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Sample records for factor rbm15 facilitates

  1. The AS-RBM15 lncRNA enhances RBM15 protein translation during megakaryocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc-Tung; Su, Hairui; Khodadadi-Jamayran, Alireza; Lin, Shan; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Dewang; Pawlik, Kevin M; Townes, Tim M; Chen, Yabing; Mulloy, James C; Zhao, Xinyang

    2016-06-01

    Antisense RNAs regulate the transcription and translation of the corresponding sense genes. Here, we report that an antisense RNA, AS-RBM15, is transcribed in the opposite direction within exon 1 of RBM15 RBM15 is a regulator of megakaryocyte (MK) differentiation and is also involved in a chromosome translocation t(1;22) in acute megakaryocytic leukemia. MK terminal differentiation is enhanced by up-regulation of AS-RBM15 expression and attenuated by AS-RBM15 knockdown. At the molecular level, AS-RBM15 enhances RBM15 protein translation in a CAP-dependent manner. The region of the antisense AS-RBM15 RNA, which overlaps with the 5'UTR of RBM15, is sufficient for the up-regulation of RBM15 protein translation. In addition, we find that transcription of both RBM15 and AS-RBM15 is activated by the transcription factor RUNX1 and repressed by RUNX1-ETO, a leukemic fusion protein. Therefore, AS-RBM15 is a regulator of megakaryocyte differentiation and may play a regulatory role in leukemogenesis. PMID:27118388

  2. A Pooled shRNA Screen Identifies Rbm15, Spen, and Wtap as Factors Required for Xist RNA-Mediated Silencing.

    PubMed

    Moindrot, Benoit; Cerase, Andrea; Coker, Heather; Masui, Osamu; Grijzenhout, Anne; Pintacuda, Greta; Schermelleh, Lothar; Nesterova, Tatyana B; Brockdorff, Neil

    2015-07-28

    X-chromosome inactivation is the process that evolved in mammals to equalize levels of X-linked gene expression in XX females relative to XY males. Silencing of a single X chromosome in female cells is mediated by the non-coding RNA Xist. Although progress has been made toward identifying factors that function in the maintenance of X inactivation, the primary silencing factors are largely undefined. We developed an shRNA screening strategy to produce a ranked list of candidate primary silencing factors. Validation experiments performed on several of the top hits identified the SPOC domain RNA binding proteins Rbm15 and Spen and Wtap, a component of the m6A RNA methyltransferase complex, as playing an important role in the establishment of Xist-mediated silencing. Localization analysis using super-resolution 3D-SIM microscopy demonstrates that these factors co-localize with Xist RNA within the nuclear matrix subcompartment, consistent with a direct interaction. PMID:26190105

  3. A Pooled shRNA Screen Identifies Rbm15, Spen, and Wtap as Factors Required for Xist RNA-Mediated Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Moindrot, Benoit; Cerase, Andrea; Coker, Heather; Masui, Osamu; Grijzenhout, Anne; Pintacuda, Greta; Schermelleh, Lothar; Nesterova, Tatyana B.; Brockdorff, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Summary X-chromosome inactivation is the process that evolved in mammals to equalize levels of X-linked gene expression in XX females relative to XY males. Silencing of a single X chromosome in female cells is mediated by the non-coding RNA Xist. Although progress has been made toward identifying factors that function in the maintenance of X inactivation, the primary silencing factors are largely undefined. We developed an shRNA screening strategy to produce a ranked list of candidate primary silencing factors. Validation experiments performed on several of the top hits identified the SPOC domain RNA binding proteins Rbm15 and Spen and Wtap, a component of the m6A RNA methyltransferase complex, as playing an important role in the establishment of Xist-mediated silencing. Localization analysis using super-resolution 3D-SIM microscopy demonstrates that these factors co-localize with Xist RNA within the nuclear matrix subcompartment, consistent with a direct interaction. PMID:26190105

  4. Cross-talk between PRMT1-mediated methylation and ubiquitylation on RBM15 controls RNA splicing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Tran, Ngoc-Tung; Su, Hairui; Wang, Rui; Lu, Yuheng; Tang, Haiping; Aoyagi, Sayura; Guo, Ailan; Khodadadi-Jamayran, Alireza; Zhou, Dewang; Qian, Kun; Hricik, Todd; Côté, Jocelyn; Han, Xiaosi; Zhou, Wenping; Laha, Suparna; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Levine, Ross L; Raffel, Glen; Liu, Yanyan; Chen, Dongquan; Li, Haitao; Townes, Tim; Wang, Hengbin; Deng, Haiteng; Zheng, Y George; Leslie, Christina; Luo, Minkui; Zhao, Xinyang

    2015-01-01

    RBM15, an RNA binding protein, determines cell-fate specification of many tissues including blood. We demonstrate that RBM15 is methylated by protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) at residue R578, leading to its degradation via ubiquitylation by an E3 ligase (CNOT4). Overexpression of PRMT1 in acute megakaryocytic leukemia cell lines blocks megakaryocyte terminal differentiation by downregulation of RBM15 protein level. Restoring RBM15 protein level rescues megakaryocyte terminal differentiation blocked by PRMT1 overexpression. At the molecular level, RBM15 binds to pre-messenger RNA intronic regions of genes important for megakaryopoiesis such as GATA1, RUNX1, TAL1 and c-MPL. Furthermore, preferential binding of RBM15 to specific intronic regions recruits the splicing factor SF3B1 to the same sites for alternative splicing. Therefore, PRMT1 regulates alternative RNA splicing via reducing RBM15 protein concentration. Targeting PRMT1 may be a curative therapy to restore megakaryocyte differentiation for acute megakaryocytic leukemia. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07938.001 PMID:26575292

  5. Cross-talk between PRMT1-mediated methylation and ubiquitylation on RBM15 controls RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Tran, Ngoc-Tung; Su, Hairui; Wang, Rui; Lu, Yuheng; Tang, Haiping; Aoyagi, Sayura; Guo, Ailan; Khodadadi-Jamayran, Alireza; Zhou, Dewang; Qian, Kun; Hricik, Todd; Côté, Jocelyn; Han, Xiaosi; Zhou, Wenping; Laha, Suparna; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Levine, Ross L; Raffel, Glen; Liu, Yanyan; Chen, Dongquan; Li, Haitao; Townes, Tim; Wang, Hengbin; Deng, Haiteng; Zheng, Y George; Leslie, Christina; Luo, Minkui; Zhao, Xinyang

    2015-01-01

    RBM15, an RNA binding protein, determines cell-fate specification of many tissues including blood. We demonstrate that RBM15 is methylated by protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) at residue R578, leading to its degradation via ubiquitylation by an E3 ligase (CNOT4). Overexpression of PRMT1 in acute megakaryocytic leukemia cell lines blocks megakaryocyte terminal differentiation by downregulation of RBM15 protein level. Restoring RBM15 protein level rescues megakaryocyte terminal differentiation blocked by PRMT1 overexpression. At the molecular level, RBM15 binds to pre-messenger RNA intronic regions of genes important for megakaryopoiesis such as GATA1, RUNX1, TAL1 and c-MPL. Furthermore, preferential binding of RBM15 to specific intronic regions recruits the splicing factor SF3B1 to the same sites for alternative splicing. Therefore, PRMT1 regulates alternative RNA splicing via reducing RBM15 protein concentration. Targeting PRMT1 may be a curative therapy to restore megakaryocyte differentiation for acute megakaryocytic leukemia. PMID:26575292

  6. Requirement of UAP56, URH49, RBM15, and OTT3 in the expression of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF57

    SciTech Connect

    Majerciak, Vladimir; Deng, Merlyn; Zheng Zhiming

    2010-11-25

    Transport of mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is mediated by cellular RNA export factors. In this report, we examined how RNA export factors UAP56 and URH49, and RNA export cofactors RBM15 and OTT3, function in modulating KSHV ORF57 expression. We found that knockdown of each factor by RNAi led to decreased ORF57 expression. Specifically, reduced expression of either UAP56 or RBM15 led to nuclear export deficiency of ORF57 RNA. In the context of the KSHV genome, the near absence of UAP56 or RBM15 reduced the expression of both ORF57 and ORF59 (an RNA target of ORF57), but not ORF50. Collectively, our data indicate that the expression of KSHV ORF57 is regulated by cellular RNA export factors and cofactors at the posttranscriptional level.

  7. The RNA Binding Motif Protein 15B (RBM15B/OTT3) Is a Functional Competitor of Serine-Arginine (SR) Proteins and Antagonizes the Positive Effect of the CDK11p110-Cyclin L2α Complex on Splicing*

    PubMed Central

    Loyer, Pascal; Busson, Adeline; Trembley, Janeen H.; Hyle, Judith; Grenet, Jose; Zhao, Wei; Ribault, Catherine; Montier, Tristan; Kidd, Vincent J.; Lahti, Jill M.

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report the identification of the RNA binding motif protein RBM15B/OTT3 as a new CDK11p110 binding partner that alters the effects of CDK11 on splicing. RBM15B was initially identified as a binding partner of the Epstein-Barr virus mRNA export factor and, more recently, as a cofactor of the nuclear export receptor NXF1. In this study, we found that RBM15B co-elutes with CDK11p110, cyclin L2α, and serine-arginine (SR) proteins, including SF2/ASF, in a large nuclear complex of ∼1-MDa molecular mass following size exclusion chromatography. Using co-immunoprecipitation experiments and in vitro pulldown assays, we mapped two distinct domains of RBM15B that are essential for its direct interaction with the N-terminal extension of CDK11p110, cyclin L2α, and SR proteins such as 9G8 and SF2/ASF. Finally, we established that RBM15B is a functional competitor of the SR proteins SF2/ASF and 9G8, inhibits formation of the functional spliceosomal E complex, and antagonizes the positive effect of the CDK11p110-cyclin L2α complex on splicing both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:21044963

  8. The RNA binding motif protein 15B (RBM15B/OTT3) is a functional competitor of serine-arginine (SR) proteins and antagonizes the positive effect of the CDK11p110-cyclin L2α complex on splicing.

    PubMed

    Loyer, Pascal; Busson, Adeline; Trembley, Janeen H; Hyle, Judith; Grenet, Jose; Zhao, Wei; Ribault, Catherine; Montier, Tristan; Kidd, Vincent J; Lahti, Jill M

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report the identification of the RNA binding motif protein RBM15B/OTT3 as a new CDK11(p110) binding partner that alters the effects of CDK11 on splicing. RBM15B was initially identified as a binding partner of the Epstein-Barr virus mRNA export factor and, more recently, as a cofactor of the nuclear export receptor NXF1. In this study, we found that RBM15B co-elutes with CDK11(p110), cyclin L2α, and serine-arginine (SR) proteins, including SF2/ASF, in a large nuclear complex of ∼1-MDa molecular mass following size exclusion chromatography. Using co-immunoprecipitation experiments and in vitro pulldown assays, we mapped two distinct domains of RBM15B that are essential for its direct interaction with the N-terminal extension of CDK11(p110), cyclin L2α, and SR proteins such as 9G8 and SF2/ASF. Finally, we established that RBM15B is a functional competitor of the SR proteins SF2/ASF and 9G8, inhibits formation of the functional spliceosomal E complex, and antagonizes the positive effect of the CDK11(p110)-cyclin L2α complex on splicing both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:21044963

  9. Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia with a four-way variant translocation originating the RBM15-MKL1 fusion gene.

    PubMed

    Torres, Lurdes; Lisboa, Susana; Vieira, Joana; Cerveira, Nuno; Santos, Joana; Pinheiro, Manuela; Correia, Cecília; Bizarro, Susana; Almeida, Marta; Teixeira, Manuel R

    2011-05-01

    Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) with t(1;22)(p13;q13) is a subset of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) representing <1% of all cases and about 70% of pediatric AMKL in the first year of life. We present a case of a 7-month-old female in whom the bone marrow karyotype showed the derivative chromosome der(22)t(1;22)(p13;q13). The RBM15-MKL1 fusion transcript was detected by RT-PCR and confirmed by sequencing analyses. FISH analyses revealed the presence of the four-way translocation t(1;22;17;18)(p13;q13;q22;q12). PMID:21370421

  10. Facilitated diffusion framework for transcription factor search with conformational changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartailler, Jérôme; Reingruber, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Cellular responses often require the fast activation or repression of specific genes, which depends on transcription factors (TFs) that have to quickly find the promoters of these genes within a large genome. TFs search for their DNA promoter target by alternating between bulk diffusion and sliding along the DNA, a mechanism known as facilitated diffusion. We study a facilitated diffusion framework with switching between three search modes: a bulk mode and two sliding modes triggered by conformational changes between two protein conformations. In one conformation (search mode) the TF interacts unspecifically with the DNA backbone resulting in fast sliding. In the other conformation (recognition mode) it interacts specifically and strongly with DNA base pairs leading to slow displacement. From the bulk, a TF associates with the DNA at a random position that is correlated with the previous dissociation point, which implicitly is a function of the DNA structure. The target affinity depends on the conformation. We derive exact expressions for the mean first passage time (MFPT) to bind to the promoter and the conditional probability to bind before detaching when arriving at the promoter site. We systematically explore the parameter space and compare various search scenarios. We compare our results with experimental data for the dimeric Lac repressor search in E. coli bacteria. We find that a coiled DNA conformation is absolutely necessary for a fast MFPT. With frequent spontaneous conformational changes, a fast search time is achieved even when a TF becomes immobilized in the recognition state due to the specific bindings. We find a MFPT compatible with experimental data in presence of a specific TF-DNA interaction energy that has a Gaussian distribution with a large variance.

  11. School factors as barriers to and facilitators of a preventive intervention for pediatric type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    School-based interventions are essential to prevent pediatric obesity and type 2 diabetes. School environmental factors influence implementation of these interventions. This article examines how school factors acted as barriers to and facilitators of the HEALTHY intervention. The HEALTHY study was a...

  12. School factors as barriers to and facilitators of a preventive intervention for pediatric type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hall, William J; Schneider, Margaret; Thompson, Deborah; Volpe, Stella L; Steckler, Allan; Hall, John M; Fisher, M Randall

    2014-06-01

    School-based interventions are essential to prevent pediatric obesity and type 2 diabetes. School environmental factors influence implementation of these interventions. This article examines how school factors acted as barriers to and facilitators of the HEALTHY intervention. The HEALTHY study was a cluster-randomized trial of a multicomponent intervention implemented in 21 schools. Interview data were analyzed to identify barriers and facilitators. Barriers included teacher frustration that intervention activities detracted from tested subjects, student resistance and misbehavior, classroom management problems, communication equipment problems, lack of teacher/staff engagement, high cost and limited availability of nutritious products, inadequate facility space, and large class sizes. Facilitators included teacher/staff engagement, effective classroom management, student engagement, schools with direct control over food service, support from school leaders, and adequate facilities and equipment. Contextual barriers and facilitators must be taken into account in the design and implementation of school-based health interventions. PMID:24904696

  13. Factors in the Transfer of Governance-Facilitation Skills within Farmers' Marketing Organizations in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miiro, Richard F.; Mazur, Robert E.; Matsiko, Frank B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Training transfer has been examined for formal industrial and service organizations in developed countries but rarely for rural organizations in sub-Saharan Africa. This study sought to identify transfer system factors that best explain the transfer of governance-facilitation skills provided to leaders of farmers' marketing organizations…

  14. The Evolution of a Teacher Community of Practice: Identifying Facilitating and Constraining Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Tracey

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a larger, qualitative study that explored the potential of a school-based teacher community of practice as a model for a transformative form of teacher professional development. This paper reports on initial findings from a grounded theory exploration of the factors that facilitated and constrained the evolution…

  15. Exploring Factors Influencing Collaborative Knowledge Construction in Online Discussions: Student Facilitation and Quality of Initial Postings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannou, Andri; Demetriou, Skevi; Mama, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Although lots of studies have investigated collaborative knowledge construction in online courses, the factors influencing this process are yet to be fully determined. This study provides quantitative and qualitative types of evidence on how (naturally emerged) student facilitation and quality of initial postings influence collaborative knowledge…

  16. Facilitating and Hindering Factors in the Realization of Disabled Children's Agency in Institutional Contexts: Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olli, Johanna; Vehkakoski, Tanja; Salantera, Sanna

    2012-01-01

    Disabled children's opportunity to act as agents may be compromised because adults have the power to choose who are entitled to express agency. Disabled children spend much time in institutions and with professionals of different fields. The aim of this literature review was to find out which factors facilitate or hinder the realization of…

  17. Inhibiting and facilitating factors to end a violent relationship: patterns of behavior among women in Spain.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Rodriguez-Madrid, Nieves; Plazaola-Castaño, Juncal; Montero-Piñar, Isabel; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Márquez-Herrera, Nayra; Sanz-Peregrín, Carlos; Nevot-Cordero, Adela

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study are (a) to explore the factors, which facilitate or inhibit women's responses to intimate partner violence (IPV) and their ability to leave a violent relationship; (b) to identify patterns of behavior in abused women based on their perception of the violence and the actions they take to find help or a solution to the problems derived from IPV. Semistructured interviews were carried out. The critical path is defined as the sequence of decisions and actions taken by affected women to address the violence they experienced. Based on this concept, we identified several factors that affect women's responses to violence, and categorized them into inhibiting and facilitating factors. We also identified three patterns of behavior: the first one is theoretically as the ideal critical path, whereas in the third pattern the process is less like the ideal critical path. PMID:24364130

  18. Strand Transfer and Elongation of HIV-1 Reverse Transcription Is Facilitated by Cell Factors In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Warrilow, David; Warren, Kylie; Harrich, David

    2010-01-01

    Recent work suggests a role for multiple host factors in facilitating HIV-1 reverse transcription. Previously, we identified a cellular activity which increases the efficiency of HIV-1 reverse transcription in vitro. Here, we describe aspects of the activity which shed light on its function. The cellular factor did not affect synthesis of strong-stop DNA but did improve downstream DNA synthesis. The stimulatory activity was isolated by gel filtration in a single fraction of the exclusion volume. Velocity-gradient purified HIV-1, which was free of detectable RNase activity, showed poor reverse transcription efficiency but was strongly stimulated by partially purified cell proteins. Hence, the cell factor(s) did not inactivate an RNase activity that might degrade the viral genomic RNA and block completion of reverse transcription. Instead, the cell factor(s) enhanced first strand transfer and synthesis of late reverse transcription suggesting it stabilized the reverse transcription complex. The factor did not affect lysis of HIV-1 by Triton X-100 in the endogenous reverse transcription (ERT) system, and ERT reactions with HIV-1 containing capsid mutations, which varied the biochemical stability of viral core structures and impeded reverse transcription in cells, showed no difference in the ability to be stimulated by the cell factor(s) suggesting a lack of involvement of the capsid in the in vitro assay. In addition, reverse transcription products were found to be resistant to exogenous DNase I activity when the active fraction was present in the ERT assay. These results indicate that the cell factor(s) may improve reverse transcription by facilitating DNA strand transfer and DNA synthesis. It also had a protective function for the reverse transcription products, but it is unclear if this is related to improved DNA synthesis. PMID:20949087

  19. Exploring socio-cultural factors that mediate, facilitate, & constrain the health and empowerment of refugee youth.

    PubMed

    Edge, Sara; Newbold, K Bruce; McKeary, Marie

    2014-09-01

    Studies on youth health and well-being are predominantly quantitative and expert-driven with less attention given to how youth understand what it means to be healthy themselves and the role of socio-cultural factors in shaping this. Knowledge on the perceptions and experiences of refugee youth is particularly lacking and notable given their unique stressors related to migratory, settlement and integration experiences. We contribute a better understanding of how refugee youth themselves define and contextualize health, with particular emphasis given to socio-cultural factors that enable or constrain health promotion efforts and individual health agency. This research was undertaken at a downtown drop-in centre in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada that provided settlement and integration services to newcomer youth. We employ a grounded theory approach and draw upon participant observation, focus groups and in-depth interviews. Twenty-six youth (age 18-25 years), representing 12 different countries of origin participated. The youth defined health very broadly touching upon many typical determinants of health (e.g. education, income, etc.). Yet factors of most importance (as demonstrated by the frequency and urgency in which they were discussed by youth) included a sense of belonging, positive self-identity, emotional well-being, and sense of agency or self-determination. We conceptualize these as "mediating" factors given the youth argued they enabled or constrained their ability to cope with adversities related to other health determinant categories. The youth also discussed what we interpret as "facilitators" that encourage mediating factors to manifest positively (e.g. informal, non-biomedical settings and programs that nurture trust, break down access barriers, and promote a sense of community amongst peers, mentors, and health professionals). When creating health promotion strategies for refugee youth (and perhaps youth more generally) it is important to understand the

  20. The factors facilitating and inhibiting effective clinical decision-making in nursing: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hagbaghery, Mohsen Adib; Salsali, Mahvash; Ahmadi, Fazlolah

    2004-01-01

    Background Nurses' practice takes place in a context of ongoing advances in research and technology. The dynamic and uncertain nature of health care environment requires nurses to be competent decision-makers in order to respond to clients' needs. Recently, the public and the government have criticized Iranian nurses because of poor quality of patient care. However nurses' views and experiences on factors that affect their clinical function and clinical decision-making have rarely been studied. Methods Grounded theory methodology was used to analyze the participants' lived experiences and their viewpoints regarding the factors affecting their clinical function and clinical decision-making. Semi-structured interviews and participant observation methods were used to gather the data. Thirty-eight participants were interviewed and twelve sessions of observation were carried out. Constant comparative analysis method was used to analyze the data. Results Five main themes emerged from the data. From the participants' points of view, "feeling competent", "being self-confident", "organizational structure", "nursing education", and "being supported" were considered as important factors in effective clinical decision-making. Conclusion As participants in this research implied, being competent and self-confident are the most important personal factors influencing nurses clinical decision-making. Also external factors such as organizational structure, access to supportive resources and nursing education have strengthening or inhibiting effects on the nurses' decisions. Individual nurses, professional associations, schools of nursing, nurse educators, organizations that employ nurses and government all have responsibility for developing and finding strategies that facilitate nurses' effective clinical decision-making. They are responsible for identifying barriers and enhancing factors within the organizational structure that facilitate nurses' clinical decision-making. PMID

  1. Women’s experiences of factors that facilitate or inhibit gestational diabetes self-management

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gestational diabetes rates have increased dramatically in the past two decades and this pattern of increase appears to relate primarily to the obesity epidemic, older maternal age and migration from world areas of high GDM risk. Women from disadvantaged and migrant backgrounds are most at risk of developing and of mismanaging this condition. The aim of the study was to explore the factors that facilitated or inhibited gestational diabetes self-management among women in a socially deprived area. Methods Fifteen pregnant women, with a diagnosis of gestational diabetes, were purposively recruited for this study. Qualitative semi structured interviews and 1 focus group were conducted when participants were approximately 28–38 weeks gestation. The study’s theoretical framework was based on interpretative phenomenology and data was analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Results Women in this study identified a number of factors that complicated their task of GDM self-management. Barriers included: (1) time pressures; (2) physical constraints; (3) social constraints; (4) limited comprehension of requirements, and (5) insulin as an easier option. Factors facilitating GDM self-management included: thinking about the baby and psychological support from partners and families. Conclusion Women from low socio economic and migrant backgrounds often struggle to comprehend GDM self-management requirements. To improve adherence to management plans, these women require educational and supportive services that are culturally appropriate and aimed at a low level of literacy. PMID:22988897

  2. Factors that act as facilitators and barriers to nurse leaders’ participation in health policy development

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health policies impact on nursing profession and health care. Nurses' involvement in health policy development ensures that health care is safe, of a high quality, accessible and affordable. Numerous factors influence nurse leaders' ability to be politically active in influencing health policy development. These factors can be facilitators or barriers to their participation. There is scant research evidence from Eastern African region that draws attention to this topic. This paper reports part of the larger study. The objectives reported in this paper were those aimed to: build consensus on factors that act as facilitators and barriers to nurse leaders' participation in health policy development in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Methods A Delphi survey was applied which included: expert panelists, iterative rounds, statistical analysis, and consensus building. The expert panelists were purposively selected and included national nurse leaders in leadership positions in East Africa. Data collection was done, in three iterative rounds, and utilized a questionnaire with open and closed ended questions. 78 expert panelists were invited to participate in the study; the response rate was 47% of these 64.8% participated in the second round and of those 100% participated in the third round. Data analysis was done by examining the data for the most commonly occurring categories for the open ended questions and descriptive statistics for structured questions. Results The findings of the study indicate that both facilitators and barriers exist. The former include: being involved in health policy development, having knowledge and skills, enhancing the image of nursing and enabling structures and processes. The latter include: lack of involvement, negative image of nursing and structures and processes which exclude them. Conclusion There is a window of opportunity to enhance national nurse leaders' participation in health policy development. Nurse leaders have a key role

  3. Do participant, facilitator, or group factors moderate effectiveness of the Body Project? Implications for dissemination.

    PubMed

    Butryn, Meghan L; Rohde, Paul; Marti, C Nathan; Stice, Eric

    2014-10-01

    The Body Project is a dissonance-based selective eating disorder prevention program with a broad evidence-base. The study sought to determine if previous findings regarding participant moderators replicate in an effectiveness trial under more real-world conditions. This study also had the novel aim of examining facilitator characteristics and group-level variables as potential outcome predictors. These aims are critical for understanding when the intervention is most effective and for whom. Participants were 408 young women with body image concerns recruited from seven universities. Change in eating disorder symptoms at 1-year follow-up was the primary outcome. Intervention effects were significant for both participants who had low or high baseline symptom levels, but the effect size was approximately twice as large for participants with high initial symptom levels (d = 0.58 vs. 0.24). Intervention effects were not predicted by facilitator factors (education, age, BMI, sex) or by group size or attendance rate. This study demonstrates that participants with either low or high eating disorder symptoms will benefit from the intervention but if resources are limited, targeting those with elevated eating disorder symptoms may be sensible. Results also suggest that a wide variety of facilitators can effectively deliver the Body Project, which has encouraging implications for dissemination. PMID:25199580

  4. Do Participant, Facilitator, or Group Factors Moderate Effectiveness of the Body Project? Implications for Dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Butryn, Meghan L.; Rohde, Paul; Marti, C. Nathan; Stice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The Body Project is a dissonance-based a selective eating disorder prevention program with a broad evidence-base. The study sought to determine if previous findings regarding participant moderators replicate in an effectiveness trial under more real-world conditions. This study also had the novel aim of examining facilitator characteristics and group-level variables as potential outcome predictors. These aims are critical for understanding when the intervention is most effective and for whom. Participants were 408 young women with body image concerns recruited from seven universities. Change in eating disorder symptoms at 1-year follow-up was the primary outcome. Intervention effects were significant for both participants who had low or high baseline symptom levels, but the effect size was approximately twice as large for participants with high initial symptom levels (d = 0.58 vs. 0.24). Intervention effects were not predicted by facilitator factors (education, age, BMI, sex) or by group size or attendance rate. This study demonstrates that participants with either low or high eating disorder symptoms will benefit from the intervention but if resources are limited, targeting those with elevated eating disorder symptoms may be sensible. Results also suggest that a wide variety of facilitators can effectively deliver the Body Project, which has encouraging implications for dissemination. PMID:25199580

  5. Major factors for facilitating change in behavioral strategies to reduce obesity

    PubMed Central

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Centis, Elena; Marzocchi, Rebecca; El Ghoch, Marwan; Marchesini, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    It is very unlikely that our obesity-promoting environment will change in the near future. It is therefore mandatory to improve our knowledge of the main factors associated with successful adoption of obesity-reducing behaviors. This may help design more powerful procedures and strategies to facilitate the adoption of healthy lifestyles in a “toxic” environment favoring the development of a positive energy balance. The aim of this review is to describe the main factors associated with successful adoption of obesity-reducing behaviors and to describe the most recent development, limits, and outcomes of lifestyle modification programs. The evidence regarding predictors of weight loss and weight loss maintenance remains largely incomplete. It is necessary to develop strategies matching treatments to patients’ needs to improve successful weight loss and its maintenance. How to detect and how to address these needs is a continuous, challenging, research problem. PMID:24124398

  6. [Contact precautions in intensive care units: facilitating and inhibiting factors for professionals' adherence].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Adriana Cristina; Cardoso, Clareci Silva; Mascarenhas, Daniela

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to identify facilitating and limiting factors for professionals' compliance with contact precautions in an intensive care unit of a general hospital. This cross-sectional study was performed from May to October 2007, using a semi-structured questionnaire for data collection. Participants were 102 professionals, as follows: nursing technician (54.9%), nurse (12.7%), preceptor physician (10.8%), apprentice physiotherapist (8.8%), preceptor physiotherapist (7.8%) and resident physician (4.9%). The limiting factors for compliance with hand cleansing were forgetting, lack of knowledge, distance from sink, skin irritation, and lack of materials. The use of scrubs presented the most difficulty (45%) because they were not available at the shower box, were inappropriately stored, and due to the heat and collective use. Glove use was the practice most easily conducted in everyday practice. Results show the need to implement precaution measures to minimize the dissemination of resistant microorganisms. PMID:20394234

  7. Moving toward universal coverage of health insurance in Vietnam: barriers, facilitating factors, and lessons from Korea.

    PubMed

    Do, Ngan; Oh, Juhwan; Lee, Jin-Seok

    2014-07-01

    Vietnam has pursued universal health insurance coverage for two decades but has yet to fully achieve this goal. This paper investigates the barriers to achieve universal coverage and examines the validity of facilitating factors to shorten the transitional period in Vietnam. A comparative study of facilitating factors toward universal coverage of Vietnam and Korea reveals significant internal forces for Vietnam to further develop the National Health Insurance Program. Korea in 1977 and Vietnam in 2009 have common characteristics to be favorable of achieving universal coverage with similarities of level of income, highly qualified administrative ability, tradition of solidarity, and strong political leadership although there are differences in distribution of population and structure of the economy. From a comparative perspective, Vietnam can consider the experience of Korea in implementing the mandatory enrollment approach, household unit of eligibility, design of contribution and benefit scheme, and resource allocation to health insurance for sustainable government subsidy to achieve and sustain the universal coverage of health insurance. PMID:25045223

  8. Acceptability of emergency contraception in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. 2 - Facilitating factors versus obstacles.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Soledad; Hardy, Ellen; Alvarado, Gloria; Ezcurra, Enrique

    2003-01-01

    A multi-center study was performed in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico to identify factors that may facilitate or hinder the introduction of emergency contraception (EC) as well as perceptions concerning emergency contraceptive pills. Background information on the socio-cultural, political, and legal context and the characteristics of reproductive health services was collected. The opinions of potential users and providers were obtained through discussion groups, and those of authorities and policymakers through semi-structured interviews. Barriers to introduction included: perception of EC as an abortifacient, opposition by the Catholic Church, limited recognition of sexual and reproductive rights, limited sex education, and insensitivity to gender issues. Facilitating factors were: perception of EC as a method that would prevent abortion and pregnancy among adolescents and rape victims; interest in the method shown by potential users as well as by some providers and authorities. It appears possible to reduce barriers through support from segments of society committed to improving sexual and reproductive health and adequate training of health care providers. PMID:14999339

  9. Moving toward Universal Coverage of Health Insurance in Vietnam: Barriers, Facilitating Factors, and Lessons from Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Vietnam has pursued universal health insurance coverage for two decades but has yet to fully achieve this goal. This paper investigates the barriers to achieve universal coverage and examines the validity of facilitating factors to shorten the transitional period in Vietnam. A comparative study of facilitating factors toward universal coverage of Vietnam and Korea reveals significant internal forces for Vietnam to further develop the National Health Insurance Program. Korea in 1977 and Vietnam in 2009 have common characteristics to be favorable of achieving universal coverage with similarities of level of income, highly qualified administrative ability, tradition of solidarity, and strong political leadership although there are differences in distribution of population and structure of the economy. From a comparative perspective, Vietnam can consider the experience of Korea in implementing the mandatory enrollment approach, household unit of eligibility, design of contribution and benefit scheme, and resource allocation to health insurance for sustainable government subsidy to achieve and sustain the universal coverage of health insurance. Graphical Abstract PMID:25045223

  10. Factors facilitating patient satisfaction among women with medically unexplained long-term fatigue: A relational perspective.

    PubMed

    Lian, Olaug S; Hansen, Anne Helen

    2016-05-01

    Bodily conditions that are difficult to identify, explain and treat with the aid of medical knowledge and technology appear to be particularly challenging to medical encounters. Patients are often dissatisfied with the help they receive, and they often experience that their medical needs are not met. To explore factors facilitating patient satisfaction among patients with a medically unexplained condition, we ask: what is the importance of individual versus relational factors in facilitating patient satisfaction in clinical encounters between general practitioners (GPs) and women with medically unexplained long-term fatigue? We approach this question through a statistical analysis of survey data collected from a net sample of 431 women recruited through a patient organisation for people suffering from myalgic encephalomyelitis in 2013. Participants were asked about their experiences with general practitioners in the Norwegian national health system in two different phases: shortly after illness onset, and current regular general practitioner last 12 months. The questions evolved around themes concerning shared understanding and decision making, being taken seriously, being paid due respect and being treated as an equal partner. Through descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analyses, we explored how their experiences were related to individual and relational factors, respectively. Free-text comments from the questionnaires were used while interpreting the results. The analysis illuminates that relational aspects in medical encounters between GPs and ME patients, especially continuity, congruence in doctor-patient views and being seen by a specialist, are important catalysts of patient satisfaction. The probability of being satisfied with the initial investigation was more than six times higher in women who were referred to specialists, compared to those who were not. We conclude that continuity of care and experiences of being in a

  11. Women with doctorates in science: Perceptions of facilitative factors and obstacles to their success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimond, Pamela S.

    In the past thirty years there has been a significant increase in the number of women pursuing careers in the biological sciences, yet similar increases have not been seen in the physical sciences or engineering. Research suggests that societal, educational, and personal factors may be the cause. This study was designed to validate factors previously identified as being influential on the learning of science by women, as well as to discover factors not previously identified and to gain an understanding of the degree to which each of these factors is perceived to relate to their academic success. Quantitative and qualitative methodologies were used to identify factors that facilitated the success of or presented obstacles to women as they pursued doctoral degrees in physical science and engineering. Sixty-four women scientists completed surveys. Of these, twelve participated in telephone interviews. The data collected from these methodologies, when taken together, allowed for both a generalizability of results and in-depth understanding of the factors identified. Three major themes were identified. First was the importance of people in these women's lives. Second was each woman's expression of personality traits including passion, determination, and resilience. Third was the importance of support from a variety of sources. All of the scientists considered support necessary for their success. Implications for practice include: providing girls with a wide variety of experiences in mathematics and science, including both in-school and out-of-school activities; providing girls with role models and mentors; utilizing a variety of teaching strategies aimed at girls' preferred learning styles; providing a variety of kinds of support girls need to feel welcome and valued; developing in girls personal characteristics associated with the culture of science; minimizing the use of high-stakes exams; and maximizing schedule flexibility so women can combine scientific careers and

  12. Engineering Factor Xa Inhibitor with Multiple Platelet-Binding Sites Facilitates its Platelet Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yuanjun; Li, Ruyi; Lin, Yuan; Shui, Mengyang; Liu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Huan; Wang, Yinye

    2016-01-01

    Targeted delivery of antithrombotic drugs centralizes the effects in the thrombosis site and reduces the hemorrhage side effects in uninjured vessels. We have recently reported that the platelet-targeting factor Xa (FXa) inhibitors, constructed by engineering one Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif into Ancylostoma caninum anticoagulant peptide 5 (AcAP5), can reduce the risk of systemic bleeding than non-targeted AcAP5 in mouse arterial injury model. Increasing the number of platelet-binding sites of FXa inhibitors may facilitate their adhesion to activated platelets, and further lower the bleeding risks. For this purpose, we introduced three RGD motifs into AcAP5 to generate a variant NR4 containing three platelet-binding sites. NR4 reserved its inherent anti-FXa activity. Protein-protein docking showed that all three RGD motifs were capable of binding to platelet receptor αIIbβ3. Molecular dynamics simulation demonstrated that NR4 has more opportunities to interact with αIIbβ3 than single-RGD-containing NR3. Flow cytometry analysis and rat arterial thrombosis model further confirmed that NR4 possesses enhanced platelet targeting activity. Moreover, NR4-treated mice showed a trend toward less tail bleeding time than NR3-treated mice in carotid artery endothelium injury model. Therefore, our data suggest that engineering multiple binding sites in one recombinant protein is a useful tool to improve its platelet-targeting efficiency. PMID:27432161

  13. Mental health services development in Latin America and the Caribbean: achievements, barriers and facilitating factors.

    PubMed

    Caldas de Almeida, J M

    2013-03-01

    Mental health services reforms in Latin America and the Caribbean in the last 20 years have led to a significant improvement of mental health services. They also contributed to the development of new evidence that may help the implementation of future reforms. These advances, however, were clearly insufficient to respond to the huge challenges countries of Latin American and the Caribbean face to improve mental health services. Insufficient funding, one of the most important barriers to mental health services development found in most countries, was related to the absence of a strong consensus among all stakeholders and the weakness of user and family associations. Other barriers were the lack of technical capacity of the coordination unit responsible for development of services in the ministries of health, resistance from professionals towards changing to new models of care and lack of human resources. Transition to democracy in some countries and natural disasters proved to be windows of opportunity for mental health services reform. Facilitating factors included alliance with the human rights defence movement, development of research capacity in Latin American and the Caribbean countries, and international cooperation. PMID:24029840

  14. Flying Start health visitors' views of implementing the Newborn Behavioural Observation: barriers and facilitating factors.

    PubMed

    Holland, Amanda; Watkins, Dianne

    2015-06-01

    Investment in early intervention by health visitors to support positive parent-infant relationships is a Welsh Government target. An initiative called 'Flying Start' (FS) employs health visitors to undertake intensive home visiting with families who have a new baby to promote positive family interactions. As part of this role FS health visitors utilise the Newborn Behavioural Observation (NBO) system to observe, assess, support and enhance relationships between parent(s) and child. A project was undertaken to evaluate implementation and make recommendations for future service improvement. This paper describes stage one of the project which set out to evaluate FS health visitors' views of NBO implementation by means of a questionnaire and identifies barriers and facilitating factors to its use. Stage 2 of the project was to identify how NBO use could be improved in health visiting practice, discussed in a further paper. Results revealed a majority of practitioners felt NBO implementation benefited parents and enhanced the parent-infant relationship. It was viewed as an important part of the FS health visitors' role. Barriers included lack of time coupled with chaotic home environments. Variations in practice were identified, contrary to local guidelines. Recommendations are made to enhance NBO implementation that include the development of an NBO champion to support practitioners and provide further training. PMID:26373004

  15. Engineering Factor Xa Inhibitor with Multiple Platelet-Binding Sites Facilitates its Platelet Targeting.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuanjun; Li, Ruyi; Lin, Yuan; Shui, Mengyang; Liu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Huan; Wang, Yinye

    2016-01-01

    Targeted delivery of antithrombotic drugs centralizes the effects in the thrombosis site and reduces the hemorrhage side effects in uninjured vessels. We have recently reported that the platelet-targeting factor Xa (FXa) inhibitors, constructed by engineering one Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif into Ancylostoma caninum anticoagulant peptide 5 (AcAP5), can reduce the risk of systemic bleeding than non-targeted AcAP5 in mouse arterial injury model. Increasing the number of platelet-binding sites of FXa inhibitors may facilitate their adhesion to activated platelets, and further lower the bleeding risks. For this purpose, we introduced three RGD motifs into AcAP5 to generate a variant NR4 containing three platelet-binding sites. NR4 reserved its inherent anti-FXa activity. Protein-protein docking showed that all three RGD motifs were capable of binding to platelet receptor αIIbβ3. Molecular dynamics simulation demonstrated that NR4 has more opportunities to interact with αIIbβ3 than single-RGD-containing NR3. Flow cytometry analysis and rat arterial thrombosis model further confirmed that NR4 possesses enhanced platelet targeting activity. Moreover, NR4-treated mice showed a trend toward less tail bleeding time than NR3-treated mice in carotid artery endothelium injury model. Therefore, our data suggest that engineering multiple binding sites in one recombinant protein is a useful tool to improve its platelet-targeting efficiency. PMID:27432161

  16. Identifying the Factors That Facilitate or Hinder Advance Planning by Persons With Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Hirschman, Karen B.; Kapo, Jennifer M.; Karlawish, Jason H. T.

    2009-01-01

    We performed semistructured interviews with 30 family members of patients with advanced dementia to identify the factors that facilitate or hinder advance planning by persons with dementia. All interviews were analyzed using qualitative data analysis techniques. The majority (77%) of family members reported that their relative had some form of written advance directive, and at least half reported previous discussions about health care preferences (57%), living situation or placement issues (50%), and finances or estate planning (60%) with the patient. Family members reported some themes that prompted planning and others that were barriers to planning. Events that most often triggered planning were medical, living situation, or financial issues associated with a friend or family member of the patient (57%). Barriers to planning included both passive and active avoidance. The most common form of passive avoidance was not realizing the importance of planning until it was too late to have the discussion (63%). The most common form of active avoidance was avoiding the discussion (53%). These data suggest potentially remediable strategies to address barriers to advance planning discussions. PMID:18580595

  17. Leaders of School Technology Innovation: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Change Facilitator Style Questionnaire (CFSQ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Feng; Ritzhaupt, Albert; Cavanaugh, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe a construct validation study of the Change Facilitator Style Questionnaire (CFSQ), an instrument designed to measure the leadership style of school principals as change facilitators. Design/methodology/approach: Participants included 614 K-12 teachers across the state of Florida involved in the Enhancing…

  18. Cytotoxic factor secreted by Escherichia coli associated with sepsis facilitates transcytosis through human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Tibo, Luiz Henrique Soares; Bertol, Jéssica Wildgrube; Bernedo-Navarro, Robert Alvin; Yano, Tomomasa

    2016-01-01

    Culture supernatant of sepsis-associated Escherichia coli (SEPEC) isolated from patients with sepsis caused loss of intercellular junctions and elongation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The cytotoxic factor was purified from culture supernatant of SEPEC 15 (serogroup O153) by liquid chromatography process. PAGE (polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) showed that the purified SEPEC cytotoxic factor had a molecular mass of ∼150kDa and consisted of at least two subunits. At the concentration of 1 CD50 (40μg/mL) did facilitate transcytosis through the HUVEC cells monolayer of SEPEC 15 as much as E. coli K12 within 30min without affecting cell viability. These results suggest that this cytotoxic factor, named as SPF (SEPEC's permeabilizing factor), may be an important SEPEC virulence factor that facilitates bacterial access to the bloodstream. PMID:26963151

  19. BIOGENESIS FACTOR REQUIRED FOR ATP SYNTHASE 3 Facilitates Assembly of the Chloroplast ATP Synthase Complex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Duan, Zhikun; Zhang, Jiao; Peng, Lianwei

    2016-06-01

    Thylakoid membrane-localized chloroplast ATP synthases use the proton motive force generated by photosynthetic electron transport to produce ATP from ADP. Although it is well known that the chloroplast ATP synthase is composed of more than 20 proteins with α3β3γ1ε1δ1I1II1III14IV1 stoichiometry, its biogenesis process is currently unclear. To unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying the biogenesis of chloroplast ATP synthase, we performed extensive screening for isolating ATP synthase mutants in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In the recently identified bfa3 (biogenesis factors required for ATP synthase 3) mutant, the levels of chloroplast ATP synthase subunits were reduced to approximately 25% of wild-type levels. In vivo labeling analysis showed that assembly of the CF1 component of chloroplast ATP synthase was less efficient in bfa3 than in the wild type, indicating that BFA3 is required for CF1 assembly. BFA3 encodes a chloroplast stromal protein that is conserved in higher plants, green algae, and a few species of other eukaryotic algae, and specifically interacts with the CF1β subunit. The BFA3 binding site was mapped to a region in the catalytic site of CF1β. Several residues highly conserved in eukaryotic CF1β are crucial for the BFA3-CF1β interaction, suggesting a coevolutionary relationship between BFA3 and CF1β. BFA3 appears to function as a molecular chaperone that transiently associates with unassembled CF1β at its catalytic site and facilitates subsequent association with CF1α during assembly of the CF1 subcomplex of chloroplast ATP synthase. PMID:27208269

  20. Gay Rights and School Policy: A Case Study in Community Factors that Facilitate or Impede Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macgillivray, Ian K.

    2004-01-01

    This article highlights factors that either facilitated or hampered the work of a local Safe Schools Coalition in advocating adoption and implementation of their school district's policies that include sexual orientation. Non-discrimination policies that include sexual orientation and gender identity are needed to help stop anti-gay peer abuse…

  1. Pedagogy and Some Factors that Influence How We Facilitate Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Donald R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I'll share a personal overview of pedagogy in general. This will include a listing of my personal choices of the major events, from about 1950 onwards, that have had an impact on how I try to facilitate learning. The events occurred in Canada, the United States, UK and Australia. Some were publications; some were local,…

  2. Exploring Factors Facilitating and Hindering College-University Pathway Program Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percival, Jennifer; DiGiuseppe, Maurice; Goodman, Bill; LeSage, Ann; Longo, Fabiola; De La Rocha, Arlene; Hinch, Ron; Samis, John; Sanchez, Otto; Augusto Rodrigues, Anna; Raby, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore not only the academic measures such as grade point average of success of college-to-university transfer programs (Pathway Programs), but also the social-cultural facilitators and barriers throughout the students' Pathway experience. Design/methodology/approach: The experience of students and…

  3. Experiences of role model instructors and nursing students about facilitator factors of role-modeling process: A qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Jamileh Mokhtari; Ebadi, Abbas; Alhani, Fatemeh; Rejeh, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the key strategies in students’ learning is the influence of models on them. Understanding the factors affecting the implementation of role-modeling process in education will help to make greater use of this training strategy. This study aimed to understand the experiences of role model instructors and nursing students about the facilitator factors in the role-modeling process. Material and Methods: This qualitative study was carried out by using thematic analysis method and purposeful sampling. Data were collected until saturation by using three focus group discussions (n = 20) and two individual interviews with nursing instructors, as well as six semi-structured face-to-face interviews with role model instructors from five nursing faculties of Tehran universities in 2011. Results: Six themes, “effort for humanistic and professional growth of students,” “individual and managerial empowerment of instructor,” “instructor and student's modeling,” “motivation and effort of student,” “strategies governing the education system,” and “appropriate facilities and equipment,” were extracted as the facilitating factors. Conclusions: For development of role-modeling process in nursing education, paying attention to personal and environmental factors, especially effort for professional and humanistic growth of nursing students is necessary. PMID:24949062

  4. What Factors Facilitate Teacher Skill, Teacher Morale, and Perceived Student Learning in Technology-Using Classrooms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylor, Amy L.; Ritchie, Donn

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the impact of seven factors related to school technology (technology planning, leadership, curriculum alignment, professional development, technology use, teacher openness to change, and teacher non-school computer use) on five dependent measures (teacher's technology competency, technology integration, teacher morale, impact on…

  5. Factors that Facilitated an Alabama School Assistance Team's Success in a Low-Performing School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Virginia; Kochan, Frances

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the perceived factors that enabled an Alabama School Assistance Team (ASAT) to be effective in helping improve a low performing school. A case study was conducted with the ASATs and the Local Education Agency (LEA) site they served. Data were collected from interviews, documents and observations. The perceptions explored in…

  6. Lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 inhibition promotes reprogramming by facilitating the expression of exogenous transcriptional factors and metabolic switch.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Liang, Lining; Li, Yuan; Feng, Chengqian; Li, Lingyu; Zhang, Yixin; He, Songwei; Pei, Duanqing; Guo, Yunqian; Zheng, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 (LSD1) regulates histone methylation and influences the epigenetic state of cells during the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Here we reported that LSD1 inhibition via shRNA or specific inhibitor, tranylcypromine, promoted reprogramming at early stage via two mechanisms. At early stage of reprogramming, LSD1 inhibition increased the retrovirus-mediated exogenous expression of Oct4, Klf4, and Sox2 by blocking related H3K4 demethylation. Since LSD1 inhibition still promoted reprogramming even when iPSCs were induced with small-molecule compounds in a virus-free system, additional mechanisms should be involved. When RNA-seq was used for analysis, it was found that LSD1 inhibition reversed some gene expression changes induced by OKS, which subsequently promoted reprogramming. For example, by partially rescuing the decreased expression of Hif1α, LSD1 inhibition reversed the up-regulation of genes in oxidative phosphorylation pathway and the down-regulation of genes in glycolysis pathway. Such effects facilitated the metabolic switch from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis and subsequently promoted iPSCs induction. In addition, LSD1 inhibition also promoted the conversion from pre-iPSCs to iPSCs by facilitating the similar metabolic switch. Therefore, LSD1 inhibition promotes reprogramming by facilitating the expression of exogenous transcriptional factors and metabolic switch. PMID:27481483

  7. Lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 inhibition promotes reprogramming by facilitating the expression of exogenous transcriptional factors and metabolic switch

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao; Liang, Lining; Li, Yuan; Feng, Chengqian; Li, Lingyu; Zhang, Yixin; He, Songwei; Pei, Duanqing; Guo, Yunqian; Zheng, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 (LSD1) regulates histone methylation and influences the epigenetic state of cells during the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Here we reported that LSD1 inhibition via shRNA or specific inhibitor, tranylcypromine, promoted reprogramming at early stage via two mechanisms. At early stage of reprogramming, LSD1 inhibition increased the retrovirus-mediated exogenous expression of Oct4, Klf4, and Sox2 by blocking related H3K4 demethylation. Since LSD1 inhibition still promoted reprogramming even when iPSCs were induced with small-molecule compounds in a virus-free system, additional mechanisms should be involved. When RNA-seq was used for analysis, it was found that LSD1 inhibition reversed some gene expression changes induced by OKS, which subsequently promoted reprogramming. For example, by partially rescuing the decreased expression of Hif1α, LSD1 inhibition reversed the up-regulation of genes in oxidative phosphorylation pathway and the down-regulation of genes in glycolysis pathway. Such effects facilitated the metabolic switch from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis and subsequently promoted iPSCs induction. In addition, LSD1 inhibition also promoted the conversion from pre-iPSCs to iPSCs by facilitating the similar metabolic switch. Therefore, LSD1 inhibition promotes reprogramming by facilitating the expression of exogenous transcriptional factors and metabolic switch. PMID:27481483

  8. Human breast cancer-derived soluble factors facilitate CCL19-induced chemotaxis of human dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyundoo; Shin, Changsik; Park, Juhee; Kang, Enoch; Choi, Bongseo; Han, Jae-A; Do, Yoonkyung; Ryu, Seongho; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer remains as a challenging disease with high mortality in women. Increasing evidence points the importance of understanding a crosstalk between breast cancers and immune cells, but little is known about the effect of breast cancer-derived factors on the migratory properties of dendritic cells (DCs) and their consequent capability in inducing T cell immune responses. Utilizing a unique 3D microfluidic device, we here showed that breast cancers (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-436 and SK-BR-3)-derived soluble factors increase the migration of DCs toward CCL19. The enhanced migration of DCs was mainly mediated via the highly activated JNK/c-Jun signaling pathway, increasing their directional persistence, while the velocity of DCs was not influenced, particularly when they were co-cultured with triple negative breast cancer cells (TNBCs or MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-436). The DCs up-regulated inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 and induced T cells more proliferative and resistant against activation-induced cell death (AICD), which secret high levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and IFN-γ. This study demonstrated new possible evasion strategy of TNBCs utilizing their soluble factors that exploit the directionality of DCs toward chemokine responses, leading to the building of inflammatory milieu which may support their own growth. PMID:27451948

  9. Human breast cancer-derived soluble factors facilitate CCL19-induced chemotaxis of human dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hyundoo; Shin, Changsik; Park, Juhee; Kang, Enoch; Choi, Bongseo; Han, Jae-A; Do, Yoonkyung; Ryu, Seongho; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer remains as a challenging disease with high mortality in women. Increasing evidence points the importance of understanding a crosstalk between breast cancers and immune cells, but little is known about the effect of breast cancer-derived factors on the migratory properties of dendritic cells (DCs) and their consequent capability in inducing T cell immune responses. Utilizing a unique 3D microfluidic device, we here showed that breast cancers (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-436 and SK-BR-3)-derived soluble factors increase the migration of DCs toward CCL19. The enhanced migration of DCs was mainly mediated via the highly activated JNK/c-Jun signaling pathway, increasing their directional persistence, while the velocity of DCs was not influenced, particularly when they were co-cultured with triple negative breast cancer cells (TNBCs or MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-436). The DCs up-regulated inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 and induced T cells more proliferative and resistant against activation-induced cell death (AICD), which secret high levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and IFN-γ. This study demonstrated new possible evasion strategy of TNBCs utilizing their soluble factors that exploit the directionality of DCs toward chemokine responses, leading to the building of inflammatory milieu which may support their own growth. PMID:27451948

  10. Aurora kinase-induced phosphorylation excludes transcription factor RUNX from the chromatin to facilitate proper mitotic progression.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Linda Shyue Huey; Khor, Jian Ming; Lai, Soak Kuan; Garg, Shubham; Krishnan, Vaidehi; Koh, Cheng-Gee; Lee, Sang Hyun; Ito, Yoshiaki

    2016-06-01

    The Runt-related transcription factors (RUNX) are master regulators of development and major players in tumorigenesis. Interestingly, unlike most transcription factors, RUNX proteins are detected on the mitotic chromatin and apparatus, suggesting that they are functionally active in mitosis. Here, we identify key sites of RUNX phosphorylation in mitosis. We show that the phosphorylation of threonine 173 (T173) residue within the Runt domain of RUNX3 disrupts RUNX DNA binding activity during mitotic entry to facilitate the recruitment of RUNX proteins to mitotic structures. Moreover, knockdown of RUNX3 delays mitotic entry. RUNX3 phosphorylation is therefore a regulatory mechanism for mitotic entry. Cancer-associated mutations of RUNX3 T173 and its equivalent in RUNX1 further corroborate the role of RUNX phosphorylation in regulating proper mitotic progression and genomic integrity. PMID:27217562

  11. Behaviourally-inhibited temperament and female sex, two vulnerability factors for anxiety disorders, facilitate conditioned avoidance (also) in humans

    PubMed Central

    Sheynin, Jony; Beck, Kevin D.; Pang, Kevin C.H.; Servatius, Richard J.; Shikari, Saima; Ostovich, Jacqueline; Myers, Catherine E.

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition and maintenance of avoidance behaviour is a key feature of all human anxiety disorders. Animal models have been useful in understanding how anxiety vulnerability could translate into avoidance learning. For example, behaviourally-inhibited temperament and female sex, two vulnerability factors for clinical anxiety, are associated with faster acquisition of avoidance responses in rodents. However, to date, the translation of such empirical data to human populations has been limited since many features of animal avoidance paradigms are not typically captured in human research. Here, using a computer-based task that captures many features of rodent escape-avoidance learning paradigms, we investigated whether avoidance learning would be faster in humans with inhibited temperament and/or female sex and, if so, whether this facilitation would take the same form. Results showed that, as in rats, both vulnerability factors were associated with facilitated acquisition of avoidance behaviour in humans. Specifically, inhibited temperament was specifically associated with higher rate of avoidance responding, while female sex was associated with longer avoidance duration. These findings strengthen the direct link between animal avoidance work and human anxiety vulnerability, further motivating the study of animal models while also providing a simple testbed for a direct human testing. PMID:24412263

  12. Behaviourally inhibited temperament and female sex, two vulnerability factors for anxiety disorders, facilitate conditioned avoidance (also) in humans.

    PubMed

    Sheynin, Jony; Beck, Kevin D; Pang, Kevin C H; Servatius, Richard J; Shikari, Saima; Ostovich, Jacqueline; Myers, Catherine E

    2014-03-01

    Acquisition and maintenance of avoidance behaviour is a key feature of all human anxiety disorders. Animal models have been useful in understanding how anxiety vulnerability could translate into avoidance learning. For example, behaviourally inhibited temperament and female sex, two vulnerability factors for clinical anxiety, are associated with faster acquisition of avoidance responses in rodents. However, to date, the translation of such empirical data to human populations has been limited since many features of animal avoidance paradigms are not typically captured in human research. Here, using a computer-based task that captures many features of rodent escape-avoidance learning paradigms, we investigated whether avoidance learning would be faster in humans with inhibited temperament and/or female sex and, if so, whether this facilitation would take the same form. Results showed that, as in rats, both vulnerability factors were associated with facilitated acquisition of avoidance behaviour in humans. Specifically, inhibited temperament was associated with higher rate of avoidance responding, while female sex was associated with longer avoidance duration. These findings strengthen the direct link between animal avoidance work and human anxiety vulnerability, further motivating the study of animal models while also providing a simple testbed for a direct human testing. PMID:24412263

  13. Factors facilitating or limiting the use of AVO for coal-bed methane

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.P.; Chen, H.J.; Yang, R.Z.; Gao, Y.F.; Chen, X.P.

    2006-07-15

    There are similarities and differences in employing amplitude variation with offset (AVO) to explore for gas-sand reservoirs, as opposed to coal-bed methane (CBM) reservoirs. The main similarity is that large Poisson's ratio contrasts, resulting in AVO gradient anomalies, are expected for both kinds of reservoirs. The main difference is that cleating and fracturing raise the Poisson's ratio of a coal seam as it improves its reservoir potential for CBM, while gas always lowers the Poisson's ratio of a sandstone reservoir. The top of gas sands usually has a negative AVO gradient, leading to a class one, two, or three anomaly depending on the impedance contrast with the overlying caprock. On the other hand, the top of a CBM reservoir has a positive AVO gradient, leading to a class four anomaly. Three environmental factors may limit the usage of AVO for CBM reservoirs: the smaller contrast in Poisson's ratio between a CBM reservoir and its surrounding rock, variations in the caprock of a specific CBM reservoir, and the fact that CBM is not always free to collect at structurally high points in the reservoir. However, other factors work in favor of using AVO. The strikingly high reflection amplitude of coal improves signal/noise ratio and hence the reliability of AVO measurements. The relatively simple characteristics of AVO anomalies make them easy to interpret. Because faults are known to improve the quality of CBM reservoirs, faults accompanied by AVO anomalies would be especially convincing. A 3D-AVO example offered in this paper shows that AVO might be helpful to delineate methane-rich sweet spots within coal seams.

