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Sample records for factor sp1 plays

  1. Interaction of Sp1 zinc finger with transport factor in the nuclear localization of transcription factor Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Tatsuo; Kitamura, Haruka; Uwatoko, Chisana; Azumano, Makiko; Itoh, Kohji; Kuwahara, Jun

    2010-12-10

    Research highlights: {yields} Sp1 zinc fingers themselves interact with importin {alpha}. {yields} Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a nuclear localization signal. {yields} Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Transcription factor Sp1 is localized in the nucleus and regulates the expression of many cellular genes, but the nuclear transport mechanism of Sp1 is not well understood. In this study, we revealed that GST-fused Sp1 protein bound to endogenous importin {alpha} in HeLa cells via the Sp1 zinc finger domains, which comprise the DNA binding domain of Sp1. It was found that the Sp1 zinc finger domains directly interacted with a wide range of importin {alpha} including the armadillo (arm) repeat domain and the C-terminal acidic domain. Furthermore, it turned out that all three zinc fingers of Sp1 are essential for binding to importin {alpha}. Taken together, these results suggest that the Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a NLS and Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner even though it possesses no classical NLSs.

  2. Targeting Sp1 transcription factors in prostate cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Sankpal, Umesh T; Goodison, Steven; Abdelrahim, Maen; Basha, Riyaz

    2011-09-01

    Transcription factors are proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences within gene promoter regions. Specificity protein (Sp) family transcription factors play a critical role in various cellular processes and have been shown to be associated with tumorigenesis. The Sp family consists of several members that contain a highly conserved DNA-binding domain composed of three zinc fingers at the C-terminus and serine/threonine- and glutamine-rich transactivation domains at the N-terminal. Sp1 is elevated in several cancers including prostate and is associated with the prognosis of patients. Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 regulate a variety of cancer associated genes that are involved in cell cycle, proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. Studies have shown that in prostate cancer, Sp1 regulates important genes like androgen receptor, TGF-?, c-Met, fatty acid synthase, matrix metalloprotein (MT1-MMP), PSA, and ?-integrin. These results highlight the importance of Sp1 in prostate cancer and emphasize the potential therapeutic value of targeting Sp1. Several strategies, including the use of natural and synthetic compounds, have been used to inhibit Sp1 in prostate cancer. These include polyphenol quercetin, betulinic acid, acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid, tea phenols, isothiocyanates, thiazolidinediones, arsenic trioxide, and selenium. This review will describe the association of Sp proteins in prostate cancer with a special emphasis on some of the agents tested to target Sp proteins for the treatment of this malignancy. PMID:22022994

  3. O-GlcNAc inhibits interaction between Sp1 and Elf-1 transcription factors

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Kihong; Chang, Hyo-Ihl

    2009-03-13

    The novel protein modification, O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), plays an important role in various aspects of cell regulation. Although most of nuclear transcription regulatory factors are modified by O-GlcNAc, O-GlcNAc effects on transcription remain largely undefined yet. In this study, we show that O-GlcNAc inhibits a physical interaction between Sp1 and Elf-1 transcription factors, and negatively regulates transcription of placenta and embryonic expression oncofetal protein gene (Pem). These findings suggest that O-GlcNAc inhibits Sp1-mediated gene transcription possibly by interrupting Sp1 interaction with its cooperative factor.

  4. Role of zinc finger structure in nuclear localization of transcription factor Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Tatsuo; Azumano, Makiko; Uwatoko, Chisana; Itoh, Kohji Kuwahara, Jun

    2009-02-27

    Transcription factor Sp1 is localized in the nucleus and regulates gene expression. Our previous study demonstrated that the carboxyl terminal region of Sp1 containing 3-zinc finger region as DNA binding domain can also serve as nuclear localization signal (NLS). However, the nuclear transport mechanism of Sp1 has not been well understood. In this study, we performed a gene expression study on mutant Sp1 genes causing a set of amino acid substitutions in zinc finger domains to elucidate nuclear import activity. Nuclear localization of the GFP-fused mutant Sp1 proteins bearing concomitant substitutions in the first and third zinc fingers was highly inhibited. These mutant Sp1 proteins had also lost the binding ability as to the GC box sequence. The results suggest that the overall tertiary structure formed by the three zinc fingers is essential for nuclear localization of Sp1 as well as dispersed basic amino acids within the zinc fingers region.

  5. Overexpression of the transcription factor Sp1 activates the OAS-RNAse L-RIG-I pathway.

    PubMed

    Dupuis-Maurin, Valéryane; Brinza, Lilia; Baguet, Joël; Plantamura, Emilie; Schicklin, Stéphane; Chambion, Solène; Macari, Claire; Tomkowiak, Martine; Deniaud, Emmanuelle; Leverrier, Yann; Marvel, Jacqueline; Michallet, Marie-Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Deregulated expression of oncogenes or transcription factors such as specificity protein 1 (Sp1) is observed in many human cancers and plays a role in tumor maintenance. Paradoxically in untransformed cells, Sp1 overexpression induces late apoptosis but the early intrinsic response is poorly characterized. In the present work, we studied increased Sp1 level consequences in untransformed cells and showed that it turns on an early innate immune transcriptome. Sp1 overexpression does not activate known cellular stress pathways such as DNA damage response or endoplasmic reticulum stress, but induces the activation of the OAS-RNase L pathway and the generation of small self-RNAs, leading to the upregulation of genes of the antiviral RIG-I pathway at the transcriptional and translational levels. Finally, Sp1-induced intrinsic innate immune response leads to the production of the chemokine CXCL4 and to the recruitment of inflammatory cells in vitro and in vivo. Altogether our results showed that increased Sp1 level in untransformed cells constitutes a novel danger signal sensed by the OAS-RNase L axis leading to the activation of the RIG-I pathway. These results suggested that the OAS-RNase L-RIG-I pathway may be activated in sterile condition in absence of pathogen. PMID:25738304

  6. Overexpression of the Transcription Factor Sp1 Activates the OAS-RNAse L-RIG-I Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dupuis-Maurin, Valéryane; Brinza, Lilia; Baguet, Joël; Plantamura, Emilie; Schicklin, Stéphane; Chambion, Solène; Macari, Claire; Tomkowiak, Martine; Deniaud, Emmanuelle; Leverrier, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Deregulated expression of oncogenes or transcription factors such as specificity protein 1 (Sp1) is observed in many human cancers and plays a role in tumor maintenance. Paradoxically in untransformed cells, Sp1 overexpression induces late apoptosis but the early intrinsic response is poorly characterized. In the present work, we studied increased Sp1 level consequences in untransformed cells and showed that it turns on an early innate immune transcriptome. Sp1 overexpression does not activate known cellular stress pathways such as DNA damage response or endoplasmic reticulum stress, but induces the activation of the OAS-RNase L pathway and the generation of small self-RNAs, leading to the upregulation of genes of the antiviral RIG-I pathway at the transcriptional and translational levels. Finally, Sp1-induced intrinsic innate immune response leads to the production of the chemokine CXCL4 and to the recruitment of inflammatory cells in vitro and in vivo. Altogether our results showed that increased Sp1 level in untransformed cells constitutes a novel danger signal sensed by the OAS-RNase L axis leading to the activation of the RIG-I pathway. These results suggested that the OAS-RNase L-RIG-I pathway may be activated in sterile condition in absence of pathogen. PMID:25738304

  7. Transcription Factors ETF, E2F, and SP-1 Are Involved in Cytokine-Independent Proliferation of Murine

    E-print Network

    Timmer, Jens

    Transcription Factors ETF, E2F, and SP-1 Are Involved in Cytokine-Independent Proliferation-regulated. The latter genes showed an overrepresen- tation of transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) for ETF (TEA domain family member 2), E2F1 (E2F transcription factor 1), and SP-1 (Sp1 transcription factor) (P

  8. Synergistic activation of a human promoter in vivo by transcription factor Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, G.M. ); Freytag, S.O. )

    1991-04-01

    Many eucaryotic promoters contain multiple binding sites for sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins. In some cases, these proteins have been shown to interact synergistically to activate transcription. In this study, the authors address the possibility that the transcription factor Sp1 can synergistically activate a native human promoter in a cellular context that closely resembles that of a single-copy gene. Using DNase I footprinting with affinity-purified Sp1, they show that the human argininosuccinate synthetase (AS) promoter contains three sites that bind Sp1 with different affinities. These binding sites were mutated to abolish Sp1 binding, individually and in all possible combinations, to generate a series of AS promoter-CAT constructs was then measured in stably transfected human RPMI 2650 cells lines. The results show that each of the three Sp1-binding sites contributes to full activation of the human AS promoter and the relative contribution of each site correlates well with its in vitro affinity for Sp1. They provide direct evidence that Sp1-binding sites in their native context in a human promoter can interact synergistically in vivo to activate transcription. The ability to activate transcription synergistically may be the reason that many cellular promoters have multiple Sp1-binding sites arranged in tandem and in close proximity.

  9. The oncoprotein HBXIP upregulates PDGFB via activating transcription factor Sp1 to promote the proliferation of breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yingyi; Zhao, Yu; Li, Leilei; Shen, Yu; Cai, Xiaoli; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ye, Lihong

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •HBXIP is able to upregulate the expression of PDGFB in breast cancer cells. •HBXIP serves as a coactivator of activating transcription factor Sp1. •HBXIP stimulates the PDGFB promoter via activating transcription factor Sp1. •HBXIP promotes the proliferation of breast cancer cell via upregulating PDGFB. -- Abstract: We have reported that the oncoprotein hepatitis B virus X-interacting protein (HBXIP) acts as a novel transcriptional coactivator to promote proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. Previously, we showed that HBXIP was able to activate nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in breast cancer cells. As an oncogene, the platelet-derived growth factor beta polypeptide (PDGFB) plays crucial roles in carcinogenesis. In the present study, we found that both HBXIP and PDGFB were highly expressed in breast cancer cell lines. Interestingly, HBXIP was able to increase transcriptional activity of NF-?B through PDGFB, suggesting that HBXIP is associated with PDGFB in the cells. Moreover, HBXIP was able to upregulate PDGFB at the levels of mRNA, protein and promoter in the cells. Then, we identified that HBXIP stimulated the promoter of PDGFB through activating transcription factor Sp1. In function, HBXIP enhanced the proliferation of breast cancer cells through PDGFB in vitro. Thus, we conclude that HBXIP upregulates PDGFB via activating transcription factor Sp1 to promote proliferation of breast cancer cells.

  10. Negative Regulation of DsbA-L Gene Expression by the Transcription Factor Sp1

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Qichen; Yang, Wenjing; Li, Huating; Hu, Wenxiu; Chen, Lihui; Jiang, Shan; Dong, Kun; Song, Qianqian; Wang, Chen; Chen, Shuo; Liu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L) possesses beneficial effects such as promoting adiponectin multimerization and stability, increasing insulin sensitivity, and enhancing energy metabolism. The expression level of DsbA-L is negatively correlated with obesity in mice and humans, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. To address this question, we generated reporter gene constructs containing the promoter sequence of the mouse DsbA-L gene. Deletion analysis showed that the proximal promoter of mouse DsbA-L is located between ?186 and ?34 bp relative to the transcription start site. In silico analysis identified a putative Sp1 transcription factor binding site in the first intron of the DsbA-L gene. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that Sp1 bound to this intron region in vitro and in intact cells. Overexpression of Sp1 or suppressing Sp1 expression by siRNA reduced or increased DsbA-L promoter activity, respectively. The binding activity of Sp1 was gradually decreased during 3T3-L1 cell differentiation and was significantly increased in adipose tissues of obese mice. Our results identify Sp1 as an inhibitor of DsbA-L gene transcription, and the Sp1-mediated inhibition of DsbA-L gene expression may provide a mechanism underlying obesity-induced adiponectin downregulation and insulin resistance. PMID:25024375

  11. Cytosine methylation does not affect binding of transcription factor Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, M.A.; Jones, P.A. ); Imagawa, M.; Karin, M. )

    1988-04-01

    DNA methylation may be a component of a multilevel control mechanism that regulates eukaryotic gene expression. The authors used synthetic oligonucleotides to investigate the effect of cytosine methylation on the binding of the transcription factor Sp1 to its target sequence (a G+C-rich sequence known as a GC box). Concatemers of double-stranded 14-mers containing a GC box successfully competed with the human metallothionein IIA promoter for binding to Sp1 in DNase I protection experiments. The presence of 5-methylcytosine in the CpG sequence of the GC box did not influence Sp1 binding. The result was confirmed using double-stranded 20-mers containing 16 base pairs of complementary sequence. Electrophoretic gel retardation analysis of annealed 28-mers containing a GC box incubated with an Sp1-containing HeLa cell nuclear extract demonstrated the formation of DNA-protein complexes; formation of these complexes was not inhibited when an oligomer without a GC box was used as a competitor. Once again, the presence of a 5-methylcytosine residue in the GC box did not influence the binding of the protein to DNA. The results therefore preclude a direct effect of cytosine methylation on Sp1-DNA interactions.

  12. Molecular mechanism of monoamine oxidase A gene regulation under inflammation and ischemia-like conditions: key roles of the transcription factors GATA2, Sp1 and TBP.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vinayak; Khan, Abrar A; Sasi, Binu K; Mahapatra, Nitish R

    2015-07-01

    Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) plays important roles in the pathogenesis of several neurological and cardiovascular disorders. The mechanism of transcriptional regulation of MAOA under basal and pathological conditions, however, remains incompletely understood. Here, we report systematic identification and characterization of cis elements and transcription factors that govern the expression of MAOA gene. Extensive computational analysis of MAOA promoter, followed by 5'-promoter deletion/reporter assays, revealed that the -71/-40 bp domain was sufficient for its basal transcription. Gel-shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays provided evidence of interactions of the transcription factors GATA-binding protein 2 (GATA2), Sp1 and TATA-binding protein (TBP) with this proximal promoter region. Consistently, over-expression of GATA2, Sp1 and TBP augmented MAOA promoter activity in a coordinated manner. In corroboration, siRNA-mediated down-regulation of GATA2/Sp1/TBP repressed the endogenous MAOA expression as well as transfected MAOA promoter activity. Tumor necrosis factor-? and forskolin activated MAOA transcription that was reversed by Sp1 siRNA; in support, tumor necrosis factor-?- and forskolin-induced activities were enhanced by ectopic over-expression of Sp1. On the other hand, MAOA transcription was diminished upon exposure of neuroblasts or cardiac myoblasts to ischemia-like conditions because of reduced binding of GATA2/Sp1/TBP with MAOA promoter. In conclusion, this study revealed previously unknown roles of GATA2, Sp1 and TBP in modulating MAOA expression under basal as well as pathophysiological conditions such as inflammation and ischemia, thus providing new insights into the molecular basis of aberrant MAOA expression in neuronal/cardiovascular disease states. Dysregulation of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) have been implicated in several behavioral and neuronal disease states. Here, we identified three crucial transcription factors (GATA2, Sp1 and TBP) that regulate MAOA gene expression in a coordinated manner. Aberrant MAOA expression under pathophysiological conditions including inflammation and ischemia is mediated by altered binding of GATA2/Sp1/TBP with MAOA proximal promoter. Thus, these findings provide new insights into pathogenesis of several common diseases. GATA2, GATA-binding protein 2; Sp1, specificity protein 1; TBP, TATA-binding protein. PMID:25810277

  13. Interaction of Sp1 with the growth- and cell cycle-regulated transcription factor E2F.

    PubMed Central

    Karlseder, J; Rotheneder, H; Wintersberger, E

    1996-01-01

    Within the region around 150 bp upstream of the initiation codon, which was previously shown to suffice for growth-regulated expression, the murine thymidine kinase gene carries a single binding site for transcription factor Sp1; about 10 bp downstream of this site, there is a binding motif for transcription factor E2F. The latter protein appears to be responsible for growth regulation of the promoter. Mutational inactivation of either the Sp1 or the E2F site almost completely abolishes promoter activity, suggesting that the two transcription factors interact directly in delivering an activation signal to the basic transcription machinery. This was verified by demonstrating with the use of glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins that E2F and Sp1 bind to each other in vitro. For this interaction, the C-terminal part of Sp1 and the N terminus of E2F1, a domain also present in E2F2 and E2F3 but absent in E2F4 and E2F5, were essential. Accordingly, E2F1 to E2F3 but not E2F4 and E2F5 were found to bind sp1 in vitro. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that complexes exist in vivo, and it was estabilished that the distance between the binding sites for the two transcription factors was critical for optimal promoter activity. Finally, in vivo footprinting experiments indicated that both the sp1 and E2F binding sites are occupied throughout the cell cycle. Mutation of either binding motif abolished binding of both transcription factors in vivo, which may indicate cooperative binding of the two proteins to chromatin-organized DNA. Our data are in line with the hypothesis that E2F functions as a growth- and cell cycle regulated tethering factor between Sp1 and the basic transcription machinery. PMID:8657141

  14. Sp1 is required for transcriptional activation of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 gene in neonatal cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Seyed, Mahdie; Dimario, Joseph X

    2007-10-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) is the predominant FGFR in cardiac tissue and regulates proliferation, differentiation, and maintenance of normal myocardium. During development of cardiac tissue, FGFR1 gene expression regulates cardiomyocyte proliferation. The focus of this study was to determine the molecular mechanism of transcriptional activation of the FGFR1 gene in proliferating neonatal cardiomyocytes. Analysis of DNA sequence of the FGFR1 gene identified three potential Sp factor binding sites located at 49 bp, 68 bp, and 100 bp upstream from the 3' end of the promoter segment. Mutation of each of these sites resulted in a significant decline in FGFR1 promoter activity compared to wild type promoter activity, and combinatorial mutation of all three sites completely abrogated promoter activity to background levels. In addition, overexpression of Sp1 in neonatal cardiomyocytes resulted in a dose-dependent increase in wild type FGFR1 promoter activity. However, Sp1-mediated up-regulation of promoter activity was abrogated when all three Sp interacting sites were mutated. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were used to demonstrate direct interactions of Sp1 with the proximal promoter region of the FGFR1 gene in neonatal cardiomyocytes. ChIP assays using Drosophila Schneider Line 2 (SL2) cells transiently transfected with wild type or mutant FGFR1 promoter constructs verified the direct interaction between Sp1 and the three Sp1 interacting sites of the promoter. Western blot analyses indicated that Sp1 was present in cytoplasmic and nuclear extracts of neonatal myocardium. These results indicate that Sp1 is a necessary positive regulator of FGFR1 gene transcription in neonatal cardiomyocytes. PMID:17628354

  15. Eukaryotic initiation factor 6 modulates myofibroblast differentiation at transforming growth factor-?1 transcription level via H2A.Z occupancy and Sp1 recruitment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Si-Si; Tan, Jiang-Lin; Liu, Dai-Song; Loreni, Fabrizio; Peng, Xu; Yang, Qing-Qing; He, Wei-Feng; Yao, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Rong; Dal Prà, Ilaria; Luo, Gao-Xing; Wu, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Eukaryotic initiation factor 6 (eIF6) is a pivotal regulator of ribosomal function, participating in translational control. Previously our data suggested that eIF6 acts as a key binding protein of P311 (a hypertrophic scar-related protein; also known as NREP). However, a comprehensive investigation of its functional role and the underlying mechanisms in modulation of myofibroblast (a key effector of hypertrophic scar formation) differentiation remains unclear. Here, we identified that eIF6 is a novel regulator of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) expression at transcription level, which plays a key role in myofibroblast differentiation. Mechanistically, this effect is associated with eIF6 altering the occupancy of the TGF-?1 promoter by H2A.Z (Swiss-Prot P0C0S6) and Sp1. Accordingly, modulation of eIF6 expression in myofibroblasts signi?cantly affects their differentiation via the TGF-?/Smad signaling pathway, which was verified in vivo by the observation that heterozygote eIF6(+/-) mice exhibited enhanced TGF-?1 production coupled with increased ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA)(+) myofibroblasts after skin injury. Overall, our data reveal a novel transcriptional regulatory mechanism of eIF6 that acts on facilitating Sp1 recruitment to TGF-?1 promoter via H2A.Z depletion and thus results in increased TGF-?1 transcription, which contributes to myofibroblast differentiation. PMID:26395397

  16. Oncogenic STRAP functions as a novel negative regulator of E-cadherin and p21Cip1 by modulating the transcription factor Sp1

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Lin; Datta, Pran K

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We have previously reported the identification of a novel WD-domain protein, STRAP that plays a role in maintenance of mesenchymal morphology by regulating E-cadherin and that enhances tumorigenicity partly by downregulating CDK inhibitor p21Cip1. However, the functional mechanism of regulation of E-cadherin and p21Cip1 by STRAP is unknown. Here, we have employed STRAP knock out and knockdown cell models (mouse embryonic fibroblast, human cancer cell lines) to show how STRAP downregulates E-cadherin and p21Cip1 by abrogating the binding of Sp1 to its consensus binding sites. Moreover, ChIP assays suggest that STRAP recruits HDAC1 to Sp1 binding sites in p21Cip1 promoter. Interestingly, loss of STRAP can stabilize Sp1 by repressing its ubiquitination in G1 phase, resulting in an enhanced expression of p21Cip1 by >4.5-fold and cell cycle arrest. Using Bioinformatics and Microarray analyses, we have observed that 87% mouse genes downregulated by STRAP have conserved Sp1 binding sites. In NSCLC, the expression levels of STRAP inversely correlated with that of Sp1 (60%). These results suggest a novel mechanism of regulation of E-cadherin and p21Cip1 by STRAP by modulating Sp1-dependent transcription, and higher expression of STRAP in lung cancer may contribute to downregulation of E-cadherin and p21Cip1 and to tumor progression. PMID:25483064

  17. A novel specificity protein 1 (SP1)-like gene regulating protein kinase C-1 (Pkc1)-dependent cell wall integrity and virulence factors in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Adler, Amos; Park, Yoon-Dong; Larsen, Peter; Nagarajan, Vijayaraj; Wollenberg, Kurt; Qiu, Jin; Myers, Timothy G; Williamson, Peter R

    2011-06-10

    Eukaryotic cells utilize complex signaling systems to detect their environments, responding and adapting as new conditions arise during evolution. The basidiomycete fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is a leading cause of AIDS-related death worldwide and utilizes the calcineurin and protein kinase C-1 (Pkc1) signaling pathways for host adaptation and expression of virulence. In the present studies, a C-terminal zinc finger transcription factor, homologous both to the calcineurin-responsive zinc fingers (Crz1) of ascomycetes and to the Pkc1-dependent specificity protein-1 (Sp1) transcription factors of metazoans, was identified and named SP1 because of its greater similarity to the metazoan factors. Structurally, the Cryptococcus neoformans Sp1 (Cn Sp1) protein was found to have acquired an additional zinc finger motif from that of Crz1 and showed Pkc1-dependent phosphorylation, nuclear localization, and whole genome epistatic associations under starvation conditions. Transcriptional targets of Cn Sp1 shared functional similarities with Crz1 factors, such as cell wall synthesis, but gained the regulation of processes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, including trehalose metabolism, and lost others, such as the induction of autophagy. In addition, overexpression of Cn Sp1 in a pkc1? mutant showed restoration of altered phenotypes involved in virulence, including cell wall stability, nitrosative stress, and extracellular capsule production. Cn Sp1 was also found to be important for virulence of the fungus using a mouse model. In summary, these data suggest an evolutionary shift in C-terminal zinc finger proteins during fungal evolution, transforming them from calcineurin-dependent to PKC1-dependent transcription factors, helping to shape the role of fungal pathogenesis of C. neoformans. PMID:21487010

  18. Binding of the ubiquitous cellular transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3 to the ZI domains in the Epstein-Barr virus lytic switch BZLF1 gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Borras, A M; Liu, P; Suske, G; Speck, S H

    1997-02-01

    Induction of the Epstein-Barr virus lytic cycle in latently infected B cells requires the expression of the immediate-early lytic gene BZLF1. We have previously identified several cis-elements within the BZLF1 promoter that are required for induction by known inducers of the lytic cycle [E. Flemington and S. H. Speck (1990)J. Virol. 64, 1217-1226]. These include four elements termed the ZI domains (ZIA, ZIB, ZIC, and ZID) that share extensive homology and that have recently been shown to bind several cellular transcription factors [A. M. Borras, J. L. Strominger, and S. H. Speck (1996) J. Virol. 70, 3894-3901]. Here Sp1 and Sp3 are identified as the cellular factors present in crude B cell nuclear extract preparations that bind to the ZIC domain. In addition, three of the four complexes observed in electrophoretic mobility shift analyses employing probes containing either the ZIA or the ZID domains also represent Sp1 or Sp3 binding. Binding of Sp1 and Sp3 to the ZI domains was shown to be significantly weaker than binding of these factors to a consensus Sp1 site. A heterologous promoter construct containing three repeats of a consensus Sp1 site, cloned upstream of a single copy of the ZII (CREB/ AP1) element from the BZLF1 promoter linked to the beta-globin TATA box, exhibited phorbol ester inducibility. The latter observation was consistent with the functional behavior exhibited by a heterologous promoter construct containing multiple copies of the ZIC domain liked to the ZII element. However, the basal activity of the heterologous promoter construct driven by the consensus Sp1 sites was ca. 10-fold higher than that of the heterologous reporter construct containing multimerized ZIC sites. Thus, the low affinity of Sp1 binding to the ZI domains may contribute to the low-level basal activity of the BZLF1 promoter. PMID:9024805

  19. Sp1-mediated nonmuscle myosin light chain kinase expression and enhanced activity in vascular endothelial growth factor–induced vascular permeability

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Despite the important role played by the nonmuscle isoform of myosin light chain kinase (nmMLCK) in vascular barrier regulation and the implication of both nmMLCK and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the role played by nmMLCK in VEGF-induced vascular permeability is poorly understood. In this study, the role played by nmMLCK in VEGF-induced vascular hyperpermeability was investigated. Human lung endothelial cell barrier integrity in response to VEGF is examined in both the absence and the presence of nmMLCK small interfering RNAs. Levels of nmMLCK messenger RNA (mRNA), protein, and promoter activity expression were monitored after VEGF stimulation in lung endothelial cells. nmMYLK promoter activity was assessed using nmMYLK promoter luciferase reporter constructs with a series of nested deletions. nmMYLK transcriptional regulation was further characterized by examination of a key transcriptional factor. nmMLCK plays an important role in VEGF-induced permeability. We found that activation of the VEGF signaling pathway in lung endothelial cells increases MYLK gene product at both mRNA and protein levels. Increased nmMLCK mRNA and protein expression is a result of increased nmMYLK promoter activity, regulated in part by binding of the Sp1 transcription factor on triggering by the VEGF signaling pathway. Taken together, these findings suggest that MYLK is an important ARDS candidate gene and a therapeutic target that is highly influenced by excessive VEGF concentrations in the inflamed lung. PMID:26697178

  20. Hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein-5A activates sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c through transcription factor Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Zhonghua; Qiao, Ling; Zhou, Yan; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Liu, Qiang

    2010-11-19

    Research highlights: {yields} A chimeric subgenomic HCV replicon expresses HCV-3a NS5A in an HCV-1b backbone. {yields} HCV-3a NS5A increases mature SREBP-1c protein level. {yields} HCV-3a NS5A activates SREBP-1c transcription. {yields} Domain II of HCV-3a NS5A is more effective in SREBP-1c promoter activation. {yields} Transcription factor Sp1 is required for SREBP-1c activation by HCV-3a NS5A. -- Abstract: Steatosis is an important clinical manifestation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The molecular mechanisms of HCV-associated steatosis are not well understood. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) is a key transcription factor which activates the transcription of lipogenic genes. Here we showed that the nuclear, mature SREBP-1c level increases in the nucleus of replicon cells expressing HCV-3a nonstructural protein-5A (NS5A). We further showed that HCV-3a NS5A up-regulates SREBP-1c transcription. Additional analysis showed that transcriptional factor Sp1 is involved in SREBP-1c activation by HCV-3a NS5A because inhibition of Sp1 activity by mithramycin A or a dominant-negative Sp1 construct abrogated SREBP-1c promoter activation by HCV-3a NS5A. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay demonstrated enhanced binding of Sp1 on the SREBP-1c promoter in HCV-3a NS5A replicon cells. These results showed that HCV-3a NS5A activates SREBP-1c transcription through Sp1. Taken together, our results suggest that HCV-3a NS5A is a contributing factor for steatosis caused by HCV-3a infection.

  1. Altered Expression of NF-?B and SP1 after Exposure to Advanced Glycation End-Products and Effects of Neurotrophic Factors in AGEs Exposed Rat Retinas

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effect of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) on neurite regeneration, and also to determine the regenerative effects of different neurotrophic factors (NTFs) on rat retinal explants, the retinas of SD rats were cultured in three-dimensional collagen gels and incubated in 6 types of media: (1) serum-free control culture media; (2) 100??g/mL AGEs-BSA media; (3) AGEs-BSA + 100?ng/mL neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) media; (4) AGEs-BSA + 100?ng/mL hepatocyte growth factor media; (5) AGEs-BSA + 100?ng/mL glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor media; or (6) AGEs-BSA + 100?µM tauroursodeoxycholic acid media. After 7 days, the number of regenerating neurites was counted. The explants were immunostained for nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and specificity protein 1 (SP1). Statistical analyses were performed by one-way ANOVA. In retinas incubated with AGEs, the numbers of neurites were fewer than in control. All of the NTFs increased the number of neurites, and the increase was more significant in the NT-4 group. The number of NF-?B and SP1 immunopositive cells was higher in retinas exposed to AGEs than in control. All of the NTFs decreased the number of NF-?B immunopositive cells but did not significantly affect SP1 expression. These results demonstrate the potential of the NTFs as axoprotectants in AGEs exposed retinal neurons. PMID:26078979

  2. Aristolochic acid I and ochratoxin A differentially regulate VEGF expression in porcine kidney epithelial cells--the involvement of SP-1 and HIFs transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Stachurska, Anna; Kozakowska, Magdalena; Jozkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Jozef; Loboda, Agnieszka

    2011-07-28

    Aristolochic acid I (AAI) and ochratoxin A (OTA) cause chronic kidney diseases. Recently, the contribution of hypoxic injuries and angiogenic disturbances to nephropathies has been suggested, but underlying mechanisms have not been fully clarified yet. In porcine kidney epithelial cell line, LLC-PK1 cells, treatment with non-toxic doses of AAI increased whereas with OTA decreased production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the angiogenic factor with well-defined functions in kidney. Moreover, the activity of transcription factors regulating VEGF expression was differentially affected by examined compounds. Activity of hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) and SP-1 was increased by AAI but diminished by OTA. Interestingly, AP-1 activity was inhibited while NF?B was not influenced by both toxins. Mithramycin A, a SP-1 inhibitor, as well as chetomin, an inhibitor of HIFs, reversed AAI-induced up-regulation of VEGF synthesis, indicating the importance of SP-1 and HIFs in this effect. Additionally, adenoviral overexpression of HIF-2? but not HIF-1? prevented OTA-diminished VEGF production suggesting the protective effect of this isoform towards the consequences exerted by OTA. These observations provide new insight into complex impact of AAI and OTA on angiogenic gene regulation. Additionally, it adds to our understanding of hypoxia influence on nephropathies pathology. PMID:21554934

  3. Altered Expression of NF- ? B and SP1 after Exposure to Advanced Glycation End-Products and Effects of Neurotrophic Factors in AGEs Exposed Rat Retinas.

    PubMed

    Bikbova, Guzel; Oshitari, Toshiyuki; Baba, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effect of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) on neurite regeneration, and also to determine the regenerative effects of different neurotrophic factors (NTFs) on rat retinal explants, the retinas of SD rats were cultured in three-dimensional collagen gels and incubated in 6 types of media: (1) serum-free control culture media; (2) 100 ?g/mL AGEs-BSA media; (3) AGEs-BSA + 100 ng/mL neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) media; (4) AGEs-BSA + 100 ng/mL hepatocyte growth factor media; (5) AGEs-BSA + 100 ng/mL glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor media; or (6) AGEs-BSA + 100 µM tauroursodeoxycholic acid media. After 7 days, the number of regenerating neurites was counted. The explants were immunostained for nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and specificity protein 1 (SP1). Statistical analyses were performed by one-way ANOVA. In retinas incubated with AGEs, the numbers of neurites were fewer than in control. All of the NTFs increased the number of neurites, and the increase was more significant in the NT-4 group. The number of NF-?B and SP1 immunopositive cells was higher in retinas exposed to AGEs than in control. All of the NTFs decreased the number of NF-?B immunopositive cells but did not significantly affect SP1 expression. These results demonstrate the potential of the NTFs as axoprotectants in AGEs exposed retinal neurons. PMID:26078979

  4. Sp1 regulates the transcription of BMPR1A

    PubMed Central

    Dahdaleh, Fadi S.; Carr, Jennifer C.; Calva, Daniel; Howe, James R.; Howe, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Background BMPR1A is a cell surface receptor in the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) pathway. Mutations in BMPR1A predispose to Juvenile Polyposis (JP). Sp1 and related proteins are widely expressed regulators of gene transcription, including members of the BMP pathway. We set out to identify important transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) in the recently identified BMPR1A promoter and to assess for the role of Sp1 and associated proteins in its regulation. Materials and Methods The BMPR1A promoter was cloned into a Luciferase reporter vector. Deletion fragments of this promoter insert were then constructed, of varying lengths and opposing directions and were used to transfect HEK-293 and CRL-1459 cells. In silico analysis was performed to screen for relevant TFBS. Site-Directed Mutagenesis (SDM) was then employed to individually disrupt these TFBS in the wild-type (WT) vector. SDM constructs were then assessed for activity. Results Light activity from the deletion constructs ranged between 3 and 129% of the WT promoter. ModelInspector identified 8 potential binding sites for Sp1 and Sp1-associated proteins that mapped to areas of marked loss or gain of activity from the deletion constructs. SDM of these TFBS led to a drop in activity in five mutants, which included 3 Sp1 sites, an ETSF site and NFKB site. Conclusions By combining in silico analysis and experimental data, Sp1 was found to be a candidate factor that likely plays a role in the transcriptional regulation of BMPR1A. This study potentially provides further insight toward the molecular basis of JP, and suggests that Sp1 plays a role in BMP signaling. PMID:21872883

  5. Non-Redundant Selector and Growth-Promoting Functions of Two Sister Genes, buttonhead and Sp1, in

    E-print Network

    that transcription factors encoded by the Distalless (Dll)/Dlx gene family play a critical role in the development and that Sp1 lies genetically upstream of Dll. In addition to these selector-like gene functions, Sp1 and btd of the homeobox gene Distalless (Dll) [3]. Initially, ,30 ventral cells activate Dll in response to receiving

  6. Arsenic trioxide-mediated growth inhibition in gallbladder carcinoma cells via down-regulation of Cyclin D1 transcription mediated by Sp1 transcription factor

    SciTech Connect

    Ai, Zhilong; Lu, Weiqi; Ton, Saixiong; Liu, Houbao; Sou, Tao; Shen, Zhenbin; Qin, Xinyu . E-mail: smc_jjh@yahoo.com.cn

    2007-08-31

    Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC), an aggressive and mostly lethal malignancy, is known to be resistant to a number of drug stimuli. Here, we demonstrated that arsenic trioxide inhibited the proliferation of gallbladder carcinoma in vivo and in vitro as well as the transcription of cell cycle-related protein Cyclin D1. And, Cyclin D1 overexpression inhibited the negative role of arsenic trioxide in cell cycle progression. We further explored the mechanisms by which arsenic trioxide affected Cyclin D1 transcription and found that the Sp1 transcription factor was down-regulated by arsenic trioxide, with a corresponding decrease in Cyclin D1 promoter activity. Taken together, these results suggested that arsenic trioxide inhibited gallbladder carcinoma cell proliferation via down-regulation of Cyclin D1 transcription in a Sp1-dependent manner, which provided a new mechanism of arsenic trioxide-involved cell proliferation and may have important therapeutic implications in gallbladder carcinoma patients.

  7. Regulation of the Cyclin-dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A Gene (CDKN1A) by the Repressor BOZF1 through Inhibition of p53 Acetylation and Transcription Factor Sp1 Binding*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Kyeong; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Koh, Dong-In; Kim, Kyung-Sup; Park, So-Yoon; Yun, Chae-Ok; Hur, Man-Wook

    2013-01-01

    The human POZ domain and Krüppel-like zinc finger (POK) family proteins play important roles in the regulation of apoptosis, cell proliferation, differentiation, development, oncogenesis, and tumor suppression. A novel POK family transcription factor, BTB/POZ and zinc finger domains factor on chromosome 1 (BOZF-1; also called ZBTB8A), contains a POZ domain and two C2H2-type Krüppel-like zinc fingers and is localized at nuclear speckles. Compared with paired normal tissues, BOZF1 expression is increased in cancer tissues of the prostate, breast, and cervix. BOZF1 repressed the transcription of p21WAF/CDKN1A by acting on the proximal promoter concentrated with Sp1-binding GC boxes. BOZF1 competed with Sp1 in binding to GC boxes 1–5/6 of the CDKN1A proximal promoter. In addition, BOZF1 interacted with p53 and decreased the acetylation of p53 by p300, which reduced the DNA binding activity of p53 at the far distal p53-binding element. BOZF1 blocked the two major molecular events that are important in both constitutive and inducible transcription activation of CDKN1A. BOZF1 is unique in that it bound to all the proximal GC boxes to repress transcription, and it inhibited p53 acetylation without affecting p53 stability. BOZF1 might be a novel proto-oncoprotein that stimulates cell proliferation. PMID:23329847

  8. Contribution of transcription factor, SP1, to the promotion of HB-EGF expression in defense mechanism against the treatment of irinotecan in ovarian clear cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Kohei; Yotsumoto, Fusanori; Nam, Sung Ouk; Odawara, Takashi; Manabe, Sadao; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Itamochi, Hiroaki; Kigawa, Junzo; Takada, Shuji; Asahara, Hiroshi; Kuroki, Masahide; Miyamoto, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) is a worst histological subtype than other ovarian malignant tumor. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a promising target for ovarian cancer therapy. The aims of this study were to validate the efficacy of HB-EGF–targeted therapy for OCCC and to identify the transcription factor that contributed to the induction of HB-EGF by SN38 treatment in OCCC cells. HB-EGF was highly expressed in OCCC cells, and an increase of HB-EGF was induced by SN38 which had only antitumor effect among conventional anticancer agents on OCCC. A specific inhibitor of HB-EGF, a cross-reacting material 197 (CRM197), led to a synergistic increase in the number of apoptotic OCCC cells with the treatment of SN38. The luciferase assay with 5?-deletion promoter constructs identified a GC-rich element between ?125 and ?178 (the distal transcription start site was denoted +1) as a cis-regulatory region, and the treatment of SN38 induced luciferase activity in this region. An in silico and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis estimated that SP1 bound to the cis-regulatory region of HB-EGF in OCCC cells. Real-time PCR and cell viability assays showed that the transfection of a small interfering RNA targeting SP1 suppressed the expression of HB-EGF induced by SN38, resulting in the enhanced sensitivity of SN38. Taken together, these results indicate that induction of HB-EGF expression contributed to defense mechanism against treatment of SN38 through the transcriptional activity of SP1 in OCCC cells. PMID:25060396

  9. Transcriptional activity and Sp 1/3 transcription factor binding to the P1 promoter sequences of the human AbetaH-J-J locus.

    PubMed

    Feriotto, Giordana; Finotti, Alessia; Breveglieri, Giulia; Treves, Susan; Zorzato, Francesco; Gambari, Roberto

    2007-09-01

    Alternative splicing of the locus AbetaH-J-J generates functionally distinct proteins: the enzyme aspartyl (asparaginyl) beta-hydroxylase, humbug and junctate (truncated homologs of aspartyl (asparaginyl) beta-hydroxylase with a role in calcium regulation), and junctin (a structural protein of the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane). Aspartyl (asparaginyl) beta-hydroxylase and humbug are overexpressed in a broad range of malignant neoplasms. We have previously reported the gene structure of this locus, showing the presence of two putative promoters, P1 and P2, and characterized the P2 sequences, directing tissue-specific transcription of junctin, aspartyl (asparaginyl) beta-hydroxylase and junctate. In addition, aspartyl (asparaginyl) beta-hydroxylase and humbug are expressed from exon 1 by the P1 promoter. The present study identifies and functionally characterizes the P1 promoter activity of the AbetaH-J-J locus. We demonstrate that mRNAs from the P1 promoter are actively transcribed in all the human tissues and cell lines analyzed, and define the transcription start point in HeLa and RD cells. To investigate the transcription mechanism we cloned 1.7 kb upstream of exon 1 from a human BAC clone, and produced progressively deleted reporter constructs. Our results showed that: (a) the 1.7 kb fragment was a powerful activator of the reporter gene in human hepatoblastoma (HepG2) and human embryonic rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cell lines; (b) 512 bp upstream of the transcription start site were essential for maximal promoter activity; and (c) progressive deletions from -512 resulted in gradually decreased reporter expression. The region responsible for maximal transcription contains at least 12 GC boxes homologous to binding sequences of specific transcription factor 1 (Sp1); by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and supershift analysis, we identified three GC-rich elements that bind Sp transcription factor family nuclear factors with very high efficiency. A functional role of Sp transcription factors in upregulating P1-directed transcription was demonstrated by analysis of the effects of: (a) in vitro mutagenesis of the Sp1 transcription factor binding sites; (b) transfection with Sp transcription factor 1/3 expression vectors; and (c) treatment with decoy oligonucleotides targeting Sp transcription factors. In addition, Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factor chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated in vivo binding of these proteins to P1 promoter. Our results suggest that Sp transcription factors positively regulate the core of the P1 promoter, and the comparison of the two promoters of the AbetaH-J-J locus demonstrates that they are very different with regard to transcriptional efficiency and ability to direct tissue-specific transcription. PMID:17681019

  10. Expression of the rat liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-Ialpha) gene is regulated by Sp1 and nuclear factor Y: chromosomal localization and promoter characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Steffen, M L; Harrison, W R; Elder, F F; Cook, G A; Park, E A

    1999-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-I catalyses the transfer of long-chain fatty acids from CoA to carnitine for translocation across the mitochondrial inner membrane. Expression of the 'liver' isoform of the CPT-I gene (CPT-Ialpha) is subject to developmental, hormonal and tissue-specific regulation. To understand the basis for control of CPT-Ialpha gene expression, we have characterized the proximal promoter of the CPT-Ialpha gene. Here, we report the sequence of 6839 base pairs of the promoter and the localization of the rat CPT-Ialpha gene to region q43 on chromosome 1. Our studies show that the first 200 base pairs of the promoter are sufficient to drive transcription of the CPT-Ialpha gene. Within this region are two sites that bind both Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors. In addition, nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) binds the proximal promoter. Mutation at the Sp1 or NF-Y sites severely decreases transcription from the CPT-Ialpha promoter. Other protein binding sites were identified within the first 200 base pairs of the promoter by DNase I footprinting, and these elements contribute to CPT-Ialpha gene expression. Our studies demonstrate that CPT-Ialpha is a TATA-less gene which utilizes NF-Y and Sp proteins to drive basal expression. PMID:10333485

  11. EPAS-1 mediates SP-1-dependent FBI-1 expression and regulates tumor cell survival and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaogang; Cao, Peng; Li, Zhiqing; Wu, Dongyang; Wang, Xi; Liang, Guobiao

    2014-01-01

    Factor binding IST-1 (FBI-1) plays an important role in oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. As FBI-1 is over-expressed in multiple human cancers, the regulation of itself would provide new effective options for cancer intervention. In this work, we aimed to study the role that EPAS-1 plays in regulating FBI-1. We use the fact that specificity protein-1 (SP-1) is one of the crucial transcription factors of FBI-1, and that SP-1 can interact with the endothelial pas domain protein-1 (EPAS-1) for the induction of hypoxia related genes. The study showed that EPAS-1 plays an indispensible role in SP-1 transcription factor-mediated FBI-1 induction, and participated in tumor cell survival and proliferation. Thus, EPAS-1 could be a novel target for cancer therapeutics. PMID:25192290

  12. EPAS-1 Mediates SP-1-Dependent FBI-1 Expression and Regulates Tumor Cell Survival and Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaogang; Cao, Peng; Li, Zhiqing; Wu, Dongyang; Wang, Xi; Liang, Guobiao

    2014-01-01

    Factor binding IST-1 (FBI-1) plays an important role in oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. As FBI-1 is over-expressed in multiple human cancers, the regulation of itself would provide new effective options for cancer intervention. In this work, we aimed to study the role that EPAS-1 plays in regulating FBI-1. We use the fact that specificity protein-1 (SP-1) is one of the crucial transcription factors of FBI-1, and that SP-1 can interact with the endothelial pas domain protein-1 (EPAS-1) for the induction of hypoxia related genes. The study showed that EPAS-1 plays an indispensible role in SP-1 transcription factor-mediated FBI-1 induction, and participated in tumor cell survival and proliferation. Thus, EPAS-1 could be a novel target for cancer therapeutics. PMID:25192290

  13. Fibroblast growth factor-2 up-regulates the expression of nestin through the Ras–Raf–ERK–Sp1 signaling axis in C6 glioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Kai-Wei; Huang, Yuan-Li; Wong, Zong-Ruei; Su, Peng-Han; Huang, Bu-Miin; Ju, Tsai-Kai; Technology Commons, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan ; Yang, Hsi-Yuan

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: •Nestin expression in C6 glioma cells is induced by FGF-2. •Nestin expression is induced by FGF-2 via de novo RNA and protein synthesis. •The FGFR inhibitor SU5402 blocks the FGF-2-induced nestin expression. •The mRNA of FGFR1 and 3 are detected in C6 glioma cells. •Ras–Raf–ERK–Sp1 signaling pathway is responsibe for FGF-2-induced nestin expression. -- Abstract: Nestin is a 240-kDa intermediate filament protein expressed mainly in neural and myogenic stem cells. Although a substantial number of studies have focused on the expression of nestin during development of the central nervous system, little is known about the factors that induce and regulate its expression. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is an effective mitogen and stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of a subset of nestin-expressing cells, including neural progenitor cells, glial precursor cells, and smooth muscle cells. To assess whether FGF-2 is a potent factor that induces the expression of nestin, C6 glioma cells were used. The results showed that nestin expression was up-regulated by FGF-2 via de novo RNA and protein synthesis. Our RT-PCR results showed that C6 glioma cells express FGFR1/3, and FGFRs is required for FGF-2-induced nestin expression. Further signaling analysis also revealed that FGF-2-induced nestin expression is mediated through FGFR–MAPK–ERK signaling axis and the transcriptional factor Sp1. These findings provide new insight into the regulation of nestin in glial system and enable the further studies on the function of nestin in glial cells.

  14. Developmental expression of Sp1 in the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Saffer, J D; Jackson, S P; Annarella, M B

    1991-01-01

    The expression of the trans-acting transcription factor Sp1 in mice was defined by a combination of RNA analysis and immunohistochemical localization of the Sp1 protein. Although ubiquitously expressed, there was an unexpected difference of at least 100-fold in the amount of Sp1 message in different cell types. Sp1 protein levels showed corresponding marked differences. Substantial variations in Sp1 expression were also found in some cell types at different stages of development. Sp1 levels appeared to be highest in developing hematopoietic cells, fetal cells, and spermatids, suggesting that an elevated Sp1 level is associated with the differentiation process. These results indicate that Sp1 has a regulatory function in addition to its general role in the transcription of housekeeping genes. Images PMID:2005904

  15. Predictive factors of excessive online poker playing.

    PubMed

    Hopley, Anthony A B; Nicki, Richard M

    2010-08-01

    Despite the widespread rise of online poker playing, there is a paucity of research examining potential predictors for excessive poker playing. The aim of this study was to build on recent research examining motives for Texas Hold'em play in students by determining whether predictors of other kinds of excessive gambling apply to Texas Hold'em. Impulsivity, negative mood states, dissociation, and boredom proneness have been linked to general problem gambling and may play a role in online poker. Participants of this study were self-selected online poker players (N = 179) who completed an online survey. Results revealed that participants played an average of 20 hours of online poker a week and approximately 9% of the sample was classified as a problem gambler according to the Canadian Problem Gambling Index. Problem gambling, in this sample, was uniquely predicted by time played, dissociation, boredom proneness, impulsivity, and negative affective states, namely depression, anxiety, and stress. PMID:20712496

  16. TWO PROMOTERS COORDINATE TRANSCRIPTION FROM THE HUMAN LHX3 GENE: REGULATION BY NUCLEAR FACTOR I AND SP1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The LHX3 transcription factor is required for pituitary and nervous system development in mammals. Mutations in the human gene are associated with hormone deficiency diseases. The gene generates two mRNAs, hLHX3a and hLHX3b, which encode three distinct proteins with different properties. Here, the c...

  17. Co-operation of the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 with Sp1 or Sp3 leads to transcriptional activation of the human haem oxygenase-1 gene promoter in a hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shigeru; Matsuura, Naomi; Kurokawa, Takako; Takahashi, Yuji; Miura, Takashi

    2002-11-01

    We reported previously that the 5'-flanking region (nucleotides -1976 to -1655) of the human haem oxygenase-1 ( hHO-1 ) gene enhances hHO-1 promoter activity in human hepatoma HepG2 cells, but not in HeLa cells [Takahashi, Takahashi, Ito, Nagano, Shibahara and Miura (1999) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1447, 231-235]. To define more precisely the regulatory elements involved, in the present study we have functionally dissected this region and localized the enhancer to a 50 bp fragment (-1793 to -1744). Site-direct mutagenesis analysis revealed that two regions were responsible for this enhancer activity, i.e. a hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 (HNF-4) homologous region and a GC box motif homologous region. Mutation in either region alone moderately decreased enhancer activity. However, mutations in both regions reduced promoter activity to the basal level. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays demonstrated that the P5-2 fragment (-1793 to -1744) interacted with at least two nuclear factors, i.e. HNF-4 and Sp1/Sp3. Co-transfection experiments using Drosophila SL2 cells revealed that HNF-4 and Sp1/Sp3 synergistically stimulated the enhancer activity of the P5-2 fragment. These results indicate that co-operation of HNF-4 with Sp1 or Sp3 leads to the activation of hHO-1 gene expression in hepatoma cells. PMID:12133007

  18. Characterization of the human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor gene promoter: an AP1 complex and an Sp1-related complex transactivate the promoter activity that is suppressed by a YY1 complex.

