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Sample records for factor sp1 plays

  1. Interaction of Sp1 zinc finger with transport factor in the nuclear localization of transcription factor Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Tatsuo; Kitamura, Haruka; Uwatoko, Chisana; Azumano, Makiko; Itoh, Kohji; Kuwahara, Jun

    2010-12-10

    Research highlights: {yields} Sp1 zinc fingers themselves interact with importin {alpha}. {yields} Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a nuclear localization signal. {yields} Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Transcription factor Sp1 is localized in the nucleus and regulates the expression of many cellular genes, but the nuclear transport mechanism of Sp1 is not well understood. In this study, we revealed that GST-fused Sp1 protein bound to endogenous importin {alpha} in HeLa cells via the Sp1 zinc finger domains, which comprise the DNA binding domain of Sp1. It was found that the Sp1 zinc finger domains directly interacted with a wide range of importin {alpha} including the armadillo (arm) repeat domain and the C-terminal acidic domain. Furthermore, it turned out that all three zinc fingers of Sp1 are essential for binding to importin {alpha}. Taken together, these results suggest that the Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a NLS and Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner even though it possesses no classical NLSs.

  2. O-GlcNAc inhibits interaction between Sp1 and Elf-1 transcription factors

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Kihong; Chang, Hyo-Ihl

    2009-03-13

    The novel protein modification, O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), plays an important role in various aspects of cell regulation. Although most of nuclear transcription regulatory factors are modified by O-GlcNAc, O-GlcNAc effects on transcription remain largely undefined yet. In this study, we show that O-GlcNAc inhibits a physical interaction between Sp1 and Elf-1 transcription factors, and negatively regulates transcription of placenta and embryonic expression oncofetal protein gene (Pem). These findings suggest that O-GlcNAc inhibits Sp1-mediated gene transcription possibly by interrupting Sp1 interaction with its cooperative factor.

  3. Sp1 transcription factor: A long-standing target in cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Vizcano, Carolina; Mansilla, Sylvia; Portugal, Jos

    2015-08-01

    Sp1 (specificity protein 1) is a well-known member of a family of transcription factors that also includes Sp2, Sp3 and Sp4, which are implicated in an ample variety of essential biological processes and have been proven important in cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis. Sp1 activates the transcription of many cellular genes that contain putative CG-rich Sp-binding sites in their promoters. Sp1 and Sp3 proteins bind to similar, if not the same, DNA tracts and compete for binding, thus they can enhance or repress gene expression. Evidences exist that the Sp-family of proteins regulates the expression of genes that play pivotal roles in cell proliferation and metastasis of various tumors. In patients with a variety of cancers, high levels of Sp1 protein are considered a negative prognostic factor. A plethora of compounds can interfere with the trans-activating activities of Sp1 and other Sp proteins on gene expression. Several pathways are involved in the down-regulation of Sp proteins by compounds with different mechanisms of action, which include not only the direct interference with the binding of Sp proteins to their putative DNA binding sites, but also promoting the degradation of Sp protein factors. Down-regulation of Sp transcription factors and Sp1-regulated genes is drug-dependent and it is determined by the cell context. The acknowledgment that several of those compounds are safe enough might accelerate their introduction into clinical usage in patients with tumors that over-express Sp1. PMID:25960131

  4. Role of zinc finger structure in nuclear localization of transcription factor Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Tatsuo; Azumano, Makiko; Uwatoko, Chisana; Itoh, Kohji Kuwahara, Jun

    2009-02-27

    Transcription factor Sp1 is localized in the nucleus and regulates gene expression. Our previous study demonstrated that the carboxyl terminal region of Sp1 containing 3-zinc finger region as DNA binding domain can also serve as nuclear localization signal (NLS). However, the nuclear transport mechanism of Sp1 has not been well understood. In this study, we performed a gene expression study on mutant Sp1 genes causing a set of amino acid substitutions in zinc finger domains to elucidate nuclear import activity. Nuclear localization of the GFP-fused mutant Sp1 proteins bearing concomitant substitutions in the first and third zinc fingers was highly inhibited. These mutant Sp1 proteins had also lost the binding ability as to the GC box sequence. The results suggest that the overall tertiary structure formed by the three zinc fingers is essential for nuclear localization of Sp1 as well as dispersed basic amino acids within the zinc fingers region.

  5. Transcription factor Sp1 induces ADAM17 and contributes to tumor cell invasiveness under hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Szalad, Alexandra; Katakowski, Mark; Zheng, Xuguang; Jiang, Feng; Chopp, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background Expression of the Sp1 transcription factor is induced by hypoxia, and the ADAM17 promoter contains predicted Sp1 binding sites. ADAM17 contributes to hypoxic-induce invasiveness of glioma. In this study, we investigated whether Sp1 transcription factor induces ADAM17 and/or contributes to tumor cell invasiveness in hypoxia. Methods Employing RT-PCR and Western blot, we examined the role of Sp1 in ADAM17 transcription/expression under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, and whether it binds to the ADAM17 GC-rich promoter region using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Additionally, we tested the effect of Sp1 suppression in tumor cell invasion and migration, using Matrigel basement membrane invasion chambers, a scratch wound-healing assay, and small interfering RNA. Results Here, we found that Sp1 binds to the ADAM17 promoter, and that Sp1 regulates ADAM17 expression under hypoxia. Furthermore, suppression of Sp1 decreases invasiveness and migration in U87 tumor cells. Conclusion Our findings suggest the Sp1 transcription factor mediates ADAM17 expression under hypoxia, regulates glioma invasiveness, and thus, may be a target for anti-invasion therapies. PMID:19772640

  6. MPTP's pathway of toxicity indicates central role of transcription factor SP1.

    PubMed

    Maertens, Alexandra; Luechtefeld, Thomas; Kleensang, Andre; Hartung, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Deriving a Pathway of Toxicity from transcriptomic data remains a challenging task. We explore the use of weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA) to extract an initial network from a small microarray study of MPTP toxicity in mice. Five modules were statistically significant; each module was analyzed for gene signatures in the Chemical and Genetic Perturbation subset of the Molecular Signatures Database as well as for over-represented transcription factor binding sites and WGCNA clustered probes by function and captured pathways relevant to neurodegenerative disorders. The resulting network was analyzed for transcription factor candidates, which were narrowed down via text-mining for relevance to the disease model, and then combined with the large-scale interaction FANTOM4 database to generate a genetic regulatory network. Modules were enriched for transcription factors relevant to Parkinson's disease. Transcription factors significantly improved the number of genes that could be connected in a given component. For each module, the transcription factor that had, by far, the highest number of interactions was SP1, and it also had substantial experimental evidence of interactions. This analysis both captures much of the known biology of MPTP toxicity and suggests several candidates for further study. Furthermore, the analysis strongly suggests that SP1 plays a central role in coordinating the cellular response to MPTP toxicity. PMID:25851821

  7. Overexpression of the Transcription Factor Sp1 Activates the OAS-RNAse L-RIG-I Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dupuis-Maurin, Valryane; Brinza, Lilia; Baguet, Jol; Plantamura, Emilie; Schicklin, Stphane; Chambion, Solne; Macari, Claire; Tomkowiak, Martine; Deniaud, Emmanuelle; Leverrier, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Deregulated expression of oncogenes or transcription factors such as specificity protein 1 (Sp1) is observed in many human cancers and plays a role in tumor maintenance. Paradoxically in untransformed cells, Sp1 overexpression induces late apoptosis but the early intrinsic response is poorly characterized. In the present work, we studied increased Sp1 level consequences in untransformed cells and showed that it turns on an early innate immune transcriptome. Sp1 overexpression does not activate known cellular stress pathways such as DNA damage response or endoplasmic reticulum stress, but induces the activation of the OAS-RNase L pathway and the generation of small self-RNAs, leading to the upregulation of genes of the antiviral RIG-I pathway at the transcriptional and translational levels. Finally, Sp1-induced intrinsic innate immune response leads to the production of the chemokine CXCL4 and to the recruitment of inflammatory cells in vitro and in vivo. Altogether our results showed that increased Sp1 level in untransformed cells constitutes a novel danger signal sensed by the OAS-RNase L axis leading to the activation of the RIG-I pathway. These results suggested that the OAS-RNase L-RIG-I pathway may be activated in sterile condition in absence of pathogen. PMID:25738304

  8. Overexpression of the transcription factor Sp1 activates the OAS-RNAse L-RIG-I pathway.

    PubMed

    Dupuis-Maurin, Valryane; Brinza, Lilia; Baguet, Jol; Plantamura, Emilie; Schicklin, Stphane; Chambion, Solne; Macari, Claire; Tomkowiak, Martine; Deniaud, Emmanuelle; Leverrier, Yann; Marvel, Jacqueline; Michallet, Marie-Ccile

    2015-01-01

    Deregulated expression of oncogenes or transcription factors such as specificity protein 1 (Sp1) is observed in many human cancers and plays a role in tumor maintenance. Paradoxically in untransformed cells, Sp1 overexpression induces late apoptosis but the early intrinsic response is poorly characterized. In the present work, we studied increased Sp1 level consequences in untransformed cells and showed that it turns on an early innate immune transcriptome. Sp1 overexpression does not activate known cellular stress pathways such as DNA damage response or endoplasmic reticulum stress, but induces the activation of the OAS-RNase L pathway and the generation of small self-RNAs, leading to the upregulation of genes of the antiviral RIG-I pathway at the transcriptional and translational levels. Finally, Sp1-induced intrinsic innate immune response leads to the production of the chemokine CXCL4 and to the recruitment of inflammatory cells in vitro and in vivo. Altogether our results showed that increased Sp1 level in untransformed cells constitutes a novel danger signal sensed by the OAS-RNase L axis leading to the activation of the RIG-I pathway. These results suggested that the OAS-RNase L-RIG-I pathway may be activated in sterile condition in absence of pathogen. PMID:25738304

  9. Synergistic activation of a human promoter in vivo by transcription factor Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, G.M. ); Freytag, S.O. )

    1991-04-01

    Many eucaryotic promoters contain multiple binding sites for sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins. In some cases, these proteins have been shown to interact synergistically to activate transcription. In this study, the authors address the possibility that the transcription factor Sp1 can synergistically activate a native human promoter in a cellular context that closely resembles that of a single-copy gene. Using DNase I footprinting with affinity-purified Sp1, they show that the human argininosuccinate synthetase (AS) promoter contains three sites that bind Sp1 with different affinities. These binding sites were mutated to abolish Sp1 binding, individually and in all possible combinations, to generate a series of AS promoter-CAT constructs was then measured in stably transfected human RPMI 2650 cells lines. The results show that each of the three Sp1-binding sites contributes to full activation of the human AS promoter and the relative contribution of each site correlates well with its in vitro affinity for Sp1. They provide direct evidence that Sp1-binding sites in their native context in a human promoter can interact synergistically in vivo to activate transcription. The ability to activate transcription synergistically may be the reason that many cellular promoters have multiple Sp1-binding sites arranged in tandem and in close proximity.

  10. Transcription Factor Sp1 Promotes the Expression of Porcine ROCK1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruirui; Feng, Xiaoting; Zhan, Mengsi; Huang, Cong; Chen, Kun; Tang, Xiaoyin; Kang, Tingting; Xiong, Yuanzhu; Lei, Minggang

    2016-01-01

    Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) gene plays a crucial role in maintaining genomic stability, tumorigenesis and myogenesis. However, little is known about the regulatory elements governing the transcription of porcine ROCK1 gene. In the current study, the transcription start site (TSS) was identified by 5’-RACE, and was found to differ from the predicted one. The region in ROCK1 promoter which is critical for promoter activity was investigated via progressive deletions. Site-directed mutagenesis indicated that the region from −604 to −554 bp contains responsive elements for Sp1. Subsequent experiments showed that ROCK1 promoter activity is enhanced by Sp1 in a dose-dependent manner, whereas treatment with specific siRNA repressed ROCK1 promoter activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), DNA pull down and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed Sp1 can bind to this region. qRT-PCR and Western blotting research followed by overexpression or inhibition of Sp1 indicate that Sp1 can affect endogenous ROCK1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Overexpression of Sp1 can promote the expression of myogenic differentiation 1(MyoD), myogenin (MyoG), myosin heavy chain (MyHC). Taken together, we conclude that Sp1 positively regulates ROCK1 transcription by directly binding to the ROCK1 promoter region (from −604 to −532 bp) and may affect the process of myogenesis. PMID:26784181

  11. Transcription Factor Sp1 Promotes the Expression of Porcine ROCK1 Gene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruirui; Feng, Xiaoting; Zhan, Mengsi; Huang, Cong; Chen, Kun; Tang, Xiaoyin; Kang, Tingting; Xiong, Yuanzhu; Lei, Minggang

    2015-01-01

    Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) gene plays a crucial role in maintaining genomic stability, tumorigenesis and myogenesis. However, little is known about the regulatory elements governing the transcription of porcine ROCK1 gene. In the current study, the transcription start site (TSS) was identified by 5'-RACE, and was found to differ from the predicted one. The region in ROCK1 promoter which is critical for promoter activity was investigated via progressive deletions. Site-directed mutagenesis indicated that the region from -604 to -554 bp contains responsive elements for Sp1. Subsequent experiments showed that ROCK1 promoter activity is enhanced by Sp1 in a dose-dependent manner, whereas treatment with specific siRNA repressed ROCK1 promoter activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), DNA pull down and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed Sp1 can bind to this region. qRT-PCR and Western blotting research followed by overexpression or inhibition of Sp1 indicate that Sp1 can affect endogenous ROCK1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Overexpression of Sp1 can promote the expression of myogenic differentiation 1(MyoD), myogenin (MyoG), myosin heavy chain (MyHC). Taken together, we conclude that Sp1 positively regulates ROCK1 transcription by directly binding to the ROCK1 promoter region (from -604 to -532 bp) and may affect the process of myogenesis. PMID:26784181

  12. The oncoprotein HBXIP upregulates PDGFB via activating transcription factor Sp1 to promote the proliferation of breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yingyi; Zhao, Yu; Li, Leilei; Shen, Yu; Cai, Xiaoli; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ye, Lihong

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •HBXIP is able to upregulate the expression of PDGFB in breast cancer cells. •HBXIP serves as a coactivator of activating transcription factor Sp1. •HBXIP stimulates the PDGFB promoter via activating transcription factor Sp1. •HBXIP promotes the proliferation of breast cancer cell via upregulating PDGFB. -- Abstract: We have reported that the oncoprotein hepatitis B virus X-interacting protein (HBXIP) acts as a novel transcriptional coactivator to promote proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. Previously, we showed that HBXIP was able to activate nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in breast cancer cells. As an oncogene, the platelet-derived growth factor beta polypeptide (PDGFB) plays crucial roles in carcinogenesis. In the present study, we found that both HBXIP and PDGFB were highly expressed in breast cancer cell lines. Interestingly, HBXIP was able to increase transcriptional activity of NF-κB through PDGFB, suggesting that HBXIP is associated with PDGFB in the cells. Moreover, HBXIP was able to upregulate PDGFB at the levels of mRNA, protein and promoter in the cells. Then, we identified that HBXIP stimulated the promoter of PDGFB through activating transcription factor Sp1. In function, HBXIP enhanced the proliferation of breast cancer cells through PDGFB in vitro. Thus, we conclude that HBXIP upregulates PDGFB via activating transcription factor Sp1 to promote proliferation of breast cancer cells.

  13. Negative Regulation of DsbA-L Gene Expression by the Transcription Factor Sp1

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Qichen; Yang, Wenjing; Li, Huating; Hu, Wenxiu; Chen, Lihui; Jiang, Shan; Dong, Kun; Song, Qianqian; Wang, Chen; Chen, Shuo; Liu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L) possesses beneficial effects such as promoting adiponectin multimerization and stability, increasing insulin sensitivity, and enhancing energy metabolism. The expression level of DsbA-L is negatively correlated with obesity in mice and humans, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. To address this question, we generated reporter gene constructs containing the promoter sequence of the mouse DsbA-L gene. Deletion analysis showed that the proximal promoter of mouse DsbA-L is located between ?186 and ?34 bp relative to the transcription start site. In silico analysis identified a putative Sp1 transcription factor binding site in the first intron of the DsbA-L gene. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that Sp1 bound to this intron region in vitro and in intact cells. Overexpression of Sp1 or suppressing Sp1 expression by siRNA reduced or increased DsbA-L promoter activity, respectively. The binding activity of Sp1 was gradually decreased during 3T3-L1 cell differentiation and was significantly increased in adipose tissues of obese mice. Our results identify Sp1 as an inhibitor of DsbA-L gene transcription, and the Sp1-mediated inhibition of DsbA-L gene expression may provide a mechanism underlying obesity-induced adiponectin downregulation and insulin resistance. PMID:25024375

  14. Negative regulation of DsbA-L gene expression by the transcription factor Sp1.

    PubMed

    Fang, Qichen; Yang, Wenjing; Li, Huating; Hu, Wenxiu; Chen, Lihui; Jiang, Shan; Dong, Kun; Song, Qianqian; Wang, Chen; Chen, Shuo; Liu, Feng; Jia, Weiping

    2014-12-01

    Disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L) possesses beneficial effects such as promoting adiponectin multimerization and stability, increasing insulin sensitivity, and enhancing energy metabolism. The expression level of DsbA-L is negatively correlated with obesity in mice and humans, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. To address this question, we generated reporter gene constructs containing the promoter sequence of the mouse DsbA-L gene. Deletion analysis showed that the proximal promoter of mouse DsbA-L is located between -186 and -34 bp relative to the transcription start site. In silico analysis identified a putative Sp1 transcription factor binding site in the first intron of the DsbA-L gene. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that Sp1 bound to this intron region in vitro and in intact cells. Overexpression of Sp1 or suppressing Sp1 expression by siRNA reduced or increased DsbA-L promoter activity, respectively. The binding activity of Sp1 was gradually decreased during 3T3-L1 cell differentiation and was significantly increased in adipose tissues of obese mice. Our results identify Sp1 as an inhibitor of DsbA-L gene transcription, and the Sp1-mediated inhibition of DsbA-L gene expression may provide a mechanism underlying obesity-induced adiponectin downregulation and insulin resistance. PMID:25024375

  15. Sequence-independent induction of Sp1 transcription factor activity by phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Perez, J R; Li, Y; Stein, C A; Majumder, S; van Oorschot, A; Narayanan, R

    1994-01-01

    Modified analogues of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), particularly phosphorothioates ([S]ODNs), have been extensively used to inhibit gene expression. The potential sequence specificity of antisense oligomers makes them attractive as molecular drugs for human diseases. The use of antisense [S]ODNs to inhibit gene expression has been complicated by frequent nonspecific effects. In this study we show in diverse cell types that [S]ODNs, independent of their base sequence, mediated the induction of an Sp1 nuclear transcription factor. The [S]ODN-mediated Sp1 induction was rapid and was associated with elevated levels of Sp1 protein. This induction was dependent on NF-kappa B activity, since inhibition of NF-kappa B activity abolished the [S]ODN-induced Sp1 activity. [S]ODN-induced Sp1 activity was seen in mouse spleen cells following in vivo administration. Sp1 activity induced by [S]ODNs required the tyrosine kinase pathway and did not have transactivating potential. These results may help to explain some of the non-specific effects often seen with [S]ODNs. Images PMID:8016096

  16. Sp1/Sp3 transcription factors regulate hallmarks of megakaryocyte maturation and platelet formation and function.

    PubMed

    Meinders, Marjolein; Kulu, Divine I; van de Werken, Harmen J G; Hoogenboezem, Mark; Janssen, Hans; Brouwer, Rutger W W; van Ijcken, Wilfred F J; Rijkers, Erik-Jan; Demmers, Jeroen A A; Krüger, Imme; van den Berg, Timo K; Suske, Guntram; Gutiérrez, Laura; Philipsen, Sjaak

    2015-03-19

    Sp1 and Sp3 belong to the specificity proteins (Sp)/Krüppel-like transcription factor family. They are closely related, ubiquitously expressed, and recognize G-rich DNA motifs. They are thought to regulate generic processes such as cell-cycle and growth control, metabolic pathways, and apoptosis. Ablation of Sp1 or Sp3 in mice is lethal, and combined haploinsufficiency results in hematopoietic defects during the fetal stages. Here, we show that in adult mice, conditional pan-hematopoietic (Mx1-Cre) ablation of either Sp1 or Sp3 has minimal impact on hematopoiesis, whereas the simultaneous loss of Sp1 and Sp3 results in severe macrothrombocytopenia. This occurs in a cell-autonomous manner as shown by megakaryocyte-specific (Pf4-Cre) double-knockout mice. We employed flow cytometry, cell culture, and electron microscopy and show that although megakaryocyte numbers are normal in bone marrow and spleen, they display a less compact demarcation membrane system and a striking inability to form proplatelets. Through megakaryocyte transcriptomics and platelet proteomics, we identified several cytoskeleton-related proteins and downstream effector kinases, including Mylk, that were downregulated upon Sp1/Sp3 depletion, providing an explanation for the observed defects in megakaryopoiesis. Supporting this notion, selective Mylk inhibition by ML7 affected proplatelet formation and stabilization and resulted in defective ITAM receptor-mediated platelet aggregation. PMID:25538045

  17. Androgen up-regulates vascular endothelial growth factor expression in prostate cancer cells via an Sp1 binding site

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is regulated by a number of different factors, but the mechanism(s) behind androgen-mediated regulation of VEGF in prostate cancer are poorly understood. Results Three novel androgen receptor (AR) binding sites were discovered in the VEGF promoter and in vivo binding of AR to these sites was demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Mutation of these sites attenuated activation of the VEGF promoter by the androgen analog, R1881 in prostate cancer cells. The transcription factors AR and Sp1 were shown to form a nuclear complex and both bound the VEGF core promoter in chromatin of hormone treated CWR22Rv1 prostate cancer cells. The importance of the Sp1 binding site in hormone mediated activation of VEGF expression was demonstrated by site directed mutagenesis. Mutation of a critical Sp1 binding site (Sp1.4) in the VEGF core promoter region prevented activation by androgen. Similarly, suppression of Sp1 binding by Mithramycin A treatment significantly reduced VEGF expression. Conclusions Our mechanistic study of androgen mediated induction of VEGF expression in prostate cancer cells revealed for the first time that this induction is mediated through the core promoter region and is dependent upon a critical Sp1 binding site. The importance of Sp1 binding suggests that therapy targeting the AR-Sp1 complex may dampen VEGF induced angiogenesis and, thereby, block prostate cancer progression, helping to maintain the indolent form of prostate cancer. PMID:23369005

  18. A crucial role for the ubiquitously expressed transcription factor Sp1 at early stages of hematopoietic specification

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, Jane; Assi, Salam A.; Jaegle, Ulrike; Kulu, Divine; van de Werken, Harmen; Clarke, Deborah; Westhead, David R.; Philipsen, Sjaak; Bonifer, Constanze

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian development is regulated by the interplay of tissue-specific and ubiquitously expressed transcription factors, such as Sp1. Sp1 knockout mice die in utero with multiple phenotypic aberrations, but the underlying molecular mechanism of this differentiation failure has been elusive. Here, we have used conditional knockout mice as well as the differentiation of mouse ES cells as a model with which to address this issue. To this end, we examined differentiation potential, global gene expression patterns and Sp1 target regions in Sp1 wild-type and Sp1-deficient cells representing different stages of hematopoiesis. Sp1?/? cells progress through most embryonic stages of blood cell development but cannot complete terminal differentiation. This failure to fully differentiate is not seen when Sp1 is knocked out at later developmental stages. For most Sp1 target and non-target genes, gene expression is unaffected by Sp1 inactivation. However, Cdx genes and multiple Hox genes are stage-specific targets of Sp1 and are downregulated at an early stage. As a consequence, expression of genes involved in hematopoietic specification is progressively deregulated. Our work demonstrates that the early absence of active Sp1 sets a cascade in motion that culminates in a failure of terminal hematopoietic differentiation and emphasizes the role of ubiquitously expressed transcription factors for tissue-specific gene regulation. In addition, our global side-by-side analysis of the response of the transcriptional network to perturbation sheds a new light on the regulatory hierarchy of hematopoietic specification. PMID:24850855

  19. The transcription factors Sp1 and Oct-1 interact physically to regulate human U2 snRNA gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Strm, A C; Forsberg, M; Lillhager, P; Westin, G

    1996-01-01

    The expression of human small nuclear U2 RNA genes is controlled by the proximal sequence element (PSE), which determines the start site of transcription, and a distal sequence element (DSE). The DSE contains an octamer element and three Sp1 binding sites. The octamer, like the PSE, is essential for U2 transcription. The Sp1 sites contribute to full promoter activity by distance-dependent cooperative interactions with the transcription factors Sp1 and Oct-1. Here we show that purified recombinant Sp1 and Oct-1 bind cooperatively to the DSE and that they physically interact in vitro. Furthermore, we show that Sp1 and Oct-1 interact in vivo using a yeast two-hybrid system. The domain of Sp1 which interacts with Oct-1 is confined to the region necessary for transcriptional stimulation of U2 RNA transcription. This region contains the glutamine-rich activation domain B and a serine/threonine-rich part. The results demonstrate that Sp1, in addition to binding to a number of other factors, also interacts directly with transcription factor Oct-1. PMID:8668525

  20. Regulation of transcription of the RNA splicing factor hSlu7 by Elk-1 and Sp1 affects alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Alberstein, Moti; Amit, Maayan; Vaknin, Keren; O'Donnell, Amanda; Farhy, Chen; Lerenthal, Yaniv; Shomron, Noam; Shaham, Ohad; Sharrocks, Andrew D.; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Ast, Gil

    2007-01-01

    Alternative splicing plays a major role in transcriptome diversity and plasticity, but it is largely unknown how tissue-specific and embryogenesis-specific alternative splicing is regulated. The highly conserved splicing factor Slu7 is involved in 3? splice site selection and also regulates alternative splicing. We show that Slu7 has a unique spatial pattern of expression among human and mouse embryonic and adult tissues. We identified several functional Ets binding sites and GC-boxes in the human Slu7 (hSlu7) promoter region. The Ets and GC-box binding transcription factors, Elk-1 and Sp1, respectively, exerted opposite effects on hSlu7 transcription: Sp1 protein enhances and Elk-1 protein represses transcription in a dose-dependent manner. Sp1 protein bound to the hSlu7 promoter in vivo, and depletion of Sp1 by RNA interference (RNAi) repressed hSlu7 expression. Elk-1 protein bound to the hSlu7 promoter in vivo, and depletion of Elk-1 by RNAi caused an increase in the endogenous level of hSlu7 mRNA. Further, depletion of either Sp1 or Elk-1 affected alternative splicing. Our results provide indications of a complex transcription regulation mechanism that controls the spatial and temporal expression of Slu7, presumably allowing regulation of tissue-specific alternative splicing events. PMID:17804646

  1. Molecular Characterisation, Evolution and Expression of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor in Aurelia sp.1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoshan; Yu, Zhigang; Zhen, Yu; Mi, Tiezhu; Shi, Yan; Wang, Jianyan; Wang, Minxiao; Sun, Song

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of physiological oxygen homeostasis is mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), a key transcriptional factor of the PHD-HIF system in all metazoans. However, the molecular evolutionary origin of this central physiological regulatory system is not well characterized. As the earliest eumetazoans, Cnidarians can be served as an interesting model for exploring the HIF system from an evolutionary perspective. We identified the complete cDNA sequence of HIF-1? (ASHIF) from the Aurelia sp.1, and the predicted HIF-1? protein (pASHIF) was comprised of 674 amino acids originating from 2,025 bp nucleotides. A Pairwise comparison revealed that pASHIF not only possessed conserved basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domains but also contained the oxygen dependent degradation (ODD) and the C-terminal transactivation domains (C-TAD), the key domains for hypoxia regulation. As indicated by sequence analysis, the ASHIF gene contains 8 exons interrupted by 7 introns. Western blot analysis indicated that pASHIF that existed in the polyps and medusa of Aurelia. sp.1 was more stable for a hypoxic response than normoxia. PMID:24926666

  2. In vitro and in vivo binding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein and Sp1 transcription factor.

    PubMed Central

    Jeang, K T; Chun, R; Lin, N H; Gatignol, A; Glabe, C G; Fan, H

    1993-01-01

    Recent genetic experiments have suggested that tat transactivation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat requires functional upstream enhancer sequences--Sp1 sites, in particular. In these experiments, HeLa cell nuclear extracts were passed over affinity matrices containing chemically synthesized or bacterially expressed HIV-1 Tat. Assay of material that bound to and eluted from the Tat matrices revealed the presence of the Sp1 transcription factor. Other transcription factors (Oct and NF-kappa B) also bound to Tat matrices but with less efficiency--in parallel with the lower capacities of these binding motifs to confer Tat responsiveness on a basal HIV-1 promoter compared with Sp1 sites. Passage of nuclear extracts over matrices containing other neutral proteins, including bovine serum albumin, ovalbumin, and lysozyme, revealed no or reduced binding. Cross-linking experiments indicated that the purified Sp1 and Tat proteins can form multimeric complexes in the absence of other proteins. The region of Tat responsible for Sp1 binding was localized to a region encompassing residues 30 to 62. Immunoprecipitation experiments with HIV-1-infected T lymphocytes indicated coimmunoprecipitation of Tat and Sp1. These experiments extend previous genetic experiments and suggest a direct interaction between Tat and Sp1 during transactivation. Images PMID:7690421

  3. Transcription factor Sp1 prevents TRF2(?B?M)-induced premature senescence in human diploid fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    An, Hyun Ju; Lee, Hyeon Ju; Jang, Suhwa; Jung, Yu-Jin; Choi, Sun Shim; Park, Sang Chul; Han, Jeong A

    2016-03-01

    Telomere uncapping is thought to be the fundamental cause of replicative cellular senescence, but the cellular machineries mediating this process have not been fully understood. In the present study, we present the role of Sp1 transcription factor in the state of telomere uncapping using the TRF2(?B?M)-induced senescence model in human diploid fibroblasts. We observed that the expression of Sp1 is down-regulated in the TRF2(?B?M)-induced senescence, which was mediated by ATM and p38 MAPK. In addition, overexpression of Sp1 prevented the TRF2(?B?M)-induced senescence. Among transcriptional targets of Sp1, expression levels of nuclear transport genes such as karyopherin ?, Nup107, and Nup50 were down-regulated in the TRF2(?B?M)-induced senescence, which was prevented by Sp1 overexpression. Moreover, inhibition of the nuclear transport by wheat germ agglutinin (an import inhibitor) and leptomycin B (an export inhibitor) induced premature senescence. These results suggest that Sp1 is an anti-senescence transcription factor in the telomere uncapping-induced senescence and that down-regulation of Sp1 leads to the senescence via down-regulation of the nuclear transport. PMID:26906205

  4. Sp1 is required for transcriptional activation of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 gene in neonatal cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Seyed, Mahdie; Dimario, Joseph X

    2007-10-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) is the predominant FGFR in cardiac tissue and regulates proliferation, differentiation, and maintenance of normal myocardium. During development of cardiac tissue, FGFR1 gene expression regulates cardiomyocyte proliferation. The focus of this study was to determine the molecular mechanism of transcriptional activation of the FGFR1 gene in proliferating neonatal cardiomyocytes. Analysis of DNA sequence of the FGFR1 gene identified three potential Sp factor binding sites located at 49 bp, 68 bp, and 100 bp upstream from the 3' end of the promoter segment. Mutation of each of these sites resulted in a significant decline in FGFR1 promoter activity compared to wild type promoter activity, and combinatorial mutation of all three sites completely abrogated promoter activity to background levels. In addition, overexpression of Sp1 in neonatal cardiomyocytes resulted in a dose-dependent increase in wild type FGFR1 promoter activity. However, Sp1-mediated up-regulation of promoter activity was abrogated when all three Sp interacting sites were mutated. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were used to demonstrate direct interactions of Sp1 with the proximal promoter region of the FGFR1 gene in neonatal cardiomyocytes. ChIP assays using Drosophila Schneider Line 2 (SL2) cells transiently transfected with wild type or mutant FGFR1 promoter constructs verified the direct interaction between Sp1 and the three Sp1 interacting sites of the promoter. Western blot analyses indicated that Sp1 was present in cytoplasmic and nuclear extracts of neonatal myocardium. These results indicate that Sp1 is a necessary positive regulator of FGFR1 gene transcription in neonatal cardiomyocytes. PMID:17628354

  5. Transcription factor Sp1 inhibition, memory, and cytokines in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Citron, Bruce A; Saykally, Jessica N; Cao, Chuanhai; Dennis, John S; Runfeldt, Melissa; Arendash, Gary W

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors are involved to varying extents in the health and survival of neurons in the brain and a better understanding of their roles with respect to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) could lead to the development of additional treatment strategies. Sp1 is a transcription factor that responds to inflammatory signals occurring in the AD brain. It is known to regulate genes with demonstrated importance in AD, and we have previously found it upregulated in the AD brain and in brains of transgenic AD model mice. To better understand the role of Sp1 in AD, we tested whether we could affect memory function (measured with a battery of behavioral tests discriminating different aspects of cognitive function) in a transgenic model of AD by pharmaceutical modulation of Sp1. We found that inhibition of Sp1 function in transgenic AD model mice increased memory deficits, while there were no changes in sensorimotor or anxiety tests. Aβ42 and Aβ40 peptide levels were significantly higher in the treated mice, indicating that Sp1 elevation in AD could be a functionally protective response. Circulating levels of CXCL1 (KC) decreased following treatment with mithramycin, while a battery of other cytokines, including IL-1α, IL-6, INF-γ and MCP-1, were unchanged. Gene expression levels for several genes important to neuronal health were determined by qRT-PCR, and none of these appeared to change at the transcriptional level. PMID:26807343

  6. Synergistic activation of the human Btk promoter by transcription factors Sp1/3 and PU.1.

    PubMed

    Mller, S; Maas, A; Islam, T C; Sideras, P; Suske, G; Philipsen, S; Xanthopoulos, K G; Hendriks, R W; Smith, C I

    1999-06-01

    Analysis of the human Bruton's agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase (Btk) gene promoter revealed that 280 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site is sufficient for a cell restricted expression pattern. Here, the interplay of the transcription factors Sp1, Sp3, and PU.1 binding to this promoter area was analysed. All three proteins are able to independently activate the promoter in Drosophila Schneider (SL2) cells lacking endogenous Sp- or PU.1-like activities. Furthermore, PU.1 is able to act synergistically with Sp1 as well as Sp3 to transactivate the promoter. This transactivation is mediated through adjacent binding sites rather than through the more distant Sp binding site, suggesting a possible direct interaction between PU.1 and Sp1/3. Expression of Btk was found in ES cells and levels of expression were the same as in ES cells with a targeted deletion of the Sp1 gene, suggesting that Sp3 acts as a positive regulator of Btk in vivo, in the absence of Sp1. PMID:10362515

  7. CpG methylation plays a vital role in determining tissue- and cell-specific expression of the human cell-death-inducing DFF45-like effector A gene through the regulation of Sp1/Sp3 binding.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Da, Liang; Tang, Hong; Li, Tsaiping; Zhao, Mujun

    2008-01-01

    Cell-death-inducing DFF45-like effector A (CIDE-A) belongs to a family of proapoptotic proteins, the expression of which is highly restricted in human tissues and cells. Here, the core region of the human CIDE-A promoter was characterized. Surprisingly, two Sp1/Sp3-binding sites, rather than tissue-specific transcription factors, were found to be required for the promoter activity. Although the ubiquitously expressed Sp1 and Sp3 were crucial, they alone could not adequately regulate the specific expression of CIDE-A. We found that the expression of CIDE-A was further regulated by CpG methylation of the promoter region. By performing bisulfite sequencing, we observed dense CpG methylation of the promoter region in tissues and cells with low or no expression of CIDE-A but not in tissues with high level of CIDE-A expression. In vitro methylation of this region showed significantly reduced transcriptional activity. Treatment of CIDE-A-negative cells with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine demethylated the CpG sites; this opened the closed chromatin conformation and markedly enhanced the binding affinity of Sp1/Sp3 to the promoter in vivo, thereby restoring CIDE-A expression. These data indicated that CpG methylation plays a crucial role in establishing and maintaining tissue- and cell-specific transcription of the CIDE-A gene through the regulation of Sp1/Sp3 binding. PMID:18033804

  8. miR-29b sensitizes multiple myeloma cells to bortezomib-induced apoptosis through the activation of a feedback loop with the transcription factor Sp1

    PubMed Central

    Amodio, N; Di Martino, M T; Foresta, U; Leone, E; Lionetti, M; Leotta, M; Gull, A M; Pitari, M R; Conforti, F; Rossi, M; Agosti, V; Fulciniti, M; Misso, G; Morabito, F; Ferrarini, M; Neri, A; Caraglia, M; Munshi, N C; Anderson, K C; Tagliaferri, P; Tassone, P

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) with tumor-suppressor potential might have therapeutic applications in multiple myeloma (MM) through the modulation of still undiscovered molecular pathways. Here, we investigated the effects of enforced expression of miR-29b on the apoptotic occurrence in MM and highlighted its role in the context of a new transcriptional loop that is finely tuned by the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. In details, in vitro growth inhibition and apoptosis of MM cells was induced by either transient expression of synthetic miR-29b or its stable lentivirus-enforced expression. We identified Sp1, a transcription factor endowed with oncogenic activity, as a negative regulator of miR-29b expression in MM cells. Since Sp1 expression and functions are regulated via the 26S proteasome, we investigated the effects of bortezomib on miR-29b-Sp1 loop, showing that miR-29b levels were indeed upregulated by the drug. At the same time, the bortezomib/miR-29b combination produced significant pro-apoptotic effects. We also demonstrated that the PI3K/AKT pathway plays a major role in the regulation of miR-29b-Sp1 loop and induction of apoptosis in MM cells. Finally, MM xenografts constitutively expressing miR-29b showed significant reduction of their tumorigenic potential. Our findings indicate that miR-29b is involved in a regulatory loop amenable of pharmacologic intervention and modulates the anti-MM activity of bortezomib in MM cells. PMID:23190608

  9. The FOXM1 transcription factor interacts with Sp1 to mediate EGF-dependent COX-2 expression in human glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kaiming; Shu, Hui-Kuo G.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is linked to worse prognosis in patients with malignant gliomas and other tumor types. Amplification/overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is commonly seen in these tumors. We have previously shown that EGFR signaling, through activation of p38-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), protein kinase C-? (PKC-?), and Sp1, plays an important role in the regulation of COX-2 expression in glioma cells. Here, we report that the Src kinase also has a role in this signaling cascade upstream of p38-MAPK/PKC-?. In addition, more detailed analysis revealed the involvement of FOXM1, a member of the forkhead box family of transcriptional activators, in EGF-dependent COX-2 induction. FOXM1 protein levels increase after stimulation with EGF although its role in modulating COX-2 expression does not depend on this increase. While a conventional FOXM1 responsive element resides in a distal region (?2872/?2539 relative to the transcriptional start site) of the COX-2 promoter, this is not required for EGF-dependent induction of COX-2. Instead, FOXM1 is capable of interacting with Sp1 at the Sp1 binding site (?245/?240 relative to the start site) of the COX-2 promoter and appears to act in cooperation with Sp1 to mediate EGF-induced COX-2 expression. Definition of this novel interaction provides us with a clearer understanding of the mechanistic basis for the induction of COX-2 with EGF and guides our evaluation of potential newer therapeutic targets that have relevance in this disease. PMID:23635401

  10. Transcriptional factor specificity protein 1 (SP1) promotes the proliferation of glioma cells by up-regulating midkine (MDK)

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jingyan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Xia, Zhibo; Yang, Lixuan; Ding, Zhiming; Chen, Shiyuan; Lai, Bingquan; Zhang, Nu

    2015-01-01

    Midkine (MDK) expression is associated with the proliferation of many cancers, including glioma. However, the upstream signaling that leads to MDK accumulation remains elusive. This study investigates the molecular mechanism that induces MDK overexpression in human glioma. The Repository for Molecular Brain Neoplasia Data was analyzed to identify potential MDK regulators. Expression of MDK and specificity protein 1 (SP1) was compared in glioma specimens. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to confirm the transcriptional regulation. MDK-force–expressed, SP1-silenced glioma cells were used to test rescue effects in vitro and in vivo. MDK and SP1 expression in gliomas was significantly higher than in adjacent tissues and was positively correlated in glioma clinical samples and cell lines. The promoter of the human MDK gene has a putative SP1 binding site. SP1 binds to the promoter of the MDK gene and directly regulates MDK expression. MDK or SP1 gene silencing inhibited the proliferation of glioma cells and reduced the tumor volume in nude mice. Overexpression of MDK in SP1-silenced cells could partially rescue the SP1 inhibition effects in vivo and in vitro. SP1 directly up-regulated the expression of MDK, and the SP1-MDK axis cooperated in glioma tumorigenesis. PMID:25428991

  11. Transcriptional factor specificity protein 1 (SP1) promotes the proliferation of glioma cells by up-regulating midkine (MDK).

    PubMed

    Luo, Jingyan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Xia, Zhibo; Yang, Lixuan; Ding, Zhiming; Chen, Shiyuan; Lai, Bingquan; Zhang, Nu

    2015-02-01

    Midkine (MDK) expression is associated with the proliferation of many cancers, including glioma. However, the upstream signaling that leads to MDK accumulation remains elusive. This study investigates the molecular mechanism that induces MDK overexpression in human glioma. The Repository for Molecular Brain Neoplasia Data was analyzed to identify potential MDK regulators. Expression of MDK and specificity protein 1 (SP1) was compared in glioma specimens. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to confirm the transcriptional regulation. MDK-force-expressed, SP1-silenced glioma cells were used to test rescue effects in vitro and in vivo. MDK and SP1 expression in gliomas was significantly higher than in adjacent tissues and was positively correlated in glioma clinical samples and cell lines. The promoter of the human MDK gene has a putative SP1 binding site. SP1 binds to the promoter of the MDK gene and directly regulates MDK expression. MDK or SP1 gene silencing inhibited the proliferation of glioma cells and reduced the tumor volume in nude mice. Overexpression of MDK in SP1-silenced cells could partially rescue the SP1 inhibition effects in vivo and in vitro. SP1 directly up-regulated the expression of MDK, and the SP1-MDK axis cooperated in glioma tumorigenesis. PMID:25428991

  12. O-GlcNAc Modification of Transcription Factor Sp1 Mediates Hyperglycemia-Induced VEGF-A Upregulation in Retinal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Kelly; Alekseev, Oleg; Qi, Xin; Cho, William; Azizkhan-Clifford, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Proangiogenic protein VEGF-A contributes significantly to retinal lesions and neovascularization in diabetic retinopathy (DR). In preclinical DR, hyperglycemia can upregulate VEGF-A in retinal cells. The VEGF-A promoter is responsive to the transcription factor specificity protein 1 (Sp1). The O-GlcNAc modification is driven by glucose concentration and has a profound effect on Sp1 activity. This study investigated the effects of hyperglycemia on Sp1-mediated expression of VEGF-A in the retinal endothelium and pigment epithelium. Methods. Hyperglycemia-exposed ARPE-19 (human retinal pigment epithelial cells) and TR-iBRB (rat retinal microendothelial cells) were assayed for levels of VEGF-A by qRT-PCR, Western blot, and ELISA. Small molecule inhibitors of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) or O-GlcNAcase (OGA) were used to manipulate O-GlcNAc levels. Vascular endothelial growth factorA protein and transcript were measured in cells depleted of OGT or Sp1 by shRNA. The proximal VEGF-A promoter was analyzed for glucose sensitivity by luciferase assay. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) was used to assess Sp1 occupancy on the VEGF-A promoter. Results. Hyperglycemia increased VEGF-A promoter activity and upregulated VEGF-A transcript and protein. Elevation of O-GlcNAc by OGA inhibitors was sufficient to increase VEGF-A. O-GlcNAc transferase inhibition abrogated glucose-driven VEGF-A. Cellular depletion of OGT or Sp1 by shRNA significantly abrogated glucose-induced changes in VEGF-A. ChIP analysis showed that hyperglycemia significantly increased binding of Sp1 to the VEGF-A promoter. Conclusions. Hyperglycemia-driven VEGF-A production is mediated by elevated O-GlcNAc modification of the Sp1 transcription factor. This mechanism may be significant in the pathogenesis of preclinical DR through VEGF-A upregulation. PMID:25352121

  13. Nerve Growth Factor Regulation of Cyclin D1 in PC12 Cells through a p21RAS Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Pathway Requires Cooperative Interactions between Sp1 and Nuclear Factor-?B

    PubMed Central

    Marampon, Francesco; Casimiro, Mathew C.; Fu, Maofu; Powell, Michael J.; Popov, Vladimir M.; Lindsay, Jaime; Zani, Bianca M.; Ciccarelli, Carmela; Watanabe, Genichi; Lee, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    The PC12 pheochromocytoma cell line responds to nerve growth factor (NGF) by exiting from the cell cycle and differentiating to induce extending neurites. Cyclin D1 is an important regulator of G1/S phase cell cycle progression, and it is known to play a role in myocyte differentiation in cultured cells. Herein, NGF induced cyclin D1 promoter, mRNA, and protein expression via the p21RAS pathway. Antisense- or small interfering RNA to cyclin D1 abolished NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth, demonstrating the essential role of cyclin D1 in NGF-mediated differentiation. Expression vectors encoding mutants of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and chemical inhibitors, demonstrated NGF induction of cyclin D1 involved cooperative interactions of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways downstream of p21RAS. NGF induced the cyclin D1 promoter via Sp1, nuclear factor-?B, and cAMP-response element/activated transcription factor sites. NGF induction via Sp1 involved the formation of a Sp1/p50/p107 complex. Cyclin D1 induction by NGF governs differentiation and neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. PMID:18367547

  14. Involvement of PKC{alpha} in insulin-induced PKC{delta} expression: Importance of SP-1 and NF{kappa}B transcription factors

    SciTech Connect

    Horovitz-Fried, Miriam; Sampson, Sanford R. . E-mail: sampsos@mail.biu.ac.il

    2007-01-05

    Protein kinase C delta (PKC{delta}) is a key molecule in insulin signaling essential for insulin-induced glucose transport in skeletal muscle. Recent studies in our laboratory have shown that insulin rapidly stimulates PKC{delta} activity and increases PKC{delta} protein and RNA levels, and that the SP-1 transcription factor is involved in insulin-induced transcription of the PKC{delta} gene. Activation of SP-1 involves serine phosphorylation and translocation to the nucleus. In this study we examined the possibility that PKC{alpha} might be involved in serine phosphorylation and activation of SP-1. We found that insulin rapidly phosphorylates and translocates SP-1. In the cytoplasm, SP-1 was constitutively associated with PKC{alpha}, and insulin stimulation caused these proteins to dissociate. In contrast, in the nucleus insulin induced an increase in association between PKC{alpha} and SP-1. PKC{alpha} inhibition blocked insulin-induced serine phosphorylation of SP-1 and its association with PKC{alpha} in the nucleus. Inhibition of PKC{alpha} also reduced the insulin-induced increase in PKC{delta} RNA and protein in the cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions. We also attempted to determine if another transcription factor might be involved in regulation of PKC{delta} expression. We earlier showed that insulin did not affect nuclear NF{kappa}B levels. Inhibition of NF{kappa}B, however, increased insulin-induced increase in PKC{delta} RNA and protein in the cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions. Surprisingly, this inhibition reduced the insulin-induced increase in cytoplasmic and nuclear PKC{alpha} RNA and protein. Inhibition of PKC{delta} reduced I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation as well as NF{kappa}B activation. Thus, PKC{alpha} regulates insulin-induced PKC{delta} expression levels and this regulation involves activation of SP-1 and NF{kappa}B.