  14. The elongation factor Spt5 facilitates transcription initiation for rapid induction of inflammatory-response genes

    PubMed Central

    Diamant, Gil; Bahat, Anat; Dikstein, Rivka

    2016-01-01

    A subset of inflammatory-response NF-κB target genes is activated immediately following pro-inflammatory signal. Here we followed the kinetics of primary transcript accumulation after NF-κB activation when the elongation factor Spt5 is knocked down. While elongation rate is unchanged, the transcript synthesis at the 5′-end and at the earliest time points is delayed and reduced, suggesting an unexpected role in early transcription. Investigating the underlying mechanism reveals that the induced TFIID–promoter association is practically abolished by Spt5 depletion. This effect is associated with a decrease in promoter-proximal H3K4me3 and H4K5Ac histone modifications that are differentially required for rapid transcriptional induction. In contrast, the displacement of TFIIE and Mediator, which occurs during promoter escape, is attenuated in the absence of Spt5. Our findings are consistent with a central role of Spt5 in maintenance of TFIID–promoter association and promoter escape to support rapid transcriptional induction and re-initiation of inflammatory-response genes. PMID:27180651

  15. Facilitation of facial nerve regeneration using chitosan-β-glycerophosphate-nerve growth factor hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Chao, Xiuhua; Xu, Lei; Li, Jianfeng; Han, Yuechen; Li, Xiaofei; Mao, YanYan; Shang, Haiqiong; Fan, Zhaomin; Wang, Haibo

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion C/GP hydrogel was demonstrated to be an ideal drug delivery vehicle and scaffold in the vein conduit. Combined use autologous vein and NGF continuously delivered by C/GP-NGF hydrogel can improve the recovery of facial nerve defects. Objective This study investigated the effects of chitosan-β-glycerophosphate-nerve growth factor (C/GP-NGF) hydrogel combined with autologous vein conduit on the recovery of damaged facial nerve in a rat model. Methods A 5 mm gap in the buccal branch of a rat facial nerve was reconstructed with an autologous vein. Next, C/GP-NGF hydrogel was injected into the vein conduit. In negative control groups, NGF solution or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was injected into the vein conduits, respectively. Autologous implantation was used as a positive control group. Vibrissae movement, electrophysiological assessment, and morphological analysis of regenerated nerves were performed to assess nerve regeneration. Results NGF continuously released from C/GP-NGF hydrogel in vitro. The recovery rate of vibrissae movement and the compound muscle action potentials of regenerated facial nerve in the C/GP-NGF group were similar to those in the Auto group, and significantly better than those in the NGF group. Furthermore, larger regenerated axons and thicker myelin sheaths were obtained in the C/GP-NGF group than those in the NGF group. PMID:26881479

  16. Ending Open Defecation in Rural Tanzania: Which Factors Facilitate Latrine Adoption?

    PubMed Central

    Sara, Stephen; Graham, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases account for 7% of deaths in children under five years of age in Tanzania. Improving sanitation is an essential step towards reducing these deaths. This secondary analysis examined rural Tanzanian households’ sanitation behaviors and attitudes in order to identify barriers and drivers to latrine adoption. The analysis was conducted using results from a cross-sectional study of 1000 households in five rural districts of Tanzania. Motivating factors, perceptions, and constraints surrounding open defecation and latrine adoption were assessed using behavioral change theory. Results showed a significant association between use of improved sanitation and satisfaction with current sanitation facility (OR: 5.91; CI: 2.95–11.85; p = 0.008). Livestock-keeping was strongly associated with practicing open defecation (OR: 0.22; CI 0.063–0.75; p < 0.001). Of the 93 total households that practiced open defecation, 79 (85%) were dissatisfied with the practice, 62 (67%) had plans to build a latrine and 17 (18%) had started saving for a latrine. Among households that planned to build a latrine, health was the primary reason stated (60%). The inability to pay for upgrading sanitation infrastructure was commonly reported among the households. Future efforts should consider methods to reduce costs and ease payments for households to upgrade sanitation infrastructure. Messages to increase demand for latrine adoption in rural Tanzania should integrate themes of privacy, safety, prestige and health. Findings indicate a need for lower cost sanitation options and financing strategies to increase household ability to adopt sanitation facilities. PMID:25247427

  17. Chromatin assembly factor 1, subunit A (P150) facilitates cell proliferation in human hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Meng; Jia, Yuli; Liu, Zhikui; Ding, Linglong; Tian, Run; Gu, Hua; Wang, Yufeng; Zhang, Hongyong; Tu, Kangsheng; Liu, Qingguang

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have revealed that the abnormal expression of chromatin assembly factor 1, subunit A (P150) (CHAF1A) was involved in the development of some types of malignant tumors. However, CHAF1A expression and its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain poorly characterized. In this study, we first investigated CHAF1A expression in six cell lines and 116 pairs of HCC and matched normal tumor-adjacent tissues to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics of CHAF1A in HCC. Then, we detected the proliferation and apoptosis in HCC cells. In addition, a subcutaneous tumor model in nude mice was performed to evaluate tumor growth in vivo. We found that the expression of CHAF1A was significantly higher in HCC tissues than that in adjacent nontumor tissues (P<0.01). Clinical analysis indicated that CHAF1A expression was significantly correlated with the tumor–node–metastasis stage, tumor number, and tumor differentiation in HCC tissues (P<0.05, respectively). We also found that CHAF1A may potentially function as a poor prognostic indicator for 5-year overall and disease-free survival in patients with HCC (P<0.05, respectively). The elevated expression of CHAF1A was also observed in HCC cell lines compared with that in normal LO2 hepatic cell line (P<0.01). HCC cancer cells exhibited inhibition of cell growth, reduction in colony-formation ability, increased cell apoptosis rate, and impaired tumorigenicity in nude mice after CHAF1A knockdown. Collectively, we propose that CHAF1A by potentially mediating cancer cell proliferation plays an important role in promoting the development of HCC and may serve as a potential therapeutic target in HCC. PMID:27445493

  18. Ending open defecation in rural Tanzania: which factors facilitate latrine adoption?

    PubMed

    Sara, Stephen; Graham, Jay

    2014-09-01

    Diarrheal diseases account for 7% of deaths in children under five years of age in Tanzania. Improving sanitation is an essential step towards reducing these deaths. This secondary analysis examined rural Tanzanian households' sanitation behaviors and attitudes in order to identify barriers and drivers to latrine adoption. The analysis was conducted using results from a cross-sectional study of 1000 households in five rural districts of Tanzania. Motivating factors, perceptions, and constraints surrounding open defecation and latrine adoption were assessed using behavioral change theory. Results showed a significant association between use of improved sanitation and satisfaction with current sanitation facility (OR: 5.91; CI: 2.95-11.85; p = 0.008). Livestock-keeping was strongly associated with practicing open defecation (OR: 0.22; CI 0.063-0.75; p < 0.001). Of the 93 total households that practiced open defecation, 79 (85%) were dissatisfied with the practice, 62 (67%) had plans to build a latrine and 17 (18%) had started saving for a latrine. Among households that planned to build a latrine, health was the primary reason stated (60%). The inability to pay for upgrading sanitation infrastructure was commonly reported among the households. Future efforts should consider methods to reduce costs and ease payments for households to upgrade sanitation infrastructure. Messages to increase demand for latrine adoption in rural Tanzania should integrate themes of privacy, safety, prestige and health. Findings indicate a need for lower cost sanitation options and financing strategies to increase household ability to adopt sanitation facilities. PMID:25247427

  19. Fibroblast growth factor-2 facilitates rapid anastomosis formation between bioengineered human vascular networks and living vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Melero-Martin, Juan M.

    2012-01-01

    Many common diseases involve the injury, loss, or death of organ tissues. For these patients, organ transplantation is often the only viable solution. Nonetheless, organ transplantation is seriously limited by the relative scarcity of living and non-living donors, a situation that is worsening with aging of the world population. Tissue Engineering (TE) is a research discipline in regenerative medicine that aims to generate tissues in the laboratory that can replace diseased and damaged tissues in patients. Crucially, engineered tissues must have a vascular network that guarantees adequate nutrient supply, gas exchange, and elimination of waste products. Therefore, the search for clinically relevant sources of vasculogenic cells and the subsequent development of methods to achieve rapid vascularization is of utmost importance. We and others have previously shown that human blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) have the required vasculogenic capacity to form functional vascular networks in vivo. These studies demonstrated that, in the presence of an appropriate source of perivascular cells, ECFCs can self-assemble into microvascular networks and connect to the host vasculature, a process that takes approximately 7 days in vivo. The prospect is to incorporate these vascular networks into future engineered tissues. However, engineered tissues must have a functional vasculature immediately after implantation in order to preserve viability and function. Thus, it is critical to further develop strategies for rapid formation of perfused vascular network in vivo. Here, we describe a methodology to deliver ECFCs and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) subcutaneously into immunodeficient mice in the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). This approach significantly reduces the time needed to achieve functional anastomoses between bioengineered human blood vessels and the host vasculature. This methodology includes (1) isolation

  20. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Facilitates Epileptiform Activity in the Entorhinal Cortex: Roles of CRF2 Receptors and PKA Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kurada, Lalitha; Yang, Chuanxiu; Lei, Saobo

    2014-01-01

    Whereas corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) has been considered as the most potent epileptogenic neuropeptide in the brain, its action site and underlying mechanisms in epilepsy have not been determined. Here, we found that the entorhinal cortex (EC) expresses high level of CRF and CRF2 receptors without expression of CRF1 receptors. Bath application of CRF concentration-dependently increased the frequency of picrotoxin (PTX)-induced epileptiform activity recorded from layer III of the EC in entorhinal slices although CRF alone did not elicit epileptiform activity. CRF facilitated the induction of epileptiform activity in the presence of subthreshold concentration of PTX which normally would not elicit epileptiform activity. Bath application of the inhibitor for CRF-binding proteins, CRF6-33, also increased the frequency of PTX-induced epileptiform activity suggesting that endogenously released CRF is involved in epileptogenesis. CRF-induced facilitation of epileptiform activity was mediated via CRF2 receptors because pharmacological antagonism and knockout of CRF2 receptors blocked the facilitatory effects of CRF on epileptiform activity. Application of the adenylyl cyclase (AC) inhibitors blocked CRF-induced facilitation of epileptiform activity and elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) level by application of the AC activators or phosphodiesterase inhibitor increased the frequency of PTX-induced epileptiform activity, demonstrating that CRF-induced increases in epileptiform activity are mediated by an increase in intracellular cAMP. However, application of selective protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors reduced, not completely blocked CRF-induced enhancement of epileptiform activity suggesting that PKA is only partially required. Our results provide a novel cellular and molecular mechanism whereby CRF modulates epilepsy. PMID:24505399

  1. Implementing family involvement in the treatment of patients with psychosis: a systematic review of facilitating and hindering factors

    PubMed Central

    Eassom, Erica; Giacco, Domenico; Dirik, Aysegul; Priebe, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To synthesise the evidence on implementing family involvement in the treatment of patients with psychosis with a focus on barriers, problems and facilitating factors. Design Systematic review of studies evaluating the involvement of families in tripartite communication between health professionals, ‘families’ (or other unpaid carers) and adult patients, in a single-family context. A theoretical thematic analysis approach and thematic synthesis were used. Data sources A systematic electronic search was carried out in seven databases, using database-specific search strategies and controlled vocabulary. A secondary manual search of grey literature was performed as well as using forwards and backwards snowballing techniques. Results A total of 43 studies were included. The majority featured qualitative data (n=42), focused solely on staff perspectives (n=32) and were carried out in the UK (n=23). Facilitating the training and ongoing supervision needs of staff are necessary but not sufficient conditions for a consistent involvement of families. Organisational cultures and paradigms can work to limit family involvement, and effective implementation appears to operate via a whole team coordinated effort at every level of the organisation, supported by strong leadership. Reservations about family involvement regarding power relations, fear of negative outcomes and the need for an exclusive patient–professional relationship may be explored and addressed through mutually trusting relationships. Conclusions Implementing family involvement carries additional challenges beyond those generally associated with translating research to practice. Implementation may require a cultural and organisational shift towards working with families. Family work can only be implemented if this is considered a shared goal of all members of a clinical team and/or mental health service, including the leaders of the organisation. This may imply a change in the ethos and practices

  2. Bone resorption facilitates osteoblastic bone metastatic colonization by cooperation of insulin-like growth factor and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Kuchimaru, Takahiro; Hoshino, Takuya; Aikawa, Tomoya; Yasuda, Hisataka; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Kadonosono, Tetsuya; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae

    2014-05-01

    Bone metastasis is a multistep process that includes cancer cell dissemination, colonization, and metastatic growth. Furthermore, this process involves complex, reciprocal interactions between cancer cells and the bone microenvironment. Bone resorption is known to be involved in both osteolytic and osteoblastic bone metastasis. However, the precise roles of the bone resorption in the multistep process of osteoblastic bone metastasis remain unidentified. In this study, we show that bone resorption plays important roles in cancer cell colonization during the initial stage of osteoblastic bone metastasis. We applied bioluminescence/X-ray computed tomography multimodal imaging that allows us to spatiotemporally analyze metastasized cancer cells and bone status in osteoblastic bone metastasis models. We found that treatment with receptor activator of factor-κB ligand (RANKL) increased osteoblastic bone metastasis when given at the same time as intracardiac injection of cancer cells, but failed to increase metastasis when given 4 days after cancer cell injection, suggesting that RANKL-induced bone resorption facilitates growth of cancer cells colonized in the bone. We show that insulin-like growth factor-1 released from the bone during bone resorption and hypoxia-inducible factor activity in cancer cells cooperatively promoted survival and proliferation of cancer cells in bone marrow. These results suggest a mechanism that bone resorption and hypoxic stress in the bone microenvironment cooperatively play an important role in establishing osteoblastic metastasis. PMID:24597654

  3. A systematic review of explanatory factors of barriers and facilitators to improving asthma management in South Asian children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background South Asian children with asthma are less likely to receive prescriptions and more likely to suffer uncontrolled symptoms and acute asthma admissions compared with White British children. Understanding barriers are therefore vital in addressing health inequalities. We undertook a systematic review identifying explanatory factors for barriers and facilitators to asthma management in South Asian children. South Asians were defined as individuals of Indian, Pakistani or Bangladeshi descent. Methods Data Sources - Medline, HMIC, EMBASE, ASSIA, Web of Science, BNI, CINAHL, PsycINFO, OpenSIGLE, CRD, Scopus, NHS Evidence, Cochrane Library, Campbell Collaboration, RCPCH, ATS, ERS, Asthma UK, Google Scholar & Asthma Guidelines (BTS, GINA, ATS, Monash, NAEPP, Singapore & New Zealand) to August 2013. Inclusion Criteria – Qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods research with primary focus on identifying explanations for barriers and/or facilitators to asthma management in South Asian children aged 0–18 years with diagnosed/suspected asthma and/or carers and/or healthcare professionals. Data Extraction – Three authors independently reviewed, selected & extracted eligible articles with disagreements resolved by research team discussion. Results 15 studies encompassing 25,755 children, 18,483 parents/carers and 239 healthcare professionals were included. Barriers and explanatory factors identified were: 1. Lack of asthma knowledge in families and healthcare professionals. 2. Under-use of preventer medications. 3. Non-acceptance/denial of asthma. 4. Over-reliance on Emergency Department management. 5. Communication problems. 6. Non-adherence to medication. 7. Use of complementary therapies. Little facilitators regarding asthma management were identified. Conclusions Several key issues were identified as likely to be ethnic-specific to South Asian families, rather than a reflection of minority status: impact of parental and professional knowledge and beliefs

  4. Interleukin-1-induced acute bone resorption facilitates the secretion of fibroblast growth factor 23 into the circulation.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Miwa; Kawai, Masanobu; Miyagawa, Kazuaki; Ohata, Yasuhisa; Tachikawa, Kanako; Kinoshita, Saori; Nishino, Jin; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi

    2015-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a central regulator of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, is mainly produced by osteocytes in bone and exerts its effects on distant organs. Despite its endocrine function, the mechanism controlling serum FGF23 levels is not fully understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that osteoclastic bone resorption may play a role in regulating circulating levels of FGF23, using a mouse model where injections of interleukin (IL)-1β into the subcutaneous tissue over the calvaria induced rapid bone resorption. A significant amount of FGF23 was detected in the extracts from mouse bones, which supports the idea that FGF23 stays in bone for a while after its production. IL-1β-induced bone resorption was associated with elevated serum FGF23 levels, an effect abolished by pre-treatment with pamidronate. Fgf23 expression was not increased in either the calvariae or tibiae of IL-1β-injected mice, which suggests that IL-1β facilitated the entry of FGF23 protein into circulation by accelerating bone resorption rather than increasing its gene expression. The direct effect of IL-1β on bone was confirmed when it increased FGF23 levels in the conditioned media of mouse calvariae in organ culture. Repeated treatment of the cultured calvariae with IL-1β led to a refractory phase, where FGF23 was not mobilized by IL-1β anymore. Consistent with the in vivo results, treatment with IL-1β failed to increase Fgf23 mRNA in isolated primary osteocytes and osteoblasts. These results suggest that FGF23 produced by osteocytes remains in bone, and that rapid bone resorption facilitates its entry into the bloodstream. PMID:24996526

  5. Cytokine-Like Factor 1, an Essential Facilitator of Cardiotrophin-Like Cytokine:Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Receptor α Signaling and sorLA-Mediated Turnover

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Anders Mejer; Pallesen, Lone Tjener; Bauer, Johannes; Vægter, Christian Bjerggaard; Nielsen, Morten Schallburg; Madsen, Peder

    2016-01-01

    Cardiotrophin-like cytokine:cytokine-like factor-1 (CLC:CLF-1) is a heterodimeric neurotropic cytokine that plays a crucial role during neuronal development. Mice lacking CLC:CLF-1 die soon after birth due to a suckling defect and show reduced numbers of motor neurons. Humans carrying mutations in CLC:CLF-1 develop similar disorders, known as Sohar-Crisponi or cold-induced sweating syndrome, and have a high risk of early death. It is well known that CLC binds the ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor α (CNTFRα) and is a prerequisite for signaling through the gp130/leukemia inhibitory factor receptor β (LIFRβ) heterodimer, whereas CLF-1 serves to promote the cellular release of CLC. However, the precise role of CLF-1 is unclear. Here, we report that CLF-1, based on its binding site for CLC and on two additional and independent sites for CNTFRα and sorLA, is a key player in CLC and CNTFRα signaling and turnover. The site for CNTFRα enables CLF-1 to promote CLC:CNTFRα complex formation and signaling. The second site establishes a link between the endocytic receptor sorLA and the tripartite CLC:CLF-1:CNTFRα complex and allows sorLA to downregulate the CNTFRα pool in stimulated cells. Finally, sorLA may bind and concentrate the tripartite soluble CLC:CLF-1:CNTFRα complex on cell membranes and thus facilitate its signaling through gp130/LIFRβ. PMID:26858303

  6. Cytokine-Like Factor 1, an Essential Facilitator of Cardiotrophin-Like Cytokine:Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Receptor α Signaling and sorLA-Mediated Turnover.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jakob Vejby; Kristensen, Anders Mejer; Pallesen, Lone Tjener; Bauer, Johannes; Vægter, Christian Bjerggaard; Nielsen, Morten Schallburg; Madsen, Peder; Petersen, Claus Munck

    2016-04-15

    Cardiotrophin-like cytokine:cytokine-like factor-1 (CLC:CLF-1) is a heterodimeric neurotropic cytokine that plays a crucial role during neuronal development. Mice lacking CLC:CLF-1 die soon after birth due to a suckling defect and show reduced numbers of motor neurons. Humans carrying mutations in CLC:CLF-1 develop similar disorders, known as Sohar-Crisponi or cold-induced sweating syndrome, and have a high risk of early death. It is well known that CLC binds the ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor α (CNTFRα) and is a prerequisite for signaling through the gp130/leukemia inhibitory factor receptor β (LIFRβ) heterodimer, whereas CLF-1 serves to promote the cellular release of CLC. However, the precise role of CLF-1 is unclear. Here, we report that CLF-1, based on its binding site for CLC and on two additional and independent sites for CNTFRα and sorLA, is a key player in CLC and CNTFRα signaling and turnover. The site for CNTFRα enables CLF-1 to promote CLC:CNTFRα complex formation and signaling. The second site establishes a link between the endocytic receptor sorLA and the tripartite CLC:CLF-1:CNTFRα complex and allows sorLA to downregulate the CNTFRα pool in stimulated cells. Finally, sorLA may bind and concentrate the tripartite soluble CLC:CLF-1:CNTFRα complex on cell membranes and thus facilitate its signaling through gp130/LIFRβ. PMID:26858303

  7. Up-regulation of CHAF1A, a poor prognostic factor, facilitates cell proliferation of colon cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zehua; Cui, Feifei; Yu, Fudong; Peng, Xiao; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Dawei; Lu, Su; Tang, Huamei; Peng, Zhihai

    2014-06-27

    Highlights: • We identified that CHAF1A was up-regulated in colon tumor mucosa in TMA. • The expression pattern of CHAF1A was validated with qPCR and western-blot. • CHAF1A overexpression is an independent indicator for poor colon cancer survival. • CHAF1A facilitates cell proliferation of colon cancer both in vitro and in vivo. - Abstract: Deregulation of chromatin assembly factor 1, p150 subunit A (CHAF1A) has recently been reported to be involved in the development of some cancer types. In this study, we identified that the frequency of positive CHAF1A staining in primary tumor mucosa (45.8%, 93 of 203 samples) was significantly elevated compared to that in paired normal mucosa (18.7%, 38 of 203 samples). The increased expression was strongly associated with cancer stage, tumor invasion, and histological grade. The five-year survival rate of patients with CHAF1A-positive tumors was remarkably lower than that of patients with CHAF1A-negative tumors. Colon cancer cells with CHAF1A knockdown exhibited decreased cell growth index, reduction in colony formation ability, elevated cell apoptosis rate as well as impaired colon tumorigenicity in nude mice. Hence, CHAF1A upregulation functions as a poor prognostic indicator of colon cancer, potentially contributing to its progression by mediating cancer cell proliferation.

  8. Icaritin Inhibits Collagen Degradation-Related Factors and Facilitates Collagen Accumulation in Atherosclerotic Lesions: A Potential Action for Plaque Stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zong-Kang; Li, Jie; Yan, De-Xin; Leung, Wing-Nang; Zhang, Bao-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Most acute coronary syndromes result from rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. The collagen content of plaques may critically affect plaque stability. This study tested whether Icaritin (ICT), an intestinal metabolite of Epimedium-derived flavonoids, could alter the collagen synthesis/degradation balance in atherosclerotic lesions. Rabbits were fed with an atherogenic diet for four months. Oral administration of ICT (10 mg·kg−1·day−1) was started after two months of an atherogenic diet and lasted for two months. The collagen degradation-related parameters, including macrophages accumulation, content and activity of interstitial collagenase-1 (MMP-1), and the collagen synthesis-related parameters, including amount and distribution of smooth muscle cells (SMC) and collagen mRNA/protein levels, were evaluated in the aorta. ICT reduced plasma lipid levels, inhibited macrophage accumulation, lowered MMP-1 mRNA and protein expression, and suppressed proteolytic activity of pro-MMP-1 and MMP-1 in the aorta. ICT changed the distribution of the SMCs towards the fibrous cap of lesions without increasing the amount of SMCs. Higher collagen protein content in lesions and aorta homogenates was observed with ICT treatment compared with the atherogenic diet only, without altered collagen mRNA level. These results suggest that ICT could inhibit the collagen degradation-related factors and facilitate collagen accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions, indicating a new potential of ICT in atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:26828485

  9. Attachment to laminin‐111 facilitates transforming growth factor β‐induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase‐3 in synovial fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Hoberg, Maik; Rudert, Maximilian; Pap, Thomas; Klein, Gerd; Gay, Steffen; Aicher, Wilhelm K

    2007-01-01

    Background In the synovial membrane of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a strong expression of laminins and matrix degrading proteases was reported. Aim To investigate the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in synovial fibroblasts (SFs) of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and RA by attachment to laminin‐1 (LM‐111) and in the presence or absence of costimulatory signals provided by transforming growth factor β (TGFβ). Methods SFs were seeded in laminin‐coated flasks and activated by addition of TGFβ. The expression of genes was investigated by quantitative reverse transcriptase‐polymerase chain reaction (qRT‐PCR), immunocytochemistry and ELISA, and intracellular signalling pathways by immunoblotting, and by poisoning p38MAPK by SB203580, MEK‐ERK by PD98059 and SMAD2 by A‐83‐01. Results Attachment of SF to LM‐111 did not activate the expression of MMPs, but addition of TGFβ induced a fivefold higher expression of MMP‐3. Incubation of SF on LM‐111 in the presence of TGFβ induced a significant 12‐fold higher expression of MMP‐3 mRNA, and secretion of MMP‐3 was elevated 20‐fold above controls. Functional blocking of LM‐111–integrin interaction reduced the laminin‐activated MMP‐3 expression significantly. Stimulation of SF by LM‐111 and TGFβ activated the p38MAPK, ERK and SMAD2 pathways, and inhibition of these pathways by using SB203580, PD98059 or A‐83‐01 confirmed the involvement of these pathways in the regulation of MMP‐3. Conclusion Attachment of SF to LM‐111 by itself has only minor effects on the expression of MMP‐1 or MMP‐3, but it facilitates the TGFβ‐induced expression of MMP‐3 significantly. This mode of MMP‐3 induction may therefore contribute to inflammatory joint destruction in RA independent of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)1β or tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α. PMID:17124250

  10. Factors facilitating and challenging access and adherence to antiretroviral therapy in a township in the Zambian Copperbelt: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Grant, Elizabeth; Logie, Dorothy; Masura, Mary; Gorman, Dermot; Murray, Scott A

    2008-11-01

    Antiretroviral therapy is increasingly available in African communities. We set out to gain patient perceptions on factors that facilitate and challenge access and adherence to such therapy. We carried out two semi-structured interviews 12 months apart with 40 HIV-positive people drawn from three economically deprived townships in the Copperbelt, Zambia. We also conducted a focus group of 12 of these interviewees. Availability of medication in health facilities did not automatically ensure access to those in need. A prerequisite for commencing on treatment was a positive documented HIV test result, but too few HIV testing centres, fear of family and community rejection and male domination in sexual and social decision-making prevented a number from coming forward to be tested. Once within the system of care, further barriers, such as rumours of bad side-effects, inconsistent information, high costs of drugs (at the time of the first interviews), ongoing costs of additional medical tests, overcrowded systems and overworked staff, all hindered access to receiving treatment. When taken, therapy brought side-effects, the most common being increased appetite and hunger. Yet, despite these barriers and challenges many of those on treatment reported good adherence. Immediate factors, such as seeing ill people becoming well; being supported by a friend or family member; and having a watch or clock to keep to a regular regime, were important. The increase in the number of people who were expected to die but were now looking well also shifted community attitudes. HIV/AIDS is beginning to move from a hidden terminal disease to a chronic condition that is treatable. PMID:19012078

  11. Protease Omi facilitates neurite outgrowth in mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells by cleaving transcription factor E2F1

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qi; Hu, Qing-song; Xu, Ran-jie; Zhen, Xue-chu; Wang, Guang-hui

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Omi is an ATP-independent serine protease that is necessary for neuronal function and survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of protease Omi in regulating differentiation of mouse neuroblastoma cells and to identify the substrate of Omi involved in this process. Methods: Mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells and Omi protease-deficient mnd2 mice were used in this study. To modulate Omi and E2F1 expression, N2a cells were transfected with expression plasmids, shRNA plasmids or siRNA. Protein levels were detected using immunoblot assays. The interaction between Omi and E2F1 was studied using immunoprecipitation, GST pulldown and in vitro cleavage assays. N2a cells were treated with 20 μmol/L retinoic acid (RA) and 1% fetal bovine serum to induce neurite outgrowth, which was measured using Image J software. Results: E2F1 was significantly increased in Omi knockdown cells and in brain lysates of mnd2 mice, and was decreased in cells overexpressing wild-type Omi, but not inactive Omi S276C. In brain lysates of mnd2 mice, endogenous E2F1 was co-immunoprecipitated with endogenous Omi. In vitro cleavage assay demonstrated that Omi directly cleaved E2F1. Treatment of N2a cells with RA induced marked differentiation and neurite outgrowth accompanied by significantly increased Omi and decreased E2F1 levels, which were suppressed by pretreatment with the specific Omi inhibitor UCF-101. Knockdown of Omi in N2a cells suppressed RA-induced neurite outgrowth, which was partially restored by knockdown of E2F1. Conclusion: Protease Omi facilitates neurite outgrowth by cleaving the transcription factor E2F1 in differentiated neuroblastoma cells; E2F1 is a substrate of Omi. PMID:26238290

  12. A qualitative study of middle school students' perceptions of factors facilitating the learning of science: Grounded theory and existing theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spector, Barbara S.; Gibson, Charles W.

    The purpose of this study was to explore middle school students' perceptions of what factors facilitated their learning of science. Florida's Educational Reform Act of 1983 funded programs providing the state's precollege students with summer learning opportunities in science. mathematics, and computers. The programs were intended to encourage the development of creative approaches to the teaching of these disciplines. Under this program, between 50 and 60 high-achieving middle school students were in residence on the University of South Florida campus for 12 consecutive days of study in the World of Water (WOW) program. There were two sessions per summer involving a total of 572 participants. Eighi specially trained teachers were in residence with the students. Between 50 and 70 experts from the university, government. business, and industry interacted with the students each year in an innovative science/technology/society (STS) program. An assignment toward the close of the program asked students to reflect on their experiences in residence at the university and write an essay comparing learning in the WOW program to learning in their schools. Those essays were the base for this study. This was a qualitative study using a discursive approach to emergent design to generate grounded theory. Document review, participant observation, and open-ended interviews were used to gather and triangulate data in five phases. Some of the factors that middle school students perceived as helpful to learning science were (a) experiencing the situations about which they were learning; (b) having live presentations by professional experts; (c) doing hands-on activities: (d) being active learners; (e) using inductive reasoning to generate new knowledge; (f) exploring transdisciplinary approaches to problem solving; (g) having adult mentors; (h) interacting with peers and adults; (i) establishing networks; (j) having close personal friends who shared their interest in learning; (k

  13. Factors that facilitate or inhibit interest of domestic students in the engineering PhD: A mixed methods study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell Smith, Michelle C.

    Given the increasing complexity of technology in our society, the United States has a growing demand for a more highly educated technical workforce. Unfortunately, the proportion of United States citizens earning a PhD in engineering has been declining and there is concern about meeting the economic, national security and quality of life needs of our country. This mixed methods sequential exploratory instrument design study identified factors that facilitate or inhibit interest in engineering PhD programs among domestic engineering undergraduate students in the United States. This study developed a testable theory for how domestic students become interested in engineering PhD programs and a measure of that process, the Exploring Engineering Interest Inventory (EEII). The study was conducted in four phases. The first phase of the study was a qualitative grounded theory exploration of interest in the engineering PhD. Qualitative data were collected from domestic engineering students, engineering faculty and industry professional who had earned a PhD in engineering. The second phase, instrument development, developed the Exploring Engineering Interest Inventory (EEII), a measurement instrument designed with good psychometric properties to test a series of preliminary hypotheses related to the theory generated in the qualitative phase. In the third phase of the study, the EEII was used to collect data from a larger sample of junior and senior engineering majors. The fourth phase integrated the findings from the qualitative and quantitative phases. Four factors were identified as being significant influences of interest in the engineering PhD: Personal characteristics, educational environment, misperceptions of the economic and personal costs, and misperceptions of engineering work. Recommendations include increasing faculty encouragement of students to pursue an engineering PhD and programming to correct the misperceptions of the costs of the engineering PhD and the

  14. Principals' Attitudes towards ICT and Their Perceptions about the Factors that Facilitate or Inhibit ICT Integration in Primary Schools of Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaioannou, Photos; Charalambous, Kyriacos

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the Cyprus primary school principals' attitudes towards Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) as well as their perceptions about the factors that facilitate or inhibit ICT integration in primary schools in Cyprus. A sequential mixed method approach was used to answer the research questions that guided this study.…

  15. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor drives neutrophil accumulation by facilitating IL-1β production in a murine model of acute gout.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Izabela; Dias, Ana Carolina Fialho; Tavares, Livia Duarte; Rodrigues, Irla Paula Stopa; Queiroz-Junior, Celso Martins; Costa, Vivian Vasconcelos; Reis, Alesandra Corte; Ribeiro Oliveira, Rene Donizeti; Louzada-Junior, Paulo; Souza, Daniele Glória; Leng, Lin; Bucala, Richard; Sousa, Lirlândia Pires; Bozza, Marcelo Torres; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Amaral, Flávio Almeida

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in inflammation caused by monosodium urate crystals. The concentration of macrophage migration inhibitory factor was increased in synovial fluid of patients with acute gout, and there was a positive correlation between intra-articular macrophage migration inhibitory factor and IL-1β concentrations. In mice, the injection of monosodium urate crystals into the knee joint increased the levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in macrophages and in inflamed tissue. The injection of recombinant macrophage migration inhibitory factor into the joint of mice reproduced the inflammatory response observed in acute gout, including histologic changes, the recruitment of neutrophils, and increased levels of IL-1β and CXCL1. Importantly, the accumulation of neutrophils and the amount IL-1β in the joints were reduced in macrophage migration inhibitory factor-deficient mice when injected with monosodium urate crystals. We observed a similar effect when we blocked macrophage migration inhibitory factor with (S,R)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazole acetic acid or anti-macrophage migration inhibitory factor. In addition, the blockade of IL-1R and CXCR2 reduced recombinant macrophage migration inhibitory factor-induced neutrophil recruitment. Mechanistically, recombinant macrophage migration inhibitory factor is important for the synthesis of il1β mRNA in vivo and in isolated macrophages. Altogether, macrophage migration inhibitory factor promotes neutrophil accumulation and is important for IL-1β production, which are 2 crucial events contributing to the pathogenesis of acute gout. PMID:26868525

  16. Differentiated Instruction: Understanding the Personal Factors and Organizational Conditions that Facilitate Differentiated Instruction in Elementary Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbati, Diana Guglielmo

    2012-01-01

    Differentiated instruction is a widely held practice used by teachers to provide diverse learners with complex learning opportunities in the area of mathematics. Research on differentiated instruction shows a multitude of factors that support high quality instruction in mixed-ability elementary classrooms. These factors include small-class size,…

  17. A degradable, bioactive, gelatinized alginate hydrogel to improve stem cell/growth factor delivery and facilitate healing after myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Della Rocca, Domenico G.; Willenberg, Bradley J.; Ferreira, Leonardo F.; Wate, Prateek S.; Petersen, John W.; Handberg, Eileen M.; Zheng, Tong; Steindler, Dennis A.; Terada, Naohiro; Batich, Christopher D.; Byrne, Barry J.; Pepine, Carl J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite remarkable effectiveness of reperfusion and drug therapies to reduce morbidity and mortality following myocardial infarction (MI), many patients have debilitating symptoms and impaired left ventricular (LV) function highlighting the need for improved post-MI therapies. A promising concept currently under investigation is intramyocardial injection of high-water content, polymeric biomaterial gels (e.g., hydrogels) to modulate myocardial scar formation and LV adverse remodeling. We propose a degradable, bioactive hydrogel that forms a unique microstructure of continuous, parallel capillary-like channels (Capgel). We hypothesize that the innovative architecture and composition of Capgel can serve as a platform for endogenous cell recruitment and drug/cell delivery, therefore facilitating myocardial repair after MI. PMID:22939314

  18. Lansoprazole Upregulates Polyubiquitination of the TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6 and Facilitates Runx2-mediated Osteoblastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mishima, Kenichi; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Ohkawara, Bisei; Okuno, Tatsuya; Ito, Mikako; Masuda, Akio; Ishiguro, Naoki; Ohno, Kinji

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), plays a pivotal role in the differentiation of the mesenchymal stem cells to the osteochondroblast lineages. We found by the drug repositioning strategy that a proton pump inhibitor, lansoprazole, enhances nuclear accumulation of Runx2 and induces osteoblastogenesis of human mesenchymal stromal cells. Systemic administration of lansoprazole to a rat femoral fracture model increased osteoblastogenesis. Dissection of signaling pathways revealed that lansoprazole activates a noncanonical bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) activated kinase-1 (TAK1)–p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. We found by in cellulo ubiquitination studies that lansoprazole enhances polyubiquitination of the TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and by in vitro ubiquitination studies that the enhanced polyubiquitination of TRAF6 is attributed to the blocking of a deubiquitination enzyme, cylindromatosis (CYLD). Structural modeling and site-directed mutagenesis of CYLD demonstrated that lansoprazole tightly fits in a pocket of CYLD where the C-terminal tail of ubiquitin lies. Lansoprazole is a potential therapeutic agent for enhancing osteoblastic differentiation. PMID:26844285

  19. Soluble factors secreted by glioblastoma cell lines facilitate recruitment, survival, and expansion of regulatory T cells: implications for immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Courtney A.; Ahn, Brian J.; Han, Seunggu J.; Parsa, Andrew T.

    2012-01-01

    In patients with glioma, the tumor microenvironment can significantly impact pro-inflammatory immune cell functions. However, the mechanisms by which this occurs are poorly defined. Because immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Treg) are over represented in the tumor microenvironment compared with peripheral blood, we hypothesized that the tumor may have an effect on Treg survival, migration, expansion, and/or induction of a regulatory phenotype from non-Treg conventional CD4+ T cells. We defined the impact of soluble factors produced by tumor cells on Treg from healthy patients in vitro to determine mechanisms by which gliomas influence T cell populations. We found that tumor-derived soluble factors allowed for preferential proliferation and increased chemotaxis of Treg, compared with conventional T cells, indicating that these mechanisms may contribute to the increased Treg in the tumor microenvironment. Conventional T cells also exhibited a significantly increased expression of pro-apoptotic transcripts in the presence of tumor-derived factors, indicating that survival of Treg in the tumor site is driven by exposure to soluble factors produced by the tumor. Together, these data suggest that tumor burden may induce increased Treg infiltration, proliferation, and survival, negating productive anti-tumor immune responses in patients treated with immunotherapies. Collectively, our data indicate that several mechanisms of Treg recruitment and retention in the tumor microenvironment exist and may need to be addressed to improve the specificity of immunotherapies seeking to eliminate Treg in patients with glioma. PMID:22406925

  20. Possible Factors Influencing Asian Students' Degree of Participation in Peer-Facilitated Online Discussion Forums: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hew, Khe Foon; Cheung, Wing Sum

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated possible factors that might influence the degree of student participation in asynchronous online discussion forums. Degree of participation refers to the number of messages posted by the students. Data were collected from 41 forums, students' reflection logs, and students' interviews. Of these 41 forums, the top third…

  1. Paracrine signaling between tumor subclones of mouse SCLC: a critical role of ETS transcription factor Pea3 in facilitating metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Min-chul; Proost, Natalie; Song, Ji-Ying; Sutherland, Kate D; Zevenhoven, John; Berns, Anton

    2015-08-01

    Tumor heterogeneity can create a unique symbiotic tumor microenvironment. Earlier, we showed that clonal evolution in mouse small cell lung cancer (SCLC) can result in subclones that, upon cografting, endow the neuroendocrine tumor cells with metastatic potential. We now show that paracrine signaling between SCLC subclones is a critical requirement in the early steps of the metastatic process, such as local invasion and intravasation. We further show evidence that paracrine signaling via fibroblast growth factor 2 (Fgf2) and Mapk between these diverged tumor subclones causes enhanced expression of the Pea3 (polyomavirus enhancer activator 3) transcription factor, resulting in metastatic dissemination of the neuroendocrine tumor subclones. Our data reveal for the first time paracrine signaling between tumor cell subclones in SCLC that results in metastatic spread of SCLC. PMID:26215568

  2. Blocking Infralimbic Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF or FGF2) Facilitates Extinction of Drug Seeking After Cocaine Self-Administration.

    PubMed

    Hafenbreidel, Madalyn; Twining, Robert C; Rafa Todd, Carolynn; Mueller, Devin

    2015-12-01

    Drug exposure results in structural and functional changes in brain regions that regulate reward and these changes may underlie the persistence of compulsive drug seeking and relapse. Neurotrophic factors, such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF2), are necessary for neuronal survival, growth, and differentiation, and may contribute to these drug-induced changes. Following cocaine exposure, bFGF is increased in addiction-related brain regions, including the infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex (IL-mPFC). The IL-mPFC is necessary for extinction, but whether drug-induced overexpression of bFGF in this region affects extinction of drug seeking is unknown. Thus, we determined whether blocking bFGF in IL-mPFC would facilitate extinction following cocaine self-administration. Rats were trained to lever press for intravenous infusions of cocaine before extinction. Blocking bFGF in IL-mPFC before four extinction sessions resulted in facilitated extinction. In contrast, blocking bFGF alone was not sufficient to facilitate extinction, as blocking bFGF and returning rats to their home cage had no effect on subsequent extinction. Furthermore, bFGF protein expression increased in IL-mPFC following cocaine self-administration, an effect reversed by extinction. These results suggest that cocaine-induced overexpression of bFGF inhibits extinction, as blocking bFGF during extinction permits rapid extinction. Therefore, targeted reductions in bFGF during therapeutic interventions could enhance treatment outcomes for addiction. PMID:25994078

  3. STAT6 Transcription Factor Is a Facilitator of the Nuclear Receptor PPARγ-Regulated Gene Expression in Macrophages and Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Szanto, Attila; Balint, Balint L.; Nagy, Zsuzsanna S.; Barta, Endre; Dezso, Balazs; Pap, Attila; Szeles, Lajos; Poliska, Szilard; Oros, Melinda; Evans, Ronald M.; Barak, Yaacov; Schwabe, John; Nagy, Laszlo

    2010-01-01

    Summary Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a lipid-activated transcription factor regulating lipid metabolism and inflammatory response in macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). These immune cells exposed to distinct inflammatory milieu show cell type specification as a result of altered gene expression. We demonstrate here a mechanism how inflammatory molecules modulate PPARγ signaling in distinct subsets of cells. Proinflammatory molecules inhibited whereas interleukin-4 (IL-4) stimulated PPARγ activity in macrophages and DCs. Furthermore, IL-4 signaling augmented PPARγ activity through an interaction between PPARγ and signal transducer and activators of transcription 6 (STAT6) on promoters of PPARγ target genes, including FABP4. Thus, STAT6 acts as a facilitating factor for PPARγ by promoting DNA binding and consequently increasing the number of regulated genes and the magnitude of responses. This interaction, underpinning cell type-specific responses, represents a unique way of controlling nuclear receptor signaling by inflammatory molecules in immune cells. PMID:21093321

  4. Exploring facilitating factors and barriers to the nationwide dissemination of a Dutch school-based obesity prevention program “DOiT”: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The evidence-based Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program is a school-based obesity prevention program for 12 to 14-year olds attending the first two years of prevocational education. This paper describes the study protocol applied to evaluate (a) the nationwide dissemination process of DOiT in the Netherlands, and (b) the relationship between quality of implementation and effectiveness during nationwide dissemination of the program in the Netherlands. Methods In order to explore facilitating factors and barriers for dissemination of DOiT, we monitored the process of adoption, implementation and continuation of the DOiT program among 20 prevocational schools in the Netherlands. The study was an observational study using qualitative (i.e. semi-structured interviews) and quantitative methods (i.e. questionnaires and logbooks). Eight process indicators were assessed: recruitment, context, reach, dosage, fidelity, satisfaction, effectiveness and continuation. All teachers, students and parents involved in the implementation of the program were invited to participate in the study. As part of the process evaluation, a cluster-controlled trial with ten control schools was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the program on students’ anthropometry and energy balance-related behaviours and its association with quality of implementation. Discussion The identified impeding and facilitating factors will contribute to an adjusted strategy promoting adoption, implementation and continuation of the DOiT program to ensure optimal use and, thereby, prevention of obesity in Dutch adolescents. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN92755979. PMID:24355056

  5. Cancer Stem Cell-Secreted Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Stimulates Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cell Function and Facilitates Glioblastoma Immune Evasion.

    PubMed

    Otvos, Balint; Silver, Daniel J; Mulkearns-Hubert, Erin E; Alvarado, Alvaro G; Turaga, Soumya M; Sorensen, Mia D; Rayman, Patricia; Flavahan, William A; Hale, James S; Stoltz, Kevin; Sinyuk, Maksim; Wu, Qiulian; Jarrar, Awad; Kim, Sung-Hak; Fox, Paul L; Nakano, Ichiro; Rich, Jeremy N; Ransohoff, Richard M; Finke, James; Kristensen, Bjarne W; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Lathia, Justin D

    2016-08-01

    Shifting the balance away from tumor-mediated immune suppression toward tumor immune rejection is the conceptual foundation for a variety of immunotherapy efforts currently being tested. These efforts largely focus on activating antitumor immune responses but are confounded by multiple immune cell populations, including myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which serve to suppress immune system function. We have identified immune-suppressive MDSCs in the brains of GBM patients and found that they were in close proximity to self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSCs). MDSCs were selectively depleted using 5-flurouracil (5-FU) in a low-dose administration paradigm, which resulted in prolonged survival in a syngeneic mouse model of glioma. In coculture studies, patient-derived CSCs but not nonstem tumor cells selectively drove MDSC-mediated immune suppression. A cytokine screen revealed that CSCs secreted multiple factors that promoted this activity, including macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), which was produced at high levels by CSCs. Addition of MIF increased production of the immune-suppressive enzyme arginase-1 in MDSCs in a CXCR2-dependent manner, whereas blocking MIF reduced arginase-1 production. Similarly to 5-FU, targeting tumor-derived MIF conferred a survival advantage to tumor-bearing animals and increased the cytotoxic T cell response within the tumor. Importantly, tumor cell proliferation, survival, and self-renewal were not impacted by MIF reduction, demonstrating that MIF is primarily an indirect promoter of GBM progression, working to suppress immune rejection by activating and protecting immune suppressive MDSCs within the GBM tumor microenvironment. Stem Cells 2016;34:2026-2039. PMID:27145382

  6. The facilitating factors and barriers encountered in the adoption of a humanized birth care approach in a highly specialized university affiliated hospital

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Considering the fact that a significant proportion of high-risk pregnancies are currently referred to tertiary level hospitals; and that a large proportion of low obstetric risk women still seek care in these hospitals, it is important to explore the factors that influence the childbirth experience in these hospitals, particularly, the concept of humanized birth care. The aim of this study was to explore the organizational and cultural factors, which act as barriers or facilitators in the provision of humanized obstetrical care in a highly specialized, university-affiliated hospital in Quebec province, in Canada. Methods A single case study design was chosen. The study sample included 17 professionals and administrators from different disciplines, and 157 women who gave birth in the hospital during the study. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews, field notes, participant observations, a self-administered questionnaire, documents, and archives. Both descriptive and qualitative deductive content analyses were performed and ethical considerations were respected. Results Both external and internal dimensions of a highly specialized hospital can facilitate or be a barrier to the humanization of birth care practices in such institutions, whether independently, or altogether. The greatest facilitating factors found were: caring and family- centered model of care, professionals' and administrators' ambient for the provision of humanized birth care besides the medical interventional care which is tailored to improve safety, assurance, and comfort for women and their children, facilities to provide a pain-free birth, companionship and visiting rules, dealing with the patients' spiritual and religious beliefs. The most cited barriers were: the shortage of health care professionals, the lack of sufficient communication among the professionals, the stakeholders' desire for specialization rather than humanization, over estimation of medical

  7. Collagen scaffolds combined with collagen-binding ciliary neurotrophic factor facilitate facial nerve repair in mini-pigs.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chao; Meng, Danqing; Cao, Jiani; Xiao, Zhifeng; Cui, Yi; Fan, Jingya; Cui, Xiaolong; Chen, Bing; Yao, Yao; Zhang, Zhen; Ma, Jinling; Pan, Juli; Dai, Jianwu

    2015-05-01

    The preclinical studies using animal models play a very important role in the evaluation of facial nerve regeneration. Good models need to recapitulate the distance and time for axons to regenerate in humans. Compared with the most used rodent animals, the structure of facial nerve in mini-pigs shares more similarities with humans in microanatomy. To evaluate the feasibility of repairing facial nerve defects by collagen scaffolds combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), 10-mm-long gaps were made in the buccal branch of mini-pigs' facial nerve. Three months after surgery, electrophysiological assessment and histological examination were performed to evaluate facial nerve regeneration. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscope observation showed that collagen scaffolds with collagen binding (CBD)-CNTF could promote better axon regeneration, Schwann cell migration, and remyelination at the site of implant device than using scaffolds alone. Electrophysiological assessment also showed higher recovery rate in the CNTF group. In summary, combination of collagen scaffolds and CBD-CNTF showed promising effects on facial nerve regeneration in mini-pig models. PMID:25098760

  8. Group A Streptococcus Secreted Esterase Hydrolyzes Platelet-Activating Factor to Impede Neutrophil Recruitment and Facilitate Innate Immune Evasion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinquan; Garcia, Cristiana C.; Feng, Wenchao; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Hilmer, Jonathan; Tavares, Luciana P.; Layton, Arthur W.; Quinn, Mark T.; Bothner, Brian; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Lei, Benfang

    2012-01-01

    The innate immune system is the first line of host defense against invading organisms. Thus, pathogens have developed virulence mechanisms to evade the innate immune system. Here, we report a novel means for inhibition of neutrophil recruitment by Group A Streptococcus (GAS). Deletion of the secreted esterase gene (designated sse) in M1T1 GAS strains with (MGAS5005) and without (MGAS2221) a null covS mutation enhances neutrophil ingress to infection sites in the skin of mice. In trans expression of SsE in MGAS2221 reduces neutrophil recruitment and enhances skin invasion. The sse deletion mutant of MGAS5005 (ΔsseMGAS5005) is more efficiently cleared from skin than the parent strain. SsE hydrolyzes the sn-2 ester bond of platelet-activating factor (PAF), converting biologically active PAF into inactive lyso-PAF. KM and kcat of SsE for hydrolysis of 2-thio-PAF were similar to those of the human plasma PAF acetylhydrolase. Treatment of PAF with SsE abolishes the capacity of PAF to induce activation and chemotaxis of human neutrophils. More importantly, PAF receptor-deficient mice significantly reduce neutrophil infiltration to the site of ΔsseMGAS5005 infection. These findings identify the first secreted PAF acetylhydrolase of bacterial pathogens and support a novel GAS evasion mechanism that reduces phagocyte recruitment to sites of infection by inactivating PAF, providing a new paradigm for bacterial evasion of neutrophil responses. PMID:22496650

  9. Understanding factors that facilitate the inclusion of pain education in undergraduate curricula: Perspectives from a UK survey

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Eloise CJ; Briggs, Emma V; Briggs, Michelle; Allcock, Nick; Black, Pauline; Jones, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies in Europe, North America and Australasia suggest that one in five adults suffer from pain. There is increasing recognition that pain, particularly chronic pain, represents a global health burden. Many studies, including two national surveys exploring the content of undergraduate curricula for pain education, identify that documented pain education in curricula was limited and fragmentary. Methods: The study design used a questionnaire which included an open text comment box for respondents to add ‘further comments’ as part of larger study previously published. The sample consisted of 19 UK universities that offered 108 undergraduate programmes in the following: dentistry, medicine, midwifery, nursing (adult, child, learning disabilities and mental health branches), occupational therapy (OT), pharmacy, physiotherapy and veterinary science. An inductive content analysis was performed, and the data were managed using NVivo 10 software for data management. Results: A total of 57 participants across seven disciplines (dentistry, medicine, midwifery, nursing, pharmacy, physiotherapy and OT) completed the open text comment box (none were received from veterinary science). Analysis revealed two major themes of successes and challenges. Successes included expansion (extending coverage and/or increased student access), multidimensional curriculum content and diversity of teaching methods. Challenges included difficulties in identifying where pain is taught in the curriculum, biomedical versus biopsychosocial definitions of pain, perceived importance, time, resources and staff knowledge, and finally a diffusion of responsibility for pain education. Conclusion: This study identifies new insights of the factors attributed to successful implementation of pain education in undergraduate education. Many of the challenges previously reported were also identified. This is one of the first studies to identify a broad range of approaches, for pain education

  10. SUMO fusion system facilitates soluble expression and high production of bioactive human fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoju; Chen, Yubin; Wu, Xiaoping; Li, Haiyan; Jiang, Chao; Tian, Haishan; Tang, Lu; Wang, Dezhong; Yu, Ting; Li, Xiaokun

    2012-10-01

    As a key humoral regulator of phosphate homeostasis and its involvement in the pathogenesis of human disease, human fibroblast growth factor 23 (hFGF23) has become a particularly attractive therapeutic target. To prepare soluble and bioactive recombinant human FGF23 to meet the increasing demand in its pharmacological application, small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO)-FGF23 fusion gene and FGF23 non-fusion gene were amplified by standard PCR methods and cloned into vector pET-22b and pET-3c, then transformed into Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) and BL21 (DE3). The best combination of plasmid and host strain was screened, and only Rosetta (DE3)/pET-SUMO-FGF23 was screened for rhFGF23 protein expressed. The average bacterial yield and the soluble expression level of recombinant hFGF23 of three batches attained 687 ± 18 g and 30 ± 1.5%, respectively, after treatment with 0.4 mM isopropyl-thio-β-galactopyranoside for 19 h at 16 °C in a 30-L fermentor, after which it was purified by DEAE Sepharose FF and nickel nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. Once cleaved by the SUMO protease, the recombinant human FGF23 was released from the fusion protein. The purity of rFGF23 was shown by high performance liquid chromatography to be greater than 90% and the yield was 60 ± 1.5 mg/L. In vitro data showed that the purified rFGF23 can induce the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in the glioma U251 cell. The results of in vivo animal experiments also showed that rFGF23 could decrease the concentration in the plasma of normal rats fed with a fixed formula diet. PMID:22249722

  11. bHLH transcription factors that facilitate K⁺ uptake during stomatal opening are repressed by abscisic acid through phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yohei; Ebisu, Yuta; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Doi, Michio; Okuma, Eiji; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Shimazaki, Ken-Ichiro

    2013-06-18

    Stomata open in response to light and close after exposure to abscisic acid (ABA). They regulate gas exchange between plants and the atmosphere, enabling plants to adapt to changing environmental conditions. ABA binding to receptors initiates a signaling cascade that involves protein phosphorylation. We show that ABA induced the phosphorylation of three basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, called AKSs (ABA-responsive kinase substrates; AKS1, AKS2, and AKS3), in Arabidopsis guard cells. In their unphosphorylated state, AKSs facilitated stomatal opening through the transcription of genes encoding inwardly rectifying K⁺ channels. aks1aks2-1 double mutant plants showed decreases in light-induced stomatal opening, K⁺ accumulation in response to light, activity of inwardly rectifying K⁺ channels, and transcription of genes encoding major inwardly rectifying K⁺ channels without affecting ABA-mediated stomatal closure. Overexpression of potassium channel in Arabidopsis thaliana 1 (KAT1), which encodes a major inwardly rectifying K⁺ channel in guard cells, rescued the phenotype of aks1aks2-1 plants. AKS1 bound directly to the promoter of KAT1, an interaction that was attenuated after ABA-induced phosphorylation. The ABA agonist pyrabactin induced phosphorylation of AKSs. Our results demonstrate that the AKS family of bHLH transcription factors facilitates stomatal opening through the transcription of genes encoding inwardly rectifying K⁺ channels and that ABA suppresses the activity of these channels by triggering the phosphorylation of AKS family transcription factors. PMID:23779086

  12. Facilitating and inhibiting factors for long-term involvement of patients at outcome conferences—lessons learnt from a decade of collaboration in OMERACT: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Maarten; Abma, Tineke; Koelewijn-Van Loon, Marije; Collins, Sarah; Kirwan, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective Several studies have provided insights into the conditions for successful patient involvement in health research. We recently demonstrated that long-term engagement with people with rheumatic conditions in international outcome research led to significant changes in the research agenda in the field of rheumatology. This article explores facilitating and inhibiting factors for long-term involvement of patients as collaborative partners at five Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) conferences. Design Responsive evaluation, starting with a thematic document analysis of conference proceedings and the grey literature, followed by 38 qualitative interviews. Interview transcripts were subjected to inductive content analysis. Setting 5 international OMERACT conferences between 2002 and 2012. Participants Patient delegates (n=16) and professional delegates representing researchers (n=14), pharmaceutical industry and regulators (n=2). Results Combined review of the document analysis and interview data revealed five main facilitators and three main barriers. Patient engagement as full participants at OMERACT conferences was enhanced by: strong leadership commitment and the presence of change agents, a clear selection procedure, an inclusive consensus-based conference design, individualised and self-organised support, an interactive and encouraging moderation style during discussion groups. Barriers were related to the intensity of the conference programme, scepticism among researchers and doubts about the representativeness of the patient group. Conclusions This study concludes that developing a sustainable structure for funding, selection and support of patient delegates, as well as adjusting conference design and moderation style, contributes not only towards facilitating direct dialogue between all stakeholders but also towards enhancing mutual understanding and the successful incorporation of the patient perspective in an outcome conference such as OMERACT

  13. Nerve growth factor facilitates redistribution of adrenergic and non-adrenergic non-cholinergic perivascular nerves injured by phenol in rat mesenteric resistance arteries.