    PubMed Central

    Ye, J; Zhang, X; Dong, Z

    1996-01-01

    It is well documented that a repeated CATT element in the human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene promoter is required for promoter activity. However, the transcription factors that are able to transactivate this enhancer element remain unidentified. Recently, we have found that nuclear factor YY1 can interact with the enhancer element. Here, we report that in addition to YY1, two other nuclear factors have been identified in the DNA-protein complexes formed by the CATT oligonucleotide and the Jurkat T-cell nuclear protein. One of these factors is AP1, and the other one is an Sp1-related protein. Results from transient transfection of Jurkat T cells have revealed that formation of both AP1 and the Sp1-related complex is required for the full enhancer activity of the CATT element. This result is supported by cotransfection of a c-jun expression vector and mutational analysis of the AP1 site or the Sp1-related protein binding site. In contrast, formation of the YY1 complex suppresses enhancer activity, since deletion of the YY1 complex induces an augmentation of the enhancer activity and overexpression of YY1 results in an attenuation of the enhancer activity. Results from the mechanism study have revealed that YY1 is able to inhibit transactivation mediated by either AP1 or the Sp1-related protein, and YY1 suppressive activity is DNA binding dependent. Taken together, these data support the ideas that AP1 and the Sp1-related nuclear protein are required for transactivation of the human GM-CSF gene promoter and that YY1 can suppress transactivation of the promoter even under inducible conditions. PMID:8524292

  19. Co-stimulation of the Bone-related Runx2 P1 Promoter in Mesenchymal Cells by SP1 and ETS Transcription Factors at Polymorphic Purine-rich DNA Sequences (Y-repeats)*S?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Hassan, Mohammad Q.; Xie, Rong-Lin; Hawse, John R.; Spelsberg, Thomas C.; Montecino, Martin; Stein, Janet L.; Lian, Jane B.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Stein, Gary S.

    2009-01-01

    Transcriptional control of Runx2 gene expression through two alternative promoters (P1 and P2) is critical for the execution of its function as an osteogenic cell fate determining factor. In all vertebrates examined to date, the bone related P1 promoter contains a purine-rich region (-303 to -128 bp in the rat) that separates two regulatory domains. The length of this region differs dramatically between species even within the same order. Using deletion analysis, we show that part of this purine-rich region (-200 to -128) containing a duplicated element (Y-repeat) positively regulates Runx2 P1 transcription. Electrophoretic mobility assays and chromatin immunoprecipitations reveal that Y-repeat binds at least two different classes of transcription factors related to GC box binding proteins (e.g. SP1 and SP7/Osterix) and ETS-like factors (e.g. ETS1 and ELK1). Forced expression of SP1 increases Runx2 P1 promoter activity through the Y-repeats, and small interfering RNA depletion of SP1 decreases Runx2 expression. Similarly, exogenous expression of wild type ELK1, but not a defective mutant that cannot be phosphorylated, enhances Runx2 gene expression. SP1 is most abundant in proliferating cells, and ELK1 is most abundant in postconfluent cells; during MC3T3-E1 osteoblast differentiation, both proteins are transiently co-expressed when Runx2 expression is enhanced. Taken together, our data suggest that basal Runx2 gene transcription is regulated by dynamic interactions between SP1 and ETS-like factors during progression of osteogenesis. PMID:19017640

  20. Involvement of specific proteins (Sp1/Sp3) and nuclear factor Y in basal transcription of the distal promoter of the rat pyruvate carboxylase gene in {beta}-cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sunyakumthorn, Piyanate; Boonsaen, Thirajit; Boonsaeng, Vichai; Wallace, John C.; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut . E-mail: scsji@mahidol.ac.th

    2005-04-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase plays diverse roles in different biosynthetic pathways, including glucose-induced insulin secretion in pancreatic {beta}-cells. We have localized the control region of the P2 promoter by generating a series of 5'-nested deletion constructs, and both 25- and 9-bp internal deletion constructs, as well as by performing site-directed mutagenesis. Transient transfections of these constructs into INS-1 cells identified a CCAAT box and a GC box that are located at -65/-61 and -48/-41, respectively, as the important determinants. Disruption of the GC box resulted in a 4-fold reduction of the reporter activity, while disruption of the proximal CCAAT box (-65/-61) but not the distal CCAAT box (-95/-91) increased the reporter activity by 3-fold. Simultaneous disruptions of both the GC box and the CCAAT box reduced the reporter activity to a level that was close to that of the single GC box mutation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) and supershift EMSAs using nuclear extract from INS-1 cells demonstrated that Sp1 and Sp3 bind a GC box while the nuclear factor Y was shown to bind the proximal but not the distal CCAAT box.

  1. O-linked N-acetylglucosaminylation of Sp1 interferes with Sp1 activation of glycolytic genes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kihong; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Ha, Chang Hoon

    2015-12-01

    Glycolysis, the primary pathway metabolizing glucose for energy production, is connected to the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) which produces UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), a GlcNAc donor for O-linked GlcNAc modification (O-GlcNAc), as well as for traditional elongated glycosylation. Thus, glycolysis and O-GlcNAc are intimately associated. The present study reports the transcriptional activation of glycolytic genes by the transcription factor Sp1 and the O-GlcNAc-mediated suppression of Sp1-dependent activation of glycolytic genes. O-GlcNAc-deficient mutant Sp1 stimulated the transcription of nine glycolytic genes and cellular production of pyruvate, the final product of glycolysis, to a greater extent than wild-type Sp1. Consistently, this mutant Sp1 increased the protein levels of the two key glycolytic enzymes, phosphofructokinase (PFK) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), to a greater extent than wild-type Sp1. Finally, the mutant Sp1 occupied GC-rich elements on PFK and GAPDH promoters more efficiently than wild-type Sp1. These results suggest that O-GlcNAcylation of Sp1 suppresses Sp1-mediated activation of glycolytic gene transcription. PMID:26499076

  2. Demographic factors and playing variables in online computer gaming.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Mark D; Davies, Mark N O; Chappell, Darren

    2004-08-01

    Despite the growing popularity of online game playing, there has been no primary survey of its players. Therefore, an online questionnaire survey was used to examine basic demographic factors of online computer game players who played the popular online game Everquest (i.e., gender, age, marital status, nationality, education level, occupation). The survey also examined playing frequency (i.e., amount of time spent playing the game a week), playing history (i.e., how long they had been playing the game, who they played the game with, whether they had ever gender swapped their game character), the favorite and least favorite aspects of playing the game, and what they sacrifice (if anything) to play the game. Results showed that 81% of online game players were male, and that the mean age of players was 27.9 years of age. For many players, the social aspects of the game were the most important factor in playing. A small minority of players appear to play excessively (over 80 h a week), and results suggest that a small minority sacrifice important activities in order to play (e.g., sleep, time with family and/or partner, work, or schooling). PMID:15331036

  3. Estrogen blocks M-CSF gene expression and osteoclast formation by regulating phosphorylation of Egr-1 and its interaction with Sp-1.

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, S; Weitzmann, M N; Kimble, R B; Rizzo, M; Zahner, M; Milbrandt, J; Ross, F P; Pacifici, R

    1998-01-01

    Central to the pathogenesis of osteoporosis is the ability of estrogen deficiency to increase osteoclast formation by enhancing stromal cell production of the osteoclastogenic cytokine macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). We report that stromal cells from ovariectomized mice exhibit increased casein kinase II-dependent phosphorylation of the nuclear protein Egr-1. Phosphorylated Egr-1 binds less avidly to the transcriptional activator Sp-1 and the resulting higher levels of free Sp-1 stimulate transactivation of the M-CSF gene. Estrogen replacement fails to block M-CSF mRNA expression and osteoclast formation in ovariectomized mice lacking Egr-1, confirming the critical role played by this transcription factor in mediating the antiosteoclastogenic effects of estrogen. Thus, by downregulating formation of a novel Egr-1/Sp-1 complex in stromal cells, estrogen deficiency results in enhanced levels of free Sp-1 and increased M-CSF gene expression and osteoclast formation. PMID:9819371

  4. The Sp(1)-Kepler Problems

    E-print Network

    Guowu Meng

    2010-03-05

    Let $n\\ge 2$ be a positive integer. To each irreducible representation $\\sigma$ of $\\mathrm{Sp}(1)$, an $\\mathrm{Sp}(1)$-Kepler problem in dimension $(4n-3)$ is constructed and analyzed. This system is super integrable and when $n=2$ it is equivalent to a generalized MICZ-Kepler problem in dimension five. The dynamical symmetry group of this system is $\\widetilde {\\mathrm O}^*(4n)$ with the Hilbert space of bound states ${\\mathscr H}(\\sigma)$ being the unitary highest weight representation of $\\widetilde {\\mathrm {O}^*}(4n)$ with highest weight $$(\\underbrace{-1, ..., -1}_{2n-1}, -(1+\\bar\\sigma)),$$ which occurs at the right-most nontrivial reduction point in the Enright-Howe-Wallach classification diagram for the unitary highest weight modules. Here $\\bar\\sigma$ is the highest weight of $\\sigma$. Furthermore, it is shown that the correspondence $\\sigma\\leftrightarrow \\mathscr H(\\sigma)$ is the theta-correspondence for dual pair $(\\mathrm{Sp}(1), \\mathrm{O}^*(4n))\\subseteq\\mathrm{Sp}_{8n}(\\mathbb R)$.

  5. The Sp(1)-Kepler problems

    SciTech Connect

    Meng Guowu

    2009-07-15

    Let n{>=}2 be a positive integer. To each irreducible representation {sigma} of Sp(1), an Sp(1)-Kepler problem in dimension (4n-3) is constructed and analyzed. This system is superintegrable, and when n=2 it is equivalent to a generalized MICZ-Kepler problem in dimension of 5. The dynamical symmetry group of this system is O-tilde*(4n) with the Hilbert space of bound states H({sigma}) being the unitary highest weight representation of O*-tilde(4n) with highest weight, (-1,{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot},-1,-(1+{sigma})), which occurs at the rightmost nontrivial reduction point in the Enright-Howe-Wallach classification diagram for the unitary highest weight modules. Here {sigma} is the highest weight of {sigma}. Furthermore, it is shown that the correspondence {sigma}{r_reversible}H({sigma}) is the theta-correspondence for dual pair (Sp(1),O*(4n))subset Sp(8n,R)

  6. Play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    Designing a game with a serious purpose involves considering the worlds of Reality and Meaning yet it is undeniably impossible to create a game without a third world, one that is specifically concerned with what makes a game a game: the play elements. This third world, the world of people like designers and artists, and disciplines as computer science and game design, I call the world of Play and this level is devoted to it. The level starts off with some of the misperceptions people have of play. Unlike some may think, we play all the time, even when we grow old—this was also very noticeable in designing the game Levee Patroller as the team exhibited very playful behavior at many occasions. From there, I go into the aspects that characterize this world. The first concerns the goal of the game. This relates to the objectives people have to achieve within the game. This is constituted by the second aspect: the gameplay. Taking actions and facing challenges is subsequently constituted by a gameworld, which concerns the third aspect. And all of it is not possible without the fourth and final aspect, the type of technology that creates and facilitates the game. The four aspects together make up a “game concept” and from this world such a concept can be judged on the basis of three closely interrelated criteria: engagement, immersion, and fun.

  7. Core Binding Factor ? Plays a Critical Role During Chondrocyte Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Park, Na-Rae; Lim, Kyung-Eun; Han, Min-Su; Che, Xiangguo; Park, Clara Yongjoo; Kim, Jung-Eun; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Bae, Suk-Chul; Choi, Je-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Core binding factor ? (Cbf?) is a partner protein of Runx family transcription factors with minimally characterized function in cartilage. Here we address the role of Cbf? in cartilage by generating chondrocyte-specific Cbf?-deficient mice (Cbfb(?ch/?ch) ) from Cbfb-floxed mice crossed with mice expressing Cre from the Col2a1 promoter. Cbfb(?ch/?ch) mice died soon after birth and exhibited delayed endochondral bone formation, shorter appendicular skeleton length with increased proliferative chondrocytes, and nearly absent hypertrophic chondrocyte zones. Immunohistochemical and quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that the number and size of proliferative chondrocytes increased and the expression of chondrocyte maturation markers at the growth plates, including Runx2, osterix, and osteopontin, significantly diminished in Cbfb(?ch/?ch) mice compared to wild type mice. With regard to signaling pathways, both PTHrP-Ihh and BMP signaling were compromised in Cbfb(?ch/?ch) mice. Mechanistically, Cbf? deficiency in chondrocytes caused a decrease of protein levels of Runx transcription factors by accelerating polyubiquitination-mediated proteosomal degradation in vitro. Indeed, Runx2 and Runx3, but not Runx1, decreased in Cbfb(?ch/?ch) mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that Cbf? plays a critical role for chondrocyte differentiation through stabilizing Runx2 and Runx3 proteins in cartilage J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 162-171, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26058470

  8. Histone Deacetylase 1 Can Repress Transcription by Binding to Sp1

    PubMed Central

    Doetzlhofer, Angelika; Rotheneder, Hans; Lagger, Gerda; Koranda, Manfred; Kurtev, Vladislav; Brosch, Gerald; Wintersberger, Erhard; Seiser, Christian

    1999-01-01

    The members of the Sp1 transcription factor family can act as both negative and positive regulators of gene expression. Here we show that Sp1 can be a target for histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1)-mediated transcriptional repression. The histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A activates the chromosomally integrated murine thymidine kinase promoter in an Sp1-dependent manner. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments with Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts and 293 cells demonstrate that Sp1 and HDAC1 can be part of the same complex. The interaction between Sp1 and HDAC1 is direct and requires the carboxy-terminal domain of Sp1. Previously we have shown that the C terminus of Sp1 is necessary for the interaction with the transcription factor E2F1 (J. Karlseder, H. Rotheneder, and E. Wintersberger, Mol. Cell. Biol. 16:1659–1667, 1996). Coexpression of E2F1 interferes with HDAC1 binding to Sp1 and abolishes Sp1-mediated transcriptional repression. Our results indicate that one component of Sp1-dependent gene regulation involves competition between the transcriptional repressor HDAC1 and the transactivating factor E2F1. PMID:10409740

  9. Using DNA Microarray to Identify Sp1 as a Transcriptional Regulatory Element of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 in Cardiac Muscle Cells

    E-print Network

    Kibler, Dennis F.

    -like Growth Factor-1 in Cardiac Muscle Cells Tao Li1 , Yung-Hsiang Chen1,2 , Tsun-Jui Liu1,2 , Jia Jia1 during cardiac muscle growth, repair, and remodeling in normal and abnormal cardiac muscle. #12 important cardiac muscle functions (1,2). In theory, a growth factor such as IGF-1 activates a specific set

  10. Arf Induction by Tgf? Is Influenced by Sp1 and C/ebp? in Opposing Directions

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yanbin; Devitt, Caitlin; Liu, Jing; Iqbal, Nida; Skapek, Stephen X.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies show that Arf, a bona fide tumor suppressor, also plays an essential role during mouse eye development. Tgf? is required for Arf promoter activation in developing mouse eyes, and its capacity to induce Arf depends on Smads 2/3 as well as p38 Mapk. Substantial delay between activation of these pathways and increased Arf transcription imply that changes in the binding of additional transcription factors help orchestrate changes in Arf expression. Focusing on proteins with putative DNA binding elements near the mouse Arf transcription start, we now show that Tgf? induction of this gene correlated with decreased expression and DNA binding of C/ebp? to the proximal Arf promoter. Ectopic expression of C/ebp? in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) blocked Arf induction by Tgf?. Although basal levels of Arf mRNA were increased by C/ebp? loss in MEFs and in the developing eye, Tgf? was still able to increase Arf, indicating that derepression was not the sole factor. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay showed increased Sp1 binding to the Arf promotor at 24 and 48 hours after Tgf? treatment, at which time points Arf expression was significantly induced by Tgf?. Chemical inhibition of Sp1 and its knockdown by RNA interference blocked Arf induction by Tgf? in MEFs. In summary, our results indicate that C/ebp? and Sp1 are negative and positive Arf regulators that are influenced by Tgf?. PMID:23940569

  11. Sp1-CD147 positive feedback loop promotes the invasion ability of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Ye, Wei; Wu, Juan; Liu, Lijuan; Yang, Lina; Gao, Lu; Chen, Biliang; Zhang, Fanglin; Yang, Hong; Li, Yu

    2015-07-01

    CD147 is a novel cancer biomarker that has been confirmed to be overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma, which is significantly associated with poor prognosis. Although the Sp1 protein regulates the expression level of CD147, it remains unclear whether Sp1 phosphorylation plays a role in this regulation. A dual-luciferase assay revealed that T453 and T739 mutations decreased the activity of Sp1 binding to the promoter of CD147, followed by a decrease in CD147 mRNA and protein expression. Western blot analysis showed that CD147 promoted Sp1 phosphorylation at T453 and T739 through the PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK pathways. In addition, blocking the Sp1-CD147 positive feedback loop reduced the invasion ability of HO-8910pm cells. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the components of the feedback loop were overexpressed in ovarian cancer tissues. The correlation analysis revealed a significant correlation between phospho-Sp1 (T453), phospho-Sp1 (T739) and CD147 expression levels, with correlation coefficients of r=0.477 and r=0.461, respectively. Collectively, our results suggest that a Sp1-CD147 positive feedback loop plays a critical role in the invasion ability of ovarian cancer cells. PMID:25998266

  12. Curcumin decreases the expression of Pokemon by suppressing the binding activity of the Sp1 protein in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jiajun; Meng, Xianfeng; Gao, Xudong; Tan, Guangxuan

    2010-03-01

    Pokemon, which stands for POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor, can regulate expression of many genes and plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Curcumin, a natural and non-toxic yellow compound, has capacity for antioxidant, free radical scavenger, anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies shows it is a potential inhibitor of cell proliferation in a variety of tumour cells. To investigate whether curcumin can regulate the expression of Pokemon, a series of experiments were carried out. Transient transfection experiments demonstrated that curcumin could decrease the activity of the Pokemon promoter. Western blot analysis suggested that curcumin could significantly decrease the expression of the Pokemon. Overexpression of Sp1 could enhance the activity of the Pokemon promoter, whereas knockdown of Sp1 could decrease its activity. More important, we also found that curcumin could decrease the expression of the Pokemon by suppressing the stimulation of the Sp1 protein. Therefore, curcumin is a potential reagent for tumour therapy which may target Pokemon. PMID:19444642

  13. Expression of alpha V integrin is modulated by Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C and the metastasis suppressor Nm23-H1 through interaction with the GATA-1 and Sp1 transcription factors

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhuri, Tathagata; Verma, Subhash C.; Lan, Ke; Robertson, Erle S. . E-mail: erle@mail.med.upenn.edu

    2006-07-20

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a lymphotrophic herpesvirus infecting most of the world's population. It is associated with a number of human lymphoid and epithelial tumors and lymphoproliferative diseases in immunocompromised patients. A subset of latent EBV antigens is required for immortalization of primary B-lymphocytes. The metastatic suppressor Nm23-H1 which is downregulated in human invasive breast carcinoma reduces the migration and metastatic activity of breast carcinoma cells when expressed from a heterologous promoter. Interestingly, the EBV nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) reverses these activities of Nm23-H1. The alpha V integrins recognize a variety of ligands for signaling and are involved in cell migration and proliferation and also serve as major receptors for extracellular-matrix-mediated cell adhesion and migration. The goal of this study was to determine if Nm23-H1 and EBNA3C can modulate alpha V integrin expression and downstream activities. The results of our studies indicate that Nm23-H1 downregulates alpha V intregrin expression in a dose responsive manner. In contrast, EBNA3C can upregulate alpha V integrin expression. Furthermore, the study showed that the association of the Sp1 and GATA transcription factors with Nm23-H1 is required for modulation of the alpha V integrin activity. Thus, these results suggest a direct correlation between the alpha V integrin expression and the interaction of Nm23-H1 with EBNA3C.

  14. Early experiences with the IBM SP-1

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.

    1993-06-01

    The IBM SP-1 is IBM`s newest parallel distributed-memory computer. As part of a joint project with IBM, Argonne took delivery of an early system in order to evaluate the software environment and to begin porting programming packages and applications to this machine. This report discusses the results of those early efforts. Despite the newness of the machine and the lack of a fast interprocessor switch (part of the SP-1 but not yet available for the machine), every code that they attempted to port ran on the SP-1 with little or no modification. The report concludes with a discussion of expectations for the fast interconnect.

  15. Vascular growth factors play critical roles in kidney glomeruli.

    PubMed

    Gnudi, Luigi; Benedetti, Sara; Woolf, Adrian S; Long, David A

    2015-12-01

    Kidney glomeruli ultrafilter blood to generate urine and they are dysfunctional in a variety of kidney diseases. There are two key vascular growth factor families implicated in glomerular biology and function, namely the vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and the angiopoietins (Angpt). We present examples showing not only how these molecules help generate and maintain healthy glomeruli but also how they drive disease when their expression is dysregulated. Finally, we review how manipulating VEGF and Angpt signalling may be used to treat glomerular disease. PMID:26561594

  16. Psychosocial factors in sports injury rehabilitation and return to play.

    PubMed

    Podlog, Leslie; Heil, John; Schulte, Stefanie

    2014-11-01

    This article discusses the principles and practices that guide psychological intervention with injury, and encourages a psychological approach to injury for clinicians. Part 1 reviews the research literature, and serves as a foundation for the review of clinical practices in part 2. Examination of the research literature highlights 4 areas: (1) psychological factors influencing rehabilitation, (2) social factors affecting rehabilitation, (3) performance concerns among returning athletes, and (4) tools/inventories for assessing psychological readiness to return. A synopsis of an injury intervention plan is provided, and the influence of pain and fear in the rehabilitation process is described. PMID:25442166

  17. The retinoblastoma gene product RB stimulates Sp1-mediated transcription by liberating Sp1 from a negative regulator.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L I; Nishinaka, T; Kwan, K; Kitabayashi, I; Yokoyama, K; Fu, Y H; Grünwald, S; Chiu, R

    1994-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product, RB, can either positively or negatively regulate expression of several genes through cis-acting elements in a cell-type-dependent manner. The nucleotide sequence of the retinoblastoma control element (RCE) motif, GCCACC or CCACCC, and the Sp1 consensus binding sequence, CCGCCC, can confer equal responsiveness to RB. Here, we report that RB activates transcription of the c-jun gene through the Sp1-binding site within the c-jun promoter. Preincubation of crude nuclear extracts with monoclonal antibodies to RB results in reduction of Sp1 complexes in a mobility shift assay, while addition of recombinant RB in mobility shift assay mixtures with CCL64 cell extracts leads to an enhancement of DNA-binding activity of SP1. These results suggest that RB is directly or indirectly involved in Sp1-DNA binding activity. A mechanism by which RB regulates transactivation is indicated by our detection of a heat-labile and protease-sensitive Sp1 negative regulator(s) (Sp1-I) that specifically inhibits Sp1 binding to a c-jun Sp1 site. This inhibition is reversed by addition of recombinant RB proteins, suggesting that RB stimulates Sp1-mediated transactivation by liberating Sp1 from Sp1-I. Additional evidence for Sp1-I involvement in Sp1-mediated transactivation was demonstrated by cotransfection of RB, GAL4-Sp1, and a GAL4-responsive template into CV-1 cells. Finally, we have identified Sp1-I, a approximately 20-kDa protein(s) that inhibits the Sp1 complexes from binding to DNA and that is also an RB-associated protein. These findings provide evidence for a functional link between two distinct classes of oncoproteins, RB and c-Jun, that are involved in the control of cell growth, and also define a novel mechanism for the regulation of c-jun expression. Images PMID:8007947

  18. Modifying factors in sports-related concussion: dangerous style of play.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Alex B; Solomon, Gary S

    2014-09-01

    In its third iteration, the Concussion in Sport Group identified 10 modifying factors that were presumed clinically to influence the investigation and management of concussions in sports. "Dangerous style of play" was delineated as one of these factors, most likely based on clinical lore. These modifying factors were retained in a more recent Concussion in Sport Group statement. To date, there has been no concerted effort to support or refute the inclusion of this constellation of behaviors as a modifying factor in sports-related concussion. This article reviews and summarizes the limited evidence related to a dangerous style of play in sports-related concussion, offers a preliminary assessment of its relevance as a modifying factor, and provides additional information on other aspects of player, coach, and governing body behavior and their potential effect(s) on reducing concussive injuries. PMID:25295762

  19. Ginsenoside Rg3 induces FUT4-mediated apoptosis in H. pylori CagA-treated gastric cancer cells by regulating SP1 and HSF1 expressions.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Faisal; Wang, Xiaoqi; Liu, Jiwei; Yan, Qiu

    2016-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) cytotoxin associated antigen A (CagA) plays a significant role in the development of gastric cancer. Ginsenoside Rg3 is a herbal medicine which inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in various cancer cells. Fucosylation plays important roles in cancer biology as increased fucosylation levels of glycoproteins and glycolipids have been reported in many cancers. Fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) is an essential enzyme, catalyzes the synthesis of LewisY oligosaccharides and is regulated by specificity protein 1 (SP1) and heat shock factor protein 1 (HSF1) transcription factors. Herein, we studied the mechanism action of Rg3 apoptosis induction in gastric cancer cells. We treated the gastric cancer cells with CagA followed by Rg3, and analyzed their ability to induce apoptosis by evaluating the role of FUT4 as well as SP1 and HSF1 expressions by Western blot, flow cytometry and ELISA. We found that Rg3 significantly induced apoptosis in CagA treated gastric cancer cells, as evidenced by nuclear staining of 4-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Annexin-V/PI double-labeling. In addition, Rg3 significantly increased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins and triggered the activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and PARP. Moreover, Rg3-induced apoptotic mechanisms indicated that Rg3 inhibited FUT4 expression through SP1 upregulation and HSF1 downregulation. Hence, Rg3 therapy is an effective strategy for gastric cancer treatment. Furthermore SP1 and HSF1 may serve as potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets for gastric cancer. PMID:26427350

  20. Zac1, an Sp1-like protein, regulates human p21{sup WAF1/Cip1} gene expression in HeLa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Pei-Yao; Hsieh, Tsai-Yuan; Liu, Shu-Ting; Chang, Yung-Lung; Lin, Wei-Shiang; Wang, Wei-Ming; Department of Dermatology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC ; Huang, Shih-Ming; Department of Biochemistry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC

    2011-12-10

    Zac1 functions as both a transcription factor and a transcriptional cofactor for p53, nuclear receptors (NRs) and NR coactivators. Zac1 might also act as a transcriptional repressor via the recruitment of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). The ability of Zac1 to interact directly with GC-specific elements indicates that Zac1 possibly binds to Sp1-responsive elements. In the present study, our data show that Zac1 is able to interact directly with the Sp1-responsive element in the p21{sup WAF1/Cip1} gene promoter and enhance the transactivation activity of Sp1 through direct physical interaction. Our data further demonstrate that Zac1 might enhance Sp1-specific promoter activity by interacting with the Sp1-responsive element, affecting the transactivation activity of Sp1 via a protein-protein interaction, or competing the HDAC1 protein away from the pre-existing Sp1/HDAC1 complex. Finally, the synergistic regulation of p21{sup WAF1/Cip1} gene expression by Zac1 and Sp1 is mediated by endogenous p53 protein and p53-responsive elements in HeLa cells. Our work suggests that Zac1 might serve as an Sp1-like protein that directly interacts with the Sp1-responsive element to oligomerize with and/or to coactivate Sp1.

  1. Factors affecting return to play after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a review of the current literature.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Matthew; Feeley, Brian T; Wawrzyniak, John R; Pinkowsky, Gregory; Gallo, Robert A

    2014-11-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has been reported to produce normal or near-normal knee results in > 90% of patients. A recent meta-analysis suggested that, despite normal or near-normal knees, many athletes do not return to sports. Rates and timing of return to competitive athletics are quite variable depending on the graft type, the age of the patient, the sport, and the level of play. Even when athletes do return to play, often they do not return to their previous level. Graft failure, subjective physical factors, and psychological factors, including fear of reinjury and lack of motivation, appear to play a large role in patients' ability to return to sporting activities. PMID:25419890

  2. Looks play factor in bird mating game If the activity of the North American barn

    E-print Network

    McGraw, Kevin J.

    ornamental traits ­ such as the deep color of a male barn swallow or the antlers of a deer ­ are costlyLooks play factor in bird mating game If the activity of the North American barn swallow is a clue that the female North American barn swallow, even after pairing with a male, still comparison shops for sexual

  3. HOW TO FIND A TA POSITION Timing plays an important factor in finding a TA position.

    E-print Network

    Levine, Alex J.

    HOW TO FIND A TA POSITION Timing plays an important factor in finding a TA position. The best time to begin looking for a TA position is 3 to 4 weeks before the quarter begins. A student would look for a TA position in a department where he or she would feel qualified to serve as a TA in that Department

  4. Growth factor delivery methods in the management of sports injuries: the state of play.

    PubMed

    Creaney, L; Hamilton, B

    2008-05-01

    In recent years there have been rapid developments in the use of growth factors for accelerated healing of injury. Growth factors have been used in maxillo-facial and plastic surgery with success and the technology is now being developed for orthopaedics and sports medicine applications. Growth factors mediate the biological processes necessary for repair of soft tissues such as muscle, tendon and ligament following acute traumatic or overuse injury, and animal studies have demonstrated clear benefits in terms of accelerated healing. There are various ways of delivering higher doses of growth factors to injured tissue, but each has in common a reliance on release of growth factors from blood platelets. Platelets contain growth factors in their alpha-granules (insulin-like growth factor-1, basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, epidermal growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta(1)) and these are released upon injection at the site of an injury. Three commonly utilised techniques are known as platelet-rich plasma, autologous blood injections and autologous conditioned serum. Each of these techniques has been studied clinically in humans to a very limited degree so far, but results are promising in terms of earlier return to play following muscle and particularly tendon injury. The use of growth factors in sports medicine is restricted under the terms of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) anti-doping code, particularly because of concerns regarding the insulin-like growth factor-1 content of such preparations, and the potential for abuse as performance-enhancing agents. The basic science and clinical trials related to the technology are reviewed, and the use of such agents in relation to the WADA code is discussed. PMID:17984193

  5. Contributing factors, prevention, and management of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders among flute players internationally.

    PubMed

    Lonsdale, Karen; Laakso, E-Liisa; Tomlinson, Vanessa

    2014-09-01

    Major studies have shown that flutists report playing-related pain in the neck, middle/upper back, shoulders, wrists, and hands. The current survey was designed to establish the injury concerns of flute players and teachers of all backgrounds, as well as their knowledge and awareness of injury prevention and management. Questions addressed a range of issues including education, history of injuries, preventative and management strategies, lifestyle factors, and teaching methods. At the time of the survey, 26.7% of all respondents were suffering from flute playing-related discomfort or pain; 49.7% had experienced flute playing-related discomfort or pain that was severe enough to distract while performing; and 25.8% had taken an extended period of time off playing because of discomfort or pain. Consistent with earlier studies, the most common pain sites were the fingers, hands, arms, neck, middle/upper back, and shoulders. Further research is needed to establish possible links between sex, instrument types, and ergonomic set up. Further investigation is recommended to ascertain whether certain types of physical training, education, and practice approaches may be more suitable than current methods. A longitudinal study researching the relationship between early education, playing position, ergonomic set-up, and prevalence of injury is recommended. PMID:25194113

  6. Sp1 is over-expressed in nasopharyngeal cancer and is a poor prognostic indicator for patients receiving radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Kang, Min; Qin, Yu-Tao; Wei, Zhu-Xin; Xiao, Jing-Jian; Wang, Ren-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is a tumor of epithelial origin with complex etiology. Currently the standard treatment of NPC is radiotherapy, but therapy failure is quite common, making radioresistance an important issue. This study explores the association of specificity protein 1 (Sp1) protein expression with clinicopathological significance and disease prognosis in NPC patients receiving radiotherapy. A total of 82 NPC patients (55 males and 27 females, median age: 48 years old) were enrolled and received radiotherapy between September 2011 and March 2014. Tumor tissue and grossly adjacent normal mucosa were obtained in each patient. Sp1 expression was detected by western blot and immunohistochemical analysis, and the associations with clinicopathological status and radiotherapy response were analyzed. Our Results showed Sp1 protein expression was higher in CNE-1 and CNE-2 nasopharyngeal cancer cells than in normal nasopharyngeal mucosal NP69 cells. All 82 patients’ tissue sections were stained positive for the Sp1 protein, and 39 (47.6%) patients showed higher level than adjacent normal mucosa. Sp1-overexpression in the tumor tissue was correlated with a higher tumor stage, nodal status, clinical stage and distant metastasis (P < 0.01). Patients with higher Sp1 expression in pretreatment biopsies had a lower radiotherapy response compared to those with lower expression. In conclusion, Sp1 may play roles in radioresistance of nasopharyngeal cancer which attributes to tumor invasiveness, and serve as a novel prognostic marker of NPC radiotherapy. However, further studies are required to validate our findings in larger samples and explore more detailed mechanisms underlying radioresistance of Sp1. PMID:26261581

  7. Users guide for the ANL IBM SP1

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.; Lusk, E.; Pieper, S.C.

    1994-10-01

    This guide presents the features of the IBM SP1 installed in the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory. The guide describes the available hardware and software, access policies, and hints for using the system productively.

  8. Playing a Musical Instrument as a Protective Factor against Dementia and Cognitive Impairment: A Population-Based Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports that playing a musical instrument may benefit cognitive development and health at young ages. Whether playing an instrument provides protection against dementia has not been established. In a population-based cotwin control study, we examined the association between playing a musical instrument and whether or not the twins developed dementia or cognitive impairment. Participation in playing an instrument was taken from informant-based reports of twins' leisure activities. Dementia diagnoses were based on a complete clinical workup using standard diagnostic criteria. Among 157 twin pairs discordant for dementia and cognitive impairment, 27 pairs were discordant for playing an instrument. Controlling for sex, education, and physical activity, playing a musical instrument was significantly associated with less likelihood of dementia and cognitive impairment (odds ratio [OR]?=?0.36 [95% confidence interval 0.13–0.99]). These findings support further consideration of music as a modifiable protective factor against dementia and cognitive impairment. PMID:25544932

  9. Playing a Musical Instrument as a Protective Factor against Dementia and Cognitive Impairment: A Population-Based Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Balbag, M Alison; Pedersen, Nancy L; Gatz, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports that playing a musical instrument may benefit cognitive development and health at young ages. Whether playing an instrument provides protection against dementia has not been established. In a population-based cotwin control study, we examined the association between playing a musical instrument and whether or not the twins developed dementia or cognitive impairment. Participation in playing an instrument was taken from informant-based reports of twins' leisure activities. Dementia diagnoses were based on a complete clinical workup using standard diagnostic criteria. Among 157 twin pairs discordant for dementia and cognitive impairment, 27 pairs were discordant for playing an instrument. Controlling for sex, education, and physical activity, playing a musical instrument was significantly associated with less likelihood of dementia and cognitive impairment (odds ratio [OR]?=?0.36 [95% confidence interval 0.13-0.99]). These findings support further consideration of music as a modifiable protective factor against dementia and cognitive impairment. PMID:25544932

  10. Coiled-coil coactivators play a structural role mediating interactions in hypoxia-inducible factor heterodimerization.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yirui; Scheuermann, Thomas H; Partch, Carrie L; Tomchick, Diana R; Gardner, Kevin H

    2015-03-20

    The hypoxia-inducible factor complex (HIF-?·aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)) requires association with several transcription coactivators for a successful cellular response to hypoxic stress. In addition to the conventional global transcription coactivator CREB-binding protein/p300 (CBP/p300) that binds to the HIF-? transactivation domain, a new group of transcription coactivators called the coiled-coil coactivators (CCCs) interact directly with the second PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) domain of ARNT (ARNT PAS-B). These less studied transcription coactivators play essential roles in the HIF-dependent hypoxia response, and CCC misregulation is associated with several forms of cancer. To better understand CCC protein recruitment by the heterodimeric HIF transcription factor, we used x-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and biochemical methods to investigate the structure of the ARNT PAS-B domain in complex with the C-terminal fragment of a coiled-coil coactivator protein, transforming acidic coiled-coil coactivator 3 (TACC3). We found that the HIF-2? PAS-B domain also directly interacts with TACC3, motivating an NMR data-derived model suggesting a means by which TACC3 could form a ternary complex with HIF-2? PAS-B and ARNT PAS-B via ?-sheet/coiled-coil interactions. These findings suggest that TACC3 could be recruited as a bridge to cooperatively mediate between the HIF-2? PAS-B·ARNT PAS-B complex, thereby participating more directly in HIF-dependent gene transcription than previously anticipated. PMID:25627682

  11. On the role played by magnetic expansion factor in the prediction of solar wind speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Pete; Linker, Jon A.; Arge, C. Nick

    2015-03-01

    Over the last two decades, the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model has evolved significantly. Beginning as a simple observed correlation between the expansion factor of coronal magnetic field lines and the measured speed of the solar wind at 1 AU (the Wang-Sheeley (WS) model), the WSA model now drives NOAA's first operational space weather model, providing real-time predictions of solar wind parameters in the vicinity of Earth. Here we demonstrate that the WSA model has evolved so much that the role played by the expansion factor term is now largely minimal, being supplanted by the distance from the coronal hole boundary (DCHB). We illustrate why and to what extent the three models (WS, DCHB, and WSA) differ. Under some conditions, all approaches are able to reproduce the grossest features of the observed quiet time solar wind. However, we show that, in general, the DCHB- and WSA-driven models tend to produce better estimates of solar parameters at 1 AU than the WS model, particularly when pseudostreamers are present. Additionally, we highlight that these empirical models are sensitive to the type and implementation of the magnetic field model used: In particular, the WS model can only reproduce in situ measurements when coupled with the potential field source surface model. While this clarification is important both in its own right and from an operational/predictive standpoint, because of the underlying physical ideas upon which the WS and DCHB models rest, these results provide support, albeit tentatively, for boundary layer theories for the origin of the slow solar wind.

  12. NFAT-1, Sp-1, Sp-3, and miR-21: New regulators of chemokine C receptor 7 expression in mature human dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Al Akoum, Carine; Akl, Israa; Rouas, Redouane; Fayyad-Kazan, Mohammad; Falha, Layal; Renno, Toufic; Burny, Arsène; Lewalle, Philippe; Fayyad-Kazan, Hussein; Badran, Bassam

    2015-05-01

    The chemokine C receptor 7 (CCR7) is a G-protein-coupled heptahelical receptor (GPCR) that is expressed on a wide variety of cells including memory T cells, B cells, mature dendritic cells, and cancer cells. Activated by its ligands CCL19 or CCL21, CCR7 plays a major role in metastasis of cancer cells. Recent studies demonstrated the role of NF-?B and AP-1 transcription factors in addition to let-7 microRNA in CCR7 expression. Our ChIP assays further show the binding of Sp-1, Sp-3 and NFAT-1 transcription factors to their potential binding sites in the 1Kb promoter region with the later found to inhibit whilst Sp-1, and Sp-3 were found to stimulate CCR7 expression as demonstrated by transfection assays. On the other hand, in addition to the known let-7 regulation of CCR7, we found miR-21 to have a highly conserved target region in CCR7 3'UTR and to be significantly down-regulated during the course of dendritic cell maturation, allowing for high expression of CCR7. PMID:25797200

  13. The Factors of Design on Playing Equipment in Young Children Schools by Viewpoint of Young Children Behavioral Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Chuen-tzay

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore the care-givers of preschool education institutions whose cognition on playing equipment functions, conditions of both setting and using, and the main factors which should beware of design. Besides, not only constructed the factors of design, but also provided suggestions about setting and designing of…

  14. The Arabidopsis MYB96 transcription factor plays a role in seed dormancy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong Gil; Lee, Kyounghee; Seo, Pil Joon

    2015-03-01

    Seed dormancy facilitates to endure environmental disadvantages by confining embryonic growth until the seeds encounter favorable environmental conditions for germination. Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) play a pivotal role in the determination of the seed dormancy state. ABA establishes seed dormancy, while GA triggers seed germination. Here, we demonstrate that MYB96 contributes to the fine-tuning of seed dormancy regulation through the coordination of ABA and GA metabolism. The MYB96-deficient myb96-1 seeds germinated earlier than wild-type seeds, whereas delayed germination was observed in the activation-tagging myb96-1D seeds. The differences in germination rate disappeared after stratification or after-ripening. The MYB96 transcription factor positively regulates ABA biosynthesis genes 9-CIS-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE 2 (NCED2), NCED5, NCED6, and NCED9, and also affects GA biosynthetic genes GA3ox1 and GA20ox1. Notably, MYB96 directly binds to the promoters of NCED2 and NCED6, primarily modulating ABA biosynthesis, which subsequently influences GA metabolism. In agreement with this, hyperdormancy of myb96-1D seeds was recovered by an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone, while hypodormancy of myb96-1 seeds was suppressed by a GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC). Taken together, the metabolic balance of ABA and GA underlies MYB96 control of primary seed dormancy. PMID:25616734

  15. A cooperative interaction between NF-kappa B and Sp1 is required for HIV-1 enhancer activation.

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, N D; Edwards, N L; Duckett, C S; Agranoff, A B; Schmid, R M; Nabel, G J

    1993-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) long terminal repeat (LTR) contains two binding sites for NF-kappa B in close proximity to three binding sites for the constitutive transcription factor, Sp1. Previously, stimulation of the HIV enhancer in response to mitogens has been attributed to the binding of NF-kappa B to the viral enhancer. In this report, we show that the binding of NF-kappa B is not by itself sufficient to induce HIV gene expression. Instead, a protein-protein interaction must occur between NF-kappa B and Sp1 bound to an adjacent site. Cooperativity both in DNA binding and in transcriptional activation of NF-kappa B and Sp1 was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift gel analysis, DNase footprinting, chemical cross-linking and transfection studies in vivo. With a heterologous promoter, we find that the interaction of NF-kappa B with Sp1 is dependent on orientation and position, and is not observed with other elements, including GATA, CCAAT or octamer. An increase in the spacing between the kappa B and Sp1 elements virtually abolishes this functional interaction, which is not restored when these sites are brought back into the same helical position. Several other promoters regulated by NF-kappa B also contain kappa B in proximity to Sp1 binding sites. These findings suggest that an interaction between NF-kappa B and Sp1 is required for inducible HIV-1 gene expression and may serve as a regulatory mechanism to activate specific viral and cellular genes. Images PMID:8253080

  16. On the trajectories of Sp(1) -Kepler problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Guowu

    2015-10-01

    The classical Sp(1) -Kepler problems are formulated with the help of an idea from S. Sternberg. The trajectories of these models are determined via an idea originated from Levi-Civita. It is found that, for a non-colliding trajectory, its shadow-its projection to the external configuration space-is an ellipse, a parabola or a branch of hyperbola according as the total energy is negative, zero or positive. Moreover, it is shown that, for the Sp(1) -Kepler problems at level n ? 2, the group SL(n, H) ×R+ acts transitively on both the set of elliptic shadow trajectories and the set of parabolic shadow trajectories.

  17. PTEN downregulates p75NTR expression by decreasing DNA-binding activity of Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, Sherri L.; Guy, Clifford S.; Mearow, Karen M.

    2009-02-13

    p75NTR is expressed throughout the nervous system and its dysregulation is associated with pathological conditions. We have recently demonstrated a signalling cascade initiated by laminin (LN), which upregulates PTEN and downregulates p75NTR. Here we investigate the mechanism by which PTEN modulates p75NTR. Studies using PTEN mutants show that its protein phosphatase activity directly modulates p75NTR protein expression. Nuclear relocalization of PTEN subsequent to LN stimulation suggests transcriptional control of p75NTR expression, which was confirmed following EMSA and ChIP analysis of Sp1 transcription factor binding activity. LN and PTEN independently decrease the DNA-binding ability of PTEN to the p75NTR promoter. Sp1 regulation of p75NTR occurs via dephosphorylation of Sp1, thus reducing p75NTR transcription and protein expression. This mechanism represents a novel regulatory pathway which controls the expression level of a receptor with broad implications not only for the development of the nervous system but also for progression of pathological conditions.

  18. Factors Related to Play Therapists' Social Justice Advocacy Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parikh, Sejal B.; Ceballos, Peggy; Post, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    The authors used a correlational research design to examine how belief in a just world, political ideology, socioeconomic status of family of origin, and percentage of racial minority clients were related to social justice advocacy attitudes among play therapists. A multiple regression was used to analyze the data. Results indicated that belief in…

  19. A single GATA factor plays discrete, lineage specific roles in ascidian heart development

    PubMed Central

    Ragkousi, Katerina; Beh, Jeni; Sweeney, Sarah; Starobinska, Ella; Davidson, Brad

    2011-01-01

    GATA family transcription factors are core components of the vertebrate heart gene network. GATA factors also contribute to heart formation indirectly through regulation of endoderm morphogenesis. However, the precise impact of GATA factors on vertebrate cardiogenesis is masked by functional redundancy within multiple lineages. Early heart specification in the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis is similar to that of vertebrates but only one GATA factor, Ci-GATAa, is expressed in the heart progenitor cells and adjacent endoderm. Here we delineate precise, tissue specific contributions of GATAa to heart formation. Targeted repression of GATAa activity in the heart progenitors perturbs their transcriptional identity. Targeted repression of endodermal GATAa function disrupts endoderm morphogenesis. Subsequently, the bilateral heart progenitors fail to fuse at the ventral midline. The resulting phenotype is strikingly similar to cardia bifida, as observed in vertebrate embryos when endoderm morphogenesis is disturbed. These findings indicate that GATAa recapitulates cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous roles performed by multiple, redundant GATA factors in vertebrate cardiogenesis. PMID:21238449

  20. The Guanine-Nucleotide Exchange Factor SGEF Plays a Crucial Role in the Formation of Atherosclerosis

    E-print Network

    Welch, Greg

    of Atherosclerosis Thomas Samson1. , Jaap D. van Buul2 *. , Jeffrey Kroon2 , Christopher Welch3 , Erik N. Bakker4 of atherosclerosis. Previously, we showed in vitro that the RhoG guanine nucleotide exchange factor SGEF (Arhgef26 a significant decrease in the formation of atherosclerosis in multiple aortic areas. A fluorescent biosensor

  1. Gas Generation Equations for CRiSP 1.6 April 21, 1998 1 Gas Generation Equations for CRiSP 1.6

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    Gas Generation Equations for CRiSP 1.6 April 21, 1998 1 Gas Generation Equations for CRiSP 1.6 Theory For CRiSP.1.6 new equations have been implemented for gas production from spill. As a part, and a bounded exponential function of the spill on a per spillbay basis. Work was then done, using CRiSP, to fit

  2. A microfluidic-FCS platform for investigation on the dissociation of Sp1-DNA complex by doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Hsin-Chih; Puleo, Christopher M.; Lim, Teck Chuan; Ho, Yi-Ping; Giza, Paul E.; Huang, Ru Chih C.; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2006-01-01

    The transcription factor (TF) Sp1 is a well-known RNA polymerase II transcription activator that binds to GC-rich recognition sites in a number of essential cellular and viral promoters. In addition, direct interference of Sp1 binding to DNA cognate sites using DNA-interacting compounds may provide promising therapies for suppression of cancer progression and viral replication. In this study, we present a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective evaluation of a GC intercalative drug, doxorubicin (DOX), in dissociating the Sp1–DNA complex using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) in a microfluidic system. FCS allows assay miniaturization without compromising sensitivity, making it an ideal analytical method for integration of binding assays into high-throughput, microfluidic platforms. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microfluidic chip with a mixing network is used to achieve specific drug concentrations for drug titration experiments. Using FCS measurements, the IC50 of DOX on the dissociation of Sp1–DNA complex is estimated to be 0.55 ?M, which is comparable to that measured by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). However, completion of one drug titration experiment on the proposed microfluidic-FCS platform is accomplished using only picograms of protein and DNA samples and less than 1 h total assay time, demonstrating vast improvements over traditional ensemble techniques. PMID:17108358

  3. Unusual angiogenic factor plays a role in lizard pregnancy but is not unique to viviparity.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Camilla M; Grau, Georges E; Murphy, Christopher R; Thompson, Michael B

    2015-03-01

    Angiogenesis (blood vessel growth), a key process of mammalian pregnancy, facilitates gas exchange and nutrient transport between the mother and the embryo and is regulated by a suite of growth factors. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is crucial to this process in pregnant mammals and potentially pregnant squamates (lizards and snakes), as we investigate here. VEGF111 , an unusual and potent angiogenic splice variant of VEGF, increases its expression during pregnancy in the uterus of a viviparous lizard, in parallel with similar increases in uterine angiogenesis during gestation. However, we also find that VEGF111 is expressed in oviparous skinks, and is not ubiquitous among viviparous skinks. Thus, different mechanisms of uterine angiogenesis during pregnancy may evolve concurrent with viviparity in different lizard lineages. PMID:25732926

  4. Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) plays a role in SV40 infection

    SciTech Connect

    Manley, Kate; O'Hara, Bethany A.; Atwood, Walter J.

    2008-03-01

    Recent evidence highlighted a role for the transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT), in the transcription of the human polyomavirus JCV. Here we show that NFAT is also important in the transcriptional control of the related polyomavirus, Simian Virus 40 (SV40). Inhibition of NFAT activity reduced SV40 infection of Vero, 293A, and HeLa cells, and this block occurred at the stage of viral transcription. Both NFAT3 and NFAT4 bound to the SV40 promoter through {kappa}B sites located within the 72 bp repeated enhancer region. In Vero cells, NFAT was involved in late transcription, but in HeLa and 293A cells both early and late viral transcription required NFAT activity. SV40 large T-Ag was found to increase NFAT activity and provided a positive feedback loop to transactivate the SV40 promoter.

