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Sample records for factor principal del

  1. PROJECTED PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS IN FACTOR MODELS

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Liao, Yuan; Wang, Weichen

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a Projected Principal Component Analysis (Projected-PCA), which employees principal component analysis to the projected (smoothed) data matrix onto a given linear space spanned by covariates. When it applies to high-dimensional factor analysis, the projection removes noise components. We show that the unobserved latent factors can be more accurately estimated than the conventional PCA if the projection is genuine, or more precisely, when the factor loading matrices are related to the projected linear space. When the dimensionality is large, the factors can be estimated accurately even when the sample size is finite. We propose a flexible semi-parametric factor model, which decomposes the factor loading matrix into the component that can be explained by subject-specific covariates and the orthogonal residual component. The covariates’ effects on the factor loadings are further modeled by the additive model via sieve approximations. By using the newly proposed Projected-PCA, the rates of convergence of the smooth factor loading matrices are obtained, which are much faster than those of the conventional factor analysis. The convergence is achieved even when the sample size is finite and is particularly appealing in the high-dimension-low-sample-size situation. This leads us to developing nonparametric tests on whether observed covariates have explaining powers on the loadings and whether they fully explain the loadings. The proposed method is illustrated by both simulated data and the returns of the components of the S&P 500 index. PMID:26783374

  2. Contextual Factors Related to Elementary Principal Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partlow, Michelle C.

    2007-01-01

    The issue of school leadership instability and how it affects schools and student achievement has been studied. The question of how to predict turnover of the principal remains an unknown. The purpose of this research was to search for possible relationships between certain contextual variables and principal turnover and to test the independent…

  3. Principal Leadership: Factors Sustaining Successful School Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Cristina Candelaria

    2010-01-01

    The study examines how urban school principals lead schools that make a difference for children in challenging settings. This research delves deeply into the experiences of three urban public school principals in the School District of Philadelphia in Pennsylvania, who used technology as an avenue to improve educational options for their students.…

  4. Data structure characterization of miltispectral data using principal component and principal factor analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jae K.; Mausel, Paul W.; Lulla, Kamlesh P.

    1989-01-01

    Both principal component analysis (PCA) and principal factor analysis (PFA) were used to analyze an experimental multispectral data structure in terms of common and unique variance. Only the common variance of the multispectral data was associated with the principal factor, while higher-order principal components were associated with both common and unique variance. The unique variance was found to represent small spectral variations within each cover type as well as noise vectors, and was most abundant in the lower-order principal components. The lower-order principal components can be useful in research designed to discriminate minor physical variations within features, and to highlight localized change when using multitemporal-multispectral data. Conversely, PFA of the multispectral data provided an insight into a great potential for discriminating basic land-cover types by excluding the unique variance which was related to the noise and minor spectral variations.

  5. Principals' Perception regarding Factors Affecting the Performance of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akram, Muhammad Javaid; Raza, Syed Ahmad; Khaleeq, Abdur Rehman; Atika, Samrana

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the perception of principals on how the factors of subject mastery, teaching methodology, personal characteristics, and attitude toward students affect the performance of teachers at higher secondary level in the Punjab. All principals of higher secondary level in the Punjab were part of the population of the study. From…

  6. Job Satisfaction: Factor Analysis of Greek Primary School Principals' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiti, Anna; Fassoulis, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that affect the level of job satisfaction that school principals experience and, based on the findings, to suggest policies or techniques for improving it. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires were administered to 180 primary school heads in 13 prefectures--one from each of…

  7. The Relation between Factor Score Estimates, Image Scores, and Principal Component Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velicer, Wayne F.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the relation between factor score estimates, principal component scores, and image scores. The three methods compared are maximum likelihood factor analysis, principal component analysis, and a variant of rescaled image analysis. (RC)

  8. Factors Impacting Principals' Career Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorapuru, Wylene M.

    2012-01-01

    Federal legislation and educational programs such as "No Child Left Behind" (2001) and "Race to the Top" (2009) identify school leaders as one of the major catalysts to improving academic achievement. Increasing accountability demands call for replacement of the principal when adequate gains in student achievement are not met,…

  9. Reassessing the Behavior of Principals as a Multiple-Factor in Teachers' Job Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogler, Ronit

    This paper reports on a study that examined the effects of three factors on teacher satisfaction: principal leadership style (transformational or transactional), principal decision-making strategy (autocratic versus participative), and teachers' perceptions of their occupation. An overview of each of the three factors is provided. For the study, a…

  10. Modeling PCB dechlorination in aquatic sediments by principal component based factor analysis and positive matrix factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, E. R.; Bzdusek, P. A.

    2003-04-01

    Anaerobic PCB dechlorination in aquatic sediments is a naturally occurring process that reduces the dioxin-like PCB toxicity. The PCB biphenyl structure is kept intact but the number of substituted chlorine atoms is reduced, primarily from the para and meta positions. Flanked para and meta chlorine dechlorination, as in process H/H', appears to be more common in-situ than flanked and unflanked para, and meta dechlorination as in process Q. Aroclors that are susceptible to these reactions include 1242, 1248, 1254, and 1260. These dechlorination reactions have recently been modeled by a least squares method for Ashtabula River, Ohio, and Fox River, Wisconsin sediments. Prior to modeling the dechlorination reactions for an ecosystem it is desirable to generate overall PCB source functions. One method to determine source functions is to use loading matrices of a factor analytical model. We have developed such models based both on a principal component approach including nonnegative oblique rotations, and positive matrix factorization (PMF). While the principal component method first requires an eigenvalue analysis of a covariance matrix, the PMF method is based on a direct least squares analysis considering simultaneously the loading and score matrices. Loading matrices obtained from the PMF method are somewhat sensitive to the initial guess of source functions. Preliminary work indicates that a hybrid approach considering first principal components and then PMF may offer an optimum solution. The relationship of PMF to conventional chemical mass balance modeling with or without some prior knowledge of source functions is also discussed.

  11. Influencing Factors of Female Underrepresentation as School Principals in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airin, Rashidah

    2010-01-01

    Purpose -- Number of women in the school principalship in Indonesia is less than half of the males'. This paper aims to identify the factor behind the underrepresentation of women in the principalship. Design/methodology/approach -- The methodological approach utilised in this paper was a structured review of the literature. Twenty sources namely…

  12. Factors Affecting the Transformational Leadership Role of Principals in Implementing ICT in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afshari, Mojgan; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Luan, Wong Su; Siraj, Saedah

    2012-01-01

    Leadership is an important factor in the effective implementation of technology in schools. This study examines the transformational leadership role of principals to determine whether transformational leadership role of principals in ICT implementation in schools is influenced by the computer competence, level of computer use, and professional…

  13. Motivating and Inhibiting Factors in Assistant Principals' Decisions to Pursue the Principalship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Amy Lowman

    2013-01-01

    Educational literature provides evidence that there are numerous steps school districts must consider in order to recruit and grow qualified individuals for the position of the campus principal. However, it also indicates that there are a number of factors that contribute to the decision-making process that future leaders take in order to decide…

  14. The Use of Exploratory Factor Analysis and Principal Components Analysis in Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hee Sun; Dailey, Rene; Lemus, Daisy

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the distinct purposes of principal components analysis (PCA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA), using two data sets as examples. Reviews the use of each technique in three major communication journals: "Communication Monographs,""Human Communication Research," and "Communication Research." Finds that the use of EFA and PCA indicates…

  15. Factors affecting elementary principals' and teachers' decisions to support outdoor field trips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspar, Michael Joseph

    Outdoor field trips are recommended in science education reform, yet they are not frequently taken. Barriers may prevent elementary public school teachers from participating in outdoor field trips (Mirka, 1973; Falk & Balling, 1979; Ham, 1988; Orion, 1993). To determine what would increase students' attendance at a nature preserve, factors that may affect elementary private and public school principals' and teachers' decisions to support field trips were identified and compared. Private school principals supported field trips. They believed field trips were safe, and easy to arrange, and that the field trips helped students experience culture in the community. Experienced public school principals who were supportive and believed field trips should be required believed field trips fit into the teacher's lesson plan and were taken for enrichment. Public school principals who were less experienced with field trips believed field trips should be extracurricular. They believed that field trips served as a reward, and that they needed more information. They did not support field trips. Private school teachers believed that field trips did not have overly demanding administrative concerns. They believed field trips were safe, easy to arrange, and were supported by their administrator. Public school teachers who supported field trips and believed field trips should be required were white, female, experienced, and older. They believed that field trips were safe, easy to arrange, enjoyable, and that they had enough help to conduct trips. Public school teachers who may not support trips had administrative concerns, and they did not believe field trips met the needs of students. These were male, white or non-white, young or middle-aged, and less experienced. They may believe field trips are a waste of time and money. They believed they had a nonsupportive administrator. Money for transportation was a barrier for older public school teachers and principals. No improvement on

  16. Heparin Binds Endothelial Cell Growth Factor, the Principal Endothelial Cell Mitogen in Bovine Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciag, Thomas; Mehlman, Tevie; Friesel, Robert; Schreiber, Alain B.

    1984-08-01

    Endothelial cell growth factor (ECGF), an anionic polypeptide mitogen, binds to immobilized heparin. The interaction between the acidic polypeptide and the anionic carbohydrate suggests a mechanism that is independent of ion exchange. Monoclonal antibodies to purified bovine ECGF inhibited the biological activity of ECGF in crude preparations of bovine brain. These data indicate that ECGF is the principal mitogen for endothelial cells from bovine brain, that heparin affinity chromatography may be used to purify and concentrate ECGF, and that the affinity of ECGF for heparin may have structural and perhaps biological significance.

  17. The Relationship among Principals' Emotional Intelligence Skills with Respect to School Accountability Ratings and Selected Demographic Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labby, Sandra A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among principals' emotional intelligence skills, school accountability ratings, and selected demographic factors. Method: The sample was comprised of Texas public school principals from elementary, middle school/junior high, and high schools and their school accountability…

  18. Factors Affecting the Implementation of Policy 2450, Distance Education and the West Virginia Virtual School, as Perceived by Principals/Assistant Principals, Counselors, and Distance Learning Contacts and/or Course Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdette, Keith R.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the factors important to the implementation of West Virginia Board of Education Policy 2450, Distance Learning and the West Virginia Virtual School. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that facilitated and impeded implementation of the policy, as perceived by principals/assistant principals, counselors, and…

  19. Why Principals Leave: Risk Factors for Premature Departure in the Netherlands Compared for Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, M. L.; van Eck, E.; Vermeulen, A.

    2005-01-01

    The shortage of school leaders, mainly caused by the growing complexity of the job is steadily growing in recent years. This study reports on the results of a comparative empirical study into the causes of premature departure for male and female principals in primary and secondary education. Principals who have experienced premature departure…

  20. Economy Impacts Staffing, Family Factors According to 2009 Principals' Partnership Poll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead, Lew; Williamson, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Members of The Principals' Partnership are seeing negative aspects to the current economic downturn that are likely to impact the quality of education provided in public high schools. They also would like to see changes in the accountability requirements of No Child Left Behind. Those were the key findings in the 2009 Principals' Partnership Poll…

  1. Factors Influencing Principals' Retirement Decisions: A Southern US Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reames, Ellen H.; Kochan, Frances K.; Zhu, Linxiang

    2014-01-01

    This study, conducted in one state in the United States, replicated similar research from over a decade ago to compare principal demographics and reasons for remaining or leaving the profession. Demographics have trended with the nation. Principals are older, more diverse and are largely eligible for retirement within the next five years. Similar…

  2. Stress is a principal factor that promotes tobacco use in females.

    PubMed

    Torres, Oscar V; O'Dell, Laura E

    2016-02-01

    Tobacco use is a major economic and health problem. It is particularly concerning that women consume more tobacco products, have a more difficult time quitting smoking, and are less likely to benefit from smoking cessation therapy than men. As a result, women are at higher risk of developing tobacco-related diseases. Clinical evidence suggests that women are more susceptible to anxiety disorders, and are more likely to smoke in order to cope with stress than men. During smoking abstinence, women experience more intense anxiety than men and report that the anxiety-reducing effects of smoking are the main reason for their continued tobacco use and relapse. Consistent with this, pre-clinical studies using rodent models suggest that females display more intense stress during nicotine withdrawal than males. This review posits that in women, stress is a principal factor that promotes the initiation of tobacco use and relapse behavior during abstinence. Studies are reviewed at both the clinical and pre-clinical levels to provide support for our hypothesis that stress plays a central role in promoting tobacco use vulnerability in females. The clinical implications of this work are also considered with regard to treatment approaches and the need for more research to help reduce health disparities produced by tobacco use in women. PMID:25912856

  3. Latent profile analysis and principal axis factoring of the DSM-5 dissociative subtype

    PubMed Central

    Frewen, Paul A.; Brown, Matthew F. D.; Steuwe, Carolin; Lanius, Ruth A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective A dissociative subtype has been recognized based on the presence of experiences of depersonalization and derealization in relation to DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the dissociative subtype has not been assessed in a community sample in relation to the revised DSM-5 PTSD criteria. Moreover, the 20-item PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) currently does not assess depersonalization and derealization. Method We therefore evaluated two items for assessing depersonalization and derealization in 557 participants recruited online who endorsed PTSD symptoms of at least moderate severity on the PCL-5. Results A five-class solution identified two PTSD classes who endorsed dissociative experiences associated with either 1) severe or 2) moderate PTSD symptom severity (D-PTSD classes). Those in the severe dissociative class were particularly likely to endorse histories of childhood physical and sexual abuse. A principal axis factor analysis of the symptom list identified six latent variables: 1) Reexperiencing, 2) Emotional Numbing/Anhedonia, 3) Dissociation, 4) Negative Alterations in Cognition & Mood, 5) Avoidance, and 6) Hyperarousal. Conclusions The present results further support the presence of a dissociative subtype within the DSM-5 criteria for PTSD. PMID:25854673

  4. Classification of peacock feather reflectance using principal component analysis similarity factors from multispectral imaging data.

