS)) algorithms by examining their performance in sorting various test datasets using two different scoring systems (AMI and the Adamos metric). Furthermore, we evaluate sorting capabilities on intra-operative recordings using established quality metrics. Compared to WC and OS, our algorithm achieved comparable or higher scores on average and produced more convincing sorting results for intra-operative datasets. Thus, the presented framework is suitable for both online and offline analysis and could substantially improve the quality of microelectrode-based data evaluation for research and clinical application. PMID:26711713

  16. Automated multi-parametric sorting of micron-sized particles via multi-trap laser tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaputa, Daniel S.

    The capabilities of laser tweezers have rapidly expanded since the first demonstration by Ashkin and co-workers in 1970 of the ability to trap particles using optical energy. Laser tweezers have been used to measure piconewton forces in many biological and material science application, sort bacteria, measure DNA bond strength, and even perform microsurgery. The laser tweezers system developed for this dissertation foreshadows the next generation of laser tweezer systems that provide automated particle sorted based upon multiple criteria. Many laser tweezer sorting applications today entail the operator sorting cells from a bulk sample, one by one. This dissertation demonstrates the technologies of pattern recognition and image processing that allow for an entire microscope slide to be sorted without any operator intervention. We already live in an automated world where the cars we drive are built by machines instead of humans. The technology is there, and the only factors limiting the advancements of fully automated biological instrumentation is the lack of developers with the appropriate knowledge sets. This dissertation introduces the concept of sorting particles via a multi-parametric approach where several parameters such as size, fluorescence, and Raman spectra are used as sorting criteria. Since the advent of laser tweezers, several groups have demonstrated the ability to sort cells and other particle by size, or by fluorescence, or by any other parameter, but to our knowledge there does not exist a laser tweezer sorting system that can sort particles based upon multiple parameters. Sorting via a single parameter can be a severe limitation as the method lacks the robustness and class specificity that exists when sorting based upon multiple parameters. Simply put, it makes more sense to determine the worth of a baseball card by considering it's condition as well as it's age, rather then solely upon its condition. By adding another parameter such as the name of

  17. NRAO Response to NSF Senior Review of Astronomy Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-11-01

    The National Science Foundation's (NSF) Astronomy Senior Review Committee report (pdf file), released today, made major recommendations for restructuring the NSF's ground-based astronomy efforts, including significant changes for the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The committee's report urged that leadership in radio astronomy, including millimeter- and submillimeter-wave observatories, "remain centered at NRAO as it is, by far, the largest radio astronomy organization in the world." The report praised the record of management of NRAO and the scientific capabilities of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA), the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). However, the report also recommended that some reductions and changes occur at the NRAO by 2011. Specifically, the report recommended that: (a) VLBA operations make a transition to a significant reliance on international funding or risk closure; (b) GBT operations costs be reduced; and (c) NRAO scientific staff costs be reduced. "The Senior Review Committee had the very difficult task of reconciling the needs of current facilities and funding new facilities for the future of astronomy. We appreciate their efforts and look forward to working with the NSF to ensure that the valuable and unique research capabilities of our NRAO telescopes continue to serve the astronomical community," said Dr. Fred K.Y. Lo, NRAO Director. The VLBA provides the greatest angular resolution, or ability to see fine detail, of any telescope in the world, greatly exceeding the capabilities of the Hubble Space Telescope and the future Square Kilometre Array. The committee recognized that, "if the VLBA is closed, a unique capability would likely be lost for decades." "The VLBA is used by scientists from around the world because of its unique capabilities. It has produced landmark research milestones and the committee recognized in its

  18. An improved infrared technique for sorting pecans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graeve, Thorsten; Dereniak, Eustace L.; Lamonica, John A., Jr.

    1991-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of pecan spectral reflectances. It describes an experiment for measuring the contrast between several components of raw pecan product to be sorted. An analysis of the experimental data reveals high contrast ratios in the infrared spectrum, suggesting a potential improvement in sorting efficiency when separating pecan meat from shells. It is believed that this technique has the potential to dramatically improve the efficiency of current sorting machinery, and to reduce the cost of processing pecans for the consumer market.

  19. On Sorting Genomes with DCJ and Indels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, Marília D. V.

    A previous work of Braga, Willing and Stoye compared two genomes with unequal content, but without duplications, and presented a new linear time algorithm to compute the genomic distance, considering double cut and join (DCJ) operations, insertions and deletions. Here we derive from this approach an algorithm to sort one genome into another one also using DCJ, insertions and deletions. The optimal sorting scenarios can have different compositions and we compare two types of sorting scenarios: one that maximizes and one that minimizes the number of DCJ operations with respect to the number of insertions and deletions.

  20. 13. SANDSORTING BUILDING, THIRD FLOOR, VIBRATING SCREENS FOR SAND SORTING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SAND-SORTING BUILDING, THIRD FLOOR, VIBRATING SCREENS FOR SAND SORTING, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand-Sorting Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  1. Intuitive, Image-Based Cell Sorting Using Opto-fluidic Cell Sorting

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, J. R.; Voldman, J.

    2008-01-01

    We present a microfluidic cell sorting device which augments microscopy with the capability to perform facile image-based cell sorting. This combination enables intuitive, complex phenotype sorting based on spatio-temporal fluorescence or cell morphology. The microfluidic device contains a microwell array that can be passively loaded with mammalian cells via sedimentation and can be subsequently inspected with microscopy. After inspection, we use the scattering force from a focused infrared laser to levitate cells of interest from their wells into a flow field for collection. First, we demonstrate image-based sorting predicated on whole-cell fluorescence, which could enable sorting based on temporal whole-cell fluorescence behavior. Second, we demonstrate image-based sorting predicated on fluorescence localization (nuclear vs. whole-cell fluorescence), highlighting the capability of our approach to sort based on imaged sub-cellular events, such as localized protein expression or translocation events. We achieve post-sort purities up to 89%, and up to 155-fold enrichment of target cells. Optical manipulation literature and a direct cell viability assay suggest that cells remain viable after using our technique. The architecture is highly scalable and supports over 10,000 individually addressable trap sites. Our approach enables sorting of significant populations based on sub-cellular spatio-temporal information, which is difficult or impossible with existing widespread sorting technologies. PMID:18004819

  2. Morphology and Environmental Significance of Relict Sorted Polygons, Krkonoše Mountains, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uxa, Tomáš; Křížek, Marek

    2014-05-01

    The development of sorted polygons is driven by several interconnected processes related to freeze-thaw cycles, the frequency and/or intensity of which is determined by regional climatic factors and site-specific factors that influence local microclimate, such as relief, lithology, snow cover, drainage and vegetation. The interplay of the above factors generates different ground thermal and moisture regimes and therefore influences the spatial distribution and morphology of sorted polygons. In this paper, we describe relict large-scale sorted polygons in the Krkonoše Mountains (Czech Republic) and we aim (1) to determine the relations between polygon morphology and clast distribution; (2) to determine the extent to which the morphology and clast distribution of the polygons were influenced by past microclimates; and (3) to present palaeoenvironmental evidence from the periglacial environment of the summit area of the Krkonoše Mountains during the Last Glacial/Holocene period. Sixty-two sorted polygons with an average length of 194 cm and an average height of 21.5 cm and in total 7740 clasts were measured at four sites on Mt Luční hora (50°43'40"N; 15°40'57"E), at elevations of 1455 to 1555 m asl. Larger sorted polygons are formed by larger clasts and tend to occur in poorly drained sites at lower altitudes. Smaller polygons and polygons with greater relative height are better sorted. More up-domed and better sorted polygons are located at higher altitudes suggesting more severe and longer-lasting microclimates suitable for the development of sorted polygons. The altitudinal gradient in polygon morphology and sorting, preserved since the Last Glacial period, indicates the high palaeoenvironmental potential of the relict large-scale sorted polygons located on flat or convex parts of the terrain. Polygon development probably involves positive feedback between morphology and frost susceptibility, driven by microclimate. The proposed method for evaluating frost

  3. Glycosaminoglycans: Sorting determinants in intracellular protein traffic.

    PubMed

    Mihov, Deyan; Spiess, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Intracellular transport of proteins to their appropriate destinations is crucial for the maintenance of cellular integrity and function. Sorting information is contained either directly in the amino acid sequence or in a protein's post-translational modifications. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are characteristic modifications of proteoglycans. GAGs are long unbranched polysaccharide chains with unique structural and functional properties also contributing to protein sorting in various ways. By deletion or insertion of GAG attachment sites it has been shown that GAGs affect polarized sorting in epithelial cells, targeting to and storage in secretory granules, and endocytosis. Most recently, the role of GAGs as signals for rapid trans-Golgi-to-cell surface transport, dominant over the cytosolic sorting motifs in the core protein, was demonstrated. Here, we provide an overview on existing data on the roles of GAGs on protein and proteoglycan trafficking. PMID:26327396

  4. Filter-less submicron hydrodynamic size sorting.

    PubMed

    Fouet, M; Mader, M-A; Iraïn, S; Yanha, Z; Naillon, A; Cargou, S; Gué, A-M; Joseph, P

    2016-02-21

    We propose a simple microfluidic device able to separate submicron particles (critical size ∼0.1 μm) from a complex sample with no filter (minimum channel dimension being 5 μm) by hydrodynamic filtration. A model taking into account the actual velocity profile and hydrodynamic resistances enables prediction of the chip sorting properties for any geometry. Two design families are studied to obtain (i) small sizes within minutes (low-aspect ratio, two-level chip) and (ii) micron-sized sorting with a μL flow rate (3D architecture based on lamination). We obtain quantitative agreement of sorting performances both with experiments and with numerical solving, and determine the limits of the approach. We therefore demonstrate a passive, filter-less sub-micron size sorting with a simple, robust, and easy to fabricate design. PMID:26778818

  5. Card Sorts, State Tests, and Meaningful Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauvot, Jennifer B.; Benson, Sharon L. D.

    2008-01-01

    This article shares card-sorting activities that involve state-mandated test items to use with prospective and practicing mathematics teachers to teach about accountability measures while exploring reform-minded mathematics instruction recommendations. (Contains 2 figures.)

  6. SORTING IT OUT: REGULATION OF EXOSOME LOADING

    PubMed Central

    Villarroya-Beltri, Carolina; Baixauli, Francesc; Gutiérrez-Vázquez, Cristina; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Mittelbrunn, María

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs), a term that includes both exosomes of endocytic origin and vesicles derived from plasma membranes, are continuously secreted by cells to the extracellular environment, and represent a novel vehicle for cell-cell communication. Exosomes contain specific repertoires of proteins and RNAs, indicating the existence of mechanisms that control the sorting of molecules into them. Although the molecular mechanisms that regulate the loading of proteins into exosomes have been studied for years, the sorting of RNA has been elusive until recently. Here we review the molecular mechanisms that control the sorting of molecules into exosomes, with special attention to the sorting of RNA. We also discuss how the cellular context affects the composition of exosomes, and thus the outcome of the communication between the exosome-producer and recipient cells, with particular focus on the communication between tumor cells and with cells of the tumor microenvironment. PMID:24769058

  7. NSF nanomanufacturing program and its implications for measurement and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Khershed P.

    2013-09-01

    The NSF Nanomanufacturing Program supports fundamental research in novel methods and techniques for batch and continuous processes, and top-down and bottom-up processes leading to the formation of complex nanostructures, nanodevices and nanosystems. The program leverages advances in the understanding of nano-scale phenomena and processes, nanomaterials discovery, novel nanostructure architectures, innovative nanodevice and nanosystem design. It seeks to address issues such as quality, efficiency, scalability, reliability, safety and affordability. The program encourages research in the development of new nano-scale processes and production systems based on computation, modeling and simulation and use of process sensing, monitoring, and control. Research in instrumentation and metrology is an integral part of the program. Additionally, the program supports education of the next generation of researchers, and encourages building a workforce trained in nanotechnology and nanomanufacturing systems. It is also interested in understanding long-term societal implications of large-scale production and use of nano-scale materials. For this, it encourages the development of standards. This paper will describe the program philosophy.

  8. Automatic Spike Sorting Using Tuning Information

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Valérie

    2011-01-01

    Current spike sorting methods focus on clustering neurons’ characteristic spike waveforms. The resulting spike-sorted data are typically used to estimate how covariates of interest modulate the firing rates of neurons. However, when these covariates do modulate the firing rates, they provide information about spikes’ identities, which thus far have been ignored for the purpose of spike sorting. This letter describes a novel approach to spike sorting, which incorporates both waveform information and tuning information obtained from the modulation of firing rates. Because it efficiently uses all the available information, this spike sorter yields lower spike misclassification rates than traditional automatic spike sorters. This theoretical result is verified empirically on several examples. The proposed method does not require additional assumptions; only its implementation is different. It essentially consists of performing spike sorting and tuning estimation simultaneously rather than sequentially, as is currently done. We used an expectation-maximization maximum likelihood algorithm to implement the new spike sorter. We present the general form of this algorithm and provide a detailed implementable version under the assumptions that neurons are independent and spike according to Poisson processes. Finally, we uncover a systematic flaw of spike sorting based on waveform information only. PMID:19548802

  9. National Science Foundation Fiscal Year 1986 Awards (by State and NSF Directorate).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    Provided is a listing of National Science Foundation (NSF) program grants and contracts awarded in Fiscal Year 1986. Data, current as of Feburary 13, 1987, are arranged as follows: (1) by state, with totals for each state (foreign countries are alphabetized with states); (2) by NSF Directorate, with award and dollar totals for each NSF…

  10. 75 FR 63450 - DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    .../NSF High Energy Physics Advisory Panel AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory... CONTACT: John Kogut, Executive Secretary; High Energy Physics Advisory Panel; U.S. Department of...

  11. 45 CFR 680.11 - Staff involvement with NSF proposals and awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... clearly spelled out in the proposal. (c) In accordance with 5 CFR 5301.103(a)(1), an NSF employee may not... SCIENCE FOUNDATION NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice for the National Science Foundation § 680.11 Staff involvement with NSF proposals and awards. (a)(1) Many...

  12. 45 CFR 650.14 - Request for conveyance of title to NSF.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Request for conveyance of title to NSF. 650.14 Section 650.14 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.14 Request for conveyance of title to NSF. (a) The procedures established by...

  13. 45 CFR 650.14 - Request for conveyance of title to NSF.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Request for conveyance of title to NSF. 650.14 Section 650.14 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.14 Request for conveyance of title to NSF. (a) The procedures established by...

  14. 45 CFR 650.14 - Request for conveyance of title to NSF.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Request for conveyance of title to NSF. 650.14 Section 650.14 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.14 Request for conveyance of title to NSF. (a) The procedures established by...

  15. 45 CFR 650.14 - Request for conveyance of title to NSF.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Request for conveyance of title to NSF. 650.14 Section 650.14 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.14 Request for conveyance of title to NSF. (a) The procedures established by...

  16. 45 CFR 680.11 - Staff involvement with NSF proposals and awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... clearly spelled out in the proposal. (c) In accordance with 5 CFR 5301.103(a)(1), an NSF employee may not... SCIENCE FOUNDATION NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice for the National Science Foundation § 680.11 Staff involvement with NSF proposals and awards. (a)(1) Many...

  17. 45 CFR 680.11 - Staff involvement with NSF proposals and awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... clearly spelled out in the proposal. (c) In accordance with 5 CFR 5301.103(a)(1), an NSF employee may not... SCIENCE FOUNDATION NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice for the National Science Foundation § 680.11 Staff involvement with NSF proposals and awards. (a)(1) Many...

  18. 45 CFR 680.11 - Staff involvement with NSF proposals and awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... clearly spelled out in the proposal. (c) In accordance with 5 CFR 5301.103(a)(1), an NSF employee may not... SCIENCE FOUNDATION NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice for the National Science Foundation § 680.11 Staff involvement with NSF proposals and awards. (a)(1) Many...

  19. Geophysical science in the 1996 Budget: NSF gets qualified good news

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Clinton Administration is seeking a 3% hike for the National Science Foundation (NSF) in FY 1996. NSF Director Neal Lane characterized the $3.36 billion request as “good news in tight times.” The request, which represents the smallest increase proposed by any recent president, would essentially keep funding flat in real dollars.However, money within the NSF budget for research and related activities would see a roughly 8% or $174 million increase. Within this $2.45 billion account, NSF is also giving a high priority to supporting individuals and small research groups. This increase would be offset by cuts in education and research facility construction. In the geosciences, NSF estimates that the funding rate for competitive awards would be frozen at about 35% in FY 1996. Both the median and average annuated award size would increase by about 4% to $65,000 and $87,500, respectively.

  20. NSF Internships in Public Science Education: Sensing the Radio Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hund, L.; Boltuch, D.; Fultz, C.; Buck, S.; Smith, T.; Harris, R.; Moffett, D.; LaFratta, M.; Walsh, L.; Castelaz, M. W.

    2005-12-01

    The intent of the "Sensing the Radio Sky" project is to teach high school students the concepts and relevance of radio astronomy through presentations in STARLAB portable planetariums. The two year project began in the summer of 2004. A total of twelve interns and four faculty mentors from Furman University and UNCA have participated at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute to develop the Radio Sky project. The project united physics and multimedia majors and allowed these students to apply their knowledge of different disciplines to a common goal. One component of the project is the development and production of a cylinder to be displayed in portable STARLAB planetariums. The cylinder gives a thorough view of the Milky Way and of several other celestial sources in radio wavelengths, yet these images are difficult to perceive without prior knowledge of radio astronomy. Consequently, the Radio Sky team created a multimedia presentation to accompany the cylinder. This multimedia component contains six informative lessons on radio astronomy assembled by the physics interns and numerous illustrations and animations created by the multimedia interns. The cylinder and multimedia components complement each other and provide a unique, thorough, and highly intelligible perspective on radio astronomy. The project is near completion and the final draft will be sent to Learning Technologies, Inc., for marketing to owners of STARLAB planetariums throughout the world. The development of the Radio Sky project has also provided a template for potential similar projects that examine our universe in different wavelengths, such as gamma ray, x-ray, and infrared. We acknowledge support from the NSF Internship in Public Science Education Program grant number 0324729.

  1. CAISE: A NSF Resource Center for Informal Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickow, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Informal science education (ISE) is playing an increasingly important role in how and where the public engages with science. A growing body of research is showing that people learn the majority of their science knowledge outside of school (Falk & Dierking, 2010). The ISE field includes a wide variety of sources, including the internet, TV programs, magazines, hobby clubs and museums. These experiences touch large numbers of people throughout their lifetimes. If you would like to share your research with the public, ISE can be an effective conduit for meaningful science communication. However, because the ISE field is so diverse, it can be overwhelming with its multiple entry points. If you already are part of an ISE initiative, knowing how to access the most useful resources easily can also be daunting. CAISE, the Center for Advancement of Informal Science Education, is a resource center for the ISE field funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). CAISE can help connect you to the knowledge and people of ISE, through its website, products and in-person convenings. The proposed CAISE presentation will outline the diversity of the field and concisely present data that will make the case for the impact of ISE. We will focus on examples of successful programs that connect science with the public and that bring together AAS's science research community with practitioners and researchers within ISE. Pathways to various ISE resources in the form of current CAISE initiatives will be described as well. The presentation will include an interview section in which a CAISE staff member will ask questions of a scientist involved in an ISE initiative in order to detail one example of how ISE can be a valuable tool for engaging the public in science. Time for audience Q&A also will be included in the session.

  2. Effect of Wildfire on Sediment Sorting in a Steep Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florsheim, J. L.; Chin, A.; O'Hirok, L.; Storesund, R.

    2014-12-01

    Wildfire is an external forcing factor in the landscape. In chaparral environments, wildfire initiates transport of well-sorted fine sediment through dry-ravel processes on hillslopes and facilitates delivery of sediment to stream channels. In turn, this periodic post-fire sediment influx governs sorting of channel-bed material during subsequent floods that mobilize and transport the sediment downstream. We investigated the effects of the May 2013 Springs Wildfire in the Santa Monica Mountains in semi-arid southern California with field measurements and terrestrial LiDAR scanning. Before the fire, sediment sorting within the heterogeneous bed material present in Big Sycamore Creek was controlled by organized step-pool bedforms. Boulders formed steps with relatively finer cobbles, gravel, and sand filling the pools. Before the fire, the grain size distribution present in the substrate between boulder steps was relatively coarse (D84 = 250 mm), in contrast to that in the influx of sediment contributed by post-fire dry-ravel processes deposited at channel margins (D84 = 8 mm). Flow shear stress during one small flood in 2014 (post-fire) was adequate to mobilize fine dry ravel- related sediment. Transport capacity was sufficient to mobilize and transport this sediment within a study reach; however, it was not adequate to flush the fine material downstream. Shear stress required to mobilize sediment contributed by dry ravel was substantially less than that required to transport the substrate material present before the wildfire. The small flood deposited fine sediment (D84 = 16 mm) as flow lost capacity. Resulting deposition buried bedforms, changing the step-pool profile to a plane bed. The relatively poorly sorted, coarse, rough bed changed to a well sorted, fine, smooth, bed. These changes have implications for sediment transport dynamics and aquatic ecology. In steep, semi-arid, chaparral fluvial systems, sediment derived from dry-ravel processes influences the

  3. Fruit Sorting Using Fuzzy Logic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elamvazuthi, Irraivan; Sinnadurai, Rajendran; Aftab Ahmed Khan, Mohamed Khan; Vasant, Pandian

    2009-08-01

    Fruit and vegetables market is getting highly selective, requiring their suppliers to distribute the goods according to very strict standards of quality and presentation. In the last years, a number of fruit sorting and grading systems have appeared to fulfill the needs of the fruit processing industry. However, most of them are overly complex and too costly for the small and medium scale industry (SMIs) in Malaysia. In order to address these shortcomings, a prototype machine was developed by integrating the fruit sorting, labeling and packing processes. To realise the prototype, many design issues were dealt with. Special attention is paid to the electronic weighing sub-system for measuring weight, and the opto-electronic sub-system for determining the height and width of the fruits. Specifically, this paper discusses the application of fuzzy logic techniques in the sorting process.

  4. Brokering technologies to realize the hydrology scenario in NSF BCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldrini, Enrico; Easton, Zachary; Fuka, Daniel; Pearlman, Jay; Nativi, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    In the National Science Foundation (NSF) BCube project an international team composed of cyber infrastructure experts, geoscientists, social scientists and educators are working together to explore the use of brokering technologies, initially focusing on four domains: hydrology, oceans, polar, and weather. In the hydrology domain, environmental models are fundamental to understand the behaviour of hydrological systems. A specific model usually requires datasets coming from different disciplines for its initialization (e.g. elevation models from Earth observation, weather data from Atmospheric sciences, etc.). Scientific datasets are usually available on heterogeneous publishing services, such as inventory and access services (e.g. OGC Web Coverage Service, THREDDS Data Server, etc.). Indeed, datasets are published according to different protocols, moreover they usually come in different formats, resolutions, Coordinate Reference Systems (CRSs): in short different grid environments depending on the original data and the publishing service processing capabilities. Scientists can thus be impeded by the burden of discovery, access and normalize the desired datasets to the grid environment required by the model. These technological tasks of course divert scientists from their main, scientific goals. The use of GI-axe brokering framework has been experimented in a hydrology scenario where scientists needed to compare a particular hydrological model with two different input datasets (digital elevation models): - the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) dataset, v.2. - the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) dataset, v.3. These datasets were published by means of Hyrax Server technology, which can provide NetCDF files at their original resolution and CRS. Scientists had their model running on ArcGIS, so the main goal was to import the datasets using the available ArcPy library and have EPSG:4326 with the same resolution grid as the

  5. The NSF-RCN Urban Heat Island Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twine, T. E.; Snyder, P. K.; Hamilton, P.; Shepherd, M.; Stone, B., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    In much of the world cities are warming at twice the rate of outlying rural areas. The frequency of urban heat waves is projected to increase with climate change through the 21st century. Addressing the economic, environmental, and human costs of urban heat islands requires a better understanding of their behavior from many disciplinary perspectives. The goal of this four-year Urban Heat Island Network is to (1) bring together scientists studying the causes and impacts of urban warming, (2) advance multidisciplinary understanding of urban heat islands, (3) examine how they can be ameliorated through engineering and design practices, and (4) share these new insights with a wide array of stakeholders responsible for managing urban warming to reduce their health, economic, and environmental impacts. The NSF-RCN Urban Heat Island Network involves atmospheric scientists, engineers, architects, landscape designers, urban planners, public health experts, and education and outreach experts, who will share knowledge, evaluate research directions, and communicate knowledge and research recommendations to the larger research community as well as stakeholders engaged in developing strategies to adapt to and mitigate urban warming. The first Urban Climate Institute was held in Saint Paul, MN in July 2013 and focused on the characteristics of urban heat islands. Scientists engaged with local practitioners to improve communication pathways surrounding issues of understanding, adapting to, and mitigating urban warming. The second Urban Climate Institute was held in Atlanta, Georgia in July 2014 and focused on urban warming and public health. The third Urban Climate Institute was held in Athens, GA in July 2015 and focused on urban warming and the role of the built environment. Scientists and practitioners discussed strategies for mitigation and adaptation. Evaluation experts at the Science Museum of Minnesota have extensively evaluated the Institutes to inform other research

  6. Sorting nexins provide diversity for retromer-dependent trafficking events

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Peter J.; Korswagen, Hendrik C.

    2013-01-01

    Sorting nexins are a large family of evolutionarily conserved phosphoinositide-binding proteins that play fundamental roles in orchestrating the process of cargo sorting through the membranous maze that is the endosomal network. One ancient group of sorting nexin-containing complexes is the retromers. Here we discuss how retromer complexes regulate endosomal sorting, and describe how this is generating exciting new insight into the central role played by endosomal sorting in development, and normal tissue homeostasis. PMID:22193161

  7. An optimal procedure for magnet sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Koul, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    A new magnet sorting method for accelerators is developed. It is based on the linearized analysis of the effects of errors on accelerators. It is implementable in two steps. The first step is completely analytical in character while the second step involves the comparison of computed values with the measured error values. The whole process is repeated at most n'' times, where n'' is the number of magnets to be chosen from at a time. Simulations of the method, using Mathematica[reg sign], have been implemented for sorting the APS injector synchrotron dipoles and quadrupoles with excellent results.

  8. An optimal procedure for magnet sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Koul, R.K.

    1992-12-31

    A new magnet sorting method for accelerators is developed. It is based on the linearized analysis of the effects of errors on accelerators. It is implementable in two steps. The first step is completely analytical in character while the second step involves the comparison of computed values with the measured error values. The whole process is repeated at most ``n`` times, where ``n`` is the number of magnets to be chosen from at a time. Simulations of the method, using Mathematica{reg_sign}, have been implemented for sorting the APS injector synchrotron dipoles and quadrupoles with excellent results.

  9. Lipid Sorting and Multivesicular Endosome Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bissig, Christin

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular organelles, including endosomes, show differences not only in protein but also in lipid composition. It is becoming clear from the work of many laboratories that the mechanisms necessary to achieve such lipid segregation can operate at very different levels, including the membrane biophysical properties, the interactions with other lipids and proteins, and the turnover rates or distribution of metabolic enzymes. In turn, lipids can directly influence the organelle membrane properties by changing biophysical parameters and by recruiting partner effector proteins involved in protein sorting and membrane dynamics. In this review, we will discuss how lipids are sorted in endosomal membranes and how they impact on endosome functions. PMID:24086044

  10. Battling the GPA Bias: Selecting NSF-REU Participants for Transformative Research Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M.; Kim, C. S.; Osborn, J.

    2014-12-01

    Student grade point average (GPA) is one of the most common metrics used to select REU participants, with >85% of NSF-funded research participants nationally having an average GPA at or above 3.0 (Russell, 2004). Yet, as efforts are made to expand and diversify the pool of undergraduates participating in research experiences, privileging candidates with GPAs above 3.0 may exclude promising STEM students who can most benefit from a research experience, including community college students and recent transfer students from community colleges. Myriad factors that impinge on student GPAs are salient in the literature, including (1) early academic failure related to pre-college under-preparation (Feldman, 1993); (2) transfer shock (Molinaro, 2014; Diaz, 1992); (3) employment (DeSimone, 2008); (4) limited social support for academic pursuits (Cheng, Ickes, & Verhofstadt, 2012); (5) food insecurity (Maroto, 2013); and inadequate advising (Pascarella & Terenzini, 2005). A discussion of these factors with examples from student transcripts and an overview of a scoring rubric that minimizes GPA bias and can assist PIs with an alternate approach to participant selection will be included in this session.

  11. 45 CFR 615.4 - Legal proceedings before NSF or in which the United States is a party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Legal proceedings before NSF or in which the United States is a party. 615.4 Section 615.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... NSF or in which the United States is a party. In any legal proceeding before NSF or to which...

  12. 45 CFR 615.4 - Legal proceedings before NSF or in which the United States is a party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Legal proceedings before NSF or in which the United States is a party. 615.4 Section 615.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... NSF or in which the United States is a party. In any legal proceeding before NSF or to which...

  13. 45 CFR 615.4 - Legal proceedings before NSF or in which the United States is a party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Legal proceedings before NSF or in which the United States is a party. 615.4 Section 615.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... NSF or in which the United States is a party. In any legal proceeding before NSF or to which...

  14. Credit Scores, Race, and Residential Sorting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Ashlyn Aiko

    2010-01-01

    Credit scores have a profound impact on home purchasing power and mortgage pricing, yet little is known about how credit scores influence households' residential location decisions. This study estimates the effects of credit scores on residential sorting behavior using a novel mortgage industry data set combining household demographic, credit, and…

  15. Microwave Conductivity of Sorted CNT Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Bulmer, John S.; Martens, Jon; Kurzepa, Lukasz; Gizewski, Tomasz; Egilmez, M.; Blamire, M. G.; Yahya, Noorhana; Koziol, Krzysztof K. K.

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress with tailored growth and post-process sorting enables carbon nanotube (CNT) assemblies with predominantly metallic or semi-conducting concentrations. Cryogenic and microwave measurements performed here show transport dimensionality and overall order increasing with increasing metallic concentration, even in atmospheric doping conditions. By 120 GHz, the conductivity of predominantly semi-conducting assemblies grew to 400% its DC value at an increasing growth rate, while other concentrations a growth rate that tapered off. A generalized Drude model fits to the different frequency dependent behaviors and yields useful quality control parameters such as plasma frequency, mean free path, and degree of localization. As one of the first demonstrations of waveguides fabricated from this material, sorted CNTs from both as-made and post-process sources were inserted into sections of practical micro-strip. With both sources, sorted CNT micro-strip increasingly outperformed the unsorted with increasing frequency-- illustrating that sorted CNT assemblies will be important for high frequency applications. PMID:24446019

  16. Microwave conductivity of sorted CNT assemblies.

    PubMed

    Bulmer, John S; Martens, Jon; Kurzepa, Lukasz; Gizewski, Tomasz; Egilmez, M; Blamire, M G; Yahya, Noorhana; Koziol, Krzysztof K K

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress with tailored growth and post-process sorting enables carbon nanotube (CNT) assemblies with predominantly metallic or semi-conducting concentrations. Cryogenic and microwave measurements performed here show transport dimensionality and overall order increasing with increasing metallic concentration, even in atmospheric doping conditions. By 120 GHz, the conductivity of predominantly semi-conducting assemblies grew to 400% its DC value at an increasing growth rate, while other concentrations a growth rate that tapered off. A generalized Drude model fits to the different frequency dependent behaviors and yields useful quality control parameters such as plasma frequency, mean free path, and degree of localization. As one of the first demonstrations of waveguides fabricated from this material, sorted CNTs from both as-made and post-process sources were inserted into sections of practical micro-strip. With both sources, sorted CNT micro-strip increasingly outperformed the unsorted with increasing frequency-- illustrating that sorted CNT assemblies will be important for high frequency applications. PMID:24446019

  17. Systematic Sorting: Teacher Characteristics and Class Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalogrides, Demetra; Loeb, Susanna; Beteille, Tara

    2013-01-01

    Although prior research has documented differences in the distribution of teacher characteristics across schools serving different student populations, few studies have examined the extent to which teacher sorting occurs within schools. This study uses data from one large urban school district and compares the class assignments of teachers who…

  18. Integration through a Card-Sort Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kris; Ricca, Bernard P.

    2015-01-01

    Learning to compute integrals via the various techniques of integration (e.g., integration by parts, partial fractions, etc.) is difficult for many students. Here, we look at how students in a college level Calculus II course develop the ability to categorize integrals and the difficulties they encounter using a card sort-resort activity. Analysis…

  19. A multispectral sorting device for wheat kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A low-cost multispectral sorting device was constructed using three visible and three near-infrared light-emitting diodes (LED) with peak emission wavelengths of 470 nm (blue), 527 nm (green), 624 nm (red), 850 nm, 940 nm, and 1070 nm. The multispectral data were collected by rapidly (~12 kHz) blin...

  20. Administration's Proposed NSF Budget Includes a 5.5% Increase for Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-04-01

    The fiscal year (FY) 2014 proposed federal budget for the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) is $7.63 billion, 7.3% above the FY 2012 actual amount. NSF acting director Cora Marrett said the budget reflects the administration's recognition of NSF and the importance of funding basic research. "We are pleased about where we stand and hope that Congress will be just as pleased with the budget proposal and will help move things forward," she said during a meeting of the NSF Advisory Committee for Geosciences on 11 April. Budget comparisons are to FY 2012 because the 2013 appropriations were enacted at the end of March, less than 2 weeks before President Barack Obama sent the proposed budget to Congress.