  15. A novel specificity protein 1 (SP1)-like gene regulating protein kinase C-1 (Pkc1)-dependent cell wall integrity and virulence factors in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Adler, Amos; Park, Yoon-Dong; Larsen, Peter; Nagarajan, Vijayaraj; Wollenberg, Kurt; Qiu, Jin; Myers, Timothy G; Williamson, Peter R

    2011-06-10

    Eukaryotic cells utilize complex signaling systems to detect their environments, responding and adapting as new conditions arise during evolution. The basidiomycete fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is a leading cause of AIDS-related death worldwide and utilizes the calcineurin and protein kinase C-1 (Pkc1) signaling pathways for host adaptation and expression of virulence. In the present studies, a C-terminal zinc finger transcription factor, homologous both to the calcineurin-responsive zinc fingers (Crz1) of ascomycetes and to the Pkc1-dependent specificity protein-1 (Sp1) transcription factors of metazoans, was identified and named SP1 because of its greater similarity to the metazoan factors. Structurally, the Cryptococcus neoformans Sp1 (Cn Sp1) protein was found to have acquired an additional zinc finger motif from that of Crz1 and showed Pkc1-dependent phosphorylation, nuclear localization, and whole genome epistatic associations under starvation conditions. Transcriptional targets of Cn Sp1 shared functional similarities with Crz1 factors, such as cell wall synthesis, but gained the regulation of processes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, including trehalose metabolism, and lost others, such as the induction of autophagy. In addition, overexpression of Cn Sp1 in a pkc1? mutant showed restoration of altered phenotypes involved in virulence, including cell wall stability, nitrosative stress, and extracellular capsule production. Cn Sp1 was also found to be important for virulence of the fungus using a mouse model. In summary, these data suggest an evolutionary shift in C-terminal zinc finger proteins during fungal evolution, transforming them from calcineurin-dependent to PKC1-dependent transcription factors, helping to shape the role of fungal pathogenesis of C. neoformans. PMID:21487010

  16. Specificity Protein 1 (Sp1)-dependent Activation of the Synapsin I Gene (SYN1) Is Modulated by RE1-silencing Transcription Factor (REST) and 5?-Cytosine-Phosphoguanine (CpG) Methylation*

    PubMed Central

    Paonessa, Francesco; Latifi, Shahrzad; Scarongella, Helena; Cesca, Fabrizia; Benfenati, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The development and function of the nervous system are directly dependent on a well defined pattern of gene expression. Indeed, perturbation of transcriptional activity or epigenetic modifications of chromatin can dramatically influence neuronal phenotypes. The phosphoprotein synapsin I (Syn I) plays a crucial role during axonogenesis and synaptogenesis as well as in synaptic transmission and plasticity of mature neurons. Abnormalities in SYN1 gene expression have been linked to important neuropsychiatric disorders, such as epilepsy and autism. SYN1 gene transcription is suppressed in non-neural tissues by the RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST); however, the molecular mechanisms that allow the constitutive expression of this genetic region in neurons have not been clarified yet. Herein we demonstrate that a conserved region of human and mouse SYN1 promoters contains cis-sites for the transcriptional activator Sp1 in close proximity to REST binding motifs. Through a series of functional assays, we demonstrate a physical interaction of Sp1 on the SYN1 promoter and show that REST directly inhibits Sp1-mediated transcription, resulting in SYN1 down-regulation. Upon differentiation of neuroblastoma Neuro2a cells, we observe a decrease in endogenous REST and a higher stability of Sp1 on target GC boxes, resulting in an increase of SYN1 transcription. Moreover, methylation of Sp1 cis-sites in the SYN1 promoter region could provide an additional level of transcriptional regulation. Our results introduce Sp1 as a fundamental activator of basal SYN1 gene expression, whose activity is modulated by the neural master regulator REST and CpG methylation. PMID:23250796

  17. Sp1-mediated nonmuscle myosin light chain kinase expression and enhanced activity in vascular endothelial growth factorinduced vascular permeability

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Despite the important role played by the nonmuscle isoform of myosin light chain kinase (nmMLCK) in vascular barrier regulation and the implication of both nmMLCK and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the role played by nmMLCK in VEGF-induced vascular permeability is poorly understood. In this study, the role played by nmMLCK in VEGF-induced vascular hyperpermeability was investigated. Human lung endothelial cell barrier integrity in response to VEGF is examined in both the absence and the presence of nmMLCK small interfering RNAs. Levels of nmMLCK messenger RNA (mRNA), protein, and promoter activity expression were monitored after VEGF stimulation in lung endothelial cells. nmMYLK promoter activity was assessed using nmMYLK promoter luciferase reporter constructs with a series of nested deletions. nmMYLK transcriptional regulation was further characterized by examination of a key transcriptional factor. nmMLCK plays an important role in VEGF-induced permeability. We found that activation of the VEGF signaling pathway in lung endothelial cells increases MYLK gene product at both mRNA and protein levels. Increased nmMLCK mRNA and protein expression is a result of increased nmMYLK promoter activity, regulated in part by binding of the Sp1 transcription factor on triggering by the VEGF signaling pathway. Taken together, these findings suggest that MYLK is an important ARDS candidate gene and a therapeutic target that is highly influenced by excessive VEGF concentrations in the inflamed lung. PMID:26697178

  18. Hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein-5A activates sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c through transcription factor Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Zhonghua; Qiao, Ling; Zhou, Yan; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Liu, Qiang

    2010-11-19

    Research highlights: {yields} A chimeric subgenomic HCV replicon expresses HCV-3a NS5A in an HCV-1b backbone. {yields} HCV-3a NS5A increases mature SREBP-1c protein level. {yields} HCV-3a NS5A activates SREBP-1c transcription. {yields} Domain II of HCV-3a NS5A is more effective in SREBP-1c promoter activation. {yields} Transcription factor Sp1 is required for SREBP-1c activation by HCV-3a NS5A. -- Abstract: Steatosis is an important clinical manifestation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The molecular mechanisms of HCV-associated steatosis are not well understood. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) is a key transcription factor which activates the transcription of lipogenic genes. Here we showed that the nuclear, mature SREBP-1c level increases in the nucleus of replicon cells expressing HCV-3a nonstructural protein-5A (NS5A). We further showed that HCV-3a NS5A up-regulates SREBP-1c transcription. Additional analysis showed that transcriptional factor Sp1 is involved in SREBP-1c activation by HCV-3a NS5A because inhibition of Sp1 activity by mithramycin A or a dominant-negative Sp1 construct abrogated SREBP-1c promoter activation by HCV-3a NS5A. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay demonstrated enhanced binding of Sp1 on the SREBP-1c promoter in HCV-3a NS5A replicon cells. These results showed that HCV-3a NS5A activates SREBP-1c transcription through Sp1. Taken together, our results suggest that HCV-3a NS5A is a contributing factor for steatosis caused by HCV-3a infection.

  19. p53-mediated Down-regulation of the Human DNA Repair Gene O6- Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase (MGMT) via Interaction with Sp1 Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Bocangel, Dora; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Mitra, Sankar; Bhakat, Kishor K.

    2009-01-01

    O6-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), a ubiquitous DNA repair protein, reverses mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of O6-alkylguanine in DNA induced by chemotherapeutic N-alkyl N-nitrosourea and procarbazine type drugs by dealkylating the adduct. MGMT expression is down-regulated by wild-type p53 (WTp53) in human tumor cells. Here we report that p53 sequesters the Sp1 transcription factor to prevent its binding to the cognate cis elements in the MGMT promoter and thus inhibits MGMT expression. Sp1 overexpression abrogated the inhibitory effect of p53 on the MGMT promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. Stable interaction of Sp1 with WTp53 was observed in HCT116 cells. Moreover, WTp53 overexpression reduced the binding of the nuclear extract to the Sp1 consensus sequence, even though recombinant p53 alone did not bind to the same sequence. Taken together, these results suggest that sequestration of Sp1 could be one of the mechanisms by which p53 negatively regulates MGMT expression, thus enhancing sensitivity of tumor cells to O6-alkylguanine generating drugs. PMID:19846904

  20. SMAD3 and SP1/SP3 Transcription Factors Collaborate to Regulate Connective Tissue Growth Factor Gene Expression in Myoblasts in Response to Transforming Growth Factor ?.

    PubMed

    Crdova, Gonzalo; Rochard, Alice; Riquelme-Guzmn, Camilo; Cofr, Catalina; Scherman, Daniel; Bigey, Pascal; Brandan, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    Fibrotic disorders are characterized by an increase in extracellular matrix protein expression and deposition, Duchene Muscular Dystrophy being one of them. Among the factors that induce fibrosis are Transforming Growth Factor type ? (TGF-?) and the matricellular protein Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF/CCN2), the latter being a target of the TGF-?/SMAD signaling pathway and is the responsible for the profibrotic effects of TGF-?. Both CTGF and TGF are increased in tissues affected by fibrosis but little is known about the regulation of the expression of CTGF mediated by TGF-? in muscle cells. By using luciferase reporter assays, site directed mutagenesis and specific inhibitors in C2C12 cells; we described a novel SMAD Binding Element (SBE) located in the 5' UTR region of the CTGF gene important for the TGF-?-mediated expression of CTGF in myoblasts. In addition, our results suggest that additional transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) present in the 5' UTR of the CTGF gene are important for this expression and that SP1/SP3 factors are involved in TGF-?-mediated CTGF expression. PMID:25727481

  1. Sp1 Transcription Factor Interaction with Accumulated Prelamin A Impairs Adipose Lineage Differentiation in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Essential Role of Sp1 in the Integrity of Lipid Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz de Eguino, Garbiñe; Infante, Arantza; Schlangen, Karin; Aransay, Ana M.; Fullaondo, Ane; Soriano, Mario; García-Verdugo, José Manuel; Martín, Ángel G.

    2012-01-01

    Lamin A (LMNA)-linked lipodystrophies may be either genetic (associated with LMNA mutations) or acquired (associated with the use of human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors [PIs]), and in both cases they share clinical features such as anomalous distribution of body fat or generalized loss of adipose tissue, metabolic alterations, and early cardiovascular complications. Both LMNA-linked lipodystrophies are characterized by the accumulation of the lamin A precursor prelamin A. The pathological mechanism by which prelamin A accumulation induces the lipodystrophy associated phenotypes remains unclear. Since the affected tissues in these disorders are of mesenchymal origin, we have generated an LMNA-linked experimental model using human mesenchymal stem cells treated with a PI, which recapitulates the phenotypes observed in patient biopsies. This model has been demonstrated to be a useful tool to unravel the pathological mechanism of the LMNA-linked lipodystrophies, providing an ideal system to identify potential targets to generate new therapies for drug discovery screening. We report for the first time that impaired adipogenesis is a consequence of the interaction between accumulated prelamin A and Sp1 transcription factor, sequestration of which results in altered extracellular matrix gene expression. In fact, our study shows a novel, essential, and finely tuned role for Sp1 in adipose lineage differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells. These findings define a new physiological experimental model to elucidate the pathological mechanisms LMNA-linked lipodystrophies, creating new opportunities for research and treatment not only of LMNA-linked lipodystrophies but also of other adipogenesis-associated metabolic diseases. PMID:23197810

  2. Aristolochic acid I and ochratoxin A differentially regulate VEGF expression in porcine kidney epithelial cells--the involvement of SP-1 and HIFs transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Stachurska, Anna; Kozakowska, Magdalena; Jozkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Jozef; Loboda, Agnieszka

    2011-07-28

    Aristolochic acid I (AAI) and ochratoxin A (OTA) cause chronic kidney diseases. Recently, the contribution of hypoxic injuries and angiogenic disturbances to nephropathies has been suggested, but underlying mechanisms have not been fully clarified yet. In porcine kidney epithelial cell line, LLC-PK1 cells, treatment with non-toxic doses of AAI increased whereas with OTA decreased production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the angiogenic factor with well-defined functions in kidney. Moreover, the activity of transcription factors regulating VEGF expression was differentially affected by examined compounds. Activity of hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) and SP-1 was increased by AAI but diminished by OTA. Interestingly, AP-1 activity was inhibited while NF?B was not influenced by both toxins. Mithramycin A, a SP-1 inhibitor, as well as chetomin, an inhibitor of HIFs, reversed AAI-induced up-regulation of VEGF synthesis, indicating the importance of SP-1 and HIFs in this effect. Additionally, adenoviral overexpression of HIF-2? but not HIF-1? prevented OTA-diminished VEGF production suggesting the protective effect of this isoform towards the consequences exerted by OTA. These observations provide new insight into complex impact of AAI and OTA on angiogenic gene regulation. Additionally, it adds to our understanding of hypoxia influence on nephropathies pathology. PMID:21554934

  3. The oncoprotein HBXIP up-regulates FGF4 through activating transcriptional factor Sp1 to promote the migration of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hui; Li, Yinghui; Feng, Guoxing; Li, Leilei; Fang, Runping; Wang, Zhen; Qu, Jie; Ding, Peijian; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ye, Lihong

    2016-02-26

    We have reported that the oncoprotein hepatitis B X-interacting protein (HBXIP) is able to promote migration of breast cancer cells. Fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4) is a multipotent growth factor and is highly expressed in various human cancers. However, the regulatory mechanism of FGF4 in breast cancer remains poorly understood. In the present study, we report that HBXIP is able to up-regulate FGF4 to enhance the migration of breast cancer cells. Immunohistochemistry staining showed that HBXIP and FGF4 were highly expressed in clinical metastatic lymph nodes of breast tumor. The expression levels of HBXIP were positively related to those of FGF4 in clinical breast cancer tissues. Then, we validated that HBXIP up-regulated the expression of FGF4 at the levels of promoter, mRNA and protein by luciferase reporter gene assays, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Moreover, we found that HBXIP was able to activate FGF4 promoter through transcriptional factor Sp1 by luciferase reporter gene assays. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that HBXIP coactivated Sp1 to stimulate FGF4 promoter. In function, we showed that HBXIP promoted breast cancer cell migration through FGF4 by wound healing and transwell cell migration assays. Thus, we conclude that the oncoprotein HBXIP up-regulates FGF4 through activating transcriptional factor Sp1 to promote the migration of breast cancer cells. Therapeutically, HBXIP may serve as a novel target in breast cancer. PMID:26828265

  4. Aristolochic acid I and ochratoxin A differentially regulate VEGF expression in porcine kidney epithelial cells—The involvement of SP-1 and HIFs transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Stachurska, Anna; Kozakowska, Magdalena; Jozkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Jozef; Loboda, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    Aristolochic acid I (AAI) and ochratoxin A (OTA) cause chronic kidney diseases. Recently, the contribution of hypoxic injuries and angiogenic disturbances to nephropathies has been suggested, but underlying mechanisms have not been fully clarified yet. In porcine kidney epithelial cell line, LLC-PK1 cells, treatment with non-toxic doses of AAI increased whereas with OTA decreased production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the angiogenic factor with well-defined functions in kidney. Moreover, the activity of transcription factors regulating VEGF expression was differentially affected by examined compounds. Activity of hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) and SP-1 was increased by AAI but diminished by OTA. Interestingly, AP-1 activity was inhibited while NFκB was not influenced by both toxins. Mithramycin A, a SP-1 inhibitor, as well as chetomin, an inhibitor of HIFs, reversed AAI-induced up-regulation of VEGF synthesis, indicating the importance of SP-1 and HIFs in this effect. Additionally, adenoviral overexpression of HIF-2α but not HIF-1α prevented OTA-diminished VEGF production suggesting the protective effect of this isoform towards the consequences exerted by OTA. These observations provide new insight into complex impact of AAI and OTA on angiogenic gene regulation. Additionally, it adds to our understanding of hypoxia influence on nephropathies pathology. PMID:21554934

  5. Cytosine methylation in CTF and Sp1 recognition sites of an HSV tk promoter: effects on transcription in vivo and on factor binding in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Hattar, J; Beard, P; Jiricny, J

    1989-01-01

    We methylated specific cytosine residues within or immediately around the CTF and Sp1 binding sites of the Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter. The efficiency of transcription in vivo was reduced at least 50-fold compared with transcription from the unmethylated promoter. However, methylation within the CTF recognition site had no effect on the affinity of CTF for this site in vitro. Methylation of the Sp1 site resulted in only a small decrease in the affinity of this factor for its recognition site. In vivo studies showed that the same gene inserted in different vector DNAs was regulated differently by methylation in the promoter. These results show that cytosine methylation can inhibit transcription by a mechanism other than directly blocking the binding of transcription factors. Images PMID:2557588

  6. Arsenic trioxide-mediated growth inhibition in gallbladder carcinoma cells via down-regulation of Cyclin D1 transcription mediated by Sp1 transcription factor

    SciTech Connect

    Ai, Zhilong; Lu, Weiqi; Ton, Saixiong; Liu, Houbao; Sou, Tao; Shen, Zhenbin; Qin, Xinyu . E-mail: smc_jjh@yahoo.com.cn

    2007-08-31

    Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC), an aggressive and mostly lethal malignancy, is known to be resistant to a number of drug stimuli. Here, we demonstrated that arsenic trioxide inhibited the proliferation of gallbladder carcinoma in vivo and in vitro as well as the transcription of cell cycle-related protein Cyclin D1. And, Cyclin D1 overexpression inhibited the negative role of arsenic trioxide in cell cycle progression. We further explored the mechanisms by which arsenic trioxide affected Cyclin D1 transcription and found that the Sp1 transcription factor was down-regulated by arsenic trioxide, with a corresponding decrease in Cyclin D1 promoter activity. Taken together, these results suggested that arsenic trioxide inhibited gallbladder carcinoma cell proliferation via down-regulation of Cyclin D1 transcription in a Sp1-dependent manner, which provided a new mechanism of arsenic trioxide-involved cell proliferation and may have important therapeutic implications in gallbladder carcinoma patients.

  7. Brg-1 mediates the constitutive and fenretinide-induced expression of SPARC in mammary carcinoma cells via its interaction with transcription factor Sp1

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a matricellular protein that mediates cell-matrix interactions. It has been shown, depending on the type of cancer, to possess either pro- or anti-tumorigenic properties. The transcriptional regulation of the SPARC gene expression has not been fully elucidated and the effects of anti-cancer drugs on this process have not been explored. Results In the present study, we demonstrated that chromatin remodeling factor Brg-1 is recruited to the proximal SPARC promoter region (-130/-56) through an interaction with transcription factor Sp1. We identified Brg-1 as a critical regulator for the constitutive expression levels of SPARC mRNA and protein in mammary carcinoma cell lines and for SPARC secretion into culture media. Furthermore, we found that Brg-1 cooperates with Sp1 to enhance SPARC promoter activity. Interestingly, fenretinide [N-4(hydroxyphenyl) retinamide, 4-HPR], a synthetic retinoid with anti-cancer properties, was found to up-regulate the transcription, expression and secretion of SPARC via induction of the Brg-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, our results demonstrated that fenretinide-induced expression of SPARC contributes significantly to a decreased invasion of mammary carcinoma cells. Conclusions Overall, our results reveal a novel cooperative role of Brg-1 and Sp1 in mediating the constitutive and fenretinide-induced expression of SPARC, and provide new insights for the understanding of the anti-cancer effects of fenretinide. PMID:20687958

  8. Altered Expression of NF-κB and SP1 after Exposure to Advanced Glycation End-Products and Effects of Neurotrophic Factors in AGEs Exposed Rat Retinas

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effect of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) on neurite regeneration, and also to determine the regenerative effects of different neurotrophic factors (NTFs) on rat retinal explants, the retinas of SD rats were cultured in three-dimensional collagen gels and incubated in 6 types of media: (1) serum-free control culture media; (2) 100 μg/mL AGEs-BSA media; (3) AGEs-BSA + 100 ng/mL neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) media; (4) AGEs-BSA + 100 ng/mL hepatocyte growth factor media; (5) AGEs-BSA + 100 ng/mL glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor media; or (6) AGEs-BSA + 100 µM tauroursodeoxycholic acid media. After 7 days, the number of regenerating neurites was counted. The explants were immunostained for nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and specificity protein 1 (SP1). Statistical analyses were performed by one-way ANOVA. In retinas incubated with AGEs, the numbers of neurites were fewer than in control. All of the NTFs increased the number of neurites, and the increase was more significant in the NT-4 group. The number of NF-κB and SP1 immunopositive cells was higher in retinas exposed to AGEs than in control. All of the NTFs decreased the number of NF-κB immunopositive cells but did not significantly affect SP1 expression. These results demonstrate the potential of the NTFs as axoprotectants in AGEs exposed retinal neurons. PMID:26078979

  9. Spot 14 protein interacts and co-operates with chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor 1 in the transcription of the L-type pyruvate kinase gene through a specificity protein 1 (Sp1) binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Compe, E; de Sousa, G; François, K; Roche, R; Rahmani, R; Torresani, J; Raymondjean, M; Planells, R

    2001-01-01

    In hepatocytes, the amount of the Spot 14 (S14) protein is closely related to the full expression of enzymes involved in the glycolytic and lipogenic pathways. In the present study we address the role played by this protein in the control of transcription of the L-type pyruvate kinase (L-PK) gene in primary hepatocytes. We show that human S14, which by itself does not bind to the L-PK promoter, physically interacts with the human chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor 1 (COUP-TF1) and induces the switch of this factor from a repressor to an activator. However, the enhancing activity of S14 and COUP-TF1 depends on the presence of a proximal GC-rich box (the L0 element) that specifically binds nuclear proteins from the livers of rats fed a glucose-rich diet. Moreover, the L0 element, which strongly binds dephosphorylated specificity protein 1 (Sp1), loses all affinity when this factor is phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Mutations that affect binding of Sp1 and nuclear proteins to the L0 box also decrease basal transcription and impair glucose responsiveness of the promoter. These results therefore shed light on the mechanism by which the S14 protein, whose concentration rapidly rises after glucose intake, contributes to the full activity of the L-PK promoter. PMID:11485565

  10. Transcriptional activity and Sp 1/3 transcription factor binding to the P1 promoter sequences of the human AbetaH-J-J locus.

    PubMed

    Feriotto, Giordana; Finotti, Alessia; Breveglieri, Giulia; Treves, Susan; Zorzato, Francesco; Gambari, Roberto

    2007-09-01

    Alternative splicing of the locus AbetaH-J-J generates functionally distinct proteins: the enzyme aspartyl (asparaginyl) beta-hydroxylase, humbug and junctate (truncated homologs of aspartyl (asparaginyl) beta-hydroxylase with a role in calcium regulation), and junctin (a structural protein of the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane). Aspartyl (asparaginyl) beta-hydroxylase and humbug are overexpressed in a broad range of malignant neoplasms. We have previously reported the gene structure of this locus, showing the presence of two putative promoters, P1 and P2, and characterized the P2 sequences, directing tissue-specific transcription of junctin, aspartyl (asparaginyl) beta-hydroxylase and junctate. In addition, aspartyl (asparaginyl) beta-hydroxylase and humbug are expressed from exon 1 by the P1 promoter. The present study identifies and functionally characterizes the P1 promoter activity of the AbetaH-J-J locus. We demonstrate that mRNAs from the P1 promoter are actively transcribed in all the human tissues and cell lines analyzed, and define the transcription start point in HeLa and RD cells. To investigate the transcription mechanism we cloned 1.7 kb upstream of exon 1 from a human BAC clone, and produced progressively deleted reporter constructs. Our results showed that: (a) the 1.7 kb fragment was a powerful activator of the reporter gene in human hepatoblastoma (HepG2) and human embryonic rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cell lines; (b) 512 bp upstream of the transcription start site were essential for maximal promoter activity; and (c) progressive deletions from -512 resulted in gradually decreased reporter expression. The region responsible for maximal transcription contains at least 12 GC boxes homologous to binding sequences of specific transcription factor 1 (Sp1); by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and supershift analysis, we identified three GC-rich elements that bind Sp transcription factor family nuclear factors with very high efficiency. A functional role of Sp transcription factors in upregulating P1-directed transcription was demonstrated by analysis of the effects of: (a) in vitro mutagenesis of the Sp1 transcription factor binding sites; (b) transfection with Sp transcription factor 1/3 expression vectors; and (c) treatment with decoy oligonucleotides targeting Sp transcription factors. In addition, Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factor chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated in vivo binding of these proteins to P1 promoter. Our results suggest that Sp transcription factors positively regulate the core of the P1 promoter, and the comparison of the two promoters of the AbetaH-J-J locus demonstrates that they are very different with regard to transcriptional efficiency and ability to direct tissue-specific transcription. PMID:17681019

  11. Regulation of the Cyclin-dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A Gene (CDKN1A) by the Repressor BOZF1 through Inhibition of p53 Acetylation and Transcription Factor Sp1 Binding*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Kyeong; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Koh, Dong-In; Kim, Kyung-Sup; Park, So-Yoon; Yun, Chae-Ok; Hur, Man-Wook

    2013-01-01

    The human POZ domain and Krüppel-like zinc finger (POK) family proteins play important roles in the regulation of apoptosis, cell proliferation, differentiation, development, oncogenesis, and tumor suppression. A novel POK family transcription factor, BTB/POZ and zinc finger domains factor on chromosome 1 (BOZF-1; also called ZBTB8A), contains a POZ domain and two C2H2-type Krüppel-like zinc fingers and is localized at nuclear speckles. Compared with paired normal tissues, BOZF1 expression is increased in cancer tissues of the prostate, breast, and cervix. BOZF1 repressed the transcription of p21WAF/CDKN1A by acting on the proximal promoter concentrated with Sp1-binding GC boxes. BOZF1 competed with Sp1 in binding to GC boxes 1–5/6 of the CDKN1A proximal promoter. In addition, BOZF1 interacted with p53 and decreased the acetylation of p53 by p300, which reduced the DNA binding activity of p53 at the far distal p53-binding element. BOZF1 blocked the two major molecular events that are important in both constitutive and inducible transcription activation of CDKN1A. BOZF1 is unique in that it bound to all the proximal GC boxes to repress transcription, and it inhibited p53 acetylation without affecting p53 stability. BOZF1 might be a novel proto-oncoprotein that stimulates cell proliferation. PMID:23329847

  12. Human collagen Krox up-regulates type I collagen expression in normal and scleroderma fibroblasts through interaction with Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Kypriotou, Magdalini; Beauchef, Gallic; Chadjichristos, Christos; Widom, Russell; Renard, Emmanuelle; Jimenez, Sergio A; Korn, Joseph; Maquart, Franois-Xavier; Oddos, Thierry; Von Stetten, Otto; Pujol, Jean-Pierre; Galra, Philippe

    2007-11-01

    Despite several investigations, the transcriptional mechanisms that regulate the expression of both type I collagen genes (COL1A1 and COL1A2) in either physiological or pathological situations, such as scleroderma, are not completely known. We have investigated the role of hc-Krox transcription factor on type I collagen expression by human dermal fibroblasts. hc-Krox exerted a stimulating effect on type I collagen protein synthesis and enhanced the corresponding mRNA steady-state levels of COL1A1 and COL1A2 in foreskin fibroblasts (FF), adult normal fibroblasts (ANF), and scleroderma fibroblasts (SF). Forced hc-Krox expression was found to up-regulate COL1A1 transcription through a -112/-61-bp sequence in FF, ANF, and SF. Knockdown of hc-Krox by short interfering RNA and decoy strategies confirmed the transactivating effect of hc-Krox and decreased substantially COL1A1 transcription levels in all fibro-blast types. The -112/-61-bp sequence bound specifically hc-Krox but also Sp1 and CBF. Attempts to elucidate the potential interactions between hc-Krox, Sp1, and Sp3 revealed that all of them co-immunoprecipitate from FF cellular extracts when a c-Krox antibody was used and bind to the COL1A1 promoter in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Moreover, hc-Krox DNA binding activity to its COL1A1-responsive element is increased in SF, cells producing higher amounts of type I collagen compared with ANF and FF. These data suggest that the regulation of COL1A1 gene transcription in human dermal fibroblasts involves a complex machinery that implicates at least three transcription proteins, hc-Krox, Sp1, and Sp3, which could act in concert to up-regulate COL1A1 transcriptional activity and provide evidence for a pro-fibrotic role of hc-Krox. PMID:17698844

  13. Indole-3-carbinol downregulation of telomerase gene expression requires the inhibition of estrogen receptor-alpha and Sp1 transcription factor interactions within the hTERT promoter and mediates the G1 cell cycle arrest of human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Marconett, Crystal N.; Sundar, Shyam N.; Tseng, Min; Tin, Antony S.; Tran, Kalvin Q.; Mahuron, Kelly M.; Bjeldanes, Leonard F.; Firestone, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a naturally occurring hydrolysis product of glucobrassicin from cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage and Brussels sprouts, is an anticancer phytochemical that triggers complementary sets of antiproliferative pathways to induce a cell cycle arrest of estrogen-responsive MCF7 breast cancer cells. I3C strongly downregulated transcript expression of the catalytic subunit of the human telomerase (hTERT) gene, which correlated with the dose-dependent indole-mediated G1 cell cycle arrest without altering the transcript levels of the RNA template (hTR) for telomerase elongation. Exogenous expression of hTERT driven by a constitutive promoter prevented the I3C-induced cell cycle arrest and rescued the I3C inhibition of telomerase enzymatic activity and activation of cellular senescence. Time course studies showed that I3C downregulated expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ER?) and cyclin-dependent kinase-6 transcripts levels (which is regulated through the Sp1 transcription factor) prior to the downregulation of hTERT suggesting a mechanistic link. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that I3C disrupted endogenous interactions of both ER? and Sp1 with an estrogen response elementSp1 composite element within the hTERT promoter. I3C inhibited 17?-estradiol stimulated hTERT expression and stimulated the production of threonine-phosphorylated Sp1, which inhibits Sp1DNA interactions. Exogenous expression of both ER? and Sp1, but not either alone, in MCF7 cells blocked the I3C-mediated downregulation of hTERT expression. These results demonstrate that I3C disrupts the combined ER?- and Sp1-driven transcription of hTERT gene expression, which plays a significant role in the I3C-induced cell cycle arrest of human breast cancer cells. PMID:21693539

  14. Co-operative interactions between NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) c1 and the zinc finger transcription factors Sp1/Sp3 and Egr-1 regulate MT1-MMP (membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase) transcription by glomerular mesangial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso-Jaume, Maria Alejandra; Mahimkar, Rajeev; Lovett, David H

    2004-01-01

    The transition of normally quiescent glomerular MCs (mesangial cells) to a highly proliferative phenotype with characteristics of myofibroblasts is a process commonly observed in inflammatory diseases affecting the renal glomerulus, the ultimate result of which is glomerulosclerosis. Generation of proteolytically active MMP (matrix metalloproteinase)-2 by the membrane-associated membrane type 1 (MT1)-MMP is responsible for the transition of mesangial cells to the myofibroblast phenotype [Turck, Pollock, Lee, Marti and Lovett (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 15074-15083]. In the present study, we show that the expression of MT1-MMP within the context of MCs is mediated by three discrete cis -acting elements: a proximal non-canonical Sp1 site that preferentially binds Sp1; an overlapping Sp1/Egr-1-binding site that preferentially binds Egr-1; and a more distal binding site for the NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) that binds the NFAT c1 isoform present in MC nuclear extracts. Transfection with an NFAT c1 expression plasmid, or activation of calcineurin with a calcium ionophore, yielded major increases in NFAT c1 nuclear DNA-binding activity, MT1-MMP transcription and protein synthesis, which were additive with the lower levels of transactivation provided by the proximal Sp1 and the overlapping Sp1/Egr-1 sites. Specific binding of NFAT c1 to the MT1-MMP promoter was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation studies, while MT1-MMP expression was suppressed by treatment with the calcineurin inhibitor, cyclosporin A. These studies are the first demonstration that a specific NFAT isoform enhances transcription of an MMP (MT1-MMP) that plays a major role in the proteolytic events that are a dominant feature of acute glomerular inflammation. Suppression of MT1-MMP by commonly used calcineurin inhibitors may play a role in the development of renal fibrosis following renal transplantation. PMID:14979875

  15. Sp1 regulates human huntingtin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruitao; Luo, Yawen; Ly, Philip T T; Cai, Fang; Zhou, Weihui; Zou, Haiyan; Song, Weihong

    2012-06-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder resulting from the expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein. The expansion of cytosine-adenine-guanine repeats results in neuronal loss in the striatum and cortex. Mutant huntingtin (HTT) may cause toxicity via a range of different mechanisms. Recent studies indicate that impairment of wild-type HTT function may also contribute to HD pathogenesis. However, the mechanisms regulating HTT expression have not been well defined. In this study, we cloned 1,795 bp of the 5' flanking region of the human huntingtin gene (htt) and identified a 106-bp fragment containing the transcription start site as the minimal region necessary for promoter activity. Sequence analysis reveals several putative regulatory elements including Sp1, NF-κB, HIF, CREB, NRSF, P53, YY1, AP1, and STAT in the huntingtin promoter. We found functional Sp1 response elements in the huntingtin promoter region. The expression of Sp1 enhanced huntingtin gene transcription and the inhibition of Sp1-mediated transcriptional activation reduced huntingtin gene expression. These results suggest that Sp1 plays an important role in the regulation of the human huntingtin gene expression at the mRNA and protein levels. Our study suggests that the dysregulation of Sp1-mediated huntingtin transcription, combining with mutant huntingtin's detrimental effect on other Sp1-mediated downstream gene function, may contribute to the pathogenesis of HD. PMID:22399227

  16. Fibroblast growth factor-2 up-regulates the expression of nestin through the Ras–Raf–ERK–Sp1 signaling axis in C6 glioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Kai-Wei; Huang, Yuan-Li; Wong, Zong-Ruei; Su, Peng-Han; Huang, Bu-Miin; Ju, Tsai-Kai; Technology Commons, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan ; Yang, Hsi-Yuan

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: •Nestin expression in C6 glioma cells is induced by FGF-2. •Nestin expression is induced by FGF-2 via de novo RNA and protein synthesis. •The FGFR inhibitor SU5402 blocks the FGF-2-induced nestin expression. •The mRNA of FGFR1 and 3 are detected in C6 glioma cells. •Ras–Raf–ERK–Sp1 signaling pathway is responsibe for FGF-2-induced nestin expression. -- Abstract: Nestin is a 240-kDa intermediate filament protein expressed mainly in neural and myogenic stem cells. Although a substantial number of studies have focused on the expression of nestin during development of the central nervous system, little is known about the factors that induce and regulate its expression. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is an effective mitogen and stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of a subset of nestin-expressing cells, including neural progenitor cells, glial precursor cells, and smooth muscle cells. To assess whether FGF-2 is a potent factor that induces the expression of nestin, C6 glioma cells were used. The results showed that nestin expression was up-regulated by FGF-2 via de novo RNA and protein synthesis. Our RT-PCR results showed that C6 glioma cells express FGFR1/3, and FGFRs is required for FGF-2-induced nestin expression. Further signaling analysis also revealed that FGF-2-induced nestin expression is mediated through FGFR–MAPK–ERK signaling axis and the transcriptional factor Sp1. These findings provide new insight into the regulation of nestin in glial system and enable the further studies on the function of nestin in glial cells.

  17. Regulation of Sp1 by cell cycle related proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tapias, Alicia; Ciudad, Carlos J.; Roninson, Igor B.; No, Vronique

    2009-01-01

    Sp1 transcription factor regulates the expression of multiple genes, including the Sp1 gene itself. We analyzed the ability of different cell cycle regulatory proteins to interact with Sp1 and to affect Sp1 promoter activity. Using an antibody array, we observed that CDK4, SKP2, Rad51, BRCA2 and p21 could interact with Sp1 and we confirmed these interactions by co-immunoprecipitation. CDK4, SKP2, Rad51, BRCA2 and p21 also activated the Sp1 promoter. Among the known Sp1-interacting proteins, E2F-DP1, Cyclin D1, Stat3 and Rb activated the Sp1 promoter, whereas p53 and NF?B inhibited it. The proteins that regulated Sp1 gene expression were shown by positive chromatin immunoprecipitation to be bound to the Sp1 promoter. Moreover, SKP2, BRCA2, p21, E2F-DP1, Stat3, Rb, p53 and NF?B had similar effects on an artificial promoter containing only Sp1 binding sites. Transient transfections of CDK4, Rad51, E2F-DP1, p21 and Stat3 increased mRNA expression from the endogenous Sp1 gene in HeLa cells whereas overexpression of NF?B, and p53 decreased Sp1 mRNA levels. p21 expression from a stably integrated inducible promoter in HT1080 cells activated Sp1 expression at the promoter and mRNA levels, but at the same time it decreased Sp1 protein levels due to the activation of Sp1 degradation. The observed multiple effects of cell cycle regulators on Sp1 suggest that Sp1 may be a key mediator of cell cycle associated changes in gene expression. PMID:18769160

  18. TWO PROMOTERS COORDINATE TRANSCRIPTION FROM THE HUMAN LHX3 GENE: REGULATION BY NUCLEAR FACTOR I AND SP1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The LHX3 transcription factor is required for pituitary and nervous system development in mammals. Mutations in the human gene are associated with hormone deficiency diseases. The gene generates two mRNAs, hLHX3a and hLHX3b, which encode three distinct proteins with different properties. Here, the c...

  19. EPAS-1 Mediates SP-1-Dependent FBI-1 Expression and Regulates Tumor Cell Survival and Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaogang; Cao, Peng; Li, Zhiqing; Wu, Dongyang; Wang, Xi; Liang, Guobiao

    2014-01-01

    Factor binding IST-1 (FBI-1) plays an important role in oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. As FBI-1 is over-expressed in multiple human cancers, the regulation of itself would provide new effective options for cancer intervention. In this work, we aimed to study the role that EPAS-1 plays in regulating FBI-1. We use the fact that specificity protein-1 (SP-1) is one of the crucial transcription factors of FBI-1, and that SP-1 can interact with the endothelial pas domain protein-1 (EPAS-1) for the induction of hypoxia related genes. The study showed that EPAS-1 plays an indispensible role in SP-1 transcription factor-mediated FBI-1 induction, and participated in tumor cell survival and proliferation. Thus, EPAS-1 could be a novel target for cancer therapeutics. PMID:25192290

  20. EPAS-1 mediates SP-1-dependent FBI-1 expression and regulates tumor cell survival and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaogang; Cao, Peng; Li, Zhiqing; Wu, Dongyang; Wang, Xi; Liang, Guobiao

    2014-01-01

    Factor binding IST-1 (FBI-1) plays an important role in oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. As FBI-1 is over-expressed in multiple human cancers, the regulation of itself would provide new effective options for cancer intervention. In this work, we aimed to study the role that EPAS-1 plays in regulating FBI-1. We use the fact that specificity protein-1 (SP-1) is one of the crucial transcription factors of FBI-1, and that SP-1 can interact with the endothelial pas domain protein-1 (EPAS-1) for the induction of hypoxia related genes. The study showed that EPAS-1 plays an indispensible role in SP-1 transcription factor-mediated FBI-1 induction, and participated in tumor cell survival and proliferation. Thus, EPAS-1 could be a novel target for cancer therapeutics. PMID:25192290

  1. Developmental expression of Sp1 in the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Saffer, J D; Jackson, S P; Annarella, M B

    1991-01-01

    The expression of the trans-acting transcription factor Sp1 in mice was defined by a combination of RNA analysis and immunohistochemical localization of the Sp1 protein. Although ubiquitously expressed, there was an unexpected difference of at least 100-fold in the amount of Sp1 message in different cell types. Sp1 protein levels showed corresponding marked differences. Substantial variations in Sp1 expression were also found in some cell types at different stages of development. Sp1 levels appeared to be highest in developing hematopoietic cells, fetal cells, and spermatids, suggesting that an elevated Sp1 level is associated with the differentiation process. These results indicate that Sp1 has a regulatory function in addition to its general role in the transcription of housekeeping genes. Images PMID:2005904

  2. Environmental and Cognitive Factors in Social Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenberg, Brian

    1981-01-01

    Results indicated that different types of play environment strongly influence preschool children's types of social play and play group size. Differences in cognitive level and social egocentrism influenced the choice of play environment. (Author/DB)

  3. Sox9/Sox6 and Sp1 are involved in the insulin-like growth factor-I-mediated upregulation of human type II collagen gene expression in articular chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Renard, Emmanuelle; Porée, Benoît; Chadjichristos, Christos; Kypriotou, Magdalini; Maneix, Laure; Bigot, Nicolas; Legendre, Florence; Ollitrault, David; De Crombrugghe, Benoît; Malléin-Gérin, Frédéric; Moslemi, Safa; Demoor, Magali; Boumediene, Karim; Galéra, Philippe

    2012-06-01

    Type II collagen is a marker of articular cartilage encoded by the COL2A1 gene. The nature of the trans factors involved in the upregulation of this gene by insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) remains unclear. We found that IGF-I increased type II collagen synthesis by a transcriptional control mechanism involving a 715-bp region within the COL2A1 first-intron specific enhancer. The overproduction of L-Sox5/Sox6/Sox9 and Sp1 and decoy experiments targeting these factors demonstrated their action in concert in IGF-I trans-activation. These results were supported by the data obtained in knockdown experiments in which siRNA against Sox9/Sox6 and Sp1 prevented the IGF-I-induced increase in collagen II production. Indeed, each of these trans-activators increased the expression of others. IGF-I increased the binding of Sox9 and Sp1/Sp3 to their cis elements in the enhancer, and we provide the first evidence of Sox9 interaction with the promoter by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Interactions with COL2A1 were also observed for Sp1, p300/CBP, and Tip60. Finally, a physical interaction between Sox9, p300, Sp3, and Sp1 was detected. These data demonstrate the role of Sox9, Sp1/Sp3, and euchromatin-associated factors (p300, Tip60) in the IGF-I-induced upregulation of COL2A1, indicating possible use of this growth factor in articular cartilage engineering applications to promote repair in patients with degenerative diseases, such as osteoarthritis. PMID:22215151

  4. Co-operation of the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 with Sp1 or Sp3 leads to transcriptional activation of the human haem oxygenase-1 gene promoter in a hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shigeru; Matsuura, Naomi; Kurokawa, Takako; Takahashi, Yuji; Miura, Takashi

    2002-11-01

    We reported previously that the 5'-flanking region (nucleotides -1976 to -1655) of the human haem oxygenase-1 ( hHO-1 ) gene enhances hHO-1 promoter activity in human hepatoma HepG2 cells, but not in HeLa cells [Takahashi, Takahashi, Ito, Nagano, Shibahara and Miura (1999) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1447, 231-235]. To define more precisely the regulatory elements involved, in the present study we have functionally dissected this region and localized the enhancer to a 50 bp fragment (-1793 to -1744). Site-direct mutagenesis analysis revealed that two regions were responsible for this enhancer activity, i.e. a hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 (HNF-4) homologous region and a GC box motif homologous region. Mutation in either region alone moderately decreased enhancer activity. However, mutations in both regions reduced promoter activity to the basal level. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays demonstrated that the P5-2 fragment (-1793 to -1744) interacted with at least two nuclear factors, i.e. HNF-4 and Sp1/Sp3. Co-transfection experiments using Drosophila SL2 cells revealed that HNF-4 and Sp1/Sp3 synergistically stimulated the enhancer activity of the P5-2 fragment. These results indicate that co-operation of HNF-4 with Sp1 or Sp3 leads to the activation of hHO-1 gene expression in hepatoma cells. PMID:12133007

  5. TGF-? regulates the expression of transcription factor KLF6 and its splice variants and promotes co-operative transactivation of common target genes through a Smad3Sp1KLF6 interaction

    PubMed Central

    BOTELLA, Luisa M.; SANZ-RODRIGUEZ, Francisco; KOMI, Yusuke; FERNANDEZ-L, Africa; VARELA, Elisa; GARRIDO-MARTIN, Eva M.; NARLA, Goutham; FRIEDMAN, Scott L.; KOJIMA, Soichi

    2010-01-01

    KLF6 (Krppel-like factor 6) is a transcription factor and tumour suppressor with a growing range of biological activities and transcriptional targets. Among these, KLF6 suppresses growth through transactivation of TGF-?1 (transforming growth factor-?1). KLF6 can be alternatively spliced, generating lower-molecular-mass isoforms that antagonize the full-length WT (wild-type) protein and promote growth. A key target gene of full-length KLF6 is endoglin, which is induced in vascular injury. Endoglin, a homodimeric cell membrane glycoprotein and TGF-? auxiliary receptor, has a pro-angiogenic role in endothelial cells and is also involved in malignant progression. The aim of the present work was to explore the effect of TGF-? on KLF6 expression and splicing, and to define the contribution of TGF-? on promoters regulated by co-operation between KLF6 and Sp1 (specificity protein 1). Using co-transfection, co-immunoprecipitation and fluorescence resonance energy transfer, our data demonstrate that KLF6 co-operates with Sp1 in transcriptionally regulating KLF6-responsive genes and that this co-operation is further enhanced by TGF-?1 through at least two mechanisms. First, in specific cell types, TGF-?1 may decrease KLF6 alternative splicing, resulting in a net increase in full-length, growth-suppressive KLF6 activity. Secondly, KLF6Sp1 co-operation is further enhanced by the TGF-?Smad (similar to mothers against decapentaplegic) pathway via the likely formation of a tripartite KLF6Sp1Smad3 complex in which KLF6 interacts indirectly with Smad3 through Sp1, which may serve as a bridging molecule to co-ordinate this interaction. These findings unveil a finely tuned network of interactions between KLF6, Sp1 and TGF-? to regulate target genes. PMID:19076057

  6. Predictive factors of excessive online poker playing.

    PubMed

    Hopley, Anthony A B; Nicki, Richard M

    2010-08-01

    Despite the widespread rise of online poker playing, there is a paucity of research examining potential predictors for excessive poker playing. The aim of this study was to build on recent research examining motives for Texas Hold'em play in students by determining whether predictors of other kinds of excessive gambling apply to Texas Hold'em. Impulsivity, negative mood states, dissociation, and boredom proneness have been linked to general problem gambling and may play a role in online poker. Participants of this study were self-selected online poker players (N = 179) who completed an online survey. Results revealed that participants played an average of 20 hours of online poker a week and approximately 9% of the sample was classified as a problem gambler according to the Canadian Problem Gambling Index. Problem gambling, in this sample, was uniquely predicted by time played, dissociation, boredom proneness, impulsivity, and negative affective states, namely depression, anxiety, and stress. PMID:20712496

  7. Co-stimulation of the Bone-related Runx2 P1 Promoter in Mesenchymal Cells by SP1 and ETS Transcription Factors at Polymorphic Purine-rich DNA Sequences (Y-repeats)*S?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Hassan, Mohammad Q.; Xie, Rong-Lin; Hawse, John R.; Spelsberg, Thomas C.; Montecino, Martin; Stein, Janet L.; Lian, Jane B.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Stein, Gary S.

    2009-01-01

    Transcriptional control of Runx2 gene expression through two alternative promoters (P1 and P2) is critical for the execution of its function as an osteogenic cell fate determining factor. In all vertebrates examined to date, the bone related P1 promoter contains a purine-rich region (-303 to -128 bp in the rat) that separates two regulatory domains. The length of this region differs dramatically between species even within the same order. Using deletion analysis, we show that part of this purine-rich region (-200 to -128) containing a duplicated element (Y-repeat) positively regulates Runx2 P1 transcription. Electrophoretic mobility assays and chromatin immunoprecipitations reveal that Y-repeat binds at least two different classes of transcription factors related to GC box binding proteins (e.g. SP1 and SP7/Osterix) and ETS-like factors (e.g. ETS1 and ELK1). Forced expression of SP1 increases Runx2 P1 promoter activity through the Y-repeats, and small interfering RNA depletion of SP1 decreases Runx2 expression. Similarly, exogenous expression of wild type ELK1, but not a defective mutant that cannot be phosphorylated, enhances Runx2 gene expression. SP1 is most abundant in proliferating cells, and ELK1 is most abundant in postconfluent cells; during MC3T3-E1 osteoblast differentiation, both proteins are transiently co-expressed when Runx2 expression is enhanced. Taken together, our data suggest that basal Runx2 gene transcription is regulated by dynamic interactions between SP1 and ETS-like factors during progression of osteogenesis. PMID:19017640

  8. O-linked N-acetylglucosaminylation of Sp1 interferes with Sp1 activation of glycolytic genes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kihong; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Ha, Chang Hoon

    2015-12-01

    Glycolysis, the primary pathway metabolizing glucose for energy production, is connected to the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) which produces UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), a GlcNAc donor for O-linked GlcNAc modification (O-GlcNAc), as well as for traditional elongated glycosylation. Thus, glycolysis and O-GlcNAc are intimately associated. The present study reports the transcriptional activation of glycolytic genes by the transcription factor Sp1 and the O-GlcNAc-mediated suppression of Sp1-dependent activation of glycolytic genes. O-GlcNAc-deficient mutant Sp1 stimulated the transcription of nine glycolytic genes and cellular production of pyruvate, the final product of glycolysis, to a greater extent than wild-type Sp1. Consistently, this mutant Sp1 increased the protein levels of the two key glycolytic enzymes, phosphofructokinase (PFK) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), to a greater extent than wild-type Sp1. Finally, the mutant Sp1 occupied GC-rich elements on PFK and GAPDH promoters more efficiently than wild-type Sp1. These results suggest that O-GlcNAcylation of Sp1 suppresses Sp1-mediated activation of glycolytic gene transcription. PMID:26499076

  9. The interferon-gamma-mediated inhibition of lipoprotein lipase gene transcription in macrophages involves casein kinase 2- and phosphoinositide-3-kinase-mediated regulation of transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3.