    PubMed

    Yokomizo, Ayako; Takatori, Shingo; Hashikawa-Hobara, Narumi; Goda, Mitsuhiro; Kawasaki, Hiromu

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that nerve growth factor (NGF) facilitated perivascular sympathetic neuropeptide Y (NPY)- and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-containing nerves injured by the topical application of phenol in the rat mesenteric artery. We also demonstrated that mesenteric arterial nerves were distributed into tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-, substance P (SP)-, and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-containing nerves, which had axo-axonal interactions. In the present study, we examined the effects of NGF on phenol-injured perivascular nerves, including TH-, NPY-, nNOS-, CGRP-, and SP-containing nerves, in rat mesenteric arteries in more detail. Wistar rats underwent the in vivo topical application of 10% phenol to the superior mesenteric artery, proximal to the abdominal aorta, under pentobarbital-Na anesthesia. The distribution of perivascular nerves in the mesenteric arteries of the 2nd to 3rd-order branches isolated from 8-week-old Wistar rats was investigated immunohistochemically using antibodies against TH-, NPY-, nNOS-, CGRP-, and SP-containing nerves. The topical phenol treatment markedly reduced the density of all nerves in these arteries. The administration of NGF at a dose of 20µg/kg/day with an osmotic pump for 7 days significantly increased the density of all perivascular nerves over that of sham control levels. These results suggest that NGF facilitates the reinnervation of all perivascular nerves injured by phenol in small resistance arteries. PMID:26671004

  14. Glucocorticoids facilitate the transcription from the human cytomegalovirus major immediate early promoter in glucocorticoid receptor- and nuclear factor-I-like protein-dependent manner

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue-Toyoda, Maki; Kato, Kohsuke; Nagata, Kyosuke; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-02-27

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a common and usually asymptomatic virus agent in healthy individuals. Initiation of HCMV productive infection depends on expression of the major immediate early (MIE) genes. The transcription of HCMV MIE genes is regulated by a diverse set of transcription factors. It was previously reported that productive HCMV infection is triggered probably by elevation of the plasma hydroxycorticoid level. However, it is poorly understood whether the transcription of MIE genes is directly regulated by glucocorticoid. Here, we found that the dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid, facilitates the transcription of HCMV MIE genes through the MIE promoter and enhancer in a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent manner. By competitive EMSA and reporter assays, we revealed that an NF-I like protein is involved in DEX-mediated transcriptional activation of the MIE promoter. Thus, this study supports a notion that the increased level of hydroxycorticoid in the third trimester of pregnancy reactivates HCMV virus production from the latent state. - Highlights: • DEX facilitates the transcription from the HCMV MIE promoter. • GR is involved in DEX-dependent transcription from the HCMV MIE promoter. • A 17 bp repeat is responsible for the HCMV MIE promoter activation by DEX. • An NF-I-like protein is involved in the HCMV MIE promoter activation by DEX.

  15. Factors that facilitate or constrain the use of continuous sedation at the end of life by physicians and nurses in Belgium: results from a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Raus, Kasper; Anquinet, Livia; Rietjens, Judith; Deliens, Luc; Mortier, Freddy; Sterckx, Sigrid

    2014-04-01

    Continuous sedation at the end of life (CS) is the practice whereby a physician uses sedatives to reduce or take away a patient's consciousness until death. Although the incidence of CS is rising, as of yet little research has been conducted on how the administration of CS is experienced by medical practitioners. Existing research shows that many differences exist between medical practitioners regarding how and how often they perform CS. We conducted a focus group study to find out which factors may facilitate or constrain the use of continuous sedation by physicians and nurses. The participants often had clear ideas on what could affect the likelihood that sedation would be used. The physicians and nurses in the focus groups testified that the use of continuous sedation was facilitated in cases where a patient has a very limited life expectancy, suffers intensely, makes an explicit request and has family members who can cope with the stress that accompanies sedation. However, this 'paradigm case' was considered to occur only rarely. Furthermore, deviations from the paradigm case were said to be sometimes due to physicians initiating the discussion on CS too late or not initiating it at all for fear of inducing the patient. Deviations from the paradigm case may also occur when sedation proves to be too difficult for family members who are said to sometimes pressure the medical practitioners to increase dosages and speed up the sedation. PMID:22893573

  16. Microvesicles Derived from Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Facilitate Tubular Epithelial Cell Dedifferentiation and Growth via Hepatocyte Growth Factor Induction

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shuai; Zou, Xiang-yu; Zhang, Guang-yuan; Gu, Di; Miao, Shuai; Zhu, Ying-jian; Sun, Jie; Du, Tao

    2015-01-01

    During acute kidney injury (AKI), tubular cell dedifferentiation initiates cell regeneration; hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is involved in modulating cell dedifferentiation. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived microvesicles (MVs) deliver RNA into injured tubular cells and alter their gene expression, thus regenerating these cells. We boldly speculated that MVs might induce HGF synthesis via RNA transfer, thereby facilitating tubular cell dedifferentiation and regeneration. In a rat model of unilateral AKI, the administration of MVs promoted kidney recovery. One of the mechanisms of action is the acceleration of tubular cell dedifferentiation and growth. Both in vivo and in vitro, rat HGF expression in damaged rat tubular cells was greatly enhanced by MV treatment. In addition, human HGF mRNA present in MVs was delivered into rat tubular cells and translated into the HGF protein as another mechanism of HGF induction. RNase treatment abrogated all MV effects. In the in vitro experimental setting, the conditioned medium of MV-treated injured tubular cells, which contains a higher concentration of HGF, strongly stimulated cell dedifferentiation and growth, as well as Erk1/2 signaling activation. Intriguingly, these effects were completely abrogated by either c-Met inhibitor or MEK inhibitor, suggesting that HGF induction is a crucial contributor to the acceleration of cell dedifferentiation and growth. All these findings indicate that MV-induced HGF synthesis in damaged tubular cells via RNA transfer facilitates cell dedifferentiation and growth, which are important regenerative mechanisms. PMID:25793303

  17. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor facilitates in vivo internalization of tetanus neurotoxin C-terminal fragment fusion proteins in mature mouse motor nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Roux, Sylvie; Saint Cloment, Cécile; Curie, Thomas; Girard, Emmanuelle; Miana Mena, Francisco-Javier; Barbier, Julien; Osta, Rosario; Molgó, Jordi; Brûlet, Philippe

    2006-09-01

    In a previous study it was reported that fusion proteins composed of the atoxic C-terminal fragment of tetanus toxin (TTC) and green fluorescent protein or beta-galactosidase (GFP-TTC and beta-gal-TTC, respectively) rapidly cluster at motor nerve terminals of the mouse neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Because this traffic involves presynaptic activity, probably via the secretion of active molecules, we examined whether it is affected by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Quantitative confocal microscopy and a fluorimetric assay for beta-gal activity revealed that co-injecting BDNF and the fusion proteins significantly increased the kinetics and amount of the proteins' localization at the NMJ and their internalization by motor nerve terminals. The observed increases were independent of synaptic vesicle recycling because BDNF did not affect spontaneous quantal acetylcholine release. In addition, injecting anti-BDNF antibody shortly before injecting GFP-TTC, and before co-injecting GFP-TTC and BDNF, significantly reduced the fusion protein's localization at the NMJ. Co-injecting GFP-TTC with neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) or glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), but not with nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 or ciliary neurotrophic factor, also significantly increased the fusion protein's localization at the NMJ. Thus, TTC probes may use for their neuronal internalization endocytic pathways normally stimulated by BDNF, NT-4 and GDNF binding. Different tyrosine kinase receptors with similar signalling pathways are activated by BDNF/NT-4 and GDNF binding. Thus, activated components of these signalling pathways may be involved in the TTC probes' internalization, perhaps by facilitating localization of receptors of TTC in specific membrane microdomains or by recruiting various factors needed for internalization of TTC. PMID:17004918

  18. The collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 facilitates hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma progression by regulating multiple cellular factors and signal cascades.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Cao, Yanhua; Bai, Lan; Zhu, Chengliang; Li, Rui; He, Hui; Liu, Yingle; Wu, Kailang; Liu, Fang; Wu, Jianguo

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major causes of acute and chronic liver diseases, fulminant hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC accounts for more than 85% of primary liver cancers and is the seventh most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths. However, the mechanism by which HBV induces HCC is largely unknown. Collagen triple helixes repeat containing 1 (CTHRC1) is a secreted protein and has characteristics of a circulating hormone with potentially broad implications for cell metabolism and physiology. CTHRC1 is associated with human cancers, but its effect on HCC is unknown. Here, we revealed that CTHRC1 expression is highly correlated with HCC progression in HBV-infected patients, and demonstrated that HBV stimulates CTHRC1 expression by activating nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), through extracellular signal-regulated kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (ERK/c-JNK) pathway. In addition, CTHRC1 activates hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) through regulating phosphoinosmde-3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI-3K/AKT/mTOR) pathway. More interestingly, CTHRC1 enhances colony formation, migration, and invasion of hepatoma cells by regulating p53 and stimulating matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression. In addition, knock-down of CTHRC1 results in the repression of HBV-associated carcinogenesis in nude mice. Thus, we revealed a novel mechanism by which HBV facilitates HCC development through activating the oncoprotein CTHRC1, which in turn enhances HBV-related HCC progression by stimulates colony formation, migration, and invasion of hepatoma cells through regulating multiple cellular factors and signal cascades. PMID:25263696

  19. Factors Affecting the Implementation of Policy 2450, Distance Education and the West Virginia Virtual School, as Perceived by Principals/Assistant Principals, Counselors, and Distance Learning Contacts and/or Course Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdette, Keith R.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the factors important to the implementation of West Virginia Board of Education Policy 2450, Distance Learning and the West Virginia Virtual School. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that facilitated and impeded implementation of the policy, as perceived by principals/assistant principals, counselors, and…

  20. Scale-Up of Early Infant Male Circumcision Services for HIV Prevention in Lesotho: A Review of Facilitating Factors and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kikaya, Virgile; Kakaire, Rajab; Thompson, Elizabeth; Ramokhele, Mareitumetse; Adamu, Tigistu; Curran, Kelly; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS recommend early infant male circumcision (EIMC) as a component of male circumcision programs in countries with high HIV prevalence and low circumcision rates. Lesotho began incorporating EIMC into routine maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) services in 2013 with funding from the United States Agency for International Development and United Nations Children’s Fund. This presented unique challenges: Lesotho had no previous experience with EIMC and cultural traditions link removal of the foreskin to rites of passage. This process evaluation provides an overview of EIMC implementation. Methodology: The Lesotho Ministry of Health and Jhpiego conducted a baseline assessment before service implementation. Baseline information from an initial assessment was used to develop and implement an EIMC program that had a pilot and a scale-up phase. Key program activities such as staff training, quality assurance, and demand creation were included at the program design phase. Facilitating factors and challenges were identified from a review of information collected during the baseline assessment as well as the pilot. Results: Between September 2013 and March 2015, 592 infants were circumcised at 9 sites: 165 (28%) between 1 day and 6 days after birth; 196 (33%) between 7 and 30 days, and 231 (39%) between 31 and 60 days. Facilitating factors included strong support from the Ministry of Health, collaboration with stakeholders, and donor funding. Providers were enthusiastic about the opportunity to offer new services and receive training. Challenges included gaining consent from family members other than mothers, and parents’ concern about pain and complications. The EIMC program also had to manage providers’ expectations of compensation because overtime was paid to providers who took part in adult circumcision programming but not for EIMC. Limited human resources

  1. Recognition of Trimethylated Histone H3 Lysine 4 Facilitates the Recruitment of Transcription Post-Initiation Factors and pre-mRNA Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Robert J.; Millhouse, Scott; Chen, Chi-Fu; Lewis, Brian A.; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Manley, James L.; Reinberg, Danny

    2007-01-01

    Tri-methylation of histone H3 on lysine 4 (H3K4me3) localizes near the 5′ region of genes and is tightly associated with active loci. Several proteins, such as CHD1, BPTF, JMJD2A, and the ING tumor suppressor family, directly recognize this lysine methyl mark. However, how H3K4me3 recognition participates in active transcription remains poorly characterized. Here we identify specific CHD1-interacting proteins via H3K4me3 affinity purification, including numerous factors mediating post-initiation events. Conventional biochemical purification revealed a stable complex between CHD1 and components of the spliceosome. Depletion of CHD1 in extracts dramatically reduced splicing efficiency in vitro, indicating a functional link between CHD1 and the spliceosome. Knockdown of CHD1 and H3K4me3 levels by siRNA reduced association of U2 snRNP components with chromatin, and more importantly, altered the efficiency of pre-mRNA splicing on active genes in vivo. These findings suggest that methylated H3K4 serves to facilitate the competency of pre-mRNA maturation through the bridging of spliceosomal components to H3K4me3 via CHD1. PMID:18042460

  2. 8-Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1 augments pro-inflammatory gene expression by facilitating the recruitment of site-specific transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Ba, Xueqing; Bacsi, Attila; Luo, Jixian; Aguilera-Aguirre, Leopoldo; Zeng, Xianlu; Radak, Zsolt; Brasier, Allan R; Boldogh, Istvan

    2014-01-01

    Among the insidious DNA base lesions, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) is one of the most abundant, a lesion that arises through the attack by reactive oxygen species on guanine, especially when located in cis-regulatory elements. 8-oxoG is repaired by the 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1)-initiated DNA base excision repair (BER) pathway. Here we investigated whether 8-oxoG repair by OGG1 in promoter regions is compatible with a prompt gene expression and a host innate immune response. For this purpose, we utilized a mouse model of airway inflammation, supplemented with cell cultures, chromatin immunoprecipitation, siRNA knockdown, real-time PCR, Comet and reporter transcription assays. Our data show that exposure of cells to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) altered cellular redox, increased the 8-oxoG level in DNA, recruited OGG1 to promoter sequences and transiently inhibited BER of 8-oxoG. Promoter-associated OGG1 then enhanced NF-êB/RelA binding to cis-elements and facilitated recruitment of Specificity Protein 1 (SP1), transcription initiation factor II-D (TFIID), and phospho-RNA polymerase II, resulting in the rapid expression of chemokines/cytokines and inflammatory cell accumulation in mouse airways. siRNA depletion of OGG1 or prevention of guanine oxidation significantly decreased TNF-α-induced inflammatory responses. Together, these results show that non-productive binding of OGG1 to 8-oxoG in promoter sequences could be an epigenetic mechanism to modulate gene expression for a prompt innate immune response. PMID:24489103

  3. Barriers and facilitating factors to the uptake of antiretroviral drugs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gourlay, Annabelle; Birdthistle, Isolde; Mburu, Gitau; Iorpenda, Kate; Wringe, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate and synthesize reasons for low access, initiation and adherence to antiretroviral drugs by mothers and exposed babies for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted. Four databases were searched (Medline, Embase, Global Health and Web of Science) for studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa from January 2000 to September 2012. Quantitative and qualitative studies were included that met pre-defined criteria. Antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis (maternal/infant) and combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) usage/registration at HIV care and treatment during pregnancy were included as outcomes. Results Of 574 references identified, 40 met the inclusion criteria. Four references were added after searching reference lists of included articles. Twenty studies were quantitative, 16 were qualitative and eight were mixed methods. Forty-one studies were conducted in Southern and East Africa, two in West Africa, none in Central Africa and one was multi-regional. The majority (n=25) were conducted before combination ART for PMTCT was emphasized in 2006. At the individual-level, poor knowledge of HIV/ART/vertical transmission, lower maternal educational level and psychological issues following HIV diagnosis were the key barriers identified. Stigma and fear of status disclosure to partners, family or community members (community-level factors) were the most frequently cited barriers overall and across time. The extent of partner/community support was another major factor impeding or facilitating the uptake of PMTCT ARVs, while cultural traditions including preferences for traditional healers and birth attendants were also common. Key health-systems issues included poor staff-client interactions, staff shortages, service accessibility and non-facility deliveries. Conclusions Long-standing health-systems issues (such as staffing and service accessibility) and community

  4. Facilitating Facilitators: Enhancing PBL through a Structured Facilitator Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinitri, Francine D.; Wilhelm, Sheila M.; Crabtree, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    With increasing adoption of the problem-based learning (PBL) model, creative approaches to enhancing facilitator training and optimizing resources to maintain effective learning in small groups is essential. We describe a theoretical framework for the development of a PBL facilitator training program that uses the constructivist approach as the…

  5. The Zen of Facilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killion, Joellen P.; Simmons, Lynn A.

    1992-01-01

    Distinguishes between training and facilitation, examines the belief system of a facilitator, and shares a process for moving from the familiar mind-set of the trainer to the zen (the practice of seeking the truth) of facilitation. (GLR)

  6. Transforming Growth Factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-stimulated Fibroblast to Myofibroblast Differentiation Is Mediated by Hyaluronan (HA)-facilitated Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and CD44 Co-localization in Lipid Rafts*

    PubMed Central

    Midgley, Adam C.; Rogers, Mathew; Hallett, Maurice B.; Clayton, Aled; Bowen, Timothy; Phillips, Aled O.; Steadman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation drives effective wound healing and is largely regulated by the cytokine transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Myofibroblasts express α-smooth muscle actin and are present in granulation tissue, where they are responsible for wound contraction. Our previous studies show that fibroblast differentiation in response to TGF-β1 is dependent on and mediated by the linear polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA). Both the HA receptor, CD44, and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are involved in this differentiation response. The aim of this study was to understand the mechanisms linking HA-, CD44-, and EGFR-regulated TGF-β1-dependent differentiation. CD44 and EGFR co-localization within membrane-bound lipid rafts was necessary for differentiation, and this triggered downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/ERK) and Ca2+/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) activation. We also found that ERK phosphorylation was upstream of CaMKII phosphorylation, that ERK activation was necessary for CaMKII signaling, and that both kinases were essential for differentiation. In addition, HA synthase-2 (HAS2) siRNA attenuated both ERK and CaMKII signaling and sequestration of CD44 into lipid rafts, preventing differentiation. In summary, the data suggest that HAS2-dependent production of HA facilitates TGF-β1-dependent fibroblast differentiation through promoting CD44 interaction with EGFR held within membrane-bound lipid rafts. This induces MAPK/ERK, followed by CaMKII activation, leading to differentiation. This pathway is synergistic with the classical TGF-β1-dependent SMAD-signaling pathway and may provide a novel opportunity for intervention in wound healing. PMID:23589287

  7. Barriers and facilitating factors for disease self-management: a qualitative analysis of perceptions of patients receiving care for type 2 diabetes and/or hypertension in San José, Costa Rica and Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The burden of cardiovascular disease is growing in the Mesoamerican region. Patients’ disease self-management is an important contributor to control of cardiovascular disease. Few studies have explored factors that facilitate and inhibit disease self-management in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension in urban settings in the region. This article presents patients’ perceptions of barriers and facilitating factors to disease self-management, and offers considerations for health care professionals in how to support them. Methods In 2011, 12 focus groups were conducted with a total of 70 adults with type 2 diabetes and/or hypertension who attended urban public health centers in San José, Costa Rica and Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, Mexico. Focus group discussions were transcribed and coded using a content analysis approach to identify themes. Themes were organized using the trans-theoretical model, and other themes that transcend the individual level were also considered. Results Patients were at different stages in their readiness-to-change, and barriers and facilitating factors are presented for each stage. Barriers to disease self-management included: not accepting the disease, lack of information about symptoms, vertical communication between providers and patients, difficulty negotiating work and health care commitments, perception of healthy food as expensive or not filling, difficulty adhering to treatment and weight loss plans, additional health complications, and health care becoming monotonous. Factors facilitating disease self-management included: a family member’s positive experience, sense of urgency, accessible health care services and guidance from providers, inclusive communication, and family and community support. Financial difficulty, gender roles, differences by disease type, faith, and implications for families and their support were identified as cross-cutting themes that may add an additional layer of complexity to

  8. Escaping Homelessness: Anticipated and Perceived Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Allisha; Tweed, Roger

    2009-01-01

    One study with two distinct sections was conducted to identify factors facilitating escape from homelessness. In Section 1, 58 homeless individuals rated possible facilitators of escape (factors they believed would help them become more independent and self-sufficient). In Section 2, 80 participants who had already exited homelessness rated the…

  9. Facilitating Conditions for School Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; McInerney, Dennis M.

    Primary and high school students (277 in grades 5-6; 615 in grades 7-12) in the United States (47 percent boys) responded to 26 items of the Facilitating Conditions Questionnaire (FCQ). Results indicate 7 distinct FCQ factors: perceived value of schooling; affect toward schooling; peer positive academic climate (Peer Positive); encouragement from…

  10. Tfb6, a previously unidentified subunit of the general transcription factor TFIIH, facilitates dissociation of Ssl2 helicase after transcription initiation.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kenji; Gibbons, Brian J; Davis, Ralph E; Nagai, Shigeki; Liu, Xin; Robinson, Philip J J; Wu, Tinghe; Kaplan, Craig D; Kornberg, Roger D

    2012-03-27

    General transcription factor TFIIH, previously described as a 10-subunit complex, is essential for transcription and DNA repair. An eleventh subunit now identified, termed Tfb6, exhibits 45% sequence similarity to human nuclear mRNA export factor 5. Tfb6 dissociates from TFIIH as a heterodimer with the Ssl2 subunit, a DNA helicase that drives promoter melting for the initiation of transcription. Tfb6 does not, however, dissociate Ssl2 from TFIIH in the context of a fully assembled transcription preinitiation complex. Our findings suggest a dynamic state of Ssl2, allowing its engagement in multiple cellular processes. PMID:22411836

  11. "A Hand Hold for a Little Bit": Factors Facilitating the Success of Community College Transfer Students to a Large Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Barbara K.; Wilson, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    To understand factors affecting the academic and social integration of community college transfer students, we interviewed 19 students who transferred to one state's large Research-Extensive university. We inquired about the transfer process, efforts of the university to orient and assist them, and perceptions of the university versus the…

  12. Zinc Finger Nuclease-Expressing Baculoviral Vectors Mediate Targeted Genome Integration of Reprogramming Factor Genes to Facilitate the Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Phang, Rui-Zhe; Tay, Felix Chang; Goh, Sal-Lee; Lau, Cia-Hin; Zhu, Haibao; Tan, Wee-Kiat; Liang, Qingle; Chen, Can; Du, Shouhui; Li, Zhendong; Tay, Johan Chin-Kang; Wu, Chunxiao; Zeng, Jieming; Fan, Weimin; Toh, Han Chong

    2013-01-01

    Integrative gene transfer using retroviruses to express reprogramming factors displays high efficiency in generating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), but the value of the method is limited because of the concern over mutagenesis associated with random insertion of transgenes. Site-specific integration into a preselected locus by engineered zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) technology provides a potential way to overcome the problem. Here, we report the successful reprogramming of human fibroblasts into a state of pluripotency by baculoviral transduction-mediated, site-specific integration of OKSM (Oct3/4, Klf4, Sox2, and c-myc) transcription factor genes into the AAVS1 locus in human chromosome 19. Two nonintegrative baculoviral vectors were used for cotransduction, one expressing ZFNs and another as a donor vector encoding the four transcription factors. iPSC colonies were obtained at a high efficiency of 12% (the mean value of eight individual experiments). All characterized iPSC clones carried the transgenic cassette only at the ZFN-specified AAVS1 locus. We further demonstrated that when the donor cassette was flanked by heterospecific loxP sequences, the reprogramming genes in iPSCs could be replaced by another transgene using a baculoviral vector-based Cre recombinase-mediated cassette exchange system, thereby producing iPSCs free of exogenous reprogramming factors. Although the use of nonintegrating methods to generate iPSCs is rapidly becoming a standard approach, methods based on site-specific integration of reprogramming factor genes as reported here hold the potential for efficient generation of genetically amenable iPSCs suitable for future gene therapy applications. PMID:24167318

  13. Landscape Factors Facilitating the Invasive Dynamics and Distribution of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), after Arrival in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wallner, Adam M.; Hamilton, George C.; Nielsen, Anne L.; Hahn, Noel; Green, Edwin J.; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R.

    2014-01-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, a native of Asia, has become a serious invasive pest in the USA. H. halys was first detected in the USA in the mid 1990s, dispersing to over 41 other states. Since 1998, H. halys has spread throughout New Jersey, becoming an important pest of agriculture, and a major nuisance in urban developments. In this study, we used spatial analysis, geostatistics, and Bayesian linear regression to investigate the invasion dynamics and colonization processes of this pest in New Jersey. We present the results of monitoring H. halys from 51 to 71 black light traps that were placed on farms throughout New Jersey from 2004 to 2011 and examined relationships between total yearly densities of H. halys and square hectares of 48 landscape/land use variables derived from urban, wetland, forest, and agriculture metadata, as well as distances to nearest highways. From these analyses we propose the following hypotheses: (1) H. halys density is strongly associated with urban developments and railroads during its initial establishment and dispersal from 2004 to 2006; (2) H. halys overwintering in multiple habitats and feeding on a variety of plants may have reduced the Allee effect, thus facilitating movement into the southernmost regions of the state by railroads from 2005 to 2008; (3) density of H. halys contracted in 2009 possibly from invading wetlands or sampling artifact; (4) subsequent invasion of H. halys from the northwest to the south in 2010 may conform to a stratified-dispersal model marked by rapid long-distance movement, from railroads and wetland rights-of-way; and (5) high densities of H. halys may be associated with agriculture in southern New Jersey in 2011. These landscape features associated with the invasion of H. halys in New Jersey may predict its potential rate of invasion across the USA and worldwide. PMID:24787576

  14. Plant Translation Elongation Factor 1Bβ Facilitates Potato Virus X (PVX) Infection and Interacts with PVX Triple Gene Block Protein 1.

    PubMed

    Hwang, JeeNa; Lee, Seonhee; Lee, Joung-Ho; Kang, Won-Hee; Kang, Jin-Ho; Kang, Min-Young; Oh, Chang-Sik; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2015-01-01

    The eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 (eEF1) has two components: the G-protein eEF1A and the nucleotide exchange factor eEF1B. In plants, eEF1B is itself composed of a structural protein (eEF1Bγ) and two nucleotide exchange subunits (eEF1Bα and eEF1Bβ). To test the effects of elongation factors on virus infection, we isolated eEF1A and eEF1B genes from pepper (Capsicum annuum) and suppressed their homologs in Nicotiana benthamiana using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). The accumulation of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Potato virus X (PVX) was significantly reduced in the eEF1Bβ- or eEF1Bɣ-silenced plants as well as in eEF1A-silenced plants. Yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that eEF1Bα and eEF1Bβ interacted with eEF1A and that eEF1A and eEF1Bβ interacted with triple gene block protein 1 (TGBp1) of PVX. These results suggest that both eEF1A and eEF1Bβ play essential roles in the multiplication of PVX by physically interacting with TGBp1. Furthermore, using eEF1Bβ deletion constructs, we found that both N- (1-64 amino acids) and C-terminal (150-195 amino acids) domains of eEF1Bβ are important for the interaction with PVX TGBp1 and that the C-terminal domain of eEF1Bβ is involved in the interaction with eEF1A. These results suggest that eEF1Bβ could be a potential target for engineering virus-resistant plants. PMID:26020533

  15. The Fanconi Anemia Protein FANCC Binds to and Facilitates the Activation of STAT1 by Gamma Interferon and Hematopoietic Growth Factors

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Qishen; Fagerlie, Sara; Christianson, Tracy A.; Keeble, Winifred; Faulkner, Greg; Diaz, Jane; Rathbun, R. Keaney; Bagby, Grover C.

    2000-01-01

    Hematopoietic progenitor cells from Fanconi anemia (FA) group C (FA-C) patients display hypersensitivity to the apoptotic effects of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and constitutively express a variety of IFN-dependent genes. Paradoxically, however, STAT1 activation is suppressed in IFN-stimulated FA cells, an abnormality corrected by transduction of normal FANCC cDNA. We therefore sought to define the specific role of FANCC protein in signal transduction through receptors that activate STAT1. Expression and phosphorylation of IFN-γ receptor α chain (IFN-γRα) and JAK1 and JAK2 tyrosine kinases were equivalent in both normal and FA-C cells. However, in coimmunoprecipitation experiments STAT1 did not dock at the IFN-γR of FA-C cells, an abnormality corrected by transduction of the FANCC gene. In addition, glutathione S-transferase fusion genes encoding normal FANCC but not a mutant FANCC bearing an inactivating point mutation (L554P) bound to STAT1 in lysates of IFN-γ-stimulated B cells and IFN-, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor- and stem cell factor-stimulated MO7e cells. Kinetic studies revealed that the initial binding of FANCC was to nonphosphorylated STAT1 but that subsequently the complex moved to the receptor docking site, at which point STAT1 became phosphorylated. The STAT1 phosphorylation defect in FA-C cells was functionally significant in that IFN induction of IFN response factor 1 was suppressed and STAT1-DNA complexes were not detected in nuclear extracts of FA-C cells. We also determined that the IFN-γ hypersensitivity of FA-C hematopoietic progenitor cells does not derive from STAT1 activation defects because granulocyte-macrophage CFU and erythroid burst-forming units from STAT1−/− mice were resistant to IFN-γ. However, BFU-E responses to SCF and erythropoietin were suppressed in STAT−/− mice. Consequently, because the FANCC protein is involved in the activation of STAT1 through receptors for at least three hematopoietic

  16. A Facilitation Performance Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Roger

    1997-01-01

    Presents a guide, derived from the Situational Leadership model, which describes the process that should be used in facilitating a group discussion. The process includes preparation, assessment, diagnosis, prescription, development, reinforcement, and follow-up. Three figures depict the Situational Leadership model, the facilitation process, and…

  17. Reconceptualizing the Pedagogical Value of Student Facilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oztok, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Sustained discourse is critical to the learning potential of online courses. And, while research has surfaced many factors that mediate interaction, it further suggests that sustained interaction remains elusive. In this paper, I propose that student facilitation may have an impact on the quality of facilitators' interactions following a week of…

  18. Attenuation of krüppel-like factor 4 facilitates carcinogenesis by inducing g1/s phase arrest in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Song, Erlin; Ma, Xin; Li, Hongzhao; Zhang, Peng; Ni, Dong; Chen, Weihao; Gao, Yu; Fan, Yang; Pang, Haigang; Shi, Taoping; Ding, Qiang; Wang, Baojun; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a transcription factor with diverse functions in various cancer types; however, the function of KLF4 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) carcinogenesis remains unknown. In this study, we initially examined KLF4 expression by using a cohort of surgically removed ccRCC specimens and cell lines. Results indicated that the transcription and translation of KLF4 were lower in ccRCC tissues than in patient-matched normal tissues. Furthermore, the KLF4 expression was significantly downregulated in the five ccRCC cell lines at protein and mRNA levels compared with that in normal renal proximal tubular epithelial cell lines (HKC). KLF4 downregulation was significantly correlated with tumor stage and tumor diameter. Promoter hypermethylation may contribute to its low expression. In addition, in vitro studies indicated that the KLF4 overexpression significantly inhibited proliferation in human ccRCC cell lines 786-O and ACHN. Moreover, the KLF4 overexpression arrested the cell cycle progress at the G1/S phase transition by upregulating p21 (WAF1/CIP1) expression and downregulating cyclin D1 expression, KLF4 knockdown in HKC cells did the opposite. In vivo studies confirmed the anti-proliferative effect of KLF4. Our results suggested that KLF4 had an important function in suppressing the growth of ccRCC. PMID:23861801

  19. GRP78(BiP) facilitates the cytosolic delivery of anthrax lethal factor (LF) in vivo and functions as an unfoldase in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Tamayo, Alfred G.; Slater, Louise; Taylor-Parker, Julian; Bharti, Ajit; Harrison, Robert; Hung, Deborah T.; Murphy, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Anthrax toxin is an A/B bacterial protein toxin which is composed of the enzymatically active Lethal Factor (LF) and/or Oedema Factor (EF) bound to Protective Antigen 63 (PA63) which functions as both the receptor binding and transmembrane domains. Once the toxin binds to its cell surface receptors it is internalized into the cell and traffics through Rab5- and Rab7-associated endosomal vesicles. Following acidification of the vesicle lumen, PA63 undergoes a dynamic change forming a beta-barrel that inserts into and forms a pore through the endosomal membrane. It is widely recognized that LF, and the related fusion protein LFnDTA, must be completely denatured in order to transit through the PA63 formed pore and enter the eukaryotic cell cytosol. We demonstrate by protease protection assays that the molecular chaperone GRP78 mediates the unfolding of LFnDTA and LF at neutral pH and thereby converts these proteins from a trypsin resistant to sensitive conformation. We have used immuno-electron microscopy and gold-labeled antibodies to demonstrate that both GRP78 and GRP94 chaperones are present in the lumen of endosomal vesicles. Finally, we have used siRNA to demonstrate that knock down of GRP78 results in the emergence of resistance to anthrax lethal toxin and edema toxin action. PMID:21797942

  20. Dynein Light Chain LC8 Is Required for RNA Polymerase I-Mediated Transcription in Trypanosoma brucei, Facilitating Assembly and Promoter Binding of Class I Transcription Factor A

    PubMed Central

    Kirkham, Justin K.; Park, Sung Hee; Nguyen, Tu N.; Lee, Ju Huck

    2015-01-01

    Dynein light chain LC8 is highly conserved among eukaryotes and has both dynein-dependent and dynein-independent functions. Interestingly, LC8 was identified as a subunit of the class I transcription factor A (CITFA), which is essential for transcription by RNA polymerase I (Pol I) in the parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Given that LC8 has never been identified with a basal transcription factor and that T. brucei relies on RNA Pol I for expressing the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG), the key protein in antigenic variation, we investigated the CITFA-specific role of LC8. Depletion of LC8 from mammalian-infective bloodstream trypanosomes affected cell cycle progression, reduced the abundances of rRNA and VSG mRNA, and resulted in rapid cell death. Sedimentation analysis, coimmunoprecipitation of recombinant proteins, and bioinformatic analysis revealed an LC8 binding site near the N terminus of the subunit CITFA2. Mutation of this site prevented the formation of a CITFA2-LC8 heterotetramer and, in vivo, was lethal, affecting assembly of a functional CITFA complex. Gel shift assays and UV cross-linking experiments identified CITFA2 as a promoter-binding CITFA subunit. Accordingly, silencing of LC8 or CITFA2 resulted in a loss of CITFA from RNA Pol I promoters. Hence, we discovered an LC8 interaction that, unprecedentedly, has a basal function in transcription. PMID:26459761

  1. Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein co-stimulation facilitates tumor regression by inducing IL-9-producing helper T cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Kyu; Kim, Byung-Seok; Koh, Choong-Hyun; Seok, Jae-Won; Park, Jun-Seok; Shin, Kwang-Soo; Bae, Eun-Ah; Lee, Ga-Eun; Jeon, Hyewon; Cho, Jaebeom; Jung, Yujin; Han, Daehee; Kwon, Byoung S; Lee, Ho-Young; Chung, Yeonseok; Kang, Chang-Yuil

    2015-09-01

    T cell stimulation via glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-related protein (GITR) elicits antitumor activity in various tumor models; however, the underlying mechanism of action remains unclear. Here we demonstrate a crucial role for interleukin (IL)-9 in antitumor immunity generated by the GITR agonistic antibody DTA-1. IL-4 receptor knockout (Il4ra(-/-)) mice, which have reduced expression of IL-9, were resistant to tumor growth inhibition by DTA-1. Notably, neutralization of IL-9 considerably impaired tumor rejection induced by DTA-1. In particular, DTA-1-induced IL-9 promoted tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses by enhancing the function of dendritic cells in vivo. Furthermore, GITR signaling enhanced the differentiation of IL-9-producing CD4(+) T-helper (TH9) cells in a TNFR-associated factor 6 (TRAF6)- and NF-κB-dependent manner and inhibited the generation of induced regulatory T cells in vitro. Our findings demonstrate that GITR co-stimulation mediates antitumor immunity by promoting TH9 cell differentiation and enhancing CTL responses and thus provide a mechanism of action for GITR agonist-mediated cancer immunotherapies. PMID:26280119

  2. Insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor is an IFNgamma-inducible microglial protein that facilitates intracellular HIV replication: implications for HIV-induced neurocognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Suh, Hyeon-Sook; Cosenza-Nashat, Melissa; Choi, Namjong; Zhao, Meng-Liang; Li, Jiu-feng; Pollard, Jeffrey W; Jirtle, Randy L; Goldstein, Harris; Lee, Sunhee C

    2010-11-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R), also known as cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) receptor, is a transmembrane glycoprotein localized in the trans-Golgi region and is involved in targeting both M6P-bearing enzymes and IGF2 to the lysosomal compartment. During development, IGF2R plays a crucial role in removing excess growth factors from both tissue and blood. Due to the perinatal lethality of the global Igf2r knockout, the function of IGF2R in adults, particularly in the CNS, is not known. We made a novel observation that IGF2R is highly expressed in microglial nodules in human brains with HIV encephalitis. In vitro, microglial IGF2R expression was uniquely enhanced by IFNγ among the several cytokines and TLR ligands examined. Furthermore, in several in vitro models of HIV infection, including human and murine microglia, macrophages, and nonmacrophage cells, IGF2R is repeatedly shown to be a positive regulator of HIV infection. IGF2R RNAi also down-regulated the production of the IP-10 chemokine in HIV-infected human microglia. Injection of VSVg env HIV into mouse brain induced HIV p24 expression in neurons, the only cell type normally expressing IGF2R in the adult brain. Our results demonstrate a novel role for IGF2R as an inducible microglial protein involved in regulation of HIV and chemokine expression. Mice with the Csf1r- driven Igf2r knockout should be useful for the investigation of macrophage-specific IGF2R function. PMID:20889566

  3. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-PI3K Signaling Controls Cofilin Activity To Facilitate Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Entry into Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Kai; Xiang, Yangfei; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Qiaoli; Zhong, Meigong; Wang, Shaoxiang; Wang, Xiaoyan; Fan, Jianglin; Kitazato, Kaio; Wang, Yifei

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) establishes latency in neurons and can cause severe disseminated infection with neurological impairment and high mortality. This neurodegeneration is thought to be tightly associated with virus-induced cytoskeleton disruption. Currently, the regulation pattern of the actin cytoskeleton and the involved molecular mechanisms during HSV-1 entry into neurons remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the entry of HSV-1 into neuronal cells induces biphasic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and an initial inactivation followed by the subsequent activation of cofilin, a member of the actin depolymerizing factor family that is critical for actin reorganization. The disruption of F-actin dynamics or the modulation of cofilin activity by mutation, knockdown, or overexpression affects HSV-1 entry efficacy and virus-mediated cell ruffle formation. Binding of the HSV-1 envelope initiates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway, which leads to virus-induced early cofilin phosphorylation and F-actin polymerization. Moreover, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase and Rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK) are recruited as downstream mediators of the HSV-1-induced cofilin inactivation pathway. Inhibitors specific for those kinases significantly reduce the virus infectivity without affecting virus binding to the target cells. Additionally, lipid rafts are clustered to promote EGFR-associated signaling cascade transduction. We propose that HSV-1 hijacks cofilin to initiate infection. These results could promote a better understanding of the pathogenesis of HSV-1-induced neurological diseases. PMID:24425731

  4. ID1 facilitates the growth and metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer in response to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Smitha; Rizwani, Wasia; Li, Xueli; Rawal, Bhupendra; Nair, Sajitha; Schell, Michael J; Bepler, Gerold; Haura, Eric; Coppola, Domenico; Chellappan, Srikumar

    2011-07-01

    Expression of ID1 (inhibitor of differentiation) has been correlated with the progression of a variety of cancers, but little information is available on its role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here we show that ID1 is induced by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in a panel of NSCLC cell lines and primary cells from the lung. ID1 induction was Src dependent and mediated through the α7 subunit of nAChR; transfection of K-Ras or EGFR to primary cells induced ID1. ID1 depletion prevented nicotine- and EGF-induced proliferation, migration, and invasion of NSCLC cells and angiogenic tubule formation of human microvascular endothelial cells from lungs (HMEC-Ls). ID1 could induce the expression of mesenchymal markers such as vimentin and fibronectin by downregulating ZBP-89, a zinc finger repressor protein. ID1 levels were elevated in tumors from mice that were exposed to nicotine. Further, human lung tissue microarrays (TMAs) showed elevated levels of ID1 in NSCLC samples, with maximal levels in metastatic lung cancers. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) performed on patient lung tumors showed that ID1 levels were elevated in advanced stages of NSCLC and correlated with elevated expression of vimentin and fibronectin, irrespective of smoking history. PMID:21606196

  5. Cell surface-associated aggregation-promoting factor from Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 facilitates host colonization and competitive exclusion of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Keita; Nakazato, Akiko; Ueno, Shintaro; Seto, Yasuyuki; Kakuda, Tsutomu; Takai, Shinji; Yamamoto, Yuji; Mukai, Takao

    2015-11-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, one of the most common causes of gastroenteritis worldwide, is transmitted to humans through poultry. We previously reported that Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) reduced C. jejuni infection in human epithelial cells in vitro and inhibited pathogen colonization of chickens in vivo. This suggested that the LG2055 adhesion and/or co-aggregation phenotype mediated by cell-surface aggregation-promoting factors (APFs) may be important for the competitive exclusion of C. jejuni. Here, we show that cell surface-associated APF1 promoted LG2055 self-aggregation and adhesion to human epithelial cells and exhibited high affinity for the extracellular matrix component fibronectin. These effects were absent in the apf1 knockout mutant, indicating the role of APF1 in LG2055-mediated inhibition of C. jejuni in epithelial cells and chicken colonization. Similar to APF1, APF2 promoted the co-aggregation of LG2055 and C. jejuni but did not inhibit C. jejuni infection. Our data suggest a pivotal role for APF1 in mediating the interaction of LG2055 with human intestinal cells and in inhibiting C. jejuni colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. We thus provide new insight into the health-promoting effects of probiotics and mechanisms of competitive exclusion in poultry. Further research is needed to determine whether the probiotic strains reach the epithelial surface. PMID:26239091

  6. Mitotic Inheritance of mRNA Facilitates Translational Activation of the Osteogenic-Lineage Commitment Factor Runx2 in Progeny of Osteoblastic Cells.

    PubMed

    Varela, Nelson; Aranguiz, Alejandra; Lizama, Carlos; Sepulveda, Hugo; Antonelli, Marcelo; Thaler, Roman; Moreno, Ricardo D; Montecino, Martin; Stein, Gary S; van Wijnen, Andre J; Galindo, Mario

    2016-05-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms mediate the acquisition of specialized cellular phenotypes during tissue development, maintenance and repair. When phenotype-committed cells transit through mitosis, chromosomal condensation counteracts epigenetic activation of gene expression. Subsequent post-mitotic re-activation of transcription depends on epigenetic DNA and histone modifications, as well as other architecturally bound proteins that "bookmark" the genome. Osteogenic lineage commitment, differentiation and progenitor proliferation require the bone-related runt-related transcription factor Runx2. Here, we characterized a non-genomic mRNA mediated mechanism by which osteoblast precursors retain their phenotype during self-renewal. We show that osteoblasts produce maximal levels of Runx2 mRNA, but not protein, prior to mitotic cell division. Runx2 mRNA partitions symmetrically between daughter cells in a non-chromosomal tubulin-containing compartment. Subsequently, transcription-independent de novo synthesis of Runx2 protein in early G1 phase results in increased functional interactions of Runx2 with a representative osteoblast-specific target gene (osteocalcin/BGLAP2) in chromatin. Somatic transmission of Runx2 mRNAs in osteoblasts and osteosarcoma cells represents a versatile mechanism for translational rather than transcriptional induction of this principal gene regulator to maintain osteoblast phenotype identity after mitosis. PMID:26381402

  7. Multiple copies of eukaryotic translation initiation factors in Brassica rapa facilitate redundancy, enabling diversification through variation in splicing and broad-spectrum virus resistance.

    PubMed

    Nellist, Charlotte F; Qian, Wei; Jenner, Carol E; Moore, Jonathan D; Zhang, Shujiang; Wang, Xiaowu; Briggs, William H; Barker, Guy C; Sun, Rifei; Walsh, John A

    2014-01-01

    Recessive strain-specific resistance to a number of plant viruses in the Potyvirus genus has been found to be based on mutations in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and its isoform, eIF(iso)4E. We identified three copies of eIF(iso)4E in a number of Brassica rapa lines. Here we report broad-spectrum resistance to the potyvirus Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) due to a natural mechanism based on the mis-splicing of the eIF(iso)4E allele in some TuMV-resistant B. rapa var. pekinensis lines. Of the splice variants, the most common results in a stop codon in intron 1 and a much truncated, non-functional protein. The existence of multiple copies has enabled redundancy in the host plant's translational machinery, resulting in diversification and emergence of the resistance. Deployment of the resistance is complicated by the presence of multiple copies of the gene. Our data suggest that in the B. rapa subspecies trilocularis, TuMV appears to be able to use copies of eIF(iso)4E at two loci. Transformation of different copies of eIF(iso)4E from a resistant B. rapa line into an eIF(iso)4E knockout line of Arabidopsis thaliana proved misleading because it showed that, when expressed ectopically, TuMV could use multiple copies which was not the case in the resistant B. rapa line. The inability of TuMV to access multiple copies of eIF(iso)4E in B. rapa and the broad spectrum of the resistance suggest it may be durable. PMID:24274163

  8. Silencing tumor necrosis factor-alpha in vitro from small interfering RNA-decorated titanium nanotube array can facilitate osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenlin; Hu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Dawei; Zhuo, Mengchuan; Cheng, Jiwei; Xu, Xingping; Xing, Yongming; Fan, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Titanium implants are known for their bone bonding ability. However, the osseointegration may be severely disturbed in the inflammation environment. In order to enhance osseointegration of the implant in an inflamed environment, the small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was used to functionalize titanium surface for gene silencing. The chitosan–tripolyphosphate–hyaluronate complexes were used to formulate nanoparticles (NPs) with siRNA, which were adsorbed directly by the anodized titanium surface. The surface characterization was analyzed by scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscopy, as well as contact angle measurement. The fluorescence microscope was used to monitor the degradation of the layer. The coculture system was established with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) grown directly on functionalized titanium surface and RAW264.7 cells (preactivated by lipopolysaccharide) grown upside in a transwell chamber. The transfection and knockdown efficiency of TNF-α in RAW264.7 cells were determined by fluorescence microscope, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cytoskeleton and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs were also analyzed. Regular vertical aligned nanotubes (~100 nm diameter and ~300 nm length) were generated after anodization of polished titanium. After loading with NPs, the nanotubes were filled and covered by a layer of amorphous particles. The surface topography changed and wettability decreased after covering with NPs. As expected, a burst degradation of the film was observed, which could provide sufficient NPs in the released supernatant and result in transfection and knockdown effects in RAW264.7 cells. The cytoskeleton arrangement of MSCs was elongated and the osteogenic differentiation was also significantly improved on NPs loading surface. In conclusion, the siRNA decorated titanium implant could simultaneously suppress inflammation and improve

  9. Activation of Dll4/Notch Signaling and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 Alpha Facilitates Lymphangiogenesis in Lacrimal Glands in Dry Eye

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yong Woo; Yeo, Areum; Noh, Hyemi; Song, Insil; Kim, Eung Kweon; Lee, Hyung Keun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose By using hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha conditional knockout (HIF-1α CKO) mice and a dry eye (DE) mouse model, we aimed to determine the role played by delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4)/Notch signaling and HIF-1α in the lymphangiogenesis of lacrimal glands (LGs). Methods C57BL/6 mice were housed in a controlled-environment chamber for DE induction. During DE induction, the expression level of Dll4/Notch signaling and lymphangiogenesis in LGs was measured by quantitative RT-PCR, immunoblot, and immunofluorescence staining. Next, lymphangiogenesis was measured after Dll4/Notch signal inhibition by anti-Dll4 antibody or γ-secretase inhibitor. Using HIF-1α CKO mice, the expression of Dll4/Notch signaling and lymphangiogenesis in LGs of DE-induced HIF-1α CKO mice were assessed. Additionally, the infiltration of CD45+ cells in LGs was assessed by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining and flow cytometry for each condition. Results DE significantly upregulated Dll4/Notch and lymphangiogenesis in LGs. Inhibition of Dll4/Notch significantly suppressed lymphangiogenesis in LGs. Compared to wild-type (WT) mice, DE induced HIF-1α CKO mice showed markedly low levels of Dll4/Notch and lymphangiogenesis. Inhibition of lymphangiogenesis by Dll4/Notch suppression resulted in increased CD45+ cell infiltration in LGs. Likewise, CD45+ cells infiltrated more in the LGs of HIF-1α CKO DE mice than in non-DE HIF-1α CKO mice. Conclusions Dll4/Notch signaling and HIF-1α are closely related to lymphangiogenesis in DE-induced LGs. Lymphangiogenesis stimulated by Dll4/Notch and HIF-1α may play a role in protecting LGs from DE-induced inflammation by aiding the clearance of immune cells from LGs. PMID:26828208

  10. Phospholipase Cϵ Activates Nuclear Factor-κB Signaling by Causing Cytoplasmic Localization of Ribosomal S6 Kinase and Facilitating Its Phosphorylation of Inhibitor κB in Colon Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Wakita, Masahiro; Edamatsu, Hironori; Li, Mingzhen; Emi, Aki; Kitazawa, Sohei; Kataoka, Tohru

    2016-06-10

    Phospholipase Cϵ (PLCϵ), an effector of Ras and Rap small GTPases, plays a crucial role in inflammation by augmenting proinflammatory cytokine expression. This proinflammatory function of PLCϵ is implicated in its facilitative role in tumor promotion and progression during skin and colorectal carcinogenesis, although their direct link remains to be established. Moreover, the molecular mechanism underlying these functions of PLCϵ remains unknown except that PKD works downstream of PLCϵ. Here we show by employing the colitis-induced colorectal carcinogenesis model, where Apc(Min) (/+) mice are administered with dextran sulfate sodium, that PLCϵ knock-out alleviates the colitis and suppresses the following tumorigenesis concomitant with marked attenuation of proinflammatory cytokine expression. In human colon epithelial Caco2 cells, TNF-α induces sustained expression of proinflammatory molecules and sustained activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and PKD, the late phases of which are suppressed by not only siRNA-mediated PLCϵ knockdown but also treatment with a lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor antagonist. Also, LPA stimulation induces these events in an early time course, suggesting that LPA mediates TNF-α signaling in an autocrine manner. Moreover, PLCϵ knockdown results in inhibition of phosphorylation of IκB by ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) but not by IκB kinases. Subcellular fractionation suggests that enhanced phosphorylation of a scaffolding protein, PEA15 (phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15), downstream of the PLCϵ-PKD axis causes sustained cytoplasmic localization of phosphorylated RSK, thereby facilitating IκB phosphorylation in the cytoplasm. These results suggest the crucial role of the TNF-α-LPA-LPA receptor-PLCϵ-PKD-PEA15-RSK-IκB-NF-κB pathway in facilitating inflammation and inflammation-associated carcinogenesis in the colon. PMID:27053111

  11. In Vivo Facilitated Diffusion Model

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Maximilian; Metzler, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Under dilute in vitro conditions transcription factors rapidly locate their target sequence on DNA by using the facilitated diffusion mechanism. However, whether this strategy of alternating between three-dimensional bulk diffusion and one-dimensional sliding along the DNA contour is still beneficial in the crowded interior of cells is highly disputed. Here we use a simple model for the bacterial genome inside the cell and present a semi-analytical model for the in vivo target search of transcription factors within the facilitated diffusion framework. Without having to resort to extensive simulations we determine the mean search time of a lac repressor in a living E. coli cell by including parameters deduced from experimental measurements. The results agree very well with experimental findings, and thus the facilitated diffusion picture emerges as a quantitative approach to gene regulation in living bacteria cells. Furthermore we see that the search time is not very sensitive to the parameters characterizing the DNA configuration and that the cell seems to operate very close to optimal conditions for target localization. Local searches as implied by the colocalization mechanism are only found to mildly accelerate the mean search time within our model. PMID:23349772

  12. Understanding Facilitation: Theory and Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Christine

    This book introduces newcomers to the concept of facilitation, and it presents a critical analysis of established and current theory on facilitation for existing practitioners. The following are among the topics discussed: (1) emergence of the field of facilitation; (2) development of facilitation in management; (3) development of facilitation in…

  13. Formation of Freirian Facilitators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Phyllis

    This paper is written for people who are already familiar with the philosophy and methodology of Paulo Freire's liberatory education and are interested in creating a formation program for adult education facilitators using his ideas. The author describes the paper as "a collection of thoughts, of things to consider," when organizing such a…

  14. The Inclusion Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Cheryl M.; Schuh, Mary C.; Nisbet, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Inclusion facilitators are educators who do more than teach children with disabilities--they advocate for change in schools and communities, sparking a passion for inclusion in teachers, administrators, and families and giving them the practical guidance they need to make it work. This is an essential new role in today's schools, and this guide…

  15. Facilitation of Adult Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boydell, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Taking an autobiographical approach, I tell the story of my experiences facilitating adult development, in a polytechnic and as a management consultant. I relate these to a developmental framework of Modes of Being and Learning that I created and elaborated with colleagues. I connect this picture with a number of related models, theories,…

  16. Action Research Facilitator's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro-Bruce, Cathy

    This handbook is a roadmap for action research facilitators to help groups as they work through the research process. It offers quotations, handouts, strategies, resources, and insights from actual experiences. The sections of the handbook follow the action research cycle, focusing on: "What is Action Research?"; "What is the Action Research…

  17. Facilitative Strategies in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Thara M. A.; Haugabrook, Adrian K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes campus-based strategies to facilitate collaboration by examining the process of restructuring a division of student affairs as an educational partner with academic affairs. Describes three collaborative efforts at the University of Massachusetts Boston: the Beacon Leadership Project, the Diversity Research Initiative, and the Beacon…

  18. Tumor Necrosis Factor-stimulated Gene 6 (TSG-6)-mediated Interactions with the Inter-α-inhibitor Heavy Chain 5 Facilitate Tumor Growth Factor β1 (TGFβ1)-dependent Fibroblast to Myofibroblast Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Martin, John; Midgley, Adam; Meran, Soma; Woods, Emma; Bowen, Timothy; Phillips, Aled O; Steadman, Robert

    2016-06-24

    Fibroblasts are central to wound healing and fibrosis through TGFβ1-triggered differentiation into contractile, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)-positive myofibroblasts. This is mediated by accumulation of a pericellular matrix of hyaluronan (HA) and the HA-dependent co-localization of CD44 with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Interactions of HA with hyaladherins, such as inter-α-inhibitor (IαI) and tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6), are also essential for differentiation. This study investigated the mechanisms involved. TSG-6 and α-SMA had different kinetics of induction by TGFβ1, with TSG-6 peaking before α-SMA Si CD44 or EGFR inhibition prevented differentiation but had no effect on TSG-6 expression. TSG-6 was essential for differentiation, and mAb A38 (preventing IαI heavy chain (HC) transfer), HA-oligosaccharides, cobalt, or Si bikunin prevented TSG-6 activity, preventing differentiation. A38 also prevented the EGFR/CD44 association. This suggested that TSG-6/IαI HC interaction was necessary for the effect of TSG-6 and that HC stabilization of HA initiated the CD44/EGFR association. The newly described HC5 was shown to be the principal HC expressed, and its cell surface expression was prevented by siRNA inhibition of TSG-6 or bikunin. HC5 was released by hyaluronidase treatment, confirming its association with cell surface HA. Finally, HC5 knockdown by siRNA confirmed its role in myofibroblast differentiation. The current study describes a novel mechanism linking the TSG-6 transfer of the newly described HC5 to the HA-dependent control of cell phenotype. The interaction of HC5 with cell surface HA was essential for TGFβ1-dependent differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, highlighting its importance as a novel potential therapeutic target. PMID:27143355

  19. Contrasting Effects of Pre-Training vs Pre-Testing Infusions of corticotropin-releasing factor into the Lateral Amygdala: Attenuation of Fear Learning but Facilitation of Fear Expression

    PubMed Central

    Isogawa, Koichi; Bush, David E.A.; LeDoux, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Background The lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) is a crucial part of the neural circuitry underlying the formation and storage of memories established through fear conditioning. To investigate corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) contributions to fear memory in LA, the present experiments tested the effects of intra-LA infusions on the formation and expression of memory after Pavlovian fear conditioning. Methods In experiment 1, CRF was infused bilaterally into LA of rats one hour before fear conditioning training. Two days later, rats were tested for conditioned stimulus (CS)-elicited freezing behavior in a distinct context. In experiment 2 rats were infused with CRF in LA immediately after auditory fear conditioning and then tested two days later. In experiment 3 rats were fear conditioned, and then two days later infused with CRF in LA one hour before fear memory testing to assess effects on the expression of fear memory. Finally, we repeated the pre-training and pre-testing experiments with the central nucleus of the amygdala (CE) infusions. Results Rats given either pre- or post-training CRF infusions in LA showed dose-dependent suppression of CS-elicited freezing in the fear memory test session. In contrast, rats given pre-testing CRF showed facilitation of CS-elicited freezing. CRF infusions into the CE had no effect when given before training or testing. Conclusions CRF infusions into LA impair the consolidation of memory for fear conditioning, but enhance the expression of pre-established fear memories. These findings may have important implications for understanding mechanisms underlying contributions of CRF to fear-related disorders. PMID:23036960

  20. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Facilitating School Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hux, Karen; Hacksley, Carolyn

    1996-01-01

    A case study is used to demonstrate the effects of mild traumatic brain injury on educational efforts. Discussion covers factors complicating school reintegration, ways to facilitate school reintegration, identification of cognitive and behavioral consequences, minimization of educators' discomfort, reintegration program design, and family…

  1. Gradualness facilitates knowledge refinement.

    PubMed

    Rada, R

    1985-05-01

    To facilitate knowledge refinement, a system should be designed so that small changes in the knowledge correspond to small changes in the function or performance of the system. Two sets of experiments show the value of small, heuristically guided changes in a weighted rule base. In the first set, the ordering among numbers (reflecting certainties) makes their manipulation more straightforward than the manipulation of relationships. A simple credit assignment and weight adjustment strategy for improving numbers in a weighted, rule-based expert system is presented. In the second set, the rearrangement of predicates benefits from additional knowledge about the ``ordering'' among predicates. A third set of experiments indicates the importance of the proper level of granularity when augmenting a knowledge base. Augmentation of one knowledge base by analogical reasoning from another knowledge base did not work with only binary relationships, but did succeed with ternary relationships. To obtain a small improvement in the knowledge base, a substantial amount of structure had to be treated as a unit. PMID:21869290

  2. Facilitating post traumatic growth

    PubMed Central

    Turner, de Sales; Cox, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Background Whilst negative responses to traumatic injury have been well documented in the literature, there is a small but growing body of work that identifies posttraumatic growth as a salient feature of this experience. We contribute to this discourse by reporting on the experiences of 13 individuals who were traumatically injured, had undergone extensive rehabilitation and were discharged from formal care. All participants were injured through involvement in a motor vehicle accident, with the exception of one, who was injured through falling off the roof of a house. Methods In this qualitative study, we used an audio-taped in-depth interview with each participant as the means of data collection. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically to determine the participants' unique perspectives on the experience of recovery from traumatic injury. In reporting the findings, all participants' were given a pseudonym to assure their anonymity. Results Most participants indicated that their involvement in a traumatic occurrence was a springboard for growth that enabled them to develop new perspectives on life and living. Conclusion There are a number of contributions that health providers may make to the recovery of individuals who have been traumatically injured to assist them to develop new views of vulnerability and strength, make changes in relationships, and facilitate philosophical, physical and spiritual growth. PMID:15248894

  3. Facilitated diffusion buffers noise in gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Schoech, Armin P.; Zabet, Nicolae Radu

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factors perform facilitated diffusion (3D diffusion in the cytosol and 1D diffusion on the DNA) when binding to their target sites to regulate gene expression. Here, we investigated the influence of this binding mechanism on the noise in gene expression. Our results showed that, for biologically relevant parameters, the binding process can be represented by a two-state Markov model and that the accelerated target finding due to facilitated diffusion leads to a reduction in both the mRNA and the protein noise. PMID:25314467

  4. Facilitating Dialogues about Racial Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quaye, Stephen John

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Facilitating dialogues about racial issues in higher education classroom settings continues to be a vexing problem facing postsecondary educators. In order for students to discuss race with their peers, they need skilled facilitators who are knowledgeable about racial issues and able to support students in these difficult…

  5. The Essential Elements of Facilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Simon; Gass, Michael; Gillis, Lee

    Most organizations find it difficult to implement change, and only about 10 percent of learning from training and development experiences is actually applied in the workplace. This book advocates facilitation as a means of enhancing change and increasing productivity. Facilitation engages employees by enhancing the processes associated with their…

  6. Collinear facilitation in color vision.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pi-Chun; Mullen, Kathy T; Hess, Robert F

    2007-01-01

    The detection of a luminance-defined Gabor is improved by two high contrast, aligned, flanking Gabors, an effect termed collinear facilitation. We investigate whether this facilitation also occurs for isoluminant chromatic stimuli, and whether it can occur for chromatic targets with luminance flanks and vice versa. We measured collinear facilitation for Gabor stimuli (0.75 cpd, 1 octave bandwidth) of three different contrast types: achromatic, red-green that isolates the L/M-cone opponent mechanism, and blue-yellow that isolates the S-cone opponent mechanism. Three conditions were investigated: (1) target and flanks all of the same contrast type and spatial phase; (2) target and flanks of the same contrast type but opposite phases (0 degrees and 180 degrees ); and (3) target and flanks of different contrast types (chromatic with achromatic contrast) and two opposite phase combinations. We find that a similar degree of collinear facilitation occurs for the isoluminant chromatic stimuli as for the achromatic stimuli, and all exhibit phase dependency. Facilitation did not occur, however, between chromatic and achromatic target and flanking stimuli. This suggests that at the level of collinear facilitation, the chromatic and the achromatic postreceptoral mechanisms have their own spatial interactions that are segregated from one another. PMID:17997661

  7. Memory facilitation educed by food intake.

    PubMed

    Oomura, Y; Sasaki, K; Li, A J

    1993-09-01

    Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) in rat CSF increased 1000 times in the 2-h period after food intake, or IP, or ICV glucose infusion. The ICV application of aFGF dose dependently depresses and anti-aFGF antibody facilitates food intake. aFGF is produced in the ependymal cells and released into the CSF in response to increased glucose in the CSF caused by food intake. Released aFGF diffused into the brain parenchyma and was taken up into neurons in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, etc. IP injection of glucose 2 h before a task that combined acquisition with passive avoidance significantly increased retention of avoidance by mice tested 24 h later. In a Morris water maze task, IP glucose injection 2 h before a first trial block reduced time to find and climb onto a platform hidden just below the water surface. The glucose facilitation of these affective and spatial memory were abolished by pretreatment with anti-aFGF antibody applied ICV. Continuous ICV infusion of aFGF into rats also significantly increased the reliability of passive avoidance for several days. After food intake, centrally released aFGF reaches the hippocampus and facilitates memory; peripherally released cholecystokinin reaches the endings of the afferent vagal nerves in the portal vein and changes their activity, which modulates hippocampal activity, to lead to memory facilitation. This, however, is blocked by vagotomy below the diaphragm. The results indicate the importance of food intake, not only to maintain homeostasis, but also to prepare a readiness state for memory facilitation. PMID:7692459

  8. Facilitating emergent change in a healthcare setting.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    During my doctoral research, I identified new ways of thinking about complexity in organizations. This involved embracing the capacity of complex systems to find their own form of order and coherence, often referred to as self-organization, and then asking the question, "What can organizational leaders do to create the systems and structures that would facilitate emergent change?" Emergent change comes from within and through the active members of a system and not according to some external prompting or design. This results in the sort of change capacity that enables an organization to be agile and resilient through a high level of employee engagement. The question was answered by identifying and validating organizational-specific factors that facilitate emergent change. PMID:24409579

  9. Singing can facilitate foreign language learning.

    PubMed

    Ludke, Karen M; Ferreira, Fernanda; Overy, Katie

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the first experimental evidence that singing can facilitate short-term paired-associate phrase learning in an unfamiliar language (Hungarian). Sixty adult participants were randomly assigned to one of three "listen-and-repeat" learning conditions: speaking, rhythmic speaking, or singing. Participants in the singing condition showed superior overall performance on a collection of Hungarian language tests after a 15-min learning period, as compared with participants in the speaking and rhythmic speaking conditions. This superior performance was statistically significant (p < .05) for the two tests that required participants to recall and produce spoken Hungarian phrases. The differences in performance were not explained by potentially influencing factors such as age, gender, mood, phonological working memory ability, or musical ability and training. These results suggest that a "listen-and-sing" learning method can facilitate verbatim memory for spoken foreign language phrases. PMID:23860945

  10. Facilitation of learning: part 1.

    PubMed

    Warburton, Tyler; Trish, Houghton; Barry, Debbie

    2016-04-01

    This article, the fourth in a series of 11, discusses the context for the facilitation of learning. It outlines the main principles and theories for understanding the process of learning, including examples which link these concepts to practice. The practical aspects of using these theories in a practice setting will be discussed in the fifth article of this series. Together, these two articles will provide mentors and practice teachers with knowledge of the learning process, which will enable them to meet the second domain of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice on facilitation of learning. PMID:27050014

  11. Producing gestures facilitates route learning.

    PubMed

    So, Wing Chee; Ching, Terence Han-Wei; Lim, Phoebe Elizabeth; Cheng, Xiaoqin; Ip, Kit Yee

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates whether producing gestures would facilitate route learning in a navigation task and whether its facilitation effect is comparable to that of hand movements that leave physical visible traces. In two experiments, we focused on gestures produced without accompanying speech, i.e., co-thought gestures (e.g., an index finger traces the spatial sequence of a route in the air). Adult participants were asked to study routes shown in four diagrams, one at a time. Participants reproduced the routes (verbally in Experiment 1 and non-verbally in Experiment 2) without rehearsal or after rehearsal by mentally simulating the route, by drawing it, or by gesturing (either in the air or on paper). Participants who moved their hands (either in the form of gestures or drawing) recalled better than those who mentally simulated the routes and those who did not rehearse, suggesting that hand movements produced during rehearsal facilitate route learning. Interestingly, participants who gestured the routes in the air or on paper recalled better than those who drew them on paper in both experiments, suggesting that the facilitation effect of co-thought gesture holds for both verbal and nonverbal recall modalities. It is possibly because, co-thought gesture, as a kind of representational action, consolidates spatial sequence better than drawing and thus exerting more powerful influence on spatial representation. PMID:25426624

  12. SUPERFUND GROUNDWATER ISSUE - FACILITATED TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Regional Superfund Ground Water Forum is a group of ground-water scientists representing EPA's Regional Superfund Offices, organized to exchange up to date information related to ground-water remediation at Superfund sites. Facilitated transport is an issue identified by the ...