  5. Mathematics performance and the role played by affective and background factors peter grootenboer and brian hemmings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grootenboer, Peter; Hemmings, Brian

    2007-12-01

    In this article, we report on a study examining those factors which contribute to the mathematics performance of a sample of children aged between 8 and 13 years. The study was designed specifically to consider the potency of a number of mathematical affective factors, as well as background characteristics (viz., gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status), on children's mathematics performance. Data were collected by surveying the children and drawing on performance ratings from their teachers. A correlation analysis revealed that the relationships between the respective dispositional and background variables with mathematics performance were significant and in the direction as predicted. Moreover, the findings from a logistic regression showed that a combination of these variables was able to appropriately classify students who either were below-average or above-average mathematics performers. We pay particular attention to the influence of certain dispositions with respect to mathematics performance and conclude by detailing the implications of the study for teachers and researchers.

  6. TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR Bmsage PLAYS A CRUCIAL ROLE IN SILK GLAND GENERATION IN SILKWORM, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Xin, Hu-hu; Zhang, Deng-pan; Chen, Rui-ting; Cai, Zi-zheng; Lu, Yan; Liang, Shuang; Miao, Yun-gen

    2015-10-01

    Salivary gland secretion is altered in Drosophila embryos with loss of function of the sage gene. Saliva has a reduced volume and an increased electron density according to transmission electron microscopy, resulting in regions of tube dilation and constriction with intermittent tube closure. However, the precise functions of Bmsage in silkworm (Bombyx mori) are unknown, although its sequence had been deposited in SilkDB. From this, Bmsage is inferred to be a transcription factor that regulates the synthesis of silk fibroin and interacts with another silk gland-specific transcription factor, namely, silk gland factor-1. In this study, we introduced a germline mutation of Bmsage using the Cas9/sgRNA system, a genome-editing technology, resulting in deletion of Bmsage from the genome of B. mori. Of the 15 tested samples, seven displayed alterations at the target site. The mutagenesis efficiency was about 46.7% and there were no obvious off-target effects. In the screened homozygous mutants, silk glands developed poorly and the middle and posterior silk glands (MSG and PSG) were absent, which was significantly different from the wild type. The offspring of G0 mosaic silkworms had indel mutations causing 2- or 9-bp deletions at the target site, but exhibited the same abnormal silk gland structure. Mutant larvae containing different open-reading frames of Bmsage had the same silk gland phenotype. This illustrated that the mutant phenotype was due to Bmsage knockout. We conclude that Bmsage participates in embryonic development of the silk gland. PMID:25917878

  7. Mineralocorticoid receptor interaction with SP1 generates a new response element for pathophysiologically relevant gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Meinel, Sandra; Ruhs, Stefanie; Schumann, Katja; Strätz, Nicole; Trenkmann, Kay; Schreier, Barbara; Grosse, Ivo; Keilwagen, Jens; Gekle, Michael; Grossmann, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-induced transcription factor belonging to the steroid receptor family and involved in water-electrolyte homeostasis, blood pressure regulation, inflammation and fibrosis in the renocardiovascular system. The MR shares a common hormone-response-element with the glucocorticoid receptor but nevertheless elicits MR-specific effects including enhanced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression via unknown mechanisms. The EGFR is a receptor tyrosine kinase that leads to activation of MAP kinases, but that can also function as a signal transducer for other signaling pathways. In the present study, we mechanistically investigate the interaction between a newly discovered MR- but not glucocorticoid receptor- responsive-element (=MRE1) of the EGFR promoter, specificity protein 1 (SP1) and MR to gain general insights into MR-specificity. Biological relevance of the interaction for EGFR expression and consequently for different signaling pathways in general is demonstrated in human, rat and murine vascular smooth muscle cells and cells of EGFR knockout mice. A genome-wide promoter search for identical binding regions followed by quantitative PCR validation suggests that the identified MR-SP1–MRE1 interaction might be applicable to other genes. Overall, a novel principle of MR-specific gene expression is explored that applies to the pathophysiologically relevant expression of the EGFR and potentially also to other genes. PMID:23821666

  8. An Sp1 Modulated Regulatory Region Unique to Higher Primates Regulates Human Androgen Receptor Promoter Activity in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Colin W.; Hunter, Irene; MacKenzie, Alasdair; McEwan, Iain J.

    2015-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) mediated signalling is necessary for normal development of the prostate gland and also drives prostate cancer (PCa) cell growth and survival, with many studies showing a correlation between increased receptor levels and therapy resistance with progression to fatal castrate recurrent PCa (CRPC). Although it has been held for some time that the transcription factor Sp1 is the main stimulator of AR gene transcription, comprehensive knowledge of the regulation of the AR gene remains incomplete. Here we describe and characterise in detail two novel active regulatory elements in the 5’UTR of the human AR gene. Both of these elements contain overlapping binding sites for the positive transcription factor Sp1 and the repressor protein pur-?. Aberrant cell signalling is characteristic of PCa and the transcriptional activity of the AR promoter in PCa cells is dependent upon the relative amounts of the two transcription factors. Together with our corroboration of the dominant role of Sp1, the findings support the rationale of targeting this transcription factor to inhibit tumour progression. This should be of particular therapeutic relevance in CRPC where the levels of the repressor pur-? are reduced. PMID:26448047

  9. The ‘Perfect Storm’ and Acute Coronary Syndrome Onset: Do Psychosocial Factors Play a Role?

    PubMed Central

    Burg, Matthew M.; Edmondson, Donald; Shimbo, Daichi; Shaffer, Jonathan; Kronish, Ian M.; Whang, William; Alcántara, Carmela; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Muntner, Paul; Davidson, Karina W.

    2013-01-01

    The revolution in cardiac care over the past two decades, characterized by emergent revascularization, drug eluting stents, anti-platelet medications, and advanced imaging has had little impact on overall ACS recurrence, or ACS prevention. The “Perfect Storm” refers to a confluence of events and processes, including atherosclerotic plaque, coronary flow dynamics, hemostatic and fibrinolytic function, metabolic and inflammatory conditions, neurohormonal dysregulation, and environmental events that give rise to, and result in an ACS event. In this article we illustrate the limits of the traditional main effect research model, giving a brief description of the current state of knowledge regarding the development of atherosclerotic plaque and the rupturing of these plaques that defines an ACS event. We then apply the Perfect Storm conceptualization to describe a program of research concerning a psychosocial vulnerability factor that contributes to increased risk of recurrent ACS and early mortality, and that has defied our efforts to identify underlying pathophysiology and successfully mount efforts to fully mitigate this risk. PMID:23621970

  10. The Guanine-Nucleotide Exchange Factor SGEF Plays a Crucial Role in the Formation of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kroon, Jeffrey; Welch, Christopher; Bakker, Erik N.; Matlung, Hanke L.; van den Berg, Timo K.; Sharek, Lisa; Doerschuk, Claire; Hahn, Klaus; Burridge, Keith

    2013-01-01

    The passage of leukocytes across the endothelium and into arterial walls is a critical step in the development of atherosclerosis. Previously, we showed in vitro that the RhoG guanine nucleotide exchange factor SGEF (Arhgef26) contributes to the formation of ICAM-1-induced endothelial docking structures that facilitate leukocyte transendothelial migration. To further explore the in vivo role of this protein during inflammation, we generated SGEF-deficient mice. When crossed with ApoE null mice and fed a Western diet, mice lacking SGEF showed a significant decrease in the formation of atherosclerosis in multiple aortic areas. A fluorescent biosensor revealed local activation of RhoG around bead-clustered ICAM-1 in mouse aortic endothelial cells. Notably, this activation was decreased in cells from SGEF-deficient aortas compared to wild type. In addition, scanning electron microscopy of intimal surfaces of SGEF?/? mouse aortas revealed reduced docking structures around beads that were coated with ICAM-1 antibody. Similarly, under conditions of flow, these beads adhered less stably to the luminal surface of carotid arteries from SGEF?/? mice. Taken together, these results show for the first time that a Rho-GEF, namely SGEF, contributes to the formation of atherosclerosis by promoting endothelial docking structures and thereby retention of leukocytes at athero-prone sites of inflammation experiencing high shear flow. SGEF may therefore provide a novel therapeutic target for inhibiting the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:23372835

  11. Acetylation of histone H4 plays a primary role in enhancing transcription factor binding to nucleosomal DNA in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Vettese-Dadey, M; Grant, P A; Hebbes, T R; Crane- Robinson, C; Allis, C D; Workman, J L

    1996-01-01

    Core histones isolated from normal and butyrate-treated HeLa cells have been reconstituted into nucleosome cores in order to analyze the role of histone acetylation in enhancing transcription factor binding to recognition sites in nucleosomal DNA. Moderate stimulation of nucleosome binding was observed for the basic helix-loop-helix factor USF and the Zn cluster DNA binding domain factor GAL4-AH using heterogeneously acetylated histones. However, by coupling novel immunoblotting techniques to a gel retardation assay, we observed that nucleosome cores containing the most highly acetylated forms of histone H4 have the highest affinity for these two transcription factors. Western analysis of gel-purified USF-nucleosome and GAL4-AH-nucleosome complexes demonstrated the predominant presence of acetylated histone H4 relative to acetylated histone H3. Immunoprecipitation of USF-nucleosome complexes with anti-USF antibodies also demonstrated that these complexes were enriched preferentially in acetylated histone H4. These data show that USF and GAL4-AH preferentially interact with nucleosome cores containing highly acetylated histone H4. Acetylation of histone H4 thus appears to play a primary role in the structural changes that mediate enhanced binding of transcription factors to their recognition sites within nucleosomes. Images PMID:8665858

  12. ERK3 promotes endothelial cell functions by upregulating SRC-3/SP1-mediated VEGFR2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Bian, Ka; Vallabhaneni, Sreeram; Zhang, Bin; Wu, Ray-Chang; O'Malley, Bert W.; Long, Weiwen

    2014-01-01

    Despite a regain of interest recently in ERK3 kinase signaling, the molecular regulations of both ERK3 gene expression and protein kinase activity are still largely unknown. While it is shown that disruption of ERK3 gene causes neonatal lethality, cell type-specific functions of ERK3 signaling remain to be explored. In this study, we report that ERK3 gene expression is upregulated by cytokines through c-Jun in endothelial cells; c-Jun binds to the ERK3 gene and regulates its transcription. We further reveal a new role for ERK3 in regulating endothelial cell migration, proliferation and tube formation by upregulating SRC-3/SP-1-mediated VEGFR2 expression. The underlying molecular mechanism involves ERK3-stimulated formation of a transcriptional complex involving coactivator SRC-3, transcription factor SP-1 and the secondary coactivator CBP. Taken together, our study identified a molecular regulatory mechanism of ERK3 gene expression and revealed a previously unknown role of ERK3 in regulating endothelial cell functions. PMID:24585635

  13. Characterization of the porcine peptidylarginine deiminase type VI gene (PADI6) promoter: Sp1 regulates basal transcription of the porcine PADI6.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiaoliang; Yan, Chi; Wu, Wangjun; Zhou, Ying; Hou, Liming; Zuo, Bo; Xu, Dequan; Ren, Zhuqing; Xiong, Yuanzhu

    2016-01-10

    It is a general consensus that oocyte quality is the key to embryo survival in pig reproduction. Thus, study on regulation of the ovary-associated gene is of great significance in pig breeding. Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) are a family of enzymes which catalyze the conversion of arginine to citrulline in proteins. The peptidylarginine deiminases type VI gene (PADI6) is mainly expressed in the ovary, and plays an important role in oocyte growth, fertilization and early embryo development. However, until now, little is known about its transcriptional regulation mechanism. Here, we firstly isolated and characterized the 5'-flanking region of porcine PADI6 gene. We determined the transcription start site using 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) analysis, and identified the minimal promoter (-85/+68) that drove the basal expression of PADI6 by constructing various progressive deletions. Mutational analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated Sp1 bound to the -56/-47 region of the PADI6 promoter. Furthermore, overexpression of Sp1 significantly increased the promoter activity and promoted PADI6 gene expression, and accordingly, inhibition of Sp1 expression with specific siRNA significantly reduced the promoter activity and suppressed the PADI6 expression. In addition, inhibition of Sp1 binding by Mithramycin A treatment reduced the transcriptional activity of PADI6 in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these data indicate that Sp1 is essential for the transcriptional regulation of PADI6. PMID:26403316

  14. SP1 and USF differentially regulate ADAMTS1 gene expression under normoxic and hypoxic conditions in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Turkoglu, Sumeyye Aydogan; Kockar, Feray

    2016-01-01

    ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type I motif, 1 (ADAMTS1) that has both antiangiogenic and aggrecanase activity was dysregulated in many pathophysiologic circumstances. However, there is limited information available on the transcriptional regulation of ADAMTS1 gene. Therefore, this study mainly aimed to identify regulatory regions important for the regulation of ADAMTS1 gene under normoxic and hypoxic conditions in human hepatoma cells (HEP3B). Cultured HEP3B cells were exposed to normal oxygen condition, and Cobalt chloride (CoCl2) induced the hypoxic condition, which is an HIF-1 inducer. The cocl2-induced hypoxic condition led to the induced ADAMTS1 mRNA and protein expression in Hepatoma cells. Differential regulation of SP1 and USF transcription factors on ADAMTS1 gene expression was determined by transcriptional activity, mRNA and protein level of ADAMTS1 gene. Ectopic expression of SP1 and USF transcription factors resulted in the decrease in ADAMTS1 transcriptional activity of all promoter constructs consistent with mRNA and protein level in normoxic condition. However, overexpression of SP1 and USF led to the increase of ADAMTS1 gene expressions at mRNA and protein level in hypoxic condition. On the other hand, C/EBP? transcription factor didn't show any statistically significant effect on ADAMTS1 gene expression at mRNA, protein and transcriptional level under normoxic and hypoxic condition. PMID:26299656

  15. Scaffolding, Analysis and Materials: Contributing Factors in an Unexpected Finding of Advanced Infant/Toddler Pretend Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    As part of a longitudinal study, infant/toddler pretend play development and maternal play modelling were investigated in dyadic context. A total of 21 children were videotaped in monthly play sessions with their mothers, from age 8 to 17 months. Child and mother pretend play frequencies and levels were measured using Brown's Pretend Play…

  16. Life Cycle Reversal in Aurelia sp.1 (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa)

    PubMed Central

    He, Jinru; Zheng, Lianming; Zhang, Wenjing; Lin, Yuanshao

    2015-01-01

    The genus Aurelia is one of the major contributors to jellyfish blooms in coastal waters, possibly due in part to hydroclimatic and anthropogenic causes, as well as their highly adaptive reproductive traits. Despite the wide plasticity of cnidarian life cycles, especially those recognized in certain Hydroza species, the known modifications of Aurelia life history were mostly restricted to its polyp stage. In this study, we document the formation of polyps directly from the ectoderm of degenerating juvenile medusae, cell masses from medusa tissue fragments, and subumbrella of living medusae. This is the first evidence for back-transformation of sexually mature medusae into polyps in Aurelia sp.1. The resulting reconstruction of the schematic life cycle of Aurelia reveals the underestimated potential of life cycle reversal in scyphozoan medusae, with possible implications for biological and ecological studies. PMID:26690755

  17. First functional polymorphism in CFTR promoter that results in decreased transcriptional activity and Sp1/USF binding

    SciTech Connect

    Taulan, M. Lopez, E.; Guittard, C.; Rene, C.; Baux, D.; Altieri, J.P.; DesGeorges, M.; Claustres, M.; Romey, M.C.

    2007-09-28

    Growing evidences show that functionally relevant polymorphisms in various promoters alter both transcriptional activity and affinities of existing protein-DNA interactions, and thus influence disease progression in humans. We previously reported the -94G>T CFTR promoter variant in a female CF patient in whom any known disease-causing mutation has been detected. To investigate whether the -94G>T could be a regulatory variant, we have proceeded to in silico analyses and functional studies including EMSA and reporter gene assays. Our data indicate that the promoter variant decreases basal CFTR transcriptional activity in different epithelial cells and alters binding affinities of both Sp1 and USF nuclear proteins to the CFTR promoter. The present report provides evidence for the first functional polymorphism that negatively affects the CFTR transcriptional activity and demonstrates a cooperative role of Sp1 and USF transcription factors in transactivation of the CFTR gene promoter.

  18. Transcription factor IRF8 plays a critical role in the development of murine basophils and mast cells.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Haruka; Kurotaki, Daisuke; Osato, Naoki; Sato, Hideaki; Sasaki, Izumi; Koizumi, Shin-ichi; Wang, Hongsheng; Kaneda, Chika; Nishiyama, Akira; Kaisho, Tsuneyasu; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Morse, Herbert C; Ozato, Keiko; Tamura, Tomohiko

    2015-01-01

    Basophils and mast cells play critical roles in host defense against pathogens and allergic disorders. However, the molecular mechanism by which these cells are generated is not completely understood. Here we demonstrate that interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF8), a transcription factor essential for the development of several myeloid lineages, also regulates basophil and mast cell development. Irf8(-/-) mice displayed a severe reduction in basophil counts, which was accounted for by the absence of pre-basophil and mast cell progenitors (pre-BMPs). Although Irf8(-/-) mice retained peripheral tissue mast cells, remaining progenitors from Irf8(-/-) mice including granulocyte progenitors (GPs) were unable to efficiently generate either basophils or mast cells, indicating that IRF8 also contributes to the development of mast cells. IRF8 appeared to function at the GP stage, because IRF8 was expressed in GPs, but not in basophils, mast cells, and basophil/mast cell-restricted progenitor cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that GATA2, a transcription factor known to promote basophil and mast cell differentiation, acts downstream of IRF8. These results shed light on the pathways and mechanism underlying the development of basophils and mast cells. PMID:25398936

  19. PP2A inhibitors arrest G2/M transition through JNK/Sp1-dependent down-regulation of CDK1 and autophagy-dependent up-regulation of p21

    PubMed Central

    Zhi, Qiaoming; Xu, Ze-Kuan; Wang, Rong; Wang, Wen-Jie; Zong, Yang; Li, Zeng-Liang; Wu, Yadi; Zhou, Binhua P.; Chen, Kai; Tao, Min; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) plays an important role in the control of the cell cycle. We previously reported that the PP2A inhibitors, cantharidin and okadaic acid (OA), efficiently repressed the growth of cancer cells. In the present study, we found that PP2A inhibitors arrested the cell cycle at the G2 phase through a mechanism that was dependent on the JNK pathway. Microarrays further showed that PP2A inhibitors induced expression changes in multiple genes that participate in cell cycle transition. To verify whether these expression changes were executed in a PP2A-dependent manner, we targeted the PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac) using siRNA and evaluated gene expression with a microarray. After the cross comparison of these microarray data, we identified that CDK1 was potentially the same target when treated with either PP2A inhibitors or PP2Ac siRNA. In addition, we found that the down-regulation of CDK1 occurred in a JNK-dependent manner. Luciferase reporter gene assays demonstrated that repression of the transcription of CDK1 was executed through the JNK-dependent activation of the Sp1 transcription factor. By constructing deletion mutants of the CDK1 promoter and by using ChIP assays, we identified an element in the CDK1 promoter that responded to the JNK/Sp1 pathway after stimulation with PP2A inhibitors. Cantharidin and OA also up-regulated the expression of p21, an inhibitor of CDK1, via autophagy rather than PP2A/JNK pathway. Thus, this present study found that the PP2A/JNK/Sp1/CDK1 pathway and the autophagy/p21 pathway participated in G2/M cell cycle arrest triggered by PP2A inhibitors. PMID:26053095

  20. Sp1 and Sp3 Are important regulators of AP-2gamma gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei; Kellems, Rodney E

    2003-10-01

    AP-2gamma is a member of the AP-2 transcription factor family, is highly enriched in the trophoblast cell lineage, and is essential for placental development. In an effort to identify factors regulating AP-2gamma gene expression, we isolated and characterized the promoter and 5'-flanking region of the mouse and human AP-2gamma genes. The transcription start site of the mouse AP-2gamma gene was mapped by primer extension and 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Deletion analysis of the 5'-flanking region revealed a 704-base pair (bp) sequence located approximately 6 kilobases (kb) upstream of the transcription start site that is required for enhanced expression in trophoblast cells. Additional gene transfer studies showed that basal promoter activity resides within a highly conserved, approximately 200-bp DNA sequence located immediately upstream of the transcription start site. The conserved region is highly GC-rich and lacks typical TATA or CCAAT boxes. Multiple potential Sp- and AP-2-binding sites are clustered within this region. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that Sp1 and Sp3 bind to three sites in the promoter region of the mouse AP-2gamma gene. Combined mutation of the three putative Sp sites reduced promoter activity by 80% in trophoblast and nontrophoblast cells, demonstrating the functional importance of these sites in regulating AP-2gamma gene expression. In summary, we have identified a potential trophoblast cell-specific regulatory element located approximately 6 kb upstream of the murine AP-2gamma gene transcription start site, and we have shown that Sp1 and Sp3 bind to cis-regulatory elements located in the promoter proximal region and contribute to basal promoter activity. PMID:12801994

  1. Domain analysis for estrogen receptor/Sp1-mediated transactivation and detection of estrogen receptor/Sp1 protein interactions in living cells 

    E-print Network

    Kim, KyoungHyun

    2005-11-01

    Estrogen Receptor ? (ER?)/Sp1 activation of GC-rich gene promoters in breast cancer cells is dependent, in part, on the activation function 1 (AF1) of ER?. This study investigates contributions of the DNA binding domain ...

  2. Inhibition of epithelial growth factor receptor can play an important role in reducing cell growth and survival in adrenocortical tumors.

    PubMed

    Gagliano, Teresa; Gentilin, Erica; Tagliati, Federico; Benfini, Katiuscia; Di Pasquale, Carmelina; Feo, Carlo; Falletta, Simona; Riva, Eleonora; Degli Uberti, Ettore; Zatelli, Maria Chiara

    2015-12-15

    Medical treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is still far from optimal, since even molecular targeted therapy failed to demonstrate striking results. Clinical trials enrolling ACC patients with high tissue vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) expression levels showed controversial results after treatment with Sunitinib, possibly due to variability in the expression of drug targets, which include epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). To better clarify this issue, we evaluated whether VEGFR may play a crucial role in ACC responsiveness to Sunitinib and whether EGFR may represent an alternative target in ACC medical treatment, by employing two ACC cell lines, the NCI-H295 and SW13 cells lines, and adrenocortical tissues primary cultures. Our data show that VEGF/VEGFR system may not be crucial in modulating ACC proliferation and responsiveness to Sunitinib. In addition, by cell viability, proliferation and caspase activation assays we found that Sunitinib inhibits adrenocortical cell viability acting, at least in part, through EGFR, that, in turn, is crucial for EGF proliferative effect on adrenocortical cells. The latter depends, at least in part, on ERK 1/2 activation. An EGFR selective inhibitor was highly effective in reducing cell viability in an adrenocortical tumor primary culture and in the SW13 cells, which express high EGFR levels. Our results suggest that EGFR inhibitors could represent effective therapeutic tools in ACC patients whose tumors express high EGFR levels, that, in turn, may be considered a predictive factor of response. Accurate molecular tumor profiling is crucial to predict drug efficacy and to tailor ACC patients therapeutic approach. PMID:26484875

  3. Cyclin A regulates a cell-cycle-dependent expression of CKAP2 through phosphorylation of Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Du-Seock; Hong, Kyeong-Man; Park, Joobae; Bae, Chang-Dae

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identified a GC box and a CHR element in human CKAP2 minimal promoter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CHR element repressed the CKAP2 minimal promoter activity at the G1/S phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The GC box was essential for the basic promoter activity of human CKAP2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The GC box was also essential for the cyclic expression of human CKAP2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phosphorylation of Sp1, mediated by Cyclin A, underlies the cyclic expression. -- Abstract: CKAP2 plays crucial roles in proper chromosome segregation and maintaining genomic stability. CKAP2 protein showed cell-cycle-dependent expression, which reached a maximum level at the G2/M phase and disappeared at the onset of G1 phase. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying cell cycle-dependent expression of CKAP2, we cloned and analyzed the human CKAP2 promoter. The upstream 115-bp region from the transcription start site was sufficient for minimal CKAP2 promoter activity. We identified 2 regulatory sequences; a CHR (-110 to -104 bp) and a GC box (-41 to -32 bp). We confirmed Sp1 bound to the GC box using a supershift assay and a ChIP assay. Mutation in the GC box resulted in a near complete loss of CKAP2 promoter activity while mutation in the CHR decreased the promoter activity by 50%. The CHR mutation showed enhanced activity at the G1/S phase, but still retained cyclic activity. The Chromatin IP revealed that the amount of Sp1 bound to the GC box gradually increased and reached a maximum level at the G2/M phase. The amount of Sp1 bound to the GC box was greatly reduced when Cyclin A was depleted, which was restored by adding Cyclin A/Cdk2 complex back into the nuclear extracts. Together, we concluded that the GC box was responsible for the cyclic activity of human CKAP2 promoter through the phosphorylation of Sp1, possibly by Cyclin A/Cdk complex.

  4. The Nucleus-Encoded trans-Acting Factor MCA1 Plays a Critical Role in the Regulation of Cytochrome f Synthesis in

    E-print Network

    The Nucleus-Encoded trans-Acting Factor MCA1 Plays a Critical Role in the Regulation of Cytochrome Paris, France Organelle gene expression is characterized by nucleus-encoded trans-acting factors to the nucleus of the host cell (Martin et al., 1998; Timmis et al., 2004; Keeling, 2009). In the green lineage

  5. Does Performance in Digital Reading Relate to Computer Game Playing? A Study of Factor Structure and Gender Patterns in 15-Year-Olds' Reading Literacy Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmusson, Maria; Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    Data from a Swedish PISA-sample were used (1) to identify a digital reading factor, (2) to investigate gender differences in this factor (if found), and (3) to explore how computer game playing might relate to digital reading performance and gender. The analyses were conducted with structural equation modeling techniques. In addition to an overall…

  6. The Arabidopsis thaliana GRF-INTERACTING FACTOR gene family plays an essential role in control of male and female reproductive development

    E-print Network

    Franks, Robert

    The Arabidopsis thaliana GRF-INTERACTING FACTOR gene family plays an essential role in control 27 November 2013 Accepted 9 December 2013 Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana GRF-INTERACTING FACTOR of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) consists of three members and acts as a positive regulator of cell

  7. ALK5 and ALK1 Play Antagonistic Roles in Transforming Growth Factor ?-Induced Podosome Formation in Aortic Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Curado, Filipa; Spuul, Pirjo; Egaña, Isabel; Rottiers, Patricia; Daubon, Thomas; Veillat, Véronique; Duhamel, Paul; Leclercq, Anne; Gontier, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    Transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) and related cytokines play a central role in the vascular system. In vitro, TGF-? induces aortic endothelial cells to assemble subcellular actin-rich structures specialized for matrix degradation called podosomes. To explore further this TGF-?-specific response and determine in which context podosomes form, ALK5 and ALK1 TGF-? receptor signaling pathways were investigated in bovine aortic endothelial cells. We report that TGF-? drives podosome formation through ALK5 and the downstream effectors Smad2 and Smad3. Concurrent TGF-?-induced ALK1 signaling mitigates ALK5 responses through Smad1. ALK1 signaling induced by BMP9 also antagonizes TGF-?-induced podosome formation, but this occurs through both Smad1 and Smad5. Whereas ALK1 neutralization brings ALK5 signals to full potency for TGF-?-induced podosome formation, ALK1 depletion leads to cell disturbances not compatible with podosome assembly. Thus, ALK1 possesses passive and active modalities. Altogether, our results reveal specific features of ALK1 and ALK5 signaling with potential clinical implications. PMID:25266657

  8. Osteoblast Lineage Cells Play an Essential Role in Periodontal Bone Loss Through Activation of Nuclear Factor-Kappa B.

    PubMed

    Pacios, Sandra; Xiao, Wenmei; Mattos, Marcelo; Lim, Jason; Tarapore, Rohinton S; Alsadun, Sarah; Yu, Bo; Wang, Cun-Yu; Graves, Dana T

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens stimulate periodontitis, the most common osteolytic disease in humans and the most common cause of tooth loss in adults. Previous studies identified leukocytes and their products as key factors in this process. We demonstrate for the first time that osteoblast lineage cells play a critical role in periodontal disease. Oral infection stimulated nuclear localization of NF-?B in osteoblasts and osteocytes in the periodontium of wild type but not transgenic mice that expressed a lineage specific dominant negative mutant of IKK (IKK-DN) in osteoblast lineage cells. Wild-type mice were also susceptible to bacteria induced periodontal bone loss but transgenic mice were not. The lack of bone loss in the experimental group was linked to reduced RANKL expression by osteoblast lineage cells that led to diminished osteoclast mediated bone resorption and greater coupled new bone formation. The results demonstrate that osteoblast lineage cells are key contributors to periodontal bone loss through an NF-?B mediated mechanism. PMID:26666569

  9. Osteoblast Lineage Cells Play an Essential Role in Periodontal Bone Loss Through Activation of Nuclear Factor-Kappa B

    PubMed Central

    Pacios, Sandra; Xiao, Wenmei; Mattos, Marcelo; Lim, Jason; Tarapore, Rohinton S.; Alsadun, Sarah; Yu, Bo; Wang, Cun-Yu; Graves, Dana T.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens stimulate periodontitis, the most common osteolytic disease in humans and the most common cause of tooth loss in adults. Previous studies identified leukocytes and their products as key factors in this process. We demonstrate for the first time that osteoblast lineage cells play a critical role in periodontal disease. Oral infection stimulated nuclear localization of NF-?B in osteoblasts and osteocytes in the periodontium of wild type but not transgenic mice that expressed a lineage specific dominant negative mutant of IKK (IKK-DN) in osteoblast lineage cells. Wild-type mice were also susceptible to bacteria induced periodontal bone loss but transgenic mice were not. The lack of bone loss in the experimental group was linked to reduced RANKL expression by osteoblast lineage cells that led to diminished osteoclast mediated bone resorption and greater coupled new bone formation. The results demonstrate that osteoblast lineage cells are key contributors to periodontal bone loss through an NF-?B mediated mechanism. PMID:26666569

  10. Platelet-Activating Factor Receptor Plays a Role in Lung Injury and Death Caused by Influenza A in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Cristiana C.; Russo, Remo C.; Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Fagundes, Caio T.; Polidoro, Rafael B.; Tavares, Luciana P.; Salgado, Ana Paula C.; Cassali, Geovanni D.; Sousa, Lirlândia P.; Machado, Alexandre V.; Teixeira, Mauro M.

    2010-01-01

    Influenza A virus causes annual epidemics which affect millions of people worldwide. A recent Influenza pandemic brought new awareness over the health impact of the disease. It is thought that a severe inflammatory response against the virus contributes to disease severity and death. Therefore, modulating the effects of inflammatory mediators may represent a new therapy against Influenza infection. Platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor (PAFR) deficient mice were used to evaluate the role of the gene in a model of experimental infection with Influenza A/WSN/33 H1N1 or a reassortant Influenza A H3N1 subtype. The following parameters were evaluated: lethality, cell recruitment to the airways, lung pathology, viral titers and cytokine levels in lungs. The PAFR antagonist PCA4248 was also used after the onset of flu symptoms. Absence or antagonism of PAFR caused significant protection against flu-associated lethality and lung injury. Protection was correlated with decreased neutrophil recruitment, lung edema, vascular permeability and injury. There was no increase of viral load and greater recruitment of NK1.1+ cells. Antibody responses were similar in WT and PAFR-deficient mice and animals were protected from re-infection. Influenza infection induces the enzyme that synthesizes PAF, lyso-PAF acetyltransferase, an effect linked to activation of TLR7/8. Therefore, it is suggested that PAFR is a disease-associated gene and plays an important role in driving neutrophil influx and lung damage after infection of mice with two subtypes of Influenza A. Further studies should investigate whether targeting PAFR may be useful to reduce lung pathology associated with Influenza A virus infection in humans. PMID:21079759

  11. Hesperidin Induces Apoptosis by Inhibiting Sp1 and Its Regulatory Protein in MSTO-211H Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung-Ae; Lee, Sang-Han; Lee, Yong-Jin; Baeg, Seung Mi; Shim, Jung-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Hesperidin, a flavanone present in citrus fruits, has been studied as potential therapeutic agents that have anti-tumor activity and apoptotic effects in several cancers, but there is no report about the apoptotic effect of hesperidin in human malignant pleural mesothelioma through the specificity protein 1 (Sp1) protein. We investigated whether hesperidin inhibited cell growth and regulated Sp1 target proteins by suppressing the levels of Sp1 protein in MSTO-211H cells. The IC50 value of hesperidin was determined to be 152.3 ?M in MSTO-211H cells for 48 h. Our results suggested that hesperidin (0-160 ?M) decreased cell viability, and induced apoptotic cell death. Hesperidin increased Sub-G1 population in MSTO-211H cells. Hesperidin significantly suppressed mRNA/protein level of Sp1 and modulated the expression level of the Sp1 regulatory protein such as p27, p21, cyclin D1, Mcl-1, and survivin in mesothelioma cells. Also, hesperidin induced apoptotic signaling including: cleavages of Bid, caspase-3, and PARP, upregulation of Bax, and down-regulation of Bcl-xl in mesothelioma cells. These results show that hesperidin suppressed mesothelioma cell growth through inhibition of Sp1. In this study, we demonstrated that Sp1 acts as a novel molecular target of hesperidin in human malignant pleural mesothelioma. PMID:24130923

  12. An interaction between the DNA-binding domains of RelA(p65) and Sp1 mediates human immunodeficiency virus gene activation.

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, N D; Agranoff, A B; Pascal, E; Nabel, G J

    1994-01-01

    Induction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gene expression in stimulated T cells has been attributed to the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B. The twice-repeated kappa B sites within the HIV-1 long terminal repeat are in close proximity to three binding sites for Sp1. We have previously shown that a cooperative interaction of NF-kappa B with Sp1 is required for the efficient stimulation of HIV-1 transcription. In this report, we define the domains of each protein responsible for this effect. Although the transactivation domains seemed likely to mediate this interaction, we find, surprisingly, that this interaction occurs through the putative DNA-binding domains of both proteins. Sp1 specifically interacted with the amino-terminal region of RelA(p65). Similarly, RelA bound directly to the zinc finger region of Sp1. This interaction was specific and resulted in cooperative DNA binding to the kappa B and Sp1 sites in the HIV-1 long terminal repeat. Furthermore, the amino-terminal region of RelA did not associate with several other transcription factors, including MyoD, E12, or Kox15, another zinc finger protein. These findings suggest that the juxtaposition of DNA-binding sites promotes a specific protein interaction between the DNA-binding regions of these transcription factors. This interaction is required for HIV transcriptional activation and may provide a mechanism to allow for selective activation of kappa B-regulated genes. Images PMID:7935378

  13. The MX Factor Test films played a strategic-planning role in the debates of the late 1970s and early 1980s about

    E-print Network

    Li, Hui

    in the Marshall Islands. This long exposure photo shows the paths of the multiple re-entry vehicles deployedThe MX Factor Test films played a strategic-planning role in the debates of the late 1970s wave that can race ahead of the main shock wave, battering objects in its path with highly destructive

  14. Why people continue to play online games: in search of critical design factors to increase customer loyalty to online contents.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dongseong; Kim, Jinwoo

    2004-02-01

    As people increasingly play online games, numerous new features have been proposed to increase players' log-on time at online gaming sites. However, few studies have investigated why people continue to play certain online games or which design features are most closely related to the amount of time spent by players at particular online gaming sites. This study proposes a theoretical model using the concepts of customer loyalty, flow, personal interaction, and social interaction to explain why people continue to play online network games. The study then conducts a large-scale survey to validate the model. Finally, it analyzes current online games to identify design features that are closely related to the theoretical concepts. The results indicate that people continue to play online games if they have optimal experiences while playing the games. This optimal experience can be attained if the player has effective personal interaction with the system or pleasant social interactions with other people connected to the Internet. Personal interaction can be facilitated by providing appropriate goals, operators and feedback; social interaction can be facilitated through appropriate communication places and tools. This paper ends with the implications of applying the study results to other domains such as e-commerce and cyber communities. PMID:15006164

  15. Sp1 cooperates with Sp3 to upregulate MALAT1 expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ziling; Huang, Lanshan; Shen, Siqiao; Li, Jia; Lu, Huiping; Mo, Weijia; Dang, Yiwu; Luo, Dianzhong; Chen, Gang; Feng, Zhenbo

    2015-11-01

    Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), also known as nuclear-enriched transcript 2 (NEAT2), is highly conserved among mammals and highly expressed in the nucleus. It was first identified in lung cancer as a prognostic marker for metastasis but is also associated with several other solid tumors. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), MALAT1 is a novel biomarker for predicting tumor recurrence after liver transplantation. The mechanism of overexpression in tumor progression remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of specificity protein 1/3 (Sp1/3) in regulation of MALAT1 transcription in HCC cells. The results showed a high expression of Sp1, Sp3 and MALAT1 in HCC vs. paired non-tumor liver tissues, which was associated with the AFP level (Sp1, r=7.44, P=0.0064; MALAT1, r=12.37, P=0.0004). Co-silencing of Sp1 and Sp3 synergistically repressed MALAT1 expression. Sp1 binding inhibitor, mithramycin A (MIT), also inhibited MALAT1 expression in HCC cells. In conclusion, the upstream of MALAT1 contains five Sp1/3 binding sites, which may be responsible for MALAT1 transcription. Inhibitors, such as MIT, provide a potential therapeutic strategy for HCC patients with MALAT1 overexpression. PMID:26352013

  16. Sp1 transcriptionally regulates BRK1 expression in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Ling, Bing; Xiao, Ting; Tan, Jinjing; An, Ning; Han, Naijun; Guo, Suping; Cheng, Shujun; Zhang, Kaitai

    2014-06-01

    Following a previous study reporting that BRK1 is upregulated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the present study sought to clarify the role of specificity protein 1 (Sp1) in the transcriptional regulation of the BRK1 gene. Therefore, a construct, named F8, consisting of the -1341 to -1 nt sequence upstream of the start codon of the BRK1 gene inserted into pGL4.26 was made. A series of truncated fragments was then constructed based on F8. Segment S831, which contained the -84 to -1 nt region, displayed the highest transcriptional activity in the A549, H1299 and H520 NSCLC cell lines. Bioinformatic analysis showed a potential Sp1-binding element at -73 to -64 nt, and a mutation in this region suppressed the transcriptional activity of S831. Then the RNAi assays of Sp1 and its coworkers Sp3 and Sp4 were performed, and suppression of Sp1 by siRNA inhibited the mRNA expression of BRK1. Both an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay demonstrated that Sp1 bound to the promoter area of the BRK1 gene. Our data identified a functional and positive Sp1 regulatory element from -73 to -64 nt in the BRK1 promoter, which may likely explain the overexpression of BRK1 in NSCLC. PMID:24680773

  17. Exonic Sp1 sites are required for neural-specific expression of the glycine receptor beta subunit gene.

    PubMed Central

    Tintrup, H; Fischer, M; Betz, H; Kuhse, J

    2001-01-01

    The gene encoding the beta subunit of the inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR) is widely expressed throughout the mammalian central nervous system. To unravel the elements regulating its transcription, we isolated its 5' non-coding and upstream flanking regions from mouse. Sequence analysis revealed significant differences between the 5' region of the beta subunit gene and the corresponding regions of the homologous GlyR alpha subunit genes; it also identified a novel exon (exon 0) that encodes most of the 5'-untranslated portion of the GlyR beta mRNA. Primer extension experiments disclosed multiple transcriptional start sites. Transfection experiments with luciferase reporter gene constructs showed that sequences encompassing 1.58 kb of upstream flanking region and 180 bp of exon 0 displayed high promoter activity in two neuroblastoma cell lines but not in non-neural cells. Analysis of various deletion constructs showed that the 5' flanking region preceding the transcriptional start sites silences expression in non-neural cells but is not essential for general promoter activity. In contrast, the deletion of sequences within exon 0 drastically decreased or abolished transcription; the removal of sequences harbouring Sp1 consensus sequences within exon 0 decreased expression specifically in a neuroblastoma cell line. Band-shift assays confirmed the binding of Sp1 to sites within the deleted sequence. Our results indicate that neural-specific expression of the GlyR beta subunit gene might depend on a direct interaction of Sp1 transcription factors with cis elements located downstream from transcription initiation sites. PMID:11256962

  18. Endothelin-1 stimulates cyclin D1 expression in rat cultured astrocytes via activation of Sp1.

    PubMed

    Michinaga, Shotaro; Ishida, Ayaka; Takeuchi, Risa; Koyama, Yutaka

    2013-07-01

    Endothelins (ETs), a family of vasoconstrictor peptides, are up-regulated in several pathological conditions in the brain, and induce astrocytic proliferation. We previously observed that ET-1 increased the expression of cyclin D1 protein. Thus, we confirmed the intracellular up-regulation of cyclin D1 by ET-1 in rat cultured astrocytes. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that ET-1 (100 nM) and Ala(1,3,11,15)-ET-1 (100 nM), a selective agonist of the ETB receptor, induced a time-dependent and transient increase in cyclin D1 mRNA. The effect of ET-1 was diminished by an ETB antagonist (1 ?M BQ788) or inhibitors of Sp1 (500 nM mithramycin), ERK (50 ?M PD98059), p38 (20 ?M SB203580) and JNK (1 ?M SP600125), but not inhibitors of NF-?B (10 ?M SN50 and 100 ?M pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate). The binding assay for Sp1 indicated that ET-1 increased the binding activity of Sp1 to consensus sequences, and two oligonucleotides of the cyclin D1 promoter including the Sp1-binding sites diminished the effect of ET-1. Western blot analysis showed that ET-1 induced time-dependent and transient phosphorylation of Sp1 on Thr453 and Thr739 via the ETB receptor. ET-1-induced phosphorylation of Sp1 was attenuated by PD98059 and SP600125. Additionally, ET-1 increased the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) in cultured astrocytes and the number of BrdU-positive cells decreased in the presence of PD98059, SP600125 and mithramycin. These results suggest that ET-1 increases the expression of cyclin D1 via activation of Sp1 and induces astrocytic proliferation. PMID:23619396

  19. Wanna Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenfeld, Mimi Brodsky

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the importance of play in the lives of children and describes how games and imaginative play contribute to the development of children. From her decades-old collection of countless incidents demonstrating children's love for self-directed, informal, imaginative play, the author shares three incidents that…

  20. Sp1-driven up-regulation of miR-19a decreases RHOB and promotes pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yonggang; Yin, Hongzhuan; Zhang, Heying; Fang, Jun; Zheng, Wei; Li, Dan; Li, Yue; Cao, Wei; Sun, Cheng; Liang, Yusi; Zeng, Juan; Zou, Huawei; Fu, Weineng; Yang, Xianghong

    2015-01-01

    Cancer treatment alters microRNA (miRNA) expression, revealing potential therapeutic targets (oncotarget). Here we treated pancreatic cancer (ASPC-1) cells with either recombinant human endostatin (rh-endostatin) or gemcitabine. Then high-throughput sequencing assay was performed to screen for altered miRNAs. Both treatments decreased levels of MiR-19a. We found that miR-19a stimulated cell proliferation, migration, invasion in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. High levels of miR-19a correlated with poor prognosis in patients. Ras homolog family member B (RHOB) was identified as a direct target of miR-19a. Furthermore, RHOB was down-regulated in human pancreatic cancer samples. Restoration of RHOB induced apoptosis, inhibited proliferation and migration of ASPC-1 cells. SP-1 was identified as an upstream transcription factor of miR-19a gene, promoting miR-19a transcription. Rh-endostatin decreased miR-19a expression by down-regulating SP-1. These findings suggest that miR-19a is a potential therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer. PMID:26041879

  1. Activation of PPAR{gamma} negatively regulates O-GlcNAcylation of Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Sung Soo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Ho Seon; Choi, Hye Hun; Lee, Kyeong Won; Cho, Young Min; Lee, Hong Kyu; Park, Kyong Soo

    2008-08-08

    O-GlcNAcylation is a kind of post-translational modification and many nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins are O-GlcNAcylated. In this study, we demonstrated that thiazolidinediones (TZDs), which are used as insulin sensitizer, specifically inhibited the O-GlcNAcylation of Sp1 but did not affect the O-GlcNAcylation of the total proteins in cell culture systems and mouse models. This effect was mediated by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) activation and probably by synthesis of a specific protein induced by PPAR{gamma} activation. In addition, we demonstrated that the O-GlcNAcylation sites in the zinc-finger domain were involved in the transcriptional activation of Sp1 and that rosiglitazone, a member of TZDs, affected Sp1 transcriptional activity partially by regulating the O-GlcNAcylation level of these sites. Considering the role of hexosamine biosynthesis pathway in hyperglycemia-induced insulin resistance and Sp1 in the hyperglycemia-induced gene expression, the regulation of Sp1 O-GlcNAcylation by TZDs may help to explain the function of TZDs as a treatment for insulin resistance and diabetes.

  2. Transcriptional activation of the MDR1 gene by UV irradiation. Role of NF-Y and Sp1.

    PubMed

    Hu, Z; Jin, S; Scotto, K W

    2000-01-28

    The MDR1 promoter is subject to control by various internal and external stimuli. We have previously shown that the CCAAT box-binding protein, NF-Y, mediates MDR1 activation by the histone deacetylase inhibitors, trichostatin A and sodium butyrate, through the recruitment of the co-activator, P/CAF. We have now extended our investigation to the activation of MDR1 by genotoxic stress. We show that activation of the MDR1 promoter by UV irradiation is also dependent on the CCAAT box (-82 to -73) as well as on a proximal GC element (-56 to -42). Gel shift and supershift analyses with nuclear extracts prepared from human KB-3-1 cells identified NF-Y as the transcription factor interacting with the CCAAT box, while Sp1 was the predominant factor binding to the GC element. Mutations that abrogated binding of either of these factors reduced or abolished activation by ultraviolet irradiation; moreover, co-expression of a dominant-negative NF-Y protein (NF-YA29) reduced UV-activated transcription. Interestingly, YB-1, a transcription factor that also recognizes the CCAAT motif and had been reported to mediate induction of the MDR1 promoter by ultraviolet light, was incapable of interacting with the double-stranded MDR1 CCAAT box oligonucleotide in nuclear extracts, although it did interact with a single-stranded oligonucleotide. Furthermore, a mutation that abolished activation of MDR1 by UV-irradiation had no effect on YB-1 binding and co-transfection of a YB-1 expression plasmid had a repressive effect on UV-inducible transcription. Taken together, these results indicate a role for both NF-Y and Sp1 in the transcriptional activation of the MDR1 gene by genotoxic stress, and indicate that YB-1, if involved, is not sufficient to mediate this activation. PMID:10644769

  3. Protein Kinase B/AKT 1 Plays a Pivotal Role in Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Receptor Signaling Induced 3T3-L1

    E-print Network

    Tian, Weidong

    Protein Kinase B/AKT 1 Plays a Pivotal Role in Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Receptor Signaling upstream of protein kinase B/Akt 1, such as IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1, were normally-protein kinase B/Akt, in 3T3-L1 cells can be activated by IGF-1 receptor signaling. The function of the MAP

  4. Histone deacetylase 3 represses p15{sup INK4b} and p21{sup WAF1/cip1} transcription by interacting with Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Weifeng; Tan Dapeng; Wang Xiuli; Han Songyan; Tan Jiang; Zhao Yanmei; Lu Jun . E-mail: ycsuo@nenu.edu.cn; Huang Baiqu

    2006-01-06

    Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) has been implicated to play roles in governing cell proliferation. Here we demonstrated that the overexpression of HDAC3 repressed transcription of p15{sup INK4b} and p21{sup WAF1/cip1} genes in 293T cells, and that the recruitment of HDAC3 to the promoter regions of these genes was critical to this repression. We also showed that HDAC3 repressed GAL4-Sp1 transcriptional activity, and that Sp1 was co-immunoprecipitated with FLAG-tagged HDAC3. We conclude that HDAC3 can repress p15{sup INK4b} and p21{sup WAF1/cip1} transcription by interacting with Sp1. Furthermore, knockdown of HDAC3 by RNAi up-regulated the transcriptional expression of p15{sup INK4b}, but not that of p21{sup WAF1/cip1}, implicating the different roles of HDAC3 in repression of p15{sup INK4b} and p21{sup WAF1/cip1} transcription. Data from this study indicate that the inhibition of p15{sup INK4b} and p21{sup WAF1/cip1} may be one of the mechanisms by which HDAC3 participates in cell cycle regulation and oncogenesis.