  1. Neurally expressed Drosophila genes encoding homologs of the NSF and SNAP secretory proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Ordway, R W; Pallanck, L; Ganetzky, B

    1994-01-01

    Several lines of investigation have now converged to indicate that the neurotransmitter release apparatus is formed by assembly of cytosolic proteins with proteins of the synaptic vesicle and presynaptic terminal membranes. We are undertaking a genetic approach in Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the functions of two types of cytosolic proteins thought to function in this complex: N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) and the soluble NSF attachment proteins (SNAPs). We have identified Drosophila homologs of the vertebrate and yeast NSF and SNAP genes. Both Drosophila genes encode polypeptides that closely resemble their vertebrate counterparts and are expressed in the nervous system; neither appears to be in a family of closely related Drosophila genes. These results indicate that the Drosophila NSF and SNAP genes are excellent candidates for mutational analysis of neurotransmitter release. Images PMID:8202553

  2. Gadolinium-containing MRI contrast agents: important variations on a theme for NSF.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Phillip H

    2008-01-01

    Millions of doses of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are administered annually to improve the clinical utility of magnetic resonance imaging. All the approved agents incorporate one atom of the rare earth metal gadolinium into a chelate to improve the safety of the ordinarily toxic free gadolinium. The undeniable epidemiologic link between GBCAs and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) has prompted renewed investigation into the different chemical properties of the GBCAs despite their clinical interchangeability. Gadolinium-based contrast agents can be divided into different categories: linear versus macrocyclic structure, ionic versus nonionic, and non-protein-binding versus protein-binding agents. The GBCAs differ significantly with respect to transmetallation and kinetic and thermodynamic stability and therefore their propensity to release free gadolinium, which is hypothesized to induce NSF. That gadodiamide, with its susceptibility to transmetallation and relatively low thermodynamic and kinetic stability, is associated with the most cases of NSF supports this hypothesis. On the other hand, the greater stability of a macrocyclic agent hypothetically would confer a greater safety margin with regard to NSF. Because few published data on an experimental model of NSF exist, continuing vigilance is necessary to report new cases of NSF, especially with regard to the agents with small market share. PMID:18180006

  3. PhySortR: a fast, flexible tool for sorting phylogenetic trees in R.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Timothy G; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Ragan, Mark A; Chan, Cheong Xin

    2016-01-01

    A frequent bottleneck in interpreting phylogenomic output is the need to screen often thousands of trees for features of interest, particularly robust clades of specific taxa, as evidence of monophyletic relationship and/or reticulated evolution. Here we present PhySortR, a fast, flexible R package for classifying phylogenetic trees. Unlike existing utilities, PhySortR allows for identification of both exclusive and non-exclusive clades uniting the target taxa based on tip labels (i.e., leaves) on a tree, with customisable options to assess clades within the context of the whole tree. Using simulated and empirical datasets, we demonstrate the potential and scalability of PhySortR in analysis of thousands of phylogenetic trees without a priori assumption of tree-rooting, and in yielding readily interpretable trees that unambiguously satisfy the query. PhySortR is a command-line tool that is freely available and easily automatable. PMID:27190724

  4. PhySortR: a fast, flexible tool for sorting phylogenetic trees in R

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Timothy G.; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Ragan, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    A frequent bottleneck in interpreting phylogenomic output is the need to screen often thousands of trees for features of interest, particularly robust clades of specific taxa, as evidence of monophyletic relationship and/or reticulated evolution. Here we present PhySortR, a fast, flexible R package for classifying phylogenetic trees. Unlike existing utilities, PhySortR allows for identification of both exclusive and non-exclusive clades uniting the target taxa based on tip labels (i.e., leaves) on a tree, with customisable options to assess clades within the context of the whole tree. Using simulated and empirical datasets, we demonstrate the potential and scalability of PhySortR in analysis of thousands of phylogenetic trees without a priori assumption of tree-rooting, and in yielding readily interpretable trees that unambiguously satisfy the query. PhySortR is a command-line tool that is freely available and easily automatable. PMID:27190724

  5. Microscale synthesis and characterization of polystyrene: NSF-POLYED scholars project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quaal, Karen S.; Wu, Chang-Ning

    1994-01-01

    Polystyrene is a familiar polymer with many commercial uses. Its applications range from the clear, high index of refraction, brittle plastic used to form audio cassette and CD cases to the foamed material used in insulated drink cups and packaging material. Polystyrene constitutes 11 percent of the plastics used in packaging with only High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) contributing a larger share: so much polystyrene is used today, it is one of six common plastics that manufacturers have assigned an identification code. The code helps recycling efforts. Polystyrene's code is (PS code 6). During the summer and fall of 1992 several new polymeric experiments were developed by the NSF POLYED Scholars for introduction into the chemistry core curriculum. In this presentation, one such project will be discussed. This laboratory project is recommended for a first or second year laboratory course allowing the introduction of polymeric science to undergraduates at the earliest opportunity. The reliability of the experiments which make up this project and the recognition factor of polystyrene, a material we come in contact with everyday, makes the synthesis and characterization of polystyrene a good choice for the introduction of polymerization to undergraduates. This laboratory project appeals to the varied interests of students enrolled in the typical first year chemistry course and becomes an ideal way to introduce polymers to a wide variety of science and engineering students.

  6. Hrs recognizes a hydrophobic amino acid cluster in cytokine receptors during ubiquitin-independent endosomal sorting.

    PubMed

    Amano, Yuji; Yamashita, Yuki; Kojima, Katsuhiko; Yoshino, Kazuhisa; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Sugamura, Kazuo; Takeshita, Toshikazu

    2011-04-29

    Hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) is a component of the ESCRT-0 protein complex that captures ubiquitylated cargo proteins and sorts them to the lysosomal pathway. Although Hrs acts as a key transporter for ubiquitin-dependent endosomal sorting, we previously reported that Hrs is also involved in ubiquitin-independent endosomal sorting of interleukin-2 receptor β (IL-2Rβ). Here, we show direct interactions between bacterially expressed Hrs and interleukin-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα), indicating that their binding is not required for ubiquitylation of the receptors, similar to the case for IL-2Rβ. Examinations of the Hrs binding regions of the receptors reveal that a hydrophobic amino acid cluster in both IL-2Rβ and IL-4Rα is essential for the binding. Whereas the wild-type receptors are delivered to LAMP1-positive late endosomes, mutant receptors lacking the hydrophobic amino acid cluster are sorted to lysobisphosphatidic acid-positive late endosomes rather than LAMP1-positive late endosomes. We also show that the degradation of these mutant receptors is attenuated. Accordingly, Hrs functions during ubiquitin-independent endosomal sorting of the receptors by recognizing the hydrophobic amino acid cluster. These findings suggest the existence of a group of cargo proteins that have this hydrophobic amino acid cluster as a ubiquitin-independent sorting signal. PMID:21362618

  7. Differential expression of axon-sorting molecules in mouse olfactory sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Naoki; Nakashima, Ai; Hoshina, Naosuke; Ikegaya, Yuji; Takeuchi, Haruki

    2016-08-01

    In the mouse olfactory system, the axons of olfactory sensory neurons that express the same type of odorant receptor (OR) converge to a specific set of glomeruli in the olfactory bulb (OB). It is widely accepted that expressed OR molecules instruct glomerular segregation by regulating the expression of axon-sorting molecules. Although the relationship between the expression of axon-sorting molecules and OR types has been analyzed in detail, those between the expressions of axon-sorting molecules remain to be elucidated. Here we collected the expression profiles of four axon-sorting molecules from a large number of glomeruli in the OB. These molecules demonstrated position-independent mosaic expressions, but their patterns were not identical in the OB. Comparing their expressions identified positive and negative correlations between several pairs of genes even though they showed various expressions. Furthermore, the principal component analysis revealed that the factor loadings in the principal component 1, which explain the largest amount of variation, were most likely to reflect the degree of the cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel dependence on the expression of axon-sorting molecules. Thus, neural activity generated through the CNG channel is a major component in the generation of a wide variety of expressions of axon-sorting molecules in glomerular segregation. PMID:27207328

  8. Characterization of Secretory Genes ypt1/yptA and nsf1/nsfA from Two Filamentous Fungi: Induction of Secretory Pathway Genes of Trichoderma reesei under Secretion Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Saloheimo, Markku; Wang, Huaming; Valkonen, Mari; Vasara, Tuija; Huuskonen, Anne; Riikonen, Marjukka; Pakula, Tiina; Ward, Michael; Penttilä, Merja

    2004-01-01

    Two genes involved in protein secretion, encoding the Rab protein YPT1/YPTA and the general fusion factor NSFI/NSFA, were characterized from two filamentous fungi, Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger var. awamori. The isolated genes showed a high level of conservation with their Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian counterparts, and T. reesei ypt1 was shown to complement yeast Ypt1p depletion. The transcriptional regulation of the T. reesei ypt1, nsf1, and sar1 genes, involved in protein trafficking, was studied with mycelia treated with the folding inhibitor dithiothreitol (DTT) and with brefeldin A, which inhibits membrane traffic between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex. The well-known inducer of the yeast and T. reesei unfolded protein response (UPR), DTT, induced the nsf1 gene and the protein disulfide isomerase gene, pdi1, in both of the experiments, and sar1 mRNA increased in only one experiment under strong UPR induction. The ypt1 mRNA did not show a clear increase during DTT treatment. Brefeldin A strongly induced pdi1 and all of the intracellular trafficking genes studied. These results suggest the possibility that the whole secretory pathway of T. reesei could be induced at the transcriptional level by stress responses caused by protein accumulation in the secretory pathway. PMID:14711675

  9. Information sharing and sorting in a community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacherjee, Biplab; Manna, S. S.; Mukherjee, Animesh

    2013-06-01

    We present the results of a detailed numerical study of a model for the sharing and sorting of information in a community consisting of a large number of agents. The information gathering takes place in a sequence of mutual bipartite interactions where randomly selected pairs of agents communicate with each other to enhance their knowledge and sort out the common information. Although our model is less restricted compared to the well-established naming game, the numerical results strongly indicate that the whole set of exponents characterizing this model are different from those of the naming game and they assume nontrivial values. Finally, it appears that in analogy to the emergence of clusters in the phenomenon of percolation, one can define clusters of agents here having the same information. We have studied in detail the growth of the largest cluster in this article and performed its finite-size scaling analysis.

  10. Efficient Sorting on the Tilera Manycore Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Morari, Alessandro; Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste; Secchi, Simone; Valero, Mateo

    2012-10-24

    e present an efficient implementation of the radix sort algo- rithm for the Tilera TILEPro64 processor. The TILEPro64 is one of the first successful commercial manycore processors. It is com- posed of 64 tiles interconnected through multiple fast Networks- on-chip and features a fully coherent, shared distributed cache. The architecture has a large degree of flexibility, and allows various optimization strategies. We describe how we mapped the algorithm to this architecture. We present an in-depth analysis of the optimizations for each phase of the algorithm with respect to the processor’s sustained performance. We discuss the overall throughput reached by our radix sort implementation (up to 132 MK/s) and show that it provides comparable or better performance-per-watt with respect to state-of-the art implemen- tations on x86 processors and graphic processing units.

  11. A mower detector to judge soil sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Johnson, N.R.

    1995-12-31

    Thermo Nuclear Services (TNS) has developed a mower detector as an inexpensive and fast means for deciding potential value of soil sorting for cleanup. It is a shielded detector box on wheels pushed over the ground (as a person mows grass) at 30 ft/min with gamma-ray counts recorded every 0.25 sec. It mirror images detection by the TNS transportable sorter system which conveys soil at 30 ft/min and toggles a gate to send soil on separate paths based on counts. The mower detector shows if contamination is variable and suitable for sorting, and by unique calibration sources, it indicates detection sensitivity. The mower detector has been used to characterize some soil at Department of Energy sites in New Jersey and South Carolina.

  12. Parallel integer sorting with medium and fine-scale parallelism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagum, Leonardo

    1993-01-01

    Two new parallel integer sorting algorithms, queue-sort and barrel-sort, are presented and analyzed in detail. These algorithms do not have optimal parallel complexity, yet they show very good performance in practice. Queue-sort designed for fine-scale parallel architectures which allow the queueing of multiple messages to the same destination. Barrel-sort is designed for medium-scale parallel architectures with a high message passing overhead. The performance results from the implementation of queue-sort on a Connection Machine CM-2 and barrel-sort on a 128 processor iPSC/860 are given. The two implementations are found to be comparable in performance but not as good as a fully vectorized bucket sort on the Cray YMP.

  13. Fluorescence-Activated Nucleolus Sorting in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Pontvianne, Frédéric; Boyer-Clavel, Myriam; Sáez-Vásquez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Nucleolar isolation allows exhaustive characterization of the nucleolar content. Centrifugation-based protocols are not adapted to isolation of nucleoli directly from a plant tissue because of copurification of cellular debris. We describe here a method that allows the purification of nucleoli using fluorescent-activated cell sorting from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. This approach requires the expression of a specific nucleolar protein such as fibrillarin fused to green fluorescent protein in planta. PMID:27576720

  14. Sorting network for the partial selection problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belzile, Jean; Savaria, Yvon; Haccoun, David

    Sorting networks and switching networks are widely used in the communication world. Partial selection networks have applications in areas where a single answer is desired but several paths are explored such as in suboptimal breadth-first tree searching algorithms. A technique is introduced which permits the evaluation of any network in terms of average selection and in terms of the number of elements that are always in the partial selection set. The Banyan network was examined using the method and it was found that the quality of the selection decreases as the size of the input set grows. It was also shown that the sorting networks such as the Banyan are not necessarily the best choices for selection problems. Networks which partially sort two sets and then compare the two sets together can achieve much better selection. These two types of network offer a higher number of guaranteed items than the Banyan network for all considered values of elements. Finally, it was noted that deterministic pre-ordering, if present, can also be used to configure a network.

  15. How Schwann Cells Sort Axons: New Concepts.

    PubMed

    Feltri, M Laura; Poitelon, Yannick; Previtali, Stefano Carlo

    2016-06-01

    Peripheral nerves contain large myelinated and small unmyelinated (Remak) fibers that perform different functions. The choice to myelinate or not is dictated to Schwann cells by the axon itself, based on the amount of neuregulin I-type III exposed on its membrane. Peripheral axons are more important in determining the final myelination fate than central axons, and the implications for this difference in Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes are discussed. Interestingly, this choice is reversible during pathology, accounting for the remarkable plasticity of Schwann cells, and contributing to the regenerative potential of the peripheral nervous system. Radial sorting is the process by which Schwann cells choose larger axons to myelinate during development. This crucial morphogenetic step is a prerequisite for myelination and for differentiation of Remak fibers, and is arrested in human diseases due to mutations in genes coding for extracellular matrix and linkage molecules. In this review we will summarize progresses made in the last years by a flurry of reverse genetic experiments in mice and fish. This work revealed novel molecules that control radial sorting, and contributed unexpected ideas to our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control radial sorting of axons. PMID:25686621

  16. Systolic s/sup 2/-way merge sort is optimal

    SciTech Connect

    Schmeck, H.; Schroder, H.; Starke, C.

    1989-07-01

    The time complexity of Thompson and Kun's s/sup 2/-way merge sort is analyzed and shown to be asymptotically optimal with respect to the recently improved lower bound on sorting on a mesh-connected n x n array. Furthermore, new lower bounds for systolic sorting are derived. A systolic version of s/sup 2/-way merge sort is systematically constructed and shown to be asymptotically optimal as well.

  17. Development and validation of the Surgical Outcome Risk Tool (SORT)

    PubMed Central

    Protopapa, K L; Simpson, J C; Smith, N C E; Moonesinghe, S R

    2014-01-01

    Background Existing risk stratification tools have limitations and clinical experience suggests they are not used routinely. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a preoperative risk stratification tool to predict 30-day mortality after non-cardiac surgery in adults by analysis of data from the observational National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death (NCEPOD) Knowing the Risk study. Methods The data set was split into derivation and validation cohorts. Logistic regression was used to construct a model in the derivation cohort to create the Surgical Outcome Risk Tool (SORT), which was tested in the validation cohort. Results Prospective data for 19 097 cases in 326 hospitals were obtained from the NCEPOD study. Following exclusion of 2309, details of 16 788 patients were analysed (derivation cohort 11 219, validation cohort 5569). A model of 45 risk factors was refined on repeated regression analyses to develop a model comprising six variables: American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status (ASA-PS) grade, urgency of surgery (expedited, urgent, immediate), high-risk surgical specialty (gastrointestinal, thoracic, vascular), surgical severity (from minor to complex major), cancer and age 65 years or over. In the validation cohort, the SORT was well calibrated and demonstrated better discrimination than the ASA-PS and Surgical Risk Scale; areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were 0·91 (95 per cent c.i. 0·88 to 0·94), 0·87 (0·84 to 0·91) and 0·88 (0·84 to 0·92) respectively (P < 0·001). Conclusion The SORT allows rapid and simple data entry of six preoperative variables, and provides a percentage mortality risk for individuals undergoing surgery. PMID:25388883

  18. Applying Single Kernel Sorting Technology to Developing Scab Resistant Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are using automated single-kernel near-infrared (SKNIR) spectroscopy instrumentation to sort fusarium head blight (FHB) infected kernels from healthy kernels, and to sort segregating populations by hardness to enhance the development of scab resistant hard and soft wheat varieties. We sorted 3 r...

  19. Categorizing Variations of Student-Implemented Sorting Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taherkhani, Ahmad; Korhonen, Ari; Malmi, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined freshmen students' sorting algorithm implementations in data structures and algorithms' course in two phases: at the beginning of the course before the students received any instruction on sorting algorithms, and after taking a lecture on sorting algorithms. The analysis revealed that many students have insufficient…

  20. My eSorts and Digital Extensions of Word Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Tricia A.; Invernizzi, Marcia

    2008-01-01

    "My eSorts" is a strategy for helping children learn to read and spell in a socially motivated context. It is based on developmental spelling research and the word study approach to teaching phonics and spelling. "eSorting" employs digital desktop publishing tools that allow children to author their own electronic word sorts and then share these…

  1. Gender Sorting across K-12 Schools in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Mark C.; Conger, Dylan

    2013-01-01

    This article documents evidence of nonrandom gender sorting across K-12 schools in the United States. The sorting exists among coed schools and at all grade levels, and it is highest in the secondary school grades. We observe some gender sorting across school sectors and types: for instance, males are slightly underrepresented in private schools…

  2. Airborne microorganisms associated with packaging glass sorting facilities.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Marta Jorge de Vasconcelos; Veiga, José Miguel; Fernandes, Paulo; Ramos, Carla; Gonçalves, Sérgio; Velho, Maria Manuela Lemos Vaz; Guerreiro, Joana Santos

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, efforts have been undertaken to reduce the volume of residual waste through sorting and recycling. The waste management and recycling sector is thriving and the number of workers there is increasing. In this context, prior knowledge of the risks to which workers may be exposed is of crucial importance, and preventive measures need to be put in place to accurately identify and quantify those risks. This study aimed to assess occupational risk of exposure to biological agents (viable bacteria and fungi) in a Portuguese waste packaging glass sorting plant. Air samples were collected from selected locations in waste sorting cabins (critical area, CA), administrative services (noncritical area, NCA) and outdoors (control point, CP). Duplicate air samples were collected through an impaction method. The investigation was carried out over an 8-mo period with two collection periods, autumn/winter (AW) and spring/summer (SS), in order to access the influence of any seasonal variation. In the 36 air samples collected, 319 bacterial and 196 mold identifications were performed. Air samples revealed existence of high environmental contamination by bacteria (1.6 × 10(4) colony forming units [cfu]/m(3)) and fungi (1.5 × 10(4) cfu/m(3)). The predominant bacterial genus was Staphylococcus (coagulase negative) with values ranging from 29.6 to 60% of the total count of bacteria. Genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, and Staphylococcus (coagulase negative) were also present at all sampling sites, regardless of the season. However, the counts of these genera, in the CA, were higher in warmer seasons. The genus Penicillium was the most frequent genus present with an approximate value of 95% of total fungal count in the CA. Seasonal variation was a significant factor for total bacteria and fungi, except for NCA versus CP. Overall, the highest levels of bacterial and fungal species (10(4) cfu/m(3)) were found in the waste sorting cabin (CA). These results highlight the

  3. Study of Sort Stories: Leveled Reading Supplement to Words Their Way: Word Sorts for Letter Name-Alphabet Spellers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zugel, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    "Sort Stories: Leveled Reading Supplement to Words Their Way: Word Sorts for Letter Name-Alphabet Spellers" effectiveness was tested using five English language learner (ELL) students in the fifth and sixth grade. "Sort Stories" uses the word lists and accompanying clip-art from "Words Their Way" in developmental, grade-level specific, short read…

  4. The NSF/RANN FY 1975 program for geothermal resources research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruger, P.

    1974-01-01

    The specific goal of the NSF geothermal program is the rapid development by industry of the nation's geothermal resources that can be demonstrated to be commercially, environmentally and socially acceptable as alternate energy sources. NSF, as the lead agency for the federal geothermal energy research program, is expediting a program which encompasses the objectives necessary for significant utilization. These include: acceleration of exploration and assessment methods to identify commercial geothermal resources; development of innovative and improved technology to achieve economic feasibility; evaluation of policy options to resolve environmental, legal, and institutional problems; and support of experimental research facilities for each type of geothermal resource. Specific projects in each of these four objective areas are part of the NSF program for fiscal year 1975.

  5. Thermal conductivity of chirality-sorted carbon nanotube networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Feifei; Llinas, Juan P.; Li, Zuanyi; Estrada, David; Pop, Eric

    2016-03-01

    The thermal properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are of significant interest, yet their dependence on SWNT chirality has been, until now, not explored experimentally. Here, we used electrical heating and infrared thermal imaging to simultaneously study thermal and electrical transport in chirality-sorted SWNT networks. We examined solution processed 90% semiconducting, 90% metallic, purified unsorted (66% semiconducting), and as-grown HiPco SWNT films. The thermal conductivities of these films range from 80 to 370 W m-1 K-1 but are not controlled by chirality, instead being dependent on the morphology (i.e., mass and junction density, quasi-alignment) of the networks. The upper range of the thermal conductivities measured is comparable to that of the best metals (Cu and Ag), but with over an order of magnitude lower mass density. This study reveals important factors controlling the thermal properties of light-weight chirality-sorted SWNT films, for potential thermal and thermoelectric applications.

  6. Online sorting of recovered wood waste by automated XRF-technology: part II. Sorting efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Hasan, A Rasem; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Townsend, Timothy

    2011-04-01

    Sorting of waste wood is an important process practiced at recycling facilities in order to detect and divert contaminants from recycled wood products. Contaminants of concern include arsenic, chromium and copper found in chemically preserved wood. The objective of this research was to evaluate the sorting efficiencies of both treated and untreated parts of the wood waste stream, and metal (As, Cr and Cu) mass recoveries by the use of automated X-ray fluorescence (XRF) systems. A full-scale system was used for experimentation. This unit consisted of an XRF-detection chamber mounted on the top of a conveyor and a pneumatic slide-way diverter which sorted wood into presumed treated and presumed untreated piles. A randomized block design was used to evaluate the operational conveyance parameters of the system, including wood feed rate and conveyor belt speed. Results indicated that online sorting efficiencies of waste wood by XRF technology were high based on number and weight of pieces (70-87% and 75-92% for treated wood and 66-97% and 68-96% for untreated wood, respectively). These sorting efficiencies achieved mass recovery for metals of 81-99% for As, 75-95% for Cu and 82-99% of Cr. The incorrect sorting of wood was attributed almost equally to deficiencies in the detection and conveyance/diversion systems. Even with its deficiencies, the system was capable of producing a recyclable portion that met residential soil quality levels established for Florida, for an infeed that contained 5% of treated wood. PMID:21194917

  7. Insect's intestinal organ for symbiont sorting.

    PubMed

    Ohbayashi, Tsubasa; Takeshita, Kazutaka; Kitagawa, Wataru; Nikoh, Naruo; Koga, Ryuichi; Meng, Xian-Ying; Tago, Kanako; Hori, Tomoyuki; Hayatsu, Masahito; Asano, Kozo; Kamagata, Yoichi; Lee, Bok Luel; Fukatsu, Takema; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo

    2015-09-15

    Symbiosis has significantly contributed to organismal adaptation and diversification. For establishment and maintenance of such host-symbiont associations, host organisms must have evolved mechanisms for selective incorporation, accommodation, and maintenance of their specific microbial partners. Here we report the discovery of a previously unrecognized type of animal organ for symbiont sorting. In the bean bug Riptortus pedestris, the posterior midgut is morphologically differentiated for harboring specific symbiotic bacteria of a beneficial nature. The sorting organ lies in the middle of the intestine as a constricted region, which partitions the midgut into an anterior nonsymbiotic region and a posterior symbiotic region. Oral administration of GFP-labeled Burkholderia symbionts to nymphal stinkbugs showed that the symbionts pass through the constricted region and colonize the posterior midgut. However, administration of food colorings revealed that food fluid enters neither the constricted region nor the posterior midgut, indicating selective symbiont passage at the constricted region and functional isolation of the posterior midgut for symbiosis. Coadministration of the GFP-labeled symbiont and red fluorescent protein-labeled Escherichia coli unveiled selective passage of the symbiont and blockage of E. coli at the constricted region, demonstrating the organ's ability to discriminate the specific bacterial symbiont from nonsymbiotic bacteria. Transposon mutagenesis and screening revealed that symbiont mutants in flagella-related genes fail to pass through the constricted region, highlighting that both host's control and symbiont's motility are involved in the sorting process. The blocking of food flow at the constricted region is conserved among diverse stinkbug groups, suggesting the evolutionary origin of the intestinal organ in their common ancestor. PMID:26324935

  8. Lateral chirality-sorting optical forces

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Amaury; Mueller, J. P. Balthasar; Capasso, Federico

    2015-01-01

    The transverse component of the spin angular momentum of evanescent waves gives rise to lateral optical forces on chiral particles, which have the unusual property of acting in a direction in which there is neither a field gradient nor wave propagation. Because their direction and strength depends on the chiral polarizability of the particle, they act as chirality-sorting and may offer a mechanism for passive chirality spectroscopy. The absolute strength of the forces also substantially exceeds that of other recently predicted sideways optical forces. PMID:26453555

  9. Institutional transformation: An analysis of change initiatives at NSF ADVANCE institutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, Ellen W.

    The purpose of this study was to examine how institutional culture promoted or impeded the implementation of round one and two NSF ADVANCE initiatives designed to improve academic climates for women in science and engineering. This study was conducted in two phases. In phase one, 35 participants from 18 institutions were interviewed to answer three research questions. Participants identified a policy, process, or program designed to improve academic cultures for women in science and engineering fields. Participants also identified strategies that promoted the implementation of these efforts, and discussed factors that impeded these efforts. In phase two, site visits were conducted at two institutions to answer a fourth research question. How did institutional culture shape the design and implementation of faculty search processes? Policies, processes, and programs were implemented by participants at the institutional, departmental, and individual levels and included family friendly and dual career policies at the institutional level, improved departmental faculty search and climate improvement processes, and mentoring programs and training for department heads at the individual level. Communication and leadership strategies were key to the successful implementation of policies, processes, and programs designed to achieve institutional transformation. Communication strategies involved shaping change messages to reach varied audiences often with the argument that change efforts would improve the climate for everyone not just women faculty members. Administrative and faculty leaders from multiple levels proved important to change efforts. Institutional Transformation Institutional culture shaped initiatives to improve faculty search processes. Faculty leaders in both settings used data to persuade faculty members of the need for change. At one site, data that included national availability information was critical to advancing the change agenda. At the other site

  10. In quest of the missing neuron: spike sorting based on dominant-sets clustering.

    PubMed

    Adamos, Dimitrios A; Laskaris, Nikolaos A; Kosmidis, Efstratios K; Theophilidis, George

    2012-07-01

    Spike sorting algorithms aim at decomposing complex extracellular signals to independent events from single neurons in the electrode's vicinity. The decision about the actual number of active neurons is still an open issue, with sparsely firing neurons and background activity the most influencing factors. We introduce a graph-theoretical algorithmic procedure that successfully resolves this issue. Dimensionality reduction coupled with a modern, efficient and progressively executable clustering routine proved to achieve higher performance standards than popular spike sorting methods. Our method is validated extensively using simulated data for different levels of SNR. PMID:22136935

  11. ALG-2 activates the MVB sorting function of ALIX through relieving its intramolecular interaction

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Sheng; Zhou, Xi; Corvera, Joe; Gallick, Gary E; Lin, Sue-Hwa; Kuang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The modular adaptor protein ALIX is critically involved in endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT)-mediated multivesicular body (MVB) sorting of activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR); however, ALIX contains a default intramolecular interaction that renders ALIX unable to perform this ESCRT function. The ALIX partner protein ALG-2 is a calcium-binding protein that belongs to the calmodulin superfamily. Prompted by a defined biological function of calmodulin, we determined the role of ALG-2 in regulating ALIX involvement in MVB sorting of activated EGFR. Our results show that calcium-dependent ALG-2 interaction with ALIX completely relieves the intramolecular interaction of ALIX and promotes CHMP4-dependent ALIX association with the membrane. EGFR activation induces increased ALG-2 interaction with ALIX, and this increased interaction is responsible for increased ALIX association with the membrane. Functionally, inhibition of ALIX activation by ALG-2 inhibits MVB sorting of activated EGFR as effectively as inhibition of ALIX interaction with CHMP4 does; however, inhibition of ALIX activation by ALG-2 does not affect cytokinetic abscission or equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) budding. These findings indicate that calcium-dependent ALG-2 interaction with ALIX is specifically responsible for generating functional ALIX that supports MVB sorting of ubiquitinated membrane receptors.

  12. Pulsed laser activated cell sorter (PLACS) for high-throughput fluorescent mammalian cell sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yue; Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Chung, Aram; Kung, Yu-Chung; Teitell, Michael A.; Di Carlo, Dino; Chiou, Pei-Yu

    2014-09-01

    We present a Pulsed Laser Activated Cell Sorter (PLACS) realized by exciting laser induced cavitation bubbles in a PDMS microfluidic channel to create high speed liquid jets to deflect detected fluorescent samples for high speed sorting. Pulse laser triggered cavitation bubbles can expand in few microseconds and provide a pressure higher than tens of MPa for fluid perturbation near the focused spot. This ultrafast switching mechanism has a complete on-off cycle less than 20 μsec. Two approaches have been utilized to achieve 3D sample focusing in PLACS. One is relying on multilayer PDMS channels to provide 3D hydrodynamic sheath flows. It offers accurate timing control of fast (2 m sec-1) passing particles so that synchronization with laser bubble excitation is possible, an critically important factor for high purity and high throughput sorting. PLACS with 3D hydrodynamic focusing is capable of sorting at 11,000 cells/sec with >95% purity, and 45,000 cells/sec with 45% purity using a single channel in a single step. We have also demonstrated 3D focusing using inertial flows in PLACS. This sheathless focusing approach requires 10 times lower initial cell concentration than that in sheath-based focusing and avoids severe sample dilution from high volume sheath flows. Inertia PLACS is capable of sorting at 10,000 particles sec-1 with >90% sort purity.

  13. A common assembly module in injectisome and flagellar type III secretion sorting platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notti, Ryan Q.; Bhattacharya, Shibani; Lilic, Mirjana; Stebbins, C. Erec

    2015-05-01

    Translocating proteins across the double membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, type III secretion systems (T3SS) occur in two evolutionarily related forms: injectisomes, delivering virulence factors into host cells, and the flagellar system, secreting the polymeric filament used for motility. While both systems share related elements of a cytoplasmic sorting platform that facilitates the hierarchical secretion of protein substrates, its assembly and regulation remain unclear. Here we describe a module mediating the assembly of the sorting platform in both secretion systems, and elucidate the structural basis for segregation of homologous components among these divergent T3SS subtypes sharing a common cytoplasmic milieu. These results provide a foundation for the subtype-specific assembly of T3SS sorting platforms and will support further mechanistic analysis and anti-virulence drug design.

  14. Recycling endosome tubule morphogenesis from sorting endosomes requires the kinesin motor KIF13A

    PubMed Central

    Delevoye, Cédric; Miserey-Lenkei, Stéphanie; Montagnac, Guillaume; Gilles-Marsens, Floriane; Paul-Gilloteaux, Perrine; Giordano, Francesca; Waharte, François; Marks, Michael S.; Goud, Bruno; Raposo, Graça

    2014-01-01

    Summary Early endosomes consist of vacuolar sorting and tubular recycling domains that segregate components fated for degradation in lysosomes or reuse by recycling to the plasma membrane or Golgi. The tubular transport intermediates that constitute recycling endosomes function in cell polarity, migration and cytokinesis. Endosomal tubulation and fission require both actin and intact microtubules, but while factors that stabilize recycling endosomal tubules have been identified, those required for tubule generation from vacuolar sorting endosomes remain unknown. We show that the microtubule motor KIF13A associates with recycling endosome tubules and controls their morphogenesis. Interfering with KIF13A function impairs the formation of endosomal tubules from sorting endosomes with consequent defects in endosome homeostasis and cargo recycling. Moreover, KIF13A interacts and cooperates with RAB11 to generate endosomal tubules. Our data illustrate how a microtubule motor couples early endosome morphogenesis to its motility and function. PMID:24462287

  15. Small Peptide Recognition Sequence for Intracellular Sorting

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Kailash N.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicate that complex arrays of short signals and recognition peptide sequence ensure accurate trafficking and distribution of transmembrane receptors and/or proteins and their ligands into intracellular compartments. Internalization and subsequent trafficking of cell-surface receptors into the cell interior is mediated by specific short-sequence peptide signals within the cytoplasmic domains of these receptor proteins. The short signals usually consist of small linear amino acid sequences, which are recognized by adaptor coat proteins along the endocytic and sorting pathways. In recent years, much has been learned about the function and mechanisms of endocytic pathways responsible for the trafficking and molecular sorting of membrane receptors and their ligands into intracellular compartments, however, the significance and scope of the short sequence motifs in these cellular events is not well understood. Here a particular emphasis has been given to the functions of short-sequence signal motifs responsible for the itinerary and destination of membrane receptors and proteins moving into subcellular compartments. PMID:20817434

  16. Efficiency at Sorting Cards in Compressed Air

    PubMed Central

    Poulton, E. C.; Catton, M. J.; Carpenter, A.

    1964-01-01

    At a site where compressed air was being used in the construction of a tunnel, 34 men sorted cards twice, once at normal atmospheric pressure and once at 3½, 2½, or 2 atmospheres absolute pressure. An additional six men sorted cards twice at normal atmospheric pressure. When the task was carried out for the first time, all the groups of men performing at raised pressure were found to yield a reliably greater proportion of very slow responses than the group of men performing at normal pressure. There was reliably more variability in timing at 3½ and 2½ atmospheres absolute than at normal pressure. At 3½ atmospheres absolute the average performance was also reliably slower. When the task was carried out for the second time, exposure to 3½ atmospheres absolute pressure had no reliable effect. Thus compressed air affected performance only while the task was being learnt; it had little effect after practice. No reliable differences were found related to age, to length of experience in compressed air, or to the duration of the exposure to compressed air, which was never less than 10 minutes at 3½ atmospheres absolute pressure. PMID:14180485

  17. Developing Automated Methods of Waste Sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Shurtliff, Rodney Marvin

    2002-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) analyzed the need complex-wide for remote and automated technologies as they relate to the treatment and disposal of mixed wastes. This analysis revealed that several DOE sites need the capability to open drums containing waste, visually inspect and sort the contents, and finally repackage the containers that are acceptable at a waste disposal facility such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Conditioning contaminated waste so that it is compatible with the WIPP criteria for storage is an arduous task whether the waste is contact handled (waste having radioactivity levels below 200 mrem/hr) or remote handled. Currently, WIPP non-compliant items are removed from the waste stream manually, at a rate of about one 55-gallon drum per day. Issues relating to contamination-based health hazards as well as repetitive motion health hazards are steering industry towards a more user-friendly, method of conditioning or sorting waste.

  18. The NSF Learning and Intelligent Systems Research Initiative: Implications for Educational Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabelli, Nora H.; Kelly, Anthony E.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of the National Science Foundation (NSF) Learning and Intelligent Systems (LIS) program is to focus research attention on the learning aspects of cognition, neuroscience, information technologies, and related disciplines. Goal-oriented descriptions of the three Collaborative Research on Learning Technology Centers funded under LIS are…

  19. NSF in a Changing World: The National Science Foundation's Strategic Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    The National Science Foundation's (NSF) role as a leader and steward of the Nation's science and engineering enterprise faces new tests--promoting new approaches to research, education, and workforce training that reach all Americans; responding to the increased importance of science and engineering in many aspects of daily life; modernizing the…

  20. Changing Learning Environments in High School Science: An Evaluation of the Results of an NSF Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eash, Maurice J.; And Others

    The effects of a 3-week summer workshop sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and seven seminars held in the following academic year on the learning environments of 40 participating teachers' high school biology and chemistry classes were assessed. In this 1988-89 program, the 40 teachers visited 10 industries and agencies to observe…

  1. Differences in Math and Science Understanding between NSF GK-12 Participant Groups: A Year Long Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jennifer; She, Xiaobo; Morrison, Darrellee Clem

    2011-01-01

    In this study, interdisciplinary environments were created in NSF institutes and classrooms with graduate fellows and teachers. Using a mixed methodology, we examined how experiential learning influenced participants' mathematical/scientific actions and compared differences in mathematics/science efficacy and content understanding between…

  2. Bold Dreams and Big Questions: The Future of Astronomy in the 21st and NSF's Role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, M. S.