    PubMed

    Medina, José M; Díaz, José A; Vukusic, Pete

    2015-04-20

    Iridescent structural colors in biology exhibit sophisticated spatially-varying reflectance properties that depend on both the illumination and viewing angles. The classification of such spectral and spatial information in iridescent structurally colored surfaces is important to elucidate the functional role of irregularity and to improve understanding of color pattern formation at different length scales. In this study, we propose a non-invasive method for the spectral classification of spatial reflectance patterns at the micron scale based on the multispectral imaging technique and the principal component analysis similarity factor (PCASF). We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach and its component methods by detailing its use in the study of the angle-dependent reflectance properties of Pavo cristatus (the common peacock) feathers, a species of peafowl very well known to exhibit bright and saturated iridescent colors. We show that multispectral reflectance imaging and PCASF approaches can be used as effective tools for spectral recognition of iridescent patterns in the visible spectrum and provide meaningful information for spectral classification of the irregularity of the microstructure in iridescent plumage. PMID:25969062

  5. Principal factors of soil spatial heterogeneity and ecosystem services at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    The essential spatial heterogeneity is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia which is not only one of the biggest «food baskets» in RF but very important regulator of ecosystem principal services at the European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of dominated here forest-steppe and steppe Chernozems and the other soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and more than 1000-year history of human impacts. The carried out long-term researches of representative natural, rural and urban landscapes in Kursk, Orel, Tambov and Voronezh oblasts give us the regional multi-factorial matrix of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) with different land-use practices and history, soil-geomorphologic features, environmental and microclimate conditions. The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of ESCP regulation and development, ecosystem principal services, land functional qualities and agroecological state have been done for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of regional and local GIS, soil spatial patterns mapping, traditional regression kriging, correlation tree models. The outcomes of statistical modeling show the essential amplification of erosion, dehumification and CO2 emission, acidification and alkalization, disaggregation and overcompaction processes due to violation of agroecologically sound land-use systems and traditional balances of organic matter, nutrients, Ca and Na in agrolandscapes. Due to long-term intensive and out-of-balance land-use practices the famous Russian Chernozems begin to lose not only their unique natural features of (around 1 m of humus horizon, 4-6% of Corg and favorable agrophysical features), but traditional soil cover patterns, ecosystem services and agroecological functions. Key-site monitoring

  6. Factors That Determine the Career Stability of Assistant Principals in a Large Urban School District in the Southeast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Danielle Felder

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the career stability (career choices assistant principals intend to make over the next five to ten years) in a large, urban school district in the southeastern region of the United States in order to identify factors significantly related to their career aspirations. The study invited a purposive sample (n = 177) of assistant…

  7. Personality disorders in substance abusers: Validation of the DIP-Q through principal components factor analysis and canonical correlation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hesse, Morten

    2005-01-01

    Background Personality disorders are common in substance abusers. Self-report questionnaires that can aid in the assessment of personality disorders are commonly used in assessment, but are rarely validated. Methods The Danish DIP-Q as a measure of co-morbid personality disorders in substance abusers was validated through principal components factor analysis and canonical correlation analysis. A 4 components structure was constructed based on 238 protocols, representing antagonism, neuroticism, introversion and conscientiousness. The structure was compared with (a) a 4-factor solution from the DIP-Q in a sample of Swedish drug and alcohol abusers (N = 133), and (b) a consensus 4-components solution based on a meta-analysis of published correlation matrices of dimensional personality disorder scales. Results It was found that the 4-factor model of personality was congruent across the Danish and Swedish samples, and showed good congruence with the consensus model. A canonical correlation analysis was conducted on a subset of the Danish sample with staff ratings of pathology. Three factors that correlated highly between the two variable sets were found. These variables were highly similar to the three first factors from the principal components analysis, antagonism, neuroticism and introversion. Conclusion The findings support the validity of the DIP-Q as a measure of DSM-IV personality disorders in substance abusers. PMID:15910688

  8. Efficacy and Academic Emphasis: A Leadership Factor in Elementary School Principals, and Its Relationship to Hope, Resilience, Optimism, and View of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegel, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to explore the construct of academic optimism at the principal level and examine possible explanatory variables for the factors that emerged from the principal academic optimism scale. Academic optimism contains efficacy, trust and academic emphasis (Hoy, Tarter & Woolfolk Hoy, 2006). It has been studied at the…

  9. Effect of ultraviolet radiation on microorganisms as a principal extremal factor of space environment.

    PubMed

    Fedorova, R I

    1964-01-01

    1. The problem of the transport of viable germs through interplanetary space has recently acquired special interest arising from the necessity of sterilization of space ships. 2. Of all cosmic extremal factors ultraviolet solar radiation is the most dangerous for microorganisms. The intensity of the most bactericidal region of ultraviolet radiation at a distance of one astronomical unit from the sun is 2 x 10(3) erg per cm2. 3. Sensitivity of microorganisms to ultraviolet rays varies in a large range. For the most resistant forms the lethal dose is approximately 440000 erg per cm2. 4. The penetrating capacity of ultraviolet radiation is very low, and therefore, even insignificant amounts of organic or mineral substances may protect the bacterial cell. 5. Dust particles of terrestrial origin carrying on themselves bacterial spores exert upon the latter a protective effect against ultraviolet radiation. PMID:11881651

  10. 3-Way characterization of soils by Procrustes rotation, matrix-augmented principal components analysis and parallel factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Andrade, J M; Kubista, M; Carlosena, A; Prada, D

    2007-11-01

    Three different approaches for 3-way analyses, namely, Procrustes rotation, parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and matrix-augmented principal component analysis, have been compared considering a four-seasons study on soil pollution. Each sampling season comprised 92 roadsoil samples and 12 analytical variables (heavy metals, loss on ignition, pH and humidity). Results show that the three chemometric techniques lead to essentially the same conclusions. Hence, Procrustes rotation, a mathematical technique scarcely applied in analytical chemistry, revealed as a useful tool for 3-way data analysis with potential advantages, including its conceptual simplicity and straightforward interpretation of the results. A novel application of the consensus vectors allowed definition of "consensus scores" so that visualization of the samples and temporal patterns can be made. Results also suggested that the trilinearity assumption imbedded in PARAFAC is essentially fulfilled when studying the temporal evolution of an environmental system where no new pollution sources appear during the course of the study. PMID:17950053

  11. Principal Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tourgee, Barbara, Comp.; DeClue, Linda, Comp.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly publication for school principals discusses the role of principals in providing inclusive education for all students, including those with disabilities. It offers practical information on the following topics: goals in meeting the needs of special education students; effective principal behaviors in leading special…

  12. Interim Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beem, Kate

    2003-01-01

    An interim principal can buy a school district time to land a permanent successor. Also lists where to find an interim principal; the interim's steadying influence; Bob Wallace's wild ride as an interim principal in post-retirement; and Roger Prosise's rationale for turning to an interim appointment. (MLF)

  13. Examining parents' ratings of middle-school students' academic self-regulation using principal axis factoring analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peggy P; Cleary, Timothy J; Lui, Angela M

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of a parent rating scale, the Self-Regulation Strategy Inventory: Parent Rating Scale (SRSI-PRS), using a sample of 451 parents of sixth- and seventh-grade middle-school students. Principal axis factoring (PAF) analysis revealed a 3-factor structure for the 23-item SRSI-PRS: (a) Managing Behavior and Learning (α = .92), (b) Maladaptive Regulatory Behaviors (α = .76), and (c) Managing Environment (α = .84). The majority of the observed relations between these 3 subscales, and the SRSI-SR, student motivation beliefs, and student mathematics grades were statistically significant and in the small to medium range. After controlling for various student variables and motivation indices of parental involvement, 2 SRSI-PRS factors (Managing Behavior and Learning, Maladaptive Regulatory Behaviors) reliably predicted students' achievement in their mathematics course. This study provides initial support for the validity and reliability of the SRSI-PRS and underscores the advantages of obtaining parental ratings of students' SRL behaviors. PMID:25402850

  14. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 is principally responsible for fibroblast growth factor 2-induced catabolic activities in human articular chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Cartilage degeneration driven by catabolic stimuli is a critical pathophysiological process in osteoarthritis (OA). We have defined fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) as a degenerative mediator in adult human articular chondrocytes. Biological effects mediated by FGF-2 include inhibition of proteoglycan production, up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), and stimulation of other catabolic factors. In this study, we identified the specific receptor responsible for the catabolic functions of FGF-2, and established a pathophysiological connection between the FGF-2 receptor and OA. Methods Primary human articular chondrocytes were cultured in monolayer (24 hours) or alginate beads (21 days), and stimulated with FGF-2 or FGF18, in the presence or absence of FGFR1 (FGF receptor 1) inhibitor. Proteoglycan accumulation and chondrocyte proliferation were assessed by dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assay and DNA assay, respectively. Expression of FGFRs (FGFR1 to FGFR4) was assessed by flow cytometry, immunoblotting, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The distinctive roles of FGFR1 and FGFR3 after stimulation with FGF-2 were evaluated using either pharmacological inhibitors or FGFR small interfering RNA (siRNA). Luciferase reporter gene assays were used to quantify the effects of FGF-2 and FGFR1 inhibitor on MMP-13 promoter activity. Results Chondrocyte proliferation was significantly enhanced in the presence of FGF-2 stimulation, which was inhibited by the pharmacological inhibitor of FGFR1. Proteoglycan accumulation was reduced by 50% in the presence of FGF-2, and this reduction was successfully rescued by FGFR1 inhibitor. FGFR1 inhibitors also fully reversed the up-regulation of MMP-13 expression and promoter activity stimulated by FGF-2. Blockade of FGFR1 signaling by either chemical inhibitors or siRNA targeting FGFR1 rather than FGFR3 abrogated the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases 13 (MMP-13) and a disintegrin and

  15. Functional characterization of the principal sigma factor RpoD of phytoplasmas via an in vitro transcription assay

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Chihiro; Komatsu, Ken; Maejima, Kensaku; Nijo, Takamichi; Kitazawa, Yugo; Tomomitsu, Tatsuya; Yusa, Akira; Himeno, Misako; Oshima, Kenro; Namba, Shigetou

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplasmas (class, Mollicutes) are insect-transmissible and plant-pathogenic bacteria that multiply intracellularly in both plants and insects through host switching. Our previous study revealed that phytoplasmal sigma factor rpoD of OY-M strain (rpoDOY) could be a key regulator of host switching, because the expression level of rpoDOY was higher in insect hosts than in plant hosts. In this study, we developed an in vitro transcription assay system to identify RpoDOY-dependent genes and the consensus promoter elements. The assay revealed that RpoDOY regulated some housekeeping, virulence, and host–phytoplasma interaction genes of OY-M strain. The upstream region of the transcription start sites of these genes contained conserved –35 and –10 promoter sequences, which were similar to the typical bacterial RpoD-dependent promoter elements, while the –35 promoter elements were variable. In addition, we searched putative RpoD-dependent genes based on these promoter elements on the whole genome sequence of phytoplasmas using in silico tools. The phytoplasmal RpoD seems to mediate the transcription of not only many housekeeping genes as the principal sigma factor, but also the virulence- and host-phytoplasma interaction-related genes exhibiting host-specific expression patterns. These results indicate that more complex mechanisms exist than previously thought regarding gene regulation enabling phytoplasmas to switch hosts. PMID:26150080

  16. Prediction of the processing factor for pesticides in apple juice by principal component analysis and multiple linear regression.

    PubMed

    Martin, L; Mezcua, M; Ferrer, C; Gil Garcia, M D; Malato, O; Fernandez-Alba, A R

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to establish a mathematical function that correlates pesticide residue levels in apple juice with the levels of the pesticides applied on the raw fruit, taking into account some of their physicochemical properties such as water solubility, the octanol/water partition coefficient, the organic carbon partition coefficient, vapour pressure and density. A mixture of 12 pesticides was applied to an apple tree; apples were collected after 10 days of application. After harvest, apples were treated with a mixture of three post-harvest pesticides and the fruits were then processed in order to obtain apple juice following a routine industrial process. The pesticide residue levels in the apple samples were analysed using two multi-residue methods based on LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS. The concentration of pesticides was determined in samples derived from the different steps of processing. The processing factors (the coefficient between residue level in the processed commodity and the residue level in the commodity to be processed) obtained for the full juicing process were found to vary among the different pesticides studied. In order to investigate the relationships between the levels of pesticide residue found in apple juice samples and their physicochemical properties, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using two sets of samples (one of them using experimental data obtained in this work and the other including the data taken from the literature). In both cases the correlation was found between processing factors of pesticides in the apple juice and the negative logarithms (base 10) of the water solubility, octanol/water partition coefficient and organic carbon partition coefficient. The linear correlation between these physicochemical properties and the processing factor were established using a multiple linear regression technique. PMID:23281800

  17. A Study of Selected Factors in the Judgment of Role Priorities by Elementary and Middle School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    The basic purpose of this study was to determine the extent of differences regarding the importance of role priorities among principals with different levels of administrative experience. As an extension of a previous investigation (Decman, 2005), a study involving principals with one, three, and five or more years of experience with an…

  18. Principals' Attitudes towards ICT and Their Perceptions about the Factors that Facilitate or Inhibit ICT Integration in Primary Schools of Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaioannou, Photos; Charalambous, Kyriacos

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the Cyprus primary school principals' attitudes towards Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) as well as their perceptions about the factors that facilitate or inhibit ICT integration in primary schools in Cyprus. A sequential mixed method approach was used to answer the research questions that guided this study.…

  19. The Goal Orientation of the Principal: A Key Factor in the Success or Failure of School Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tye, Kenneth

    This paper presents findings of a 4-year study that examined the dynamics of educational change in 11 elementary and secondary schools that were adopting global education into their curricula. Data were obtained from informal observations, interviews with principals, and interviews with and surveys of teachers. Findings identified three kinds of…

  20. Cypriot Primary School Principals' Understanding of Education for Sustainable Development Key Terms and Their Opinions about Factors Affecting Its Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachariou, Aravella; Kadji-Beltran, Chrysanthi

    2009-01-01

    "Transformative leaders for sustainable schools", was a nationwide research project conducted in 150 primary schools in Cyprus during 2005-2007. The project explored the role of the principals in the organisation of sustainable schools. A mixed methods approach to data collection was employed combining quantitative and qualitative methods. This…

  1. Principal Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Larry

    This paper describes the symptoms and ways of coping with chronic stress and briefly discusses effects of job related stress on school principals. Although stress is a normal condition, the symptoms should be identified. Under long-term stress individuals may experience six types of reactions, such as feelings of fatique and difficulty sleeping.…

  2. Principal Mentoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that school leaders, throughout all stages of their careers, can benefit from a mentoring system in which a seasoned leader helps the protege combine theory and practice with experience. This research roundup reviews works that provide support for principal mentoring and share strategies for establishing mentoring…

  3. Principal Networks

    PubMed Central

    Clayden, Jonathan D.; Dayan, Michael; Clark, Chris A.