  5. Play and Positive Group Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Pam; White, Samantha

    2010-01-01

    Play is an important part of a child's life and essential to learning and development (Vygotsky, 1978). It is vital that students participate in play and that play be conducted in a restorative manner. Play allows a variety of group dynamics to emerge. Irvin Yalom (1995) identifies 11 curative factors of the group experience. These factors include…

  6. The Role Played by the Interaction between Genetic Factors and Attachment in the Stress Response in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Ceppi, Elisa; Rusconi, Marianna; Giorda, Roberto; Raggi, Maria Elisabetta; Fearon, Pasco

    2009-01-01

    Background: The importance of understanding which environmental and biological factors are involved in determining individual differences in physiological response to stress is widely recognized, given the impact that stress has on physical and mental health. Methods: The child-mother attachment relationship and some genetic polymorphisms…

  7. Pretend play.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Deena Skolnick

    2015-01-01

    Pretend play is a form of playful behavior that involves nonliteral action. Although on the surface this activity appears to be merely for fun, recent research has discovered that children's pretend play has connections to important cognitive and social skills, such as symbolic thinking, theory of mind, and counterfactual reasoning. The current article first defines pretend play and then reviews the arguments and evidence for these three connections. Pretend play has a nonliteral correspondence to reality, hence pretending may provide children with practice with navigating symbolic relationships, which may strengthen their language skills. Pretend play and theory of mind reasoning share a focus on others' mental states in order to correctly interpret their behavior, hence pretending and theory of mind may be mutually supportive in development. Pretend play and counterfactual reasoning both involve representing nonreal states of affairs, hence pretending may facilitate children's counterfactual abilities. These connections make pretend play an important phenomenon in cognitive science: Studying children's pretend play can provide insight into these other abilities and their developmental trajectories, and thereby into human cognitive architecture and its development. PMID:26263228

  8. Thrombin induces Sp1-mediated antiviral effects in cytomegalovirus-infected human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Martin; Vogel, Jens-Uwe; Höver, Gerold; Prösch, Susanna; Kotchetkov, Ruslan; Cinatl, Jaroslav; Koch, Frank; Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2004-11-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) retinitis causing retinal detachment and destruction of the blood-retina barrier is closely related to retinal hemorrhage/coagulation. However, the effects of procoagulants on HCMV (re)activation in retinal cells have not been investigated yet. Therefore, we studied whether thrombin modulates the expression of HCMV immediate early (IE) and late (L) genes in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE). Thrombin specifically stimulated the protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) on RPE and, surprisingly, inhibited basal and 12,0-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate-stimulated HCMV IE gene expression in infected RPE. On the other hand, HCMV strongly induced Sp1 DNA binding activity, which was prevented by thrombin/PAR1-mediated Sp1 hyperphosphorylation. Our data suggest that thrombin/PAR-1 may inhibit Sp1-dependent HCMV replication, which might be an important regulatory mechanism for HCMV persistence and replication in RPE. PMID:13680213

  9. AHR promoter variant modulates its transcription and downstream effectors by allele-specific AHR-SP1 interaction functioning as a genetic marker for vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowen; Li, Kai; Liu, Ling; Shi, Qiong; Song, Pu; Jian, Zhe; Guo, Sen; Wang, Gang; Li, Chunying; Gao, Tianwen

    2015-01-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired depigmentation disorder largely caused by defective melanocyte- or autoimmunity-induced melanocyte destruction. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is essential for melanocyte homeostasis and immune process, and abnormal AHR was observed in vitiligo. We previously identified the T allele of AHR -129C?>?T variant as a protective factor against vitiligo. However, biological characterization underlying such effects is not fully certain, further validation by mechanistic research is warranted and was conducted in the present study. We showed that -129T allele promoted AHR transcriptional activity through facilitating its interaction with SP1 transcription factor (SP1) compared with -129C allele. We subsequently found reduced peripheral AHR and SP1 transcript expressions in vitiligo and a negative correlation of AHR level with disease duration. We also investigated AHR-related cytokines and observed increased serum TNF-? concentration and diminished serum levels of IL-10 and TGF-?1 in vitiligo. Further genetic analysis showed that -129T carriers possessed higher levels of AHR and IL-10 than -129C carriers. Therefore, our study indicates that the modulation of AHR transcription by a promoter variant has a profound influence on vitiligo, not only advancing our understanding on AHR function but also providing novel insight into the pathogenesis of degenerative or autoimmune diseases including vitiligo. PMID:26370050

  10. AHR promoter variant modulates its transcription and downstream effectors by allele-specific AHR-SP1 interaction functioning as a genetic marker for vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaowen; Li, Kai; Liu, Ling; Shi, Qiong; Song, Pu; Jian, Zhe; Guo, Sen; Wang, Gang; Li, Chunying; Gao, Tianwen

    2015-01-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired depigmentation disorder largely caused by defective melanocyte- or autoimmunity-induced melanocyte destruction. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is essential for melanocyte homeostasis and immune process, and abnormal AHR was observed in vitiligo. We previously identified the T allele of AHR ?129C?>?T variant as a protective factor against vitiligo. However, biological characterization underlying such effects is not fully certain, further validation by mechanistic research is warranted and was conducted in the present study. We showed that ?129T allele promoted AHR transcriptional activity through facilitating its interaction with SP1 transcription factor (SP1) compared with ?129C allele. We subsequently found reduced peripheral AHR and SP1 transcript expressions in vitiligo and a negative correlation of AHR level with disease duration. We also investigated AHR-related cytokines and observed increased serum TNF-? concentration and diminished serum levels of IL-10 and TGF-?1 in vitiligo. Further genetic analysis showed that -129T carriers possessed higher levels of AHR and IL-10 than ?129C carriers. Therefore, our study indicates that the modulation of AHR transcription by a promoter variant has a profound influence on vitiligo, not only advancing our understanding on AHR function but also providing novel insight into the pathogenesis of degenerative or autoimmune diseases including vitiligo. PMID:26370050

  11. Tetramethylpyrazine induces SH-SY5Y cell differentiation toward the neuronal phenotype through activation of the PI3K/Akt/Sp1/TopoII? pathway.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yong-Xin; Zhao, Jun-Xia; Han, Shuo; Zhou, Na-Jing; Jia, Zhi-Qiang; Yao, Sheng-Jie; Cao, Cui-Li; Wang, Yan-Ling; Xu, Yan-Nan; Zhao, Juan; Yan, Yun-Li; Cui, Hui-Xian

    2015-12-01

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is an active compound extracted from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Chuanxiong. Previously, we have shown that TMP induces human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell differentiation toward the neuronal phenotype by targeting topoisomeraseII? (TopoII?), a protein implicated in neural development. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate whether the transcriptional factors specificity protein 1 (Sp1) and nuclear factor Y (NF-Y), in addition to the upstream signaling pathways ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt, are involved in modulating TopoII? expression in the neuronal differentiation process. We demonstrated that SH-SY5Y cells treated with TMP (80?M) terminally differentiated into neurons, characterized by increased neuronal markers, tubulin ?III and microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2), and increased neurite outgrowth, with no negative effect on cell survival. TMP also increased the expression of TopoII?, which was accompanied by increased expression of Sp1 in the differentiated neuron-like cells, whereas NF-Y protein levels remained unchanged following the differentiation progression. We also found that the phosphorylation level of Akt, but not ERK1/2, was significantly increased as a result of TMP stimulation. Furthermore, as established by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway increased Sp1 binding to the promoter of the TopoII? gene. Blockage of PI3K/Akt was shown to lead to subsequent inhibition of TopoII? expression and neuronal differentiation. Collectively, the results indicate that the PI3K/Akt/Sp1/TopoII? signaling pathway is necessary for TMP-induced neuronal differentiation. Our findings offer mechanistic insights into understanding the upstream regulation of TopoII? in neuronal differentiation, and suggest potential applications of TMP both in neuroscience research and clinical practice to treat relevant diseases of the nervous system. PMID:26518113

  12. Early experiences with the IBM SP1 and the high-performance switch

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.

    1993-11-01

    The IBM SP1 is IBM`s newest parallel distributed-memory computer. As part of a joint project with IBM, Argonne took delivery of an early system in order to evaluate the software environment and to begin porting programming packages and applications to this machine. This report discusses the results of those efforts once the high-performance switch was installed. An earlier report (ANL/MCS-TM-177) emphasized software usability and the initial ports to the SP1. This report contains performance results and discusses some applications and tools not covered in TM 177.

  13. Shadow Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Hilson, Margilee P.

    2012-01-01

    A bunny rabbit playfully hops across the wall. Then hands realign and fingers shift to make a hawk soar toward the ceiling. Most children have enjoyed the delightful experience of playing with shadow puppets. The authors build on this natural curiosity to help students link shadows to complex astronomical concepts such as seasons. The…

  14. Hypoxia Inducible Factor 3? Plays a Critical Role in Alveolarization and Distal Epithelial Cell Differentiation during Mouse Lung Development

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yadi; Kapere Ochieng, Joshua; Kempen, Marjon Buscop-van; Munck, Anne Boerema-de; Swagemakers, Sigrid; van IJcken, Wilfred; Grosveld, Frank; Tibboel, Dick; Rottier, Robbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Lung development occurs under relative hypoxia and the most important oxygen-sensitive response pathway is driven by Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIF). HIFs are heterodimeric transcription factors of an oxygen-sensitive subunit, HIF?, and a constitutively expressed subunit, HIF1?. HIF1? and HIF2?, encoded by two separate genes, contribute to the activation of hypoxia inducible genes. A third HIF? gene, HIF3?, is subject to alternative promoter usage and splicing, leading to three major isoforms, HIF3?, NEPAS and IPAS. HIF3? gene products add to the complexity of the hypoxia response as they function as dominant negative inhibitors (IPAS) or weak transcriptional activators (HIF3?/NEPAS). Previously, we and others have shown the importance of the Hif1? and Hif2? factors in lung development, and here we investigated the role of Hif3? during pulmonary development. Therefore, HIF3? was conditionally expressed in airway epithelial cells during gestation and although HIF3? transgenic mice were born alive and appeared normal, their lungs showed clear abnormalities, including a post-pseudoglandular branching defect and a decreased number of alveoli. The HIF3? expressing lungs displayed reduced numbers of Clara cells, alveolar epithelial type I and type II cells. As a result of HIF3? expression, the level of Hif2? was reduced, but that of Hif1? was not affected. Two regulatory genes, Rar?, involved in alveologenesis, and Foxp2, a transcriptional repressor of the Clara cell specific Ccsp gene, were significantly upregulated in the HIF3? expressing lungs. In addition, aberrant basal cells were observed distally as determined by the expression of Sox2 and p63. We show that Hif3? binds a conserved HRE site in the Sox2 promoter and weakly transactivated a reporter construct containing the Sox2 promoter region. Moreover, Hif3? affected the expression of genes not typically involved in the hypoxia response, providing evidence for a novel function of Hif3? beyond the hypoxia response. PMID:23451260

  15. Cloning and Characterization of the Human Trefoil Factor 3 Gene Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yifang; Mao, Xuefei; Deng, Xiangdong

    2014-01-01

    Human trefoil factor 3 (hTFF3) is a small-molecule peptide with potential medicinal value. Its main pharmacological function is to alleviate gastrointestinal mucosal injuries caused by various factors and promote the repair of damaged mucosa. However, how its transcription is regulated is not yet known. The aim of this study was to clone the hTFF3 gene promoter region, identify the core promoter and any transcription factors that bind to the promoter, and begin to clarify the regulation of its expression. The 5? flanking sequence of the hTFF3 gene was cloned from human whole blood genomic DNA by PCR. Truncated promoter fragments with different were cloned and inserted into the pGL3-Basic vector to determine the position of the core hTFF3 promoter. Transcription element maintaining basic transcriptional activity was assessed by mutation techniques. Protein-DNA interactions were analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). RNA interference and gene over-expression were performed to assay the effect of transcription factor on the hTFF3 expression. The results showed that approximately 1,826 bp of the fragment upstream of hTFF3 was successfully amplified, and its core promoter region was determined to be from ?300 bp to ?280 bp through analysis of truncated mutants. Mutation analysis confirmed that the sequence required to maintain basic transcriptional activity was accurately positioned from ?300 bp to ?296 bp. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that this area contained a Sp1 binding site. Sp1 binding to the hTFF3 promoter was confirmed by ChIP experiments. Sp1 over-expression and interference experiments showed that Sp1 enhanced the transcriptional activity of the hTFF3 promoter and increased hTFF3 expression. This study demonstrated that Sp1 plays an important role in maintaining the transcription of hTFF3. PMID:24743382

  16. Shadow Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Alan

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the use of shadows to explain such scientific phenomena as umbra and penumbra, eclipses, day and night, seasons, and length of day. Indicates that shadow plays can serve to help the students in understanding more about light. (CC)

  17. Transcriptome analysis reveals a dynamic and differential transcriptional response to sulforaphane in normal and prostate cancer cells and suggests a role for Sp1 in chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    Beaver, Laura M.; Buchanan, Alex; Sokolowski, Elizabeth I.; Riscoe, Allison N.; Wong, Carmen P.; Chang, Jeff H.; Löhr, Christiane V.; Williams, David E.; Dashwood, Roderick H.; Ho, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies provide evidence that consumption of cruciferous vegetables, like broccoli, can reduce the risk of cancer development. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a phytochemical derived from cruciferous vegetables that induces anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic responses in prostate cancer cells, but not in normal prostate cells. The mechanisms responsible for this cancer-specific cytotoxicity remain unclear. To examine this issue we utilized RNA sequencing and determined the transcriptomes of normal prostate epithelial cells, androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells, and androgen-independent prostate cancer cells treated with SFN. SFN treatment dynamically altered gene expression and resulted in distinct transcriptome profiles depending on prostate cell line. SFN also down-regulated the expression of genes that were up-regulated in prostate cancer cells. Network analysis of genes altered by SFN treatment revealed that the transcription factor Specificity protein 1 (Sp1) was present in an average of 90.5% of networks. Sp1 protein was significantly decreased by SFN treatment in prostate cancer cells and Sp1may be an important mediator of SFN-induced changes in expression. Overall, the data show that SFN alters gene expression differentially in normal and cancer cells with key targets in chemopreventive processes, making it a promising dietary anti-cancer agent. PMID:25044704

  18. Involvement of the GC-rich sequence and specific proteins (Sp1/Sp3) in the basal transcription activity of neurogranin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Gui Jingang; Song Yan; Han, N.-L.R.; Zhou Shufeng; Sheu, F.-S. . E-mail: dbssfs@nus.edu.sg

    2006-06-23

    Neurogranin (Ng), a neuronal protein implicated in learning and memory, contains a TATA-less promoter. Analysis of 5'-deletion mutations and site-directed mutations of the mouse Ng promoter revealed that a 258 bp 5'-flanking sequence (+3 to +260) conferred the basal transcription activity, and that the GC-rich sequence (+22 to +33) served as an important determinant of the promoter activity. Transient transfection of the Sp1 expression plasmid transactivated the reporter activity in neuroblastoma N2A cells while knocking down of endogenous Sp1 expression resulted in a 2.5-fold reduction of the reporter activity in HEK 293 cells. Exogenous expression of Sp3 in HEK 293 cells, however, repressed the reporter activity by 50%. Nevertheless, by gel shift assays, Sp1 and Sp3 were not found to be responsible for the protein-DNA complexes formed by the GC-rich sequence. Moreover, a nuclear factor from the mouse brain tissues was discovered to bind to multiple AT-rich regions in Ng promoter.

  19. Capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through Sp1-mediated DR5 up-regulation: Involvement of Ca{sup 2+} influx

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Dong-Oh; Kang, Chang-Hee; Kang, Sang-Hyuck; Choi, Yung-Hyun; Hyun, Jin-Won; Chang, Weon-Young; Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Koh, Young-Sang; Maeng, Young-Hee; Kim, Young-Ree; Kim, Gi-Young

    2012-02-15

    Although tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in various malignant cells, several cancers including human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) exhibit potent resistance to TRAIL-induced cell death. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-cancer potential of capsaicin in TRAIL-induced cancer cell death. As indicated by assays that measure phosphatidylserine exposure, mitochondrial activity and activation of caspases, capsaicin potentiated TRAIL-resistant cells to lead to cell death. In addition, we found that capsaicin induces the cell surface expression of TRAIL receptor DR5, but not DR4 through the activation Sp1 on its promoter region. Furthermore, we investigated that capsaicin-induced DR5 expression and apoptosis are inhibited by calcium chelator or inhibitors for calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. Taken together, our data suggest that capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-mediated HCC cell apoptosis by DR5 up-regulation via calcium influx-dependent Sp1 activation. Highlights: ? Capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through activation of caspases. ? Capsaicin induces expression of DR5 through Sp1 activation. ? Capsaicin activates calcium signaling pathway.

  20. What factors play a role in preventing self-immolation? Results from a case-control study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Hosein; Schwebel, David C.; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Mohammadi, Reza; Choubsaz, Mansour; Heidari Zadie, Zahra; Ahmadi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Background: To investigate factors related to prevention of self-immolation in west of Iran. Methods: In a case-control study, 30 consecutive cases of deliberate self-inflicted burns admitted to the regional burn center (Imam Khomeini hospital in Kermanshah province, Iran) were compared with controls selected from the community and matched by sex, age, district-county of residence, and rural vs urban living environment. The following characteristics relevant to preventing self-immolation were collected from all cases and controls: main domestic fuel used in the household, awareness about complications of burn injuries, and use of counseling services. Results: Descriptive analyses revealed that kerosene was the main domestic fuel in the household for 83% of cases. Not surprisingly, the main means of self-immolation in 93% of the patients was kerosene, with other fuels such as petrol and domestic gas used in remaining cases. The majority of cases and controls were aware of the potential complications of burn injuries. Use of counseling services was more common in controls. Conclusions: All three aspects of preventing self-immolation – having kerosene and other fuels in the home, being aware of the complications of burn injuries, and using counseling services were present in both the cases and controls. This suggests a large portion of residents in rural Iran are potential self-immolation victims. Increasing preventive strategies may reduce risk of suicide by self-immolation. PMID:26081518

  1. The Sigma Factor AlgU Plays a Key Role in Formation of Robust Biofilms by Nonmucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa?

    PubMed Central

    Bazire, Alexis; Shioya, Kouki; Soum-Soutéra, Emmanuelle; Bouffartigues, Emeline; Ryder, Cynthia; Guentas-Dombrowsky, Linda; Hémery, Gaëlle; Linossier, Isabelle; Chevalier, Sylvie; Wozniak, Daniel J.; Lesouhaitier, Olivier; Dufour, Alain

    2010-01-01

    The extracytoplasmic function sigma factor AlgU of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is responsible for alginate overproduction, leading to mucoidy and chronic infections of cystic fibrosis patients. We investigated here the role of AlgU in the formation of nonmucoid biofilms. The algU mutant of P. aeruginosa PAO1 (PAOU) showed a dramatic impairment in biofilm formation under dynamic conditions. PAOU was defective both in cell attachment to glass and in development of robust, shear-resistant biofilms. This was explained by an impaired production of extracellular matrix, specifically of the exopolysaccharide Psl, as revealed by microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Complementing the algU mutation with a plasmid-borne algU gene restored wild-type phenotypes. Compared with that in PAO1, expression of the psl operon was reduced in the PAOU strain, and the biofilm formation ability of this strain was partially restored by inducing the transcription of the psl operon. Furthermore, expression of the lectin-encoding lecA and lecB genes was reduced in the PAOU strain. In agreement with the requirement of LecB for type IV pilus biogenesis, PAOU displayed impaired twitching motility. Collectively, these genetic downregulation events explain the biofilm formation defect of the PAOU mutant. Promoter mapping indicated that AlgU is probably not directly responsible for transcription of the psl operon and the lec genes, but AlgU is involved in the expression of the ppyR gene, whose product was reported to positively control psl expression. Expressing the ppyR gene in PAOU partially restored the formation of robust biofilms. PMID:20348252

  2. Cadmium down-regulation of kidney Sp1 binding to mouse SGLT1 and SGLT2 gene promoters: Possible reaction of cadmium with the zinc finger domain of Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Kothinti, Rajendra K.; Blodgett, Amy B.; Petering, David H.; Tabatabai, Niloofar M.

    2010-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) exposure causes glucosuria (glucose in the urine). Previously, it was shown that Cd exposure of primary cultures of mouse kidney cells (PMKC) decreased mRNA levels of the glucose transporters, SGLT1 and SGLT2 and that Sp1 from Cd-exposed cells displayed reduced binding to the GC boxes of the mouse SGLT1 promoter in vitro. Here, we identified a GC box upstream of mouse SGLT2 gene. ChIP assays on PMKC revealed that exposure to 5 muM Cd abolished Sp1 binding to SGLT1 GC box while it decreased Sp1 binding to SGLT2 GC sequence by 30% in vivo. The in vitro DNA binding assay, EMSA, demonstrated that binding of Sp1 from Cd (7.5 muM)-treated PMKC to the SGLT2 GC probe was 86% lower than in untreated cells. Sp1 is a zinc finger protein. Compared to PMKC exposed to 5 muM Cd alone, inclusion of 5 muM Zn restored SGLT1 and 2 mRNA levels by 15% and 30%, respectively. Cd (10 muM) decreased the binding of recombinant Sp1 (rhSp1) to SGLT1 and SGLT2 GC probes to 12% and 8% of untreated controls. Cd exerted no effect on GC-bound rhSp1. Co-treatment with Cd and Zn showed that added Zn significantly restored rhSp1 binding to the SGLT1 and SGLT2. Addition of Zn post Cd treatment was not stimulatory. We conclude that Cd can replace Zn in Sp1 DNA binding domain to reduce its binding to GC sites in mouse SGLT1 and SGLT2 promoters.

  3. The Mechanism of Inhibition of Antibody-based Inhibitors of Membrane-type Serine Protease 1 (MT-SP1)

    E-print Network

    Craik, Charles S.

    The Mechanism of Inhibition of Antibody-based Inhibitors of Membrane-type Serine Protease 1 (MT-SP1, 600 16th St. Genentech Hall, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA The mechanisms of inhibition of two novel sc-SP1 at low pH, and is a standard mechanism inhibitor of the protease. The mechanisms of inhibition

  4. DsbA Plays a Critical and Multifaceted Role in the Production of Secreted Virulence Factors by the Phytopathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica*S?

    PubMed Central

    Coulthurst, Sarah J.; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Hedley, Peter E.; Liu, Hui; Toth, Ian K.; Salmond, George P. C.

    2008-01-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica is an enterobacterial phytopathogen causing economically significant soft rot disease. Pathogenesis is mediated by multiple secreted virulence factors, many of which are secreted by the type II (Out) secretion system. DsbA catalyzes the introduction of disulfide bonds into periplasmic and secreted proteins. In this study, the extracellular proteome (secretome) of wild type E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica SCRI1043, and dsbA and out mutants, was analyzed by spectral counting mass spectrometry. This revealed that dsbA inactivation had a huge impact on the secretome and identified diverse DsbA- and Out-dependent secreted proteins, representing known, predicted, and novel candidate virulence factors. Further characterization of the dsbA mutant showed that secreted enzyme activities, motility, production of the quorumsensing signal, and virulence were absent or substantially reduced. The impact of DsbA on secreted virulence factor production was mediated at multiple levels, including impacting on the Out secretion system and the virulence gene regulatory network. Transcriptome analyses revealed that the abundance of a broad, but defined, set of transcripts, including many virulence factors, was altered in the dsbA mutant, identifying a new virulence regulon responsive to extracytoplasmic conditions. In conclusion, DsbA plays a crucial, multifaceted role in the pathogenesis of E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica. PMID:18562317

  5. Clay Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Liz; Steffan, Dana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to use clay as a potential material for young children to explore. As teachers, the authors find that their dialogue about the potential of clay as a learning medium raises many questions: (1) What makes clay so enticing? (2) Why are teachers noticing different play and conversation around the clay table as compared to…

  6. Sweet Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Shuk-kwan S.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article features Sweet play math, a "math by the month" activity that involves decorating and making sugar cubes. Teachers may want to substitute straws, paper squares, alphabet blocks, or such commercially made manipulatives as Unifix[R] cubes for the real sweets. Given no allergy concerns, teachers and students alike would enjoy some sweet…

  7. Playing Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Juan E.

    The acceptance of animation technologies is increasing. Video games, such as Sony PlayStation (SONY, 2002), have become part of the culture for young people from kindergarten through undergraduate school. Animation technologies have been implemented into educational systems in the form of animated pedagogical agents (Johnson, 2000). The research…

  8. Wearable Play

    E-print Network

    Cheong, Sunyoung

    2014-05-31

    Wearable Play, an Master of Fine Art thesis exhibition, is comprised of eight sets of wearable jewelry and an interactive installation that were inspired by children's building toys. It is my confluence of being a mother and being an artist. As a...

  9. Sp1 mediates repression of the resistin gene by PPAR{gamma} agonists in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.S.; Choi, H.H.; Cho, Y.M.; Lee, H.K.; Park, K.S. . E-mail: kspark@snu.ac.kr

    2006-09-15

    Resistin is an adipokine related to obesity and insulin resistance. Expression of the resistin gene is repressed by the treatment of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonists, thiazolidinediones (TZDs). In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which TZDs inhibit the resistin gene expression. Resistin gene expression was decreased by TZD in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which was abolished after treatment of cycloheximide (a protein synthesis inhibitor). TZD could not repress the expression of the resistin gene in the presence of mithramycin A (an Sp1 binding inhibitor). Sp1 binding site of the resistin promoter (-122/-114 bp) was necessary for the repression. Further investigation of the effect of TZDs on the modification of Sp1 showed that the level of O-glycosylation of Sp1 was decreased in this process. These results suggest that PPAR{gamma} activation represses the expression of the resistin gene by modulating Sp1 activity.

  10. Up-regulation of the mu-opioid receptor gene is mediated through chromatin remodeling and transcriptional factors in differentiated neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Cheol Kyu; Kim, Chun Sung; Kim, Do Kyung; Law, Ping-Yee; Wei, Li-Na; Loh, Horace H

    2010-07-01

    The effects of morphine are mediated mainly through the mu opioid receptor (MOR). Expression of the MOR is up-regulated during neuronal differentiation in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells and epigenetic changes play an important role in MOR up-regulation. This study investigates the basis for differentiation-dependent alterations of MOR chromatin by studying the recruitment or dissociation of several factors to the remodeled chromatin locus. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were used to demonstrate the recruitment of the transcriptional activator Sp1 and the chromatin remodeling factors Brg1 and BAF155 to this promoter, as well as the dissociation of repressors [histone deacetylases, mSin3A, Brm, and methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2)]. Histone modifications (acetylation, induction of histone H3-lys4 methylation, and reduction of H3-lys9 methylation) were consistently detected on this promoter. Overexpression of Sp1 strongly enhanced MOR promoter activity, and the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A also increased promoter activity. In vitro DNA CpG-methylation of the promoter partially blocked binding of the Sp1 factor but induced MeCP2 binding. Coimmunoprecipitation studies also found novel evidence of an endogenous MeCP2 interaction with Sp3 but a weaker interaction with Sp1. Overall, the results suggest that during neuronal differentiation, MeCP2 and DNA methylation mediate remodeling of the MOR promoter by chromatin remodeling factors (Brg1 and BAF155) from a compacted state to a conformation allowing access for transcriptional factors. Subsequent recruitment of the activating transcription factor Sp1 to the remodeled promoter results in MOR up-regulation. PMID:20385708

  11. An Sp1 transcription factor coordinates caspase-dependent and -independent apoptotic pathways

    E-print Network

    Hirose, Takashi

    During animal development, the proper regulation of apoptosis requires the precise spatial and temporal execution of cell-death programs, which can include both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways. Although ...

  12. Overexpression of HDAC1 induces cellular senescence by Sp1/PP2A/pRb pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, Jian-Ying; Hung, Jan-Jong; Institute of Bioinformatics and Biosignal Transduction, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan

    2011-04-15

    Highlights: {yields} Overexpression of HDAC1 induces Sp1 deacetylation and raises Sp1/p300 complex formation to bind to PP2Ac promoter. {yields} Overexpression of HDAC1 strongly inhibits the phosphorylation of pRb through up-regulation of PP2A. {yields} Overexpressed HDAC1 restrains cell proliferaction and induces cell senescence though a novel Sp1/PP2A/pRb pathway. -- Abstract: Senescence is associated with decreased activities of DNA replication, protein synthesis, and cellular division, which can result in deterioration of cellular functions. Herein, we report that the growth and division of tumor cells were significantly repressed by overexpression of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1 with the Tet-off induced system or transient transfection. In addition, HDAC1 overexpression led to senescence through both an accumulation of hypophosphorylated active retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and an increase in the protein level of protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac). HDAC1 overexpression also increased the level of Sp1 deacetylation and elevated the interaction between Sp1 and p300, and subsequently that Sp1/p300 complex bound to the promoter of PP2Ac, thus leading to induction of PP2Ac expression. Similar results were obtained in the HDAC1-Tet-off stable clone. Taken together, these results indicate that HDAC1 overexpression restrained cell proliferation and induced premature senescence in cervical cancer cells through a novel Sp1/PP2A/pRb pathway.

  13. Integrated high-throughput analysis identifies Sp1 as a crucial determinant of p53-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Zhang, Y; Ströse, A; Tedesco, D; Gurova, K; Selivanova, G

    2014-09-01

    The restoration of p53 tumor suppressor function is a promising therapeutic strategy to combat cancer. However, the biological outcomes of p53 activation, ranging from the promotion of growth arrest to the induction of cell death, are hard to predict, which limits the clinical application of p53-based therapies. In the present study, we performed an integrated analysis of genome-wide short hairpin RNA screen and gene expression data and uncovered a previously unrecognized role of Sp1 as a central modulator of the transcriptional response induced by p53 that leads to robust induction of apoptosis. Sp1 is indispensable for the pro-apoptotic transcriptional repression by p53, but not for the induction of pro-apoptotic genes. Furthermore, the p53-dependent pro-apoptotic transcriptional repression required the co-binding of Sp1 to p53 target genes. Our results also highlight that Sp1 shares with p53 a common regulator, MDM2, which targets Sp1 for proteasomal degradation. This uncovers a new mechanism of the tight control of apoptosis in cells. Our study advances the understanding of the molecular basis of p53-mediated apoptosis and implicates Sp1 as one of its key modulators. We found that small molecules reactivating p53 can differentially modulate Sp1, thus providing insights into how to manipulate p53 response in a controlled way. PMID:24971482

  14. Proto-oncogene FBI-1 represses transcription of p21CIP1 by inhibition of transcription activation by p53 and Sp1.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Il; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Yun, Chae-Ok; Kim, Pyung-Hwan; Kim, Sung-Eun; Choi, Kang-Yell; Kim, Se Hoon; Hur, Man-Wook

    2009-05-01

    Aberrant transcriptional repression through chromatin remodeling and histone deacetylation has been postulated as the driving force for tumorigenesis. FBI-1 (formerly called Pokemon) is a member of the POK family of transcriptional repressors. Recently, FBI-1 was characterized as a critical oncogenic factor that specifically represses transcription of the tumor suppressor gene ARF, potentially leading indirectly to p53 inactivation. Our investigations on transcriptional repression of the p53 pathway revealed that FBI-1 represses transcription of ARF, Hdm2 (human analogue of mouse double minute oncogene), and p21CIP1 (hereafter indicated as p21) but not of p53. FBI-1 showed a more potent repressive effect on p21 than on p53. Our data suggested that FBI-1 is a master controller of the ARF-Hdm2-p53-p21 pathway, ultimately impinging on cell cycle arrest factor p21, by inhibiting upstream regulators at the transcriptional and protein levels. FBI-1 acted as a competitive transcriptional repressor of p53 and Sp1 and was shown to bind the proximal Sp1-3 GC-box and the distal p53-responsive elements of p21. Repression involved direct binding competition of FBI-1 with Sp1 and p53. FBI-1 also interacted with corepressors, such as mSin3A, NCoR, and SMRT, thereby deacetylating Ac-H3 and Ac-H4 histones at the promoter. FBI-1 caused cellular transformation, promoted cell cycle proliferation, and significantly increased the number of cells in S phase. FBI-1 is aberrantly overexpressed in many human solid tumors, particularly in adenocarcinomas and squamous carcinomas. The role of FBI-1 as a master controller of the p53 pathway therefore makes it an attractive therapeutic target. PMID:19244234

  15. Studying the recruitment of Sp1 to the ?-globin promoter with an in vivo method: Protein position identification with nuclease tail?(PIN*POINT)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Soo; Lee, Chang-Hun; Chung, Jay H.

    1998-01-01

    Transcription is thought to be regulated by recruitment of transcription factors, adaptors, and certain enzymes to cis-acting elements through protein–DNA interactions and protein–protein interactions. To better understand transcription, a method with the capability to detect in vivo recruitment of these individual proteins will be essential. Toward this end, we use a previously undescribed in vivo method that we term protein position identification with nuclease tail (PIN*POINT). In this method, a fusion protein composed of a chosen protein linked to a nonsequence-specific nuclease is expressed in vivo, and the binding of the protein to DNA is made detectable by the nuclease-induced cleavage near the binding site. In this article, we used the technique protein position identification with nuclease tail to study the effect of the ?-globin locus control region (LCR) and promoter elements on the recruitment of transcription factor Sp1 to the ?-globin promoter. We present evidence that the hypersensitive sites of the LCR synergistically enhance the recruitment of a multimeric Sp1 complex to the ?-globin promoter and that this may be accomplished by protein–protein interactions with proteins bound to the LCR, the upstream activator region, and, possibly, general transcription factors bound near the “TATA” box. PMID:9448269

  16. Triptolide inhibits transcription of hTERT through down-regulation of transcription factor specificity protein 1 in primary effusion lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Long, Cong; Wang, Jingchao; Guo, Wei; Wang, Huan; Wang, Chao; Liu, Yu; Sun, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare and aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), a key component responsible for the regulation of telomerase activity, plays important roles in cellular immortalization and cancer development. Triptolide purified from Tripterygium extracts displays a broad-spectrum bioactivity profile, including immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor. In this study, it is investigated whether triptolide reduces hTERT expression and suppresses its activity in PEL cells. The mRNA and protein levels of hTERT were examined by real time-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The activity of hTERT promoter was determined by Dual luciferase reporter assay. Our results demonstrated that triptolide decreased expression of hTERT at both mRNA and protein levels. Further gene sequence analysis indicated that the activity of hTERT promoter was suppressed by triptolide. Triptolide also reduced the half-time of hTERT. Additionally, triptolide inhibited the expression of transcription factor specificity protein 1(Sp1) in PEL cells. Furthermore, knock-down of Sp1 by using specific shRNAs resulted in down-regulation of hTERT transcription and protein expression levels. Inhibition of Sp1 by specific shRNAs enhanced triptolide-induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of triptolide on hTERT transcription is possibly mediated by inhibition of transcription factor Sp1 in PEL cells. PMID:26631963

  17. p21WAF1 Is Required for Interleukin-16-Induced Migration and Invasion of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells via the p38MAPK/Sp-1/MMP-9 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Lyea; Hwang, Byungdoo; Lee, Sun-Young; Kim, Won Tae; Choi, Yung Hyun; Chang, Young-Chae; Kim, Wun-Jae; Moon, Sung-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-16 (IL-16) is a lymphocyte chemoattractant factor well known for its role in immune responses, but its role in vascular disease is unknown. Here, we explored the novel physiological function of IL-16 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The expression of IL-16 and its receptor CD4 was observed in VSMCs. Treatment with IL-16 enhanced the migration and invasion by VSMCs without altering the proliferative potential. IL-16 induced MMP-9 expression via the binding activity of transcription factors NF-?B, AP-1, and Sp-1 motifs in VSMCs. Among the relevant signaling pathways examined, only p38MAPK phosphorylation was significantly stimulated in IL-16-treated VSMCs. Treatment with p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580 prevented the IL-16-induced migration and invasion of VSMCs. SB203580 treatment inhibited the MMP-9 expression and activation of Sp-1 binding in IL-16-treated VSMCs, and siRNA knockdown of CD4 expression blocked the induction of migration, invasion, p38MAPK phosphorylation, MMP-9 expression, and Sp-1 binding activation stimulated by IL-16. The IL-16 induced cell-cycle-inhibitor p21WAF1 expression in VSMCs, but had no effect on the expression levels of other cell-cycle negative regulators. Finally, blockage of p21WAF1 function with specific siRNA abolished the IL-16-induced elevation of migration, invasion, p38MAPK phosphorylation, MMP-9 expression, and Sp-1 binding activation in VSMCs. Taken together, p21WAF1 was required for the induction of p38MAPK-mediated MMP-9 expression via activation of the Sp-1 binding motif, which led to migration and invasion of VSMCs interacting with IL-16/CD4. These results could provide that IL-16 is a new target in the treatment of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and re-stenosis. PMID:26544695

  18. has yet to be ascertained. However, the significant correlation between MT-SP1 and uPAR transcript lev-

    E-print Network

    Craik, Charles S.

    prognostic, diag- nostic or therapeutic target for breast cancer. Key words: Breast/Cancer/MT-SP1/Protease independently cloned by Lin et al. (1999b) and termed matriptase, and by Kim et al. (1999) from mouse and termed

  19. Core Binding Factor Beta Plays a Critical Role by Facilitating the Assembly of the Vif-Cullin 5 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase

    PubMed Central

    Fribourgh, Jennifer L.; Nguyen, Henry C.; Wolfe, Leslie S.; DeWitt, David C.; Zhang, Wenyan; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Rhoades, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The HIV-1 virion infectivity factor (Vif) targets the cellular cytidine deaminases APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (A3F) for degradation via the host ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Vif recruits a cellular E3 ubiquitin ligase to polyubiquitinate A3G/F. The activity of Vif critically depends on the cellular core binding factor beta (CBF?). In this study, we investigated the Vif-CBF? interaction and the role of CBF? in the E3 ligase assembly. Vif-CBF? interaction requires an extensive region of Vif spanning most of its amino terminus and zinc finger region, and cullin 5 (Cul5) binding enhances the stability of the Vif-CBF? interaction. Our results further demonstrate that CBF? plays a critical role in facilitating Cul5 binding to the Vif/elongin B/elongin C complex. Vif, with or without bound substrate, is unable to bind Cul5 in the absence of CBF?. These studies support the notion that CBF? serves as a molecular chaperone to facilitate Vif-E3 ligase assembly. IMPORTANCE The host antiviral restriction factors A3G/F inhibit viral replication. The HIV-1 protein Vif targets A3G/F for degradation. This immune evasion activity of Vif is dependent on the cellular factor CBF?. Multiple regions of Vif are known to be important for Vif function, but the mechanisms are unclear. The studies described here provide important information about the Vif-CBF? interaction interface and the function of CBF? in E3 ligase assembly. In particular, our comprehensive Vif-CBF? interface mapping results help to delineate the role of various Vif regions, determining if they are important for binding CBF? or A3G/F. Furthermore, our studies reveal an important potential mechanism of CBF? that has not been shown before. Our results suggest that CBF? may serve as a molecular chaperone to enable Vif to adopt an appropriate conformation for interaction with the Cul5-based E3 ligase. This study advances our understanding of how CBF? facilitates the Vif-mediated degradation of APOBEC3 proteins. PMID:24390320

  20. Control of vulval competence and centering in the nematode Oscheius sp. 1 CEW1.

    PubMed Central

    Louvet-Vallée, Sophie; Kolotuev, Irina; Podbilewicz, Benjamin; Félix, Marie-Anne

    2003-01-01

    To compare vulva development mechanisms in the nematode Oscheius sp. 1 to those known in Caenorhabditis elegans, we performed a genetic screen for vulva mutants in Oscheius sp. 1 CEW1. Here we present one large category of mutations that we call cov, which affect the specification of the Pn.p ventral epidermal cells along the antero-posterior axis. The Pn.p cells are numbered from 1 to 12 from anterior to posterior. In wild-type Oscheius sp. 1 CEW1, the P(4-8).p cells are competent to form the vulva and the progeny of P(5-7).p actually form the vulva, with the descendants of P6.p adopting a central vulval fate. Among the 17 mutations (defining 13 genes) that we characterize here, group 1 mutations completely or partially abolish P(4-8).p competence, and this correlates with early fusion of the Pn.p cells to the epidermal syncytium. In this group, we found a putative null mutation in the lin-39 HOM-C homolog, the associated phenotype of which could be weakly mimicked by injection of a morpholino against Osp1-lin-39 in the mother's germ line. Using cell ablation in a partially penetrant competence mutant, we show that vulval competence is partially controlled by a gonadal signal. Most other mutants found in the screen display phenotypes unknown in C. elegans. Group 2 mutants show a partial penetrance of Pn.p competence loss and an abnormal centering of the vulva on P5.p, suggesting that these two processes are coregulated by the same pathway in Oscheius sp. 1. Group 3 mutants display an enlarged competence group that includes P3.p, thus demonstrating the existence of a specific mechanism inhibiting P3.p competence. Group 4 mutants display an abnormal centering of the vulval pattern on P7.p and suggest that a specific mechanism centers the vulval pattern on a single Pn.p cell. PMID:12586702

  1. The Theobroma cacao B3 domain transcription factor TcLEC2 plays a duel role in control of embryo development and maturation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Arabidopsis thaliana LEC2 gene encodes a B3 domain transcription factor, which plays critical roles during both zygotic and somatic embryogenesis. LEC2 exerts significant impacts on determining embryogenic potential and various metabolic processes through a complicated genetic regulatory network. Results An ortholog of the Arabidopsis Leafy Cotyledon 2 gene (AtLEC2) was characterized in Theobroma cacao (TcLEC2). TcLEC2 encodes a B3 domain transcription factor preferentially expressed during early and late zygotic embryo development. The expression of TcLEC2 was higher in dedifferentiated cells competent for somatic embryogenesis (embryogenic calli), compared to non-embryogenic calli. Transient overexpression of TcLEC2 in immature zygotic embryos resulted in changes in gene expression profiles and fatty acid composition. Ectopic expression of TcLEC2 in cacao leaves changed the expression levels of several seed related genes. The overexpression of TcLEC2 in cacao explants greatly increased the frequency of regeneration of stably transformed somatic embryos. TcLEC2 overexpressing cotyledon explants exhibited a very high level of embryogenic competency and when cultured on hormone free medium, exhibited an iterative embryogenic chain-reaction. Conclusions Our study revealed essential roles of TcLEC2 during both zygotic and somatic embryo development. Collectively, our evidence supports the conclusion that TcLEC2 is a functional ortholog of AtLEC2 and that it is involved in similar genetic regulatory networks during cacao somatic embryogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed report of the functional analysis of a LEC2 ortholog in a species other then Arabidopsis. TcLEC2 could potentially be used as a biomarker for the improvement of the SE process and screen for elite varieties in cacao germplasm. PMID:24758406

  2. Achromobacter denitrificans strain SP1 efficiently remediates di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, S; Josh, M K Sarath; Binod, P; Devi, R Sudha; Balachandran, S; Anderson, Robin C; Benjamin, Sailas

    2015-02-01

    This study describes how Achromobacter denitrificans strain SP1, a novel isolate from heavily plastics-contaminated sewage sludge efficiently consumed the hazardous plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) as carbon source supplemented in a simple basal salt medium (BSM). Response surface methodology was employed for the statistical optimization of the process parameters such as temperature (32°C), agitation (200 rpm), DEHP concentration (10 mM), time (72 h) and pH (8.0). At these optimized conditions, experimentally observed DEHP degradation was 63%, while the predicted value was 59.2%; and the correlation coefficient between them was 0.998, i.e., highly significant and fit to the predicted model. Employing GC-MS analysis, the degradation pathway was partially deduced with intermediates such as mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and 2-ethyl hexanol. Briefly, this first report describes A. denitrificans strain SP1 as a highly efficient bacterium for completely remediating the hazardous DEHP (10 mM) in 96 h in BSM (50% consumed in 60 h), which offers great potentials for efficiently cleaning the DEHP-contaminated environments such as soil, sediments and water upon its deployment. PMID:25463861

  3. Scalability of Parallel Spatial Direct Numerical Simulations on Intel Hypercube and IBM SP1 and SP2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Hanebutte, Ulf R.; Zubair, Mohammad

    1995-01-01

    The implementation and performance of a parallel spatial direct numerical simulation (PSDNS) approach on the Intel iPSC/860 hypercube and IBM SP1 and SP2 parallel computers is documented. Spatially evolving disturbances associated with the laminar-to-turbulent transition in boundary-layer flows are computed with the PSDNS code. The feasibility of using the PSDNS to perform transition studies on these computers is examined. The results indicate that PSDNS approach can effectively be parallelized on a distributed-memory parallel machine by remapping the distributed data structure during the course of the calculation. Scalability information is provided to estimate computational costs to match the actual costs relative to changes in the number of grid points. By increasing the number of processors, slower than linear speedups are achieved with optimized (machine-dependent library) routines. This slower than linear speedup results because the computational cost is dominated by FFT routine, which yields less than ideal speedups. By using appropriate compile options and optimized library routines on the SP1, the serial code achieves 52-56 M ops on a single node of the SP1 (45 percent of theoretical peak performance). The actual performance of the PSDNS code on the SP1 is evaluated with a "real world" simulation that consists of 1.7 million grid points. One time step of this simulation is calculated on eight nodes of the SP1 in the same time as required by a Cray Y/MP supercomputer. For the same simulation, 32-nodes of the SP1 and SP2 are required to reach the performance of a Cray C-90. A 32 node SP1 (SP2) configuration is 2.9 (4.6) times faster than a Cray Y/MP for this simulation, while the hypercube is roughly 2 times slower than the Y/MP for this application. KEY WORDS: Spatial direct numerical simulations; incompressible viscous flows; spectral methods; finite differences; parallel computing.

  4. Role played by paxillin and paxillin tyrosine phosphorylation in hepatocyte growth factor/sphingosine-1-phosphate-mediated reactive oxygen species generation, lamellipodia formation, and endothelial barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Usatyuk, Peter V.; Jacobson, Jeffrey; Cress, Anne E.; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Salgia, Ravi; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Paxillin is a multifunctional and multidomain focal adhesion adaptor protein. It serves as an important scaffolding protein at focal adhesions by recruiting and binding to structural and signaling molecules. Paxillin tyrosine phosphorylation at Y31 and Y118 is important for paxillin redistribution to focal adhesions and angiogenesis. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are potent stimulators of lamellipodia formation, a prerequisite for endothelial cell migration. The role played by paxillin and its tyrosine phosphorylated forms in HGF- or S1P-induced lamellipodia formation and barrier function is unclear. HGF or S1P stimulated lamellipodia formation, tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin at Y31 and Y118, and c-Abl in human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs). Knockdown of paxillin with small interfering RNA (siRNA) or transfection with paxillin mutants (Y31F or Y118F) mitigated HGF- or S1P-induced lamellipodia formation, translocation of p47phox to lamellipodia, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in HLMVECs. Furthermore, exposure of HLMVECs to HGF or S1P stimulated c-Abl-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin at Y31 and Y118 in a time-dependent fashion, and down-regulation of c-Abl with siRNA attenuated HGF- or S1P-mediated lamellipodia formation, translocation of p47phox to lamellipodia, and endothelial barrier enhancement. In vivo, knockdown of paxillin with siRNA in mouse lungs attenuated ventilator-induced lung injury. Together, these results suggest that c-Abl-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin at Y31 and Y118 regulates HGF- or S1P-mediated lamellipodia formation, ROS generation in lamellipodia, and endothelial permeability. PMID:26697169

  5. Biocontrol of Salmonella Enteritidis in spiked chicken cuts by lytic bacteriophages ?SP-1 and ?SP-3.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Jeena; Bhat, Sarita G

    2015-04-01

    The ability of host specific bacteriophages ?SP-1 and ?SP-3 to lyse Salmonella in artificially contaminated cuts of pressure cooked chicken meat was evaluated at different temperatures -4?°C, room temperature (28?±?0.5 °C) and 37?°C applying low and high multiplicity of infection (MOI). Bacteriophages were able to significantly reduce the bacterial counts at all the temperatures studied. At 4?°C, individual application of ? SP-1 and ? SP-3 resulted in significant drop in bacterial counts (log10 2.46 and 2.1?CFU/ml, respectively) at high MOI and (log10 0.98 and 0.52?CFU/ml, respectively) at low MOI, when compared to the untreated control on day 3. Similarly at room temperature the drop was log10 3.99 and 3.46?CFU/ml at high MOI and log10 2.51 and 2.3?CFU/ml at low MOI. At 37?°C the drop was log10 1.98 and 2.38 at high MOI and at low MOI it was log10 1.52 and 1.98?CFU/ml. Increased efficiency was observed when phages where applied as cocktail at high MOI as the bacterial counts at the end of day 3 dropped by log10 3.52?CFU/ml at 37?°C and to beyond detectable level at 4?°C and room temperature. The average reduction of bacterial load in the same group was -4?°C (79%), room temperature (92%) and 37?°C (78%). PMID:25588852

  6. Maternal serum Schwangerschafts protein-1 (SP1) and fetal chromosomal abnormalities at 10-13 weeks' gestation.

    PubMed

    Brizot, M L; Bersinger, N A; Xydias, G; Snijders, R J; Nicolaides, K H

    1995-08-30

    Maternal serum SP1 concentration was measured at 10-13 weeks' gestation in samples from 87 pregnancies with fetal chromosomal abnormalities (trisomy 21 n = 45; trisomy 18 n = 19; trisomy 13 n = 8; Turner syndrome n = 7; 47,XXX or 47,XXY n = 4; triploidy n = 4), and in samples from 348 matched controls. In the control group, SP1 increased significantly with fetal crown-rump length (r = 0.20, P < 0.0001) and there was no significant association with fetal nuchal translucency thickness (r = 0.03). Similarly, in the group with fetal chromosomal abnormalities, SP1 increased significantly with crown-rump length (r = 0.31, P < 0.01) and there was no significant association with nuchal translucency thickness (r = -0.08). In the groups with fetal trisomy 18 and trisomy 13, the median SP1 (0.76 MoM and 0.57 MoM, respectively) was significantly lower than in the controls (z = 2.64 and z = 3.27, respectively); in 21% and 25% of the cases, values were below the 5th centile. In the group with trisomy 21 and other chromosomal abnormalities the median SP1 (0.96 MoM and 0.93 MoM, respectively) was not significantly different from controls (z = 1.17 and z = 0.67, respectively). Measurement of SP1 concentration at 10-13 weeks' gestation is not likely to be useful in the prediction of fetal chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:8575349

  7. Regulation of Chloroplast Protein Import by the Ubiquitin E3 Ligase SP1 Is Important for Stress Tolerance in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Qihua; Jarvis, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Summary Chloroplasts are the organelles responsible for photosynthesis in plants [1, 2]. The chloroplast proteome comprises ?3,000 different proteins, including components of the photosynthetic apparatus, which are highly abundant. Most chloroplast proteins are nucleus-encoded and imported following synthesis in the cytosol. Such import is mediated by multiprotein complexes in the envelope membranes that surround each organelle [3, 4]. The translocon at the outer envelope membrane of chloroplasts (TOC) mediates client protein recognition and early stages of import. The TOC apparatus is regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in a process controlled by the envelope-localized ubiquitin E3 ligase SUPPRESSOR OF PPI1 LOCUS1 (SP1) [5, 6]. Previous work showed that SP1-mediated regulation of chloroplast protein import contributes to the organellar proteome changes that occur during plant development (e.g., during de-etiolation). Here, we reveal a critical role for SP1 in plant responses to abiotic stress, which is a major and increasing cause of agricultural yield losses globally [7]. Arabidopsis plants lacking SP1 are hypersensitive to salt, osmotic, and oxidative stresses, whereas plants overexpressing SP1 are considerably more stress tolerant than wild-type. We present evidence that SP1 acts to deplete the TOC apparatus under stress conditions to limit the import of photosynthetic apparatus components, which may attenuate photosynthetic activity and reduce the potential for reactive oxygen species production and photo-oxidative damage. Our results indicate that chloroplast protein import is responsive to environmental cues, enabling dynamic regulation of the organellar proteome, and suggest new approaches for improving stress tolerance in crops. PMID:26387714

  8. Des Regles et du Jeu. Complementarite des facteurs genetiques et epigenetiques dans le developpement cerebral (Of Rules and of Play. The Complementary Nature of Genetic and Epigenetic Factors in Brain Development).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Jean-Francois

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the importance of genetic and epigenetic factors in the development of the nervous system and the performances it conditions. From the perspective of rules, play, and relaxation of rules, learning and education are not considered as a kind of conditioning but as providing a content in which the cumulative expression of potential can take…

  9. FSH stimulates IRS-2 expression in human granulosa cells through cAMP/SP1, an inoperative FSH action in PCOS patients.