  13. Facilitation of Mourning During Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliman, Gilbert; And Others

    This paper discusses case studies of children psychologically disturbed by the death of parents or siblings. Illustrations of mourning facilitation were mainly gathered from 16 orphaned children, ages 3-14. Some techniques used in helping children mourn include: discussing physical details of the illness, discussing previous deaths of animals and…

  14. Casebook of Selected State Facilitators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Network of Innovative Schools, Inc., Andover, MA.

    The U.S. Office of Education's National Diffusion Network is designed to transport and systematically promote the adoption of validated innovative programs throughout the nation. The 13 case studies in this publication are intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the state facilitator effort and accurately represent the range and diversity…

  15. A Study of the Relationship of Three Factors--Perceived Need Deficiency, Importance of Need Fulfillment, Perception of Education as a Mobility Facilitator--to Participation in Educational Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeClair, Lowell Vincent

    This study assessed three factors in adult education participation by industrial employees: (1) perceived need deficiency on the job; (2) importance of need fulfillment; (3) perception of education as a means of advancement. A measure of perceived need deficiency was applied to 177 participants and 149 nonparticipants in classes at Purdue…

  16. Facilitating Facilitators to Facilitate, in Problem or Enquiry Based Learning Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Problem based learning (PBL) has been used in dental education over the past 20 years and uses a patient case scenario to stimulate learning in a small group setting, where a trained facilitator does not teach but guides the group to bring about deep contextualized learning, to be empathetic to each other and to encourage fair and equitable…

  17. Characteristic sounds facilitate visual search.

    PubMed

    Iordanescu, Lucica; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2008-06-01

    In a natural environment, objects that we look for often make characteristic sounds. A hiding cat may meow, or the keys in the cluttered drawer may jingle when moved. Using a visual search paradigm, we demonstrated that characteristic sounds facilitated visual localization of objects, even when the sounds carried no location information. For example, finding a cat was faster when participants heard a meow sound. In contrast, sounds had no effect when participants searched for names rather than pictures of objects. For example, hearing "meow" did not facilitate localization of the word cat. These results suggest that characteristic sounds cross-modally enhance visual (rather than conceptual) processing of the corresponding objects. Our behavioral demonstration of object-based cross-modal enhancement complements the extensive literature on space-based cross-modal interactions. When looking for your keys next time, you might want to play jingling sounds. PMID:18567253

  18. Counterfactual Thinking Facilitates Behavioral Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Smallman, Rachel; Roese, Neal J.

    2009-01-01

    People often ponder what might have been, and these counterfactual inferences have been linked to behavior regulation. Counterfactuals may enhance performance by either a content-specific pathway (via shift in behavioral intentions) and/or a content-neutral pathway (via mindsets or motivation). Three experiments provided new specification of the content-specific pathway. A sequential priming paradigm revealed that counterfactual judgments facilitated RTs to complete behavioral intention judgments relative to control judgments and to a no-judgment baseline (Experiment 1). This facilitation effect was found only for intention judgments that matched the information content of the counterfactual (Experiment 2) and only for intention judgments as opposed to a different judgment that nevertheless focused on the same information content (Experiment 3). These findings clarify the content-specific pathway by which counterfactuals influence behavior. PMID:20161221

  19. The menopause: stressors and facilitators.

    PubMed Central

    el-Guebaly, N; Atchison, B; Hay, W

    1984-01-01

    Between about ages 40 and 55 years, women experience a transition known as the menopause, which marks the end of their childbearing years. Although the most striking feature of the menopause is the cessation of menstruation, other biologic and psychosocial events occur and can be classified as stressors and "facilitators". For a predisposed group of women the stressors are likely to cause psychiatric disorders. At the same time, the facilitators are opportunities for personal growth and development. Physicians who understand both types of events during this phase of life and who are sensitive to the overall effects of ageing on marital partners can provide comprehensive care to the menopausal patient rather than automatically pursuing drug therapy (substitution hormonal therapy) alone. PMID:6488116

  20. How We Think and Talk about Facilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Fumitoshi

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few years, the notion of "facilitation" has been increasingly gaining attention and acceptance in Japan, especially in the context of education and training. Today, Japanese educators think and talk about facilitation, even if it is not yet clear what facilitation is. Interestingly enough, the term "facilitation" does not exist in…

  1. Stochastic facilitation in the brain?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Lawrence M.; Greenwood, Priscilla E.

    2016-05-01

    We describe the context for three unsolved problems of noise in the brain as well as provide some new results relevant to one of them. The problems are: are neural oscillations better described as noisy limit cycles or as noise-driven quasicycles, does noise facilitate synchronization and information transmission in the brain, and do noise-driven spatial patterns (quasipatterns) coexist with noise-driven quasicycles in the brain? We provide a few new results indicating that, in models at least, spatial quasipatterns of quasicycles can occur, and resemble patterns observed in other areas, such as predator-prey systems and chemical reactions.

  2. Facilitation of learning: part 2.

    PubMed

    Warburton, Tyler; Houghton, Trish; Barry, Debbie

    2016-04-27

    The previous article in this series of 11, Facilitation of learning: part 1, reviewed learning theories and how they relate to clinical practice. Developing an understanding of these theories is essential for mentors and practice teachers to enable them to deliver evidence-based learning support. This is important given that effective learning support is dependent on an educator who possesses knowledge of their specialist area as well as the relevent tools and methods to support learning. The second domain of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice relates to the facilitation of learning. To fulfil this domain, mentors and practice teachers are required to demonstrate their ability to recognise the needs of learners and provide appropriate support to meet those needs. This article expands on some of the discussions from part 1 of this article and considers these from a practical perspective, in addition to introducing some of the tools that can be used to support learning. PMID:27191319

  3. Positive Emotion Facilitates Audiovisual Binding

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Miho S.; Watanabe, Katsumi; Kitagawa, Norimichi

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that positive emotions can facilitate integrative and associative information processing in cognitive functions. The present study examined whether emotions in observers can also enhance perceptual integrative processes. We tested 125 participants in total for revealing the effects of emotional states and traits in observers on the multisensory binding between auditory and visual signals. Participants in Experiment 1 observed two identical visual disks moving toward each other, coinciding, and moving away, presented with a brief sound. We found that for participants with lower depressive tendency, induced happy moods increased the width of the temporal binding window of the sound-induced bounce percept in the stream/bounce display, while no effect was found for the participants with higher depressive tendency. In contrast, no effect of mood was observed for a simple audiovisual simultaneity discrimination task in Experiment 2. These results provide the first empirical evidence of a dependency of multisensory binding upon emotional states and traits, revealing that positive emotions can facilitate the multisensory binding processes at a perceptual level. PMID:26834585

  4. The Role of Health Systems Factors in Facilitating Access to Psychotropic Medicines: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the WHO-AIMS in 63 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    McBain, Ryan; Norton, Daniel J.; Morris, Jodi; Yasamy, M. Taghi; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Neuropsychiatric conditions comprise 14% of the global burden of disease and 30% of all noncommunicable disease. Despite the existence of cost-effective interventions, including administration of psychotropic medicines, the number of persons who remain untreated is as high as 85% in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs). While access to psychotropic medicines varies substantially across countries, no studies to date have empirically investigated potential health systems factors underlying this issue. Methods and Findings This study uses a cross-sectional sample of 63 LAMICs and country regions to identify key health systems components associated with access to psychotropic medicines. Data from countries that completed the World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS) were included in multiple regression analyses to investigate the role of five major mental health systems domains in shaping medicine availability and affordability. These domains are: mental health legislation, human rights implementations, mental health care financing, human resources, and the role of advocacy groups. Availability of psychotropic medicines was associated with features of all five mental health systems domains. Most notably, within the domain of mental health legislation, a comprehensive national mental health plan was associated with 15% greater availability; and in terms of advocacy groups, the participation of family-based organizations in the development of mental health legislation was associated with 17% greater availability. Only three measures were related with affordability of medicines to consumers: level of human resources, percentage of countries' health budget dedicated to mental health, and availability of mental health care in prisons. Controlling for country development, as measured by the Human Development Index, health systems features were associated with medicine availability but not affordability. Conclusions

  5. Corticotomy facilitated orthodontics: Review of a technique.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, Ali Saad Thafeed

    2010-01-01

    Corticotomy found to be effective in accelerating orthodontic treatment. The most important factors in the success of this technique is proper case selection and careful surgical and orthodontic treatment. Corticotomy facilitated orthodontics advocated for comprehensive fixed orthodontic appliances in conjunction with full thickness flaps and labial and lingual corticotomies around teeth to be moved. Bone graft should be applied directly over the bone cuts and the flap sutured in place. Tooth movement should be initiated two weeks after the surgery, and every two weeks thereafter by activation of the orthodontic appliance. Orthodontic treatment time with this technique will be reduced to one-third the time of conventional orthodontics. Alveolar augmentation of labial and lingual cortical plates were used in an effort to enhance and strengthen the periodontium, reasoning that the addition of bone to alveolar housing of the teeth, using modern bone grafting techniques, ensures root coverage as the dental arch expanded. Corticotomy facilitated orthodontics is promising procedure but only few cases were reported in the literature. Controlled clinical and histological studies are needed to understand the biology of tooth movement with this procedure, the effect on teeth and bone, post-retention stability, measuring the volume of mature bone formation, and determining the status of the periodontium and roots after treatment. PMID:23960473

  6. Corticotomy facilitated orthodontics: Review of a technique

    PubMed Central

    AlGhamdi, Ali Saad Thafeed

    2009-01-01

    Corticotomy found to be effective in accelerating orthodontic treatment. The most important factors in the success of this technique is proper case selection and careful surgical and orthodontic treatment. Corticotomy facilitated orthodontics advocated for comprehensive fixed orthodontic appliances in conjunction with full thickness flaps and labial and lingual corticotomies around teeth to be moved. Bone graft should be applied directly over the bone cuts and the flap sutured in place. Tooth movement should be initiated two weeks after the surgery, and every two weeks thereafter by activation of the orthodontic appliance. Orthodontic treatment time with this technique will be reduced to one-third the time of conventional orthodontics. Alveolar augmentation of labial and lingual cortical plates were used in an effort to enhance and strengthen the periodontium, reasoning that the addition of bone to alveolar housing of the teeth, using modern bone grafting techniques, ensures root coverage as the dental arch expanded. Corticotomy facilitated orthodontics is promising procedure but only few cases were reported in the literature. Controlled clinical and histological studies are needed to understand the biology of tooth movement with this procedure, the effect on teeth and bone, post-retention stability, measuring the volume of mature bone formation, and determining the status of the periodontium and roots after treatment. PMID:23960473

  7. What are some of the cognitive, psychological, and social factors that facilitate or hinder licensed vocational nursing students' acquisition of problem-solving skills involved with medication-dosage calculations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Arthur William

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive and psychological factors that either enhanced or inhibited Licensed Vocational Nurse (LVN) students' abilities to solve medication-dosage calculation problems. A causal-comparative approach was adopted for use in this study which encompassed aspects of both qualitative and quantitative data collection. A purposive, maximum-variation sample of 20 LVN students was chosen from among a self-selected population of junior college LVN students. The participants' views and feelings concerning their training and clinical experiences in medication administration was explored using a semi-structured interview. In addition, data revealing the students' actual competence at solving sample medication-dosage calculation problems was gathered using a talk-aloud protocol. Results indicated that few participants anticipated difficulty with medication-dosage calculations, yet many participants reported being lost during much of the medication-dosage problem solving instruction in class. While many participants (65%) were able to solve the medication-dosage problems, some (35%) of the participants were unable to correctly solve the problems. Successful students usually spent time analyzing the problem and planning a solution path, and they tended to solve the problem faster than did unsuccessful participants. Successful participants relied on a formula or a proportional statement to solve the problem. They recognized conversion problems as a two-step process and solved the problems in that fashion. Unsuccessful participants often went directly from reading the problem statement to attempts at implementing vague plans. Some unsuccessful participants finished quickly because they just gave up. Others spent considerable time backtracking by rereading the problem and participating in aimless exploration of the problem space. When unsuccessful participants tried to use a formula or a proportion, they were unsure of the formula's or

  8. Left regional cardiac perfusion in vitro with platelet-activating factor, norepinephrine and K+ reveals that ischaemic arrhythmias are caused by independent effects of endogenous ‘mediators' facilitated by interactions, and moderated by paradoxical antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Kathryn E; Curtis, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    Various putative drug targets for suppression of ischaemia-induced ventricular fibrillation (VF) have been proposed, but therapeutic success in the suppression of sudden cardiac death (SCD) has been disappointing. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a known component of the ischaemic milieu. We examined its arrhythmogenic activity, and its interaction with two other putative mediators, norepinephrine and K+, using an ischaemia-free in vitro heart bioassay, and a specific PAF antagonist (BN-50739). PAF (0.1–100 nmol) was administered selectively to the left coronary bed of rat isolated hearts using a specially designed catheter. In some hearts, PAF was administered to the left coronary bed during concomitant regional perfusion with norepinephrine and/or K+. In separate studies, PAF accumulation in the perfused cardiac tissue was evaluated using 3H-PAF. PAF evoked ventricular arrhythmias concentration-dependently (P<0.05). It also widened QT interval and reduced coronary flow selectively in the PAF-exposed left coronary bed (both P<0.05). Two exposures of hearts to PAF were necessary to evoke the QT and rhythm effects. The PAF-induced arrhythmias and coronary vasoconstriction were partially suppressed by the PAF antagonist BN-50739 (10 μM), although BN-50739 itself widened QT interval. K+ (8 and 15 mM) unexpectedly antagonised the arrhythmogenic effects of PAF without itself eliciting arrhythmias (P<0.05). Norepinephrine (0.1 μM) had little or no effect on the actions of PAF, while failing to evoke arrhythmias itself. Nevertheless, the combination of 15 mM K+ and 0.1 μM norepinephrine evoked arrhythmias of a severity similar to arrhythmias evoked by PAF alone, without adding to or diminishing the arrhythmogenic effects of PAF. 3H-PAF accumulated in the cardiac tissue, with 43±5% still present 5 min after bolus administration, accounting for the need for two exposures of the heart to PAF for evocation of arrhythmias. Thus, PAF, by activating specific receptors

  9. Dissociative Tendencies and Facilitated Emotional Processing

    PubMed Central

    Oathes, Desmond J.; Ray, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Dissociation is a process linked to lapses of attention, history of abuse or trauma, compromised emotional memory, and a disintegrated sense of self. It is theorized that dissociation stems from avoiding emotional information, especially negative emotion, to protect a fragile psyche. The present study tested whether or not dissociaters do actually avoid processing emotion by asking groups scoring high or low on the Dissociative Experiences Scale to judge the affective valence of several types of emotional stimuli. Manipulations of valence, modality (pictures or words), task complexity, and personal relevance lead to results suggesting that dissociation is linked to facilitated rather than deficient emotional processing. Our results are consistent with a theory that sensitivity to emotional material may be a contributing factor in subsequent dissociation to avoid further elaboration of upsetting emotion in these individuals. The findings for dissociation further exemplify the influence of individual differences in the link between cognition and emotion. PMID:18837615

  10. The Influence of Facilitator and Facilitation Characteristics on Participants' Ratings of Stepfamily Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, Brian J.; Myler, Cory

    2010-01-01

    We examine the relative importance of facilitator and facilitation characteristics on participant ratings of a stepfamily education program. Data from 48 facilitators and 598 participants suggest that quality facilitation is more meaningful to participants than whether facilitators have comparable demographic characteristics or life experiences.…

  11. Facilitating submetering implementation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, M.A.

    1996-05-01

    Residential submetering is the measurement and billing of electric use in individual apartments in master-metered buildings. In master-metered building situations, residents do not bear electricity costs in proportion to consumption levels. As a result, studies have confirmed that residents in master-metered buildings tend to consume more electricity than residents with individual apartment metering, and have established electrical submetering as an effective energy conservation measure. The New York State Energy Research & Development Authority (NYSERDA) has commissioned a project called Facilitating Submetering Implementation to identify and analyze barriers to the implementation of residential electrical submetering in New York and to formulate recommendations that would facilitate the removal of these barriers, streamlining the process. Experienced professionals in the technical, legal, regulatory, analytical, financial, and other aspects of submetering were retained to interview key interested parties and conduct public forums. This and other data were then analyzed to ascertain the barriers to submetering and develop recommendations designed to reduce or eliminate these barriers. The key barriers to submetering implementation were found to be the Public Service Commission (PSC) requirement for a vote of a majority of shareholders (for coops and condos) and the high initial cost that cannot easily be recouped by owners of both rental and shareholder-owned buildings. The key recommendations are to repeal the voting requirement, maintain the utility incentives, adopt a uniform dispute resolution mechanism, and increase awareness through an Ad-hoc Submetering Committee and supporting educational materials. Other funding sources not fully available can also be made available with regulatory agency support.

  12. Technologies and Techniques for Supporting Facilitated Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnell, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, demand for education of all kinds is increasing beyond the capacity to provide it. One approach that shows potential for addressing this demand is facilitated video. In facilitated video, an educator is recorded teaching, and that video is sent to a remote site where it is shown to students by a facilitator who creates interaction…

  13. Facilitated IEP Meetings: An Emerging Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consortium for Appropriate Dispute Resolution in Special Education (CADRE), 2004

    2004-01-01

    To help special education planning teams reach agreements, several State Education Agencies (SEAs) provide the option of facilitated Individualized Education Program (IEP) meetings. The use of externally facilitated IEP meetings is growing nationally. When relationships between parents and schools are strained, facilitated meetings may be…

  14. Evaluation of the Facilitated Communication Pilot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper-Martin, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The Office of Special Education and Student Services asked the Office of Shared Accountability to evaluate the "Facilitated Communication Pilot." In facilitated communication (FC), people with communication impairments express themselves by typing with the aid of a communication partner, called a facilitator, who provides physical (and…

  15. The Teacher and Town Planner as Facilitator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peel, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of theories of facilitation in teaching focuses on citizen participation and the role of the facilitator in town planning. Highlights include hierarchies of learning; student-centered learning; facilitating community participation; information technology skills and interpersonal skills; and a rationale for participation. (LRW)

  16. Fungal phylogenetic diversity drives plant facilitation.

    PubMed

    Montesinos-Navarro, Alicia; Segarra-Moragues, J G; Valiente-Banuet, A; Verdú, M

    2016-06-01

    Plant-plant facilitation is a crucial ecological process, as many plant species (facilitated) require the presence of an established individual (nurse) to recruit. Some plant facilitative interactions disappear during the ontogenetic development of the facilitated plant but others persist, even when the two plants are adults. We test whether the persistence of plant facilitative interactions is explained by the phylogenetic diversity of mutualistic and non-mutualistic fungi that the nurse and the facilitated species add to the shared rhizosphere. We classify plant facilitative interactions as persistent and non-persistent interactions and quantify the phylogenetic diversity of mutualistic and non-mutualistic fungi added by the plant species to the shared rhizosphere. Our results show that the facilitated species add less phylogenetic diversity of non-mutualistic fungi when plant facilitative interactions persist than when they do not persist. However, persistent and non-persistent facilitative interactions did not differ in the phylogenetic diversity of mutualistic fungi added by the facilitated species to the shared rhizosphere. Finally, the fungal phylogenetic diversity added by the nurse to the shared rhizosphere did not differ between persistent and non-persistent interactions. This study suggests that considering the fungal associates of the plant species involved in facilitative interactions can shed light on the mechanisms of persistence for plant-plant interactions. PMID:26915080

  17. Arousal facilitates involuntary eye movements.

    PubMed

    DiGirolamo, Gregory J; Patel, Neha; Blaukopf, Clare L

    2016-07-01

    Attention plays a critical role in action selection. However, the role of attention in eye movements is complicated as these movements can be either voluntary or involuntary, with, in some circumstances (antisaccades), these two actions competing with each other for execution. But attending to the location of an impending eye movement is only one facet of attention that may play a role in eye movement selection. In two experiments, we investigated the effect of arousal on voluntary eye movements (antisaccades) and involuntary eye movements (prosaccadic errors) in an antisaccade task. Arousal, as caused by brief loud sounds and indexed by changes in pupil diameter, had a facilitation effect on involuntary eye movements. Involuntary eye movements were both significantly more likely to be executed and significantly faster under arousal conditions (Experiments 1 and 2), and the influence of arousal had a specific time course (Experiment 2). Arousal, one form of attention, can produce significant costs for human movement selection as potent but unplanned actions are benefited more than planned ones. PMID:26928432

  18. Factors Facilitating Implicit Learning: The Case of the Sesotho Passive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Melissa; Demuth, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have long debated the mechanisms underlying the learning of syntactic structure. Of significant interest has been the fact that passive constructions appear to be learned earlier in Sesotho than English. This paper provides a comprehensive, quantitative analysis of the passive input Sesotho-speaking children hear, how it differs from…

  19. A Canadian Lens on Facilitating Factors for North American Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Christa Lee

    2013-01-01

    What does it take to develop and maintain effective international education partnerships between institutions in the Canada, Mexico, and United States? This was a driving question for the qualitative study funded by a Fulbright-Enders-Garcia grant examining the relationship between North American partnerships and campus internationalization.…

  20. Facilitating Factors and Barriers to BMI Screening in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalter, Ann M.; Chaudry, Rosemary V.; Polivka, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    The National Association of School Nurses advocates for body mass index (BMI) screening. Little research describes school nurse practice of BMI screening. In this descriptive study, 25 Ohio school nurses participated in three focus groups. An adapted "Healthy People 2010" Determinants of Health Model guided the research questions. School nurses…

  1. Facilitating the Fourth R: Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    Teachers are in uniquely powerful positions to positively impact youths who are at risk for school failure. Youths who overcame serious risk factors often report that a teacher, coach, or other adult provided a mentoring relationship that sustained them. Developing classroom management and academic instruction routines that meet the needs of all…

  2. Simple scale interpolator facilitates reading of graphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetterman, D. E., Jr.

    1965-01-01

    Simple transparent overlay with interpolation scale facilitates accurate, rapid reading of graph coordinate points. This device can be used for enlarging drawings and locating points on perspective drawings.

  3. Psychotherapeutic facilitation of musical creativity.

    PubMed

    Ostwald, P F

    1992-07-01

    The distinction between musical composition and performing is an historical artifact. Both activities have creative components, expressed by composers through the originality of their scores, and by performers through their unique and stirring interpretations. Music represents an artistic refinement of biologically driven activities, serving the need for communication, self-orientation, social contact, and emotional expression through soundmaking. Developmental factors--attachment to a soundmaking object, parental influence, the role of teachers, and supportive environments--have been reviewed in connection with the choice of music as career or avocation, and in the assessment of talents and handicaps presented by musical patients. Some historical examples serve to show that psychotherapy has traditionally been modified to fit the special needs of musicians. Familiarity with the musical culture and community can be helpful in treating these patients, and special clinics or health programs for performing artists have been established over the past few years. Three case examples are presented, based on experience with musician-patients in San Francisco, to illustrate different ways of providing psychotherapy that enhances musical creativity. PMID:1530098

  4. Parent Involvement Facilitators: Unlocking Social Capital Wealth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    This case study provides an overview of a family outreach intervention that supports student retention in school through a school-home communication link. This intervention structure, which employs staff appropriately called parent involvement facilitators (PIFs), is one that school districts have employed to facilitate family engagement in…

  5. Framing the Future: Workbased Learning Facilitation Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian National Training Authority, Melbourne.

    This resource provides tips to assist facilitators as they work with Australia's Framing the Future project teams. The 16 tips are about group selection; how to prepare for input; participant roles; how to use participants and observers; scribes and recorders; some ideas for launches and fun; praise! praise! praise!; making facilitation the key to…

  6. Toward Facilitative Mentoring and Catalytic Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Melissa K.; Lewis, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    In TESOL teacher mentoring, giving advice can be conceptualized as a continuum, ranging from directive to facilitative feedback. The goal, over time, is to lead toward the facilitative end of the continuum and specifically to catalytic interventions that encourage self-reflection and autonomous learning. This study begins by examining research on…

  7. Facilitator's Manual: Summer Transitions. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuenzli, Linda A., Ed.

    A facilitator's manual for the Summer Transition Enrichment Program at Bowling Green State University is presented. The overall objectives of the program are: (1) to facilitate the transition of entering freshmen into the academic and cultural life of the university; and (2) to assist students in their personal growth and adjustment to the…

  8. 50 CFR 17.107 - Facilitating enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Protection Areas § 17.107 Facilitating enforcement. Water vehicles operating in manatee sanctuary or refuge... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Facilitating enforcement. 17.107 Section 17.107 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  9. 50 CFR 17.107 - Facilitating enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Protection Areas § 17.107 Facilitating enforcement. Water vehicles operating in manatee sanctuary or refuge... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Facilitating enforcement. 17.107 Section 17.107 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  10. 50 CFR 17.107 - Facilitating enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Protection Areas § 17.107 Facilitating enforcement. Water vehicles operating in manatee sanctuary or refuge... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2014-10-01 2013-10-01 true Facilitating enforcement. 17.107 Section 17.107 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  11. A Guide to Facilitating Cases in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Barbara; Kantrov, Ilene

    This book for teachers, administrators, and central office staff provides guidelines for orchestrating and extending conversations among case users, with strategies for improving facilitators' effectiveness and a conceptual framework for understanding and acting in the role of facilitator. The book describes how to foster an entire professional…

  12. Facilitated Communication: The Clinical and Social Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shane, Howard C., Ed.

    This text explains the phenomenon of facilitated communication (FC) from an empirical, data-based, and/or clinical perspective. It is not a how-to-facilitate text, but one that explores the clinical and sociological reality of FC. A common theme running through each of the papers in the book is the question of FC's legitimacy. The papers reveal…

  13. Facilitator Talk in EAP Reading Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Current sociocultural perspectives on language learning call on teachers to reinvent themselves in ways which facilitate student learning rather than transmit knowledge. For teachers, this means adopting new roles, and acquiring a new repertoire of teacher talk. This paper aims to further the work on facilitator talk begun by Clifton (2006) and…

  14. White Educators Facilitating Discussions about Racial Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quaye, Stephen John

    2012-01-01

    Facilitating democratic discussions about race among students in classroom environments continues to be a problem facing educators. When these discussions occur, they are facilitated mostly by faculty of color. However, given the underrepresentation of faculty of color within higher education institutions and that white students respond…

  15. 50 CFR 17.107 - Facilitating enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Protection Areas § 17.107 Facilitating enforcement. Water vehicles operating in manatee sanctuary or refuge... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Facilitating enforcement. 17.107 Section 17.107 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  16. A Model of Small Group Facilitator Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Judith A.; Jin, Sungmi; Song, Ji Hoon

    2008-01-01

    This study used small group theory, quantitative and qualitative data collected from experienced practicing facilitators at three points of time, and a building block process of collection, analysis, further collection, and consolidation to develop a model of small group facilitator competencies. The proposed model has five components:…

  17. Illinois Statewide Facilitator Center. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Statewide Facilitator Center, Metropolis.

    This report summarizes the activities of the Illinois Statewide Facilitator Center for fiscal year 1979. The Facilitator Center is the Illinois link in the National Diffusion Network (NDN) and assists educators in Illinois by providing improved educational opportunities through surveying school needs within the state and reviewing exemplary…

  18. Peervention: Training Peer Facilitators for Prevention Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myrick, Robert D.; Folk, Betsy E.

    This book introduces students to the helping relationship and appropriate methods of responding to others through a variety of experiential training activities. The first chapter discusses the need for peer facilitators. The peer facilitator movement is traced to the 1970s, and the power of peer relationships is described. Four basic helping roles…

  19. The Role of Touch in Facilitated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezuka, Emiko

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the role of touch in the use of facilitated communication with Japanese individuals with autism. Five experiments were conducted involving a "telepathy game" using a rod with an attached strain gauge. Results found the facilitator's contact controlled the motor responses of the subjects. (Author/CR)

  20. Facilitating Reflective Thought in Novice Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pultorak, Edward G.

    1993-01-01

    This study examined the facilitation of reflection among novice teachers using three types of journal writing and reflective interviews to encourage novice teachers to reflect upon their teaching. The procedures solicited different types of reflection in the student teachers, suggesting that facilitation of teacher reflectivity is vital in teacher…

  1. The Integrated Design Process from the Facilitator's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeehyun

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this study was to clarify the integrated design process from an educational standpoint, and identify its influencing factors and the role of facilitator. Through a literature review, the integrated design process and the role of facilitator were framed, and through the case study, the whole process of integrated design and the…

  2. Facilitated versus Non-Facilitated Online Case Discussions: Comparing Differences in Problem Space Coverage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, Peggy A.; Koehler, Adrie A.

    2015-01-01

    The facilitator plays a key role in guiding students' efforts during case discussions. However, few studies have compared differences in learning outcomes for students participating in facilitated versus non-facilitated discussions. In this research, we used "problem space coverage" as a learning measure to compare outcomes between…

  3. Experimental protocols and preparations to study respiratory long term facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Mateika, Jason H.; Sandhu, Kulraj S.

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory long-term facilitation is a form of neuronal plasticity that is induced following exposure to intermittent hypoxia. Long-term facilitation is characterized by a progressive increase in respiratory motor output during normoxic periods that separate hypoxic episodes and by a sustained elevation in respiratory activity for up to 90 min after exposure to intermittent hypoxia. This phenomenon is associated with increases in phrenic, hypoglossal or carotid sinus nerve inspiratory-modulated discharge. The examination of long-term facilitation has been steadily ongoing for approximately 3 decades. During this period of time a variety of animal models (e.g. cats, rats and humans), experimental preparations and intermittent hypoxia protocols have been used to study long-term facilitation. This review is designed to summarize the strengths and weaknesses of the models, preparations and protocols that have been used to study LTF over the past 30 years. The review is divided into two primary sections. Initially, the models and protocols used to study LTF in animals other than humans will be discussed, followed by a section specifically focused on human studies. Each section will begin with a discussion of various factors that must be considered when selecting an experimental preparation and intermittent hypoxia protocol to examine LTF. Model and protocol design recommendations will follow, with the goal of presenting a prevailing model and protocol that will ultimately ensure standardized comparisons across studies. PMID:21292044

  4. Facilitating LOS Debriefings: A Training Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonnell, Lori K.; Jobe, Kimberly K.; Dismukes, R. Key

    1997-01-01

    This manual is a practical guide to help airline instructors effectively facilitate debriefings of Line Oriented Simulations (LOS). It is based on a recently completed study of Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) debriefings at several U.S. airlines. This manual presents specific facilitation tools instructors can use to achieve debriefing objectives. The approach of the manual is to be flexible so it can be tailored to the individual needs of each airline. Part One clarifies the purpose and objectives of facilitation in the LOS setting. Part Two provides recommendations for clarifying roles and expectations and presents a model for organizing discussion. Part Tree suggests techniques for eliciting active crew participation and in-depth analysis and evaluation. Finally, in Part Four, these techniques are organized according to the facilitation model. Examples of how to effectively use the techniques are provided throughout, including strategies to try when the debriefing objectives are not being fully achieved.

  5. Facilitating the discharge of patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Significant numbers of older people with dementia use general hospital services, and facilitating the safe discharge of patients with poor cognition, impaired judgement, misperception or reduced risk awareness is challenging for many healthcare professionals. PMID:27581918

  6. Dream Deprivation and Facilitation with Hypnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Ira B.; Boone, Donald

    1975-01-01

    The present study attempted to deprive human subjects of dreaming through the administration of a posthypnotic suggestion and to increase or facilitate dreaming through a second suggestion that was used with another group of subjects. (Author/RK)

  7. Facilitating Transfer in College Reading Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, Sherrie; Simpson, Michele L.

    1987-01-01

    Gives three activities--journal writing, microteaching partners, and the PLAE model (planning, listing, activating, and evaluating)--that can facilitate learner independence and transfer of efficient and effective study strategies in college developmental reading programs. (NKA)

  8. Categorical facilitation with equally discriminable colors.

    PubMed

    Witzel, Christoph; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of language on color perception. By categorical facilitation, we refer to an aspect of categorical perception, in which the linguistic distinction between categories affects color discrimination beyond the low-level, sensory sensitivity to color differences. According to this idea, discrimination performance for colors that cross a category border should be better than for colors that belong to the same category when controlling for low-level sensitivity. We controlled for sensitivity by using colors that were equally discriminable according to empirically measured discrimination thresholds. To test for categorical facilitation, we measured response times and error rates in a speeded discrimination task for suprathreshold stimuli. Robust categorical facilitation occurred for five out of six categories with a group of inexperienced observers, namely for pink, orange, yellow, green, and purple. Categorical facilitation was robust against individual variations of categories or the laterality of target presentation. However, contradictory effects occurred in the blue category, most probably reflecting the difficulty to control effects of sensory mechanisms at the green-blue boundary. Moreover, a group of observers who were highly familiar with the discrimination task did not show consistent categorical facilitation in the other five categories. This trained group had much faster response times than the inexperienced group without any speed-accuracy trade-off. Additional analyses suggest that categorical facilitation occurs when observers pay attention to the categorical distinction but not when they respond automatically based on sensory feed-forward information. PMID:26129860

  9. Advance care planning: identifying system-specific barriers and facilitators

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, N.A.; Howlett, J.; Sharma, N.C.; Biondo, P.; Holroyd-Leduc, J.; Fassbender, K.; Simon, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Advance care planning (acp) is an important process in health care today. How to prospectively identify potential local barriers and facilitators to uptake of acp across a complex, multi-sector, publicly funded health care system and how to develop specific mitigating strategies have not been well characterized. Methods We surveyed a convenience sample of clinical and administrative health care opinion leaders across the province of Alberta to characterize system-specific barriers and facilitators to uptake of acp. The survey was based on published literature about the barriers to and facilitators of acp and on the Michie Theoretical Domains Framework. Results Of 88 surveys, 51 (58%) were returned. The survey identified system-specific barriers that could challenge uptake of acp. The factors were categorized into four main domains. Three examples of individual system-specific barriers were “insufficient public engagement and misunderstanding,” “conflict among different provincial health service initiatives,” and “lack of infrastructure.” Local system-specific barriers and facilitators were subsequently explored through a semi-structured informal discussion group involving key informants. The group identified approaches to mitigate specific barriers. Conclusions Uptake of acp is a priority for many health care systems, but bringing about change in multi-sector health care systems is complex. Identifying system-specific barriers and facilitators to the uptake of innovation are important elements of successful knowledge translation. We developed and successfully used a simple and inexpensive process to identify local system-specific barriers and enablers to uptake of acp, and to identify specific mitigating strategies. PMID:26300673

  10. Facilitators of HIV Medical Care Engagement Among Former Prisoners.

    PubMed

    Bracken, Natalie; Hilliard, Charles; McCuller, William J; Harawa, Nina T

    2015-12-01

    Linkage to and retention in medical care is a concern for HIV-positive individuals leaving custody settings in the United States. The minimal existing research points to low rates of entry into care in the months following release and lapsed viral control among releasees who are subsequently reincarcerated. We conducted seven small focus group discussions with 27 HIVpositive individuals who were recently incarcerated in a California State prison to understand those factors that facilitated linkage to and retention in HIV care following their release. We used a consensual approach to code and analyze the focus group transcripts. Four main themes emerged from the analysis: (1) interpersonal relationships, (2) professional relationships, (3) coping strategies and resources, and (4) individual attitudes. Improving HIV-related outcomes among individuals after their release from prison requires strengthening supportive relationships, fostering the appropriate attitudes and skills, and ensuring access to resources that stabilize daily living and facilitate the process of accessing care. PMID:26595268

  11. Physically facilitating drug-delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Devora, Jorge I; Ambure, Sunny; Shi, Zhi-Dong; Yuan, Yuyu; Sun, Wei; Xu, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Facilitated/modulated drug-delivery systems have emerged as a possible solution for delivery of drugs of interest to pre-allocated sites at predetermined doses for predefined periods of time. Over the past decade, the use of different physical methods and mechanisms to mediate drug release and delivery has grown significantly. This emerging area of research has important implications for development of new therapeutic drugs for efficient treatments. This review aims to introduce and describe different modalities of physically facilitating drug-delivery systems that are currently in use for cancer and other diseases therapy. In particular, delivery methods based on ultrasound, electrical, magnetic and photo modulations are highlighted. Current uses and areas of improvement for these different physically facilitating drug-delivery systems are discussed. Furthermore, the main advantages and drawbacks of these technologies reviewed are compared. The review ends with a speculative viewpoint of how research is expected to evolve in the upcoming years. PMID:22485192

  12. Dental hygienists' work environment: motivating, facilitating, but also trying.

    PubMed

    Candell, A; Engström, M

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe dental hygienists' experiences of their physical and psychosocial work environment. The study was descriptive in design and used a qualitative approach. Eleven dental hygienists participated in the study and data were collected during spring 2008 using semi-structured interviews. The material was analysed using qualitative content analysis. The results showed that the dental hygienists experienced their work environment as motivating and facilitating, but at the same time as trying. The three categories revealed a theme: Being controlled in a modern environment characterized by good relationships. Motivating factors were the good relationship with co-workers, managers and patients, seeing the results of your work, having your own responsibility and making your own decisions. The new, pleasant and modern clinics, good cooperation between co-workers and varying duties were described as facilitating factors. The trying factors, as described by the dental hygienists, were above all being controlled by time limits or by some elements of the work, such as teamwork. The dental hygienists also felt stress because appointments were too-short. To conclude, the participants described their work environment as trying in several ways, despite the modern clinics and good relationships. PMID:20624190

  13. Project IMPACT: a report on barriers and facilitators to sustainability.

    PubMed

    Blasinsky, Margaret; Goldman, Howard H; Unützer, Jürgen

    2006-11-01

    Project IMPACT is a collaborative care intervention to assist older adults suffering from major depressive disorder or dysthymia. Qualitative research methods were used to determine the barriers and facilitators to sustaining IMPACT in a primary care setting. Strong evidence supports the program's sustainability, but considerable variation exists in continuation strategies and operationalization across sites. Sustainability depended on the organizations' support of collaborative care models, the availability of staff trained in the intervention, and funding. The intervention's success was the most important sustainability factor, as documented by outcome data and through the "real world" experience of treating patients with this intervention. PMID:16967339

  14. Constructal Law of Vascular Trees for Facilitation of Flow

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Mohammad S.; Shirani, Ebrahim; Salimpour, Mohammad Reza; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2014-01-01

    Diverse tree structures such as blood vessels, branches of a tree and river basins exist in nature. The constructal law states that the evolution of flow structures in nature has a tendency to facilitate flow. This study suggests a theoretical basis for evaluation of flow facilitation within vascular structure from the perspective of evolution. A novel evolution parameter (Ev) is proposed to quantify the flow capacity of vascular structures. Ev is defined as the ratio of the flow conductance of an evolving structure (configuration with imperfection) to the flow conductance of structure with least imperfection. Attaining higher Ev enables the structure to expedite flow circulation with less energy dissipation. For both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, the evolution parameter was developed as a function of geometrical shape factors in laminar and turbulent fully developed flows. It was found that the non-Newtonian or Newtonian behavior of fluid as well as flow behavior such as laminar or turbulent behavior affects the evolution parameter. Using measured vascular morphometric data of various organs and species, the evolution parameter was calculated. The evolution parameter of the tree structures in biological systems was found to be in the range of 0.95 to 1. The conclusion is that various organs in various species have high capacity to facilitate flow within their respective vascular structures. PMID:25551617

  15. Facilitated diffusion in the presence of obstacles on the DNA.

    PubMed

    Gomez, David; Klumpp, Stefan

    2016-04-20

    Biological functions of DNA depend on the sequence-specific binding of DNA-binding proteins to their corresponding binding sites. Binding of these proteins to their binding sites occurs through a facilitated diffusion process that combines three-dimensional diffusion in the cytoplasm with one-dimensional diffusion (sliding) along the DNA. In this work, we use a lattice model of facilitated diffusion to study how the dynamics of binding of a protein to a specific site (e.g., binding of an RNA polymerase to a promoter or of a transcription factor to its operator site) is affected by the presence of other proteins bound to the DNA, which act as 'obstacles' in the sliding process. Different types of these obstacles with different dynamics are implemented. While all types impair facilitated diffusion, the extent of the hindrance depends on the type of obstacle. As a consequence of hindrance by obstacles, more excursions into the cytoplasm are required for optimal target binding compared to the case without obstacles. PMID:27048915

  16. Constructal law of vascular trees for facilitation of flow.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Mohammad S; Shirani, Ebrahim; Salimpour, Mohammad Reza; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2014-01-01

    Diverse tree structures such as blood vessels, branches of a tree and river basins exist in nature. The constructal law states that the evolution of flow structures in nature has a tendency to facilitate flow. This study suggests a theoretical basis for evaluation of flow facilitation within vascular structure from the perspective of evolution. A novel evolution parameter (Ev) is proposed to quantify the flow capacity of vascular structures. Ev is defined as the ratio of the flow conductance of an evolving structure (configuration with imperfection) to the flow conductance of structure with least imperfection. Attaining higher Ev enables the structure to expedite flow circulation with less energy dissipation. For both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, the evolution parameter was developed as a function of geometrical shape factors in laminar and turbulent fully developed flows. It was found that the non-Newtonian or Newtonian behavior of fluid as well as flow behavior such as laminar or turbulent behavior affects the evolution parameter. Using measured vascular morphometric data of various organs and species, the evolution parameter was calculated. The evolution parameter of the tree structures in biological systems was found to be in the range of 0.95 to 1. The conclusion is that various organs in various species have high capacity to facilitate flow within their respective vascular structures. PMID:25551617

  17. Coping with employee, family, and student roles: evidence of dispositional conflict and facilitation tendencies.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Tracy D; McCarthy, Julie M

    2010-07-01

    Balancing multiple roles is a challenge for individuals in many sectors of the population. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that individuals have dispositional tendencies to experience interrole conflict and facilitation. We also aimed to show that coping styles and life satisfaction are correlates of dispositional conflict and facilitation tendencies. Two survey studies were conducted with individuals involved in 3 life roles (i.e., employee, student, and family member; Study 1: N = 193; Study 2: N = 284). The hierarchical structure of conflict and facilitation was examined in both studies. Support for the dispositional model was found in both cases through the use of hierarchical confirmatory factor analyses. In Study 2, a longitudinal assessment of the nomological network surrounding conflict and facilitation tendencies was conducted with structural equation modeling analyses; we found that coping styles had synchronous relations with dispositional conflict and facilitation; dispositional conflict had a lagged and negative relation with life satisfaction. PMID:20604586

  18. The Resourceful Facilitator: Teacher Leaders Constructing Identities as Facilitators of Teacher Peer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David

    2016-01-01

    The use of teacher peer groups is a prevalent strategy for school-based professional development and instructional improvement. Facilitation of such groups is an increasingly vital dimension of teacher leadership as a component of school improvement efforts. Drawing on a qualitative study of facilitation of teacher peer groups, the article…

  19. Facilitating Strategy Transfer in College Reading Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Jane; Hamer, Arden

    2007-01-01

    The success of a developmental reading course really should be measured several semesters later by how well the students have transferred their new strategies to their content courses. To help facilitate this transfer, a list of ten instructional strategies are presented that have been developed from the literature and classroom experience.…

  20. Does Teaching Creationism Facilitate Student Autonomy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Fooce, C. David

    2007-01-01

    The teaching of evolution in US public schools continues to generate controversy. One argument for including creationism in science classrooms is based on the goal of facilitating student autonomy. Autonomy requires that students be exposed to significant alternatives, it is argued, and religious creation stories offer a significant alternative to…

  1. Facilitating Engagement by Differentiating Independent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle J.; Clausen-Grace, Nicki

    2009-01-01

    The authors provide teachers with a rationale for engaging students in independent reading using a differentiated approach. By profiling types of readers, sharing observational tools, and offering teaching suggestions for each type of reader the authors give practical suggestions to facilitate reading engagement and make independent reading more…

  2. Dynamic Flexibility and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Lew; Jones, David

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments are described which investigated whether results obtained in studies of static flexibility tranfer to dynamic flexibility. In both experiments, subjects were assigned to a group receiving proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation training, ballistic stretching technique training or a control group. Results are presented and…

  3. Practical Tools for Positive Behavior Facilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olive, Edna C.

    2004-01-01

    Positive Behavior Facilitation (PBF) is a comprehensive approach to understanding and intervening in the behavior of youth. Research clearly indicates that the behavior of children is best understood and ultimately managed by comprehensive strategies and techniques that consider not only what a child is doing but also why a child is demonstrating…

  4. Facilitating Critical Thinking in Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persaud, Deanna; And Others

    Activities to promote the transfer of theoretical knowledge into clinical practice have been developed to facilitate learning by individuals with various learning styles, reduce student stress, and improve teaching methods in a baccalaureate nursing program at the California State University, Chico. Specific activities included innovative…

  5. Retrieval during Learning Facilitates Subsequent Memory Encoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastotter, Bernhard; Schicker, Sabine; Niedernhuber, Julia; Bauml, Karl-Heinz T.

    2011-01-01

    In multiple-list learning, retrieval during learning has been suggested to improve recall of the single lists by enhancing list discrimination and, at test, reducing interference. Using electrophysiological, oscillatory measures of brain activity, we examined to what extent retrieval during learning facilitates list encoding. Subjects studied 5…

  6. Facilitation and Practice in Verb Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keren-Portnoy, Tamar

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a model of syntax acquisition, whose main points are as follows: Syntax is acquired in an item-based manner; early learning facilitates subsequent learning--as evidenced by the accelerating rate of new verbs entering a given structure; and mastery of syntactic knowledge is typically achieved through practice--as evidenced by…

  7. How Academic Teachers Perceive and Facilitate Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjørner, Thomas; Kofoed, Lise Busk

    2013-01-01

    We will present a case study result from a cross-disciplinary education called Medialogy, which is taught in the Technical and Science Faculty at Aalborg University. The aim of Medialogy is to facilitate creativity within technical solutions. The intention of this paper is to answer the following: how do the Medialogy teachers perceive creativity…

  8. Facilitating Consensual Labor-Management Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Grant T.

    Facilitating consensual labor-management decision making may require interventions during, after, and before meetings. These interventions--including persuasion and mediation--may affect both the internal and the external processes of decision making. Communicative actions may help both the internal and the external decision making processes of a…

  9. Facilitated IEP Meetings. PHP-c90

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PACER Center, 2004

    2004-01-01

    To help special education planning teams reach agreements, the Minnesota Department of Education and the Minnesota Special Education Mediation Service (MNSEMS) provide the option of facilitated IEP meetings. This option is available for IEP (Individualized Education Program), IIIP (Individual Interagency Intervention Plan), and IFSP (Individual…

  10. Facilitative Leadership. ERIC Digest, Number 96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    Influenced by leadership developments in the private sector, educational researchers have increasingly focused their attention on "transformational" models of leadership that emphasize collaboration and empowerment. The facilitative leader's role is to foster the involvement of employees at all different levels. This digest summarizes current…

  11. Sound Symbolism Facilitates Early Verb Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Nagumo, Miho; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Some words are sound-symbolic in that they involve a non-arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning. Here, we report that 25-month-old children are sensitive to cross-linguistically valid sound-symbolic matches in the domain of action and that this sound symbolism facilitates verb learning in young children. We constructed a set of novel…

  12. Microcomputers as Social Facilitators in Integrated Preschools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel-McGill, Phyllis; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The study compared the effects of different play conditions (microcomputer, remote-control robot, or no toys) on the amount of time four dyads of handicapped/nonhandicapped children would interact during structured play. Results suggested that microcomputers may serve as social facilitators for children with significant social and language…

  13. Generic Language Facilitates Children's Cross-Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Simone P.; Gelman, A.

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined the role of generic language in facilitating 4- and 5-year-old children's ability to cross-classify. Participants were asked to classify an item into a familiar (taxonomic or script) category, then cross-classify it into a novel (script or taxonomic) category with the help of a clue expressed in either generic or specific…

  14. 31 CFR 537.205 - Prohibited facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibited facilitation. 537.205 Section 537.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  15. Social Facilitation of Laughter in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Antony J.

    1973-01-01

    The present study is concerned primarily with demonstrating that laughter can be socially facilitated. It showed that children, presented aurally with laughter-provoking material, laugh more in the presence of a companion, whether or not the companion can hear the material. (Author/RK)

  16. Videoconferencing: A New Opportunity to Facilitate Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mader, Cheryl; Ming, Kavin

    2015-01-01

    The use of distance learning techniques as a means of delivering instruction in higher education classrooms has become increasingly popular with the growing diversity of today's college students. Videoconferencing has been used as a tool to facilitate the simultaneous communication of individuals across varying geographic regions through the use…

  17. Facilitating International Business Communication: A Global Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, James Calvert

    This document, which is intended for business educators at all levels, outlines two approaches to facilitating international business communication by adopting a global approach in business communication and related business education courses. In the first half of the document, the following steps in implementing the separate-course approach, are…

  18. Competency Based Vocational Education Workshop Facilitators Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Michigan Center for Career and Technical Education.

    This workshop facilitator's guide is designed to inform professional staff about competency-based vocational education (CBVE) to help eligible persons on public assistance acquire competencies necessary for gainful employment in the following occupational areas: airline reservations and travel services; computer applications; dental care;…

  19. Facilitating Teaching and Learning across STEM Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejiwale, James A.

    2012-01-01

    The reformation of the contents for instruction across STEM fields has changed the role of STEM educators from being a "dictator" in the classroom/laboratory to a facilitator of students' activities. More important, this new paradigm and professional orientation for STEM educators is no more limited to delivering instruction intuitively, but with…

  20. Facilitation of Retention by White Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A.; Kistler, Doris

    1975-01-01

    This study attempted to determine if white noise (an arousing stimulus), when presented at the time of recall, facilitates performance of second and fifth grade students, and if this effect generalizes across different kinds of learning tasks. Findings indicate that white noise produces improvements in performance in both age groups. (GO)

  1. 36 CFR 1194.5 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1194.5 Section 1194.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS General § 1194.5...