    2013-01-01

    Graph representations of brain connectivity have attracted a lot of recent interest, but existing methods for dividing such graphs into connected subnetworks have a number of limitations in the context of neuroimaging. This is an important problem because most cognitive functions would be expected to involve some but not all brain regions. In this paper we outline a simple approach for decomposing graphs, which may be based on any measure of interregional association, into coherent “principal networks”. The technique is based on an eigendecomposition of the association matrix, and is closely related to principal components analysis. We demonstrate the technique using cortical thickness and diffusion tractography data, showing that the subnetworks which emerge are stable, meaningful and reproducible. Graph-theoretic measures of network cost and efficiency may be calculated separately for each principal network. Unlike some other approaches, all available connectivity information is taken into account, and vertices may appear in none or several of the subnetworks. Subject-by-subject “scores” for each principal network may also be obtained, under certain circumstances, and related to demographic or cognitive variables of interest. PMID:23630578

  4. Turnaround Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The Obama administration has grand hopes for turning around the nation's lowest-performing schools, in part by allocating $3.5 billion for School Improvement Grants. Unfortunately, there simply aren't enough qualified principals to replace those mandated to be fired under two of the four school improvement models that the federal government says…

  5. Structural characterization of the principal mRNA-export factor Mex67–Mtr2 from Chaetomium thermophilum

    SciTech Connect

    Aibara, Shintaro; Valkov, Eugene; Lamers, Meindert H.; Dimitrova, Lyudmila; Hurt, Ed; Stewart, Murray

    2015-06-27

    The crystal structures of the individual domains of the Mex67–Mtr2 complex from C. thermophilum have been determined and their arrangement in solution has been studied by SAXS. Members of the Mex67–Mtr2/NXF–NXT1 family are the principal mediators of the nuclear export of mRNA. Mex67/NXF1 has a modular structure based on four domains (RRM, LRR, NTF2-like and UBA) that are thought to be present across species, although the level of sequence conservation between organisms, especially in lower eukaryotes, is low. Here, the crystal structures of these domains from the thermophilic fungus Chaetomium thermophilum are presented together with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and in vitro RNA-binding data that indicate that, not withstanding the limited sequence conservation between different NXF family members, the molecules retain similar structural and RNA-binding properties. Moreover, the resolution of crystal structures obtained with the C. thermophilum domains was often higher than that obtained previously and, when combined with solution and biochemical studies, provided insight into the structural organization, self-association and RNA-binding properties of Mex67–Mtr2 that facilitate mRNA nuclear export.

  6. Dynamics and spatio-temporal variability of environmental factors in Eastern Australia using functional principal component analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, J.K.; Fedriani, E.M.; Segovia-Gonzalez, M. M.; Astheimer, L.B.; Hooper, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new technique in ecology to analyze spatial and temporal variability in environmental variables. By using simple statistics, we explore the relations between abiotic and biotic variables that influence animal distributions. However, spatial and temporal variability in rainfall, a key variable in ecological studies, can cause difficulties to any basic model including time evolution. The study was of a landscape scale (three million square kilometers in eastern Australia), mainly over the period of 19982004. We simultaneously considered qualitative spatial (soil and habitat types) and quantitative temporal (rainfall) variables in a Geographical Information System environment. In addition to some techniques commonly used in ecology, we applied a new method, Functional Principal Component Analysis, which proved to be very suitable for this case, as it explained more than 97% of the total variance of the rainfall data, providing us with substitute variables that are easier to manage and are even able to explain rainfall patterns. The main variable came from a habitat classification that showed strong correlations with rainfall values and soil types. ?? 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  7. Evaluation of factors influencing accuracy of principal procedure coding based on ICD-9-CM: an Iranian study.

    PubMed

    Farzandipour, Mehrdad; Sheikhtaheri, Abbas

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of procedural coding and the factors that influence it, 246 records were randomly selected from four teaching hospitals in Kashan, Iran. "Recodes" were assigned blindly and then compared to the original codes. Furthermore, the coders' professional behaviors were carefully observed during the coding process. Coding errors were classified as major or minor. The relations between coding accuracy and possible effective factors were analyzed by chi(2) or Fisher exact tests as well as the odds ratio (OR) and the 95 percent confidence interval for the OR. The results showed that using a tabular index for rechecking codes reduces errors (83 percent vs. 72 percent accuracy). Further, more thorough documentation by the clinician positively affected coding accuracy, though this relation was not significant. Readability of records decreased errors overall (p = .003), including major ones (p = .012). Moreover, records with no abbreviations had fewer major errors (p = .021). In conclusion, not using abbreviations, ensuring more readable documentation, and paying more attention to available information increased coding accuracy and the quality of procedure databases. PMID:19471647

  8. Evaluation of Factors Influencing Accuracy of Principal Procedure Coding Based on ICD-9-CM: An Iranian Study

    PubMed Central

    Farzandipour, Mehrdad; Sheikhtaheri, Abbas

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of procedural coding and the factors that influence it, 246 records were randomly selected from four teaching hospitals in Kashan, Iran. “Recodes” were assigned blindly and then compared to the original codes. Furthermore, the coders' professional behaviors were carefully observed during the coding process. Coding errors were classified as major or minor. The relations between coding accuracy and possible effective factors were analyzed by χ2 or Fisher exact tests as well as the odds ratio (OR) and the 95 percent confidence interval for the OR. The results showed that using a tabular index for rechecking codes reduces errors (83 percent vs. 72 percent accuracy). Further, more thorough documentation by the clinician positively affected coding accuracy, though this relation was not significant. Readability of records decreased errors overall (p = .003), including major ones (p = .012). Moreover, records with no abbreviations had fewer major errors (p = .021). In conclusion, not using abbreviations, ensuring more readable documentation, and paying more attention to available information increased coding accuracy and the quality of procedure databases. PMID:19471647

  9. Developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) is a homeostatic factor in the central nervous system limiting neuroinflammation and demyelination

    PubMed Central

    Neuwirth, Ales; Economopoulou, Matina; Chatzigeorgiou, Antonios; Chung, Kyoung-Jin; Bittner, Stefan; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Langer, Harald; Samus, Maryna; Kim, Hyesoon; Cho, Geum-Sil; Ziemssen, Tjalf; Bdeir, Khalil; Chavakis, Emmanouil; Koh, Jae-Young; Boon, Louis; Hosur, Kavita; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Meuth, Sven G.; Hajishengallis, George; Chavakis, Triantafyllos

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) and disruption of its immune privilege are major contributors to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and of its rodent counterpart, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We have previously identified developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) as an endogenous anti-inflammatory factor, which inhibits integrin-dependent leukocyte adhesion. Here we show that Del-1 contributes to the immune privilege status of the CNS. Intriguingly, Del-1 expression decreased in chronic active MS lesions and in the inflamed CNS in the course of EAE. Del-1-deficiency was associated with increased EAE severity, accompanied by increased demyelination and axonal loss. As compared to control mice, Del-1−/− mice displayed enhanced disruption of the blood brain barrier and increased infiltration of neutrophil granulocytes in the spinal cord in the course of EAE, accompanied by elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, including IL-17. The augmented levels of IL-17 in Del-1-deficiency derived predominantly from infiltrated CD8+ T cells. Increased EAE severity and neutrophil infiltration due to Del-1-deficiency was reversed in mice lacking both Del-1 and IL-17-receptor, indicating a crucial role for the IL-17/neutrophil inflammatory axis in EAE pathogenesis in Del-1−/− mice. Strikingly, systemic administration of Del-1-Fc ameliorated clinical relapse in relapsing-remitting EAE. Therefore, Del-1 is an endogenous homeostatic factor in the CNS protecting from neuroinflammation and demyelination. Our findings provide mechanistic underpinnings for the previous implication of Del-1 as a candidate MS susceptibility gene and suggest that Del-1-centered therapeutic approaches may be beneficial in neuroinflammatory and demyelinating disorders. PMID:25385367

  10. Exploring the Causes of Principal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trider, Donald M.; And Others

    Principals exhibiting different kinds of administrative behavior tend to be influenced by different kinds of factors, according to the results of two sets of related studies reported in this document. The first set, consisting of three studies of principals and central administrators, explored the factors shaping principals' behaviors when the…

  11. Principal factor and hierarchical cluster analyses for the performance assessment of an urban wastewater treatment plant in the Southeast of Spain.

    PubMed

    Bayo, Javier; López-Castellanos, Joaquín

    2016-07-01

    Process performance and operation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are carried out to ensure their compliance with legislative requirements imposed by European Union. Because a high amount of variables are daily measured, a coherent and structured approach of such a system is required to understand its inherent behavior and performance efficiency. In this sense, both principal factor analysis (PFA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) are multivariate techniques that have been widely applied to extract and structure information for different purposes. In this paper, both statistical tools are applied in an urban WWTP situated in the Southeast of Spain, a zone with special characteristics related to the geochemical background composition of water and an important use of fertilizers. Four main factors were extracted in association with nutrients, the ionic component, the organic load to the WWTP, and the efficiency of the whole process. HCA allowed distinguish between influent and effluent parameters, although a deeper examination resulted in a dendrogram with groupings similar to those previously reported for PFA. PMID:27108373

  12. School Without a Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoban, Gary J.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the type of person who becomes principal, the authority-responsibility of the principal, and the nonteaching resocialization of the principal and then offers a six-step model for eliminating the principalship. (Author/IRT)

  13. Exosomes mediate intercellular transfer of pro-fibrogenic connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) between hepatic stellate cells, the principal fibrotic cells in the liver

    PubMed Central

    Charrier, Alyssa; Chen, Ruju; Chen, Li; Kemper, Sherri; Hattori, Takako; Takigawa, Masaharu; Brigstock, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fibrogenic pathways in the liver are principally regulated by hepatic stellate cells (HSC) which produce and respond to fibrotic mediators such as connective tissue growth factor (CCN2). The aim of this study was to determine whether CCN2 is shuttled between HSC in membraneous nanovesicles, or “exosomes”. Methods Exosomes were incubated with HSC after isolation from conditioned medium of control or CCN2-GFP-transfected primary mouse HSC or human LX-2 HSC. Some exosomes were flourescently stained with PKH26. HSC co-culture experiments were performed in the presence of GW4869 exosome inhibitor. CCN2 or CCN2-GFP were evaluated by qRT-PCR or Western blot. Results HSC-derived exosomes contained CCN2 or CCN2 mRNA, each of which increased in concentration during HSC activation or after transfection of HSC with CCN2-GFP. Exosomes, stained with either PKH26 or purified from CCN2-GFP-transfected cells, were taken up by activated or quiescent HSC resulting in CCN2-GFP delivery, as shown by their direct addition to recipient cells or by the GW4869-dependency of donor HSC. Conclusions CCN2 is packaged into secreted nano-sized exosomes which mediate its intercellular transfer between HSC. Exosomal CCN2 may amplify or fine-tune fibrogenic signaling and may, in conjunction with other exosome constituents, have utility as a noninvasive biomarker to assess hepatic fibrosis. PMID:24882759

  14. Principal Experiences of Succession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Farla Gay

    2015-01-01

    This multiple case study explored the experiences of school principals and the usefulness of Peters' (2011) succession planning model. Ten purposefully selected principals from varying grade levels were interviewed; none reported a formal succession plan, and all had been assistant principals. The study concluded the assistant principal position…

  15. Principal Mentoring: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Never before has the need for effective mentoring programs for principals been more urgent. Record student enrollment, an anticipated retirement of about 40 percent of principals, and a shrinking pool of those who aspire to be principals have brought about a shortage of principals and an alarming lack of qualified applicants. This research roundup…

  16. Principal Preparedness: Superintendent Perceptions of New Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cray, Martha; Weiler, Spencer C.

    2011-01-01

    National advocacy groups have undertaken significant efforts to define the performance capacities needed by principals to lead schools in this era of continuous improvement and accountability. There has been little articulation between the core skills essential to new principals and the leadership capacities of experienced peers. This study…

  17. Principal Mentoring. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Robert J.

    To help new principals succeed, school districts are capitalizing on senior administrators' expertise by adding mentor programs to the practical training programs for beginning principals. This digest examines the nature of mentorships and discusses how they can prepare principals for the next stage of their careers. Although mentoring has existed…

  18. Elementary School Principal Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Ray

    A review of research linking elementary principal "antecedents" (defined as traits), behaviors, school conditions, and student outcomes furnishes few supportable generalizations. The studies relating principal antecedents with behavior and principal antecedents with organizational variables reveals that the trait theory of leadership has fared…

  19. The Provident Principal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, John R.

    This monograph offers leadership approaches for school principals. Discussion applies the business leadership theory of Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus to the role of the principal. Each of the booklet's three parts concludes with discussion questions. Part 1, "Visions and Values for the Provident Principal," demonstrates the importance of…

  20. Factors that Influence Females to Not Pursue the School Leadership Role of Principal in Secondary Schools in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Charlotte A.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying and attracting potential school leaders is a challenge for school districts. Whereas teachers represent the group from which the largest number of new principals will be drawn, fewer and fewer of them now seem willing to seek administrative positions. While women are prepared educationally, certified professionally, and waiting in…

  1. Principal Self-Efficacy and Work Engagement: Assessing a Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federici, Roger A.; Skaalvik, Einar M.