    2005-12-01

    This is a special time in astronomy: Astronomers know much about the Universe, but understand much less. Profound questions can be formulated and the tools are at hand to answer them. I will discuss my vision of this future as well as NSF's role in realizing the bold dreams and answering the big questions.

  3. Evaluation of NSF's International Research Fellowship Program: Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Alina; Epstein, Carter; Parsad, Amanda; Whittaker, Karla

    2012-01-01

    Among the National Science Foundation's (NSF) postdoctoral programs, the International Research Fellowship Program (IRFP) is unique in its emphasis on providing postdoctoral fellows with international research experiences. Established in 1992, IRFP provides financial support to postdoctoral scientists for a research experience abroad lasting…

  4. NSF's Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR): Subsidizing Academic Research or State Budgets?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yonghong

    2009-01-01

    This cross-state empirical study focuses on the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) and examines its impact on the academic research and development (R&D) expenditures financed by state governments. Based on a panel of 50 states during 1979-2006, the empirical results indicate that…

  5. NSF/DARPA/NASA Digital Libraries Initiative: A Program Manager's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Stephen M.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the National Science Foundation (NSF)/United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)/National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) Research in Digital Libraries Initiative (DLI). Highlights include benefits of digital libraries; the Federal High Performance Computing and Communications Program (HPCC); and program…

  6. Teacher Preparation and NSF Collaboratives for Excellence in Teacher Preparation. FY 96 Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA. Directorate for Education and Human Resources.

    The National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Education and Human Resources (EHR) is responsible for providing national leadership and support for improving the quality of science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SME&T) education from kindergarten through graduate school. The ultimate goal is to achieve excellence in the…

  7. 45 CFR 650.14 - Request for conveyance of title to NSF.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Request for conveyance of title to NSF. 650.14 Section 650.14 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE... section apply to the exercise of the Foundation's right under paragraph (d) of the Patent Rights clause...

  8. Development of a Consensus Standard for School Equipment: NSF/NSSEA 380

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitner, Ashlee

    2011-01-01

    For many years, the school supplies and equipment industry has investigated methods to ensure product safety and compliance across all its product categories. In early 2010, NSF International and the National School Supply and Equipment Association (NSSEA) came together to develop quality standards for products and equipment designed for use in…

  9. Understanding the Role of Partnership Configuration in the NSF MSP Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The National Science Foundation's (NSF's) Math and Science Partnership Program (MSP) promotes the development, implementation, and sustainability of exemplary partnerships to produce high-quality math and science education at all K-12 levels. The MSP Program anticipates that the partnerships will be instrumental in improving student achievement,…

  10. The 1983-1984 NSF Chautauqua-Type Short Course Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitler, William R.; Ogletree, Owen, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    National Science Foundation (NSF) Chautauqua-type short courses offer undergraduate science teachers the opportunity to absorbe new ideas from highly respected scholars. A complete list of courses, course directors, locations, dates, and registration fees for the 1983-84 program is provided. Subject areas include: instructional composting, cells…

  11. NSF-NSDL GREEN Project: A Digital Library Partnership of Academia, Government, and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolo, Laura M.; Tewary, Vinod K.; Shreve, Gregory M.; Powell, Adam C., IV; Zeng, Marcia L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the GREEN digital library, part of the NSF (National Science Foundation) NSDL (National Science Digital Library), as a collaboration of materials developed with government agencies, universities, and industry to build a collection of digital resources in the area of Green's functions, used for modeling mechanical and thermal responses of…

  12. 76 FR 19986 - DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... High Energy Physics Advisory Panel AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory... Kogut, Executive Secretary; High Energy Physics Advisory Panel; U.S. Department of Energy;...

  13. 75 FR 57463 - DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... High Energy Physics Advisory Panel AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory...., Washington, DC 20037. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Kogut, Executive Secretary; High Energy...

  14. 78 FR 46330 - DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... High Energy Physics Advisory Panel AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory... Secretary; High Energy Physics Advisory Panel; U.S. Department of Energy; SC-25/ Germantown Building,...

  15. 78 FR 12043 - DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... High Energy Physics Advisory Panel AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory... Kogut, Executive Secretary; High Energy Physics Advisory Panel; U.S. Department of Energy;...

  16. 76 FR 8358 - DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... High Energy Physics Advisory Panel AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory...., Washington, DC 20037. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Kogut, Executive Secretary; High Energy...

  17. 77 FR 64799 - DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... High Energy Physics Advisory Panel AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP...., Bethesda, MD 20814. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Kogut, Executive Secretary; High Energy...

  18. 78 FR 69839 - DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... High Energy Physics Advisory Panel AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory... Secretary; High Energy Physics Advisory Panel; U.S. Department of Energy; SC-25/ Germantown Building,...

  19. 78 FR 14087 - DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory Panel: Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    .... Corrections In the Federal Register of February 21, 2013, in FR Doc. 2013- 04064, on page 12043, please make... High Energy Physics Advisory Panel: Correction AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION...) published a notice of open meeting for the DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory Panel to be held on March...

  20. 77 FR 33449 - DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... High Energy Physics Advisory Panel AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory... Energy Physics Advisory Panel; U.S. Department of Energy; SC-25/ Germantown Building, 1000...

  1. 76 FR 41234 - DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... High Energy Physics Advisory Panel AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory...., Washington, DC 20037. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Kogut, Executive Secretary; High Energy...

  2. 77 FR 4027 - DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ... High Energy Physics Advisory Panel AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory...., Washington, DC 20037. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Kogut, Executive Secretary; High Energy...

  3. Evaluation of the NSF Industry/University Cooperative Research Centers: Descriptive and Correlative Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Engineering.

    This report presents results of a survey of participants in the National Science Foundation (NSF) Industry-University Cooperative Research Centers program. The program promotes more rapid technological innovation by creating linkages between industry and university scientists. The Centers function as university research groups, with partial…

  4. 5 CFR 5301.104 - Participation in NSF-supported conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Participation in NSF-supported conferences. 5301.104 Section 5301.104 Administrative Personnel NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION § 5301.104 Participation...

  5. 5 CFR 5301.104 - Participation in NSF-supported conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Participation in NSF-supported conferences. 5301.104 Section 5301.104 Administrative Personnel NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION § 5301.104 Participation...

  6. 45 CFR 680.11 - Staff involvement with NSF proposals and awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 CFR 5301.103(a)(1), an NSF employee may not receive, directly or indirectly, any salary... SCIENCE FOUNDATION NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION RULES OF PRACTICE AND STATUTORY CONFLICT-OF-INTEREST EXEMPTIONS Rules of Practice for the National Science Foundation § 680.11 Staff involvement with...

  7. 5 CFR 5301.104 - Participation in NSF-supported conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Participation in NSF-supported conferences. 5301.104 Section 5301.104 Administrative Personnel NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION § 5301.104 Participation...

  8. 5 CFR 5301.104 - Participation in NSF-supported conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Participation in NSF-supported conferences. 5301.104 Section 5301.104 Administrative Personnel NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION § 5301.104 Participation...

  9. 5 CFR 5301.104 - Participation in NSF-supported conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation in NSF-supported conferences. 5301.104 Section 5301.104 Administrative Personnel NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION § 5301.104 Participation...

  10. 45 CFR 680.12 - One-year NSF post-employment restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 680.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION RULES OF PRACTICE AND STATUTORY CONFLICT-OF-INTEREST EXEMPTIONS Rules of Practice for the National Science Foundation § 680.12 One-year NSF post-employment...

  11. Leveraging the NSF Broader-Impacts Criterion for Change in STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Robert D.; Pfund, Christine; Gillian-Daniel, Don

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to move, if not balance, the scales of activity toward increasing scientific capability across a diverse national population, U.S. federal funding agencies are purposefully linking research funding to broad national impact. Among United States federal agencies, the National Science Foundation (NSF) has led the way in the integration…

  12. Linking the GLOBE Program With NASA and NSF Large-Scale Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filmer, P. E.

    2005-12-01

    NASA and the NSF, the sponsoring Federal agencies for the GLOBE Program, are seeking the participation of science teams who are working at the cutting edge of Earth systems science in large integrated Earth systems science programs. Connecting the GLOBE concept and structure with NASA and NSF's leading Earth systems science programs will give GLOBE schools and students access to top scientists, and expose them to programs that have been designated as scientific priorities. Students, teachers, parents, and their communities will be able to see how scientists of many disciplines work together to learn about the Earth system. The GLOBE solicitation released by the NSF targets partnerships between GLOBE and NSF/NASA-funded integrated Earth systems science programs. This presentation will focus on the goals and requirements of the NSF solicitation. Proponents will be expected to provide ways for the GLOBE community to interact with a group of scientists from their science programs as part of a wider joint Earth systems science educational strategy (the sponsoring agencies', GLOBE's, and the proposing programs'). Teams proposing to this solicitation must demonstrate: - A focus on direct connections with major NSF Geosciences and/or Polar Programs and/or NASA Earth-Sun research programs that are related to Earth systems science; - A demonstrable benefit to GLOBE and to NSF Geosciences and/or Polar Programs or NASA Earth-Sun education goals (providing access to program researchers and data, working with GLOBE in setting up campaigns where possible, using tested GLOBE or non-GLOBE protocols to the greatest extent possible, actively participating in the wider GLOBE community including schools, among other goals); - An international component; - How the existing educational efforts of the large science program will coordinate with GLOBE; - An Earth systems science education focus, rather than a GLOBE protocol-support focus; - A rigorous evaluation and assessment component

  13. Extension of the sorting instructions for household plastic packaging and changes in exposure to bioaerosols at materials recovery facilities.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, O; Déportes, I Z; Facon, B; Fromont, E

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess how extending the sorting instructions for plastic packaging would affect the exposure of workers working at materials recovery facility (MRF) to dust, endotoxins, fungi and bacteria, taking into consideration other factors that could have an influence on this exposure. Personal sampling was carried out at four MRFs during six sampling campaigns at each facility, both in sorting rooms and when the workers were involved in "mobile tasks" away from the rooms. The data was analysed by describing the extension of sorting instructions both using a qualitative variable (after vs before) and using data for the pots and trays recycling stream, including or excluding plastic film. Overall, before the extension of the sorting guidelines, the geometric mean of personal exposure levels in sorting rooms was 0.3mg/m(3) for dust, 27.7 EU/m(3) for endotoxins, 13,000 CFU/m(3) for fungi and 1800 CFU/m(3) for bacteria. When workers were involved in mobile tasks away from the rooms, these averages were 0.5mg/m(3), 25.7 EU/m(3), 28,000 CFU/m(3) and 5100 CFU/m(3) respectively.The application by households of instructions to include pots, trays and film with other recyclable plastic packaging led to an increase in exposure to endotoxins, fungi and bacteria at MRFs. For an increase of 0.5 kg per inhabitant per year in the pots, trays and film recycling stream, exposure in sorting rooms rose by a factor of 1.4-2.2, depending on the biological agent. Exposure during mobile tasks increased by a factor of 3.0-3.6. The age of the waste amplified the effect of the extension of sorting instructions on exposure to fungi, bacteria and endotoxins. Factors that had a significant influence on the exposure of workers to dust and/or bioaerosols included the presence of paper, newspapers and magazines in the sorted waste, the order in which incoming waste was treated and the quality of the ventilation system in the sorting rooms. The levels of exposure observed in

  14. Sorting during Migration of Aeolian Megaripples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, R. J., Jr.; Zimbelman, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Aeolian sediments commonly are well sorted. However, aeolian megaripples (aka coarse-grained ripples or granule ripples) have bimodal grain size-frequencies. Distinguishing aeolian megaripple deposits from mixed grain size fluvial deposits is important, particularly for martian sedimentary rocks where implications for flowing water in the martian past (if revealed by legitimate fluvial deposits) are important mission drivers for rovers and landers. Aeolian megaripples are relatively minor components of terrestrial aeolian settings (e.g., as interdune features), but on Mars, megaripples have been encountered in many locations by landers and rovers, are durable due to indurated, armoring surface layers of very coarse sand, and therefore are likely candidates for preservation in the martian sedimentary rock record. Unfortunately, megaripple deposits preserved in martian sedimentary rocks must be recognized with much less data or context than obtained typically during terrestrial fieldwork. We have undertaken wind tunnel experiments and fieldwork to assist interpretations distinguishing aeolian megaripple deposits from mixed grain fluvial materials. Lags of coarse or very coarse sand from ancient aeolian environments within the White Rim Sandstone, Canyonlands NP, UT, and at some localities along the J2 Unconformity at Buckhorn Wash, UT, are well sorted, with a sharply defined maximum grain size in each case. We conducted wind tunnel experiments to explore whether the well-sorted, sharp cutoff in maximum grain size of the coarse fraction in these deposits could be diagnostic of aeolian megaripple formation and migration. Wind tunnel experiments involved 250 μm sand saltating against 600-2800 μm grains. For a given wind tunnel speed, only a narrow grain size range appeared on megaripple surfaces as these bedforms developed spontaneously from the bed; somewhat finer grains migrated rapidly downwind, while slightly coarser grains remained immobile. The physics of

  15. Fluorescence activated cell sorting of plant protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Bargmann, Bastiaan O R; Birnbaum, Kenneth D

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution, cell type-specific analysis of gene expression greatly enhances understanding of developmental regulation and responses to environmental stimuli in any multicellular organism. In situ hybridization and reporter gene visualization can to a limited extent be used to this end but for high resolution quantitative RT-PCR or high-throughput transcriptome-wide analysis the isolation of RNA from particular cell types is requisite. Cellular dissociation of tissue expressing a fluorescent protein marker in a specific cell type and subsequent Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) makes it possible to collect sufficient amounts of material for RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis/amplification and microarray analysis. An extensive set of cell type-specific fluorescent reporter lines is available to the plant research community. In this case, two marker lines of the Arabidopsis thaliana root are used: P(SCR;)::GFP (endodermis and quiescent center) and P(WOX5;)::GFP (quiescent center). Large numbers (thousands) of seedlings are grown hydroponically or on agar plates and harvested to obtain enough root material for further analysis. Cellular dissociation of plant material is achieved by enzymatic digestion of the cell wall. This procedure makes use of high osmolarity-induced plasmolysis and commercially available cellulases, pectinases and hemicellulases to release protoplasts into solution. FACS of GFP-positive cells makes use of the visualization of the green versus the red emission spectra of protoplasts excited by a 488 nm laser. GFP-positive protoplasts can be distinguished by their increased ratio of green to red emission. Protoplasts are typically sorted directly into RNA extraction buffer and stored for further processing at a later time. This technique is revealed to be straightforward and practicable. Furthermore, it is shown that it can be used without difficulty to isolate sufficient numbers of cells for transcriptome analysis, even for very scarce

  16. Statistical Characteristics of Single Sort of Grape Bulgarian Wines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyadzhiev, D.

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the differences in the values of the 8 basic physicochemical indices of single sort of grape Bulgarian wines (white and red ones), obligatory for the standardization of ready production in the winery. Statistically significant differences in the values of various sorts and vintages are established and possibilities for identifying the sort and the vintage on the base of these indices by applying discriminant analysis are discussed.

  17. Passive chip-based droplet sorting

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham P; Hatch, Andrew C; Fisher, Jeffrey S

    2015-11-05

    An apparatus for passive sorting of microdroplets including a main flow channel, a flow stream of microdroplets in the main flow channel wherein the microdroplets have substantially the same diameter and wherein the flow stream of microdroplets includes first microdroplets having a first degree of stiffness and second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness wherein the second degree of stiffness is different than the first degree of stiffness. A second flow channel is connected to the main flow channel for the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness. A separator separates the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness from the first microdroplets and directs the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness into the second flow channel.

  18. Passive chip-based droplet sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham P; Hatch, Andrew C; Fisher, Jeffrey S

    2015-03-03

    An apparatus for passive sorting of microdroplets including a main flow channel, a flow stream of microdroplets in the main flow channel wherein the microdroplets have substantially the same diameter and wherein the flow stream of microdroplets includes first microdroplets having a first degree of stiffness and second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness wherein the second degree of stiffness is different than the first degree of stiffness. A second flow channel is connected to the main flow channel for the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness. A separator separates the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness from the first microdroplets and directs the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness into the second flow channel.

  19. Solution structure of human sorting nexin 22.

    PubMed

    Song, Jikui; Zhao, Kate Qin; Newman, Carrie L Loushin; Vinarov, Dmitriy A; Markley, John L

    2007-05-01

    The sorting nexins (SNXs) constitute a large group of PX domain-containing proteins that play critical roles in protein trafficking. We report here the solution structure of human sorting nexin 22 (SNX22). Although SNX22 has <30% sequence identity with any PX domain protein of known structure, it was found to contain the alpha/beta fold and compact structural core characteristic of PX domains. Analysis of the backbone dynamics of SNX22 by NMR relaxation measurements revealed that the two walls of the ligand binding cleft undergo internal motions: on the picosecond timescale for the beta1/beta2 loop and on the micro- to millisecond timescale for the loop between the polyproline motif and helix alpha2. Regions of the SNX22 structure that differ from those of other PX domains include the loop connecting strands beta1 and beta2 and the loop connecting helices alpha1 and alpha2, which appear to be more mobile than corresponding loops in other known structures. The interaction of dibutanoyl-phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (dibutanoyl-PtdIns(3)P) with SNX22 was investigated by an NMR titration experiment, which identified the binding site in a basic cleft and indicated that ligand binding leads only to a local structural rearrangement as has been found with other PX domains. Because motions in the loops are damped out when dibutanoyl-PtdIns(3)P binds, entropic effects could contribute to the lower affinity of SNX22 for this ligand compared to other PX domains. PMID:17400918

  20. Learning sorting algorithms through visualization construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetin, Ibrahim; Andrews-Larson, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Recent increased interest in computational thinking poses an important question to researchers: What are the best ways to teach fundamental computing concepts to students? Visualization is suggested as one way of supporting student learning. This mixed-method study aimed to (i) examine the effect of instruction in which students constructed visualizations on students' programming achievement and students' attitudes toward computer programming, and (ii) explore how this kind of instruction supports students' learning according to their self-reported experiences in the course. The study was conducted with 58 pre-service teachers who were enrolled in their second programming class. They expect to teach information technology and computing-related courses at the primary and secondary levels. An embedded experimental model was utilized as a research design. Students in the experimental group were given instruction that required students to construct visualizations related to sorting, whereas students in the control group viewed pre-made visualizations. After the instructional intervention, eight students from each group were selected for semi-structured interviews. The results showed that the intervention based on visualization construction resulted in significantly better acquisition of sorting concepts. However, there was no significant difference between the groups with respect to students' attitudes toward computer programming. Qualitative data analysis indicated that students in the experimental group constructed necessary abstractions through their engagement in visualization construction activities. The authors of this study argue that the students' active engagement in the visualization construction activities explains only one side of students' success. The other side can be explained through the instructional approach, constructionism in this case, used to design instruction. The conclusions and implications of this study can be used by researchers and

  1. Carbon nanotube devices: Sorting, Assembling, Characterizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupke, Ralph

    2009-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been studied extensively over the last decade. Various exceptional properties have been revealed which still drive the vision about using carbon nanotube in future electronics, for instance as molecular nanoscale transistors or electromigration resistant interconnects. For many years a major obstacle was the inability to grow nanotubes with defined dimensions (length, diameter) and electronic properties (metallic,semiconducting). Recently those problems have been solved to a large extent by advanced sorting techniques. Today the challenge is to assemble nanotubes devices with defined properties to form a complex circuitry. As progress is made in making highly-integrated nanotube device arrays new characterization techniques have to be developed which allow testing large number of devices within an acceptable time. Along this line I will report on the state-of-the-art of sorting of carbon nanotube, as a base for nanotube device fabrication [1]. I will then explain our strategy to assemble high-density arrays of nanotube devices [2] and discuss a new characterization technique for nanotube devices [3]. Finally I will introduce a novel device engineering tool [4]. [4pt] [1] R. Krupke et al., ``Separation techniques for carbon nanotubes'' in Chemistry of Carbon Nanotubes, p.129-139, American Scientific Publishers 2008[0pt] [2] A. Vijayaraghavan et al., ``Ultra-Large-Scale Directed Assembly of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Devices'', Nano Lett. 7 (2007) 1556-1560[0pt] [3] A. Vijayaraghavan et al., ``Imaging Electronic Structure of Carbon Nanotubes by Voltage-Contrast Scanning Electron Microscopy'', Nano Resarch 1 (2008) 321-332[0pt] [4] C. W. Marquardt et al., ``Reversible metal-insulator transitions in metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes'', Nano Lett. 9 (2008) 2767-2772

  2. A Study of NSF Teacher Enhancement Program (TEP) Participants and Principal Investigators: 1984-1989. Volume II: Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abt Associates, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    This study documents the effects of participation in the Teacher Enhancement Program (TEP) of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSF awarded more than 600 grants to scientists, mathematicians, and educators to develop and operate inservice teacher training programs between 1984 and 1989. The present study focuses specifically upon the…

  3. Math and Science Partnership Program: Strengthening America by Advancing Academic Achievement in Mathematics and Science. NSF-05-069

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This booklet presents an overview of the Math Science Partnership program (MSP) at the National Science Foundation (NSF). This program responds to a growing national concern--the educational performance of U.S. children in mathematics and science. Through the MSP, NSF awards competitive, merit-based grants to teams composed of institutions of…

  4. VIP21/caveolin, glycosphingolipid clusters and the sorting of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins in epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zurzolo, C; van't Hof, W; van Meer, G; Rodriguez-Boulan, E

    1994-01-01

    We studied the role of the association between glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins and glycosphingolipid (GSL) clusters in apical targeting using gD1-DAF, a GPI-anchored protein that is differentially sorted by three epithelial cell lines. Differently from MDCK cells, where both gD1-DAF and glucosylceramide (GlcCer) are sorted to the apical membrane, in MDCK Concanavalin A-resistant cells (MDCK-ConAr) gD1-DAF was mis-sorted to both surfaces, but GlcCer was still targeted to the apical surface. In both MDCK and MDCK-ConAr cells, gD1-DAF became associated with TX-100-insoluble GSL clusters during transport to the cell surface. In dramatic contrast with MDCK cells, the Fischer rat thyroid (FRT) cell line targeted both gD1-DAF and GlcCer basolaterally. The targeting differences for GSLs in FRT and MDCK cells cannot be accounted for by a differential ability to form clusters because, in spite of major differences in the GSL composition, both cell lines assembled GSLs into TX-100-insoluble complexes with identical isopycnic densities. Surprisingly, in FRT cells, gD1-DAF did not form clusters with GSLs and, therefore, remained completely soluble. This clustering defect in FRT cells correlated with the lack of expression of VIP21/caveolin, a protein localized to both the plasma membrane caveolae and the trans Golgi network. This suggests that VIP21/caveolin may have an important role in recruiting GPI-anchored proteins into GSL complexes necessary for their apical sorting. However, since MDCK-ConAr cells expressed caveolin and clustered GPI-anchored proteins normally, yet mis-sorted them, our results also indicate that clustering and caveolin are not sufficient for apical targeting, and that additional factors are required for the accurate apical sorting of GPI-anchored proteins. Images PMID:8306971

  5. An analytical comparison of the information in sorted and non-sorted cosine-tuned spike activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, D. S.; Tiesinga, P. H. E.; Henriquez, C. S.; Wolf, P. D.

    2007-09-01

    Spike sorting is a technologically expensive component of the signal processing chain required to interpret population spike activity acquired in a neuromotor prosthesis. No systematic analysis of the value of spike sorting has been carried out, and little is known about the effects of spike sorting error on the ability of a brain-machine interface (BMI) to decode intended motor commands. We developed a theoretical framework to examine the effects of spike processing on the information available to a BMI decoder. We computed the mutual information in neural activity in a simplified model of directional cosine tuning to compare the effects of pooling activity from up to four neurons to the effects of sorting with varying amounts of spike error. The results showed that information in a small population of cosine-tuned neurons is maximized when the responses are sorted and there is diverse tuning of units, but information was affected little when pooling units with similar preferred directions. Spike error had adverse effects on information, such that non-sorted population activity had 79-92% of the information in its sorted counterpart for reasonable amounts of detection and sorting error and for units with moderate differences in preferred direction. This quantification of information loss associated with pooling units and with spike detection and sorting error will help to guide the engineering decisions in designing a BMI spike processing system.

  6. Seminal plasma affects sperm sex sorting in boars.

    PubMed

    Alkmin, Diego V; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Tarantini, Tatiana; Del Olmo, David; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Roca, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted in boar semen samples to evaluate how both holding time (24h) and the presence of seminal plasma (SP) before sorting affect sperm sortability and the ability of sex-sorted spermatozoa to tolerate liquid storage. Whole ejaculate samples were divided into three aliquots immediately after collection: one was diluted (1:1, v/v) in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS; 50% SP); the SP of the other two aliquots was removed and the sperm pellets were diluted with BTS + 10% of their own SP (10% SP) or BTS alone (0% SP). The three aliquots of each ejaculate were divided into two portions, one that was processed immediately for sorting and a second that was sorted after 24h storage at 15-17°C. In the first experiment, the ability to exhibit well-defined X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm peaks (split) in the cytometry histogram and the subsequent sorting efficiency were assessed (20 ejaculates). In contrast with holding time, the SP proportion influenced the parameters examined, as evidenced by the higher number of ejaculates exhibiting split and better sorting efficiency (P<0.05) in semen samples with 0-10% SP compared with those with 50% SP. In a second experiment, the quality (viability, total and progressive motility) and functionality (plasma membrane fluidity and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species) of sex-sorted spermatozoa were evaluated after 0, 72 and 120h storage at 15-17°C (10 ejaculates). Holding time and SP proportion did not influence the quality or functionality of stored sex-sorted spermatozoa. In conclusion, a holding time as long as 24h before sorting did not negatively affect sex sorting efficiency or the ability of sorted boar spermatozoa to tolerate long-term liquid storage. A high proportion of SP (50%) in the semen samples before sorting reduced the number of ejaculates to be sorted and negatively influenced the sorting efficiency, but did not affect the ability of sex-sorted spermatozoa to tolerate liquid

  7. Word Sorts: Vocabulary Development with Adult Literacy Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olle, Ruth DeWitt

    1994-01-01

    Describes closed and open word sorts and their use for vocabulary development with adult literacy students. Suggests that the sorts enable them to rehearse new vocabulary, discuss various word classifications, and develop convergent and divergent thinking through deducing the defining characteristics or words. (SR)

  8. Disentangling Dimensions in the Dimensional Change Card-Sorting Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloo, Daniela; Perner, Josef

    2005-01-01

    The dimensional change card-sorting task (DCCS task) is frequently used to assess young children's executive abilities. However, the source of children's difficulty with this task is still under debate. In the standard DCCS task, children have to sort, for example, test cards with a red cherry or a blue banana into two boxes marked with target…

  9. A FORTRAN Computer Program for Q Sort Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, William R.

    1978-01-01

    The Q Sort method is a rank order procedure. A FORTRAN program is described which calculates a total value for any group of cases for the items in the Q Sort, and rank orders the items according to this composite value. (Author/JKS)

  10. Processes of Overall Similarity Sorting in Free Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, Fraser; Longmore, Christopher A.; Wills, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    The processes of overall similarity sorting were investigated in 5 free classification experiments. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that increasing time pressure can reduce the likelihood of overall similarity categorization. Experiment 3 showed that a concurrent load also reduced overall similarity sorting. These findings suggest that overall…

  11. Supramolecular fibres: Self-sorting shows its true colours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Emily R.; Adams, Dave J.

    2016-08-01

    Self-sorting events in supramolecular assembly lead to complex systems that are attractive for the design of functional materials, but have remained difficult to understand and control. Now, the growth of self-sorted supramolecular nanofibres has been elucidated by direct imaging through real-time in situ confocal microscopy.

  12. "Sort of" in British Women's and Men's Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miettinen, Hanna; Watson, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This paper (Note 1) examines the form sort of in British men and women's speech, and investigates whether there is a gender difference in the use of this form. We do so through corpus analysis of the British National Corpus (BNC). We contend there is no quantitative difference in the use of sort of in men and women's speech. Contrary to general…

  13. Sorting: Groups and Graphs. Used Numbers. Grades 2-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Susan Jo; Corwin, Rebecca B.

    A unit of study that introduces sorting and classification as a way of organizing data is presented. Suitable for students in grades 2 and 3, it provides a foundation for further work in statistics and data analysis. The investigations may extend from one to five class sessions and are grouped into three parts: "Introduction to Sorting"; "Sorting…

  14. The Use of Binary Search Trees in External Distribution Sorting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, David; Lynch, Michael F.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests new method of external distribution called tree partitioning that involves use of binary tree to split incoming file into successively smaller partitions for internal sorting. Number of disc accesses during a tree-partitioning sort were calculated in simulation using files extracted from British National Bibliography catalog files. (19…

  15. The PreferenSort: A Holistic Instrument for Career Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amit, Adi; Sagiv, Lilach

    2013-01-01

    We present the PreferenSort, a career counseling instrument that derives counselees' vocational interests from their preferences among occupational titles. The PreferenSort allows for a holistic decision process, while taking into account the full complexity of occupations and encouraging deliberation about one's preferences and…

  16. Córdova to Be Nominated as New Head of NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-08-01

    President Barack Obama announced on 31 July that he intends to nominate France Anne Córdova to become the next director of the National Science Foundation (NSF). Córdova was president of Purdue University from 2007 to 2012 and has been a professor of physics and astronomy there. Previously, Córdova was chancellor of the University of California, Riverside from 1996 to 2002.

  17. Advancing Capabilities for Understanding the Earth System Through Intelligent Systems, the NSF Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Y.; Zanzerkia, E. E.; Munoz-Avila, H.

    2015-12-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) Directorate for Geosciences (GEO) and Directorate for Computer and Information Science (CISE) acknowledge the significant scientific challenges required to understand the fundamental processes of the Earth system, within the atmospheric and geospace, Earth, ocean and polar sciences, and across those boundaries. A broad view of the opportunities and directions for GEO are described in the report "Dynamic Earth: GEO imperative and Frontiers 2015-2020." Many of the aspects of geosciences research, highlighted both in this document and other community grand challenges, pose novel problems for researchers in intelligent systems. Geosciences research will require solutions for data-intensive science, advanced computational capabilities, and transformative concepts for visualizing, using, analyzing and understanding geo phenomena and data. Opportunities for the scientific community to engage in addressing these challenges are available and being developed through NSF's portfolio of investments and activities. The NSF-wide initiative, Cyberinfrastructure Framework for 21st Century Science and Engineering (CIF21), looks to accelerate research and education through new capabilities in data, computation, software and other aspects of cyberinfrastructure. EarthCube, a joint program between GEO and the Advanced Cyberinfrastructure Division, aims to create a well-connected and facile environment to share data and knowledge in an open, transparent, and inclusive manner, thus accelerating our ability to understand and predict the Earth system. EarthCube's mission opens an opportunity for collaborative research on novel information systems enhancing and supporting geosciences research efforts. NSF encourages true, collaborative partnerships between scientists in computer sciences and the geosciences to meet these challenges.

  18. Building Bridges Between EPO Professionals Across Scientific Disciplines: Partnerships with NSF Centers (First Steps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, D.; Black, K.; Schultz, S.

    2010-08-01

    NASA, NSF and other funding organizations support science education and outreach to achieve their broader impact goals. Organizations like ASP and the NSF Research Centers Educators Network (NRCEN) are building networks of education and public outreach (EPO) professionals to enhance programmatic success in reaching these goals. As the professionals who provide these programs to the various scientific communities, we are often the key connectors between investigators at cutting-edge research centers, the education world and the public. However, our profession does not have strong ties for sharing best practices across the different scientific disciplines. To develop those ties, we need to identify our common interests and build on them by sharing lessons learned and best practices. We will use the technique of concept mapping to develop a schematic of how each of us addresses our broader impact goals and discuss the common and divergent features. We will also present the education and outreach logic model that was recently developed by the 27 Education Directors of NSF-funded Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers (MRSEC). Building on this information, we will collaboratively develop a list of key areas of similar interest between ASP and NRCEN EPO professionals.

  19. The Role of EPO Professionals in Communicating and Teaching the Science of NASA and NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, D.; Swilley, S.; Andrews, J.

    2008-06-01

    NSF and NASA have similar Education and Public Outreach (EPO) requirements and each endorses an important community of outreach professionals to facilitate broader impact goals. EPO professionals hold a critical role in the national quest for a scientifically and technologically literate population, and are often key connectors between investigators conducting cutting-edge research at NASA and NSF centers, pre-college educators and the public. Each owns unique perspectives on how to translate science and engineering research into effective research-based programs. NASA and NSF center EPO professionals could share lessons learned and best practices to promote efficient and effective education program development and implementation that includes leading scientists and engineers. Both groups could explore collaboration opportunities between the Astronomical Society of the Pacific and the National Science Foundation Research Center Educators Network to build on specific strengths and similarities. Through collaboration, each group can better promote recognition of this emerging field and profession. Working together, collaborators will enhance existing expertise, improve job performance, promote standards for this emerging profession, and achieve well-deserved recognition. Collaboration will improve individual ability to meet the higher standards of accountability to which each group is held and improve efforts in this new, flat world.

  20. HydroShare: Applying professional software engineering to a new NSF-funded large software project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idaszak, R.; Tarboton, D. G.; Ames, D.; Saleem Arrigo, J. A.; Band, L. E.; Bedig, A.; Castronova, A. M.; Christopherson, L.; Coposky, J.; Couch, A.; Dash, P.; Gan, T.; Goodall, J.; Gustafson, K.; Heard, J.; Hooper, R. P.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Jackson, S.; Johnson, H.; Maidment, D. R.; Mbewe, P.; Merwade, V.; Miles, B.; Reeder, S.; Russell, T.; Song, C.; Taylor, A.; Thakur, S.; Valentine, D. W.; Whiteaker, T. L.

    2013-12-01

    HydroShare is an online, collaborative system being developed for sharing hydrologic data and models as part of the NSF's Software Infrastructure for Sustained Innovation (SI2) program (NSF collaborative award numbers 1148453 and 1148090). HydroShare involves a large software development effort requiring cooperative research and distributed software development between domain scientists, professional software engineers (here 'professional' denotes previous commercial experience in the application of modern software engineering), and university software developers. HydroShare expands upon the data sharing capabilities of the Hydrologic Information System of the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Sciences, Inc. (CUAHSI) by broadening the classes of data accommodated, expanding capability to include the sharing of models and model components, and taking advantage of emerging social media functionality to enhance information about and collaboration around hydrologic data and models. With a goal of enabling better science concomitant with improved sustainable software practices, we will describe our approach, experiences, and lessons learned thus-far in applying professional software engineering to a large NSF-funded software project from the project's onset.