    PubMed

    Anjali, G; Kaur, Surleen; Lakra, Ruchi; Taneja, Jyoti; Kalsey, Gaganjot S; Nagendra, Anjali; Shrivastav, T G; Gouri Devi, M; Malhotra, Neena; Kriplani, Alka; Singh, Rita

    2015-12-01

    Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) plays a central role in growth and differentiation of ovarian follicles. A plethora of information exists on molecular aspects of FSH responses but little is known about the mechanisms involved in its cross-talk with insulin/IGF-1 pathways implicated in the coordination of energy homeostasis in preovulatory granulosa cells (GCs). In this study, we hypothesized that FSH may regulate IRS-2 expression and thereby maintain the energy balance in GCs. We demonstrate here that FSH specifically increases IRS-2 expression in human and rat GCs. FSH-stimulated IRS-2 expression was inhibited by actinomycin D or cycloheximide. Furthermore, FSH decreases IRS-2 mRNA degradation indicating post-transcriptional stabilization. Herein, we demonstrate a role of cAMP pathway in the activation of IRS-2 expression by FSH. Scan and activity analysis of IRS-2 promoter demonstrated that FSH regulates IRS-2 expression through SP1 binding sites. FSH stimulates SP1 translocation into nucleus and its binding to IRS-2 promoter. These results are corroborated by the fact that siRNA mediated knockdown of IRS-2 decreased the FSH-stimulated PI3K activity, p-Akt levels, GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake. However, FSH was not able to increase IRS-2 expression in GCs from PCOS women undergoing IVF. Interestingly, IRS-2 mRNA expression was downregulated in GCs from the PCOS rat model. Taken together, our findings establish that FSH induces IRS-2 expression and thereby activates PI3K, Akt and glucose uptake. Crucially, our data confirms a molecular defect in FSH action in PCOS GCs which may cause deceleration of metabolism and follicular growth leading to infertility. These results lend support for a therapeutic potential of IRS-2 in the management of PCOS. PMID:26388164

  10. Rsk2 Knockdown in PC12 Cells Results in Sp1 Dependent Increased Expression of the Gria2 Gene, Encoding the AMPA Receptor Subunit GluR2

    PubMed Central

    Mehmood, Tahir; Schneider, Anne; Pannetier, Solange; Hanauer, André

    2013-01-01

    The RSK2 protein is a member of the RSK serine-threonine protein kinase family and is encoded by the X-linked rps6ka3 gene in human. Highly heterogeneous loss-of-function mutations affecting this gene are responsible for a severe syndromic form of cognitive impairment, Coffin-Lowry syndrome. RSK2, which is highly conserved in mammals, acts at the distal end of the Ras-ERK signaling pathway and is activated in response to growth factors and neurotransmitters. RSK2 is highly expressed in the hippocampus, and Rsk2-KO mice display spatial learning and memory impairment. We recently showed that ERK1/2 activity is abnormally increased in the hippocampus of Rsk2-KO mice as well as the expression of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2. The mechanism via which RSK2 deficiency affects the expression of GluR2 in neural cells was unknown. To address this issue we constitutively suppressed the expression of RSK2 in PC12 cells via vector-based shRNA in the present study. We show that Rsk2 silencing leads also to an elevation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation as well as of GluR2 expression and that the increased level of GluR2 expression results from the increased ERK1/2 activity on the transcription factor Sp1. Our results provide evidence that RSK2 modulates ERK1/2 activity on Sp1, which regulates GluR2 expression through transcriptional activation. PMID:23389038

  11. Quantitative Analysis of Estrogen Receptor Expression Shows SP1 antibody is more sensitive than 1D5

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Allison W.; Harigopal, Malini; Wimberly, Hallie; Prasad, Manju; Rimm, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Studies comparing rabbit monoclonal SP1 antibody to 1D5 for ER immunohistochemical (IHC) testing show conflicting results. Here we use a standardized quantitative immunofluorescent (QIF) ER assay to determine the level and significance of discordance between antibodies. Both antibodies are assessed by QIF on our Index TMA of cell lines and case controls, followed by QIF and IHC on two retrospective cohorts from Yale. On the Index TMA, SP1 displayed stronger signal-to-noise than 1D5. On the patient cohorts, the range of discrepancy between the two antibodies is 8% to 16.9%, with the majority of discrepant cases being SP1-positive/1D5-negative. Kaplan Meier analysis of the discrepant cases shows outcome comparable to double positive cases, suggesting that SP1 is more sensitive than 1D5. A series of cases with high levels of ER-beta shows that neither antibody cross-reacts, suggesting equivalent specificity. Future efforts are needed to determine if response to endocrine therapies show superiority of either antibody as a companion diagnostic test. PMID:22820659

  12. Achromobactor denitrificans SP1 produces pharmaceutically active 25C prodigiosin upon utilizing hazardous di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Achromobacter denitrificans SP1 isolated from soil sludge heavily contaminated with plastic waste produced a novel pharmaceutically-active 25C prodigiosin analog during growth in a simple mineral salt medium supplemented with hazardous di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) blended PVC plastics (in situ) ...

  13. Proto-oncogene FBI-1 (Pokemon/ZBTB7A) represses transcription of the tumor suppressor Rb gene via binding competition with Sp1 and recruitment of co-repressors.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Bu-Nam; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Choong-Eun; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Hur, Man-Wook

    2008-11-28

    FBI-1 (also called Pokemon/ZBTB7A) is a BTB/POZ-domain Krüppel-like zinc-finger transcription factor. Recently, FBI-1 was characterized as a proto-oncogenic protein, which represses tumor suppressor ARF gene transcription. The expression of FBI-1 is increased in many cancer tissues. We found that FBI-1 potently represses transcription of the Rb gene, a tumor suppressor gene important in cell cycle arrest. FBI-1 binds to four GC-rich promoter elements (FREs) located at bp -308 to -188 of the Rb promoter region. The Rb promoter also contains two Sp1 binding sites: GC-box 1 (bp -65 to -56) and GC-box 2 (bp -18 to -9), the latter of which is also bound by FBI-1. We found that FRE3 (bp -244 to -236) is also a Sp1 binding element. FBI-1 represses transcription of the Rb gene not only by binding to the FREs, but also by competing with Sp1 at the GC-box 2 and the FRE3. By binding to the FREs and/or the GC-box, FBI-1 represses transcription of the Rb gene through its POZ-domain, which recruits a co-repressor-histone deacetylase complex and deacetylates histones H3 and H4 at the Rb gene promoter. FBI-1 inhibits C2C12 myoblast cell differentiation by repressing Rb gene expression. PMID:18801742

  14. Musical Instrument Choice and Playing History in Post-Secondary Level Music Students: Some Descriptive Data, Some Causes and Some Background Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Simy Meng-Yu; Howard, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Why do musicians specialize in the specific instruments that they do? Research has shown effects of such factors as the perceived masculinity/femininity of instruments and musician's personality but there are little background data on other factors. The present study had two major aims. The first aim was to gather some useful background data on…

  15. Play Therapy: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Maggie L.; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Jessee, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the current issues in play therapy and its implications for play therapists. A brief history of play therapy is provided along with the current play therapy approaches and techniques. This article also touches on current issues or problems that play therapists may face, such as interpreting children's play, implementing…

  16. Significance of different microalgal species for growth of moon jellyfish ephyrae, Aurelia sp.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shan; Sun, Xiaoxia; Wang, Yantao; Sun, Song

    2015-10-01

    The scyphozoan Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus) sp. l., is a cosmopolitan species-complex which blooms seasonally in a variety of coastal and shelf sea environments around the world. The effects of different microalgal species on the growth of newly-released Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae were studied under laboratory conditions. We fed ephyrae with four different microalgal species (diatom, autotrophic dinoflagellate, heterotrophic dinoflagellate, and chlorophyta) plus Artemia nauplii for 12-24 d at 18°C. Results showed that the growth rate diverged significantly for Artemia nauplii compared to other food types. In addition, there was no significant variation between the growth rates for Skeletonema costatum and Prorocentrum donghaiense, and no significant variation was found in the growth rates for N. scintillans and P. subcordiformis. Artemia nauplii could support the energy requirement for the newly-released ephyrae to develop to meduase, and the ephyrae with Artemia nauplii showed a significant average growth rate of 25.85% d-1. Newly-released ephyrae could grow slightly with some species of microalgae in the earliest development stage. Chain diatom Skeletonema costatum and autotrophic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense, could not support the growth of the ephyrae, while heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans and chlorophyta Platymonas subcordiformis could support the growth of the ephyrae. However, none of the ephyrae fed with the tested phytoplankton could mature to medusae.

  17. Economic-Statistical Design of Effective Variance Control Charts, /Sp/1/p

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Díaz, J. Carlos; Martínez-Gómez, M.

    2009-11-01

    Multivariate Statistical Process Control (MSPC) is to control several quality characteristics simultaneously during a production process. When a process is statistically under control, only common causes of variability affect the process. The MSPC techniques help to detect the special causes of variability on the process. In the last few years multivariate quality control has been thoroughly studied and there are different but those charts don't let control de multivariate dispersion on process. Recently the generalized variance control chart /S/, has been develop to control multivariate dispersion. Nevertheless, this chart is unhelpful to work with incomplete databases or with missing data, that are commonly found in a great deal of processes due to the failure of certain sensors. In this sense, Garcia-Diaz developed the effective variance control chart, /Sp/1/p, to control multivariate dispersion with missing data. To design the economic-statistical of the Variance Effective control chart, attempting to obtain the values of the parameters in the sampling plan that minimize the expected operation costs by time unit, according to the restrictions of a minimum ARL value under control, and a maximum ARL value when the process is out of control.

  18. Why do adult dogs 'play'?

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, John W S; Pullen, Anne J; Rooney, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Among the Carnivora, play behaviour is usually made up of motor patterns characteristic of predatory, agonistic and courtship behaviour. Domestic dogs are unusual in that play is routinely performed by adults, both socially, with conspecifics and with humans, and also asocially, with objects. This enhanced playfulness is commonly thought to be a side effect of paedomorphosis, the perpetuation of juvenile traits into adulthood, but here we suggest that the functions of the different types of play are sufficiently distinct that they are unlikely to have arisen through a single evolutionary mechanism. Solitary play with objects appears to be derived from predatory behaviour: preferred toys are those that can be dismembered, and a complex habituation-like feedback system inhibits play with objects that are resistant to alteration. Intraspecific social play is structurally different from interspecific play and may therefore be motivationally distinct and serve different goals; for example, dogs often compete over objects when playing with other dogs, but are usually more cooperative when the play partner is human. The majority of dogs do not seem to regard competitive games played with a human partner as "dominance" contests: rather, winning possession of objects during games appears to be simply rewarding. Play may be an important factor in sociality, since dogs are capable of extracting social information not only from games in which they participate, but also from games that they observe between third parties. We suggest that the domestic dog's characteristic playfulness in social contexts is an adaptive trait, selected during domestication to facilitate both training for specific purposes, and the formation of emotionally-based bonds between dog and owner. Play frequency and form may therefore be an indicator of the quality of dog-owner relationships. PMID:25251020

  19. CD1d induction in solid tumor cells by histone deacetylase inhibitors through inhibition of HDAC1/2 and activation of Sp1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pei-Ming; Lin, Pei-Jie; Chen, Ching-Chow

    2012-04-01

    CD1d is a MHC class-like molecule that presents glycolipids to natural killer T (NKT) cells, then regulates innate and adaptive immunity. The regulation of CD1d gene expression in solid tumors is still largely unknown. Gene expression can be epigenetically regulated by DNA methylation and histone acetylation. We found that histone deacetylase inhibitors, trichostatin A (TSA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), induced CD1d gene expression in human (A549 and NCI-H292) and mouse (TC-1 and B16/F0) cancer cells. Simultaneous knockdown of HDAC1 and 2 induced CD1d gene expression. Sp1 inhibitor mitramycin A (MTM) blocked TSA- and SAHA-induced CD1d mRNA expression and Sp1 luciferase activity. Co-transfection of GAL4-Sp1 and Fc-luciferase reporters demonstrated that TSA and SAHA induced Sp1 luciferase reporter activity by enhancing Sp1 transactivation activity. The binding of Sp1 to CD1d promoter and histone H3 acetylation on Sp1 sites were increased by TSA and SAHA. These results indicate that TSA and SAHA could up-regulate CD1d expression in tumor cells through inhibition of HDAC1/2 and activation of Sp1. PMID:22419072

  20. The key factor limiting plant growth in cold and humid alpine areas also plays a dominant role in plant carbon isotope discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Meng; Wang, Guoan; Li, Xiaoliang; Cai, Xiaobu; Li, Xiaolin; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Junling

    2015-01-01

    Many environmental factors affect carbon isotope discrimination in plants, yet the predominant factor influencing this process is generally assumed to be the key growth-limiting factor. However, to our knowledge this hypothesis has not been confirmed. We therefore determined the carbon isotope composition (?13C) of plants growing in two cold and humid mountain regions where temperature is considered to be the key growth-limiting factor. Mean annual temperature (MAT) showed a significant impact on variation in carbon isotope discrimination value (?) irrespective of study area or plant functional type with either partial correlation or regression analysis, but the correlation between ? and soil water content (SWC) was usually not significant. In multiple stepwise regression analysis, MAT was either the first or the only variable selected into the prediction model of ? against MAT and SWC, indicating that the effect of temperature on carbon isotope discrimination was predominant. The results therefore provide evidence that the key growth-limiting factor is also crucial for plant carbon isotope discrimination. Changes in leaf morphology, water viscosity and carboxylation efficiency with temperature may be responsible for the observed positive correlation between ? and temperature. PMID:26579188

  1. The Denial of Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton-Smith, Brian

    Well meaning parents and teachers often use children's play for the purposes of literacy and socialization. Yet, these attempts may deny play to children by subordinating play to some other concept. Evidence shows that even when parents play with their very young children they generally play games like shopping, cooking, and eating; whereas when…

  2. The Uses of Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabaniss, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Teaching artists have techniques for keeping play alive and vital in their work. But how do they think of play as TAs? In this article, the author examines the role of play in the work and life of teaching artists.

  3. Cilostazol inhibits insulin-stimulated expression of sterol regulatory binding protein-1c via inhibition of LXR and Sp1

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yun-A; Kim, Hee Kyoung; Bae, Kwi-Hyun; Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Hye-Soon; Jang, Byoung Kuk; Jung, Gwon-Soo; Lee, In-Kyu; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Park, Keun-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is common in obese individuals with hyperinsulinemia and is an important hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Sterol regulatory binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) is a master regulator of lipogenic gene expression in the liver. Hyperinsulinemia induces transcription of SREBP-1c via activation of liver X receptor (LXR) and specificity protein 1 (Sp1). Cilostazol is an antiplatelet agent that prevents atherosclerosis and decreases serum triglyceride levels. However, little is known about the effects of cilostazol on hepatic lipogenesis. Here, we examined the role of cilostazol in the regulation of SREBP-1c transcription in the liver. The effects of cilostazol on the expression of SREBP-1c and its target genes in response to insulin or an LXR agonist (T0901317) were examined using real-time RT-PCR and western blot analysis on cultured hepatocytes. To investigate the effect of cilostazol on SREBP-1c at the transcriptional level, transient transfection reporter assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) were performed. Cilostazol inhibited insulin-induced and LXR-agonist-induced expression of SREBP-1c and its downstream targets, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase, in cultured hepatocytes. Cilostazol also inhibited activation of the SREBP-1c promoter by insulin, T0901317 and Sp1 in a luciferase reporter assay. EMSA analysis showed that cilostazol inhibits SREBP-1c expression by repressing the binding of LXR and Sp1 to the promoter region. These results indicate that cilostazol inhibits insulin-induced hepatic SREBP-1c expression via the inhibition of LXR and Sp1 activity and that cilostazol is a negative regulator of hepatic lipogenesis. PMID:24458133

  4. Children's Empowerment in Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canning, Natalie

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the level of empowerment and autonomy children can create in their play experiences. It examines the play discourses that children build and maintain and considers the importance of play contexts in supporting children's emotional and social development. These aspects of play are often unseen or misunderstood by the adult…

  5. The Play of Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews the role of play within psychotherapy. She does not discuss the formal play therapy especially popular for young children, nor play from the Jungian perspective that encourages the use of the sand tray with adults. Instead, she focuses on the informal use of play during psychotherapy as it is orchestrated intuitively. Because…

  6. Evidence that tumor necrosis factor plays a pathogenetic role in the paraneoplastic syndromes of cachexia, hypercalcemia, and leukocytosis in a human tumor in nude mice.

    PubMed Central

    Yoneda, T; Alsina, M A; Chavez, J B; Bonewald, L; Nishimura, R; Mundy, G R

    1991-01-01

    Recently, we have established a human squamous cell carcinoma of the maxilla (called MH-85) associated with hypercalcemia, leukocytosis, and cachexia in culture. MH-85 tumor cells caused the same paraneoplastic syndromes in tumor-bearing nude mice. We found that there was a sixfold increase in splenic size in MH-85 tumor-bearing mice. This increase paralleled tumor growth and was reversed by surgical removal of the tumor. Splenectomy in nude mice 1 wk before or 6 wk after tumor inoculation resulted in a decrease in tumor growth, and impairment of hypercalcemia, leukocytosis, and cachexia. In MH-85 tumor-bearing animals that had been pretreated by splenectomy, intravenous injection of fresh normal spleen cells caused an immediate reversal of leukocytosis, hypercalcemia, and cachexia. Since the presence of cachexia in both the patient and the mice carrying the tumor suggested tumor necrosis factor (TNF) may be overproduced, we injected polyclonal neutralizing antibodies raised against murine TNF into tumor-bearing mice. There was a rapid and reproducible decrease in blood ionized calcium, accompanied by suppression of osteoclast activity. No changes in blood ionized calcium were seen in mice injected with normal immune sera. In addition, there was an increase in body weight and decrease in white cell count. Plasma immunoreactive TNF was increased almost fourfold in tumor-bearing nude mice compared with control nude mice. Although TNF activity was undetectable in MH-85 culture supernatants, cells of the macrophage lineage, including spleen cells, released increased amounts of TNF when cultured with MH-85 tumor-conditioned media. These results suggest that splenic cytokines such as TNF may influence the development of the paraneoplastic syndromes of hypercalcemia, leukocytosis, and cachexia in these animals, as well as tumor growth. They also show that paraneoplastic syndromes may be due to factors produced by normal host cells stimulated by the presence of the tumor. Images PMID:1999505

  7. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    PubMed Central

    Drozd, Valentina M.; Saenko, Vladimir A.; Brenner, Alina V.; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Pashkevich, Vasilii I.; Kudelsky, Anatoliy V.; Demidchik, Yuri E.; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Rogounovitch, Tatiana I.; Yamashita, Shunichi; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I) thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus, we reviewed evidence of the effects of radiation, thyroid screening, and iodine deficiency on regional differences in incidence rates of thyroid cancer. We also reviewed current evidence on content of nitrate in groundwater and thyroid cancer risk drawing attention to high levels of nitrates in open well water in several contaminated regions of Belarus, i.e. Gomel and Brest, related to the usage of nitrogen fertilizers. In this hypothesis generating study, based on ecological data and biological plausibility, we suggest that nitrate pollution may modify the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer contributing to regional differences in rates of pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus. Analytic epidemiological studies designed to evaluate joint effect of nitrate content in groundwater and radiation present a promising avenue of research and may provide useful insights into etiology of thyroid cancer. PMID:26397978

  8. Nuclear factor-?B plays a critical role in both intrinsic and acquired resistance against endocrine therapy in human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Oida, Kumiko; Matsuda, Akira; Jung, Kyungsook; Xia, Yan; Jang, Hyosun; Amagai, Yosuke; Ahn, Ginnae; Nishikawa, Sho; Ishizaka, Saori; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Akane

    2014-01-01

    Since more than 75% of breast cancers overexpress estrogen receptors (ER), endocrine therapy targeting ER has significantly improved the survival rate. Nonetheless, breast cancer still afflicts women worldwide and the major problem behind it is resistance to endocrine therapy. We have previously shown the involvement of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in neoplastic proliferation of human breast cancer cells; however, the association with the transformation of ER-positive cells remains unclear. In the current study, we focused on roles of NF-?B in the hormone dependency of breast cancers by means of ER-positive MCF-7 cells. Blocking of NF-?B signals in ER-negative cells stopped proliferation by downregulation of D-type cyclins. In contrast, the MCF-7 cells were resistant to NF-?B inhibition. Under estrogen-free conditions, the ER levels were reduced when compared with the original MCF-7 cells and the established cell subline exhibited tamoxifen resistance. Additionally, NF-?B participated in cell growth instead of the estrogen-ER axis in the subline and consequently, interfering with the NF-?B signals induced additive anticancer effects with tamoxifen. MMP-9 production responsible for cell migration, as well as the cell expansion in vivo, were suppressed by NF-?B inhibition. Therefore, we suggest that NF-?B is a master switch in both ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers. PMID:24531845

  9. Inflammatory Cascades Driven by Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Play a Major Role in the Progression of Acute Liver Failure and Its Neurological Complications

    PubMed Central

    Chastre, Anne; Bélanger, Mireille; Beauchesne, Elizabeth; Nguyen, Bich N.; Desjardins, Paul; Butterworth, Roger F.

    2012-01-01

    Background/aims Acute liver failure (ALF) due to ischemic or toxic liver injury is a clinical condition that results from massive loss of hepatocytes and may lead to hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a serious neuropsychiatric complication. Although increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) in liver, plasma and brain has been observed, conflicting results exist concerning its roles in drug-induced liver injury and on the progression of HE. The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic value of etanercept, a TNF-? neutralizing molecule, on the progression of liver injury and HE in mice with ALF resulting from azoxymethane (AOM) hepatotoxicity. Methods/Principal Findings Mice were administered saline or etanercept (10 mg/kg; i.p.) 30 minutes prior to, or up to 6 h after AOM. Etanercept-treated ALF mice were sacrificed in parallel with vehicle-treated comatose ALF mice and controls. AOM induced severe hepatic necrosis, leading to HE, and etanercept administered prior or up to 3 h after AOM significantly delayed the onset of coma stages of HE. Etanercept pretreatment attenuated AOM-induced liver injury, as assessed by histological examination, plasma ammonia and transaminase levels, and by hepatic glutathione content. Peripheral inflammation was significantly reduced by etanercept as shown by decreased plasma IL-6 (4.1-fold; p<0.001) and CD40L levels (3.7-fold; p<0.001) compared to saline-treated ALF mice. Etanercept also decreased IL-6 levels in brain (1.2-fold; p<0.05), attenuated microglial activation (assessed by OX-42 immunoreactivity), and increased brain glutathione concentrations. Conclusions These results indicate that systemic sequestration of TNF-? attenuates both peripheral and cerebral inflammation leading to delayed progression of liver disease and HE in mice with ALF due to toxic liver injury. These results suggest that etanercept may provide a novel therapeutic approach for the management of ALF patients awaiting liver transplantation. PMID:23166746

  10. Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 activation plays a causative role in urothelial cancer pathogenesis in cooperation with Pten loss in mice

    PubMed Central

    Foth, Mona; Ahmad, Imran; van Rhijn, Bas W. G.; van der Kwast, Theodorus; Bergman, Andre M.; King, Louise; Ridgway, Rachel; Leung, Hing Y.; Fraser, Sioban; Sansom, Owen J.; Iwata, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Although somatic mutations and overexpression of the tyrosine kinase Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 (FGFR3) are strongly associated with bladder cancer, evidence for their functional involvement in the pathogenesis remains elusive. Previously we showed that activation of Fgfr3 alone is not sufficient to initiate urothelial tumourigenesis in mice. Here we hypothesise that cooperating mutations are required for Fgfr3-dependent tumourigenesis in the urothelium and analyse a mouse model in which an inhibitor of Pi3k-Akt signalling, Pten, is deleted in concert with Fgfr3 activation (UroIICreFgfr3+/K644EPtenflox/flox). Two main phonotypical characteristics observed in the urothelium were increased urothelial thickness and abnormal cellular histopathology, including vacuolisation, condensed cellular appearance, enlargement of cells and nuclei, and loss of polarity. These changes were not observed when either mutation was present individually. Expression patterns of known urothelial proteins indicated the abnormal cellular differentiation. Furthermore, quantitative analysis showed that Fgfr3 and Pten mutations cooperatively caused cellular enlargement, while Pten contributed to an increased cell proliferation. Finally, FGFR3 overexpression was analysed along the level of phosphorylated mTOR in sixty-six T1 urothelial tumours in tissue microarray, which supported the occurrence of functional association of these two signalling pathways in urothelial pathogenesis. Taken together, this study provides evidence supporting a functional role of FGFR3 in the process of pathogenesis in urothelial neoplasm. Given the wide availability of inhibitors specific to FGF signalling pathways, our model may open the avenue for FGFR3-targeted translation in urothelial disease. PMID:24519156

  11. 14-3-3 sigma and 14-3-3 zeta plays an opposite role in cell growth inhibition mediated by transforming growth factor-beta 1.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hye-Young; Jeon, Woo-Kwang; Bae, Eun-Jin; Kim, Shin-Tae; Lee, Ho-Jae; Kim, Seong-Jin; Kim, Byung-Chul

    2010-03-01

    The expression of 14-3-3 proteins is dysregulated in various types of cancer. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of 14-3-3 zeta and 14-3-3 sigma on cell growth inhibition mediated by transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1). Mouse mammary epithelial cells (Eph4) that are transformed with oncogenic c-H-Ras (EpRas) and no longer sensitive to TGF-beta1-mediated growth inhibition displayed increased expression of 14-3-3 zeta and decreased expression of 14-3-3 sigma compared with parental Eph4 cells. Using small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown and overexpression of 14-3-3 sigma or 14-3-3 zeta, we showed that 14-3-3 sigma is required for TGF-beta1-mediated growth inhibition whereas 14-3-3 zeta negatively modulates this growth inhibitory response. Notably, overexpression of 14-3-3 zeta increased the level of Smad3 protein that is phosphorylated at linker regions and cannot mediate the TGF-beta1 growth inhibitory response. Consistent with this finding, mutation of the 14-3-3 zeta phosphorylation sites in Smad3 markedly reduced the 14-3-3 zeta-mediated inhibition of TGF-beta1-induced p15 promoter-reporter activity and cell cycle arrest, suggesting that these residues are critical targets of 14-3-3 zeta in the suppression of TGF-beta1-mediated growth. Taken together, our findings indicate that dysregulation of 14-3-3 sigma or 14-3-3 zeta contributes to TGF-beta1 resistance in cancer cells. PMID:20082218

  12. Arabidopsis EMBRYOMAKER encoding an AP2 domain transcription factor plays a key role in developmental change from vegetative to embryonic phase.

    PubMed

    Tsuwamoto, Ryo; Yokoi, Shuji; Takahata, Yoshihito

    2010-07-01

    Although several types of plant cells retain the competence to enter into embryonic development without fertilization, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying ectopic embryogenesis is largely unknown. To gain insight into this mechanism, in a previous study we identified 136 ESTs specifically expressed in microspore embryogenesis of Brassica napus. Here, we describe the characterization of the Arabidopsis EMBRYOMAKER (EMK) gene, which is homologous to one of the identified Brassica ESTs (BnGemb-58) and encodes an AP2 domain transcription factor. The AtEMK was expressed in developing and mature embryos, but its rapid disappearance occurred during germination. After germination, the expression of AtEMK was found in the root apical meristem and the distal parts of cotyledons. Although a mutant lacking AtEMK exhibited no distinctive defects in the embryo, ectopic expression of AtEMK induced embryo-like structures from cotyledons. The embryo-like structures contained high concentration of lipids, expressed several embryo-specific genes, and could convert into independent plants, indicating that the structures are somatic embryos. In vitro culture, AtEMK enhanced the efficiency of somatic embryogenesis. Furthermore, ectopic expression of AtEMK caused the formation of trichomes on cotyledons, dedifferentiated several tissues into calli, and retarded root development, demonstrating that AtEMK is harmful for the normal development of plants after germination. From these results, we conclude that the AtEMK is a key player to maintain embryonic identity, and the rapid disappearance of AtEMK expression during germination is essential for the developmental transition between the embryonic and vegetative phases in plants. PMID:20405311

  13. The Arabidopsis homologs of CCR4-associated factor 1 show mRNA deadenylation activity and play a role in plant defence responses.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wenxing; Li, Changbao; Liu, Fang; Jiang, Hongling; Li, Shuyu; Sun, Jiaqiang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Li, Chuanyou

    2009-03-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) turnover in eukaryotic cells begins with shortening of the poly (A) tail at the 3' end, a process called deadenylation. In yeast, the deadenylation reaction is predominantly mediated by CCR4 and CCR4-associated factor 1 (CAF1), two components of the well-characterised protein complex named CCR4-NOT. We report here that AtCAF1a and AtCAF1b, putative Arabidopsis homologs of the yeast CAF1 gene, partially complement the growth defect of the yeast caf1 mutant in the presence of caffeine or at high temperatures. The expression of AtCAF1a and AtCAF1b is induced by multiple stress-related hormones and stimuli. Both AtCAF1a and AtCAF1b show deadenylation activity in vitro and point mutations in the predicted active sites disrupt this activity. T-DNA insertion mutants disrupting the expression of AtCAF1a and/or AtCAF1b are defective in deadenylation of stress-related mRNAs, indicating that the two AtCAF1 proteins are involved in regulated mRNA deadenylation in vivo. Interestingly, the single and double mutants of AtCAF1a and AtCAF1b show reduced expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes PR1 and PR2 and are more susceptible to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) infection, whereas transgenic plants over-expressing AtCAF1a show elevated expression of PR1 and PR2 and increased resistance to the same pathogen. Our results suggest roles of the AtCAF1 proteins in regulated mRNA deadenylation and defence responses to pathogen infections. PMID:19065152

  14. Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors-1 and -3 Play Distinct Roles in the Regulation of Bladder Cancer Growth and Metastasis: Implications for Therapeutic Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tiewei; Roth, Beat; Choi, Woonyoung; Black, Peter C.; Dinney, Colin; McConkey, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) are activated by mutation and overexpressed in bladder cancers (BCs), and FGFR inhibitors are currently being evaluated in clinical trials in BC patients. However, BC cells display marked heterogeneity in their responses to FGFR inhibitors, and the biological mechanisms underlying this heterogeneity are not well defined. Here we used a novel inhibitor of FGFRs 1–3 and RNAi to determine the effects of inhibiting FGFR1 or FGFR3 in a panel of human BC cell lines. We observed that FGFR1 was expressed in BC cells that also expressed the “mesenchymal” markers ZEB1 and vimentin, whereas FGFR3 expression was restricted to the E-cadherin- and p63-positive “epithelial” subset. Sensitivity to the growth-inhibitory effects of BGJ-398 was also restricted to the “epithelial” BC cells and it correlated directly with FGFR3 mRNA levels but not with the presence of activating FGFR3 mutations. In contrast, BGJ-398 did not strongly inhibit proliferation but did block invasion in the “mesenchymal” BC cells in vitro. Similarly, BGJ-398 did not inhibit primary tumor growth but blocked the production of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and the formation of lymph node and distant metastases in mice bearing orthotopically implanted “mesenchymal” UM-UC3 cells. Together, our data demonstrate that FGFR1 and FGFR3 have largely non-overlapping roles in regulating invasion/metastasis and proliferation in distinct “mesenchymal” and “epithelial” subsets of human BC cells. The results suggest that the tumor EMT phenotype will be an important determinant of the biological effects of FGFR inhibitors in patients. PMID:23468956

  15. Play the MRI Game

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Teachers' Questionnaire MRI Play MRI the Magnetic Miracle Game About the game In the MRI imaging technique, strong magnets and ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  16. Play the Electrocardiogram Game

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Electrocardiogram Play the ECG Game About the game ECG is used for diagnosing heart conditions by ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  17. Architecture that affords play

    E-print Network

    Fallon, Paul Eric

    1981-01-01

    Play is a form of behavior common to all people. A person's propensity to play depends not only on his physiological and emotional state, but also on his surroundings. This thesis investigates environmental qualities ...

  18. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  19. Melanoma upregulates ICAM-1 expression on endothelial cells through engagement of tumor CD44 with endothelial E-selectin and activation of a PKC?–p38–SP-1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pu; Goodrich, Chris; Fu, Changliang; Dong, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Cancer metastasis involves multistep adhesive interactions between tumor cells (TCs) and endothelial cells (ECs), but the molecular mechanisms of intercellular communication in the tumor microenvironment remain elusive. Using static and flow coculture systems in conjunction with flow cytometry, we discovered that certain receptors on the ECs are upregulated on melanoma cell adhesion. Direct contact but not separate coculture between human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) and a human melanoma cell line (Lu1205) increased intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin expression on HUVECs by 3- and 1.5-fold, respectively, compared with HUVECs alone. The nonmetastatic cell line WM35 failed to promote ICAM-1 expression changes in HUVECs on contact. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed that EC–TC contact has a synergistic effect on the expression of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6, and growth-related oncogene ? (Gro-?). By using E-selectin cross-linking and beads coated with CD44 immunopurified from Lu1205 cells, we showed that CD44/selectin ligation was responsible for the ICAM-1 up-regulation on HUVECs. Protein kinase C? (PKC-?) activation was found to be the downstream target of the CD44/selectin-initiated signaling, as ICAM-1 elevation was inhibited by siRNA targeting PKC? or a dominant negative form of PKC? (PKC? DN). Western blot analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) showed that TC–EC contact mediated p38 phosphorylation and binding of the transcription factor SP-1 to its regulation site. In conclusion, CD44/selectin binding signals ICAM-1 up-regulation on the EC surface through a PKC?–p38–SP-1 pathway, which further enhances melanoma cell adhesion to ECs during metastasis.—Zhang, P., Goodrich, C., Fu, C., Dong, C. Melanoma upregulates ICAM-1 expression on ECs through engagement of tumor CD44 with endothelial E-selectin and activation of a PKC?–p38–SP-1 pathway. PMID:25138157

  20. Play Is the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Steve; Sanderson, Rebecca Cornelli

    2012-01-01

    Historically, play has been viewed as a frivolous break from important endeavors like working and learning when, in fact, a child's ability to fully and freely engage in play is essential to their learning, productivity, and overall development. A natural drive to play is universal across all young mammals. Children from every society on earth…

  1. The Pedagogy of Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesbrecht, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    Play is important. Environmental educators Sobel and Louv write about the relationship between children and outside play and suggest that early transcendental experiences within nature allow children to develop empathetic orientations towards the natural world. Children who play out-of-doors develop an appreciation for the environment and…

  2. The Excellence of Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyles, Janet R., Ed.

    Recognizing that for young children, play is a tool for learning, this book compiles contributions by different authors, reflecting both up-to-date research and current classroom practice as they relate to children's play. Part 1 of the book explores the value of play as a cross-cultural concept as well as one rooted in the Western world. Gender…

  3. Playful "Moments" in Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terr, Lenore C.; Deeney, John M.; Drell, Martin; Dodson, Jerry W.; Gaensbauer, Theodore J.; Massie, Henry; Minde, Klaus; Stewart, George; Teal, Stewart; Winters, Nancy C.

    2006-01-01

    This article demonstrates how taking the time out to play, commenting pungently on play, serving up surprise and adventure, and developing mutually understood codes or inside jokes help the psychiatrist to turn a child around. In this article, the authors categorized what principles of treatment their 10 vignettes about playfulness illustrated,…

  4. Play, Policy & Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klugman, Edgar, Ed.

    In 1992, the U.S.-Israel Binational Science Foundation (BSF), in conjunction with Wheelock College (Boston), sponsored its second workshop on children's play, entitled "Play and Cognitive Ability: The Cultural Context." This volume reflects the presentations and discussions held at the workshop, offering perspectives on children's play that, taken…

  5. Vygotsky on play: child's play or more 

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Carol Anne

    2000-01-01

    on this development and of the ZPD as it is related to a child's play. Vygotsky's life and the sociocultural atmosphere in which his theories were developed are briefly examined and an overview of Vygotskian theories, including identified themes and major processes...

  6. Complete genome sequence of Terriglobus saanensis type strain SP1PR4T, an Acidobacteria from tundra soil

    SciTech Connect

    Rawat, Suman R.; Mannisto, Minna; Starovoytov, Valentin; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Nolan, Matt; Hauser, Loren John; Land, Miriam L; Davenport, Karen W.; Woyke, Tanja; Haggblom, Max

    2012-01-01

    Terriglobus saanensis SP1PR4T is a novel species of the genus Terriglobus. T. saanensis is of ecological interest because it is a representative of the phylum Acidobacteria, which are dominant members of bacterial soil microbiota in Arctic ecosystems. T. saanensis is a cold-adapted acidophile and a versatile heterotroph utilizing a suite of simple sugars and complex polysaccharides. The genome contained an abundance of genes assigned to metabolism and transport of carbohydrates including gene modules encoding for carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) family involved in breakdown, utilization and biosynthesis of diverse structural and storage polysaccharides. T. saanensis SP1PR4T represents the first member of genus Terriglobus with a completed genome sequence, consisting of a single replicon of 5,095,226 base pairs (bp), 54 RNA genes and 4,279 protein-coding genes. We infer that the physiology and metabolic potential of T. saanensis is adapted to allow for resilience to the nutrient-deficient conditions and fluctuating temperatures of Arctic tundra soils.

  7. Interleukin-6-Specific Activation of the C/EBP? Gene in Hepatocytes Is Mediated by Stat3 and Sp1

    PubMed Central

    Cantwell, Carrie A.; Sterneck, Esta; Johnson, Peter F.

    1998-01-01

    C/EBP? (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ?) has been implicated as a regulator of acute-phase response (APR) genes in hepatocytes. Its expression increases dramatically in liver during the APR and can be induced in hepatic cell lines by interleukin-6 (IL-6), an acute-phase mediator that activates transcription of many APR genes. Here we have investigated the mechanism by which C/EBP? expression is regulated by IL-6 in hepatoma cells. C/EBP? promoter sequences to ?125 bp are sufficient for IL-6 inducibility of a reporter gene and include an APR element (APRE) that is essential for IL-6 responsiveness. DNA binding experiments and transactivation assays demonstrate that Stat3, but not Stat1, interacts with this APRE. Two Sp1 sites, one of which is adjacent to the APRE, are required for IL-6 induction and transactivation by Stat3. Thus, Stat3 and Sp1 function cooperatively to activate the C/EBP? promoter. Replacement of the APRE with Stat binding elements (SBEs) from the ICAM-1 or C/EBP? promoter, both of which recognize both Stat1 and Stat3, confers responsiveness to gamma interferon, a cytokine that selectively activates Stat1. Sequence comparisons suggest that the distinct Stat binding specificities of the C/EBP? and C/EBP? SBEs are determined primarily by a single base pair difference. Our findings indicate that the cytokine specificity of C/EBP? gene expression is governed by the APRE sequence. PMID:9528783

  8. PI3K/Akt signaling pathway triggers P2X7 receptor expression as a pro-survival factor of neuroblastoma cells under limiting growth conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Villafuertes, Rosa; García-Huerta, Paula; Díaz-Hernández, Juan Ignacio; Miras-Portugal, Mª Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The expression of purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) in neuroblastoma cells is associated to accelerated growth rate, angiogenesis, metastasis and poor prognosis. Noticeably, P2X7R allows the survival of neuroblastoma cells under restrictive conditions, including serum and glucose deprivation. Previously we identified specificity protein 1 (Sp1) as the main factor involved in the transcriptional regulation of P2rx7 gene, reporting that serum withdrawal triggers the expression of P2X7R in Neuro-2a (N2a) neuroblastoma cell line. Here we demonstrate that PI3K/Akt pathway is crucial for the upregulation of P2X7R expression in serum-deprived neuroblastoma cells, circumstance that facilitates cell proliferation in the absence of trophic support. The effect exerted by PI3K/Akt is independent of both mTOR and GSK3, but requires the activation of EGF receptor (EGFR). Nuclear levels of Sp1 are strongly reduced by inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathway, and blockade of Sp1-dependent transcription with mithramycin A prevents upregulation of P2rx7 gene expression following serum withdrawal. Furthermore, atypical PKC? plays a key role in the regulation of P2X7R expression by preventing phosphorylation and, consequently, activation of Akt. Altogether, these data indicate that activation of EGFR enhanced the expression of P2X7R in neuroblastoma cells lacking trophic support, being PI3K/Akt/PKC? signaling pathway and Sp1 mediating this pro-survival outcome. PMID:26687764

  9. PI3K/Akt signaling pathway triggers P2X7 receptor expression as a pro-survival factor of neuroblastoma cells under limiting growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Villafuertes, Rosa; García-Huerta, Paula; Díaz-Hernández, Juan Ignacio; Miras-Portugal, M Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The expression of purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) in neuroblastoma cells is associated to accelerated growth rate, angiogenesis, metastasis and poor prognosis. Noticeably, P2X7R allows the survival of neuroblastoma cells under restrictive conditions, including serum and glucose deprivation. Previously we identified specificity protein 1 (Sp1) as the main factor involved in the transcriptional regulation of P2rx7 gene, reporting that serum withdrawal triggers the expression of P2X7R in Neuro-2a (N2a) neuroblastoma cell line. Here we demonstrate that PI3K/Akt pathway is crucial for the upregulation of P2X7R expression in serum-deprived neuroblastoma cells, circumstance that facilitates cell proliferation in the absence of trophic support. The effect exerted by PI3K/Akt is independent of both mTOR and GSK3, but requires the activation of EGF receptor (EGFR). Nuclear levels of Sp1 are strongly reduced by inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathway, and blockade of Sp1-dependent transcription with mithramycin A prevents upregulation of P2rx7 gene expression following serum withdrawal. Furthermore, atypical PKC? plays a key role in the regulation of P2X7R expression by preventing phosphorylation and, consequently, activation of Akt. Altogether, these data indicate that activation of EGFR enhanced the expression of P2X7R in neuroblastoma cells lacking trophic support, being PI3K/Akt/PKC? signaling pathway and Sp1 mediating this pro-survival outcome. PMID:26687764

  10. Let's Just Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Children have a right to play. The idea is so simple it seems self-evident. But a stroll through any toy superstore, or any half-hour of so-called "children's" programming on commercial TV, makes it clear that violence, not play, dominates what's being sold. In this article, the author discusses how teachers and parents share the responsibility in…

  11. Growing Up with Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Many adults are afraid of boys' play today, believing that the aggression that is so common in boys' fantasies is dangerous and might make them become violent men. This personal reflection describes the importance of multiage play in showing little boys how to become big boys while encouraging empathy and emotional growth in older boys. The author…

  12. Play and Digital Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James E.; Christie, James F.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how play is affected by computers and digital toys. Research indicates that when computer software targeted at children is problem-solving oriented and open-ended, children tend to engage in creative play and interact with peers in a positive manner. On the other hand, drill-and-practice programs can be quite boring and limit…

  13. Clinical Intuition at Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2014-01-01

    A clinical psychologist and consulting psychotherapist discusses how elements of play, inherent in the intuition required in analysis, can provide a cornerstone for serious therapeutic work. She argues that many aspects of play--its key roles in human development, individual growth, and personal creativity, among others--can help therapists and…

  14. kids: Play music

    E-print Network

    Trainor, Laurel J.

    print kids: Play music by Tina Barseghian that kids who have learned how to play an instrument perform better in tests associated with literacy little Beethoven. Read the next secret to raising smart kids. Go back to the Big Story: 7 secrets

  15. The Fear of Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almon, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Real play--play that is initiated and directed by children and that bubbles up from within the child rather than being imposed by adults--has largely disappeared from the landscape of childhood in the United States. There are many reasons for this, such as the long hours spent in front of screens each day or in activities organized by adults. In…

  16. Role Playing and Skits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letwin, Robert, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Explores non-scripted role playing, dialogue role playing, sociodrama, and skits as variations of simulation techniques. Provides step-by-step guidelines for conducting such sessions. Successful Meetings, Bill Communications, Inc., 1422 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 19102. Subscription Rates: yearly (US, Canada, Mexico) $14.00; elsewhere,…

  17. Family Play Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariel, Shlomo

    This paper examines a case study of family play therapy in Israel. The unique contributions of play therapy are evaluated including the therapy's accessibility to young children, its richness and flexibility, its exposure of covert patterns, its wealth of therapeutic means, and its therapeutic economy. The systematization of the therapy attempts…

  18. Return to Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Call it physical activity, call it games, or call it play. Whatever its name, it's a place we all need to return to. In the physical education, recreation, and dance professions, we need to redesign programs to address the need for and want of play that is inherent in all of us.

  19. Endangered Play, Endangered Development: A Constructivist View of the Role of Play in Development and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Diane E.

    Piagetian and Vygotskian theories may be used as starting points to examine the role of play in development and learning from a constructivist perspective, including how children use play to deepen their understanding and skills, encounter new problems, and incorporate newly mastered skills into their play. Contemporary factors such as an emphasis…

  20. Inhibitory effect of acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid on androgen receptor by interference of Sp1 binding activity in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hui-Qing; Kong, Feng; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Young, Charles Y F; Hu, Xiao-Yan; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2008-06-01

    Androgen receptor (AR)-mediated signaling is crucial for the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). Naturally occurring phytochemicals that target the AR signaling offer significant protection against this disease. Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA), a compound isolated from the gum-resin of Boswellia carterii, caused G1-phase cell cycle arrest with an induction of p21(WAF1/CIP1), and a reduction of cyclin D1 as well in prostate cancer cells. AKBA-mediated cellular proliferation inhibition was associated with a decrease of AR expression at mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, the functional biomarkers used in evaluation of AR transactivity showed suppressions of prostate-specific antigen promoter-dependent and androgen responsive element-dependent luciferase activities. Additionally, down-regulation of an AR short promoter mainly containing a Sp1 binding site suggested the essential role of Sp1 for the reduction of AR expression in cells exposed to AKBA. Interruption effect of AKBA on Sp1 binding activity but not Sp1 protein levels was further confirmed by EMSA and transient transfection with a luciferase reporter driven by three copies of the Sp1 binding site of the AR promoter. Therefore, anti-AR properties ascribed to AKBA suggested that AKBA-containing drugs could be used for the development of novel therapeutic chemicals. PMID:18430409

  1. Nuclear-factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) and radical oxygen species play contrary roles in transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1)-induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Fang Kaur, Swayamjot; Cavin, Lakita G.; Arsura, Marcello

    2008-12-26

    Nuclear-Factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}{beta} can counteract transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1)-induced apoptosis in malignant hepatocytes through up-regulation of its downstream genes, such as X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). Reports have demonstrated that TGF-{beta}1 can induce oxidative stress, and c-Jun N-terminal Kinase1 (JNK1) is indispensable for TGF-{beta}1-induced apoptosis pathway, but the relationship between radical oxygen species (ROS) and the activation of JNKs is still unclear. In the present study, we found that ROS can induce JNK activation in TGF-{beta}1 mediated apoptosis in hepatocytes. The inhibitors of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, which were produced by mitochondria under stress, could inhibit the phosphorylation of c-Jun in XIAP knockdown cells. In conclusion, it is the first time to show that both NF-{kappa}B and antioxidants can counteract TGF-{beta}1-induced apoptosis in hepatic cell death through JNK1 pathway.

  2. Self-assembled semi-crystallinity at parallel ?-sheet nanocrystal interfaces in clustered MaSp1 (spider silk) proteins.

    PubMed

    Sintya, Erly; Alam, Parvez

    2016-01-01

    In this communication, we use molecular dynamics methods to model the self-assembly of semi-crystalline domains at ?-sheet nanocrystal interfaces in clusters of spider silk (MaSp1) proteins. Our research elucidates that the energetics at interfaces between crystalline and amorphous domains control effectively, the extent to which semi-crystalline domains can form at interfaces. Stability at nanocrystal interfaces is not linearly related to the internal (bulk) stability of the ?-sheet nanocrystal. Rather, interfacial stability is found to be highly sensitive to the number of alanine repeat units that make up each sheet. Intriguingly, the most stable interface for the development of semi-crystallinity is built up of polyalanine ?-sheets of a length similar to that which is spun naturally in spider dragline silk. PMID:26478322

  3. Increased Expression of Colonic Wnt9A through Sp1-mediated Transcriptional Effects involving Arylsulfatase B, Chondroitin 4-Sulfate, and Galectin-3

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Feferman, Leo; Tobacman, Joanne K.