    2011-01-01

    One purpose of the present study was to develop and test the factor structure of a multidimensional and hierarchical Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale (NPSES). Another purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between principal self-efficacy and work engagement. Principal self-efficacy was measured by the 22-item NPSES. Work…

  2. Harried Principals Aren't Helpful Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Mike

    2007-01-01

    A harried leader is not a helpful leader. Schools need calm, well-balanced, helpful leaders as much as they need visionary ones. In fact, in this era of frenetic change in schools, principals should devote at least as much time to helping teachers be more focused and less frantic as they do to formulating new visions for the school or embarking on…

  3. Redesigning Principal Internships: Practicing Principals' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anast-May, Linda; Buckner, Barbara; Geer, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Internship programs too often do not provide the types of experiences that effectively bridge the gap between theory and practice and prepare school leaders who are capable of leading and transforming schools. To help address this problem, the current study is directed at providing insight into practicing principals' views of the types of…

  4. To Be a Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Lee

    2005-01-01

    Never having been a principal, I've always been curious about what it takes to be one. Over the years, I've been privileged to meet a number of K-8 principals and have almost always come away impressed. I don?t have to tell you how complex and challenging the principal's job has become, especially since the No Child Left Behind Act took effect.…

  5. Evaluating Principals. Research Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Carl

    1990-01-01

    Five recent studies included in this annotated bibliography highlight the diverse facets of an effective principal evaluation system. A technical report by Jerry W. Valentine and Michael L. Bowman includes a clinical instrument for assessing teachers' perception of principals' effectiveness. In a second report, Daniel L. Duke and Richard J.…

  6. Principals from Hell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Lee Ann

    2006-01-01

    Some principals have personalities that can drive teachers around the bend and back again. Sure, most are wonderful bosses who support teachers in any way, but woe betide teachers if they are unlucky enough to run across one of the six dreaded "problem principals" identified in this article. Teachers do not have to be held hostage by difficult…

  7. Qualities of Effective Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H.; Richard, Holly B.; Catano, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    You know how important principals are in advancing student achievement and school success, but it's not been exactly clear which components of the principal's job are the highest priority... until now. Following on the results-based approach from the ASCD best-seller "Qualities of Effective Teachers", James Stronge and his coauthors explain how…

  8. Essential Skills for Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    No matter what standards they follow, principals must be skilled team builders, instructional leaders, and visionary risk-takers. There are five emerging roles: historian, cheerleader, lightning rod, landscaper (environmental scanner), and anthropologist. To succeed, principals must be empowered by districts, become authentic leaders, and make…

  9. A Principal's Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaretsky, Lindy

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a principal's reaction to Catherine Marshall and Michael Ward's article on research on social justice and training for leadership. The author applauds Marshall and Ward's efforts to address what is undoubtedly among the most fundamentally important issues facing principals today. Marshall and Ward illuminate the importance of…

  10. Of Principals and Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyant, Spencer H.; And Others

    Principals play an important role in the success of externally funded change projects in their schools. Interviews exploring the participation of principals in such projects in 14 Oregon elementary and secondary schools provided 11 case studies illustrating helpful and unhelpful behaviors. The projects were found to have life cycles of their own,…

  11. Principals' Perceptions of Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooms, Autumn K.; Kretovics, Mark A.; Smialek, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    This study is an effort to examine principals' perceptions of workplace politics and its influence on their productivity and efficacy. A survey was used to explore the perceptions of current school administrators with regard to workplace politics. The instrument was disseminated to principals serving public schools in one Midwestern state in the…

  12. Assisting the Assistant Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, James

    2008-01-01

    Retaining quality staff members is a hot topic in the public school arena. Although teachers are often the focus of concern, hiring and retaining quality assistant principals must be addressed as well. Interviewing and hiring the right assistant principal--and then ensuring that he or she remains on in a campus for several years--can do a great…

  13. Principals as Instructional Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Ed

    2012-01-01

    At some level, principals always have been instructional leaders--but never before has their role been more prominent. First, the accountability movement--No Child Left Behind (NCLB) in particular--thrust principals into the spotlight on academic achievement. Then budget cuts peeled away capacity at both the district and school levels, thinning…

  14. A Principal's Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yergalonis, Edward

    2005-01-01

    In the interview process, every aspiring principal naively speaks of assuming the role of instructional leader. The candidate has read the right books, taken the right courses, and attended every possible workshop to prepare for the day when he or she would become captain of his or her own ship. However, it does not take long for principals to…

  15. Competency Development for Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Karolyn J.

    This paper describes two conceptual models for addressing long-range development needs of principals. The first, a job competency model for managing productive schools, presents a comprehensive view of the central job tasks of the principal for stretching the school's capacity to influence achievement norms. Changing the school's work norms…

  16. Renewing the Principal Pipeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Brenda J.

    2015-01-01

    The work principals do has always mattered, but as the demands of the job increase, it matters even more. Perhaps once they could maintain safety and order and call it a day, but no longer. Successful principals today must also lead instruction and nurture a productive learning community for students, teachers, and staff. They set the tone for the…

  17. Real Principals Listen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Many teachers fear that their chances to influence decisions about their profession are eroding. Principals must change this perception so that teachers feel empowered as school leaders. Drawing on the work of communications consultant William Isaacs, Glover discusses how principals can engage in communication that encourages teacher leadership by…

  18. Principal Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    A school principal's job has never been tougher. The accountability movement--culminating with the federal No Child Left Behind law in 2001--has put pressure on principals to improve student performance, resulting in school leaders' transitioning from a more administrative role to becoming more heavily involved in assessment, instruction,…

  19. Integrating Technology: The Principals' Role and Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado, Lucas J.; Chung, Chia-Jung

    2015-01-01

    There are many factors that influence technology integration in the classroom such as teacher willingness, availability of hardware, and professional development of staff. Taking into account these elements, this paper describes research on technology integration with a focus on principals' attitudes. The role of the principal in classroom…

  20. Exploring Principals' Perceptions of Supervised Agricultural Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayfield, John; Wilson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of principals at high schools with agricultural education programs in regard to Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE). There is evidence that suggests that high school principals' attitudes may both directly and indirectly affect factors that influence school climate and student achievement. In this study,…

  1. Career Paths of Female Elementary Assistant Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baier, Hope C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the worklife experiences and personal issues of female elementary assistant principals and examine the influence of these factors on their intent to remain in their position or leave. The worklife experiences and perceptions of female elementary assistant principals were categorized as institutional or…

  2. The extracellular matrix protein Del1 induces apoptosis via its epidermal growth factor motif.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Hisataka; Kokubun, Shinichiro; Hidai, Chiaki

    2010-03-19

    Mouse Del1 is an extracellular matrix protein mainly expressed in the developing embryo. Del1 has three EGF motifs and two discoidin domains. The second EGF motif reportedly contains an RGD sequence that binds to integrin receptors. Here, we provide evidence that Del1 protein induces cell death in vitro. Chromatin condensation and DNA laddering were observed, suggestive of apoptosis. The results of analysis using the TUNEL method and annexin V staining were also consistent with apoptosis. The apoptosis-inducing activity of Del1 could be mapped to the third EGF motif, which fitted the consensus sequence CX(D/N)XXXX(F/Y)XCXC, wherein the aspartic acid residue (D) could be beta-hydroxylated. As little as twenty-five picomolar of recombinant E3 could induce apoptosis. PMID:20171188

  3. Tracking polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congener patterns in Newark Bay surface sediment using principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF).

    PubMed

    Saba, Tarek; Su, Steave

    2013-09-15

    PCB congener data for Newark Bay surface sediments were analyzed using PCA and PMF, and relationships between the outcomes from these two techniques were explored. The PCA scores plot separated the Lower Passaic River Mouth samples from North Newark Bay, thus indicating dissimilarity. Although PCA was able to identify subareas in the Bay system with specific PCB congener patterns (e.g., higher chlorinated congeners in Elizabeth River), further conclusions reading potential PCB source profiles or potential upland source areas were not clear for the PCA scores plot. PMF identified five source factors, and explained the Bay sample congener profiles as a mix of these Factors. This PMF solution was equivalent to (1) defining an envelope that encompasses all samples on the PCA scores plot, (2) defining source factors that plot on that envelope, and (3) explaining the congener profile for each Bay sediment sample (inside the scores plot envelope) as a mix of factors. PMF analysis allowed identifying characteristic features in the source factor congener distributions that allowed tracking of source factors to shoreline areas where PCB inputs to the Bay may have originated. The combined analysis from PCA and PMF showed that direct discharges to the Bay are likely the dominant sources of PCBs to the sediment. Review of historical upland activities and regulatory files will be needed, in addition to the PCA and PMF analysis, to fully reconstruct the history of operations and PCB releases around the Newark Bay area that impacted the Bay sediment. PMID:23831929

  4. Factors Associated with Implementation of the South Carolina Students Health and Fitness Act of 2005: Elementary School Principals' and Physical Activity Directors' Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Miriam Jones

    2012-01-01

    This study explores factors associated with implementation of the physical education and physical activity standards of the South Carolina Students Health and Fitness Act of 2005 in Title I elementary schools. The study was framed using selected components of the diffusion of innovations theory, which looked at characteristics of the law and their…

  5. Principals as Classroom Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    The author suggests five ways in which busy principals can indirectly demonstrate their classroom leadership by encouraging teacher specialization, giving teachers opportunities to present case studies of at-risk students, building a diverse intellectual climate, instituting an idea exchange, and scheduling time for teachers to openly discuss a…

  6. Mentoring Women Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Cheryl A.; Salsberry, Trudy A.

    2005-01-01

    This review of the literature focuses first on the common reasons for the need for mentoring (professional development, changing roles, principal shortage, under representation of women, and barriers) and continues with a definition and description of mentoring. Finally, the current status of mentoring is summarized followed by a discussion of the…

  7. A Paean to Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Bettye

    1992-01-01

    After 10 years of operating early childhood programs, an education professor became an elementary school principal while designing a school to serve socially disadvantaged children. Herself disadvantaged by lack of certification and training, Caldwell discovered the fallacy of top-down reform efforts, the chasm between theory development and…

  8. Support Principals, Transform Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Elena; Goldwasser, Davina; Tank-Crestetto, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    The Transformational Coaching Team in Oakland Unified School District provides differentiated, sustained, job-embedded support to the district's school leaders. In this article, members of the team describe how they work with principals to transform the culture of schools. Student achievement data show above-average improvement in schools in which…

  9. Let Teachers Pick Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raisch, C. Daniel

    1993-01-01

    If a school and community are qualified enough to hire teachers, counselors, and secretaries through school-based-management processes, they are equally qualified to hire the school principal. This article describes a site-based team-selection process designed to identify optimal administrator characteristics, advertise the job opening, handle…

  10. Turnaround Principal Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Lucy; Barrett, Sharon Kebschull

    2012-01-01

    When the Minneapolis Public Schools first set out to hire turnaround school principals, administrators followed their usual process--which focused largely on reputation and anecdotal support and considered mainly internal candidates. Yet success at the complicated task of turning around the fortunes of a failing school depends on exceptionally…

  11. Principals as Cultural Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Karen Seashore; Wahlstrom, Kyla

    2011-01-01

    Principals have a strong role to play in forming school cultures that encourage change. Changing a school's culture requires shared or distributed leadership and instructional leadership. A multiyear study found that three elements are necessary for a school culture that stimulates teachers to improve their instruction: 1) Teachers and…

  12. Strategic Principal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Jake; Woody, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    As communities become increasingly diverse and criticism of traditional public schools intensifies, some states, such as North Carolina, have enacted legislation that encourages alternative forms of schooling. This condition has resulted in new challenges for principals to communicate broadly and often with stakeholders in an effort to build…

  13. Principals Make Assignments Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    The inner-city high school in Washington, DC, that Guillaume Gendre joined as an assistant principal had a modest reputation for achievement but was nevertheless challenged to raise expectations for student work. In other schools, Gendre had used assignments--a specific kind of instructional task in which students are charged to think about an…

  14. Salary Report Number 1. Principals and Assistant Principals. Administrative Information Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Secondary School Principals, Reston, VA.

    Tables present a summary of the data obtained in a national survey of principals' and assistant principals' salaries. Section 1 of the report compares 1975-76 minimum and maximum salary schedule summaries by district enrollment size, section 2 makes the comparison by using a per pupil expenditure factor, and section 3 contains a maximum scheduled…

  15. The Texting Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Susan Stone

    2009-01-01

    The author was appointed principal of a large, urban comprehensive high school in spring 2008. One of the first things she had to figure out was how she would develop a connection with her students when there were so many of them--nearly 2,000--and only one of her. Texts may be exchanged more quickly than having a conversation over the phone,…

  16. Improving Principal Evaluation. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    In recent years, the role of the principal has become more critical in the success of schools. School improvement is often tied to principal performance, yet the practice of evaluating principal performance leaves a lot to be desired, according to some educators. This ERIC Digest reviews current principal evaluation practices and describes some…

  17. Principals' Perceived Supervisory Behaviors Regarding Marginal Teachers in Two States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Range, Bret; Hewitt, Paul; Young, Suzie

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study used an online survey to determine how principals in two states viewed the supervision of marginal teachers. Principals ranked their own evaluation of the teacher as the most important factor when identifying marginal teachers and relied on informal methods to diagnose marginal teaching. Female principals rated a majority of…

  18. School Leadership Stability, Principal Moves, and Departures: Evidence from Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce D.; Punswick, Eric; Belt, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to investigate and characterize principals' backgrounds, individual and school level factors associated with leadership stability, and principal career paths and exit behaviors in Missouri. Method: In this study, the authors construct two data sets of practicing school principals in the state of Missouri:…

  19. Honouring Roles: The Story of a Principal and a Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranston, Jerome

    2012-01-01

    The importance of the teacher-student relationship in educational practice is well established, as is the idea of principal leadership in relationship to staff. Even though principal leadership is regarded as a factor in student success, the principal's effect is usually assumed to take place via the teaching staff. There is an absence of research…

  20. Mediation analysis with principal stratification.

    PubMed

    Gallop, Robert; Small, Dylan S; Lin, Julia Y; Elliott, Michael R; Joffe, Marshall; Ten Have, Thomas R

    2009-03-30

    In assessing the mechanism of treatment efficacy in randomized clinical trials, investigators often perform mediation analyses by analyzing if the significant intent-to-treat treatment effect on outcome occurs through or around a third intermediate or mediating variable: indirect and direct effects, respectively. Standard mediation analyses assume sequential ignorability, i.e. conditional on covariates the intermediate or mediating factor is randomly assigned, as is the treatment in a randomized clinical trial. This research focuses on the application of the principal stratification (PS) approach for estimating the direct effect of a randomized treatment but without the standard sequential ignorability assumption. This approach is used to estimate the direct effect of treatment as a difference between expectations of potential outcomes within latent subgroups of participants for whom the intermediate variable behavior would be constant, regardless of the randomized treatment assignment. Using a Bayesian estimation procedure, we also assess the sensitivity of results based on the PS approach to heterogeneity of the variances among these principal strata. We assess this approach with simulations and apply it to two psychiatric examples. Both examples and the simulations indicated robustness of our findings to the homogeneous variance assumption. However, simulations showed that the magnitude of treatment effects derived under the PS approach were sensitive to model mis-specification. PMID:19184975

  1. Visible Leading: Principal Academy Connects and Empowers Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindman, Jennifer; Rozzelle, Jan; Ball, Rachel; Fahey, John

    2015-01-01

    The School-University Research Network (SURN) Principal Academy at the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia, has a mission to build a leadership development program that increases principals' instructional knowledge and develops mentor principals to sustain the program. The academy is designed to connect and empower principals…

  2. Teacher and Principal Beliefs about Principal Leadership Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Mary Beth

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not there is a difference between teacher and principal beliefs about principal leadership behavior using a 360-degree evaluation tool. The study also examined whether the difference between teacher and principal beliefs was related to the status of a school relative to the state growth target…

  3. Principals' Supervision and Evaluation Cycles: Perspectives from Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hvidston, David J.; McKim, Courtney Ann; Mette, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    The goals for this quantitative study were to examine principals' perceptions regarding supervision and evaluation within their own evaluations. Three research questions guided the inquiry: (1) What are the perceptions of principals' regarding their own supervision?; (2) What are the perceptions of principals' regarding their own evaluation?; and…

  4. School Principals' Emotional Coping Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poirel, Emmanuel; Yvon, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the emotional coping of school principals in Quebec. Emotional coping was measured by stimulated recall; six principals were filmed during a working day and presented a week later with their video showing stressful encounters. The results show that school principals experience anger because of reproaches from staff…

  5. Principals' Relationship with Computer Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockmeier, Lantry L.; Sermon, Janet M.; Hope, Warren C.