    PubMed

    Harris, Sandra M; Harvey, Elizabeth J; Hughes, Timothy R; Ramji, Dipak P

    2008-12-01

    The mechanisms underlying transcriptional inhibition by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) are poorly understood despite the existence of a large number of genes that are regulated in this manner and the key role of this cytokine in inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis. We have previously identified a novel mechanism for transcriptional inhibition by IFN-gamma that involves a reduction in the binding of transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3 to regulatory sequences in the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene. In the present study, we have investigated the signalling pathways that impact on the IFN-gamma-mediated regulation of Sp1/Sp3 binding and LPL gene transcription in macrophages. The IFN-gamma-mediated inhibition of LPL promoter activity was prevented by expression of dominant negative forms of casein kinase 2 (CK2) and protein kinase B (PKB), a key downstream component of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. IFN-gamma activated both the catalytic subunits of CK2 without affecting their expression. CK2 interacted with both Sp1 and Sp3 and this association was increased by IFN-gamma. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that a CK2-mediated phosphorylation of either cellular extracts or recombinant Sp1 reduced binding to the regulatory region in the LPL gene. The action of PKB was potentially mediated through mammalian target for rapamycin proteins. Taken together, these results suggest a key role for CK2 and PI3K signalling pathways in the IFN-gamma-mediated inhibition of macrophage LPL gene transcription through the regulation of Sp1/Sp3 binding. PMID:18793716

  10. Nuclear factor ?B2 p52 protein has a role in antiviral immunity through I?B kinase epsilon-dependent induction of Sp1 protein and interleukin 15.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Sarah L; Shirey, Kari Ann; McGettrick, Anne F; Kenny, Elaine F; Carpenter, Susan; Caffrey, Brian E; Gargan, Siobhan; Quinn, Susan R; Caamao, Jorge H; Moynagh, Paul; Vogel, Stefanie N; O'Neill, Luke A

    2013-08-30

    In this study we describe a previously unreported function for NF?B2, an NF?B family transcription factor, in antiviral immunity. NF?B2 is induced in response to poly(I:C), a mimic of viral dsRNA. Poly(I:C), acting via TLR3, induces p52-dependent transactivation of a reporter gene in a manner that requires the kinase activity of I?B kinase ? (IKK?) and the transactivating potential of RelA/p65. We identify a novel NF?B2 binding site in the promoter of the transcription factor Sp1 that is required for Sp1 gene transcription activated by poly(I:C). We show that Sp1 is required for IL-15 induction by both poly(I:C) and respiratory syncytial virus, a response that also requires NF?B2 and IKK?. Our study identifies NF?B2 as a target for IKK? in antiviral immunity and describes, for the first time, a role for NF?B2 in the regulation of gene expression in response to viral infection. PMID:23873932

  11. The Sp(1)-Kepler problems

    SciTech Connect

    Meng Guowu

    2009-07-15

    Let n{>=}2 be a positive integer. To each irreducible representation {sigma} of Sp(1), an Sp(1)-Kepler problem in dimension (4n-3) is constructed and analyzed. This system is superintegrable, and when n=2 it is equivalent to a generalized MICZ-Kepler problem in dimension of 5. The dynamical symmetry group of this system is O-tilde*(4n) with the Hilbert space of bound states H({sigma}) being the unitary highest weight representation of O*-tilde(4n) with highest weight, (-1,{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot},-1,-(1+{sigma})), which occurs at the rightmost nontrivial reduction point in the Enright-Howe-Wallach classification diagram for the unitary highest weight modules. Here {sigma} is the highest weight of {sigma}. Furthermore, it is shown that the correspondence {sigma}{r_reversible}H({sigma}) is the theta-correspondence for dual pair (Sp(1),O*(4n))subset Sp(8n,R)

  12. Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Fred; Sharapan, Hedda

    1993-01-01

    Contends that, in childhood, work and play seem to come together. Says that for young children their play is their work, and the more adults encourage children to play, the more they emphasize important lifelong resource. Examines some uses of children's play, making and building, artwork, dramatic play, monsters and superheroes, gun play, and

  13. Transcriptional activation of the minimal human Proalpha1(I) collagen promoter: obligatory requirement for Sp1.

    PubMed Central

    Poppleton, H M; Raghow, R

    1997-01-01

    A construct containing human Proalpha1(I) collagen gene promoter/enhancer-driven chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), pCOL-KT, failed to be expressed significantly in Sp1-deficient Schneider Drosophila line 2 (SL2) cells. However, CAT expression was induced 200-fold in SL2 cells co-transfected with pCOL-KT and pPACSp1, an Sp1-expression vector driven by the Drosophila actin 5C promoter. Elimination of the four potential Sp1-binding sites from pCOL-KT (pCOL-KTDeltaI), by removal of the first intron, did not abrogate Sp1-mediated induction of CAT. Even more significantly, a minimal Proalpha1(I) collagen promoter (-100 to +117 bp), containing a TATA box (-28 to -25 bp) and one putative Sp1-binding site (-87 to -82 bp), elicited strong Sp1-induced transactivation. Furthermore, mutation of the Sp1 motif in the minimal Proalpha1(I) collagen promoter-CAT construct abolished Sp1-induced expression of the reporter gene. Purified Sp1 protein bound specifically to DNA fragments of the Proalpha1(I) minimal promoter encompassing the putative Sp1-binding site; Sp1 binding could be competed out by a double-stranded oligonucleotide containing the wild-type Sp1 sequence, while an oligonucleotide containing a mutated Sp1 site failed to compete. Based on these results, we postulate that Sp1 plays an obligatory role in the transcriptional activation of the human Proalpha1(I) collagen gene. Additionally, we propose that a bona fide Sp1 motif, located most proximal to the TATA box, is necessary and sufficient for Sp1-mediated activation of the minimal Proalpha1(I) collagen promoter. PMID:9173885

  14. Nucleolin enhances internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-mediated translation of Sp1 in tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chia-Yang; Yang, Wen-Bin; Wang, Shao-An; Hsu, Tsung-I; Chang, Wen-Chang; Hung, Jan-Jong

    2014-12-01

    Our previous study indicated that specificity protein-1 (Sp1) is accumulated during hypoxia in an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-dependent manner. Herein, we found that the Sp1 was induced strongly at the protein level, but not in the mRNA level, in lung tumor tissue, indicating that translational regulation might contribute to the Sp1 accumulation during tumorigenesis. A further study showed that the translation of Sp1 was dramatically induced through an IRES-dependent pathway. RNA immunoprecipitation analysis of proteins bound to the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of Sp1 identified interacting protein - nucleolin. Knockdown of nucleolin significantly inhibited IRES-mediated translation of Sp1, suggesting that nucleolin positively facilitates Sp1 IRES activation. Further analysis of the interaction between nucleolin and the 5'-UTR of Sp1 mRNA revealed that the GAR domain was important for IRES-mediated translation of Sp1. Moreover, gefitinib, and LY294002 and MK2206 compounds inhibited IRES-mediated Sp1 translation, implying that activation of the epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway via Akt activation triggers the IRES pathway. In conclusion, EGFR activation-mediated nucleolin phosphorylated at Thr641 and Thr707 was recruited to the 5'-UTR of Sp1 as an IRES trans-acting factor to modulate Sp1 translation during lung cancer formation. PMID:25173817

  15. Histone Deacetylase 1 Can Repress Transcription by Binding to Sp1

    PubMed Central

    Doetzlhofer, Angelika; Rotheneder, Hans; Lagger, Gerda; Koranda, Manfred; Kurtev, Vladislav; Brosch, Gerald; Wintersberger, Erhard; Seiser, Christian

    1999-01-01

    The members of the Sp1 transcription factor family can act as both negative and positive regulators of gene expression. Here we show that Sp1 can be a target for histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1)-mediated transcriptional repression. The histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A activates the chromosomally integrated murine thymidine kinase promoter in an Sp1-dependent manner. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments with Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts and 293 cells demonstrate that Sp1 and HDAC1 can be part of the same complex. The interaction between Sp1 and HDAC1 is direct and requires the carboxy-terminal domain of Sp1. Previously we have shown that the C terminus of Sp1 is necessary for the interaction with the transcription factor E2F1 (J. Karlseder, H. Rotheneder, and E. Wintersberger, Mol. Cell. Biol. 16:16591667, 1996). Coexpression of E2F1 interferes with HDAC1 binding to Sp1 and abolishes Sp1-mediated transcriptional repression. Our results indicate that one component of Sp1-dependent gene regulation involves competition between the transcriptional repressor HDAC1 and the transactivating factor E2F1. PMID:10409740

  16. Play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    Designing a game with a serious purpose involves considering the worlds of Reality and Meaning yet it is undeniably impossible to create a game without a third world, one that is specifically concerned with what makes a game a game: the play elements. This third world, the world of people like designers and artists, and disciplines as computer science and game design, I call the world of Play and this level is devoted to it. The level starts off with some of the misperceptions people have of play. Unlike some may think, we play all the time, even when we grow oldthis was also very noticeable in designing the game Levee Patroller as the team exhibited very playful behavior at many occasions. From there, I go into the aspects that characterize this world. The first concerns the goal of the game. This relates to the objectives people have to achieve within the game. This is constituted by the second aspect: the gameplay. Taking actions and facing challenges is subsequently constituted by a gameworld, which concerns the third aspect. And all of it is not possible without the fourth and final aspect, the type of technology that creates and facilitates the game. The four aspects together make up a game concept and from this world such a concept can be judged on the basis of three closely interrelated criteria: engagement, immersion, and fun.

  17. Characterization of the human topoisomerase IIbeta (TOP2B) promoter activity: essential roles of the nuclear factor-Y (NF-Y)- and specificity protein-1 (Sp1)-binding sites.

    PubMed Central

    Lok, Chun-Nam; Lang, Alexander J; Mirski, Shelagh E L; Cole, Susan P C

    2002-01-01

    Eukaryotic topoisomerase II (topo II) catalyses topological genomic changes essential for chromosome segregation, chromatin reorganization, DNA replication and transcription. Mammalian topo II exists as two isoforms, designated alpha and beta. Human topo IIalpha is an important cancer drug target, and an established determinant of drug sensitivity and resistance. Human topo IIbeta is also the target of anticancer drugs but its role in drug resistance is less clear. The two human topo II proteins are encoded by the TOP2A and TOP2B genes, respectively, which despite their highly conserved structural organization, are subject to distinctly different modes of regulation. In the present study, we have cloned and characterized the human TOP2B promoter containing a 1.3 kb fragment of the 5'-flanking and untranslated region (-1067 to +193). We found that the promoter activity of this TOP2B fragment was constant throughout the cell cycle, in contrast to the activity of the proximal promoter of TOP2A which was low in resting cells and enhanced during proliferation. Analyses of 5'-serially and internally deleted luciferase reporter constructs revealed that 80% of the TOP2B promoter activity could be attributed to the region between -533 and -481. Mutational analyses of putative regulatory elements indicated that two inverted CCAAT boxes (ICBs) within this region were essential for TOP2B promoter activity and gel mobility-shift assays indicated these sites bound the transcription factor nuclear factor-Y (NF-Y). Co-transfection experiments using a dominant-negative form of subunit A of NF-Y suggested that TOP2B promoter activity required direct interaction of NF-Y with the ICBs. In addition, a specificity protein-1 (Sp1)-binding GC box located just upstream of the ICBs was shown to contribute to TOP2B promoter activity in a synergistic manner with the ICBs. Our results suggest that the binding sites for NF-Y and Sp1 are critical for TOP2B transcription. PMID:12197834

  18. Early experiences with the IBM SP-1

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.

    1993-06-01

    The IBM SP-1 is IBM`s newest parallel distributed-memory computer. As part of a joint project with IBM, Argonne took delivery of an early system in order to evaluate the software environment and to begin porting programming packages and applications to this machine. This report discusses the results of those early efforts. Despite the newness of the machine and the lack of a fast interprocessor switch (part of the SP-1 but not yet available for the machine), every code that they attempted to port ran on the SP-1 with little or no modification. The report concludes with a discussion of expectations for the fast interconnect.

  19. Curcumin Suppresses Metastasis via Sp-1, FAK Inhibition, and E-Cadherin Upregulation in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Chieh; Sureshbabul, Munisamy; Chen, Huei-Wen; Lin, Yu-Shuang; Lee, Jen-Yi; Hong, Qi-Sheng; Yang, Ya-Chien

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a serious public health problem that results due to changes of diet and various environmental stress factors in the world. Curcumin is a traditional medicine used for treatment of a wide variety of tumors. However, antimetastasis mechanism of curcumin on CRC has not yet been completely investigated. Here, we explored the underlying molecular mechanisms of curcumin on metastasis of CRC cells in vitro and in vivo. Curcumin significantly inhibits cell migration, invasion, and colony formation in vitro and reduces tumor growth and liver metastasis in vivo. We found that curcumin suppresses Sp-1 transcriptional activity and Sp-1 regulated genes including ADEM10, calmodulin, EPHB2, HDAC4, and SEPP1 in CRC cells. Curcumin inhibits focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation and enhances the expressions of several extracellular matrix components which play a critical role in invasion and metastasis. Curcumin reduces CD24 expression in a dose-dependent manner in CRC cells. Moreover, E-cadherin expression is upregulated by curcumin and serves as an inhibitor of EMT. These results suggest that curcumin executes its antimetastasis function through downregulation of Sp-1, FAK, and CD24 and by promoting E-cadherin expression in CRC cells. PMID:23970932

  20. Core Binding Factor ? Plays a Critical Role During Chondrocyte Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Park, Na-Rae; Lim, Kyung-Eun; Han, Min-Su; Che, Xiangguo; Park, Clara Yongjoo; Kim, Jung-Eun; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Bae, Suk-Chul; Choi, Je-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Core binding factor ? (Cbf?) is a partner protein of Runx family transcription factors with minimally characterized function in cartilage. Here we address the role of Cbf? in cartilage by generating chondrocyte-specific Cbf?-deficient mice (Cbfb(?ch/?ch) ) from Cbfb-floxed mice crossed with mice expressing Cre from the Col2a1 promoter. Cbfb(?ch/?ch) mice died soon after birth and exhibited delayed endochondral bone formation, shorter appendicular skeleton length with increased proliferative chondrocytes, and nearly absent hypertrophic chondrocyte zones. Immunohistochemical and quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that the number and size of proliferative chondrocytes increased and the expression of chondrocyte maturation markers at the growth plates, including Runx2, osterix, and osteopontin, significantly diminished in Cbfb(?ch/?ch) mice compared to wild type mice. With regard to signaling pathways, both PTHrP-Ihh and BMP signaling were compromised in Cbfb(?ch/?ch) mice. Mechanistically, Cbf? deficiency in chondrocytes caused a decrease of protein levels of Runx transcription factors by accelerating polyubiquitination-mediated proteosomal degradation in vitro. Indeed, Runx2 and Runx3, but not Runx1, decreased in Cbfb(?ch/?ch) mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that Cbf? plays a critical role for chondrocyte differentiation through stabilizing Runx2 and Runx3 proteins in cartilage. PMID:26058470

  1. Sp1-CD147 positive feedback loop promotes the invasion ability of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Ye, Wei; Wu, Juan; Liu, Lijuan; Yang, Lina; Gao, Lu; Chen, Biliang; Zhang, Fanglin; Yang, Hong; Li, Yu

    2015-07-01

    CD147 is a novel cancer biomarker that has been confirmed to be overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma, which is significantly associated with poor prognosis. Although the Sp1 protein regulates the expression level of CD147, it remains unclear whether Sp1 phosphorylation plays a role in this regulation. A dual-luciferase assay revealed that T453 and T739 mutations decreased the activity of Sp1 binding to the promoter of CD147, followed by a decrease in CD147 mRNA and protein expression. Western blot analysis showed that CD147 promoted Sp1 phosphorylation at T453 and T739 through the PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK pathways. In addition, blocking the Sp1-CD147 positive feedback loop reduced the invasion ability of HO-8910pm cells. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the components of the feedback loop were overexpressed in ovarian cancer tissues. The correlation analysis revealed a significant correlation between phospho-Sp1 (T453), phospho-Sp1 (T739) and CD147 expression levels, with correlation coefficients of r=0.477 and r=0.461, respectively. Collectively, our results suggest that a Sp1-CD147 positive feedback loop plays a critical role in the invasion ability of ovarian cancer cells. PMID:25998266

  2. Retinoic Acid and GM-CSF Coordinately Induce Retinal Dehydrogenase 2 (RALDH2) Expression through Cooperation between the RAR/RXR Complex and Sp1 in Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ohoka, Yoshiharu; Yokota-Nakatsuma, Aya; Maeda, Naoko; Takeuchi, Hajime; Iwata, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA)-producing dendritic cells (DCs) play critical roles in gut immunity. Retinal dehydrogenase 2 (RALDH2) encoded by Aldh1a2 is a key enzyme for generating RA in DCs. Granulocytemacrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) potently induces RALDH2 expression in DCs in an RA-dependent manner, and RA alone weakly induces the expression. However, how GM-CSF and RA induce RALDH2 expression remains unclear. Here, we show that GM-CSF-induced activation of the transcription factor Sp1 and RA-dependent signaling via the RA receptor (RAR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) complex contribute to Aldh1a2 expression. The RAR antagonist LE540 and the Sp1 inhibitor mithramycin A inhibited GM-CSF-induced Aldh1a2 expression in fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand-generated bone marrow-derived DCs (BM-DCs). ERK and p38 MAPK inhibitors suppressed GM-CSF-induced nuclear translocation of Sp1 and Aldh1a2 expression. Sp1 and the RAR?/RXR? complex bound to GC-rich Sp1-binding sites and an RA response element (RARE) half-site, respectively, near the TATA box in the mouse Aldh1a2 promoter. The DNA sequences around these sites were highly conserved among different species. In the presence of RA, ectopic expression of RAR?/RXR? and Sp1 synergistically enhanced Aldh1a2 promoter-reporter activity. GM-CSF did not significantly induce Aldh1a2 expression in plasmacytoid DCs, peritoneal macrophages, or T cells, and the Aldh1a2 promoter in these cells was mostly unmethylated. These results suggest that GM-CSF/RA-induced RALDH2 expression in DCs requires cooperative binding of Sp1 and the RAR/RXR complex to the Aldh1a2 promoter, and can be regulated by a DNA methylation-independent mechanism. PMID:24788806

  3. Curcumin decreases the expression of Pokemon by suppressing the binding activity of the Sp1 protein in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jiajun; Meng, Xianfeng; Gao, Xudong; Tan, Guangxuan

    2010-03-01

    Pokemon, which stands for POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor, can regulate expression of many genes and plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Curcumin, a natural and non-toxic yellow compound, has capacity for antioxidant, free radical scavenger, anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies shows it is a potential inhibitor of cell proliferation in a variety of tumour cells. To investigate whether curcumin can regulate the expression of Pokemon, a series of experiments were carried out. Transient transfection experiments demonstrated that curcumin could decrease the activity of the Pokemon promoter. Western blot analysis suggested that curcumin could significantly decrease the expression of the Pokemon. Overexpression of Sp1 could enhance the activity of the Pokemon promoter, whereas knockdown of Sp1 could decrease its activity. More important, we also found that curcumin could decrease the expression of the Pokemon by suppressing the stimulation of the Sp1 protein. Therefore, curcumin is a potential reagent for tumour therapy which may target Pokemon. PMID:19444642

  4. Overexpression of Sp1 leads to p53-dependent apoptosis in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Jian-Ying; Wu, Chien-Hsing; Lai, Ming-Derg; Chang, Wen-Chang; Hung, Jan-Jong

    2009-11-01

    Numerous studies have documented that Sp1 expression level were elevated in various human cancers. However, the promoters of many pro-apoptotic genes have been found to contain the Sp1 binding elements and are activated by Sp1 overexpression. To better understand the role and the mechanism of increased Sp1 levels on apoptosis, we used adenovirus to ectopically express GFP-Sp1 protein in various cancer cell lines. First, in HeLa and A549 cells, we found that Sp1 overexpression suppressed the cell growth and increased the detection of sub-G1 fraction, caspase-3 cleavage, and annexin-V signal revealed that apoptosis occurred. Furthermore, when cells entered the mitotic stage, the cell apoptosis was induced by Sp1 overexpression through affecting mitotic chromatin packaging. We also verified that p53 protein was accumulated and activated the p53-dependent apoptotic pathways in the wild-type p53 cells but not in the p53-mutated or p53-deleted cell lines when these cells were infected with adeno-GFP-Sp1 virus. In addition, A549 (p53(+/+)) cells could be protected from apoptosis under Sp1 overexpression when p53 was knockdown by p53 shRNA. Finally, H1299 (p53(-/-)) cell viability was significantly inhibited by adeno-GFP-Sp1 virus infection in the expression of p53. In conclusion, p53 was an essential factor for Sp1 overexpression-induced apoptotic cell death in transforming cells. PMID:19588484

  5. A nuclear protein with enhanced binding to methylated Sp1 sites in the AIDS virus promoter.

    PubMed

    Joel, P; Shao, W; Pratt, K

    1993-12-11

    We report here the discovery of HMBP, a protein in nuclei of human T-helper lymphocytes and other human cell types, which binds with enhanced affinity to a promoter element in the HIV-1 long terminal repeat when that element is methylated at CpGs, the target site of the human DNA methyltransferase. This promoter element contains three (degenerate) binding sites for Sp1, a general activator of transcription. Gel shift assays and footprinting experiments indicate that HMBP binding overlaps two of these methylated Sp1 sites. Although HMBP binds these methylated Sp1 sites, it does not bind consensus Sp1 sites. Competition studies, differences in binding site specificities, binding conditions, and, in some cases, chromatographic separation further distinguish HMBP from Sp1 and from each of four previously identified methylated-DNA binding proteins. HMBP binds hemimethylated DNA in a strand dependent manner. These binding characteristics suggest that HMBP may recognize newly replicated DNA and thereby play a role in differentiation. If HMBP is able to compete with Sp1 for binding at methylated, non-consensus Sp1 sites in vivo and repress transcription, it may play a role in AIDS latency. PMID:8284230

  6. LPS Increases 5-LO Expression on Monocytes via an Activation of Akt-Sp1/NF-?B Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Jin; Seo, Kyo Won

    2015-01-01

    5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) plays a pivotal role in the progression of atherosclerosis. Therefore, this study investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in 5-LO expression on monocytes induced by LPS. Stimulation of THP-1 monocytes with LPS (0~3 g/ml) increased 5-LO promoter activity and 5-LO protein expression in a concentration-dependent manner. LPS-induced 5-LO expression was blocked by pharmacological inhibition of the Akt pathway, but not by inhibitors of MAPK pathways including the ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK pathways. In line with these results, LPS increased the phosphorylation of Akt, suggesting a role for the Akt pathway in LPS-induced 5-LO expression. In a promoter activity assay conducted to identify transcription factors, both Sp1 and NF-?B were found to play central roles in 5-LO expression in LPS-treated monocytes. The LPS-enhanced activities of Sp1 and NF-?B were attenuated by an Akt inhibitor. Moreover, the LPS-enhanced phosphorylation of Akt was significantly attenuated in cells pretreated with an anti-TLR4 antibody. Taken together, 5-LO expression in LPS-stimulated monocytes is regulated at the transcriptional level via TLR4/Akt-mediated activations of Sp1 and NF-?B pathways in monocytes. PMID:25954132

  7. Video Game Playing and Gambling in Adolescents: Common Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Richard T. A.; Gupta, Rina; Griffiths, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Video games and gambling often contain very similar elements with both providing intermittent rewards and elements of randomness. Furthermore, at a psychological and behavioral level, slot machine gambling, video lottery terminal (VLT) gambling and video game playing share many of the same features. Despite the similarities between video game

  8. Diverse Mechanisms of Sp1-Dependent Transcriptional Regulation Potentially Involved in the Adaptive Response of Cancer Cells to Oxygen-Deficient Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Koizume, Shiro; Miyagi, Yohei

    2015-01-01

    The inside of a tumor often contains a hypoxic area caused by a limited supply of molecular oxygen due to aberrant vasculature. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are major transcription factors that are required for cancer cells to adapt to such stress conditions. HIFs, complexed with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator, bind to and activate target genes as enhancers of transcription. In addition to this common mechanism, the induction of the unfolded protein response and mTOR signaling in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress is also known to be involved in the adaptation to hypoxia conditions. Sp1 is a ubiquitously-expressed transcription factor that plays a vital role in the regulation of numerous genes required for normal cell function. In addition to the well-characterized stress response mechanisms described above, increasing experimental evidence suggests that Sp1 and HIFs collaborate to drive gene expression in cancer cells in response to hypoxia, thereby regulating additional adaptive responses to cellular oxygen deficiency. However, these characteristics of Sp1 and their biological merits have not been summarized. In this review, we will discuss the diverse mechanisms of transcriptional regulation by Sp1 and their potential involvement in the adaptive response of cancer cells to hypoxic tumor microenvironments. PMID:26703734

  9. A Factor Analysis of Pre-school Children's Play Strategies and Cognitive Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    1999-01-01

    Explores children's play as social behavior in relation to cognitive style and identifies the social factors underlying both young children's play and cognitive style. Indicates that field-dependent children participated more in social play activities, while field-independent children engaged in more nonsocial play activities. Discusses the…

  10. Do intercultural factors play a role in exacerbating psychiatric symptoms?

    PubMed

    Ong, Yong Lock; Yap, Hwa Ling

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 29-year-old mixed-race woman suffering from recurrent major depressive episodes, with suicidal ideation and risk, involving several inpatient admissions. A comorbid diagnosis of borderline personality disorder was also recorded in one of her previous inpatient admissions. During her last inpatient admission, a multidisciplinary case discussion and review of the patient's life highlighted several possible intercultural trigger factors that could have contributed to the exacerbation of her psychiatric illness. We emphasise the need to explore intercultural predisposing and precipitating factors for a more complete psychodynamic understanding of psychiatric illnesses among the multiracial population of Singapore. This also adds to the discussion on the management of such patients with the option of formal in-depth psychotherapy in adjunct to medication. This may prevent recurrent relapses, modify suicide intent and reduce the necessity for inpatient treatment, which will be cost-effective and result in efficacious treatment. PMID:23338925

  11. Down-regulation of Sp1 suppresses cell proliferation, clonogenicity and the expressions of stem cell markers in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcription factor Sp1 is multifaceted, with the ability to function as an oncogene or a tumor suppressor, depending on the cellular context. We previously reported that Sp1 is required for the transcriptional activation of the key oncogenes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), including B-lymphoma mouse Moloney leukemia virus insertion region 1 (Bmi1) and centromere protein H (CENPH), but the role of Sp1 and its underlying mechanisms in NPC remained largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to investigate the cellular function of Sp1 and to verify the clinical significance of Sp1 as a potential therapeutic target in NPC. Methods The levels of Sp1 in the normal primary nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (NPECs) and NPC cell lines were analyzed by Quantitative Real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. The location and expression of Sp1 in the NPC tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry staining (IHC). The effect of Sp1 knockdown on the cell proliferation, clonogenicity, anchorage-independent growth and the stem-cell like phenotype in NPC cells were evaluated by MTT, flow cytometry, clonogenicity analysis and sphere formation assay. Results The mRNA and protein levels of Sp1 were elevated in NPC cell lines than in the normal primary NPECs. Higher expression of Sp1 was found in NPC tissues with advanced clinical stage (P?=?0.00036). Either inhibition of Sp1 activity by mithramycin A, the FDA-approved chemotherapeutic anticancer drug or Sp1 silencing by two distinct siRNA against Sp1 suppressed the growth of NPC cells. Mechanism analysis revealed that Sp1 silencing may suppress cell proliferation, clonogenicity, anchorage-independent growth and the stem-cell like phenotype through inducing the expression of p27 and p21, and impairing the expressions of the critical stem cell transcription factors (SCTFs), including Bmi1, c-Myc and KLF4 in NPC cells. Conclusions Sp1 was enriched in advanced NPC tissues and silencing of Sp1 significantly inhibited cell proliferation, clonogenicity, anchorage-independent growth and the stem-cell like phenotype of NPC cells, suggesting Sp1 may serve as an appealing drug target for NPC. PMID:25099028

  12. The retinoblastoma gene product RB stimulates Sp1-mediated transcription by liberating Sp1 from a negative regulator.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L I; Nishinaka, T; Kwan, K; Kitabayashi, I; Yokoyama, K; Fu, Y H; Grnwald, S; Chiu, R

    1994-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product, RB, can either positively or negatively regulate expression of several genes through cis-acting elements in a cell-type-dependent manner. The nucleotide sequence of the retinoblastoma control element (RCE) motif, GCCACC or CCACCC, and the Sp1 consensus binding sequence, CCGCCC, can confer equal responsiveness to RB. Here, we report that RB activates transcription of the c-jun gene through the Sp1-binding site within the c-jun promoter. Preincubation of crude nuclear extracts with monoclonal antibodies to RB results in reduction of Sp1 complexes in a mobility shift assay, while addition of recombinant RB in mobility shift assay mixtures with CCL64 cell extracts leads to an enhancement of DNA-binding activity of SP1. These results suggest that RB is directly or indirectly involved in Sp1-DNA binding activity. A mechanism by which RB regulates transactivation is indicated by our detection of a heat-labile and protease-sensitive Sp1 negative regulator(s) (Sp1-I) that specifically inhibits Sp1 binding to a c-jun Sp1 site. This inhibition is reversed by addition of recombinant RB proteins, suggesting that RB stimulates Sp1-mediated transactivation by liberating Sp1 from Sp1-I. Additional evidence for Sp1-I involvement in Sp1-mediated transactivation was demonstrated by cotransfection of RB, GAL4-Sp1, and a GAL4-responsive template into CV-1 cells. Finally, we have identified Sp1-I, a approximately 20-kDa protein(s) that inhibits the Sp1 complexes from binding to DNA and that is also an RB-associated protein. These findings provide evidence for a functional link between two distinct classes of oncoproteins, RB and c-Jun, that are involved in the control of cell growth, and also define a novel mechanism for the regulation of c-jun expression. Images PMID:8007947

  13. Crosstalk of Sp1 and Stat3 signaling in pancreatic cancer pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chen; Xie, Keping

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer progression is attributed to genetic and epigenetic alterations and a chaotic tumor microenvironment. Those diverse upstream signal factors appear to converge on specific sets of central nuclear regulators, namely, transcription factors. Specificity Protein 1 (Sp1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) are central transcription factors that regulate a number of pathways important to tumorigenesis, including tumor cell-cycle progression, apoptosis, angiogenesis, metastasis, and evasion of the immune system. Recently, researchers demonstrated many types of crosstalk of Sp1 and Stat3 in tumor signal transduction and that these factors function cooperatively to activate targeted genes and promote tumorigenesis in pancreatic cancer. Therefore, targeting both Sp1 and Stat3 is a potential preventive and therapeutic strategy for pancreatic cancer. PMID:22342309

  14. Transcriptional activation of REST by Sp1 in Huntington's disease models.

    PubMed

    Ravache, Myriam; Weber, Chantal; Mérienne, Karine; Trottier, Yvon

    2010-01-01

    In Huntington's disease (HD), mutant huntingtin (mHtt) disrupts the normal transcriptional program of disease neurons by altering the function of several gene expression regulators such as Sp1. REST (Repressor Element-1 Silencing Transcription Factor), a key regulator of neuronal differentiation, is also aberrantly activated in HD by a mechanism that remains unclear. Here, we show that the level of REST mRNA is increased in HD mice and in NG108 cells differentiated into neuronal-like cells and expressing a toxic mHtt fragment. Using luciferase reporter gene assay, we delimited the REST promoter regions essential for mHtt-mediated REST upregulation and found that they contain Sp factor binding sites. We provide evidence that Sp1 and Sp3 bind REST promoter and interplay to fine-tune REST transcription. In undifferentiated NG108 cells, Sp1 and Sp3 have antagonistic effect, Sp1 acting as an activator and Sp3 as a repressor. Upon neuronal differentiation, we show that the amount and ratio of Sp1/Sp3 proteins decline, as does REST expression, and that the transcriptional role of Sp3 shifts toward a weak activator. Therefore, our results provide new molecular information to the transcriptional regulation of REST during neuronal differentiation. Importantly, specific knockdown of Sp1 abolishes REST upregulation in NG108 neuronal-like cells expressing mHtt. Our data together with earlier reports suggest that mHtt triggers a pathogenic cascade involving Sp1 activation, which leads to REST upregulation and repression of neuronal genes. PMID:21179468

  15. Ginsenoside Rg3 induces FUT4-mediated apoptosis in H. pylori CagA-treated gastric cancer cells by regulating SP1 and HSF1 expressions.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Faisal; Wang, Xiaoqi; Liu, Jiwei; Yan, Qiu

    2016-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) cytotoxin associated antigen A (CagA) plays a significant role in the development of gastric cancer. Ginsenoside Rg3 is a herbal medicine which inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in various cancer cells. Fucosylation plays important roles in cancer biology as increased fucosylation levels of glycoproteins and glycolipids have been reported in many cancers. Fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) is an essential enzyme, catalyzes the synthesis of LewisY oligosaccharides and is regulated by specificity protein 1 (SP1) and heat shock factor protein 1 (HSF1) transcription factors. Herein, we studied the mechanism action of Rg3 apoptosis induction in gastric cancer cells. We treated the gastric cancer cells with CagA followed by Rg3, and analyzed their ability to induce apoptosis by evaluating the role of FUT4 as well as SP1 and HSF1 expressions by Western blot, flow cytometry and ELISA. We found that Rg3 significantly induced apoptosis in CagA treated gastric cancer cells, as evidenced by nuclear staining of 4-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Annexin-V/PI double-labeling. In addition, Rg3 significantly increased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins and triggered the activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and PARP. Moreover, Rg3-induced apoptotic mechanisms indicated that Rg3 inhibited FUT4 expression through SP1 upregulation and HSF1 downregulation. Hence, Rg3 therapy is an effective strategy for gastric cancer treatment. Furthermore SP1 and HSF1 may serve as potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets for gastric cancer. PMID:26427350

  16. Arf Induction by Tgfβ Is Influenced by Sp1 and C/ebpβ in Opposing Directions

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yanbin; Devitt, Caitlin; Liu, Jing; Iqbal, Nida; Skapek, Stephen X.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies show that Arf, a bona fide tumor suppressor, also plays an essential role during mouse eye development. Tgfβ is required for Arf promoter activation in developing mouse eyes, and its capacity to induce Arf depends on Smads 2/3 as well as p38 Mapk. Substantial delay between activation of these pathways and increased Arf transcription imply that changes in the binding of additional transcription factors help orchestrate changes in Arf expression. Focusing on proteins with putative DNA binding elements near the mouse Arf transcription start, we now show that Tgfβ induction of this gene correlated with decreased expression and DNA binding of C/ebpβ to the proximal Arf promoter. Ectopic expression of C/ebpβ in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) blocked Arf induction by Tgfβ. Although basal levels of Arf mRNA were increased by C/ebpβ loss in MEFs and in the developing eye, Tgfβ was still able to increase Arf, indicating that derepression was not the sole factor. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay showed increased Sp1 binding to the Arf promotor at 24 and 48 hours after Tgfβ treatment, at which time points Arf expression was significantly induced by Tgfβ. Chemical inhibition of Sp1 and its knockdown by RNA interference blocked Arf induction by Tgfβ in MEFs. In summary, our results indicate that C/ebpβ and Sp1 are negative and positive Arf regulators that are influenced by Tgfβ. PMID:23940569

  17. Zac1, an Sp1-like protein, regulates human p21{sup WAF1/Cip1} gene expression in HeLa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Pei-Yao; Hsieh, Tsai-Yuan; Liu, Shu-Ting; Chang, Yung-Lung; Lin, Wei-Shiang; Wang, Wei-Ming; Department of Dermatology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC ; Huang, Shih-Ming; Department of Biochemistry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC

    2011-12-10

    Zac1 functions as both a transcription factor and a transcriptional cofactor for p53, nuclear receptors (NRs) and NR coactivators. Zac1 might also act as a transcriptional repressor via the recruitment of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). The ability of Zac1 to interact directly with GC-specific elements indicates that Zac1 possibly binds to Sp1-responsive elements. In the present study, our data show that Zac1 is able to interact directly with the Sp1-responsive element in the p21{sup WAF1/Cip1} gene promoter and enhance the transactivation activity of Sp1 through direct physical interaction. Our data further demonstrate that Zac1 might enhance Sp1-specific promoter activity by interacting with the Sp1-responsive element, affecting the transactivation activity of Sp1 via a protein-protein interaction, or competing the HDAC1 protein away from the pre-existing Sp1/HDAC1 complex. Finally, the synergistic regulation of p21{sup WAF1/Cip1} gene expression by Zac1 and Sp1 is mediated by endogenous p53 protein and p53-responsive elements in HeLa cells. Our work suggests that Zac1 might serve as an Sp1-like protein that directly interacts with the Sp1-responsive element to oligomerize with and/or to coactivate Sp1.

  18. Co-localization and distribution of cerebral APP and SP1 and its relationship to amyloidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Brock, Brian; Basha, Riyaz; DiPalma, Katie; Anderson, Amy; Harry, G Jean; Rice, Deborah C; Maloney, Bryan; Lahiri, Debomoy K; Zawia, Nasser H

    2008-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta)-loaded plaques in the brain. Abeta is a cleavage fragment of amyloid-beta protein precursor (APP) and over production of APP may lead to amyloidogenesis. The regulatory region of the APP gene contains consensus sites recognized by the transcription factor, specificity protein 1 (SP1), which has been shown to be required for the regulation of APP and Abeta. To understand the role of SP1 in APP biogenesis, herein we have characterized the relative distribution and localization of SP1, APP, and Abeta in various brain regions of rodent and primate models using immunohistochemistry. We observed that overall distribution and cellular localization of SP1, APP, and Abeta are similar and neuronal in origin. Their distribution is abundant in various layers of neocortex, but restricted to the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum, and the pyramidal cell layer of hippocampus. These findings suggest that overproduction of Abeta in vivo may be associated with transcriptional pathways involving SP1 and the APP gene. PMID:18334759

  19. RAR gamma 2 expression is regulated through a retinoic acid response element embedded in Sp1 sites.

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, J M; Zhang, X K; Pfahl, M

    1992-01-01

    At the level of transcription, all signals of the vitamin A derivative retinoic acid (RA) are mediated by the RA receptors (RARs) as well as the retinoid X receptors (RXRs). The control of expression of the various receptor subtypes and their specific isoforms appears to be strictly regulated and can be assumed to play a pivotal role during development and in the adult tissue. It has previously been shown that the RAR beta 2 isoform can regulate its own synthesis through an RA response element (RARE) in its promoter. Recent evidence suggests that the expression of other RAR isoforms, including that of RAR gamma 2, are also regulated by RA. We present evidence that expression of the RAR gamma 2 isoform can be regulated through the RARE in its own promoter region. Similar to the beta 2 RARE, the gamma 2 RARE consists of a 6-bp direct repeat with a 5-nucleotide spacer, but it has different functional features, including receptor specificity, basal-level activity, and affinity for RAR. In agreement with recent observations, this response element is bound most effectively by RAR/RXR heterodimers. Single-base-pair mutations had different effects on the activity of this RARE. The gamma 2 RARE is surrounded by several binding sites for the transcription factor Sp1. Cotransfected Sp1 enhanced strongly the activity of gamma 2 promoter reporter constructs in Drosophila cells. Our data suggest an important role for RAR-containing heterodimers and Sp1 in the regulation of RAR gamma 2 expression. Images PMID:1320193

  20. Modifying factors in sports-related concussion: dangerous style of play.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Alex B; Solomon, Gary S

    2014-09-01

    In its third iteration, the Concussion in Sport Group identified 10 modifying factors that were presumed clinically to influence the investigation and management of concussions in sports. "Dangerous style of play" was delineated as one of these factors, most likely based on clinical lore. These modifying factors were retained in a more recent Concussion in Sport Group statement. To date, there has been no concerted effort to support or refute the inclusion of this constellation of behaviors as a modifying factor in sports-related concussion. This article reviews and summarizes the limited evidence related to a dangerous style of play in sports-related concussion, offers a preliminary assessment of its relevance as a modifying factor, and provides additional information on other aspects of player, coach, and governing body behavior and their potential effect(s) on reducing concussive injuries. PMID:25295762

  1. Suppression of cell proliferation and collagen production in cultured human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts by Sp1 decoy oligodeoxynucleotide.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chenliang; Zheng, Jianghong; Wan, Weidong; Zhang, Shixin; Ding, Zhi; Mao, Guangyu; Yang, Songlin

    2013-03-01

    Hypertrophic scars are characterized by the abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts and an overproduction of collagen. The Sp1 transcription factor is involved in the stimulation of collagen synthesis. A decoy oligonucleotide (ODN) targeting Sp1 was designed and transfected into hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFs) cells using cationic liposomes. The transfection efficiency was determined by flow cytometry and was observed to be 857% (n=5). Specific binding of the Sp1 decoy ODN was monitored with an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Following transfection with the decoy ODN to Sp1, cell viability and cell proliferation, which were examined by the cell counting kit WST?8, were decreased by 80% compared with untreated cells. Transforming growth factor?? (TGF??) mRNA and collagen mRNA expression were also reduced by 48% in the transfection decoy ODN group. The cell viability of HSFs after 48h of transfection with 25, 50, 100 and 150nM Sp1 decoy ODN was 0.93310.0203, 0.74790.0868, 0.5770.0347 and 0.47030.0147, respectively. The 100nM dose of the Sp1 decoy ODN inhibited the expression of typesI and III collagen by 32 and 28%, respectively (both P<0.01). TGF?? mRNA expression was also effectively suppressed by the 100nM Sp1 decoy ODN (P<0.01). The Sp1 decoy ODN inhibited cell proliferation and the expression of typesI and III collagen. Therefore, Sp1 decoy ODNs may be a promising tool for developing and testing novel therapeutic applications for treating hypertrophic scars. PMID:23338822

  2. Bortezomib induces DNA hypomethylation and silenced gene transcription by interfering with Sp1/NF-?Bdependent DNA methyltransferase activity in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shujun; Liu, Zhongfa; Xie, Zhiliang; Pang, Jiuxia; Yu, Jianhua; Lehmann, Esther; Huynh, Lenguyen; Vukosavljevic, Tamara; Takeki, Mitsui; Klisovic, Rebecca B.; Baiocchi, Robert A.; Blum, William; Porcu, Pierluigi; Garzon, Ramiro; Byrd, John C.; Perrotti, Danilo; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Chan, Kenneth K.; Wu, Lai-Chu

    2008-01-01

    Bortezomib reversibly inhibits 26S proteasomal degradation, interferes with NF-?B, and exhibits antitumor activity in human malignancies. Zinc finger protein Sp1 transactivates DNMT1 gene in mice and is functionally regulated through protein abundance, posttranslational modifications (ie, ubiquitination), or interaction with other transcription factors (ie, NF-?B). We hypothesize that inhibition of proteasomal degradation and Sp1/NF-?Bmediated transactivation may impair aberrant DNA methyltransferase activity. We show here that, in addition to inducing accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins and abolishment of NF-?B activities, bortezomib decreases Sp1 protein levels, disrupts the physical interaction of Sp1/NF-?B, and prevents binding of the Sp1/NF-?B complex to the DNMT1 gene promoter. Abrogation of Sp1/NF-?B complex by bortezomib causes transcriptional repression of DNMT1 gene and down-regulation of DNMT1 protein, which in turn induces global DNA hypomethylation in vitro and in vivo and re-expression of epigenetically silenced genes in human cancer cells. The involvement of Sp1/NF-?B in DNMT1 regulation is further demonstrated by the observation that Sp1 knockdown using mithramycin A or shRNA decreases DNMT1 protein levels, which instead are increased by Sp1 or NF-?B overexpression. Our results unveil the Sp1/NF-?B pathway as a modulator of DNA methyltransferase activity in human cancer and identify bortezomib as a novel epigenetic-targeting drug. PMID:18083845

  3. Outdoor Play and Play Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Heather

    1985-01-01

    Discusses aspects of the play environment and its effect on children's play behavior. Indoor and outdoor play spaces are considered along with factors affecting the use of outdoor environments for play. Children's preferences for different outdoor play environments and for various play structures are explored. Guides for choosing play equipment…

  4. Factors affecting return to play after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a review of the current literature.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Matthew; Feeley, Brian T; Wawrzyniak, John R; Pinkowsky, Gregory; Gallo, Robert A

    2014-11-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has been reported to produce normal or near-normal knee results in > 90% of patients. A recent meta-analysis suggested that, despite normal or near-normal knees, many athletes do not return to sports. Rates and timing of return to competitive athletics are quite variable depending on the graft type, the age of the patient, the sport, and the level of play. Even when athletes do return to play, often they do not return to their previous level. Graft failure, subjective physical factors, and psychological factors, including fear of reinjury and lack of motivation, appear to play a large role in patients' ability to return to sporting activities. PMID:25419890

  5. p53 inhibits the expression of p125 and the methylation of POLD1 gene promoter by downregulating the Sp1-induced DNMT1 activities in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Yang, Weiping; Zhu, Xiao; Wei, Changyuan

    2016-01-01

    p125 is one of four subunits of human DNA polymerases – DNA Pol δ as well as one of p53 target protein encoded by POLD1. However, the function and significance of p125 and the role that p53 plays in regulating p125 expression are not fully understood in breast cancer. Tissue sections of human breast cancer obtained from 70 patients whose median age was 47.6 years (range: 38–69 years) with stage II–III breast cancer were studied with normal breast tissue from the same patients and two human breast cell lines (MCF-7 and MCF-10A). p53 expression levels were reduced, while p125 protein expression was increased in human breast cancer tissues and cell line detected by Western blot and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The methylation level of the POLD1 gene promoter was greater in breast cancer tissues and cells when compared with normal tissues and cells. In MCF-7 cell model, p53 overexpression caused a decrease in the level of p125 protein, while the methylation level of the p125 gene promoter was also inhibited by p53 overexpression. To further investigate the regulating mechanism of p53 on p125 expression, our study focused on DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and transcription factor Sp1. Both DNMT1 and Sp1 protein expression were reduced when p53 was overexpressed in MCF-7 cells. The Sp1 binding site appears to be important for DNMT1 gene transcription; Sp1 and p53 can bind together, which means that DNMT1 gene expression may be downregulated by p53 through binding to Sp1. Because DNMT1 methylation level of the p125 gene promoter can affect p125 gene transcription, we propose that p53 may indirectly regulate p125 gene promoter expression through the control of DNMT1 gene transcription. In conclusion, the data from this preliminary study have shown that p53 inhibits the methylation of p125 gene promoter by downregulating the activities of Sp1 and DNMT1 in breast cancer.

  6. Users guide for the ANL IBM SP1

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.; Lusk, E.; Pieper, S.C.

    1994-10-01

    This guide presents the features of the IBM SP1 installed in the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory. The guide describes the available hardware and software, access policies, and hints for using the system productively.

  7. Different members of the Sp1 multigene family exert opposite transcriptional regulation of the long terminal repeat of HIV-1.

    PubMed Central

    Majello, B; De Luca, P; Hagen, G; Suske, G; Lania, L

    1994-01-01

    Recently, a family of transcription factors structurally related to Sp1 has been described; thus, more than one activator may bind to the GC boxes present in a number of viral and cellular promoters. We have compared the transactivation potentials of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 proteins on the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) promoter. The long terminal repeat (LTR) of HIV-1 contains three binding sites for the transcription factor Sp1 (GC boxes) which are involved in both basal and Tat-mediated transcriptional activation. Moreover, a cooperative interaction between NF-kappa B and Sp1 is required for HIV enhancer activation. We now demonstrate that Sp4 is an activator, while the Sp3 protein represses basal expression of HIV promoter. Remarkably, we found that over-expression of the transcription factor Sp3 was able to suppress Tat-mediated transactivation. These inhibitory effects of Sp3 correlate with its DNA binding activity, suggesting that Sp3 inhibition involves competition with Sp1 for occupancy of the GC boxes. Next, we have analyzed the role of different Sp1-related proteins in the stimulation of HIV-1 promoter in response to mitogens. We found that the binding of NF-kappa B is not by itself sufficient to induce HIV gene expression. Instead, an interaction between NF-kappa B and the trans-acting domain (A domain) of Sp1 bound to an adjacent site must occur. We found that the cooperative interaction between NF-kappa B and Sp1 is highly specific, since neither Sp3 nor Sp4 is capable of cooperating with NF-kappa B. Images PMID:7800480

  8. Sp1 is over-expressed in nasopharyngeal cancer and is a poor prognostic indicator for patients receiving radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Kang, Min; Qin, Yu-Tao; Wei, Zhu-Xin; Xiao, Jing-Jian; Wang, Ren-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is a tumor of epithelial origin with complex etiology. Currently the standard treatment of NPC is radiotherapy, but therapy failure is quite common, making radioresistance an important issue. This study explores the association of specificity protein 1 (Sp1) protein expression with clinicopathological significance and disease prognosis in NPC patients receiving radiotherapy. A total of 82 NPC patients (55 males and 27 females, median age: 48 years old) were enrolled and received radiotherapy between September 2011 and March 2014. Tumor tissue and grossly adjacent normal mucosa were obtained in each patient. Sp1 expression was detected by western blot and immunohistochemical analysis, and the associations with clinicopathological status and radiotherapy response were analyzed. Our Results showed Sp1 protein expression was higher in CNE-1 and CNE-2 nasopharyngeal cancer cells than in normal nasopharyngeal mucosal NP69 cells. All 82 patients tissue sections were stained positive for the Sp1 protein, and 39 (47.6%) patients showed higher level than adjacent normal mucosa. Sp1-overexpression in the tumor tissue was correlated with a higher tumor stage, nodal status, clinical stage and distant metastasis (P < 0.01). Patients with higher Sp1 expression in pretreatment biopsies had a lower radiotherapy response compared to those with lower expression. In conclusion, Sp1 may play roles in radioresistance of nasopharyngeal cancer which attributes to tumor invasiveness, and serve as a novel prognostic marker of NPC radiotherapy. However, further studies are required to validate our findings in larger samples and explore more detailed mechanisms underlying radioresistance of Sp1. PMID:26261581

  9. Inhibition of fatty acid synthase and Sp1 expression by 3,3'-diindolylmethane in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Saati, George E; Archer, Michael C

    2011-01-01

    The putative cancer preventive agent 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) is formed in the acidic environment of the stomach following consumption of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), which is present in vegetables of the Brassica genus. We have recently shown that the transcription factor Sp1 is involved in the regulation of both proliferation and de novo lipogenesis in cancer cells. Here we show that DIM inhibits the proliferation of 3 human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and SKBr-3, and concomitantly inhibits the expression of Sp1 and fatty acid synthase (FAS). There were no DIM-related effects on the proliferation or expression of Sp1 or FAS in the nontumorigenic human breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A. These results suggest that inhibition of Sp1 and/or FAS expression could contribute to the anticancer properties of the dietary indoles. PMID:21767081

  10. Genetic factors may play a prominent role in the development of coronary heart disease dependent on important environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Song, C; Chang, Z; Magnusson, P K E; Ingelsson, E; Pedersen, N L

    2014-01-01

    Astract Song C, Chang Z, Magnusson PKE, Ingelsson E, Pedersen NL (Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Uppsala University, Uppsala; Sweden). Genetic factors may play a prominent role in the developmentofcoronary heart diseasedependenton important environmental factors. J InternMed2014; 275: 631639. Objective The aim of the study was to examine whether various lifestyle factors modify genetic influences on coronary heart disease (CHD). Design The effect of lifestyle factors [including smoking, sedentary lifestyle, alcohol intake and body mass index (BMI)] on risk of CHD was evaluated via Cox regression models in a twin study of geneenvironment interaction. Using structure equation modelling, we estimated genetic variance of CHD dependent on lifestyle factors. Subjects In total, 51065 same-sex twins from 25715 twin pairs born before 1958 and registered in the Swedish Twin Registry were eligible for this study. During the 40-year follow-up, 7264 incident CHD events were recorded. Results Smoking, sedentary lifestyle and above average BMI were significantly associated with increased CHD incidence. The heritability of CHD decreased with increasing age, as well as with increasing levels of BMI, in both men and women. Conclusions The difference in the genetic component of CHD as a function of BMI suggests that genetic factors may play a more prominent role for disease development in the absence of important environmental factors. Increased knowledge of geneenvironment interactions will be important for a full understanding of the aetiology of CHD. PMID:24330166

  11. Contributing factors, prevention, and management of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders among flute players internationally.