  2. 36 CFR 1192.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the procedure set forth in 49 CFR 37.7. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1192.2 Section 1192.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION...

  3. 36 CFR 1192.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the procedure set forth in 49 CFR 37.7. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1192.2 Section 1192.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION...

  4. 36 CFR 1194.5 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1194.5 Section 1194.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS General § 1194.5...

  5. 36 CFR 1192.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the procedure set forth in 49 CFR 37.7. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1192.2 Section 1192.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION...

  6. 36 CFR 1192.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the procedure set forth in 49 CFR 37.7. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1192.2 Section 1192.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION...

  7. 36 CFR 1194.5 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Equivalent facilitation. 1194.5 Section 1194.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS General § 1194.5...

  8. 36 CFR 1192.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the procedure set forth in 49 CFR 37.7. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Equivalent facilitation. 1192.2 Section 1192.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION...

  9. 36 CFR 1194.5 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1194.5 Section 1194.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS General § 1194.5...

  10. 36 CFR 1194.5 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1194.5 Section 1194.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS General § 1194.5...

  11. Building Better Career Futures: Facilitator Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezanson, Lynne; Hopkins, Sareena

    This guide, designed to be used by facilitators of the Building Better Career Futures, a comprehensive career development program for young adults, is to be used in conjunction with the Backgrounder and the Portfolio Builder. It includes an introduction to the full program and lesson plans for all topics. Each lesson plan begins with a cover sheet…

  12. The Emergence of Career Development Facilitators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splete, Howard H.; Hoppin, Judith M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the collaborative efforts of the National Career Development Association, National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, and Career Development Training Institute at Oakland University, which resulted in the emergence and recognition of the important role of career development facilitators (CDFs). Summarizes the development of…

  13. The Facilitator. Technical Note No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barriga, Patricio; And Others

    This paper describes the concept, training, and experiences of community facilitators as change agents in a nonformal education project in rural Ecuador. Presently, the social, economic, and political context of the rural Ecuadorian consists of poverty, racial prejudice, economic exploitation, and psychological dependency. The project attempted to…

  14. Facilitating Learning Spaces in Forum Theatre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which forum theatre interventions can support non-hierarchical approaches to learning, development and change management initiatives in organisations. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with theatre consultancies, actors/facilitators,…

  15. Supervisor Behaviours that Facilitate Training Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Sue; Di Milia, Lee; Cameron, Roslyn

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the supervisor behaviours that employees found to be helpful and unhelpful in facilitating training transfer. The study aims to provide rich qualitative data from the employee's perspective. Design/methodology/approach: This study utilises a cross-sectional design. A case study and a qualitative…

  16. 31 CFR 538.206 - Prohibited facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibited facilitation. 538.206 Section 538.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  17. 31 CFR 537.205 - Prohibited facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited facilitation. 537.205 Section 537.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  18. Facilitating Second Language Learning with Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Su-Young

    2006-01-01

    The use of music in facilitating second language (as well as first language) learning is supported by evidence that points to the musical nature of even preverbal infants. Music and language have been found to develop similarly, and researchers have noted advantages to using song in learning. The author observed her Korean 21-month-old for …

  19. 50 CFR 17.107 - Facilitating enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2011-10-01 2005-10-01 true Facilitating enforcement. 17.107 Section 17.107 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED...

  20. Utilizing the Internet to Facilitate Classroom Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Jan; Courts, Bari

    2010-01-01

    Traditional theories on classroom learning focus on fixed curriculum, static learning tools and believe learning is achieved through repetition and rote memorization. The instructor's role in a traditional learning environment focuses on providing direction to the student versus facilitating learning. As the technology age becomes more prevalent…

  1. Facilitating Team Learning through Transformational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raes, Elisabeth; Decuyper, Stefan; Lismont, Bart; Van den Bossche, Piet; Kyndt, Eva; Demeyere, Sybille; Dochy, Filip

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates when and how teams engage in team learning behaviours (TLB). More specifically, it looks into how different leadership styles facilitate TLB by influencing the social conditions that proceed them. 498 healthcare workers from 28 nursery teams filled out a questionnaire measuring the concepts leadership style, TLB, social…

  2. Body Posture Facilitates Retrieval of Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Katinka; Kaschak, Michael P.; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed potential facilitation of congruent body posture on access to and retention of autobiographical memories in younger and older adults. Response times were shorter when body positions during prompted retrieval of autobiographical events were similar to the body positions in the original events than when body position was incongruent.…

  3. Phosphoproteomic Analyses Reveal Signaling Pathways That Facilitate Lytic Gammaherpesvirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, James A.; Chavan, Shweta S.; Sifford, Jeffrey M.; MacLeod, Veronica; Voth, Daniel E.; Edmondson, Ricky D.; Forrest, J. Craig

    2013-01-01

    Lytic gammaherpesvirus (GHV) replication facilitates the establishment of lifelong latent infection, which places the infected host at risk for numerous cancers. As obligate intracellular parasites, GHVs must control and usurp cellular signaling pathways in order to successfully replicate, disseminate to stable latency reservoirs in the host, and prevent immune-mediated clearance. To facilitate a systems-level understanding of phosphorylation-dependent signaling events directed by GHVs during lytic replication, we utilized label-free quantitative mass spectrometry to interrogate the lytic replication cycle of murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV68). Compared to controls, MHV68 infection regulated by 2-fold or greater ca. 86% of identified phosphopeptides – a regulatory scale not previously observed in phosphoproteomic evaluations of discrete signal-inducing stimuli. Network analyses demonstrated that the infection-associated induction or repression of specific cellular proteins globally altered the flow of information through the host phosphoprotein network, yielding major changes to functional protein clusters and ontologically associated proteins. A series of orthogonal bioinformatics analyses revealed that MAPK and CDK-related signaling events were overrepresented in the infection-associated phosphoproteome and identified 155 host proteins, such as the transcription factor c-Jun, as putative downstream targets. Importantly, functional tests of bioinformatics-based predictions confirmed ERK1/2 and CDK1/2 as kinases that facilitate MHV68 replication and also demonstrated the importance of c-Jun. Finally, a transposon-mutant virus screen identified the MHV68 cyclin D ortholog as a viral protein that contributes to the prominent MAPK/CDK signature of the infection-associated phosphoproteome. Together, these analyses enhance an understanding of how GHVs reorganize and usurp intracellular signaling networks to facilitate infection and replication. PMID:24068923

  4. Facilitated communication and authorship: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Ralf W; Balandin, Susan; Hemsley, Bronwyn; Iacono, Teresa; Probst, Paul; von Tetzchner, Stephen

    2014-12-01

    Facilitated Communication (FC) is a technique whereby individuals with disabilities and communication impairments allegedly select letters by typing on a keyboard while receiving physical support, emotional encouragement, and other communication supports from facilitators. The validity of FC stands or falls on the question of who is authoring the typed messages--the individual with a disability or the facilitator. The International Society for Augmentative and Alternative Communication (ISAAC) formed an Ad Hoc Committee on FC and charged this committee to synthesize the evidence base related to this question in order to develop a position statement. The purpose of this paper is to report this synthesis of the extant peer-reviewed literature on the question of authorship in FC. A multi-faceted search was conducted including electronic database searches, ancestry searches, and contacting selected authors. The authors considered synopses of systematic reviews, and systematic reviews, which were supplemented with individual studies not included in any prior reviews. Additionally, documents submitted by the membership were screened for inclusion. The evidence was classified into articles that provided (a) quantitative experimental data related to the authorship of messages, (b) quantitative descriptive data on the output generated through FC without testing of authorship, (c) qualitative descriptive data on the output generated via FC without testing of authorship, and (d) anecdotal reports in which writers shared their perspectives on FC. Only documents with quantitative experimental data were analyzed for authorship. Results indicated unequivocal evidence for facilitator control: messages generated through FC are authored by the facilitators rather than the individuals with disabilities. Hence, FC is a technique that has no validity. PMID:25384895

  5. Examining Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to School Social Work Practice with Homeless Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canfield, James P.

    2014-01-01

    School social workers are at the forefront of serving homeless children and youths as they pursue education. Because of the negative impact homelessness can have on academic outcomes for children, understanding what factors are perceived to either hinder or facilitate practice and what factors might influence perceptions of practice with this…

  6. Drug-facilitated sexual assault ('date rape').

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R H; Milteer, R; LeBeau, M A

    2000-06-01

    In the past few years, drug-facilitated sexual assaults have received widespread media coverage. In addition to alcohol, the most frequently used date-rape drug, flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), a fast-acting benzodiazepine, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its congeners are among the most popular drugs used for this purpose. The latter drug is easily procured at some gymnasiums, popular bars, discos, and rave clubs, as well as over the Internet. Perpetrators choose these drugs because they act rapidly, produce disinhibition and relaxation of voluntary muscles, and cause the victim to have lasting anterograde amnesia for events that occur under the influence of the drug. Alcoholic beverages potentiate the drug effects. We review several date-rape drugs, provide information on laboratory testing for them, and offer guidelines for preventing drug-facilitated sexual assault. PMID:10881768

  7. Generic language facilitates children's cross-classification

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Simone P.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined the role of generic language in facilitating 4- and 5-year-old children's ability to cross-classify. Participants were asked to classify an item into a familiar (taxonomic or script) category, then cross-classify it into a novel (script or taxonomic) category with the help of a clue expressed in either generic or specific language. Experiment 1 showed that generics facilitate 5-year-olds' and adults' cross-classification when expressed at an appropriate level of generalization (e.g., “foods,” “birthday party things”), whereas Experiment 2 showed that such effects disappeared when labels were at an inappropriate level of generalization (e.g., “pizzas,” “balloons”). Experiments 3 and 4 offered additional controls. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that language can guide and direct children's multiple categorizations. PMID:22888182

  8. Writing reports to facilitate patent applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Libman, George H.; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2004-06-01

    Brief disclosures may often be sufficient for the filing of a Technical Advance with Sandia's Intellectual Property Center, but still be inadequate to facilitate an optimum patent application where more detail and explanation are required. Consequently, the crafting of a patent application may require considerably more additional interaction between the application preparer and the inventors. This inefficiency can be considerably mitigated if the inventors address some critical aspects of a patent application when they write a technical report.

  9. Cognitive Fatigue Facilitates Procedural Sequence Learning.

    PubMed

    Borragán, Guillermo; Slama, Hichem; Destrebecqz, Arnaud; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced procedural learning has been evidenced in conditions where cognitive control is diminished, including hypnosis, disruption of prefrontal activity and non-optimal time of the day. Another condition depleting the availability of controlled resources is cognitive fatigue (CF). We tested the hypothesis that CF, eventually leading to diminished cognitive control, facilitates procedural sequence learning. In a two-day experiment, 23 young healthy adults were administered a serial reaction time task (SRTT) following the induction of high or low levels of CF, in a counterbalanced order. CF was induced using the Time load Dual-back (TloadDback) paradigm, a dual working memory task that allows tailoring cognitive load levels to the individual's optimal performance capacity. In line with our hypothesis, reaction times (RT) in the SRTT were faster in the high- than in the low-level fatigue condition, and performance improvement was higher for the sequential than the motor components. Altogether, our results suggest a paradoxical, facilitating impact of CF on procedural motor sequence learning. We propose that facilitated learning in the high-level fatigue condition stems from a reduction in the cognitive resources devoted to cognitive control processes that normally oppose automatic procedural acquisition mechanisms. PMID:26973501

  10. Spatial part-set cuing facilitation.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Matthew R; Parasiuk, Yuri; Salgado-Benz, Jennifer; Crocco, Megan

    2016-07-01

    Cole, Reysen, and Kelley [2013. Part-set cuing facilitation for spatial information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 39, 1615-1620] reported robust part-set cuing facilitation for spatial information using snap circuits (a colour-coded electronics kit designed for children to create rudimentary circuit boards). In contrast, Drinkwater, Dagnall, and Parker [2006. Effects of part-set cuing on experienced and novice chess players' reconstruction of a typical chess midgame position. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 102(3), 645-653] and Watkins, Schwartz, and Lane [1984. Does part-set cuing test for memory organization? Evidence from reconstructions of chess positions. Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie, 38(3), 498-503] showed no influence of part-set cuing for spatial information when using chess boards. One key difference between the two procedures was that the snap circuit stimuli were explicitly connected to one another, whereas chess pieces were not. Two experiments examined the effects of connection type (connected vs. unconnected) and cue type (cued vs. uncued) on memory for spatial information. Using chess boards (Experiment 1) and snap circuits (Experiment 2), part-set cuing facilitation only occurred when the stimuli were explicitly connected; there was no influence of cuing with unconnected stimuli. These results are potentially consistent with the retrieval strategy disruption hypothesis, as well as the two- and three-mechanism accounts of part-set cuing. PMID:26252760

  11. Fluoxetine Facilitates Fear Extinction Through Amygdala Endocannabinoids

    PubMed Central

    Gunduz-Cinar, Ozge; Flynn, Shaun; Brockway, Emma; Kaugars, Katherine; Baldi, Rita; Ramikie, Teniel S; Cinar, Resat; Kunos, George; Patel, Sachin; Holmes, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacologically elevating brain endocannabinoids (eCBs) share anxiolytic and fear extinction-facilitating properties with classical therapeutics, including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. There are also known functional interactions between the eCB and serotonin systems and preliminary evidence that antidepressants cause alterations in brain eCBs. However, the potential role of eCBs in mediating the facilitatory effects of fluoxetine on fear extinction has not been established. Here, to test for a possible mechanistic contribution of eCBs to fluoxetine's proextinction effects, we integrated biochemical, electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral techniques, using the extinction-impaired 129S1/Sv1mJ mouse strain. Chronic fluoxetine treatment produced a significant and selective increase in levels of anandamide in the BLA, and an associated decrease in activity of the anandamide-catabolizing enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase. Slice electrophysiological recordings showed that fluoxetine-induced increases in anandamide were associated with the amplification of eCB-mediated tonic constraint of inhibitory, but not excitatory, transmission in the BLA. Behaviorally, chronic fluoxetine facilitated extinction retrieval in a manner that was prevented by systemic or BLA-specific blockade of CB1 receptors. In contrast to fluoxetine, citalopram treatment did not increase BLA eCBs or facilitate extinction. Taken together, these findings reveal a novel, obligatory role for amygdala eCBs in the proextinction effects of a major pharmacotherapy for trauma- and stressor-related disorders and anxiety disorders. PMID:26514583

  12. Selective Activation of Microglia Facilitates Synaptic Strength

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Anna K.; Gruber-Schoffnegger, Doris; Drdla-Schutting, Ruth; Gerhold, Katharina J.; Malcangio, Marzia

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is thought to be initiated by neurons only, with the prevailing view assigning glial cells mere specify supportive functions for synaptic transmission and plasticity. We now demonstrate that glial cells can control synaptic strength independent of neuronal activity. Here we show that selective activation of microglia in the rat is sufficient to rapidly facilitate synaptic strength between primary afferent C-fibers and lamina I neurons, the first synaptic relay in the nociceptive pathway. Specifically, the activation of the CX3CR1 receptor by fractalkine induces the release of interleukin-1β from microglia, which modulates NMDA signaling in postsynaptic neurons, leading to the release of an eicosanoid messenger, which ultimately enhances presynaptic neurotransmitter release. In contrast to the conventional view, this form of plasticity does not require enhanced neuronal activity to trigger the events leading to synaptic facilitation. Augmentation of synaptic strength in nociceptive pathways represents a cellular model of pain amplification. The present data thus suggest that, under chronic pain states, CX3CR1-mediated activation of microglia drives the facilitation of excitatory synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn, which contributes to pain hypersensitivity in chronic pain states. PMID:25788673

  13. Chimpanzee lip-smacking facilitates cooperative behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Fedurek, Pawel; Slocombe, Katie E.; Hartel, Jessica A.; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Signalling plays an important role in facilitating and maintaining affiliative or cooperative interactions in social animals. Social grooming in primates is an example of an interaction that requires coordination between partners but little is known about communicative behaviours facilitating this activity. In this study, we analysed the communication of wild chimpanzees of Budongo Forest, Uganda, as they entered and maintained a naturally occurring cooperative interaction: social grooming. We found that lip-smacking, a distinct multimodal oral gesture produced during grooming, coordinated this activity. Lip-smacking at the beginning of grooming bouts was significantly more often followed by longer and reciprocated bouts than silent grooming initiations. Lip-smacks were more likely to be produced when the risk of termination of the interaction by the recipient was high, for instance when grooming vulnerable body parts. Groomers were also more likely to produce lip-smacks during face-to-face grooming where the visual aspect of the signal could be perceived. Data are consistent with the hypothesis that chimpanzee lip-smacks function to coordinate and prolong social grooming, suggesting that this oral signal is an example of a communicative behaviour facilitating cooperative behaviour in chimpanzees. PMID:26293777

  14. Fluoxetine Facilitates Fear Extinction Through Amygdala Endocannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Gunduz-Cinar, Ozge; Flynn, Shaun; Brockway, Emma; Kaugars, Katherine; Baldi, Rita; Ramikie, Teniel S; Cinar, Resat; Kunos, George; Patel, Sachin; Holmes, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Pharmacologically elevating brain endocannabinoids (eCBs) share anxiolytic and fear extinction-facilitating properties with classical therapeutics, including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. There are also known functional interactions between the eCB and serotonin systems and preliminary evidence that antidepressants cause alterations in brain eCBs. However, the potential role of eCBs in mediating the facilitatory effects of fluoxetine on fear extinction has not been established. Here, to test for a possible mechanistic contribution of eCBs to fluoxetine's proextinction effects, we integrated biochemical, electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral techniques, using the extinction-impaired 129S1/Sv1mJ mouse strain. Chronic fluoxetine treatment produced a significant and selective increase in levels of anandamide in the BLA, and an associated decrease in activity of the anandamide-catabolizing enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase. Slice electrophysiological recordings showed that fluoxetine-induced increases in anandamide were associated with the amplification of eCB-mediated tonic constraint of inhibitory, but not excitatory, transmission in the BLA. Behaviorally, chronic fluoxetine facilitated extinction retrieval in a manner that was prevented by systemic or BLA-specific blockade of CB1 receptors. In contrast to fluoxetine, citalopram treatment did not increase BLA eCBs or facilitate extinction. Taken together, these findings reveal a novel, obligatory role for amygdala eCBs in the proextinction effects of a major pharmacotherapy for trauma- and stressor-related disorders and anxiety disorders. PMID:26514583

  15. Cognitive Fatigue Facilitates Procedural Sequence Learning

    PubMed Central

    Borragán, Guillermo; Slama, Hichem; Destrebecqz, Arnaud; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced procedural learning has been evidenced in conditions where cognitive control is diminished, including hypnosis, disruption of prefrontal activity and non-optimal time of the day. Another condition depleting the availability of controlled resources is cognitive fatigue (CF). We tested the hypothesis that CF, eventually leading to diminished cognitive control, facilitates procedural sequence learning. In a two-day experiment, 23 young healthy adults were administered a serial reaction time task (SRTT) following the induction of high or low levels of CF, in a counterbalanced order. CF was induced using the Time load Dual-back (TloadDback) paradigm, a dual working memory task that allows tailoring cognitive load levels to the individual’s optimal performance capacity. In line with our hypothesis, reaction times (RT) in the SRTT were faster in the high- than in the low-level fatigue condition, and performance improvement was higher for the sequential than the motor components. Altogether, our results suggest a paradoxical, facilitating impact of CF on procedural motor sequence learning. We propose that facilitated learning in the high-level fatigue condition stems from a reduction in the cognitive resources devoted to cognitive control processes that normally oppose automatic procedural acquisition mechanisms. PMID:26973501

  16. A meta-analysis of plant facilitation in coastal dune systems: responses, regions, and research gaps

    PubMed Central

    Lortie, Christopher J.; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Prado, Paulo Inácio

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies in salt marshes, arid, and alpine systems support the hypothesis that facilitation between plants is an important ecological process in severe or ‘stressful’ environments. Coastal dunes are both abiotically stressful and frequently disturbed systems. Facilitation has been documented, but the evidence to date has not been synthesized. We did a systematic review with meta-analysis to highlight general research gaps in the study of plant interactions in coastal dunes and examine if regional and local factors influence the magnitude of facilitation in these systems. The 32 studies included in the systematic review were done in coastal dunes located in 13 countries around the world but the majority was in the temperate zone (63%). Most of the studies adopt only an observational approach to make inferences about facilitative interactions, whereas only 28% of the studies used both observational and experimental approaches. Among the factors we tested, only geographic region mediates the occurrence of facilitation more broadly in coastal dune systems. The presence of a neighbor positively influenced growth and survival in the tropics, whereas in temperate and subartic regions the effect was neutral for both response variables. We found no evidence that climatic and local factors, such as life-form and life stage of interacting plants, affect the magnitude of facilitation in coastal dunes. Overall, conclusions about plant facilitation in coastal dunes depend on the response variable measured and, more broadly, on the geographic region examined. However, the high variability and the limited number of studies, especially in tropical region, indicate we need to be cautious in the generalization of the conclusions. Anyway, coastal dunes provide an important means to explore topical issues in facilitation research including context dependency, local versus regional drivers of community structure, and the importance of gradients in shaping the outcome of net

  17. A meta-analysis of plant facilitation in coastal dune systems: responses, regions, and research gaps.

    PubMed

    Castanho, Camila de Toledo; Lortie, Christopher J; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Prado, Paulo Inácio

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies in salt marshes, arid, and alpine systems support the hypothesis that facilitation between plants is an important ecological process in severe or 'stressful' environments. Coastal dunes are both abiotically stressful and frequently disturbed systems. Facilitation has been documented, but the evidence to date has not been synthesized. We did a systematic review with meta-analysis to highlight general research gaps in the study of plant interactions in coastal dunes and examine if regional and local factors influence the magnitude of facilitation in these systems. The 32 studies included in the systematic review were done in coastal dunes located in 13 countries around the world but the majority was in the temperate zone (63%). Most of the studies adopt only an observational approach to make inferences about facilitative interactions, whereas only 28% of the studies used both observational and experimental approaches. Among the factors we tested, only geographic region mediates the occurrence of facilitation more broadly in coastal dune systems. The presence of a neighbor positively influenced growth and survival in the tropics, whereas in temperate and subartic regions the effect was neutral for both response variables. We found no evidence that climatic and local factors, such as life-form and life stage of interacting plants, affect the magnitude of facilitation in coastal dunes. Overall, conclusions about plant facilitation in coastal dunes depend on the response variable measured and, more broadly, on the geographic region examined. However, the high variability and the limited number of studies, especially in tropical region, indicate we need to be cautious in the generalization of the conclusions. Anyway, coastal dunes provide an important means to explore topical issues in facilitation research including context dependency, local versus regional drivers of community structure, and the importance of gradients in shaping the outcome of net

  18. The Effects of Facilitation on Cognitive Restructuring in Online Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Shujen L.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the effects of system-initiated (low-level) facilitation with that of facilitator-initiated plus system-initiated (high-level) facilitation on cognitive restructuring and learning achievement. Graduate students participated in facilitated online discussion within a web course for one semester. This study found no significant…

  19. Facilitators and Inhibitors of Health-promoting Behaviors: The Experience of Iranian Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Baheiraei, Azam; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Charandabi, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is scant information on the facilitators and inhibitors of health-promoting behaviors among reproductive-aged Iranian women. This study aims to explore the experience of factors influencing health-promoting behaviors among Iranian women of reproductive age from a qualitative perspective. Methods: This study was performed in Tehran in 2011, over about 8 months. Qualitative methods, specifically in-depth interviews, were used to gather data on 15 women of reproductive age. Data continued to be collected until introduction of new information ceased. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by conventional content analysis. Results: The reported factors were categorized into four main groups and 12 subgroups: (1) personal barriers (lack of time, school or work duties, lack of preparation or motivation, physical disability); (2) socio-environmental barriers (family responsibilities, environmental pressures, high-costs and financial pressures); (3) personal facilitators (personal interest and motivation, experience of disease); and (4) socio-environmental facilitators (family and social support networks, encouraging and motivating environment, media, and public education). Conclusions: In these women's experience, factors influencing health-promoting behaviors were either facilitators or inhibitors; most were inhibitors. The findings of this study show that, in addition to personal factors, the pursuit of health-promoting behaviors is affected by socio-environmental factors. These results will be useful in designing interventions and plans for women's health promotion that focus on the improvement of their environment and the modification of social factors. PMID:24049620

  20. A Novel Cysteine-Rich Neurotrophic Factor in "Aplysia" Facilitates Growth, MAPK Activation, and Long-Term Synaptic Facilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pu, Lu; Kopec, Ashley M.; Boyle, Heather D.; Carew, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Neurotrophins are critically involved in developmental processes such as neuronal cell survival, growth, and differentiation, as well as in adult synaptic plasticity contributing to learning and memory. Our previous studies examining neurotrophins and memory formation in "Aplysia" showed that a TrkB ligand is required for MAPK…

  1. Pulmonary vascular destabilization in the premetastatic phase facilitates lung metastasis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yujie; Song, Nan; Ding, Yanping; Yuan, Shaopeng; Li, Xuhui; Cai, Hongchen; Shi, Hubing; Luo, Yongzhang

    2009-10-01

    Before metastasis, certain organs have already been influenced by primary tumors. However, the exact alterations and regulatory mechanisms of the premetastatic organs remain poorly understood. Here, we report that, in the premetastatic stage, angiopoietin 2 (Angpt2), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 3, and MMP10 are up-regulated in the lung by primary B16/F10 tumor, which leads to the increased permeability of pulmonary vasculatures and extravasation of circulating tumor cells. Subsequent studies show that Angpt2, MMP3, and MMP10 have a synergistic effect on disrupting vascular integrity in both in vitro and in vivo models. Lentivirus-based in vivo RNA interference of Angpt2, MMP3, and MMP10 attenuates the pulmonary vascular permeability and suppresses the infiltration of myeloid cells in the premetastatic lung. Moreover, knocking down these factors significantly inhibits the spontaneous lung metastasis in the model by orthotopic implantation of MDA-MB-231-Luc-D3H1 cells in nude mice. Further investigations reveal that the malignancy of tumor cells is positively correlated with their capabilities to induce the expression of Angpt2, MMP3, and MMP10. Luciferase reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay also suggest that transforming growth factor-beta1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha signaling are involved in the regulation of these premetastatic factors. Our study shows that pulmonary vascular destabilization in the premetastatic phase promotes the extravasation of tumor cells and facilitates lung metastasis, which may provide potential targets for clinical prevention of metastasis. PMID:19773447

  2. Facilitating functional annotation of chicken microarray data

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Modeling results from chicken microarray studies is challenging for researchers due to little functional annotation associated with these arrays. The Affymetrix GenChip chicken genome array, one of the biggest arrays that serve as a key research tool for the study of chicken functional genomics, is among the few arrays that link gene products to Gene Ontology (GO). However the GO annotation data presented by Affymetrix is incomplete, for example, they do not show references linked to manually annotated functions. In addition, there is no tool that facilitates microarray researchers to directly retrieve functional annotations for their datasets from the annotated arrays. This costs researchers amount of time in searching multiple GO databases for functional information. Results We have improved the breadth of functional annotations of the gene products associated with probesets on the Affymetrix chicken genome array by 45% and the quality of annotation by 14%. We have also identified the most significant diseases and disorders, different types of genes, and known drug targets represented on Affymetrix chicken genome array. To facilitate functional annotation of other arrays and microarray experimental datasets we developed an Array GO Mapper (AGOM) tool to help researchers to quickly retrieve corresponding functional information for their dataset. Conclusion Results from this study will directly facilitate annotation of other chicken arrays and microarray experimental datasets. Researchers will be able to quickly model their microarray dataset into more reliable biological functional information by using AGOM tool. The disease, disorders, gene types and drug targets revealed in the study will allow researchers to learn more about how genes function in complex biological systems and may lead to new drug discovery and development of therapies. The GO annotation data generated will be available for public use via AgBase website and will be updated on regular

  3. Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein M Facilitates Enterovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jagdeo, Julienne M.; Dufour, Antoine; Fung, Gabriel; Luo, Honglin; Kleifeld, Oded; Overall, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Picornavirus infection involves a dynamic interplay of host and viral protein interactions that modulates cellular processes to facilitate virus infection and evade host antiviral defenses. Here, using a proteomics-based approach known as TAILS to identify protease-generated neo-N-terminal peptides, we identify a novel target of the poliovirus 3C proteinase, the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein M (hnRNP M), a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling RNA-binding protein that is primarily known for its role in pre-mRNA splicing. hnRNP M is cleaved in vitro by poliovirus and coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) 3C proteinases and is targeted in poliovirus- and CVB3-infected HeLa cells and in the hearts of CVB3-infected mice. hnRNP M relocalizes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm during poliovirus infection. Finally, depletion of hnRNP M using small interfering RNA knockdown approaches decreases poliovirus and CVB3 infections in HeLa cells and does not affect poliovirus internal ribosome entry site translation and viral RNA stability. We propose that cleavage of and subverting the function of hnRNP M is a general strategy utilized by picornaviruses to facilitate viral infection. IMPORTANCE Enteroviruses, a member of the picornavirus family, are RNA viruses that cause a range of diseases, including respiratory ailments, dilated cardiomyopathy, and paralysis. Although enteroviruses have been studied for several decades, the molecular basis of infection and the pathogenic mechanisms leading to disease are still poorly understood. Here, we identify hnRNP M as a novel target of a viral proteinase. We demonstrate that the virus subverts the function of hnRNP M and redirects it to a step in the viral life cycle. We propose that cleavage of hnRNP M is a general strategy that picornaviruses use to facilitate infection. PMID:25926642

  4. Microgravity: New opportunities to facilitate biotechnology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Terry; Todd, Paul; Stodieck, Louis S.

    1996-03-01

    New opportunities exist to use the microgravity environment to facilitate biotechnology development. BioServe Space Technologies Center for the Commercial Development of Space offers access to microgravity environments for companies who wish to perform research or develop products in three specific life-science fields: Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research, Biotechnology and Bioprocessing Research, and Agricultural and Environmental Research. Examples of each include physiological testing of new pharmaceutical countermeasures against symptoms that are exaggerated in space flight, crystallization and testing of novel, precompetitive biopharmaceutical substances in a convection-free environment, and closed life-support system product development.

  5. Anticancer activity of the iron facilitator LS081

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cancer cells have increased levels of transferrin receptor and lower levels of ferritin, an iron deficient phenotype that has led to the use of iron chelators to further deplete cells of iron and limit cancer cell growth. As cancer cells also have increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) we hypothesized that a contrarian approach of enhancing iron entry would allow for further increased generation of ROS causing oxidative damage and cell death. Methods A small molecule library consisting of ~11,000 compounds was screened to identify compounds that stimulated iron-induced quenching of intracellular calcein fluorescence. We verified the iron facilitating properties of the lead compound, LS081, through 55Fe uptake and the expression of the iron storage protein, ferritin. LS081-induced iron facilitation was correlated with rates of cancer cell growth inhibition, ROS production, clonogenicity, and hypoxia induced factor (HIF) levels. Results Compound LS081 increased 55Fe uptake in various cancer cell lines and Caco2 cells, a model system for studying intestinal iron uptake. LS081 also increased the uptake of Fe from transferrin (Tf). LS081 decreased proliferation of the PC-3 prostate cancer cell line in the presence of iron with a lesser effect on normal prostate 267B1 cells. In addition, LS081 markedly decreased HIF-1α and -2α levels in DU-145 prostate cancer cell line and the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines, stimulated ROS production, and decreased clonogenicity. Conclusions We have developed a high through-put screening technique and identified small molecules that stimulate iron uptake both from ferriTf and non-Tf bound iron. These iron facilitator compounds displayed properties suggesting that they may serve as anti-cancer agents. PMID:21453502

  6. Sediment control of facilitated transport and enhanced desorption

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.P.

    2000-01-01

    Laboratory column experiments examined the facilitated transport and enhanced desorption of benz(a)anthracene [B(a)A] by dissolved natural organic matter (OM) in sediments of low organic carbon content. The two-component experiments examining OM-sediment interaction and B(a)A-sediment interaction were modeled to determine the value of the linear rate constants describing transfer of B(a)A and OM between water and sediment. It was found that a two-rate approach better simulated B(a)A breakthrough and elution in the sediment relative to a one-rate approach. In contrast, OM-sediment interaction was well-simulated with a one-rate approach due to low OM sorption by sediment. The three-component experiments examining facilitated transport and enhanced desorption of B(a)A by dissolved OM, showed rapid linear reversible B(a)A-OM interaction. The value, within a factor of 2, of the equilibrium distribution constant for benz(a)anthracene distribution between water and OM was {approximately}1E6 for soil humic acid and {approximately}1E5 for Suwannee River humic acid. Simulations of the three-component experiments based on the equilibrium distribution constants for B(a)A-OM interaction and the rate constants determined from the two-component experiments were performed to determine whether rate constants differed in the two-component versus three-component systems. The simulations captured the major features of the facilitated transport and enhanced desorption data; however, discrepancies indicated that either the two-rate model for solute-sediment interaction was inappropriate, or that B(a)A transfer from sediment to dissolved OM was altered in the three-component system relative to the two-component system.

  7. Facilitation and practice in verb acquisition.

    PubMed

    Keren-Portnoy, Tamar

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents a model of syntax acquisition, whose main points are as follows: Syntax is acquired in an item-based manner; early learning facilitates subsequent learning--as evidenced by the accelerating rate of new verbs entering a given structure; and mastery of syntactic knowledge is typically achieved through practice--as evidenced by intensive use and common word order errors--and this slows down learning during the early stages of acquiring a structure. The facilitation and practice hypotheses were tested on naturalistic production samples of six Hebrew-acquiring children ranging from ages 1;1 to 2;7 (average ages 1;6 to 2;4 months). Results show that most structures did in fact accelerate; the notion of 'practice' is supported by the inverse correlation found between number of verbs and number of errors in the earliest productions in a given structure; and the absence of acceleration in a minority of the structures is due to the fact that they involve relatively less practice. PMID:17017277

  8. Transposable elements: powerful facilitators of evolution.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Keith R; Greene, Wayne K

    2009-07-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are powerful facilitators of genome evolution, and hence of phenotypic diversity as they can cause genetic changes of great magnitude and variety. TEs are ubiquitous and extremely ancient, and although harmful to some individuals, they can be very beneficial to lineages. TEs can build, sculpt, and reformat genomes by both active and passive means. Lineages with active TEs or with abundant homogeneous inactive populations of TEs that can act passively by causing ectopic recombination are potentially fecund, adaptable, and taxonate readily. Conversely, taxa deficient in TEs or possessing heterogeneous populations of inactive TEs may be well adapted in their niche, but tend to prolonged stasis and may risk extinction by lacking the capacity to adapt to change, or diversify. Because of recurring intermittent waves of TE infestation, available data indicate a compatibility with punctuated equilibrium, in keeping with widely accepted interpretations of evidence from the fossil record. We propose a general and holistic synthesis on how the presence of TEs within genomes makes them flexible and dynamic, so that genomes themselves are powerful facilitators of their own evolution. PMID:19415638

  9. Dynamic characteristics of multisensory facilitation and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wang, W Y; Hu, L; Valentini, E; Xie, X B; Cui, H Y; Hu, Y

    2012-10-01

    Multimodal integration, which mainly refers to multisensory facilitation and multisensory inhibition, is the process of merging multisensory information in the human brain. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the dynamic characteristics of multimodal integration are not fully understood. The objective of this study is to investigate the basic mechanisms of multimodal integration by assessing the intermodal influences of vision, audition, and somatosensory sensations (the influence of multisensory background events to the target event). We used a timed target detection task, and measured both behavioral and electroencephalographic responses to visual target events (green solid circle), auditory target events (2 kHz pure tone) and somatosensory target events (1.5 ± 0.1 mA square wave pulse) from 20 normal participants. There were significant differences in both behavior performance and ERP components when comparing the unimodal target stimuli with multimodal (bimodal and trimodal) target stimuli for all target groups. Significant correlation among reaction time and P3 latency was observed across all target conditions. The perceptual processing of auditory target events (A) was inhibited by the background events, while the perceptual processing of somatosensory target events (S) was facilitated by the background events. In contrast, the perceptual processing of visual target events (V) remained impervious to multisensory background events. PMID:24082962

  10. Enhanced Facilitation of Spatial Attention in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Kevin M.; Nestor, Paul G.; Valdman, Olga; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.; Shenton, Martha E.; McCarley, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective While attentional functions are usually found to be impaired in schizophrenia, a review of the literature on the orienting of spatial attention in schizophrenia suggested that voluntary attentional orienting in response to a valid cue might be paradoxically enhanced. We tested this hypothesis with orienting tasks involving the cued detection of a laterally-presented target stimulus. Method Subjects were chronic schizophrenia patients (SZ) and matched healthy control subjects (HC). In Experiment 1 (15 SZ, 16 HC), cues were endogenous (arrows) and could be valid (100% predictive) or neutral with respect to the subsequent target position. In Experiment 2 (16 SZ, 16 HC), subjects performed a standard orienting task with unpredictive exogenous cues (brightening of the target boxes). Results In Experiment 1, SZ showed a larger attentional facilitation effect on reaction time than HC. In Experiment 2, no clear sign of enhanced attentional facilitation was found in SZ. Conclusions The voluntary, facilitatory shifting of spatial attention may be relatively enhanced in individuals with schizophrenia in comparison to healthy individuals. This effect bears resemblance to other relative enhancements of information processing in schizophrenia such as saccade speed and semantic priming. PMID:20919764

  11. Engagement in philosophical dialogue facilitates children's reasoning about subjectivity.

    PubMed

    Walker, Caren M; Wartenberg, Thomas E; Winner, Ellen

    2013-07-01

    Theories of learning have long emphasized the essential role of social factors in the development of early reasoning abilities. More recently, it has been proposed that the presentation of conflicting perspectives may facilitate young children's understanding of knowledge claims as potentially subjective-one of many possible representations of the world. This development in epistemological understanding has been proposed to be an important determinant of academic performance and is highly correlated with the ability to understand and produce sound argumentation in adolescents and adults. In a longitudinal study of children 7-8 years old, we assessed the effects of a 3-month philosophy class designed to engage children in dialogic interaction with peers. We examined the influence of this intervention on children's epistemological understanding and argumentation skills in 4 domains of knowledge: aesthetic, value, social, and physical. Participation in dialogic interaction in an elementary school classroom improved children's ability to construct their own and opposing arguments across domains and facilitated reasoning about the subjectivity of knowledge in the value domain. PMID:22946436

  12. Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in Hyderabad, India: barriers, facilitators and identification of target groups.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Mark S; Douglas, G W; Sabitha Rani, G P; Chakraborty, Apurba

    2016-03-01

    We assessed the barriers and facilitators to highly active antiretroviral therapy adherence and determined their prevalence among HIV/AIDS patients in Hyderabad, India. We conducted a cross-sectional study among HIV-infected adults prescribed highly active antiretroviral therapy and receiving care from nine clinics. Depression was screened using Patient Health Questionnaire 9 and facilitators of HIV medication adherence were assessed using an 11-item scale which yielded a total positive attitude to disease score. Prevalence ratios of non-adherence between different categories of potential risk factors were calculated. We compared mean 'facilitators to adherence' scores between the adherent and non-adherent population. Multivariable Poisson regression with robust variance was used to identify independent risk factors. Among the 211 respondents, nearly 20% were non-adherent, approximately 8% had either moderately severe or severe depression and mean score for combined facilitators to medication adherence was 33.35 (±7.88) out of a possible 44 points. Factors significantly associated with non-adherence included older age, female sex worker, moderate-to-severe depression and the combined facilitators to medication adherence score. These data from a broad range of clinical settings in Hyderabad reveal that key groups to focus on for adherence intervention are female sex workers, older persons and those with depression. PMID:25801316

  13. Striking differences in synaptic facilitation along the dorsoventral axis of the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Papatheodoropoulos, C

    2015-08-20

    Hippocampus displays functional heterogeneity along its long axis which has been interpreted in terms of segregation of inputs. Recent evidence has shown that there are also important differences in the organization of the local neuronal circuitry between the dorsal (DH) and the ventral hippocampus (VH). Synaptic plasticity is a crucial factor for the function of the hippocampal circuit. In this study I compared the synaptic facilitation of the CA1 excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) between dorsal and ventral rat hippocampal slices using field recordings and paired-pulse stimulation delivered at varying inter-pulse intervals (IPIs). The facilitation of the EPSP-slope displayed an exponential decline with increasing stimulation strength or IPI. Furthermore, the facilitation of threshold EPSP-slope was significantly higher in DH than in VH at all IPIs. Most remarkably, the facilitation of the area of EPSP displayed a prominent peak at around 200ms in DH but not VH. This optimal facilitation declined abruptly at a position located two thirds of the way along the dorsoventral axis. N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptors (NMDARs) contributed to the facilitation of EPSP-area in an IPI-selective manner in DH but not VH. Furthermore, NMDARs participated to the single-pulse-evoked EPSP-area more in VH than in DH. Blockade of GABAB receptors (GABABRs) eliminated the prominent facilitation at around 200ms and abolished the large dorsoventral difference in the facilitation of EPSP-area. Blockade of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) increased the maximum area of EPSP more in VH than in DH and reversed facilitation into GABABR-dependent depression that was more robust in DH than in VH. I conclude that interactions between the synaptic actions of GABABR, GABAAR, and NMDAR contribute to diversifying short-term synaptic plasticity along the dorsoventral axis of the hippocampus. It is hypothesized that this diversification has important implications for the information processing

  14. A Conceptual Model Facilitating the Transition of Involuntary Migrant Families

    PubMed Central

    Samarasinghe, Kerstin Linnéa

    2011-01-01

    Refugee families face a complex transition due to the nature of involuntary migration and the process of acculturation. There are several risk factors to the family adaptation process during the transition period, which are sociocontextually environmental dependant. Facilitating a healthy transition for refugee families, therefore, requires the role of nursing to incorporate sociopolitics into the discipline. This paper introduces a sociopolitically oriented and community-driven assessment and intervention model which is based on a family systematic approach. Interventions that aid the families in their acculturation process as well as empowers them to a well-functioning daily life, as per the SARFI model, should be adopted. As such, the future of nursing may provide additional primary health care services for refugee families; this is through a team-led “family nurse” who provides quality care for the family unit in collaboration with other health care professionals and societal authorities. PMID:22191055

  15. Podosomes of dendritic cells facilitate antigen sampling

    PubMed Central

    Reinieren-Beeren, Inge; Cambi, Alessandra; Figdor, Carl G.; van den Bogaart, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Summary Dendritic cells sample the environment for antigens and play an important role in establishing the link between innate and acquired immunity. Dendritic cells contain mechanosensitive adhesive structures called podosomes that consist of an actin-rich core surrounded by integrins, adaptor proteins and actin network filaments. They facilitate cell migration via localized degradation of extracellular matrix. Here we show that podosomes of human dendritic cells locate to spots of low physical resistance in the substrate (soft spots) where they can evolve into protrusive structures. Pathogen recognition receptors locate to these protrusive structures where they can trigger localized antigen uptake, processing and presentation to activate T-cells. Our data demonstrate a novel role in antigen sampling for podosomes of dendritic cells. PMID:24424029

  16. NIRPS - Solutions Facilitator Team Overview and Accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Thomas M., III; Childress, Rhonda

    2013-01-01

    National Institute for Rocket Propulsion Systems (NIRPS) purpose is to help preserve and align government and private rocket propulsion capabilities to meet present and future US commercial, civil, and defense needs, while providing authoritative insight and recommendations to National decisional authorities. Stewardship: Monitor and analyze the state of the industry in order to formulate and recommend National Policy options and strategies that promote a healthy industrial base and ensure best-value for the American taxpayer. Technology: Identify technology needs and recommend technology insertions by leading roadmap assessments and actively participating in program formulation activities. Solutions Facilitator/Provider: Maintain relationships and awareness across the Government, industry and academia, to align available capacity with emerging demand.

  17. GLIAL ANKYRINS FACILITATE PARANODAL AXOGLIAL JUNCTION ASSEMBLY

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kae-Jiun; Zollinger, Daniel R.; Susuki, Keiichiro; Sherman, Diane L.; Makara, Michael A.; Brophy, Peter J.; Cooper, Edward C.; Bennett, Vann; Mohler, Peter J.; Rasband, Matthew N.

    2014-01-01

    Neuron-glia interactions establish functional membrane domains along myelinated axons. These include nodes of Ranvier, paranodal axoglial junctions, and juxtaparanodes. Paranodal junctions are the largest vertebrate junctional adhesion complex, are essential for rapid saltatory conduction, and contribute to assembly and maintenance of nodes. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying paranodal junction assembly are poorly understood. Ankyrins are cytoskeletal scaffolds traditionally associated with Na+ channel clustering in neurons and important for membrane domain establishment and maintenance in many cell types. Here, we show that ankyrinB, expressed by Schwann cells, and ankyrinG, expressed by oligodendrocytes, are highly enriched at the glial side of paranodal junctions where they interact with the essential glial junctional component neurofascin 155. Conditional knockout of ankyrins in oligodendrocytes disrupts paranodal junction assembly and delays nerve conduction during early development in mice. Thus, glial ankyrins function as major scaffolds that facilitate early and efficient paranodal junction assembly in the developing central nervous system. PMID:25362471

  18. Facilitating effects of exercise on information processing.

    PubMed

    Davranche, Karen; Audiffren, Michel

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the facilitating effects of moderate physical exercise on the reaction process to gain a better understanding of the interaction between physiological and cognitive processes. Sixteen participants with specific expertise in decision-making sports performed a double task consisting of choice reaction time while cycling. Signal quality, stimulus-response compatibility and time uncertainty were manipulated. Participants were tested at rest and while cycling at 20% and at 50% of their maximal aerobic power. A mood assessment questionnaire and a critical flicker fusion test were administered before and after the choice reaction time task. The results showed that moderate-intensity exercise (50% maximal aerobic power) improves cognitive performance and that low-intensity exercise (20% maximal aerobic power) enables participants to compensate the negative dual-task effect. PMID:15160595

  19. Bat echolocation calls facilitate social communication

    PubMed Central

    Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten; Nagy, Martina; Metz, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Bat echolocation is primarily used for orientation and foraging but also holds great potential for social communication. The communicative function of echolocation calls is still largely unstudied, especially in the wild. Eavesdropping on vocal signatures encoding social information in echolocation calls has not, to our knowledge, been studied in free-living bats so far. We analysed echolocation calls of the polygynous bat Saccopteryx bilineata and found pronounced vocal signatures encoding sex and individual identity. We showed experimentally that free-living males discriminate approaching male and female conspecifics solely based on their echolocation calls. Males always produced aggressive vocalizations when hearing male echolocation calls and courtship vocalizations when hearing female echolocation calls; hence, they responded with complex social vocalizations in the appropriate social context. Our study demonstrates that social information encoded in bat echolocation calls plays a crucial and hitherto underestimated role for eavesdropping conspecifics and thus facilitates social communication in a highly mobile nocturnal mammal. PMID:23034703

  20. Transforming PICU Culture to Facilitate Early Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Ramona O.; Choong, Karen; Zebuhr, Carleen A.; Kudchadkar, Sapna R.

    2016-01-01

    Children who survive a critical illness are at risk of developing significant, long-lasting morbidities that may include neuromuscular weakness, cognitive impairments, and new mental health disorders. These morbidities, collectively known as post–intensive care syndrome (PICS), may lead to functional impairments, difficulty in school and social settings, and reduced quality of life. Interventions aimed at rehabilitation such as early mobilization, sedation minimization and prevention of ICU-acquired weakness, delirium, and posttraumatic stress disorder may lead to improved clinical outcomes and functional recovery in critically ill children. Acute rehabilitation is challenging to implement in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), and a culture change is needed to effect widespread transformation in this setting. Our objectives in this article are to review the evidence on PICS in children and strategies for affecting culture change to facilitate early rehabilitation in the PICU. PMID:27134761

  1. Cognitive Facilitation Following Intentional Odor Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews evidence that, in addition to incidental olfactory pollutants, intentional odor delivery can impact cognitive operations both positively and negatively. Evidence for cognitive facilitation/interference is reviewed alongside four potential explanations for odor-induced effects. It is concluded that the pharmacological properties of odors can induce changes in cognition. However, these effects can be accentuated/attenuated by the shift in mood following odor exposure, expectancy of cognitive effects, and cues to behavior via the contextual association with the odor. It is proposed that greater consideration is required in the intentional utilization of odors within both industrial and private locations, since differential effects are observed for odors with positive hedonic qualities. PMID:22163909

  2. Cation Diffusion Facilitator family: Structure and function.

    PubMed

    Kolaj-Robin, Olga; Russell, David; Hayes, Kevin A; Pembroke, J Tony; Soulimane, Tewfik

    2015-05-22

    The Cation Diffusion Facilitators (CDFs) form a family of membrane-bound proteins capable of transporting zinc and other heavy metal ions. Involved in metal tolerance/resistance by efflux of ions, CDF proteins share a two-modular architecture consisting of a transmembrane domain (TMD) and C-terminal domain (CTD) that protrudes into the cytoplasm. Discovery of a Zn²⁺ and Cd²⁺ CDF transporter from a marine bacterium Maricaulis maris that does not possess the CTD questions current perceptions regarding this family of proteins. This article describes a new, CTD-lacking subfamily of CDFs and our current knowledge about this family of proteins in the view of these findings. PMID:25896018

  3. Facilitating critical discourse through "meaningful disagreement" online.

    PubMed

    Dalley-Hewer, Jayne; Clouder, Deanne Lynn; Jackson, Ann; Goodman, Simon; Bluteau, Patricia; Davies, Bernadette

    2012-11-01

    This paper is concerned with identifying ways of facilitating "meaningful disagreement" amongst students in interprofessional online discussion forums. It builds on previous research that identified a trend toward polite agreement and only limited evidence of disagreement in this setting. Given the suggestion that disagreement indicates a deeper level of engagement in group discussion and therefore leads to deeper learning, our aim was to critique the pedagogical approach adopted by analyzing whether we were promoting a particular interprofessional discourse amongst students that favored agreement and therefore limited potential learning. Agreement in this context has been conceptualized as a form of online interprofessional "netiquette" existing amongst participants. Findings suggest that creating an online context for critical discourse is challenging; however, the careful construction of learning outcomes, trigger material/resources and learning activities, as well as attention to students' stage of study and life experience, can provoke the desired effects. PMID:22897367

  4. Wave modes facilitating fast magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, N.

    2011-12-01

    Whistler and kinetic Alfven waves are often invoked to explain fast magnetic reconnection in collsionless plasmas. But how these wave modes facilitate the reconnection has remained unclear. An important unanswered question deals with the meaning of the wave frequency in the context of magnetic reconnection. New measurement on a fast explosive reconnection event in the Versatile Toroidal Facility (VTF) at MIT provides an interesting example of the meaning of the wave mode and the associated frequency directly related to the time scale of the impulsive reconnection. We examine the measurements in VTF in view of the whistler wave mode, showing that the explosive growth in the reconnection is related to the thinning of the current sheet to a few electron skin depths. We further demonstrate that the fastest measured time scale (~ 3 microseconds) and the largest normalized reconnection rate (~0.35) agree with those predicted from the whistler mode dispersion relation.

  5. BTFS: The Border Trade Facilitation System

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, L.R.

    1999-03-18

    The author demonstrates the Border Trade Facilitation System (BTFS), an agent-based bilingual e-commerce system built to expedite the regulation, control, and execution of commercial trans-border shipments during the delivery phase. The system was built to serve maquila industries at the US/Mexican border. The BTFS uses foundation technology developed here at Sandia Laboratories' Advanced Information Systems Lab (AISL), including a distributed object substrate, a general-purpose agent development framework, dynamically generated agent-human interaction via the World-Wide Web, and a collaborative agent architecture. This technology is also the substrate for the Multi-Agent Simulation Management System (MASMAS) proposed for demonstration at this conference. The BTFS executes authenticated transactions among agents performing open trading over the Internet. With the BTFS in place, one could conduct secure international transactions from any site with an Internet connection and a web browser. The BTFS is currently being evaluated for commercialization.

  6. Component with inspection-facilitating features

    DOEpatents

    Marra, John J; Zombo, Paul J

    2014-02-11

    A turbine airfoil can be formed with features to facilitate measurement of its wall thickness. An outer wall of the airfoil can include an outer surface and an inner surface. The outer surface of the airfoil can have an outer inspection target surface, and the inner surface of the airfoil can have an inner inspection target surface. The inner and outer target surfaces can define substantially flat regions in surfaces that are otherwise highly contoured. The inner and outer inspection target surfaces can be substantially aligned with each other. The inner and outer target surfaces can be substantially parallel to each other. As a result of these arrangements, a highly accurate measurement of wall thickness can be obtained. In one embodiment, the outer inspection target surface can be defined by an innermost surface of a groove formed in the outer surface of the outer wall of the airfoil.

  7. Semantic facilitation in bilingual first language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Bilson, Samuel; Yoshida, Hanako; Tran, Crystal D; Woods, Elizabeth A; Hills, Thomas T

    2015-07-01

    Bilingual first language learners face unique challenges that may influence the rate and order of early word learning relative to monolinguals. A comparison of the productive vocabularies of 435 children between the ages of 6 months and 7 years-181 of which were bilingual English learners-found that monolinguals learned both English words and all-language concepts faster than bilinguals. However, bilinguals showed an enhancement of an effect previously found in monolinguals-the preference for learning words with more associative cues. Though both monolinguals and bilinguals were best fit by a similar model of word learning, semantic network structure and growth indicated that the two groups were learning English words in a different order. Further, in comparison with a model of two-monolinguals-in-one-mind, bilinguals overproduced translational equivalents. Our results support an emergent account of bilingual first language acquisition, where learning a word in one language facilitates its acquisition in a second language. PMID:25909582

  8. A "facilitated" model of inpatient psychiatric care.

    PubMed

    Olden, K W; Johnson, M P

    1993-09-01

    The authors describe a model for an effective partnership between a large health maintenance organization and a fee-for-service acute inpatient psychiatric unit. They present data from five years of experience with the model on a unit serving a catchment area of one million plan members. The model, which is based on "facilitated" care rather than managed care, emphasizes crisis intervention and a strong medical orientation. The HMO contracted with seven psychiatrists to provide treatment and helped develop a value system shared by the physicians and hospital staff. A clinician represented the HMO on the unit and played a key decision-making role in patient care. A total of 4,945 patients were admitted over five years. Costs per admission were reduced 47 percent during this period; the readmission rate was 16.9 percent. Implementation of the model resulted in the delivery of high-quality cost-effective care. PMID:8225303

  9. Glial ankyrins facilitate paranodal axoglial junction assembly.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kae-Jiun; Zollinger, Daniel R; Susuki, Keiichiro; Sherman, Diane L; Makara, Michael A; Brophy, Peter J; Cooper, Edward C; Bennett, Vann; Mohler, Peter J; Rasband, Matthew N

    2014-12-01

    Neuron-glia interactions establish functional membrane domains along myelinated axons. These include nodes of Ranvier, paranodal axoglial junctions and juxtaparanodes. Paranodal junctions are the largest vertebrate junctional adhesion complex, and they are essential for rapid saltatory conduction and contribute to assembly and maintenance of nodes. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying paranodal junction assembly are poorly understood. Ankyrins are cytoskeletal scaffolds traditionally associated with Na(+) channel clustering in neurons and are important for membrane domain establishment and maintenance in many cell types. Here we show that ankyrin-B, expressed by Schwann cells, and ankyrin-G, expressed by oligodendrocytes, are highly enriched at the glial side of paranodal junctions where they interact with the essential glial junctional component neurofascin 155. Conditional knockout of ankyrins in oligodendrocytes disrupts paranodal junction assembly and delays nerve conduction during early development in mice. Thus, glial ankyrins function as major scaffolds that facilitate early and efficient paranodal junction assembly in the developing CNS. PMID:25362471

  10. Hyaluronidase facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin in primary immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Jolles, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig)-replacement therapy represents the mainstay of treatment for patients with primary antibody deficiency and is administered either intravenously (IVIg) or subcutaneously (SCIg). While hyaluronidase has been used in clinical practice for over 50 years, the development of a high-purity recombinant form of this enzyme (recombinant human hyaluronidase PH20) has recently enabled the study of repeated and more prolonged use of hyaluronidase in facilitating the delivery of SC medicines. It has been used in a wide range of clinical settings to give antibiotics, local anesthetics, insulin, morphine, fluid replacement, and larger molecules, such as antibodies. Hyaluronidase has been used to help overcome the limitations on the maximum volume that can be delivered into the SC space by enabling dispersion of SCIg and its absorption into lymphatics. The rate of facilitated SCIg (fSCIg) infusion is equivalent to that of IVIg, and the volume administered at a single site can be greater than 700 mL, a huge increase over conventional SCIg, at 20–40 mL. The use of fSCIg avoids the higher incidence of systemic side effects of IVIg, and it has higher bioavailability than SCIg. Data on the long-term safety of this approach are currently lacking, as fSCIg has only recently become available. fSCIg may help several areas of patient management in primary antibody deficiency, and the extent to which it may be used in future will depend on long-term safety data and cost–benefit analysis.