    2005-01-01

    This investigation sought information about principals and their relationship with computer technology. Several questions were fundamental to the inquiry. Are principals prepared to facilitate the attainment of technology's promise through the integration of computer technology into the teaching and learning process? Are principals prepared to use…

  6. School Principal: Managing in Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lortie, Dan C.

    2009-01-01

    When we think about school principals, most of us imagine a figure of vague, yet intimidating authority--for an elementary school student, being sent to the principal's office is roughly on par with a trip to Orwell's Room 101. But with "School Principal", Dan C. Lortie aims to change that. Much as he did for teachers with his groundbreaking book…

  7. The Future of Principal Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Matthew; Ross, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The need to improve the quality of principal evaluation systems is long overdue. Although states and districts generally require principal evaluations, research and experience tell that many state and district evaluations do not reflect current standards and practices for principals, and that evaluation is not systematically administered. When…

  8. Principal Succession: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jeffery C.; Webber, Charles F.

    Principal succession is misunderstood and underutilized as a means of affecting dynamic renewal in school communities. Previously, the replacement of a principal was examined solely through the experiences of principals and teachers. This paper reports on a case study that added the previously neglected perspectives of students, support staff, and…

  9. Principals Who Think Like Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Being a principal is a complex job, requiring quick, on-the-job learning. But many principals already have deep experience in a role at the very essence of the principalship. They know how to teach. In interviews with principals, Fahey and his colleagues learned that thinking like a teacher was key to their work. Part of thinking the way a teacher…

  10. Some Things Assistant Principals Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kealey, Robert J., Comp.

    The assistant principal of a Catholic elementary school carries out some of the duties (with the needed authority) of the school principal. How tasks and authority are delegated vary and depend upon the personality of each individual school. Fifteen assistant principals wrote essays relating one of their chief responsibilities to show a wide…

  11. Principals' Salaries, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Alicia R.

    2006-01-01

    How do salaries of elementary and middle school principals compare with those of other administrators and classroom teachers? Are increases in salaries of principals keeping pace with increases in salaries of classroom teachers? How have principals' salaries fared over the years when the cost of living is taken into account? To provide answers to…

  12. Principals' Salaries, 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Willa D.; Licciardi, Chris

    2007-01-01

    How do salaries of elementary and middle school principals compare with those of other administrators and classroom teachers? Are increases in salaries of principals keeping pace with increases in salaries of classroom teachers? And how have principals' salaries fared over the years when the cost of living is taken into account? This article…

  13. The Forgotten Aspect of Communication: Principals' Listening Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Jerry; Shoho, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated principals' self-perceptions and teachers' perceptions of principals' listening skills. An instrument measuring perception of listening skills was developed on the basis of four listening factors: attending, empathy, response, and trustworthiness. Factor analysis confirmed the structure of the new listening instrument, and…

  14. Computer Use by Secondary School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afshari, Mojgan; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Luan, Wong Su; Afshari, Marjan; Fooi, Foo Say; Samah, Bahaman Abu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was firstly to identify the extent to which Iranian secondary school principals used computers and secondly to explore the relationship between a number of variables related to the use of information and communications technology (ICT). Findings indicated that four factors played a role in explaining the level of computer…

  15. Principals' Learning Mechanisms: Exploring an Emerging Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Chen; Qadach, Mowafaq

    2016-01-01

    This exploration of principal learning mechanisms (PLM) to support a learning-centered school aimed to develop, field-test, and validate a PLM-measuring instrument. Following exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of items to examine factorial validity, the developed scale was correlated with other work-related established constructs (e.g.,…

  16. Principal stratification in causal inference.

    PubMed

    Frangakis, Constantine E; Rubin, Donald B

    2002-03-01

    Many scientific problems require that treatment comparisons be adjusted for posttreatment variables, but the estimands underlying standard methods are not causal effects. To address this deficiency, we propose a general framework for comparing treatments adjusting for posttreatment variables that yields principal effects based on principal stratification. Principal stratification with respect to a posttreatment variable is a cross-classification of subjects defined by the joint potential values of that posttreatment variable tinder each of the treatments being compared. Principal effects are causal effects within a principal stratum. The key property of principal strata is that they are not affected by treatment assignment and therefore can be used just as any pretreatment covariate. such as age category. As a result, the central property of our principal effects is that they are always causal effects and do not suffer from the complications of standard posttreatment-adjusted estimands. We discuss briefly that such principal causal effects are the link between three recent applications with adjustment for posttreatment variables: (i) treatment noncompliance, (ii) missing outcomes (dropout) following treatment noncompliance. and (iii) censoring by death. We then attack the problem of surrogate or biomarker endpoints, where we show, using principal causal effects, that all current definitions of surrogacy, even when perfectly true, do not generally have the desired interpretation as causal effects of treatment on outcome. We go on to forrmulate estimands based on principal stratification and principal causal effects and show their superiority. PMID:11890317

  17. How Effective Is the Principal? Discrepancy between New Zealand Teachers' and Principals' Perceptions of Principal Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnema, Claire E. L.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.; Ludlow, Larry; Pope, Denyse

    2015-01-01

    Multi-source evaluation of school principals is likely to become increasingly common in education contexts as the evidence accumulates about the relationship between principal effectiveness and student achievement. The purpose of this study was to examine (1) the magnitude and direction of discrepancy between how principals and their teachers…

  18. Principals' Perceptions Regarding Their Supervision and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hvidston, David J.; Range, Bret G.; McKim, Courtney Ann

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of principals concerning principal evaluation and supervisory feedback. Principals were asked two open-ended questions. Respondents included 82 principals in the Rocky Mountain region. The emerging themes were "Superintendent Performance," "Principal Evaluation Components," "Specific…

  19. The Principal and Fiscal Management. Elementary Principal Series No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, James K.; Marconnit, George D.

    The sixth of six volumes in the "Elementary Principal Series," this booklet is designed to help principals develop sound fiscal management strategies at the building level. The first section reviews Indiana statutory provisions for handling extracurricular and booster group funds. The second section presents guidelines for managing school funds.…

  20. From Training Great Principals to Preparing Principals for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Militello, Matthew; Rallis, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    We offer the collaborative inquiry-action cycle as a framework for principals' practice and principal preparation. The cycle is a pragmatic tool that does not prescribe behaviors or contexts. Moreover, the cycle does not represent another programmatic solution or model for leadership. Rather the power of the cycle is that it drives collaboration,…

  1. Salary Report #1. Principals and Assistant Principals. Administrative Information Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Secondary School Principals, Reston, VA.

    This report presents data on 1976-77 salary schedules for school principals and assistant principals in order to aid school officials in comparing the salary schedules in their district with salary schedules in other districts of comparable enrollment size and per-pupil expenditure level. Data for the report were gathered through a survey of 1,060…

  2. Salary Report #1. Principals and Assistant Principals. Administrative Information Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Secondary School Principals, Reston, VA.

    Based on information obtained from the Educational Research Service, Inc., survey collecting 1978-79 data about scheduled and paid salaries from 1,110 responding school districts, this report contains current data relating to salary schedules for principals and assistant principals. To facilitate analysis of the data, Section 1 compares 1978-79…

  3. Salary Report #1. Principals and Assistant Principals. Administrative Information Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Secondary School Principals, Reston, VA.

    Based on information obtained from an Educational Research Service, Inc., survey collecting 1977-78 data about scheduled and paid salaries from 1,146 responding school districts, this report contains current data relating to salary schedules for principals and assistant principals. To facilitate analysis of the data, Section 1 compares 1977-78…

  4. Principal Preparation Programs: Perceptions of High School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styron, Ronald A., Jr.; LeMire, Steven D.

    2009-01-01

    There has been an abundance of research documenting perceived deficiencies in traditional principal preparation programs, but little field data have been collected. As such, the authors of this study sought to assess the satisfaction of practitioners, high school principals, with their preparation programs. Questionnaires were received from 374…

  5. Motorcycle helmet use in Mar del Plata, Argentina: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, Rubén D; López, Soledad S; Tosi, Jeremías; Poó, Fernando M

    2015-01-01

    Injuries resulting from motorcycle crashes constitute a growing problem in Argentina and other Latin American countries. The problem is aggravated because helmet use is not widespread. This observational study analysed the prevalence of helmet use and related factors in a city in Argentina. The sample consisted of 2542 observations of motorcyclists. The results show an incidence of helmet use of 69.8% for drives and 43.4% for passengers. Helmet use was greater among women. Environmental and temporal conditions were related with the rate of helmet use. The findings indicate a considerable increase in helmet use with respect to prior years, providing evidence in favour of government policies. However, the number of motorcycles in circulation has tripled in the past five years, and therefore, the public health impact of injuries due to motorcycle crashes persists. PMID:24499339

  6. School Principals' Sources of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Arland Early

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what sources of professional knowledge are available to principals in 1 rural East Tennessee school district. Qualitative research methods were applied to gain an understanding of what sources of knowledge are used by school principals in 1 rural East Tennessee school district and the barriers they face…

  7. Principals' Perceptions of Successful Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this qualitative multiple case study were to determine the catalysts and pathways that caused principals to move from managers to effective leaders. Data were collected through a series of interviews with 4 principals who were selected through a purposeful sampling procedure. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and…

  8. Innovation Management Perceptions of Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakir, Asli Agiroglu

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed to determine the perceptions of principals about innovation management and to investigate whether there is a significant difference in this perception according to various parameters. In the study, descriptive research model is used and universe is consisted from principals who participated in "Acquiring Formation Course…

  9. The Principal as Formative Coach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nidus, Gabrielle; Sadder, Maya

    2011-01-01

    Formative coaching, an approach that uses student work as the foundation for mentoring and professional development, can help principals become more effective instructional leaders. In formative coaching, teaches and coaches analyze student work to determine next steps for instruction. This article shows how a principal can use the steps of the…

  10. Principal Support for Literacy Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kral, Cathleen Cronin

    2012-01-01

    Educators agree that leadership by a principal profoundly affects what is accomplished at a school. This effect of leadership is particularly true when schools and districts are engaged in reform. When the reform effort impinges on school culture, the principal plays the main role in leading and supporting this change.

  11. Time Management for New Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruder, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Becoming a principal is a milestone in an educator's professional life. The principalship is an opportunity to provide leadership that will afford students opportunities to thrive in a nurturing and supportive environment. Despite the continuously expanding demands of being a new principal, effective time management will enable an individual to be…

  12. Preparing for Your Principal Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanneut, Gene

    2007-01-01

    Being invited to the initial round of interviews for a principal opening is an opportunity; preparing for it is an investment. A successful interview requires that you create a detailed plan and take specific steps. This article provides tips on how to prepare yourself for a principal interview. Before you focus on what to do during your…

  13. Fear in the Principal's Office

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romaneck, Greg M.

    2006-01-01

    Fear and anxiety are emotions that principals must learn to overcome if they are to be effective leaders. This article provides some observations and suggestions that can help principals understand and cope with fear on the job. (Contains 3 online resources.)

  14. Characteristics of Elementary School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2006

    2006-01-01

    New information on the characteristics of elementary school principals is included in the most recent Schools and Staffing Survey conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics. The results show that the number of public elementary school principals grew from 54,000 in 1993-1994 to 61,000 in 2003-2004. This roughly corresponds to the…

  15. Great New Resources for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ron

    2010-01-01

    The end of the school year is a hectic time for high school principals. Summer often provides a brief opportunity to "kick-back" and take time to rest, relax and spend some time thinking about the coming school year. As the school year ends the author would like to introduce several new or updated resources that every high school principal will…

  16. Burnout among Elementary School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Julie; Edmonson, Stacey L.; Jackson, Sherion H.

    2009-01-01

    As the understanding of burnout continues to be refined, studies that examine school principals and burnout will be helpful to those who provide support to school leaders and are concerned about principal attrition and pending shortages. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between burnout and gender, age, and years experience…

  17. The Principal in Metropolitan Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Donald A., Ed.; Reller, Theodore L., Ed.