    PubMed

    Lonsdale, Karen; Laakso, E-Liisa; Tomlinson, Vanessa

    2014-09-01

    Major studies have shown that flutists report playing-related pain in the neck, middle/upper back, shoulders, wrists, and hands. The current survey was designed to establish the injury concerns of flute players and teachers of all backgrounds, as well as their knowledge and awareness of injury prevention and management. Questions addressed a range of issues including education, history of injuries, preventative and management strategies, lifestyle factors, and teaching methods. At the time of the survey, 26.7% of all respondents were suffering from flute playing-related discomfort or pain; 49.7% had experienced flute playing-related discomfort or pain that was severe enough to distract while performing; and 25.8% had taken an extended period of time off playing because of discomfort or pain. Consistent with earlier studies, the most common pain sites were the fingers, hands, arms, neck, middle/upper back, and shoulders. Further research is needed to establish possible links between sex, instrument types, and ergonomic set up. Further investigation is recommended to ascertain whether certain types of physical training, education, and practice approaches may be more suitable than current methods. A longitudinal study researching the relationship between early education, playing position, ergonomic set-up, and prevalence of injury is recommended. PMID:25194113

  12. microRNA-128 regulates the proliferation and differentiation of bovine skeletal muscle satellite cells by repressing Sp1.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yang; Zhang, Wei Ran; Wang, Yi Min; Liu, Xin Feng; Li, Xin; Ding, Xiang Bin; Guo, Hong

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. The muscle-specific miRNAs miR-1 and miR-206 have been shown to regulate muscle development and promote myogenic differentiation; however, it is likely that a number of other miRNAs play important roles in regulating myogenesis as well. microRNA-128 (miR-128) has been reported to be highly expressed in brain and skeletal muscle, and we found that miR-128 is also up-regulated during bovine skeletal muscle satellite cell differentiation using microarray analysis and qRT-PCR. However, little is known about the functions of miR-128 in bovine skeletal muscle satellite cell development. In this study, we investigated the biological functions of miR-128 in bovine skeletal muscle cell development. Using a dual-luciferase reporter assay, we confirmed that miR-128 regulates the Sp1 gene. Over-expression of miR-128 reduced Sp1 protein levels and inhibited muscle satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. Inhibition of miR-128 increased Sp1 protein levels and promoted muscle satellite cell differentiation but also suppressed proliferation. Changes in miR-128 and Sp1 expression levels also affected the protein levels of MyoD and CDKN1A. Sp1, an activator of MyoD and a suppressor of CDKN1A, plays an important role in bovine muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. The results of our study reveal a mechanism by which miR-128 regulates bovine skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation via Sp1. PMID:26833195

  13. On the trajectories of Sp(1) -Kepler problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Guowu

    2015-10-01

    The classical Sp(1) -Kepler problems are formulated with the help of an idea from S. Sternberg. The trajectories of these models are determined via an idea originated from Levi-Civita. It is found that, for a non-colliding trajectory, its shadow-its projection to the external configuration space-is an ellipse, a parabola or a branch of hyperbola according as the total energy is negative, zero or positive. Moreover, it is shown that, for the Sp(1) -Kepler problems at level n ? 2, the group SL(n, H) R+ acts transitively on both the set of elliptic shadow trajectories and the set of parabolic shadow trajectories.

  14. Risk factors in adolescence: the case of gambling, videogame playing, and the internet.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, M; Wood, R T

    2000-01-01

    It has been noted that adolescents may be more susceptible to pathological gambling. Not only is it usually illegal, but it appears to be related to high levels of problem gambling and other delinquent activities such as illicit drug taking and alcohol abuse. This paper examines risk factors not only in adolescent gambling but also in videogame playing (which shares many similarities with gambling). There appear to be three main forms of adolescent gambling that have been widely researched. Adolescent gambling activities and general risk factors in adolescent gambling are provided. As well, the influence of technology on adolescents in the form of both videogames and the Internet are examined. It is argued that technologically advanced forms of gambling may be highly appealing to adolescents. PMID:14634313

  15. Sp1-dependent activation of a synthetic promoter by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein.

    PubMed Central

    Kamine, J; Subramanian, T; Chinnadurai, G

    1991-01-01

    The Tat protein coded by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a strong activator of viral gene expression from the long terminal repeat (LTR). It appears that Tat-mediated trans-activation of the HIV LTR is predominantly a transcriptional event. It has been reported that Tat acts at the level of both transcriptional initiation and elongation through interaction with a nascent RNA target sequence termed TAR (for trans-activation response element). However, the precise mechanism(s) by which Tat mediates TAR-dependent transcriptional activity is not known. To determine whether Tat functions similarly to other eukaryotic transcriptional activators through any of the conventional promoter elements, we tested Tat activity on synthetic promoters containing consensus sequences required for binding transcription factor Sp1 and a TATA box. Here, we report that a chimeric Tat protein targeted to the promoter region by the DNA-binding domain of yeast transcription factor GAL4 activates the synthetic promoter. Because this trans-activation depends on Sp1-binding sites, Tat can apparently mediate transcriptional activation through its interaction with Sp1. Mutational analysis of the gal4-tat chimeric gene reveals that the N-terminal 48-amino acid region of Tat constitutes the activation region for Sp1-dependent trans-activation. This region of Tat exhibits substantially more activity than the N-terminal 58 amino acids of Tat, which includes the arginine-rich basic region. Effects of specific mutations in the 48-amino acid Tat region of GAL4-Tat on trans-activation of the synthetic promoter mimic the effects of these specific mutations on Tat-mediated trans-activation of the HIV-1 LTR, suggesting that trans-activation of both the synthetic promoter and the intact LTR occurs by a common mechanism. Images PMID:1924310

  16. A cooperative interaction between NF-kappa B and Sp1 is required for HIV-1 enhancer activation.

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, N D; Edwards, N L; Duckett, C S; Agranoff, A B; Schmid, R M; Nabel, G J

    1993-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) long terminal repeat (LTR) contains two binding sites for NF-kappa B in close proximity to three binding sites for the constitutive transcription factor, Sp1. Previously, stimulation of the HIV enhancer in response to mitogens has been attributed to the binding of NF-kappa B to the viral enhancer. In this report, we show that the binding of NF-kappa B is not by itself sufficient to induce HIV gene expression. Instead, a protein-protein interaction must occur between NF-kappa B and Sp1 bound to an adjacent site. Cooperativity both in DNA binding and in transcriptional activation of NF-kappa B and Sp1 was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift gel analysis, DNase footprinting, chemical cross-linking and transfection studies in vivo. With a heterologous promoter, we find that the interaction of NF-kappa B with Sp1 is dependent on orientation and position, and is not observed with other elements, including GATA, CCAAT or octamer. An increase in the spacing between the kappa B and Sp1 elements virtually abolishes this functional interaction, which is not restored when these sites are brought back into the same helical position. Several other promoters regulated by NF-kappa B also contain kappa B in proximity to Sp1 binding sites. These findings suggest that an interaction between NF-kappa B and Sp1 is required for inducible HIV-1 gene expression and may serve as a regulatory mechanism to activate specific viral and cellular genes. Images PMID:8253080

  17. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and/or soluble IL-6 receptor down-regulation of human type II collagen gene expression in articular chondrocytes requires a decrease of Sp1.Sp3 ratio and of the binding activity of both factors to the COL2A1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Pore, Benot; Kypriotou, Magdalini; Chadjichristos, Christos; Beauchef, Gallic; Renard, Emmanuelle; Legendre, Florence; Melin, Martine; Gueret, Sylviane; Hartmann, Daniel-Jean; Mallin-Gerin, Frdric; Pujol, Jean-Pierre; Boumediene, Karim; Galra, Philippe

    2008-02-22

    Type II collagen is composed of alpha1(II) chains encoded by the COL2A1 gene. Alteration of this cartilage marker is a common feature of osteoarthritis. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that needs a soluble form of receptor called sIL-6R to exert its effects in some cellular models. In that case, sIL-6R exerts agonistic action. This mechanism can make up for the partial or total absence of membrane-anchored IL-6 receptors in some cell types, such as chondrocytes. Our study shows that IL-6, sIL-6R, or both inhibit type II collagen production by rabbit articular chondrocytes through a transcriptional control. The cytokine and/or sIL-6R repress COL2A1 transcription by a -63/-35 sequence that binds Sp1.Sp3. Indeed, IL-6 and/or sIL-6R inhibit Sp1 and Sp3 expression and their binding activity to the 63-bp promoter. In chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, IL-6.sIL-6R induced an increase in Sp3 recruitment to the detriment of Sp1. Knockdown of Sp1.Sp3 by small interference RNA and decoy strategies were found to prevent the IL-6- and/or sIL-6R-induced inhibition of COL2A1 transcription, indicating that each of these Sp proteins is required for down-regulation of the target gene and that a heterotypic Sp1.Sp3 complex is involved. Additionally, Sp1 was shown to interact with Sp3 and HDAC1. Indeed, overexpression of a full-length Sp3 cDNA blocked the Sp1 up-regulation of the 63-bp COL2A1 promoter activity, and by itself, inhibits COL2A1 transcription. We can conclude that IL-6, sIL-6R, or both in combination decrease both the Sp1.Sp3 ratio and DNA-binding activities, thus inhibiting COL2A1 transcription. PMID:18065760

  18. NFAT-1, Sp-1, Sp-3, and miR-21: New regulators of chemokine C receptor 7 expression in mature human dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Al Akoum, Carine; Akl, Israa; Rouas, Redouane; Fayyad-Kazan, Mohammad; Falha, Layal; Renno, Toufic; Burny, Arsne; Lewalle, Philippe; Fayyad-Kazan, Hussein; Badran, Bassam

    2015-05-01

    The chemokine C receptor 7 (CCR7) is a G-protein-coupled heptahelical receptor (GPCR) that is expressed on a wide variety of cells including memory T cells, B cells, mature dendritic cells, and cancer cells. Activated by its ligands CCL19 or CCL21, CCR7 plays a major role in metastasis of cancer cells. Recent studies demonstrated the role of NF-?B and AP-1 transcription factors in addition to let-7 microRNA in CCR7 expression. Our ChIP assays further show the binding of Sp-1, Sp-3 and NFAT-1 transcription factors to their potential binding sites in the 1Kb promoter region with the later found to inhibit whilst Sp-1, and Sp-3 were found to stimulate CCR7 expression as demonstrated by transfection assays. On the other hand, in addition to the known let-7 regulation of CCR7, we found miR-21 to have a highly conserved target region in CCR7 3'UTR and to be significantly down-regulated during the course of dendritic cell maturation, allowing for high expression of CCR7. PMID:25797200

  19. PTEN downregulates p75NTR expression by decreasing DNA-binding activity of Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, Sherri L.; Guy, Clifford S.; Mearow, Karen M.

    2009-02-13

    p75NTR is expressed throughout the nervous system and its dysregulation is associated with pathological conditions. We have recently demonstrated a signalling cascade initiated by laminin (LN), which upregulates PTEN and downregulates p75NTR. Here we investigate the mechanism by which PTEN modulates p75NTR. Studies using PTEN mutants show that its protein phosphatase activity directly modulates p75NTR protein expression. Nuclear relocalization of PTEN subsequent to LN stimulation suggests transcriptional control of p75NTR expression, which was confirmed following EMSA and ChIP analysis of Sp1 transcription factor binding activity. LN and PTEN independently decrease the DNA-binding ability of PTEN to the p75NTR promoter. Sp1 regulation of p75NTR occurs via dephosphorylation of Sp1, thus reducing p75NTR transcription and protein expression. This mechanism represents a novel regulatory pathway which controls the expression level of a receptor with broad implications not only for the development of the nervous system but also for progression of pathological conditions.

  20. Contribution of Sp1 to Telomerase Expression and Activity in Skin Keratinocytes Cultured With a Feeder Layer.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Francis; Paquet, Claudie; Bourget, Jean-Michel; Zaniolo, Karine; Rochette, Patrick J; Landreville, Solange; Damour, Odile; Boudreau, Franois; Auger, Franois A; Gurin, Sylvain L; Germain, Lucie

    2015-02-01

    The growth of primary keratinocytes is improved by culturing them with a feeder layer. The aim of this study was to assess whether the feeder layer increases the lifespan of cultured epithelial cells by maintaining or improving telomerase activity and expression. The addition of an irradiated fibroblast feeder layer of either human or mouse origin (i3T3) helped maintain telomerase activity as well as expression of the transcription factor Sp1 in cultured keratinocytes. In contrast, senescence occurred earlier, together with a reduction of Sp1 expression and telomerase activity, in keratinocytes cultured without a feeder layer. Telomerase activity was consistently higher in keratinocytes grown on the three different feeder layers tested relative to cells grown without them. Suppression of Sp1 expression by RNA inhibition (RNAi) reduced both telomerase expression and activity in keratinocytes and also abolished their long-term growth capacity suggesting that Sp1 is a key regulator of both telomerase gene expression and cell cycle progression of primary cultured human skin keratinocytes. The results of the present study therefore suggest that the beneficial influence of the feeder layer relies on its ability to preserve telomerase activity in cultured human keratinocytes through the maintenance of stable levels of Sp1 expression. PMID:24962522

  1. Treatment with Combination of Mithramycin A and Tolfenamic Acid Promotes Degradation of Sp1 Protein and Synergistic Antitumor Activity in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Zhiliang; Gao, Yong; Wang, Liwei; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Jun; Le, Xiangdong; Wei, Daoyan; Yao, James C.; Chang, David Z.; Huang, Suyun; Xie, Keping

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies showed that both mithramycin (MIT) and tolfenamic acid (TA) inhibits the activity of the transcription factor Sp1. In the present study, we sought to determine whether treatment with a combination of these two compounds has a synergistic effect on Sp1 activity and pancreatic cancer growth and their underlying mechanisms. In xenograft mouse models of human pancreatic cancer, treatment with MIT and TA produced dose-dependent antitumor activity, and significant antitumor activity of either compound alone was directly associated with systemic side effects as determined according to overall weight loss. However, combination treatment with nontoxic doses of TA and MIT produced synergistic antitumor activity, whereas treatment with a nontoxic dose of either compound alone did not have a discernible antitumor effect. The synergistic therapeutic effects of MIT and TA correlated directly with synergistic antiproliferation and antiangiogenesis in vitro. Moreover, treatment with the combination of TA and MIT resulted in Sp1 protein degradation, leading to drastic downregulation of Sp1 and vascular endothelial growth factor protein expression. Our data demonstrated that Sp1 is a critical target of TA and MIT in human pancreatic cancer therapy. Further studies should be performed to determine the impact of existing pancreatic cancer therapy regimens on Sp1 signaling in tumors and normal pancreatic tissue and the ability of Sp1-targeting strategies to modify these responses and improve upon these regimens. PMID:20086170

  2. OBIF, an osteoblast induction factor, plays an essential role in bone formation in association with osteoblastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mizuhashi, Koji; Kanamoto, Takashi; Ito, Masako; Moriishi, Takeshi; Muranishi, Yuki; Omori, Yoshihiro; Terada, Koji; Komori, Toshihisa; Furukawa, Takahisa

    2012-05-01

    In vertebrate bone formation, the functional mechanisms of transcription factors in osteoblastic differentiation have been relatively well elucidated; however, the exact roles of cell-extrinsic molecules are less clear. We previously identified human and mouse Obif, an osteoblast induction factor, also known as Tmem119, which encodes a single transmembrane protein. OBIF is predominantly expressed in osteoblasts in mouse. While exogenous Obif expression stimulated osteoblastic differentiation, knockdown of Obif inhibits the osteoblastic differentiation of pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. In order to investigate an in vivo role of OBIF in bone formation, we generated Obif-deficient mice by targeted gene disruption. Analyses of micro-computed tomography (mCT) revealed that Obif(-/-) mice exhibit significantly reduced cortical thickness in the mid-shaft of the femur at postnatal day 14 (P14). Furthermore, progressive bone hypoplasia is observed after 8 weeks. The expression levels of osteoblast marker genes, Collagen 1a1, Osteopontin, Runx2, and Osterix, in the calvaria were decreased in Obif(-/-) mice at P4. These data indicate that Obif plays an essential role in bone formation through regulating osteoblastogenesis. PMID:22416756

  3. Hypoxia-inducible factor plays a gut-injurious role in intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Kolenkode B; Colorado, Iriana; Reino, Diego; Palange, David; Lu, Qi; Qin, Xiaofa; Abungu, Billy; Watkins, Anthony; Caputo, Francis J; Xu, Da-Zhong; Semenza, Gregg L; Deitch, Edwin A; Feinman, Rena

    2011-05-01

    Gut injury and loss of normal intestinal barrier function are key elements in the paradigm of gut-origin systemic inflammatory response syndrome, acute lung injury, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). As hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) is a critical determinant of the physiological and pathophysiological response to hypoxia and ischemia, we asked whether HIF-1 plays a proximal role in the induction of gut injury and subsequent lung injury. Using partially HIF-1?-deficient mice in an isolated superior mesenteric artery occlusion (SMAO) intestinal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury model (45 min SMAO followed by 3 h of reperfusion), we showed a direct relationship between HIF-1 activation and intestinal I/R injury. Specifically, partial HIF-1? deficiency attenuated SMAO-induced increases in intestinal permeability, lipid peroxidation, mucosal caspase-3 activity, and IL-1? mRNA levels. Furthermore, partial HIF-1? deficiency prevented the induction of ileal mucosal inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein levels after SMAO and iNOS deficiency ameliorated SMAO-induced villus injury. Resistance to SMAO-induced gut injury was also associated with resistance to lung injury, as reflected by decreased levels of myeloperoxidase, IL-6 and IL-10 in the lungs of HIF-1?(+/-) mice. In contrast, a short duration of SMAO (15 min) followed by 3 h of reperfusion neither induced mucosal HIF-1? protein levels nor caused significant gut and lung injury in wild-type or HIF-1?(+/-) mice. This study indicates that intestinal HIF-1 activation is a proximal regulator of I/R-induced gut mucosal injury and gut-induced lung injury. However, the duration and severity of the gut I/R insult dictate whether HIF-1 plays a gut-protective or deleterious role. PMID:21183660

  4. Hypoxia-inducible factor plays a gut-injurious role in intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Kolenkode B.; Colorado, Iriana; Reino, Diego; Palange, David; Lu, Qi; Qin, Xiaofa; Abungu, Billy; Watkins, Anthony; Caputo, Francis J.; Xu, Da-Zhong; Semenza, Gregg L.; Deitch, Edwin A.

    2011-01-01

    Gut injury and loss of normal intestinal barrier function are key elements in the paradigm of gut-origin systemic inflammatory response syndrome, acute lung injury, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). As hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) is a critical determinant of the physiological and pathophysiological response to hypoxia and ischemia, we asked whether HIF-1 plays a proximal role in the induction of gut injury and subsequent lung injury. Using partially HIF-1?-deficient mice in an isolated superior mesenteric artery occlusion (SMAO) intestinal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury model (45 min SMAO followed by 3 h of reperfusion), we showed a direct relationship between HIF-1 activation and intestinal I/R injury. Specifically, partial HIF-1? deficiency attenuated SMAO-induced increases in intestinal permeability, lipid peroxidation, mucosal caspase-3 activity, and IL-1? mRNA levels. Furthermore, partial HIF-1? deficiency prevented the induction of ileal mucosal inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein levels after SMAO and iNOS deficiency ameliorated SMAO-induced villus injury. Resistance to SMAO-induced gut injury was also associated with resistance to lung injury, as reflected by decreased levels of myeloperoxidase, IL-6 and IL-10 in the lungs of HIF-1?+/? mice. In contrast, a short duration of SMAO (15 min) followed by 3 h of reperfusion neither induced mucosal HIF-1? protein levels nor caused significant gut and lung injury in wild-type or HIF-1?+/? mice. This study indicates that intestinal HIF-1 activation is a proximal regulator of I/R-induced gut mucosal injury and gut-induced lung injury. However, the duration and severity of the gut I/R insult dictate whether HIF-1 plays a gut-protective or deleterious role. PMID:21183660

  5. Coiled-coil Coactivators Play a Structural Role Mediating Interactions in Hypoxia-inducible Factor Heterodimerization*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yirui; Scheuermann, Thomas H.; Partch, Carrie L.; Tomchick, Diana R.; Gardner, Kevin H.

    2015-01-01

    The hypoxia-inducible factor complex (HIF-α·aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)) requires association with several transcription coactivators for a successful cellular response to hypoxic stress. In addition to the conventional global transcription coactivator CREB-binding protein/p300 (CBP/p300) that binds to the HIF-α transactivation domain, a new group of transcription coactivators called the coiled-coil coactivators (CCCs) interact directly with the second PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) domain of ARNT (ARNT PAS-B). These less studied transcription coactivators play essential roles in the HIF-dependent hypoxia response, and CCC misregulation is associated with several forms of cancer. To better understand CCC protein recruitment by the heterodimeric HIF transcription factor, we used x-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and biochemical methods to investigate the structure of the ARNT PAS-B domain in complex with the C-terminal fragment of a coiled-coil coactivator protein, transforming acidic coiled-coil coactivator 3 (TACC3). We found that the HIF-2α PAS-B domain also directly interacts with TACC3, motivating an NMR data-derived model suggesting a means by which TACC3 could form a ternary complex with HIF-2α PAS-B and ARNT PAS-B via β-sheet/coiled-coil interactions. These findings suggest that TACC3 could be recruited as a bridge to cooperatively mediate between the HIF-2α PAS-B·ARNT PAS-B complex, thereby participating more directly in HIF-dependent gene transcription than previously anticipated. PMID:25627682

  6. The Arabidopsis MYB96 transcription factor plays a role in seed dormancy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong Gil; Lee, Kyounghee; Seo, Pil Joon

    2015-03-01

    Seed dormancy facilitates to endure environmental disadvantages by confining embryonic growth until the seeds encounter favorable environmental conditions for germination. Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) play a pivotal role in the determination of the seed dormancy state. ABA establishes seed dormancy, while GA triggers seed germination. Here, we demonstrate that MYB96 contributes to the fine-tuning of seed dormancy regulation through the coordination of ABA and GA metabolism. The MYB96-deficient myb96-1 seeds germinated earlier than wild-type seeds, whereas delayed germination was observed in the activation-tagging myb96-1D seeds. The differences in germination rate disappeared after stratification or after-ripening. The MYB96 transcription factor positively regulates ABA biosynthesis genes 9-CIS-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE 2 (NCED2), NCED5, NCED6, and NCED9, and also affects GA biosynthetic genes GA3ox1 and GA20ox1. Notably, MYB96 directly binds to the promoters of NCED2 and NCED6, primarily modulating ABA biosynthesis, which subsequently influences GA metabolism. In agreement with this, hyperdormancy of myb96-1D seeds was recovered by an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone, while hypodormancy of myb96-1 seeds was suppressed by a GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC). Taken together, the metabolic balance of ABA and GA underlies MYB96 control of primary seed dormancy. PMID:25616734

  7. Important roles of multiple Sp1 binding sites and epigenetic modifications in the regulation of the methionine sulfoxide reductase B1 (MsrB1) promoter

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Antonella; Sacchetta, Paolo; Nieddu, Marzia; Di Ilio, Carmine; Favaloro, Bartolo

    2007-01-01

    Background Methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs) are enzymes that catalyze the reduction of oxidized methionine residues. Most organisms that were genetically modified to lack the MsrA gene have shown shortening of their life span. Methionine sulfoxide reductases B (MsrB) proteins codified by three separate genes, named MsrB1, MsrB2, and MsrB3, are included in the Msrs system. To date, the mechanisms responsible for the transcriptional regulation of MsrB genes have not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulation of MsrB1 selenoprotein levels through transcriptional regulation of the MsrB1 gene in MDA-MB231 and MCF-7 breast carcinoma cell lines. Results A MsrB1 gene promoter is located 169 base pairs upstream from the transcription start site. It contains three Sp1 binding sites which are sufficient for maximal promoter activity in transient transfection experiments. High levels of MsrB1 transcript, protein and promoter activity were detected in low metastatic MCF7 human breast cancer cells. On the contrary, very low levels of both MsrB1 transcript and promoter activity were detected in the highly metastatic counterpart MDA-MB231 cells. A pivotal role for Sp1 in the constitutive expression of the MsrB1 gene was demonstrated through transient expression of mutant MsrB1 promoter-reporter gene constructs and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments. Since Sp1 is ubiquitously expressed, these sites, while necessary, are not sufficient to explain the patterns of gene expression of MsrB1 in various human breast cancer cells. MDA-MB231 cells can be induced to express MsrB1 by treatment with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine, a demethylating agent. Therefore, the MsrB1 promoter is controlled by epigenetic modifications. Conclusion The results of this study provide the first insights into the transcriptional regulation of the human MsrB1 gene, including the discovery that the Sp1 transcription factor may play a central role in its expression. We also demonstrated that the MsrB1 promoter activity appears to be controlled by epigenetic modifications such as methylation. PMID:17519015

  8. The Factors of Design on Playing Equipment in Young Children Schools by Viewpoint of Young Children Behavioral Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Chuen-tzay

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore the care-givers of preschool education institutions whose cognition on playing equipment functions, conditions of both setting and using, and the main factors which should beware of design. Besides, not only constructed the factors of design, but also provided suggestions about setting and designing of

  9. Platelet activating factor receptor binding plays a critical role in jet fuel-induced immune suppression.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Gerardo; Kazimi, Nasser; Nghiem, Dat X; Walterscheid, Jeffrey P; Ullrich, Stephen E

    2004-03-15

    Applying military jet fuel (JP-8) or commercial jet fuel (Jet-A) to the skin of mice suppresses the immune response in a dose-dependent manner. The release of biological response modifiers, particularly prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), is a critical step in activating immune suppression. Previous studies have shown that injecting selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors into jet fuel-treated mice blocks immune suppression. Because the inflammatory phospholipid mediator, platelet-activating factor (PAF), up-regulates cyclooxygenase-2 production and PGE2 synthesis by keratinocytes, we tested the hypothesis that PAF-receptor binding plays a role in jet fuel-induced immune suppression. Treating keratinocyte cultures with PAF and/or jet fuel (JP-8 and Jet-A) stimulates PGE2 secretion. Jet fuel-induced PGE2 production was suppressed by treating the keratinocytes with specific PAF-receptor antagonists. Injecting mice with PAF, or treating the skin of the mice with JP-8, or Jet-A, induced immune suppression. Jet fuel-induced immune suppression was blocked when the jet fuel-treated mice were injected with PAF-receptor antagonists before treatment. Jet fuel treatment has been reported to activate oxidative stress and treating the mice with anti-oxidants (Vitamins C, or E or beta-hydroxy toluene), before jet fuel application, interfered with immune suppression. These findings confirm previous studies showing that PAF-receptor binding can modulate immune function. Furthermore, they suggest that PAF-receptor binding may be an early event in the induction of immune suppression by immunotoxic environmental agents that target the skin. PMID:15020195

  10. Sp1 and CREB regulate basal transcription of the human SNF2L gene

    SciTech Connect

    Xia Yu; Jiang Baichun; Zou Yongxin; Gao Guimin; Shang Linshan; Chen Bingxi; Liu Qiji; Gong Yaoqin

    2008-04-04

    Imitation Switch (ISWI) is a member of the SWI2/SNF2 superfamily of ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers, which are involved in multiple nuclear functions, including transcriptional regulation, replication, and chromatin assembly. Mammalian genomes encode two ISWI orthologs, SNF2H and SNF2L. In order to clarify the molecular mechanisms governing the expression of human SNF2L gene, we functionally examined the transcriptional regulation of human SNF2L promoter. Reporter gene assays demonstrated that the minimal SNF2L promoter was located between positions -152 to -86 relative to the transcription start site. In this region we have identified a cAMP-response element (CRE) located at -99 to -92 and a Sp1-binding site at -145 to -135 that play a critical role in regulating basal activity of human SNF2L gene, which were proven by deletion and mutation of specific binding sites, EMSA, and down-regulating Sp1 and CREB via RNAi. This study provides the first insight into the mechanisms that control basal expression of human SNF2L gene.

  11. The promoter of mouse transcription repressor bach1 is regulated by Sp1 and trans-activated by Bach1.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Muto, A; Hoshino, H; Kobayashi, A; Nishimura, S; Yamamoto, M; Hayashi, N; Ito, E; Igarashi, K

    2001-09-01

    The Maf recognition element (MARE) is regulated by both activators and repressors. Bach1 and Bach2 repress MARE-dependent transcription by forming heterodimers with Maf-related oncoproteins. In order to gain an understanding of the regulation of bach1 gene expression, we analyzed the structure of the mouse bach1 gene. Comparison of the exon-intron structure of the bach1 gene with those of other NF-E2-related genes indicated that bach1 and bach2 constitute an evolutionarily distinct subfamily among bZip factors. The bach1 promoter region contains two GC boxes that are important for its basal activity and are bound by Sp1 in K562 cell extracts. In addition, we found an evolutionarily conserved MARE-like element located downstream of the transcription initiation site. Deletion of this element resulted in a higher promoter activity in K562 cells. Bach1 trans-activated its own promoter depending on the presence of the MARE-like element in co-transfection assays. However, Bach1 did not bind to the MARE-like element in electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). These results suggest that Bach1 activates its own promoter indirectly by inhibiting the putative repressor. Such a positive feedback regulation by the repressor Bach1 may play an important role in maintaining the expression of Bach1 while consolidating repression of other genes with MARE. PMID:11530014

  12. Mineralocorticoid receptor interaction with SP1 generates a new response element for pathophysiologically relevant gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Meinel, Sandra; Ruhs, Stefanie; Schumann, Katja; Strtz, Nicole; Trenkmann, Kay; Schreier, Barbara; Grosse, Ivo; Keilwagen, Jens; Gekle, Michael; Grossmann, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-induced transcription factor belonging to the steroid receptor family and involved in water-electrolyte homeostasis, blood pressure regulation, inflammation and fibrosis in the renocardiovascular system. The MR shares a common hormone-response-element with the glucocorticoid receptor but nevertheless elicits MR-specific effects including enhanced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression via unknown mechanisms. The EGFR is a receptor tyrosine kinase that leads to activation of MAP kinases, but that can also function as a signal transducer for other signaling pathways. In the present study, we mechanistically investigate the interaction between a newly discovered MR- but not glucocorticoid receptor- responsive-element (=MRE1) of the EGFR promoter, specificity protein 1 (SP1) and MR to gain general insights into MR-specificity. Biological relevance of the interaction for EGFR expression and consequently for different signaling pathways in general is demonstrated in human, rat and murine vascular smooth muscle cells and cells of EGFR knockout mice. A genome-wide promoter search for identical binding regions followed by quantitative PCR validation suggests that the identified MR-SP1MRE1 interaction might be applicable to other genes. Overall, a novel principle of MR-specific gene expression is explored that applies to the pathophysiologically relevant expression of the EGFR and potentially also to other genes. PMID:23821666

  13. Beyond play and playfulness.

    PubMed

    Solnit, A J

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of play to playfulness over time establishes developmental foundations that are of central importance throughout life. Freud believed that play is at its richest and most adaptive during the oedipal phase; others have taken issue with Freud's view that play has its place mainly in childhood and is given up in adulthood. This paper emphasizes the central importance of playfulness throughout life. In formulating the boundaries of play, it utilizes the observations and comments of experts in the field. PMID:9990826

  14. Life Cycle Reversal in Aurelia sp.1 (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa)

    PubMed Central

    He, Jinru; Zheng, Lianming; Zhang, Wenjing; Lin, Yuanshao

    2015-01-01

    The genus Aurelia is one of the major contributors to jellyfish blooms in coastal waters, possibly due in part to hydroclimatic and anthropogenic causes, as well as their highly adaptive reproductive traits. Despite the wide plasticity of cnidarian life cycles, especially those recognized in certain Hydroza species, the known modifications of Aurelia life history were mostly restricted to its polyp stage. In this study, we document the formation of polyps directly from the ectoderm of degenerating juvenile medusae, cell masses from medusa tissue fragments, and subumbrella of living medusae. This is the first evidence for back-transformation of sexually mature medusae into polyps in Aurelia sp.1. The resulting reconstruction of the schematic life cycle of Aurelia reveals the underestimated potential of life cycle reversal in scyphozoan medusae, with possible implications for biological and ecological studies. PMID:26690755

  15. Factors Related to Play Therapists' Social Justice Advocacy Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parikh, Sejal B.; Ceballos, Peggy; Post, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    The authors used a correlational research design to examine how belief in a just world, political ideology, socioeconomic status of family of origin, and percentage of racial minority clients were related to social justice advocacy attitudes among play therapists. A multiple regression was used to analyze the data. Results indicated that belief in

  16. Factors Related to Play Therapists' Social Justice Advocacy Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parikh, Sejal B.; Ceballos, Peggy; Post, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    The authors used a correlational research design to examine how belief in a just world, political ideology, socioeconomic status of family of origin, and percentage of racial minority clients were related to social justice advocacy attitudes among play therapists. A multiple regression was used to analyze the data. Results indicated that belief in…

  17. SENP3 regulates the global protein turnover and the Sp1 level via antagonizing SUMO2/3-targeted ubiquitination and degradation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Sang, Jing; Ren, Yanhua; Liu, Kejia; Liu, Xinyi; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Haolu; Wang, Jian; Orian, Amir; Yang, Jie; Yi, Jing

    2016-01-01

    SUMOylation is recently found to function as a targeting signal for the degradation of substrates through the ubiquitin-proteasome system. RNF4 is the most studied human SUMO-targeted ubiquitin E3 ligase. However, the relationship between SUMO proteases, SENPs, and RNF4 remains obscure. There are limited examples of the SENP regulation of SUMO2/3-targeted proteolysis mediated by RNF4. The present study investigated the role of SENP3 in the global protein turnover related to SUMO2/3-targeted ubiquitination and focused in particular on the SENP3 regulation of the stability of Sp1. Our data demonstrated that SENP3 impaired the global ubiquitination profile and promoted the accumulation of many proteins. Sp1, a cancer-associated transcription factor, was among these proteins. SENP3 increased the level of Sp1 protein via antagonizing the SUMO2/3-targeted ubiquitination and the consequent proteasome-dependent degradation that was mediated by RNF4. De-conjugation of SUMO2/3 by SENP3 attenuated the interaction of Sp1 with RNF4. In gastric cancer cell lines and specimens derived from patients and nude mice, the level of Sp1 was generally increased in parallel to the level of SENP3. These results provided a new explanation for the enrichment of the Sp1 protein in various cancers, and revealed a regulation of SUMO2/3 conjugated proteins whose levels may be tightly controlled by SENP3 and RNF4. PMID:26511642

  18. Functional significance of an overlapping consensus binding motif for Sp1 and Zif268 in the murine adenosine deaminase gene promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, S L; Minden, A G; Williams, G T; Bobonis, C; Yeung, C Y

    1991-01-01

    The murine adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene has a (G + C)-rich promoter that can support diverse tissue-specific gene expression. By using deletion and mutation analyses, we have identified a cis-acting "repressor" element located immediately upstream of the proximal Sp1 binding site in the ADA gene promoter. This repressor element was localized to a binding site for the immediate-early, serum-responsive, DNA binding factor Zif268. This Zif268 binding site partially overlaps a binding site for the general transcription activator Sp1. Disruption of the Zif268 binding site without disturbing the Sp1 binding motif abolished Zif268 binding and resulted in significantly elevated promoter function. Conversely, disruption of the proximal consensus Sp1 binding motif without disturbing the Zif268 binding site resulted in a loss of Sp1 binding at that region and greatly reduced promoter activity. Our results suggest that one function of Zif268 may be to down-regulate this type of mammalian gene promoter by competing with Sp1 for binding to the overlapping binding motif. Images PMID:1881892

  19. An Sp1 Modulated Regulatory Region Unique to Higher Primates Regulates Human Androgen Receptor Promoter Activity in Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Hay, Colin W; Hunter, Irene; MacKenzie, Alasdair; McEwan, Iain J

    2015-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) mediated signalling is necessary for normal development of the prostate gland and also drives prostate cancer (PCa) cell growth and survival, with many studies showing a correlation between increased receptor levels and therapy resistance with progression to fatal castrate recurrent PCa (CRPC). Although it has been held for some time that the transcription factor Sp1 is the main stimulator of AR gene transcription, comprehensive knowledge of the regulation of the AR gene remains incomplete. Here we describe and characterise in detail two novel active regulatory elements in the 5'UTR of the human AR gene. Both of these elements contain overlapping binding sites for the positive transcription factor Sp1 and the repressor protein pur-?. Aberrant cell signalling is characteristic of PCa and the transcriptional activity of the AR promoter in PCa cells is dependent upon the relative amounts of the two transcription factors. Together with our corroboration of the dominant role of Sp1, the findings support the rationale of targeting this transcription factor to inhibit tumour progression. This should be of particular therapeutic relevance in CRPC where the levels of the repressor pur-? are reduced. PMID:26448047

  20. An Sp1 Modulated Regulatory Region Unique to Higher Primates Regulates Human Androgen Receptor Promoter Activity in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Colin W.; Hunter, Irene; MacKenzie, Alasdair; McEwan, Iain J.

    2015-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) mediated signalling is necessary for normal development of the prostate gland and also drives prostate cancer (PCa) cell growth and survival, with many studies showing a correlation between increased receptor levels and therapy resistance with progression to fatal castrate recurrent PCa (CRPC). Although it has been held for some time that the transcription factor Sp1 is the main stimulator of AR gene transcription, comprehensive knowledge of the regulation of the AR gene remains incomplete. Here we describe and characterise in detail two novel active regulatory elements in the 5UTR of the human AR gene. Both of these elements contain overlapping binding sites for the positive transcription factor Sp1 and the repressor protein pur-?. Aberrant cell signalling is characteristic of PCa and the transcriptional activity of the AR promoter in PCa cells is dependent upon the relative amounts of the two transcription factors. Together with our corroboration of the dominant role of Sp1, the findings support the rationale of targeting this transcription factor to inhibit tumour progression. This should be of particular therapeutic relevance in CRPC where the levels of the repressor pur-? are reduced. PMID:26448047

  1. Playing a Musical Instrument as a Protective Factor against Dementia and Cognitive Impairment: A Population-Based Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports that playing a musical instrument may benefit cognitive development and health at young ages. Whether playing an instrument provides protection against dementia has not been established. In a population-based cotwin control study, we examined the association between playing a musical instrument and whether or not the twins developed dementia or cognitive impairment. Participation in playing an instrument was taken from informant-based reports of twins' leisure activities. Dementia diagnoses were based on a complete clinical workup using standard diagnostic criteria. Among 157 twin pairs discordant for dementia and cognitive impairment, 27 pairs were discordant for playing an instrument. Controlling for sex, education, and physical activity, playing a musical instrument was significantly associated with less likelihood of dementia and cognitive impairment (odds ratio [OR] = 0.36 [95% confidence interval 0.13–0.99]). These findings support further consideration of music as a modifiable protective factor against dementia and cognitive impairment. PMID:25544932

  2. Sp1-like activity mediates angiotensin-II-induced plasminogen-activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) gene expression in mesangial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Motojima, M; Ando, T; Yoshioka, T

    2000-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) up-regulates plasminogen-activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) expression in mesangial cells to enhance extracellular matrix formation. The proximal promoter region (bp -87 to -45) of the human PAI-1 gene contains several potent binding sites for transcription factors [two phorbol-ester-response-element (TRE)-like sequences; D-box (-82 to -76) and P-box (-61 to 54), and one Sp1 binding site-like sequence, Sp1-box 1 (-72 to -67)]. We studied this region to determine the transcription factor(s) that mediates Ang-II-induced transcriptional activation of the PAI-1 gene. Various double-stranded decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) corresponding to various sequences in the proximal promoter region were transfected to mesangial cells to examine the effects on Ang-II-induced PAI-1 mRNA expression. Transfection with the full-length decoy (bp -87 to -45, D-P-ODN) markedly attenuated Ang-II-induced PAI-1 mRNA expression by up to 70%. Transfection with D-ODN (-87 to -71) and P-ODN (-66 to -45), which correspond to each of the two TRE-like sequences, did not attenuate the expression. Gel-shift assays using nuclear extracts prepared from Ang-II-treated mesangial cells and D-P-ODN showed three specific complexes. The major complex was supershifted by anti-Sp1 antibody. The methylation-interference experiment demonstrated that human recombinant Sp1 bound to the so-called GT box (TGGGTGGGGCT, -78 to -69), which contains the Sp1-box 1. The complex that migrated with anti-Sp1 antibody was enhanced in the cells treated with Ang II. Further, D-Sp1-ODN (-85 to -63) containing the GT box attenuated up-regulation of PAI-1 mRNA expression induced by Ang II to a level (68+/-9% inhibition) comparable to D-P-ODN, whereas ODN with four mutations in the GT box had no effect. Our findings suggest that binding of Sp1 or an Sp1-like transcription factor to the GT box in the PAI-1 promoter up-regulates PAI-1 gene transcription in mesangial cells stimulated with Ang II. This transcription-factor binding site may be targeted to control Ang-II-dependent extracellular matrix formation by mesangial cells. PMID:10880342

  3. SP1 and USF differentially regulate ADAMTS1 gene expression under normoxic and hypoxic conditions in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Turkoglu, Sumeyye Aydogan; Kockar, Feray

    2016-01-01

    ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type I motif, 1 (ADAMTS1) that has both antiangiogenic and aggrecanase activity was dysregulated in many pathophysiologic circumstances. However, there is limited information available on the transcriptional regulation of ADAMTS1 gene. Therefore, this study mainly aimed to identify regulatory regions important for the regulation of ADAMTS1 gene under normoxic and hypoxic conditions in human hepatoma cells (HEP3B). Cultured HEP3B cells were exposed to normal oxygen condition, and Cobalt chloride (CoCl2) induced the hypoxic condition, which is an HIF-1 inducer. The cocl2-induced hypoxic condition led to the induced ADAMTS1 mRNA and protein expression in Hepatoma cells. Differential regulation of SP1 and USF transcription factors on ADAMTS1 gene expression was determined by transcriptional activity, mRNA and protein level of ADAMTS1 gene. Ectopic expression of SP1 and USF transcription factors resulted in the decrease in ADAMTS1 transcriptional activity of all promoter constructs consistent with mRNA and protein level in normoxic condition. However, overexpression of SP1 and USF led to the increase of ADAMTS1 gene expressions at mRNA and protein level in hypoxic condition. On the other hand, C/EBP? transcription factor didn't show any statistically significant effect on ADAMTS1 gene expression at mRNA, protein and transcriptional level under normoxic and hypoxic condition. PMID:26299656

  4. Characterization of the porcine peptidylarginine deiminase type VI gene (PADI6) promoter: Sp1 regulates basal transcription of the porcine PADI6.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiaoliang; Yan, Chi; Wu, Wangjun; Zhou, Ying; Hou, Liming; Zuo, Bo; Xu, Dequan; Ren, Zhuqing; Xiong, Yuanzhu

    2016-01-10

    It is a general consensus that oocyte quality is the key to embryo survival in pig reproduction. Thus, study on regulation of the ovary-associated gene is of great significance in pig breeding. Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) are a family of enzymes which catalyze the conversion of arginine to citrulline in proteins. The peptidylarginine deiminases type VI gene (PADI6) is mainly expressed in the ovary, and plays an important role in oocyte growth, fertilization and early embryo development. However, until now, little is known about its transcriptional regulation mechanism. Here, we firstly isolated and characterized the 5'-flanking region of porcine PADI6 gene. We determined the transcription start site using 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) analysis, and identified the minimal promoter (-85/+68) that drove the basal expression of PADI6 by constructing various progressive deletions. Mutational analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated Sp1 bound to the -56/-47 region of the PADI6 promoter. Furthermore, overexpression of Sp1 significantly increased the promoter activity and promoted PADI6 gene expression, and accordingly, inhibition of Sp1 expression with specific siRNA significantly reduced the promoter activity and suppressed the PADI6 expression. In addition, inhibition of Sp1 binding by Mithramycin A treatment reduced the transcriptional activity of PADI6 in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these data indicate that Sp1 is essential for the transcriptional regulation of PADI6. PMID:26403316

  5. Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) plays a role in SV40 infection

    SciTech Connect

    Manley, Kate; O'Hara, Bethany A.; Atwood, Walter J.

    2008-03-01

    Recent evidence highlighted a role for the transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT), in the transcription of the human polyomavirus JCV. Here we show that NFAT is also important in the transcriptional control of the related polyomavirus, Simian Virus 40 (SV40). Inhibition of NFAT activity reduced SV40 infection of Vero, 293A, and HeLa cells, and this block occurred at the stage of viral transcription. Both NFAT3 and NFAT4 bound to the SV40 promoter through {kappa}B sites located within the 72 bp repeated enhancer region. In Vero cells, NFAT was involved in late transcription, but in HeLa and 293A cells both early and late viral transcription required NFAT activity. SV40 large T-Ag was found to increase NFAT activity and provided a positive feedback loop to transactivate the SV40 promoter.

  6. Unusual angiogenic factor plays a role in lizard pregnancy but is not unique to viviparity.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Camilla M; Grau, Georges E; Murphy, Christopher R; Thompson, Michael B

    2015-03-01

    Angiogenesis (blood vessel growth), a key process of mammalian pregnancy, facilitates gas exchange and nutrient transport between the mother and the embryo and is regulated by a suite of growth factors. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is crucial to this process in pregnant mammals and potentially pregnant squamates (lizards and snakes), as we investigate here. VEGF111 , an unusual and potent angiogenic splice variant of VEGF, increases its expression during pregnancy in the uterus of a viviparous lizard, in parallel with similar increases in uterine angiogenesis during gestation. However, we also find that VEGF111 is expressed in oviparous skinks, and is not ubiquitous among viviparous skinks. Thus, different mechanisms of uterine angiogenesis during pregnancy may evolve concurrent with viviparity in different lizard lineages. PMID:25732926

  7. p53 and Sp1 cooperate to regulate the expression of Epstein-Barr viral Zta protein.

    PubMed

    Chua, Huey-Huey; Chiu, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Sue-Jane; Weng, Pei-Lun; Lin, Jiun-Han; Wu, Shao-Wen; Tsai, Shu-Chun; Tsai, Ching-Hwa

    2012-08-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) belongs to the gammaherpesvirus family. To produce infectious progeny, EBV reactivates from latency into the lytic cycle by expressing the determinative lytic transactivator, Zta. In the presence of histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), p53 is a prerequisite for the initiation of the EBV lytic cycle by facilitating the expression of Zta. In this study, a serial mutational analysis of Zta promoter (Zp) indicated an important role for the ZID element in responding to HDACi induction and p53 binds to this ZID element together with Sp1, a universal transcription factor. Abolition of the DNA-binding ability of Sp1 reduces the inducibility of ZID by HDACi and also reduces the amount of p53 binding to ZID. Finally, it was shown that EBV in p53-positive-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) can enter into the lytic cycle spontaneously; however, knockdown of p53 in LCLs leads to retardation of EBV reactivation. PMID:22711357

  8. First functional polymorphism in CFTR promoter that results in decreased transcriptional activity and Sp1/USF binding

    SciTech Connect

    Taulan, M. Lopez, E.; Guittard, C.; Rene, C.; Baux, D.; Altieri, J.P.; DesGeorges, M.; Claustres, M.; Romey, M.C.

    2007-09-28

    Growing evidences show that functionally relevant polymorphisms in various promoters alter both transcriptional activity and affinities of existing protein-DNA interactions, and thus influence disease progression in humans. We previously reported the -94G>T CFTR promoter variant in a female CF patient in whom any known disease-causing mutation has been detected. To investigate whether the -94G>T could be a regulatory variant, we have proceeded to in silico analyses and functional studies including EMSA and reporter gene assays. Our data indicate that the promoter variant decreases basal CFTR transcriptional activity in different epithelial cells and alters binding affinities of both Sp1 and USF nuclear proteins to the CFTR promoter. The present report provides evidence for the first functional polymorphism that negatively affects the CFTR transcriptional activity and demonstrates a cooperative role of Sp1 and USF transcription factors in transactivation of the CFTR gene promoter.