    2014-01-01

    In cultured human colonic epithelial cells and mouse colonic tissue, exposure to the common food additive carrageenan leads to inflammation, activation of Wnt signaling, increased Wnt9A expression, and decline in the activity of the enzyme arylsulfatase B (ARSB; N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase). In this study, the novel transcriptional mechanism by which carrageenan and decline in ARSB increase Wnt9A expression in NCM460 and HT-29 human colonic epithelial cells and in mouse colon is presented. Increased expression of Wnt9A has been associated with multiple malignancies, including colon carcinoma, and with ectodermal and mesoendodermal morphogenesis. When ARSB activity was reduced by siRNA or by exposure to carrageenan (1 ?g/ml for 24 h), degradation of chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4S) was inhibited, leading to accumulation of more highly sulfated C4S, which binds less galectin-3, a ?-galactoside-binding protein. Nuclear galectin-3 increased and mediated increased binding of Sp1 to the Sp1 consensus sequence in the Wnt9A promoter, shown by oligonucleotide-binding assay and by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. When galectin-3 was silenced, the increases in Sp1 binding to the Wnt9A promoter and in Wnt9A expression, which followed carrageenan or ARSB silencing, were inhibited. Mithramycin A, a specific inhibitor of Sp1 oligonucleotide binding, and Sp1 siRNA blocked the carrageenan- and ARSB siRNA-induced increases in Wnt9A expression. These studies reveal how carrageenan exposure can lead to transcriptional events in colonic epithelial cells through decline in arylsulfatase B activity, with subsequent impact on C4S, galectin-3, Sp1, and Wnt9A and can exert significant effects on Wnt-initiated signaling and related vital cell processes. PMID:24778176

  4. Study or Play Ball?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorge, Carmen; Newsom, Horton

    2001-01-01

    Points out the high percentage of African-American boys that believe that they can make a living playing professional sports and presents an activity that addresses the probability of a student athlete becoming a professional athlete. (YDS)

  5. Looking into Children's Play Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, Mark; Fucigna, Carolee

    2009-01-01

    Play, particularly children's sociodramatic play, is the cornerstone of early childhood classrooms in the United States. Early childhood educators learn and expound mantras of "the value of play," "play-based programs," "children learning through play," and "play as child's work." They strive to promote the importance of making a place for play in…

  6. Play down protein to play up metabolism?

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Timo D.; Tschöp, Matthias H.

    2014-01-01

    Who among us hasn’t fantasized about a diet that allows ingestion of a surfeit of calories that are burned off effortlessly by ramping up energy expenditure? In this issue of the JCI, research led by Christopher Morrison suggests that this dream may become a reality; however, a complete understanding of the molecular interface that connects nutrient choices with our cellular metabolism will be required. Laeger et al. show that the expression and secretion of the weight-reducing hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is regulated by dietary proteins and not, as has been heretofore assumed, simply triggered by reduced caloric intake. This study not only sheds new light on the role of FGF21 in systems metabolism, but also on the ways our bodies cope with the ever-changing availability of different dietary macronutrients. PMID:25133420

  7. Viewpoints: The High School Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbison, Lawrence; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents opinions of professionals on the current state of the high school play. Participants include a playwright, play supplier, high school theater instructor, workshop leader, and play publisher. Discusses selection, production, and performance of plays. (JMF)

  8. Gap junctional communication modulates gene transcription by altering the recruitment of Sp1 and Sp3 to connexin-response elements in osteoblast promoters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stains, Joseph P.; Lecanda, Fernando; Screen, Joanne; Towler, Dwight A.; Civitelli, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations of gap junction proteins, connexins, represent a mechanism of disease in a variety of tissues. We have shown that recessive (gene deletion) or dominant (connexin45 overexpression) disruption of connexin43 function results in osteoblast dysfunction and abnormal expression of osteoblast genes, including down-regulation of osteocalcin transcription. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of gap junction-sensitive transcriptional regulation, we systematically analyzed the rat osteocalcin promoter for sensitivity to gap junctional intercellular communication. We identified an Sp1/Sp3 containing complex that assembles on a minimal element in the -70 to -57 region of the osteocalcin promoter in a gap junction-dependent manner. This CT-rich connexin-response element is necessary and sufficient to confer gap junction sensitivity to the osteocalcin proximal promoter. Repression of osteocalcin transcription occurs as a result of displacement of the stimulatory Sp1 by the inhibitory Sp3 on the promoter when gap junctional communication is perturbed. Modulation of Sp1/Sp3 recruitment also occurs on the collagen Ialpha1 promoter and translates into gap junction-sensitive transcriptional control of collagen Ialpha1 gene expression. Thus, regulation of Sp1/Sp3 recruitment to the promoter may represent a potential general mechanism for transcriptional control of target genes by signals passing through gap junctions.

  9. [EFFICIENCY OF INTRODUCING CAROTENE PRODUCING STRAINS BACILLUS SP. 1.1 AND B. AMYLOLIQUEFACIENS UCM B-5113 INTO THE CHIKENS DIET].

    PubMed

    Nechypurenko, O O; Kharhota M A; Avdeeva, L V

    2015-01-01

    It was shown the efficiency of carotene producing strains Bacillus sp. 1.1 and B. amyloliquefaciens UCM B-5113 in the diet of chickens. Also it was detected the lowering of the quantitative content of bacterial genera Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, family Enterobacteriaceae in the gut after eating by chickens cross "H&N Brown Nick" fodder with strains Bacillus sp. 1.1 and B. amyloliquefaciens UCM B-5113 alone and in composition in quantities 1 x 10(10) CFU per 1 g of feed. On the 18th day after introduction of cultures Bacillus sp. 1.1, B. amyloliquefaciens UCM B-5113 and their composition in the diet of poultry we revealed the increasing of body weight by 21.6, 7.6 and 22.0%, respectively, comparesing to controls. Also due to Bacillus sp. 1.1 it was detected the restore of intestinal villous structures, tissues of spleen, liver and heart. We found the additive effect of the composition of the investigated strains of bacteria genus Bacillus to the chickens. PMID:26214892

  10. Development through Work and Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, Paul J.

    2002-01-01

    Five proposals are made for incorporating a work-play perspective in career development research: (1) fuse work and play conceptually over the life course; (2) imbue developmental career theory with a work-play fusion; (3) study work and play across the life span; (4) investigate work and play within the life space; and (5) consider a work-play…

  11. Cognitive underpinnings of pretend play in autism.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, M D; Rogers, Sally J

    2003-06-01

    This article examines the cognitive underpinnings of spontaneous and prompted pretend play in 28 young children with autism, 24 children with other developmental disorders, and 26 typical children. The article compares theories that consider either theory of mind (ToM) or executive function (EF) to be causally important deficits in the development of pretend play in autism and important factors in pretend play. Each of these two theories posits a cognitive precursor to pretense, which would need to be present in typical development, and the absence of which could explain pretend play deficits in children with developmental disabilities such as autism. We tested which of these theories better predicts a child's production of pretend play. Children with autism were significantly delayed on pretend play scores. They also had significant deficits in our ToM measure, but not our EF measures. Regression analyses suggested a role for our measure of generativity, one of the EF measures. PMID:12908832

  12. One Play a Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate theater students rarely get the chance to work on a major world premiere, but this year hundreds of them will. Currently, more than 70 colleges and universities are participating in "365 Days/365 Plays," an ambitious project from Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright Suzan-Lori Parks. Every week, as they mount their portion of this epic…

  13. Statistics at Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Lyn D.

    2014-01-01

    An exciting event had occurred for the grade 3 classes at Woodlands State School. A new play space designated for the older grades had now been opened to the third graders. In sharing their excitement over this "real treat, real privilege," the teachers invited the children to find out more about playgrounds and, in particular, their new…

  14. Playing To Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Dale; Shakeshaft, Charol; Kottkamp, Robert; Becker, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    A study to determine effects of Lightspan Partnership Inc.'s interactive materials on student achievement in a Denver- area elementary school revealed higher reading and math test scores for Lightspan schools, compared to control schools. This serious play curriculum, assisted by parents, benefited neediest kids most. (MLH)

  15. Bicentennial Plays and Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Aileen

    This book contains royalty-free material on bicentennial themes for presentation by schools and amateur groups. The first section, Plays and Pageants, contains "Our Great Declaration,""A Star for Old Glory,""Sing, America, Sing,""Washington Marches On,""When Freedom Was News," and "A Dish of Green Peas." The second section, Playlets and…

  16. "Playing" with Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Dave

    2012-01-01

    When faced with a multitude of tasks, any opportunity to "kill two birds with one stone" is welcome. Drama has always excited the author: as a child performing in plays, later as a student and now as a teacher directing performances and improvising within lessons. The author was lucky enough to have inspirational teachers during his primary and…

  17. Play's Importance in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette; Heden, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute knowledge on and gain an understanding of elementary school teachers' perspectives on the function of play in children's learning processes. The study is qualitative with a hermeneutical approach and has George Herbert Mead as a theoretical frame of reference. Interviews have been carried out with seven…

  18. Leveling the Playing Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brighouse, Harry

    2006-01-01

    This article comments on Fullinwider and Lichtenberg's "Leveling the Playing Field". It reviews their central claims and comments on both their arguments and their reform proposals, and suggests alternative, bolder, egalitarian proposals which involve a higher degree of effective privatization than theirs. (Contains 1 note.)

  19. Abstraction through Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…

  20. Advanced Review Pretend play

    E-print Network

    Weisberg, Deena Skolnick

    she wants some ice cream, so she opens an imaginary container, picks up some leaves and stuffs them in cognitive science: Studying children's pretend play can provide insight into these other abilities in the cognitive science literature: symbolic understanding (primarily language), theory of mind

  1. About CS1101S Learning by playing, playing by learning

    E-print Network

    Ooi, Wei Tsang

    About CS1101S Learning by playing, playing by learning CS1101S: Programming Methodology Martin Henz, playing by learning Martin Henz and Low Kok Lim CS1101S: Programming Methodology #12;About CS1101S Learning by playing, playing by learning Basic principles CS approach: Programming Methodology (Sem 1

  2. The fibroblast growth factor receptor 2-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathway plays is important in regulating excision repair cross-complementary gene 1 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, GANG; QIU, HONG; KE, SHANDONG; HU, SHAOMING; YU, SHIYING; ZOU, SHENGQUAN

    2013-01-01

    Excision repair cross-complementary gene 1 (ERCC1) is a downstream regulatory target of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2); however, the mechanism of its action has not been elucidated. The cascades downstream of FGFR2 include the PKC, Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK, JAK/STAT and PI3K pathways. ERCC1 is considered to be a closely related downstream target gene of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, since ERCC1 mRNA and protein levels may be inhibited by the ERK inhibitor U0126. It was hypothesized that FGFR2, which specifically binds with fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7), may regulate ERCC1 gene expression through the ERK signaling pathway. The aim of the present study was to explore the association between the regulatory effect of FGFR2 on ERCC1 gene expression and the p-ERK1/2 signaling pathway in a drug-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line. The drug-resistant cell line HepG2/OXA and its parental cell line HepG2 were transfected with Bek shRNA in the logarithmic growth phase. Transfected and untransfected HepG2 and HepG2/OXA cells were then stimulated with FGF7 and changes in the protein expression of FGFR2, p-ERK1/2 and ERCC1 was detected with western blot analysis. Following transfection, HepG2/T and HepG2/OXA/T cells were observed to grow stably in a screening medium containing puromycin. The western blot analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in the protein expressions of FGFR2, p-ERK1/2 and ERCC1 in HepG2/T and HepG2/OXA/T cells as compared to untransfected cells. Expression of FGFR2, p-ERK1/2 and ERCC1 in HepG2/OXA cells was significantly increased compared to the parental HepG2 cells. Following stimulation with FGF7, the expression of FGFR2, p-ERK1/2 and ERCC1 was increased, with significant differences between HepG2 and HepG2/OXA cells in the expression of p-ERK1/2 and ERCC1. No differences were detected in the protein levels following Bek shRNA transfection in HepG2/T and HepG2/OXA/T cells. In conclusion, the FGFR2-mediated ERK1/2 signaling pathway in HCC cells plays an important role in the regulation of ERCC1 expression. PMID:24648994

  3. Control of Fiat (factor inhibiting ATF4-mediated transcription) expression by Sp family transcription factors in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Hekmatnejad, Bahareh; Gauthier, Claude; St-Arnaud, René

    2013-08-01

    FIAT (factor inhibiting ATF4-mediated transcription) represses Osteocalcin gene transcription and inhibits osteoblast activity by heterodimerizing with ATF4 to prevent it from binding DNA. It thus appears important to identify and characterize the molecular mechanisms that control Fiat gene expression in osteoblasts. In silico sequence analysis identified a canonical GC-box within a 1,400 bp region of the proximal Fiat gene promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) with MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells nuclear extracts indicated that the transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3, but not Sp7/OSTERIX, bound this proximal GC-box. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed interaction of the two transcription factors with the Fiat promoter GC-element in living osteoblasts. Transient transfection studies showed that Sp1 dose-dependently activated the expression of a Fiat-luciferase reporter construct while both the long or short isoforms of Sp3 dose-dependently inhibited transcription from the Fiat reporter construct. Transfection of an Sp7/OSTERIX expression vector did not affect expression of the Fiat-luciferase reporter. Co-transfection of increasing amounts of the Sp3 expression vector in the context of maximal Sp1-dependent Fiat-luciferase activation led to dose-dependent repression of the expression of the reporter. Using RNA knockdown, we measured a reduction in steady-state Fiat expression when Sp1 was inhibited, and a reciprocal increase upon Sp3 knockdown. In parallel, treatment of osteoblasts with WP631, which prevents Sp1/DNA interactions, strongly inhibited the expression of Fiat and reduced the occupancy of the Fiat promoter proximal GC-box by Sp1. Taken together, our results suggest an interplay between Sp1 and Sp3 as a mechanism involved in the control of Fiat gene expression in osteoblasts. PMID:23463631

  4. PlayStation purpura.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Susan J; Leonard, Jane; Chamberlain, Alex J

    2010-08-01

    A 16-year-old boy presented with a number of asymptomatic pigmented macules on the volar aspect of his index fingers. Dermoscopy of each macule revealed a parallel ridge pattern of homogenous reddish-brown pigment. We propose that these lesions were induced by repetitive trauma from a Sony PlayStation 3 (Sony Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) vibration feedback controller. The lesions completely resolved following abstinence from gaming over a number of weeks. Although the parallel ridge pattern is typically the hallmark for early acral lentiginous melanoma, it may be observed in a limited number of benign entities, including subcorneal haematoma. PMID:20695869

  5. Child's Play: Revisiting Play in Early Childhood Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dau, Elizabeth, Ed.; Jones, Elizabeth, Ed.

    Noting that play is an essential aspect of learning for young children, this book presents a collection of articles on children's play in Australia. Part 1, "Play, Development, and Learning," contains the following chapters: (1) "The Role of Play in Development and Learning" (Ann Glover); (2) "Stop, Look, and Listen: Adopting an Investigative…

  6. Playing My Heart Out: Original Play as Adventure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, O. Fred

    1999-01-01

    "Original" play denotes play that is pre-cultural--before conceptualizations and learned responses. Four anecdotes about play with an infant with Down's syndrome, a child with leukemia, a lioness, and a dying woman illustrate the connections between beings and between the ordinary and the sacred during trusting, fearless, playful encounters. (SV)

  7. Imagination, Playfulness, and Creativity in Children's Play with Different Toys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mo????ller, Signe?? Juhl?

    2015-01-01

    Based on a four-month experimental study of preschool children's play with creative-construction and social-fantasy toys, the author examines the in?uence of both types of toys on the play of preschool children. Her comparative analysis considers the impact of transformative play on the development of imagination during play activities and…

  8. Farm Hall: The Play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, David C.

    2013-03-01

    It's July 1945. Germany is in defeat and the atomic bombs are on their way to Japan. Under the direction of Samuel Goudsmit, the Allies are holding some of the top German nuclear scientists-among them Heisenberg, Hahn, and Gerlach-captive in Farm Hall, an English country manor near Cambridge, England. As secret microphones record their conversations, the scientists are unaware of why they are being held or for how long. Thinking themselves far ahead of the Allies, how will they react to the news of the atomic bombs? How will these famous scientists explain to themselves and to the world their failure to achieve even a chain reaction? How will they come to terms with the horror of the Third Reich, their work for such a regime, and their behavior during that period? This one-act play is based upon the transcripts of their conversations as well as the author's historical work on the subject.

  9. The collagen Ia1 SP1 polymorphism is associated with differences in ultrasound transmission velocity in the calcaneus in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kann, P; Bergink, A P; Fang, Y; Van Daele, P L A; Hofman, A; Van Leeuwen, J P T M; Beyer, J; Uitterlinden, A G; Pols, H A P

    2002-06-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk are under genetic control. An association of a G to T polymorphism in the Sp1 binding site of the collagen Ia1 (COLIa1) gene with the risk for fractures has been previously reported. This association is only partly explained by differences in BMD. Thus, we analyzed the relationship between the COLIa1 Sp1 polymorphism and ultrasound (US) transmission velocity (speed of sound; SOS) in bone. In a population-based sample of 740 women (aged 55-80 years) we determined COLIa1 genotype and US parameters in the calcaneus. SOS in the "GG" genotype group was 1522 +/- 31 m/sec, in the "GT" group, 1519 +/- 30 m/sec, and in the "TT" group 1508 +/- 30 m/sec (P = 0.01). While the difference between the GG and TT genotype groups corresponds to 0.5 SD or 1%, we observed an allele-dose-effect of 4.3 m/sec decrease in SOS per each copy of the "T" allele (P = 0.01). The differences remained significant after adjustment for BMD measured at the femoral neck. When we analysed 45 incident nonvertebral fractures in this group of women, we found the risk for fracture by COLIA1 Sp1 genotype to be partly explained by SOS differences as well as by BMD differences. Linear regression analysis showed a progressive negative slope of the regression line of SOS over age from "GG" over "GT" to "TT" genotype. These data indicate that the collagen Ia1 Sp1 polymorphism is associated with the modulus of elasticity of bone as determined in vivo by acoustical measurement. The relationship is independent of BMD and increases with age, contributing to an explanation of the increased fracture risk observed for this polymorphism. PMID:12016466

  10. MicroRNA and Transcription Factor Mediated Regulatory Network Analysis Reveals Critical Regulators and Regulatory Modules in Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Zhou, Meng; Wang, Zhenzhen; Liu, Xiaoxia; Cheng, Liang; Li, Weimin; Li, Xueqi

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a severe coronary artery disease and a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. However, the molecular mechanisms of MI have yet to be fully elucidated. In this study, we compiled MI-related genes, MI-related microRNAs (miRNAs) and known human transcription factors (TFs), and we then identified 1,232 feed-forward loops (FFLs) among these miRNAs, TFs and their co-regulated target genes through integrating target prediction. By merging these FFLs, the first miRNA and TF mediated regulatory network for MI was constructed, from which four regulators (SP1, ESR1, miR-21-5p and miR-155-5p) and three regulatory modules that might play crucial roles in MI were then identified. Furthermore, based on the miRNA and TF mediated regulatory network and literature survey, we proposed a pathway model for miR-21-5p, the miR-29 family and SP1 to demonstrate their potential co-regulatory mechanisms in cardiac fibrosis, apoptosis and angiogenesis. The majority of the regulatory relations in the model were confirmed by previous studies, which demonstrated the reliability and validity of this miRNA and TF mediated regulatory network. Our study will aid in deciphering the complex regulatory mechanisms involved in MI and provide putative therapeutic targets for MI. PMID:26258537

  11. Development of a real-time PCR assay (SYBR Green I) for rapid identification and quantification of scyphomedusae Aurelia sp.1 planulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianyan; Zhen, Yu; Mi, Tiezhu; Yu, Zhigang; Wang, Guoshan

    2015-07-01

    The complicated life cycle of Aurelia spp., comprising benthic asexually-reproducing polyps and sexually-reproducing medusae, makes it hard for researchers to identify and track them, especially for early stage individuals, such as planulae. To solve this problem, we developed a real-time PCR assay (SYBR Green I) to identify planulae in both cultured and natural seawater samples. Species-specific primers targeting Aurelia sp.1 mitochondrial 16S rDNA (mt 16S rDNA) regions were designed. Using a calibration curve constructed with plasmids containing the Aurelia sp.1 mt 16S rDNA fragment and a standard curve for planulae, the absolute number of mt 16S rDNA copies per planula was determined and from that the total number of planulae per sample was estimated. For the field samples, a 100-fold dilution of the sample DNA combined with a final concentration of 0.2 ?g/?L BSA in the PCR reaction mixture was used to remove real-time PCR inhibitors. Samples collected in Jiaozhou Bay from July to September 2012 were subsequently analyzed using this assay. Peak Aurelia sp.1 planula abundance occurred in July 2012 at stations near Hongdao Island and Qingdao offshore; abundances were very low in August and September. The real-time PCR assay (SYBR Green I) developed here negates the need for traditional microscopic identification, which is laborious and time-consuming, and can detect and quantify jellyfish planulae in field plankton samples rapidly and specifically.

  12. Play Therapy in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landreth, Garry L.; Ray, Dee C.; Bratton, Sue C.

    2009-01-01

    Because the child's world is a world of action and activity, play therapy provides the psychologist in elementary-school settings with an opportunity to enter the child's world. In the play therapy relationship, toys are like the child's words and play is the child's language. Therefore, children play out their problems, experiences, concerns, and…

  13. Stability of playfulness across environmental settings: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rigby, Patricia; Gaik, Sandy

    2007-01-01

    The Test of Playfulness (ToP) was used in this pilot study to examine the stability of playfulness of 16 children with cerebral palsy (CP), aged 4-8 years, across three environmental settings: home, community, and school. Each videotaped play segment was scored using the ToP. The ANOVA statistic demonstrated a significant variance (p < 0.05) in the playfulness of the children across the 3 settings. The children were most playful at home and least playful at school (p < 0.05). The variability in playfulness across settings suggests that playful behaviors are influenced by factors external to the child. Eleven children were playful (achieving a positive ToP score) in at least one environment, which demonstrates that they had the capacity to be playful. Their play was supported in some settings and not in others. However, there was a lack of playfulness in 65% of the play segments suggesting that these children experience many barriers to their participation in play. Future research is needed to identify factors that help and hinder the playfulness of children with CP. PMID:17298939

  14. Playing with molecules.

    PubMed

    Toon, Adam

    2011-12-01

    Recent philosophy of science has seen a number of attempts to understand scientific models by looking to theories of fiction. In previous work, I have offered an account of models that draws on Kendall Walton's 'make-believe' theory of art. According to this account, models function as 'props' in games of make-believe, like children's dolls or toy trucks. In this paper, I assess the make-believe view through an empirical study of molecular models. I suggest that the view gains support when we look at the way that these models are used and the attitude that users take towards them. Users' interaction with molecular models suggests that they do imagine the models to be molecules, in much the same way that children imagine a doll to be a baby. Furthermore, I argue, users of molecular models imagine themselves viewing and manipulating molecules, just as children playing with a doll might imagine themselves looking at a baby or feeding it. Recognising this 'participation' in modelling, I suggest, points towards a new account of how models are used to learn about the world, and helps us to understand the value that scientists sometimes place on three-dimensional, physical models over other forms of representation. PMID:22332319

  15. Children's active play: self-reported motivators, barriers and facilitators

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity has important benefits for children's physical health and mental wellbeing, but many children do not meet recommended levels. Research suggests that active play has the potential to make a valuable contribution to children's overall physical activity, whilst providing additional cognitive, social and emotional benefits. However, relatively little is known about the determinants of UK children's active play. Understanding these factors provides the critical first step in developing interventions to increase children's active play, and therefore overall physical activity. Methods Eleven focus groups were conducted with 77, 10-11 year old children from four primary schools in Bristol, UK. Focus groups examined: (i) factors which motivate children to take part in active play; (ii) factors which limit children's active play and (iii) factors which facilitate children's active play. All focus groups were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. Results Children were motivated to engage in active play because they perceived it to be enjoyable, to prevent boredom, to have physical and mental health benefits and to provide freedom from adult control, rules and structure. However, children's active play was constrained by a number of factors, including rainy weather and fear of groups of teenagers in their play spaces. Some features of the physical environment facilitated children's active play, including the presence of green spaces and cul-de-sacs in the neighbourhood. Additionally, children's use of mobile phones when playing away from home was reported to help to alleviate parents' safety fears, and therefore assist children's active play. Conclusions Children express a range of motivational and environmental factors that constrain and facilitate their active play. Consideration of these factors should improve effectiveness of interventions designed to increase active play. PMID:21663605

  16. "Reluctant Participants" in Role Play Simulations: Stage Fright or Bewilderment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Danny

    1985-01-01

    Discusses factors contributing to participant reluctance in role playing--isolation of role play from the curriculum; lack of interest because of perceived irrelevance to social psychological themes; and acting anxiety. A two-step design which involves gradual role play introduction and observation by reluctant participants is suggested as a…

  17. Playing the Game? Exploring Role Play from Children's Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Sue; Evans, Julie

    2006-01-01

    There has been little research on play undertaken in the UK from the child's perspective. This article is based on a year long ethnographic study of children's role play in school. It draws on two main sources of data. First, data from the children concerning their perceptions of role play, what they liked and disliked about it, and secondly…

  18. Problematic Game Play: The Diagnostic Value of Playing Motives, Passion, and Playing Time in Men

    PubMed Central

    Kneer, Julia; Rieger, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Internet gaming disorder is currently listed in the DSM—not in order to diagnose such a disorder but to encourage research to investigate this phenomenon. Even whether it is still questionable if Internet Gaming Disorder exists and can be judged as a form of addiction, problematic game play is already very well researched to cause problems in daily life. Approaches trying to predict problematic tendencies in digital game play have mainly focused on playing time as a diagnostic criterion. However, motives to engage in digital game play and obsessive passion for game play have also been found to predict problematic game play but have not yet been investigated together. The present study aims at (1) analyzing if obsessive passion can be distinguished from problematic game play as separate concepts, and (2) testing motives of game play, passion, and playing time for their predictive values for problematic tendencies. We found (N = 99 males, Age: M = 22.80, SD = 3.81) that obsessive passion can be conceptually separated from problematic game play. In addition, the results suggest that compared to solely playing time immersion as playing motive and obsessive passion have added predictive value for problematic game play. The implications focus on broadening the criteria in order to diagnose problematic playing. PMID:25942516

  19. Problematic game play: the diagnostic value of playing motives, passion, and playing time in men.

    PubMed

    Kneer, Julia; Rieger, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Internet gaming disorder is currently listed in the DSM-not in order to diagnose such a disorder but to encourage research to investigate this phenomenon. Even whether it is still questionable if Internet Gaming Disorder exists and can be judged as a form of addiction, problematic game play is already very well researched to cause problems in daily life. Approaches trying to predict problematic tendencies in digital game play have mainly focused on playing time as a diagnostic criterion. However, motives to engage in digital game play and obsessive passion for game play have also been found to predict problematic game play but have not yet been investigated together. The present study aims at (1) analyzing if obsessive passion can be distinguished from problematic game play as separate concepts, and (2) testing motives of game play, passion, and playing time for their predictive values for problematic tendencies. We found (N = 99 males, Age: M = 22.80, SD = 3.81) that obsessive passion can be conceptually separated from problematic game play. In addition, the results suggest that compared to solely playing time immersion as playing motive and obsessive passion have added predictive value for problematic game play. The implications focus on broadening the criteria in order to diagnose problematic playing. PMID:25942516

  20. Playful Learning and Creative Societies

    E-print Network

    Resnick, Mitchel

    the Industrial Society to the Informa- tion Society. People began to see information, not natural resources before? We must nurture the playful spirit that all children are born with. It is through play

  1. Some Properties of Social Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvey, Catherine

    1974-01-01

    Describes the structure of spontaneous episodes of dyadic play and suggests some of the basic abilities which underlie social play, based on observation of 36 15-20 minute videotaped play sessions involving groups of three children each, ages 3 1/2 to 5 1/2 years. (ED)

  2. Play Therapy in School Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trice-Black, Shannon; Bailey, Carrie Lynn; Kiper Riechel, Morgan E.

    2013-01-01

    Play therapy is an empirically supported intervention used to address a number of developmental issues faced in childhood. Through the natural language of play, children and adolescents communicate feelings, thoughts, and experiences. Schools provide an ideal setting for play therapy in many ways; however, several challenges exist in implementing…

  3. Meanings of Play among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Nicole M.; Knight, Camilla J.; Holt, Nicholas L.; Spence, John C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine meanings of play among children. Thirty-eight students aged 7-9 years from a suburban public school in Western Canada participated in focus groups. Data analysis revealed participants saw almost anything as an opportunity for play and would play almost anywhere with anyone. However, they perceived parents…

  4. Mathematical Adventures in Role Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyce, Constance

    2002-01-01

    The provision of role play is vital in every early years setting. It provides opportunities for the development of all areas of learning. With careful thought and planning, all role play situations can provide children with mathematical adventures. Many examples of good quality role play had been observed in a variety of settings throughout…

  5. Pretend Play and Creative Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ, Sandra W.; Wallace, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    The authors contend that many cognitive abilities and affective processes important in creativity also occur in pretend play and that pretend play in childhood affects the development of creativity in adulthood. They discuss a variety of theories and observations that attempt to explain the importance of pretend play to creativity. They argue that…

  6. Sp1 Regulates Chromatin Looping between an Intronic Enhancer and Distal Promoter of the Human Heme Oxygenase-1 Gene in Renal Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Deshane, Jessy; Kim, Junghyun; Bolisetty, Subhashini; Hock, Thomas D.; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie; Agarwal, Anupam

    2010-01-01

    HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1) is an inducible microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of pro-oxidant heme. The goal of this study was to characterize a minimal enhancer region within the human HO-1 gene and delineate its role in modulating HO-1 expression by participation with its promoter elements in renal epithelial cells. Deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis identified a 220-bp minimal enhancer in intron 1 of the HO-1 gene, which regulates hemin-mediated HO-1 gene expression. Small interfering RNA, decoy oligonucleotides, site-directed mutagenesis, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed the functional interaction of Sp1 with a consensus binding sequence within the 220-bp region. Mutations of regulatory elements within the ?4.5 kb promoter region (a cyclic AMP response and a downstream NF-E2/AP-1 element, both located at ?4.0 kb, and/or an E-box sequence located at ?44 bp) resulted in the loss of enhancer activity. A chromosome conformation capture assay performed in human renal epithelial (HK-2) cells demonstrated hemin-inducible chromatin looping between the intronic enhancer and the ?4.0 kb promoter region in a time-dependent manner. Restriction digestion with ApaLI (which cleaves the 220-bp enhancer) led to a loss of stimulus-dependent chromatin looping. Sp1 small interfering RNA and mithramycin A, a Sp1 binding site inhibitor, resulted in loss of the loop formation between the intronic enhancer and the distal HO-1 promoter by the chromosome conformation capture assay. These results provide novel insight into the complex molecular interactions that underlie human HO-1 regulation in renal epithelial cells. PMID:20351094

  7. MiR-200b expression in breast cancer: a prognostic marker and act on cell proliferation and apoptosis by targeting Sp1.

    PubMed

    Yao, YaSai; Hu, Jian; Shen, Zan; Yao, RuYong; Liu, ShiHai; Li, Yong; Cong, Hui; Wang, XinGang; Qiu, WenSheng; Yue, Lu

    2015-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as important post-transcriptional regulators involved in various biological and pathological processes of cells. In the present study, we investigated the roles and mechanisms of miR-200b in human breast cancer (BC). MiR-200b expression was carried out by qRT-PCR in human BC cell lines and clinical samples and the prognostic potential of miR-200b expression was further evaluated. In vitro, effects of miR-200b on BC cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were tested by CCK-8 kit, flow cytometric analysis respectively. Luciferase assay and Western blot analysis were performed to validate the potential targets of miR-200b after the preliminary screening by employing open access software. We found that miR-200b was significantly down-regulated in both BC tissues and cell lines. The low expression of miR-200b was correlated with late TNM stage, negative oestrogen receptor and positive HER-2 status. Multivariate analysis showed that miR-200b expression was an independent prognostic predictor for BC patients. Integrated analysis identified Sp1 as a direct and functional target of miR-200b. Knockdown of Sp1 inhibited cell proliferation, induce apoptosis and act on cell cycle resembling that of miR-200b high expression. Our data demonstrates that miR-200b has potential to serve as prognostic biomarker and tumour suppressor for BC patients. As a direct and functional target of miR-200b, Sp1 and miR-200b both could be an exciting target for BC treatment strategy. PMID:25639535

  8. Amazing Cells Fight or Flight Response: Play-by-Play

    E-print Network

    Clayton, Dale H.

    Module Amazing Cells Fight or Flight Response: Play-by-Play © 2008 University of Utah This document of the most remarkable examples of cell communication is the fight or flight response. When a threat occurs, cells communicate rapidly to elicit physiological responses that help the body handle extraordinary

  9. Well Played: The Origins and Future of Playfulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Gwen

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author synthesizes research from several disciplines to shed light on play's central role in healthy development. Gordon builds on research in attachment theory that correlates secure attachment in infancy with adult well-being to demonstrate how playfulness might be a lifelong outcome of secure attachment and a primary…

  10. Playing with the Multiple Intelligences: How Play Helps Them Grow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberle, Scott G.

    2011-01-01

    Howard Gardner first posited a list of "multiple intelligences" as a liberating alternative to the assumptions underlying traditional IQ testing in his widely read study "Frames of Mind" (1983). Play has appeared only in passing in Gardner's thinking about intelligence, however, even though play instructs and trains the verbal, interpersonal,…

  11. Serine proteases SP1 and SP13 mediate the melanization response of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, against entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yuan; Liu, Yang; Shen, Dongxu; Hong, Fang; Wang, Guirong; An, Chunju

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to entomopathogenic fungi is one approach for insect pest control. Little is known about the immune interactions between fungus and its insect host. Melanization is a prominent immune response in insects in defending against pathogens such as bacteria and fungi. Clip domain serine proteases in insect plasma have been implicated in the activation of prophenoloxidase, a key enzyme in the melanization. The relationship between host melanization and the infection by a fungus needs to be established. We report here that the injection of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana induced both melanin synthesis and phenoloxidase activity in its host insect, the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée). qRT-PCR analysis showed several distinct patterns of expression of 13 clip-domain serine proteases in response to the challenge of fungi, with seven increased, two decreased, and four unchanged. Of special interest among these clip-domain serine protease genes are SP1 and SP13, the orthologs of Manduca sexta HP6 and PAP1 which are involved in the prophenoloxidase activation pathway. Recombinant O. furnacalis SP1 was found to activate proSP13 and induce the phenoloxidase activity in corn borer plasma. Additionally, SP13 was determined to directly cleave prophenoloxidase and therefore act as the prophenoloxidase activating protease. Our work thus reveals a biochemical mechanism in the melanization in corn borer associated with the challenge by B. bassiana injection. These insights could provide valuable information for better understanding the immune responses of Asian corn borer against B. bassiana. PMID:25900291

  12. Preferential binding of anti-cancer drug adriamycin to the Sp1 binding site in c-met promoter region: A spectroscopic and molecular modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhal, Garima; Rajeswari, Moganty R.

    2009-02-01

    The c-met gene encodes a transmembrane glycoprotein receptor with tyrosine kinase activity and overexpression of MET receptor is found in a number of common human malignancies. Regulation of c-met oncogene expression in general can be controlled by several DNA binding anti-cancer drugs. Interaction of adriamycin with a short oligonucleotide (24RY), which is part of the positive regulatory element (-233 to -68) in c-met gene was studied using UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-thermal melting, and molecular modeling. Strong binding of adriamycin to 24RY (overall binding constant K, 1- 3 × 10 5 M -1) is thermodynamically favored and is accompanied by the following: a marked increase in the melting temperature of 24RY by +15 °C and ˜60% decrease in absorption at 480 nm, ˜80% quenching of fluorescence at 555 nm along with a blue shift of the ?emimax to 522 nm of adriamycin. Present data reveals that adriamycin binds to ˜ 5 bp (GCGGG) of the Sp1 binding site in 24RY and thus competes with Sp1 binding to the promoter site which results in down-regulation of kinase. Therefore, targeting c-met is a promising approach as it is an attractive novel oncogene for cancer therapeutics.

  13. Transmedia Play: Literacy across Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alper, Meryl; Herr-Stephenson, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Transmedia play is a new way to understand how children develop critical media literacy and new media literacies through their interactions with contemporary media that links stories and structures across platforms. This essay highlights five characteristics of transmedia play that make it particularly useful for learning:…

  14. The Play of Socratic Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Proponents of philosophy for children generally see themselves as heirs to the "Socratic" tradition. They often claim too that children's aptitude for play leads them naturally to play with abstract, philosophical ideas. However in Plato's dialogues we find in the mouth of "Socrates" many warnings against philosophising with the young. Those…

  15. Making Play Work for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisberg, Deena Skolnick; Kittredge, Audrey K.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Klahr, David

    2015-01-01

    Children, especially in the preschool years, learn a tremendous amount through play. Research on guided play demonstrates how schools can couple a curriculum-centered preschool program with a developmentally appropriate pedagogical approach to classroom teaching. However, to fully test this claim, we need a clear definition of the term…

  16. Empowering Groups that Enable Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David Sloan; Marshall, Danielle; Iserhott, Hindi

    2011-01-01

    Creating play environments for children usually requires groups of adults working together. An extensive scientific literature describes how groups function to achieve shared goals in general terms, and groups attempting to empower play may find this literature useful. Design principles for managing natural resources, identified by Elinor Ostrom…

  17. Invention at Play. Educators' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Michael; Lacasse, Jane; Smith, Monica; Reilly, Katie

    A Smithsonian exhibition was developed that looked at invention in an innovative way. It aimed to encourage visitors to make connections between their own lives and abilities and those of inventors. The role of play in the invention process was examined. Play is a universal and familiar activity and can help people find the link between their own…

  18. The Social Competence of Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fein, Greta G.

    This is a study of how young children gain social competence through pretend play or role playing. Subjects were 38 Caucasian children (19 females, 19 males) who were observed at four ages: 12, 18, 24 and 30 months. The same set of toys, which included a doll, a saucepan, doll bottles, coffee mug, teacup, teaspoon, doll crib, blanket, toy phone…

  19. Engaging Families through Artful Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how aligned arts and play experiences can extend child and family engagement in a public outdoor space. The importance of outdoor play for children is strongly advocated and in response local governments provide playgrounds and recreational open spaces. To extend further the experiences afforded in such spaces some local…

  20. Sand and Water Table Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ann H.; White, Mary J.; Stone, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    The authors observed preschoolers engaged at the sand and water table to determine if math could be found within their play. Wanting to understand how children interact with provided materials and what kinds of math ideas they explore during these interactions, the authors offer practical examples of how such play can promote mathematical…

  1. Niger Delta play types, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Akinpelu, A.O.

    1995-08-01

    Exploration databases can be more valuable when sorted by play type. Play specific databases provide a system to organize E & P data used in evaluating the range of values of parameters for reserve estimation and risk assessment. It is important both in focusing the knowledge base and in orienting research effort. A play in this context is any unique combination of trap, reservoir and source properties with the right dynamics of migration and preservation that results in hydrocarbon accumulation. This definitions helps us to discriminate the subtle differences found with these accumulation settings. About 20 play types were identified around the Niger Delta oil province in Nigeria. These are grouped into three parts: (1) The proven plays-constituting the bulk of exploration prospects in Nigeria today. (2) The unproven or semi-proven plays usually with some successes recorded in a few tries but where knowledge is still inadequate. (3) The unproven or analogous play concept. These are untested but geologically sound ideas which may or may not have been tried elsewhere. With classification and sub grouping of these play types into specific databases, intrinsic attributes and uniqueness of each of them with respect to the four major risk elements and the eight parameters for reserve estimation can be better understood.

  2. Playground Play: Educational and Inclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    It is easy to understand that fun is one of the key ingredients to any playground activity. But what one may not realize is that play systems--including slides, tunnels, activity panels, and more--encourage a lot more than just fun: there is learning at work in playground play, as well as the opportunity to include children of all abilities in…

  3. Principles of Play for Soccer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, John

    2004-01-01

    Soccer coaches must understand the principles of play if they want to succeed. The principles of play are the rules of action that support the basic objectives of soccer and the foundation of a soccer coaching strategy. They serve as a set of permanent criteria that coaches can use to evaluate the efforts of their team. In this article, the author…

  4. Playing To Get Smart. Viewpoint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that it is through play with materials and relationships, invention of classification systems, and solving problems in dialogue with others that young children develop the basic skills they will need to become effective contributors to the health of a changing world. Offers suggestions for teaching children play skills by providing…

  5. The Fractal Self at Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author draws on contemporary science to illuminate the relationship between early play experiences, processes of self-development, and the later emergence of the fractal self. She argues that orientation within social space is a primary function of early play and developmentally a two-step process. With other people and with…

  6. Play Scapes: Two Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markun, Patricia Maloney, Ed.

    Learning experience are all around us; they are not necessarily confined to the classroom. Well designed playscapes give children the opportunity to learn through discovery, and if the design of the play space is such that a teacher can give almost constant but unobtrusive guidance to the children's activities, out-of-door play space can become an…

  7. ENGINEERING PLAY: CHILDREN'S SOFTWARE AND

    E-print Network

    Ito, Mimi

    ENGINEERING PLAY: CHILDREN'S SOFTWARE AND THE PRODUCTIONS OF EVERYDAY LIFE A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED of children's software as socially distributed and culturally heterogeneous processes. A diverse and multi-sited ethnographic corpus of data is foundational to this work: fieldnotes and videotapes of children's play

  8. Three Plays of Egon Wolff.

    E-print Network

    Peden, Margaret S.

    1969-10-01

    that did escape such implacable judgment and which elicited a warm critical reception, is the two-character play, Flores de papel. Wolíí says that the play has been described as "hair-raising." Wolff's reaction to this comment is "I don't understand what.... In the Sobre mi teatro section accompanying each of the plays in Teatro chileno actual, Wolff states that "it doesn't matter whether one has sought FALL 1969 31 laughter or pain, complaint or absurdity in order to bring an idea to the stage; what must...

  9. Self-playing musical instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouffard, Karen

    2001-05-01

    This do-ahead Physics Olympics competition is a musical challenge based on one designed by Dan Calder for a past New Hampshire Physics Olympics. The objective is to build a musical instrument that is self-playing.

  10. SP1-mediated microRNA-520d-5p suppresses tumor growth and metastasis in colorectal cancer by targeting CTHRC1

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Li; Yu, Jiang; Tan, Fei; Ye, Geng-Tai; Shen, Zhi-Yong; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jie-Fu; Zhu, Xian-Jun; Li, Guo-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that miR-520 family has an important role in regulating tumorigenesis and development of various types of solid cancers. However, as one of the most common cancers in the world, there is little known about the underlying regulatory mechanisms of miR-520 in colorectal cancer (CRC). In the present study, we investigated the expression of microRNA-520d-5p (miR-520d-5p) in CRC specimens and then explored its potential role and mechanism in CRC progression. We found that miR-520d-5p was markedly down-regulated in CRC clinical specimens compared with adjacent normal tissues by real-time PCR. Dual-luciferase assays confirmed that miR-520d-5p directly targeting CTHRC1 and SP1 transactivate miR-520d-5p by binding to its upstream promoter region. The biological functional experiments showed that ectopic re-expression of miR-520d-5p suppressed CRC cell proliferation, migration and invasion, whereas the inhibition of miR-520d-5p displayed an inverse effect in vitro and in vivo. Western blot shown that miR-520d-5p abrogated the epithelial-mesenchymal transition by inactivating the phosphorylation of Erk1/2. In conclusion, our findings indicate that miR-520d-5p is significantly down-expressed and involved in CRC progression and metastasis by targeting CTHRC1 and regulated by SP1, which provide new support for miR-520d-5p maybe as a novel anti-onco molecular target for the treatment of CRC in the future. PMID:26101709

  11. Human chorionic gonadotropin promotes expression of protein absorption factors in the intestine of goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Hao, G; Zhong, H; Wu, Q; Lu, S Q; Zhao, Q; Liu, Z

    2015-01-01

    Protein use is crucial for the ovulation and spawning of fish. Currently, limited information is available regarding the expression of protein absorption factors during the breeding seasons of teleosts and thus how various proteins involved in this process is not well-understood. The expression of CDX2, CREB, gluatamate dehydrogenase, LAT2, aminopeptidase N, PepT1, and SP1 were significantly elevated from the non-breeding season to the breeding season in female goldfish, and all proteins except PepT1 and SP1 were elevated in male goldfish. Injection of human chorionic gonadotropin upregulated the expression of all proteins except for aminopeptidase N in female goldfish and SP1 in male goldfish, suggesting a luteinizing hormone-inductive effect on protein absorption factors. Protein use in the intestine is increased during the breeding seasons as a result of increased luteinizing hormone. PMID:26345757

  12. MAJOR PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    SciTech Connect

    Craig D. Morgan; Thomas C. Chidsey

    2003-11-01

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land-use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the first quarter of the second project year (July 1 through September 30, 2003). This work included (1) describing the Conventional Southern Uinta Basin Play, subplays, and outcrop reservoir analogs of the Uinta Green River Conventional Oil and Gas Assessment Unit (Eocene Green River Formation), and (2) technology transfer activities. The Conventional Oil and Gas Assessment Unit can be divided into plays having a dominantly southern sediment source (Conventional Southern Uinta Basin Play) and plays having a dominantly northern sediment source (Conventional Northern Uinta Basin Play). The Conventional Southern Uinta Basin Play is divided into six subplays: (1) conventional Uteland Butte interval, (2) conventional Castle Peak interval, (3) conventional Travis interval, (4) conventional Monument Butte interval, (5) conventional Beluga interval, and (6) conventional Duchesne interval fractured shale/marlstone. We are currently conducting basin-wide correlations to define the limits of the six subplays. Production-scale outcrop analogs provide an excellent view, often in three dimensions, of reservoir-facies characteristics and boundaries contributing to the overall heterogeneity of reservoir rocks. They can be used as a ''template'' for evaluation of data from conventional core, geophysical and petrophysical logs, and seismic surveys. Outcrop analogs for each subplay except the Travis interval are found in Indian and Nine Mile Canyons. During this quarter, the project team members submitted an abstract to the American Association of Petroleum Geologists for presentation at the 2004 annual national convention in Dallas, Texas. The project home page was updated on the Utah Geological Survey Internet web site.

  13. Parent-Child Play across Cultures: Advancing Play Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L.; Davidson, Kimberly L.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue for a greater understanding of children's play across cultures through better integration of scientific thinking about the developed and developing societies, through consideration of socialization beliefs and goals, and, finally, through the use of more complex models in research investigations. They draw on…

  14. Rollovers during play: Complementary perspectives.

    PubMed

    Smuts, Barbara; Bauer, Erika; Ward, Camille

    2015-07-01

    In this commentary, we compare and contrast Norman et al.s' findings on rollovers during dog play (Norman et al., 2015; the "target article") with our work on dog play fighting (Bauer and Smuts, 2007; Ward et al., 2008). We first review our major findings and then correct some errors in the target article's descriptions of our work. We then further explore the concept of "defensive" rollovers proposed in the target article. We conclude that a combination of the target article's approach and ours should inform future investigations of dog rollovers. PMID:25907148

  15. Motivations for play in online games.

    PubMed

    Yee, Nick

    2006-12-01

    An empirical model of player motivations in online games provides the foundation to understand and assess how players differ from one another and how motivations of play relate to age, gender, usage patterns, and in-game behaviors. In the current study, a factor analytic approach was used to create an empirical model of player motivations. The analysis revealed 10 motivation subcomponents that grouped into three overarching components (achievement, social, and immersion). Relationships between motivations and demographic variables (age, gender, and usage patterns) are also presented. PMID:17201605

  16. Subtypes of Nonsocial Play and Psychosocial Adjustment in Malaysian Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Mei Sze; Xu, Yiyuan; Haron, P. Fatimah

    2012-01-01

    This study examined subtypes of nonsocial play and their relation to psychosocial adjustment in Malaysian preschool children (N = 141, 72 boys, M age = 4.65 years). Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a three-factor model that distinguished social reticence, solitary-active play, and solitary-passive play fit the data reasonably well, and…

  17. Obama Plays Cheerleader for STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2010-01-01

    Amid a struggling economy, a raft of foreign-policy headaches, and the tail end of a heated campaign season, President Barack Obama carved out time in his schedule last month to watch students in the State Dining Room demonstrate a solar-powered model car, a water-purification system, and a soccer-playing robot. The science fair was the fifth…

  18. Moral Education through Play Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahalle, Salwa; Zakaria, Gamal Abdul Nasir; Nawi, Aliff

    2014-01-01

    This paper will discuss on how sand therapy (as one type of play therapies) can be applied as an additional technique or approach in counseling. The research questions for this study are to see what are the development, challenges faced by the therapist during the sessions given and how sand therapy can aid to the progress of the client. It is a…

  19. Building Curriculum during Block Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Blocks are not just for play! In this article, Nicole Andrews describes observing the interactions of three young boys enthusiastically engaged in the kindergarten block center of their classroom, using blocks in a building project that displayed their ability to use critical thinking skills, physics exploration, and the development of language…

  20. Strengthening Play through Father Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruett, Kyle

    2009-01-01

    In his essay exploring the latest research finding on the importance of men in the lives of young children, the author describes two ongoing empirical studies that are proving particularly instructive in understanding the significance of paternal contributions to improving young child outcomes. Both projects are encouraging direct paternal play…

  1. Recommendations for Child Play Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Uriel; Hill, Ann B.; Lane, Carol G.; McGinty, Tim; Moore, Gary T.