    This collection of articles is designed to help metropolitan school principals meet the challenges of their positions. It is especially concerned with how principals can contribute to effective education for students of markedly heterogenous backgrounds. The authors deal with such issues as the principalship and metropolitan administration, the…

  18. Four Training Programs for Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Pam; Gerritz, Bill

    1986-01-01

    This article describes the complex nature of the principal's job and discusses four programs that help principals acquire the skills needed to be successful. These programs are (1) Peer Assisted Leadership (PAL); (2) Cognitive Coaching; (3) Developmental Supervision; and (4) Differentiated Supervision. (MT)

  19. Great Principals at Scale: Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikemoto, Gina; Taliaferro, Lori; Fenton, Benjamin; Davis, Jacquelyn

    2014-01-01

    School leaders are critical in the lives of students and to the development of their teachers. Unfortunately, in too many instances, principals are effective in spite of--rather than because of--district conditions. To truly improve student achievement for all students across the country, well-prepared principals need the tools, support, and…

  20. School Principals as Effective Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, William L.

    1985-01-01

    A study of elementary and secondary principals revealed that effective principals all demonstrated five essential qualities of leadership--they had clear visions of desirable futures for their schools, translated those visions into specific goals, established supportive environments for improvement, monitored progress, and intervened effectively…

  1. What Do Effective Principals Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protheroe, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Much has been written during the past decade about the changing role of the principal and the shift in emphasis from manager to instructional leader. Anyone in education, and especially principals themselves, could develop a mental list of responsibilities that fit within each of these realms. But research makes it clear that both those aspects of…

  2. The Principal and the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumack, Kenneth A.

    The evolution of a run-down inner city elementary school into a flourishing community school is documented by its principal. By going out into the community and visiting in parents' homes, this principal built a base of support for innovations, such as individualized instruction and tutoring, as well as a lunch and breakfast program. Student…

  3. Principal Appraisals Get a Remake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of school districts--including large ones like those in Chicago, Dallas, Los Angeles, and Hawaii--have become recent converts to new principal-evaluation systems that tie school leaders' appraisals to student test scores. As of this school year, student achievement accounts for 40 percent to 50 percent of principals' evaluations…

  4. The Effective and Reflective Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, John M.

    2013-01-01

    For a "Kappan" issue focusing on the job of the principal, this is an essay from a retired, longtime principal and superintendent. "I have notebooks full of advice that I've collected over the years: tips, mantras, cautions, and quotations appropriate for any occasion," the author says. "I learned to focus less on…

  5. Critical Issues Facing School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styron, Ronald A., Jr.; Styron, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to further extend research initially conducted in 2003 pertaining to the critical issues K-12 principals address on a daily basis. The study involved surveying school principals within the state of Mississippi to discover the critical issues they identified, the significance level of these issues, and the rationale…

  6. The Principal as Curriculum Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Judy; Pfeifer, R. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Today's reform landscape transcends instructional leadership and data-based decision-making skills. This is not to say that those behaviors are not essential to a principal's success, but they no longer suffice. Principals do not need to be curriculum experts, but they do need to lead their schools with full knowledge of the Common Core State…

  7. Principals Use Research-Based Techniques for Facilitating School Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hord, Shirley M.; Hall, Gene E.

    Research shows that principals with strong leadership qualities are a critical factor in effective schools. This paper describes three research based techniques that principals can use when making decisions about how to help teachers develop their skills. The Concerns Based Adoption Model (CBAM) is an empirically based conceptual framework that…

  8. Mentoring Prospective Principals: Determinants of Productive Mentor-Mentee Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Mentoring contributes to prospective principals' growth, easing their transition from the role of teacher to that of administrator. This article reports findings from a study aimed at examining the determinant factors affecting the mentor-mentee relationship in a uniquely designed principal preparation program in New York City. The study…

  9. Primary School Principals' Job Satisfaction and Occupational Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darmody, Merike; Smyth, Emer

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors associated with occupational stress and job satisfaction among Irish primary school principals. A principal's job has become increasingly demanding and complex in recent decades. However, there is little current research into their levels of stress and job satisfaction, particularly…

  10. Northeast Ohio Principals Academy Pilot Entry Year Program Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenta, Louis; Covrig, Duane

    This evaluation determined the workability of the Northeast Ohio Principals Academy Pilot Entry Year Program, noting the differential effects of its major components in developing portfolios and as a contributing factor to school improvement. The program provides leadership and support to beginning principals, provides collaborative learning…

  11. The Principal: Leadership for the Effective and Productive School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookbinder, Robert M.

    This book synthesizes research findings on principal effectiveness, viewing the principal as a key factor in ensuring school effectiveness and productivity. Methodology includes an extensive literature review, participation and observation grounded in theory, and pragmatic responses to conditions and issues. Chapter 1 presents an overview of…

  12. How Do Principals Respond to Charter School Competition? Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannata, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    The current study from the National Center on School Choice contributes to the research by exploring the factors that affect principals' perceptions of charter school competition and the extent to which their leadership behavior may change in response. Central research questions of the study were: (1) How do principals perceive the competition…

  13. High School Principals as Leaders: Styles and Sources of Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinia, Vasiliki; Papantoniou, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the characteristics of leadership (style adopted, sources of power exercised and factors affecting leadership) of high school principals in Greece. Design/Methodology/Approach: In total, 235 school principals were surveyed using questionnaires. These questionnaires assessed how often they adopted…

  14. Elementary Teachers' and Principals' Perceptions of Principal Leadership Style and School Social Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Thomas Jack

    The context of teaching has changed dramatically in the wake of two national waves of educational reform. This dissertation examined the relationship between elementary principals' use of transformational leadership strategies as determined by teacher reports and the presence of social-organizational factors within the schools. The five…

  15. A Salary Formula for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Michael B.

    1975-01-01

    When each administrative salary contract is negotiated individually, inequities creep in, many administrators feel. This article suggests a formula for determining principals' salaries based on education and experience, days of work, and responsibilities. (Editor)

  16. A Principal-in-Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Only in his late 20s, Adam Parrott-Sheffer is on the verge of completing his principal internship and getting ready to take the helm of his own school. Young, willing to do things out of the box, like wear fatigues to school for a day, he has a lot in common with many new principals in the Chicago Public Schools (CPS). He is adept at using…

  17. Vacunas contra los virus del papiloma humano

    Cancer.gov

    Una hoja informativa acerca de las vacunas contra los virus del papiloma humano (VPH) para prevenir infecciones con ciertos tipos de VPH, los cuales son la causa principal del cáncer de cuello del útero o cérvix.

  18. Principal Investigator-in-a-Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Laurence R.

    1999-01-01

    Human performance in orbit is currently limited by several factors beyond the intrinsic awkwardness of motor control in weightlessness. Cognitive functioning can be affected by such factors as cumulative sleep loss, stress and the psychological effects of long-duration small-group isolation. When an astronaut operates a scientific experiment, the performance decrement associated with such factors can lead to lost or poor quality data and even the total loss of a scientific objective, at great cost to the sponsors and to the dismay of the Principal Investigator. In long-duration flights, as anticipated on the International Space Station and on any planetary exploration, the experimental model is further complicated by long delays between training and experiment, and the large number of experiments each crew member must perform. Although no documented studies have been published on the subject, astronauts report that an unusually large number of simple errors are made in space. Whether a result of the effects of microgravity, accumulated fatigue, stress or other factors, this pattern of increased error supports the need for a computerized decision-making aid for astronauts performing experiments. Artificial intelligence and expert systems might serve as powerful tools for assisting experiments in space. Those conducting space experiments typically need assistance exactly when the planned checklist does not apply. Expert systems, which use bits of human knowledge and human methods to respond appropriately to unusual situations, have a flexibility that is highly desirable in circumstances where an invariably predictable course of action/response does not exist. Frequently the human expert on the ground is unavailable, lacking the latest information, or not consulted by the astronaut conducting the experiment. In response to these issues, we have developed "Principal Investigator-in-a-Box," or [PI], to capture the reasoning process of the real expert, the Principal

  19. A View from the Principal's Office: A Grounded-Theory Exploration of Principals' Perceptions of Non-Academic Barriers to Learning--Implications for School Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prather, JoNataye Arnitra

    2010-01-01

    The importance of the principal has been found to be a critical factor in student and school success. School principal responsibilities traditionally encompass operations and management. However, many principals are unable to fulfill these expectations because of students' social and behavioral issues. Consequently, this qualitative study explored…

  20. Conceptualizing a System for Principal Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrington, Mary Lynne; Sanders, Kellie

    2011-01-01

    A disconnect exists between principal leadership expectations and the actual practice of supervision and evaluation of principals. Increased principal responsibilities and rigorous standards require that a new approach to principal evaluation be considered. The authors provide a framework for a multi-dimensional approach to principal supervision…

  1. "Successful" Principals: A Contested Notion for Superintendents and Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scribner, Samantha M. Paredes; Crow, Gary M.; Lopez, Gerardo R.; Murtadha, Khaula

    2011-01-01

    The notion of "success" is narrowly defined and appropriated within an educational context. Typically limited to objective measures of organizational productivity, effectiveness, and efficiency, "successful" principal practices, we argue, engender action and attention to a broader array of issues and interrelationships. In this study, we conducted…

  2. The Principal and the Law. Elementary Principal Series No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doverspike, David E.; Cone, W. Henry

    Developments over the past 25 years in school-related legal issues in elementary schools have significantly changed the principal's role. In 1975, a decision of the U.S. Supreme Court established three due-process guidelines for short-term suspension. The decision requires student notification of charges, explanation of evidence, and an informal…

  3. Teachers toward Open School Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blase, Joseph J.

    1989-01-01

    Examined are teachers' perceptions of "everyday" politics in schools. Of the 777 teachers responding, 404 described the political strategies they used with principals as "open" and "effective." Discussed are these strategies, teachers' reasons/purposes, teachers' feelings, and strategy effectiveness. (73 references) (SI)

  4. Solving the Assistant Principal's Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    How does an assistant principal complete the large number of managerial duties and, at the same time, serve as a credible instructional leader? This book provides practical recommendations for successfully filling the dual role as manager and instructional leader, building effective relationships, using power appropriately, and productively…

  5. Effective Schools Require Effective Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPointe, Michelle; Davis, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    At long last, scholars and policy makers have come to realize what most school administrators have known for years--that effective schools require both outstanding teachers and strong leaders. Although there is considerable research about the characteristics of effective school leaders and the strategies principals can use to help manage…

  6. Preparing Elementary Principals for Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bish, Marion; Shore, Rebecca; Shue, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    "Surprise! Here come the preschoolers." Thousands of elementary principals are receiving a similar message from their supervisors as the concept of universal preschool is propelled to the forefront of the national education agenda. School districts across the country are being infused with wide varieties of federal- and state-funded early…

  7. Principals as Morally Accountable Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrich, Lisa Catherine

    2000-01-01

    Moral (rather than "corporate") accountability in education is essential; so is a human-centered leadership approach. Findings from an Australian study that investigated elementary principals' responsiveness to teachers' learning show how these leaders exercised their moral, professional, and contractual accountability to support a caring,…

  8. School Uniforms: Guidelines for Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex, Nathan L.

    2001-01-01

    Principals desiring to develop a school-uniform policy should involve parents, teachers, community leaders, and student representatives; beware restrictions on religious and political expression; provide flexibility and assistance for low-income families; implement a pilot program; align the policy with school-safety issues; and consider legal…

  9. Teachers' Perspectives on Principal Mistreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blase, Joseph; Blase, Jo

    2006-01-01

    Although there is some important scholarly work on the problem of workplace mistreatment/abuse, theoretical or empirical work on abusive school principals is nonexistent. Symbolic interactionism was the theoretical structure for the present study. This perspective on social research is founded on three primary assumptions: (1) individuals act…

  10. How Principals Support Teacher Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The current standards and accountability regime describes effective teaching as the ability to increase student achievement on standardized tests. This narrow definition of effectiveness can lead principals to create school cultures myopically focused on student achievement data. A "laser-like focus on academic achievement," if employed too…

  11. The Principal as Instructional Leader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Thomas I.

    1986-01-01

    Effective schools research has verified that schools are rarely effective unless the principal is a proficient instructional leader. This article summarizes five recent studies examining the practices and qualities comprising good instructional leadership. A Seattle study by Richard L. Andrews disclosed a statistical correlation between student…

  12. The Need for Principal Renewal: The Promise of Sustaining Principals through Principal-to-Principal Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drago-Severson, Eleanor

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Given the challenging complexity of the modern principalship--including high-stakes testing, standards-based reform, increased accountability, and severe budget cuts--practitioners and scholars emphasize the urgency of supporting principals' stress-relief and renewal. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: This…

  13. ROLE CONFLICTS OF SCHOOL PRINCIPALS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GROSS, NEAL; AND OTHERS

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO ISOLATE THE ROLE CONFLICTS TO WHICH SCHOOL PRINCIPALS ARE EXPOSED, THE METHODS USED TO RESOLVE THEM, AND THE FREQUENCY WITH WHICH THEY OCCUR. THE SOCIAL MATRIX OF ROLE CONFLICT IS BASED ON DIFFERING EXPECTATIONS OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR INTERPRETATIONS. THUS, WHEN PARENTS, STUDENTS, TEACHERS, OTHER ADMINISTRATORS, AND…

  14. Principal Leadership in Taiwan Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shouse, Roger C.; Lin, Kuan-Pei

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades, Taiwan's Ministry of Education has responded to globalization by restructuring school curricular, instructional, and decision making practices along western lines in an attempt to attain legitimacy on the world stage. As a result, Taiwanese principals, once kings within their schools, now must share power with other…

  15. The Principal and Reference Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Agnes E.; Permuth, Steve; Gray, David L.

    1999-01-01

    Requests to write letters of reference for former teachers can be legally problematic. Principals should know relevant state laws; have employees sign a release from liability; provide only factual information; maintain fair personnel files; avoid telephone recommendations; disclose information on a need-to-know basis; and avoid performance…

  16. Do Principals Engineer the Job?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Raymond T. B.; O'Reilly, Robert R.