  11. Modeling Facilitated Contaminant Transport by Mobile Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corapcioglu, M. Yavuz; Kim, Seunghyun

    1995-01-01

    Introduction of exogenous biocolloids such as genetically engineered bacteria in a bioremediation operation can enhance the transport of contaminants in groundwater by reducing the retardation effects. Because of their colloidal size and favorable surface conditions, bacteria are efficient contaminant carriers. In cases where contaminants have a low mobility in porous media because of their high partition with solid matrix, facilitated contaminant transport by mobile bacteria can create high contaminant fluxes. When metabolically active mobile bacteria are present in a subsurface environment, the system can be treated as consisting of three phases: water phase, bacterial phase, and stationary solid matrix phase. In this work a mathematical model based on mass balance equations is developed to describe the facilitated transport and fate of a contaminant and bacteria in a porous medium. Bacterial partition between the bulk solution and the stationary solid matrix and contaminant partition among three phases are represented by expressions in terms of measurable quantities. Solutions were obtained to provide estimates of contaminant and bacterial concentrations. A dimensional analysis of the transport model was utilized to estimate model parameters from the experimental data and to assess the effect of several parameters on model behavior. The model results matched favorably with experimental data of Jenkins and Lion (1993). The presence of mobile bacteria enhances the contaminant transport. However, bacterial consumption of the contaminant, which serves as a bacterial nutrient, can attenuate the contaminant mobility. The work presented in this paper is the first three-phase model to include the effects of substrate metabolism on the fate of groundwater contaminants.

  12. Facilitation in Action: The Reflective Practice of Two Facilitators Using a Participation Training Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treff, Marjorie E.; Earnest, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the experiences of two graduate faculty members from Indiana University who facilitated two workshops sponsored by Ball State University at Highlander Research and Education Center, one in May of 2013, and another in May of 2014. We describe the history of Participation Training, the program we used to plan and conduct…

  13. Engagement in Philosophical Dialogue Facilitates Children's Reasoning about Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Caren M.; Wartenberg, Thomas E.; Winner, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Theories of learning have long emphasized the essential role of social factors in the development of early reasoning abilities. More recently, it has been proposed that the presentation of conflicting perspectives may facilitate young children's understanding of knowledge claims as potentially subjective--one of many possible representations…

  14. Main Facilitators of Smoking Among Young Males in Tehran: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Rostami Dovom, Marzieh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Amiri, Parisa; Amirshekari, Golshan; Farahmand, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Smoking is the most preventable risk factor for non-communicable diseases and its alarming trend. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore and determine facilitating factors for smoking in young males, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), from their own perspective. Patients and Methods: This qualitative study was conducted within the framework of the TLGS. Participants were young males with 15 to 25 years of age and various levels of education. The inductive content analysis approach was used to analyze data on the participants’ perceptions with regard to smoking facilitators. Data collection was conducted through discussions by six semi-structured focus groups consisted of five to seven people. All the interviews were transcribed after being recorded and analyzed through constant comparative analysis. Results: Two main categories derived from the analysis of the data: I) personal needs and features; and II) environmental facilitators. The former concept included three subcategories: 1) fulfilling essential needs; 2) search for identity; and 3) lack of life skills. Environmental facilitators were also divided into two subcategories: 1) social patterns; and 2) ease of access. Conclusions: Tendency towards smoking is influenced by different factors. Clarifying these influential factors for smoking from the perspective of young males can be important in designing effective preventive programs. PMID:25593726

  15. Examining Facilitators' Habits of Mind in an Asynchronous Online Discussion Environment: A Two Cases Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Wing Sum; Hew, Khe Foon

    2010-01-01

    Asynchronous online discussion has been widely used by faculty members and students in schools and universities. Previous research has examined how factors such as the discussion activity, knowledge about the discussion topic, and the behaviour of other participants can affect learner participation. This study explored student facilitators'…

  16. Participation, Roles and Processes in a Collaborative Action Research Project: A Reflexive Account of the Facilitator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avgitidou, Sofia

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses and discusses the roles and participation of those involved in a collaborative action research project to highlight the factors that influenced their content, quality and intensity. Emphasis is given to the reflections of the facilitator (author) on the processes employed to achieve equal participation and roles in the action…

  17. Facilitating Adjustment to Higher Education: Towards Enhancing Academic Functioning in an Academic Development Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidowitz, B.; Schreiber, B.

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have emphasised the importance of addressing social and emotional factors in facilitating adjustment to tertiary education. This article describes the Skills for Success in Science programme at the University of Cape Town. The broad aims were life skills development and improved adjustment which are assumed to underpin academic…

  18. The Effect of a Teacher Professional Development in Facilitating Students' Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosseini, Afzal S.; Watt, Anthony P.

    2010-01-01

    The Iranian educational system would benefit from major refinement in order to better develop the creativity of children. The extension of teachers' understanding of creativity is one of the main factors in facilitating change. A theory and practice based professional development program was designed, therefore, to assist teachers to acquire…

  19. FULFILL: Framework for Uniting Learners by Facilitating Instruction in Language and Literacy. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korngold, Blanche; Zorfass, Judith

    A project was designed to help mainstream teachers in Grades 1-3 facilitate language learning in all students, but especially in those who have language disorders. A naturalistic study followed teachers participating in the project to examine what factors promote change in teachers' knowledge, beliefs, and practice. The overall approach to…

  20. Family Perceptions of Facilitators and Inhibitors of Effective School-Based Dysphagia Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angell, Maureen E.; Bailey, Rita L.; Stoner, Julia B.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This qualitative study focused on the perceptions of family members of children with dysphagia by asking what the family-identified factors are that facilitate or inhibit effective school-based management of pediatric dysphagia. Method: Semistructured interviews of 7 family members of 6 children with dysphagia, ages 2 through 11 years,…

  1. Oligonucleotide facilitators may inhibit or activate a hammerhead ribozyme.

    PubMed Central

    Jankowsky, E; Schwenzer, B

    1996-01-01

    Facilitators are oligonucleotides capable of affecting hammerhead ribozyme activity by interacting with the substrate at the termini of the ribozyme. Facilitator effects were determined in vitro using a system consisting of a ribozyme with 7 nucleotides in every stem sequence and two substrates with inverted facilitator binding sequences. The effects of 9mer and 12mer RNA as well as DNA facilitators which bind either adjacent to the 3'- or 5'-end of the ribozyme were investigated. A kinetic model was developed which allows determination of the apparent dissociation constant of the ribozyme-substrate complex from single turnover reactions. We observed a decreased dissociation constant of the ribozyme-substrate complex due to facilitator addition corresponding to an additional stabilization energy of delta delta G=-1.7 kcal/mol with 3'-end facilitators. The cleavage rate constant was increased by 3'-end facilitators and decreased by 5'-end facilitators. Values for Km were slightly lowered by all facilitators and kcat was increased by 3'-end facilitators and decreased by 5'-end facilitators in our system. Generally the facilitator effects increased with the length of the facilitators and RNA provided greater effects than DNA of the same sequence. Results suggest facilitator influences on several steps of the hammerhead reaction, substrate association, cleavage and dissociation of products. Moreover, these effects are dependent in different manners on ribozyme and substrate concentration. This leads to the conclusion that there is a concentration dependence whether activation or inhibition is caused by facilitators. Conclusions are drawn with regard to the design of hammerhead ribozyme facilitator systems. PMID:8602353

  2. The Experience of Native Peer Facilitators in the Campaign Against Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Struthers, Roxanne; Hodge, Felicia Schanche; De Cora, Lorelei; Geishirt-Cantrell, Betty

    2011-01-01

    Context The use of peer facilitators in health-programs has great potential. One important application is prevention and control of type 2 diabetes among American Indians. Purpose To explore the experience of American Indian facilitators in a culturally appropriate intervention (Talking Circles) on 2 Northern Plains reservations. The Talking Circles offered a forum for educational dialogue on diabetes risk factors and the management of type 2 diabetes. Methods Phenomenology, a qualitative research approach, was used to answer the research question: “What did Native Talking Circle facilitators-experience?” Participants were 4 lay health workers from the intervention reservations who had been trained to present a diabetes curriculum while coordinating and guiding the group discussion. During open-ended, taped interviews, the facilitators shared their experiences conducting the Talking Circles. Analysis categorized the experiences into common themes to explain the phenomena and cultural construction of oral discussions (Talking Circles) of diabetes. Findings Themes included the concept of “a calling” to do the work, which included a self-growth process, a blending of 2 worldviews as a diabetes intervention strategy, the importance of translating educational materials in a liaison role, and commitment to tribal people and communities. Conclusions The experience of the facilitators was positive because they were knowledgeable about American Indian culture arid worldview arid were trained in both Talking Circle facilitation and type 2 diabetes. PMID:12696854

  3. Assessing Facilitator Performance as an Influence on Student Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Scotty; May, David

    2011-01-01

    Growth in class size within the online environment has resulted in a facilitator model in which an instructor teaches the class with the assistance of facilitators who interact with students in smaller groups. This research sought to determine the effectiveness of a structured performance evaluation for facilitators and the correlation to student…

  4. The Dynamics of Syntax Acquisition: Facilitation between Syntactic Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keren-Portnoy, Tamar; Keren, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper sets out to show how facilitation between different clause structures operates over time in syntax acquisition. The phenomenon of facilitation within given structures has been widely documented, yet inter-structure facilitation has rarely been reported so far. Our findings are based on the naturalistic production corpora of six toddlers…

  5. 31 CFR 537.418 - Facilitating new investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Facilitating new investment. 537.418... § 537.418 Facilitating new investment. Consistent with § 537.530, U.S. persons may approve, finance, facilitate, or guarantee new investment by foreign persons provided such new investment is not pursuant to...

  6. Barriers to and facilitators of care for hemodialysis patients; a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Nobahar, Monir; Tamadon, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Patients undergoing hemodialysis require direct and continuous care. Identifying the barriers to and factors facilitating hemodialysis care can improve care quality. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the barriers and facilitators of care for hemodialysis patients. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted as a qualitative study and it utilized content analysis approach. The study was performed in hemodialysis ward of Kowsar hospital in Semnan, in 2014. We used purposive sampling method with maximum diversity. Semi-structured interviews with open questions were used to collect data from a total of 20 participants. Results: The main topic of health care challenges was divided into two main categories, including the facilitators and barriers of hemodialysis care. The facilitators of hemodialysis care had four subcategories, including "intimate relationship", "basic knowledge", "hemodialysis skills", and "experience". The category of barriers had eight subcategories, including "shortage of nurses and heavy workload", "weak authority of the head nurse", "ignorant director of nursing", "shortage of nephrologists", "lack of vascular surgery expert", "lack of nurse’s aide and nursing assistant ", "unskilled staffs", and "interference by patients’ caregivers". Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that access to human resources and their abilities were among the factors facilitating care. However, lack of qualified medical staff at each level of care delivery was one of the barriers to hemodialysis care. Hence, it is of great importance for policy makers, managers, and program designers to recruit human resources who have the characteristics and competencies required for providing hemodialysis care. PMID:27069967

  7. Barriers to and Facilitators of Research Utilization: A Survey of Registered Nurses in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Ping; Jiang, Xiao-Lian; Wang, Lei; Wang, Guo-Rong; Bai, Yang-Jing

    2013-01-01

    Aims This survey aims to describe the perception of barriers to and facilitators of research utilization by registered nurses in Sichuan province, China, and to explore the factors influencing the perceptions of the barriers to and facilitators of research utilization. Methods A cross sectional survey design and a double cluster sampling method were adopted. A total of 590 registered nurses from 3 tertiary level hospitals in Sichuan province, China, were recruited in a period from September 2006 to January 2007. A modified BARRUERS Scale and a Facilitators Scale were used. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, rank transformation test, and multiple linear regression. Results Barriers related to the setting subscale were more influential than barriers related to other subscales. The lack of authority was ranked as the top greatest barrier (15.7%), followed by the lack of time (13.4%) and language barrier (15.0%). Additional barriers identified were the reluctance of patients to research utilization, the lack of funding, and the lack of legal protection. The top three greatest facilitators were enhancing managerial support (36.9%), advancing education to increase knowledge base (21.1%), and increasing time for reviewing and implementing (17.5%), while cooperation of patients to research utilization, establishing a panel to evaluate researches, and funding were listed as additional facilitators. Hospital, educational background, research experience, and knowledge on evidence-based nursing were the factors influencing perceptions of the barriers and facilitators. Conclusions Nurses in China are facing a number of significant barriers in research utilization. Enhancing managerial support might be the most promising facilitator, given Chinese traditional culture and existing health care system. Hospital, educational background, research experience and knowledge on evidence-based nursing should be taken into account to promote research utilization. The BARRIERS

  8. Facilitating facial retinization through barrier improvement.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana; Ertel, Keith D; Berge, Cynthia A

    2006-10-01

    The utility of topical tretinoin as a treatment for improving the appearance of photodamaged skin is limited by irritation that occurs during the early phases of facial retinization. The observed side effects are consistent with stratum corneum barrier compromise. This paired double-blinded study was conducted to determine if preconditioning the skin with a barrier-enhancing cosmetic facial moisturizer before beginning tretinoin therapy and continuing moisturizer application during therapy would mitigate these side effects. Women with facial photodamage were recruited and randomly assigned to apply one cosmetic moisturizer to one side of the face and the other cosmetic moisturizer to the other side of the face twice daily for 10 weeks. One moisturizer contained a mixture of vitamins (niacinamide, panthenol, and tocopheryl acetate) to enhance stratum corneum barrier function, and the other moisturizer contained similar moisturizing ingredients but no vitamins. Daily full-face treatment with tretinoin cream 0.025% commenced 2 weeks into the study. Subjects' facial skin condition was monitored via investigator assessments, instrumental measurements, and subject self-assessments. The results show that improving stratum corneum barrier function before beginning topical tretinoin therapy and continuing use of a barrier-enhancing cosmetic moisturizer during therapy facilitates the early phase of facial retinization and augments the treatment response. PMID:17121065

  9. ARTEMIS nuclease facilitates apoptotic chromatin cleavage.

    PubMed

    Britton, Sébastien; Frit, Philippe; Biard, Denis; Salles, Bernard; Calsou, Patrick

    2009-10-15

    One hallmark of apoptosis is DNA degradation that first appears as high molecular weight fragments followed by extensive internucleosomal fragmentation. During apoptosis, the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is activated. DNA-PK is involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and its catalytic subunit is associated with the nuclease ARTEMIS. Here, we report that, on initiation of apoptosis in human cells by agents causing DNA DSB or by staurosporine or other agents, ARTEMIS binds to apoptotic chromatin together with DNA-PK and other DSB repair proteins. ARTEMIS recruitment to chromatin showed a time and dose dependency. It required DNA-PK protein kinase activity and was blocked by antagonizing the onset of apoptosis with a pan-caspase inhibitor or on overexpression of the antiapoptotic BCL2 protein. In the absence of ARTEMIS, no defect in caspase-3, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, and XRCC4 cleavage or in H2AX phosphorylation was observed and DNA-PK catalytic subunit was still phosphorylated on S2056 in response to staurosporine. However, DNA fragmentation including high molecular weight fragmentation was delayed in ARTEMIS-deficient cells compared with cells expressing ARTEMIS. In addition, ARTEMIS enhanced the kinetics of MLL gene cleavage at a breakage cluster breakpoint that is frequently translocated in acute or therapy-related leukemias. These results show a facilitating role for ARTEMIS at least in early, site-specific chromosome breakage during apoptosis. PMID:19808974

  10. Environmental stress, facilitation, competition, and coexistence.

    PubMed

    Hart, Simon P; Marshall, Dustin J

    2013-12-01

    The major theories regarding the combined influence of the environment and species interactions on population and community dynamics appear to conflict. Stress/ disturbance gradient models of community organization, such as the stress gradient hypothesis, emphasize a diminished role for competition in harsh environments whereas modern coexistence theory does not. Confusion about the role of species interactions in harsh environments is perpetuated by a disconnect between population dynamics theory and data. We linked theory and data using response surface experiments done in the field to parameterize mathematical, population-dynamic competition models. We replicated our experiment across two environments that spanned a common and important environmental stress gradient for determining community structure in benthic marine systems. We generated quantitative estimates of the effects of environmental stress on population growth rates and the direction and strength of intra- and interspecific interactions within each environment. Our approach directly addressed a perpetual blind spot in this field by showing how the effects of competition can be intensified in stressful environments even though the apparent strength of competition remains unchanged. Furthermore, we showed how simultaneous, reciprocal competitive and facilitative effects can stabilize population dynamics in multispecies communities in stressful environments. PMID:24597219

  11. Free radical facilitated damage of ungual keratin.

    PubMed

    Khengar, Rajeshree H; Brown, Marc B; Turner, Rob B; Traynor, Matthew J; Holt, Katherine B; Jones, Stuart A

    2010-09-01

    Thioglycolic acid (TA) and urea hydrogen peroxide (urea H(2)O(2)) are thought to disrupt alpha-keratin disulfide links in the nail. However, optimal clinical use of these agents to improve the treatment of nail disorders is currently hindered by a lack of fundamental data to support their mechanism of action. The aim of this study was to investigate how the redox environment of ungual keratin, when manipulated by TA and urea H(2)O(2), influenced the properties of the nail barrier. Potentiometric and voltammetric measurements demonstrated that urea H(2)O(2) obeyed the Nernst equation for a proton coupled one-electron transfer redox process while TA underwent a series of redox reactions that was complicated by electrode adsorption and dimer formation. The functional studies demonstrated that nail permeability, measured through TBF penetration (38.51+/-10.94 microg/cm(2)/h) and nail swelling (244.10+/-14.99% weight increase), was greatest when relatively low concentrations of the thiolate ion were present in the applied solution. Limiting the thiolate ion to low levels in the solution retards thiolate dimerisation and generates thiyl free radicals. It appeared that this free radical generation was fundamental in facilitating the redox-mediated keratin disruption of the ungual membrane. PMID:20550963

  12. Protected areas facilitate species' range expansions.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Chris D; Gillingham, Phillipa K; Bradbury, Richard B; Roy, David B; Anderson, Barbara J; Baxter, John M; Bourn, Nigel A D; Crick, Humphrey Q P; Findon, Richard A; Fox, Richard; Hodgson, Jenny A; Holt, Alison R; Morecroft, Mike D; O'Hanlon, Nina J; Oliver, Tom H; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Procter, Deborah A; Thomas, Jeremy A; Walker, Kevin J; Walmsley, Clive A; Wilson, Robert J; Hill, Jane K

    2012-08-28

    The benefits of protected areas (PAs) for biodiversity have been questioned in the context of climate change because PAs are static, whereas the distributions of species are dynamic. Current PAs may, however, continue to be important if they provide suitable locations for species to colonize at their leading-edge range boundaries, thereby enabling spread into new regions. Here, we present an empirical assessment of the role of PAs as targets for colonization during recent range expansions. Records from intensive surveys revealed that seven bird and butterfly species have colonized PAs 4.2 (median) times more frequently than expected from the availability of PAs in the landscapes colonized. Records of an additional 256 invertebrate species with less-intensive surveys supported these findings and showed that 98% of species are disproportionately associated with PAs in newly colonized parts of their ranges. Although colonizing species favor PAs in general, species vary greatly in their reliance on PAs, reflecting differences in the dependence of individual species on particular habitats and other conditions that are available only in PAs. These findings highlight the importance of current PAs for facilitating range expansions and show that a small subset of the landscape receives a high proportion of colonizations by range-expanding species. PMID:22893689

  13. Oxytocin: the Great Facilitator of Life

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Heon-Jin; Macbeth, Abbe H.; Pagani, Jerome; Young, W. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Oxytocin (Oxt) is a nonapeptide hormone best known for its role in lactation and parturition. Since 1906 when its uterine-contracting properties were described until 50 years later when its sequence was elucidated, research focused on its peripheral roles in reproduction. Only over the past several decades have researchers focused on what functions Oxt might have in the brain, the subject of this review. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei are the neurons of origin for the Oxt released from the posterior pituitary. Smaller cells in various parts of the brain, as well as release from magnocellular dendrites, provide the Oxt responsible for modulating various behaviors at its only identified receptor. Although Oxt is implicated in a variety of “non-social” behaviors, such as learning, anxiety, feeding and pain perception, it is Oxt’s roles in various social behaviors that have come to the fore recently. Oxt is important for social memory and attachment, sexual and maternal behavior, and aggression. Recent work implicates Oxt in human bonding and trust as well. Human disorders characterized by aberrant social interactions, such as autism and schizophrenia, may also involve Oxt expression. Many, if not most, of Oxt’s functions, from social interactions (affiliation, aggression) and sexual behavior to eventual parturition, lactation and maternal behavior, may be viewed as specifically facilitating PMID:19482229

  14. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-10-22

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition. PMID:23986109

  15. Protein crystallization facilitated by molecularly imprinted polymers

    PubMed Central

    Saridakis, Emmanuel; Khurshid, Sahir; Govada, Lata; Phan, Quan; Hawkins, Daniel; Crichlow, Gregg V.; Lolis, Elias; Reddy, Subrayal M.; Chayen, Naomi E.

    2011-01-01

    We present a previously undescribed initiative and its application, namely the design of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for producing protein crystals that are essential for determining high-resolution 3D structures of proteins. MIPs, also referred to as “smart materials,” are made to contain cavities capable of rebinding protein; thus the fingerprint of the protein created on the polymer allows it to serve as an ideal template for crystal formation. We have shown that six different MIPs induced crystallization of nine proteins, yielding crystals in conditions that do not give crystals otherwise. The incorporation of MIPs in screening experiments gave rise to crystalline hits in 8–10% of the trials for three target proteins. These hits would have been missed using other known nucleants. MIPs also facilitated the formation of large single crystals at metastable conditions for seven proteins. Moreover, the presence of MIPs has led to faster formation of crystals in all cases where crystals would appear eventually and to major improvement in diffraction in some cases. The MIPs were effective for their cognate proteins and also for other proteins, with size compatibility being a likely criterion for efficacy. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements demonstrated specific affinity between the MIP cavities and a protein-functionalized AFM tip, corroborating our hypothesis that due to the recognition of proteins by the cavities, MIPs can act as nucleation-inducing substrates (nucleants) by harnessing the proteins themselves as templates. PMID:21690356

  16. Partial penetrance facilitates developmental evolution in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Eldar, Avigdor; Chary, Vasant; Xenopoulos, Panagiotis; Fontes, Michelle E.; Loson, Oliver C.; Dworkin, Jonathan; Piggot, Patrick; Elowitz, Michael B.

    2009-01-01

    Development normally occurs similarly in all individuals within an isogenic population, but mutations often affect the fate of individual organisms differently1-4. This phenomenon, known as partial penetrance, has been observed in diverse developmental systems. However, it remains unclear how the underlying genetic network specifies the set of possible alternative fates and how the relative frequencies of these fates evolve5-8. Here, we identify a stochastic cell fate determination process that operates in Bacillus subtilis sporulation mutants and show how it allows genetic control of the penetrance of multiple fates. Mutations in an inter-compartmental signaling process generate a set of discrete alternative fates not observed in wild-type cells, including rare formation of two viable “twin” spores, rather than one within a single cell. By genetically modulating chromosome replication and septation, we could systematically tune the penetrance of each mutant fate. Furthermore, signaling and replication perturbations synergize to dramatically increase the penetrance of twin sporulation. These results suggest a potential pathway for developmental evolution between monosporulation and twin sporulation through states of intermediate twin penetrance. Furthermore, time-lapse microscopy of twin sporulation in wild-type Clostridium oceanicum showed a strong resemblance to twin sporulation in these B. subtilis mutants9,10. Together the results suggest that noise can facilitate developmental evolution by enabling the initial expression of discrete morphological traits at low penetrance, and allowing their stabilization by gradual adjustment of genetic parameters. PMID:19578359

  17. Audiovisual integration facilitates unconscious visual scene processing.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jye-Sheng; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2015-10-01

    Meanings of masked complex scenes can be extracted without awareness; however, it remains unknown whether audiovisual integration occurs with an invisible complex visual scene. The authors examine whether a scenery soundtrack can facilitate unconscious processing of a subliminal visual scene. The continuous flash suppression paradigm was used to render a complex scene picture invisible, and the picture was paired with a semantically congruent or incongruent scenery soundtrack. Participants were asked to respond as quickly as possible if they detected any part of the scene. Release-from-suppression time was used as an index of unconscious processing of the complex scene, which was shorter in the audiovisual congruent condition than in the incongruent condition (Experiment 1). The possibility that participants adopted different detection criteria for the 2 conditions was excluded (Experiment 2). The audiovisual congruency effect did not occur for objects-only (Experiment 3) and background-only (Experiment 4) pictures, and it did not result from consciously mediated conceptual priming (Experiment 5). The congruency effect was replicated when catch trials without scene pictures were added to exclude participants with high false-alarm rates (Experiment 6). This is the first study demonstrating unconscious audiovisual integration with subliminal scene pictures, and it suggests expansions of scene-perception theories to include unconscious audiovisual integration. PMID:26076179

  18. Facilitating medication incident analysis through computerization.

    PubMed

    Pankoski, D G; Dinel, B A

    1988-05-01

    A computer program to facilitate medication incident analysis is described. This program was developed to provide the hospital's Medication Quality Assurance Committee with more meaningful data on medication incidents in an easily accessible database as well as enhanced data storage. The menu-driven program was developed on an Olivetti M-24 SP microcomputer using Lotus 1-2-3 and Harvard Business Graphics software. The structured format of the database contains specific information from each individual medication incident report. On a monthly basis, macro commands are used to extract criteria-based data from the database and present this information in a tabular format. In addition, annual data tables are complied to provide year-to-date data summaries. The database and tables are copied and stored on a computer diskette each month. This computer program has provided the Medication Quality Assurance Committee with an improved system for medication incident data analysis. The major benefit of this computer program over the previous manual system is the more timely identification of medication-related practices requiring closer monitoring and/or revision to improve patient care. PMID:10287638

  19. An enhanced archive facilitating climate impacts analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maurer, E.P.; Brekke, L.; Pruitt, T.; Thrasher, B.; Long, J.; Duffy, P.; Dettinger, M.; Cayan, D.; Arnold, J.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the expansion of a publicly available archive of downscaled climate and hydrology projections for the United States. Those studying or planning to adapt to future climate impacts demand downscaled climate model output for local or regional use. The archive we describe attempts to fulfill this need by providing data in several formats, selectable to meet user needs. Our archive has served as a resource for climate impacts modelers, water managers, educators, and others. Over 1,400 individuals have transferred more than 50 TB of data from the archive. In response to user demands, the archive has expanded from monthly downscaled data to include daily data to facilitate investigations of phenomena sensitive to daily to monthly temperature and precipitation, including extremes in these quantities. New developments include downscaled output from the new Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) climate model simulations at both the monthly and daily time scales, as well as simulations of surface hydrologi- cal variables. The web interface allows the extraction of individual projections or ensemble statistics for user-defined regions, promoting the rapid assessment of model consensus and uncertainty for future projections of precipitation, temperature, and hydrology. The archive is accessible online (http://gdo-dcp.ucllnl.org/downscaled_ cmip_projections).

  20. Anthocyanins facilitate tungsten accumulation in Brassica

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, K.L.

    2002-11-01

    Accumulation of molybdenum in Brassica was recently found to be correlated with anthocyanin content, involving the formation of a blue complex. Here the role of anthocyanins in tungsten sequestration was investigated using three species of Brassica: B. rapa (cv. Fast plants), B. juncea (Indian mustard) and B. oleracea (red cabbage). Seedlings of B. rapa and B. juncea turned blue when supplied with colourless tungstate. The blue compound co-localized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers, and the degree of blueness was correlated with anthocyanin content. The direct involvement of anthocyanins in the blue coloration was evident when purified anthocyanins showed a colour change from pink to blue in vitro upon addition of tungstate, over a wide pH range. Anthocyanin production was upregulated 3-fold by W in B. juncea, possibly reflecting a function for anthocyanins in W tolerance or sequestration. The presence of anthocyanins facilitated W accumulation in B. rapa: anthocyanin-containing seedlings accumulated 3-fold more W than an anthocyaninless mutant. There was no correlation between anthocyanin content and W tolerance under these conditions. The nature of the interaction between anthocyanins and tungstate was investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed no change in the local chemical environment of Wupon uptake of tungstate by the plant; HPLC analysis of purified anthocyanin with or without tungstate showed no peak shift after metal treatment.

  1. Repeated intravenous doxapram induces phrenic motor facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, MS; Lee, KZ; Gonzalez-Rothi, EJ; Fuller, DD

    2013-01-01

    Doxapram is a respiratory stimulant used to treat hypoventilation. Here we investigated whether doxapram could also trigger respiratory neuroplasticity. Specifically, we hypothesized that intermittent delivery of doxapram at low doses would lead to long-lasting increases (i.e., facilitation) of phrenic motor output in anesthetized, vagotomized, and mechanically-ventilated rats. Doxapram was delivered intravenously in a single bolus (2 or 6 mg/kg) or as a series of 3 injections (2 mg/kg) at 5 min intervals. Control groups received pH-matched saline injections (vehicle) or no treatment (anesthesia time control). Doxapram evoked an immediate increase in phrenic output in all groups, but a persistent increase in burst amplitude only occurred after repeated dosing with 2 mg/kg. At 60 min following the last injection, phrenic burst amplitude was 168±24% of baseline (%BL) in the group receiving 3 injections (P < 0.05 vs. controls), but was 103±8%BL and 112±4%BL in the groups receiving a single dose of 2 or 6 mg/kg, respectively. Following bilateral section of the carotid sinus nerves, the acute phrenic response to doxapram (2 mg/kg) was reduced by 68% suggesting that at low doses the drug was acting primarily via the carotid chemoreceptors. We conclude that intermittent application of doxapram can trigger phrenic neuroplasticity, and this approach might be of use in the context of respiratory rehabilitation following neurologic injury. PMID:24013015

  2. Motor imagery facilitates force field learning.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Muhammad Nabeel; Tomi, Naoki; Ito, Koji

    2011-06-13

    Humans have the ability to produce an internal reproduction of a specific motor action without any overt motor output. Recent findings show that the processes underlying motor imagery are similar to those active during motor execution and both share common neural substrates. This suggests that the imagery of motor movements might play an important role in acquiring new motor skills. In this study we used haptic robot in conjunction with motor imagery technique to improve learning in a robot-based adaptation task. Two groups of subjects performed reaching movements with or without motor imagery in a velocity-dependent and position-dependent mixed force field. The groups performed movements with motor imagery produced higher after effects and decreased muscle co-contraction with respect to no-motor imagery group. These results showed a positive influence of motor imagery on acquiring new motor skill and suggest that motor learning can be facilitated by mental practice and could be used to increase the rate of adaptation. PMID:21555118

  3. Protected areas facilitate species’ range expansions

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Chris D.; Gillingham, Phillipa K.; Bradbury, Richard B.; Roy, David B.; Anderson, Barbara J.; Baxter, John M.; Bourn, Nigel A. D.; Crick, Humphrey Q. P.; Findon, Richard A.; Fox, Richard; Hodgson, Jenny A.; Holt, Alison R.; Morecroft, Mike D.; O’Hanlon, Nina J.; Oliver, Tom H.; Pearce-Higgins, James W.; Procter, Deborah A.; Thomas, Jeremy A.; Walker, Kevin J.; Walmsley, Clive A.; Wilson, Robert J.; Hill, Jane K.

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of protected areas (PAs) for biodiversity have been questioned in the context of climate change because PAs are static, whereas the distributions of species are dynamic. Current PAs may, however, continue to be important if they provide suitable locations for species to colonize at their leading-edge range boundaries, thereby enabling spread into new regions. Here, we present an empirical assessment of the role of PAs as targets for colonization during recent range expansions. Records from intensive surveys revealed that seven bird and butterfly species have colonized PAs 4.2 (median) times more frequently than expected from the availability of PAs in the landscapes colonized. Records of an additional 256 invertebrate species with less-intensive surveys supported these findings and showed that 98% of species are disproportionately associated with PAs in newly colonized parts of their ranges. Although colonizing species favor PAs in general, species vary greatly in their reliance on PAs, reflecting differences in the dependence of individual species on particular habitats and other conditions that are available only in PAs. These findings highlight the importance of current PAs for facilitating range expansions and show that a small subset of the landscape receives a high proportion of colonizations by range-expanding species. PMID:22893689

  4. Open rhinoplasty concepts in facilitating tip reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Carminati, Marcello; Robotti, Enrico

    2014-06-01

    The nose is a frequent site for skin cancer, accounting for approximately 26% of basal cell carcinomas and approximately 13% of spinal cell carcinomas of the facial district. Also melanomas, mostly as lentigo maligna melanomas, are frequently located at the nasal pyramid. Although defects can be of varying size and depth, some even involving the whole trilaminar structure of the nose, most remain superficial and seldom reach and infiltrate the underlying framework. In contrast, they can be wide, thus requesting large flaps to resurface the defect. Although a technically well-planned and well-performed surgery can lead to excellent aesthetic results, scars from both donor and recipient sites can be noticeable. Since skin cancers generally affect older people, we often deal with aged noses. Such noses typically present some common features such as plunging tip, increased length, and a prominent hump due to several reasons, already well described in the literature. In this scenario, by reducing and addressing the framework, we can obtain a variable quota of downsizing of the original defect, thus requiring less skin for coverage, and thus reducing the size of needed flaps and consequent scars. This is greatly facilitated by the open rhinoplasty approach. Most of the maneuvers aimed at reducing the framework are indeed the same. PMID:24918706

  5. Transducer model produces facilitation from opposite-sign flanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, J. A.; Watson, A. B.; Morgan, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Small spots, lines and Gabor patterns can be easier to detect when they are superimposed upon similar spots, lines and Gabor patterns. Traditionally, such facilitation has been understood to be a consequence of nonlinear contrast transduction. Facilitation has also been reported to arise from non-overlapping patterns with opposite sign. We point out that this result does not preclude the traditional explanation for superimposed targets. Moreover, we find that facilitation from opposite-sign flanks is weaker than facilitation from same-sign flanks. Simulations with a transducer model produce opposite-sign facilitation.

  6. Polymerases ε and ∂ repair dysfunctional telomeres facilitated by salt

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Iglika G.; Maringele, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Damaged DNA can be repaired by removal and re-synthesis of up to 30 nucleotides during base or nucleotide excision repair. An important question is what happens when many more nucleotides are removed, resulting in long single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) lesions. Such lesions appear on chromosomes during telomere damage, double strand break repair or after the UV damage of stationary phase cells. Here, we show that long single-stranded lesions, formed at dysfunctional telomeres in budding yeast, are re-synthesized when cells are removed from the telomere-damaging environment. This process requires Pol32, an accessory factor of Polymerase δ. However, re-synthesis takes place even when the telomere-damaging conditions persist, in which case the accessory factors of both polymerases δ and ε are required, and surprisingly, salt. Salt added to the medium facilitates the DNA synthesis, independently of the osmotic stress responses. These results provide unexpected insights into the DNA metabolism and challenge the current view on cellular responses to telomere dysfunction. PMID:26883631

  7. Facilitating and Understanding Autonomy in Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrick, Marcia Gail; Carr, Paul Brian

    2003-01-01

    A series of four studies identified the conative factors associated with the constructs of desire, resourcefulness, initiative, and persistence through the development of a conceptual model that provides a framework for understanding autonomous learning. The studies ultimately produced a single instrument, the Learner Autonomy Profile, that…

  8. Discovering Clues for Facilitating Relevant Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Raymond J.

    A study was conducted in Spokane, Washington, to determine motivational factors and preferred conditions that would encourage adults to participate in learning activities. Interviews were conducted with 600 randomly selected households (89 percent success rate) distributed across the age, educational attainment, occupational, and socioeconomic…

  9. The SIO: An Instrument To Facilitate Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Laurent, Lise

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how as inclusive efforts became more prevalent in the 1970s, 80s, and 90s, the Individualized Education Program (IEP) came to be considered a key factor in achieving high quality services and instruction for students with disabilities. Describes a technique, the Summary of Individualized Objectives (SIO), for making IEP goals and…

  10. Facilitators of Organizational Learning in Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Ngoc Thuy; Swierczek, Fredric William

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the influence of organizational factors such as leadership commitment, incentives and interaction on learning outcomes defined as performance improvement and organizational climate. Design/methodology/approach: Different aspects of knowledge acquisition, sharing and utilization were examined,…

  11. Barrier and Facilitators of HIV Related Risky Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    SHAHNAZI, Ashkan; FOROUZAN, Ameneh Setareh; NEDJAT, Saharnaz; ASGARI, Soheila; MAJDZADEH, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study was conducted to identify the determinants of protective behavior in relation to HIV transmission. Since the risk of transmission is higher among those who have extramarital intercourse, the study sample constituted of such people. Methods: We started this study in 2010 and finished it in 2011. Participants were divided into low-risk and high-risk groups. High-risk people included sex workers and those who presented at drop-in centers. Interviewees were 18 men and women in the low-risk group and 12 men and women in the high-risk group. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and were analyzed using the thematic framework method. Results: In both groups, protective behavior was influenced by willingness to protect, intention or decision to protect, and personal, social, and environmental barriers and facilitators. In terms of willingness, behavior was influenced to preserve sexual pleasure by avoiding condoms. In terms of barriers and facilitators, trust in partner, misperceptions, condom inaccessibility, unplanned sex, fear of contracting the disease, partner’s wish, ethical commitments were mentioned by both groups, stigma of condom possession by the low-risk group, and partner’s force was mentioned by the high-risk group. Conclusion: Educational programs need to focus on changing the concept that “condoms reduce sexual pleasure”. In addition, interventional programs to strengthen factors such as self-efficacy, ethical commitments, faithfulness, and correct beliefs such as undue trust in partner, misconception of being safe, unplanned sex, and the stigma of possessing condoms can be very effective in changing high-risk sexual behavior. PMID:26056638

  12. Foreign language comprehension achievement: insights from the cognate facilitation effect

    PubMed Central

    Casaponsa, Aina; Antón, Eneko; Pérez, Alejandro; Duñabeitia, Jon A.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the native language influences foreign word recognition and that this influence is modulated by the proficiency in the non-native language. Here we explored how the degree of reliance on cross-language similarity (as measured by the cognate facilitation effect) together with other domain-general cognitive factors contribute to reading comprehension achievement in a non-native language at different stages of the learning process. We tested two groups of native speakers of Spanish learning English at elementary and intermediate levels in an academic context. A regression model approach showed that domain-general cognitive skills are good predictors of second language reading achievement independently of the level of proficiency. Critically, we found that individual differences in the degree of reliance on the native language predicted foreign language reading achievement, showing a markedly different pattern between proficiency groups. At lower levels of proficiency the cognate facilitation effect was positively related with reading achievement, while this relation became negative at intermediate levels of foreign language learning. We conclude that the link between native- and foreign-language lexical representations helps participants at initial stages of the learning process, whereas it is no longer the case at intermediate levels of proficiency, when reliance on cross-language similarity is inversely related to successful non-native reading achievement. Thus, at intermediate levels of proficiency strong and direct mappings from the non-native lexical forms to semantic concepts are needed to achieve good non-native reading comprehension, in line with the premises of current models of bilingual lexico-semantic organization. PMID:25999899

  13. Manipulation of Autophagy in Phagocytes Facilitates Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infection

    PubMed Central

    O'Keeffe, Kate M.; Wilk, Mieszko M.; Leech, John M.; Murphy, Alison G.; Laabei, Maisem; Monk, Ian R.; Massey, Ruth C.; Lindsay, Jodi A.; Foster, Timothy J.; Geoghegan, Joan A.

    2015-01-01

    The capacity for intracellular survival within phagocytes is likely a critical factor facilitating the dissemination of Staphylococcus aureus in the host. To date, the majority of work on S. aureus-phagocyte interactions has focused on neutrophils and, to a lesser extent, macrophages, yet we understand little about the role played by dendritic cells (DCs) in the direct killing of this bacterium. Using bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs), we demonstrate for the first time that DCs can effectively kill S. aureus but that certain strains of S. aureus have the capacity to evade DC (and macrophage) killing by manipulation of autophagic pathways. Strains with high levels of Agr activity were capable of causing autophagosome accumulation, were not killed by BMDCs, and subsequently escaped from the phagocyte, exerting significant cytotoxic effects. Conversely, strains that exhibited low levels of Agr activity failed to accumulate autophagosomes and were killed by BMDCs. Inhibition of the autophagic pathway by treatment with 3-methyladenine restored the bactericidal effects of BMDCs. Using an in vivo model of systemic infection, we demonstrated that the ability of S. aureus strains to evade phagocytic cell killing and to survive temporarily within phagocytes correlated with persistence in the periphery and that this effect is critically Agr dependent. Taken together, our data suggest that strains of S. aureus exhibiting high levels of Agr activity are capable of blocking autophagic flux, leading to the accumulation of autophagosomes. Within these autophagosomes, the bacteria are protected from phagocytic killing, thus providing an intracellular survival niche within professional phagocytes, which ultimately facilitates dissemination. PMID:26099586

  14. Foreign language comprehension achievement: insights from the cognate facilitation effect.

    PubMed

    Casaponsa, Aina; Antón, Eneko; Pérez, Alejandro; Duñabeitia, Jon A

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the native language influences foreign word recognition and that this influence is modulated by the proficiency in the non-native language. Here we explored how the degree of reliance on cross-language similarity (as measured by the cognate facilitation effect) together with other domain-general cognitive factors contribute to reading comprehension achievement in a non-native language at different stages of the learning process. We tested two groups of native speakers of Spanish learning English at elementary and intermediate levels in an academic context. A regression model approach showed that domain-general cognitive skills are good predictors of second language reading achievement independently of the level of proficiency. Critically, we found that individual differences in the degree of reliance on the native language predicted foreign language reading achievement, showing a markedly different pattern between proficiency groups. At lower levels of proficiency the cognate facilitation effect was positively related with reading achievement, while this relation became negative at intermediate levels of foreign language learning. We conclude that the link between native- and foreign-language lexical representations helps participants at initial stages of the learning process, whereas it is no longer the case at intermediate levels of proficiency, when reliance on cross-language similarity is inversely related to successful non-native reading achievement. Thus, at intermediate levels of proficiency strong and direct mappings from the non-native lexical forms to semantic concepts are needed to achieve good non-native reading comprehension, in line with the premises of current models of bilingual lexico-semantic organization. PMID:25999899

  15. Facilitators and Barriers to Implementing Clinical Governance: A Qualitative Study among Senior Managers in Iran

    PubMed Central

    RAVAGHI, Hamid; RAFIEI, Sima; HEIDARPOUR, Peigham; MOHSENI, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Health care systems should assign quality improvement as their main mission. Clinical governance (CG) is a key strategy to improve quality of health care services. The Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME) has promoted CG as a framework for safeguarding quality and safety in all hospitals since 2009. The purpose of this study was to explore perceived facilitators and barriers to implementing CG by deputies for curative affairs of Iranian medical universities. Methods A qualitative study was conducted using face to face interviews with a purposeful sample of 43 deputies for curative affairs of Iranian Medical Universities and documents review. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data Results Five themes were explored including: knowledge and attitude toward CG, culture, organizational factors, managerial factors and barriers. The main perceived facilitating factors were adequate knowledge and positive attitude toward CG, supporting culture, managers’ commitment, effective communication and well designed incentives. Pe rceived barriers were the reverse of facilitators noted above in addition to insufficient resources, legal challenges, workload and parallel quality programs. Conclusions Successful implementation of CG in Iran will require identifying barriers and challenges existing in the way of CG implementation and try to mitigate them by using appropriate facilitators. PMID:26175981

  16. IODP: Facilitating Multidisciplinary Collaboration in Subseafloor Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meth, C. E.; Koppers, A. A.; Screaton, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) is an international marine research program that brings to the surface new insights into climate and environmental change, tectonics and earthquake genesis, and the nature of life in extreme environments. The program crosses disciplines, international boundaries, and generations in a collaborative effort to collect subseafloor cores and data for studying the planet. A recent survey of the U.S. scientific ocean drilling community defines the breadth and research diversity of the scientists involved in this innovative program. In total, 433 scientists responded, representing 117 universities, institutions, businesses, and government agencies located in 39 states and Washington, DC. A particularly striking statistic is that 44% of the respondents are students or early career researchers who finished their Ph.D. within the past 10 years. Respondents were asked to identify with which of the main IODP research themes they most closely identified. With 31% selecting more than one theme, it is clear that many are taking a truly interdisciplinary approach to their research. More than half (51%) of the respondents have never sailed on an expedition, showing that the use and impact of scientific ocean drilling data reaches far beyond the confines of one expedition and the scientists directly involved therein. These data paint a picture of a broad community that is engaged and ready to embrace future research challenges. By understanding the demographics and interests of a research community - especially diverse communities focused on large research programs - program managers can better develop mechanisms to facilitate collaborations and use resources efficiently.

  17. Sleep facilitates learning a new linguistic rule

    PubMed Central

    Batterink, Laura J.; Oudiette, Delphine; Reber, Paul J.; Paller, Ken A.

    2014-01-01

    Natural languages contain countless regularities. Extraction of these patterns is an essential component of language acquisition. Here we examined the hypothesis that memory processing during sleep contributes to this learning. We exposed participants to a hidden linguistic rule by presenting a large number of two-word phrases, each including a noun preceded by one of four novel words that functioned as an article (e.g., gi rhino). These novel words (ul, gi, ro and ne) were presented as obeying an explicit rule: two words signified that the noun referent was relatively near, and two that it was relatively far. Undisclosed to participants was the fact that the novel articles also predicted noun animacy, with two of the articles preceding animate referents and the other two preceding inanimate referents. Rule acquisition was tested implicitly using a task in which participants responded to each phrase according to whether the noun was animate or inanimate. Learning of the hidden rule was evident in slower responses to phrases that violated the rule. Responses were delayed regardless of whether rule-knowledge was consciously accessible. Brain potentials provided additional confirmation of implicit and explicit rule-knowledge. An afternoon nap was interposed between two 20-min learning sessions. Participants who obtained greater amounts of both slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep showed increased sensitivity to the hidden linguistic rule in the second session. We conclude that during sleep, reactivation of linguistic information linked with the rule was instrumental for stabilizing learning. The combination of slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep may synergistically facilitate the abstraction of complex patterns in linguistic input. PMID:25447376

  18. Sleep facilitates learning a new linguistic rule.

    PubMed

    Batterink, Laura J; Oudiette, Delphine; Reber, Paul J; Paller, Ken A

    2014-12-01

    Natural languages contain countless regularities. Extraction of these patterns is an essential component of language acquisition. Here we examined the hypothesis that memory processing during sleep contributes to this learning. We exposed participants to a hidden linguistic rule by presenting a large number of two-word phrases, each including a noun preceded by one of four novel words that functioned as an article (e.g., gi rhino). These novel words (ul, gi, ro and ne) were presented as obeying an explicit rule: two words signified that the noun referent was relatively near, and two that it was relatively far. Undisclosed to participants was the fact that the novel articles also predicted noun animacy, with two of the articles preceding animate referents and the other two preceding inanimate referents. Rule acquisition was tested implicitly using a task in which participants responded to each phrase according to whether the noun was animate or inanimate. Learning of the hidden rule was evident in slower responses to phrases that violated the rule. Responses were delayed regardless of whether rule-knowledge was consciously accessible. Brain potentials provided additional confirmation of implicit and explicit rule-knowledge. An afternoon nap was interposed between two 20-min learning sessions. Participants who obtained greater amounts of both slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep showed increased sensitivity to the hidden linguistic rule in the second session. We conclude that during sleep, reactivation of linguistic information linked with the rule was instrumental for stabilizing learning. The combination of slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep may synergistically facilitate the abstraction of complex patterns in linguistic input. PMID:25447376

  19. Facilitating Analysis of Multiple Partial Data Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maimone, Mark W.; Liebersbach, Robert R.

    2008-01-01

    Robotic Operations Automation: Mechanisms, Imaging, Navigation report Generation (ROAMING) is a set of computer programs that facilitates and accelerates both tactical and strategic analysis of time-sampled data especially the disparate and often incomplete streams of Mars Explorer Rover (MER) telemetry data described in the immediately preceding article. As used here, tactical refers to the activities over a relatively short time (one Martian day in the original MER application) and strategic refers to a longer time (the entire multi-year MER missions in the original application). Prior to installation, ROAMING must be configured with the types of data of interest, and parsers must be modified to understand the format of the input data (many example parsers are provided, including for general CSV files). Thereafter, new data from multiple disparate sources are automatically resampled into a single common annotated spreadsheet stored in a readable space-separated format, and these data can be processed or plotted at any time scale. Such processing or plotting makes it possible to study not only the details of a particular activity spanning only a few seconds, but also longer-term trends. ROAMING makes it possible to generate mission-wide plots of multiple engineering quantities [e.g., vehicle tilt as in Figure 1(a), motor current, numbers of images] that, heretofore could be found only in thousands of separate files. ROAMING also supports automatic annotation of both images and graphs. In the MER application, labels given to terrain features by rover scientists and engineers are automatically plotted in all received images based on their associated camera models (see Figure 2), times measured in seconds are mapped to Mars local time, and command names or arbitrary time-labeled events can be used to label engineering plots, as in Figure 1(b).

  20. Does polyploidy facilitate long-distance dispersal?

    PubMed Central

    Linder, H. Peter; Barker, Nigel P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The ability of plant lineages to reach all continents contributes substantially to their evolutionary success. This is exemplified by the Poaceae, one of the most successful angiosperm families, in which most higher taxa (tribes, subfamilies) have global distributions. Due to the old age of the ocean basins relative to the major angiosperm radiations, this is only possible by means of long-distance dispersal (LDD), yet the attributes of lineages with successful LDD remain obscure. Polyploid species are over-represented in invasive floras and in the previously glaciated Arctic regions, and often have wider ecological tolerances than diploids; thus polyploidy is a candidate attribute of successful LDD. Methods The link between polyploidy and LDD was explored in the globally distributed grass subfamily Danthonioideae. An almost completely sampled and well-resolved species-level phylogeny of the danthonioids was used, and the available cytological information was assembled. The cytological evolution in the clade was inferred using maximum likelihood (ML) as implemented in ChromEvol. The biogeographical evolution in the clade was reconstructed using ML and Bayesian approaches. Key Results Numerous increases in ploidy level are demonstrated. A Late Miocene–Pliocene cycle of polyploidy is associated with LDD, and in two cases (the Australian Rytidosperma and the American Danthonia) led to secondary polyploidy. While it is demonstrated that successful LDD is more likely in polyploid than in diploid lineages, a link between polyploidization events and LDD is not demonstrated. Conclusions The results suggest that polyploids are more successful at LDD than diploids, and that the frequent polyploidy in the grasses might have facilitated the extensive dispersal among continents in the family, thus contributing to their evolutionary success. PMID:24694830

  1. Experimental Test for Facilitation of Seedling Recruitment by the Dominant Bunchgrass in a Fire-Maintained Savanna

    PubMed Central

    Iacona, Gwenllian D.; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Bruna, Emilio M.

    2012-01-01

    Facilitative interactions between neighboring plants can influence community composition, especially in locations where environmental stress is a factor limiting competitive effects. The longleaf pine savanna of the southeastern United States is a threatened and diverse system where seedling recruitment success and understory species richness levels are regulated by the availability of moist microsites. We hypothesized that the dominant bunch grass species (Aristida stricta Michx.) would facilitate moist seedling microsites through shading, but that the effect would depend on stress gradients. Here, we examined the environmental properties modified by the presence of wiregrass and tested the importance of increased shade as a potential facilitative mechanism promoting seedling recruitment across spatial and temporal stress gradients. We showed that environmental gradients, season, and experimental water manipulation influence seedling success. Environmental properties were modified by wiregrass proximity in a manner that could facilitate seedling success, but we showed that shade alone does not provide a facilitative benefit to seedlings in this system. PMID:22792165

  2. Facilitators and Barriers to Traditional Food Consumption in the Cree Community of Mistissini, Northern Quebec.

    PubMed

    Laberge Gaudin, Véronique; Receveur, Olivier; Girard, Félix; Potvin, Louise

    2015-01-01

    To identify barriers to traditional food consumption and factors that facilitate it among the Cree community of Mistissini, a series of four focus groups was conducted with a total of twenty-three people. Two ecological models were created, one for facilitating factors and a second for obstacles, illustrating the role of numerous interconnected influences of traditional food consumption. Environmental impact project, laws and regulation, local businesses, traditional knowledge, youth influence, employment status, and nonconvenience of traditional food were named among numerous factors influencing traditional food consumption. The findings of this study can be used by political and public health organizations to promote traditional food where more emphasis should be invested in community and environmental strategies. PMID:26517308

  3. Above- and belowground biotic interactions facilitate relocation of plants into cooler environments.

    PubMed

    Spasojevic, Marko J; Harrison, Susan; Day, Howard W; Southard, Randal J

    2014-06-01

    One important but largely unanswered question about floristic responses to climate change is how interactions such as competition, facilitation and plant-soil feedbacks will influence the ability of species to track shifting climates. In a rugged and moisture-limited region that has recently warmed by 2° (Siskiyou Mountains, OR, USA), we planted three species into cooler aspects and elevations than those they currently inhabit, with and without removal of neighbouring plants, and tracked them over 2 years. Two species had higher success in cooler topographic locations, and this success was enhanced by neighbouring plants, which appeared to modulate minimum growing season temperatures. One species' success was also facilitated by the higher soil organic matter found in cooler sites. These results are a novel experimental demonstration of two important factors that may buffer climate change impacts on plants: rugged topography and plant-plant facilitation. PMID:24641109

  4. Workplace Participatory Occupational Health/Health Promotion Program: Facilitators and Barriers Observed in Three Nursing Homes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Flum, Marian; Kotejoshyer, Rajashree; Fleishman, Jane; Henning, Robert; Punnett, Laura

    2016-06-01

    Nursing home employees experience high physical and psychosocial workloads, resulting in poor health outcomes. An occupational health/health promotion program, designed to facilitate employee participation, was initiated in three nursing homes. The aim of the current study was to evaluate facilitators and barriers of the program after 3-year implementation. Focus groups with employees and in-depth interviews with top and middle managers were conducted. The Social Ecological Model was used to organize the evaluation. Facilitators and barriers were reported from both managers' and employees' perspectives, and were categorized as intrapersonal, interpersonal, institutional, and corporate level. Management support, financial resources, and release time for participation were identified as the three most important factors. Supports from multiple levels including both human and environment, and managers and employees, are important for a successful participatory occupational health/health promotion program. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(6), 34-42.]. PMID:26977705

  5. Facilitating Implementation of Interprofessional Collaborative Practices Into Primary Care: A Trilogy of Driving Forces.

    PubMed

    Bareil, Céline; Duhamel, Fabie; Lalonde, Lyne; Goudreau, Johanne; Hudon, Eveline; Lussier, Marie-Thérèse; Lévesque, Lise; Lessard, Sylvie; Turcotte, Alain; Lalonde, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Implementing interprofessional collaborative practices in primary care is challenging, and research about its facilitating factors remains scarce. The goal of this participatory action research study was to better understand the driving forces during the early stage of the implementation process of a community-driven and patient-focused program in primary care titled "TRANSforming InTerprofessional cardiovascular disease prevention in primary care" (TRANSIT). Eight primary care clinics in Quebec, Canada, agreed to participate by creating and implementing an interprofessional facilitation team (IFT). Sixty-three participants volunteered to be part of an IFT, and 759 patients agreed to participate. We randomized six clinics into a supported facilitation ("supported") group, with an external facilitator (EF) and financial incentives for participants. We assigned two clinics to an unsupported facilitation ("unsupported") group, with no EF or financial incentives. After 3 months, we held one interview for the two EFs. After 6 months, we held eight focus groups with IFT members and another interview with each EF. The analyses revealed three key forces: (1) opportunity for dialogue through the IFT, (2) active role of the EF, and (3) change implementation budgets. Decision-makers designing implementation plans for interprofessional programs should ensure that these driving forces are activated. Further research should examine how these forces affect interprofessional practices and patient outcomes. PMID:26364352

  6. Facilitating problem solving in high school chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabel, Dorothy L.; Sherwood, Robert D.

    The major purpose for conducting this study was to determine whether certain instructional strategies were superior to others in teaching high school chemistry students problem solving. The effectiveness of four instructional strategies for teaching problem solving to students of various proportional reasoning ability, verbal and visual preference, and mathematics anxiety were compared in this aptitude by treatment interaction study. The strategies used were the factor-label method, analogies, diagrams, and proportionality. Six hundred and nine high school students in eight schools were randomly assigned to one of four teaching strategies within each classroom. Students used programmed booklets to study the mole concept, the gas laws, stoichiometry, and molarity. Problem-solving ability was measured by a series of immediate posttests, delayed posttests and the ACS-NSTA Examination in High School Chemistry. Results showed that mathematics anxiety is negatively correlated with science achievement and that problem solving is dependent on students' proportional reasoning ability. The factor-label method was found to be the most desirable method and proportionality the least desirable method for teaching the mole concept. However, the proportionality method was best for teaching the gas laws. Several second-order interactions were found to be significant when mathematics anxiety was one of the aptitudes involved.