  1. An Analysis of NSF Research Experience for Undergraduate Site Programs from 2009 through 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, R.; Patino, L. C.; Rom, E. L.; Adams, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) supports U.S. institutions so that they can provide undergraduate students from any college or university the opportunity to conduct research at many different institutions. Participants also gain a better understanding of pathways for research careers. In 2013 a new system for annual report data collection was implemented by the National Science Foundation for all awards, including REU Sites. As a result, REU Site Directors must ask students to self-report data using the NSF Fastlane system. NSF has been collecting this data for several years and information is now available about the effectiveness of this new data collection system. Information on the GEO REU Site student demographics from 2014 will be presented and compared to data from previous years. Results show low participation rates by REU students in the data submission process. Many students who do participate skip questions or chose not to provide answers to the questions. Methods for increasing student participation in the data collection process will be discussed and suggestions for other ways to improve data collection as a community will be presented. Accurate information on student demographics for GEO REU Site programs are important because these students often go on to graduate programs and are the future role models for a diverse workforce.

  2. Chromosome photoinactivation, a new method for high speed chromosome sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.C.; Park, M.; Han, K.T.; Cram, L.S. )

    1993-01-01

    A new optical high-speed chromosome sorting concept is under development which relies on chromosome inactivation rather than droplet sorting to meet the demands of large volume sorting for cloning into large insert vectors. Inactivation can be achieved by photosensitizing and cross-linking metaphase chromosomes. By eliminating the need to create droplets, sorting rates 50 to 100 times faster than the sorting rates of commercial sorters will be achieved. Preliminary experiments using 8-methoxy psoralen in combination with UV doses of about 20 kJ/m2 have shown that: (1) DNA is cross-linked and remains double stranded even under denaturing conditions, (2) the ability of psoralen treated plasmid DNA to transect E. coli XL1-Blue cells is totally blocked following UV exposure, and (3) an average of one interstrand cross-link per 6 kb is produced with these UV doses.

  3. Regular expression order-sorted unification and matching

    PubMed Central

    Kutsia, Temur; Marin, Mircea

    2015-01-01

    We extend order-sorted unification by permitting regular expression sorts for variables and in the domains of function symbols. The obtained signature corresponds to a finite bottom-up unranked tree automaton. We prove that regular expression order-sorted (REOS) unification is of type infinitary and decidable. The unification problem presented by us generalizes some known problems, such as, e.g., order-sorted unification for ranked terms, sequence unification, and word unification with regular constraints. Decidability of REOS unification implies that sequence unification with regular hedge language constraints is decidable, generalizing the decidability result of word unification with regular constraints to terms. A sort weakening algorithm helps to construct a minimal complete set of REOS unifiers from the solutions of sequence unification problems. Moreover, we design a complete algorithm for REOS matching, and show that this problem is NP-complete and the corresponding counting problem is #P-complete. PMID:26523088

  4. Nanoplasmonic lenses for bacteria sorting (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiangchao; Yanik, Ahmet A.

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate that patches of two dimensional arrays of circular plasmonic nanoholes patterned on gold-titanium thin film enables subwavelength focusing of visible light in far field region. Efficient coupling of the light with the excited surface plasmon at metal dielectric interface results in strong light transmission. As a result, surface plasmon plays an important role in the far field focusing behavior of the nanohole-aperture patches device. Furthermore, the focal length of the focused beam was found to be predominantly dependent on the overall size of the patch, which is in good agreement with that calculated by Rayleigh-Sommerfield integral formula. The focused light beam can be utilized to separate bio-particles in the dynamic range from 0.1 μm to 1 μm through mainly overcoming the drag force induced by fluid flow. In our proposed model, focused light generated by our plasmonic lenses will push the larger bio-particles in size back to the source of fluid flow and allow the smaller particles to move towards the central aperture of the patch. Such a new kind of plasmonic lenses open up possibility of sorting bacterium-like particles with plasmonic nanolenses, and also represent a promising tool in the field of virology.

  5. Microfluidic-chip platform for cell sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Sarul; Balyan, Prerna; Akhtar, J.; Agarwal, Ajay

    2016-04-01

    Cell sorting and separation are considered to be very crucial preparatory steps for numerous clinical diagnostics and therapeutics applications in cell biology research arena. Label free cell separation techniques acceptance rate has been increased to multifold by various research groups. Size based cell separation method focuses on the intrinsic properties of the cell which not only avoids clogging issues associated with mechanical and centrifugation filtration methods but also reduces the overall cost for the process. Consequentially flow based cell separation method for continuous flow has attracted the attention of millions. Due to the realization of structures close to particle size in micro dimensions, the microfluidic devices offer precise and rapid particle manipulation which ultimately leads to an extraordinary cell separation results. The proposed microfluidic device is fabricated to separate polystyrene beads of size 1 µm, 5 µm, 10 µm and 20 µm. The actual dimensions of blood corpuscles were kept in mind while deciding the particle size of polystyrene beads which are used as a model particles for study.

  6. Cell sorting using efficient light shaping approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bañas, Andrew; Palima, Darwin; Villangca, Mark; Glückstad, Jesper

    2016-03-01

    Early detection of diseases can save lives. Hence, there is emphasis in sorting rare disease-indicating cells within small dilute quantities such as in the confines of lab-on-a-chip devices. In our work, we use optical forces to isolate red blood cells detected by machine vision. This approach is gentler, less invasive and more economical compared to conventional FACS systems. As cells are less responsive to plastic or glass beads commonly used in the optical manipulation literature, and since laser safety would be an issue in clinical use, we develop efficient approaches in utilizing lasers and light modulation devices. The Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method that can be used for efficiently illuminating spatial light modulators or creating well-defined contiguous optical traps is supplemented by diffractive techniques capable of integrating the available light and creating 2D or 3D beam distributions aimed at the positions of the detected cells. Furthermore, the beam shaping freedom provided by GPC can allow optimizations in the beam's propagation and its interaction with the catapulted cells.

  7. Microfluidic EmbryoSort technology: towards in flow analysis, sorting and dispensing of individual vertebrate embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuad, Nurul M.; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2013-12-01

    The demand to reduce the numbers of laboratory animals has facilitated the emergence of surrogate models such as tests performed on zebrafish (Danio rerio) or African clawed frog's (Xenopus levis) eggs, embryos and larvae. Those two model organisms are becoming increasingly popular replacements to current adult animal testing in toxicology, ecotoxicology and also in drug discovery. Zebrafish eggs and embryos are particularly attractive for toxicological analysis due their size (diameter 1.6 mm), optical transparency, large numbers generated per fish and very straightforward husbandry. The current bottleneck in using zebrafish embryos for screening purposes is, however, a tedious manual evaluation to confirm the fertilization status and subsequent dispensing of single developing embryos to multitier plates to perform toxicity analysis. Manual procedures associated with sorting hundreds of embryos are very monotonous and as such prone to significant analytical errors due to operator's fatigue. In this work, we present a proofof- concept design of a continuous flow embryo sorter capable of analyzing, sorting and dispensing objects ranging in size from 1.5 - 2.5 mm. The prototypes were fabricated in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) transparent thermoplastic using infrared laser micromachining. The application of additive manufacturing processes to prototype Lab-on-a-Chip sorters using both fused deposition manufacturing (FDM) and stereolithography (SLA) were also explored. The operation of the device was based on a revolving receptacle capable of receiving, holding and positioning single fish embryos for both interrogation and subsequent sorting. The actuation of the revolving receptacle was performed using a DC motor and/or microservo motor. The system was designed to separate between fertilized (LIVE) and non-fertilized (DEAD) eggs, based on optical transparency using infrared (IR) emitters and receivers.

  8. Hydrodynamic and label-free sorting of circulating tumor cells from whole blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geislinger, Thomas M.; Stamp, Melanie E. M.; Wixforth, Achim; Franke, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate continuous, passive, and label-free sorting of different in vitro cancer cell lines (MV3, MCF7, and HEPG2) as model systems for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from undiluted whole blood employing the non-inertial lift effect as driving force. This purely viscous, repulsive cell-wall interaction is sensitive to cell size and deformability differences and yields highly efficient cell separation and high enrichment factors. We show that the performance of the device is robust over a large range of blood cell concentrations and flow rates as well as for the different cell lines. The collected samples usually contain more than 90% of the initially injected CTCs and exhibit average enrichment factors of more than 20 for sorting from whole blood samples.

  9. 2 CFR 2520.137 - Who in NSF may grant an exception to let an excluded person participate in a covered transaction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who in NSF may grant an exception to let an... AND SUSPENSION General § 2520.137 Who in NSF may grant an exception to let an excluded person participate in a covered transaction? The NSF Director and the Deputy Director have the authority to grant...

  10. 2 CFR 2520.137 - Who in NSF may grant an exception to let an excluded person participate in a covered transaction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Who in NSF may grant an exception to let an... AND SUSPENSION General § 2520.137 Who in NSF may grant an exception to let an excluded person participate in a covered transaction? The NSF Director and the Deputy Director have the authority to grant...

  11. 2 CFR 2520.137 - Who in NSF may grant an exception to let an excluded person participate in a covered transaction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who in NSF may grant an exception to let an... AND SUSPENSION General § 2520.137 Who in NSF may grant an exception to let an excluded person participate in a covered transaction? The NSF Director and the Deputy Director have the authority to grant...

  12. 2 CFR 2520.137 - Who in NSF may grant an exception to let an excluded person participate in a covered transaction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Who in NSF may grant an exception to let an... AND SUSPENSION General § 2520.137 Who in NSF may grant an exception to let an excluded person participate in a covered transaction? The NSF Director and the Deputy Director have the authority to grant...

  13. 2 CFR 2520.137 - Who in NSF may grant an exception to let an excluded person participate in a covered transaction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Who in NSF may grant an exception to let an... AND SUSPENSION General § 2520.137 Who in NSF may grant an exception to let an excluded person participate in a covered transaction? The NSF Director and the Deputy Director have the authority to grant...

  14. Optical Science and Engineering. New Directions and Opportunities in Research and Education. NSF Workshop (Arlington, VA, May 23-24, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA.

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) workshop on Optical Science and Engineering was organized to examine approaches NSF could use to identify opportunities in optical science, engineering, and education that meet both the mission of NSF and its broader national goals. The workshop participants identified opportunities where optical science and…

  15. Fluidization from Continuous Outgassing as a Cause of Ponded Craters and Particle Sorting on 433 Eros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haseltine, J. D.; Franzen, M. A.; Sears, D. W. G.

    2005-08-01

    During the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous mission, the NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft took high-resolution photographs (some images <1 m/pixel) of several geological structures on 433 Eros. These photographs revealed distinct characteristics of the asteroid, including the presence of pond formations in equatorial craters and particle sorting in other areas of the asteroid. These ponded craters appear to be impact craters that are subsequently partially filled with regolith. The ponded regolith is much younger than the crater itself, implying an impact-independent process for pond creation. Particle sorting can be seen in the regolith lining craters closer to the asteroid poles. Seismic shaking, electrostatic levitation, and fluidization have been suggested as explanations for ponding and particle sorting. When 433 Eros entered a near-Earth orbit, an orbit with a lifetime typically only ˜107 years, its surface temperature would have risen by a factor of 2.3. If Eros is composed of up to ˜40% subsurface water, as is suggested by its density, fluidization could have begun at approximately that time and would continue until the present. We have performed experiments in a large environmental chamber to explore the possibility of subsurface volatiles emerging from the inside the asteroid, causing continuous fluidization processes that create ponded craters and other particle sorting formations. Using ice and water as subsurface volatiles and JSC Mars-1 martian soil simulant, we have produced structures similar to those seen on 433 Eros. We are currently performing experiments with a variety of volatiles, preexisting craters, and other simulated asteroid terrain in order to see if these results will enhance our understanding of fluidization as a possible cause of the ponded regions particle sorting on 433 Eros.

  16. Exploring student preferences with a Q-sort: the development of an individualized renal physiology curriculum.

    PubMed

    Roberts, John K; Hargett, Charles W; Nagler, Alisa; Jakoi, Emma; Lehrich, Ruediger W

    2015-09-01

    Medical education reform is underway, but the optimal course for change has yet to be seen. While planning for the redesign of a renal physiology course at the Duke School of Medicine, the authors used a Q-sort survey to assess students' attitudes and learning preferences to inform curricular change. The authors invited first-year medical students at the Duke School of Medicine to take a Q-sort survey on the first day of renal physiology. Students prioritized statements related to their understanding of renal physiology, learning preferences, preferred course characteristics, perceived clinical relevance of renal physiology, and interest in nephrology as a career. By-person factor analysis was performed using the centroid method. Three dominant factors were strongly defined by learning preferences: "readers" prefer using notes, a textbook, and avoid lectures; "social-auditory learners" prefer attending lectures, interactivity, and working with peers; and "visual learners" prefer studying images, diagrams, and viewing materials online. A smaller, fourth factor represented a small group of students with a strong predisposition against renal physiology and nephrology. In conclusion, the Q-sort survey identified and then described in detail the dominant viewpoints of our students. Learning style preferences better classified first-year students rather than any of the other domains. A more individualized curriculum would simultaneously cater to the different types of learners in the classroom. PMID:26330030

  17. The EARP Complex and Its Interactor EIPR-1 Are Required for Cargo Sorting to Dense-Core Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Topalidou, Irini; Cattin-Ortolá, Jérôme; Pappas, Andrea L; Cooper, Kirsten; Merrihew, Gennifer E; MacCoss, Michael J; Ailion, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The dense-core vesicle is a secretory organelle that mediates the regulated release of peptide hormones, growth factors, and biogenic amines. Dense-core vesicles originate from the trans-Golgi of neurons and neuroendocrine cells, but it is unclear how this specialized organelle is formed and acquires its specific cargos. To identify proteins that act in dense-core vesicle biogenesis, we performed a forward genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans for mutants defective in dense-core vesicle function. We previously reported the identification of two conserved proteins that interact with the small GTPase RAB-2 to control normal dense-core vesicle cargo-sorting. Here we identify several additional conserved factors important for dense-core vesicle cargo sorting: the WD40 domain protein EIPR-1 and the endosome-associated recycling protein (EARP) complex. By assaying behavior and the trafficking of dense-core vesicle cargos, we show that mutants that lack EIPR-1 or EARP have defects in dense-core vesicle cargo-sorting similar to those of mutants in the RAB-2 pathway. Genetic epistasis data indicate that RAB-2, EIPR-1 and EARP function in a common pathway. In addition, using a proteomic approach in rat insulinoma cells, we show that EIPR-1 physically interacts with the EARP complex. Our data suggest that EIPR-1 is a new interactor of the EARP complex and that dense-core vesicle cargo sorting depends on the EARP-dependent trafficking of cargo through an endosomal sorting compartment. PMID:27191843

  18. The EARP Complex and Its Interactor EIPR-1 Are Required for Cargo Sorting to Dense-Core Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Topalidou, Irini; Cattin-Ortolá, Jérôme; MacCoss, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The dense-core vesicle is a secretory organelle that mediates the regulated release of peptide hormones, growth factors, and biogenic amines. Dense-core vesicles originate from the trans-Golgi of neurons and neuroendocrine cells, but it is unclear how this specialized organelle is formed and acquires its specific cargos. To identify proteins that act in dense-core vesicle biogenesis, we performed a forward genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans for mutants defective in dense-core vesicle function. We previously reported the identification of two conserved proteins that interact with the small GTPase RAB-2 to control normal dense-core vesicle cargo-sorting. Here we identify several additional conserved factors important for dense-core vesicle cargo sorting: the WD40 domain protein EIPR-1 and the endosome-associated recycling protein (EARP) complex. By assaying behavior and the trafficking of dense-core vesicle cargos, we show that mutants that lack EIPR-1 or EARP have defects in dense-core vesicle cargo-sorting similar to those of mutants in the RAB-2 pathway. Genetic epistasis data indicate that RAB-2, EIPR-1 and EARP function in a common pathway. In addition, using a proteomic approach in rat insulinoma cells, we show that EIPR-1 physically interacts with the EARP complex. Our data suggest that EIPR-1 is a new interactor of the EARP complex and that dense-core vesicle cargo sorting depends on the EARP-dependent trafficking of cargo through an endosomal sorting compartment. PMID:27191843

  19. Laboratory demonstration and characterization of phase-sorting interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otten, Gilles P.; Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Codona, Johanan L.

    2012-09-01

    Non-common path (NCP) errors that lie downstream from the wavefront sensor (WFS) in an AO setup can't be directly corrected by the WFS and end up altering the science images by introducing quasi-static speckles. These speckles impose limits to the direct imaging of exoplanets, debris disks and other objects for which we require high contrast. Phase-sorting interferometry (PSI) uses WFS residuals as interferometric probes to the speckles. With the retrieved amplitude and phase the deformable mirror can be adjusted to remove the speckles. Previously PSI has been demonstrated to correct -to first order- the non-common path error on-sky at the MMTO in Arizona. We present an AO laboratory testbed and the techniques used to determine the properties of PSI; the influence of the time synchronisation between WFS and science camera, the achromacity of the atmosphere and other limiting factors. Furthermore we test the performance of the PSI method when coronagraphs such as apodizing phase plates, Lyot masks and 4QPMs are introduced to the setup. Lastly this setup enables us to rapidly prototype high-contrast imaging techniques.

  20. Regulatory Match Effects on a Modified Wisconsin Card Sort Task

    PubMed Central

    Maddox, W. Todd; Filoteo, J. Vincent; Glass, Brian D.; Markman, Arthur B.

    2009-01-01

    The Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST; Heaton, 1980) is commonly used to assess concept formation and set shifting. Cognitive research suggests that set shifting performance is enhanced by a match between a person’s regulatory focus (promotion focus: attempting to earn an entry into a cash drawing; prevention focus: attempting to avoid losing an entry into the drawing) and the task reward structure (gains: attempting to maximize points gained; losses: attempting to minimize points lost). A regulatory match results when attempting to earn an entry by maximizing points or attempting to avoid losing an entry by minimizing losses. We test the hypothesis that performance on a modified WCST is accentuated in younger, healthy participants when there is a match between the global performance incentive and the local task reward structure. As predicted, participants in a match showed better set shifting but equivalent initial concept formation when compared to participants in a mismatch. Further, relative to a baseline control group, mismatch participants were significantly worse at set shifting than were participants in a regulatory match. These results suggest that set shifting performance might be impacted by incentive and task reward factors in ways that have not been considered previously. PMID:20128935

  1. Proceedings of the Fifth NASA/NSF/DOD Workshop on Aerospace Computational Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, M. (Editor); Man, G. K. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The Fifth Annual Workshop on Aerospace Computational Control was one in a series of workshops sponsored by NASA, NSF, and the DOD. The purpose of these workshops is to address computational issues in the analysis, design, and testing of flexible multibody control systems for aerospace applications. The intention in holding these workshops is to bring together users, researchers, and developers of computational tools in aerospace systems (spacecraft, space robotics, aerospace transportation vehicles, etc.) for the purpose of exchanging ideas on the state of the art in computational tools and techniques.

  2. Brazil Nuts on Eros: Size-Sorting of Asteroid Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asphaug, E.; King, P. J.; Swift, M. R.; Merrifield, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the hypothesis that frequent cratering produces size- or compositionally-sorted asteroid regolith, affecting the structure, texture, and in extreme cases the shape of asteroids. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. Natural Selection Is a Sorting Process: What Does that Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    To learn why natural selection acts only on existing variation, students categorize processes as either creative or sorting. This activity helps students confront the misconception that adaptations evolve because species need them.

  4. Long-term persistence of sort strategy in free classification.

    PubMed

    Milton, Fraser; Wills, Andy J

    2009-02-01

    Two free classification experiments that investigate the persistence of sort strategy are reported. Participants tend to persist with their initial categorization type (family resemblance or unidimensional) for the remaining sorts, overriding the effects of otherwise influential stimulus properties. Sort type was found to persist even after a one-week delay. Stimulus-driven models of free classification (e.g., the SUSTAIN model, [Love, B. C., Medin, D. L., & Gureckis, T. M. (2004). SUSTAIN: A network model of category learning. Psychological Review, 111, 309-332]) cannot predict the sort type persistence effects we observe, but they are naturally accounted for by theories that posit strategic selection of a problem-solving strategy (e.g., Hypothesis theory, [Levine, M. (1971). Hypothesis theory and nonlearning despite ideal S-R-reinforcement contingencies. Psychological Review, 78, 130-140]). PMID:19138769

  5. Using Sorting Networks for Skill Building and Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Robert; Wiest, Lynda R.

    2007-01-01

    Sorting networks, used in graph theory, have instructional value as a skill- building tool as well as an interesting exploration in discrete mathematics. Students can practice mathematics facts and develop reasoning and logic skills with this topic. (Contains 4 figures.)

  6. Sorting on STAR. [CDC computer algorithm timing comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, H. S.

    1978-01-01

    Timing comparisons are given for three sorting algorithms written for the CDC STAR computer. One algorithm is Hoare's (1962) Quicksort, which is the fastest or nearly the fastest sorting algorithm for most computers. A second algorithm is a vector version of Quicksort that takes advantage of the STAR's vector operations. The third algorithm is an adaptation of Batcher's (1968) sorting algorithm, which makes especially good use of vector operations but has a complexity of N(log N)-squared as compared with a complexity of N log N for the Quicksort algorithms. In spite of its worse complexity, Batcher's sorting algorithm is competitive with the serial version of Quicksort for vectors up to the largest that can be treated by STAR. Vector Quicksort outperforms the other two algorithms and is generally preferred. These results indicate that unusual instruction sets can introduce biases in program execution time that counter results predicted by worst-case asymptotic complexity analysis.

  7. 63. THIRD FLOOR, SHIPPING COURT, CONVEYORS FROM SORTING AREA TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. THIRD FLOOR, SHIPPING COURT, CONVEYORS FROM SORTING AREA TO PACKAGE HANDLING AND WRAPPING - Sears Roebuck & Company Mail Order Plant, Merchandise Building, 924 South Homan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  8. 23. LOWER END OF HIDE CHUTE, BASEMENT LEVEL; NOTE SORTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. LOWER END OF HIDE CHUTE, BASEMENT LEVEL; NOTE SORTING TABLE AND HANDCART FOR MOVING HIDES - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  9. A virtual zero-time, monolithic systolic sorting array

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, C.L.; Ericson, M.N.; Bouldin, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    A virtual zero-time monolithic sorting chip is described. The chip has a systolic array architecture and implements the ''sinking sort'' algorithm. The basic functional module of the systolic array is detailed and development techniques employed as well as functional simulation and results are presented. Lessons learned and educational significance of the development of this chip at a university are discussed. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  10. A virtual zero-time, monolithic systolic sorting array

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, C.L. Jr.; Ericson, M.N.; Bouldin, D.W.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN )

    1990-01-01

    A virtual zero-time monolithic sorting chip is described. The chip has a systolic array architecture and implements the sinking sort'' algorithm. The basic functional module of the systolic array is detailed and development techniques employed as well as functional simulation and results are presented. Lessons learned and educational significance of the development of this chip at a university are discussed. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Sorting and hardware assisted rendering for volume visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, C.; Becker, B.; Max, N.

    1994-03-01

    We present some techniques for volume rendering unstructured data. Interpolation between vertex colors and opacities is performed using hardware assisted texture mapping, and color is integrated for use with a volume rendering system. We also present an O(n{sup 2}) method for sorting n arbitrarily shaped convex polyhedra prior to visualization. It generalizes the Newell, Newell and Sancha sort for polygons to 3-D volume elements.

  12. Tunable superomniphobic surfaces for sorting droplets by surface tension.

    PubMed

    Movafaghi, S; Wang, W; Metzger, A; Williams, D D; Williams, J D; Kota, A K

    2016-08-16

    We utilized tunable superomniphobic surfaces with flower-like TiO2 nanostructures to fabricate a simple device with precisely tailored surface energy domains that, for the first time, can sort droplets by surface tension. We envision that our methodology for droplet sorting will enable inexpensive and energy-efficient analytical devices for personalized point-of-care diagnostic platforms, lab-on-a-chip systems, biochemical assays and biosensors. PMID:27412084

  13. Homotypic vacuole fusion requires Sec17p (yeast alpha-SNAP) and Sec18p (yeast NSF).

    PubMed Central

    Haas, A; Wickner, W

    1996-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, vacuoles are inherited by the formation of tubular and vesicular structures from the mother vacuole, the directed projection of these structures into the bud and the homotypic fusion of these vesicles. We have previously exploited a cell-free inheritance assay to show that the fusion step of vacuole inheritance requires cytosol, ATP and the GTPase Ypt7p. Here we demonstrate, using affinity-purified antibodies and purified recombinant proteins, a requirement for Sec17p (yeast alpha-SNAP) and Sec18p (yeast NSF) in homotypic vacuole fusion in vitro. Thus, Sec17p and Sec18p, which are typically involved in heterotypic transport steps, can also be involved in homotypic organelle fusion. We further show that vacuole-to-vacuole fusion is stimulated by certain fatty acyl-coenzyme A compounds in a Sec18p-dependent fashion. Finally, our data suggest the presence of a cytosolic factor which activates vacuole membrane-bound Sec18p. Images PMID:8670830

  14. Molecular characterization of flow-sorted mammalian centromeres

    SciTech Connect

    Hamkalo, B.A.; Henschen, A.; Parseghian, M.H.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project involved experiments directed towards developing a molecular characterization of the centromere region of mammalian chromosomes. Attempts to purify this essential chromosomal locus by conventional methods have thus far been unsuccessful. However, preliminary data obtained in collaboration with the National Flow Cytometry Resource (NFCR) showed that it is possible to purify a chromosome fragment that is present in certain cultured mouse cell lines and has all the properties expected of an intact centromere region. To begin sorting this minichromosome for the identification of proteins preferentially associated with centromere regions, standard buffers utilized in chromosome sorting were evaluated for potential effects on maintenance of chromosomal proteins during sorting. The data indicate that the presence of several buffer constituents results in the extraction of all but a few chromosomal proteins. The subsequent use of a magnesium sulfate buffer resulted in the sorting of mouse chromosomes that do not suffer a significant loss of proteins. Several DNA stains were also evaluated for causing protein dissociation, but no significant losses were observed. Although flow-sorted chromosomes have been used extensively for DNA analysis and cloning, this is a pioneering effort by the NFCR, and its collaborators, to exploit chromosome sorting capabilities for the analysis of chromosomal proteins.

  15. Sorting Out the Video Game Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespi, Pam

    1983-01-01

    This article looks at the controversy over video games; arguments for and against them are offered, along with a list of regulations in force around the country and nine important factors agencies should consider before leasing the machines. (JM)

  16. Particle shape-controlled sorting and transport behaviour of mixed siliciclastic/bioclastic sediments in a mesotidal lagoon, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flemming, Burghard W.

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the effect of particle shape on the transport and deposition of mixed siliciclastic-bioclastic sediments in the lower mesotidal Langebaan Lagoon along the South Atlantic coast of South Africa. As the two sediment components have undergone mutual sorting for the last 7 ka, they can be expected to have reached a highest possible degree of hydraulic equivalence. A comparison of sieve and settling tube data shows that, with progressive coarsening of the size fractions, the mean diameters of individual sediment components increasingly depart from the spherical quartz standard, the experimental data demonstrating the hydraulic incompatibility of the sieve data. Overall, the spatial distribution patterns of textural parameters (mean settling diameter, sorting and skewness) of the siliciclastic and bioclastic sediment components are very similar. Bivariate plots between them reveal linear trends when averaged over small intervals. A systematic deviation is observed in sorting, the trend ranging from uniformity at poorer sorting levels to a progressively increasing lag of the bioclastic component relative to the siliciclastic one as overall sorting improves. The deviation amounts to 0.8 relative sorting units at the optimal sorting level. The small textural differences between the two components are considered to reflect the influence of particle shape, which prevents the bioclastic fraction from achieving complete textural equivalence with the siliciclastic one. This is also reflected in the inferred transport behaviour of the two shape components, the bioclastic fraction moving closer to the bed than the siliciclastic one because of the higher drag experienced by low shape factor particles. As a consequence, the bed-phase development of bioclastic sediments departs significantly from that of siliciclastic sediments. Systematic flume experiments, however, are currently still lacking.

  17. Microfluidic electrical sorting of particles based on shape in a spiral microchannel

    PubMed Central

    DuBose, John; Lu, Xinyu; Patel, Saurin; Qian, Shizhi; Woo Joo, Sang; Xuan, Xiangchun

    2014-01-01

    Shape is an intrinsic marker of cell cycle, an important factor for identifying a bioparticle, and also a useful indicator of cell state for disease diagnostics. Therefore, shape can be a specific marker in label-free particle and cell separation for various chemical and biological applications. We demonstrate in this work a continuous-flow electrical sorting of spherical and peanut-shaped particles of similar volumes in an asymmetric double-spiral microchannel. It exploits curvature-induced dielectrophoresis to focus particles to a tight stream in the first spiral without any sheath flow and subsequently displace them to shape-dependent flow paths in the second spiral without any external force. We also develop a numerical model to simulate and understand this shape-based particle sorting in spiral microchannels. The predicted particle trajectories agree qualitatively with the experimental observation. PMID:24753722

  18. High efficiency recovery and epitope specific sorting of an scFv yeast display library

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, Robert W.; Coleman, James R.; Miller, Keith D.; Feldhaus, Michael

    2004-03-01

    In order to more productively utilize the rich source of antigen specific reagents present in the previously described non-immune scFv yeast display library (Feldhaus et al., 2003) one must be able to efficiently isolate and characterize clones within the library. To this end, we have developed and validated a magnetic bead sorting technique utilizing the Miltenyi MacsTm system to recover greater than 90% of the antigen specific clones present in the library. In combination with flow cytometry, we rapidly reduced diversity and enriched for antigen specific clones in three rounds of selection. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of pre-existing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for antigen labeling and subsequent flow cytometric sorting and characterization of epitope specific scFv. Combining these two improvements in library screening allowed isolation and characterization of 3 epitope specific scFv (including a previously uncharacterized epitope) to a 6 kd protein, epidermal growth factor EGF.

  19. A Look at HIAPER, the new NSF/NCAR Research Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laursen, K.; Friesen, R.; Carlson, D.

    2002-12-01

    The High-Performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research, or HIAPER, is the new research aircraft presently being developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to serve the environmental research needs of the National Science Foundation (NSF) for the next several decades. The basic aircraft -- a Gulfstream V (G-V) business jet -- has been completed and will shortly undergo extensive modification to prepare it for future deployments in support of a variety of geosciences research missions. This overview presentation on HIAPER will begin with a brief discussion of the project history and an overview of the capabilities of the aircraft and the modifications to be made to the basic airframe. Next, a summary of the NSF-led HIAPER Community Instrumentation Workshop will be given. This workshop, which was held at NCAR from 4-6 November 2002, provided participants with a forum in which to discuss the types of environmental measurements that should be made with this new airborne platform and to exchange ideas regarding technologies and instrumentation design approaches that are available and should be applied to the development of instrumentation for the aircraft. The workshop findings will be summarized, and specific recommendations regarding the major research areas in which measurements from HIAPER are most needed will be presented. Finally, a brief discussion of possible instrumentation to be considered for deployment on the aircraft will be given.

  20. Cold Weather Wind Turbines: A Joint NASA/NSF/DOE Effort in Technology Transfer and Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Bubenheim, David; Chiang, Erick; Goldman, Peter; Kohout, Lisa; Norton, Gary; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Renewable energy sources and their integration with other power sources to support remote communities is of interest for Mars applications as well as Earth communities. The National Science Foundation (NSF), NASA, and the Department of Energy (DOE) have been jointly supporting development of a 100 kW cold weather wind turbine through grants and SBIRs independently managed by each agency but coordinated by NASA. The NSF grant addressed issues associated with the South Pole application and a 3 kW direct drive unit is being tested there in anticipation of the 100 kW unit operation. The DOE-NREL contract focused on development of the 100 kW direct drive generator. The NASA SBIR focused on the development of the 100 kW direct drive wind turbine. The success of this effort has required coordination and team involvement of federal agencies and the industrial partners. Designs of the wind turbine and component performance testing results will be presented. Plans for field testing of wind turbines, based on this design, in village energy systems in Alaska and in energy production at the South Pole Station will be discussed. Also included will be a discussion of terrestrial and space use of hybrid energy systems, including renewable energy sources, such as the wind turbine, to support remote communities.

  1. Secondary structure and (1)H, (13)C, (15)N resonance assignments of the endosomal sorting protein sorting nexin 3.

    PubMed

    Overduin, Michael; Rajesh, Sandya; Gruenberg, Jean; Lenoir, Marc

    2015-10-01

    Sorting nexin 3 (SNX3) belongs to a sub-family of sorting nexins that primarily contain a single Phox homology domain capable of binding phosphoinositides and membranes. We report the complete (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonance assignments of the full-length human SNX3 protein and identification of its secondary structure elements, revealing a canonical fold and unstructured termini. PMID:25893673

  2. Trade-Off between Effectiveness and Equity? An Analysis of Social Sorting between Classrooms and between Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer-Esteban, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes whether school social segregation, derived from policies and practices of both between-school student allocation and within-school streaming, is related to the effectiveness of the Italian education system. Hierarchical regression models are used to set out territorially aggregated factors of social sorting influencing…

  3. SorLA is a molecular link for retromer-dependent sorting of the Amyloid precursor protein.

    PubMed

    Fjorback, Anja W; Andersen, Olav M

    2012-11-01

    Deficiency in the retromer sorting pathway is known to be associated with the onset of Alzheimer disease (AD), and has been suggested to involve regulation of Amyloid precursor protein (APP) trafficking. Absence of the APP sorting receptor sorLA is also associated to AD, as amyloidogenic processing of APP is increased due to missorting. Reduced activity of either retromer or sorLA thus both lead to enhanced amyloidogenic APP processing, and these pathways are therefore important factors for understanding the development of AD. It is therefore key to outline the neuronal APP trafficking in order to determine the mechanisms that influence AD onset. PMID:23740096

  4. The alternate AP-1 adaptor subunit Apm2 interacts with the Mil1 regulatory protein and confers differential cargo sorting

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, Shawn T.; Burston, Helen E.; Bean, Björn D. M.; Raghuram, Nandini; Maldonado-Báez, Lymarie; Davey, Michael; Wendland, Beverly; Conibear, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Heterotetrameric adaptor protein complexes are important mediators of cargo protein sorting in clathrin-coated vesicles. The cell type–specific expression of alternate μ chains creates distinct forms of AP-1 with altered cargo sorting, but how these subunits confer differential function is unclear. Whereas some studies suggest the μ subunits specify localization to different cellular compartments, others find that the two forms of AP-1 are present in the same vesicle but recognize different cargo. Yeast have two forms of AP-1, which differ only in the μ chain. Here we show that the variant μ chain Apm2 confers distinct cargo-sorting functions. Loss of Apm2, but not of Apm1, increases cell surface levels of the v-SNARE Snc1. However, Apm2 is unable to replace Apm1 in sorting Chs3, which requires a dileucine motif recognized by the γ/σ subunits common to both complexes. Apm2 and Apm1 colocalize at Golgi/early endosomes, suggesting that they do not associate with distinct compartments. We identified a novel, conserved regulatory protein that is required for Apm2-dependent sorting events. Mil1 is a predicted lipase that binds Apm2 but not Apm1 and contributes to its membrane recruitment. Interactions with specific regulatory factors may provide a general mechanism to diversify the functional repertoire of clathrin adaptor complexes. PMID:26658609

  5. Quantitative assessment of distance to collection point and improved sorting information on source separation of household waste.