    Based on Fiedler's Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness and Leader-Match program, this study's hypothesis is that experienced school principals increase their effectiveness by changing key organizational variables to suit their personal leadership styles. Following V. D. McNamara's application of Fiedler's contingency model in a study of…

  17. Principals + Algebra (- Fear) = Instructional Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    Recent state legislation in Michigan mandates that all graduating seniors successfully pass algebra I and II. Numerous initiatives have been enacted to help mathematics teachers meet this challenge, yet school principals have had little preparation for the necessary curricular and instructional changes. To address this unmet need, university-based…

  18. The Principal as Tech Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The conventional wisdom in education is that any school reform--be it curriculum, instruction, assessment, or teacher professionalism--is most likely to take hold in schools that have strong leadership. The same holds true for technology. The most successful implementation of technology programs takes place in schools where the principal sees him…

  19. Computer Use by Rural Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witten, D. W.; And Others

    Very little research is available nationwide that measures the administrative use of computers in rural schools. A state survey of 154 rural Kentucky secondary school principals (representing a 51% response rate) focused on their knowledge about computers and use of computers for school administrative purposes. Only 14% of respondents had a…

  20. The principal components of response strength.

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, P R; Hall, S S

    2001-01-01

    As Skinner (1938) described it, response strength is the "state of the reflex with respect to all its static properties" (p. 15), which include response rate, latency, probability, and persistence. The relations of those measures to one another was analyzed by probabilistically reinforcing, satiating, and extinguishing pigeons' key pecking in a trials paradigm. Reinforcement was scheduled according to variable-interval, variable-ratio, and fixed-interval contingencies. Principal components analysis permitted description in terms of a single latent variable, strength, and this was validated with confirmatory factor analyses. Overall response rate was an excellent predictor of this state variable. PMID:11394483

  1. The principal components of response strength.

    PubMed

    Killeen, P R; Hall, S S

    2001-03-01

    As Skinner (1938) described it, response strength is the "state of the reflex with respect to all its static properties" (p. 15), which include response rate, latency, probability, and persistence. The relations of those measures to one another was analyzed by probabilistically reinforcing, satiating, and extinguishing pigeons' key pecking in a trials paradigm. Reinforcement was scheduled according to variable-interval, variable-ratio, and fixed-interval contingencies. Principal components analysis permitted description in terms of a single latent variable, strength, and this was validated with confirmatory factor analyses. Overall response rate was an excellent predictor of this state variable. PMID:11394483

  2. Kernel Near Principal Component Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MARTIN, SHAWN B.

    2002-07-01

    We propose a novel algorithm based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA). First, we present an interesting approximation of PCA using Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization. Next, we combine our approximation with the kernel functions from Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to provide a nonlinear generalization of PCA. After benchmarking our algorithm in the linear case, we explore its use in both the linear and nonlinear cases. We include applications to face data analysis, handwritten digit recognition, and fluid flow.

  3. Angle between principal axis triples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tape, Walter; Tape, Carl

    2012-09-01

    The principal axis angle ξ0, or Kagan angle, is a measure of the difference between the orientations of two seismic moment tensors. It is the smallest angle needed to rotate the principal axes of one moment tensor to the corresponding principal axes of the other. This paper is a conceptual review of the main features of ξ0. We give a concise formula for calculating ξ0, but our main goal is to illustrate the behaviour of ξ0 geometrically. When the first of two moment tensors is fixed, the angle ξ0 between them becomes a function on the unit ball. The level surfaces of ξ0 can then be depicted in the unit ball, and they give insights into ξ0 that are not obvious from calculations alone. We also include a derivation of the known probability density inline image of ξ0. The density inline image is proportional to the area of a certain surface inline image. The easily seen variation of inline image with t then explains the rather peculiar shape of inline image. Because the curve inline image is highly non-uniform, its shape needs to be considered when analysing distributions of empirical ξ0 values. We recall an example of Willemann which shows that ξ0 may not always be the most appropriate measure of separation for moment tensor orientations, and we offer an alternative measure.

  4. Principal elementary mode analysis (PEMA).

    PubMed

    Folch-Fortuny, Abel; Marques, Rodolfo; Isidro, Inês A; Oliveira, Rui; Ferrer, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) has been widely applied in fluxomics to compress data into a few latent structures in order to simplify the identification of metabolic patterns. These latent structures lack a direct biological interpretation due to the intrinsic constraints associated with a PCA model. Here we introduce a new method that significantly improves the interpretability of the principal components with a direct link to metabolic pathways. This method, called principal elementary mode analysis (PEMA), establishes a bridge between a PCA-like model, aimed at explaining the maximum variance in flux data, and the set of elementary modes (EMs) of a metabolic network. It provides an easy way to identify metabolic patterns in large fluxomics datasets in terms of the simplest pathways of the organism metabolism. The results using a real metabolic model of Escherichia coli show the ability of PEMA to identify the EMs that generated the different simulated flux distributions. Actual flux data of E. coli and Pichia pastoris cultures confirm the results observed in the simulated study, providing a biologically meaningful model to explain flux data of both organisms in terms of the EM activation. The PEMA toolbox is freely available for non-commercial purposes on http://mseg.webs.upv.es. PMID:26905301

  5. The Changing Role of the School Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2014-01-01

    The role of the school principal has changed much in the recent intervening years. He/she was formerly thought of as a manager and management of the local school. Today the principal is seen as the leader of curriculum improvement. School principals must believe in pupils being able to achieve optimally in school and in life. Principals must…

  6. 34 CFR 85.995 - Principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principal. 85.995 Section 85.995 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal investigator, or other person within a participant...

  7. 29 CFR 98.995 - Principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Principal. 98.995 Section 98.995 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal investigator, or other person within...

  8. 22 CFR 1006.995 - Principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Principal. 1006.995 Section 1006.995 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1006.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal investigator, or other person within a participant...

  9. 22 CFR 1508.995 - Principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Principal. 1508.995 Section 1508.995 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1508.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal investigator, or other person within a...

  10. Instructional, Transformational, and Managerial Leadership and Student Achievement: High School Principals Make a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Jerry W.; Prater, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This statewide study examined the relationships between principal managerial, instructional, and transformational leadership and student achievement in public high schools. Differences in student achievement were found when schools were grouped according to principal leadership factors. Principal leadership behaviors promoting instructional and…

  11. Time Management Abilities of School Principals According to Gender: A Case Study in Selected Gauteng Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botha, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    According to the literature on school effectiveness and school improvement and the role of the school principal in this regard, the lack of time management skills and abilities among school principals can be regarded as one of the main factors that lead to principal inefficiency and ineffectiveness in the school context. But, how do male and…

  12. Career Status of Secondary Principals in Small Schools in the Southwest. A Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifert, Edward H.

    A 24-item questionnaire was mailed to 559 randomly selected secondary principals in Arkansas, Colorado, New Mexico, and Oklahoma to determine the career status of secondary principals working in buildings with student populations of 400 or fewer. The greatest single factor influencing the decision to become a principal was need for increased…

  13. Different Approaches to the Professional Development of Principals: A Comparative Study of New Zealand and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retna, Kala S.

    2015-01-01

    One of the key factors that contribute to effective management of schools is the professional development of principals. The role of the principal has become more complex with the dynamic and constant reforms in the educational environment. The present study focuses on the professional development of principals in New Zealand and Singapore. The…

  14. An Analysis of Factor Extraction Strategies: A Comparison of the Relative Strengths of Principal Axis, Ordinary Least Squares, and Maximum Likelihood in Research Contexts That Include Both Categorical and Continuous Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Kevin B.

    2013-01-01

    This study is intended to provide researchers with empirically derived guidelines for conducting factor analytic studies in research contexts that include dichotomous and continuous levels of measurement. This study is based on the hypotheses that ordinary least squares (OLS) factor analysis will yield more accurate parameter estimates than…

  15. Principal Recruitment: Assessing Job Pursuit Intentions among Educators Enrolled in Principal Certification Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Paul A.; Rinehart, James S.; Keedy, John L.; Bjork, Lars G.

    2007-01-01

    A statewide cadre of principal certification students (N = 516) completed a principal job survey and role-played as applicants for a principal position by completing a principal job evaluation instrument. Significant predictors of principal job rating included the following: self-reported capability to do the job, expected satisfaction with work…

  16. Great Assistant Principals and the (Great) Principals Who Mentor Them: A Practical Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Carole C.; Berry, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    Written for principals and assistant principals to read and reflect on together, this book describes the most common challenges facing today's assistant principals--and provides practical solutions. Authors Carole Goodman and Christopher Berry examine how principals and assistant principals can develop the kinds of relationships that serve to meet…

  17. Female Traditional Principals and Co-Principals: Experiences of Role Conflict and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Ellen Wexler; Kelber, Sheryl Talcott

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a secondary analysis of survey data focusing on role conflict and job satisfaction of 102 female principals. Data were collected from 51 female traditional principals and 51 female co-principals. By examining the traditional and co-principal leadership models as experienced by female principals, this paper addresses the impact…

  18. Principal Effectiveness: A Review of Literature to Supplement "The School Principal" and "The School Principal: Recommendations for Effective Leadership."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henthorn, Joe

    This literature review was intended to provide information and suggestions regarding the role and evaluation of the principal. It is supplementary to two reports commissioned by the California State Legislature on school principals. In the first section on the role of principals a chart is presented summarizing conclusions from the two original…

  19. Fast Steerable Principal Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhizhen; Shkolnisky, Yoel; Singer, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy nowadays often requires the analysis of hundreds of thousands of 2-D images as large as a few hundred pixels in each direction. Here, we introduce an algorithm that efficiently and accurately performs principal component analysis (PCA) for a large set of 2-D images, and, for each image, the set of its uniform rotations in the plane and their reflections. For a dataset consisting of n images of size L × L pixels, the computational complexity of our algorithm is O(nL3 + L4), while existing algorithms take O(nL4). The new algorithm computes the expansion coefficients of the images in a Fourier–Bessel basis efficiently using the nonuniform fast Fourier transform. We compare the accuracy and efficiency of the new algorithm with traditional PCA and existing algorithms for steerable PCA. PMID:27570801

  20. Magellan: Principal Venus science findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, R. Stephen

    1993-01-01

    This is a brief summary of the science findings of the Magellan mission, principally based on data from the radar system. Future plans for Magellan include acquisition of high resolution gravity data from a nearly circular orbit and atmospheric drag and occultation experiments. The Magellan science results represent the combined effort of more than 100 Magellan investigators and their students and colleagues. More extensive discussions can be found in the August and October, 1992 issues of the Journal of Geophysical Research, Planets. The Magellan mission's scientific objectives were to provide a global characterization of landforms and tectonic features; to distinguish and understand impact processes; to define and explain erosion, deposition, and chemical processes; and to model the interior density distribution. All but the last objective, which requires new global gravity data, have been accomplished, or we have acquired the data that are required to accomplish them.

  1. Nonlinear principal component analysis of climate data

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, J.; Sengupta, S.

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents the details of the nonlinear principal component analysis of climate data. Topic discussed include: connection with principal component analysis; network architecture; analysis of the standard routine (PRINC); and results.

  2. Preserving Intellectual Freedom: The Principal's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Hugh

    1993-01-01

    Argues that one of the primary roles of any school principal is to act as champion of students' rights of academic and intellectual freedom. Provides five steps that principals can take to preserve intellectual freedom in their schools. (HB)

  3. Elementary School Principals' Perceptions of Childhood Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This survey assessed school principals' perceptions regarding childhood obesity and the schools' role in dealing with the problem. Results of a survey of 277 elementary school principals are presented. (Author/MT)

  4. Leadership Effects: School Principals and Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelli, Michael; Green, David A.

    2012-01-01

    We identify the effect of individual high school principals on graduation rates and English exam scores using an administrative data set of grade 12 students in BC Canada. Many principals were rotated across schools by districts, permitting isolation of the effect of principals from the effect of schools. We estimate the variance of the…

  5. School Principal Wants to Spearhead Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzhong, Cheng

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the crucial role that a school principal plays in spearheading environmental education. In the execution of environmental education, the principal is not merely a passive supporter and participant; he should go further to be an initiator. The principal must take the initiative and, using his own ideas and his…

  6. A New Look at Principal Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Matthew; Ross, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This article describes various aspects of school principal evaluation. The authors note that many states and school districts use evaluations that do not consider existing standards for principals or proven practices. It asserts that principal evaluations must be tools for professional capacity building that leads to improved teaching and…

  7. Conversations with Principals: Issues, Values, and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubin, Andrew E.

    2006-01-01

    "Conversations With Principals: Issues, Values, and Politics" is a unique compilation of interviews with principals at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels. Unlike any other text in Educational Administration, this book allows students the unusual opportunity to experience the inner voice of principals as they discuss the many decisions…

  8. Perceptions of Isolation among High School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Molly P.; Mallory, Barbara J.

    2008-01-01

    This study addressed the perceptions of isolation among high school principals in Georgia. The data collection process, in which interviews were conducted, provided insight into the lived experiences of 10 principals. One of the findings was that high school principals were relieved, in a sense, to discuss their perceptions of the "loneliness"…

  9. Improving Principal Leadership through Feedback and Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickman, Leonard; Goldring, Ellen; De Andrade, Ana Regina; Breda, Carolyn; Goff, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a feedback and coaching intervention designed to improve the quality of principal leadership. Principals received feedback from teachers on their instructional leadership, and their teachers' trust of them. Principals also provided self-ratings and they compared their teachers' ratings to…

  10. 45 CFR 63.34 - Principal investigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Principal investigators. 63.34 Section 63.34 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED... Principal investigators. The principal investigator(s) designated in successful grant applications...

  11. Developing Data Analysis Skills in Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polnick, Barbara; Edmonson, Stacey L.

    The work of school principals has become increasingly more complex and demanding. To prepare principals who can meet these challenges, the National Policy Board for Educational Administration (NPBEA) created a training guide, "Principals for Our Changing Schools: Knowledge and Skill Base" (S. Thomson, 1993). This publication reflects the belief…

  12. Teacher Supervision Practices and Principals' Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    April, Daniel; Bouchamma, Yamina

    2015-01-01

    A questionnaire was used to determine the individual and collective teacher supervision practices of school principals and vice-principals in Québec (n = 39) who participated in a research-action study on pedagogical supervision. These practices were then analyzed in terms of the principals' sociodemographic and socioprofessional characteristics…

  13. Professional Learning Communities, Principals, and Collegial Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanneut, Gene

    2010-01-01

    Nearly 30 years ago, Ron Edmonds identified the instructional leadership of principals as one of the characteristics of effective schools. The connections between what principals do as instructional leaders and the successes of their schools continue to be well recognized. Principals who comprehend the significance of these linkages, however,…

  14. Preparing Politically Savvy Principals in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue; Pollock, Katina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to argue that principal preparation programs should help candidates: recognize the political role of the school principal; develop political skills (including the ability to strategically appropriate policy); and understand that the political approach of the principal influences teaching, learning, relationships,…

  15. Principal Connection/Reaching out for Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerr, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Schools are remarkably insular institutions, so "Have I improved?" is an especially difficult question for principals. Sure, schools are filled with people. Despite the schoolwide assemblies, faculty meetings, and crowded halls, much of what principals do is unseen and unknown by other adults. A big portion of principals' time is spent…

  16. Teachers' Perceptions of the Principal's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannangelo, Duane M.; Malone, Marguerite G.