  7. Restoring Tropical Grassland Productivity with Facilitated Biofertilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Wendy; Büdel, Burkhard

    2015-04-01

    Grazing is the major economic activity in northern Australia's subtropical grasslands, savannah and shrublands that cover >1.9 million km2 however; there has been significant decline in soil fertility that has led to the need to consider ways to improve management. Terrestrial cyanobacteria primarily inhabit complex soil microbial communities that drive physical and biological processes in the topsoil. These microbes facilitate resilience to drought and maintain soil function. They transform their environment through the secretion of mucilaginous organic compounds that improve aggregate stability, porosity, rainfall infiltration rates and water storage, reduce evaporation and soil erosion and, improve seedling emergence. In the northern Australian savannah cyanobacterial communities dominate soil surfaces of the perennial tussock grasslands. The core focus of this research has been to better understand the function of cyanobacteria within the climate-soil-plant ecosystem. The recent discovery that cyanobacteria are programmed to detect and respond only to wet season rains, and remain inactive and unproductive during the dry season even if it rains, has rewritten our understanding of soil nutrient cycles in the northern Australian savannah. In this project we have established: 1. For the wet season trials (Dec 2009-May 2010) the mean values of cyanobacterial crust (0-1 cm depth; n=100) plant-available N fluctuated, yet significantly increased incrementally from Dec to Feb (2.74 ± 0.37SE-5.62 ± 0.82 mg NH4+ kg-1 soil; p = 0.003) and peaked from Mar-May (9.59 ± 1.5SE-16.04 ± 3.2SE mg NH4+ kg-1 soil; p = 0.127) that represented the concluding stages of the wet season. 2. Cyanobacterial rates of N-fixation (determined by Acetylene Reduction assays, n=6 per month), increased significantly from the commencement to the height of the wet season (13.2 ± 2.9SE-30.2 ± 1.9SE kg N ha-1; p = 0.001) and decreased towards the end of the wet season (10.4 ± 1.8SE kg N ha-1; p

  8. Facilitators of implementing occupation based practice among Iranian occupational therapists: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Khayatzadeh Mahani, Mohammad; Hassani Mehraban, Afsoon; Kamali, Mohammad; Parvizy, Soroor

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Occupation-Based Practice (OBP) is a central core of occupational therapy (OT).It refers to using a meaningful occupation based on the client’s interests, needs, health and participation in daily life. This study aimed to explore the facilitators of implementing OBP among Iranian occupational therapists. Methods: Fourteen occupational therapists participated in this study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, and the sampling method was purposeful. The interviews were continued until data saturation was reached, and data were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed through qualitative content analysis using constant comparative analysis. Results: Our analysis explored two themes: Factors attributed to context, and factors attributed to therapists. The first theme consisted of three subthemes: Educational programs of OT department, public information about OBP and clinical setting compatible with OBP. The second theme also contained three subthemes including: Positive attitude regarding effectiveness of OBP, emphasis on client- centered and family- centered practice and convincing the clients to utilize OBP. Conclusion: The facilitators of implementing OBP are attributed to factors internal to the therapists as well as to issues in the external environment and context. Understanding these factors will help occupational therapists, OT educational staff, administrators and rehabilitation team members to facilitate the implementation of OBP. PMID:26913270

  9. Exploring barriers and facilitators in eating disorders treatment among Latinas in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Ramírez, Juanita; Davis, Kendra; Patrice, Kesha; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore facilitators and barriers that may contribute to, or prevent, the engagement and retention of Latinos in eating disorders (EDs) treatment. Objective The main objective of this investigation was to explore more fully the facilitators and barriers that may contribute to or prevent the engagement and retention of Latinos/as in EDs treatment. Methods A qualitative design based on grounded theory was used to guide in-depth interviews with 5 Latinas (mean age 31.2 years) with history of EDs and with 5 Latino mental health providers (mean age 36.4 years). Results Six main themes were found in the discussion with patients and mental health providers: immigration stress, treatment experience in the U.S., facilitators of help seeking, barriers to help seeking, treatment needs, and facilitators of treatment retention. For patients, lack of information about EDs and lack of bilingual treatment were identified as practical barriers. Other emotional factors such as stigma, fear of not being understood, family privacy and not being ready to change were identified as barriers to seeking help. Among facilitator factors that encouraged patients to seek help, the most salient were the perception of the severity of the ED and emotional distress. For treatment retention, family support was a key element among patients. For providers, offering short-term treatment and directive treatment were seen as relevant factors for treatment retention in Latinos. Conclusions A culturally sensitive intervention model for Latinas with EDs in the U.S. is discussed addressing four levels: patient; family; providers; and system. PMID:24729950

  10. Barriers and facilitators for general practitioners to engage in advance care planning: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective The aim of this systematic review is to identify the perceived factors hindering or facilitating GPs in engaging in advance care planning (ACP) with their patients about care at the end of life. Design Studies from 1990 to 2011 were found in four electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO); by contacting first authors of included studies and key experts; and searching through relevant journals and reference lists. Studies were screened, graded for quality, and analysed independently by two authors; those reporting the perception by GPs of barriers and facilitators to engagement in ACP were included. Results Eight qualitative studies and seven cross-sectional studies were included for data extraction. All barriers and facilitators identified were categorized as GP characteristics, perceived patient factors, or health care system characteristics. Stronger evidence was found for the following barriers: lack of skills to deal with patients’ vague requests, difficulties with defining the right moment, the attitude that it is the patient who should initiate ACP, and fear of depriving patients of hope. Stronger evidence was found for the following facilitators: accumulated skills, the ability to foresee health problems in the future, skills to respond to a patient's initiation of ACP, personal convictions about who to involve in ACP, and a longstanding patient–GP relationship and the home setting. Conclusion Initiation of ACP in general practice may be improved by targeting the GPs’ skills, attitudes, and beliefs but changes in health care organization and financing could also contribute. PMID:24299046

  11. Designing evaluation forms to facilitate student learning.

    PubMed

    Licari, Frank W; Knight, G William; Guenzel, Pamela J

    2008-01-01

    Most dental school instructors struggle to develop course evaluation criteria that can effectively be applied as valid and reliable learning instruments. Vague and unreliable learning assessments often lead to increased dissatisfaction among both faculty and students. Students complain about the "lack of faculty calibration," and faculty are often unable to adequately evaluate competence due to the need to provide an overall course grade by the end of the term. By systematically addressing Mackenzie et al.'s list of sixteen factors that contribute to faculty disagreements on student evaluation, we developed "Criteria for Writing Effective Evaluation Forms" as a guide for developing evaluation criteria. By using the guide for developing evaluation forms for student learning, course directors will have the components necessary to ensure validity and reliability of student assessment methodology. By providing students and faculty with clearly defined criteria and the training to apply those criteria, Mackenzie et al.'s concerns may be conquered. PMID:18172235

  12. Magnetic Fields Facilitate DNA-Mediated Charge Transport.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jiun Ru; Lee, Kee Jin; Shu, Jian-Jun; Shao, Fangwei

    2015-06-01

    Exaggerated radical-induced DNA damage under magnetic fields is of great concern to medical biosafety and biomolecular electronic devices. In this report, the effects of an external magnetic field (MF) on DNA electronic conductivity were investigated by studying the efficiencies of photoinduced DNA-mediated charge transport (CT) via guanine damage. Under a static MF of 300 mT, positive enhancements in the decomposition of 8-cyclopropyldeoxyguanosine ((8CP)G) were observed at both the proximal and distal guanine doublets, indicating a more efficient propagation of radical cations and higher electronic conductivity of duplex DNA. MF-assisted CT has shown sensitivity to magnetic field strength, duplex structures, and the integrity of base pair stacking. Spin evolution of charge injection and the alignment of base pairs to the CT-active conformation during radical propagation were proposed to be the two major factors that MF contributes to facilitate DNA-mediated CT. Herein, MF-assisted CT may offer a new avenue for designing DNA-based electronic devices and unraveling MF effects on redox and radical relevant biological processes. PMID:25946473

  13. DEAD-box protein facilitated RNA folding in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liebeg, Andreas; Mayer, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    In yeast mitochondria the DEAD-box helicase Mss116p is essential for respiratory growth by acting as group I and group II intron splicing factor. Here we provide the first structure-based insights into how Mss116p assists RNA folding in vivo. Employing an in vivo chemical probing technique, we mapped the structure of the ai5γ group II intron in different genetic backgrounds to characterize its intracellular fold. While the intron adopts the native conformation in the wt yeast strain, we found that the intron is able to form most of its secondary structure, but lacks its tertiary fold in the absence of Mss116p. This suggests that ai5γ is largely unfolded in the mss116-knockout strain and requires the protein at an early step of folding. Notably, in this unfolded state misfolded substructures have not been observed. As most of the protein-induced conformational changes are located within domain D1, Mss116p appears to facilitate the formation of this largest domain, which is the scaffold for docking of other intron domains. These findings suggest that Mss116p assists the ordered assembly of the ai5γ intron in vivo. PMID:21045551

  14. Transport by Collective Flagellar Beating Facilitates Evolutionary Transitions to Multicellularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Martin; Powers, Thomas

    2005-11-01

    A central problem underlying the evolution from single cells to multicellular organisms is the relationship between metabolic requirements and environmental metabolite exchange with increasing size. For organisms that form spherical colonies such as the volvocalean green algae, there is a bottleneck if diffusion alone governs nutrient uptake as they increase in size, for the diffusive flux is linear in the radius while the requirements of surface somatic cells grow quadratically. Using Volvox as a model organism, we examine experimentally and theoretically the role that advection of fluid by surface flagella plays in enhancing nutrient uptake. We show that the fluid flow driven by the coordinated beating of those flagella produces a boundary layer in the concentration of a diffusing solute which renders the metabolite exchange rate quadratic in the colony radius. This bypasses the diffusive bottleneck, facilitating evolutionary transitions to multicellularity which may be driven by other environmental factors. These results suggest that flagella may have evolved not only for motility, but also to enhance metabolite exchange.

  15. Coronatine Facilitates Pseudomonas syringae Infection of Arabidopsis Leaves at Night.

    PubMed

    Panchal, Shweta; Roy, Debanjana; Chitrakar, Reejana; Price, Lenore; Breitbach, Zachary S; Armstrong, Daniel W; Melotto, Maeli

    2016-01-01

    In many land plants, the stomatal pore opens during the day and closes during the night. Thus, periods of darkness could be effective in decreasing pathogen penetration into leaves through stomata, the primary sites for infection by many pathogens. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 produces coronatine (COR) and opens stomata, raising an intriguing question as to whether this is a virulence strategy to facilitate bacterial infection at night. In fact, we found that (a) biological concentration of COR is effective in opening dark-closed stomata of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, (b) the COR defective mutant Pst DC3118 is less effective in infecting Arabidopsis in the dark than under light and this difference in infection is reduced with the wild type bacterium Pst DC3000, and (c) cma, a COR biosynthesis gene, is induced only when the bacterium is in contact with the leaf surface independent of the light conditions. These findings suggest that Pst DC3000 activates virulence factors at the pre-invasive phase of its life cycle to infect plants even when environmental conditions (such as darkness) favor stomatal immunity. This functional attribute of COR may provide epidemiological advantages for COR-producing bacteria on the leaf surface. PMID:27446113

  16. Coronatine Facilitates Pseudomonas syringae Infection of Arabidopsis Leaves at Night

    PubMed Central

    Panchal, Shweta; Roy, Debanjana; Chitrakar, Reejana; Price, Lenore; Breitbach, Zachary S.; Armstrong, Daniel W.; Melotto, Maeli

    2016-01-01

    In many land plants, the stomatal pore opens during the day and closes during the night. Thus, periods of darkness could be effective in decreasing pathogen penetration into leaves through stomata, the primary sites for infection by many pathogens. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 produces coronatine (COR) and opens stomata, raising an intriguing question as to whether this is a virulence strategy to facilitate bacterial infection at night. In fact, we found that (a) biological concentration of COR is effective in opening dark-closed stomata of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, (b) the COR defective mutant Pst DC3118 is less effective in infecting Arabidopsis in the dark than under light and this difference in infection is reduced with the wild type bacterium Pst DC3000, and (c) cma, a COR biosynthesis gene, is induced only when the bacterium is in contact with the leaf surface independent of the light conditions. These findings suggest that Pst DC3000 activates virulence factors at the pre-invasive phase of its life cycle to infect plants even when environmental conditions (such as darkness) favor stomatal immunity. This functional attribute of COR may provide epidemiological advantages for COR-producing bacteria on the leaf surface. PMID:27446113

  17. Barriers and Facilitators Related to Rehabilitation Stays in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Holmøy, Trygve; Gulbrandsen, Pål

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown the positive effects of multidisciplinary rehabilitation on disability and health-related quality of life in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, many patients do not seek such treatment, even if it is available free of charge. The aim of this study was to identify facilitators and barriers related to use of such treatment options. Methods: Five focus group interviews with 27 MS patients were conducted. Three groups included patients who had been admitted to a multidisciplinary MS rehabilitation institution, and two groups included outpatients of a university hospital who had not applied for specialized rehabilitation. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed, and were analyzed qualitatively by means of a modified form of systematic text condensation. Results: Important factors influencing the use of an MS rehabilitation service were 1) the availability and suitability of initial information about the disease and the service, 2) assumptions and expectations about such a service, and 3) practical barriers in the patient's life. The prospect of having a retreat from work and family was described as a motivational factor. Lack of reorientation after diagnosis, fears and perceptions of being labeled as an MS patient, or having information overload and being confronted with disabled individuals were identified as barriers. Conclusions: Communication skills, including information-giving skills, of neurologists in relation to newly diagnosed MS patients need improvement. Rehabilitation programs for MS patients should include stays of different durations and purposes to fit patients' needs. Health-care authorities should take measures to secure equal access to information about rehabilitation options across institutions and practicing physicians. PMID:26052257

  18. Tactile-dependant corticomotor facilitation is influenced by discrimination performance in seniors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    the former group. Latency measurements and SP durations were not affected by task conditions. Conclusions The present findings provide further insights into the factors influencing task-dependant changes in corticomotor excitability in the context of aging. Our results, in particular, highlight the importance of adjusting task demands and controlling for attention when attempting to elicit task-specific motor facilitation in older persons engaged in fine manual actions. Such information could be critical in the future for planning interventions to re-educate or maintain hand function in the presence of neurological impairments. PMID:20205734

  19. Glutamine facilitates chemotherapy while reducing toxicity.

    PubMed

    Klimberg, V S; Nwokedi, E; Hutchins, L F; Pappas, A A; Lang, N P; Broadwater, J R; Read, R C; Westbrook, K C

    1992-01-01

    Dose intensification of chemotherapy is thought to increase survival. With recent advances in hemopoietic cell modulators such as granulocyte colony stimulating factor, the limiting toxicity of intensifying chemotherapeutic regimens has become the severity of the associated enterocolitis. In animal models, glutamine protects the host from methotrexate-induced enterocolitis. This study evaluates the effects of a glutamine-supplemented diet on the tumoricidal effectiveness of methotrexate. Sarcoma-bearing Fisher 344 rats (n = 30) were pair-fed an isocaloric elemental diet containing 1% glutamine or an isonitrogenous amount of glycine beginning on day 25 of the study. Rats from each group received two intraperitoneal injections of methotrexate (5 mg/kg) or saline on days 26 and 33 of the study. On day 40, rats were killed, tumor volume and weight were recorded, and tumor glutaminase activity and tumor morphometrics were measured. Blood was taken for arterial glutamine content, complete blood count, and blood culture. The gut was processed for glutaminase activity and synthesis phase of the deoxyribonucleic acid. In rats receiving methotrexate, the tumor volume loss was nearly doubled when glutamine was added to the diet. Significant differences in tumor glutaminase activity and morphometrics were not detected. The toxicity to the host was ameliorated. Significantly increased synthesis phase of deoxyribonucleic acid of the whole jejunum, decreased bacteremia, "sepsis," and mortality were demonstrated. Glutamine supplementation enhances the tumoricidal effectiveness of methotrexate while reducing its morbidity and mortality in this sarcoma rat model. PMID:1287230

  20. Facilitating culturally integrated behaviors among allied health students.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Katherine

    2002-01-01

    This article offers a perspective on why culturally integrated behaviors are important for allied health education and suggestions of methods to facilitate such behaviors. Literature and theory are used to support cultural integration in allied health curricula. Examples of learning experiences from students in cross-cultural environments and reflections on those experiences further elucidate facilitation methods. PMID:12041003

  1. What Facilitates the Use of Telehealth Applications Among Nurses?

    PubMed

    Koivunen, Marita; Saranto, Kaija

    2016-01-01

    This presentation describes the preliminary results of the facilitators of the use of telehealth applications from nurses' point of view based on a qualitative systematic literature review synthetizing 25 previously published papers. The study brought out two main categories that facilitate the use of telehealth among nurses: 1) Nurses' skills and attitudes, and 3) Changes in nurses' work and operations. PMID:27332423

  2. The calcium sensor synaptotagmin 7 is required for synaptic facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Jackman, Skyler L.; Turecek, Josef; Belinsky, Justine E.

    2015-01-01

    It has been known for over 70 years that synaptic strength is dynamically regulated in a use-dependent manner1. At synapses with a low initial release probability, closely spaced presynaptic action potentials can result in facilitation, a short-term form of enhancement where each subsequent action potential evokes greater neurotransmitter release2. Facilitation can enhance neurotransmitter release manyfold and profoundly influence information transfer across synapses3, but the underlying mechanism remains a mystery. Among the proposed mechanisms is that a specialized calcium sensor for facilitation transiently increases the probability of release2,4 and is distinct from the fast sensors that mediate rapid neurotransmitter release. Yet such a sensor has never been identified, and its very existence has been disputed5,6. Here we show that synaptotagmin 7 (syt7) is a calcium sensor that is required for facilitation at multiple central synapses. In syt7 knockout mice, facilitation is eliminated even though the initial probability of release and presynaptic residual calcium signals are unaltered. Expression of wild-type syt7 in presynaptic neurons restored facilitation, whereas expression of a mutated syt7 with a calcium-insensitive C2A domain did not. By revealing the role of syt7 in synaptic facilitation, these results resolve a longstanding debate about a widespread form of short-term plasticity, and will enable future studies that may lead to a deeper understanding of the functional importance of facilitation. PMID:26738595

  3. "Just Add Facilitators and Stir": Stimulating Policy Uptake in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Rebecca; Macdonald, Doune; Hay, Peter; McCuaig, Louise

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the evaluation findings of an education policy initiative that involved the employment of facilitators to broker the policy and its implementation. An Australian state's education authority piloted the employment of physical activity facilitators to expedite the implementation of "Smart Moves" in schools, a policy…

  4. The New England School Effectiveness Project: A Facilitator's Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeast Regional Exchange, Inc., Chelmsford, MA.

    The School Team Facilitator assists participating New England secondary schools in planning and implementing improvement efforts based on school effectiveness research. This publication, distributed at a team training conference, begins with the conference schedule, a list of facilitators, instructions on choosing a school team, and letters to…

  5. Computation Of Facilitated Transport of O2 In Hemoglobin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Sanford

    1991-01-01

    Report describes computations of unsteady facilitated transport of oxygen through liquid membrane of hemoglobin. Used here, "facilitated transport" means diffusion of permeant through membrane in which that diffusion enhanced by reversible chemical reaction between permeant and membrane. In this case, reversible reactions between hemoglobin and oxygen.

  6. Facilitated transport of copper with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in saturated sand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saturated packed column experiments were conducted to investigate the facilitated transport of Cu with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAP) at different pore water velocities (0.22-2.2 cm min–1), solution pH (6.2-9.0), and fraction of Fe oxide coating on grain surfaces (', 0-0.36). The facilitated tr...

  7. L2 Gender Facilitation and Inhibition in Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behney, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the role of grammatical gender facilitation and inhibition in second language (L2) learners' spoken word recognition. Native speakers of languages that have grammatical gender are sensitive to gender marking when hearing and recognizing a word. Gender facilitation refers to when a given noun that is preceded by an…

  8. 50 CFR 600.730 - Facilitation of enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facilitation of enforcement. 600.730 Section 600.730 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries § 600.730 Facilitation...

  9. Goals and Strategies of a Problem-Based Learning Facilitator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Barrows, Howard S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis of facilitation of a student-centered problem-based learning group. The focus of this analysis was to understand the goals and strategies of an expert facilitator in support of collaborative learning. This was accomplished through interaction analysis using video data and stimulated recall to examine two PBL group…

  10. Interaction in Asynchronous Discussion Forums: Peer Facilitation Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, C. S. L.; Cheung, W. S.; Hew, K. F.

    2012-01-01

    Peer facilitation is proposed as a solution to counter limited interaction in asynchronous online discussions. However, there is a lack of empirical research on online peer facilitation. This study identifies, through cross-case comparison of two graduate-level blended courses attended by Asian Pacific students, the actual peer facilitation…

  11. The Principal as a Catalyst and Facilitator of Planned Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamley, John; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Educational change must be facilitated, not dictated, to be successful. Since most new curriculum programs ignore complex classroom realities, teachers usually view them negatively. Facilitative principals create the necessary conditions for change by progressing through three stages: creating new roles and expectations, mobilizing proponents for…

  12. 50 CFR 300.221 - Facilitation of enforcement and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Facilitation of enforcement and inspection. 300.221 Section 300.221 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Western and Central Pacific Fisheries for Highly Migratory Species § 300.221 Facilitation of enforcement and...

  13. 50 CFR 300.221 - Facilitation of enforcement and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Facilitation of enforcement and inspection. 300.221 Section 300.221 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Western and Central Pacific Fisheries for Highly Migratory Species § 300.221 Facilitation of enforcement and...

  14. Facilitated Communication and Its Legitimacy--Twenty-First Century Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostert, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    By 2001, Facilitated Communication (FC) had largely been empirically discredited as an effective intervention for previously uncommunicative persons with disabilities, especially those with autism and related disorders. Key empirical findings consistently showed that the facilitator and not the client initiated communication. I analyze the extant…

  15. Exploring Dimensions of Critical Reflection in Activist-Facilitator Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how 14 diverse, Canadian activist-facilitators working in international development experience and understand "critical reflection" as a component of participatory methodologies in facilitation practices. The findings, based on my doctoral study, demonstrate that although critical reflection is often discussed as…

  16. Barriers to and Facilitators of Health for Latina Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Latina undergraduate students' barriers and facilitators of health are examined: Barriers to psychological health--separating from family, pressure to succeed, and racism; Barriers to physical health--lacking health insurance, and discomfort using campus sports facilities; and Facilitators of psychological health--membership in Latina student…

  17. Using Text Mining to Characterize Online Discussion Facilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ming, Norma; Baumer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Facilitating class discussions effectively is a critical yet challenging component of instruction, particularly in online environments where student and faculty interaction is limited. Our goals in this research were to identify facilitation strategies that encourage productive discussion, and to explore text mining techniques that can help…

  18. 50 CFR 300.5 - Facilitation of enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facilitation of enforcement. 300.5 Section 300.5 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS General § 300.5 Facilitation of enforcement. (a) Compliance. The operator of, or any other person aboard, any fishing vessel subject...

  19. The Coach in Context: Building School Capacity through External Facilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Jay

    Increasingly, third parties are working with schools and providing a coach (a skilled educator external to a school) who helps to facilitate reform. This paper explores some of the complexities of coaching by presenting a case study of a coach in her first year of facilitating math and science reform in a pseudonymous middle school in a Boston…

  20. Fine Points of Facilitation: It's Exhilarating, Challenging, Fulfilling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobst, Lou

    2004-01-01

    This firsthand account through the eyes of a facilitator describes meaningful moments of someone learning the job. Working primarily with new teachers in a large high school, this facilitator experienced the challenges and the fulfillment in helping colleagues, and discovered that the benefit of helping others grow may be one's own growth.

  1. Orthographic Facilitation Effects on Spoken Word Production: Evidence from Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Qingfang; Weekes, Brendan Stuart

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to investigate the time course of orthographic facilitation on picture naming in Chinese. We used a picture-word paradigm to investigate orthographic and phonological facilitation on monosyllabic spoken word production in native Mandarin speakers. Both the stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) and the picture-word…

  2. Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault on Campus: Challenges and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Laura G.

    2002-01-01

    The use of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) to facilitate sexual assault is increasing on campuses nationwide. This article provides college counselors with an overview of the use of GHB in campus sexual assault, outlines suggestions for crisis intervention, and discusses the challenges of counseling survivors of drug-facilitated sexual assault.…

  3. The Facilitator's Edge: Group Sessions for Edge-ucators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handcock, Helen

    The Facilitator's Edge is a workshop series based on the life/work messages of The Edge magazine. The workshops are deigned to help educators, youth workers, and their career practitioners facilitate conscious career building. This manual consists of five group sessions, each focusing on a different career-building theme. "Megatrends and Making it…

  4. Characteristics of Facilitators: The Ecuador Project and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etling, Arlen Wayne

    This study identifies important skills, knowledge areas, and attitudes of effective facilitators of nonformal education in community-based learning groups in Ecuador. A facilitator is an uncertified, nonprofessional educator who develops and maintains village learning groups outside the formal schooling system. Chapter one discusses the…

  5. Team Building. Baldor Electric Company. [Facilitator Guide and Participant Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Louis Community Coll., MO. Workplace Literacy Services Center.

    This document contains the facilitator and participant guides for a course in team building that was developed by a community college for a St. Louis (Missouri) electric company. The facilitator's guide contains the transparency masters, outlines, learning activities, questionnaires, and other handouts required for two course sessions. The first…

  6. The calcium sensor synaptotagmin 7 is required for synaptic facilitation.

    PubMed

    Jackman, Skyler L; Turecek, Josef; Belinsky, Justine E; Regehr, Wade G

    2016-01-01

    It has been known for more than 70 years that synaptic strength is dynamically regulated in a use-dependent manner. At synapses with a low initial release probability, closely spaced presynaptic action potentials can result in facilitation, a short-term form of enhancement in which each subsequent action potential evokes greater neurotransmitter release. Facilitation can enhance neurotransmitter release considerably and can profoundly influence information transfer across synapses, but the underlying mechanism remains a mystery. One proposed mechanism is that a specialized calcium sensor for facilitation transiently increases the probability of release, and this sensor is distinct from the fast sensors that mediate rapid neurotransmitter release. Yet such a sensor has never been identified, and its very existence has been disputed. Here we show that synaptotagmin 7 (Syt7) is a calcium sensor that is required for facilitation at several central synapses. In Syt7-knockout mice, facilitation is eliminated even though the initial probability of release and the presynaptic residual calcium signals are unaltered. Expression of wild-type Syt7 in presynaptic neurons restored facilitation, whereas expression of a mutated Syt7 with a calcium-insensitive C2A domain did not. By revealing the role of Syt7 in synaptic facilitation, these results resolve a longstanding debate about a widespread form of short-term plasticity, and will enable future studies that may lead to a deeper understanding of the functional importance of facilitation. PMID:26738595

  7. Facilitating North-South Partnerships for Sustainable Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Termeer, C. J. A. M.; Hilhorst, T.; Oorthuizen, J.

    2010-01-01

    The increased number of development cooperation and sustainable agriculture partnerships brings with it new challenges for professionals who are asked to facilitate these partnering processes. In this article we shed more light on the world of development cooperation and we explore questions that facilitators working with North-South partnerships…

  8. Facilitating Cross-Cultural Online Discussion Groups: Implications for Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Saundra Wall; Watkins, Karen; Daley, Barbara; Courtenay, Bradley; Davis, Mike; Dymock, Darryl

    2001-01-01

    Discusses research that examined the issues and challenges experienced by facilitators in cross-cultural group discussions in a Web conferencing program, using action research methods of data collection and analysis. Considers questioning, participation, interpersonal and group dynamics, facilitator expectations, and student expectations.…

  9. 50 CFR 654.8 - Facilitation of enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO General Measures § 654.8 Facilitation of enforcement. See § 600.730 of this chapter. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facilitation of enforcement....

  10. 50 CFR 654.8 - Facilitation of enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO General Measures § 654.8 Facilitation of enforcement. See § 600.730 of this chapter. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facilitation of enforcement. 654.8...

  11. Effects of Short-Term Facilitation Training on Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Mark E.; And Others

    This study investigated the effects of facilitation training upon the attitude of administrators and lead teachers toward their professional associates. The project consisted of a 3-day workshop in facilitative communication involving 25 participants and four trainers. Exercises designed to improve ability to respond with empathy, positive regard,…

  12. A Facilitator Guide. Outdoor Education for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Univ., Lexington.

    The concept and purpose of this facilitator guide is to provide the three facilitator groups of educators, park and resource management personnel, and parents of handicapped children with information on how to cooperatively design and implement an outdoor education program for handicapped students. Chapter 1 (contributed by Vicki Stayton) outlines…

  13. Applications of Motivational Interviewing in Career Counseling: Facilitating Career Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoltz, Kevin B.; Young, Tabitha L.

    2013-01-01

    The Protean and Boundaryless career paradigms are calling for new ways to provide career counseling to clients. Career counselors need methods for facilitating client's career transition across all stages of career development. This facilitation requires career counselors to be armed with methods for promoting client's autonomy,…

  14. This Is How Life Can Be Different: How U.S. Student Experiences in International Education Programs Facilitate Civic and Global Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millora, Melissa L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how the international education experiences of 16 participants facilitated civic and global engagement. This article focuses on 3 participants whose experiences were representative of the entire sample. Interpersonal interactions and observations of the host culture were primary factors in facilitating global competence,…

  15. Twelve tips for facilitating team-based learning

    PubMed Central

    Gullo, Charles; Ha, Tam Cam; Cook, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Team-based learning (TBL) has become a more commonly recognized and implemented pedagogical approach in curricula of numerous disciplines. The desire to place more autonomy on the student and spend less in-class time delivering content has resulted in complete or partial adoption of this style of learning in many educational settings. Aim: Provide faculty with tools that foster a well facilitated and interactive TBL learning environment. Methods: We examined the published literature in the area of facilitation – specifically in TBL environments, and explored learning theories associated with team learning and our own experiences to create these facilitation tips. Results: We created 12 tips for TBL facilitation designed to assist faculty to achieve an effective and engaging TBL learning environment. Conclusions: Applying these twelve tips while facilitating a TBL classroom session will help to ensure maximal participation and optimal learning in a safe yet stimulating environment. PMID:25665624

  16. Direct plant-plant facilitation in coastal wetlands: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liwen; Shao, Hongbo

    2013-03-01

    Coastal wetlands provide important ecosystem services to humanity, but human activity and climate change are rapidly degrading these ecosystems. Thus the conservation and restoration of coastal wetlands becomes an urgent issue. Species facilitation among plants has regained attention of ecologists recently. Many studies in coastal wetlands have revealed direct plant-plant facilitation influencing community structure and ecosystem function, thus improving our understanding of community organization and giving new directions for the restoration of degraded coastal wetlands. Our paper examines studies of direct plant-plant facilitation in coastal wetlands with an emphasis on tests of the stress gradient hypothesis and influences of species facilitation on species zonation, species diversity patterns, phylogenetic diversity and ecosystem function. Investigating how plant-plant facilitation affects ecosystem function is an important future direction, which can provide basic knowledge applicable to the preservation and recovery of coastal wetlands in these times of rapid global change.

  17. Facilitator control as automatic behavior: A verbal behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Genae A.

    1993-01-01

    Several studies of facilitated communication have demonstrated that the facilitators were controlling and directing the typing, although they appeared to be unaware of doing so. Such results shift the focus of analysis to the facilitator's behavior and raise questions regarding the controlling variables for that behavior. This paper analyzes facilitator behavior as an instance of automatic verbal behavior, from the perspective of Skinner's (1957) book Verbal Behavior. Verbal behavior is automatic when the speaker or writer is not stimulated by the behavior at the time of emission, the behavior is not edited, the products of behavior differ from what the person would produce normally, and the behavior is attributed to an outside source. All of these characteristics appear to be present in facilitator behavior. Other variables seem to account for the thematic content of the typed messages. These variables also are discussed. PMID:22477083

  18. Medical students' and facilitators' experiences of an Early Professional Contact course: Active and motivated students, strained facilitators

    PubMed Central

    von Below, Bernhard; Hellquist, Gunilla; Rödjer, Stig; Gunnarsson, Ronny; Björkelund, Cecilia; Wahlqvist, Mats

    2008-01-01

    Background Today, medical students are introduced to patient contact, communication skills, and clinical examination in the preclinical years of the curriculum with the purpose of gaining clinical experience. These courses are often evaluated from the student perspective. Reports with an additional emphasis on the facilitator perspective are scarce. According to constructive alignment, an influential concept from research in higher education, the learning climate between students and teachers is also of great importance. In this paper, we approach the learning climate by studying both students' and facilitators' course experiences. In 2001, a new "Early Professional Contact" longitudinal strand through term 1–4, was introduced at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. General practitioners and hospital specialists were facilitators. The aim of this study was to assess and analyse students' and clinical facilitators' experiences of the Early Professional Contact course and to illuminate facilitators' working conditions. Methods Inspired by a Swedish adaptation of the Course Experience Questionnaire, an Early Professional Contact Questionnaire was constructed. In 2003, on the completion of the first longitudinal strand, a student and facilitator version was distributed to 86 students and 21 facilitators. In the analysis, both Chi-square and the Mann-Whitney tests were used. Results Sixty students (70%) and 15 facilitators (71%) completed the questionnaire. Both students and facilitators were satisfied with the course. Students reported gaining iiration for their future work as doctors along with increased confidence in meeting patients. They also reported increased motivation for biomedical studies. Differences in attitudes between facilitators and students were found. Facilitators experienced a greater workload, less reasonable demands and less support, than students. Conclusion In this project, a new Early Professional Contact course was

  19. Barriers and facilitators to preventive cancer screening in Limited English Proficient (LEP) patients: Physicians’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Kelly H.; Schwei, Rebecca J.; Park, Linda S.; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Limited English proficient (LEP) patients receive fewer recommended preventive screenings than English-speaking patients. Studies have explored patients’ perceptions of the factors that contribute to this disparity, but little research has focused on physicians’ perceptions. Objective To describe physicians’ perceptions of the barriers and facilitators to preventive cancer screening in LEP patients. Design Qualitative interview study using a semi-structured interview guide. Participants Eight primary care physicians from Wisconsin. Approach Each interview was systematically coded to illuminate important themes. Key Results A variety of barriers specifically hinder LEP patients’ receipt of cancer screening, including poor language proficiency, lack of transportation, unfamiliarity with the concept of prevention, complex scheduling systems, poor interpretation, and limited physician time to discuss preventive care. While physicians identified many factors that facilitate preventive screening in general, they mentioned few that are perceived as specific to LEP patients. Conclusion We found that primary care physicians attribute the low rates of preventive cancer screening among LEP populations to a variety of patient, provider, interpreter, and system factors, most of which go beyond simple language barriers. Interventions designed to reduce these barriers and enhance the impact of identified facilitators should be multifactorial and designed to engage primary care physicians.

  20. The Facilitators and Barriers to Nurses’ Participation in Continuing Education Programs: A Mixed Method Explanatory Sequential Study

    PubMed Central

    Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since several factors affect nurses’ participation in Continuing Education, and that nurses’ Continuing Education affects patients’ and community health status, it is essential to know facilitators and barriers of participation in Continuing Education programs and plan accordingly. This mixed approach study aimed to investigate the facilitators and barriers of nurses’ participation, to explore nurses’ perception of the most common facilitators and barriers. Methods: An explanatory sequential mixed methods design with follow up explanations variant were used, and it involved collecting quantitative data (361 nurses) first and then explaining the quantitative results with in-depth interviews during a qualitative study. Results: The results showed that the mean score of facilitators to nurses’ participation in Continuing Education was significantly higher than the mean score of barriers (61.99±10.85 versus 51.17±12.83; p<0.001, t=12.23). The highest mean score of facilitators of nurses’ participation in Continuing Education was related to “Update my knowledge”. By reviewing the handwritings in qualitative phase, two main levels of updating information and professional skills were extracted as the most common facilitators and lack of support as the most common barrier to nurses’ participation in continuing education program. Conclusion: According to important role Continuing Education on professional skills, nurse managers should facilitate the nurse’ participation in the Continues Education. PMID:25948439

  1. Facilitating a School-Based Prevention of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Ann Cale; Harper, Erin; Zabek, Faith; Collins, Staeshe; Perkins, Catherine; Meyers, Joel

    2016-07-01

    The challenges of developing and researching a school-based prevention program using the participatory culture-specific intervention model are described here. We outline the problem of commercial sexual exploitation of children that motivated our project and the characteristics of students most at risk (African American girls in middle school). We provide an analysis of the factors that can facilitate creation and implementation of similar prevention programs in schools. These factors include establishing partnerships with community resources, including school insiders, and establishing trust, especially with students placed at risk. PMID:27084026

  2. Spinal adenosine A2a receptor activation elicits long-lasting phrenic motor facilitation.

    PubMed

    Golder, Francis J; Ranganathan, Lavanya; Satriotomo, Irawan; Hoffman, Michael; Lovett-Barr, Mary Rachael; Watters, Jyoti J; Baker-Herman, Tracy L; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2008-02-27

    Acute intermittent hypoxia elicits a form of spinal, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-dependent respiratory plasticity known as phrenic long-term facilitation. Ligands that activate G(s)-protein-coupled receptors, such as the adenosine 2a receptor, mimic the effects of neurotrophins in vitro by transactivating their high-affinity receptor tyrosine kinases, the Trk receptors. Thus, we hypothesized that A2a receptor agonists would elicit phrenic long-term facilitation by mimicking the effects of BDNF on TrkB receptors. Here we demonstrate that spinal A2a receptor agonists transactivate TrkB receptors in the rat cervical spinal cord near phrenic motoneurons, thus inducing long-lasting (hours) phrenic motor facilitation. A2a receptor activation increased phosphorylation and new synthesis of an immature TrkB protein, induced TrkB signaling through Akt, and strengthened synaptic pathways to phrenic motoneurons. RNA interference targeting TrkB mRNA demonstrated that new TrkB protein synthesis is necessary for A2a-induced phrenic motor facilitation. A2a receptor activation also increased breathing in unanesthetized rats, and improved breathing in rats with cervical spinal injuries. Thus, small, highly permeable drugs (such as adenosine receptor agonists) that transactivate TrkB receptors may provide an effective therapeutic strategy in the treatment of patients with ventilatory control disorders, such as obstructive sleep apnea, or respiratory insufficiency after spinal injury or during neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:18305238

  3. Facilitators and Barriers to Care Coordination in Patient-centered Medical Homes (PCMHs) from Coordinators’ Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Asia; Howard, Jenna; Shaw, Eric K.; Cohen, Deborah J.; Shahidi, Laleh; Ferrante, Jeanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Care coordinators are increasingly featured in patient-centered medical home (PCMH) projects, yet little research examines how coordinators themselves define and experience their role. This is the first study describing experiences of care coordinators across the US from their own perspectives. Methods This qualitative study used a 5-month private, online discussion forum to gather data from 25 care coordinators from PCMH practices representing diversity in practice size, setting, and type. Participants answered questions and interacted with one another, creating an online social learning collaborative while allowing for data collection for research. Results Coordinators identified barriers and facilitators in their work at the organization/system level, the interpersonal level, and the individual level. Some factors emerged as both barriers and facilitators, including the functionality of clinical information technology; the availability of community resources; interactions with clinicians and other health care facilities; interactions with patients; and self-care practices for mental health and wellness. Colocation and full integration into practices were other key facilitators, whereas excessive case loads and data management responsibilities were felt to be important barriers. Conclusions While all the barriers and facilitators were important to performing coordinators’ roles, relationship building materialized as key to effective care coordination, whether with clinicians, patients, or outside organizations. We discuss implications for practice and provide suggestions for further research. PMID:26769881

  4. CmWRKY15 Facilitates Alternaria tenuissima Infection of Chrysanthemum.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qingqing; Song, Aiping; Xin, Jingjing; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Wang, Yinjie; Li, Xiran; Chen, Fadi

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) has an important role in the responses of plants to pathogens due to its ability to induce stomatal closure and interact with salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). WRKY transcription factors serve as antagonistic or synergistic regulators in the response of plants to a variety of pathogens. Here, we demonstrated that CmWRKY15, a group IIa WRKY family member, was not transcriptionally activated in yeast cells. Subcellular localization experiments in which onion epidermal cells were transiently transfected with CmWRKY15 indicated that CmWRKY15 localized to the nucleus in vivo. The expression of CmWRKY15 could be markedly induced by the presence of Alternaria tenuissima inoculum in chrysanthemum. Furthermore, the disease severity index (DSI) data of CmWRKY15-overexpressing plants indicated that CmWRKY15 overexpression enhanced the susceptibility of chrysanthemum to A. tenuissima infection compared to controls. To illustrate the mechanisms by which CmWRKY15 regulates the response to A. tenuissima inoculation, the expression levels of ABA-responsive and ABA signaling genes, such as ABF4, ABI4, ABI5, MYB2, RAB18, DREB1A, DREB2A, PYL2, PP2C, RCAR1, SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3, NCED3A, NCED3B, GTG1, AKT1, AKT2, KAT1, KAT2, and KC1were compared between transgenic plants and controls. In summary, our data suggest that CmWRKY15 might facilitate A. tenuissima infection by antagonistically regulating the expression of ABA-responsive genes and genes involved in ABA signaling, either directly or indirectly. PMID:26600125

  5. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine facilitates fear extinction learning.

    PubMed

    Young, M B; Andero, R; Ressler, K J; Howell, L L

    2015-01-01

    Acutely administered 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') has been proposed to have long-term positive effects on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms when combined with psychotherapy. No preclinical data support a mechanistic basis for these claims. Given the persistent nature of psychotherapeutic gains facilitated by MDMA, we hypothesized that MDMA improves fear extinction learning, a key process in exposure-based therapies for PTSD. In these experiments, mice were first exposed to cued fear conditioning and treated with drug vehicle or MDMA before extinction training 2 days later. MDMA was administered systemically and also directly targeted to brain structures known to contribute to extinction. In addition to behavioral measures of extinction, changes in mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and Fos were measured after MDMA treatment and extinction. MDMA (7.8 mg kg(-1)) persistently and robustly enhanced long-term extinction when administered before extinction training. MDMA increased the expression of Fos in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas increases in Bdnf expression were observed only in the amygdala after extinction training. Extinction enhancements were recapitulated when MDMA (1 μg) was infused directly into the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), and enhancement was abolished when BDNF signaling was inhibited before extinction. These findings suggest that MDMA enhances fear memory extinction through a BDNF-dependent mechanism, and that MDMA may be a useful adjunct to exposure-based therapies for PTSD and other anxiety disorders characterized by altered fear learning. PMID:26371762

  6. Uptake of palmitate by hepatocyte suspensions: facilitation by albumin?

    PubMed

    Pond, S M; Davis, C K; Bogoyevitch, M A; Gordon, R A; Weisiger, R A; Bass, L

    1992-05-01

    Albumin-dependent uptake of unbound [3H]palmitic acid by hepatocytes isolated from female rat livers was studied and the experimental results compared with the predictions of a noncompartmental diffusion-reaction theory for the cellular uptake of protein-bound ligands. The outright theoretical predictions involve values for the parameters of the system, some newly measured (hepatocyte radii and the rate constant for the dissociation of palmitate-albumin complex) and some taken from the literature (diffusion coefficients and the equilibrium association constant for the palmitate-albumin complex). The measured unbound clearance of [3H]palmitic acid, defined as the initial uptake velocity divided by the unbound [3H]palmitic acid concentration in the medium, was enhanced 6.6-fold as the concentration of human serum albumin was increased from approximately 5 to 480 microM. This enhancement factor was predicted by the theory, according to which the enhancement reflects codiffusion of bound ligand across the unstirred layer adjacent to the cell membrane and, therefore, an increased delivery of unbound ligand to the cell surface. In contrast, the absolute magnitude of the unbound clearance was consistent with the theory only for the lowest published value for the equilibrium association constant, 15 microM-1. For higher published values (62 and 94 microM-1), the magnitude of the unbound clearance observed experimentally was severalfold higher than that predicted by the theory. If in fact the association constant exceeds 30 microM-1, the data would imply that an albumin-dependent facilitation mechanism exists which enhances the availability of palmitate to the cell over and above the enhancement predicted by the diffusion-reaction theory. PMID:1590397

  7. CmWRKY15 Facilitates Alternaria tenuissima Infection of Chrysanthemum

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qingqing; Song, Aiping; Xin, Jingjing; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Wang, Yinjie; Li, Xiran; Chen, Fadi

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) has an important role in the responses of plants to pathogens due to its ability to induce stomatal closure and interact with salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). WRKY transcription factors serve as antagonistic or synergistic regulators in the response of plants to a variety of pathogens. Here, we demonstrated that CmWRKY15, a group IIa WRKY family member, was not transcriptionally activated in yeast cells. Subcellular localization experiments in which onion epidermal cells were transiently transfected with CmWRKY15 indicated that CmWRKY15 localized to the nucleus in vivo. The expression of CmWRKY15 could be markedly induced by the presence of Alternaria tenuissima inoculum in chrysanthemum. Furthermore, the disease severity index (DSI) data of CmWRKY15-overexpressing plants indicated that CmWRKY15 overexpression enhanced the susceptibility of chrysanthemum to A. tenuissima infection compared to controls. To illustrate the mechanisms by which CmWRKY15 regulates the response to A. tenuissima inoculation, the expression levels of ABA-responsive and ABA signaling genes, such as ABF4, ABI4, ABI5, MYB2, RAB18, DREB1A, DREB2A, PYL2, PP2C, RCAR1, SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3, NCED3A, NCED3B, GTG1, AKT1, AKT2, KAT1, KAT2, and KC1were compared between transgenic plants and controls. In summary, our data suggest that CmWRKY15 might facilitate A. tenuissima infection by antagonistically regulating the expression of ABA-responsive genes and genes involved in ABA signaling, either directly or indirectly. PMID:26600125

  8. Small Molecule-facilitated Degradation of ANO1 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Bill, Anke; Hall, Michelle Lynn; Borawski, Jason; Hodgson, Catherine; Jenkins, Jeremy; Piechon, Philippe; Popa, Oana; Rothwell, Christopher; Tranter, Pamela; Tria, Scott; Wagner, Trixie; Whitehead, Lewis; Gaither, L. Alex

    2014-01-01

    ANO1, a calcium-activated chloride channel, is highly expressed and amplified in human cancers and is a critical survival factor in these cancers. The ANO1 inhibitor CaCCinh-A01 decreases proliferation of ANO1-amplified cell lines; however, the mechanism of action remains elusive. We explored the mechanism behind the inhibitory effect of CaCCinh-A01 on cell proliferation using a combined experimental and in silico approach. We show that inhibition of ANO1 function is not sufficient to diminish proliferation of ANO1-dependent cancer cells. We report that CaCCinh-A01 reduces ANO1 protein levels by facilitating endoplasmic reticulum-associated, proteasomal turnover of ANO1. Washout of CaCCinh-A01 rescued ANO1 protein levels and resumed cell proliferation. Proliferation of newly derived CaCCinh-A01-resistant cell pools was not affected by CaCCinh-A01 as compared with the parental cells. Consistently, CaCCinh-A01 failed to reduce ANO1 protein levels in these cells, whereas ANO1 currents were still inhibited by CaCCinh-A01, indicating that CaCCinh-A01 inhibits cell proliferation by reducing ANO1 protein levels. Furthermore, we employed in silico methods to elucidate novel biological functions of ANO1 inhibitors. Specifically, we derived a pharmacophore model to describe inhibitors capable of promoting ANO1 degradation and report new inhibitors of ANO1-dependent cell proliferation. In summary, our data demonstrate that inhibition of the channel activity of ANO1 is not sufficient to inhibit ANO1-dependent cell proliferation, indicating that the role of ANO1 in cancer only partially depends on its function as a channel. Our results provide an impetus for gaining a deeper understanding of ANO1 modulation in cells and introduce a new targeting approach for antitumor therapy in ANO1-amplified cancers. PMID:24599954

  9. Belowground advantages in construction cost facilitate a cryptic plant invasion

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Joshua S.; Wheaton, Christine N.; Mozdzer, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    The energetic cost of plant organ construction is a functional trait that is useful for understanding carbon investment during growth (e.g. the resource acquisition vs. tissue longevity tradeoff), as well as in response to global change factors like elevated CO2 and N. Despite the enormous importance of roots and rhizomes in acquiring soil resources and responding to global change, construction costs have been studied almost exclusively in leaves. We sought to determine how construction costs of aboveground and belowground organs differed between native and introduced lineages of a geographically widely dispersed wetland plant species (Phragmites australis) under varying levels of CO2 and N. We grew plants under ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2, as well as under two levels of soil nitrogen. We determined construction costs for leaves, stems, rhizomes and roots, as well as for whole plants. Across all treatment conditions, the introduced lineage of Phragmites had a 4.3 % lower mean rhizome construction cost than the native. Whole-plant construction costs were also smaller for the introduced lineage, with the largest difference in sample means (3.3 %) occurring under ambient conditions. In having lower rhizome and plant-scale construction costs, the introduced lineage can recoup its investment in tissue construction more quickly, enabling it to generate additional biomass with the same energetic investment. Our results suggest that introduced Phragmites has had an advantageous tissue investment strategy under historic CO2 and N levels, which has facilitated key rhizome processes, such as clonal spread. We recommend that construction costs for multiple organ types be included in future studies of plant carbon economy, especially those investigating global change. PMID:24938305

  10. Evidence for social facilitation of preening in the common tern.

    PubMed

    Palestis; Burger

    1998-11-01

    Social facilitation of reproductive behaviour has been studied extensively in gulls and terns, but social facilitation of preening has been reported only anecdotally, and has not been previously quantified. We studied a common tern, Sterna hirundo, colony during the summers of 1996 and 1997 to test for socially facilitated preening. Scan sampling provided evidence of spatial and temporal synchrony of preening behaviour. Preening occurred more often than expected in groups of three or more neighbours. Breeding pairs also preened simultaneously more often than expected. In loafing (resting) areas, the proportion of preeners present increased with tern density. Behavioural observations suggest that preening spread from neighbour to neighbour. The observed clumping in preening behaviour could not be explained by differences in date, time of day or weather. Social facilitation of preening and other maintenance behaviour may be an important aspect of group living that is often overlooked. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9819325

  11. Facilitating Vocational Development Among Disadvantaged Inner-City Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamdani, Asma

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the vocational development process of tenth-grade disadvantaged students can be facilitated through deliberate intervention in the form of supplementary learning experiences. (Author)

  12. 50 CFR 300.118 - Facilitation of enforcement and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.118 Facilitation of enforcement and... accurate hold plan reflecting the current structure of the vessel's storage and factory spaces. (3)...

  13. Getting the Words Out: Case Studies in Facilitated Communication Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Rosemary

    1992-01-01

    Case studies are presented of three individuals with severe communication impairments who had been judged to be intellectually impaired but revealed unexpected achievements after training in nonspeech communication. The communication training used facilitation to circumvent hand function impairments. (JDD)

  14. Evaluation of Eight Case Studies of Facilitated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Susan; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The ability of eight adults with mental retardation (and in some cases cerebral palsy) to communicate using facilitated communication was assessed by a multidisciplinary team. Not one of the subjects demonstrated an ability to communicate using the technique. (JDD)

  15. Distraction As A Source Of Drive In Social Facilitation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert Steven; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Demonstrates that in a replication of a well known social facilitation study, subjects show indications across several measures of being more distracted in audience conditions than when they are alone. Subjects were 55 college students. (MP)

  16. PARASITE FACILITATES PLANT SPECIES COEXISTENCE IN A COASTAL WETLAND.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent advances in ecology suggest that processes influencing community structure are a balance between competitive and facilitative biological interactions. Parasitic angiosperms are prevalent in many North American and European coastal salt marshes, and consumer-resource interactions between para...

  17. Inflatable bladder to facilitate handling of heavy objects - A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Goldrick, G. J.

    1969-01-01

    Inflatable bladder facilitates the removal of heavy, highly finished metal parts from tote boxes or shipping containers. The proposed concept permits removal without danger of damage to the parts or injury to handling personnel.

  18. Encountering Carl Rogers: His Views on Facilitating Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landreth, Garry L.

    1984-01-01

    Presents Carl Rogers' views on facilitating groups, as expressed in a telephone dialogue seminar with graduate students in counselor education at North Texas State University. Discusses extended group marathons, cocounseling, nonverbal group exercises and the future of group work. (JAC)

  19. Reciprocal feeding facilitation between above- and below-ground herbivores.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Scott W; Vanbergen, Adam J; Hails, Rosemary S; Jones, T Hefin; Johnson, Scott N

    2013-10-23

    Interspecific interactions between insect herbivores predominantly involve asymmetric competition. By contrast, facilitation, whereby herbivory by one insect benefits another via induced plant susceptibility, is uncommon. Positive reciprocal interactions between insect herbivores are even rarer. Here, we reveal a novel case of reciprocal feeding facilitation between above-ground aphids (Amphorophora idaei) and root-feeding vine weevil larvae (Otiorhynchus sulcatus), attacking red raspberry (Rubus idaeus). Using two raspberry cultivars with varying resistance to these herbivores, we further demonstrate that feeding facilitation occurred regardless of host plant resistance. This positive reciprocal interaction operates via an, as yet, unreported mechanism. Specifically, the aphid induces compensatory growth, possibly as a prelude to greater resistance/tolerance, whereas the root herbivore causes the plant to abandon this strategy. Both herbivores may ultimately benefit from this facilitative interaction. PMID:23883576

  20. After the strike: using facilitation in a residency training program.

    PubMed

    Andres, D; Hamoline, D; Sanders, M; Anderson, J

    1998-03-10

    Methods of alternative dispute resolution, including facilitation, can be used to identify and resolve areas of conflict. Facilitation was used by the University of Saskatchewan's Department of Family Medicine (Saskatoon division) after the strike by residents in July and August 1995 so as to allow optimal use of the remaining educational time. Through facilitation, experiences of the strike and areas of potential conflict were explored. Participants had a broad range of responses to the strike. Specific coping strategies were developed to deal with identified concerns. Although outcomes were not measured formally, levels of trust improved and collegial relationships were restored. Because so many changes occur in health care and medical education, conflict inevitably arises. Facilitation offers one way of dealing with change constructively, thereby making possible the optimal use of educational time. PMID:9526479

  1. Recurrent abnormalities can be used for risk group stratification in pediatric AMKL: a retrospective intergroup study.

    PubMed

    de Rooij, Jasmijn D E; Masetti, Riccardo; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Cayuela, Jean-Michel; Trka, Jan; Reinhardt, Dirk; Rasche, Mareike; Sonneveld, Edwin; Alonzo, Todd A; Fornerod, Maarten; Zimmermann, Martin; Pigazzi, Martina; Pieters, Rob; Meshinchi, Soheil; Zwaan, C Michel; Locatelli, Franco

    2016-06-30

    Genetic abnormalities and early treatment response are the main prognostic factors in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) is a rare subtype of AML. Deep sequencing has identified CBFA2T3/GLIS2 and NUP98/KDM5A as recurrent aberrations, occurring in similar frequencies as RBM15/MKL1 and KMT2A-rearrangements. We studied whether these cytogenetic aberrations can be used for risk group stratification. To assess frequencies and outcome parameters of recurrent cytogenetic aberrations in AMKL, samples and clinical data of patients treated by the Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica, Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster Study Group, Children's Oncology Group, Dutch Childhood Oncology Group, and the Saint Louis Hôpital were collected, enabling us to screen 153 newly diagnosed pediatric AMKL cases for the aforementioned aberrations and to study their clinical characteristics and outcome. CBFA2T3/GLIS2 was identified in 16% of the cases; RBM15/MKL1, in 12%; NUP98/KDM5A and KMT2A rearrangements, in 9% each; and monosomy 7, in 6%. These aberrations were mutually exclusive. RBM15/MKL1-rearranged patients were significantly younger. No significant differences in sex and white blood cell count were found. NUP98/KDM5A, CBFA2T3/GLIS2, KMT2A-rearranged lesions and monosomy 7 (NCK-7) independently predicted a poor outcome, compared with RBM15/MKL1-rearranged patients and those with AMKL not carrying these molecular lesions. NCK-7-patients (n = 61) showed a 4-year probability of overall survival of 35 ± 6% vs 70 ± 5% in the RBM15/MKL1-other groups (n = 92, P < .0001) and 4-year probability of event-free survival of 33 ± 6% vs 62 ± 5% (P = .0013), the 4-year cumulative incidence of relapse being 42 ± 7% and 19 ± 4% (P = .003), respectively. We conclude that these genetic aberrations may be used for risk group stratification of pediatric AMKL and for treatment tailoring. PMID:27114462

  2. Role of "external facilitation" in implementation of research findings: a qualitative evaluation of facilitation experiences in the Veterans Health Administration

    PubMed Central

    Stetler, Cheryl B; Legro, Marcia W; Rycroft-Malone, Joanne; Bowman, Candice; Curran, Geoffrey; Guihan, Marylou; Hagedorn, Hildi; Pineros, Sandra; Wallace, Carolyn M

    2006-01-01

    Background Facilitation has been identified in the literature as a potentially key component of successful implementation. It has not, however, either been well-defined or well-studied. Significant questions remain about the operational definition of facilitation and about the relationship of facilitation to other interventions, especially to other change agent roles when used in multi-faceted implementation projects. Researchers who are part of the Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) are actively exploring various approaches and processes, including facilitation, to enable implementation of best practices in the Veterans Health Administration health care system – the largest integrated healthcare system in the United States. This paper describes a systematic, retrospective evaluation of implementation-related facilitation experiences within QUERI, a quality improvement program developed by the US Department of Veterans Affairs. Methods A post-hoc evaluation was conducted through a series of semi-structured interviews to examine the concept of facilitation across several multi-site QUERI implementation studies. The interview process is based on a technique developed in the field of education, which systematically enhances learning through experience by stimulating recall and reflection regarding past complex activities. An iterative content analysis approach relative to a set of conceptually-based interview questions was used for data analysis. Findings Findings suggest that facilitation, within an implementation study initiated by a central change agency, is a deliberate and valued process of interactive problem solving and support that occurs in the context of a recognized need for improvement and a supportive interpersonal relationship. Facilitation was described primarily as a distinct role with a number of potentially crucial behaviors and activities. Data further suggest that external facilitators were likely to use or integrate other

  3. The Use of Benzodiazepines to Facilitate Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, M A

    2010-01-01

    Benzodiazepines are one of the classes of drugs most commonly associated with drug-facilitated sexual assault. As a widely prescribed class of medications and abused drugs, benzodiazepines are extensively available. Their sedating and amnesic effects make them effective candidates for use in drug-facilitated assaults. Detection methods for benzodiazepines and their metabolites in biological fluids are plentiful, but methods must be tailored to the low concentrations of drugs and metabolites expected to be encountered in these cases. PMID:26242454

  4. Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Radionuclides through the Vadose Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B.; Zachara, John M.; McCarthy, John F.; Lichtner, Peter C.