  9. Transcription of promoter from the human APRIL gene regulated by Sp1 and NF-kB.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Ding, W F; Shao, K K; Wang, X D; Wang, G H; Li, H Q; Wang, H M

    2012-01-01

    A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) which stimulates the cell proliferation is abundantly expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC) tumors. In this report, the promoter region of the APRIL gene was determined and the major transcription factor was investigated for the first time. Deletion analysis of 5'-?anking region of the human APRIL gene and transient transfection revealed that a 538 bp region (from -1539 to -1001) was essential for promoter activation of the APRIL gene. The data from electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) indicated that the 538 bp promoter region was responsive to the specificity protein 1 (Sp1) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB). Overexpression of Sp1 or NF-kB increased the activity of the APRIL promoter. Mithramycin A (inhibitor of Sp1) and Bay11-7082 (inhibitor of NF-kB) exhibited an inhibitory activity to APRIL promoter. Our results will benefit to the APRIL gene regulation investigation and contribute to discover new drug target for the APRIL gene therapy of CRC. PMID:22296504

  10. Regulation of expression of the chorionic gonadotropin/luteinizing hormone receptor gene in the human myometrium: involvement of specificity protein-1 (Sp1), Sp3, Sp4, Sp-like proteins, and histone deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Robert J; Tyson-Capper Ne Pollard, Alison J; Bailey, Jarrod; Robson, Stephen C; Europe-Finner, G Nicholas

    2005-06-01

    At present there is little information on the regulatory processes by which the chorionic gonadotropin (CG)/LH receptor gene is regulated in the human myometrium during pregnancy and labor. Employing human primary myometrial cell cultures in conjunction with DNA affinity purification assays/Western analysis, DNA binding studies, CG/LH promoter luciferase reporter gene deletion constructs in transfection assays, and measurement of endogenous mRNA levels in vivo by duplex RT-PCR, we have determined the role that the major transcriptional regulatory sequences from the +1 ATG codon to -2678 bp play in modulating expression of the CG/LH receptor gene in the myometrium. We report that the distal -180 to -2678 bp region of the promoter, although capable of binding members of the Jun family via the multiple activator protein-1 sites within this region, has no significant role in regulating the expression of the CG/LH receptor gene in myometrial cells. In contrast, the two specificity protein-1 to -4 (Sp1-4) GC boxes within the +1 to -180 bp proximal promoter are central to expression of the gene in the myometrium. However, not only are Sp1/Sp3 proteins involved in this process, but Sp4 and a novel Sp-like factor(s) also have an intimate part in transcriptional regulation of the gene. It would appear that Sp1/Sp3/Sp4 and Sp-like proteins are involved in recruiting histone deacetylase complexes to the proximal promoter, preventing chromatin remodeling resulting in transcriptional repression of the gene. Our data suggest that administration of the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A to human myometrial cells in vitro and in vivo substantially removes this silencing effect on expression of the gene and may implicate the use of this and similar agents in increasing myometrial CG/LH receptor levels and subsequent maintenance of uterine relaxation during fetal maturation. PMID:15788387

  11. Sp1 is involved in regulation of cystathionine γ-lyase gene expression and biological function by PI3K/Akt pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yin, Peng; Zhao, Chao; Li, Zengxia; Mei, Chuanzhong; Yao, Wantong; Liu, Yonglei; Li, Na; Qi, Jingjing; Wang, Liying; Shi, Yinghong; Qiu, Shuangjian; Fan, Jia; Zha, Xiliang

    2012-06-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) has been found to play an important role as a novel gasotransmitter involved in many biological processes. The regulatory role of endogenous H(2)S-producing enzyme on cancer cell survival is complex and unclear. According to the data that cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) gene, catalyzed H(2)S production in trans-sulfuration pathway, was upregulated in Akt stably transformed mouse embryonic fibroblast cells, the mechanisms that elevated CSE expression by PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and its biological functions in cell survival were studied. In the present study, firstly, the results showed that PI3K/Akt positively correlated with CSE expression levels in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. CSE expression was decreased by the PI3K inhibitor or Akt deletion, while upregulated with the activating of Akt. Based on dual-luciferase reporter assay, the -592/+139 gene fragment represented the CSE core promoter, and the PI3K/Akt pathway regulated CSE expression on transcriptional level. Sp1 was the critical transcription factor in regulation of CSE expression via the mutation of transcription factor binding sites on the promoter. Furthermore, we proved that Sp1 could directly bind to CSE promoter by ChIP assay. In addition, we explored that the endogenous H(2)S production was connected with the regulated CSE expression, and CSE/H(2)S promoted human hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation via cell cycle progression regulation. In summary, we have, for the first time, demonstrated that PI3K/Akt pathway regulates the CSE expression via Sp1, which is particularly important to understand the effect of PI3K/Akt and CSE on the tumorigenesis. PMID:22360859

  12. Liver Fibrosis in HIV Patients Receiving a Modern cART: Which Factors Play a Role?

    PubMed

    Mohr, Raphael; Schierwagen, Robert; Schwarze-Zander, Carolynne; Boesecke, Christoph; Wasmuth, Jan-Christian; Trebicka, Jonel; Rockstroh, Jrgen Kurt

    2015-12-01

    Liver-related death in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals is about 10 times higher compared with the general population, and the prevalence of significant liver fibrosis in those with HIV approaches 15%. The present study aimed to assess risk factors for development of hepatic fibrosis in HIV patients receiving a modern combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART).This cross-sectional prospective study included 432 HIV patients, of which 68 (16%) patients were anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) positive and 23 (5%) were HBsAg positive.Health trajectory including clinical characteristics and liver fibrosis stage assessed by transient elastography were collected at inclusion. Liver stiffness values >7.1 kPa were considered as significant fibrosis, while values >12.5 kPa were defined as severe fibrosis. Logistic regression and Cox regression uni- and multivariate analyses were performed to identify independent factors associated with liver fibrosis.Significant liver fibrosis was detected in 10% of HIV mono-infected, in 37% of HCV co-infected patients, and in 18% of hepatitis B virus co-infected patients. The presence of diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR]?=?4.6) and FIB4 score (OR?=?2.4) were independently associated with presence of significant fibrosis in the whole cohort. Similarly, diabetes mellitus (OR?=?5.4), adiposity (OR?=?4.6), and the FIB4 score (OR?=?3.3) were independently associated with significant fibrosis in HIV mono-infected patients. Importantly, cumulative cART duration protected, whereas persistent HIV viral replication promoted the development of significant liver fibrosis along the duration of HIV infection.Our findings strongly indicate that besides known risk factors like metabolic disorders, HIV may also have a direct effect on fibrogenesis. Successful cART leading to complete suppression of HIV replication might protect from development of liver fibrosis. PMID:26683921

  13. Liver Stiffness Measurement in Psoriasis: Do Metabolic or Disease Factors Play the Important Role?

    PubMed Central

    Pongpit, Jamrus; Porntharukchareon, Saneerat; Kaewduang, Piyaporn; Promson, Kwannapa; Stitchantrakul, Wasana; Petraksa, Supanna; Thakkinstian, Ammarin; Kositchaiwat, Chomsri; Rajatanavin, Natta; Sobhonslidsuk, Abhasnee

    2016-01-01

    Background. An increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was reported in psoriasis. NAFLD can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Transient elastography (TE) is a noninvasive liver fibrosis assessment. We evaluated the prevalence of significant liver fibrosis or high liver stiffness measurement (LSM) using the LSM cutoff over 7 kPa and its associated factors in psoriatic patients. Methods. Subjects underwent TE and ultrasonography. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed for the associated factors. Results. One hundred and sixty-eight patients were recruited. Three patients were excluded due to TE failure. Mean BMI was 24.8 ± 4.7 kg/m2. NAFLD, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes were seen in 105 (63.6%), 83 (50.3%), and 31 (18.8%) patients. The total cumulative dose of methotrexate over 1.5 g was seen in 39 (23.6%) patients. Mean LSM was 5.3 ± 2.9 kPa. High LSM was found in 18 (11.0%) patients. Waist circumference (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.11–1.38; P = 0.0002), diabetes (OR: 12.70; 95% CI: 1.84–87.70; P = 0.010), and AST (OR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.02–1.16; P = 0.017) were associated with high LSM. Conclusion. 11% of psoriatic patients had significant liver fibrosis by high LSM. Waist circumference, diabetes, and AST level were the independent predictors. PMID:27006950

  14. The Prrx1 homeodomain transcription factor plays a central role in pancreatic regeneration and carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Maximilian; Takano, Shigetsugu; von Burstin, Johannes; Kim, Sang-Bae; Lee, Ju-Seog; Ihida-Stansbury, Kaori; Hahn, Christopher; Heeg, Steffen; Schneider, Günter; Rhim, Andrew D.; Stanger, Ben Z.; Rustgi, Anil K.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic exocrine cell plasticity can be observed during development, pancreatitis with subsequent regeneration, and also transformation. For example, acinar–ductal metaplasia (ADM) occurs during acute pancreatitis and might be viewed as a prelude to pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) development. To elucidate regulatory processes that overlap ductal development, ADM, and the progression of normal cells to PanIN lesions, we undertook a systematic approach to identify the Prrx1 paired homeodomain Prrx1 transcriptional factor as a highly regulated gene in these processes. Prrx1 annotates a subset of pancreatic ductal epithelial cells in Prrx1creERT2-IRES-GFP mice. Furthermore, sorted Prrx1+ cells have the capacity to self-renew and expand during chronic pancreatitis. The two isoforms, Prrx1a and Prrx1b, regulate migration and invasion, respectively, in pancreatic cancer cells. In addition, Prrx1b is enriched in circulating pancreatic cells (Pdx1cre;LSL-KrasG12D/+;p53fl/+;R26YFP). Intriguingly, the Prrx1b isoform, which is also induced in ADM, binds the Sox9 promoter and positively regulates Sox9 expression. This suggests a new hierarchical scheme whereby a Prrx1–Sox9 axis may influence the emergence of acinar–ductal metaplasia and regeneration. Furthermore, our data provide a possible explanation of why pancreatic cancer is skewed toward a ductal fate. PMID:23355395

  15. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Bioactivity Plays a Prosurvival Role in Older Participants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to address the intriguing issue of the role of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 system in longevity looking at the role of different components of IGF system. Vital status was ascertained in 1,197 men and women aged greater than or equal to 65 years from the InCHIANTI study. Hormonal levels were categorized into quartiles, and ratio of IGF-1 to IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-1 was calculated. The relationship between hormones and mortality was tested by Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for age, sex, and confounders. During the 8-year follow-up period, 240 died and 957 survived. Lowest quartiles of IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 were considered as reference. Compared with the lowest quartiles, IGF-1 in upper quartiles was a negative predictor of mortality independent of age and sex (p = .01) but not independent of IGFBP-1 and other confounders. IGFBP-1 in second–third quartiles was negatively associated and that in the fourth quartiles was positively associated with risk of death. IGF-1/IGFBP-1 ratio in the lowest quartiles was a strong positive predictor of mortality, in age- and sex-adjusted model (p = .005), and independent of additional confounders (p = .037). High IGFBP-1 and low IGF-1/IGFBP-1 ratio are associated with all-cause mortality in older population. PMID:23671288

  16. The Guanine-Nucleotide Exchange Factor SGEF Plays a Crucial Role in the Formation of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kroon, Jeffrey; Welch, Christopher; Bakker, Erik N.; Matlung, Hanke L.; van den Berg, Timo K.; Sharek, Lisa; Doerschuk, Claire; Hahn, Klaus; Burridge, Keith

    2013-01-01

    The passage of leukocytes across the endothelium and into arterial walls is a critical step in the development of atherosclerosis. Previously, we showed in vitro that the RhoG guanine nucleotide exchange factor SGEF (Arhgef26) contributes to the formation of ICAM-1-induced endothelial docking structures that facilitate leukocyte transendothelial migration. To further explore the in vivo role of this protein during inflammation, we generated SGEF-deficient mice. When crossed with ApoE null mice and fed a Western diet, mice lacking SGEF showed a significant decrease in the formation of atherosclerosis in multiple aortic areas. A fluorescent biosensor revealed local activation of RhoG around bead-clustered ICAM-1 in mouse aortic endothelial cells. Notably, this activation was decreased in cells from SGEF-deficient aortas compared to wild type. In addition, scanning electron microscopy of intimal surfaces of SGEF?/? mouse aortas revealed reduced docking structures around beads that were coated with ICAM-1 antibody. Similarly, under conditions of flow, these beads adhered less stably to the luminal surface of carotid arteries from SGEF?/? mice. Taken together, these results show for the first time that a Rho-GEF, namely SGEF, contributes to the formation of atherosclerosis by promoting endothelial docking structures and thereby retention of leukocytes at athero-prone sites of inflammation experiencing high shear flow. SGEF may therefore provide a novel therapeutic target for inhibiting the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:23372835

  17. Transcriptional regulation of cell-specific expression of the human cystathionine beta -synthase gene by differential binding of Sp1/Sp3 to the -1b promoter.

    PubMed

    Ge, Y; Matherly, L H; Taub, J W

    2001-11-23

    Cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) catalyzes the condensation of serine and homocysteine to form cystathionine, an intermediate step in the synthesis of cysteine. We previously characterized the CBS -1b minimal promoter (-3792 to -3667) and found that Sp1/Sp3, nuclear factor Y, and USF-1 were involved in the regulation of basal promoter activity (Ge, Y., Konrad, M. A., Matherly, L. H., Taub, J. W. (2001) Biochem. J. 357, 97-105). In this study, the critical cis-elements and transcription factors in the CBS -1b upstream region (-4046 to -3792) were examined in HT1080 and HepG2 cells, which differ approximately 10-fold in levels of CBS transcripts transcribed from the CBS -1b promoter. In DNase I footprint and gel shift analyses and transient transfections of mutant CBS -1b promoter constructs into HT1080 and HepG2 cells, transcriptionally important roles for Sp1/Sp3 binding to three GC boxes and one GT box and for binding of myeloid zinc finger 1-like proteins to two myeloid zinc finger 1 elements were indicated. In gel shift assays, very low levels of Sp1/Sp3 DNA-protein complexes were detected in HT1080 cells compared with HepG2 cells despite comparable levels of nuclear factor Y and USF-1 binding and similar levels of Sp1 and Sp3 proteins on Western blots. Mixing of HT1080 and HepG2 nuclear extracts resulted in no difference in total Sp factor binding in gel shift assays, thus excluding a role for an unknown activator or inhibitor in the disparate Sp1/Sp3 binding between the lines. Increased Sp1/Sp3 binding in gel shift assays was observed upon treatment of HT1080 nuclear extracts with protein kinase A, and decreased Sp1/Sp3 binding resulted from treatment of HepG2 nuclear extracts with calf alkaline phosphatase, suggesting a role for changes in Sp1/Sp3 phosphorylation in transcription factor binding and transactivation of the CBS -1b promoter. Characterization of CBS promoter structure and function should clarify the molecular bases for variations in CBS gene expression in genetic diseases and the relationship between CBS and Down syndrome. PMID:11562358

  18. Genome Sequence of the Microsporidian Species Nematocida sp1 Strain ERTm6 (ATCC PRA-372)

    PubMed Central

    Bakowski, Malina A.; Priest, Margaret; Young, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Microsporidia comprise a phylum of obligate intracellular pathogens related to fungi. Microsporidia Nematocida sp1 strain ERTm6 was isolated from wild-caught Caenorhabditis briggsae and causes a lethal intestinal infection in Caenorhabditis nematodes. We report the genome sequence of N. sp1 ERTm6, which will facilitate study of the Nematocida genus and other Microsporidia. PMID:25237020

  19. ADP Ribosylation Factor 1 Plays an Essential Role in the Replication of a Plant RNA Virus

    PubMed Central

    Hyodo, Kiwamu; Mine, Akira; Taniguchi, Takako; Kaido, Masanori; Mise, Kazuyuki; Taniguchi, Hisaaki

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic positive-strand RNA viruses replicate using the membrane-bound replicase complexes, which contain multiple viral and host components. Virus infection induces the remodeling of intracellular membranes. Virus-induced membrane structures are thought to increase the local concentration of the components that are required for replication and provide a scaffold for tethering the replicase complexes. However, the mechanisms underlying virus-induced membrane remodeling are poorly understood. RNA replication of red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV), a positive-strand RNA plant virus, is associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, and ER morphology is perturbed in RCNMV-infected cells. Here, we identified ADP ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1) in the affinity-purified RCNMV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase fraction. Arf1 is a highly conserved, ubiquitous, small GTPase that is implicated in the formation of the coat protein complex I (COPI) vesicles on Golgi membranes. Using in vitro pulldown and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses, we showed that Arf1 interacted with the viral p27 replication protein within the virus-induced large punctate structures of the ER membrane. We found that inhibition of the nucleotide exchange activity of Arf1 using the inhibitor brefeldin A (BFA) disrupted the assembly of the viral replicase complex and p27-mediated ER remodeling. We also showed that BFA treatment and the expression of dominant negative Arf1 mutants compromised RCNMV RNA replication in protoplasts. Interestingly, the expression of a dominant negative mutant of Sar1, a key regulator of the biogenesis of COPII vesicles at ER exit sites, also compromised RCNMV RNA replication. These results suggest that the replication of RCNMV depends on the host membrane traffic machinery. PMID:23097452

  20. Cyclin A regulates a cell-cycle-dependent expression of CKAP2 through phosphorylation of Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Du-Seock; Hong, Kyeong-Man; Park, Joobae; Bae, Chang-Dae

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identified a GC box and a CHR element in human CKAP2 minimal promoter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CHR element repressed the CKAP2 minimal promoter activity at the G1/S phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The GC box was essential for the basic promoter activity of human CKAP2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The GC box was also essential for the cyclic expression of human CKAP2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phosphorylation of Sp1, mediated by Cyclin A, underlies the cyclic expression. -- Abstract: CKAP2 plays crucial roles in proper chromosome segregation and maintaining genomic stability. CKAP2 protein showed cell-cycle-dependent expression, which reached a maximum level at the G2/M phase and disappeared at the onset of G1 phase. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying cell cycle-dependent expression of CKAP2, we cloned and analyzed the human CKAP2 promoter. The upstream 115-bp region from the transcription start site was sufficient for minimal CKAP2 promoter activity. We identified 2 regulatory sequences; a CHR (-110 to -104 bp) and a GC box (-41 to -32 bp). We confirmed Sp1 bound to the GC box using a supershift assay and a ChIP assay. Mutation in the GC box resulted in a near complete loss of CKAP2 promoter activity while mutation in the CHR decreased the promoter activity by 50%. The CHR mutation showed enhanced activity at the G1/S phase, but still retained cyclic activity. The Chromatin IP revealed that the amount of Sp1 bound to the GC box gradually increased and reached a maximum level at the G2/M phase. The amount of Sp1 bound to the GC box was greatly reduced when Cyclin A was depleted, which was restored by adding Cyclin A/Cdk2 complex back into the nuclear extracts. Together, we concluded that the GC box was responsible for the cyclic activity of human CKAP2 promoter through the phosphorylation of Sp1, possibly by Cyclin A/Cdk complex.

  1. PP2A inhibitors arrest G2/M transition through JNK/Sp1-dependent down-regulation of CDK1 and autophagy-dependent up-regulation of p21

    PubMed Central

    Zhi, Qiaoming; Xu, Ze-Kuan; Wang, Rong; Wang, Wen-Jie; Zong, Yang; Li, Zeng-Liang; Wu, Yadi; Zhou, Binhua P.; Chen, Kai; Tao, Min; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) plays an important role in the control of the cell cycle. We previously reported that the PP2A inhibitors, cantharidin and okadaic acid (OA), efficiently repressed the growth of cancer cells. In the present study, we found that PP2A inhibitors arrested the cell cycle at the G2 phase through a mechanism that was dependent on the JNK pathway. Microarrays further showed that PP2A inhibitors induced expression changes in multiple genes that participate in cell cycle transition. To verify whether these expression changes were executed in a PP2A-dependent manner, we targeted the PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac) using siRNA and evaluated gene expression with a microarray. After the cross comparison of these microarray data, we identified that CDK1 was potentially the same target when treated with either PP2A inhibitors or PP2Ac siRNA. In addition, we found that the down-regulation of CDK1 occurred in a JNK-dependent manner. Luciferase reporter gene assays demonstrated that repression of the transcription of CDK1 was executed through the JNK-dependent activation of the Sp1 transcription factor. By constructing deletion mutants of the CDK1 promoter and by using ChIP assays, we identified an element in the CDK1 promoter that responded to the JNK/Sp1 pathway after stimulation with PP2A inhibitors. Cantharidin and OA also up-regulated the expression of p21, an inhibitor of CDK1, via autophagy rather than PP2A/JNK pathway. Thus, this present study found that the PP2A/JNK/Sp1/CDK1 pathway and the autophagy/p21 pathway participated in G2/M cell cycle arrest triggered by PP2A inhibitors. PMID:26053095

  2. Membrane Chaperone SecDF Plays a Role in the Secretion of Listeria monocytogenes Major Virulence Factors

    PubMed Central

    Burg-Golani, Tamar; Pozniak, Yair; Rabinovich, Lev; Sigal, Nadejda; Nir Paz, Ran

    2013-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive human intracellular pathogen that infects diverse mammalian cells. Upon invasion, L. monocytogenes secretes multiple virulence factors that target host cellular processes and promote infection. It has been presumed, but was not empirically established, that the Sec translocation system is the primary mediator of this secretion. Here, we validate an important role for SecDF, a component of the Sec system, in the secretion of several critical L. monocytogenes virulence factors. A ΔsecDF mutant is demonstrated to exhibit impaired membrane translocation of listeriolysin O (LLO), PlcA, PlcB, and ActA, factors that mediate L. monocytogenes phagosomal escape and spread from cell to cell. This impaired translocation was monitored by accumulation of the factors on the bacterial membrane and by reduced activity upon secretion. This defect in secretion is shown to be associated with a severe intracellular growth defect of the ΔsecDF mutant in macrophages and a less virulent phenotype in mice, despite normal growth in laboratory medium. We further show that SecDF is upregulated when the bacteria reside in macrophage phagosomes and that it is necessary for efficient phagosomal escape. Taken together, these data support the premise that SecDF plays a role as a chaperone that facilitates the translocation of L. monocytogenes virulence factors during infection. PMID:24056100

  3. ?-Tocopheryl succinate and derivatives mediate the transcriptional repression of androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells by targeting the PP2A-JNK-Sp1-signaling axis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Po-Hsien; Wang, Dasheng; Chuang, Hsiao-Ching; Wei, Shuo; Kulp, Samuel K.; Chen, Ching-Shih

    2009-01-01

    As part of our effort to understand the mechanism underlying ?-tocopheryl succinate [vitamin E succinate (VES)]-mediated antitumor effects, we investigated the signaling pathway by which VES suppresses androgen receptor (AR) expression in prostate cancer cells. VES and, to a greater extent, its truncated derivative TS-1 mediated transcriptional repression of AR in prostate cancer cells but not in normal prostate epithelial cells; a finding that underscores the differential susceptibility of normal versus malignant cells to the antiproliferative effect of these agents. This AR repression was attributable to the ability of VES and TS-1 to facilitate the proteasomal degradation of the transcription factor Sp1. This mechanistic link was corroborated by the finding that proteasome inhibitors or ectopic expression of Sp1 protected cells against drug-induced AR ablation. Furthermore, evidence suggests that the destabilization of Sp1 by VES and TS-1 resulted from the inactivation of Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) as a consequence of increased phosphatase activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Stable transfection of LNCaP cells with the dominant-negative JNK1 plasmid mimicked drug-induced Sp1 repression, whereas constitutive activation of JNK kinase activity or inhibition of PP2A activity by okadaic acid protected Sp1 from VES- and TS-1-induced degradation. From a mechanistic perspective, the ability of VES and TS-1 to activate PP2A activity underscores their broad spectrum of effects on multiple signaling mechanisms, including those mediated by Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear factor kappaB, Sp1 and AR. This pleiotropic effect in conjunction with low toxicity suggests the translational potential for developing TS-1 into potent PP2A-activating agents for cancer therapy. PMID:19420015

  4. Hesperidin Induces Apoptosis by Inhibiting Sp1 and Its Regulatory Protein in MSTO-211H Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung-Ae; Lee, Sang-Han; Lee, Yong-Jin; Baeg, Seung Mi; Shim, Jung-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Hesperidin, a flavanone present in citrus fruits, has been studied as potential therapeutic agents that have anti-tumor activity and apoptotic effects in several cancers, but there is no report about the apoptotic effect of hesperidin in human malignant pleural mesothelioma through the specificity protein 1 (Sp1) protein. We investigated whether hesperidin inhibited cell growth and regulated Sp1 target proteins by suppressing the levels of Sp1 protein in MSTO-211H cells. The IC50 value of hesperidin was determined to be 152.3 ?M in MSTO-211H cells for 48 h. Our results suggested that hesperidin (0-160 ?M) decreased cell viability, and induced apoptotic cell death. Hesperidin increased Sub-G1 population in MSTO-211H cells. Hesperidin significantly suppressed mRNA/protein level of Sp1 and modulated the expression level of the Sp1 regulatory protein such as p27, p21, cyclin D1, Mcl-1, and survivin in mesothelioma cells. Also, hesperidin induced apoptotic signaling including: cleavages of Bid, caspase-3, and PARP, upregulation of Bax, and down-regulation of Bcl-xl in mesothelioma cells. These results show that hesperidin suppressed mesothelioma cell growth through inhibition of Sp1. In this study, we demonstrated that Sp1 acts as a novel molecular target of hesperidin in human malignant pleural mesothelioma. PMID:24130923

  5. Scaffolding, Analysis and Materials: Contributing Factors in an Unexpected Finding of Advanced Infant/Toddler Pretend Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    As part of a longitudinal study, infant/toddler pretend play development and maternal play modelling were investigated in dyadic context. A total of 21 children were videotaped in monthly play sessions with their mothers, from age 8 to 17 months. Child and mother pretend play frequencies and levels were measured using Brown's Pretend Play

  6. miR-23b/SP1/c-myc forms a feed-forward loop supporting multiple myeloma cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Fulciniti, M; Amodio, N; Bandi, R L; Cagnetta, A; Samur, M K; Acharya, C; Prabhala, R; D'Aquila, P; Bellizzi, D; Passarino, G; Adamia, S; Neri, A; Hunter, Z R; Treon, S P; Anderson, K C; Tassone, P; Munshi, N C

    2016-01-01

    Deregulated microRNA (miR)/transcription factor (TF)-based networks represent a hallmark of cancer. We report here a novel c-Myc/miR-23b/Sp1 feed-forward loop with a critical role in multiple myeloma (MM) and Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM) cell growth and survival. We have found miR-23b to be downregulated in MM and WM cells especially in the presence of components of the tumor bone marrow milieu. Promoter methylation is one mechanism of miR-23b suppression in myeloma. In gain-of-function studies using miR-23b mimics-transfected or in miR-23b-stably expressing MM and WM cell lines, we observed a significant decrease in cell proliferation and survival, along with induction of caspase-3/7 activity over time, thus supporting a tumor suppressor role for miR-23b. At the molecular level, miR-23b targeted Sp1 3′UTR and significantly reduced Sp1-driven nuclear factor-κB activity. Finally, c-Myc, an important oncogenic transcription factor known to stimulate MM cell proliferation, transcriptionally repressed miR-23b. Thus MYC-dependent miR-23b repression in myeloma cells may promote activation of oncogenic Sp1-mediated signaling, representing the first feed-forward loop with critical growth and survival role in myeloma. PMID:26771806

  7. miR-23b/SP1/c-myc forms a feed-forward loop supporting multiple myeloma cell growth.

    PubMed

    Fulciniti, M; Amodio, N; Bandi, R L; Cagnetta, A; Samur, M K; Acharya, C; Prabhala, R; D'Aquila, P; Bellizzi, D; Passarino, G; Adamia, S; Neri, A; Hunter, Z R; Treon, S P; Anderson, K C; Tassone, P; Munshi, N C

    2016-01-01

    Deregulated microRNA (miR)/transcription factor (TF)-based networks represent a hallmark of cancer. We report here a novel c-Myc/miR-23b/Sp1 feed-forward loop with a critical role in multiple myeloma (MM) and Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM) cell growth and survival. We have found miR-23b to be downregulated in MM and WM cells especially in the presence of components of the tumor bone marrow milieu. Promoter methylation is one mechanism of miR-23b suppression in myeloma. In gain-of-function studies using miR-23b mimics-transfected or in miR-23b-stably expressing MM and WM cell lines, we observed a significant decrease in cell proliferation and survival, along with induction of caspase-3/7 activity over time, thus supporting a tumor suppressor role for miR-23b. At the molecular level, miR-23b targeted Sp1 3'UTR and significantly reduced Sp1-driven nuclear factor-?B activity. Finally, c-Myc, an important oncogenic transcription factor known to stimulate MM cell proliferation, transcriptionally repressed miR-23b. Thus MYC-dependent miR-23b repression in myeloma cells may promote activation of oncogenic Sp1-mediated signaling, representing the first feed-forward loop with critical growth and survival role in myeloma. PMID:26771806

  8. A formal anthropological view of motivation models of problematic MMO play: achievement, social, and immersion factors in the context of culture.

    PubMed

    Snodgrass, Jeffrey G; Dengah, H J Francois; Lacy, Michael G; Fagan, Jesse

    2013-04-01

    Yee (2006) found three motivational factors-achievement, social, and immersion-underlying play in massively multiplayer online role-playing games ("MMORPGs" or "MMOs" for short). Subsequent work has suggested that these factors foster problematic or addictive forms of play in online worlds. In the current study, we used an online survey of respondents (N?=?252), constructed and also interpreted in reference to ethnography and interviews, to examine problematic play in the World of Warcraft (WoW; Blizzard Entertainment, 2004-2013). We relied on tools from psychological anthropology to reconceptualize each of Yee's three motivational factors in order to test for the possible role of culture in problematic MMO play: (a) For achievement, we examined how "cultural consonance" with normative understandings of success might structure problematic forms of play; (b) for social, we analyzed the possibility that developing overvalued virtual relationships that are cutoff from offline social interactions might further exacerbate problematic play; and (c) in relation to immersion, we examined how "dissociative" blurring of actual- and virtual-world identities and experiences might contribute to problematic patterns. Our results confirmed that compared to Yee's original motivational factors, these culturally sensitive measures better predict problematic forms of play, pointing to the important role of sociocultural factors in structuring online play. PMID:23690445

  9. An Active Factor from Tomato Root Exudates Plays an Important Role in Efficient Establishment of Mycorrhizal Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shubin; Wang, Jingjing; Zhu, Lingling; Liao, Dehua; Gu, Mian; Ren, Lixuan; Kapulnik, Yoram; Xu, Guohua

    2012-01-01

    Root exudates play an important role in the early signal exchange between host plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. M161, a pre-mycorrhizal infection (pmi) mutant of the tomoto (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivar Micro-Tom, fails to establish normal arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses, and produces exudates that are unable to stimulate hyphal growth and branching of Glomus intraradices. Here, we report the identification of a purified active factor (AF) that is present in the root exudates of wild-type tomato, but absent in those of M161. A complementation assay using the dual root organ culture system showed that the AF could induce fungal growth and branching at the pre-infection stage and, subsequently, the formation of viable new spores in the M161 background. Since the AF-mediated stimulation of hyphal growth and branching requires the presence of the M161 root, our data suggest that the AF is essential but not sufficient for hyphal growth and branching. We propose that the AF, which remains to be chemically determined, represents a plant signal molecule that plays an important role in the efficient establishment of mycorrhizal symbioses. PMID:22927963

  10. Diterpenoid phytoalexin factor, a bHLH transcription factor, plays a central role in the biosynthesis of diterpenoid phytoalexins in rice.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Chihiro; Mizutani, Emi; Okada, Kazunori; Nakagawa, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Setsuko; Tanaka, Atsunori; Maeda, Satoru; Kamakura, Takashi; Yamane, Hisakazu; Takatsuji, Hiroshi; Mori, Masaki

    2015-12-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) produces diterpenoid phytoalexins (DPs), momilactones and phytocassanes as major phytoalexins. Accumulation of DPs is induced in rice by blast fungus infection, copper chloride or UV light. Here, we describe a rice transcription factor named diterpenoid phytoalexin factor (DPF), which is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor. The gene encoding DPF is expressed mainly in roots and panicles, and is inducible in leaves by blast infection, copper chloride or UV. Expression of all DP biosynthetic genes and accumulation of momilactones and phytocassanes were remarkably increased and decreased in DPF over-expressing and DPF knockdown rice, respectively. These results clearly demonstrated that DPF positively regulates DP accumulation via transcriptional regulation of DP biosynthetic genes, and plays a central role in the biosynthesis of DPs in rice. Furthermore, DPF activated the promoters of COPALYL DIPHOSPHATE SYNTHASE2 (CPS2) and CYTOCHROME P450 MONOOXYGENASE 99A2 (CYP99A2), whose products are implicated in the biosynthesis of phytocassanes and momilactones, respectively. Mutations in the N-boxes in the CPS2 upstream region, to which several animal bHLH transcription factors bind, decreased CPS2 transcription, indicating that DPF positively regulates CPS2 transcription through the N-boxes. In addition, DPF partly regulates CYP99A2 through the N-box. This study demonstrates that DPF acts as a master transcription factor in DP biosynthesis. PMID:26506081

  11. The p65 subunit of NF-κB inhibits COL1A1 gene transcription in human dermal and scleroderma fibroblasts through its recruitment on promoter by protein interaction with transcriptional activators (c-Krox, Sp1, and Sp3).

    PubMed

    Beauchef, Gallic; Bigot, Nicolas; Kypriotou, Magdalini; Renard, Emmanuelle; Porée, Benoît; Widom, Russell; Dompmartin-Blanchere, Anne; Oddos, Thierry; Maquart, François-Xavier; Demoor, Magali; Boumediene, Karim; Galera, Philippe

    2012-01-27

    Transcriptional mechanisms regulating type I collagen genes expression in physiopathological situations are not completely known. In this study, we have investigated the role of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcription factor on type I collagen expression in adult normal human (ANF) and scleroderma (SF) fibroblasts. We demonstrated that NF-κB, a master transcription factor playing a major role in immune response/apoptosis, down-regulates COL1A1 expression by a transcriptional control involving the -112/-61 bp sequence. This 51-bp region mediates the action of two zinc fingers, Sp1 (specific protein-1) and Sp3, acting as trans-activators of type I collagen expression in ANF and SF. Knockdown of each one of these trans factors by siRNA confirmed the trans-activating effect of Sp1/Sp3 and the p65 subunit of NF-κB trans-inhibiting effect on COL1A1 expression. Despite no existing κB consensus sequence in the COL1A1 promoter, we found that Sp1/Sp3/c-Krox and NF-κB bind and/or are recruited on the proximal promoter in chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. Attempts to elucidate whether interactions between Sp1/Sp3/c-Krox and p65 are necessary to mediate the NF-κB inhibitory effect on COL1A1 in ANF and SF were carried out; in this regard, immunoprecipitation assays revealed that they interact, and this was validated by re-ChIP. Finally, the knockdown of Sp1/Sp3/c-Krox prevents the p65 inhibitory effect on COL1A1 transcription in ANF, whereas only the siRNAs targeting Sp3 and c-Krox provoked the same effect in SF, suggesting that particular interactions are characteristic of the scleroderma phenotype. In conclusion, our findings highlight a new mechanism for COL1A1 transcriptional regulation by NF-κB, and these data could allow the development of new antifibrotic strategies. PMID:22139845

  12. Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors and metformin regulate expression of the long non-coding RNA HULC.

    PubMed

    Gandhy, Shruti U; Imanirad, Parisa; Jin, Un-Ho; Nair, Vijayalekshmi; Hedrick, Eric; Cheng, Yating; Corton, J Christopher; Kim, KyoungHyun; Safe, Stephen

    2015-09-22

    Specificity protein 1 (Sp1) transcription factor (TF) regulates expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. RNA interference (RNAi) studies showed that among several lncRNAs expressed in HepG2, SNU-449 and SK-Hep-1 cells, highly upregulated in liver cancer (HULC) was regulated not only by Sp1 but also Sp3 and Sp4 in the three cell lines. Knockdown of Sp transcription factors and HULC by RNAi showed that they play important roles in HCC cell proliferation, survival and migration. The relative contribution of Sp1, Sp3, Sp4 and HULC on these responses in HepG2, SNU-449 and SK-Hep-1 cells were cell context- and response-dependent. In the poorly differentiated SK-Hep-1 cells, knockdown of Sp1 or HULC resulted in genomic and morphological changes, indicating that Sp1 and Sp1-regulated HULC are important for maintaining the mesenchymal phenotype in this cell line. Genomic analysis showed an inverse correlation between expression of genes after knockdown of HULC and expression of those genes in liver tumors from patients. The antidiabetic drug metformin down-regulates Sp proteins in pancreatic cancer, and similar results including decreased HULC expression were observed in HepG2, SNU-449 and SK-Hep-1 cells treated with metformin, indicating that metformin and other antineoplastic agents that target Sp proteins may have clinical applications for HCC chemotherapy. PMID:26317792

  13. Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors and metformin regulate expression of the long non-coding RNA HULC

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yating; Corton, J. Christopher; Kim, KyoungHyun; Safe, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Specificity protein 1 (Sp1) transcription factor (TF) regulates expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. RNA interference (RNAi) studies showed that among several lncRNAs expressed in HepG2, SNU-449 and SK-Hep-1 cells, highly upregulated in liver cancer (HULC) was regulated not only by Sp1 but also Sp3 and Sp4 in the three cell lines. Knockdown of Sp transcription factors and HULC by RNAi showed that they play important roles in HCC cell proliferation, survival and migration. The relative contribution of Sp1, Sp3, Sp4 and HULC on these responses in HepG2, SNU-449 and SK-Hep-1 cells were cell context- and response-dependent. In the poorly differentiated SK-Hep-1 cells, knockdown of Sp1 or HULC resulted in genomic and morphological changes, indicating that Sp1 and Sp1-regulated HULC are important for maintaining the mesenchymal phenotype in this cell line. Genomic analysis showed an inverse correlation between expression of genes after knockdown of HULC and expression of those genes in liver tumors from patients. The antidiabetic drug metformin down-regulates Sp proteins in pancreatic cancer, and similar results including decreased HULC expression were observed in HepG2, SNU-449 and SK-Hep-1 cells treated with metformin, indicating that metformin and other antineoplastic agents that target Sp proteins may have clinical applications for HCC chemotherapy. PMID:26317792

  14. Sp1 cooperates with Sp3 to upregulate MALAT1 expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ziling; Huang, Lanshan; Shen, Siqiao; Li, Jia; Lu, Huiping; Mo, Weijia; Dang, Yiwu; Luo, Dianzhong; Chen, Gang; Feng, Zhenbo

    2015-11-01

    Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), also known as nuclear-enriched transcript 2 (NEAT2), is highly conserved among mammals and highly expressed in the nucleus. It was first identified in lung cancer as a prognostic marker for metastasis but is also associated with several other solid tumors. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), MALAT1 is a novel biomarker for predicting tumor recurrence after liver transplantation. The mechanism of overexpression in tumor progression remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of specificity protein 1/3 (Sp1/3) in regulation of MALAT1 transcription in HCC cells. The results showed a high expression of Sp1, Sp3 and MALAT1 in HCC vs. paired non-tumor liver tissues, which was associated with the AFP level (Sp1, r=7.44, P=0.0064; MALAT1, r=12.37, P=0.0004). Co-silencing of Sp1 and Sp3 synergistically repressed MALAT1 expression. Sp1 binding inhibitor, mithramycin A (MIT), also inhibited MALAT1 expression in HCC cells. In conclusion, the upstream of MALAT1 contains five Sp1/3 binding sites, which may be responsible for MALAT1 transcription. Inhibitors, such as MIT, provide a potential therapeutic strategy for HCC patients with MALAT1 overexpression. PMID:26352013

  15. An interaction between the DNA-binding domains of RelA(p65) and Sp1 mediates human immunodeficiency virus gene activation.

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, N D; Agranoff, A B; Pascal, E; Nabel, G J

    1994-01-01

    Induction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gene expression in stimulated T cells has been attributed to the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B. The twice-repeated kappa B sites within the HIV-1 long terminal repeat are in close proximity to three binding sites for Sp1. We have previously shown that a cooperative interaction of NF-kappa B with Sp1 is required for the efficient stimulation of HIV-1 transcription. In this report, we define the domains of each protein responsible for this effect. Although the transactivation domains seemed likely to mediate this interaction, we find, surprisingly, that this interaction occurs through the putative DNA-binding domains of both proteins. Sp1 specifically interacted with the amino-terminal region of RelA(p65). Similarly, RelA bound directly to the zinc finger region of Sp1. This interaction was specific and resulted in cooperative DNA binding to the kappa B and Sp1 sites in the HIV-1 long terminal repeat. Furthermore, the amino-terminal region of RelA did not associate with several other transcription factors, including MyoD, E12, or Kox15, another zinc finger protein. These findings suggest that the juxtaposition of DNA-binding sites promotes a specific protein interaction between the DNA-binding regions of these transcription factors. This interaction is required for HIV transcriptional activation and may provide a mechanism to allow for selective activation of kappa B-regulated genes. Images PMID:7935378

  16. Derivatives of Moloney murine sarcoma virus capable of being transcribed in embryonal carcinoma stem cells have gained a functional Sp1 binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Prince, V E; Rigby, P W

    1991-01-01

    The long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences of Moloney murine leukemia virus and its closely related derivative Moloney murine sarcoma virus (Mo-MSV) are incapable of directing transcription in embryonal carcinoma (EC) stem cells. The myeloproliferative sarcoma virus, a derivative of Mo-MSV, has several point mutations in the LTR and is transcribed more efficiently to allow productive infection of F9 EC cells. One of these mutations, at -166 with respect to the transcriptional start, creates a consensus binding site for the well-characterized mammalian transcription factor Sp1. We used gel retardation assays to demonstrate that F9 EC cell extracts form several complexes with the myeloproliferative sarcoma virus sequence around -166. One of these complexes involves a murine Sp1-like protein, which has immunoreactivity, DNA binding specificity, and electrophoretic mobility equivalent to those of purified human Sp1 protein. An equivalent complex forms on the corresponding Mo-MSV sequence but with a fivefold-lower affinity. Consistent with these observations, introduction of the single point mutation at -166 into the Mo-MSV LTR, creating a consensus Sp1 binding site, increases expression in F9 EC cells sixfold. Images PMID:1848307

  17. Endothelin-1 stimulates cyclin D1 expression in rat cultured astrocytes via activation of Sp1.

    PubMed

    Michinaga, Shotaro; Ishida, Ayaka; Takeuchi, Risa; Koyama, Yutaka

    2013-07-01

    Endothelins (ETs), a family of vasoconstrictor peptides, are up-regulated in several pathological conditions in the brain, and induce astrocytic proliferation. We previously observed that ET-1 increased the expression of cyclin D1 protein. Thus, we confirmed the intracellular up-regulation of cyclin D1 by ET-1 in rat cultured astrocytes. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that ET-1 (100 nM) and Ala(1,3,11,15)-ET-1 (100 nM), a selective agonist of the ETB receptor, induced a time-dependent and transient increase in cyclin D1 mRNA. The effect of ET-1 was diminished by an ETB antagonist (1 μM BQ788) or inhibitors of Sp1 (500 nM mithramycin), ERK (50 μM PD98059), p38 (20 μM SB203580) and JNK (1 μM SP600125), but not inhibitors of NF-κB (10 μM SN50 and 100 μM pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate). The binding assay for Sp1 indicated that ET-1 increased the binding activity of Sp1 to consensus sequences, and two oligonucleotides of the cyclin D1 promoter including the Sp1-binding sites diminished the effect of ET-1. Western blot analysis showed that ET-1 induced time-dependent and transient phosphorylation of Sp1 on Thr453 and Thr739 via the ETB receptor. ET-1-induced phosphorylation of Sp1 was attenuated by PD98059 and SP600125. Additionally, ET-1 increased the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) in cultured astrocytes and the number of BrdU-positive cells decreased in the presence of PD98059, SP600125 and mithramycin. These results suggest that ET-1 increases the expression of cyclin D1 via activation of Sp1 and induces astrocytic proliferation. PMID:23619396

  18. Epidermal growth factor receptor plays a role in the regulation of liver and plasma lipid levels in adult male mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiuqi; Garcia, Oscar A.; Wang, Rebecca F.; Stevenson, Mary C.; Threadgill, David W.; Russell, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Dsk5 mice have a gain of function in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), caused by a point mutation in the kinase domain. We analyzed the effect of this mutation on liver size, histology, and composition. We found that the livers of 12-wk-old male Dsk5 heterozygotes (+/Dsk5) were 62% heavier compared with those of wild-type controls (+/+). The livers of the +/Dsk5 mice compared with +/+ mice had larger hepatocytes with prominent, polyploid nuclei and showed modestly increased cell proliferation indices in both hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells. An analysis of total protein, DNA, and RNA (expressed relative to liver weight) revealed no differences between the mutant and wild-type mice. However, the livers of the +/Dsk5 mice had more cholesterol but less phospholipid and fatty acid. Circulating cholesterol levels were twice as high in adult male +/Dsk5 mice but not in postweaned young male or female mice. The elevated total plasma cholesterol resulted mainly from an increase in low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The +/Dsk5 adult mouse liver expressed markedly reduced protein levels of LDL receptor, no change in proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, and a markedly increased fatty acid synthase and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase. Increased expression of transcription factors associated with enhanced cholesterol synthesis was also observed. Together, these findings suggest that the EGFR may play a regulatory role in hepatocyte proliferation and lipid metabolism in adult male mice, explaining why elevated levels of EGF or EGF-like peptides have been positively correlated to increased cholesterol levels in human studies. PMID:24407590

  19. Osteoblast Lineage Cells Play an Essential Role in Periodontal Bone Loss Through Activation of Nuclear Factor-Kappa B

    PubMed Central

    Pacios, Sandra; Xiao, Wenmei; Mattos, Marcelo; Lim, Jason; Tarapore, Rohinton S.; Alsadun, Sarah; Yu, Bo; Wang, Cun-Yu; Graves, Dana T.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens stimulate periodontitis, the most common osteolytic disease in humans and the most common cause of tooth loss in adults. Previous studies identified leukocytes and their products as key factors in this process. We demonstrate for the first time that osteoblast lineage cells play a critical role in periodontal disease. Oral infection stimulated nuclear localization of NF-κB in osteoblasts and osteocytes in the periodontium of wild type but not transgenic mice that expressed a lineage specific dominant negative mutant of IKK (IKK-DN) in osteoblast lineage cells. Wild-type mice were also susceptible to bacteria induced periodontal bone loss but transgenic mice were not. The lack of bone loss in the experimental group was linked to reduced RANKL expression by osteoblast lineage cells that led to diminished osteoclast mediated bone resorption and greater coupled new bone formation. The results demonstrate that osteoblast lineage cells are key contributors to periodontal bone loss through an NF-κB mediated mechanism. PMID:26666569

  20. ALK5 and ALK1 Play Antagonistic Roles in Transforming Growth Factor ?-Induced Podosome Formation in Aortic Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Curado, Filipa; Spuul, Pirjo; Egaa, Isabel; Rottiers, Patricia; Daubon, Thomas; Veillat, Vronique; Duhamel, Paul; Leclercq, Anne; Gontier, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    Transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) and related cytokines play a central role in the vascular system. In vitro, TGF-? induces aortic endothelial cells to assemble subcellular actin-rich structures specialized for matrix degradation called podosomes. To explore further this TGF-?-specific response and determine in which context podosomes form, ALK5 and ALK1 TGF-? receptor signaling pathways were investigated in bovine aortic endothelial cells. We report that TGF-? drives podosome formation through ALK5 and the downstream effectors Smad2 and Smad3. Concurrent TGF-?-induced ALK1 signaling mitigates ALK5 responses through Smad1. ALK1 signaling induced by BMP9 also antagonizes TGF-?-induced podosome formation, but this occurs through both Smad1 and Smad5. Whereas ALK1 neutralization brings ALK5 signals to full potency for TGF-?-induced podosome formation, ALK1 depletion leads to cell disturbances not compatible with podosome assembly. Thus, ALK1 possesses passive and active modalities. Altogether, our results reveal specific features of ALK1 and ALK5 signaling with potential clinical implications. PMID:25266657

  1. Osteoblast Lineage Cells Play an Essential Role in Periodontal Bone Loss Through Activation of Nuclear Factor-Kappa B.

    PubMed

    Pacios, Sandra; Xiao, Wenmei; Mattos, Marcelo; Lim, Jason; Tarapore, Rohinton S; Alsadun, Sarah; Yu, Bo; Wang, Cun-Yu; Graves, Dana T

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens stimulate periodontitis, the most common osteolytic disease in humans and the most common cause of tooth loss in adults. Previous studies identified leukocytes and their products as key factors in this process. We demonstrate for the first time that osteoblast lineage cells play a critical role in periodontal disease. Oral infection stimulated nuclear localization of NF-?B in osteoblasts and osteocytes in the periodontium of wild type but not transgenic mice that expressed a lineage specific dominant negative mutant of IKK (IKK-DN) in osteoblast lineage cells. Wild-type mice were also susceptible to bacteria induced periodontal bone loss but transgenic mice were not. The lack of bone loss in the experimental group was linked to reduced RANKL expression by osteoblast lineage cells that led to diminished osteoclast mediated bone resorption and greater coupled new bone formation. The results demonstrate that osteoblast lineage cells are key contributors to periodontal bone loss through an NF-?B mediated mechanism. PMID:26666569

  2. Activation of PPAR{gamma} negatively regulates O-GlcNAcylation of Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Sung Soo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Ho Seon; Choi, Hye Hun; Lee, Kyeong Won; Cho, Young Min; Lee, Hong Kyu; Park, Kyong Soo

    2008-08-08

    O-GlcNAcylation is a kind of post-translational modification and many nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins are O-GlcNAcylated. In this study, we demonstrated that thiazolidinediones (TZDs), which are used as insulin sensitizer, specifically inhibited the O-GlcNAcylation of Sp1 but did not affect the O-GlcNAcylation of the total proteins in cell culture systems and mouse models. This effect was mediated by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) activation and probably by synthesis of a specific protein induced by PPAR{gamma} activation. In addition, we demonstrated that the O-GlcNAcylation sites in the zinc-finger domain were involved in the transcriptional activation of Sp1 and that rosiglitazone, a member of TZDs, affected Sp1 transcriptional activity partially by regulating the O-GlcNAcylation level of these sites. Considering the role of hexosamine biosynthesis pathway in hyperglycemia-induced insulin resistance and Sp1 in the hyperglycemia-induced gene expression, the regulation of Sp1 O-GlcNAcylation by TZDs may help to explain the function of TZDs as a treatment for insulin resistance and diabetes.

  3. A regulatory loop involving miR-22, Sp1, and c-Myc modulates CD147 expression in breast cancer invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ling-Min; Liao, Cheng-Gong; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Jing; Li, Yu; Huang, Wan; Zhang, Yi; Bian, Huijie; Chen, Zhi-Nan

    2014-07-15

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women for which the metastatic process is still poorly understood. CD147 is upregulated in breast cancer and has been associated with tumor progression, but little is known about its regulatory mechanisms. In this study, we demonstrated that CD147 was overexpressed in breast cancer tissues and cell lines, and the high expression correlated with tumor invasion and metastasis. We also found that the transcription factors Sp1 and c-Myc could bind to the CD147 promoter and enhance its expression. The CD147 mRNA has a 748-bp 3'-untranslated region (UTR) with many miRNA target sites, suggesting possible regulation by miRNAs. We discovered that miR-22 repressed CD147 expression by directly targeting the CD147 3'UTR. We also determined that miR-22 could indirectly participate in CD147 modulation by downregulating Sp1 expression. miR-22 could form an autoregulatory loop with Sp1, which repressed miR-22 transcription by binding to the miR-22 promoter. Together with the c-Myc-mediated inhibition of miR-22 expression, our investigation identified a miR-22/Sp1/c-Myc network that regulates CD147 gene transcription. In addition, miR-22 overexpression suppressed breast cancer cell invasion, metastasis, and proliferation by targeting CD147 in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we found that miR-22 was significantly downregulated in breast cancer tissues and that its expression was inversely correlated with the tumor-node-metastasis stage and lymphatic metastasis in patients. Our study provides the first evidence that an miR-22/Sp1/c-Myc network regulates CD147 upregulation in breast cancer and that miR-22 represses breast cancer invasive and metastatic capacities. PMID:24906624

  4. Playful Gaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makedon, Alexander

    A philosophical analysis of play and games is undertaken in this paper. Playful gaming, which is shown to be a synthesis of play and games, is utilized as a category for undertaking the examination of play and games. The significance of playful gaming to education is demonstrated through analyses of Plato's, Dewey's, Sartre's, and Marcuse's

  5. New Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lersten, Kenneth C.

    There have been many theories and hypotheses about play, one of which is the equation of play with "transcendence." Play may have the ingredients to allow us to transcend and, for a moment, remythologize life. There have been recent authors who have given play the status of theology, indicating that play contains elements also found in religion.…

  6. Sp1-driven up-regulation of miR-19a decreases RHOB and promotes pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yonggang; Yin, Hongzhuan; Zhang, Heying; Fang, Jun; Zheng, Wei; Li, Dan; Li, Yue; Cao, Wei; Sun, Cheng; Liang, Yusi; Zeng, Juan; Zou, Huawei; Fu, Weineng; Yang, Xianghong

    2015-01-01

    Cancer treatment alters microRNA (miRNA) expression, revealing potential therapeutic targets (oncotarget). Here we treated pancreatic cancer (ASPC-1) cells with either recombinant human endostatin (rh-endostatin) or gemcitabine. Then high-throughput sequencing assay was performed to screen for altered miRNAs. Both treatments decreased levels of MiR-19a. We found that miR-19a stimulated cell proliferation, migration, invasion in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. High levels of miR-19a correlated with poor prognosis in patients. Ras homolog family member B (RHOB) was identified as a direct target of miR-19a. Furthermore, RHOB was down-regulated in human pancreatic cancer samples. Restoration of RHOB induced apoptosis, inhibited proliferation and migration of ASPC-1 cells. SP-1 was identified as an upstream transcription factor of miR-19a gene, promoting miR-19a transcription. Rh-endostatin decreased miR-19a expression by down-regulating SP-1. These findings suggest that miR-19a is a potential therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer. PMID:26041879

  7. Does Performance in Digital Reading Relate to Computer Game Playing? A Study of Factor Structure and Gender Patterns in 15-Year-Olds' Reading Literacy Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmusson, Maria; berg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    Data from a Swedish PISA-sample were used (1) to identify a digital reading factor, (2) to investigate gender differences in this factor (if found), and (3) to explore how computer game playing might relate to digital reading performance and gender. The analyses were conducted with structural equation modeling techniques. In addition to an overall

  8. Does Performance in Digital Reading Relate to Computer Game Playing? A Study of Factor Structure and Gender Patterns in 15-Year-Olds' Reading Literacy Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmusson, Maria; Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    Data from a Swedish PISA-sample were used (1) to identify a digital reading factor, (2) to investigate gender differences in this factor (if found), and (3) to explore how computer game playing might relate to digital reading performance and gender. The analyses were conducted with structural equation modeling techniques. In addition to an overall…

  9. The alternative sigma factor sigma(E) plays an important role in intestinal survival and virulence in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Kovacikova, Gabriela; Skorupski, Karen

    2002-10-01

    The alternative sigma factor sigma(E) (RpoE) is involved in the response to extracytoplasmic stress and plays a role in the virulence of a variety of different bacteria. To assess the role of sigma(E) in Vibrio cholerae pathogenesis, a DeltarpoE mutant was constructed and analyzed using the infant mouse model. The results here show that sigma(E) contributes significantly to the virulence of V. cholerae. The DeltarpoE mutant was highly attenuated with a 50% lethal dose more than 3 logs higher than that for the parental strain, and its ability to colonize the intestine was reduced approximately 30-fold. A time course of infection revealed that the number of CFU of the DeltarpoE mutant was approximately 1 log lower than that of the parental strain by 12 h postinoculation and decreased further by 24 h. The defect in virulence in the DeltarpoE mutant thus appears to be a diminished ability to survive within the intestinal environment. The results here also show that sigma(E) is not required for growth and survival of V. cholerae in vitro at high temperatures but is required under other stressful conditions, such as in the presence of 3% ethanol. As in Escherichia coli, the expression of rpoE in V. cholerae is dependent upon two promoters located upstream of the gene, P1 and P2. P1 appears to be sigma(70) dependent, whereas the downstream promoter, P2, is positively autoregulated by sigma(E). PMID:12228259

  10. Platelet-Activating Factor Receptor Plays a Role in Lung Injury and Death Caused by Influenza A in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Cristiana C.; Russo, Remo C.; Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Fagundes, Caio T.; Polidoro, Rafael B.; Tavares, Luciana P.; Salgado, Ana Paula C.; Cassali, Geovanni D.; Sousa, Lirlndia P.; Machado, Alexandre V.; Teixeira, Mauro M.