    To gain an insight into teachers' perceptions of the role and responsibilities of school principals, 143 teachers from a large metropolitan area were surveyed. They were asked to respond to the following four questions: (1) What do you believe are the most important functions of the principal?; (2) What do principals say to teachers are the…

  17. ROLE EXPECTATIONS AND PERCEPTIONS OF SCHOOL PRINCIPALS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SWEITZER, ROBERT E.; AND OTHERS

    EFFORTS WERE MADE TO DISCOVER THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SUPERINTENDENTS, PRINCIPALS, AND TEACHERS. MAJOR AREAS OF INVESTIGATION CONCERNED THE ROLE OF THE PRINCIPAL AND HIS FULFILLMENT OF THAT ROLE. THE STUDY WAS TO PROVIDE A BASIS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH IN THESE AREAS. THE ROLE OF THE PRINCIPAL CONCERNED THE TASKS OF SELECTION OF CURRICULUM,…

  18. Principals' Collaborative Roles as Leaders for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Margaret; Gray, Susan; Jeurissen, Maree

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on data from three multicultural New Zealand primary schools to reconceptualize principals' roles as leaders for learning. In doing so, the writers build on Sinnema and Robinson's (2012) article on goal setting in principal evaluation. Sinnema and Robinson found that even principals hand-picked for their experience fell short on…

  19. Reteniendo los directores (Retaining Principals). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertling, Elizabeth

    This digest in Spanish examines the reasons why--outside of retirement--school principals leave their jobs. It also lists strategies districts can employ to retain principals. Many principals exit their profession because of the long hours, the workload and complexity of the job, the unending supervision of evening activities, the minimal pay…

  20. Beginning Elementary Principals around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Garduno, Jose Maria; Slater, Charles L.; Lopez-Gorosave, Gema

    2011-01-01

    The paper explores the different circumstances of newly appointed principals around the world. It is a literature review that examines articles from both English-speaking and non-English-speaking countries. Being a novice principal is stressful and even traumatic. Principals appear to feel unprepared for their role. The problem most common to all…

  1. Principals as Assessment Leaders in Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renihan, Patrick; Noonan, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a study of rural school principals' assessment leadership roles and the impact of rural context on their work. The study involved three focus groups of principals serving small rural schools of varied size and grade configuration in three systems. Principals viewed assessment as a matter of teacher accountability and as a…

  2. The Principal as Academician: The Renewed Voice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAvoy, Brenda, Ed.

    This collection of essays was written by principals who participated in the 1986-87 Humanities Seminar sponsored by the Principals' Institute of Georgia State University. The focus was "The Evolution of Intellectual Leadership." The roles of the principal as philosopher, historian, ethnician, writer and team member are examined through the eyes of…

  3. The Managerial Behavior of Elementary School Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willower, Donald J.; Kmetz, John T.

    Using structured observation, researchers carried out a field study of the work behavior of five elementary school principals in two northeastern states. Each principal was observed for one work week. The results were compared with similar observations of secondary principals. The observers recorded the nature, location, time, duration,…

  4. Principals Discuss Their Roles: An Observational Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Kathryn S.

    What principals are taught about their roles differs markedly from how they actually perceive and experience their roles. To discover the principals' views, comments made in discussion groups by 44 principals in a large urban Midwest school system over a four-month period were analyzed. Their descriptions of their roles and desired role changes…

  5. The Awesome Power of the Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    After more than 20 years of vague reference to the principal as instructional leader, progress is finally being made, and the specificity and results are truly awesome. In 1989, William Smith and Richard Andrews wrote a monograph titled "Instructional Leadership: How Principals Make a Difference." In their study of 1,200 school principals, they…

  6. The Principal and the Pear Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyle, John R.

    1991-01-01

    School principals are in a difficult environment filled with stress and plagued by weak support. Most principals are unprepared for site-based decision making. University professors must take the initiative to use the emerging knowledge base and develop professional studies degree and staff development programs to prepare principals. (24…

  7. 2 CFR 180.995 - Principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Principal. 180.995 Section 180.995 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved OMB GUIDELINES TO AGENCIES ON GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 180.995 Principal. Principal means— (a)...

  8. A Collaborative Model for Principal Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, M. D.; And Others

    Although the principal is critical for the success of the school and the school district, many school districts lack a structured and systematic means for identifying and selecting principals. This paper presents a collaborative model for principal selection, which is based on a valid job description, advertisement of the position, interview…

  9. Principals' Openness to Change in Malatya, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Mahire; Beycioglu, Kadir; Konan, Necdet

    2008-01-01

    When change is deemed necessary, principals' attitudes towards changes are significant for successful restructuring of schools. This study aimed to ascertain the extent to which principals in Malatya, Turkey, are open to change. A questionnaire was administered to 156 elementary and secondary school principals in Malatya, Turkey. This…

  10. New Principal Coaching as a Safety Net

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celoria, Davide; Roberson, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    This study examines new principal coaching as an induction process and explores the emotional dimensions of educational leadership. Twelve principal coaches and new principals--six of each--participated in this qualitative study that employed emergent coding (Creswell, 2008; Denzin, 2005; Glaser & Strauss, 1998; Spradley, 1979). The major…

  11. Implications for Secondary School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoroma, N. S.; Robert-Okah, I.

    2007-01-01

    The school system is a green pasture for inexhaustible investigations for the purpose of enhancing academic achievement. The reason is that factors and variables within the confines of educational activities appear also to be inexhaustible. One such factor that attracted an investigation is "administrative stress" as it affects secondary school…

  12. How Teachers Experience Principal Leadership: The Roles of Professional Community, Trust, Efficacy, and Shared Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlstrom, Kyla L.; Louis, Karen Seashore

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The leadership of the principal is known to be a key factor in supporting student achievement, but how that leadership is experienced and instructionally enacted by teachers is much less clear. The purpose of this study was to examine various factors that are often present in principal-teacher interactions and teacher-teacher…

  13. Measurement Invariance of the "Servant Leadership Questionnaire" across K-12 Principal Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Lihua; Stewart, Trae; Haber-Curran, Paige

    2015-01-01

    Measurement invariance of the five-factor "Servant Leadership Questionnaire" between female and male K-12 principals was tested using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis. A sample of 956 principals (56.9% were females and 43.1% were males) was analysed in this study. The hierarchical multi-step measurement invariance test supported…

  14. Cloning Their Own: Aspirant Principals and the School-Based Selection Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronn, Peter; Lacey, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we report data from two projects concerned with the aspirant principals' perspectives about school principal recruitment in three Australian states. In particular, we consider what our informants perceive as factors that inhibit the realisation of their aspirations. These factors include aspects of the operation of school-based…

  15. An Exploration of Two Female Principals' Leadership in Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhong, Wanjuan; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore two dimensions of leadership practices (i.e. teaching and learning and sources of power) used by two exemplary principals in mainland China against a background of education reform and to identify how broader contextual factors have shaped these two dimensions of their leadership.…

  16. The K-8 Principal in 1988: A Ten Year Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doud, James L.

    This 1988 survey of the elementary/middle school principalship is the sixth of its kind, with similar studies having been conducted in 1928, 1948, 1958, 1968 and 1978. The surveys provide an account of the factors that affect the status and characteristics of the K-8 principal. An 8-page instrument was mailed in the spring of 1987 to 2,414…

  17. Catholic School Principal Job Satisfaction: Keys to Retention and Recruitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Jennifer; Brock, Barbara L.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a study on principal retention in New South Wales, Australia. Factors in job retention included economic security, role enjoyment, and the opportunity to contribute. Disincentives to the principalship included lack of support from the employing authority, inadequate pay, isolation, growing responsibilities, difficult parents,…

  18. Early Career Principals: Working Productively with Difficult and Resistant Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eller, John F.; Eller, Sheila A.

    2012-01-01

    Effective leaders must find ways to motivate their employees to provide maximum success for the organization. In today's world of high accountability, this ability is paramount to the success and survival of schools, and is an especially important skill for early career principals to master. Knowledge of the factors that might have contributed to…

  19. Fostering Inclusive Education: Principals' Perspectives in Trinidad and Tobago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Dennis A.; Brown, Launcelot I.

    2011-01-01

    This paper shares elementary school principals' perspectives from one urban school district in Trinidad and Tobago, regarding factors that might enhance or limit their and/or their faculty's readiness for inclusion in their schools. Qualitative data collection comprised a self-administered questionnaire and focus group interviewing. Respondents…

  20. Increasing Principal Effectiveness: A Strategic Investment for ESEA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for American Progress, 2011

    2011-01-01

    School principals are second only to teachers among school-based factors that influence student achievement and they are critical to attracting and retaining effective teachers and other school staff. Yet in the past, federal policymakers haven't given school leadership much attention. This reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education…

  1. School Principal Succession and Teachers on Successor Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bob L., Jr.; Licata, Joseph W.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the perceptions of 3,067 teachers of the effectiveness of successors to 73 prior principals. Effective successors inspired teacher confidence early. Results further indicate that teachers assess succession in terms of its effect on organizational factors that allow teachers to maintain predictability and control over their work. (SLD)

  2. Principals' Perceptions of the School Counsellor Role in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alghamdi, Nawal G.; Riddick, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Many factors in Saudi society have led to a need for counselling services in educational institutions. However, concerns remain that the role of school counsellors in that setting is unclear. An aim of this study was to determine the perceptions of principals concerning the actual and ideal role of intermediate girls school counsellors in Saudi…

  3. Explorations in Principal Leadership across an Array of School Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portin, Bradley S.

    The centrality of school leadership as a necessary element for school success is a well-determined part of the educational leadership research canon. Although school leadership is broad-based and includes many factors, the central role the principal plays is most often seen as a pivot around which much of a school's progress depends. However, it…

  4. Principals' Leadership Styles and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnish, David Alan

    2012-01-01

    Many schools struggle to meet No Child Left Behind's stringent adequate yearly progress standards, although the benchmark has stimulated national creativity and reform. The purpose of this study was to explore teacher perceptions of principals' leadership styles, curriculum reform, and student achievement to ascertain possible factors to…

  5. The Principal and Community Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnes, Leslie L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes an effective community education program for Pearl High School in Nashville (TN) that involved the consideration of five factors (community involvement, personal needs, organizational needs, perceptions, and expectations) in a successful effort to unify the school. (SB)

  6. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Intestinal Parasitic Infections in a Rural Community in “Consolación del Sur” Municipality, Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Santos, A Pino; Fernández, FA Núñez; Sánchez, R Martínez; Cañete, I Domenech; Rodríguez, M; Puebla, L Jerez; González, Z Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are very common infections worldwide and they are responsible for significant public health problems. The World Health Organization estimates that one-third of the world population is infected and some epidemiologic factors related to the transmission have been identified. The purpose of this investigation was to study the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in people living in the rural community of “El Canal”, Consolación del Sur municipality and the association with some epidemiologic risk factors. All participants were subjected to three methods of parasitological examinations on the stool samples and by immunodiagnostic tests which allow the detection of excretory-secretory antigens of adults with Fasciola hepatica. The global prevalence rate of intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) was 18%, and 16.7% for protozoan infections, while the rate of helminth infection was lower (5.3%) in the population studied. The univariate analysis identified three factors associated with intestinal pathogenic protozoan infections which include livestock work, drinking water from well\\river and eating unwashed fruits/vegetables. The multivariate logistic regression using introduction test ratified the association of these risk factors. Contrary to what have been published in the majority of Cuban studies carried out in rural places, a higher prevalence of protozoan than helminth infection was found. This discrepancy may be explained because the majority of the workers in this rural community were stock-breeders and they are not involved in other agricultural work. The identification of risk factors is important in order to design appropriate strategies for control of IPIs in communities. PMID:25429477

  7. School Principals' Perceptions of Ethically Just Responses to a Teacher Sexting Vignette: Severity of Administrator Response, Principals' Personality, and Offender Gender and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Site level administrators make decisions during the course of a day that have ethical dimensions that challenge their personal values and ethics. This study examined the extent to which particular factors would affect principals' and vice principals' judgments of the ethicality of sanctions given a teacher who had been sending sexually…

  8. Collecting Duct Principal Cell Transport Processes and Their Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Soundararajan, Rama; Trimpert, Christiane; Kashlan, Ossama B.; Deen, Peter M.T.; Kohan, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    The principal cell of the kidney collecting duct is one of the most highly regulated epithelial cell types in vertebrates. The effects of hormonal, autocrine, and paracrine factors to regulate principal cell transport processes are central to the maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance in the face of wide variations in food and water intake. In marked contrast with the epithelial cells lining the proximal tubule, the collecting duct is electrically tight, and ion and osmotic gradients can be very high. The central role of principal cells in salt and water transport is reflected by their defining transporters—the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC), the renal outer medullary K+ channel, and the aquaporin 2 (AQP2) water channel. The coordinated regulation of ENaC by aldosterone, and AQP2 by arginine vasopressin (AVP) in principal cells is essential for the control of plasma Na+ and K+ concentrations, extracellular fluid volume, and BP. In addition to these essential hormones, additional neuronal, physical, and chemical factors influence Na+, K+, and water homeostasis. Notably, a variety of secreted paracrine and autocrine agents such as bradykinin, ATP, endothelin, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin E2 counterbalance and limit the natriferic effects of aldosterone and the water-retaining effects of AVP. Considerable recent progress has improved our understanding of the transporters, receptors, second messengers, and signaling events that mediate principal cell responses to changing environments in health and disease. This review primarily addresses the structure and function of the key transporters and the complex interplay of regulatory factors that modulate principal cell ion and water transport. PMID:24875192

  9. Assistant Principal Experiences that Contribute to Their Transformational Leadership Practices as New Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVillier, Doug

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative research study used narrative inquiry to explore the assistant principal experiences that contribute to transformational leadership practices in new principals. Eight administrators, who were in their first or second year as a principal, participated in the study. The findings suggested that principals play an important role in…

  10. The School Principal as a Behavior Modifier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ronald E.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted in which a school principal implemented behavior modification programs with elementary school children. The behaviors dealt with were tardiness, absenteeism, and disruptions. (Author)