    2006-05-31

    This project seeks to improve the basic understanding of the role of colloids in facilitating the transport of contaminants in the vadose zone. We focus on three major thrusts: (1) thermodynamic stability and mobility of colloids formed by reactions of sediments with highly alkaline tank waste solutions, (2) colloid-contaminant interactions, and (3) in-situ colloid mobilization and colloid facilitated contaminant transport occurring in both contaminated and uncontaminated Hanford sediments.

  5. Dynamical facilitation governs glassy dynamics in suspensions of colloidal ellipsoids

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Chandan K.; Hima Nagamanasa, K.; Ganapathy, Rajesh; Sood, A. K.; Gokhale, Shreyas

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in contemporary condensed matter physics is to ascertain whether the formation of glasses from liquids is fundamentally thermodynamic or dynamic in origin. Although the thermodynamic paradigm has dominated theoretical research for decades, the purely kinetic perspective of the dynamical facilitation (DF) theory has attained prominence in recent times. In particular, recent experiments and simulations have highlighted the importance of facilitation using simple model systems composed of spherical particles. However, an overwhelming majority of liquids possess anisotropy in particle shape and interactions, and it is therefore imperative to examine facilitation in complex glass formers. Here, we apply the DF theory to systems with orientational degrees of freedom as well as anisotropic attractive interactions. By analyzing data from experiments on colloidal ellipsoids, we show that facilitation plays a pivotal role in translational as well as orientational relaxation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the introduction of attractive interactions leads to spatial decoupling of translational and rotational facilitation, which subsequently results in the decoupling of dynamical heterogeneities. Most strikingly, the DF theory can predict the existence of reentrant glass transitions based on the statistics of localized dynamical events, called excitations, whose duration is substantially smaller than the structural relaxation time. Our findings pave the way for systematically testing the DF approach in complex glass formers and also establish the significance of facilitation in governing structural relaxation in supercooled liquids. PMID:25313030

  6. Psychological Barriers and Facilitators of Colorectal Cancer Screening: A French Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bridou, Morgiane; Aguerre, Colette; Gimenes, Guillaume; Kubiszewski, Violaine; Le Gall, Armel; Potard, Catherine; Sorel, Olivier; Reveillere, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the psychological barriers to and facilitators of undergoing the Hemoccult-II® colorectal cancer screening test in France. Sixty-nine French people aged 50 to 74 years were divided into seven qualitative focus groups. Three issues were discussed with participants: knowledge and beliefs about colorectal cancer screening; facilitators of colorectal cancer screening by Hemoccult-II®; barriers to colorectal cancer screening by Hemoccult-II®. All the discussions were led by two psychologists and were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative data analysis software. Correspondence factor analyses identified three dimensions for each topic. The main psychological facilitators of colorectal cancer screening were: information about colorectal cancer screening, perceived simplicity of using Hemoccult-II®, and perception of risk. Uncertainty about the reliability of Hemoccult-II®, health anxiety, and embarrassment emerged as the main barriers to colorectal cancer screening. Cross-sectional analyses identified the differences between the views expressed by women and men. Women appeared more embarrassed about Hemoccult-II® and men seemed to be more worried about colorectal cancer. This preliminary study suggests that psychological factors play an important role in colorectal cancer screening by Hemoccult-II®. This finding may help health organizations to conceive better awareness campaigns to promote colorectal cancer screening in order to reduce the related mortality rate by taking into account psychological determinants. PMID:26973907

  7. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Stm1p facilitates ribosome preservation during quiescence

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyke, Natalya; Chanchorn, Ekkawit; Van Dyke, Michael W.

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stm1p confers increased resistance to the macrolide starvation-mimic rapamycin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stm1p maintains 80S ribosome integrity during stationary phase-induced quiescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stm1p facilitates polysome formation following quiescence exit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stm1p facilitates protein synthesis following quiescence exit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stm1p is a ribosome preservation factor under conditions of nutrient deprivation. -- Abstract: Once cells exhaust nutrients from their environment, they enter an alternative resting state known as quiescence, whereby proliferation ceases and essential nutrients are obtained through internal stores and through the catabolism of existing macromolecules and organelles. One example of this is ribophagy, the degradation of ribosomes through the process of autophagy. However, some ribosomes need to be preserved for an anticipated recovery from nutrient deprivation. We found that the ribosome-associated protein Stm1p greatly increases the quantity of 80S ribosomes present in quiescent yeast cells and that these ribosomes facilitate increased protein synthesis rates once nutrients are restored. These findings suggest that Stm1p can act as a ribosome preservation factor under conditions of nutrient deprivation and restoration.

  8. 'Do it for the kids': barriers and facilitators to smoke-free homes and vehicles.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Rosemary J; Gagnon, Anita J; Rennick, Janet E; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L

    2011-01-01

    Despite abundant evidence about the adverse effects of secondhand smoke exposure on children's health, few reports describe barriers and facilitators encountered by parents in making their homes and vehicles smoke-free. This article describes perceptions of barriers and facilitators to making homes and vehicles smoke-free among 36 parents with a child five years of age or younger. Qualitative data were collected in interviews with parents in the context of a randomized controlled trial that tested an intervention to empower parents to make their homes and vehicles smoke-free. Themes that emerged in the analysis were congruent with an ecological conceptualization of health. The greatest barriers were intrapersonal factors, and nicotine addiction was the intrapersonal barrier identified most frequently. The most frequently reported facilitators were intrapersonal factors, such as quitting smoking. Parents reported not seeking advice from health care providers. The transition process to make homes and vehicles smoke-free is complex and individualistic; nurses may need to tailor strategies to take the specific contexts of each individual into account. PMID:21485618

  9. Barriers and Facilitators to Effective Feedback: A Qualitative Analysis of Data From Multispecialty Resident Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Shalini T.; Zegarek, Matthew H.; Fromme, H. Barrett; Ryan, Michael S.; Schumann, Sarah-Anne; Harris, Ilene B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of feedback, the literature suggests that there is inadequate feedback in graduate medical education. Objective We explored barriers and facilitators that residents in anesthesiology, emergency medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, and surgery experience with giving and receiving feedback during their clinical training. Methods Residents from 3 geographically diverse teaching institutions were recruited to participate in focus groups in 2012. Open-ended questions prompted residents to describe their experiences with giving and receiving feedback, and discuss facilitators and barriers. Data were transcribed and analyzed using the constant comparative method associated with a grounded theory approach. Results A total of 19 residents participated in 1 of 3 focus groups. Five major themes related to feedback were identified: teacher factors, learner factors, feedback process, feedback content, and educational context. Unapproachable attendings, time pressures due to clinical work, and discomfort with giving negative feedback were cited as major barriers in the feedback process. Learner engagement in the process was a major facilitator in the feedback process. Conclusions Residents provided insights for improving the feedback process based on their dual roles as teachers and learners. Time pressures in the learning environment may be mitigated by efforts to improve the quality of teacher-learner relationships. Forms for collecting written feedback should be augmented by faculty development to ensure meaningful use. Efforts to improve residents' comfort with giving feedback and encouraging learners to engage in the feedback process may foster an environment conducive to increasing feedback. PMID:26221437

  10. Adolescents' perspectives on the barriers and facilitators of physical activity: a systematic review of qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    Martins, João; Marques, Adilson; Sarmento, Hugo; Carreiro da Costa, Francisco

    2015-10-01

    This article examined qualitative studies of adolescents' perspectives about the facilitators and barriers of physical activity, published from 2007 to 2014. A systematic review of 'Web of Science', 'EBSCO', 'Psychinfo' and 'ERIC' databases was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. The following keywords were used: 'physical activity' and 'physical education', each one individually associated with 'correlate', 'determinant', 'facilitator', 'barrier', 'factor influen*', and with 'qualitative', 'focus group', 'interview', "narrative'. Out of 3815 studies initially identified, due to inclusion and quality criteria, only 12 were fully reviewed. Studies' outcomes were analyzed through thematic analysis. The majority of these reported research with young adolescent girls. Few studies have considered the socioeconomic status influence. According to young people's perspectives, the main facilitators and hampering factors to their participation in physical activity were the following: attitude toward physical activity; motivation; perceptions of competence and body image; fun; influence of friends, family and physical education teachers and environmental physical activity opportunities. Specific life transition periods were referred only as a barrier to physical activity. Strategies of pedagogical actions and for developing physical activity intervention programs were discussed, in order to effectively promote the adoption of active lifestyles among youth. PMID:26324394

  11. Positive interactions between desert granivores: localized facilitation of harvester ants by kangaroo rats.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Facilitation, when one species enhances the environment or performance of another species, can be highly localized in space. While facilitation in plant communities has been intensely studied, the role of facilitation in shaping animal communities is less well understood. In the Chihuahuan Desert, both kangaroo rats and harvester ants depend on the abundant seeds of annual plants. Kangaroo rats, however, are hypothesized to facilitate harvester ants through soil disturbance and selective seed predation rather than competing with them. I used a spatially explicit approach to examine whether a positive or negative interaction exists between banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis) mounds and rough harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex rugosus) colonies. The presence of a scale-dependent interaction between mounds and colonies was tested by comparing fitted spatial point process models with and without interspecific effects. Also, the effect of proximity to a mound on colony mortality and spatial patterns of surviving colonies was examined. The spatial pattern of kangaroo rat mounds and harvester ant colonies was consistent with a positive interspecific interaction at small scales (<10 m). Mortality risk of vulnerable, recently founded harvester ant colonies was lower when located close to a kangaroo rat mound and proximity to a mound partly predicted the spatial pattern of surviving colonies. My findings support localized facilitation of harvester ants by kangaroo rats, likely mediated through ecosystem engineering and foraging effects on plant cover and composition. The scale-dependent effect of kangaroo rats on abiotic and biotic factors appears to result in greater founding and survivorship of young colonies near mounds. These results suggest that soil disturbance and foraging by rodents can have subtle impacts on the distribution and demography of other species. PMID:22348030

  12. Exploring the district nurse role in facilitating individualised advance care planning.

    PubMed

    Boot, Michelle

    2016-03-01

    Health-care policy recognises the importance of engaging people in making decisions related to the management of their health. Advance care planning (ACP) offers a framework for decision making on end-of-life care. There are positive indicators that ACP enables health professionals to meet people's preferences. However, there are reports of insensitive attempts to engage people in end-of-life care decision making. District nurses are in the ideal position to facilitate ACP, as they have the opportunity to build relationships with the people they are caring for--an antecedent to sensitive ACP--and in recognising and fulfilling this role, they could ameliorate the risk of insensitive ACP. Distric nurse leaders also have a role to play in ensuring that organisational and environmental factors support appropriate ACP facilitation including: training, fostering a team culture that empowers district nurses to recognise and meet their ACP role, and advocating for appropriate ACP evaluation outcome measures. PMID:26940617

  13. Barriers and Facilitators to Engaging Communities in Gender-Based Violence Prevention following a Natural Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Sloand, Elizabeth; Killion, Cheryl; Gary, Faye A.; Dennis, Betty; Glass, Nancy; Hassan, Mona; Campbell, Doris W.; Callwood, Gloria B

    2016-01-01

    Humanitarian workers in disaster settings report a dramatic increase in gender-based violence (GBV). This was true after the 2010 Haiti earthquake when women and girls lost the relative security of their homes and families. Researchers from the United States Virgin Islands and the United States mainland responded by collaborating with Haitian colleagues to develop GBV-focused strategies. To start, the research team performed a situational analysis to insure that the project was culturally, ethically, and logistically appropriate. The aim of this paper is to describe how the situational analysis framework helped the researchers effectively approach this community. Using post-earthquake Haiti as an exemplar, we identify key steps, barriers, and facilitators to undertaking a situational analysis. Barriers included logistics, infrastructure, language and community factors. Facilitators included established experts, organizations and agencies. Researchers in such circumstances need to be respectful of community members as experts and patient with local environmental and cultural conditions. PMID:26548685

  14. Barriers and Facilitators to Engaging Communities in Gender-Based Violence Prevention following a Natural Disaster.

    PubMed

    Sloand, Elizabeth; Killion, Cheryl; Gary, Faye A; Dennis, Betty; Glass, Nancy; Hassan, Mona; Campbell, Doris W; Callwood, Gloria B

    2015-11-01

    Humanitarian workers in disaster settings report a dramatic increase in gender-based violence (GBV). This was true after the 2010 Haiti earthquake when women and girls lost the relative security of their homes and families. Researchers from the United States Virgin Islands and the United States mainland responded by collaborating with Haitian colleagues to develop GBV-focused strategies. To start, the research team performed a situational analysis to insure that the project was culturally, ethically, and logistically appropriate. The aim of this paper is to describe how the situational analysis framework helped the researchers effectively approach this community. Using post-earthquake Haiti as an exemplar, we identify key steps, barriers, and facilitators to undertaking a situational analysis. Barriers included logistics, infrastructure, language and community factors. Facilitators included established experts, organizations and agencies. Researchers in such circumstances need to be respectful of community members as experts and patient with local environmental and cultural conditions. PMID:26548685

  15. Predictors of Parent Involvement and Their Impact on Access of Postsecondary Education Facilitators among White and American Indian Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardhoshi, Gerta; Duncan, Kelly; Schweinle, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This study examined demographic factors as predictors of parent involvement (engagement with school, support of learning, support of child) among parents of children that attended a school implementing a college access program. The authors also examined whether involvement predicted access of postsecondary education facilitators in parents, when…

  16. Facilitating classroom based interprofessional learning: a grounded theory study of university educators' perceptions of their role adequacy as facilitators.

    PubMed

    Derbyshire, Julie A; Machin, Alison I; Crozier, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    The provision of inter professional learning (IPL) within undergraduate programmes is now well established within many Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). IPL aims to better equip nurses and other health professionals with effective collaborative working skills and knowledge to improve the quality of patient care. Although there is still ambiguity in relation to the optimum timing and method for delivering IPL, effective facilitation is seen as essential. This paper reports on a grounded theory study of university educators' perceptions of the knowledge and skills needed for their role adequacy as IPL facilitators. Data was collected using semi structured interviews with nine participants who were theoretically sampled from a range of professional backgrounds, with varied experiences of education and involvement in facilitating IPL. Constant comparative analysis was used to generate four data categories: creating and sustaining an IPL group culture through transformational IPL leadership (core category), readiness for IPL facilitation, drawing on past interprofessional learning and working experiences and role modelling an interprofessional approach. The grounded theory generated from this study, although propositional, suggests that role adequacy for IPL facilitation is dependent on facilitator engagement in a process of 'transformational interprofessional learning leadership' to create and sustain a group culture. PMID:24933402

  17. Fiddler crabs facilitate Spartina alterniflora growth, mitigating periwinkle overgrazing of marsh habitat.

    PubMed

    Gittman, Rachel K; Keller, Danielle A

    2013-12-01

    Ecologists have long been interested in identifying and testing factors that drive top-down or bottom-up regulation of communities. Most studies have focused on factors that directly exert top-down (e.g., grazing) or bottom-up (e.g., nutrient availability) control on primary production. For example, recent studies in salt marshes have demonstrated that fronts of Littoraria irrorata periwinkles can overgraze Spartina alterniflora and convert marsh to mudflat. The importance of indirect, bottom-up effects, particularly facilitation, in enhancing primary production has also recently been explored. Previous field studies separately revealed that fiddler crabs, which burrow to depths of more than 30 cm, can oxygenate marsh sediments and redistribute nutrients, thereby relieving the stress of anoxia and enhancing S. alterniflora growth. However, to our knowledge, no studies to date have explored how nontrophic facilitators can mediate top-down effects (i.e., grazing) on primary-producer biomass. We conducted a field study testing whether fiddler crabs can facilitate S. alterniflora growth sufficiently to mitigate overgrazing by periwinkles and thus sustain S. alterniflora marsh. As inferred from contrasts to experimental plots lacking periwinkles and fiddler crabs, periwinkles alone exerted top-down control of total aboveground biomass and net growth of S. alterniflora. When fiddler crabs were included, they counteracted the effects of periwinkles on net S. alterniflora growth. Sediment oxygen levels were greater and S. alterniflora belowground biomass was lower where fiddler crabs were present, implying that fiddler crab burrowing enhanced S. alterniflora growth. Consequently, in the stressful interior S. alterniflora marsh, where subsurface soil anoxia is widespread, fiddler crab facilitation can mitigate top-down control by periwinkles and can limit and possibly prevent loss of biogenically structured marsh habitat and its ecosystem services. PMID:24597218

  18. Barriers and facilitators of medication reconciliation processes for recently discharged patients from community pharmacists’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kennelty, Korey A.; Chewning, Betty; Wise, Meg; Kind, Amy; Roberts, Tonya; Kreling, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Community pharmacists play a vital part in reconciling medications for patients transitioning from hospital to community care, yet their roles have not been fully examined in the extant literature. Objectives The objectives of this study were to: 1) examine the barriers and facilitators community pharmacists face when reconciling medications for recently discharged patients; and 2) identify pharmacists’ preferred content and modes of information transfer regarding updated medication information for recently discharged patients. Methods Community pharmacists were purposively and conveniently sampled from the Wisconsin (U.S. state) pharmacist-based research network, Pharmacy Practice Enhancement and Action Research Link (PEARL Rx). Community pharmacists were interviewed face-to-face, and transcriptions from audio recordings were analyzed using directed content analysis. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) guided the development of questions for the semi-structured interviews. Results Interviewed community pharmacists (N = 10) described the medication reconciliation process to be difficult and time-consuming for recently discharged patients. In the context of the TPB, more barriers than facilitators of reconciling medications were revealed. Themes were categorized as organizational and individual-level themes. Major organizational-level factors affecting the medication reconciliation process included: pharmacy resources, discharge communication, and hospital resources. Major individual-level factors affecting the medication reconciliation process included: pharmacists’ perceived responsibility, relationships, patient perception of pharmacist, and patient characteristics. Interviewed pharmacists consistently responded that several pieces of information items would be helpful when reconciling medications for recently discharged patients, including the hospital medication discharge list and stop-orders for discontinued medications. Conclusions The TPB was

  19. Barriers and facilitators to implementing continuous quality improvement programs in colonoscopy services: a mixed methods systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Candas, Bernard; Jobin, Gilles; Dubé, Catherine; Tousignant, Mario; Abdeljelil, Anis Ben; Grenier, Sonya; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim: Continuous quality improvement (CQI) programs may result in quality of care and outcome improvement. However, the implementation of such programs has proven to be very challenging. This mixed methods systematic review identifies barriers and facilitators pertaining to the implementation of CQI programs in colonoscopy services and how they relate to endoscopists, nurses, managers, and patients. Methods: We developed a search strategy adapted to 15 databases. Studies had to report on the implementation of a CQI intervention and identified barriers or facilitators relating to any of the four groups of actors directly concerned by the provision of colonoscopies. The quality of the selected studies was assessed and findings were extracted, categorized, and synthesized using a generic extraction grid customized through an iterative process. Results: We extracted 99 findings from the 15 selected publications. Although involving all actors is the most cited factor, the literature mainly focuses on the facilitators and barriers associated with the endoscopists’ perspective. The most reported facilitators to CQI implementation are perception of feasibility, adoption of a formative approach, training and education, confidentiality, and assessing a limited number of quality indicators. Receptive attitudes, a sense of ownership and perceptions of positive impacts also facilitate the implementation. Finally, an organizational environment conducive to quality improvement has to be inclusive of all user groups, explicitly supportive, and provide appropriate resources. Conclusion: Our findings corroborate the current models of adoption of innovations. However, a significant knowledge gap remains with respect to barriers and facilitators pertaining to nurses, patients, and managers. PMID:26878037

  20. Facilitators and Barriers to Spinal Cord Injury Clinical Trial Participation: Multi-National Perspective of People Living with Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kim D; Cowan, Rachel E; Horsewell, Jane

    2016-03-01

    These are exciting times for the translation of promising interventions for spinal cord injury (SCI) into testing with clinical trials. These interventions include acute surgical decompression, neuroprotection, neural repair, cell replacement, activity-based rehabilitation, and medical devices, including devices requiring surgical implantation. By nature, clinical trials can have strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, which narrow down the pool of potential participants. Meeting enrollment numbers for properly powered trials is a daunting task. Therefore, it is important that trials are designed in a manner that facilitates participation. The purpose of this research study was to learn more about the factors that encourage or interfere with the decision to participate in clinical trials from the perspective of people living with SCI. A multi-national survey was conducted, primarily online, in which 802 participants with SCI ranked 32 factors as facilitators or barriers, using a Likert-type scale. There were 13 universal facilitators, five universal barriers, and three universally neutral factors. The number one facilitator was possible improvement in functionality and the number one barrier was possible decline in functionality-as may be expected. However, many unexpected facilitators and barriers were identified. There also were certain factors that were strong barriers or facilitators to certain sub-groups of people living with SCI. All of these factors should be taken into careful consideration when designing clinical trials so as to promote enrollment and enable adherence to different protocols. PMID:26414175

  1. Handwriting generates variable visual input to facilitate symbol learning

    PubMed Central

    Li, Julia X.; James, Karin H.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that handwriting practice facilitates letter categorization in young children. The present experiments investigated why handwriting practice facilitates visual categorization by comparing two hypotheses: That handwriting exerts its facilitative effect because of the visual-motor production of forms, resulting in a direct link between motor and perceptual systems, or because handwriting produces variable visual instances of a named category in the environment that then changes neural systems. We addressed these issues by measuring performance of 5 year-old children on a categorization task involving novel, Greek symbols across 6 different types of learning conditions: three involving visual-motor practice (copying typed symbols independently, tracing typed symbols, tracing handwritten symbols) and three involving visual-auditory practice (seeing and saying typed symbols of a single typed font, of variable typed fonts, and of handwritten examples). We could therefore compare visual-motor production with visual perception both of variable and similar forms. Comparisons across the six conditions (N=72) demonstrated that all conditions that involved studying highly variable instances of a symbol facilitated symbol categorization relative to conditions where similar instances of a symbol were learned, regardless of visual-motor production. Therefore, learning perceptually variable instances of a category enhanced performance, suggesting that handwriting facilitates symbol understanding by virtue of its environmental output: supporting the notion of developmental change though brain-body-environment interactions. PMID:26726913

  2. Handwriting generates variable visual output to facilitate symbol learning.

    PubMed

    Li, Julia X; James, Karin H

    2016-03-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that handwriting practice facilitates letter categorization in young children. The present experiments investigated why handwriting practice facilitates visual categorization by comparing 2 hypotheses: that handwriting exerts its facilitative effect because of the visual-motor production of forms, resulting in a direct link between motor and perceptual systems, or because handwriting produces variable visual instances of a named category in the environment that then changes neural systems. We addressed these issues by measuring performance of 5-year-old children on a categorization task involving novel, Greek symbols across 6 different types of learning conditions: 3 involving visual-motor practice (copying typed symbols independently, tracing typed symbols, tracing handwritten symbols) and 3 involving visual-auditory practice (seeing and saying typed symbols of a single typed font, of variable typed fonts, and of handwritten examples). We could therefore compare visual-motor production with visual perception both of variable and similar forms. Comparisons across the 6 conditions (N = 72) demonstrated that all conditions that involved studying highly variable instances of a symbol facilitated symbol categorization relative to conditions where similar instances of a symbol were learned, regardless of visual-motor production. Therefore, learning perceptually variable instances of a category enhanced performance, suggesting that handwriting facilitates symbol understanding by virtue of its environmental output: supporting the notion of developmental change though brain-body-environment interactions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26726913

  3. Pain facilitates tactile processing in human somatosensory cortices.

    PubMed

    Ploner, Markus; Pollok, Bettina; Schnitzler, Alfons

    2004-09-01

    Touch and pain are intimately related modalities. Despite a substantial overlap in their cortical representations interactions between both modalities are largely unknown at the cortical level. We therefore used magnetoencephalography and selective nociceptive cutaneous laser stimulation to investigate the effects of brief painful stimuli on cortical processing of touch. Using a conditioning test stimulus paradigm, our results show that painful conditioning stimuli facilitate processing of tactile test stimuli applied 500 ms later. This facilitation applies to cortical responses later than 40 ms originating from primary (S1) and secondary (S2) somatosensory cortices but not to earlier S1 responses. By contrast, tactile conditioning stimuli yield a decrease of early as well as late responses to tactile test stimuli. Control experiments show that pain-induced facilitation of tactile processing is not restricted to the site of the painful conditioning stimulus, whereas auditory conditioning does not yield a comparable facilitation. Apart from a lack of spatial specificity, the facilitating effect of pain closely resembles attentional effects on cortical processing of tactile stimuli. Thus these findings may represent a physiological correlate of an alerting function of pain as a change in the internal state to prepare for processing signals of particular relevance. PMID:15115788

  4. Preceptor development in residency training through a faculty facilitator.

    PubMed

    Stuart, M R; Orzano, A J; Eidus, R

    1980-10-01

    To address the demand for training preceptors, a community hospital-based residency program is using a part-time preceptor in a consultative capacity as a faculty facilitator to model, assess skills, and generally improve the level of teaching. Direct observation of resident-patient interactions and subsequent preceptor critiques are followed by feedback to the preceptor on the cogency and effectiveness of comments made. Goals, objectives, and teaching style are jointly examined by the preceptor and faculty facilitator. Evaluation of videotaped resident-preceptor interactions before and after six months' experience with the faculty facilitator shows significant increases in preceptor skills. Greatest improvement is in comments related to resident's clinical assessments, the resident-patient relationship, and in the quality of the resident-preceptor interaction. Scores by the faculty facilitator are significantly lower but parallel those of an independent, blind evaluator. Preceptor, resident, and administration reactions to the project are all positive. This ongoing program assures the continued upgrading of preceptor skills and provides for faculty attrition. A faculty facilitator providing direct feedback in the clinical setting is a low-cost and viable alternative to workshops and conferences for training effective teachers of family medicine. PMID:6106660

  5. Talking to Paper Doesn't Work: Factors that Facilitate Preservice Teacher Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Heidi J.; Cain, Kellie J.

    2013-01-01

    Encouraged in large part by the work of Schon (1983), teacher education programs have spent the last two decades providing preservice teachers with experiences designed to help them examine their beliefs and develop reflective habits (Roskos et al., 2001; Tsangaridou & Siedentop, 1995; Zeichner & Liston, 1987). The present study…

  6. Moving Towards Technology Education: Factors That Facilitated Teachers' Implementation of a Technology Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Roy

    2005-01-01

    Australia has a National Technology Statement (Curriculum Corporation, 1994) that specifies the content and process of technology studies in schools. However, as in the United States, the implementation of curricula is a state responsibility. In the state of Queensland the implementation has been a very gradual process with schools having the…

  7. Elementary School Personnel's Perceptions on Childhood Obesity: Pervasiveness and Facilitating Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odum, Mary; McKyer, E. Lisako J.; Tisone, Christine A.; Outley, Corliss W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Researchers in numerous disciplines have investigated the effects of the school environment on childhood obesity (CHO), one of the greatest current health concerns in the United States. There is a gap in current empirical evidence, however, on school personnel's perspectives of this issue. This study examined school personnel's…

  8. Neural stem cells secrete factors facilitating brain regeneration upon constitutive Raf-Erk activation.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Yong-Hee; Yi, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Joo Yeon; Chang, Mi-Yoon; Jo, A-Young; Kim, Jinyoung; Park, Chang-Hwan; Cho, Je-Yoel; Choi, Young-Jin; Sun, Woong; Lee, Sang-Hun

    2016-01-01

    The intracellular Raf-Erk signaling pathway is activated during neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation, and neuronal and astrocytic differentiation. A key question is how this signal can evoke multiple and even opposing NSC behaviors. We show here, using a constitutively active Raf (ca-Raf), that Raf-Erk activation in NSCs induces neuronal differentiation in a cell-autonomous manner. By contrast, it causes NSC proliferation and the formation of astrocytes in an extrinsic autocrine/paracrine manner. Thus, treatment of NSCs with medium (CM) conditioned in ca-Raf-transduced NSCs (Raf-CM; RCM) became activated to form proliferating astrocytes resembling radial glial cells (RGCs) or adult-type NSCs. Infusion of Raf-CM into injured mouse brains caused expansion of the NSC population in the subventricular zone, followed by the formation of new neurons that migrated to the damaged site. Our study shows an example how molecular mechanisms dissecting NSC behaviors can be utilized to develop regenerative therapies in brain disorders. PMID:27554447

  9. Teacher Perspectives on Factors Facilitating Implementation of Whole School Approaches for Resolving Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Elizabeth; Wertheim, Eleanor H.; Trinder, Margot

    2014-01-01

    While social-emotional learning programmes in schools often have positive outcomes, many such initiatives are not well implemented and maintained. This paper reports on teacher reflections on the process of planning and implementing a whole school social-emotional learning (SEL) programme with a conflict resolution focus, called "Enhancing…

  10. SuhB Associates with Nus Factors To Facilitate 30S Ribosome Biogenesis in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Navjot; Bubunenko, Mikhail; Smith, Carol; Abbott, David M.; Stringer, Anne M.; Shi, Ronald; Court, Donald L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A complex of highly conserved proteins consisting of NusB, NusE, NusA, and NusG is required for robust expression of rRNA in Escherichia coli. This complex is proposed to prevent Rho-dependent transcription termination by a process known as “antitermination.” The mechanism of this antitermination in rRNA is poorly understood but requires association of NusB and NusE with a specific RNA sequence in rRNA known as BoxA. Here, we identify a novel member of the rRNA antitermination machinery: the inositol monophosphatase SuhB. We show that SuhB associates with elongating RNA polymerase (RNAP) at rRNA in a NusB-dependent manner. Although we show that SuhB is required for BoxA-mediated antitermination in a reporter system, our data indicate that the major function of the NusB/E/A/G/SuhB complex is not to prevent Rho-dependent termination of rRNA but rather to promote correct rRNA maturation. This occurs through formation of a SuhB-mediated loop between NusB/E/BoxA and RNAP/NusA/G. Thus, we have reassigned the function of these proteins at rRNA and identified another key player in this complex. PMID:26980831

  11. Neural stem cells secrete factors facilitating brain regeneration upon constitutive Raf-Erk activation

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Yong-Hee; Yi, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Joo Yeon; Chang, Mi-Yoon; Jo, A-Young; Kim, Jinyoung; Park, Chang-Hwan; Cho, Je-Yoel; Choi, Young-Jin; Sun, Woong; Lee, Sang-Hun

    2016-01-01

    The intracellular Raf-Erk signaling pathway is activated during neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation, and neuronal and astrocytic differentiation. A key question is how this signal can evoke multiple and even opposing NSC behaviors. We show here, using a constitutively active Raf (ca-Raf), that Raf-Erk activation in NSCs induces neuronal differentiation in a cell-autonomous manner. By contrast, it causes NSC proliferation and the formation of astrocytes in an extrinsic autocrine/paracrine manner. Thus, treatment of NSCs with medium (CM) conditioned in ca-Raf-transduced NSCs (Raf-CM; RCM) became activated to form proliferating astrocytes resembling radial glial cells (RGCs) or adult-type NSCs. Infusion of Raf-CM into injured mouse brains caused expansion of the NSC population in the subventricular zone, followed by the formation of new neurons that migrated to the damaged site. Our study shows an example how molecular mechanisms dissecting NSC behaviors can be utilized to develop regenerative therapies in brain disorders. PMID:27554447

  12. Facilitators' Perspectives of the Factors That Affect the Effectiveness of Problem-Based Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Cecilia K. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Many educational researchers have established problem-based learning (PBL) as a total approach to education--both a product and a process--from a pedagogical instructional strategy to skills development to assessment. This study provides qualitative evidences from educational practitioners in various professional disciplines, namely, Medicine,…

  13. Facilitating an accelerated experience-based co-design project.

    PubMed

    Tollyfield, Ruth

    This article describes an accelerated experience-based co-design (AEBCD) quality improvement project that was undertaken in an adult critical care setting and the facilitation of that process. In doing so the aim is to encourage other clinical settings to engage with their patients, carers and staff alike and undertake their own quality improvement project. Patient, carer and staff experience and its place in the quality sphere is outlined and the importance of capturing patient, carer and staff feedback established. Experience-based co-design (EBCD) is described along with the recently tested accelerated version of the process. An overview of the project and outline of the organisational tasks and activities undertaken by the facilitator are given. The facilitation of the process and key outcomes are discussed and reflected on. Recommendations for future undertakings of the accelerated process are given and conclusions drawn. PMID:24526020

  14. Partner Facilitation and Partner Interference in Individuals' Weight Loss Goals.

    PubMed

    Theiss, Jennifer A; Carpenter, Amanda M; Leustek, John

    2016-08-01

    Drawing on the logic of the relational turbulence model, this study examined the ways in which romantic partners facilitate and interfere with individuals' weight loss goals. Participants (N = 122) described the ways in which their romantic partner had recently helped or hindered their weight loss at four times over the course of 2 months. We conducted a content analysis of responses to identify themes of partner facilitation (Research Question 1 [RQ1]) and partner interference (RQ2) in individuals' weight loss goals. Results revealed seven themes of partner facilitation: (a) partner enabling diet, (b) motivation and encouragement, (c) emotional support and positive reinforcement, (d) exercising together, (e) partner enabling exercise, (f) dieting together, and (g) relationship influence and priorities. Four themes of partner interference emerged in the data: (a) inability to plan for healthy meals, (b) inability to control the food environment, (c) preventing or discouraging exercise, and (d) emotional or relational discouragement. PMID:25904678

  15. Facilitation techniques as predictors of crew participation in LOFT debriefings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonnell, L. K.

    1996-01-01

    Based on theories of adult learning and airline industry guidelines for Crew Resource Management (CRM), the stated objective during Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) debriefings is for instructor pilots (IP's) to facilitate crew self-analysis of performance. This study reviews 19 LOFT debriefings from two major U.S. airlines to examine the relationship between IP efforts at facilitation and associated characteristics of crew participation. A subjective rating scale called the Debriefing Assessment Battery was developed and utilized to evaluate the effectiveness of IP facilitation and the quality of crew participation. The results indicate that IP content, encouragement, and questioning techniques are highly and significantly correlated with, and can therefore predict, the degree and depth of crew participation.

  16. Object-based attentional facilitation and inhibition are neuropsychologically dissociated.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel T; Ball, Keira; Swalwell, Robert; Schenk, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Salient peripheral cues produce a transient shift of attention which is superseded by a sustained inhibitory effect. Cueing part of an object produces an inhibitory cueing effect (ICE) that spreads throughout the object. In dynamic scenes the ICE stays with objects as they move. We examined object-centred attentional facilitation and inhibition in a patient with visual form agnosia. There was no evidence of object-centred attentional facilitation. In contrast, object-centred ICE was observed in 3 out of 4 tasks. These inhibitory effects were strongest where cues to objecthood were highly salient. These data are evidence of a neuropsychological dissociation between the facilitatory and inhibitory effects of attentional cueing. From a theoretical perspective the findings suggest that 'grouped arrays' are sufficient for object-based inhibition, but insufficient to generate object-centred attentional facilitation. PMID:26551577

  17. If a Student Takes Control: Facilitator's Tasks and Responsibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väljataga, Terje

    This paper presents initial research results of an intervention into higher educational teaching and studying practices from facilitators‘ point of view. The intervention was implemented into an international Master’s level online course mediated by landscapes of social media tools and services. In this course more emphasis was put on a shift of control from a facilitator to a student or a group of students in the following aspects: setting up one’s study goals, choosing activities, selecting appropriate resources, including technology and defining one’s evaluation criteria. The initial analysis showed that the facilitators gained a lot in terms of understanding the benefits of exploiting social media tools and services for their teaching practices, perceiving a need of having a different role as well as the shortages and problems while being a facilitator in such a course.

  18. Business-IT Alignment in Trade Facilitation: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adaba, Godfried; Rusu, Lazar; El-Mekawy, Mohamed

    In the information age, no organization can thrive without harnessing the power of IT. The effective deployment of IT to achieve business goals and gain competitive advantage requires the alignment of business and IT strategies of organizations. Using the Strategic Alignment Maturity model, this paper evaluates strategic alignment maturity of Customs Excise Preventive service, a frontline public organization charged with trade facilitation in Ghana. Strategic alignment maturity is at level 3; which implies the existence of an established process to leverage IT for efficiency and effectiveness. Efforts are required to strengthen alignment and fully harness the potential of IT to facilitate trade in Ghana.

  19. Methodological Understandings from Elementary Science Lesson Study Facilitation and Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotger, Sharon

    2015-06-01

    Teacher learning, as well as the development and testing of curriculum materials, are key for teaching lessons that bring the goals of the Next Generation Science Standards to life in classrooms. Lesson study is a process that links standards, teacher learning, curriculum materials, and instructional enactment together to facilitate student learning. This article has two goals: (1) describe the essential features of lesson study and, (2) discuss the challenges in facilitating and researching both teachers' and students' learning through this process. Lesson study's adoption is relatively new in the United States, thus it is important to develop shared understanding of its features and how to study its impact.

  20. Educating ethnic minority students for the nursing workforce: facilitators and barriers to success.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Jocelyn; Duty, Susan

    2010-07-01

    The number of ethnic minorities graduating from nursing programs does not meet the number of ethnic minority nurses that are needed for patient care. In order to identify the facilitators and barriers to success, a survey was sent to current students and to those who graduated within 2 years. There were 314 responses, which was an overall response rate of 39.6%. Among the 4 facilitator factors, only the general academic support factor was perceived as more helpful by African-American students (p = 0.001). Among the 5 barrier factors, African-American students and Other Ethnic Minority students perceived program workload and pace (African-Americans p < 0.005; Other multicultural groups p < 0.02), computer access (African-Americans p < 0.05; Other multicultural groups p < 0.05) and technology competence (African-Americans p < 0.02) to be barriers. Any student, regardless of ethnicity, who worked at a job 13 to 40 hours a week, perceived family and financial concerns as a barrier. Results indicated that curriculum content should include technology basics and testing for competence. Financial support for students must be expanded through loans and scholarships so workload and pace become more manageable. PMID:20857771

  1. Barriers and facilitators to recovering from e-prescribing errors in community pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Odukoya, Olufunmilola K.; Stone, Jamie A.; Chui, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore barriers and facilitators to recovery from e-prescribing errors in community pharmacies and to explore practical solutions for work system redesign to ensure successful recovery from errors. Design Cross-sectional qualitative design using direct observations, interviews, and focus groups. Setting Five community pharmacies in Wisconsin. Participants 13 pharmacists and 14 pharmacy technicians. Interventions Observational field notes and transcribed interviews and focus groups were subjected to thematic analysis guided by the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) work system and patient safety model. Main Outcome Measures Barriers and facilitators to recovering from e-prescription errors in community pharmacies. Results Organizational factors, such as communication, training, teamwork, and staffing levels, play an important role in recovering from e-prescription errors. Other factors that could positively or negatively affect recovery of e-prescription errors include level of experience, knowledge of the pharmacy personnel, availability or usability of tools and technology, interruptions and time pressure when performing tasks, and noise in the physical environment. Conclusion The SEIPS model sheds light on key factors that may influence recovery from eprescribing errors in pharmacies, including the environment, teamwork, communication, technology, tasks, and other organizational variables. To be successful in recovering from eprescribing errors, pharmacies must provide the appropriate working conditions that support recovery from errors. PMID:25539495

  2. ATM Release at Resected Double-Strand Breaks Provides Heterochromatin Reconstitution to Facilitate Homologous Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Löbrich, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) represent the two main pathways for repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). During the G2 phase of the mammalian cell cycle, both processes can operate and chromatin structure is one important factor which determines DSB repair pathway choice. ATM facilitates the repair of heterochromatic DSBs by phosphorylating and inactivating the heterochromatin building factor KAP-1, leading to local chromatin relaxation. Here, we show that ATM accumulation and activity is strongly diminished at DSBs undergoing end-resection during HR. Such DSBs remain unrepaired in cells devoid of the HR factors BRCA2, XRCC3 or RAD51. Strikingly, depletion of KAP-1 or expression of phospho-mimic KAP-1 allows repair of resected DSBs in the absence of BRCA2, XRCC3 or RAD51 by an erroneous PARP-dependent alt-NHEJ process. We suggest that DSBs in heterochromatin elicit initial local heterochromatin relaxation which is reversed during HR due to the release of ATM from resection break ends. The restored heterochromatic structure facilitates HR and prevents usage of error-prone alternative processes. PMID:23935532

  3. CTCF cooperates with noncoding RNA MYCNOS to promote neuroblastoma progression through facilitating MYCN expression.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X; Li, D; Pu, J; Mei, H; Yang, D; Xiang, X; Qu, H; Huang, K; Zheng, L; Tong, Q

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have indicated the important roles of MYCN in tumorigenesis and progression of neuroblastoma (NB), the most common extracranial solid tumor derived from neural crest in childhood. However, the regulatory mechanisms of MYCN expression in NB still remain largely unknown. In this study, through mining public microarray databases and analyzing the cis-regulatory elements and chromatin immunoprecipitation data sets, we identified CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) as a crucial transcription factor facilitating the MYCN expression in NB. RNA immunoprecipitation, RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assay, RNA pull down and in vitro binding assay indicated the physical interaction between CTCF and MYCN opposite strand (MYCNOS), a natural noncoding RNA surrounding the MYNC promoter. Gain- and loss-of-function studies revealed that MYCNOS facilitated the recruitment of CTCF to its binding sites within the MYCN promoter to induce chromatin remodeling, resulting in enhanced MYCN levels and altered downstream gene expression, in cultured NB cell lines. CTCF cooperated with MYCNOS to suppress the differentiation and promote the growth, invasion and metastasis of NB cells in vitro and in vivo. In clinical NB tissues and cell lines, CTCF and MYCNOS were upregulated and positively correlated with MYCN expression. CTCF was an independent prognostic factor for unfavorable outcome of NB, and patients with high MYCNOS expression had lower survival probability. Taken together, these results demonstrate that CTCF cooperates with noncoding RNA MYCNOS to exhibit oncogenic activity that affects the aggressiveness and progression of NB through transcriptional upregulation of MYCN. PMID:26549029

  4. Facilitators and barriers in the humanization of childbirth practice in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Humanizing birth means considering women's values, beliefs, and feelings and respecting their dignity and autonomy during the birthing process. Reducing over-medicalized childbirths, empowering women and the use of evidence-based maternity practice are strategies that promote humanized birth. Nevertheless, the territory of birth and its socio-cultural values and beliefs concerning child bearing can deeply affect birthing practices. The present study aims to explore the Japanese child birthing experience in different birth settings where the humanization of childbirth has been indentified among the priority goals of the institutions concerned, and also to explore the obstacles and facilitators encountered in the practice of humanized birth in those centres. Methods A qualitative field research design was used in this study. Forty four individuals and nine institutions were recruited. Data was collected through observation, field notes, focus groups, informal and semi-structured interviews. A qualitative content analysis was performed. Results All the settings had implemented strategies aimed at reducing caesarean sections, and keeping childbirth as natural as possible. The barriers and facilitators encountered in the practice of humanized birth were categorized into four main groups: rules and strategies, physical structure, contingency factors, and individual factors. The most important barriers identified in humanized birth care were the institutional rules and strategies that restricted the presence of a birth companion. The main facilitators were women's own cultural values and beliefs in a natural birth, and institutional strategies designed to prevent unnecessary medical interventions. Conclusions The Japanese birthing institutions which have identified as part of their mission to instate humanized birth have, as a whole, been successful in improving care. However, barriers remain to achieving the ultimate goal. Importantly, the cultural values and

  5. Collaborative Depression Care in a Safety Net Medical Home: Facilitators and Barriers to Quality Improvement.

    PubMed

    Price-Haywood, Eboni G; Dunn-Lombard, Donisha; Harden-Barrios, Jewel; Lefante, John J

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about how to integrate primary care with mental/behavioral services outside of clinical trials. The authors implemented a collaborative care model (CCM) for depression in a safety net patient-centered medical home. The model focused on universal screening for symptoms, risk stratification based on symptom severity, care management for intensive follow-up, and psychiatry consultation. CCM increased rates of primary care physician encounters, timely follow-up for monitoring symptoms of depression, and documentation of treatment response. Contextual factors that facilitated or hindered practice redesign included clinic leadership, quality improvement culture, staffing, technology infrastructure, and external incentives/disincentives for organizational change. PMID:26087153

  6. Multiple mechanisms sustain a plant-animal facilitation on a coastal ecotone.

    PubMed

    He, Qiang; Cui, Baoshan

    2015-01-01

    Theory suggests that species distributions are expanded by positive species interactions, but the importance of facilitation in expanding species distributions at physiological range limits has not been widely recognized. We investigated the effects of the nurse shrub Tamarix chinensis on the crab Helice tientsinensis on the terrestrial borders of salt marshes, a typical coastal ecotone, where Tamarix and Helice were on their lower and upper elevational distribution edges, respectively. Crab burrows were abundant under Tamarix, but were absent in open areas between Tamarix. Removing Tamarix decreased associated crab burrows with time, while simulating Tamarix in open areas by shading, excluding predators, and adding Tamarix branches as crab food, increased crab burrows. Measurements of soil and microclimate factors showed that removing Tamarix increased abiotic stress, while simulating Tamarix by shading decreased abiotic stress. Survival of tethered crabs was high only when protected from desiccation and predation. Thus, by alleviating abiotic and biotic stresses, as well as by food provision, Tamarix expanded the upper intertidal distribution of Helice. Our study provides clear evidence for the importance of facilitation in expanding species distributions at their range limits, and suggests that facilitation is a crucial biological force maintaining the ecotones between ecosystems. PMID:25721758

  7. Barriers to and Facilitators of Research Utilization among Iranian Nurses: a Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Abbas; Emami Zeydi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Research utilization (RU), is an important strategy to promote the quality of patient care. The aim of this study was to present a comprehensive literature review describing barriers and facilitators of RU among Iranian nurses. Methods: Literature review was undertaken using the international databases including Pub Med/Medline, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. Also, Persian electronic databases such as Magiran, SID and Iran Medex were searched up to May 2014. The search was limited to articles in the English and Persian languages that evaluate the barriers or facilitators of RU among Iranian nurses. Results: A total of 11 articles were in the final dataset. The most important barriers to RU among Iranian nurses were related to the organization factors such as inadequate facilities; insufficient time on the job, lack of authority, physician cooperation, and administrative support. The most frequent facilitators of RU were education in enhancing nurses knowledge and skills in research evaluation, support from knowledgeable nursing colleagues and nursing faculty in the clinical setting, access to an expert committee for clinical appraisal, improving skills in English language and searching for articles, sufficient economic resources to carry out research, and having access to more facilities such as internet. Conclusion: Iranian nurses encounter with the same difficulties as to other countries regarding RU; while setting related barriers were the predominant obstacles to RU among them. Therefore, health managers are expected to plan appropriate strategies to smooth the progress of RU by nurses in their practice. PMID:25717456

  8. Barriers and Facilitators to Adoption of Genomic Services for Colorectal Care within the Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Sperber, Nina R; Andrews, Sara M; Voils, Corrine I; Green, Gregory L; Provenzale, Dawn; Knight, Sara

    2016-01-01

    We examined facilitators and barriers to adoption of genomic services for colorectal care, one of the first genomic medicine applications, within the Veterans Health Administration to shed light on areas for practice change. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 58 clinicians to understand use of the following genomic services for colorectal care: family health history documentation, molecular and genetic testing, and genetic counseling. Data collection and analysis were informed by two conceptual frameworks, the Greenhalgh Diffusion of Innovation and Andersen Behavioral Model, to allow for concurrent examination of both access and innovation factors. Specialists were more likely than primary care clinicians to obtain family history to investigate hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC), but with limited detail; clinicians suggested templates to facilitate retrieval and documentation of family history according to guidelines. Clinicians identified advantage of molecular tumor analysis prior to genetic testing, but tumor testing was infrequently used due to perceived low disease burden. Support from genetic counselors was regarded as facilitative for considering hereditary basis of CRC diagnosis, but there was variability in awareness of and access to this expertise. Our data suggest the need for tools and policies to establish and disseminate well-defined processes for accessing services and adhering to guidelines. PMID:27136589

  9. Barriers to and facilitative processes of endocrine therapy adherence among women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bright, Emma E; Petrie, Keith J; Partridge, Ann H; Stanton, Annette L

    2016-07-01

    The treatment of chronic illness, and the prevention of disease progression and recurrence, often involve long-term adherence to prescription medications in breast cancer. Despite the survival benefit of endocrine therapies, nonadherence remains high. In this study, we examined barriers to and facilitators of endocrine therapy adherence among women with breast cancer (n = 1371). Participants currently taking tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors were recruited from Dr. Susan Love Research Foundation's Army of Women(®) Registry. Participants responded online to open-ended and close-ended questions about thoughts, feelings, and behaviors relevant to endocrine therapy. Two weeks later, women were invited to complete a second online questionnaire regarding current endocrine therapy adherence. Approximately one-third (36 %) of participants reported the presence of factors that make endocrine therapy difficult; reporting any barrier to medication adherence was significantly associated with nonadherence (P < 0.001). In addition, 31 % of women used one or more strategies to maintain their motivation to adhere and the use of cognitive self-talk (e.g., thoughts regarding endocrine therapy efficacy) was related to higher adherence. Hierarchical linear regressions revealed a significant behavioral barrier × behavioral facilitator interaction (P < 0.05); participants who endorsed a behavioral barrier in the absence of a behavioral facilitator reported the lowest adherence. Findings suggest that a sizeable minority of women face barriers to taking endocrine therapy, which are associated with nonadherence. PMID:27342455

  10. Iranian Nurses’ Views on Barriers and Facilitators in Patient Education: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramezanli, Somayeh; Jahromi, Zohreh Badiyepeymaie

    2015-01-01

    Background: As a major factor in patient-centered care, patient education has a great impact on the quality of care provided by nurses; however, clinical nurses’ performance with regard to patient education is not satisfactory. This study is an attempt to investigate barriers and facilitators in patient education from nurses’ point of view. Methods: 122 nurses at Jahrom University of Medical Sciences participated in this descriptive-cross sectional study. Sampling was based on the census method. The questionnaire used to collect data included questions about nurses’ demography, barriers (10 questions), and facilitators (10 questions) in patient education. The questionnaire was designed to be completed independently. To analyze the data, the researchers used descriptive statistics, including frequency, mean and standard deviation. Results: The highest scores related to barriers to patient education were: nurses’ insufficient knowledge, patients’ physical and emotional unpreparedness, and lack of a proper environment for education. The most important facilitators, on the other hand, were: enhancement of instructing nurses’ knowledge and skills, motivating nurses, and a step-by-step approach to patient education. Conclusion: It is important that nurses be prepared and motivated to train their patients. By satisfactory patient education on the part of nurses, patients will be more willing to cooperate in the treatment process. PMID:26156926

  11. Barriers and Facilitators to Adoption of Genomic Services for Colorectal Care within the Veterans Health Administration

    PubMed Central

    Sperber, Nina R.; Andrews, Sara M.; Voils, Corrine I.; Green, Gregory L.; Provenzale, Dawn; Knight, Sara

    2016-01-01

    We examined facilitators and barriers to adoption of genomic services for colorectal care, one of the first genomic medicine applications, within the Veterans Health Administration to shed light on areas for practice change. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 58 clinicians to understand use of the following genomic services for colorectal care: family health history documentation, molecular and genetic testing, and genetic counseling. Data collection and analysis were informed by two conceptual frameworks, the Greenhalgh Diffusion of Innovation and Andersen Behavioral Model, to allow for concurrent examination of both access and innovation factors. Specialists were more likely than primary care clinicians to obtain family history to investigate hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC), but with limited detail; clinicians suggested templates to facilitate retrieval and documentation of family history according to guidelines. Clinicians identified advantage of molecular tumor analysis prior to genetic testing, but tumor testing was infrequently used due to perceived low disease burden. Support from genetic counselors was regarded as facilitative for considering hereditary basis of CRC diagnosis, but there was variability in awareness of and access to this expertise. Our data suggest the need for tools and policies to establish and disseminate well-defined processes for accessing services and adhering to guidelines. PMID:27136589

  12. Barriers and facilitators to cervical cancer screening in high incidence populations: A synthesis of qualitative evidence.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Susan D

    2016-01-01

    Despite the efficacy and availability of screening and treatment for cervical cancer, it remains the leading cause of death for women in many low resource countries. The inability or reluctance of women to use screening and treatment is the largest contributor to cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. The aim of the author in this article is to determine knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs that facilitate or hinder women's use of screening in high incidence countries through a synthesis of qualitative research. CINAHL, Medline, AnthroSource, Sociological Abstracts, Social Service Abstracts, GenderWatch, Ethnic News Watch, and ASSIA databases were queried for qualitative research published from 2008 to 2013. Ten studies meeting inclusion criteria were reviewed and analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Barriers to cervical cancer screening included fatalism, mistrust of non-traditional healthcare providers, masculine/feminine beliefs, limited knowledge, and misunderstandings of causes of cervical cancer. Facilitators included knowledge of sexual risk factors, recognition of signs and symptoms, and community/social support. Pragmatic solutions suggested by this synthesis, that may decrease barriers and enhance facilitators, involved cultural humility (a continual commitment to cultural competence), promotion of gender equality, collaboration among stakeholders, and the translation of evidence-based practices from low to high incidence populations. PMID:26496628

  13. Multiple mechanisms sustain a plant-animal facilitation on a coastal ecotone

    PubMed Central

    He, Qiang; Cui, Baoshan

    2015-01-01

    Theory suggests that species distributions are expanded by positive species interactions, but the importance of facilitation in expanding species distributions at physiological range limits has not been widely recognized. We investigated the effects of the nurse shrub Tamarix chinensis on the crab Helice tientsinensis on the terrestrial borders of salt marshes, a typical coastal ecotone, where Tamarix and Helice were on their lower and upper elevational distribution edges, respectively. Crab burrows were abundant under Tamarix, but were absent in open areas between Tamarix. Removing Tamarix decreased associated crab burrows with time, while simulating Tamarix in open areas by shading, excluding predators, and adding Tamarix branches as crab food, increased crab burrows. Measurements of soil and microclimate factors showed that removing Tamarix increased abiotic stress, while simulating Tamarix by shading decreased abiotic stress. Survival of tethered crabs was high only when protected from desiccation and predation. Thus, by alleviating abiotic and biotic stresses, as well as by food provision, Tamarix expanded the upper intertidal distribution of Helice. Our study provides clear evidence for the importance of facilitation in expanding species distributions at their range limits, and suggests that facilitation is a crucial biological force maintaining the ecotones between ecosystems. PMID:25721758

  14. 50 CFR 300.221 - Facilitation of enforcement and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facilitation of enforcement and inspection. 300.221 Section 300.221 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES... operator shall ensure the continuous monitoring of the international safety and calling radio frequency...

  15. Facilitating Participation: Teacher Roles in a Multiuser Virtual Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Airong

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a task-based language teaching course in Second Life. The data set consists of transcribed recordings and a teacher interview. Focusing on how the teacher facilitated student participation, this paper aims to explore the discourse functions in the teacher language output and then to address the teacher roles in three…

  16. Physical activity barriers and facilitators among working mothers and fathers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The transition to parenthood is consistently associated with declines in physical activity. In particular, working parents are at risk for inactivity, but research exploring physical activity barriers and facilitators in this population has been scarce. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively examine perceptions of physical activity among working parents. Methods Working mothers (n = 13) and fathers (n = 12) were recruited to participate in one of four focus group sessions and discuss physical activity barriers and facilitators. Data were analyzed using immersion/crystallization in NVivo 10. Results Major themes for barriers included family responsibilities, guilt, lack of support, scheduling constraints, and work. Major themes for facilitators included being active with children or during children’s activities, being a role model for children, making time/prioritizing, benefits to health and family, and having support available. Several gender differences emerged within each theme, but overall both mothers and fathers reported their priorities had shifted to focus on family after becoming parents, and those who were fitting in physical activity had developed strategies that allowed them to balance their household and occupational responsibilities. Conclusions The results of this study suggest working mothers and fathers report similar physical activity barriers and facilitators and would benefit from interventions that teach strategies for overcoming barriers and prioritizing physical activity amidst the demands of parenthood. Future interventions might consider targeting mothers and fathers in tandem to create an optimally supportive environment in the home. PMID:24974148

  17. Gun facilitates adhesive bonding of studs to surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, B. K.; Simpson, W. G.

    1969-01-01

    Gun facilitates adhesive bonding of thermoplastic-backed studs to smooth, hard surfaces. Such studs can be used for mounting loads where defacement with drilled holes cannot be tolerated. These studs can be easily removed by softening the plastic bonding with heat from the gun.

  18. Health facilitation in primary care seen from practice and education.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Karen; Gripton, Jane; Lutchmiah, John; Caan, Woody

    'Valuing People: A New Strategy for Learning Disability for the 21st Century' (Department of Health, 2001a,b) aimed to introduce 'health facilitation' to improve the identification of health needs and access to appropriate care for people with learning disabilities. One London Borough took a leading role in implementing this new function, in the form of dedicated, full-time health facilitators. The authors examined the implementation and its impact, employing an innovative collaboration between professionals from practice, education and research. The clinical nurse involved was observed during her first year of health facilitation. The authors evaluated her impact on professionals, people with learning disabilities and the wider system of health. In some areas (for example, information technology) the health facilitator could make little progress in one year. However, she connected with a widening circle of local people and services, for example, in introducing health action plans for adults with a learning disability. Across the Borough some professionals became more aware of specific health issues in their local population. PMID:18073691

  19. Facilitating Inclusion in Early Childhood Settings: Interdisciplinary Preservice Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Melody F.; Able-Boone, Harriet; West, Tracey A.

    2001-01-01

    An interdisciplinary practicum case study is presented to illustrate components of a specialized preservice preparation for graduate students (n=44) in audiology, early childhood special education, school psychology, and speech-language pathology, designed to assist them in becoming inclusion collaborators/facilitators. Students' perceptions of…

  20. Facilitator's Manual: Summer Transitions. 2nd Edition, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Charlotte L., Ed.

    This teacher handbook provides guidelines and materials for graduate students who prepare entering freshmen at Bowling Green State University for the rigors of academic life. A series of exercises show summer instructors, called "facilitators," how to get students to: map their environment, use local resources, read and mark textbooks, study and…