    This interim criteria document provides descriptive information and planning, evaluation, and design guidelines for children's play areas located on military bases. The recommendations are presented in two major sections: planning & architecture design. Subcategories within the planning, criteria, and recommendations section address program master…

  2. Interpretive Reproduction in Children's Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsaro, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool…

  3. Sculpting Cells with Play Doh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Virginia A.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests using Play Doh to mold models of the nucleus, mitochondria, and inner cellular structures. Students can conceptualize the cell's structures as three-dimensional even though they appear two-dimensional under a microscope. Includes instructions for preparing homemade dough. (Author/JN)

  4. Science Adventures in Children's Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieger, Edythe

    The stated purpose of this pamphlet is to suggest simple, natural, interesting experiences in children's play that have science implications. It tells how the teacher may capitalize on the innate curiosity of children by incorporating science discovery in daily classroom experiences. This how-to-do-it manual directs map-making and activities for…

  5. Using Play to Teach Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batt, Tom

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the potential of play in the teaching of college composition. Drawing primarily on the theoretical framework of D. W. Winnicott, the author describes how he used ludic pedagogies to provide first-year writing students a "potential space" in which to explore a range of course elements including composing conventions,…

  6. Creativity, Art and Play Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Jay

    1978-01-01

    Poetry, art and music are avenues open to the play therapist in optimizing self-help processes within children. Using creative events in the counseling-learning process helps children bridge gaps between fantasy and reality. Art and creativity may be the better conceptual base for counseling children and building educational theory. (Author)

  7. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey Jr; Craig D. Morgan; Roger L. Bon

    2003-07-01

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the third quarter of the first project year (January 1 through March 31, 2003). This work included gathering field data and analyzing best practices in the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah, and the Colorado portion of the Paradox Basin. Best practices used in oil fields of the eastern Uinta Basin consist of conversion of all geophysical well logs into digital form, running small fracture treatments, fingerprinting oil samples from each producing zone, running spinner surveys biannually, mapping each producing zone, and drilling on 80-acre (32 ha) spacing. These practices ensure that induced fractures do not extend vertically out of the intended zone, determine the percentage each zone contributes to the overall production of the well, identify areas that may be by-passed by a waterflood, and prevent rapid water breakthrough. In the eastern Paradox Basin, Colorado, optimal drilling, development, and production practices consist of increasing the mud weight during drilling operations before penetrating the overpressured Desert Creek zone; centralizing treatment facilities; and mixing produced water from pumping oil wells with non-reservoir water and injecting the mixture into the reservoir downdip to reduce salt precipitation, dispose of produced water, and maintain reservoir pressure to create a low-cost waterflood. During this quarter, technology transfer activities consisted of technical presentations to members of the Technical Advisory Board in Colorado and the Colorado Geological Survey. The project home page was updated on the Utah Geological Survey Internet web site.

  8. Play and learn team building.

    PubMed

    Haas, R C; Martin, S

    1997-05-01

    In order to have a team function correctly, power must be distributed equally, with no team member having more perceived power than any other. It is this leveling of the playing field that allows the team to develop and to stimulate the creative juices of its members. This article discusses techniques that can help an organization break down the power barriers and permit its employees to become a cohesive unit--a team. PMID:10168460

  9. Playing Games with Quantum Mechanics

    E-print Network

    Simon J. D. Phoenix; Faisal Shah Khan

    2012-02-22

    We present a perspective on quantum games that focuses on the physical aspects of the quantities that are used to implement a game. If a game is to be played, it has to be played with objects and actions that have some physical existence. We call such games playable. By focusing on the notion of playability for games we can more clearly see the distinction between classical and quantum games and tackle the thorny issue of what it means to quantize a game. The approach we take can more properly be thought of as gaming the quantum rather than quantizing a game and we find that in this perspective we can think of a complete quantum game, for a given set of preferences, as representing a single family of quantum games with many different playable versions. The versions of Quantum Prisoners Dilemma presented in the literature can therefore be thought of specific instances of the single family of Quantum Prisoner's Dilemma with respect to a particular measurement. The conditions for equilibrium are given for playable quantum games both in terms of expected outcomes and a geometric approach. We discuss how any quantum game can be simulated with a classical game played with classical coins as far as the strategy selections and expected outcomes are concerned.

  10. Targeting EP4 by curcumin through cross talks of AMP-dependent kinase alpha and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling: the role of PGC-1? and Sp1.

    PubMed

    Hann, Swei Sunny; Chen, Jianping; Wang, Zhiyu; Wu, Jingjing; Zheng, Fang; Zhao, Shunyu

    2013-12-01

    Head and neck cancer is one of the most morbid human malignancies with an overall poor prognosis and severely compromised quality of life. As a result, there is significant interest in developing adjuvant therapies to augment currently available treatment protocols. Curcumin has been found to possess anti-cancer activities via its effect on a variety of biological pathways. In this study, we showed that curcumin inhibits head and neck cancer cell growth through reduction of PGE2 receptor EP4 gene expression. Blockade of AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK), and p38 MAPK by either chemical inhibitors or siRNAs antagonized the inhibitory effect of curcumin on EP4 expression, which was reversed by metformin, an activator of AMPK. Curcumin induced PGC-1? protein that was blocked by compound C and SB239063. Silencing of PGC-1? reversed the effect of curcumin on EP4 protein. Overexpression of EP4 overcame the effect of curcumin on head and neck cancer cell growth. In addition, curcumin reduced Sp1 protein. Overexpression of Sp1 resisted the inhibitory effect of curcumin on EP4 promoter activity and protein expression. Interestingly, overexpression of PGC-1? further enhanced the inhibitory effect of curcumin on Sp1 protein expression that was blocked by SB239063. In conclusion, this study shows that curcumin inhibits EP4 gene expression dependent of AMPK? and p38 MAPK activation, this leads to reduction of Sp1 protein and binding to specific area in the EP4 gene promoter. The cross talks of AMPK? and p38 MAPK signaling, the kinase-mediated PGC-1? expression and reciprocity of PGC-1? and Sp1 enhance this process. This ultimately results in inhibition of head and neck cancer cell proliferation. PMID:23998949

  11. The Wade Factor: Marketing? A Team Sport Worth Playing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Mark C.

    2005-01-01

    Customer service people are the first line of marketing, sales and revenue growth. Give them the proper training and understanding to enthusiastically lead all potential students or customers through the information-gathering and sign-up process. It does not matter how many calls schools receives through a well-planned marketing campaign if the…

  12. Reading a Play Reading and Character Organization

    E-print Network

    Kunkle, Tom

    Reading a Play Reading and Character Organization Before diving into a play, get some background the entire play to look for the answers to the following: 1. How is the play divided? (How many acts, how many scenes? Is there an intermission? Are the acts broken up by music?) 2. Where does the play take

  13. Play Therapy: Voice of a Silent Scream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakesh, Annuradha; H, Uma; Srinath, Shoba

    2010-01-01

    Play Therapy is based upon the fact that play is the child's natural medium of self-expression. It is an opportunity that is given to the child to "play out" his/her feelings and problems just as, in certain types of adult therapy, an individual "talks out" his difficulties. Children use play to express feelings and thoughts. Play emerges from the…

  14. Caring About Kids: The Importance of Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Div. of Scientific and Public Information.

    In several brief sections, this pamphlet defines play, discusses how play helps a child develop, and how play changes as a child grows older, indicates the role of toys and certain play activities in promoting sex stereotypes, and identifies the role of fantasy and imagination in children's play. A discussion of the role of parents in fostering…

  15. KRÜPPEL-LIKE FACTOR 9 AND REGULATION OF ENDOMETRIAL ESTROGEN RECEPTOR-ALPHA SIGNALING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endometrial cancer risk is linked to aberrant estrogen receptor-alpha (ER alpha) signaling caused by increased ER alpha activation due to hyper-estrogenic environments or mutations in growth-regulatory factors. We had shown that ER alpha signaling is attenuated by the Sp1-related transcription facto...

  16. [The "familiarity" variable in maternal role playing in preschool children].

    PubMed

    Gourdon, B; Laflaquière, A; Barré, I

    1994-01-01

    The present investigation was effected in the context of several other studies involving mother role playing with dolls in children of both sexes aged 2 to 6. Previous studies had shown an interaction between several variables: sex of the child and of the doll, absence of toys representing maternal activities, naked or clothed dolls, playing in couples of same sex or different sexes. The present study involves a new factor: degree of familiarity between children. Three variables can be distinguished in the analysis of couples of friends: (1) exploratory activities of the body of the dolls: smaller children (boys and girls) explore the body for itself whereas older girls do it while assuming a maternal role and older boys take distance from this activity. (2) Involvement in mother role playing: girls are more involved than boys, older children have richer activities than the younger. (3) Choice of activity (mother role playing or other). Observation of activities in non-friends couples emphasize two factors. The first is the same as in couples of friends (exploration of the body of the dolls), the second being the emotional tone of play sessions. Children of both sexes are diversely tolerant of the non-friends situation. This has an important impact on the quality of playing and therefore on representations of playing and on identification behaviors. Analysis of this last factor in the context of the other findings on mother role playing suggests an evolution of mother role playing behaviors and leads to reformulate the parameters involved in the construction of representations of parental roles. PMID:7972535

  17. Supervising the uncanny: the play within the play.

    PubMed

    Leader, Carol

    2015-11-01

    The writer offers a combined experience in analysis and the performing arts to explore uncanny aspects of the unconscious subtext of the patient's inner drama; subtext which can remain hidden from view in supervision. Freud and Jung's understanding of uncanny experience is considered together with a painting from medieval alchemy and Matte Blanco's conceptions concerning the symmetrical nature of unconscious process. Theatre and the work of the theatre director and actor in approaching the multidimensional aspects of a play are then introduced. Finally clinical case material from group supervision demonstrates how the 'theatre of therapy' and the work of the supervisory couple and group promote the emergence of a more authentic conscious asymmetrical response to the patient's 'script' that can break the 'spell' of the transference/countertransference relationship. This in turn brings meaning to the underlying and implicit 'stage directions' that the patient has been unconsciously communicating. PMID:26499298

  18. SPARC expression is negatively correlated with clinicopathological factors of gastric cancer and inhibits malignancy of gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junling; Wang, Pengyuan; Zhu, Jing; Wang, Wei; Yin, Jie; Zhang, Chi; Chen, Ziyi; Sun, Lie; Wan, Yuanlian; Wang, Xin; Chen, Guowei; Liu, Yucun

    2014-05-01

    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a glycoprotein which plays multiple roles in different types of cancer. Our previous study showed that SPARC overexpression inhibited the growth and angiogenesis of tumors, and reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). However, the relationship between SPARC expression and clinicopathological factors of gastric cancer (GC) is controversial, and the role of SPARC in GC remains unclear. We evaluated expression of SPARC in 65 human GC tissues using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The results indicated that SPARC expression was negatively correlated with clinicopathological factors of GC. In vitro assay showed that SPARC overexpression decreased proliferation and clonogenicity by suppressing CD44 expression. In addition, SPARC overexpression inhibited VEGF induced proliferation and arrested cell cycle of GC cells by reducing the activation of VEGFR2, ERK1/2 and AKT signaling pathways. SPARC suppressed the invasion and migration of GC by reducing MMP-7, MMP-9, N-cadherin, Sp1 and p-ERK1/2 expression. In the in vivo assay, cancer metastasis mouse models were established by tail vein injection. The results revealed that the lung metastases of SPARC-overexpressing GC cells in the mice were much fewer than those of control cells. PMID:24676680

  19. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Utah oil fields have produced a total of 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 15 million barrels (2.4 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2000 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the first quarter of the first project year (July 1 through September 30, 2002). This work included producing general descriptions of Utah's major petroleum provinces, gathering field data, and analyzing best practices in the Utah Wyoming thrust belt. Major Utah oil reservoirs and/or source rocks are found in Devonian through Permian, Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary rocks. Stratigraphic traps include carbonate buildups and fluvial-deltaic pinchouts, and structural traps include basement-involved and detached faulted anticlines. Best practices used in Utah's oil fields consist of waterflood, carbon-dioxide flood, gas-injection, and horizontal drilling programs. Nitrogen injection and horizontal drilling programs have been successfully employed to enhance oil production from the Jurassic Nugget Sandstone (the major thrust belt oil-producing reservoir) in Wyoming's Painter Reservoir and Ryckman Creek fields. At Painter Reservoir field a tertiary, miscible nitrogen-injection program is being conducted to raise the reservoir pressure to miscible conditions. Supplemented with water injection, the ultimate recovery will be 113 million bbls (18 million m{sup 3}) of oil (a 68 percent recovery factor over a 60-year period). The Nugget reservoir has significant heterogeneity due to both depositional facies and structural effects. These characteristics create ideal targets for horizontal wells and horizontal laterals drilled from existing vertical wells. Horizontal drilling programs were conducted in both Painter Reservoir and Ryckman Creek fields to encounter potential undrained compartments and increase the overall field recovery by 0.5 to 1.5 percent per horizontal wellbore. Technology transfer activities consisted of exhibiting a booth display of project materials at the Rocky Mountain Section meeting of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, a technical presentation to the Wyoming State Geological Survey, and two publications. A project home page was set up on the Utah Geological Survey Internet web site.

  20. Major Oil Plays in Utah and Vicinity

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Craig D. Morgan; Kevin McClure; Douglas A. Sprinkel; Roger L. Bon; Hellmut H. Doelling

    2003-12-31

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; locations of major oil pipelines; identification and discussion of land-use constraints; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play. This report covers research activities for the sixth quarter of the project (October 1 through December 31, 2003). This work included describing outcrop analogs for the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone and Mississippian Leadville Limestone, major oil producers in the thrust belt and Paradox Basin, respectively, and analyzing best practices used in the southern Green River Formation play of the Uinta Basin. Production-scale outcrop analogs provide an excellent view of reservoir petrophysics, facies characteristics, and boundaries contributing to the overall heterogeneity of reservoir rocks. They can be used as a ''template'' for evaluation of data from conventional core, geophysical and petrophysical logs, and seismic surveys. In the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province, the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone produces from subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the low-porosity limestone beds are extensively fractured and sealed by overlying argillaceous and non-fractured units. The best outcrop analogs for Twin Creek reservoirs are found at Devils Slide and near the town of Peoa, Utah, where fractures in dense, homogeneous non-porous limestone beds are in contact with the basal siltstone units (containing sealed fractures) of the overlying units. The shallow marine, Mississippian Leadville Limestone is a major oil and gas reservoir in the Paradox Basin of Utah and Colorado. Hydrocarbons are produced from basement-involved, northwest-trending structural traps with closure on both anticlines and faults. Excellent outcrops of Leadville-equivalent rocks are found along the south flank of the Uinta Mountains, Utah. For example, like the Leadville, the Mississippian Madison Limestone contains zones of solution breccia, fractures, and facies variations. When combined with subsurface geological and production data, these outcrop analogs can improve (1) development drilling and production strategies such as horizontal drilling, (2) reservoir-simulation models, (3) reserve calculations, and (4) design and implementation of secondary/tertiary oil recovery programs and other best practices used in the oil fields of Utah and vicinity. In the southern Green River Formation play of the Uinta Basin, optimal drilling, development, and production practices consist of: (1) owning drilling rigs and frac holding tanks; (2) perforating sandstone beds with more than 8 percent neutron porosity and stimulate with separate fracture treatments; (3) placing completed wells on primary production using artificial lift; (4) converting wells relatively soon to secondary waterflooding maintaining reservoir pressure above the bubble point to maximize oil recovery; (5) developing waterflood units using an alternating injector--producer pattern on 40-acre (16-ha) spacing; and (6) recompleting producing wells by perforating all beds that are productive in the waterflood unit. As part of technology transfer activities during this quarter, an abstract describing outcrop reservoir analogs was accepted by the American Assoc

  1. Hand kinematics of piano playing.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Shinichi; Flanders, Martha; Soechting, John F

    2011-12-01

    Dexterous use of the hand represents a sophisticated sensorimotor function. In behaviors such as playing the piano, it can involve strong temporal and spatial constraints. The purpose of this study was to determine fundamental patterns of covariation of motion across joints and digits of the human hand. Joint motion was recorded while 5 expert pianists played 30 excerpts from musical pieces, which featured ?50 different tone sequences and fingering. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis using an expectation-maximization algorithm revealed that joint velocities could be categorized into several patterns, which help to simplify the description of the movements of the multiple degrees of freedom of the hand. For the thumb keystroke, two distinct patterns of joint movement covariation emerged and they depended on the spatiotemporal patterns of the task. For example, the thumb-under maneuver was clearly separated into two clusters based on the direction of hand translation along the keyboard. While the pattern of the thumb joint velocities differed between these clusters, the motions at the metacarpo-phalangeal and proximal-phalangeal joints of the four fingers were more consistent. For a keystroke executed with one of the fingers, there were three distinct patterns of joint rotations, across which motion at the striking finger was fairly consistent, but motion of the other fingers was more variable. Furthermore, the amount of movement spillover of the striking finger to the adjacent fingers was small irrespective of the finger used for the keystroke. These findings describe an unparalleled amount of independent motion of the fingers. PMID:21880938

  2. Developing Plug-and-Play COM Ports using TI Plug-and-Play Controllers

    E-print Network

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    Developing Plug-and-Play COM Ports using TI Plug-and-Play Controllers Heinz-Peter Beckemeyer July Incorporated #12;Plug-and-Play Controller 3 Contents 1. Introduction.........................................................................................................5 2. Plug-and-Play Logic

  3. Children, Play, and Development. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Fergus P.

    2010-01-01

    Children, Play, and Development, Fourth Edition, discusses the relationship of play to the physical, social, intellectual, and emotional growth of the child. Author Fergus P. Hughes focuses on the historical, sociocultural, and ethological context of play; the role of development in play; and the wide range of theories that provide a framework for…

  4. Teatro! Hispanic Plays for Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigil, Angel

    This collection of 14 folk drama scripts is drawn from the Hispanic culture and traditions of the American Southwest and designed for use in educational settings. The plays are short, simple, and easy to produce. A single play can fill a class period, while several plays grouped together would make a school assembly. Six plays, intended for grades…

  5. Children's Spontaneous Play in Writer's Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysaker, Judith T.; Wheat, Jennifer; Benson, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Research on the relationship between literacy and play has a rich history. Yet few studies have examined children's use of spontaneous play during literacy events as children are learning to read and write. This case study examines the use of play and the quality of playfulness in a kindergarten/first grade multiage classroom during Writer's…

  6. How the Brain Makes Play Fun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the empirical studies that have investigated whether play (mostly social play) is rewarding. He then discusses the brain circuits and neurotransmitters that underlie the pleasurable aspects of play. He concludes that the pleasure of play has the ability to reinforce learning activities and that the brain's…

  7. Play in Cultural Contexts = Mang Kultuurikontekstis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saar, Aino, Ed.; Hakkarainen, Pentti, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This volume compiles articles based on the presentations delivered at two conferences. The conferences presented a multidisciplinary overview of research on children's play in different cultural contexts. The articles are grouped under six subheadings: play in the family context, play in the zone of proximal development, play in the kindergarten,…

  8. Conceptualizing the Play Policies in Preschool Curriculums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sener, Tulin

    2013-01-01

    This research attempted to describe the play policies in preschool institutions in Ankara, Turkey. The aim of this study is to determine the approaches of the preschools to the children's play. "Play Policy Questionnaire" administered to all directors and teachers of 20 public preschools and 20 private preschools. Play policy of…

  9. Play Policy Owned by: Tracy Pointon

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Jim

    Outdoors Play Policy V.2 June 15 2014 Owned by: Tracy Pointon J:/StudentServices/DepartmentResources/StudentServicesPoliciesandProcedures /EarlyYearsCentre/OutdoorsPlayPolicy June 2012 V.2 Impact Assessed: Update due: May 2015 #12;Policy 1 Title: Outdoor Play From: Early Years Centre Date: 26th July 2011; reviewed 15th June 2014 Outdoor play

  10. Active Gaming: The Future of Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witherspoon, Lisa; Manning, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine technology-driven games--especially active gaming--as an evolving form of children's play. They offer an overview of play and its developmental benefits, describe the literature on the emergence of technology-driven play, and reflect on the diminishment of physical play in contemporary culture. They suggest that active gaming,…

  11. Introduction to Plays, English: 5112.44.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozan, Ruth S.

    Several plays are studied to introduce students to theatrical terms and to the elements of a play in this quinmester course for Dade County High Schools. Several approaches to the study of the play are suggested such as individual and a large group production of a play, the use of a unified theme such as Youth vs. Tradition, or the line of…

  12. Play and Social Interaction in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, Doris; Fromberg, Doris Pronin

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses traditional and contemporary definitions of middle childhood play, the value of such play for children's development and learning, the implications of home, school, and societal practices that have resulted in changing the play scenario of middle childhood, and suggestions for assuring that play's value will be maintained…

  13. Preschool Teachers' Views of Active Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Mary Ellin; Harvey, Hattie

    2010-01-01

    This study surveyed 98 teachers of 4-year-olds about dramatic play in their classrooms and about their attitudes and practices about rough-and-tumble play. Gender differences emerged in the nature of dramatic play reported and in the ways in which teachers interacted with children engaged in different forms of dramatic play. Teachers also reported…

  14. Play and the Young Child: Musical Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Tim

    After noting the near-universal presence of rhythmic response in play in all cultures, this paper looks first at the historical development of theories of play, and then examines current theories of play and their implications in the teaching of music to young children. The first section reviews 19th and early 20th century theories of play

  15. Turkish Adaptation of Test of Pretended Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Aydan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of present research is to conduct validity and reliability analysis of the verbal section of Test of Pretended Play that will measure pretended play behaviors of pre-school age children (3-6 years of age). Test of Pretended Play was first developed by Vicky Lewis and Jill Boucher in 1997. This test aimed to measure pretended play…

  16. Parent-Child Play: Descriptions and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Kevin, Ed.

    This volume provides the latest research and theory in the area of children's play with their parents. It includes discussions of the basic processes involved in parent-child play, parent-child play in atypical populations of children, and parent-child play from a cross-cultural perspective. Fifteen chapters follow the introduction, "Parents and…

  17. Psychiatrists' Perceptions of Role-Playing Games.

    PubMed

    Lis, Eric; Chiniara, Carl; Biskin, Robert; Montoro, Richard

    2015-09-01

    The literature has seen a surge in research on the mental health impacts of technologies such as Facebook, video games, and massively-multiplayer online role-playing games such as World of Warcraft, but little is known regarding the mental health impact of non-video role-playing games, such as Dungeons & Dragons. The present study examines how psychiatrists' perceive role-playing games and whether they play them. Psychiatrists at a tertiary care centre in Canada completed a questionnaire assessing history of playing role-playing games and whether they associate them with psychopathology. Forty-eight psychiatrists responded. Twenty-three percent have played a role-playing game over their lifetimes. Twenty-two percent believed there was an association between psychopathology and role-playing games. A majority of psychiatrists who responded do not associate role-playing games with psychopathology. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. PMID:25589035

  18. Transforming Play: An Analysis of First-, Third-, and Fifth-Graders' Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Donna M.; Chaille, Christine

    1996-01-01

    Compared children's play with transformational objects (vehicles that change to robots) to play with representational objects (cars and figures). Found that those playing with transformers engaged in more parallel play and manipulative activity, while those with representational objects displayed more social play and more symbolic play. Found no…

  19. Efficient cleavage of DNA oligonucleotides by a non-FokI-type zinc finger nuclease containing one His4-type finger domain derived from the first finger domain of Sp1.

    PubMed

    Negi, Shigeru; Yoshioka, Michiko; Mima, Hiroko; Mastumoto, Makoto; Suzuki, Michiko; Yokoyama, Mao; Kano, Koji; Sugiura, Yukio

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we sought to improve the hydrolytic activity of a His4-type single finger domain (f2), which was previously derived from the second finger domain (f2') of the Sp1 zinc finger protein (Sp1wt), which has 3 tandem finger domains (f1', f2', and f3'). To this end, 2 His4-type single finger domains were generated by mutating 2 Cys residues participating in Zn(II) coordination with the His residues in the first (f1') and third finger (f3') domains of Sp1wt. Circular dichroism spectroscopy results showed that the first and second His4-type zinc finger domains (f1 and f2) adopted folded ??? structures in the presence of Zn(II), but that the third His4-type zinc finger domain (f3) did not. Non-FokI-type zinc finger nucleases containing 3 or 4 finger domains were also prepared by combining a His4-type zinc finger domain with the Sp1wt scaffold. We studied their DNA-binding abilities and hydrolytic activities against DNA oligonucleotides by performing gel-mobility-shift assays. The results showed that f1 had higher hydrolytic activity for a DNA oligonucleotide with a GC box (5'-GGG GCG GGG-3'), compared with that of f2, although both His4-type single finger domains had similar DNA-binding affinities. The difference in the hydrolytic activity between f1 and f2 was ascribed not only to the zinc coordinate structure, but also to its folding structure and the stability of finger domain. PMID:26316464

  20. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Craig D. Morgan; Kevin McClure; Grant C. Willis

    2003-09-01

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the fourth quarter of the first project year (April 1 through June 30, 2003). This work included describing outcrop analogs to the Jurassic Nugget Sandstone and Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation, the major oil producers in the thrust belt and Paradox Basin, respectively. Production-scale outcrop analogs provide an excellent view, often in three dimensions, of reservoir-facies characteristics and boundaries contributing to the overall heterogeneity of reservoir rocks. They can be used as a ''template'' for evaluation of data from conventional core, geophysical and petrophysical logs, and seismic surveys. The Nugget Sandstone was deposited in an extensive dune field that extended from Wyoming to Arizona. Outcrop analogs are found in the stratigraphically equivalent Navajo Sandstone of southern Utah which displays large-scale dunal cross-strata with excellent reservoir properties and interdunal features such as oases, wadi, and playa lithofacies with poor reservoir properties. Hydrocarbons in the Paradox Formation are stratigraphically trapped in carbonate buildups (or phylloid-algal mounds). Similar carbonate buildups are exposed in the Paradox along the San Juan River of southeastern Utah. Reservoir-quality porosity may develop in the types of facies associated with buildups such as troughs, detrital wedges, and fans, identified from these outcrops. When combined with subsurface geological and production data, these outcrop analogs can improve (1) development drilling and production strategies such as horizontal drilling, (2) reservoir-simulation models, (3) reserve calculations, and (4) design and implementation of secondary/tertiary oil recovery programs and other best practices used in the oil fields of Utah and vicinity. During this quarter, technology transfer activities consisted of exhibiting the project plans, objectives, and products at a booth at the 2003 annual convention of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. The project home page was updated on the Utah Geological Survey Internet web site.

  1. The Impact of Pretend Play on Children's Development: A Review of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillard, Angeline S.; Lerner, Matthew D.; Hopkins, Emily J.; Dore, Rebecca A.; Smith, Eric D.; Palmquist, Carolyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Pretend play has been claimed to be crucial to children's healthy development. Here we examine evidence for this position versus 2 alternatives: Pretend play is 1 of many routes to positive developments (equifinality), and pretend play is an epiphenomenon of other factors that drive development. Evidence from several domains is considered. For…

  2. When does playing hard to get increase romantic attraction?

    PubMed

    Dai, Xianchi; Dong, Ping; Jia, Jayson S

    2014-04-01

    Folk wisdom suggests playing hard to get is an effective strategy in romantic attraction. However, prior research has yielded little support for this belief. This article seeks to reconcile these contrasting views by investigating how 2 hitherto unconsidered factors, (a) the asymmetry between wanting (motivational) and liking (affective) responses and (b) the degree of psychological commitment, can determine the efficacy of playing hard to get. We propose that person B playing hard to get with person A will simultaneously increase A's wanting but decrease A's liking of B. However, such a result will only occur if A is psychologically committed to pursuing further relations with B; otherwise, playing hard to get will decrease both wanting and liking. Two studies confirm these propositions. We discuss implications for interpersonal attraction and the interplay between emotion and motivation in determining preferences. PMID:23668234

  3. Rip-off: Playing the Cooperative Negotiation Game (Extended Abstract)

    E-print Network

    Kohli, Pushmeet

    Rip-off: Playing the Cooperative Negotiation Game (Extended Abstract) Yoram Bachrach, Pushmeet cooperative game theory. Many different solu- tion concepts, such as the Core and the Shapley value have been, Experimentation, Algorithms, Human Factors Keywords Cooperative Game Theory, Negotiation, Shapley Value 1

  4. Symbolic play in autism: a review.

    PubMed

    Jarrold, C; Boucher, J; Smith, P

    1993-06-01

    Experimental research into the symbolic play of autistic children is reviewed in an attempt to outline the nature of their deficit in this area. While many studies can be criticized on methodological grounds, there is good evidence for an impairment in the spontaneous symbolic play of autistic children, an impairment that appears to extend to cover spontaneous functional play also. However studies that have investigated elicited and instructed play have indicated that autistic children may have a capacity for symbolic play that they do not spontaneously exhibit. The implications of these findings for various hypotheses concerning a symbolic play deficit in autism are considered and directions for future research are outlined. PMID:7687245

  5. Sequence-structure correlations in silk: Poly-Ala repeat of N. clavipes MaSp1 is naturally optimized at a critical length scale.

    PubMed

    Bratzel, Graham; Buehler, Markus J

    2012-03-01

    Spider silk is a self-assembling biopolymer that outperforms many known materials in terms of its mechanical performance despite being constructed from simple and inferior building blocks. While experimental studies have shown that the molecular structure of silk has a direct influence on the stiffness, toughness, and failure strength of silk, few molecular-level analyses of the nanostructure of silk assemblies in particular under variations of genetic sequences have been reported. Here we report atomistic-level structures of the MaSp1 protein from the Nephila Clavipes spider dragline silk sequence, obtained using an in silico approach based on replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) and explicit water molecular dynamics. We apply this method to study the effects of a systematic variation of the poly-alanine repeat lengths, a parameter controlled by the genetic makeup of silk, on the resulting molecular structure of silk at the nanoscale. Confirming earlier experimental and computational work, a structural analysis reveals that poly-alanine regions in silk predominantly form distinct and orderly ?-sheet crystal domains while disorderly regions are formed by glycine-rich repeats that consist of 3(10)-helix type structures and ?-turns. Our predictions are directly validated against experimental data based on dihedral angle pair calculations presented in Ramachandran plots combined with an analysis of the secondary structure content. The key result of our study is our finding of a strong dependence of the resulting silk nanostructure depending on the poly-alanine length. We observe that the wildtype poly-alanine repeat length of six residues defines a critical minimum length that consistently results in clearly defined ?-sheet nanocrystals. For poly-alanine lengths below six, the ?-sheet nanocrystals are not well-defined or not visible at all, while for poly-alanine lengths at and above six, the characteristic nanocomposite structure of silk emerges with no significant improvement of the quality of the ?-sheet nanocrystal geometry. We present a simple biophysical model that explains these computational observations based on the mechanistic insight gained from the molecular simulations. Our findings set the stage for understanding how variations in the spidroin sequence can be used to engineer the structure and thereby functional properties of this biological superfiber, and present a design strategy for the genetic optimization of spidroins for enhanced mechanical properties. The approach used here may also find application in the design of other self-assembled molecular structures and fibers and in particular biologically inspired or completely synthetic systems. PMID:22340682

  6. Major Oil Plays In Utah And Vicinity

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Chidsey

    2007-12-31

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.33 billion barrels (211 million m{sup 3}) of oil and hold 256 million barrels (40.7 million m{sup 3}) of proved reserves. The 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m3) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. However, in late 2005 oil production increased, due, in part, to the discovery of Covenant field in the central Utah Navajo Sandstone thrust belt ('Hingeline') play, and to increased development drilling in the central Uinta Basin, reversing the decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming can continue this new upward production trend. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios include descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; locations of major oil pipelines; identification and discussion of land-use constraints; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary recovery techniques for each play. The most prolific oil reservoir in the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province is the eolian, Jurassic Nugget Sandstone, having produced over 288 million barrels (46 million m{sup 3}) of oil and 5.1 trillion cubic feet (145 billion m{sup 3}) of gas. Traps form on discrete subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the depositionally heterogeneous Nugget is also extensively fractured. Hydrocarbons in Nugget reservoirs were generated from subthrust Cretaceous source rocks. The seals for the producing horizons are overlying argillaceous and gypsiferous beds in the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone, or a low-permeability zone at the top of the Nugget. The Nugget Sandstone thrust belt play is divided into three subplays: (1) Absaroka thrust - Mesozoic-cored shallow structures, (2) Absaroka thrust - Mesozoic-cored deep structures, and (3) Absaroka thrust - Paleozoic-cored shallow structures. Both of the Mesozoic-cored structures subplays represent a linear, hanging wall, ramp anticline parallel to the leading edge of the Absaroka thrust. Fields in the shallow Mesozoic subplay produce crude oil and associated gas; fields in the deep subplay produce retrograde condensate. The Paleozoic-cored structures subplay is located immediately west of the Mesozoic-cored structures subplays. It represents a very continuous and linear, hanging wall, ramp anticline where the Nugget is truncated against a thrust splay. Fields in this subplay produce nonassociated gas and condensate. Traps in these subplays consist of long, narrow, doubly plunging anticlines. Prospective drilling targets are delineated using high-quality, two-dimensional and three-dimensional seismic data, forward modeling/visualization tools, and other state-of-the-art techniques. Future Nugget Sandstone exploration could focus on more structurally complex and subtle, thrust-related traps. Nugget structures may be present beneath the leading edge of the Hogsback thrust and North Flank fault of the Uinta uplift. The Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone play in the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province has produced over 15 million barrels (2.4 million m{sup 3}) of oil and 93 billion cubic feet (2.6 billion m{sup 3}) of gas. Traps form on discrete subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the low-porosity Twin Creek is extensively fractured. Hydrocarbons in Twin Creek reservoirs were generated from subthrust Cretaceous source rocks. The seals for the producing horizons are overlying argillaceous and clastic beds, and non-fractured units within the Twin Creek. The Twin Creek Limestone thrust belt play is divided into two subplays: (1) Absaroka thrust-Mesozoic-cored structures and (2) A

  7. The Validity of Head Start Teacher Assistant Report of Children's Peer Play Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWayne, Christine; Sekino, Yumiko; Fantuzzo, John

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the validity of teacher assistant report of children's classroom peer play behaviors using the Penn Interactive Peer Play Scale (PIPPS). Participants for the examination of construct validity were 344 urban Head Start children. Exploratory factor analyses resulted in a reliable three-factor solution, corroborating the…

  8. Play the Immune System Defender Game

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Questionnaire The Immune System Play the Immune System Game About the game Granulocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells are immune cells ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  9. Designing and prototyping networked collaborative play structures

    E-print Network

    Zimmerman, Kristin Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Much of children's play time has shifted from outdoor activities to human-screen interactions on smart devices. While the digital world offers many creative play outlets that would be impossible in the physical world, the ...

  10. Playful calculation : tangible coding for visual calculation

    E-print Network

    Ham, Derek (Derek Allen)

    2015-01-01

    Play and calculation are often considered to be at odds. Play embraces the wildness of youth, imagination, and a sense of freedom. Calculation, to most, represents rigor, mechanistic behavior, and following inflexible ...

  11. Growing as One Plays with a Balloon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbert, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author recounts her experience with Tracy, who was playing with a balloon outside her office when she was five years old, and gives an up-to-date story of Tracy since 1985, 1990, and 2006. In reflecting on Tracy's play, the author realizes that Tracy is helping her see clearly what play is really all about, that in playing to…

  12. Picture Me Playing: Increasing Pretend Play Dialogue of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Linda C.; Hobbs, Jan Q.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the Picture Me Playing intervention for increasing the play dialogue of preschool children with ASD during pretend play opportunities with typical peers. Picture Me Playing is a pictorially enhanced, script based intervention targeting character role play through a narrative vignette. A single-treatment…

  13. Are medical treatments for individuals and groups like single-play and multiple-play gambles?

    E-print Network

    Are medical treatments for individuals and groups like single-play and multiple-play gambles-play and multiple-play gambles? Abstract People are often more likely to accept risky gambles with positive expected values when the gambles will be played more than once. The authors investigated whether this distinction

  14. So now youre ready to play but with what? A system to encourage playful exploration

    E-print Network

    Pearce, Jon

    So now youre ready to play ­ but with what? A system to encourage playful exploration Jon M Pearce in encouraging learning through play is to design online environments that are playful yet not distracting and whistles'. This paper presents the application of theories of play and flow in the design of a highly

  15. Optimal, Approximately Optimal, and Fair Play of the Fowl Play Card Game

    E-print Network

    Neller, Todd W.

    Optimal, Approximately Optimal, and Fair Play of the Fowl Play Card Game Todd W. Neller, Marcin Fowl Play, we present equa- tions for optimal two-player play, describe their solution with a variant of value iteration, and visualize the optimal play policy. Next, we discuss the approxima- tion of optimal

  16. Play and Mate Preference: Testing the Signal Theory of Adult Playfulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chick, Garry; Yarnal, Careen; Purrington, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of play research concerns juveniles. However, a full understanding of the phenomenon requires knowledge of play and playfulness across the life spans of those animals, including humans, who play in adulthood. The authors investigate a theory of play based on Darwin's concept of sexual selection that may account for the…

  17. Children in Play, Story, and School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goncu, Artin, Ed.; Klein, Elisa L.

    In honor of the contributions of Greta G. Fein to the fields of developmental psychology and early childhood education, a community of scholars prepared this volume to explore how social play arises, social play's developmental and educational significance, and the ways in which social play can be promoted in early childhood settings. In addition,…

  18. Smart Playing Cards A Ubiquitous Computing Game

    E-print Network

    Smart Playing Cards A Ubiquitous Computing Game Kay R¨omer Department of Computer Science ETH the "Smart Playing Cards" application, a ubiquitous computing game that augments a classical card game of ubiquitous computing, designing and im- plementing the Smart Playing Cards application gave us some insight

  19. Pretend Play of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeifer, Luzia Iara; Pacciulio, Amanda Mota; dos Santos, Camila Abrao; dos Santos, Jair Licio; Stagnitti, Karen Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Evaluate self-initiated pretend play of children with cerebral palsy. Method: Twenty preschool children participated in the study. Pretend play ability was measured by using the child-initiated pretend play assessment culturally adapted to Brazil. Results: There were significant negative correlations between the children's…

  20. 27 CFR 9.168 - Fair Play.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair Play. 9.168 Section 9... TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.168 Fair Play. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Fair Play.” (b) Approved...

  1. 27 CFR 9.168 - Fair Play.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fair Play. 9.168 Section 9.168 Alcohol...American Viticultural Areas § 9.168 Fair Play. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...area described in this section is “Fair Play.” (b) Approved maps. The...

  2. 27 CFR 9.168 - Fair Play.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fair Play. 9.168 Section 9.168 Alcohol...American Viticultural Areas § 9.168 Fair Play. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...area described in this section is “Fair Play.” (b) Approved maps. The...

  3. 27 CFR 9.168 - Fair Play.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fair Play. 9.168 Section 9.168 Alcohol...American Viticultural Areas § 9.168 Fair Play. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...area described in this section is “Fair Play.” (b) Approved maps. The...

  4. 27 CFR 9.168 - Fair Play.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fair Play. 9.168 Section 9.168 Alcohol...American Viticultural Areas § 9.168 Fair Play. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...area described in this section is “Fair Play.” (b) Approved maps. The...

  5. 27 CFR 9.168 - Fair Play.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair Play. 9.168 Section 9.168 Alcohol...American Viticultural Areas § 9.168 Fair Play. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...area described in this section is “Fair Play.” (b) Approved maps. The...

  6. Young Children's Playfully Complex Communication: Distributed Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcock, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on research exploring young children's playful and humorous communication. It explores how playful activity mediates and connects children in complex activity systems where imagination, cognition, and consciousness become distributed across individuals. Children's playfulness is mediated and distributed via artefacts (tools, signs…

  7. Gender Differences in Students' Mathematics Game Playing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowrie, Tom; Jorgensen, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    The investigation monitored the digital game-playing behaviours of 428 primary-aged students (aged 10-12 years). Chi-square analysis revealed that boys tend to spend more time playing digital games than girls while boys and girls play quite different game genres. Subsequent analysis revealed statistically significant gender differences in terms of…

  8. Empirically Based Play Interventions for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A., Ed.; Files-Hall, Tara M., Ed.; Schaefer, Charles E., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Empirically Based Play Interventions for Children" is a compilation of innovative, well-designed play interventions, presented for the first time in one text. Play therapy is the oldest and most popular form of child therapy in clinical practice and is widely considered by practitioners to be uniquely responsive to children's developmental needs.…

  9. Superheroes: An Opportunity for Prosocial Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De-Souza, Desalyn; Radell, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Superhero play has long been thought of as violent, aggressive, and disruptive. Some argue that aggressive play should not be allowed because it exposes children to inappropriate concepts and attitudes and sends the message that the use of aggression can achieve a desired goal. However, educators know that pretend play is an avenue for healthy…

  10. Playing Computer Games Versus Better Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Din, Feng S.; Caleo, Josephine

    This study investigated whether kindergarten students who played Sony Play Station (Lightspan) computer games learned better than peers who did not play such games. Participants were 47 African-American kindergartners from two classes of an urban school in the Northeast. A pretest and posttest with control group design was used in the study. The…

  11. Game Playing: Negotiating Rules and Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte

    2009-01-01

    Beginning with Lev Vygotsky's long-established assertion that the play of children always involves both imaginary play and rules of behavior, this article argues for a theoretical framework that connects such play with the construction of social identities in kindergarten peer groups. It begins with a discussion of Ivy Schousboe's model of the…

  12. Playing Fair: An Essential Element in Contracting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeler, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Playing fair has a value with which people are all familiar. From the sandboxes of childhood and the competitive sports of youth to the business transactions of adulthood, people have been told how important it is to play fair. Playing fair in contracting is not only essential, it's the legal and ethical thing to do. In this article, the author…

  13. Making Theater: Developing Plays with Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohl, Herbert R.

    Intended for teachers who have no particular experience or training in teaching theater, but who have a love of theater and enjoy a good play, this book discusses making theater with children. It explores improvisation, reading and acting with scripts, adapting plays for young actors, and writing plays. The examples presented in the text are…

  14. The Play Professional in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millbank, Anna-Marie

    2005-01-01

    Playwork is a respected field of study composed of experts who have studied the theories and practices of play for the purposes of training other individuals in best practices to better facilitate children's play. The profession is founded on the belief that play is an essential childhood element and the right of every child. In this article, the…

  15. Evaluation of vision training using 3D play game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung-Ho; Kwon, Soon-Chul; Son, Kwang-Chul; Lee, Seung-Hyun

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of the vision training, which is a benefit of watching 3D video images (3D video shooting game in this study), focusing on its accommodative facility and vergence facility. Both facilities, which are the scales used to measure human visual performance, are very important factors for man in leading comfortable and easy life. This study was conducted on 30 participants in their 20s through 30s (19 males and 11 females at 24.53 ± 2.94 years), who can watch 3D video images and play 3D game. Their accommodative and vergence facility were measured before and after they watched 2D and 3D game. It turned out that their accommodative facility improved after they played both 2D and 3D games and more improved right after they played 3D game than 2D game. Likewise, their vergence facility was proved to improve after they played both 2D and 3D games and more improved soon after they played 3D game than 2D game. In addition, it was demonstrated that their accommodative facility improved to greater extent than their vergence facility. While studies have been so far conducted on the adverse effects of 3D contents, from the perspective of human factor, on the imbalance of visual accommodation and convergence, the present study is expected to broaden the applicable scope of 3D contents by utilizing the visual benefit of 3D contents for vision training.

  16. Krüppel-like factor 15 regulates BMPER in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Helbing, Thomas; Volkmar, Franziska; Goebel, Ulrich; Heinke, Jennifer; Diehl, Philipp; Pahl, Heike L.; Bode, Christoph; Patterson, Cam; Moser, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Aims Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are involved in embryonic and adult blood vessel formation in health and disease. Previous studies have shown that BMP endothelial cell precursor-derived regulator (BMPER) plays an important role in endothelial cell function and blood vessel formation. BMPER is a key regulator of BMP4 activity and a prerequisite for BMP pathway activation by BMP4 in endothelial cells. Here, we characterize the BMPER promoter and elucidate mechanisms of BMPER regulation. Methods and results To investigate transcriptional mechanisms of BMPER expression, the murine BMPER promoter was cloned and characterized. A series of 5? deletions of the BMPER promoter revealed that the proximal promoter contains activating cis-elements. By overexpression or siRNA-based knockdown, we demonstrate that BMPER expression is activated by Krüppel-like factor (KLF) 15. As determined by gelshift analyses, KLF15 binds directly to a predicted KLF-binding element at ?284 bp within the BMPER promoter. Co-expression experiments show that Sp1 acts as an antagonist for KLF15-induced promoter activation. Endothelin-1 was identified as a potent inhibitor of KLF15 and BMPER expression in endothelial cells, suggesting that KLF15 is a transducer of endothelin-1 activity on BMPER expression. The selective ETB endothelin receptor antagonist BQ788 abolished the downregulation of BMPER expression by endothelin-1. Conclusion Mechanistically, we found that KLF15 is a strong and direct activator of the BMPER expression. BMPER is downregulated by endothelin-1 in a dose-dependent fashion and in parallel to KLF15. As KLF15 deficiency is accompanied by a vascular phenotype and BMPER is necessary for proper blood vessel formation, we suggest a chain of events in which the effects of endothelin-1 on BMPER are mediated by KLF15. PMID:19767294

  17. Homemade Games… how to make and play

    E-print Network

    Moore, Lucille H.; Johnson, Eloise T.

    1957-01-01

    HOMEMADE GAMES HOW TO MAKE AND PLAY TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE 530 J. E. HUTCHISON, DIRECTOR, COLLEGE STAT!ON, TEXAS CON TENTS . . General Directions .......................... 3 Play Equipment for the Very Young ------------ 3..., Physical Education Department. Texas A. & M. College HOMEMADE GAMES.. . how to make and play LUCILLE H. MOORE ELOISE T. JOHNSON Extension Specialisr in Recreation Extension Specialist in Family Life Education TEXAS A. & M. COLLEGE SYSTEM you AND YOUR...

  18. Exploring the links between personality traits and motivations to play online games.

    PubMed

    Park, Jowon; Song, Yosep; Teng, Ching-I

    2011-12-01

    The present study explores the links between personality traits and motivations to play online games. We identified the underlying dimensions of motivations to play online games, examined how personality traits predict motivation, and investigated how personality traits predict online gaming behavior (i.e., playing time and preference for game genres). Factor analyses identified five motivational factors: relationships, adventure, escapism, relaxation, and achievement. The regression analyses indicated that two personality traits, extraversion and agreeableness, predicted various motivations; however, personality traits did not affect the playing time and game genre preference. PMID:21780935

  19. The Influence of the Physical Design of the Dramatic Play Center on Children's Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrakos, Harriet; Howe, Nina

    1996-01-01

    Observed the effects of dramatic play center variations on children's social and cognitive play behaviors. Found that solitary-designed centers facilitated more solitary play than group-designed centers; dramatic play increased in the intervention and follow-up housekeeping centers compared to the baseline housekeeping center; and thematic centers…

  20. Chinese and German Teachers' Conceptions of Play and Learning and Children's Play Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Shu-Chen; Rao, Nirmala

    2011-01-01

    Commonalities and distinctions in Hong Kong-Chinese and German kindergarten teachers' conceptions of play and learning were examined. Six video clips of play episodes reflecting common play behavior and themes were selected from observations made during free play in two kindergartens in Hong Kong and two in Germany. Ten Chinese and seven German…

  1. Analysis of Multi-Robot Play Effectiveness and of Distributed Incidental Play Recognition

    E-print Network

    Veloso, Manuela M.

    Analysis of Multi-Robot Play Effectiveness and of Distributed Incidental Play Recognition Colin Mc,veloso}@cs.cmu.edu Summary. Distributed play-based approaches have been proposed as an effective means of switching show that different plays have a significant effect on opponent performance in real robot soccer games

  2. Play and Adversity: How the Playful Mammalian Brain Withstands Threats and Anxieties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siviy, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    Most mammals play, but they do so in a dangerous world. The dynamic relationship between the stresses created by their world and the activity of play helps to explain the evolution of play in mammals, as the author demonstrates in evidence garnered from experiments that introduce elements of fear to rats at play. The author describes the resulting…

  3. Virtual Playgrounds? Assessing the Playfulness of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kerrie Lewis

    2010-01-01

    Millions of children and adults devote much of their leisure time to playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). Most observers commonly categorize computer games as a play activity, but this article asks whether MMORPGs contain activities that might not be play. The author examines the phenomenon of online gaming and…

  4. Playing with Mathematics: Play in Early Childhood as a Context for Mathematical Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Play is an essential part of young children's lives. This symposium highlights the integral role of play in young children's mathematics learning and examines the teacher's role in facilitating and extending this. Papers examine key tenets of play, contributing to theoretical understandings and presenting data on teacher's perceptions of play and…

  5. Play at the Art Table: A Study of Children's Play Behaviors while Drawing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobedo, Theresa H.

    This descriptive study examined children's drawings and related language episodes to differentiate drawings exhibiting play from those exhibiting exploratory behavior. Drawings categorized as play were further analyzed to identify constructive and imaginary play. The play theory used as the basis of the study proposes that exploration and…

  6. Pedagogical Positioning in Play--Teachers Being inside and outside of Children's Imaginary Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleer, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a long tradition of play pedagogy in early childhood education, teachers have mostly taken a passive role in children's play. There are relatively few studies of the pedagogical roles adults take from inside of children's imaginary play. This paper seeks to fill this gap through presenting the findings of a study where the play…

  7. Influence of play on creative thinking.

    PubMed

    Berretta, S; Privette, G

    1990-10-01

    The immediate influence of flexible and highly structured play on the creative thinking of 184 fourth-grade boys and girls was investigated. Following either flexible or highly structured art, drama, and playground activities, children's performances on the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking were evaluated. Children who participated in flexible play experiences showed significantly greater creative thinking than children participating in the highly structured play experiences. No significant differences were found between boys and girls related to effects of flexible and structured play on creative thinking. Implications for curriculum are explored. PMID:2251097

  8. Picture me playing: increasing pretend play dialogue of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Linda C; Hobbs, Jan Q

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the Picture Me Playing intervention for increasing the play dialogue of preschool children with ASD during pretend play opportunities with typical peers. Picture Me Playing is a pictorially enhanced, script based intervention targeting character role play through a narrative vignette. A single-treatment counterbalanced design was utilized to contrast the performance of intervention and comparison groups, followed by within-subject analysis. Results indicated significant increases in play dialogue represented by both scripted and novel utterances. Results generalized to an unscripted play opportunity with novel toys. PMID:20872061

  9. Achieving Learning Goals through Play. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widerstrom, Anne H.

    2004-01-01

    Play is more than just fun; it is a powerful teaching tool that helps young children learn. With this practical, activity-filled guide, teachers will have ready-to-use strategies for weaving individual learning goals into play throughout the school day. Created for use with children ages 2 to 5 who have special needs--but equally effective for…

  10. The Thing's the Play: Doing "Hamlet."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowder, Wilbur H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Argues for the use of film in the teaching of William Shakespeare's "Hamlet" because the play was meant to be seen and heard and not just read. Outlines a method of teaching the play by which students select a scene and perform it. Gives an example of a successful student performance. (HB)

  11. The Common Core's First Casualty: Playful Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowdon, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Although the Common Core standards do not prescribe pedagogy or forbid playful learning, kindergarten teachers will find it challenging to maintain a playful classroom under this reform. Kindergarten teachers have to cover a more rigorous and accelerated curriculum now, and they are doing so in a context that rewards procedural teaching.