    PubMed

    Rousta, Kamran; Bolton, Kim; Lundin, Magnus; Dahlén, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    The present study measures the participation of households in a source separation scheme and, in particular, if the household's application of the scheme improved after two interventions: (a) shorter distance to the drop-off point and (b) easy access to correct sorting information. The effect of these interventions was quantified and, as far as possible, isolated from other factors that can influence the recycling behaviour. The study was based on households located in an urban residential area in Sweden, where waste composition studies were performed before and after the interventions by manual sorting (pick analysis). Statistical analyses of the results indicated a significant decrease (28%) of packaging and newsprint in the residual waste after establishing a property close collection system (intervention (a)), as well as significant decrease (70%) of the miss-sorted fraction in bags intended for food waste after new information stickers were introduced (intervention (b)). Providing a property close collection system to collect more waste fractions as well as finding new communication channels for information about sorting can be used as tools to increase the source separation ratio. This contribution also highlights the need to evaluate the effects of different types of information and communication concerning sorting instructions in a property close collection system. PMID:25817721

  6. Spike sorting for polytrodes: a divide and conquer approach

    PubMed Central

    Swindale, Nicholas V.; Spacek, Martin A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine patterns of neural activity, spike signals recorded by extracellular electrodes have to be clustered (sorted) with the aim of ensuring that each cluster represents all the spikes generated by an individual neuron. Many methods for spike sorting have been proposed but few are easily applicable to recordings from polytrodes which may have 16 or more recording sites. As with tetrodes, these are spaced sufficiently closely that signals from single neurons will usually be recorded on several adjacent sites. Although this offers a better chance of distinguishing neurons with similarly shaped spikes, sorting is difficult in such cases because of the high dimensionality of the space in which the signals must be classified. This report details a method for spike sorting based on a divide and conquer approach. Clusters are initially formed by assigning each event to the channel on which it is largest. Each channel-based cluster is then sub-divided into as many distinct clusters as possible. These are then recombined on the basis of pairwise tests into a final set of clusters. Pairwise tests are also performed to establish how distinct each cluster is from the others. A modified gradient ascent clustering (GAC) algorithm is used to do the clustering. The method can sort spikes with minimal user input in times comparable to real time for recordings lasting up to 45 min. Our results illustrate some of the difficulties inherent in spike sorting, including changes in spike shape over time. We show that some physiologically distinct units may have very similar spike shapes. We show that RMS measures of spike shape similarity are not sensitive enough to discriminate clusters that can otherwise be separated by principal components analysis (PCA). Hence spike sorting based on least-squares matching to templates may be unreliable. Our methods should be applicable to tetrodes and scalable to larger multi-electrode arrays (MEAs). PMID:24574979

  7. SORLA/SORL1, a neuronal sorting receptor implicated in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Willnow, Thomas E; Carlo, Anne-Sophie; Rohe, Michael; Schmidt, Vanessa

    2010-01-01

    The proteolytic breakdown of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) to neurotoxic amyloid-beta peptides in the brain has been recognized as a major pathological pathway in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Yet, the factors that control the processing of APP and their potential contribution to the common sporadic form of AD remain poorly understood. Here, we review recent findings from studies in patients and in animal models that led to the identification of a unique sorting receptor for APP in neurons, designated SORLA/SORL1, that emerges as a key player in amyloidogenic processing and as major genetic risk factor for AD. PMID:21086763

  8. Toward label-free Raman-activated cell sorting of cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascut, Flavius C.; Goh, Huey T.; George, Vinoj; Denning, Chris; Notingher, Ioan

    2011-04-01

    Raman micro-spectroscopy (RMS) has been recently proposed for label-free phenotypic identification of human embryonic stem cells (hESC)-derived cardiomyocytes. However, the methods used for measuring the Raman spectra led to acquisition times of minutes per cell, which is prohibitive for rapid cell sorting applications. In this study we evaluated two measurement strategies that could reduce the measurement time by a factor of more than 100. We show that sampling individual cells with a laser beam focused to a line could eliminate the need of cell raster scanning and achieve high prediction accuracies (>95% specificity and >96% sensitivity) with acquisition times ~5 seconds per cell. However, the use of commercially-available higher power lasers could potentially lead to sorting speeds of ~10 cells per s. This would start to progress RMS to the field of cell sorting for applications such as enrichment and purification of hESC-derived cardiomyocytes.

  9. Stimulation of NSF ATPase activity by alpha-SNAP is required for SNARE complex disassembly and exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Barnard, R J; Morgan, A; Burgoyne, R D

    1997-11-17

    N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) and alpha-SNAP play key roles in vesicular traffic through the secretory pathway. In this study, NH2- and COOH-terminal truncation mutants of alpha-SNAP were assayed for ability to bind NSF and stimulate its ATPase activity. Deletion of up to 160 NH2-terminal amino acids had little effect on the ability of alpha-SNAP to stimulate the ATPase activity of NSF. However, deletion of as few as 10 COOH-terminal amino acids resulted in a marked decrease. Both NH2-terminal (1-160) and COOH-terminal (160-295) fragments of alpha-SNAP were able to bind to NSF, suggesting that alpha-SNAP contains distinct NH2- and COOH-terminal binding sites for NSF. Sequence alignment of known SNAPs revealed only leucine 294 to be conserved in the final 10 amino acids of alpha-SNAP. Mutation of leucine 294 to alanine (alpha-SNAP(L294A)) resulted in a decrease in the ability to stimulate NSF ATPase activity but had no effect on the ability of this mutant to bind NSF. alpha-SNAP (1-285) and alpha-SNAP (L294A) were unable to stimulate Ca2+-dependent exocytosis in permeabilized chromaffin cells. In addition, alpha-SNAP (1-285), and alpha-SNAP (L294A) were able to inhibit the stimulation of exocytosis by exogenous alpha-SNAP. alpha-SNAP, alpha-SNAP (1-285), and alpha-SNAP (L294A) were all able to become incorporated into a 20S complex and recruit NSF. In the presence of MgATP, alpha-SNAP (1-285) and alpha-SNAP (L294A) were unable to fully disassemble the 20S complex and did not allow vesicle-associated membrane protein dissociation to any greater level than seen in control incubations. These findings imply that alpha-SNAP stimulation of NSF ATPase activity may be required for 20S complex disassembly and for the alpha-SNAP stimulation of exocytosis. PMID:9362506

  10. Sorting centimetre-long single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Woo Jong; Chae, Sang Hoon; Vu, Quoc An; Lee, Young Hee

    2016-01-01

    While several approaches have been developed for sorting metallic (m) or semiconducting (s) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), the length of SWCNTs is limited within a micrometer, which restricts excellent electrical performances of SWCNTs for macro-scale applications. Here, we demonstrate a simple sorting method of centimetre-long aligned m- and s-SWCNTs. Ni particles were selectively and uniformly coated along the 1-cm-long m-SWCNTs by applying positive gate bias during electrochemical deposition with continuous electrolyte injection. To sort s-SWCNTs, the Ni coating was oxidized to form insulator outer for blocking of current flow through inner m-SWCNTs. Sorting of m-SWCNTs were demonstrated by selective etching of s-SWCNTs via oxygen plasma, while the protected m-SWCNTs by Ni coating remained intact. The series of source-drain pairs were patterned along the 1-cm-long sorted SWCNTs, which confirmed high on/off ratio of 10(4)-10(8) for s-SWCNTs and nearly 1 for m-SWCNTs. PMID:27476909

  11. Mechanically robust microfluidics and bulk wave acoustics to sort microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauson, Erin R.; Gregory, Kelvin B.; Greve, David W.; Healy, Gregory P.; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2016-04-01

    Sorting microparticles (or cells, or bacteria) is significant for scientific, medical and industrial purposes. Research groups have used lithium niobate SAW devices to produce standing waves, and then to align microparticles at the node lines in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, silicone) microfluidic channels. The "tilted angle" (skewed) configuration is a recent breakthrough producing particle trajectories that cross multiple node lines, making it practical to sort particles. However, lithium niobate wafers and PDMS microfluidic channels are not mechanically robust. We demonstrate "tilted angle" microparticle sorting in novel devices that are robust, rapidly prototyped, and manufacturable. We form our microfluidic system in a rigid polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA, acrylic) prism, sandwiched by lead-zirconium-titanate (PZT) wafers, operating in through-thickness mode with inertial backing, that produce standing bulk waves. The overall configuration is compact and mechanically robust, and actuating PZT wafers in through-thickness mode is highly efficient. Moving to this novel configuration introduced new acoustics questions involving internal reflections, but we show experimental images confirming the intended nodal geometry. Microparticles in "tilted angle" devices display undulating trajectories, where deviation from the straight path increases with particle diameter and with excitation voltage to create the mechanism by which particles are sorted. We show a simplified analytical model by which a "phase space" is constructed to characterize effective particle sorting, and we compare our experimental data to the predictions from that simplified model; precise correlation is not expected and is not observed, but the important physical trends from the model are paralleled in the measured particle trajectories.

  12. Microfluidic sorting system based on optical force switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoi, S.-K.; Udalagama, C.; Sow, C.-H.; Watt, F.; Bettiol, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    We report a versatile, and automatic method for sorting cells and particles in a three dimensional polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) structure consisting of two cross-microchannels. As microspheres or yeast cells are fed continuously into a lower channel, a line shaped focused laser beam is applied (perpendicular to the direction of flow) at the crossing junction of the two channels. The scattering force of the laser beam was employed to push microparticles matching specific criteria upwards from one channel to another. The force depends on the intrinsic properties of the particles such as their refractive index and size, as well as the laser power and the fluid flow speed. The combination of these parameters gives a tunable selection criterion for the effective and efficient sorting of the particles. The introduction of the cylindrical lens into the optical train allows for simultaneous manipulation of multiple particles which has significantly increased the efficiency and throughput of the sorting. A high aspect ratio microchannel (A.R.=1.6) was found to enhance the sorting performance of the device. By careful control of the microparticle flow rate, near 100% sorting efficiency was achieved.

  13. Sorting centimetre-long single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Woo Jong; Chae, Sang Hoon; Vu, Quoc An; Lee, Young Hee

    2016-08-01

    While several approaches have been developed for sorting metallic (m) or semiconducting (s) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), the length of SWCNTs is limited within a micrometer, which restricts excellent electrical performances of SWCNTs for macro-scale applications. Here, we demonstrate a simple sorting method of centimetre-long aligned m- and s-SWCNTs. Ni particles were selectively and uniformly coated along the 1-cm-long m-SWCNTs by applying positive gate bias during electrochemical deposition with continuous electrolyte injection. To sort s-SWCNTs, the Ni coating was oxidized to form insulator outer for blocking of current flow through inner m-SWCNTs. Sorting of m-SWCNTs were demonstrated by selective etching of s-SWCNTs via oxygen plasma, while the protected m-SWCNTs by Ni coating remained intact. The series of source-drain pairs were patterned along the 1-cm-long sorted SWCNTs, which confirmed high on/off ratio of 104–108 for s-SWCNTs and nearly 1 for m-SWCNTs.

  14. Pure chromosome-specific PCR libraries from single sorted chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    VanDevanter, D R; Choongkittaworn, N M; Dyer, K A; Aten, J; Otto, P; Behler, C; Bryant, E M; Rabinovitch, P S

    1994-01-01

    Chromosome-specific DNA libraries can be very useful in molecular and cytogenetic genome mapping studies. We have developed a rapid and simple method for the generation of chromosome-specific DNA sequences that relies on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a single flow-sorted chromosome or chromosome fragment. Previously reported methods for the development of chromosome libraries require larger numbers of chromosomes, with preparation of pure chromosomes sorted by flow cytometry, generation of somatic cell hybrids containing targeted chromosomes, or a combination of both procedures. These procedures are labor intensive, especially when hybrid cell lines are not already available, and this has limited the generation of chromosome-specific DNA libraries from nonhuman species. In contrast, a single sorted chromosome is a pure source of DNA for library production even when flow cytometric resolution of chromosome populations is poor. Furthermore, any sorting cytometer may be used with this technique. Using this approach, we demonstrate the generation of PCR libraries suitable for both molecular and fluorescence in situ hybridization studies from individual baboon and canine chromosomes, separate human homologues, and a rearranged marker chromosome from a transformed cell line. PCR libraries specific to subchromosomal regions have also been produced by sorting a small chromosome fragment. This simple and rapid technique will allow generation of nonhuman linkage maps and probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization and the characterization of marker chromosomes from solid tumors. In addition, allele-specific libraries generated by this strategy may also be useful for mapping genetic diseases. Images PMID:8016078

  15. Marker-specific sorting of rare cells using dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaoyuan; Bessette, Paul H.; Qian, Jiangrong; Meinhart, Carl D.; Daugherty, Patrick S.; Soh, Hyongsok T.

    2005-01-01

    Current techniques in high-speed cell sorting are limited by the inherent coupling among three competing parameters of performance: throughput, purity, and rare cell recovery. Microfluidics provides an alternate strategy to decouple these parameters through the use of arrayed devices that operate in parallel. To efficiently isolate rare cells from complex mixtures, an electrokinetic sorting methodology was developed that exploits dielectrophoresis (DEP) in microfluidic channels. In this approach, the dielectrophoretic amplitude response of rare target cells is modulated by labeling cells with particles that differ in polarization response. Cell mixtures were interrogated in the DEP-activated cell sorter in a continuous-flow manner, wherein the electric fields were engineered to achieve efficient separation between the dielectrophoretically labeled and unlabeled cells. To demonstrate the efficiency of marker-specific cell separation, DEP-activated cell sorting (DACS) was applied for affinity-based enrichment of rare bacteria expressing a specific surface marker from an excess of nontarget bacteria that do not express this marker. Rare target cells were enriched by >200-fold in a single round of sorting at a single-channel throughput of 10,000 cells per second. DACS offers the potential for automated, surface marker-specific cell sorting in a disposable format that is capable of simultaneously achieving high throughput, purity, and rare cell recovery. PMID:16236724

  16. Sorting centimetre-long single-walled carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Woo Jong; Chae, Sang Hoon; Vu, Quoc An; Lee, Young Hee

    2016-01-01

    While several approaches have been developed for sorting metallic (m) or semiconducting (s) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), the length of SWCNTs is limited within a micrometer, which restricts excellent electrical performances of SWCNTs for macro-scale applications. Here, we demonstrate a simple sorting method of centimetre-long aligned m- and s-SWCNTs. Ni particles were selectively and uniformly coated along the 1-cm-long m-SWCNTs by applying positive gate bias during electrochemical deposition with continuous electrolyte injection. To sort s-SWCNTs, the Ni coating was oxidized to form insulator outer for blocking of current flow through inner m-SWCNTs. Sorting of m-SWCNTs were demonstrated by selective etching of s-SWCNTs via oxygen plasma, while the protected m-SWCNTs by Ni coating remained intact. The series of source-drain pairs were patterned along the 1-cm-long sorted SWCNTs, which confirmed high on/off ratio of 104–108 for s-SWCNTs and nearly 1 for m-SWCNTs. PMID:27476909

  17. Assessment of Preschool Classroom Practices: Application of Q-Sort Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Stacey Storch; Fischel, Janet E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the application of Q-sort methodology to the development of the Preschool Classroom Practices (PCP) Q-sort. The PCP Q-sort was tested in a sample of 66 preschool teachers and assistants. Results demonstrated the existence of a 2-cluster structure within the Q-sort, comprised of Cognitive Development Activities and…

  18. The Method of Sorting as a Data-Gathering Procedure in Multivariate Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Seymour; Kim, Moonja Park

    1975-01-01

    Compares two basic variants of the sorting method: single-sort and multiple sort. The nature of individual differences in sorting, as well as sex differences, were also investigated. Stimulus materials were the 15 mutually exclusive kinship terms selected by Wallace and Atkins (1960). (RC)

  19. Bicaudal-D1 regulates the intracellular sorting and signalling of neurotrophin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Terenzio, Marco; Golding, Matthew; Russell, Matthew R G; Wicher, Krzysztof B; Rosewell, Ian; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Ish-Horowicz, David; Schiavo, Giampietro

    2014-01-01

    We have identified a new function for the dynein adaptor Bicaudal D homolog 1 (BICD1) by screening a siRNA library for genes affecting the dynamics of neurotrophin receptor-containing endosomes in motor neurons (MNs). Depleting BICD1 increased the intracellular accumulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-activated TrkB and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) by disrupting the endosomal sorting, reducing lysosomal degradation and increasing the co-localisation of these neurotrophin receptors with retromer-associated sorting nexin 1. The resulting re-routing of active receptors increased their recycling to the plasma membrane and altered the repertoire of signalling-competent TrkB isoforms and p75NTR available for ligand binding on the neuronal surface. This resulted in attenuated, but more sustained, AKT activation in response to BDNF stimulation. These data, together with our observation that Bicd1 expression is restricted to the developing nervous system when neurotrophin receptor expression peaks, indicate that BICD1 regulates neurotrophin signalling by modulating the endosomal sorting of internalised ligand-activated receptors. PMID:24920579

  20. Transmembrane domain-dependent sorting of proteins to the ER and plasma membrane in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Rayner, J C; Pelham, H R

    1997-01-01

    Sorting of membrane proteins between compartments of the secretory pathway is mediated in part by their transmembrane domains (TMDs). In animal cells, TMD length is a major factor in Golgi retention. In yeast, the role of TMD signals is less clear; it has been proposed that membrane proteins travel by default to the vacuole, and are prevented from doing so by cytoplasmic signals. We have investigated the targeting of the yeast endoplasmic reticulum (ER) t-SNARE Ufe1p. We show that the amino acid sequence of the Ufe1p TMD is important for both function and ER targeting, and that the requirements for each are distinct. Targeting is independent of Rer1p, the only candidate sorting receptor for TMD sequences currently known. Lengthening the Ufe1p TMD allows transport along the secretory pathway to the vacuole or plasma membrane. The choice between these destinations is determined by the length and composition of the TMD, but not by its precise sequence. A longer TMD is required to reach the plasma membrane in yeast than in animal cells, and shorter TMDs direct proteins to the vacuole. TMD-based sorting is therefore a general feature of the yeast secretory pathway, but occurs by different mechanisms at different points. PMID:9155009

  1. Proceedings: Joint DOE/NSF Workshop on flow of particulates and fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    These proceedings are the result of the Fifth DOR-NSF Workshop on fundamental research in the area of particulate two-phase flow and granular flow. The present collection of twenty contributions from universities and national laboratories is based on research projects sponsored by either the Department of Energy or the National Science Foundation. These papers illustrate some of the latest advances in theory, simulations, and experiments. The papers from the Workshop held September 29--October 1, 1993 have been separated into three basic areas: experiments, theory, and numerical simulations. A list of attendees at the workshop is included at the end of the proceedings. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Crossing Borders to Advance the Frontier: NSF's Role in International Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bement, Arden

    2006-04-01

    The globalization of today's science and engineering is unprecedented. Ideas and discoveries emerge around the world and are transmitted instantaneously. Skills and capabilities are moving to new venues. We can view this free flow of investment and intellectual capital not only as a challenge, but also as an opportunity to form partnerships that integrate our strengths with those of other cultures and economies. As a nation, we can seek additional ways to become a valued partner in the global arena. We can train scientists and engineers that are not only technically competent but also skilled in cross-disciplinary, multi-cultural collaborations. NSF is committed to building bridges across borders to pursue these goals and collaboratively advance the frontiers of science and engineering.

  3. Scientists in School: UMass Amherst STEM Connections and the NSF GK-12 Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwortz, A. C.; Davis, K. S.; Mangine, S.; McDonald, S.; Moore, D.; Paterson, C.; Schneider, S. E.; Sternheim, M. M.; Tyson, J. F.

    2003-12-01

    This outreach program teams science graduate students and faculty at the University of Massachusetts Amherst with general science teachers and their students at Springfield (MA) area middle and high schools. Inquiry and project based learning on various broad scientific topics are brought to rural, vocational, and inner city schools. The scientists and teachers each add their own viewpoints and expertise to the partnership, and all take away lessons in science and education. But the biggest winners are the students, many of whom find new enthusiasm for science (at an age where it usually is waning), internalize the scientific method through investigating their own questions, and see and experience that (as one student said to me) "we ARE scientists!" This project is funded by NSF grant number 0139272.

  4. Structural analysis of wind turbine rotors for NSF-NASA Mod-0 wind power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary estimates are presented of vibratory loads and stresses in hingeless and teetering rotors for the proposed NSF-NASA Mod-0 wind power system. Preliminary blade design utilizes a tapered tubular aluminum spar which supports nonstructural aluminum ribs and skin and is joined to the rotor hub by a steel shank tube. Stresses in the shank of the blade are calculated for static, rated, and overload operating conditions. Blade vibrations were limited to the fundamental flapping modes, which were elastic cantilever bending for hingeless rotor blades and rigid-body rotation for teetering rotor blades. The MOSTAB-C computer code was used to calculate aerodynamic and mechanical loads. The teetering rotor has substantial advantages over the hingeless rotor with respect to shank stresses, fatigue life, and tower loading. The hingeless rotor analyzed does not appear to be structurally stable during overloads.

  5. Preparing Scientists for Scientific Careers: Broader Impacts from an NSF CAREER Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, Alfred

    2008-03-01

    The scientific focus of my NSF CAREER Award is the impact of patterns, topographical and surface chemical in design, on the adhesion of soft polymer interfaces. Although this topic has provided a strong foundation for the mentoring and training of graduate students, the primary broader impacts of my award have focused on the development of ``soft'' skills in graduate and post-doctoral researchers in STEM disciplines. I have developed a course on ``Scientific and Engineering Management,'' which provides an open forum for students to explore the skills that, in many ways, define successful careers for many scientists. Topics include: leadership, proposal writing, group management, communication in diverse environments, and ethics. In this presentation, I highlight the primary phases of this program, how it meshes with scientific goals, and general statements about the mission of education outreach within STEM disciplines.

  6. Improving Science Teacher Preparation through the APS PhysTEC and NSF Noyce Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Tasha; Tyler, Micheal; van Duzor, Andrea; Sabella, Mel

    2013-03-01

    Central to the recruitment of students into science teaching at a school like CSU, is a focus on the professional nature of teaching. The purpose of this focus is twofold: it serves to change student perceptions about teaching and it prepares students to become teachers who value continued professional development and value the science education research literature. The Noyce and PhysTEC programs at CSU place the professional nature of teaching front and center by involving students in education research projects, paid internships, attendance at conferences, and participation in a new Teacher Immersion Institute and a Science Education Journal Reading Class. This poster will focus on specific components of our teacher preparation program that were developed through these two programs. In addition we will describe how these new components provide students with diverse experiences in the teaching of science to students in the urban school district. Supported by the NSF Noyce Program (0833251) and the APS PhysTEC Program.

  7. Building Global Capacity for Conducting Operational Research Using the SORT IT Model: Where and Who?

    PubMed Central

    Zachariah, Rony; Rust, Stefanie; Berger, Selma Dar; Guillerm, Nathalie; Bissell, Karen; Delaunois, Paul; Reid, Anthony J.; Kumar, Ajay M. V.; Olliaro, Piero L.; Reeder, John C.; Harries, Anthony D.; Ramsay, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Setting Research capacity is weakest in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) where operational research is highly relevant and needed. Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative (SORT IT) courses have been developed to train participants to conduct and publish operational research and influence policy and practice. Twenty courses were completed in Asia, Africa, Europe and the South Pacific between 2009 and 2014. Objectives In the 20 completed SORT IT courses, to assess where the research was conducted, who was trained, who became facilitators in subsequent courses and course outcomes. Design A cohort study of completed SORT IT courses Results There were 236 participants (41% female) including 64 nationalities who conducted research in 59 countries, mostly from Asia and Africa (mean course duration = 9.7 months). Most participants (68%) were from government health programs and non-governmental agencies. A total of 213(90%) participants completed all milestones successfully with 41(19%) becoming subsequent course facilitators, 88% of whom were from LMICs. Of 228 manuscripts submitted to scientific journals, 197(86%) were either published or in press; in 86%, the principal investigator (first author) was a LMIC national. Papers were published in 23 scientific journals (impact factor 0.5–4.4) and covered 21 disease categories (median publication time = 5.7 months). Published papers (186) had 94,794 cumulative article views/downloads. Article views/downloads for immediate open access articles were double those from closed access journals. Conclusion The SORT IT model has been effective in training personnel to produce relevant operational research in LMICs. It merits continued commitment and support for further scale-up and development. PMID:27505253

  8. Update on the NSF PAARE Project at South Carolina State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Donald K.; Brittain, S. D.; Cash, J.; Hartmann, D.; Hinkle, K. H.; Howell, S. B.; King, J. R.; Leising, M. D.; Mighell, K. J.; Smith, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    We summarize the progress made over the past six years of “A Partnership in Observational and Computational Astronomy (POCA)”. This NSF-funded project is part of the “Partnerships in Astronomy and Astrophysics Research and Education (PAARE)" program. Our partnership includes South Carolina State University (a Historically Black College/University), Clemson University (a Ph.D. granting institution) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. We summarize the results to date of our ongoing ground and space-based study of RV Tauri and Semiregular variables. We also examine our work on two unusual stars, R Coronae Borealis and XX Oph. The research on our Kepler objects is nearing completion and includes new international collaborators. We have developed 2 new cosmology labs and 5 new web simulations in the past year. These are being used in the science classes at South Carolina State University and are available to the community at our website listed below. Our success and the challenge of recruiting and retaining underrepresented students into the field as physics majors at South Carolina State University is reviewed. We recently graduated from Clemson a POCA student with a M.S. in astronomy who has since continued on for a Ph.D. in a related field, while another underrepresented student continues toward her Ph.D. in astronomy. Support for the POCA project is provided by the NSF PAARE program to South Carolina State University under award AST-0750814 as well as resources and support provided by Clemson University and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Support for the Kepler observations is provided by NASA to South Carolina State University under awards NNX11AB82G and NNX13AC24G. Additional details can be found at: http://physics.scsu.edu/paare/

  9. A Five Year Summary of the NSF PAARE Project at SC State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Donald K.; Brittain, S. D.; Cash, J.; Hartmann, D.; Howell, S. B.; King, J. R.; Leising, M. D.; Mighell, K. J.; Smith, D. M.

    2013-01-01

    We summarize the progress made over five years of “A Partnership in Observational and Computational Astronomy (POCA)”. This NSF-funded project is part of the “Partnerships in Astronomy and Astrophysics Research and Education (PAARE)" program. Our partnership includes South Carolina State University (a Historically Black College/University), Clemson University (a Ph.D. granting institution) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Graduate fellowships provided by POCA as well as recruitment efforts on the national level have resulted in enrolling a total of four underrepresented minorities into the Ph.D. program in astronomy at Clemson. One of these has completed her M.S. in astronomy, while the others continue on toward the doctorate. We summarize the success and challenges of recruiting students into the undergraduate physics major with astronomy option at SC State and the support POCA has provided for nearly two dozen of them. Our summer REU program under POCA includes underrepresented students from across the country conducting research at each of our three institutions. Their work can be found elsewhere at this conference (Hernandez et al., Kurgatt et al. and Pugh et al.) Examples are given of our inquiry-based, laboratory exercises and web- based activities related to cosmology that have been developed with PAARE funding. We discuss our ground-based photometric and spectroscopic study of RV Tauri and Semiregular variables as well as our successful Kepler Cycle 2 and Cycle 4 study of a dozen of these objects . Support for the POCA project is provided by the NSF PAARE program to South Carolina State University under award AST-0750814 as well as resources and support provided by Clemson University and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Support for the Kepler observations is provided by NASA to South Carolina State University under award NNX11AB82G. Additional details can be found at: http://physics.scsu.edu/paare/

  10. Year 4 Of The NSF-funded PAARE Project At SC State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Donald K.; Brittain, S. D.; Cash, J. L.; Hartmann, D. H.; Howell, S. B.; King, J. R.; Leising, M. D.; Mayo, E. A.; Mighell, K. J.; Smith, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    We summarize the progress made through Year 4 of "A Partnership in Observational and Computational Astronomy (POCA)". This NSF-funded project is part of the "Partnerships in Astronomy and Astrophysics Research and Education (PAARE)" program. Our partnership includes South Carolina State University (a Historically Black College/University), Clemson University (a Ph.D. granting institution) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Fellowships provided by POCA as well as recruitment efforts on the national level have resulted in enrolling a total of four underrepresented minorities into the Ph.D. program in astronomy at Clemson. We report on the success and challenges to recruiting students into the undergraduate physics major with astronomy option at SC State. Our summer REU program under POCA includes underrepresented students from across the country conducting research at each of our three institutions. Examples are given of our inquiry-based, laboratory exercises and web- based activities related to cosmology that have been developed with PAARE funding. We discuss our ground-based photometric and spectroscopic study of RV Tauri and Semi-Regular variables which has been expanded to include successful Cycle 2 Kepler observations of a dozen of these objects reported elsewhere at this conference (see D.K. Walter, et.al.). Support for the POCA project is provided by the NSF PAARE program to South Carolina State University under award AST-0750814 as well as resources and support provided by Clemson University and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Support for the Kepler observations is provided by NASA to South Carolina State University under award NNX11AB82G.

  11. Building A Drought Science Learning Community: Education and Engagement in an NSF CAREER Grant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiring, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes the education and engagement plan of the NSF CAREER award that I received in 2011 (Role of Soil Moisture in Seasonal to Interannual Climate Variability in the U.S. Great Plains; NSF Award #1056796). A key component of this plan is the development of a Drought Science Learning Community. A learning community is a program of courses and activities, which may include social and academic activities outside the classroom, that form a single program of instruction. Learning communities serve to increase faculty-student and student-student interaction, improve active and collaborative learning, and develop curricular coherence. The goal of a learning community is to encourage integration of learning across courses and to involve students with one of the grand challenges facing society. Students will be recruited from a Freshman Year Seminar (FYS) that I teach every Fall. Students who belong to the learning community will participate in the Water Management and Hydrological Sciences Seminar Series, relevant field trips, and monthly brown bag lunch meetings where students and faculty will discuss their current research projects and recently published scientific articles. Students who participate in learning community activities will benefit from a common intellectual experience that will help them to develop linkages between courses, regular interactions with faculty mentors, and the opportunity to contribute to faculty research. All students will be encouraged to complete an undergraduate thesis as the capstone experience of their participation in the learning community. In addition to describing the organization of the education and engagement plan, I will also discuss expected outcomes, best practices and lessons learned.

  12. Geoscience Education Programs in the NSF Division of Undergraduate Education: Different Acronyms with Similar Intent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, J.; Ryan, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    For the past three decades, the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Division of Undergraduate Education (DUE) has administered a succession of programs intended to improve undergraduate STEM education for all students. The IUSE (Improving Undergraduate STEM Education) program is the latest program in this succession, and reflects an expanded, NSF-wide effort to make sustainable improvements in STEM education on a national scale. The origins and thinking behind IUSE can be in part traced back to precursor programs including: ILI (Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement), CCD (Course and Curriculum Development), UFE (Undergraduate Faculty Enhancement), CCLI (Course, Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement), and TUES (Transforming Undergraduate Education in STEM), all of which sought to support faculty efforts to investigate and improve curriculum and instructional practice in undergraduate STEM education, and to disseminate effective STEM educational practices for broad adoption. IUSE, like its predecessor programs, is open to all STEM fields, and as such is intended to support improvements in geoscience education, spanning the atmospheric, ocean, and Earth sciences, as well as in environmental science, GIS science, climate change and sustainability/resilience. An emphasis on discipline-based research on learning that had origins in the CCLI and TUES programs is a new priority area in IUSE, with the ambition that projects will take advantage of the integrated expertise of domain scientists, educational practioners, and experts in learning science. We trace and describe the history of undergraduate education efforts with an emphasis placed on the recently introduced IUSE program. Understanding the origin of DUE's IUSE program can provide insights for faculty interested in developing proposals for submission and gain a greater appreciation of trends and priorities within the division.

  13. Image-based fluidic sorting system for automated Zebrafish egg sorting into multiwell plates.

    PubMed

    Graf, Siegfried F; Hötzel, Sebastian; Liebel, Urban; Stemmer, Andreas; Knapp, Helmut F

    2011-04-01

    The global demand for the reduction of animal testing has led to the emergence of Zebrafish eggs/larvae as model organisms to replace current adult animal testing in, for example, toxicity testing. Because of the egg size (diameter 1.6mm) and the relatively easy maintenance of Zebrafish farms the eggs also offer high-throughput screening (HTS). However, the current bottleneck for HTS is the cost-efficient placing of individual organisms into single wells of a multiwell plate (MWP). The system presented here is capable of storing, sorting, and placing individual organisms in a highly reproducible manner. In about 11 min a complete 96-MWP is filled, which corresponds to about 8 sec per egg. The survival rate of fertilized transgenic and wild-type eggs was comparable to the one of the control (control 6.7%, system 7.6%). Furthermore, it was also possible to place dechorionated eggs into individual wells. The results demonstrate that the cost efficient system works gentle and reliable enough to disburden scientists from the exhausting and monotonous job of placing single eggs into single wells, such that they can concentrate on the scientific aspects of their experiments and create results with a higher statistical relevance. PMID:21609691

  14. Lysosomal and vacuolar sorting: not so different after all!

    PubMed

    de Marcos Lousa, Carine; Denecke, Jurgen

    2016-06-15

    Soluble hydrolases represent the main proteins of lysosomes and vacuoles and are essential to sustain the lytic properties of these organelles typical for the eukaryotic organisms. The sorting of these proteins from ER residents and secreted proteins is controlled by highly specific receptors to avoid mislocalization and subsequent cellular damage. After binding their soluble cargo in the early stage of the secretory pathway, receptors rely on their own sorting signals to reach their target organelles for ligand delivery, and to recycle back for a new round of cargo recognition. Although signals in cargo and receptor molecules have been studied in human, yeast and plant model systems, common denominators and specific examples of diversification have not been systematically explored. This review aims to fill this niche by comparing the structure and the function of lysosomal/vacuolar sorting receptors (VSRs) from these three organisms. PMID:27284057

  15. REAL-WORLD SORTING OF RHIC SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI,J.; GUPTA,R.; HARRISON,M.; JAIN,A.; PEGGS,S.; THOMPSON,P.; TRBOJEVIC,D.; WANDERER,P.

    1999-03-29

    During the seven-year construction of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), more than 1700 superconducting dipoles, quadrupoles, sextupoles, and multi-layer correctors have been constructed and installed. These magnets have been sorted at several production stages to optimize their performance and reliability. For arc magnets, priorities have been put first on quench performance and operational risk minimization, second on field transfer function and other first-order quantities, and finally on nonlinear field errors which were painstakingly optimized at design. For Interaction-Region (IR) magnets, sorting is applied to select the best possible combination of magnets for the low-{beta}* interaction points (IP). This paper summarizes the history of this real-world sorting process.

  16. Cognitive impairments of aphasics in picture sorting and matching tasks.

    PubMed

    Cohen, R; Glöckner-Rist, A; Lutz, M; Maier, T; Meier, E

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of earlier experiments showing a differential deficit of aphasics in picture sorting and matching tasks, two experiments were conducted to test the conjecture of a specific deficit of aphasics in the analytical appraisal of individual features. Broca's and Wernicke's aphasics--according to clinical diagnoses and the Aachener Aphasie Test--were compared with patients having right-hemisphere lesions or left-hemisphere lesions without aphasia. Both groups of aphasics differed from the control groups in the sorting task, irrespective of the sorting criterion, but the differences were small. The picture matching task did not discriminate between groups. Obviously, the basic assumption has to be modified with respect to specific conditions of task requirements. The experimental literature is reviewed. PMID:7159208

  17. Efficient searching and sorting applications using an associative array processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, W.; Quinn, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a method of searching and sorting data by using some of the unique capabilities of an associative array processor. To understand the application, the associative array processor is described in detail. In particular, the content addressable memory and flip network are discussed because these two unique elements give the associative array processor the power to rapidly sort and search. A simple alphanumeric sorting example is explained in hardware and software terms. The hardware used to explain the application is the STARAN (Goodyear Aerospace Corporation) associative array processor. The software used is the APPLE (Array Processor Programming Language) programming language. Some applications of the array processor are discussed. This summary tries to differentiate between the techniques of the sequential machine and the associative array processor.