    2010-01-01

    Influenza A virus causes annual epidemics which affect millions of people worldwide. A recent Influenza pandemic brought new awareness over the health impact of the disease. It is thought that a severe inflammatory response against the virus contributes to disease severity and death. Therefore, modulating the effects of inflammatory mediators may represent a new therapy against Influenza infection. Platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor (PAFR) deficient mice were used to evaluate the role of the gene in a model of experimental infection with Influenza A/WSN/33 H1N1 or a reassortant Influenza A H3N1 subtype. The following parameters were evaluated: lethality, cell recruitment to the airways, lung pathology, viral titers and cytokine levels in lungs. The PAFR antagonist PCA4248 was also used after the onset of flu symptoms. Absence or antagonism of PAFR caused significant protection against flu-associated lethality and lung injury. Protection was correlated with decreased neutrophil recruitment, lung edema, vascular permeability and injury. There was no increase of viral load and greater recruitment of NK1.1+ cells. Antibody responses were similar in WT and PAFR-deficient mice and animals were protected from re-infection. Influenza infection induces the enzyme that synthesizes PAF, lyso-PAF acetyltransferase, an effect linked to activation of TLR7/8. Therefore, it is suggested that PAFR is a disease-associated gene and plays an important role in driving neutrophil influx and lung damage after infection of mice with two subtypes of Influenza A. Further studies should investigate whether targeting PAFR may be useful to reduce lung pathology associated with Influenza A virus infection in humans. PMID:21079759

  11. Diffusible signal factor-mediated quorum sensing plays a central role in coordinating gene expression of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yinping; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Jian-Liang; Wang, Nian

    2012-02-01

    Diffusible signal factor (DSF) family signal-mediated quorum sensing (QS) has been identified in many gram-negative bacteria. This QS pathway of Xanthomonas spp. consists of three major QS components: RpfF, RpfC, and RpfG. The rpfF gene encodes a putative enoyl-CoA hydratase that catalyzes the synthesis of the signal molecule. RpfC and RpfG serve as a two-component system for the perception and transduction of the extracellular DSF family signals. In order to further characterize the QS regulatory network in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, we investigated the RpfF, RpfC, and RpfG regulons by using transcriptome analyses. Comparison of the transcriptomes of the QS mutants (rpfF, rpfC, and rpfG) with that of the wild-type strain revealed a core group of genes controlled by all three QS components, suggesting that the RpfC-RpfG two-component system is a major and conserved signal perception and transduction system for DSF family signal-mediated QS in X. citri subsp. citri. The unique genes controlled by RpfF alone indicate the complexity of the QS pathway and the involvement of additional sensory mechanisms in X. citri subsp. citri. The unique genes controlled by RpfC and RpfG, respectively, support the possibility that RpfC and RpfG play broader roles in gene regulation other than transduction of DSF signals. PMID:21995764

  12. Early experiences with the IBM SP1 and the high-performance switch

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.

    1993-11-01

    The IBM SP1 is IBM`s newest parallel distributed-memory computer. As part of a joint project with IBM, Argonne took delivery of an early system in order to evaluate the software environment and to begin porting programming packages and applications to this machine. This report discusses the results of those efforts once the high-performance switch was installed. An earlier report (ANL/MCS-TM-177) emphasized software usability and the initial ports to the SP1. This report contains performance results and discusses some applications and tools not covered in TM 177.

  13. Transcriptional activation of the MDR1 gene by UV irradiation. Role of NF-Y and Sp1.

    PubMed

    Hu, Z; Jin, S; Scotto, K W

    2000-01-28

    The MDR1 promoter is subject to control by various internal and external stimuli. We have previously shown that the CCAAT box-binding protein, NF-Y, mediates MDR1 activation by the histone deacetylase inhibitors, trichostatin A and sodium butyrate, through the recruitment of the co-activator, P/CAF. We have now extended our investigation to the activation of MDR1 by genotoxic stress. We show that activation of the MDR1 promoter by UV irradiation is also dependent on the CCAAT box (-82 to -73) as well as on a proximal GC element (-56 to -42). Gel shift and supershift analyses with nuclear extracts prepared from human KB-3-1 cells identified NF-Y as the transcription factor interacting with the CCAAT box, while Sp1 was the predominant factor binding to the GC element. Mutations that abrogated binding of either of these factors reduced or abolished activation by ultraviolet irradiation; moreover, co-expression of a dominant-negative NF-Y protein (NF-YA29) reduced UV-activated transcription. Interestingly, YB-1, a transcription factor that also recognizes the CCAAT motif and had been reported to mediate induction of the MDR1 promoter by ultraviolet light, was incapable of interacting with the double-stranded MDR1 CCAAT box oligonucleotide in nuclear extracts, although it did interact with a single-stranded oligonucleotide. Furthermore, a mutation that abolished activation of MDR1 by UV-irradiation had no effect on YB-1 binding and co-transfection of a YB-1 expression plasmid had a repressive effect on UV-inducible transcription. Taken together, these results indicate a role for both NF-Y and Sp1 in the transcriptional activation of the MDR1 gene by genotoxic stress, and indicate that YB-1, if involved, is not sufficient to mediate this activation. PMID:10644769

  14. Histone deacetylase 3 represses p15{sup INK4b} and p21{sup WAF1/cip1} transcription by interacting with Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Weifeng; Tan Dapeng; Wang Xiuli; Han Songyan; Tan Jiang; Zhao Yanmei; Lu Jun . E-mail: ycsuo@nenu.edu.cn; Huang Baiqu

    2006-01-06

    Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) has been implicated to play roles in governing cell proliferation. Here we demonstrated that the overexpression of HDAC3 repressed transcription of p15{sup INK4b} and p21{sup WAF1/cip1} genes in 293T cells, and that the recruitment of HDAC3 to the promoter regions of these genes was critical to this repression. We also showed that HDAC3 repressed GAL4-Sp1 transcriptional activity, and that Sp1 was co-immunoprecipitated with FLAG-tagged HDAC3. We conclude that HDAC3 can repress p15{sup INK4b} and p21{sup WAF1/cip1} transcription by interacting with Sp1. Furthermore, knockdown of HDAC3 by RNAi up-regulated the transcriptional expression of p15{sup INK4b}, but not that of p21{sup WAF1/cip1}, implicating the different roles of HDAC3 in repression of p15{sup INK4b} and p21{sup WAF1/cip1} transcription. Data from this study indicate that the inhibition of p15{sup INK4b} and p21{sup WAF1/cip1} may be one of the mechanisms by which HDAC3 participates in cell cycle regulation and oncogenesis.

  15. Scalability study of parallel spatial direct numerical simulation code on IBM SP1 parallel supercomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanebutte, Ulf R.; Joslin, Ronald D.; Zubair, Mohammad

    1994-01-01

    The implementation and the performance of a parallel spatial direct numerical simulation (PSDNS) code are reported for the IBM SP1 supercomputer. The spatially evolving disturbances that are associated with laminar-to-turbulent in three-dimensional boundary-layer flows are computed with the PS-DNS code. By remapping the distributed data structure during the course of the calculation, optimized serial library routines can be utilized that substantially increase the computational performance. Although the remapping incurs a high communication penalty, the parallel efficiency of the code remains above 40% for all performed calculations. By using appropriate compile options and optimized library routines, the serial code achieves 52-56 Mflops on a single node of the SP1 (45% of theoretical peak performance). The actual performance of the PSDNS code on the SP1 is evaluated with a 'real world' simulation that consists of 1.7 million grid points. One time step of this simulation is calculated on eight nodes of the SP1 in the same time as required by a Cray Y/MP for the same simulation. The scalability information provides estimated computational costs that match the actual costs relative to changes in the number of grid points.

  16. Why people continue to play online games: in search of critical design factors to increase customer loyalty to online contents.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dongseong; Kim, Jinwoo

    2004-02-01

    As people increasingly play online games, numerous new features have been proposed to increase players' log-on time at online gaming sites. However, few studies have investigated why people continue to play certain online games or which design features are most closely related to the amount of time spent by players at particular online gaming sites. This study proposes a theoretical model using the concepts of customer loyalty, flow, personal interaction, and social interaction to explain why people continue to play online network games. The study then conducts a large-scale survey to validate the model. Finally, it analyzes current online games to identify design features that are closely related to the theoretical concepts. The results indicate that people continue to play online games if they have optimal experiences while playing the games. This optimal experience can be attained if the player has effective personal interaction with the system or pleasant social interactions with other people connected to the Internet. Personal interaction can be facilitated by providing appropriate goals, operators and feedback; social interaction can be facilitated through appropriate communication places and tools. This paper ends with the implications of applying the study results to other domains such as e-commerce and cyber communities. PMID:15006164

  17. AHR promoter variant modulates its transcription and downstream effectors by allele-specific AHR-SP1 interaction functioning as a genetic marker for vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaowen; Li, Kai; Liu, Ling; Shi, Qiong; Song, Pu; Jian, Zhe; Guo, Sen; Wang, Gang; Li, Chunying; Gao, Tianwen

    2015-01-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired depigmentation disorder largely caused by defective melanocyte- or autoimmunity-induced melanocyte destruction. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is essential for melanocyte homeostasis and immune process, and abnormal AHR was observed in vitiligo. We previously identified the T allele of AHR −129C > T variant as a protective factor against vitiligo. However, biological characterization underlying such effects is not fully certain, further validation by mechanistic research is warranted and was conducted in the present study. We showed that −129T allele promoted AHR transcriptional activity through facilitating its interaction with SP1 transcription factor (SP1) compared with −129C allele. We subsequently found reduced peripheral AHR and SP1 transcript expressions in vitiligo and a negative correlation of AHR level with disease duration. We also investigated AHR-related cytokines and observed increased serum TNF-α concentration and diminished serum levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1 in vitiligo. Further genetic analysis showed that -129T carriers possessed higher levels of AHR and IL-10 than −129C carriers. Therefore, our study indicates that the modulation of AHR transcription by a promoter variant has a profound influence on vitiligo, not only advancing our understanding on AHR function but also providing novel insight into the pathogenesis of degenerative or autoimmune diseases including vitiligo. PMID:26370050

  18. Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT) Transcription Requires Sp1/Sp3 Binding to the Promoter and a Permissive Chromatin Environment.

    PubMed

    Cheng, De; Zhao, Yuanjun; Wang, Shuwen; Jia, Wenwen; Kang, Jiuhong; Zhu, Jiyue

    2015-12-11

    The transcription of human telomerase gene hTERT is regulated by transcription factors (TFs), including Sp1 family proteins, and its chromatin environment. To understand its regulation in a relevant chromatin context, we employed bacterial artificial chromosome reporters containing 160 kb of human genomic sequence containing the hTERT gene. Upon chromosomal integration, the bacterial artificial chromosomes recapitulated endogenous hTERT expression, contrary to transient reporters. Sp1/Sp3 expression did not correlate with hTERT promoter activity, and these TFs bound to the hTERT promoters in both telomerase-positive and telomerase-negative cells. Mutation of the proximal GC-box resulted in a dramatic decrease of hTERT promoter activity, and mutations of all five GC-boxes eliminated its transcriptional activity. Neither mutations of GC-boxes nor knockdown of endogenous Sp1 impacted promoter binding by other TFs, including E-box-binding proteins, and histone acetylation and trimethylation of histone H3K9 at the hTERT promoter in telomerase-positive and -negative cells. The result indicated that promoter binding by Sp1/Sp3 was essential, but not a limiting step, for hTERT transcription. hTERT transcription required a permissive chromatin environment. Importantly, our data also revealed different functions of GC-boxes and E-boxes in hTERT regulation; although GC-boxes were essential for promoter activity, factors bound to the E-boxes functioned to de-repress hTERT promoter. PMID:26487723

  19. Binding of a cellular factor to the 3' untranslated region of the RNA genomes of entero- and rhinoviruses plays a role in virus replication.

    PubMed

    Mellits, K H; Meredith, J M; Rohll, J B; Evans, D J; Almond, J W

    1998-07-01

    The presence of cellular factors that bind to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of picornaviruses was investigated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs). A cellular factor(s) that binds specifically the 3' UTR of polio-, coxsackie- and rhinoviruses was detected. Furthermore, this factor(s) is distinct from those which bind to the 5' terminal 88 nt (the 'cloverleaf') of poliovirus. Mutations within the 3' UTR which decrease the affinity of the RNA for the cellular factor in EMSAs decrease RNA replication and virus viability. Revertants of these mutants display changes which are predicted to stabilize the RNA secondary structure of the 3' UTR. These results indicate that binding of a cellular factor to the UTR plays a role in virus replication and that RNA secondary structure is important for this function. PMID:9680135

  20. Adult Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, John M.

    In its broadest context, play can be interpreted as any pleasurable use of discretionary time. Playfulness is an intrinsic feature of being human, and should be viewed in the light of a total lifestyle, not as an occurrence in an isolated time of life. Adult play appears to be an indefinable and controversial concept. A holistic approach should be

  1. Aspen SP1, an exceptional thermal, protease and detergent-resistant self-assembled nano-particle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wang-Xia; Dgany, Or; Wolf, Sharon Grayer; Levy, Ilan; Algom, Rachel; Pouny, Yehonathan; Wolf, Amnon; Marton, Ira; Altman, Arie; Shoseyov, Oded

    2006-09-01

    Stable protein 1 (SP1) is a homo-oligomeric protein isolated from aspen (Populus tremula aspen) plants which forms a ring-shape dodecameric particle with a central cavity. The oligomeric form of SP1 is an exceptionally stable structure that is resistant to proteases (e.g., trypsin, V8, and proteinase K), high temperatures, organic solvents, and high levels of ionic detergent. Analytical ultra-centrifugation, chemical cross-linking, matrix-assisted laser-desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), and transmission electron microscopy were used to further characterize the SP1 dodecamer. Introduction of a single cysteine at the N-terminus of SP1 enabled the formation of disulfide bridges within the SP1 dodecamer, concurrent with increased melting point. A six-histidine tag was introduced at the N-terminus of SP1 to generate 6HSP1, and the DeltaNSP1 mutant was generated by a deletion of amino acids 2-6 at the N-terminus. Both 6HSP1 and DeltaNSP1 maintained their ability to assemble a stable dodecamer. Remarkably, these SP1 homo-dodecamers were able to re-assemble into stable hetero-dodecamers following co-electro-elution from SDS-PAGE. The exceptional stability of the SP1-nano ring and its ability to self-assemble hetero-complexes paves the way to further research in utilizing this unique protein in nano-biotechnology. PMID:16732592

  2. Play Sheets. Let's Play! Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Buffalo. Center for Assistive Technology.

    This collection of play sheets for parents and early intervention personnel was developed by the "Let's Play! Project," a 3-year federally supported project that worked to promote play in infants and toddlers with disabilities through the use of "low-tech" assistive technology. Each single page guide provides guidance to parents of young children

  3. Involvement of the GC-rich sequence and specific proteins (Sp1/Sp3) in the basal transcription activity of neurogranin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Gui Jingang; Song Yan; Han, N.-L.R.; Zhou Shufeng; Sheu, F.-S. . E-mail: dbssfs@nus.edu.sg

    2006-06-23

    Neurogranin (Ng), a neuronal protein implicated in learning and memory, contains a TATA-less promoter. Analysis of 5'-deletion mutations and site-directed mutations of the mouse Ng promoter revealed that a 258 bp 5'-flanking sequence (+3 to +260) conferred the basal transcription activity, and that the GC-rich sequence (+22 to +33) served as an important determinant of the promoter activity. Transient transfection of the Sp1 expression plasmid transactivated the reporter activity in neuroblastoma N2A cells while knocking down of endogenous Sp1 expression resulted in a 2.5-fold reduction of the reporter activity in HEK 293 cells. Exogenous expression of Sp3 in HEK 293 cells, however, repressed the reporter activity by 50%. Nevertheless, by gel shift assays, Sp1 and Sp3 were not found to be responsible for the protein-DNA complexes formed by the GC-rich sequence. Moreover, a nuclear factor from the mouse brain tissues was discovered to bind to multiple AT-rich regions in Ng promoter.

  4. Transcriptome analysis reveals a dynamic and differential transcriptional response to sulforaphane in normal and prostate cancer cells and suggests a role for Sp1 in chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    Beaver, Laura M.; Buchanan, Alex; Sokolowski, Elizabeth I.; Riscoe, Allison N.; Wong, Carmen P.; Chang, Jeff H.; Löhr, Christiane V.; Williams, David E.; Dashwood, Roderick H.; Ho, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies provide evidence that consumption of cruciferous vegetables, like broccoli, can reduce the risk of cancer development. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a phytochemical derived from cruciferous vegetables that induces anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic responses in prostate cancer cells, but not in normal prostate cells. The mechanisms responsible for this cancer-specific cytotoxicity remain unclear. To examine this issue we utilized RNA sequencing and determined the transcriptomes of normal prostate epithelial cells, androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells, and androgen-independent prostate cancer cells treated with SFN. SFN treatment dynamically altered gene expression and resulted in distinct transcriptome profiles depending on prostate cell line. SFN also down-regulated the expression of genes that were up-regulated in prostate cancer cells. Network analysis of genes altered by SFN treatment revealed that the transcription factor Specificity protein 1 (Sp1) was present in an average of 90.5% of networks. Sp1 protein was significantly decreased by SFN treatment in prostate cancer cells and Sp1may be an important mediator of SFN-induced changes in expression. Overall, the data show that SFN alters gene expression differentially in normal and cancer cells with key targets in chemopreventive processes, making it a promising dietary anti-cancer agent. PMID:25044704

  5. Capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through Sp1-mediated DR5 up-regulation: Involvement of Ca{sup 2+} influx

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Dong-Oh; Kang, Chang-Hee; Kang, Sang-Hyuck; Choi, Yung-Hyun; Hyun, Jin-Won; Chang, Weon-Young; Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Koh, Young-Sang; Maeng, Young-Hee; Kim, Young-Ree; Kim, Gi-Young

    2012-02-15

    Although tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in various malignant cells, several cancers including human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) exhibit potent resistance to TRAIL-induced cell death. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-cancer potential of capsaicin in TRAIL-induced cancer cell death. As indicated by assays that measure phosphatidylserine exposure, mitochondrial activity and activation of caspases, capsaicin potentiated TRAIL-resistant cells to lead to cell death. In addition, we found that capsaicin induces the cell surface expression of TRAIL receptor DR5, but not DR4 through the activation Sp1 on its promoter region. Furthermore, we investigated that capsaicin-induced DR5 expression and apoptosis are inhibited by calcium chelator or inhibitors for calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. Taken together, our data suggest that capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-mediated HCC cell apoptosis by DR5 up-regulation via calcium influx-dependent Sp1 activation. Highlights: ► Capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through activation of caspases. ► Capsaicin induces expression of DR5 through Sp1 activation. ► Capsaicin activates calcium signaling pathway.

  6. HMGI(Y) and Sp1 in addition to NF-kappa B regulate transcription of the MGSA/GRO alpha gene.

    PubMed

    Wood, L D; Farmer, A A; Richmond, A

    1995-10-25

    Expression of the chemokine MGSA/GRO is upregulated as melanocytes progress to melanoma cells. We demonstrate that constitutive and cytokine induced MGSA/GRO alpha expression requires multiple DNA regulatory regions between positions -143 to -62. We have previously shown that the NF-kappa B element at -83 to -65 is essential for basal and cytokine induced MGSA/GRO alpha promoter activity in the Hs294T melanoma and normal retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, respectively. Here, we have determined that the Sp1 binding element located approximately 42 base pairs upstream from the NF-kappa B element binds Sp1 and Sp3 constitutively and this element is necessary for basal MGSA/GRO alpha promoter activity. We demonstrate that the high mobility group proteins HMGI(Y) recognize the AT-rich motif nested within the NF-kappa B element in the MGSA/GRO alpha promoter. Loss of either NF-kappa B or HMGI(Y) complex binding by selected point mutations in the NF-kappa B element results in decreased basal and cytokine induced MGSA/GRO alpha promoter activity. Thus, these results indicate that transcriptional regulation of the chemokine MGSA/GRO alpha requires at least three transcription factors: Sp1, NF-kappa B and HMGI(Y). PMID:7479086

  7. HMGI(Y) and Sp1 in addition to NF-kappa B regulate transcription of the MGSA/GRO alpha gene.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, L D; Farmer, A A; Richmond, A

    1995-01-01

    Expression of the chemokine MGSA/GRO is upregulated as melanocytes progress to melanoma cells. We demonstrate that constitutive and cytokine induced MGSA/GRO alpha expression requires multiple DNA regulatory regions between positions -143 to -62. We have previously shown that the NF-kappa B element at -83 to -65 is essential for basal and cytokine induced MGSA/GRO alpha promoter activity in the Hs294T melanoma and normal retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, respectively. Here, we have determined that the Sp1 binding element located approximately 42 base pairs upstream from the NF-kappa B element binds Sp1 and Sp3 constitutively and this element is necessary for basal MGSA/GRO alpha promoter activity. We demonstrate that the high mobility group proteins HMGI(Y) recognize the AT-rich motif nested within the NF-kappa B element in the MGSA/GRO alpha promoter. Loss of either NF-kappa B or HMGI(Y) complex binding by selected point mutations in the NF-kappa B element results in decreased basal and cytokine induced MGSA/GRO alpha promoter activity. Thus, these results indicate that transcriptional regulation of the chemokine MGSA/GRO alpha requires at least three transcription factors: Sp1, NF-kappa B and HMGI(Y). Images PMID:7479086

  8. Sp3/REST/HDAC1/HDAC2 Complex Represses and Sp1/HIF-1/p300 Complex Activates ncx1 Gene Transcription, in Brain Ischemia and in Ischemic Brain Preconditioning, by Epigenetic Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Formisano, Luigi; Guida, Natascia; Valsecchi, Valeria; Cantile, Maria; Cuomo, Ornella; Vinciguerra, Antonio; Laudati, Giusy; Pignataro, Giuseppe; Sirabella, Rossana; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Annunziato, Lucio

    2015-05-13

    The Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger 1 (NCX1) is reduced in stroke by the RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST), whereas it is increased in ischemic brain preconditioning (PC) by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Because ncx1 brain promoter (ncx1-Br) has five putative consensus sequences, named Sp1A-E, for the specificity protein (Sp) family of transcription factors (Sp1-4), we investigated the role of this family in regulating ncx1 transcription in rat cortical neurons. Here we found that Sp1 is a transcriptional activator, whereas Sp3 is a transcriptional repressor of ncx1, and that both bind ncx1-Br in a sequence-specific manner, modulating ncx1 transcription through the Sp1 sites C-E. Furthermore, by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in rats, the transcriptional repressors Sp3 and REST colocalized with the two histone-deacetylases (HDACs) HDAC1 and HDAC2 on the ncx1-Br, with a consequent hypoacetylation. Contrarily, in PC+tMCAO the transcriptional activators Sp1 and HIF-1 colocalized with histone acetyltransferase p300 on ncx1-Br with a consequent hyperacetylation. In addition, in neurons silenced with siRNA of NCX1 and subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) (3 h) plus reoxygenation (RX) (24 h), the neuroprotection of Class I HDAC inhibitor MS-275 was counteracted, whereas in neurons overexpressing NCX1 and subjected to ischemic preconditioning (PC+OGD/RX), the neurotoxic effect of p300 inhibitor C646 was prevented. Collectively, these results demonstrate that NCX1 expression is regulated by the Sp3/REST/HDAC1/HDAC2 complex in tMCAO and by the Sp1/HIF-1/p300 complex in PC+tMCAO and that epigenetic intervention, by modulating the acetylation of ncx1-Br, may be a strategy for the development of innovative therapeutic intervention in stroke. PMID:25972164

  9. CYP1B1 Enhances Cell Proliferation and Metastasis through Induction of EMT and Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling via Sp1 Upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yeo-Jung; Baek, Hyoung-Seok; Ye, Dong-Jin; Shin, Sangyun; Kim, Donghak; Chun, Young-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is a major E2 hydroxylase involved in the metabolism of potential carcinogens. CYP1B1 expression has been reported to be higher in tumors compared to normal tissues, especially in hormone-related cancers including breast, ovary, and prostate tumors. To explore the role of CYP1B1 in cancer progression, we investigated the action of CYP1B1 in cells with increased CYP1B1 via the inducer 7,12-dimethylbenz[α]anthracene (DMBA) or an overexpression vector, in addition to decreased CYP1B1 via the inhibitor tetramethoxystilbene (TMS) or siRNA knockdown. We observed that CYP1B1 promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells. To understand its molecular mechanism, we measured key oncogenic proteins including β-catenin, c-Myc, ZEB2, and matrix metalloproteinases following CYP1B1 modulation. CYP1B1 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling via upregulation of CTNNB1, ZEB2, SNAI1, and TWIST1. Sp1, a transcription factor involved in cell growth and metastasis, was positively regulated by CYP1B1, and suppression of Sp1 expression by siRNA or DNA binding activity using mithramycin A blocked oncogenic transformation by CYP1B1. Therefore, we suggest that Sp1 acts as a key mediator for CYP1B1 action. Treatment with 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2), a major metabolite generated by CYP1B1, showed similar effects as CYP1B1 overexpression, indicating that CYP1B1 activity mediated various oncogenic events in cells. In conclusion, our data suggests that CYP1B1 promotes cell proliferation and metastasis by inducing EMT and Wnt/β-catenin signaling via Sp1 induction. PMID:26981862

  10. Identification of functional TFAP2A and SP1 binding sites in new TFAP2A-modulated genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Different approaches have been developed to dissect the interplay between transcription factors (TFs) and their cis-acting sequences on DNA in order to identify TF target genes. Here we used a combination of computational and experimental approaches to identify novel direct targets of TFAP2A, a key TF for a variety of physiological and pathological cellular processes. Gene expression profiles of HeLa cells either silenced for TFAP2A by RNA interference or not were previously compared and a set of differentially expressed genes was revealed. Results The regulatory regions of 494 TFAP2A-modulated genes were analyzed for the presence of TFAP2A binding sites, employing the canonical TFAP2A Positional Weight Matrix (PWM) reported in Jaspar http://jaspar.genereg.net/. 264 genes containing at least 2 high score TFAP2A binding sites were identified, showing a central role in "Cellular Movement" and "Cellular Development". In an attempt to identify TFs that could cooperate with TFAP2A, a statistically significant enrichment for SP1 binding sites was found for TFAP2A-activated but not repressed genes. The direct binding of TFAP2A or SP1 to a random subset of TFAP2A-modulated genes was demonstrated by Chromatin ImmunoPrecipitation (ChIP) assay and the TFAP2A-driven regulation of DCBLD2/ESDN/CLCP1 gene studied in details. Conclusions We proved that our computational approaches applied to microarray selected genes are valid tools to identify functional TF binding sites in gene regulatory regions as confirmed by experimental validations. In addition, we demonstrated a fine-tuned regulation of DCBLD2/ESDN transcription by TFAP2A. PMID:20525283

  11. Sp1 mediates repression of the resistin gene by PPAR{gamma} agonists in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.S.; Choi, H.H.; Cho, Y.M.; Lee, H.K.; Park, K.S. . E-mail: kspark@snu.ac.kr

    2006-09-15

    Resistin is an adipokine related to obesity and insulin resistance. Expression of the resistin gene is repressed by the treatment of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonists, thiazolidinediones (TZDs). In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which TZDs inhibit the resistin gene expression. Resistin gene expression was decreased by TZD in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which was abolished after treatment of cycloheximide (a protein synthesis inhibitor). TZD could not repress the expression of the resistin gene in the presence of mithramycin A (an Sp1 binding inhibitor). Sp1 binding site of the resistin promoter (-122/-114 bp) was necessary for the repression. Further investigation of the effect of TZDs on the modification of Sp1 showed that the level of O-glycosylation of Sp1 was decreased in this process. These results suggest that PPAR{gamma} activation represses the expression of the resistin gene by modulating Sp1 activity.

  12. Complete genome sequence of Kosakonia sacchari type strain SP1T

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingyue; Zhu, Bo; Lin, Li; Yang, Litao; Li, Yangrui; An, Qianli

    2014-01-01

    Kosakonia sacchari sp. nov. is a new species within the new genus Kosakonia, which was included in the genus Enterobacter. K sacchari is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium named for its association with sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.). K sacchari bacteria are Gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming, motile rods. Strain SP1T (=CGMCC1.12102T=LMG 26783T) is the type strain of the K sacchari sp. nov and is able to colonize and fix N2 in association with sugarcane plants, thus promoting plant growth. Here we summarize the features of strain SP1T and describe its complete genome sequence. The genome contains a single chromosome and no plasmids, 4,902,024 nucleotides with 53.7% GC content, 4,460 protein-coding genes and 105 RNA genes including 22 rRNA genes, 82 tRNA genes, and 1 ncRNA gene. PMID:25197499

  13. Pretend play.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Deena Skolnick

    2015-01-01

    Pretend play is a form of playful behavior that involves nonliteral action. Although on the surface this activity appears to be merely for fun, recent research has discovered that children's pretend play has connections to important cognitive and social skills, such as symbolic thinking, theory of mind, and counterfactual reasoning. The current article first defines pretend play and then reviews the arguments and evidence for these three connections. Pretend play has a nonliteral correspondence to reality, hence pretending may provide children with practice with navigating symbolic relationships, which may strengthen their language skills. Pretend play and theory of mind reasoning share a focus on others' mental states in order to correctly interpret their behavior, hence pretending and theory of mind may be mutually supportive in development. Pretend play and counterfactual reasoning both involve representing nonreal states of affairs, hence pretending may facilitate children's counterfactual abilities. These connections make pretend play an important phenomenon in cognitive science: Studying children's pretend play can provide insight into these other abilities and their developmental trajectories, and thereby into human cognitive architecture and its development. PMID:26263228

  14. Transcriptional Regulation of Oncogenic Protein Kinase C? (PKC?) by STAT1 and Sp1 Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, HongBin; Gutierrez-Uzquiza, Alvaro; Garg, Rachana; Barrio-Real, Laura; Abera, Mahlet B.; Lopez-Haber, Cynthia; Rosemblit, Cinthia; Lu, Huaisheng; Abba, Martin; Kazanietz, Marcelo G.

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of PKC?, a kinase associated with tumor aggressiveness and widely implicated in malignant transformation and metastasis, is a hallmark of multiple cancers, including mammary, prostate, and lung cancer. To characterize the mechanisms that control PKC? expression and its up-regulation in cancer, we cloned an ?1.6-kb promoter segment of the human PKC? gene (PRKCE) that displays elevated transcriptional activity in cancer cells. A comprehensive deletional analysis established two regions rich in Sp1 and STAT1 sites located between ?777 and ?105 bp (region A) and ?921 and ?796 bp (region B), respectively, as responsible for the high transcriptional activity observed in cancer cells. A more detailed mutagenesis analysis followed by EMSA and ChIP identified Sp1 sites in positions ?668/?659 and ?269/?247 as well as STAT1 sites in positions ?880/?869 and ?793/?782 as the elements responsible for elevated promoter activity in breast cancer cells relative to normal mammary epithelial cells. RNAi silencing of Sp1 and STAT1 in breast cancer cells reduced PKC? mRNA and protein expression, as well as PRKCE promoter activity. Moreover, a strong correlation was found between PKC? and phospho-Ser-727 (active) STAT1 levels in breast cancer cells. Our results may have significant implications for the development of approaches to target PKC? and its effectors in cancer therapeutics. PMID:24825907

  15. Why Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weininger, O.

    This paper draws together briefly theories and knowledge from research in morphology and cognitive psychology, as well as some hypothetical information from traditional psychiatry, to show the ramifications of play in children's development. Play is defined as any of a wide variety of behaviors through which an individual attempts to discover what

  16. Playing Shakespeare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashian, Kathleen Ryniker

    1993-01-01

    Describes a yearlong project at 12 Catholic middle schools in the Diocese of Arlington, Virginia, to incorporate the plays of William Shakespeare into the curriculum. Teachers attended university lectures and directed students in performances of the plays. Concludes that Shakespeare can be understood and enjoyed by middle school students. (BCY)

  17. Shadow Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Hilson, Margilee P.

    2012-01-01

    A bunny rabbit playfully hops across the wall. Then hands realign and fingers shift to make a hawk soar toward the ceiling. Most children have enjoyed the delightful experience of playing with shadow puppets. The authors build on this natural curiosity to help students link shadows to complex astronomical concepts such as seasons. The

  18. The Role Played by the Interaction between Genetic Factors and Attachment in the Stress Response in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Ceppi, Elisa; Rusconi, Marianna; Giorda, Roberto; Raggi, Maria Elisabetta; Fearon, Pasco

    2009-01-01

    Background: The importance of understanding which environmental and biological factors are involved in determining individual differences in physiological response to stress is widely recognized, given the impact that stress has on physical and mental health. Methods: The child-mother attachment relationship and some genetic polymorphisms

  19. The Role Played by the Interaction between Genetic Factors and Attachment in the Stress Response in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Ceppi, Elisa; Rusconi, Marianna; Giorda, Roberto; Raggi, Maria Elisabetta; Fearon, Pasco

    2009-01-01

    Background: The importance of understanding which environmental and biological factors are involved in determining individual differences in physiological response to stress is widely recognized, given the impact that stress has on physical and mental health. Methods: The child-mother attachment relationship and some genetic polymorphisms…

  20. Overexpression of HDAC1 induces cellular senescence by Sp1/PP2A/pRb pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, Jian-Ying; Hung, Jan-Jong; Institute of Bioinformatics and Biosignal Transduction, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan

    2011-04-15

    Highlights: {yields} Overexpression of HDAC1 induces Sp1 deacetylation and raises Sp1/p300 complex formation to bind to PP2Ac promoter. {yields} Overexpression of HDAC1 strongly inhibits the phosphorylation of pRb through up-regulation of PP2A. {yields} Overexpressed HDAC1 restrains cell proliferaction and induces cell senescence though a novel Sp1/PP2A/pRb pathway. -- Abstract: Senescence is associated with decreased activities of DNA replication, protein synthesis, and cellular division, which can result in deterioration of cellular functions. Herein, we report that the growth and division of tumor cells were significantly repressed by overexpression of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1 with the Tet-off induced system or transient transfection. In addition, HDAC1 overexpression led to senescence through both an accumulation of hypophosphorylated active retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and an increase in the protein level of protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac). HDAC1 overexpression also increased the level of Sp1 deacetylation and elevated the interaction between Sp1 and p300, and subsequently that Sp1/p300 complex bound to the promoter of PP2Ac, thus leading to induction of PP2Ac expression. Similar results were obtained in the HDAC1-Tet-off stable clone. Taken together, these results indicate that HDAC1 overexpression restrained cell proliferation and induced premature senescence in cervical cancer cells through a novel Sp1/PP2A/pRb pathway.

  1. c-ETS transcription factors play an essential role in the licensing of human MCM4 origin of replication.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Kaveri; Kumar, Vijay

    2015-11-01

    In metazoans, DNA replication is a highly regulated and ordered process that occurs during the S phase of cell cycle. It begins with the licensing of origins of replication usually found in close proximity of actively transcribing genes owing perhaps to a profound influence of transcription factors on the epigenetic signatures and architecture of chromatin. Here we show that ETS transcription factors are novel regulators of MCM4 origin, whose binding sites are localized between two divergently transcribing MCM4 and PRKDC genes. c-ETS1 and c-ETS2 were recruited to the MCM4 origin respectively during the S and G1 phases of cell cycle. c-ETS2 binding was facilitated by an active chromatin distinguished by acetylated histone H3 orchestrated by histone acetyl transferase GCN5 and followed by HBO1 mediated histone H4 acetylation. Interestingly, c-ETS2 overexpression led to increased BrdU incorporation in the S phase cells while its down-regulation by RNA interference compromised the loading of pre-replicative complex at the origin. Conversely, the recruitment of c-ETS1 at the origin coincided with histone H3 methylation signature characteristic of closed chromatin conformation. As expected, enforced expression of c-ETS1 severely compromised DNA replication whereas its down-regulation enhanced DNA replication as evident from increased BrdU incorporation. Thus, c-ETS transcription factors appear to be key regulators of MCM4 origin where c-ETS2 seems to promote DNA replication whereas c-ETS1 functions as a negative regulator. PMID:26365772

  2. Inheritance and memory of stress-induced epigenome change: roles played by the ATF-2 family of transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Ki-Hyeon; Maekawa, Toshio; Ishii, Shunsuke

    2012-01-01

    Data on the inheritance-of-stress effect have been accumulating and some mechanistic insights, such as epigenetic regulation, have also been suggested. In particular, the modern view of Lamarckian inheritance appears to be affected by the finding that stress-induced epigenetic changes can be inherited. This review summarizes the current data on the inheritance of stress effect and possible mechanisms involved in this process. In particular, we focus on the stress-induced epigenetic changes mediated by the ATF-2 family of transcription factors. PMID:22380515

  3. Draft genome sequence of Sphingomonas paucimobilis strain LCT-SP1 isolated from the Shenzhou X spacecraft of China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lei; Zhou, Hong; Li, Jia; Huang, Bing; Guo, Jun; Zhang, Xue-Lin; Gao, Long-Cheng; Xu, Chou; Liu, Chang-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Sphingomonas paucimobilis strain LCT-SP1 is a glucose-nonfermenting Gram-negative, chemoheterotrophic, strictly aerobic bacterium. The major feature of strain LCT-SP1, isolated from the Chinese spacecraft Shenzhou X, together with the genome draft and annotation are described in this paper. The total size of strain LCT-SP1 is 4,302,226 bp with 3,864 protein-coding and 50 RNA genes. The information gained from its sequence is potentially relevant to the elucidation of microbially mediated corrosion of various materials. PMID:26918090

  4. Spatial Factors Play a Major Role as Determinants of Endemic Ground Beetle Beta Diversity of Madeira Island Laurisilva

    PubMed Central

    Boieiro, Mário; Carvalho, José C.; Cardoso, Pedro; Aguiar, Carlos A. S.; Rego, Carla; de Faria e Silva, Israel; Amorim, Isabel R.; Pereira, Fernando; Azevedo, Eduardo B.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Serrano, Artur R. M.

    2013-01-01

    The development in recent years of new beta diversity analytical approaches highlighted valuable information on the different processes structuring ecological communities. A crucial development for the understanding of beta diversity patterns was also its differentiation in two components: species turnover and richness differences. In this study, we evaluate beta diversity patterns of ground beetles from 26 sites in Madeira Island distributed throughout Laurisilva – a relict forest restricted to the Macaronesian archipelagos. We assess how the two components of ground beetle beta diversity (βrepl – species turnover and βrich - species richness differences) relate with differences in climate, geography, landscape composition matrix, woody plant species richness and soil characteristics and the relative importance of the effects of these variables at different spatial scales. We sampled 1025 specimens from 31 species, most of which are endemic to Madeira Island. A spatially explicit analysis was used to evaluate the contribution of pure environmental, pure spatial and environmental spatially structured effects on variation in ground beetle species richness and composition. Variation partitioning showed that 31.9% of species turnover (βrepl) and 40.7% of species richness variation (βrich) could be explained by the environmental and spatial variables. However, different environmental variables controlled the two types of beta diversity: βrepl was influenced by climate, disturbance and soil organic matter content whilst βrich was controlled by altitude and slope. Furthermore, spatial variables, represented through Moran’s eigenvector maps, played a significant role in explaining both βrepl and βrich, suggesting that both dispersal ability and Madeira Island complex orography are crucial for the understanding of beta diversity patterns in this group of beetles. PMID:23724065

  5. Spatial factors play a major role as determinants of endemic ground beetle beta diversity of Madeira Island Laurisilva.

    PubMed

    Boieiro, Mrio; Carvalho, Jos C; Cardoso, Pedro; Aguiar, Carlos A S; Rego, Carla; de Faria e Silva, Israel; Amorim, Isabel R; Pereira, Fernando; Azevedo, Eduardo B; Borges, Paulo A V; Serrano, Artur R M

    2013-01-01

    The development in recent years of new beta diversity analytical approaches highlighted valuable information on the different processes structuring ecological communities. A crucial development for the understanding of beta diversity patterns was also its differentiation in two components: species turnover and richness differences. In this study, we evaluate beta diversity patterns of ground beetles from 26 sites in Madeira Island distributed throughout Laurisilva--a relict forest restricted to the Macaronesian archipelagos. We assess how the two components of ground beetle beta diversity (?(repl)--species turnover and ?(rich)--species richness differences) relate with differences in climate, geography, landscape composition matrix, woody plant species richness and soil characteristics and the relative importance of the effects of these variables at different spatial scales. We sampled 1025 specimens from 31 species, most of which are endemic to Madeira Island. A spatially explicit analysis was used to evaluate the contribution of pure environmental, pure spatial and environmental spatially structured effects on variation in ground beetle species richness and composition. Variation partitioning showed that 31.9% of species turnover (?(repl)) and 40.7% of species richness variation (?(rich)) could be explained by the environmental and spatial variables. However, different environmental variables controlled the two types of beta diversity: ?(repl) was influenced by climate, disturbance and soil organic matter content whilst ?(rich) was controlled by altitude and slope. Furthermore, spatial variables, represented through Moran's eigenvector maps, played a significant role in explaining both ?(repl) and ?(rich), suggesting that both dispersal ability and Madeira Island complex orography are crucial for the understanding of beta diversity patterns in this group of beetles. PMID:23724065

  6. Transcriptional activation of the murine Muc5ac mucin gene in epithelial cancer cells by TGF-beta/Smad4 signalling pathway is potentiated by Sp1.

    PubMed Central

    Jonckheere, Nicolas; Van Der Sluis, Maria; Velghe, Amlie; Buisine, Marie-Pierre; Sutmuller, Marjolein; Ducourouble, Marie-Paule; Pigny, Pascal; Bller, Hans A; Aubert, Jean-Pierre; Einerhand, Alexandra W C; Van Seuningen, Isabelle

    2004-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the pMS1 clone was submitted to the GenBank Nucleotide Sequence Database under accession number AF288076. Changes in the expression of mucin genes in gastrointestinal cancers is thought to contribute to the development of the disease. In our laboratory we have shown previously that MUC5AC is aberrantly expressed in rectosigmoid villous adenomas. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying that altered profile of expression is unknown. In order to study its regulation at the transcriptional level, we have isolated and characterized 5.5 kb of the 5'-flanking region of the mouse Muc5ac mucin gene. The promoter is flanked by a TATA box and a transcriptional start site is located 22 bp downstream of the TATA box. Analysis of the sequence showed a high density of binding sites for Smad4, an essential factor in the signalling cascade activated by TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta), and Sp1, an important factor in the regulation of MUC5AC. This led us to study Muc5ac regulation by TGF-beta. We show that exogenous addition of TGF-beta to the cells induces Muc5ac endogenous expression, promoter activity and Smad4 binding to the promoter. By co-transfection studies we show that Smad4 is essential for Muc5ac promoter activation and that it does not synergize with Smad2 or Smad3. By gel-retardation and co-transfection assays, we identified Sp1 and Sp3 as important regulators of Muc5ac expression and showed that Smad4 and Sp1 act in a co-operative manner to transactivate Muc5ac promoter activity. Altogether these results bring new insights into the molecular mechanisms of TGF-beta-mediated up-regulation of Muc5ac and enhance our understanding as to how Muc5ac is regulated in certain pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:14570593

  7. Play and Positive Group Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Pam; White, Samantha

    2010-01-01

    Play is an important part of a child's life and essential to learning and development (Vygotsky, 1978). It is vital that students participate in play and that play be conducted in a restorative manner. Play allows a variety of group dynamics to emerge. Irvin Yalom (1995) identifies 11 curative factors of the group experience. These factors include…

  8. Play and Positive Group Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Pam; White, Samantha

    2010-01-01

    Play is an important part of a child's life and essential to learning and development (Vygotsky, 1978). It is vital that students participate in play and that play be conducted in a restorative manner. Play allows a variety of group dynamics to emerge. Irvin Yalom (1995) identifies 11 curative factors of the group experience. These factors include

  9. Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1? Plays a Crucial Role Based on Neuroprotective Role in Neonatal Brain Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Miki; Matsubara, Keiichi; Matsubara, Yuko; Uchikura, Yuka; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Fujioka, Toru; Matsumoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Owing to progress in perinatal medicine, the survival of preterm newborns has markedly increased. However, the incidence of cerebral palsy has risen in association with increased preterm birth. Cerebral palsy is largely caused by cerebral hypoxic ischemia (HI), for which there are no effective medical treatments. We evaluated the effects of stromal cell-derived factor-1? (SDF-1?) on neonatal brain damage in rats. Left common carotid (LCC) arteries of seven-day-old Wistar rat pups were ligated, and animals were exposed to hypoxic gas to cause cerebral HI. Behavioral tests revealed that the memory and spatial perception abilities were disturbed in HI animals, and that SDF-1? treatment improved these cognitive functions. Motor coordination was also impaired after HI but was unimproved by SDF-1? treatment. SDF-1? reduced intracranial inflammation and induced cerebral remyelination, as indicated by the immunohistochemistry results. These data suggest that SDF-1? specifically influences spatial perception abilities in neonatal HI encephalopathy. PMID:26251894

  10. Characterization of a family of cysteine rich proteins and development of a MaSp1 derived miniature fibroin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Tyler Casey

    Spider silk displays a unique balance of high tensile strength and extensibility, making it one of the toughest materials on the planet. Dragline silk, also known as the lifeline of the spider, represents one of the best studied fiber types and many labs are attempting to produce synthetic dragline silk fibers for commercial applications. In these studies, we develop a minifibroin for expression studies in bacteria. Using recombinant DNA methodology and protein expression studies, we develop a natural minifibroin that contains the highly conserved N- and C-terminal domains, along with several internal block repeats of MaSp1. We also characterize a family of small cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) and demonstrate that these factors are present within the spinning dope of the major ampullate gland using MS analysis. Biochemical studies and characterization of one of the family members, CRP1, demonstrate that this factor can self-polymerize into higher molecular weight complexes under oxidizing conditions, but can be converted into a monomeric species under reducing conditions. Self-polymerization of CRP1 is also shown to be independent of pH and salt concentration, two important chemical cues that help fibroin aggregation. Overall, our data demonstrate that the polymerization state of CRP1 is dependent upon redox state, suggesting that the redox environment during fiber extrusion may help regulate the oligomerization of CRP molecules during dragline silk production.

  11. What factors play a role in preventing self-immolation? Results from a case-control study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Hosein; Schwebel, David C.; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Mohammadi, Reza; Choubsaz, Mansour; Heidari Zadie, Zahra; Ahmadi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Background: To investigate factors related to prevention of self-immolation in west of Iran. Methods: In a case-control study, 30 consecutive cases of deliberate self-inflicted burns admitted to the regional burn center (Imam Khomeini hospital in Kermanshah province, Iran) were compared with controls selected from the community and matched by sex, age, district-county of residence, and rural vs urban living environment. The following characteristics relevant to preventing self-immolation were collected from all cases and controls: main domestic fuel used in the household, awareness about complications of burn injuries, and use of counseling services. Results: Descriptive analyses revealed that kerosene was the main domestic fuel in the household for 83% of cases. Not surprisingly, the main means of self-immolation in 93% of the patients was kerosene, with other fuels such as petrol and domestic gas used in remaining cases. The majority of cases and controls were aware of the potential complications of burn injuries. Use of counseling services was more common in controls. Conclusions: All three aspects of preventing self-immolation having kerosene and other fuels in the home, being aware of the complications of burn injuries, and using counseling services were present in both the cases and controls. This suggests a large portion of residents in rural Iran are potential self-immolation victims. Increasing preventive strategies may reduce risk of suicide by self-immolation. PMID:26081518

  12. The study of capacity fading processes of Li-ion batteries: major factors that play a role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovsky, B.; Rodkin, A.; Cohen, Y. S.; Palchik, O.; Levi, E.; Aurbach, D.; Kim, H.-J.; Schmidt, M.