  12. Mindbrain and Play-Literacy Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskos, Kathleen A.; Christie, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the relationship between play and early literacy flourished in the 1990s but slowed to a trickle at the start of the new millennium. As we see it, play-literacy research is stuck in a theoretical and methodological rut. Two promising conceptual frameworks--connectionist and dynamic systems theories--can supply the thrust needed to get…

  13. Role-Playing in Counselor Student Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Debra; Costas, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how role-plays impacted 27 counseling students' overall skills as measured by instructor ratings and self-ratings during practice triads in a microskills course. A Mann-Whitney U nonparametric test revealed no significant difference for scripted versus personal concerns role-plays. Students indicated a strong belief that…

  14. Playing with Technology: Is It All Bad?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slutsky, Ruslan; Slutsky, Mindy; DeShelter, Lori M.

    2014-01-01

    Technology now plays a very large role in the way children of all ages play. Children want access to technology, so parents and teachers must determine the best ways to present it to them. Computers are a popular form of technology for children as young as age three. With that in mind, computer games should be problem-solving oriented and…

  15. Selecting major Appalachian basin gas plays

    SciTech Connect

    Patchen, D.G.; Nuttall, B.C.; Baranoski, M.T.; Harper, J.A.; Schwietering, J.F.; Van Tyne, A.; Aminian, K.; Smosna, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Under a cooperative agreement with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) the Appalachian Oil and Natural Gas Research Consortium (AONGRC) is preparing a geologic atlas of the major gas plays in the Appalachian basin, and compiling a database for all fields in each geologic play. the first obligation under this agreement was to prepare a topical report that identifies the major gas plays, briefly describes each play, and explains how the plays were selected. Four main objectives have been defined for this initial task: assign each gas reservoir to a geologic play, based on age, trap type, degree of structural control, and depositional environment; organize all plays into geologically-similar groups based on the main criteria that defines each play; prepare a topical report for METC; and transfer this technology to industry through posters and talks at regional geological and engineering meetings including the Appalachian Petroleum Geology Symposium, Northeastern Section meeting of the Geological Society of America, the METC Gas Contractors Review meeting, the Kentucky Oil and Gas Association, and the Appalachian Energy Group.

  16. Selecting major Appalachian basin gas plays

    SciTech Connect

    Patchen, D.G.; Nuttall, B.C.; Baranoski, M.T.; Harper, J.A.; Schwietering, J.F.; Van Tyne, A.; Aminian, K.; Smosna, R.A.

    1992-06-01

    Under a cooperative agreement with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) the Appalachian Oil and Natural Gas Research Consortium (AONGRC) is preparing a geologic atlas of the major gas plays in the Appalachian basin, and compiling a database for all fields in each geologic play. the first obligation under this agreement was to prepare a topical report that identifies the major gas plays, briefly describes each play, and explains how the plays were selected. Four main objectives have been defined for this initial task: assign each gas reservoir to a geologic play, based on age, trap type, degree of structural control, and depositional environment; organize all plays into geologically-similar groups based on the main criteria that defines each play; prepare a topical report for METC; and transfer this technology to industry through posters and talks at regional geological and engineering meetings including the Appalachian Petroleum Geology Symposium, Northeastern Section meeting of the Geological Society of America, the METC Gas Contractors Review meeting, the Kentucky Oil and Gas Association, and the Appalachian Energy Group.

  17. Sack Racers at Day of Play

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    From left, Mallory Doody, 5, Natalie Cambre, 3, Madison Doody, 7, and Anna Cambre, 6, get ready to compete in a sack race. The children were participants in Nickelodeon's Worldwide Day of Play celebration at Stennis Space Center (SSC) on Oct. 1. The Worldwide Day of Play is sponsored annually by Nickelodeon television network to encourage children to be physically active.

  18. Cognitive Underpinnings of Pretend Play in Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, M. D.; Rogers, Sally J.

    2003-01-01

    A study examined the cognitive underpinnings of spontaneous and prompted pretend play in 28 children with autism (ages 2-3), 24 children with developmental disorders, and 26 controls (ages 1-3). Children with autism were significantly delayed on pretend play scores. They also had significant deficits in a theory of mind measure. (Contains…

  19. An Early Historical Play: The "Seinte Resurreccion"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Anne Amari

    1978-01-01

    Analyzes the realistic characterization and plot construction of an anonymously written medieval French play. The play, which relates the story of Christ's resurrection, achieves historical realism by replacing music and chant with dialogue, using a logical plot, and limiting historical anachronism. (AV)

  20. Helping Young Children See Math in Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Amy Noelle; Blom, Diana Chang

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide strategies for recognizing meaningful mathematics in common play contexts in early childhood classrooms and to offer suggestions for how teachers might intervene in these moments to help children attend to the mathematical ideas embedded in their play. In particular, the author's focus on the concepts…

  1. Executive Functions Development and Playing Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Ana Lucia; de Souza, Maria Thereza C. Coelho

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss executive functions and playing games, considering Piaget's work (1967) and the neuropsychological framework (Barkley, 1997, 2000; Cypel, 2007). Two questions guide the discussion: What are the intersections between playing games and the development of executive functions? Can we stimulate children with learning…

  2. Block Play: Building a Foundation for Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, Judith E.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews studies suggesting benefits of block play for literacy development that provides actual reading and writing experiences. Suggests that block play centers can be literacy-enhanced with materials that are authentic, useful, and appropriate, including: thematic books, magazines, architectural blueprints, envelopes, and adding machine tape.…

  3. Gender-Typed Play and Amniotic Testosterone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knickmeyer, Rebecca Christine; Wheelwright, Sally; Taylor, Kevin; Raggatt, Peter; Hackett, Gerald; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Sex differences in play are apparent in a number of mammalian species, including humans. Prenatal testosterone may contribute to these differences. The authors report the first attempt to correlate gender-typed play in a normative sample of humans with measurements of amniotic testosterone (aT). Testosterone was measured in the amniotic fluid of…

  4. Play as a Pathway of Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henricks, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    Seeking to understand play as part of a more general theory of human relationships, the author defines play as one of four fundamental categories of behavior, the others being work, ritual, and communitas. He discusses how each of these behaviors is organized as a "pathway" that offers distinctive opportunities for experiencing life and for…

  5. Orderly and Disorderly Play: A Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henricks, Thomas S.

    2009-01-01

    Play is sometimes said to be paradoxical because it displays one quality and the opposite of that quality at the same time. One of the best examples of this is the copresence of order and disorder. This article explores the differences between orderly and disorderly play. The author emphasizes the ways in which any event can be said to be orderly…

  6. Preschool Children's Outdoor Play Area Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Robyn M.; Procaccino, Jill K.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores preschool children's outdoor play preferences. The sample was 40 (20 male, 20 female) primarily European-American three and four year olds. Data were collected via naturalistic observation and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVAs and MANOVAs. The independent variable was sex of child; dependent variable was play space…

  7. Spontaneous Play: An Avenue for Intellectual Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almy, Millie

    1966-01-01

    It is generally conceded that there is much for a child to learn while attending nursery school, but the teacher is often unsure as to what type of curriculum or program will best assure such learning. Specifically, although play has been part of all nursery school programs, it is questioned whether spontaneous play (that is, relatively…

  8. Children's Gendered Drawings of Play Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akseer, Tabasum; Lao, Mary Grace; Bosacki, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    According to child psychologists, vital links exist between children's drawings and their emotional, social, and cognitive development. Previous research has explored the important relations between drawings and play in educational settings. Given the vast research that explores the ambiguous topic of children's play, according to Richer (1990),…

  9. Outdoor Play and Learning: Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burriss, Kathleen; Burriss, Larry

    2011-01-01

    This study describes national school district policy and practice regarding elementary school children's outdoor learning and play. District representatives from 173 randomly selected school districts completed questionnaires describing policy and practice related to recess, outdoor play, outdoor curricular studies, playground materials, ADA…

  10. Contemporary Play Therapy: Theory, Research, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Charles E., Ed.; Gerard Kaduson, Heidi, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This highly practical book presents current developments in play therapy, including innovative applications for particular problems and populations. Contributors first discuss the latest ideas and techniques emerging from object-relations, experiential, dynamic, and narrative perspectives. Next, research evaluating the effectiveness of play…

  11. Playing Soccer with Humanoid Robots Sven Behnke

    E-print Network

    Behnke, Sven

    Playing Soccer with Humanoid Robots Sven Behnke As step towards the long-term goal of winning annual soccer competitions. Now, the young Humanoid League raised the bar again. After preliminary competitions, for the first time, soccer games with humanoid robots were played in 2005. This article describes

  12. Playing by Ear: Foundation or Frill?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Many people divide musicians into two types: those who can read music and those who play by ear. Formal music education tends to place great emphasis on producing musically literate performers but devotes much less attention to teaching students to make music without notation. Some would suggest that playing by ear is a specialized skill that is…

  13. Dimensions of Childhood Play and Toys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette; Vuorinen, Tuula

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and analyse play through a contemporary historical perspective, based upon pre-school teachers', students majoring in education, and teacher education students' descriptions of memories from their childhood regarding play and toys. The overall method is retrospective. The data consists of 111 interviews…

  14. Using Role Play to Debate Animal Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agell, Laia; Soria, Vanessa; Carrió, Mar

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in biomedical research is a socio-scientific issue in which decision-making is complicated. In this article, we describe an experience involving a role play activity performed during school visits to the Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB) to debate animal testing. Role playing games require students to defend different…

  15. Mathematical Learning in a Context of Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edo, Meque; Planas, Nuria; Badillo, Edelmira

    2009-01-01

    In this article we analyse a didactical situation centred on the creation and use of a symbolic play environment in a class of pupils aged five and six years-old. The main source of data for this paper comes from an experimentation planned in relation to the following research question: does symbolic play in simulated contexts help pupils to…

  16. The Excellence of Play. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyles, Janet, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This second edition of "The Excellence of Play" encapsulates all of the many changes that have taken place in early childhood in the last decade. It examines the vital importance of play as a tool for learning and teaching for children and practitioners, supporting all those who work in early childhood education and care in developing and…

  17. Metamorphosis: Play, Spirituality and the Animal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bone, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Animal- and bird-becoming is an aspect of play as metamorphosis connected to spirituality in early childhood settings. The reconceptualisation of play presented here is supported by research that explored the spiritual experiences of young children in different early childhood contexts. Qualitative case study research carried out in Aotearoa New…

  18. Gender Differences in Cognitive Load and Competition Anxiety Affect 6th Grade Students' Attitude toward Playing and Intention to Play at a Sequential or Synchronous Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Hong, Jon-Chao; Cheng, Hao-Yueh; Peng, Yu-Chi; Wu, Nien-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Do girls have more competition anxiety and exogenous cognitive load than equally able boys during the playing of stressful competitive on-line games? This question led to the adoption of a technology acceptance model to compare the influence factors of competitors in sequential and synchronous games. Confirmatory factor analysis of the data on 220…

  19. Neural contributions to flow experience during video game playing

    PubMed Central

    Weber, René; Kircher, Tilo T. J.; Mathiak, Krystyna A.; Mathiak, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Video games are an exciting part of new media. Although game play has been intensively studied, the underlying neurobiology is still poorly understood. Flow theory is a well-established model developed to describe subjective game experience. In 13 healthy male subjects, we acquired fMRI data during free play of a video game and analyzed brain activity based on the game content. In accordance with flow theory, we extracted the following factors from the game content: (i) balance between ability and challenge; (ii) concentration and focus; (iii) direct feedback of action results; (iv) clear goals; and (v) control over the situation/activity. We suggest that flow is characterized by specific neural activation patterns and that the latter can be assessed—at least partially—by content factors contributing to the emergence of flow. Each of the content factors was characterized by specific and distinguishable brain activation patterns, encompassing reward-related midbrain structures, as well as cognitive and sensorimotor networks. The activation of sensory and motor networks in the conjunction analyses underpinned the central role of simulation for flow experience. Flow factors can be validated with functional brain imaging which can improve the understanding of human emotions and motivational processes during media entertainment. PMID:21596764

  20. Play Therapy for Bereaved Children: Adapting Strategies to Community, School, and Home Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Nancy Boyd

    2011-01-01

    Play therapy is a highly adaptable treatment method that can be modified according to children's ages, circumstances, and settings in which counseling occurs. Play therapy may be used in schools, community settings, and homes to help children following the death of a significant other. After reviewing basic developmental factors that affect…

  1. Phonological Development in Children: Play and Cognition. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Charles A.; Macken, Marlys A.

    Sound play is important to child language development in that it contributes to the phonetic substrate, it is a factor in phonological development, and it is something to be learned as part of the socially acceptable use of language. Sound play progresses in three stages: (1) babbling, in which a gradual acquisition of phonetic units is built up…

  2. What Role Do Epigenetics and Developmental Epigenetics Play in Health and Disease?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What role do epigenetics & developmental epigenetics play in health & disease? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Epigenetic factors (also known as epigenetic marks) control many ...

  3. Playing violent video games increases intergroup bias.

    PubMed

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown how, why, and for whom violent video game play is related to aggression and aggression-related variables. In contrast, less is known about whether some individuals are more likely than others to be the target of increased aggression after violent video game play. The present research examined the idea that the effects of violent video game play are stronger when the target is a member of an outgroup rather than an ingroup. In fact, a correlational study revealed that violent video game exposure was positively related to ethnocentrism. This relation remained significant when controlling for trait aggression. Providing causal evidence, an experimental study showed that playing a violent video game increased aggressive behavior, and that this effect was more pronounced when the target was an outgroup rather than an ingroup member. Possible mediating mechanisms are discussed. PMID:24085715

  4. Early Childhood: Discovery through Sand Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Margaret

    1982-01-01

    Suggestions are given for using sand play to teach science related vocabulary and concepts to preschool and primary age children by using dry sand, wet sand, different sizes and shapes of spoons and containers, sieves, and funnels. (DC)

  5. Videogame Editions for Play and Study

    E-print Network

    Fernández-Vara, Clara

    2014-06-05

    We discuss four types of access to videogames that are analogous to the use of different sorts of editions in literary scholarship: (1) the use of hardware to play games on platforms compatible with the original ones, (2) ...

  6. Aguas!: An Introduction to Hispanic Plays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldana, Johnny

    1996-01-01

    Notes that the number of Hispanic children in schools is growing. Presents an annotated bibliography of 46 Hispanic plays, sources of information, and organizations dealing with Hispanic themes and ideas. (PA)

  7. Playing General Structure Rewriting Games Lukasz Kaiser

    E-print Network

    Kaiser, £ukasz

    of the Monte-Carlo playing al- gorithm with Upper Confidence bounds for Trees (UCT). The UCT algorithm has game model and our algorithm. Introduction As frustrated users know, a computer sometimes simply does

  8. Rac GTPases play multiple roles in erythropoiesis

    E-print Network

    Ji, Peng

    The four members of the Rac family of GTPases –Rac1, Rac2, Rac3 and RhoG – are members of the Rho superfamily that regulates the organization, dynamics, and function of the actin cytoskeleton. Rac GTPases play significant ...

  9. Resistance Measurements on Play-Doh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Brian

    1993-01-01

    Presents a laboratory exercise to reinforce the concepts of conductivity and resistance. Students measure resistance over rolled out Play-Doh of differing lengths and widths using the four-point resistance measurement method. (MDH)

  10. Interactive Play and Learning for Children

    E-print Network

    Cheok, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    One of the most socially and culturally beneficial uses of human computer interaction research is enhancing play and learning for children. It is very important to understand the needs of children and craft visionary ...

  11. Comparison of the Quality of Preschoolers' Play in Housekeeping and Thematic Sociodramatic Play Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Donna M.; Klass, Patricia H.

    1997-01-01

    Documented differences in the quality of play in thematic and housekeeping organizational patterns of the sociodramatic play center in a preschool classroom. Found the thematic organization resulted in higher quality sociodramatic play in which the children enacted more roles outside the home, utilized more aspects of their roles, demonstrated…

  12. Safe Active Play: A Guide to Avoiding Play Area Hazards. [Videotape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Active play provides healthy exercise and allows children to test their skills against challenges in their environment, but when play results in even minor injury, it may be taking place in a hazardous setting. This video is designed to teach caregivers, child care program staff and recreation officials how to create safe play environments. Based…

  13. Differences in Practitioners' Understanding of Play and How This Influences Pedagogy and Children's Perceptions of Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInnes, Karen; Howard, Justine; Miles, Gareth; Crowley, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents research that examines the links between practitioners' understanding of play and its relationship to learning, their pedagogic interactions with children and children's own perceptions of their play. Previous research has shown a mismatch between practitioners' understanding of play and their practice. This research identifies…

  14. Play as Self-Realization: Toward a General Theory of Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henricks, Thomas S.

    2014-01-01

    In a wide-ranging essay that reviews the major theories of plays and relates them to significant notions of the self, the author addresses the question of why we play. He does so to argue that play is a biologically driven project of self-understanding and self-realization, one that humans--although they also share the experience with other…

  15. Can I Play with You? The Intersection of Play and Writing in a Kindergarten Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Haeny S.

    2014-01-01

    Play is well documented as a purposeful, authentic way for children to engage in literacy practices. Although the benefits of play are widely agreed upon, there is some debate regarding its place in school. In fact, play is often marginalized in place of "back to the basics" language instruction. For kindergartners, this means word…

  16. Including Children with Autism in Social and Imaginary Play with Typical Peers: Integrated Play Groups Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfberg, Pamela; Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; DeWitt, Mila

    2012-01-01

    Peer-play experiences are a vital part of children's socialization, development, and culture. Children with autism face distinct challenges in social and imaginary play, which place them at high risk for being excluded by peers. Without explicit support, they are likely to remain isolated from peers and the consistent interactive play that…

  17. Helping Parents Stay Confident in Their Own Playful Instincts: In a World of Professional Play Specialists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Susan J.; Klugman, Edgar

    2006-01-01

    This article provides an insight into the world of professional play specialists and provides suggestions to parents on how to be more confident about their role in play. Play need not be work for moms and dads, but it should be a family priority that they enjoy and about which the feel just great when they have devoted time and energy to do it.…

  18. Guide to Play Selection; A Selective Bibliography for Production and Study of Modern Plays. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mersand, Joseph, Ed.

    This selective bibliography for production and study of modern plays was compiled by the NCTE Liaison Committee with the Speech Communication Association and the American Theatre Association. The introduction, "A Guide to Play Production," discusses general criteria of play selection and provides an overview of the collaborative process of…

  19. What Play Therapists Do within the Therapeutic Relationship of Humanistic/Non-Directive Play Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sally

    2011-01-01

    Play therapists are increasingly being employed in schools, yet there is confusion among many health, education and social care practitioners about the role of play therapists. This paper explains how play therapists position themselves and what they do through an examination of the therapeutic relationship between the therapist and child. It…

  20. The Elements of Play: Toward a Philosophy and a Definition of Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberle, Scott G.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars conventionally find play difficult to define because the concept is complex and ambiguous. The author proffers a definition of play that takes into consideration its dynamic character, posits six basic elements of play (anticipation, surprise, pleasure, understanding, strength, and poise), and explores some of their emotional, physical,…

  1. "Prey Play": Learning about Predators and Prey through an Interactive, Role-Play Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Cynthia C. M.; Dodd, Kristen; Drennon, Katherine; Nagle, Jack

    2012-01-01

    "Prey Play" is an interactive role-play activity that provides fifth-grade students with opportunities to examine predator-prey interactions. This four-part, role-play activity allows students to take on the role of a predator and prey as they reflect on the behaviors animals exhibit as they collect food and interact with one another, as well as…

  2. More Play, Please: The Perspective of Kindergarten Teachers on Play in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    ?The past decade has seen an increase in research documenting the benefi?ts of children learning through play. However, the amount of play in American kindergarten classes remains on a steady decline. ?This article compares the ?findings from a netnographic study of seventy-eight kindergarten teachers' message board discussions about play in…

  3. When play is a family business: adult play, hierarchy, and possible stress reduction in common marmosets.

    PubMed

    Norscia, Ivan; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2011-04-01

    Easy to recognize but not easy to define, animal play is a baffling behavior because it has no obvious immediate benefits for the performers. However, the absence of immediate advantages, if true, would leave adult play (costly but maintained by evolution, spanning lemurs to Homo sapiens) unexplained. Although a commonly held view maintains that play is limited by stress, an emergent hypothesis states that play can regulate stress in the short term. Here we explored this hypothesis in a captive family group of New World monkeys, Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset). We observed six subjects and gathered data on aggressive, play, and scratching behavior via focal (6 h/individual) and all occurrences sampling (115 h). We found that play levels were highest during pre-feeding, the period of maximum anxiety due to the forthcoming competition over food. Scratching (the most reliable indicator of stress in primates) and play showed opposite trends along hierarchy, with dominants scratching more and playing less than subordinates. Finally, scratching decreased after play, whereas play appeared to be unrelated to previous scratching events, symptoms of a potential stressful state. In conclusion, both play timing and hierarchical distribution indicate that play limits stress, more than vice versa, at least in the short term. PMID:21107884

  4. Playing with Technology: Mother-Toddler Interaction Scores Lower during Play with Electronic Toys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooldridge, Michaela B.; Shapka, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    To investigate play with electronic toys (battery-operated or digital), 25 mother-toddler (16-24 months old) dyads were videotaped in their homes playing with sets of age-appropriate electronic and non-electronic toys for approximately 10 min each. Parent-child interactions were coded from recorded segments of both of the play conditions using the…

  5. Pigs, Planes, and Play-Doh: Children's Perspectives on Play as Revealed through Their Drawings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Pauline Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Play, an elusive concept despite the extensive literature on the subject, remains especially problematic for research focused on the perspective of children. The author discusses her study on children's perspectives about play, exploring drawing as a method for learning how young children conceptualize play within a social-semiotic framework. Her…

  6. 'Dora' & Kids at Day of Play

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    From left, Cobie Smith, 5, and Tatume Smith, also 5, have their picture taken with 'Dora the Explorer.' The children were participants in Nickelodeon's Worldwide Day of Play celebration at Stennis Space Center (SSC) on Oct. 1. The Worldwide Day of Play is sponsored annually by Nickelodeon television network to encourage children to be physically active. Approximately 150 children participated in the event at SSC.

  7. Existential Irony in Three Carballido Plays

    E-print Network

    Peterson, Karen

    1977-04-01

    inhuman. This is explored in both Las estatuas de marfil and Medusa through the analogy of role and artistic form. In the former, the theatre metaphor, dramatizations, and scenes from other plays are used to show how literary role mirrors life... the dialogues on heroism and love between Perseo and Medusa earlier in the play. The poets believe they should universalize Perseo's exploits for all men to experi ence. Perseo protests that the poet's universal version will not be identical with his own...

  8. Dramatic Climaxes in the Plays of Shakespeare

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Esther Mary

    1902-01-01

    KU ScholarWorks | The University of Kansas Pre-1923 Dissertations and Theses Collection Dramatic Climaxes in the Plays of Shakespeare 1902 by Esther Mary Wilson This work was digitized by the Scholarly Communications program staff in the KU...KU ScholarWorks | The University of Kansas Pre-1923 Dissertations and Theses Collection Dramatic Climaxes in the Plays of Shakespeare 1902 by Esther Mary Wilson This work was digitized by the Scholarly Communications program staff in the KU...

  9. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development. PMID:26062040

  10. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Bradstreet, Christa Costas; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3-12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N=9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N=17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N=1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: "Access to active play in nature and outdoors--with its risks--is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children's opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings--at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature." The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development. PMID:26062040

  11. A New Family of Predicted Krüppel-Like Factor Genes and Pseudogenes in Placental Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick V.

    2013-01-01

    Krüppel-like factors (KLF) and specificity proteins (SP) constitute a family of zinc-finger-containing transcription factors that play important roles in a wide range of processes including differentiation and development of various tissues. The human genome possesses 17 KLF genes (KLF1–KLF17) and nine SP genes (SP1–SP9) with diverse functions. We used sequence similarity searches and gene synteny analysis to identify a new putative KLF gene/pseudogene named KLF18 that is present in most of the placental mammals with sequenced genomes. KLF18 is a chromosomal neighbor of the KLF17 gene and is likely a product of its duplication. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that mammalian predicted KLF18 proteins and KLF17 proteins experienced elevated rates of evolution and are grouped with KLF1/KLF2/KLF4 and non-mammalian KLF17. Predicted KLF18 proteins maintain conserved features in the zinc fingers of the SP/KLF family, while possessing repeats of a unique sequence motif in their N-terminal regions. No expression data have been reported for KLF18, suggesting that it either has highly restricted expression patterns and specialized functions, or could have become a pseudogene in extant placental mammals. Besides KLF18 genes/pseudogenes, we identified several KLF18-like genes such as Zfp352, Zfp352-like, and Zfp353 in the genomes of mouse and rat. These KLF18-like genes do not possess introns inside their coding regions, and gene expression data indicate that some of them may function in early embryonic development. They represent further expansions of KLF members in the murine lineage, most likely resulted from several events of retrotransposition and local gene duplication starting from an ancient spliced mRNA of KLF18. PMID:24244731

  12. Naturally occurring mutations in the human 5-lipoxygenase gene promoter that modify transcription factor binding and reporter gene transcription.

    PubMed Central

    In, K H; Asano, K; Beier, D; Grobholz, J; Finn, P W; Silverman, E K; Silverman, E S; Collins, T; Fischer, A R; Keith, T P; Serino, K; Kim, S W; De Sanctis, G T; Yandava, C; Pillari, A; Rubin, P; Kemp, J; Israel, E; Busse, W; Ledford, D; Murray, J J; Segal, A; Tinkleman, D; Drazen, J M

    1997-01-01

    Five lipoxygenase (5-LO) is the first committed enzyme in the metabolic pathway leading to the synthesis of the leukotrienes. We examined genomic DNA isolated from 25 normal subjects and 31 patients with asthma (6 of whom had aspirin-sensitive asthma) for mutations in the known transcription factor binding regions and the protein encoding region of the 5-LO gene. A family of mutations in the G + C-rich transcription factor binding region was identified consisting of the deletion of one, deletion of two, or addition of one zinc finger (Sp1/Egr-1) binding sites in the region 176 to 147 bp upstream from the ATG translation start site where there are normally 5 Sp1 binding motifs in tandem. Reporter gene activity directed by any of the mutant forms of the transcription factor binding region was significantly (P < 0.05) less effective than the activity driven by the wild type transcription factor binding region. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) demonstrated the capacity of wild type and mutant transcription factor binding regions to bind nuclear extracts from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). These data are consistent with a family of mutations in the 5-LO gene that can modify reporter gene transcription possibly through differences in Sp1 and Egr-1 transactivation. PMID:9062372

  13. Bluetooth as a Playful Public Art Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stukoff, Maria N.

    This chapter investigates how the application of emergent communication technologies assisted in the design of playful art experience in a public place. Every Passing Moment (EPM), was a mobile public artwork that tracked and recorded any discoverable Bluetooth device to automatically seed a flower in a virtual garden projected onto an urban screen. The EPM was the first public art work to run blu_box, a custom-designed Bluetooth system for mobile telephony. The aim of blu_box was to build a system that supported playful interactions between the public and an urban screen, openly accessible to anyone with a Bluetooth-enabled mobile phone. This participatory engagement was observed in EPM on three levels, namely; unconscious, conscious, and dynamic play. Furthermore, this chapter highlights how sound and face-to-face communication proved imperative in the play dynamics of EPM. In conclusion, this chapter proposes ways in which the use of emergent communication technologies in public places, especially when interfaced with urban screening platforms, can construct playful city spaces for the public at large.

  14. On the significance of adult play: what does social play tell us about adult horse welfare?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausberger, Martine; Fureix, Carole; Bourjade, Marie; Wessel-Robert, Sabine; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick

    2012-04-01

    Play remains a mystery and adult play even more so. More typical of young stages in healthy individuals, it occurs rarely at adult stages but then more often in captive/domestic animals, which can imply spatial, social and/or feeding deprivations or restrictions that are challenging to welfare, than in animals living in natural conditions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that adult play may reflect altered welfare states and chronic stress in horses, in which, as in several species, play rarely occurs at adult stages in natural conditions. We observed the behaviour (in particular, social play) of riding school horses during occasional outings in a paddock and measured several stress indicators when these horses were in their individual home boxes. Our results revealed that (1) the number of horses and rates of adult play appeared very high compared to field report data and (2) most stress indicators measured differed between `players' and `non-players', revealing that most `playful' animals were suffering from more chronic stress than `non-playful' horses. Frequency of play behaviour correlated with a score of chronic stress. This first discovery of a relationship between adult play and altered welfare opens new lines of research that certainly deserves comparative studies in a variety of species.

  15. Recent Advances in General Game Playing.

    PubMed

    ?wiechowski, Maciej; Park, HyunSoo; Ma?dziuk, Jacek; Kim, Kyung-Joong

    2015-01-01

    The goal of General Game Playing (GGP) has been to develop computer programs that can perform well across various game types. It is natural for human game players to transfer knowledge from games they already know how to play to other similar games. GGP research attempts to design systems that work well across different game types, including unknown new games. In this review, we present a survey of recent advances (2011 to 2014) in GGP for both traditional games and video games. It is notable that research on GGP has been expanding into modern video games. Monte-Carlo Tree Search and its enhancements have been the most influential techniques in GGP for both research domains. Additionally, international competitions have become important events that promote and increase GGP research. Recently, a video GGP competition was launched. In this survey, we review recent progress in the most challenging research areas of Artificial Intelligence (AI) related to universal game playing. PMID:26380375

  16. Cracking Bank PINs by Playing Mastermind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focardi, Riccardo; Luccio, Flaminia L.

    The bank director was pretty upset noticing Joe, the system administrator, spending his spare time playing Mastermind, an old useless game of the 70ies. He had fought the instinct of telling him how to better spend his life, just limiting to look at him in disgust long enough to be certain to be noticed. No wonder when the next day the director fell on his chair astonished while reading, on the newspaper, about a huge digital fraud on the ATMs of his bank, with millions of Euros stolen by a team of hackers all around the world. The article mentioned how the hackers had 'played with the bank computers just like playing Mastermind', being able to disclose thousands of user PINs during the one-hour lunch break. That precise moment, a second before falling senseless, he understood the subtle smile on Joe's face the day before, while training at his preferred game, Mastermind.

  17. Freud on play, games, and sports fanaticism.

    PubMed

    Holowchak, M Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Much has been written in the secondary literature on Freud's aggression-release perspective vis-à-vis competitive sports. Very little has been written, however, on Freud's own explicit contribution to play, games, and sport. That is likely the result of Freud's reluctance to take up them--especially from the gamesman's and sportsman's points of view. One can, however, tease out the development of Freud's thoughts on games, play, and sport through a careful examination of his corpus over time. In doing so, one finds an early view of play and games, where the drives behind those activities are self- and other-preservative, and a later view, where Freud introduces his death drive. The article ends with some notions on what Freud might have said on the fanaticism that accompanies competitive sport, had he expressly taken up the issue. PMID:22168632

  18. Recent Advances in General Game Playing

    PubMed Central

    ?wiechowski, Maciej; Park, HyunSoo; Ma?dziuk, Jacek; Kim, Kyung-Joong

    2015-01-01

    The goal of General Game Playing (GGP) has been to develop computer programs that can perform well across various game types. It is natural for human game players to transfer knowledge from games they already know how to play to other similar games. GGP research attempts to design systems that work well across different game types, including unknown new games. In this review, we present a survey of recent advances (2011 to 2014) in GGP for both traditional games and video games. It is notable that research on GGP has been expanding into modern video games. Monte-Carlo Tree Search and its enhancements have been the most influential techniques in GGP for both research domains. Additionally, international competitions have become important events that promote and increase GGP research. Recently, a video GGP competition was launched. In this survey, we review recent progress in the most challenging research areas of Artificial Intelligence (AI) related to universal game playing. PMID:26380375

  19. Action Videogame Play Improves Visual Motor Control.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rongrong; Chen, Jing; Li, Li

    2015-09-01

    Can action videogame play improve visual motor control? If yes, can it be used in training complex visual motor skills such as driving? Here we took a control-theoretic approach and tested non-video-game players with a typical compensatory manual control task. After playing a driving (Experiment 1) or a first-person shooter (FPS) action videogame (Experiment 2) for only five hours, participants improved significantly in both the control precision (measured as the RMS error) and response amplitude (gain) for their performance on the manual control task. No enhancement on participants' contrast sensitivity function was observed. We fit the performance data to an extensively validated Crossover Model to further understand how action gaming affects the perceptual system that processes visual information and the neuromuscular system that executes the control command. Our model-driven analysis revealed that playing either a driving or an FPS game improved the perceptual sensitivity to input visual information for online motor control; that playing the FPS game also facilitated anticipating input errors to generate control ahead of time but hurt the stability of the neuromuscular system. In contrast, no effect on the control performance was observed for participants who played a non-action videogame. We then examined whether the improvement in the performance on the manual control task can transfer to daily visual motor control tasks such as driving. We found that lane-keeping performance significantly improved for participants who completed a 40-min training session of the manual control task while no such improvement was observed for participants without training. In summary, the present study provides the first empirical evidence for a causal link between action gaming (for as short as five hours playing) and enhancement in visual motor control. The findings have practical implications for developing training tools to improve performance on daily visual motor control tasks such as driving. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325730

  20. Play Sports to Improve Visual Functions.

    PubMed

    Ha, Kelly; Sogaard, Inga; Gisick, Logan; Ni, Rui

    2015-09-01

    Previous research (Paul et al., 2011) found significant improvements in reaction time and movement in Ping-Pong players who went through visual training. While most research has focused on performance in sports, few studies have examined the effect of sports playing in improving visual functions. The current study aimed to address this question by training participants with Ping-Pong playing. In this study, 15 college students of ages 18-35 went through the multiple test and training sessions within a 2-week period. On Day one and four participants were measured on Ping-Pong play performance and visual functions, including processing speed, motion-in-depth perception, and divided attention. On Day two and three, participants were trained with one of the two playing tasks against a Ping-Pong robot for approximately one hour. For the Ping-Pong play sessions, a robot shot balls towards participants' side of the table in random direction, at three different speed levels with either left or right side spins. One training task involved catching and throwing back the Ping-Pong balls using one hand, while the other task involved intercepting the balls using a racket. Their scores of missed interceptions and failed returns were recorded. A four-way repeated-measures ANOVA was conducted to evaluate the effect of training on Ping-Pong play performance and visual functions. The results showed significant effects and interactions on play performance: Training, F(1, 10) = 5.64, p < .05; Speed, F(2, 20) = 17.12, p < .001; Training x Speed, F(2, 20) = 5.51, p < .05; And Training x Task x Spin x Speed, F(2, 20) = 10.90, p < .001. More importantly, significant improvement was found for the divided attention task after training, F(1, 6) = 8.76, p < .05. The results of the current study suggest that sports training not only improves play performance but also benefit visual functions. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326830

  1. Convective, intrusive geothermal plays: what about tectonics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santilano, A.; Manzella, A.; Gianelli, G.; Donato, A.; Gola, G.; Nardini, I.; Trumpy, E.; Botteghi, S.

    2015-09-01

    We revised the concept of convective, intrusive geothermal plays, considering that the tectonic setting is not, in our opinion, a discriminant parameter suitable for a classification. We analysed and compared four case studies: (i) Larderello (Italy), (ii) Mt Amiata (Italy), (iii) The Geysers (USA) and (iv) Kizildere (Turkey). The tectonic settings of these geothermal systems are different and a matter of debate, so it is hard to use this parameter, and the results of classification are ambiguous. We suggest a classification based on the age and nature of the heat source and the related hydrothermal circulation. Finally we propose to distinguish the convective geothermal plays as volcanic, young intrusive and amagmatic.

  2. Atlas of major Appalachian basin gas plays

    SciTech Connect

    Aminian, K.; Avary, K.L.; Baranoski, M.T.; Flaherty, K.; Humphreys, M.; Smosna, R.A.

    1995-06-01

    This regional study of gas reservoirs in the Appalachian basin has four main objectives: to organize all of the -as reservoirs in the Appalachian basin into unique plays based on common age, lithology, trap type and other geologic similarities; to write, illustrate and publish an atlas of major gas plays; to prepare and submit a digital data base of geologic, engineering and reservoir parameters for each gas field; and technology transfer to the oil and gas industry during the preparation of the atlas and data base.

  3. Adaptive Dynamics Survey: Regret-based Learning and Fictitious Play

    E-print Network

    Strien, Sebastian van

    Adaptive Dynamics Survey: Regret-based Learning and Fictitious Play Andriy Zapechelnyuk Queen Mary: Fictitious play (Play optimally against the empirical distribution of past play of the other player) #12 Fictitious Play (and related Best-reply dynamics): Each player best-replies to the average past play

  4. Thanks for the Memory: The Lasting Value of True Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkind, David

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that play is a fundamental human disposition. Reviews well-known theories of play from the adult-functional perspective and examines the value of play from the child-experiential perspective. Considers variations in play and the meaning and value of true play, maintaining that play's personal, experiential value is of equal or greater…

  5. Fair Play: Accepting Responsibility for Student Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karns, Michelle S.; Parker, Dennis R.

    2007-01-01

    Equity in education relies on equal access to learning experiences and fair play during those experiences. Too often policy makers, voters and even some educators define equity only in terms of equal access. Equity is less about the same treatment for all and more about holding everyone to the same high standards and high expectations. All…

  6. Using Minecraft for Instruction and Creative Play

    E-print Network

    LaViola Jr., Joseph J.

    Using Minecraft for Instruction and Creative Play Abstract Inline with the BSCS 5E instructional in a heavily modified Minecraft game server. We currently are developing games around kinematics, Boolean logic; Constructivism; Minecraft ACM Classification Keywords K.3.0. Computers and Education: General Introduction

  7. Role Playing, Issue Importance, and Attitude Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarup, Gian

    1981-01-01

    Contrasted three major theories on attitude change: cognitive dissonance, incentive, and social judgment. Results from student questionnaires provided little support for cognitive dissonance. Also provided credible, though overlapping, evidence for incentive and social judgment theories. Improvised role playing produced more change than did…

  8. Microblogging Activities: Language Play and Tool Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattem, David

    2014-01-01

    The following is a qualitative case study presenting three vignettes exploring the use of language play while microblogging during an academically sanctioned task. Ten students and one teacher used "Twitter" in an intensive, English as a second language advanced grammar course to practice writing sentences with complex grammatical…

  9. Should College Athletes Be Paid to Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Is playing big-time college sports an extracurricular activity or a job? Two law professors at Michigan State University, Robert and Amy McCormick, think it is definitely a job for football and basketball players on athletic scholarships at Division I schools. The married couple has added a new dimension to the long debate over paying athletes by…

  10. Playing with Liquid Foams: Learning Physical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritacco, Hernan

    2008-01-01

    Who has never played with soap bubbles? They are so beautiful and amazing, they have a perfect spherical shape and surprising tints. Foams are structures of bubbles of an incredible complexity and they are a perfect system to stimulate students' interest in the chemistry and physics of surface phenomena. In this article I propose a simple…

  11. The Playful and Reflective Game Designer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majgaard, Gunver

    2014-01-01

    A group of first-semester engineering students participated in a game design course. The aim of the course was to learn how to design computer games and programming skills by creating their own games, thereby applying their game-playing experiences to gain knowledge about game design. The aim was for students to develop a more critically…

  12. Simplify Volleying through Modified Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudet, Bob; Grube, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Volleyball, by its very nature, is a difficult game to play. Players at all ages have a hard time hitting the ball to their intended targets, resulting in rallies that rarely last more than one or two hits. The resulting game, then, is slow paced and boring, with a lot of standing around and little activity time. In an attempt to ease the…

  13. A Role-Play Rorschach Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricklin, Barry

    1975-01-01

    Three subjects were used in a role playing study based on the subject's own Rorschach responses. The results proved to be valuable as an aspect of therapeutic involvement. Results also help to expand and clarify the psychological meaning of Rorschach images. (Author/DEP)

  14. Problem Solvers: Solutions--Playing Basketball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    In this article, fourth grade Upper Allen Elementary School (Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania) teacher Jeffrey Smith describes his exploration of the Playing Basketball activity. Herein he describes how he found the problem to be an effective way to review concepts associated with the measurement of elapsed time with his students. Additionally, it…

  15. ADHD and Problem-Solving in Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a small-scale study to determine whether there is a difference in problem-solving abilities, from a play perspective, between individuals who are diagnosed as ADHD and are on medication and those not on medication. Ten children, five of whom where on medication and five not, diagnosed as ADHD predominantly inattentive type, were…

  16. Preadolescent Girls' and Boys' Virtual MUD Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Strouse, Gabrielle A.; Strong, Bonnie L.; Huffaker, David A.; Lai, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Same and opposite-sex pairs of preadolescents interacted twice in a MUD, a virtual domain where they created characters known as avatars and socially interacted with one another. Boys interacted primarily through rapid scene shifts and playful exchanges; girls interacted with one another through written dialogue. Opposite-sex pairs lagged behind…

  17. Serious Play with Dynamic Plane Transformations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, James

    2011-01-01

    Transformations are a central organizing idea in geometry. They are included in most geometry curricula and are likely to appear with even greater emphasis in the future, given the central role they play in the "Common Core State Standards" for K-12 mathematics. One of the attractions of geometry is the ability to draw and construct the…

  18. Jumping Rope at Day of Play

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Sarah Dastugue, 11, leaps in the air as Libby Knox, 9, swings a jump rope. The children were participants in Nickelodeon's Worldwide Day of Play celebration at Stennis Space Center (SSC) on Oct. 1. On the day of the event, children all over the world participate in physical activities as part of the celebration.

  19. SpaceWire Plug and Play Updates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakow, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work of the SpaceWire Plug N Play Workgroup. (SpW PnP WG). The chief product of SpW PnP WG will be to develop specification of necessary hardware features required in support upper layer (software) PnP implementations.

  20. Instrument Records And Plays Back Acceleration Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    Small, battery-powered, hand-held instrument feeds power to accelerometer and records time-varying component of output for 15 seconds in analog form. No power needed to maintain content of memory; memory chip removed after recording and stored indefinitely. Recorded signal plays back at any time up to several years later. Principal advantages: compactness, portability, and low cost.

  1. A play : Between me and you

    E-print Network

    Jung, Jin Won, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    Between Me and You is a writing by Jin Won Jung. She also goes by Jin. This thesis is written in a format that mimics writing of play which involves transforming action and movement into text. This is not necessarily a ...

  2. Mathematical Situations of Play and Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Rose

    2013-01-01

    The mathematical situations of play and exploration introduced here have been developed as an empirical research instrument for the longitudinal study "erStMaL" (early Steps in Mathematics Learning). They are designed as situations that allow children and a guiding adult to construct situation-related knowledge in common dialogue…

  3. Patriotic and Historical Plays for Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamerman, Sylvia E., Ed.

    The one-act, royalty-free plays in this book dramatize notable events in United States history. Historical selections include dramatizations of the Declaration of Independence, the Boston Tea Party, the Continental Army at Valley Forge, the birth of the Constitution, and George Washington crossing the Delaware and feature such historic figures as…

  4. Playing around in Lewis Carroll's "Alice" Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susina, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Mathematician Charles Dodgson's love of play and his need for rules came together in his use of popular games as part of the structure of the two famous children's books, "Alice in Wonderland" and "Through the Looking-Glass," he wrote under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll. The author of this article looks at the interplay between…

  5. The Communication Game: Dump and Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muma, John R.

    1975-01-01

    The author identifies two operations, "dump" and "play", that take place in human communication and analyzes the communication efforts of young children (prior to age 8) in terms of the limitations in cognitive development that govern their communication. (Author/LS)

  6. Putting Play Back into the Playground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couper, Llyween

    2011-01-01

    During 2008 and 2009, a group of nine Resource Teachers: Learning and Behaviour (RTLB) from Canterbury met as a Community of Practice to investigate the way that play in the school playground contributes to the social competence of students. While the original concern was around the needs of students who were unable to manage their behaviour in…

  7. Imagining and Playfulness in Narrative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caine, Vera; Steeves, Pam

    2009-01-01

    Our personal and professional lives draw us to a shared interest in "identity" and "relationships", and our understanding is shaped by our lives as narrative inquirers. As we struggle to name this complexity we begin to play with metaphors; the metaphor of "kites", and thus string, kite and kite flyer provide us with a way to think about imagining…

  8. 27 CFR 9.168 - Fair Play.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... located in El Dorado County, California and is located entirely within the existing Sierra Foothills and El Dorado viticultural areas. The boundary for Fair Play is as follows: (1) The beginning point of... medium-duty road (Mt. Aukum Road or El Dorado County Road E-16) just as it crosses onto the...

  9. Young Children's Block Play and Mathematical Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Boyoung; Chae, Jeong-Lim; Boyd, Barbara Foulks

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated young children's mathematical engagement in play with wooden unit blocks. Two boys, ages 6 and 7, were independently observed completing the task of filling outlined regions with the various sets of blocks. Three major mathematical actions were observed: categorizing geometric shapes, composing a larger shape…

  10. Block Play: Practical Suggestions for Common Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunks, Karyn Wellhousen

    2009-01-01

    Learning materials and teaching methods used in early childhood classrooms have fluctuated greatly over the past century. However, one learning tool has stood the test of time: Wood building blocks, often called unit blocks, continue to be a source of pleasure and learning for young children at play. Wood blocks have the unique capacity to engage…

  11. Children's Thinking Styles, Play, and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Robyn M.; Liden, Sharon; Shin, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Based on the study of seventy-four middle school children of mostly Filipino and part Hawaiian heritages, this article explores the relationships of children's thinking styles, play preferences, and school performance. Using the Group Embedded Figures Test, the Articulation of the Body Scale, and written responses to three questions, the authors…

  12. Gender, Play, Language, and Creativity in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Robyn M.; Romeo, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effects of a child's gender and school setting on preschoolers' language abilities (receptive vocabulary), creativity, and social play. The participants were primarily European-American children who spoke English as a primary language (nine children were bilingual), and were from middle income socioeconomic…

  13. Expert Behavior in Children's Video Game Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDeventer, Stephanie S.; White, James A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the display of expert behavior by seven outstanding video game-playing children ages 10 and 11. Analyzes observation and debriefing transcripts for evidence of self-monitoring, pattern recognition, principled decision making, qualitative thinking, and superior memory, and discusses implications for educators regarding the development…

  14. Role-Play in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worch, Eric A.; Scheuermann, Amy M.; Haney, Jodi J.

    2009-01-01

    The activity shared here is an animal role-playing lesson developed, field-tested, and refined for "Nature's Neighborhood", a newly designed children's education facility at the Toledo Zoo. The activity is targeted at students in kindergarten through second grade, but it can be adapted for use in grades three and four as well. Through students'…

  15. Playing hide and seek with El Niño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, M. J.

    2015-09-01

    A much-anticipated 'monster' El Niño failed to materialize in 2014, whereas an unforeseen strong El Niño is developing in 2015. El Niño continues to surprise us, despite decades of research into its causes. Natural variations most probably account for recent events, but climate change may also have played a role.

  16. The benefits of playing video games.

    PubMed

    Granic, Isabela; Lobel, Adam; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-01-01

    Video games are a ubiquitous part of almost all children's and adolescents' lives, with 97% playing for at least one hour per day in the United States. The vast majority of research by psychologists on the effects of "gaming" has been on its negative impact: the potential harm related to violence, addiction, and depression. We recognize the value of that research; however, we argue that a more balanced perspective is needed, one that considers not only the possible negative effects but also the benefits of playing these games. Considering these potential benefits is important, in part, because the nature of these games has changed dramatically in the last decade, becoming increasingly complex, diverse, realistic, and social in nature. A small but significant body of research has begun to emerge, mostly in the last five years, documenting these benefits. In this article, we summarize the research on the positive effects of playing video games, focusing on four main domains: cognitive, motivational, emotional, and social. By integrating insights from developmental, positive, and social psychology, as well as media psychology, we propose some candidate mechanisms by which playing video games may foster real-world psychosocial benefits. Our aim is to provide strong enough evidence and a theoretical rationale to inspire new programs of research on the largely unexplored mental health benefits of gaming. Finally, we end with a call to intervention researchers and practitioners to test the positive uses of video games, and we suggest several promising directions for doing so. PMID:24295515

  17. Scaffolding Productive Language Skills through Sociodramatic Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galeano, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews how a receptive, bilingual four-year-old increased her Spanish productive-language skills over five weeks as she engaged in Spanish-language play sessions with bilingual peers. The data show her growing participation in group verbal interactions along with her growing production of her weaker language. In addition, a…

  18. The Importance of Play: Part Three

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Several membership companies of the International Playground Equipment Manufacturers Association (IPEMA) are helping differently-abled children to have access to play equipment and opportunities. These IPEMA membership companies, and others, are driven by the principles of Universal Design (UD), a new concept in playground design that helps ensure…

  19. World History Plays, Puzzles and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lawrence

    This instructional resource, for grades 7-10, includes a collection of 10 plays with related learning activities. Units of study include: (1) "Alexander the Great and the Greeks"; (2) "The Black Death and the End of the Middle Ages"; (3) "Robert Clive and Imperialism"; (4) "Christopher Columbus and the Age of Exploration"; (5) "Fall of the…

  20. Gaming: Eat Breakfast, Drink Milk, Play Xbox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hanlon, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    Plagued by one of the most overweight populaces in the country, the state of West Virginia was looking for a solution to its obesity problem that would appeal to the school-age crowd. It turned to Linda Carson, a professor at West Virginia University's School of Physical Education. Carson recalled witnessing kids lining up in an arcade to play