  18. On-Line Sorting Maturity of Cherry Tomato Bymachine Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinglong; Yin, Xiaoping; Xu, Tongyu; Zhao, Jiewen

    The cherry tomatoes online sorting according to their maturity is an important procedure after harvest. This research proposed an automated cherry tomato grading system base on machine vision. Three images of different angles are obtained from each cherry tomato, allowing the inspection of approximately 90% of the fruit surface. 9 features were extracted from the one cherry tomato images. In order to distinguish into three grades (immature, half ripe and ripe), Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discrimination analysis (LDA) were used to analyze the features. The PCA results show that ripe cherry tomatoes are distinguished from immature and half ripe ones. 414 cherry tomatoes were tested by the online sorting system. The overall accuracy was up to 94.9%. Furthermore, the grading speed of the sorting line reaches 7 cherry tomatoes per second which meet the actual demand of many farms.

  19. Development of the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort.

    PubMed

    Berg, Christine; McCollum, Mary; Cho, Esther; Jason, Dawn

    2015-10-01

    Emerging adulthood defines transition to employment, higher education, and domestic life. This study describes the development of an assessment of self-reported participation in a range of age-appropriate activities. Item selection was established from literature review, feedback from youth and professionals, the former Adolescent Activity Card Sort (AACS), and the original Activity Card Sort (ACS). Iterative item selection occurred with three separate samples of emerging adults and six professionals. Test-retest reliability was evaluated. The Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) consists of chores (11 items), leisure (13), social (10), health and fitness (9), work (10), education (8), and parenting (9). Test-retest reliability showed significant moderate to substantial Kappa agreement (.48-.85) for all domains except parenting (κ = .15). This preliminary study describes the development of the AYA-ACS to be used with individuals who encounter challenges when transitioning to young adulthood. PMID:27505902

  20. Amplitude sorting of oscillatory burst signals by sampling

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Thomas J.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus for amplitude sorting of oscillatory burst signals is described in which the burst signal is detected to produce a burst envelope signal and an intermediate or midportion of such envelope signal is sampled to provide a sample pulse output. The height of the sample pulse is proportional to the amplitude of the envelope signal and to the maximum burst signal amplitude. The sample pulses are fed to a pulse height analyzer for sorting. The present invention is used in an acoustic emission testing system to convert the amplitude of the acoustic emission burst signals into sample pulse heights which are measured by a pulse height analyzer for sorting the pulses in groups according to their height in order to identify the material anomalies in the test material which emit the acoustic signals.

  1. Mechanisms for photon sorting based on slit-groove arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villate-Guío, F.; Martín-Moreno, L.; de León-Pérez, F.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms for one-dimensional photon sorting are theoretically studied in the framework of a coupled-mode method. The considered system is a nanopatterned structure composed of two different pixels drilled on the surface of a thin gold layer. Each pixel consists of a slit-groove array designed to squeeze a large fraction of the incident light into the central slit. The Double-Pixel is optimized to resolve two different frequencies in the near infrared. This system shows high transmission efficiencies and a small crosstalk. It is found that the response of the system strongly depends on the effective area shared by overlapping pixels. According to such degree of overlap, photon sorting can be achieved within three different regimes, which are discussed in detail. Optimal photon-sorting efficiencies are obtained for a moderate number of grooves that overlap with grooves of the neighbor pixel. These results could be applied to both optical and infrared detectors.

  2. New designs in the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems

    SciTech Connect

    A.S. Larin; V.V. Demenko; V.L. Voitanik

    2009-07-15

    In recent Giprokoks designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems, high-productivity vibrational-inertial screens have been employed. This permits single-stage screening and reduction in capital and especially operating expenditures, without loss of coke quality. In two-stage screening, >80 mm coke (for foundry needs) is additionally separated, with significant improvement in quality of the metallurgical coke (25-80 mm). New designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems employ mechanical treatment of the coke outside the furnace, which offers new scope for stabilization of coke quality and permits considerable improvement in mechanical strength and granulometric composition of the coke by mechanical crushing.

  3. New coke-sorting system at OAO Koks

    SciTech Connect

    B.Kh. Bulaevskii; V.S. Shved; Yu.V. Kalimin; S.D. Filippov

    2009-05-15

    A new coke-sorting system has been introduced at OAO Koks. It differs from the existing system in that it has no bunkers for all-purpose coke but only bunkers for commercial coke. In using this system with coke from battery 4, the crushing of the coke on conveyer belts, at roller screens, and in the commercial-coke bunkers is studied. After installing braking elements in the coke path, their effectiveness in reducing coke disintegration and improving coke screening is investigated. The granulometric composition and strength of the commercial coke from coke battery 3, with the new coke-sorting system, is evaluated.

  4. Sorting of bed load sediment by flow in meander bends.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, G.; Andrews, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    Equilibrium sorting of coarse mobile bed load sediment in meander bends is considered. A theory of two-dimensional bed load transport of graded material, including the effects of gravity on lateral slopes and secondary currents, is developed. This theory is coupled with a simple tratement of flow in bends, an analytically determined bend shape, and the condition of continuity of each grain size range in transport to describe sorting. The theory indicates that the locus of coarse sediment shifts from the inside bank to the outside bank near the bend apex, as is observed.-Authors

  5. A Refined Numerical Model for Sorted Bedform Formation and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, A. B.; Coco, G.; Green, M. O.; Hume, T. M.; Thieler, E. R.

    2005-05-01

    Murray and Thieler (2004) hypothesized that a feedback operating on a poorly sorted seabed, and subsequent emergent interactions, lead to development of large-scale grain-size sorted patterns (`sorted bedforms') on inner continental shelves that have traditionally been referred to as `rippled scour depressions.' Unlike familiar bedforms that grow because of an interaction between bed topography and sediment flux, the initiation and evolution of these sorted bedforms results from a coupling between bed composition and sediment flux. In essence, larger wave ripples form in coarser patches, and these inhibit fine-sediment accumulation and enhance fine sediment flux over the patch by enhancing vertical mixing. As an initial test of the hypothesis, Murray and Thieler developed an exploratory numerical model that produced sorted bedforms exhibiting the main characteristics of the patterns observed in nature. Murray and Thieler's initial model parametrically treated the coupling between bed composition and sediment flux. We further developed the model, incorporating more detailed parameterizations, including: 1) empirical predictions of ripple dimensions as a function of bed composition and near-bed wave conditions; 2) near-bed wave-orbital motions that do not involve a shallow-water assumption; 3) calculations of the vertical profiles of suspended-sediment concentration and mean-current velocities that result from wave and current motions interacting with the ripples; and 4) bedload transport. We tested the sensitivity of model behavior to the parameterizations adopted by conducting numerical experiments using wave, depth, and current conditions measured off the coastline of Tairua (New Zealand). We performed two tests: a comparison of predicted ripple characteristics and sediment concentration profiles with tripod observations; and a comparison of the large-scale geometry emerging from model simulations with some of the features observed during bathymetric surveys

  6. Gas phase sorting of fullerenes, polypeptides and carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Ulbricht, Hendrik; Berninger, Martin; Deachapunya, Sarayut; Stefanov, André; Arndt, Markus

    2008-01-30

    We discuss the Stark deflectometry of micro-modulated molecular beams for the enrichment of biomolecular isomers as well as single-wall carbon nanotubes, and we demonstrate the working principle of this idea with fullerenes. The sorting is based on the species-dependent susceptibility-to-mass ratio χ/m. The device is compatible with a high molecular throughput, and the spatial micro-modulation of the beam permits one to obtain a fine spatial resolution and a high sorting sensitivity. PMID:21817503

  7. Entropy driven excitation energy sorting in superfluid fission dynamics.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Karl-Heinz; Jurado, Beatriz

    2010-05-28

    It is shown that the constant-temperature behavior of nuclei in the superfluid regime leads to an energy-sorting process if two nuclei are in thermal contact, as is the case in the fission process. This effect explains why an increase of the initial excitation energy leads an increase of the number of emitted neutrons from the heavy fission fragment, only. The observed essentially complete energy sorting may be seen as a new counterintuitive manifestation of quantum-mechanical properties of microscopic systems. PMID:20867088

  8. Topographic control of sorted circle morphology on Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Joana; Hauber, Ernst; Reiss, Dennis; Hiesinger, Harald; Johnsson, Andreas; van Gasselt, Stephan; Balme, Matt; Head, Jim; de Verra, Jean-Pierre; Steinbrügge, Gregor; Jaumann, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Patterned ground is a typical phenomenon in polar, subpolar and alpine regions [1]. As it is commonly (but not necessarily!) related to freeze-thaw cycles, its presence on Mars could possibly point to locations and periods where and when liquid water existed in the recent past [2]. Sorted circles are a class of patterned ground that was tentatively identified in Elysium Planitia (Mars) [3], but this interpretation has been challenged on the basis of physical considerations [4]. Without direct access to potential patterned ground on Mars, the analysis of terrestrial analogues can inform the interpretation of Martian landforms. Svalbard (Norway) offers a wide variety of permafrost features that are morphologically analogous to Martian cold-climate landforms [5]. It hosts some of the best examples of sorted circles on Earth, which are located on the westernmost tip of Brøgger peninsula, on a broad strand flat that is characterized by a series of postglacial beach ridges [6]. Here we report on our analysis of sorted circle morphology (especially their plan-view shape, i.e. their "roundness" or ellipticity) and its correlation with local topography (slopes, curvature). Sorted circle morphology was determined from HRSC-AX images (for details on the flight campaign and image properties see ref [5]) and through field work. Topographic information comes from a 50 cm gridded DEM derived from HRSC-AX stereo images. We measured sorted circle morphology (ellipticity, azimuth of major axis) along a WNW-ESE traverse that runs from the inland towards the sea and is oriented perpendicular to the local beach ridge trend. Selected areas with homogeneous sorted circle appearance were visually mapped, and compared to the average slope, aspect, and the calculated topographic wetness index (TWI). Furthermore the whole traverse was classified into four different morphologies of the sorted patterned ground (sorted circles, sorted "ellipses", sorted nets and areas without patterned ground

  9. Undergraduate Research as a Process for STEM Teaching and Learning Systemic Change: Lessons Learned from the Council on Undergraduate Research NSF CCLI and TUES Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambos, E. L.; Havholm, K. G.; Malachowski, M.; Osborn, J.; Karukstis, K.

    2013-12-01

    concerted efforts to affect policy, workload, tenure and promotion and resource issues, which are often core factors in any STEM education change process. Several systems are now connecting individual campus-based undergraduate research efforts more effectively, and tying undergraduate research to regional workforce and economic development programs. Many campus teams are moving their department and colleges toward curricular innovations that emphasize scaffolding undergraduate research throughout the undergraduate curriculum. An NSF EAGER/WIDER supplement to the CUR CCLI III award was received in October 2012 and expanded the scope of the project to include deeper study of the changes processes underway at each of the six systems and to tease out the factors that can either promote or retard expansion of undergraduate research as a teaching and learning paradigm. Lessons learned from one of the six systems, the University of Wisconsin, will be highlighted.

  10. Development of a novel cell sorting method that samples population diversity in flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Geoffrey W; Andersen, Stacey B; Battye, Francis L

    2015-11-01

    Flow cytometry based electrostatic cell sorting is an important tool in the separation of cell populations. Existing instruments can sort single cells into multi-well collection plates, and keep track of cell of origin and sorted well location. However currently single sorted cell results reflect the population distribution and fail to capture the population diversity. Software was designed that implements a novel sorting approach, "Slice and Dice Sorting," that links a graphical representation of a multi-well plate to logic that ensures that single cells are sampled and sorted from all areas defined by the sort region/s. Therefore the diversity of the total population is captured, and the more frequently occurring or rarer cell types are all sampled. The sorting approach was tested computationally, and using functional cell based assays. Computationally we demonstrate that conventional single cell sorting can sample as little as 50% of the population diversity dependant on the population distribution, and that Slice and Dice sorting samples much more of the variety present within a cell population. We then show by sorting single cells into wells using the Slice and Dice sorting method that there are cells sorted using this method that would be either rarely sorted, or not sorted at all using conventional single cell sorting approaches. The present study demonstrates a novel single cell sorting method that samples much more of the population diversity than current methods. It has implications in clonal selection, stem cell sorting, single cell sequencing and any areas where population heterogeneity is of importance. PMID:25944021

  11. Sorting of household waste and thermal treatment of waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ferranti, M.P.; Ferrero, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    The priorities in waste policy are implicit in the title of this book. The first goal is sorting and recycling of materials whenever possible. The second priority is for thermal treatment of any materials unsuitable for recovery. The different sessions dealt with the research carried out under cost-shared contracts in the various programme areas.

  12. On Possibility of Sorting of Electromagnetic Undulators HU256

    SciTech Connect

    Churkin, I.; Steshov, A.

    2007-01-19

    It is known that the magnetic parameters of the permanent and hybrid magnet undulators may be improved by sorting on basis of the magnetic measurements of individual magnetic blocks and applying of the optimization criteria. The procedure of sorting for the electromagnetic undulators HU256 is described in the article. The magnetic calculations of the individual dipoles and dipoles in ''undulator environment'' executed by means of Mermaid 3D Code and the magnetic measurements of the representative dipoles confirmed these magnetic calculations, and it allows us to get the main dependencies of the magnetic parameters of all dipoles from the mechanical characteristics (pole gap, yoke width, coil position). The criteria of optimization were conditions of weak influence of the insertion device on electron beam in the Storage Ring and high quality of undulator radiation. The 1st integral of the magnetic field and phase error have been minimized for sorting of the dipoles in undulators. The limitation of sorting connected with accuracy of mechanical measurements of individual dipoles is discussed.

  13. On Possibility of Sorting of Electromagnetic Undulators HU256

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churkin, I.; Steshov, A.

    2007-01-01

    It is known that the magnetic parameters of the permanent and hybrid magnet undulators may be improved by sorting on basis of the magnetic measurements of individual magnetic blocks and applying of the optimization criteria. The procedure of sorting for the electromagnetic undulators HU256 is described in the article. The magnetic calculations of the individual dipoles and dipoles in "undulator environment" executed by means of Mermaid 3D Code and the magnetic measurements of the representative dipoles confirmed these magnetic calculations, and it allows us to get the main dependencies of the magnetic parameters of all dipoles from the mechanical characteristics (pole gap, yoke width, coil position). The criteria of optimization were conditions of weak influence of the insertion device on electron beam in the Storage Ring and high quality of undulator radiation. The 1st integral of the magnetic field and phase error have been minimized for sorting of the dipoles in undulators. The limitation of sorting connected with accuracy of mechanical measurements of individual dipoles is discussed.

  14. Empirical Approach to Interpreting Card-Sorting Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Steven F.; Dougherty, Daniel P.; Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Since it was first published 30 years ago, the seminal paper of Chi "et al." on expert and novice categorization of introductory problems led to a plethora of follow-up studies within and outside of the area of physics [Cogn. Sci. 5 121 (1981)]. These studies frequently encompass "card-sorting" exercises whereby the participants group problems.…

  15. IMPROVEMENTS IN OPTICAL SORTING OF MOLD-DAMAGED WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study describes the use of three forms of optical measurement of single wheat kernels for screening of Fusarium head blight for eventual incorporation in high-speed optical sorters. Our previous research has demonstrated a sorting efficiency of approximately 50 percent with existing hig...

  16. Autism and Attachment: The Attachment Q-Sort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, Anna H.; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.

    2007-01-01

    Children with autism are able to show secure attachment behaviours to their parents/caregivers. Most studies on attachment in children with autism used a (modified) Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) to examine attachment security. An advantage of the Attachment Q-Sort (AQS) over the SSP is that it can be attuned to the secure-base behaviour of…

  17. Cluster size regulates protein sorting in the immunological synapse

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Niña C.; Nye, Jeffrey A.; Groves, Jay T.

    2009-01-01

    During antigen recognition by T cells, signaling molecules on the T cell engage ligands on the antigen-presenting cell and organize into spatially distinctive patterns. These are collectively known as the immunological synapse (IS). Causal relationships between large-scale spatial organization and signal transduction have previously been established. Although it is known that receptor transport during IS formation is driven by actin polymerization, the mechanisms by which different proteins become spatially sorted remain unclear. These sorting processes contribute a facet of signal regulation; thus their elucidation is important for ultimately understanding signal transduction through the T cell receptor. Here we investigate protein cluster size as a sorting mechanism using the hybrid live T cell−supported membrane system. The clustering state of the co-stimulatory molecule lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) is modulated, either by direct antibody crosslinking or by crosslinking its intercellular adhesion molecule-1 ligand on the supported bilayer. In a mature IS, native LFA-1 generally localizes into a peripheral ring surrounding a central T cell receptor cluster. Higher degrees of LFA-1 clustering, induced by either method, result in progressively more central localization, with the most clustered species fully relocated to the central zone. These results demonstrate that cluster size directly influences protein spatial positioning in the T cell IS. We discuss a sorting mechanism, based on frictional coupling to the actin cytoskeleton, that is consistent with these observations and is, in principle, extendable to all cell surface proteins in the synapse. PMID:19622735

  18. Getting a "Decent Sort": Key Considerations when Planning for AMH

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canty, Adrienne Brown

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 and 2009, the Edmonton Public Library (EPL), where the author works as an information professional, completed a $6 million CDN (about $5.7 million) RFID conversion project with the installation of automated check-in and sorting equipment at six of its 17 service points. The sorters currently handle about 55% of EPL's system's total…

  19. SORT-AID: A Search Post-Processing Tool Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, William; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports on the design and use of a computer system--SORT-AID--to assist bibliographic database searchers in the post-search, analysis phase of their work. Designed for National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) installations, this system automatically determines the relevance of downloaded abstracts and provides facilities for editing…

  20. From Sorting to Learning: Developing Deep Learning in Canadian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaser, Linda; Halbert, Judy

    2008-01-01

    Observations in many intermediate and secondary classrooms and interviews with learners indicate that many young people are under-engaged or disengaged with the learning opportunities in their schools. This disengagement of adolescent learners underlines the need for a shift from systems focused on sorting to systems passionate about deep…

  1. Spike sorting of synchronous spikes from local neuron ensembles.

    PubMed

    Franke, Felix; Pröpper, Robert; Alle, Henrik; Meier, Philipp; Geiger, Jörg R P; Obermayer, Klaus; Munk, Matthias H J

    2015-10-01

    Synchronous spike discharge of cortical neurons is thought to be a fingerprint of neuronal cooperativity. Because neighboring neurons are more densely connected to one another than neurons that are located further apart, near-synchronous spike discharge can be expected to be prevalent and it might provide an important basis for cortical computations. Using microelectrodes to record local groups of neurons does not allow for the reliable separation of synchronous spikes from different cells, because available spike sorting algorithms cannot correctly resolve the temporally overlapping waveforms. We show that high spike sorting performance of in vivo recordings, including overlapping spikes, can be achieved with a recently developed filter-based template matching procedure. Using tetrodes with a three-dimensional structure, we demonstrate with simulated data and ground truth in vitro data, obtained by dual intracellular recording of two neurons located next to a tetrode, that the spike sorting of synchronous spikes can be as successful as the spike sorting of nonoverlapping spikes and that the spatial information provided by multielectrodes greatly reduces the error rates. We apply the method to tetrode recordings from the prefrontal cortex of behaving primates, and we show that overlapping spikes can be identified and assigned to individual neurons to study synchronous activity in local groups of neurons. PMID:26289473

  2. Personal Wellness Card Sort: A Strategy for Promoting Relational Healing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, A. Stephen; Roscoe, Lauren J.

    2011-01-01

    The Personal Wellness Card Sort task is presented as a practical tool for mediating a therapeutic impasse when working with clients who have experienced a traumatic event. The authors describe how this activity can assist clients with viewing themselves in a holistic way, regaining disowned aspects of self and initiating movement toward connecting…

  3. Automated sorting of glabrous versus pubescent annual canarygrass seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An automated imaging system was developed to identify and sort annual canarygrass seeds with the glabrous trait in order to screen bulk amounts of seed to segregate populations for this desirable trait. Glabrous seed is preferred since it does not have the irritating silica hairs that pubescent see...

  4. Sorting Recycled Trash: An Activity for Earth Day 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary E.; Harris, Harold H.

    2007-01-01

    Middle or high school students celebrate Earth Day on April 22, 2007 by participating in the activity to separate commingled recyclable trash to simulate sorting in a recycling center. Students would gain an appreciation for recyclable trash, after it is taken to a recycling center and learn about properties of recyclables.

  5. On-chip cell sorting via patterned magnetic traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byvank, Tom; Prikockis, Michael; Chen, Aaron; Miller, Brandon; Chalmers, Jeffrey; Sooryakumar, Ratnasingham

    2015-03-01

    Due to their importance in research for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, numerous schemes have been developed to sort rare cell populations, e.g., circulating tumor cells (CTCs), from a larger ensemble of cells. Here, we improve upon a previously developed microfluidic device (Lab Chip 13, 1172, (2013)) to increase throughput and sorting purity of magnetically labeled cells. The separation mechanism involves controlling magnetic forces by manipulating the magnetic domain structures of embedded permalloy microdisks with weak external fields. These forces move labeled cells from the input flow stream into an adjacent buffer flow stream. Such magnetically activated transfer separates the magnetic entities from their non-magnetic counterparts as the two flow streams split apart and move toward their respective outputs. Purity of the magnetic output is modulated by the withdrawal rate of the non-magnetic output relative to the inputs. A proof of concept shows that CTCs from metastatic breast cancer patients can be sorted, recovered from the device, and confirmed as CTCs using separate immunofluorescence staining and analysis. With further optimizations, the channel could become a useful device for high purity final sorting of enriched patient cell samples.

  6. Local Residential Sorting and Public Goods Provision: A Classroom Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouhle, Keith; Corrigan, Jay; Croson, Rachel; Farnham, Martin; Garip, Selhan; Habodaszova, Luba; Johnson, Laurie Tipton; Johnson, Martin; Reiley, David

    2005-01-01

    This classroom exercise illustrates the Tiebout (1956) hypothesis that residential sorting across multiple jurisdictions leads to a more efficient allocation of local public goods. The exercise places students with heterogeneous preferences over a public good into a single classroom community. A simple voting mechanism determines the level of…

  7. G Protein–Coupled Receptor Sorting to Endosomes and Lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Marchese, Adriano; Paing, May M.; Temple, Brenda R.S.; Trejo, JoAnn

    2010-01-01

    The heptahelical G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) belong to the largest family of cell surface signaling receptors encoded in the human genome. GPCRs signal to diverse extracellular stimuli and control a vast number of physiological responses, making this receptor class the target of nearly half the drugs currently in use. In addition to rapid desensitization, receptor trafficking is crucial for the temporal and spatial control of GPCR signaling. Sorting signals present in the intracytosolic domains of GPCRs regulate trafficking through the endosomal-lysosomal system. GPCR internalization is mediated by serine and threonine phosphorylation and arrestin binding. Short, linear peptide sequences including tyrosine- and dileucine-based motifs, and PDZ ligands that are recognized by distinct endocytic adaptor proteins also mediate internalization and endosomal sorting of GPCRs. We present new data from bioinformatic searches that reveal the presence of these types of sorting signals in the cytoplasmic tails of many known GPCRs. Several recent studies also indicate that the covalent modification of GPCRs with ubiquitin serves as a signal for internalization and lysosomal sorting, expanding the diversity of mechanisms that control trafficking of mammalian GPCRs. PMID:17995450

  8. Cell sorting in a Petri dish controlled by computer vision

    PubMed Central

    Környei, Z.; Beke, S.; Mihálffy, T.; Jelitai, M.; Kovács, K. J.; Szabó, Z.; Szabó, B.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) applying flow cytometry to separate cells on a molecular basis is a widespread method. We demonstrate that both fluorescent and unlabeled live cells in a Petri dish observed with a microscope can be automatically recognized by computer vision and picked up by a computer-controlled micropipette. This method can be routinely applied as a FACS down to the single cell level with a very high selectivity. Sorting resolution, i.e., the minimum distance between two cells from which one could be selectively removed was 50–70 micrometers. Survival rate with a low number of 3T3 mouse fibroblasts and NE-4C neuroectodermal mouse stem cells was 66±12% and 88±16%, respectively. Purity of sorted cultures and rate of survival using NE-4C/NE-GFP-4C co-cultures were 95±2% and 62±7%, respectively. Hydrodynamic simulations confirmed the experimental sorting efficiency and a cell damage risk similar to that of normal FACS. PMID:23336070

  9. Sort-First, Distributed Memory Parallel Visualization and Rendering

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E. Wes; Humphreys, Greg; Paul, Brian; Brederson, J. Dean

    2003-07-15

    While commodity computing and graphics hardware has increased in capacity and dropped in cost, it is still quite difficult to make effective use of such systems for general-purpose parallel visualization and graphics. We describe the results of a recent project that provides a software infrastructure suitable for general-purpose use by parallel visualization and graphics applications. Our work combines and extends two technologies: Chromium, a stream-oriented framework that implements the OpenGL programming interface; and OpenRM Scene Graph, a pipelined-parallel scene graph interface for graphics data management. Using this combination, we implement a sort-first, distributed memory, parallel volume rendering application. We describe the performance characteristics in terms of bandwidth requirements and highlight key algorithmic considerations needed to implement the sort-first system. We characterize system performance using a distributed memory parallel volume rendering application, a nd present performance gains realized by using scene specific knowledge to accelerate rendering through reduced network bandwidth. The contribution of this work is an exploration of general-purpose, sort-first architecture performance characteristics as applied to distributed memory, commodity hardware, along with a description of the algorithmic support needed to realize parallel, sort-first implementations.

  10. Differential interaction forces govern bacterial sorting in early biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Oldewurtel, Enno R; Kouzel, Nadzeya; Dewenter, Lena; Henseler, Katja; Maier, Berenike

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms can generate micro-heterogeneity in terms of surface structures. However, little is known about the associated changes in the physics of cell–cell interaction and its impact on the architecture of biofilms. In this study, we used the type IV pilus of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to test whether variation of surface structures induces cell-sorting. We show that the rupture forces between pili are fine-tuned by post-translational modification. Bacterial sorting was dependent on pilus post-translational modification and pilus density. Active force generation was necessary for defined morphologies of mixed microcolonies. The observed morphotypes were in remarkable agreement with the differential strength of adhesion hypothesis proposing that a tug-of-war among surface structures of different cells governs cell sorting. We conclude that in early biofilms the density and rupture force of bacterial surface structures can trigger cell sorting based on similar physical principles as in developing embryos. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10811.001 PMID:26402455

  11. Automated trapping, assembly, and sorting with holographic optical tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Chapin, Stephen C.; Germain, Vincent; Dufresne, Eric R.

    2008-01-01

    We combine real-time feature recognition with holographic optical tweezers to automatically trap, assemble, and sort micron-sized colloidal particles. Closed loop control will enable new applications of optical micromanipulation in biology, medicine, materials science, and possibly quantum computation. PMID:19096726

  12. A Test of the Sorting Model of Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul W.; Mulvey, Charles; Martin, Nick

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we test the hypothesis advanced by Weiss ("J. Economic Perspectives" 9(4)(1995)133) that under sorting models the return to schooling across identical twins would decline over time compared to the return for the population as a whole. The analyses undertaken on a relatively large sample of Australian twins are consistent with this…

  13. Parallel sort with a ranged, partitioned key-value store in a high perfomance computing environment

    DOEpatents

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary; Torres, Aaron; Poole, Stephen W.

    2016-01-26

    Improved sorting techniques are provided that perform a parallel sort using a ranged, partitioned key-value store in a high performance computing (HPC) environment. A plurality of input data files comprising unsorted key-value data in a partitioned key-value store are sorted. The partitioned key-value store comprises a range server for each of a plurality of ranges. Each input data file has an associated reader thread. Each reader thread reads the unsorted key-value data in the corresponding input data file and performs a local sort of the unsorted key-value data to generate sorted key-value data. A plurality of sorted, ranged subsets of each of the sorted key-value data are generated based on the plurality of ranges. Each sorted, ranged subset corresponds to a given one of the ranges and is provided to one of the range servers corresponding to the range of the sorted, ranged subset. Each range server sorts the received sorted, ranged subsets and provides a sorted range. A plurality of the sorted ranges are concatenated to obtain a globally sorted result.

  14. The Polarity Protein Pals1 Regulates Radial Sorting of Axons

    PubMed Central

    Zollinger, Daniel R.; Chang, Kae-Jiun; Baalman, Kelli; Kim, Seonhee

    2015-01-01

    Myelin is essential for rapid and efficient action potential propagation in vertebrates. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating myelination remain incompletely characterized. For example, even before myelination begins in the PNS, Schwann cells must radially sort axons to form 1:1 associations. Schwann cells then ensheathe and wrap axons, and establish polarized, subcellular domains, including apical and basolateral domains, paranodes, and Schmidt-Lanterman incisures. Intriguingly, polarity proteins, such as Pals1/Mpp5, are highly enriched in some of these domains, suggesting that they may regulate the polarity of Schwann cells and myelination. To test this, we generated mice with Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes that lack Pals1. During early development of the PNS, Pals1-deficient mice had impaired radial sorting of axons, delayed myelination, and reduced nerve conduction velocities. Although myelination and conduction velocities eventually recovered, polyaxonal myelination remained a prominent feature of adult Pals1-deficient nerves. Despite the enrichment of Pals1 at paranodes and incisures of control mice, nodes of Ranvier and paranodes were unaffected in Pals1-deficient mice, although we measured a significant increase in the number of incisures. As in other polarized cells, we found that Pals1 interacts with Par3 and loss of Pals1 reduced levels of Par3 in Schwann cells. In the CNS, loss of Pals1 affected neither myelination nor the establishment of polarized membrane domains. These results demonstrate that Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes use distinct mechanisms to control their polarity, and that radial sorting in the PNS is a key polarization event that requires Pals1. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This paper reveals the role of the canonical polarity protein Pals1 in radial sorting of axons by Schwann cells. Radial sorting is essential for efficient and proper myelination and is disrupted in some types of congenital muscular dystrophy. PMID:26203142

  15. 77 FR 30330 - Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Establish an Information Collection for the NSF Graduate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... Fellowship Program AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice and Request for Comments. SUMMARY: The... Reporting Requirements for the Graduate Research Fellowship Program. OMB Number: 3145-NEW. Expiration Date... collection. Abstract Proposed Project: The purpose of the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship Program is to...

  16. Industrial Funding of Academic R&D Continues to Decline in FY 2004. Info Brief. NSF 06-315

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britt, Ronda

    2006-01-01

    Industrial funding for research and development in academic science and engineering (S&E) dropped by 2.6 percent in FY 2004, the third consecutive year of declining support from this sector, according to data from the National Science Foundation (NSF) Survey of Research and Development Expenditures at Universities and Colleges (table 1). The…

  17. A Study of NSF Teacher Enhancement Program (TEP) Participants and Principal Investigators: 1984-1989. Volume I: Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abt Associates, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) supported more than 600 inservice teacher training programs between 1984 and 1989 under its Teacher Enhancement Program (TEP). Two studies were undertaken of TEP: the first was a survey of the 600 Principal Investigators (PIs) who had operated inservice teacher enhancement projects and the second, a survey of…

  18. Strategic Research Partnerships: Proceedings from an NSF Workshop (Washington, D.C., October 13, 2000). Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankowski, John E.; Link, Albert N.; Vonortas, Nicholas S.

    This document contains the proceedings from the National Science Foundation (NSF) Workshop on Strategic Research Partnerships. Papers include: (1) "Strategic Research Partnerships: Results of the Workshop" (Albert N. Link and Nicholas S. Vonortas); (2) "Strategic Research Partnerships: Evidence and Analysis" (Stephen Martin); (3) "Strategic…

  19. Master Teachers in Residence: Bringing a Classroom Perspective to Course Reform for NSF's Oklahoma Teacher Education Collaborative (O-TEC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Sarah; Neathery, Faye; Fholer, Gwen; Weger, Elayne; Voth, Bonnie; Townsend, Joyce; Campbell, DeAnn; Boedecker, Martha

    Master teachers can be influential in course revision. The Oklahoma Teacher Education Collaborative (O-TEC) teacher reform effort is a consortium of nine higher education institutions working with the National Science Foundation's (NSF's) reform effort to produce teachers better equipped for teaching science and mathematics. The reform emphasizes…

  20. A Patron for Pure Science. The National Science Foundation's Formative Years, 1945-57. NSF 82-24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, J. Merton

    Provided in this book is a legislative and administrative history of the National Science Foundation (NSF) during its formative years (1945-57). The 15 chapter book is organized into three parts. Part 1 ("The Long Debate, 1945-50") narrates the legislative history of the Foundation's creation. Part 2 ("Beginning, 1950-54") discusses the…

  1. Exploration of NSF-ATE Projects Approaches in the Integration of Technology and Engineering Education at the K-12 Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strobel, Johannes; Mendoza Díaz, Noemi V.

    2012-01-01

    Access to post-secondary education, specifically in the technical, two-year institution area, is a topic of growing interest in the country. Funding agencies, such as NSF, via the Advanced Technological Education Program (ATE), are supporting initiatives and research aimed at increasing the number of technicians and engineers and improving…

  2. Evaluation of NSF's Program of Grants and Vertical Integration of Research and Education in the Mathematical Sciences (VIGRE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In 1998, the National Science Foundation (NSF) launched a program of Grants for Vertical Integration of Research and Education in the Mathematical Sciences (VIGRE). These grants were designed for institutions with PhD-granting departments in the mathematical sciences, for the purpose of developing high-quality education programs, at all levels,…

  3. Increasing Access for Economically Disadvantaged Students: The NSF/CSEM & S-STEM Programs at Louisiana State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Zakiya S.; Iyengar, Sitharama S.; Pang, Su-Seng; Warner, Isiah M.; Luces, Candace A.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing college degree attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds is a prominent component of numerous state and federal legislation focused on higher education. In 1999, the National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted the "Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Scholarships" (CSEMS) program; this initiative was designed to…

  4. Annual Report of the National Science Foundation on Contract NSF-C414 Task III July 1966 through June 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Columbus, OH. Chemical Abstracts Service.