    In this work, we studied the impact of some factors on the behavior of practical electrodes of Li-ion batteries. These included elevated temperatures (45-80 C), prolonged storage of Li-ion cells, and additives in the electrolyte solution. The Li-ion battery systems studied included negative electrodes (anodes) comprising of mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) and mesocarbon fibers (MCF), and Li xCoO 2 positive electrodes (cathodes) in an ethylene carbonate (EC)/ethyl-methyl carbonate (EMC) (1:2)/LiPF 6 1 M solution. Vinylene carbonate (VC) and a Li-organo-borate complex (Li-OBC) were tested as additives. It is shown that the electrochemical response of Li-C negative electrodes depends on the structure of the surface films controlling their behavior, which change upon storage, temperature, and cycling. We established that impedance of these electrodes increased with storage time due to the enrichment of the surface films by LiF and other fluorine-containing species. The capacity fading of the Li xCoO 2 electrodes in cycling/storage processes at elevated temperatures relates mostly to surface phenomena, whereas the bulk structural characteristics of the electrodes do not change.

  13. The Sigma Factor AlgU Plays a Key Role in Formation of Robust Biofilms by Nonmucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa?

    PubMed Central

    Bazire, Alexis; Shioya, Kouki; Soum-Soutra, Emmanuelle; Bouffartigues, Emeline; Ryder, Cynthia; Guentas-Dombrowsky, Linda; Hmery, Galle; Linossier, Isabelle; Chevalier, Sylvie; Wozniak, Daniel J.; Lesouhaitier, Olivier; Dufour, Alain

    2010-01-01

    The extracytoplasmic function sigma factor AlgU of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is responsible for alginate overproduction, leading to mucoidy and chronic infections of cystic fibrosis patients. We investigated here the role of AlgU in the formation of nonmucoid biofilms. The algU mutant of P. aeruginosa PAO1 (PAOU) showed a dramatic impairment in biofilm formation under dynamic conditions. PAOU was defective both in cell attachment to glass and in development of robust, shear-resistant biofilms. This was explained by an impaired production of extracellular matrix, specifically of the exopolysaccharide Psl, as revealed by microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Complementing the algU mutation with a plasmid-borne algU gene restored wild-type phenotypes. Compared with that in PAO1, expression of the psl operon was reduced in the PAOU strain, and the biofilm formation ability of this strain was partially restored by inducing the transcription of the psl operon. Furthermore, expression of the lectin-encoding lecA and lecB genes was reduced in the PAOU strain. In agreement with the requirement of LecB for type IV pilus biogenesis, PAOU displayed impaired twitching motility. Collectively, these genetic downregulation events explain the biofilm formation defect of the PAOU mutant. Promoter mapping indicated that AlgU is probably not directly responsible for transcription of the psl operon and the lec genes, but AlgU is involved in the expression of the ppyR gene, whose product was reported to positively control psl expression. Expressing the ppyR gene in PAOU partially restored the formation of robust biofilms. PMID:20348252

  14. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in the Paraventricular Nucleus Plays a Major Role in the Sympathoexcitatory Response to Salt

    PubMed Central

    Colombari, Eduardo; Colombari, Debora S.A.; Li, Hongwei; Shi, Peng; Dong, Ying; Jiang, Nan; Raizada, Mohan K.; Sumners, Colin; Murphy, David; Paton, Julian F.R.

    2011-01-01

    Central hyperosmotic stimulation (HS) evokes increases in sympathetic nerve activity mediated by activation of angiotensin type 1 receptors in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Macrophage inhibitory migration factor (MIF) is an intracellular inhibitory regulator of angiotensin type 1 receptor–mediated actions of angiotensin II within neurons of the PVN. MIF mediates its actions via its intrinsic thiol-protein oxidoreductase activity. We demonstrate that intracerebroventricular injection of hypertonic saline into Sprague-Dawley rats elicits a significant (≈112%) increase in MIF mRNA expression in the PVN. Next, we evaluated the effect of viral-mediated expression of either MIF or [C60S]-MIF (which lacks thiol-protein oxidoreductase activity) in the PVN on the sympathoexcitation evoked by HS. We used a decorticate, arterially perfused in situ preparation of male Wistar rats (60 to 80 g). HS was induced by raising perfusate osmolality from 290 to 380 milliosmoles for 40 seconds. Seven to 10 days before experiments, rats were injected bilaterally (500 nL per side) with 0.9% saline (control) or with adenoassociated virus to express MIF, [C60S]-MIF, or enhanced green fluorescent protein in the PVN. HS produced sympathoexcitation in both the 0.9% saline and enhanced green fluorescent protein groups (sympathetic nerve activity increase of +27±4% and +25±4%, respectively; P<0.05), an effect that was not observed in the MIF group (+4±5%). Conversely, the HS-induced increase in sympathetic nerve activity was potentiated in the [C60S]-MIF group (+45±6%; P<0.05). We propose that MIF acting within the PVN is a major counterregulator of HS-induced sympathoexcitation, an effect that depends on thiol-protein oxidoreductase activity. PMID:20937969

  15. Propensity for HBZ-SP1 isoform of HTLV-I to inhibit c-Jun activity correlates with sequestration of c-Jun into nuclear bodies rather than inhibition of its DNA-binding activity

    SciTech Connect

    Clerc, Isabelle; Hivin, Patrick; Rubbo, Pierre-Alain; Lemasson, Isabelle; Barbeau, Benoit; Mesnard, Jean-Michel

    2009-09-01

    HTLV-I bZIP factor (HBZ) contains a C-terminal zipper domain involved in its interaction with c-Jun. This interaction leads to a reduction of c-Jun DNA-binding activity and prevents the protein from activating transcription of AP-1-dependent promoters. However, it remained unclear whether the negative effect of HBZ-SP1 was due to its weak DNA-binding activity or to its capacity to target cellular factors to transcriptionally-inactive nuclear bodies. To answer this question, we produced a mutant in which specific residues present in the modulatory and DNA-binding domain of HBZ-SP1 were substituted for the corresponding c-Fos amino acids to improve the DNA-binding activity of the c-Jun/HBZ-SP1 heterodimer. The stability of the mutant, its interaction with c-Jun, DNA-binding activity of the resulting heterodimer, and its effect on the c-Jun activity were tested. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the repression of c-Jun activity in vivo is mainly due to the HBZ-SP1-mediated sequestration of c-Jun to the HBZ-NBs.

  16. Game playing.

    PubMed

    Rosin, Christopher D

    2014-03-01

    Game playing has been a core domain of artificial intelligence research since the beginnings of the field. Game playing provides clearly defined arenas within which computational approaches can be readily compared to human expertise through head-to-head competition and other benchmarks. Game playing research has identified several simple core algorithms that provide successful foundations, with development focused on the challenges of defeating human experts in specific games. Key developments include minimax search in chess, machine learning from self-play in backgammon, and Monte Carlo tree search in Go. These approaches have generalized successfully to additional games. While computers have surpassed human expertise in a wide variety of games, open challenges remain and research focuses on identifying and developing new successful algorithmic foundations. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:193-205. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1278 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26304308

  17. Sweet Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Shuk-kwan S.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article features Sweet play math, a "math by the month" activity that involves decorating and making sugar cubes. Teachers may want to substitute straws, paper squares, alphabet blocks, or such commercially made manipulatives as Unifix[R] cubes for the real sweets. Given no allergy concerns, teachers and students alike would enjoy some sweet

  18. Sweet Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Shuk-kwan S.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article features Sweet play math, a "math by the month" activity that involves decorating and making sugar cubes. Teachers may want to substitute straws, paper squares, alphabet blocks, or such commercially made manipulatives as Unifix[R] cubes for the real sweets. Given no allergy concerns, teachers and students alike would enjoy some sweet…

  19. Playing Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Juan E.

    The acceptance of animation technologies is increasing. Video games, such as Sony PlayStation (SONY, 2002), have become part of the culture for young people from kindergarten through undergraduate school. Animation technologies have been implemented into educational systems in the form of animated pedagogical agents (Johnson, 2000). The research

  20. Clay Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Liz; Steffan, Dana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to use clay as a potential material for young children to explore. As teachers, the authors find that their dialogue about the potential of clay as a learning medium raises many questions: (1) What makes clay so enticing? (2) Why are teachers noticing different play and conversation around the clay table as compared to

  1. [What factors play a role in a listener's feelings evoked by irony?: the effect of listeners' personality traits and relationship with the speaker].

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Yoritaka; Miyazawa, Shiho

    2011-10-01

    This research investigated what factors play a role in a listener's feelings evoked by irony. In Experiment 1, participants imagined their best friend or an acquaintance as the speaker, and rated how they felt when apparent ironical utterances were made. The effects of the listener's empathy and conversational indirectness were examined. In Experiment 2, participants rated how they felt when apparent ironical utterances or literal utterances were made. The effects of the listeners' self-esteem and attitude toward humor were examined. The results showed that cognitions about joking relationships and the listener's attitude toward humor played an important role in the listener's feelings evoked by irony, whereas the listeners' self-esteem and their interpretation of conversational indirectness affected their perception of irony. Irony evoked positive feelings when the joke or the humor of irony was evaluated as positive politeness by the listener due to the listener's attitude toward humor or a joking relationship with the speaker. PMID:22117301

  2. Proto-oncogene FBI-1 represses transcription of p21CIP1 by inhibition of transcription activation by p53 and Sp1.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Il; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Yun, Chae-Ok; Kim, Pyung-Hwan; Kim, Sung-Eun; Choi, Kang-Yell; Kim, Se Hoon; Hur, Man-Wook

    2009-05-01

    Aberrant transcriptional repression through chromatin remodeling and histone deacetylation has been postulated as the driving force for tumorigenesis. FBI-1 (formerly called Pokemon) is a member of the POK family of transcriptional repressors. Recently, FBI-1 was characterized as a critical oncogenic factor that specifically represses transcription of the tumor suppressor gene ARF, potentially leading indirectly to p53 inactivation. Our investigations on transcriptional repression of the p53 pathway revealed that FBI-1 represses transcription of ARF, Hdm2 (human analogue of mouse double minute oncogene), and p21CIP1 (hereafter indicated as p21) but not of p53. FBI-1 showed a more potent repressive effect on p21 than on p53. Our data suggested that FBI-1 is a master controller of the ARF-Hdm2-p53-p21 pathway, ultimately impinging on cell cycle arrest factor p21, by inhibiting upstream regulators at the transcriptional and protein levels. FBI-1 acted as a competitive transcriptional repressor of p53 and Sp1 and was shown to bind the proximal Sp1-3 GC-box and the distal p53-responsive elements of p21. Repression involved direct binding competition of FBI-1 with Sp1 and p53. FBI-1 also interacted with corepressors, such as mSin3A, NCoR, and SMRT, thereby deacetylating Ac-H3 and Ac-H4 histones at the promoter. FBI-1 caused cellular transformation, promoted cell cycle proliferation, and significantly increased the number of cells in S phase. FBI-1 is aberrantly overexpressed in many human solid tumors, particularly in adenocarcinomas and squamous carcinomas. The role of FBI-1 as a master controller of the p53 pathway therefore makes it an attractive therapeutic target. PMID:19244234

  3. Studying the recruitment of Sp1 to the ?-globin promoter with an in vivo method: Protein position identification with nuclease tail?(PIN*POINT)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Soo; Lee, Chang-Hun; Chung, Jay H.

    1998-01-01

    Transcription is thought to be regulated by recruitment of transcription factors, adaptors, and certain enzymes to cis-acting elements through proteinDNA interactions and proteinprotein interactions. To better understand transcription, a method with the capability to detect in vivo recruitment of these individual proteins will be essential. Toward this end, we use a previously undescribed in vivo method that we term protein position identification with nuclease tail (PIN*POINT). In this method, a fusion protein composed of a chosen protein linked to a nonsequence-specific nuclease is expressed in vivo, and the binding of the protein to DNA is made detectable by the nuclease-induced cleavage near the binding site. In this article, we used the technique protein position identification with nuclease tail to study the effect of the ?-globin locus control region (LCR) and promoter elements on the recruitment of transcription factor Sp1 to the ?-globin promoter. We present evidence that the hypersensitive sites of the LCR synergistically enhance the recruitment of a multimeric Sp1 complex to the ?-globin promoter and that this may be accomplished by proteinprotein interactions with proteins bound to the LCR, the upstream activator region, and, possibly, general transcription factors bound near the TATA box. PMID:9448269

  4. Achromobacter denitrificans strain SP1 efficiently remediates di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, S; Josh, M K Sarath; Binod, P; Devi, R Sudha; Balachandran, S; Anderson, Robin C; Benjamin, Sailas

    2015-02-01

    This study describes how Achromobacter denitrificans strain SP1, a novel isolate from heavily plastics-contaminated sewage sludge efficiently consumed the hazardous plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) as carbon source supplemented in a simple basal salt medium (BSM). Response surface methodology was employed for the statistical optimization of the process parameters such as temperature (32°C), agitation (200 rpm), DEHP concentration (10 mM), time (72 h) and pH (8.0). At these optimized conditions, experimentally observed DEHP degradation was 63%, while the predicted value was 59.2%; and the correlation coefficient between them was 0.998, i.e., highly significant and fit to the predicted model. Employing GC-MS analysis, the degradation pathway was partially deduced with intermediates such as mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and 2-ethyl hexanol. Briefly, this first report describes A. denitrificans strain SP1 as a highly efficient bacterium for completely remediating the hazardous DEHP (10 mM) in 96 h in BSM (50% consumed in 60 h), which offers great potentials for efficiently cleaning the DEHP-contaminated environments such as soil, sediments and water upon its deployment. PMID:25463861

  5. Factor XII (Hageman factor) is a missing link between stress and hypercoagulability and plays an important role in the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Eggers, Arnold E

    2006-01-01

    A new hypothesis is presented on the function of factor XII, which is postulated to be a "missing link" between acute stress and transient hypercoagulability. The implications of this idea are developed to show how chronic stress, which involves activation of hypertension and migraine as well as hypercoagulability, can cause of cerebrovascular disease. "Acute stress" is defined as "the normal short-term physiological response to the perception of major threats or demands". "Chronic stress" is "the abnormal ongoing physiological response to the continuing perception of unresolvable major threats or demands". The factor XII hypothesis is as follows: Acute stress includes release of epinephrine by the adrenal medulla. Epinephrine activates platelets by binding to alpha-2A adrenergic receptors. Activated platelets convert pre-bound factor XII to its active form, which then initiates the intrinsic coagulation cascade. This can be called the "activated platelet initiation pathway" for coagulation. Neither tissue factor nor pre-formed thrombin is required. Thrombosis proceeds to completion, but only a minute amount of thrombin is formed, and the process normally stops at this point. In people who lapse into a state of chronic stress, essential hypertension, which is also a manifestation of stress, synergizes with hypercoagulability: there is both a baseline rise in blood pressure and systemic platelet activation as well as superimposed labile rises of both. Upregulation of these two stress parameters is atherogenic: epinephrine-activated platelets stimulating thrombin formation interact with endothelial cells activated by angiotensin II to cause, first, smooth muscle cell proliferation, which is a histological hallmark of atherosclerosis, and, lastly, a symptomatic thrombotic occlusion-the stroke. The migraine symptoms which often accompany this process are a marker of chronic stress and ongoing pathophysiologic damage. Therapeutic predictions are made regarding novel ways of blocking stress-induced hypercoagulability and hypertension. Hypercoagulability could be targeted by monoclonal antibodies directed against the platelet-specific alpha-2 adrenergic receptor or the (putative) platelet receptor for Factor XII; hypertension could be treated with monoclonal antibodies directed against the beta-adrenergic receptor in the juxtaglomerular apparatus or by surgical denervation of the kidneys, either of which would decrease the renin release which helps drive the hypertension. PMID:16757126

  6. All-trans retinoic acid up-regulates the human CD2AP gene expression through Sp1/Sp3 binding sites.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua-Guo; Jin, Rui; Gao, Shan; Ren, Wei; Zou, Li; Liu, Lifei; Zhou, Guo-Ping

    2015-07-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), an active metabolite of vitamin A, plays an important role in regulating cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. It was reported that ATRA could cause an up-regulation of protein expression of CD2AP in nephrotic animals. However, the mechanism of ATRA-mediated up-regulation is not well understood. In the present study, deletion analysis and luciferase assays demonstrated that ATRA caused a marked increase in the activity of the CD2AP promoter, and the region between nt -599 and -328 from the transcription start site, where there are two clusters of Sp1/3 binding sites, was indispensable for ATRA-mediated up-regulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that ATRA activated the CD2AP transcription through enhancing the DNA-binding activity of Sp1 and Sp3 with the CD2AP promoter. Taken together, this study provided evidence for the first time showing the stimulating effect of ATRA on CD2AP and new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of nephritic syndrome and other associated diseases of CD2AP deficiency. PMID:25957888

  7. Characterization and promoter analysis of the mouse gene for transcription factor Sp4.

    PubMed

    Song, J; Mangold, M; Suske, G; Geltinger, C; Kanazawa, I; Sun, K; Yokoyama, K K

    2001-02-01

    Transcription factor Sp4 is a member of the Sp1 family. It functions differently from other members of this family, such as Sp1 and Sp3, and the gene for Sp4 is transcribed in a tissue-specific manner. Recent studies in mice suggest that Sp4 might play an important role in growth, viability, and male fertility. We report here the isolation and characterization of the gene for Sp4 from a mouse genomic library. The mouse gene for Sp4 was about 80 kb in length and it consisted of six exons and five introns. The promoter was found in a CpG island and had a high G+C content. The proximal promoter contained multiple putative binding sites for the transcription factors Sp1 and MAZ but lacked a consensus TATA box. Multiple sites for the initiation of transcription were mapped in a GC-rich region from 286 bp to 211 bp upstream of the ATG triplet at the site of initiation of translation, and all of the sites were either C or G. Transfection experiments and deletion analysis allowed us to localize the promoter to a region that was no more than 93 bp upstream from the first site of initiation of transcription. We also found that ectopic expression of Sp1 and of MAZ, but not of Sp3, suppressed expression of the Sp4 promoter in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:11245974

  8. p21WAF1 Is Required for Interleukin-16-Induced Migration and Invasion of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells via the p38MAPK/Sp-1/MMP-9 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Lyea; Hwang, Byungdoo; Lee, Sun-Young; Kim, Won Tae; Choi, Yung Hyun; Chang, Young-Chae; Kim, Wun-Jae; Moon, Sung-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-16 (IL-16) is a lymphocyte chemoattractant factor well known for its role in immune responses, but its role in vascular disease is unknown. Here, we explored the novel physiological function of IL-16 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The expression of IL-16 and its receptor CD4 was observed in VSMCs. Treatment with IL-16 enhanced the migration and invasion by VSMCs without altering the proliferative potential. IL-16 induced MMP-9 expression via the binding activity of transcription factors NF-κB, AP-1, and Sp-1 motifs in VSMCs. Among the relevant signaling pathways examined, only p38MAPK phosphorylation was significantly stimulated in IL-16-treated VSMCs. Treatment with p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580 prevented the IL-16-induced migration and invasion of VSMCs. SB203580 treatment inhibited the MMP-9 expression and activation of Sp-1 binding in IL-16-treated VSMCs, and siRNA knockdown of CD4 expression blocked the induction of migration, invasion, p38MAPK phosphorylation, MMP-9 expression, and Sp-1 binding activation stimulated by IL-16. The IL-16 induced cell-cycle-inhibitor p21WAF1 expression in VSMCs, but had no effect on the expression levels of other cell-cycle negative regulators. Finally, blockage of p21WAF1 function with specific siRNA abolished the IL-16-induced elevation of migration, invasion, p38MAPK phosphorylation, MMP-9 expression, and Sp-1 binding activation in VSMCs. Taken together, p21WAF1 was required for the induction of p38MAPK-mediated MMP-9 expression via activation of the Sp-1 binding motif, which led to migration and invasion of VSMCs interacting with IL-16/CD4. These results could provide that IL-16 is a new target in the treatment of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and re-stenosis. PMID:26544695

  9. Genetic Selection for Context-Dependent Stochastic Phenotypes: Sp1 and TATA Mutations Increase Phenotypic Noise in HIV-1 Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Priya S.; Arkin, Adam P.; Schaffer, David V.

    2013-01-01

    The sequence of a promoter within a genome does not uniquely determine gene expression levels and their variability; rather, promoter sequence can additionally interact with its location in the genome, or genomic context, to shape eukaryotic gene expression. Retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV), integrate their genomes into those of their host and thereby provide a biomedically-relevant model system to quantitatively explore the relationship between promoter sequence, genomic context, and noise-driven variability on viral gene expression. Using an in vitro model of the HIV Tat-mediated positive-feedback loop, we previously demonstrated that fluctuations in viral Tat-transactivating protein levels generate integration-site-dependent, stochastically-driven phenotypes, in which infected cells randomly switch between high and low expressing states in a manner that may be related to viral latency. Here we extended this model and designed a forward genetic screen to systematically identify genetic elements in the HIV LTR promoter that modulate the fraction of genomic integrations that specify Switching phenotypes. Our screen identified mutations in core promoter regions, including Sp1 and TATA transcription factor binding sites, which increased the Switching fraction several fold. By integrating single-cell experiments with computational modeling, we further investigated the mechanism of Switching-fraction enhancement for a selected Sp1 mutation. Our experimental observations demonstrated that the Sp1 mutation both impaired Tat-transactivated expression and also altered basal expression in the absence of Tat. Computational analysis demonstrated that the observed change in basal expression could contribute significantly to the observed increase in viral integrations that specify a Switching phenotype, provided that the selected mutation affected Tat-mediated noise amplification differentially across genomic contexts. Our study thus demonstrates a methodology to identify and characterize promoter elements that affect the distribution of stochastic phenotypes over genomic contexts, and advances our understanding of how promoter mutations may control the frequency of latent HIV infection. PMID:23874178

  10. Scalability of Parallel Spatial Direct Numerical Simulations on Intel Hypercube and IBM SP1 and SP2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Hanebutte, Ulf R.; Zubair, Mohammad

    1995-01-01

    The implementation and performance of a parallel spatial direct numerical simulation (PSDNS) approach on the Intel iPSC/860 hypercube and IBM SP1 and SP2 parallel computers is documented. Spatially evolving disturbances associated with the laminar-to-turbulent transition in boundary-layer flows are computed with the PSDNS code. The feasibility of using the PSDNS to perform transition studies on these computers is examined. The results indicate that PSDNS approach can effectively be parallelized on a distributed-memory parallel machine by remapping the distributed data structure during the course of the calculation. Scalability information is provided to estimate computational costs to match the actual costs relative to changes in the number of grid points. By increasing the number of processors, slower than linear speedups are achieved with optimized (machine-dependent library) routines. This slower than linear speedup results because the computational cost is dominated by FFT routine, which yields less than ideal speedups. By using appropriate compile options and optimized library routines on the SP1, the serial code achieves 52-56 M ops on a single node of the SP1 (45 percent of theoretical peak performance). The actual performance of the PSDNS code on the SP1 is evaluated with a "real world" simulation that consists of 1.7 million grid points. One time step of this simulation is calculated on eight nodes of the SP1 in the same time as required by a Cray Y/MP supercomputer. For the same simulation, 32-nodes of the SP1 and SP2 are required to reach the performance of a Cray C-90. A 32 node SP1 (SP2) configuration is 2.9 (4.6) times faster than a Cray Y/MP for this simulation, while the hypercube is roughly 2 times slower than the Y/MP for this application. KEY WORDS: Spatial direct numerical simulations; incompressible viscous flows; spectral methods; finite differences; parallel computing.

  11. Estrogen Receptor beta binds Sp1 and recruits a Corepressor Complex to the Estrogen Receptor alpha Gene Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Bartella, V; Rizza, P; Barone, I; Zito, D; Giordano, F; Giordano, C; Catalano, S; Mauro, L; Sisci, D; Panno, ML; Fuqua, SA; And, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    Human estrogen receptors (ERs) alpha and beta are crucially involved in the regulation of mammary growth and development. Normal breast tissues display a prevalently expression of ER beta than ER alpha, which drastically increases during breast tumorogenesis. So, it is reasonable to assume how a dysregulation of the two estrogen receptor subtypes may induce breast cancer development. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the opposite role played by the two estrogen receptors on tumor cell growth remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we have demonstrated that ER beta overexpression in breast cancer cells decreases cell proliferation and down-regulates ER alpha mRNA and protein content along with a concomitant repression of estrogen-regulated genes. Transient transfection experiments, using a vector containing the human ER alpha promoter region, showed that elevated levels of the ER beta down-regulated basal ER alpha promoter activity. Furthermore, side-directed mutagenesis and deletion analysis have revealed that the proximal GC-rich motifs at ?223 and ?214 is crucial for the ER beta-induced ER alpha down-regulation in breast cancer cells. This occurred through ER beta-Sp1 protein-protein interaction within the ER alpha promoter region and the recruitment of a corepressor complex containing NCoR/SMRT (nuclear receptor corepressor/silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor), accompanied by hypoacetylation of histone H4 and displacement of RNA polymerase II. Silencing of NCoR gene expression by RNA interference reversed the down-regulatory effect of ER beta on ER alpha gene expression and cell proliferation. Our results provide evidence for a novel mechanism by which overexpression of ER beta through NCoR is able to down regulate ER alpha gene expression, thus inhibiting ER alphas driving role on breast cancer cell growth. PMID:22622808

  12. The Transcription Factor Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 (IRF1) Plays a Key Role in the Terminal Effector Pathways of Human Preterm Labor.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ratana; Tran, Ha Thi; Liong, Stella; Barker, Gillian; Lappas, Martha

    2016-02-01

    Preterm birth is the largest single cause of neonatal death and morbidity. By activating cytokine- and Toll-like receptor (TLR)-signaling pathways, infection and/or inflammation are strongly associated with preterm delivery. Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF1) is an important regulator of the inflammatory response. The aims of this study were to establish the effect of 1) labor on IRF1 expression in human fetal membranes and myometrium, 2) prolabor mediators on IRF1 expression and activity, and 3) IRF1 small interfering RNA on the expression of prolabor mediators. IRF1 expression was higher in fetal membranes and myometrium after spontaneous term labor and in preterm fetal membranes with infection. The proinflammatory cytokine IL1B, the bacterial product fsl-1, and viral analog polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly [I:C]) significantly increased IRF1 mRNA expression and transcriptional activity in human primary myometrial cells. In addition, IL1B increased IRF1 activity in primary amnion cells. IRF1 silencing in myometrial cells decreased IL1B-, fsl-1-, and poly (I:C)-induced cytokine (IL6, TNF, IL1B) and chemokine (CXCL8, CCL2) mRNA expression and IL6, CXCL8, and CCL2 release. IL1B-, fsl-1-, and poly (I:C)-induced PTGS2 mRNA expression and IL1B-induced prostaglandin release was also decreased by IRF1 silencing. In conclusion, IRF1 upregulation in fetal membranes and myometrium after term labor indicates a proinflammatory role for IRF1 in human parturition. IRF1 is involved in TLR- and cytokine-mediated signaling in human myometrium. These data provide new insights into the mechanisms associated with inflammation- and infection-associated preterm birth. IRF1 inhibitors as therapeutics for the management of spontaneous preterm birth warrants further investigation. PMID:26674566

  13. Sp1 mediates cell proliferation-dependent regulation of rat DNA topoisomerase IIalpha gene promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, J H; Kim, J K; Rha, G B; Oh, M; Park, S H; Seong, R H; Hong, S H; Park, S D

    1999-01-01

    DNA topoisomerase IIalpha (topo IIalpha) is an essential nuclear enzyme required for chromosome segregation during mitosis. Consistent with its critical role in cell division is the fact that the expression of the gene for topo IIalpha is strongly regulated by the proliferation state of cells. Using a transient expression system, we determined the contribution of putative cis-acting elements in its promoter region to its basal level and cell proliferation-dependent transcription. Experiments with 5' and/or 3' serial deletion and site-directed mutation revealed that (1) maximal promoter activity resides in the fragment extending to position -663 bp from the ATG initiation codon, (2) minimal promoter activity is harboured at -195 bp, (3) the defined minimal promoter contains only two putative elements, inverted CCAAT box 4 (ICB4) (-166 to -162 bp) and the most proximal GC-rich box in the promoter (GC2) (-149 to -143 bp), and (4) ICB4 is most important in the basal-level transcription of the gene for rat topo IIalpha. The luciferase activities of the mutated reporter plasmids in G(0)-arrested and exponentially growing cells showed that proliferation-specific regulation is controlled mainly by GC2. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays indicated that Sp1 binds specifically to the GC2 site. The extent of DNA-protein complex formation increases after the stimulation of cells to proliferate. These results indicate that the increased binding activity of Sp1 to GC2 is important in the up-regulation of the gene for topo IIalpha in growing cells. PMID:10567217

  14. Biocontrol of Salmonella Enteritidis in spiked chicken cuts by lytic bacteriophages ?SP-1 and ?SP-3.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Jeena; Bhat, Sarita G

    2015-04-01

    The ability of host specific bacteriophages ?SP-1 and ?SP-3 to lyse Salmonella in artificially contaminated cuts of pressure cooked chicken meat was evaluated at different temperatures -4?C, room temperature (28??0.5 C) and 37?C applying low and high multiplicity of infection (MOI). Bacteriophages were able to significantly reduce the bacterial counts at all the temperatures studied. At 4?C, individual application of ? SP-1 and ? SP-3 resulted in significant drop in bacterial counts (log10 2.46 and 2.1?CFU/ml, respectively) at high MOI and (log10 0.98 and 0.52?CFU/ml, respectively) at low MOI, when compared to the untreated control on day 3. Similarly at room temperature the drop was log10 3.99 and 3.46?CFU/ml at high MOI and log10 2.51 and 2.3?CFU/ml at low MOI. At 37?C the drop was log10 1.98 and 2.38 at high MOI and at low MOI it was log10 1.52 and 1.98?CFU/ml. Increased efficiency was observed when phages where applied as cocktail at high MOI as the bacterial counts at the end of day 3 dropped by log10 3.52?CFU/ml at 37?C and to beyond detectable level at 4?C and room temperature. The average reduction of bacterial load in the same group was -4?C (79%), room temperature (92%) and 37?C (78%). PMID:25588852

  15. Isolation and partial characterization of ?SP-1, a Salmonella specific lytic phage from intestinal content of broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Jeena; Louis, Linda; Varghese, Siju M; Bhat, Sarita G; Kishore, Archana

    2013-02-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis is a major causative agent of gastroenteritis with contaminated eggs and chicken meat being the major source of infection. Phages are seriously being considered as a safe and cheaper alternative to antibiotics. The intestinal content of chicken was used as source for isolating phages. Phage designated as ?SP-1 was selected for the study. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of phage ?SP-1 revealed that it belonged to family Podoviridae. The optimal multiplicity of infection (MOI) was 5 phages/cell. Latent and rise period were calculated to be 30 and 55 minutes respectively, while burst size was 44 phages/bacterial cell. The genome size of ?SP-1 was estimated to be 86?kb from pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis (PFGE). The effect of different physical and chemical parameters like temperature, pH, salinity and CaCl? were analyzed to optimize the conditions for large scale production of phages and to check the viability of ?SP-1 under different physiochemical conditions. A temperature of 40?C, pH 8 and 0.25?M NaCl were found to be optimum for phage adsorption and it was able to survive up to a temperature of 50?C for 3?min. Capability to survive under hostile environmental conditions, absence of virulence genes in genome and genus specificity suggest suitability of ?SP-1 to be used as a biocontrol agent. PMID:22733367

  16. Transcriptional profiling of Medicago truncatula under salt stress identified a novel CBF transcription factor MtCBF4 that plays an important role in abiotic stress responses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Salt stress hinders the growth of plants and reduces crop production worldwide. However, different plant species might possess different adaptive mechanisms to mitigate salt stress. We conducted a detailed pathway analysis of transcriptional dynamics in the roots of Medicago truncatula seedlings under salt stress and selected a transcription factor gene, MtCBF4, for experimental validation. Results A microarray experiment was conducted using root samples collected 6, 24, and 48 h after application of 180 mM NaCl. Analysis of 11 statistically significant expression profiles revealed different behaviors between primary and secondary metabolism pathways in response to external stress. Secondary metabolism that helps to maintain osmotic balance was induced. One of the highly induced transcription factor genes was successfully cloned, and was named MtCBF4. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MtCBF4, which belongs to the AP2-EREBP transcription factor family, is a novel member of the CBF transcription factor in M. truncatula. MtCBF4 is shown to be a nuclear-localized protein. Expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula was induced by most of the abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, cold, and abscisic acid, suggesting crosstalk between these abiotic stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing MtCBF4 enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress, and activated expression of downstream genes that contain DRE elements. Over-expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula also enhanced salt tolerance and induced expression level of corresponding downstream genes. Conclusion Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis revealed complex mechanisms exist in plants in response to salt stress. The novel transcription factor gene MtCBF4 identified here played an important role in response to abiotic stresses, indicating that it might be a good candidate gene for genetic improvement to produce stress-tolerant plants. PMID:21718548

  17. A single-base substitution in the proximal Sp1 site of the human low density lipoprotein receptor promoter as a cause of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed Central

    Koivisto, U M; Palvimo, J J; Jnne, O A; Kontula, K

    1994-01-01

    We have identified a Finnish family with a typical phenotype of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) due to a single-base substitution in the proximal Sp1 binding site of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene promoter. The mutation, a C-->T substitution at nucleotide -43, cosegregated with the FH phenotype in six available family members and abolished binding of Sp1 transcription factor to this site. As a consequence, transcriptional activity of the mutated LDL receptor promoter was only about 1/20th of that of the wild-type promoter, as judged by transfection studies in HeLa cells. Studies of primary fibroblast cultures established from a family member revealed a markedly reduced LDL receptor mRNA concentration as well as reduction of binding, internalization, and degradation of 125I-labeled LDL to values < 50% of those in normal fibroblasts. This DNA alteration is thus a naturally occurring promoter mutation causing a severe disorder of human lipoprotein metabolism. Images PMID:7937987

  18. Cytosine methylation of an Sp1 site contributes to organ-specific and cell-specific regulation of expression of the lung epithelial gene t1alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Y X; Jean, J C; Williams, M C

    2000-01-01

    Several recent observations have suggested that cytosine methylation has a role in the in vivo transcriptional regulation of cell-specific genes in normal cells. We hypothesized that methylation regulates T1alpha, a gene expressed primarily in lung in adult rodents. In fetuses T1alpha is expressed in several organs, including the entire nervous system, but during development its expression is progressively restricted to lung alveolar type I epithelial cells, some osteoblasts and choroid plexus. Here we report that T1alpha is methylated at a key Sp1 site in the proximal promoter in cells and organs, including brain, where no gene expression is detectable. Conversely, in T1alpha-expressing cells, these sites are not methylated. In embryonic brain T1alpha is unmethylated and expressed; in adult brain the gene is methylated and not expressed. In lung epithelial cell lines, methylation of the T1alpha promoter in vitro decreases expression by approx. 50% (the maximum suppression being 100%). Analysis of mutated promoter constructs indicates that a single Sp1 site in the proximal promoter provides all or most of the methylation-sensitive gene silencing. We conclude that, in addition to regulation by transcription factors, cytosine methylation has a role in the complex expression patterns of this gene in intact animals and primary cells. PMID:10970805

  19. The TGF-?/Smad repressor TG-interacting factor 1 (TGIF1) plays a role in radiation-induced intestinal injury independently of a Smad signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Hneino, Mohammad; Franois, Agnes; Buard, Valerie; Tarlet, Georges; Abderrahmani, Rym; Blirando, Karl; Hoodless, Pamela A; Benderitter, Marc; Milliat, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    Despite advances in radiation delivery protocols, exposure of normal tissues during the course of radiation therapy remains a limiting factor of cancer treatment. If the canonical TGF-?/Smad pathway has been extensively studied and implicated in the development of radiation damage in various organs, the precise modalities of its activation following radiation exposure remain elusive. In the present study, we hypothesized that TGF-?1 signaling and target genes expression may depend on radiation-induced modifications in Smad transcriptional co-repressors/inhibitors expressions (TGIF1, SnoN, Ski and Smad7). In endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in a model of experimental radiation enteropathy in mice, radiation exposure increases expression of TGF-?/Smad pathway and of its target gene PAI-1, together with the overexpression of Smad co-repressor TGIF1. In mice, TGIF1 deficiency is not associated with changes in the expression of radiation-induced TGF-? pathway-related transcripts following localized small intestinal irradiation. In HUVECs, TGIF1 overexpression or silencing has no influence either on the radiation-induced Smad activation or the Smad3-dependent PAI-1 overexpression. However, TGIF1 genetic deficiency sensitizes mice to radiation-induced intestinal damage after total body or localized small intestinal radiation exposure, demonstrating that TGIF1 plays a role in radiation-induced intestinal injury. In conclusion, the TGF-?/Smad co-repressor TGIF1 plays a role in radiation-induced normal tissue damage by a Smad-independent mechanism. PMID:22567107

  20. B Cell-Activating Transcription Factor Plays a Critical Role in the Pathogenesis of Anti-Major Histocompatibility Complex-Induced Obliterative Airway Disease.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z; Ramachandran, S; Gunasekaran, M; Nayak, D; Benshoff, N; Hachem, R; Gelman, A; Mohanakumar, T

    2016-04-01

    Antibodies (Abs) against major histocompatibility complex (MHC) results in T helper-17 (Th17)-mediated immunity against lung self-antigens (SAgs), K-α1 tubulin and collagen V and obliterative airway disease (OAD). Because B cell-activating transcription factor (BATF) controls Th17 and autoimmunity, we proposed that BATF may play a critical role in OAD. Anti-H2K(b) was administered intrabronchially into Batf (-/-) and C57BL/6 mice. Histopathology of the lungs on days 30 and 45 after Ab administration to Batf (-/-) mice resulted in decreased cellular infiltration, epithelial metaplasia, fibrosis, and obstruction. There was lack of Abs to SAgs, reduction of Sag-specific interleukin (IL)-17 T cells, IL-6, IL-23, IL-17, IL-1β, fibroblast growth factor-6, and CXCL12 and decreased Janus kinase 2, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and retinoid-related orphan receptor γT. Further, micro-RNA (miR)-301a, a regulator of Th17, was reduced in Batf (-/-) mice in contrast to upregulation of miR-301a and downregulation of protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3) in anti-MHC-induced OAD animals. We also demonstrate an increase in miR-301a in the bronchoalveolar lavage cells from lung transplant recipients with Abs to human leukocyte antigen. This was accompanied by reduction in PIAS3 mRNA. Therefore, we conclude that BATF plays a critical role in the immune responses to SAgs and pathogenesis of anti-MHC-induced rejection. Targeting BATF should be considered for preventing chronic rejection after human lung transplantation. PMID:26844425

  1. OVEREXPRESSION OF ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES UPREGULATES ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR EXPRESSION VIA INCREASED SP1 DNA-BINDING ACTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Tian; Lin, Xinghua; Yang, Hong; Zhou, LiChun; Wang, Zefen; Shan, Guang; Guo, ZhongMao

    2010-01-01

    We previously reported up-regulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) expression as a mechanism by which overexpression of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and/or catalase accelerates benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) detoxification in mouse aorta endothelial cells (MAECs). The objective of this study was to investigate the regulatory role of specificity protein-1 (Sp1) in AhR expression in MAECs that overexpress Cu/Zn-SOD and/or catalase. Our data demonstrated comparable levels of nuclear Sp1 protein in the transgenic and wild-type MAECs; however, binding of Sp1 protein to the AhR promoter region was more than 2-fold higher in MAECs overexpressing Cu/Zn-SOD and/or catalase than in wild-type cells. Inhibition of Sp1 binding to the AhR promoter by mithramycin A reduced AhR expression and eliminated the differences between wild-type MAECs, and three lines of transgenic cells. Functional promoter analysis indicated that AhR promoter activity was significantly higher in MAECs overexpressing catalase than in wild-type cells. Mutation of an AhR promoter Sp1-binding site or addition of hydrogen peroxide to the culture medium reduced AhR promoter activity, and decreased the differences between wild-type MAECs and transgenic cells overexpressing catalase. These results suggest that increased Sp1 binding to the AhR promoter region is an underlying mechanism for up-regulation of AhR expression in MAECs that overexpress Cu/Zn-SOD and/or catalase. PMID:20478378

  2. Regulation of Chloroplast Protein Import by the Ubiquitin E3 Ligase SP1 Is Important for Stress Tolerance in Plants.

    PubMed

    Ling, Qihua; Jarvis, Paul

    2015-10-01

    Chloroplasts are the organelles responsible for photosynthesis in plants [1, 2]. The chloroplast proteome comprises ?3,000 different proteins, including components of the photosynthetic apparatus, which are highly abundant. Most chloroplast proteins are nucleus-encoded and imported following synthesis in the cytosol. Such import is mediated by multiprotein complexes in the envelope membranes that surround each organelle [3, 4]. The translocon at the outer envelope membrane of chloroplasts (TOC) mediates client protein recognition and early stages of import. The TOC apparatus is regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in a process controlled by the envelope-localized ubiquitin E3 ligase SUPPRESSOR OF PPI1 LOCUS1 (SP1) [5, 6]. Previous work showed that SP1-mediated regulation of chloroplast protein import contributes to the organellar proteome changes that occur during plant development (e.g., during de-etiolation). Here, we reveal a critical role for SP1 in plant responses to abiotic stress, which is a major and increasing cause of agricultural yield losses globally [7]. Arabidopsis plants lacking SP1 are hypersensitive to salt, osmotic, and oxidative stresses, whereas plants overexpressing SP1 are considerably more stress tolerant than wild-type. We present evidence that SP1 acts to deplete the TOC apparatus under stress conditions to limit the import of photosynthetic apparatus components, which may attenuate photosynthetic activity and reduce the potential for reactive oxygen species production and photo-oxidative damage. Our results indicate that chloroplast protein import is responsive to environmental cues, enabling dynamic regulation of the organellar proteome, and suggest new approaches for improving stress tolerance in crops. PMID:26387714

  3. Prostaglandin E2 and Transforming Growth Factor-? Play a Critical Role in Suppression of Allergic Airway Inflammation by Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mi-Kyung; Park, Hye-Kyung; Yu, Hak-Sun; Roh, Hwan-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of soluble factors in the suppression of allergic airway inflammation by adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) remains to be elucidated. Moreover, the major soluble factors responsible for the immunomodulatory effects of ASCs in allergic airway diseases have not been well documented. We evaluated the effects of ASCs on allergic inflammation in asthmatic mice treated with a prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) inhibitor or transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) neutralizing antibodies. Methods and Findings Asthmatic mice were injected intraperitoneally with a PGE2 inhibitor or TGF-? neutralizing antibodies at approximately the same time as ASCs injection and were compared with non-treated controls. In asthmatic mice, ASCs significantly reduced airway hyperresponsiveness, the number of total inflammatory cells and eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), eosinophilic inflammation, goblet cell hyperplasia, and serum total and allergen-specific IgE and IgG1. ASCs significantly inhibited Th2 cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13, and enhanced the Th1 cytokine (Interferon-?) and regulatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-?) in the BALF and lung draining lymph nodes (LLNs). ASCs engraftment caused significant increases in the regulatory T cell (Treg) and IL-10+ T cell populations in LLNs. However, blocking PGE2 or TGF-? eliminated the immunosuppressive effect of ASCs in allergic airway inflammation. Conclusions ASCs are capable of secreting PGE2 and TGF-?, which may play a role in inducing Treg expansion. Furthermore, treatment with a PGE2 inhibitor or TGF-? neutralizing antibodies eliminated the beneficial effect of ASCs treatment in asthmatic mice, suggesting that PGE2 and TGF-? are the major soluble factors responsible for suppressing allergic airway inflammation. PMID:26176545

  4. The Child's Right To Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guddemi, Marcy

    Several factors are eroding children's right to play. The first is continuing poverty throughout the world. This factor is evident in underdeveloped countries and the inner cities of industrialized countries. Changing cultural values are a second factor in developed societies where indifference toward the importance of play is prevalent. The many…

  5. Hypoxia-Inducible Factors Modulate the Stemness and Malignancy of Colon Cancer Cells by Playing Opposite Roles in Canonical Wnt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Santoyo-Ramos, Paula; Likhatcheva, Mara; Garca-Zepeda, Eduardo A.; Castaeda-Patln, M. Cristina; Robles-Flores, Martha

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the role played by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) in malignant phenotype maintenance and canonical Wnt signaling. Under normoxia, we determined that both HIF-1? and HIF-2? are expressed in human colon cancer cells but not in their non-malignant counterparts. The stable knockdown of HIF-1? or HIF-2? expression induced negative effects on the malignant phenotype of colon cancer cells, with lactate production, the rate of apoptosis, migration, CXCR4-mediated chemotaxis, and tumorigenic activity all being significantly affected by HIF knockdown and with HIF-1? depletion exerting greater effects. Knockdown of these two HIF transcripts induced different and even opposite effects on ?-catenin transcriptional activity in colon cancer cells with different genetic Wnt signaling pathways. In SW480 cells, HIF-2? knockdown did not affect ?-catenin levels, increasing the transcriptional activity of ?-catenin by inducing its nuclear accumulation, whereas HIF-1? silencing negatively affected the stability and transcriptional activity of ?-catenin, inducing its exit from the nuclei and its recruitment to the cell membrane by E-cadherin. In addition, although HIF-1? depletion induced a reversal of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), HIF-2? silencing altered the expression of the stem cell markers CD44, Oct4, and CD24 and of the differentiation marker CK20 in the opposite direction as HIF-1? silencing. Remarkably, HIF-2? knockdown also enhanced ?-catenin transcriptional activity under hypoxia in cells that displayed normal Wnt signaling, suggesting that the gene negatively modulates canonical Wnt signaling in colon cancer cells. Taken together, our results indicate that HIFs play opposing roles in canonical Wnt signaling and are essential for the stemness and malignancy maintenance of colon cancer cells. PMID:25396735

  6. Significance of different microalgal species for growth of moon jellyfish ephyrae, Aurelia sp.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shan; Sun, Xiaoxia; Wang, Yantao; Sun, Song

    2015-10-01

    The scyphozoan Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus) sp. l., is a cosmopolitan species-complex which blooms seasonally in a variety of coastal and shelf sea environments around the world. The effects of different microalgal species on the growth of newly-released Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae were studied under laboratory conditions. We fed ephyrae with four different microalgal species (diatom, autotrophic dinoflagellate, heterotrophic dinoflagellate, and chlorophyta) plus Artemia nauplii for 12-24 d at 18°C. Results showed that the growth rate diverged significantly for Artemia nauplii compared to other food types. In addition, there was no significant variation between the growth rates for Skeletonema costatum and Prorocentrum donghaiense, and no significant variation was found in the growth rates for N. scintillans and P. subcordiformis. Artemia nauplii could support the energy requirement for the newly-released ephyrae to develop to meduase, and the ephyrae with Artemia nauplii showed a significant average growth rate of 25.85% d-1. Newly-released ephyrae could grow slightly with some species of microalgae in the earliest development stage. Chain diatom Skeletonema costatum and autotrophic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense, could not support the growth of the ephyrae, while heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans and chlorophyta Platymonas subcordiformis could support the growth of the ephyrae. However, none of the ephyrae fed with the tested phytoplankton could mature to medusae.

  7. Playing It Safe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Provides tips on how to avoid accidents and injuries on school playgrounds. Tips include removing of old, dangerous equipment; relocating play areas to safer ground; choosing the right surface; factoring in long-term costs for replenishing and redistributing loose materials; and considering Americans with Disabilities Act issues. (GR)

  8. Achromobactor denitrificans SP1 produces pharmaceutically active 25C prodigiosin upon utilizing hazardous di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Achromobacter denitrificans SP1 isolated from soil sludge heavily contaminated with plastic waste produced a novel pharmaceutically-active 25C prodigiosin analog during growth in a simple mineral salt medium supplemented with hazardous di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) blended PVC plastics (in situ) ...

  9. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a new derivative of bevirimat that targets the Gag CA-SP1 cleavage site.

    PubMed

    Coric, Pascale; Turcaud, Serge; Souquet, Florence; Briant, Laurence; Gay, Bernard; Royer, Jacques; Chazal, Nathalie; Bouaziz, Serge

    2013-04-01

    Bevirimat (2), the first-in-class HIV-1 maturation inhibitor, shows a low efficacy due essentially to the natural polymorphism of its target, the CA-SP1 junction. Moreover, its low hydrosolubility makes it difficult to study its interaction with the CA-SP1 junction. We have synthesized new derivatives of bevirimat by adding different hydrophilic substituents at the C-28 position to improve their hydrosolubility and perform the structural study of a complex by NMR. Synthesis of the new derivatives, the effect of substituents at the C-28 position and their hydrosolubility are discussed. The ability of these molecules to inhibit viral infection and their cytotoxicity is assessed. Compared to the well-known bevirimat (2), one of our compounds (16) shows a higher hydrosolubility associated with a 2.5 fold increase in activity, a higher selectivity index and a better antiviral profile. Moreover, for the first time a direct interaction between a derivative of bevirimat (16) and the domain CA-SP1-NC is shown by NMR. Information from this study should allow us to decipher the mechanism by which bevirimat inhibits HIV-1 maturation and how the natural polymorphism of the spacer peptide SP1 triggers resistance to inhibitors. PMID:23399723

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Estrogen Receptor Expression Shows SP1 antibody is more sensitive than 1D5

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Allison W.; Harigopal, Malini; Wimberly, Hallie; Prasad, Manju; Rimm, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Studies comparing rabbit monoclonal SP1 antibody to 1D5 for ER immunohistochemical (IHC) testing show conflicting results. Here we use a standardized quantitative immunofluorescent (QIF) ER assay to determine the level and significance of discordance between antibodies. Both antibodies are assessed by QIF on our Index TMA of cell lines and case controls, followed by QIF and IHC on two retrospective cohorts from Yale. On the Index TMA, SP1 displayed stronger signal-to-noise than 1D5. On the patient cohorts, the range of discrepancy between the two antibodies is 8% to 16.9%, with the majority of discrepant cases being SP1-positive/1D5-negative. Kaplan Meier analysis of the discrepant cases shows outcome comparable to double positive cases, suggesting that SP1 is more sensitive than 1D5. A series of cases with high levels of ER-beta shows that neither antibody cross-reacts, suggesting equivalent specificity. Future efforts are needed to determine if response to endocrine therapies show superiority of either antibody as a companion diagnostic test. PMID:22820659

  11. FSH stimulates IRS-2 expression in human granulosa cells through cAMP/SP1, an inoperative FSH action in PCOS patients.