    This Annual Report describes in detail the work performed during the first year of Task III of Contract NSF-C414 and the present status of Task III work. The programs and achievements described constitute the first significant efforts to develop a user-oriented, cooperative program between major secondary scientific and technical information…

  5. An Analysis of NSF Geosciences 2009 Research Experience for Undergraduate Site Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, S. C.; Patino, L. C.; Rom, E. L.; Weiler, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    The Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) provides undergraduate students the opportunity to conduct research at different institutions and in areas that may not be available in their home campuses. The Geosciences REU Sites foster research opportunities in areas closely aligned with undergraduate majors and facilitates discovery of the multidisciplinary nature of the Geosciences. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the Geosciences REU Site programs run in 2009. A survey requesting information on recruitment methods, student demographics, enrichment activities, and fields of research was sent to the Principal Investigators of each of the 50 active REU Sites; over 70% of the surveys were returned with the requested information. The internet is the most widely used mechanism to recruit participants, but the survey did not distinguish among different tools like websites, emails, social networks, etc. The admissions rate for REU Sites in Geosciences varies from less than 10% to 50%, with the majority of participants being rising seniors and juniors. A few Sites include rising sophomores. At least 40% of the participants come from non-PhD granting institutions. Among the participants, gender distribution is balanced, with a slightly larger number of female participants. Regarding ethnic diversity, the REU Sites reflect the difficulty of attracting diverse students into Geosciences as a discipline; more than 75% of the participants are Caucasian and Asian students. Furthermore, participants from minority-serving institutions constitute a small percentage of those taking part in these research experiences. The enrichment activities are very similar across the REU Sites, and mimic well activities common to the scientific community, including intellectual exchange of ideas (lab meetings, seminars, and professional meetings), networking and social activities. There are some clear similarities among

  6. An Analysis of NSF Geosciences Research Experience for Undergraduate Site Programs from 2009 through 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rom, E. L.; Patino, L. C.; Weiler, S.; Sanchez, S. C.; Colon, Y.; Antell, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) provides U.S. undergraduate students from any college or university the opportunity to conduct research at a different institution and gain a better understanding of research career pathways. The Geosciences REU Sites foster research opportunities in areas closely aligned with geoscience programs, particularly those related to earth, atmospheric and ocean sciences. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the Geosciences REU Site programs run in 2009 through 2011. A survey requesting information on recruitment methods, student demographics, enrichment activities, and fields of research was sent to the Principal Investigators of each of the active REU Sites. Over 70% of the surveys were returned with the requested information from about 50 to 60 sites each year. The internet is the most widely used mechanism to recruit participants, with personal communication as the second most important recruiting tool. The admissions rate for REU Sites in Geosciences varies from less than 10% to 50%, with the majority of participants being rising seniors and juniors. Many of the participants come from non-PhD granting institutions. Among the participants, gender distribution varies by discipline, with ocean sciences having a large majority of women and earth sciences having a majority of men. Regarding ethnic diversity, the REU Sites reflect the difficulty of attracting diverse students into Geosciences as a discipline; a large majority of participants are Caucasian and Asian students. Furthermore, participants from minority-serving institutions and community colleges constitute a small percentage of those taking part in these research experiences. The enrichment activities are very similar across the REU Sites, and mimic activities common to the scientific community, including intellectual exchange of ideas (lab meetings, seminars, and professional meetings

  7. The U.S. NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative: A Modern Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, John; Vernon, Frank; Peach, Cheryl; Arrott, Matthew; Graybeal, John; Farcas, Claudiu; Farcas, Emilia; Krueger, Ingolf; Meisinger, Michael; Chave, Alan

    2010-05-01

    The NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) began a five-year construction period in October 2009. The Consortium on Ocean Leadership (COL) manages the overall program with Implementing Organizations for Coastal/Global Scale Nodes (CGSN) at Woods Hole, Oregon State and Scripps; the Regional Cabled Network (RCN) at U of Washington and Cyberinfrastructure (CI) at UCSD and more than ten subcontractors. The NSF has made a commitment to support the observatory operations and maintenance for a 30-year period; a minimal period of time to measure physical, chemical and biological data over a length of time possibly sufficient to measure secular changes associated with climate and geodesy. The CI component is a substantial departure from previous approaches to data distribution and management. These innovations include the availability of data in near-real-time with latencies of seconds, open access to all data, analysis of the data stream for detection and modeling, use of the derived knowledge to modify the network with minimal or no human interaction and maintenance of data provenance through time as new versions of the data are created through QA/QC processes. The network architecture is designed to be scalable so that addition of new sensors is straightforward and inexpensive with costs increasing linearly at worst. Rather than building new computer infrastructure (disk farms and computer clusters), we are presently exploiting Amazon's Extensible Computing Cloud (EC2) and Simple Storage System (S3) to reduce long-term commitments to hardware and maintenance in order to minimize operations and maintenance costs. The OOI CI is actively partnering with other organizations (e.g. NOAA's IOOS) to integrate existing data systems using many of the same technologies to improve broad access to existing and planned observing systems, including those that provide critical climate data. Because seasonal and annual variability of most measureable parameters is so large, the

  8. Microfluidic sorting of protein nanocrystals by size for X-ray free-electron laser diffraction

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Abdallah, Bahige G.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Coe, Jesse; Conrad, Chelsie E.; Dörner, Katerina; Sierra, Raymond G.; Stevenson, Hilary P.; Camacho-Alanis, Fernanda; Grant, Thomas D.; et al

    2015-08-19

    We report that the advent and application of the X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) has uncovered the structures of proteins that could not previously be solved using traditional crystallography. While this new technology is powerful, optimization of the process is still needed to improve data quality and analysis efficiency. One area is sample heterogeneity, where variations in crystal size (among other factors) lead to the requirement of large data sets (and thus 10–100 mg of protein) for determining accurate structure factors. To decrease sample dispersity, we developed a high-throughput microfluidic sorter operating on the principle of dielectrophoresis, whereby polydisperse particles canmore » be transported into various fluid streams for size fractionation. Using this microsorter, we isolated several milliliters of photosystem I nanocrystal fractions ranging from 200 to 600 nm in size as characterized by dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle tracking, and electron microscopy. Sorted nanocrystals were delivered in a liquid jet via the gas dynamic virtual nozzle into the path of the XFEL at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We obtained diffraction to ~4 Å resolution, indicating that the small crystals were not damaged by the sorting process. We also observed the shape transforms of photosystem I nanocrystals, demonstrating that our device can optimize data collection for the shape transform-based phasing method. Using simulations, we show that narrow crystal size distributions can significantly improve merged data quality in serial crystallography. From this proof-of-concept work, we expect that the automated size-sorting of protein crystals will become an important step for sample production by reducing the amount of protein needed for a high quality final structure and the development of novel phasing methods that exploit inter-Bragg reflection intensities or use variations in beam intensity for radiation damage-induced phasing. Ultimately, this method

  9. Microfluidic sorting of protein nanocrystals by size for X-ray free-electron laser diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Abdallah, Bahige G.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Coe, Jesse; Conrad, Chelsie E.; Dörner, Katerina; Sierra, Raymond G.; Stevenson, Hilary P.; Camacho-Alanis, Fernanda; Grant, Thomas D.; Nelson, Garrett; James, Daniel; Calero, Guillermo; Wachter, Rebekka M.; Spence, John C. H.; Weierstall, Uwe; Fromme, Petra; Ros, Alexandra

    2015-08-19

    We report that the advent and application of the X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) has uncovered the structures of proteins that could not previously be solved using traditional crystallography. While this new technology is powerful, optimization of the process is still needed to improve data quality and analysis efficiency. One area is sample heterogeneity, where variations in crystal size (among other factors) lead to the requirement of large data sets (and thus 10–100 mg of protein) for determining accurate structure factors. To decrease sample dispersity, we developed a high-throughput microfluidic sorter operating on the principle of dielectrophoresis, whereby polydisperse particles can be transported into various fluid streams for size fractionation. Using this microsorter, we isolated several milliliters of photosystem I nanocrystal fractions ranging from 200 to 600 nm in size as characterized by dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle tracking, and electron microscopy. Sorted nanocrystals were delivered in a liquid jet via the gas dynamic virtual nozzle into the path of the XFEL at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We obtained diffraction to ~4 Å resolution, indicating that the small crystals were not damaged by the sorting process. We also observed the shape transforms of photosystem I nanocrystals, demonstrating that our device can optimize data collection for the shape transform-based phasing method. Using simulations, we show that narrow crystal size distributions can significantly improve merged data quality in serial crystallography. From this proof-of-concept work, we expect that the automated size-sorting of protein crystals will become an important step for sample production by reducing the amount of protein needed for a high quality final structure and the development of novel phasing methods that exploit inter-Bragg reflection intensities or use variations in beam intensity for radiation damage-induced phasing. Ultimately, this method will also

  10. Microfluidic sorting of protein nanocrystals by size for X-ray free-electron laser diffraction.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Bahige G; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Coe, Jesse; Conrad, Chelsie E; Dörner, Katerina; Sierra, Raymond G; Stevenson, Hilary P; Camacho-Alanis, Fernanda; Grant, Thomas D; Nelson, Garrett; James, Daniel; Calero, Guillermo; Wachter, Rebekka M; Spence, John C H; Weierstall, Uwe; Fromme, Petra; Ros, Alexandra

    2015-07-01

    The advent and application of the X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) has uncovered the structures of proteins that could not previously be solved using traditional crystallography. While this new technology is powerful, optimization of the process is still needed to improve data quality and analysis efficiency. One area is sample heterogeneity, where variations in crystal size (among other factors) lead to the requirement of large data sets (and thus 10-100 mg of protein) for determining accurate structure factors. To decrease sample dispersity, we developed a high-throughput microfluidic sorter operating on the principle of dielectrophoresis, whereby polydisperse particles can be transported into various fluid streams for size fractionation. Using this microsorter, we isolated several milliliters of photosystem I nanocrystal fractions ranging from 200 to 600 nm in size as characterized by dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle tracking, and electron microscopy. Sorted nanocrystals were delivered in a liquid jet via the gas dynamic virtual nozzle into the path of the XFEL at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We obtained diffraction to ∼4 Å resolution, indicating that the small crystals were not damaged by the sorting process. We also observed the shape transforms of photosystem I nanocrystals, demonstrating that our device can optimize data collection for the shape transform-based phasing method. Using simulations, we show that narrow crystal size distributions can significantly improve merged data quality in serial crystallography. From this proof-of-concept work, we expect that the automated size-sorting of protein crystals will become an important step for sample production by reducing the amount of protein needed for a high quality final structure and the development of novel phasing methods that exploit inter-Bragg reflection intensities or use variations in beam intensity for radiation damage-induced phasing. This method will also permit an analysis of

  11. Microfluidic sorting of protein nanocrystals by size for X-ray free-electron laser diffraction

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Bahige G.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Coe, Jesse; Conrad, Chelsie E.; Dörner, Katerina; Sierra, Raymond G.; Stevenson, Hilary P.; Camacho-Alanis, Fernanda; Grant, Thomas D.; Nelson, Garrett; James, Daniel; Calero, Guillermo; Wachter, Rebekka M.; Spence, John C. H.; Weierstall, Uwe; Fromme, Petra; Ros, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The advent and application of the X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) has uncovered the structures of proteins that could not previously be solved using traditional crystallography. While this new technology is powerful, optimization of the process is still needed to improve data quality and analysis efficiency. One area is sample heterogeneity, where variations in crystal size (among other factors) lead to the requirement of large data sets (and thus 10–100 mg of protein) for determining accurate structure factors. To decrease sample dispersity, we developed a high-throughput microfluidic sorter operating on the principle of dielectrophoresis, whereby polydisperse particles can be transported into various fluid streams for size fractionation. Using this microsorter, we isolated several milliliters of photosystem I nanocrystal fractions ranging from 200 to 600 nm in size as characterized by dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle tracking, and electron microscopy. Sorted nanocrystals were delivered in a liquid jet via the gas dynamic virtual nozzle into the path of the XFEL at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We obtained diffraction to ∼4 Å resolution, indicating that the small crystals were not damaged by the sorting process. We also observed the shape transforms of photosystem I nanocrystals, demonstrating that our device can optimize data collection for the shape transform-based phasing method. Using simulations, we show that narrow crystal size distributions can significantly improve merged data quality in serial crystallography. From this proof-of-concept work, we expect that the automated size-sorting of protein crystals will become an important step for sample production by reducing the amount of protein needed for a high quality final structure and the development of novel phasing methods that exploit inter-Bragg reflection intensities or use variations in beam intensity for radiation damage-induced phasing. This method will also permit an analysis

  12. Sperm sorting procedure induces a redistribution of Hsp70 but not Hsp60 and Hsp90 in boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Spinaci, Marcella; Volpe, Sara; Bernardini, Chiara; de Ambrogi, Marco; Tamanini, Carlo; Seren, Eraldo; Galeati, Giovanna

    2006-01-01

    Heat shock proteins, besides their protective function against stresses, have been recently indicated as key factors for sperm fertilizing ability. Since sexing sperm by high-speed flow-cytometry subjects them to different physical, mechanical, and chemical stresses, the present study was designed to verify, by immunofluorescence and Western blot, whether the sorting procedure induces any modification in the amount and cellular distribution of heat shock proteins 60, 70, and 90 (Hsp60, Hsp70, Hsp90). Immunolocalization and Western blot quantification of both Hsp60 and Hsp90 did not reveal differences between unsorted and sorted semen. On the contrary, a redistribution of Hsp70 immunoreactivity from the equatorial subsegment toward the equator of sperm cells was recorded after sorting; this relocation suggests capacitation-like changes of sperm membrane. This modification seems to be caused mainly by incubation with Hoechst 33342, while both passage of sperm through flow cytometer and laser beam represent only minor stimuli. A further Hsp70 redistribution seems to be due to the final steps of sperm sorting, charging, and deflection of drops, and to the dilution during collection. On the other hand, staining procedure and mechanical stress seem to be the factors most injurious to sperm viability. Moreover, Hsp70 relocation was deeply influenced by the storage method. In fact, storing sexed spermatozoa, after centrifugation, in a small volume in presence of seminal plasma induced a reversion of Hsp70 redistribution, while storage in the diluted catch fluid of collection tubes caused Hsp70 relocation in most sorted spermatozoa. PMID:16870948

  13. Calibration and intercomparison of water vapor instrumentation used on the NSF/NCAR HIAPER aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, D.; Campos, T.; Flocke, F.; Jensen, J.; Wang, J.; Cole, H.; Korn, E.; Lauritsen, D.; Kraemer, M.

    2007-12-01

    Subject of the study is the characterization of a Kahn DCS-80 water vapor calibration system and the calibration of two water vapor sensors used on research aircraft, namely a Buck Instruments B-1001 chilled mirror sensor and a MayComm Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Hygrometer. A series of Vaisala drop sondes were also characterized and compared to the aircraft instruments. In an effort to assess the precision of the water vapor sensors that are being used on board the NSF/NACR GV aircraft (HIAPER), the instruments were tested at ambient pressure (800 mbar) inside an environmental chamber to simulate temperature conditions during flight. Tested dewpoints ranged from -70 to +20 degrees Celsius. The TDL - hygrometer was calibrated in preparation for an international water vapor measurement intercomparison campaign at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany. We will present the detailed calibration and characterization procedure, the laboratory setup for the different sensors, results from the calibrations of all instruments, assess their precision and useful operating range, and present some preliminary results from the international intercomparison campaign.

  14. Engineering and Technical Configuration Aspects of HIAPER, the new NSF/NCAR Research Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, R.; Laursen, K.

    2002-12-01

    The High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research, or HIAPER, is the new research aircraft presently being developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to serve the environmental research needs of the National Science Foundation (NSF) for the next several decades. The basic aircraft -- a Gulfstream V (G-V) business jet -- has been completed and will shortly undergo extensive modification to prepare it for future deployments in support of a variety of geosciences research missions. This presentation will focus on the many design and engineering considerations that have been made and are yet to come in converting a "green" business jet into a versatile research aircraft to serve the environmental research community. The project teams composed of engineers and scientists from NCAR and the scientific community at large are faced with trade offs involving costs of modifications, airframe structural integrity, aircraft performance (e.g. weight, drag), cabin environment, locations of inlet and sampling ports and FAA certification requirements. Many of the specific engineering specifications and modifications that have been made to date will be presented by way of engineering drawings, graphical depictions and actual photographs of the aircraft structure. Additionally, projected performance data of the modified-for-research aircraft will be presented along with some of the analyses performed to arrive at critical decisions (e.g. CFD airflow analysis). Finally, some of the details of the aircraft "infrastructure" such as signal and power wiring, generic cabin layout and data acquisition will be discussed.

  15. First multipoint in situ observations of electron microbursts: Initial results from the NSF FIREBIRD II mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crew, Alexander B.; Spence, Harlan E.; Blake, J. Bernard; Klumpar, David M.; Larsen, Brian A.; O'Brien, T. Paul; Driscoll, Shane; Handley, Matthew; Legere, Jason; Longworth, Stephen; Mashburn, Keith; Mosleh, Ehson; Ryhajlo, Nicholas; Smith, Sonya; Springer, Larry; Widholm, Mark

    2016-06-01

    We present initial dual spacecraft observations that for the first time both constrain the spatial scale size and provide spectral properties at medium energies of electron microbursts. We explore individual microburst events that occurred on 2 February 2015 using simultaneous observations made by the twin CubeSats which comprise the National Science Foundation (NSF) Focused Investigations of Relativistic Electron Bursts: Intensity, Range, and Dynamics (FIREBIRD II). During these microburst events, the two identically instrumented FIREBIRD II CubeSats were separated by as little as 11 km while traversing electron precipitation regions in low-Earth orbit. These coincident microburst events map to size scales >120 km at the equator. Given the prevalence of coincident and noncoincident events we conclude that this is of the same order of magnitude as that of the spatial scale size of electron microburst, an unknown property that is critical for quantifying their overall role in radiation belt dynamics. Finally, we present measurements of electron microbursts showing that precipitation often occurs simultaneously across a broad energy range spanning 200 keV to 1 MeV, a new form of empirical evidence that provides additional insights into the physics of microburst generation mechanisms.

  16. NSF/EPRI workshop on dynamic soil properties and site characterization: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    A 2-day workshop on dynamic soil properties and site characterization was held in Palo Alto, California, on November 9--10, 1989. The workshop was cosponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The primary purpose of the workshop was to bring together individuals with expertise in the areas of dynamic soil property measurement and site characterization to discuss the current state-of-the-art, to explore ways to achieve advances that are needed, and to identify research priorities. Participants included specialists in the fields of geotechnical and earthquake engineering as well as geologic, geophysicist and seismological sciences. The workshop involved six state-of-the-art presentations dealing with dynamic soil properties and site characterization. Following the state-of-the-art presentations, the participants met in panel groups to discuss research needs for each of the research topics. Each panel prepared a report summarizing their views. These proceedings contain the text of the state-of-the-art presentations as well as the panel reports. 300 refs., 122 figs., 13 tabs.

  17. Observing Infrasound and Atmospheric Pressure with the NSF EarthScope USArray Transportable Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernon, F. L.; Hedlin, M. A.; Busby, R. W.; Woodward, R.

    2010-12-01

    We are creating a real-time infrasound array whose sensing elements are co-located with the 400 seismic stations in the USArray Transportable Array component of the NSF EarthScope program. This continuously sampled array, of an unprecedented scale, will provide opportunities for groundbreaking and interdisciplinary research in atmospheric acoustics, atmospheric science, and seismology. Such an array will sample mean (absolute) values and fluctuations of the surface air pressure with nominal 70 km station spacing, with a dynamic range of about 7 orders of magnitude, and with a sampling frequency of up to 40 Hz. All samples will be synchronized to UTC. This dense network of infrasound sensors will permit us to study the nature of long-range infrasound propagation from regional to continental distances, and study the sources of infrasound signals, using actual acoustic data, free of concerns about seismic-to-acoustic coupling. All new TA stations deployed starting this fall will have a Quanterra Environmental Processor with internal VTI SCP1000 MEMS barometric pressure gauge, Setra 278 absolute microbarometer, and NCPA Infrasound Microphone. We will present data from field tests and from the newly deployed instrumentation.

  18. NSF RET in Southern Africa: community and research experiences in soil science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mladenov, N.; Pollard, A.; Wellbeloved-Stone, R.; Riffel, H.; Chavarro, D.; D'Odorico, P.

    2010-12-01

    Collaborative research on belowground carbon storage in the Kalahari Desert has provided opportunities for international research experience for US middle and high school teachers, funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Program. This presentation will highlight the field research experiences, international high school visit, relationships fostered with Botswana high school teachers, and new soil science curricula developed by three US environmental science teachers. New lesson plans and activities on carbon sequestration, fine and coarse root mapping, and soil organic carbon cycling and other learning tools have been incorporated into the existing Underground Safari webpage (instaar.colorado.edu/undergroundsafari) (Figure 1). An interactive blog, undergroundsafari.edublogs.org, has been developed to allow dynamic discourse between students, teachers and researchers on this project. Lessons learned from classroom trials of curriculum and use of other RET experience-motivated activities in the classroom will be discussed. Figure 1. Screen capture of the "Videos" page from the Underground Safari website for NSF DEB project, "Collaborative Research: Distribution and dynamics of belowground carbon in savannas."

  19. Bringing Geoscientific Practices to Schools Through Guided Inquiry and the NSF-MSP-funded RITES Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardace, D.; Schifman, L. A.; Kortz, K. M.; Saul, K.; Veeger, A. I.; Murray, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    The Rhode Island Technology Enhanced Science (RITES) Project is in its fifth of five years of funding from the NSF Math Science Partnership Program. At this stage, RITES has exceptional engagement of school districts across Rhode Island and growing momentum with partners in schools (covering the demographic spectrum present in Rhode Island) to enhance science education state-wide. One RITES product that will endure is the wide use by teachers of a Rock Cycle focused guided inquiry module, of constructivist design, that corresponds well to both the Rhode Island Grade Span Expectations (GSE) and the Next Generation Science Standards (with probable nationwide implementation) released in May 2012. The Rock Cycle teaching module has been piloted and edited following use in middle and high school classrooms. In this presentation, we evaluate the implementation fidelity of this curricular module, integrating commentary by the design team (Kortz and Saul) with data from teacher interviews, teacher reports on class use, and focus groups during which teachers discuss successes and challenges pertinent to the Rock Cycle from classroom experiences. In this presentation, we pay particular attention to the skills developed through the Rock Cycle module that resonate with research-supported approaches, such as observation, evidence-based hypothesis resolution, diverse science communication strategies, etc., all of which are also necessary scientific research skills.

  20. Beyond Earth: Weaving Science and Indigenous Culture - A 1-year NSF Planning Grant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Timothy; Guy, M.; Baker Big-Back, C.; Froelich, K.

    2011-01-01

    We present results of a 1-year NSF planning grant called Beyond Earth. The project is designed to engage Native American, urban, and rural families in science learning while piloting curriculum development and implementation that incorporates both Native and Western epistemologies. Physical, earth, and space science content is juxtaposed with indigenous culture, stories, language and epistemology in after-school programs and teacher training. Project partners include the Dakota Science Center, Fort Berthold Community College, and Sitting Bull College. The Native American tribes represented in this initiative illustrate partnerships between the Dakota, Lakota, Nakota, Hidatsa, Mandan, and Arikara. Over the past year the primary project deliverables include a culturally responsive curriculum Beyond Earth Moon Module, teacher training workshops, a project website. The curriculum module introduces students to the moon's appearance, phases, and positions in the sky using the Night Sky Planetarium Experience Station to explore core concepts underlying moon phases and eclipses using the interactive Nature Experience Station before engaging in the culminating Mission Challenge in which they apply their knowledge to problem solving situations and projects. The Native Science and Western Science activities developed, planetarium explorations created, and website toolkit utilizations are presented.

  1. Educational outreach at the NSF Engineering Research Center for Data Storage Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, James E., Jr.

    1996-07-01

    An aspect of the National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center in Data Storage Systems (DSSC) program that is valued by our sponsors is the way we use our different educational programs to impact the data storage industry in a positive fashion. The most common way to teach data storage materials is in classes that are offered as part of the Carnegie Mellon curriculum. Another way the DSSC attempts to educate students is through outreach programs such as the NSF Research Experiences for Undergraduates and Young Scholars programs, both of which have been very successful and place emphasis and including women, under represented minorities and disable d students. The Center has also established cooperative outreach partnerships which serve to both educate students and benefit the industry. One example is the cooperative program we have had with the Magnetics Technology Centre at the National University of Singapore to help strengthen their research and educational efforts to benefit U.S. data storage companies with plants in Singapore. In addition, the Center has started a program that will help train outstanding students from technical institutes to increase their value as technicians to the data storage industry when they graduate.

  2. Human mammalian cell sorting using a highly integrated micro-fabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter (μFACS)

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung Hwan; Chen, Chun H.; Tsai, Frank S.; Godin, Jessica M.; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a high performance microfabricated FACS system with highly integrated microfluidics, optics, acoustics, and electronics. Single cell manipulation at a high speed is made possible by the fast response time (~0.1 ms) of the integrated PZT actuator and the nozzle structure at the sorting junction. A Teflon AF-coated optofluidic waveguide along the microfluidic channel guides the illumination light, enabling multi-spot detection, while a novel space-time coding technology enhances the detection sensitivity of the μFACS system. The real-time control loop system is implemented using a field-programmable-gate-array (FPGA) for automated and accurate sorting. The μFACS achieves a high purification enrichment factor: up to ~230 fold for both polystyrene microbeads and suspended human mammalian cells (K562) at a high throughput (>1000 cells s−1). The sorting mechanism is independent of cell properties such as size, density, and shape, thus the presented system can be applied to sort out any pure sub-populations. This new lab-on-a-chip FACS system, therefore, holds promise to revolutionize microfluidic cytometers to meet cost, size, and performance goals. PMID:20379604

  3. Intra- and interboar variability in flow cytometric sperm sex sorting.

    PubMed

    Alkmin, Diego V; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Tarantini, Tatiana; Parlapan, Laura; Del Olmo, David; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Roca, Jordi

    2014-08-01

    To improve the efficiency of porcine sperm sex sorting using flow cytometry, the aims of the present study were to determine the relevance of inter- and intraboar variability in sperm sortability and to evaluate the significance of ejaculate semen characteristics in such variability. In addition, the variability among boars in the ability of sex-sorted spermatozoa to survive liquid storage at 15 °C to 17 °C was also evaluated. In total, 132 ejaculates collected from 67 boars of different breeds that were housed at an artificial insemination center were used in three experiments. X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm were simultaneously separated according to the Beltsville sperm-sorting technology using a high-speed flow cytometer. In the first experiment, interboar variability in the ability of the ejaculated spermatozoa to undergo the flow-based sex-sorting procedure was observed; the ejaculates of nearly 15% of the boars (n = 67) did not exhibit well-defined X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa peaks in the histogram, and the ejaculate sperm concentration demonstrated good predictive value for explaining this variation, as indicated by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (0.88, P < 0.001). In the second experiment, a certain degree of intraboar variability was observed only in the boars that showed poor sperm sortability (measured according to the presence or not a well-defined split together with sperm sortability parameters) in the first ejaculate (n = 3). In contrast, boars classified as having good sperm sortability in the first ejaculate (n = 5) maintained this condition in five ejaculates collected over the subsequent 5 months. In the third experiment, sex-sorted spermatozoa from boars with good sperm sortability (n = 5) remained viable and motile (above 70% in all boars) after 48 hours of storage at 15 °C to 17 °C, which may facilitate the commercial application of sex-sorted spermatozoa in swine artificial insemination programs

  4. Buoyancy-activated cell sorting using targeted biotinylated albumin microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Liou, Yu-Ren; Wang, Yu-Hsin; Lee, Chia-Ying; Li, Pai-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Cell analysis often requires the isolation of certain cell types. Various isolation methods have been applied to cell sorting, including fluorescence-activated cell sorting and magnetic-activated cell sorting. However, these conventional approaches involve exerting mechanical forces on the cells, thus risking cell damage. In this study we applied a novel isolation method called buoyancy-activated cell sorting, which involves using biotinylated albumin microbubbles (biotin-MBs) conjugated with antibodies (i.e., targeted biotin-MBs). Albumin MBs are widely used as contrast agents in ultrasound imaging due to their good biocompatibility and stability. For conjugating antibodies, biotin is conjugated onto the albumin MB shell via covalent bonds and the biotinylated antibodies are conjugated using an avidin-biotin system. The albumin microbubbles had a mean diameter of 2 μm with a polydispersity index of 0.16. For cell separation, the MDA-MB-231 cells are incubated with the targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 for 10 min, centrifuged at 10 g for 1 min, and then allowed 1 hour at 4 °C for separation. The results indicate that targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 antibodies can be used to separate MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells; more than 90% of the cells were collected in the MB layer when the ratio of the MBs to cells was higher than 70:1. Furthermore, we found that the separating efficiency was higher for targeted biotin-MBs than for targeted avidin-incorporated albumin MBs (avidin-MBs), which is the most common way to make targeted albumin MBs. We also demonstrated that the recovery rate of targeted biotin-MBs was up to 88% and the sorting purity was higher than 84% for a a heterogenous cell population containing MDA-MB-231 cells (CD44(+)) and MDA-MB-453 cells (CD44-), which are classified as basal-like breast cancer cells and luminal breast cancer cells, respectively. Knowing that the CD44(+) is a commonly used cancer-stem-cell biomarker, our

  5. Buoyancy-Activated Cell Sorting Using Targeted Biotinylated Albumin Microbubbles

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Yu-Ren; Wang, Yu-Hsin; Lee, Chia-Ying; Li, Pai-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Cell analysis often requires the isolation of certain cell types. Various isolation methods have been applied to cell sorting, including florescence-activated cell sorting and magnetic-activated cell sorting. However, these conventional approaches involve exerting mechanical forces on the cells, thus risking cell damage. In this study we applied a novel isolation method called buoyancy-activated cell sorting, which involves using biotinylated albumin microbubbles (biotin-MBs) conjugated with antibodies (i.e., targeted biotin-MBs). Albumin MBs are widely used as contrast agents in ultrasound imaging due to their good biocompatibility and stability. For conjugating antibodies, biotin is conjugated onto the albumin MB shell via covalent bonds and the biotinylated antibodies are conjugated using an avidin-biotin system. The albumin microbubbles had a mean diameter of 2μm with a polydispersity index of 0.16. For cell separation, the MDA-MB-231 cells are incubated with the targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 for 10 min, centrifuged at 10g for 1 min, and then allowed 1 hour at 4°C for separation. The results indicate that targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 antibodies can be used to separate MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells; more than 90% of the cells were collected in the MB layer when the ratio of the MBs to cells was higher than 70:1. Furthermore, we found that the separating efficiency was higher for targeted biotin-MBs than for targeted avidin-incorporated albumin MBs (avidin-MBs), which is the most common way to make targeted albumin MBs. We also demonstrated that the recovery rate of targeted biotin-MBs was up to 88% and the sorting purity was higher than 84% for a a heterogenous cell population containing MDA-MB-231 cells (CD44+) and MDA-MB-453 cells (CD44–), which are classified as basal-like breast cancer cells and luminal breast cancer cells, respectively. Knowing that the CD44+ is a commonly used cancer-stem-cell biomarker, our targeted

  6. Defining linkages between the GSC and NSF's LTER program: How the Ecological Metadata Language (EML) relates to GCDML and other outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Inigo, Gil San; Servilla, Mark; Brunt, James; Michener, William; Sheldon, Wade; Schmidt, Tom; Cole, James; Aguilar, Raul; Gries, Corinna; Gray, Tanya; Field, Dawn; Pan, Jerry Yun; Palanisamy, Giri; Henshaw, Donald; O'Brien, Margaret

    2008-06-01

    The Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) invited a representative of the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) to its fifth workshop to present the Ecological Metadata Language (EML) metadata standard and its relationship to the Minimum Information about a Genome/Metagenome Sequence (MIGS/MIMS) and its implementation, the Genomic Contextual Data Markup Language (GCDML). The LTER is one of the top National Science Foundation (NSF) programs in biology since 1980, representing diverse ecosystems and creating long-term, interdisciplinary research, synthesis of information, and theory. The adoption of EML as the LTER network standard has been key to build network synthesis architectures based on high-quality standardized metadata. EML is the NSF-recognized metadata standard for LTER, and EML is a criteria used to review the LTER program progress. At the workshop, a potential crosswalk between the GCDML and EML was explored. Also, collaboration between the LTER and GSC developers was proposed to join efforts toward a common metadata cataloging designer's tool. The community adoption success of a metadata standard depends, among other factors, on the tools and trainings developed to use the standard. LTER's experience in embracing EML may help GSC to achieve similar success. A possible collaboration between LTER and GSC to provide training opportunities for GCDML and the associated tools is being explored. Finally, LTER is investigating EML enhancements to better accommodate genomics data, possibly integrating the GCDML schema into EML. All these action items have been accepted by the LTER contingent, and further collaboration between the GSC and LTER is expected.

  7. Gravity effects on sediment sorting: limitations of models developed on Earth for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Kuhn, Brigitte; Gartmann, Andres

    2015-04-01

    Most studies on surface processes on planetary bodies assume that the use of empirical models developed for Earth is possible if the mathematical equations include all the relevant factors, such as gravity, viscosity and the density of water and sediment. However, most models for sediment transport on Earth are at least semi-empirical, using coefficients to link observed sediment movement to controlling factors such as flow velocity, slope and channel dimensions. However, using roughness and drag coefficients, as well as parameters describing incipient motion of particles, observed on Earth on another planet, violates, strictly speaking, the boundary conditions set for their application by fluid dynamics because the coefficienst describe a flow condition, not a particle property. Reduced gravity affects the flow around a settling partcile or over the bed of a watercourse, therefore data and models from Earth do not apply to another planet. Comparing observations from reduced gravity experiments and model results obtained on Earth confirm the significance of this error, e.g. by underestimating settling velocities of sandy particles by 10 to 50% for Mars when using models from Earth. In this study, the relevance of this error is examined by simulating the sorting of sediment deposited from water flowing on Mars. The results indicate that sorting on Mars is less pronounced than models calibrated on Earth suggest. This has implications for the selection of landing sites and, more importantly, the identification of strata potentially bearing traces of past life during rover missions on Mars.

  8. Gravity effects on sediment sorting: limitations of models developed on Earth for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, N. J.; Kuhn, B.; Gartmann, A.

    2015-10-01

    Most studies on surface processes on planetary bodies assume that the use of empirical models developed for Earth is possible if the mathematical equations include all the relevant factors, such as gravity, viscosity and the density of water and sediment. However, most models for sediment transport on Earth are at least semi-empirical, using coefficients to link observed sediment movement to controlling factors such as flow velocity, slope and channel dimensions. However, using roughness and drag coefficients, as well as parameters describing incipient motion of particles, observed on Earth on another planet, violates, strictly speaking, the boundary conditions set for their application by fluid dynamics because the coefficienst describe a flow condition, not a particle property. Reduced gravity affects the flow around a settling partcile or over the bed of a watercourse, therefore data and models from Earth do not apply to another planet. Comparing observations from reduced gravity experiments and model results obtained on Earth confirm the significance of this error, e.g. by underestimating settling velocities of sandy particles by 10 to 50% for Mars when using models from Earth. In this study, the relevance of this error is examined by simulating the sorting of sediment deposited from water flowing on Mars. The results indicate that sorting on Mars is less pronounced than models calibrated on Earth suggest. This has implications for the selection of landing sites and,more importantly, the identification of strata potentially bearing traces of past life during rover missions on Mars. try, 2001

  9. New optical configuration for flow cytometric sorting of aspherical cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, John C.; Schaare, Peter N.; Kuennemeyer, Rainer

    1997-05-01

    The orthogonal axes of illumination, flow, and detection in conventional sorting flow cytometers can limit accuracy or throughput when making fluorescence measurements on a spherical cells. A new radially symmetric optical configuration has been designed to overcome these problems. Both illumination and fluorescence collection are performed by a single optical element which encircles the sample stream flow axis. Unlike existing epi-illumination flow cytometer designs, these optics are compatible with electrostatic sorting. The resolution of this system is currently being evaluated for DNA chromosome content measurement with an ultimate goal of separation of X- and Y- chromosome-bearing mammalian spermatozoa. We describe the new optical configuration and present preliminary results of instrument performance. Comparison with a conventional orthogonal optical geometry is made using fluorescent microspheres, chicken red blood cells and chinchilla sperm.

  10. Sorting and Manipulation of Magnetic Droplets in Continuous Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hetlani, Entesar; Hatt, Oliver J.; Vojtíšek, Martin; Tarn, Mark D.; Iles, Alexander; Pamme, Nicole

    2010-12-01

    We report the rapid on-chip generation and subsequent manipulation of magnetic droplets in continuous flow. Magnetic droplets were formed using aqueous-based ferrofluid as the dispersed phase and fluorocarbon oil as the continuous phase. Droplet manipulation was demonstrated with simple permanent magnets using two microfluidic platforms: (i) flow focusing droplet generation followed by their splitting into daughter droplets containing different amounts of magnetic nanoparticles, and (ii) droplet generation at a T-junction and their downstream deflection across a chamber for sorting based on the applied magnetic field and magnetite loading of the droplet. Both systems show great potential for performing a wide range of high throughput continuous flow processes including sample dilution, cell sorting and screening, and microparticle fabrication.

  11. An RGS-containing sorting nexin controls Drosophila lifespan.

    PubMed

    Suh, Jae Myoung; Stenesen, Drew; Peters, John M; Inoue, Akiko; Cade, Angela; Graff, Jonathan M

    2008-01-01

    The pursuit of eternal youth has existed for centuries and recent data indicate that fat-storing tissues control lifespan. In a D. melanogaster fat body insertional mutagenic enhancer trap screen designed to isolate genes that control longevity, we identified a regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) domain containing sorting nexin, termed snazarus (sorting nexin lazarus, snz). Flies with insertions into the 5' UTR of snz live up to twice as long as controls. Transgenic expression of UAS-Snz from the snz Gal4 enhancer trap insertion, active in fat metabolic tissues, rescued lifespan extension. Further, the lifespan extension of snz mutants was independent of endosymbiont, e.g., Wolbachia, effects. Notably, old snz mutant flies remain active and fertile indicating that snz mutants have prolonged youthfulness, a goal of aging research. Since mammals have snz-related genes, it is possible that the functions of the snz family may be conserved to humans. PMID:18478054

  12. Large area magnetic micropallet arrays for cell colony sorting.

    PubMed

    Cox-Muranami, Wesley A; Nelson, Edward L; Li, G P; Bachman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    A new micropallet array platform for adherent cell colony sorting has been developed. The platform consisted of thousands of square plastic pallets, 270 μm by 270 μm on each side, large enough to hold a single colony of cells. Each pallet included a magnetic core, allowing them to be collected with a magnet after being released using a microscope mounted laser system. The micropallets were patterned from 1002F epoxy resist and were fabricated on translucent, gold coated microscope slides. The gold layer was used as seed for electroplating the ferromagnetic cores within every individual pallet. The gold layer also facilitated the release of each micropallet during laser release. This array allows for individual observation, sorting and collection of isolated cell colonies for biological cell colony research. In addition to consistent release and recovery of individual colonies, we demonstrated stable biocompatibility and minimal loss in imaging quality compared to previously developed micropallet arrays. PMID:26606460

  13. Self-organized sorting limits behavioral variability in swarms

    PubMed Central

    Copenhagen, Katherine; Quint, David A.; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Swarming is a phenomenon where collective motion arises from simple local interactions between typically identical individuals. Here, we investigate the effects of variability in behavior among the agents in finite swarms with both alignment and cohesive interactions. We show that swarming is abolished above a critical fraction of non-aligners who do not participate in alignment. In certain regimes, however, swarms above the critical threshold can dynamically reorganize and sort out excess non-aligners to maintain the average fraction close to the critical value. This persists even in swarms with a distribution of alignment interactions, suggesting a simple, robust and efficient mechanism that allows heterogeneously mixed populations to naturally regulate their composition and remain in a collective swarming state or even differentiate among behavioral phenotypes. We show that, for evolving swarms, this self-organized sorting behavior can couple to the evolutionary dynamics leading to new evolutionarily stable equilibrium populations set by the physical swarm parameters. PMID:27550316

  14. Self-organized sorting limits behavioral variability in swarms.

    PubMed

    Copenhagen, Katherine; Quint, David A; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Swarming is a phenomenon where collective motion arises from simple local interactions between typically identical individuals. Here, we investigate the effects of variability in behavior among the agents in finite swarms with both alignment and cohesive interactions. We show that swarming is abolished above a critical fraction of non-aligners who do not participate in alignment. In certain regimes, however, swarms above the critical threshold can dynamically reorganize and sort out excess non-aligners to maintain the average fraction close to the critical value. This persists even in swarms with a distribution of alignment interactions, suggesting a simple, robust and efficient mechanism that allows heterogeneously mixed populations to naturally regulate their composition and remain in a collective swarming state or even differentiate among behavioral phenotypes. We show that, for evolving swarms, this self-organized sorting behavior can couple to the evolutionary dynamics leading to new evolutionarily stable equilibrium populations set by the physical swarm parameters. PMID:27550316

  15. Cell wall sorting of lipoproteins in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Navarre, W W; Daefler, S; Schneewind, O

    1996-01-01

    Many surface proteins are thought to be anchored to the cell wall of gram-positive organisms via their C termini, while the N-terminal domains of these molecules are displayed on the bacterial surface. Cell wall anchoring of surface proteins in Staphylococcus aureus requires both an N-terminal leader peptide and a C-terminal cell wall sorting signal. By fusing the cell wall sorting of protein A to the C terminus of staphylococcal beta-lactamase, we demonstrate here that lipoproteins can also be anchored to the cell wall of S. aureus. The topology of cell wall-anchored beta-lactamase is reminiscent of that described for Braun's murein lipoprotein in that the N terminus of the polypeptide chain is membrane anchored whereas the C-terminal end is tethered to the bacterial cell wall. PMID:8550464

  16. Spatial sorting promotes the spread of maladaptive hybridization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowe, Winsor H.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive hybridization is causing loss of biodiversity worldwide. The spread of such introgression can occur even when hybrids have reduced Darwinian fitness, which decreases the frequency of hybrids due to low survival or reproduction through time. This paradox can be partially explained by spatial sorting, where genotypes associated with dispersal increase in frequency at the edge of expansion, fueling further expansion and allowing invasive hybrids to increase in frequency through space rather than time. Furthermore, because all progeny of a hybrid will be hybrids (i.e., will possess genes from both parental taxa), nonnative admixture in invaded populations can increase even when most hybrid progeny do not survive. Broader understanding of spatial sorting is needed to protect native biodiversity.

  17. Theoretical model for morphogenesis and cell sorting in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, T.; Inouye, K.

    1999-02-01

    The morphogenetic movement and cell sorting in cell aggregates from the mound stage to the migrating slug stage of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum were studied using a mathematical model. The model postulates that the motive force generated by the cells is in equilibrium with the internal pressure and mechanical resistance. The moving boundary problem derived from the force balance equation and the continuity equation has stationary solutions in which the aggregate takes the shape of a spheroid (or an ellipse in two-dimensional space) with the pacemaker at one of its foci, moving at a constant speed. Numerical calculations in two-dimensional space showed that an irregularly shaped aggregate changes its shape to become an ellipse as it moves. Cell aggregates consisting of two cell types differing in motive force exhibit cell sorting and become elongated, suggesting the importance of prestalk/prespore differentiation in the morphogenesis of Dictyostelium.

  18. Past, present and future of spike sorting techniques

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Hernan Gonzalo; Pedreira, Carlos; Quian Quiroga, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Spike sorting is a crucial step to extract information from extracellular recordings. With new recording opportunities provided by the development of new electrodes that allow monitoring hundreds of neurons simultaneously, the scenario for the new generation of algorithms is both exciting and challenging. However, this will require a new approach to the problem and the development of a common reference framework to quickly assess the performance of new algorithms. In this work, we review the basic concepts of spike sorting, including the requirements for different applications, together with the problems faced by presently available algorithms. We conclude by proposing a roadmap stressing the crucial points to be addressed to support the neuroscientific research of the near future. PMID:25931392

  19. Control of a brain-computer interface without spike sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, George W.; Chase, Steven M.; Whitford, Andrew; Schwartz, Andrew B.

    2009-10-01

    Two rhesus monkeys were trained to move a cursor using neural activity recorded with silicon arrays of 96 microelectrodes implanted in the primary motor cortex. We have developed a method to extract movement information from the recorded single and multi-unit activity in the absence of spike sorting. By setting a single threshold across all channels and fitting the resultant events with a spline tuning function, a control signal was extracted from this population using a Bayesian particle-filter extraction algorithm. The animals achieved high-quality control comparable to the performance of decoding schemes based on sorted spikes. Our results suggest that even the simplest signal processing is sufficient for high-quality neuroprosthetic control.

  20. Method and apparatus for electrostatically sorting biological cells

    DOEpatents

    Merrill, John T.

    1982-01-01

    An improved method of sorting biological cells in a conventional cell sorter apparatus includes generating a fluid jet containing cells to be sorted, measuring the distance between the centers of adjacent droplets in a zone thereof defined at the point where the fluid jet separates into descrete droplets, setting the distance between the center of a droplet in said separation zone and the position along said fluid jet at which the cell is optically sensed for specific characteristics to be an integral multiple of said center-to-center distance, and disabling a charger from electrically charging a specific droplet if a cell is detected by the optical sensor in a position wherein it will be in the neck area between droplets during droplet formation rather than within a predetermined distance from the droplet center.

  1. Osteogenic potential of sorted equine mesenchymal stem cell subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Radtke, Catherine L.; Nino-Fong, Rodolfo; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan Carlos; Esparza Gonzalez, Blanca P.; Stryhn, Henrik; McDuffee, Laurie A.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to use non-equilibrium gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF), an immunotag-less method of sorting mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), to sort equine muscle tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MMSCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) into subpopulations and to carry out assays in order to compare their osteogenic capabilities. Cells from 1 young adult horse were isolated from left semitendinosus muscle tissue and from bone marrow aspirates of the fourth and fifth sternebrae. Aliquots of 800 × 103 MSCs from each tissue source were sorted into 5 fractions using non-equilibrium GrFFF (GrFFF proprietary system). Pooled fractions were cultured and expanded for use in osteogenic assays, including flow cytometry, histochemistry, bone nodule assays, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for gene expression of osteocalcin (OCN), RUNX2, and osterix. Equine MMSCs and BMSCs were consistently sorted into 5 fractions that remained viable for use in further osteogenic assays. Statistical analysis confirmed strongly significant upregulation of OCN, RUNX2, and osterix for the BMSC fraction 4 with P < 0.00001. Flow cytometry revealed different cell size and granularity for BMSC fraction 4 and MMSC fraction 2 compared to unsorted controls and other fractions. Histochemisty and bone nodule assays revealed positive staining nodules without differences in average nodule area, perimeter, or stain intensity between tissues or fractions. As there are different subpopulations of MSCs with different osteogenic capacities within equine muscle- and bone marrow-derived sources, these differences must be taken into account when using equine stem cell therapy to induce bone healing in veterinary medicine. PMID:25852225

  2. Thiazyl Trifluoride (NSF3) Adducts and Imidodifluorosulfate (F2OSN-) Derivatives of Hg(OTeF5)2.

    PubMed

    DeBackere, John R; Mercier, Hélène P A; Schrobilgen, Gary J

    2015-10-19

    Reactions of Hg(OTeF5)2 with excess amounts of NSF3 at 0 °C result in the formation of NSF3 adducts having the compositions [Hg(OTeF5)2·N≡SF3]∞ (1), [Hg(OTeF5)2·2N≡SF3]2 (2), and Hg3(OTeF5)6·4N≡SF3 (3). When the reactions are carried out at room temperature, oxygen/fluorine metatheses occur yielding the F2OSN- derivatives [Hg(OTeF5)(N═SOF2)·N≡SF3]∞ (4) and [Hg3(OTeF5)5(N═SOF2)·2N≡SF3]2 (5). The proposed reaction pathway leading to F2OSN- group formation occurs by nucleophilic attack by a F5TeO- group at the sulfur(VI) atom of NSF3, followed by TeF6 elimination. Tellurium hexafluoride formation was confirmed by (19)F NMR spectroscopy. The NSF3 molecules are terminally N-coordinated to mercury, whereas the F2OSN- ligands are N-bridged to two mercury atoms. The compound series was characterized by low-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction and low-temperature Raman spectroscopy. Several structural motifs are observed within this structurally diverse series. These include the infinite chain structures of the related compounds, 1 and 4; 2, a dimeric structure which possesses an (HgO(μ))2 ring at its core; 3, a structure based on a cage comprised of a (HgO(μ))3 ring that is capped on each face by μ(3)-oxygen bridged F5TeO- groups; and 5, a dimeric structure possessing two distorted (Hg3O2N) rings that are formally derived from 3 by replacement of a F5TeO- group by a F2OSN- group in each ring. Quantum-chemical calculations were carried out to gain insight into the bonding of the μ(3)-oxygen bridged teflate groups observed in structure 3. Compounds 1-5 represent a novel class of neutral transition metal complexes with NSF3, providing the first examples of NSF3 coordination to mercury. Compounds 4 and 5 also provide the only examples of F2OSN- derivatives of mercury that have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. PMID:26413855

  3. Sort-Mid tasks scheduling algorithm in grid computing.

    PubMed

    Reda, Naglaa M; Tawfik, A; Marzok, Mohamed A; Khamis, Soheir M

    2015-11-01

    Scheduling tasks on heterogeneous resources distributed over a grid computing system is an NP-complete problem. The main aim for several researchers is to develop variant scheduling algorithms for achieving optimality, and they have shown a good performance for tasks scheduling regarding resources selection. However, using of the full power of resources is still a challenge. In this paper, a new heuristic algorithm called Sort-Mid is proposed. It aims to maximizing the utilization and minimizing the makespan. The new strategy of Sort-Mid algorithm is to find appropriate resources. The base step is to get the average value via sorting list of completion time of each task. Then, the maximum average is obtained. Finally, the task has the maximum average is allocated to the machine that has the minimum completion time. The allocated task is deleted and then, these steps are repeated until all tasks are allocated. Experimental tests show that the proposed algorithm outperforms almost other algorithms in terms of resources utilization and makespan. PMID:26644937

  4. Differential evolution enhanced with multiobjective sorting-based mutation operators.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiahai; Liao, Jianjun; Zhou, Ying; Cai, Yiqiao

    2014-12-01

    Differential evolution (DE) is a simple and powerful population-based evolutionary algorithm. The salient feature of DE lies in its mutation mechanism. Generally, the parents in the mutation operator of DE are randomly selected from the population. Hence, all vectors are equally likely to be selected as parents without selective pressure at all. Additionally, the diversity information is always ignored. In order to fully exploit the fitness and diversity information of the population, this paper presents a DE framework with multiobjective sorting-based mutation operator. In the proposed mutation operator, individuals in the current population are firstly sorted according to their fitness and diversity contribution by nondominated sorting. Then parents in the mutation operators are proportionally selected according to their rankings based on fitness and diversity, thus, the promising individuals with better fitness and diversity have more opportunity to be selected as parents. Since fitness and diversity information is simultaneously considered for parent selection, a good balance between exploration and exploitation can be achieved. The proposed operator is applied to original DE algorithms, as well as several advanced DE variants. Experimental results on 48 benchmark functions and 12 real-world application problems show that the proposed operator is an effective approach to enhance the performance of most DE algorithms studied. PMID:24802378

  5. Continuous-feed optical sorting of aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Curry, J J; Levine, Zachary H

    2016-06-27

    We consider the problem of sorting, by size, spherical particles of order 100 nm radius. The scheme we analyze consists of a heterogeneous stream of spherical particles flowing at an oblique angle across an optical Gaussian mode standing wave. Sorting is achieved by the combined spatial and size dependencies of the optical force. Particles of all sizes enter the flow at a point, but exit at different locations depending on size. Exiting particles may be detected optically or separated for further processing. The scheme has the advantages of accommodating a high throughput, producing a continuous stream of continuously dispersed particles, and exhibiting excellent size resolution. We performed detailed Monte Carlo simulations of particle trajectories through the optical field under the influence of convective air flow. We also developed a method for deriving effective velocities and diffusion constants from the Fokker-Planck equation that can generate equivalent results much more quickly. With an optical wavelength of 1064 nm, polystyrene particles with radii in the neighborhood of 275 nm, for which the optical force vanishes, may be sorted with a resolution below 1 nm. PMID:27410570

  6. Aqueous Self-Sorting in Extended Supramolecular Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Rest, Christina; Mayoral, María José; Fernández, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Self-organization and self-sorting processes are responsible for the regulation and control of the vast majority of biological processes that eventually sustain life on our planet. Attempts to unveil the complexity of these systems have been devoted to the investigation of the binding processes between artificial molecules, complexes or aggregates within multicomponent mixtures, which has facilitated the emergence of the field of self-sorting in the last decade. Since, artificial systems involving discrete supramolecular structures, extended supramolecular aggregates or gel-phase materials in organic solvents or—to a lesser extent—in water have been investigated. In this review, we have collected diverse strategies employed in recent years to construct extended supramolecular aggregates in water upon self-sorting of small synthetic molecules. We have made particular emphasis on co-assembly processes in binary mixtures leading to supramolecular structures of remarkable complexity and the influence of different external variables such as solvent and concentration to direct recognition or discrimination processes between these species. The comprehension of such recognition phenomena will be crucial for the organization and evolution of complex matter. PMID:23344056

  7. Differential vesicular sorting of AMPA and GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yi; Chiu, Shu-Ling; Liu, Bian; Wu, Pei-Hsun; Delannoy, Michael; Lin, Da-Ting; Wirtz, Denis; Huganir, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    In mature neurons AMPA receptors cluster at excitatory synapses primarily on dendritic spines, whereas GABAA receptors cluster at inhibitory synapses mainly on the soma and dendritic shafts. The molecular mechanisms underlying the precise sorting of these receptors remain unclear. By directly studying the constitutive exocytic vesicles of AMPA and GABAA receptors in vitro and in vivo, we demonstrate that they are initially sorted into different vesicles in the Golgi apparatus and inserted into distinct domains of the plasma membrane. These insertions are dependent on distinct Rab GTPases and SNARE complexes. The insertion of AMPA receptors requires SNAP25–syntaxin1A/B–VAMP2 complexes, whereas insertion of GABAA receptors relies on SNAP23–syntaxin1A/B–VAMP2 complexes. These SNARE complexes affect surface targeting of AMPA or GABAA receptors and synaptic transmission. Our studies reveal vesicular sorting mechanisms controlling the constitutive exocytosis of AMPA and GABAA receptors, which are critical for the regulation of excitatory and inhibitory responses in neurons. PMID:26839408

  8. GRAIN SORTING IN COMETARY DUST FROM THE OUTER SOLAR NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Bradley, J. P.; Ishii, H. A.; Brownlee, D. E.; Kearsley, A. T.; Burchell, M. J.; Price, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Most young stars are surrounded by a disk of gas and dust. Close to the hot stars, amorphous dust grains from the parent molecular cloud are reprocessed into crystals that are then distributed throughout the accretion disk. In some disks, there is a reduction in crystalline grain size with heliocentric distance from the star. We investigated crystalline grain size distributions in chondritic porous (CP) interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) believed to be from small, icy bodies that accreted in outer regions of the solar nebula. The grains are Mg-rich silicates and Fe-rich sulfides, the two most abundant minerals in CP IDPs. We find that they are predominantly <0.25 {mu}m in radius with a mean grain size that varies from one CP IDP to another. We report a size-density relationship between the silicates and sulfides. A similar size-density relationship between much larger silicate and sulfide grains in meteorites from the asteroid belt is ascribed to aerodynamic sorting. Since the silicate and sulfide grains in CP IDPs are theoretically too small for aerodynamic sorting, their size-density relationship may be due to another process capable of sorting small grains.

  9. Sorted consecutive local binary pattern for texture classification.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jongbin; Hong, Sungeun; Yang, Hyun S

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a sorted consecutive local binary pattern (scLBP) for texture classification. Conventional methods encode only patterns whose spatial transitions are not more than two, whereas scLBP encodes patterns regardless of their spatial transition. Conventional methods do not encode patterns on account of rotation-invariant encoding; on the other hand, patterns with more than two spatial transitions have discriminative power. The proposed scLBP encodes all patterns with any number of spatial transitions while maintaining their rotation-invariant nature by sorting the consecutive patterns. In addition, we introduce dictionary learning of scLBP based on kd-tree which separates data with a space partitioning strategy. Since the elements of sorted consecutive patterns lie in different space, it can be generated to a discriminative code with kd-tree. Finally, we present a framework in which scLBPs and the kd-tree can be combined and utilized. The results of experimental evaluation on five texture data sets--Outex, CUReT, UIUC, UMD, and KTH-TIPS2-a--indicate that our proposed framework achieves the best classification rate on the CUReT, UMD, and KTH-TIPS2-a data sets compared with conventional methods. The results additionally indicate that only a marginal difference exists between the best classification rate of conventional methods and that of the proposed framework on the UIUC and Outex data sets. PMID:25850088

  10. Quadrupole Magnetic Sorting of Porcine Islets of Langerhans

    PubMed Central

    Shenkman, Rustin M.; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Hering, Bernhard J.; Kirchhof, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Islet transplantation is emerging as a treatment option for selected patients with type 1 diabetes. Inconsistent isolation, purification, and recovery of large numbers of high-quality islets remain substantial impediments to progress in the field. Removing islets as soon as they are liberated from the pancreas during digestion and circumventing the need for density gradient purification is likely to result in substantially increased viable islet yields by minimizing exposure to proteolytic enzymes, reactive oxygen intermediates, and mechanical stress associated with centrifugation. This study capitalized on the hypervascularity of islets compared with acinar tissue to explore their preferential enrichment with magnetic beads to enable immediate separation in a magnetic field utilizing a quadrupole magnetic sorting. The results demonstrate that (1) preferential enrichment of porcine islets is achievable, but homogeneous bead distribution within the pancreas is difficult to achieve with current protocols; (2) greater than 70% of islets in the dissociated pancreatic tissue were recovered by quadrupole magnetic sorting, but their purity was low; and (3) infused islets purified by density gradients and subsequently passed through quadrupole magnetic sorting had similar potency as uninfused islets. These results demonstrate proof of concept and define the steps for implementation of this technology in pig and human islet isolation. PMID:19505179

  11. Color sorting algorithm based on K-means clustering algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, BaoFeng; Huang, Qian

    2009-11-01

    In the process of raisin production, there were a variety of color impurities, which needs be removed effectively. A new kind of efficient raisin color-sorting algorithm was presented here. First, the technology of image processing basing on the threshold was applied for the image pre-processing, and then the gray-scale distribution characteristic of the raisin image was found. In order to get the chromatic aberration image and reduce some disturbance, we made the flame image subtraction that the target image data minus the background image data. Second, Haar wavelet filter was used to get the smooth image of raisins. According to the different colors and mildew, spots and other external features, the calculation was made to identify the characteristics of their images, to enable them to fully reflect the quality differences between the raisins of different types. After the processing above, the image were analyzed by K-means clustering analysis method, which can achieve the adaptive extraction of the statistic features, in accordance with which, the image data were divided into different categories, thereby the categories of abnormal colors were distinct. By the use of this algorithm, the raisins of abnormal colors and ones with mottles were eliminated. The sorting rate was up to 98.6%, and the ratio of normal raisins to sorted grains was less than one eighth.

  12. Rab1a regulates sorting of early endocytic vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Aparna; Quiroz, Jose A.

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that Rab1a is associated with asialoorosomucoid (ASOR)-containing early endocytic vesicles, where it is required for their microtubule-based motility. In Rab1a knockdown (KD) cell lines, ASOR failed to segregate from its receptor and, consequently, did not reach lysosomes for degradation, indicating a defect in early endosome sorting. Although Rab1 is required for Golgi/endoplasmic reticulum trafficking, this process was unaffected, likely due to retained expression of Rab1b in these cells. The present study shows that Rab1a has a more general role in endocytic vesicle processing that extends to EGF and transferrin (Tfn) trafficking. Compared with results in control Huh7 cells, EGF accumulated in aggregates within Rab1a KD cells, failing to reach lysosomal compartments. Tfn, a prototypical example of recycling cargo, accumulated in a Rab11-mediated slow-recycling compartment in Rab1a KD cells, in contrast to control cells, which sort Tfn into a fast-recycling Rab4 compartment. These data indicate that Rab1a is an important regulator of early endosome sorting for multiple cargo species. The effectors and accessory proteins recruited by Rab1a to early endocytic vesicles include the minus-end-directed kinesin motor KifC1, while others remain to be discovered. PMID:24407591

  13. Sex-sorting of boar spermatozoa does not influence the localization of glucose transporters.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Diego; Galeati, Giovanna; Giaretta, Elisa; Tamanini, Carlo; Spinaci, Marcella

    2013-12-01

    Sex-sorting damages spermatozoa function, shortening their lifespan and fertility. This study used an immunofluorescence technique to investigate the effect of sex-sorting on the localization of glucose transporters (GLUTs) in boar spermatozoa. GLUTs are trans-membrane proteins responsible for glucose transport within cells. Distribution of GLUTs on sperm cells was similar in unsorted and sex-sorted semen, suggesting that the flow cytometric sex-sorting process did not affect the sperm energy apparatus. PMID:24287043

  14. First Applications of DoD Iridium RUDICS in the NSF Polar Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentic, T.; Stehle, R.

    2008-12-01

    be deployed that better exploit the characteristics of the Iridium channel. In addition, the setup naturally scales to handle hundreds of remote devices, an important aspect for larger sensor networks. As part of the NSF's Arctic Research Support and Logistics Services, we have deployed RUDICS systems with three different research projects. These are the first NSF RUDICS deployments for projects using the Department of Defense Iridium gateway, which allows for unlimited connection time at a flat monthly rate for US government users. The first project is O-Buoy, an IPY-OASIS project for self-contained, autonomous observations of atmospheric chemical species in the polar marine boundary layer. The second project is collection of low-power instrument towers on Alaska's North Slope at Imnavait Creek, part of the Arctic Observation Network (AON). Lastly, the autonomous instrument platform at Ivotuk, Alaska, uses RUDICS to provide telemetry about the renewable energy systems. A set of real-time web displays allow researchers for each project to monitor their remote sites and access real-time data.

  15. NSF-PARCS: A Case Study in Proxy Climate Syntheses for the CCSP Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvall, M.; Kaufman, D.; MacDonald, G.

    2004-12-01

    The research agenda of the NSF-funded Paleoenvironmental Arctic Sciences (PARCS) program has focused recently on high-resolution records that provide quantifiable estimates of past climates. Syntheses of this research are planned to meet the needs of both the research community and the US Climate Change Science Program. PARCS provides a case study into how proxy climate data generated by a group of collaborating scientists have input into a broader assessment. PARCS was founded in 1999 as an NSF initiative straddling the Arctic System Science (ARCSS) and the Earth System History (ESH) programs to foster a wide range of research on paleoenvironmental change in the Arctic. In March 2001, the PARCS scientific community met to focus its research agenda with the goal of more directly contributing to global-change assessments by providing high-resolution, quantified estimates of past climate. The result was the science plan, "Modes of Arctic Climate Variability and Warmth," an area of research interest under the ESH Program. The plan identified a suite of deliverables that mesh with products now identified by the 2003 CCSP. PARCS has organized workshops addressing this suite of deliverables on the subjects of warm Arctic scenarios (the last interglacial and the Holocene thermal maximum) and variability in Arctic summer temperatures (annual to decadal scale resolution) to review and assemble proxy climate data in preparation for peer-reviewed summaries and for broader dissemination of data syntheses. The goal is to generate data related to these specific themes, and to integrate these data with records currently being produced by other groups nationally and internationally. The data will be assembled, analyzed, and presented as part of a searchable geo-referenced database. PARCS' vehicle for presenting these syntheses beyond peer-reviewed publication is a web-enabled database. The database is being assembled by a PARCS-dedicated data manager whose duties include creation

  16. The Extensive View of Hydrologic Science Taken in the NSF Program: Interfaces with Geochemistry and Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornberger, G. M.

    2009-12-01

    The 1991 NRC publication Opportunities in the Hydrologic Sciences (the “Eagleson Report”) identified one part of the domain of the science as “the physical and chemical processes characterizing or driven by the cycling of continental water at all scales as well as those biological processes that interact significantly with the water cycle.” The statement is in keeping with the grand view of hydrologic science cogently presented in the report and clearly hints at an ambitious agenda. The NSF Geosciences Directorate initiated the Hydrologic Sciences Program in 1992 with an initial funding level of $2M. The formation of the Program represents a notable achievement and the Program has grown by leaps and bounds as judged using any sensible metric. It is fair to ask, nevertheless, whether the Program was able to embrace the extensive vision presented in the Eagleson report. As a particular example, one can ask whether processes involving chemistry and biology became key components. A search of the NSF data base restricted to expired awards, Hydrologic Sciences as the program, James as the project officer, and individually with key words “biogeochemistry”, “geochemistry”, “ecology”, and “water quality” indicates that 95 awards were begun and completed since the program inception. The topics of the proposals range widely and include, for example, work on links between tectonism and water quality, on sediment dynamics in large drainage basins, on arsenic speciation along groundwater flow paths, on canopy stomatal conductance and forest transpiration, and on the effects of climate variability on wetlands. Results from the various researches have enriched the discipline and transformed our thinking in profound ways. Discoveries of direct pathways between the mantle and the near-surface hydrologic system via the active magmatic and fault systems of the southwestern USA and of a significant contribution to the solute load of large streams from Hot

  17. Sustaining professional development gains after the NSF-CCLI grant ends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, K.; Dekens, P. S.; Dempsey, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    At San Francisco State University we aimed to transform our freshman-level courses in geology, oceanography, and meteorology using funding from a NSF-CCLI grant—"Creating an academic community to foster curiosity and discovery in introductory Geoscience classes" (2010-2012). In addition to creating a new laboratory space and new laboratory materials, we focused on the professional development of graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) and other departmental instructors. Previously, GTAs were given little support to gain teaching skills and present interesting labs, and there was little communication among the various instructors of the introductory courses. We aimed to change the tenor of the department by infusing discussions about effective teaching practices into the daily academic lives of faculty and GTAs and by creating institutional structures to ensure that innovations continued beyond the life of the NSF grant. We entitled this function of the department a Teaching and Learning Community (TLC). An essential element of the TLC, and the institutionalization of project activities, was to create a new graduate seminar course—"Our Dynamic Classroom"—that is offered every semester. This course was created to provide a mechanism for instructors to meet each week to discuss aspects of teaching pedagogy and to share classroom experiences. Each week a GTA or faculty member leads the discussion. Typical weekly topics include: what is inquiry-based learning, understanding students' misconceptions, teaching quantitative skills, what is the affective domain, improving students' writing skills. In response to participant feedback, the course now focuses more on the needs of specific instructors teaching specific courses. For example, in Spring 2012, seminar participants identified several issues GTAs were encountering, such as students failing to read instructions for labs before executing them, and some members of small collaborative groups not actively participating

  18. Highlights and Challenges in Education, Outreach, and Undergraduate Mentoring from an NSF Hydrologic Sciences CAREER Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogue, T. S.

    2011-12-01

    A recent CAREER award (2009) has been used to facilitate environmentally-based outreach and education in local urban Los Angeles schools, primarily through an established NSF GK-12 program. Mini-weather stations, purchased through this CAREER award, were installed at two partner GK-12 schools, University High School (LAUSD) and Culver City Middle School (CCUSD). Each system contains an automated data logging system that record continuous observations of a range of variables (including precipitation, UV, temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, dewpoint temperature and pressure). Observations are being downloaded and used by GK-12 Fellows and Teachers in curriculum development. In addition, the PI has worked with the GK-12 fellows in developing water-related inquiry lessons for both middle and high school science curriculum. Specific lessons facilitated during the initial stages of this CAREER award include urban ecosystems and satellite imagery, water quality, stream biota and ecosystem health, water treatment, urban climate and heat index, and soil chemistry testing. All lessons that have been implemented in the middle or high school classrooms are uploaded to the SEE-LA GK-12 website (http://measure.igpp.ucla.edu/GK12-SEE-LA/lessons.html). Examples of lesson development and integration in the classroom setting will be highlighted as well as tools required for sustainability of the projects. In addition to the K-12 outreach activities, the PI has engaged several undergraduates in independent research projects, working on various aspects of the primary research project. Highlights and lessons learned from outreach and mentoring activities will be presented.

  19. Key Concepts in Geomorphology - NSF supports community-based creation of a new style of textbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierman, P. R.; Montgomery, D. R.; Massey, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Using support from the National Science Foundation, we have created an all new textbook that differs from existing books and serves as a model for extensive community involvement and vetting at all stages from initial outlining through chapter development and revision to final review. The new textbook is designed to serve undergraduate students in first year courses about Earth Surface Processes, Physical Geography, and Quaternary Geology. The approach we employed to create this book could easily be adapted to creating books in other disciplines. The new textbook differs from existing books because it is shorter and focuses on the key concepts of the discipline rather than on specific derivations or place-based examples. A series of >200 electronic resources developed by community members as part of this project (http://serc.carleton.edu/vignettes) provide more detail and geographically specific case-studies that faculty and students need for place-or content-based teaching and learning. NSF support provided for extensive review to ensure accuracy and completeness. Each chapter was reviewed at least twice by two experts in the chapter's content area. Every chapter was also vetted by 8 to 10 generalist reviewers before extensive copyediting. The entire textbook was edited by two senior geomorphologists and a technical editor with expertise in geomorphology. The textbook has 14 chapters organized into four sections. Each chapter includes between 10 and 14 newly drafted, full-color figures designed specifically for novice learners. Between 20 and 30 annotated color photographs illustrate each of the chapters. At the end of each chapter, the Digging Deeper section presents an in depth look at the development of scientific thought on a problem relevant to the chapter along with a worked problem and a series of questions that allow students to test their mastery of the material.

  20. The ASM-NSF Biology Scholars Program: An Evidence-Based Model for Faculty Development.

    PubMed

    Chang, Amy L; Pribbenow, Christine M

    2016-05-01

    The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) established its ASM-NSF (National Science Foundation) Biology Scholars Program (BSP) to promote undergraduate education reform by 1) supporting biologists to implement evidence-based teaching practices, 2) engaging life science professional societies to facilitate biologists' leadership in scholarly teaching within the discipline, and 3) participating in a teaching community that fosters disciplinary-level science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) reform. Since 2005, the program has utilized year-long residency training to provide a continuum of learning and practice centered on principles from the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) to more than 270 participants ("scholars") from biology and multiple other disciplines. Additionally, the program has recruited 11 life science professional societies to support faculty development in SoTL and discipline-based education research (DBER). To identify the BSP's long-term outcomes and impacts, ASM engaged an external evaluator to conduct a study of the program's 2010-2014 scholars (n = 127) and society partners. The study methods included online surveys, focus groups, participant observation, and analysis of various documents. Study participants indicate that the program achieved its proposed goals relative to scholarship, professional society impact, leadership, community, and faculty professional development. Although participants also identified barriers that hindered elements of their BSP participation, findings suggest that the program was essential to their development as faculty and provides evidence of the BSP as a model for other societies seeking to advance undergraduate science education reform. The BSP is the longest-standing faculty development program sponsored by a collective group of life science societies. This collaboration promotes success across a fragmented system of more than 80 societies representing the life sciences and helps