    PubMed

    Anjali, G; Kaur, Surleen; Lakra, Ruchi; Taneja, Jyoti; Kalsey, Gaganjot S; Nagendra, Anjali; Shrivastav, T G; Gouri Devi, M; Malhotra, Neena; Kriplani, Alka; Singh, Rita

    2015-12-01

    Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) plays a central role in growth and differentiation of ovarian follicles. A plethora of information exists on molecular aspects of FSH responses but little is known about the mechanisms involved in its cross-talk with insulin/IGF-1 pathways implicated in the coordination of energy homeostasis in preovulatory granulosa cells (GCs). In this study, we hypothesized that FSH may regulate IRS-2 expression and thereby maintain the energy balance in GCs. We demonstrate here that FSH specifically increases IRS-2 expression in human and rat GCs. FSH-stimulated IRS-2 expression was inhibited by actinomycin D or cycloheximide. Furthermore, FSH decreases IRS-2 mRNA degradation indicating post-transcriptional stabilization. Herein, we demonstrate a role of cAMP pathway in the activation of IRS-2 expression by FSH. Scan and activity analysis of IRS-2 promoter demonstrated that FSH regulates IRS-2 expression through SP1 binding sites. FSH stimulates SP1 translocation into nucleus and its binding to IRS-2 promoter. These results are corroborated by the fact that siRNA mediated knockdown of IRS-2 decreased the FSH-stimulated PI3K activity, p-Akt levels, GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake. However, FSH was not able to increase IRS-2 expression in GCs from PCOS women undergoing IVF. Interestingly, IRS-2 mRNA expression was downregulated in GCs from the PCOS rat model. Taken together, our findings establish that FSH induces IRS-2 expression and thereby activates PI3K, Akt and glucose uptake. Crucially, our data confirms a molecular defect in FSH action in PCOS GCs which may cause deceleration of metabolism and follicular growth leading to infertility. These results lend support for a therapeutic potential of IRS-2 in the management of PCOS. PMID:26388164

  12. MiR-324-5p Suppresses Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Invasion by Counteracting ECM Degradation through Post-Transcriptionally Downregulating ETS1 and SP1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuewei; Liang, Huihong; Jiang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Dawei; Xue, Ping; Chen, De; Shao, Zili

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the common malignancies, which is highly metastatic and the third common cause of cancer deaths in the world. The invasion and metastasis of cancer cells is a multistep and complex process which is mainly initiated by extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Aberrant expression of microRNA has been investigated in HCC and shown to play essential roles during HCC progression. In the present study, we found that microRNA-324-5p (miR-324-5p) was downregulated in both HCC cell lines and tissues. Ectopic miR-324-5p led to the reduction of HCC cells invasive and metastatic capacity, whereas inhibition of miR-324-5p promoted the invasion of HCC cells. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and MMP9, the major regulators of ECM degradation, were found to be downregulated by ectopic miR-324-5p, while upregulated by miR-324-5p inhibitor. E26 transformation-specific 1 (ETS1) and Specificity protein 1 (SP1), both of which could modulate MMP2 and MMP9 expression and activity, were presented as the direct targets of and downregulated by miR-324-5p. Downregulation of ETS1 and SP1 mediated the inhibitory function of miR-324-5p on HCC migration and invasion. Our study demonstrates that miR-324-5p suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma cell invasion and might provide new clues to invasive HCC therapy. PMID:26177288

  13. Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor ? Down-regulates Follistatin in Intestinal Epithelial Cells through SP1*S?

    PubMed Central

    Necela, Brian M.; Su, Weidong; Thompson, E. Aubrey

    2008-01-01

    Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) down-regulates the expression of follistatin mRNA in intestinal epithelial cells in vivo. The mechanism of PPAR?-mediated down-regulation of follistatin was investigated using non-transformed, rat intestinal epithelial cells (RIE-1). RIE cells expressed activin A, the activin receptors ActRI and ActRII, and the follistatin-315 mRNA. RIE-1 cells responded to endogenous activin A, and this response was antagonized by follistatin, as evidenced by changes in cell growth and regulation of an activin-responsive reporter. Using RIE-1 cells, we show that activation of PPAR? by rosiglitazone reduced follistatin mRNA levels in a dose- and concentration-dependent manner. Down-regulation of follistatin by rosiglitazone required the DNA binding domain of PPAR? and was dependent upon dimerization with the retinoid X receptor. Inhibition of follistatin expression by rosiglitazone was not associated with decreased follistatin mRNA stability, suggesting that regulation may be at the promoter level. Analysis of the follistatin promoter revealed consensus binding sites for AP-1, AP-2, and Sp1. Targeting the AP-1 pathway with SP600125, an inhibitor of JNK, and TAM67, a dominant negative c-Jun, had no effect on PPAR?-mediated down-regulation of follistatin. However, the follistatin promoter was dramatically regulated by Sp1, and this regulation was inhibited by PPAR? expression. Knockdown of Sp1 expression relieved repression of follistatin levels by rosiglitazone. Moreover, PPAR? was found to interact with Sp1 and repress its transcriptional activation function. Collectively, our data indicate that repression of Sp1 transcriptional activity by PPAR? is the underlying mechanism responsible for PPAR?-mediated regulation of follistatin expression. PMID:18768463

  14. The Theobroma cacao B3 domain transcription factor TcLEC2 plays a duel role in control of embryo development and maturation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Arabidopsis thaliana LEC2 gene encodes a B3 domain transcription factor, which plays critical roles during both zygotic and somatic embryogenesis. LEC2 exerts significant impacts on determining embryogenic potential and various metabolic processes through a complicated genetic regulatory network. Results An ortholog of the Arabidopsis Leafy Cotyledon 2 gene (AtLEC2) was characterized in Theobroma cacao (TcLEC2). TcLEC2 encodes a B3 domain transcription factor preferentially expressed during early and late zygotic embryo development. The expression of TcLEC2 was higher in dedifferentiated cells competent for somatic embryogenesis (embryogenic calli), compared to non-embryogenic calli. Transient overexpression of TcLEC2 in immature zygotic embryos resulted in changes in gene expression profiles and fatty acid composition. Ectopic expression of TcLEC2 in cacao leaves changed the expression levels of several seed related genes. The overexpression of TcLEC2 in cacao explants greatly increased the frequency of regeneration of stably transformed somatic embryos. TcLEC2 overexpressing cotyledon explants exhibited a very high level of embryogenic competency and when cultured on hormone free medium, exhibited an iterative embryogenic chain-reaction. Conclusions Our study revealed essential roles of TcLEC2 during both zygotic and somatic embryo development. Collectively, our evidence supports the conclusion that TcLEC2 is a functional ortholog of AtLEC2 and that it is involved in similar genetic regulatory networks during cacao somatic embryogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed report of the functional analysis of a LEC2 ortholog in a species other then Arabidopsis. TcLEC2 could potentially be used as a biomarker for the improvement of the SE process and screen for elite varieties in cacao germplasm. PMID:24758406

  15. Triptolide inhibits transcription of hTERT through down-regulation of transcription factor specificity protein 1 in primary effusion lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Long, Cong; Wang, Jingchao; Guo, Wei; Wang, Huan; Wang, Chao; Liu, Yu; Sun, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare and aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), a key component responsible for the regulation of telomerase activity, plays important roles in cellular immortalization and cancer development. Triptolide purified from Tripterygium extracts displays a broad-spectrum bioactivity profile, including immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor. In this study, it is investigated whether triptolide reduces hTERT expression and suppresses its activity in PEL cells. The mRNA and protein levels of hTERT were examined by real time-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The activity of hTERT promoter was determined by Dual luciferase reporter assay. Our results demonstrated that triptolide decreased expression of hTERT at both mRNA and protein levels. Further gene sequence analysis indicated that the activity of hTERT promoter was suppressed by triptolide. Triptolide also reduced the half-time of hTERT. Additionally, triptolide inhibited the expression of transcription factor specificity protein 1(Sp1) in PEL cells. Furthermore, knock-down of Sp1 by using specific shRNAs resulted in down-regulation of hTERT transcription and protein expression levels. Inhibition of Sp1 by specific shRNAs enhanced triptolide-induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of triptolide on hTERT transcription is possibly mediated by inhibition of transcription factor Sp1 in PEL cells. PMID:26631963

  16. Game-playing epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Siegel, M; Kurzrok, N; Barr, W B; Rowan, A J

    1992-01-01

    A 25-year-old woman with documented generalized seizures evoked by playing checkers was given a battery of psychological tests as well as a series of cognitive and non-game-related tasks during a session of intensive EEG-video monitoring. Generalized epileptiform discharges during each task, as well as during intervals of checkers playing, were quantified to determine possible triggering factors. Previous reports have discussed the roles of attention, concentration, stress, thinking, and spatial processing in similar cases. Our analysis showed significant activation of the EEG only with tasks involving strategic thinking, i.e., considering a sequence of moves based on evaluating the consequences of previous moves. PMID:1733764

  17. SREBP-1c and Sp1 interact to regulate transcription of the gene for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) in the liver.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Kaushik; Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Chiang, Cheng-Ming; Samols, David; Hanson, Richard W

    2004-04-01

    The sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), as well as SREBP-1a and SREBP-2, inhibit transcription of the gene encoding the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) (PEPCK-C). There are two SREBP regulatory elements (SREs) in the PEPCK-C gene promoter (-322 to -313 and -590 to -581). The SRE at -590 overlaps an Sp1 site on the opposite strand of the DNA. These SREs bound SREBP-1a and SREBP-1c with low affinity but the addition of purified upstream stimulatory activity enhanced the binding of SREBP-1 to both of these sites. Mutating these SREs increased both unstimulated (5-fold) and protein kinase A-stimulated transcription (8-27-fold) from the PEPCK-C gene promoter; this was lost when both SREs were mutated. The SRE at -590 differs by a single base pair from the SRE in the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene (T in the PEPCK-C gene promoter at -582, compared with an A in the SRE of the gene for the LDL receptor promoter). Introduction of the LDL receptor SRE into the PEPCK-C gene promoter increased SREBP-1c binding and caused a 10-fold enhancement of basal transcription from the promoter, rather than an inhibition as observed with the SRE in the PEPCK-C gene promoter. The T/A change does not alter the binding of Sp1 to its site on the opposite strand of the DNA. Sp1 bound to the promoter independently of SREBP-1c but competed with SREBP-1c for binding. Sp1 does not bind to the SRE at -322. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, using rat hepatocytes, demonstrated that SREBP-1 and Sp1 were associated in vivo with putative regulatory regions corresponding to the SREs in the PEPCK-C gene promoter. We propose that insulin represses transcription of the gene for PEPCK-C by inducing SREBP-1c production in the liver, which interferes with the stimulatory effect of Sp1 at -590 of the PEPCK-C gene promoter. PMID:14744869

  18. Role played by paxillin and paxillin tyrosine phosphorylation in hepatocyte growth factor/sphingosine-1-phosphate-mediated reactive oxygen species generation, lamellipodia formation, and endothelial barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Usatyuk, Peter V.; Jacobson, Jeffrey; Cress, Anne E.; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Salgia, Ravi; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Paxillin is a multifunctional and multidomain focal adhesion adaptor protein. It serves as an important scaffolding protein at focal adhesions by recruiting and binding to structural and signaling molecules. Paxillin tyrosine phosphorylation at Y31 and Y118 is important for paxillin redistribution to focal adhesions and angiogenesis. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are potent stimulators of lamellipodia formation, a prerequisite for endothelial cell migration. The role played by paxillin and its tyrosine phosphorylated forms in HGF- or S1P-induced lamellipodia formation and barrier function is unclear. HGF or S1P stimulated lamellipodia formation, tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin at Y31 and Y118, and c-Abl in human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs). Knockdown of paxillin with small interfering RNA (siRNA) or transfection with paxillin mutants (Y31F or Y118F) mitigated HGF- or S1P-induced lamellipodia formation, translocation of p47phox to lamellipodia, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in HLMVECs. Furthermore, exposure of HLMVECs to HGF or S1P stimulated c-Abl-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin at Y31 and Y118 in a time-dependent fashion, and down-regulation of c-Abl with siRNA attenuated HGF- or S1P-mediated lamellipodia formation, translocation of p47phox to lamellipodia, and endothelial barrier enhancement. In vivo, knockdown of paxillin with siRNA in mouse lungs attenuated ventilator-induced lung injury. Together, these results suggest that c-Abl-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin at Y31 and Y118 regulates HGF- or S1P-mediated lamellipodia formation, ROS generation in lamellipodia, and endothelial permeability. PMID:26697169

  19. CD1d induction in solid tumor cells by histone deacetylase inhibitors through inhibition of HDAC1/2 and activation of Sp1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Pei-Ming; Lin, Pei-Jie; Chen, Ching-Chow

    2012-01-01

    CD1d is a MHC class-like molecule that presents glycolipids to natural killer T (NKT) cells, then regulates innate and adaptive immunity. The regulation of CD1d gene expression in solid tumors is still largely unknown. Gene expression can be epigenetically regulated by DNA methylation and histone acetylation. We found that histone deacetylase inhibitors, trichostatin A (TSA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), induced CD1d gene expression in human (A549 and NCI-H292) and mouse (TC-1 and B16/F0) cancer cells. Simultaneous knockdown of HDAC1 and 2 induced CD1d gene expression. Sp1 inhibitor mitramycin A (MTM) blocked TSA- and SAHA-induced CD1d mRNA expression and Sp1 luciferase activity. Co-transfection of GAL4-Sp1 and Fc-luciferase reporters demonstrated that TSA and SAHA induced Sp1 luciferase reporter activity by enhancing Sp1 transactivation activity. The binding of Sp1 to CD1d promoter and histone H3 acetylation on Sp1 sites were increased by TSA and SAHA. These results indicate that TSA and SAHA could up-regulate CD1d expression in tumor cells through inhibition of HDAC1/2 and activation of Sp1. PMID:22419072

  20. Proto-oncogene FBI-1 (Pokemon/ZBTB7A) represses transcription of the tumor suppressor Rb gene via binding competition with Sp1 and recruitment of co-repressors.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Bu-Nam; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Choong-Eun; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Hur, Man-Wook

    2008-11-28

    FBI-1 (also called Pokemon/ZBTB7A) is a BTB/POZ-domain Krüppel-like zinc-finger transcription factor. Recently, FBI-1 was characterized as a proto-oncogenic protein, which represses tumor suppressor ARF gene transcription. The expression of FBI-1 is increased in many cancer tissues. We found that FBI-1 potently represses transcription of the Rb gene, a tumor suppressor gene important in cell cycle arrest. FBI-1 binds to four GC-rich promoter elements (FREs) located at bp -308 to -188 of the Rb promoter region. The Rb promoter also contains two Sp1 binding sites: GC-box 1 (bp -65 to -56) and GC-box 2 (bp -18 to -9), the latter of which is also bound by FBI-1. We found that FRE3 (bp -244 to -236) is also a Sp1 binding element. FBI-1 represses transcription of the Rb gene not only by binding to the FREs, but also by competing with Sp1 at the GC-box 2 and the FRE3. By binding to the FREs and/or the GC-box, FBI-1 represses transcription of the Rb gene through its POZ-domain, which recruits a co-repressor-histone deacetylase complex and deacetylates histones H3 and H4 at the Rb gene promoter. FBI-1 inhibits C2C12 myoblast cell differentiation by repressing Rb gene expression. PMID:18801742

  1. Cilostazol inhibits insulin-stimulated expression of sterol regulatory binding protein-1c via inhibition of LXR and Sp1

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yun-A; Kim, Hee Kyoung; Bae, Kwi-Hyun; Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Hye-Soon; Jang, Byoung Kuk; Jung, Gwon-Soo; Lee, In-Kyu; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Park, Keun-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is common in obese individuals with hyperinsulinemia and is an important hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Sterol regulatory binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) is a master regulator of lipogenic gene expression in the liver. Hyperinsulinemia induces transcription of SREBP-1c via activation of liver X receptor (LXR) and specificity protein 1 (Sp1). Cilostazol is an antiplatelet agent that prevents atherosclerosis and decreases serum triglyceride levels. However, little is known about the effects of cilostazol on hepatic lipogenesis. Here, we examined the role of cilostazol in the regulation of SREBP-1c transcription in the liver. The effects of cilostazol on the expression of SREBP-1c and its target genes in response to insulin or an LXR agonist (T0901317) were examined using real-time RT-PCR and western blot analysis on cultured hepatocytes. To investigate the effect of cilostazol on SREBP-1c at the transcriptional level, transient transfection reporter assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) were performed. Cilostazol inhibited insulin-induced and LXR-agonist-induced expression of SREBP-1c and its downstream targets, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase, in cultured hepatocytes. Cilostazol also inhibited activation of the SREBP-1c promoter by insulin, T0901317 and Sp1 in a luciferase reporter assay. EMSA analysis showed that cilostazol inhibits SREBP-1c expression by repressing the binding of LXR and Sp1 to the promoter region. These results indicate that cilostazol inhibits insulin-induced hepatic SREBP-1c expression via the inhibition of LXR and Sp1 activity and that cilostazol is a negative regulator of hepatic lipogenesis. PMID:24458133

  2. Peritoneal Dissemination Requires an Sp1-Dependent CXCR4/CXCL12 Signaling Axis and Extracellular Matrix-Directed Spheroid Formation.

    PubMed

    Kasagi, Yuta; Harada, Yui; Morodomi, Yosuke; Iwai, Toshiki; Saito, Satoru; Yoshida, Kumi; Oki, Eiji; Saeki, Hiroshi; Ohgaki, Kippei; Sugiyama, Masahiko; Onimaru, Mitsuho; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-15

    Peritonitis carcinomatosa is an advanced and intractable state of gastrointestinal and ovarian cancer, where mechanistic elucidation might enable the development of more effective therapies. Peritoneal dissemination of this type of malignancy has been generally thought to initiate from "milky spots" of primitive lymphoid tissues in the peritoneal cavity. In this study, we offer evidence challenging this idea, based on the finding that tumor implantation and directional dissemination was not required for the presence of milky spots, but rather SCF/CXCL12-expressing niche-like cells located at the border regions of perivascular adipose tissue. Interestingly, we found that peritoneal cavity lavage fluid, which specifically contains peritoneal collagen type IV and plasma fibronectin, dramatically facilitated spheroid formation of murine and human colon cancer cells. Spheroid formation strongly induced the expression of CXCR4 in an Sp1-dependent manner to promote niche-directed metastasis. Notably, disrupting sphere formation or inhibiting Sp1 activity was sufficient to suppress tumor dissemination and potentiated chemosensitivity to 5-fluorouracil. Our findings illuminate mechanisms of peritoneal cancer dissemination and highlight the Sp1/CXCR4/CXCL12 signaling axis as a rational target for the development of therapeutics to manage this intractable form of malignancy. Cancer Res; 76(2); 347-57. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26744523

  3. Purification and characterization of detergent stable alkaline protease from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SP1 isolated from apple rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Guleria, Shiwani; Walia, Abhishek; Chauhan, Anjali; Shirkot, Chand Karan

    2016-02-01

    A thermostable extracellular alkaline protease producing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SP1 was isolated from apple rhizosphere having multifarious plant growth promoting activities. Strain SP1 was purified to 6.48-fold using four-step purification protocol and characterized in detail for its robustness and ecofriendly application in leather and detergent industries. Structural analysis revealed that the protease was monomeric and had a molecular weight of 43?kDa. It exhibited optimum activity at 60C in alkaline environment (pH 8.0) and stable in the presence of surfactants and oxidizing agents. Enzyme was thermostable at 50C and retained more than 70% activity after 30?min incubation. It has shown stain removal property and dehairing of goat skin without chemical assistance and hydrolyzing fibrous proteins. This protease showed Km of 0.125?mg?ml(-1) and Vmax of 12820??g?ml(-1) indicating its excellent affinity and catalytic role. Thermal inactivation of the pure enzyme followed first-order kinetics. The half life of the pure enzyme at 50, 60, and 65C was 77, 19.80, and 13.33?min, respectively. The activation energy was 37.19?KJ?mol(-1) . The results suggest that the B. amyloliquefaciens SP1 has a potential application in different industries. PMID:26375163

  4. Histone deacetylase inhibitors modulate the transcriptional regulation of guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-a gene: interactive roles of modified histones, histone acetyltransferase, p300, AND Sp1.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prerna; Tripathi, Satyabha; Pandey, Kailash N

    2014-03-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) binds guanylyl cyclase-A/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA) and produces the intracellular second messenger, cGMP, which regulates cardiovascular homeostasis. We sought to determine the function of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in regulating Npr1 (coding for GC-A/NPRA) gene transcription, using primary mouse mesangial cells treated with class-specific HDAC inhibitors (HDACi). Trichostatin A, a pan inhibitor, and mocetinostat (MGCD0103), a class I HDAC inhibitor, significantly enhanced Npr1 promoter activity (by 8- and 10-fold, respectively), mRNA levels (4- and 5.3-fold, respectively), and NPRA protein (2.7- and 3.5-fold, respectively). However, MC1568 (class II HDAC inhibitor) had no discernible effect. Overexpression of HDAC1 and HDAC2 significantly attenuated Npr1 promoter activity, whereas HDAC3 and HDAC8 had no effect. HDACi-treated cultured cells in vitro and intact animals in vivo showed significantly reduced binding of HDAC1 and -2 and increased accumulation of acetylated H3-K9/14 and H4-K12 at the Npr1 promoter. Deletional analyses of the Npr1 promoter along with ectopic overexpression and inhibition of Sp1 confirmed that HDACi-induced Npr1 gene transcription is accomplished by Sp1 activation. Furthermore, HDACi attenuated the interaction of Sp1 with HDAC1/2 and promoted Sp1 association with p300 and p300/cAMP-binding protein-associated factor; it also promoted the recruitment of p300 and p300/cAMP-binding protein-associated factor to the Npr1 promoter. Our results demonstrate that trichostatin A and MGCD0103 enhanced Npr1 gene expression through inhibition of HDAC1/2 and increased both acetylation of histones (H3-K9/14, H4-K12) and Sp1 by p300, and their recruitment to Npr1 promoter. Our findings define a novel epigenetic regulatory mechanism that governs Npr1 gene transcription. PMID:24451378

  5. Let's Play! Assistive Technology Interventions for Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Shelly J.; Mistrett, Susan

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the Let's Play Project model, which uses play as the outcome for families and children with disabilities. The model is family-centered, play-focused, and uses assistive technology in the facilitation of play and development. Six assistive technology categories that are used are explained with examples of low-tech

  6. Play-Level Distributions of Estimates of Recovery Factors for a Miscible Carbon Dioxide Enhanced Oil Recovery Method Used in Oil Reservoirs in the Conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    The retention factor is the percentage of injected CO2 that is naturally retained in the reservoir. Retention factors were also estimated in this study. For clastic reservoirs, 90 percent of the estimated retention factors were between 21.7 and 32.1 percent, and for carbonate reservoirs, 90 percent were between 23.7 and 38.2 percent. The respective median values were 22.9 for clastic reservoirs and 26.1 for carbonate reservoirs. Both distributions were right skewed. The recovery and retention factors that were calculated are consistent with the corresponding factors reported in the literature.

  7. Pretending to Play or Playing to Pretend

    PubMed Central

    Kasari, Connie; Chang, Ya-Chih; Patterson, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    An article by Angeline S. Lillard and others published in the January 2013 issue of Psychological Bulletin about the impact of pretend play on child development raised a number of issues about play studies and child psychology. They claimed that, contrary to current theories on the subject, the evidence of many studies does not support causal explanations of plays relationship to most childhood development. In this article, authors Kasari, Chang, and Patterson review these arguments about play and devlopment in relation to children with autismchildren who show specific deficits in pretend play. They argue that the study of these children provides a unique opportunity to consider which elements in play are important and how play skills are associated with different periods of child development. They conclude that, because pretend play requires intervention for the majority of children with autism, improving pretense in these children may shed more light on the causal impact of pretense on later developing skills in children. Key words: child development and pretend play; children with autism; funtional play; intervention in play; symbol play PMID:26617954

  8. Genomic structure and regulation of the promoter of the rat insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 gene.

    PubMed

    Kutoh, E; Margot, J B; Schwander, J

    1993-09-01

    We describe the complete genomic organization of the rat insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (rIGFBP-2) gene. This single-copy gene spans over 36 kilobases (kb) and is split into four exons of 475, 224, 141, and 472 nucleotides (nt), and three introns of 32 kb, 686, and 1793 nt, respectively. A single transcription start site (-90) was mapped by S1 protection assay and primer extension. The putative promoter of the rIGFBP-2 gene does not possess TATA or CAAT elements; however, it contains three GC-rich regions located 37, 57, and 81 nt 5' of the cap site. Deletion analysis of the 0.6-kb region of the upstream sequences and transfection of these constructs into BRL-3A and Chinese hamster ovary cells were used to localize possible cis-acting elements. The three GC boxes enhanced chloramphenicol acetyltransferase and luciferase transcription almost to the same level as the XbaI-NsphI (-579 to +1) fragment and displayed synergism and orientation dependence. In addition a similar positive effect on luciferase transcription has been obtained by cotransfecting these fragments with varying amounts of Sp1 expression vector into Drosophila cells that lack endogenous Sp1. In vitro gel mobility shift assays demonstrated that box 1 (GGGCGG), box 2 (GGGAGG), and box 3 (GGGAAGG) bind to SpI with variable affinities and display cooperativity. A protein that gave a similar DNA binding pattern was present in nuclear extracts of BRL-3A cells. To analysis using consensus or aberrant Sp1 elements and a polyclonal Sp1 antiserum to inhibit DNA binding were performed. These in vivo and in vitro data demonstrated that Sp1 plays an important role in the regulation of the expression of rIGFBP-2. PMID:7504179

  9. Oldenlandia diffusa extracts exert antiproliferative and apoptotic effects on human breast cancer cells through ERα/Sp1-mediated p53 activation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Guowei; Barone, Ines; Gelsomino, Luca; Giordano, Cinzia; Bonofiglio, Daniela; Statti, Giancarlo; Menichini, Francesco; Catalano, Stefania; Andò, Sebastiano

    2012-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent tumor and a major cause of death among women. Estrogens play a crucial role in breast tumor growth, which is the rationale for the use of hormonal antiestrogen therapies. Unfortunately, not all therapeutic modalities are efficacious and it is imperative to develop new effective antitumoral drugs. Oldenlandia diffusa (OD) is a well-known medicinal plant used to prevent and treat many disorders, especially cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of OD extracts on breast cancer cell proliferation. We observed that OD extracts strongly inhibited anchorage-dependent and -independent cell growth and induced apoptosis in estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-positive breast cancer cells, whereas proliferation and apoptotic responses of MCF-10A normal breast epithelial cells were unaffected. Mechanistically, OD extracts enhance the tumor suppressor p53 expression as a result of an increased binding of ERα/Sp1 complex to the p53 promoter region. Finally, we isolated ursolic and oleanolic acids as the bioactive compounds able to upregulate p53 expression and inhibit breast cancer cell growth. These acids were greatly effective in reducing tamoxifen-resistant growth of a derivative MCF-7 breast cancer cell line resistant to the antiestrogen treatment. Our results evidence how OD, and its bioactive compounds, exert antiproliferative and apoptotic effects selectively in ERα-positive breast cancer cells, highlighting the potential use of these herbal extracts as breast cancer preventive and/or therapeutic agents. PMID:22213398

  10. All the World's a Stage? Consequences of a Role-Playing Pedagogy on Psychological Factors and Writing and Rhetorical Skill in College Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroessner, Steven J.; Beckerman, Laurie Susser; Whittaker, Alexis

    2009-01-01

    Reacting to the Past is a pedagogy involving collaborative role playing in history-based games over a semester. This article presents results from a systematic assessment of this novel pedagogy conducted in 3 phases following student focus group interviews. Interviews indicated that the method was generally popular compared with traditional…

  11. Des Regles et du Jeu. Complementarite des facteurs genetiques et epigenetiques dans le developpement cerebral (Of Rules and of Play. The Complementary Nature of Genetic and Epigenetic Factors in Brain Development).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Jean-Francois

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the importance of genetic and epigenetic factors in the development of the nervous system and the performances it conditions. From the perspective of rules, play, and relaxation of rules, learning and education are not considered as a kind of conditioning but as providing a content in which the cumulative expression of potential can take

  12. Play Therapy: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Maggie L.; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Jessee, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the current issues in play therapy and its implications for play therapists. A brief history of play therapy is provided along with the current play therapy approaches and techniques. This article also touches on current issues or problems that play therapists may face, such as interpreting children's play, implementing

  13. Playing To Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, George S.; Rusher, Anne S.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies the concepts and skills young children learn through play and describes ways to implement a successful play program in early-childhood settings. Includes discussions of planning for play activities, providing props and other materials, contextualizing play, assessing learning during play, and explaining the play curriculum to families

  14. Musical Instrument Choice and Playing History in Post-Secondary Level Music Students: Some Descriptive Data, Some Causes and Some Background Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Simy Meng-Yu; Howard, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Why do musicians specialize in the specific instruments that they do? Research has shown effects of such factors as the perceived masculinity/femininity of instruments and musician's personality but there are little background data on other factors. The present study had two major aims. The first aim was to gather some useful background data on…

  15. Musical Instrument Choice and Playing History in Post-Secondary Level Music Students: Some Descriptive Data, Some Causes and Some Background Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Simy Meng-Yu; Howard, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Why do musicians specialize in the specific instruments that they do? Research has shown effects of such factors as the perceived masculinity/femininity of instruments and musician's personality but there are little background data on other factors. The present study had two major aims. The first aim was to gather some useful background data on

  16. Evaluating Playfulness: Construct Validity of the Children's Playfulness Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevlas, Efthimios; Grammatikopoulous, Vasilios; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki

    2003-01-01

    Examined the underlying structure and factorial validity of the Children's Playfulness Scale in evaluating preschool children's behavior. Found that factor loadings, factor variances/covariances, and error variances/covariances are invariant across calibration and validation groups, indicating the good cross-generalizability of the scale. (JPB)

  17. Induction of miR-137 by Isorhapontigenin (ISO) Directly Targets Sp1 Protein Translation and Mediates Its Anticancer Activity Both In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xingruo; Xu, Zhou; Gu, Jiayan; Huang, Haishan; Gao, Guangxun; Zhang, Xiaoru; Li, Jingxia; Jin, Honglei; Jiang, Guosong; Sun, Hong; Huang, Chuanshu

    2016-03-01

    Our recent studies found that isorhapontigenin (ISO) showed a significant inhibitory effect on human bladder cancer cell growth, accompanied with cell-cycle G0-G1 arrest as well as downregulation of Cyclin D1 expression at transcriptional level via inhibition of Sp1 transactivation in bladder cancer cells. In the current study, the potential ISO inhibition of bladder tumor formation has been explored in a xenograft nude mouse model, and the molecular mechanisms underlying ISO inhibition of Sp1 expression and anticancer activities have been elucidated both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the studies demonstrated that ISO treatment induced the expression of miR-137, which in turn suppressed Sp1 protein translation by directly targeting Sp1 mRNA 3'-untranslated region (UTR). Similar to ISO treatment, ectopic expression of miR-137 alone led to G0-G1 cell growth arrest and inhibition of anchorage-independent growth in human bladder cancer cells, which could be completely reversed by overexpression of GFP-Sp1. The inhibition of miR-137 expression attenuated ISO-induced inhibition of Sp1/Cyclin D1 expression, induction of G0-G1 cell growth arrest, and suppression of cell anchorage-independent growth. Taken together, our studies have demonstrated that miR-137 induction by ISO targets Sp1 mRNA 3'-UTR and inhibits Sp1 protein translation, which consequently results in reduction of Cyclin D1 expression, induction of G0-G1 growth arrest, and inhibition of anchorage-independent growth in vitro and in vivo. Our results have provided novel insights into understanding the anticancer activity of ISO in the therapy of human bladder cancer. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(3); 512-22. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26832795

  18. Induction of truncated form of tenascin-X (XB-S) through dissociation of HDAC1 from SP-1/HDAC1 complex in response to hypoxic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Akari; Endo, Toshiya; Abiko, Shun; Ariga, Hiroyoshi; Matsumoto, Ken-ichi

    2008-08-15

    ABSTRACT: XB-S is an amino-terminal truncated protein of tenascin-X (TNX) in humans. The levels of the XB-S transcript, but not those of TNX transcripts, were increased upon hypoxia. We identified a critical hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) localized to a GT-rich element positioned from - 1410 to - 1368 in the XB-S promoter. Using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), we found that the HRE forms a DNA-protein complex with Sp1 and that GG positioned in - 1379 and - 1378 is essential for the binding of the nuclear complex. Transfection experiments in SL2 cells, an Sp1-deficient model system, with an Sp1 expression vector demonstrated that the region from - 1380 to - 1371, an HRE, is sufficient for efficient activation of the XB-S promoter upon hypoxia. The EMSA and a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay showed that Sp1 together with the transcriptional repressor histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) binds to the HRE of the XB-S promoter under normoxia and that hypoxia causes dissociation of HDAC1 from the Sp1/HDAC1 complex. The HRE promoter activity was induced in the presence of a histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A, even under normoxia. Our results indicate that the hypoxia-induced activation of the XB-S promoter is regulated through dissociation of HDAC1 from an Sp1-binding HRE site.

  19. Why do adult dogs 'play'?

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, John W S; Pullen, Anne J; Rooney, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Among the Carnivora, play behaviour is usually made up of motor patterns characteristic of predatory, agonistic and courtship behaviour. Domestic dogs are unusual in that play is routinely performed by adults, both socially, with conspecifics and with humans, and also asocially, with objects. This enhanced playfulness is commonly thought to be a side effect of paedomorphosis, the perpetuation of juvenile traits into adulthood, but here we suggest that the functions of the different types of play are sufficiently distinct that they are unlikely to have arisen through a single evolutionary mechanism. Solitary play with objects appears to be derived from predatory behaviour: preferred toys are those that can be dismembered, and a complex habituation-like feedback system inhibits play with objects that are resistant to alteration. Intraspecific social play is structurally different from interspecific play and may therefore be motivationally distinct and serve different goals; for example, dogs often compete over objects when playing with other dogs, but are usually more cooperative when the play partner is human. The majority of dogs do not seem to regard competitive games played with a human partner as "dominance" contests: rather, winning possession of objects during games appears to be simply rewarding. Play may be an important factor in sociality, since dogs are capable of extracting social information not only from games in which they participate, but also from games that they observe between third parties. We suggest that the domestic dog's characteristic playfulness in social contexts is an adaptive trait, selected during domestication to facilitate both training for specific purposes, and the formation of emotionally-based bonds between dog and owner. Play frequency and form may therefore be an indicator of the quality of dog-owner relationships. PMID:25251020

  20. Interleukin-6-specific activation of the C/EBPdelta gene in hepatocytes is mediated by Stat3 and Sp1.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, C A; Sterneck, E; Johnson, P F

    1998-04-01

    C/EBPdelta (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta) has been implicated as a regulator of acute-phase response (APR) genes in hepatocytes. Its expression increases dramatically in liver during the APR and can be induced in hepatic cell lines by interleukin-6 (IL-6), an acute-phase mediator that activates transcription of many APR genes. Here we have investigated the mechanism by which C/EBPdelta expression is regulated by IL-6 in hepatoma cells. C/EBPdelta promoter sequences to -125 bp are sufficient for IL-6 inducibility of a reporter gene and include an APR element (APRE) that is essential for IL-6 responsiveness. DNA binding experiments and transactivation assays demonstrate that Stat3, but not Stat1, interacts with this APRE. Two Sp1 sites, one of which is adjacent to the APRE, are required for IL-6 induction and transactivation by Stat3. Thus, Stat3 and Sp1 function cooperatively to activate the C/EBPdelta promoter. Replacement of the APRE with Stat binding elements (SBEs) from the ICAM-1 or C/EBPbeta promoter, both of which recognize both Stat1 and Stat3, confers responsiveness to gamma interferon, a cytokine that selectively activates Stat1. Sequence comparisons suggest that the distinct Stat binding specificities of the C/EBPdelta and C/EBPbeta SBEs are determined primarily by a single base pair difference. Our findings indicate that the cytokine specificity of C/EBPdelta gene expression is governed by the APRE sequence. PMID:9528783

  1. Interleukin-6-Specific Activation of the C/EBP? Gene in Hepatocytes Is Mediated by Stat3 and Sp1

    PubMed Central

    Cantwell, Carrie A.; Sterneck, Esta; Johnson, Peter F.

    1998-01-01

    C/EBP? (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ?) has been implicated as a regulator of acute-phase response (APR) genes in hepatocytes. Its expression increases dramatically in liver during the APR and can be induced in hepatic cell lines by interleukin-6 (IL-6), an acute-phase mediator that activates transcription of many APR genes. Here we have investigated the mechanism by which C/EBP? expression is regulated by IL-6 in hepatoma cells. C/EBP? promoter sequences to ?125 bp are sufficient for IL-6 inducibility of a reporter gene and include an APR element (APRE) that is essential for IL-6 responsiveness. DNA binding experiments and transactivation assays demonstrate that Stat3, but not Stat1, interacts with this APRE. Two Sp1 sites, one of which is adjacent to the APRE, are required for IL-6 induction and transactivation by Stat3. Thus, Stat3 and Sp1 function cooperatively to activate the C/EBP? promoter. Replacement of the APRE with Stat binding elements (SBEs) from the ICAM-1 or C/EBP? promoter, both of which recognize both Stat1 and Stat3, confers responsiveness to gamma interferon, a cytokine that selectively activates Stat1. Sequence comparisons suggest that the distinct Stat binding specificities of the C/EBP? and C/EBP? SBEs are determined primarily by a single base pair difference. Our findings indicate that the cytokine specificity of C/EBP? gene expression is governed by the APRE sequence. PMID:9528783

  2. Complete genome sequence of Terriglobus saanensis type strain SP1PR4T, an Acidobacteria from tundra soil

    SciTech Connect

    Rawat, Suman R.; Mannisto, Minna; Starovoytov, Valentin; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Nolan, Matt; Hauser, Loren John; Land, Miriam L; Davenport, Karen W.; Woyke, Tanja; Haggblom, Max

    2012-01-01

    Terriglobus saanensis SP1PR4T is a novel species of the genus Terriglobus. T. saanensis is of ecological interest because it is a representative of the phylum Acidobacteria, which are dominant members of bacterial soil microbiota in Arctic ecosystems. T. saanensis is a cold-adapted acidophile and a versatile heterotroph utilizing a suite of simple sugars and complex polysaccharides. The genome contained an abundance of genes assigned to metabolism and transport of carbohydrates including gene modules encoding for carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) family involved in breakdown, utilization and biosynthesis of diverse structural and storage polysaccharides. T. saanensis SP1PR4T represents the first member of genus Terriglobus with a completed genome sequence, consisting of a single replicon of 5,095,226 base pairs (bp), 54 RNA genes and 4,279 protein-coding genes. We infer that the physiology and metabolic potential of T. saanensis is adapted to allow for resilience to the nutrient-deficient conditions and fluctuating temperatures of Arctic tundra soils.

  3. Children's Play and Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Discusses adverse effects of FCC deregulation of children's television programming on children's play behavior. Discusses the difference between play and imitation, the role of high quality dramatic play in healthy child development, the popularity of war play, and use of toys to increase dramatic play. Considers ways to help children gain control

  4. The Denial of Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton-Smith, Brian

    Well meaning parents and teachers often use children's play for the purposes of literacy and socialization. Yet, these attempts may deny play to children by subordinating play to some other concept. Evidence shows that even when parents play with their very young children they generally play games like shopping, cooking, and eating; whereas when

  5. The key factor limiting plant growth in cold and humid alpine areas also plays a dominant role in plant carbon isotope discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Meng; Wang, Guoan; Li, Xiaoliang; Cai, Xiaobu; Li, Xiaolin; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Junling

    2015-01-01

    Many environmental factors affect carbon isotope discrimination in plants, yet the predominant factor influencing this process is generally assumed to be the key growth-limiting factor. However, to our knowledge this hypothesis has not been confirmed. We therefore determined the carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of plants growing in two cold and humid mountain regions where temperature is considered to be the key growth-limiting factor. Mean annual temperature (MAT) showed a significant impact on variation in carbon isotope discrimination value (Δ) irrespective of study area or plant functional type with either partial correlation or regression analysis, but the correlation between Δ and soil water content (SWC) was usually not significant. In multiple stepwise regression analysis, MAT was either the first or the only variable selected into the prediction model of Δ against MAT and SWC, indicating that the effect of temperature on carbon isotope discrimination was predominant. The results therefore provide evidence that the key growth-limiting factor is also crucial for plant carbon isotope discrimination. Changes in leaf morphology, water viscosity and carboxylation efficiency with temperature may be responsible for the observed positive correlation between Δ and temperature. PMID:26579188

  6. SP1-induced upregulation of the long noncoding RNA TINCR regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis by affecting KLF2 mRNA stability in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, T-P; Liu, X-X; Xia, R; Yin, L; Kong, R; Chen, W-M; Huang, M-D; Shu, Y-Q

    2015-11-01

    The long noncoding RNA TINCR shows aberrant expression in human squamous carcinomas. However, its expression and function in gastric cancer remain unclear. We report that TINCR is strongly upregulated in human gastric carcinoma (GC), where it was found to contribute to oncogenesis and cancer progression. We also revealed that TINCR overexpression is induced by nuclear transcription factor SP1. Silencing TINCR expression inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, tumorigenicity and apoptosis promotion, whereas TINCR overexpression promoted cell growth, as documented in the SGC7901 and BGC823 cell lines. Mechanistic analyses indicated that TINCR could bind to STAU1 (staufen1) protein, and influence KLF2 mRNA stability and expression, then KLF2 regulated cyclin-dependent kinase genes CDKN1A/P21 and CDKN2B/P15 transcription and expression, thereby affecting the proliferation and apoptosis of GC cells. Together, our findings suggest that TINCR contributes to the oncogenic potential of GC and may constitute a potential therapeutic target in this disease. PMID:25728677

  7. Chondroitin sulphate decreases collagen synthesis in normal and scleroderma fibroblasts through a Smad-independent TGF-? pathway implication of C-Krox and Sp1

    PubMed Central

    Renard, Emmanuelle; Chadjichristos, Christos; Kypriotou, Magdalini; Beauchef, Gallic; Bordat, Pascal; Dompmartin, Anne; Widom, Russell L; Boumediene, Karim; Pujol, Jean-Pierre; Galra, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Despite several investigations, the transcriptional mechanisms which regulate the expression of both type I collagen genes (COL1A1 and COL1A2) in either physiological or pathological situations, such as scleroderma, are not completely known. In this study, we determined the effects of both native ichtyan chondrotin sulphate (CS) and its derived hydrolytic fragments (CSf) on human normal (NF) and scleroderma (SF) fibroblasts. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that CS and CSf exert an inhibitory effect on type I collagen protein synthesis and decrease the corresponding mRNA steady-state levels of COL1A1 and COL1A2 in NF and SF. These glycosaminoglycan molecules repress COL1A1 gene transcription through a -112/-61 bp sequence upstream the start site of transcription and imply hc-Krox and Sp1 transcription factors. In addition, CS and CSf induced a down-regulation of T?RI expression. As a conclusion, our findings highlight a possible new role for CS and CSf as anti-fibrotic molecules and could help in elucidating the mechanisms of action by which CS and CSf exert their inhibitory effect on type I collagen synthesis. PMID:18298657

  8. Chondroitin sulphate decreases collagen synthesis in normal and scleroderma fibroblasts through a Smad-independent TGF-beta pathway--implication of C-Krox and Sp1.

    PubMed

    Renard, Emmanuelle; Chadjichristos, Christos; Kypriotou, Magdalini; Beauchef, Gallic; Bordat, Pascal; Dompmartin, Anne; Widom, Russell L; Boumediene, Karim; Pujol, Jean-Pierre; Galra, Philippe

    2008-12-01

    Despite several investigations, the transcriptional mechanisms which regulate the expression of both type I collagen genes (COL1A1 and COL1A2) in either physiological or pathological situations, such as scleroderma, are not completely known. In this study, we determined the effects of both native ichtyan chondrotin sulphate (CS) and its derived hydrolytic fragments (CSf) on human normal (NF) and scleroderma (SF) fibroblasts. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that CS and CSf exert an inhibitory effect on type I collagen protein synthesis and decrease the corresponding mRNA steady-state levels of COL1A1 and COL1A2 in NF and SF. These glycosaminoglycan molecules repress COL1A1 gene transcription through a -112/-61 bp sequence upstream the start site of transcription and imply hc-Krox and Sp1 transcription factors. In addition, CS and CSf induced a down-regulation of TbetaRI expression. As a conclusion, our findings highlight a possible new role for CS and CSf as anti-fibrotic molecules and could help in elucidating the mechanisms of action by which CS and CSf exert their inhibitory effect on type I collagen synthesis. PMID:18298657

  9. Examining Resource and Protective Factors in the Adjustment of Latino Youth in Low Income Families: What Role Does Maternal Acculturation Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loukas, Alexandra; Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Prelow, Hazel M.

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether the risk and positive factors contributing to the delinquent behaviors and internalizing problems of 454 Latino adolescents varied across maternal linguistic acculturation and adolescent gender. Although the level of cumulative risk to which the 10-to-14-year old adolescents were exposed did not vary by

  10. The Tetraspanin CD81 Protein Increases Melanoma Cell Motility by Up-regulating Metalloproteinase MT1-MMP Expression through the Pro-oncogenic Akt-dependent Sp1 Activation Signaling Pathways*

    PubMed Central

    Hong, In-Kee; Byun, Hee-Jung; Lee, Jaeseob; Jin, Young-June; Wang, Sun-Ju; Jeoung, Doo-Il; Kim, Young-Myeong; Lee, Hansoo

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of multiple tetraspanin proteins in cancer invasion and metastasis, little is known about the role and significance of tetraspanin CD81 in these processes. In the present study, we examined CD81 effects on melanoma cell invasiveness and metastasis. Transfection of CD81 into melanoma cells lacking endogenous CD81 expression significantly enhanced the migrating, invasive, and metastatic abilities of melanoma cells. Interestingly, membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) expression was found in CD81-expressing melanoma cells but not in CD81-deficient cells. siRNA knockdown of CD81 in melanoma cells with endogenous CD81 demonstrated decreased MT1-MMP levels and cell motility. Notably, CD81-induced cell migration was abrogated by antibody blocking and siRNA knockdown of MT1-MMP, indicating that MT1-MMP is responsible for CD81-stimulated melanoma cell migration. Promoter analysis revealed an essential role of the Sp1 transcription factor in CD81-induced MT1-MMP transcription. We also demonstrate that the Sp1-activating Akt pathway is involved in adhesion-dependent CD81 signaling to induce MT1-MMP expression and cell motility. Importantly, human skin cancer tissue specimens displayed a positive correlation of CD81 with MT1-MMP expression levels and a close association of CD81 with malignant melanomas. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that CD81 stimulates melanoma cell motility by inducing MT1-MMP expression through the Akt-dependent Sp1 activation signaling pathway, leading to increased melanoma invasion and metastasis. PMID:24733393

  11. Myocardin-related transcription factor A (MRTF-A) plays an essential role in hepatic stellate cell activation by epigenetically modulating TGF-β signaling.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wenfang; Fan, Zhiwen; Li, Jianfei; Hao, Chenzhi; Li, Min; Xu, Huihui; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Bisheng; Zhang, Liping; Fang, Mingming; Xu, Yong

    2016-02-01

    Fibrosis following injury is a common adaptive response in the liver, which can lead to irreparable and life-threatening cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma without effectual intervention. The molecular mechanisms underlying fibrogenic response in the liver remains poorly understood. Here we report that mice with deficiency in myocardin-related transcription factor A (MRTF-A) showed resistance to thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis with significantly reduced expression of pro-fibrogenic genes when compared to wild type littermates. Over-expression of MRTF-A enhanced whereas depletion of MRTF-A alleviated pro-fibrogenic transcription induced by TGF-β, a major pro-fibrogenic factor in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Mechanistically, MRTF-A silencing in HSCs impacted the chromatin structure by reducing the deposition of methylated histone H3K4 on the promoters of pro-fibrogenic genes. Further analyses revealed that MRTF-A interacted with and recruited several key epigenetic factors involved in H3K4 methylation, including ASH2, WDR5, and SET1, to the promoters of pro-fibrogenic genes in response to TGF-β treatment. Over-expression of ASH2, WDR5, or SET1 enhanced the transactivation of pro-fibrogenic gene promoters by TGF-β in an MRTF-A-dependent manner. In conclusion, MRTF-A regulates liver fibrosis by epigenetically tuning the TGF-β signaling pathway in HSCs. PMID:26693892

  12. Evidence that the pre-mRNA splicing factor Clf1p plays a role in DNA replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenge; Rainville, Irene R; Ding, Min; Bolus, Margaret; Heintz, Nicholas H; Pederson, David S

    2002-01-01

    Clf1p is an essential, highly conserved protein in S. cerevisiae that has been implicated in pre-mRNA splicing. Clf1p's ortholog in Drosophila, Crn, is required for normal cell proliferation. Cells depleted of Clf1p arrest primarily with large buds, a single nucleus, a 2C DNA content, and a short, intact mitotic spindle. We isolated temperature-sensitive clf1 mutants that exhibit similar mitotic defects when released to the restrictive temperature from an early S-phase block. While these mutants also accumulate unspliced pre-mRNA at the restrictive temperature, the mitotic arrest does not appear to result from a failure to splice tubulin pre-mRNA. Moreover, the same mutants exhibit a delayed entry into S phase when released to the restrictive temperature from a G1 phase block. This delay could not be suppressed by disruption of the S-phase CDK inhibitor SIC1, suggesting that Clf1p is involved in DNA replication. Consistent with this possibility, we find that Clf1p (but not the mutant clf1p) interacts with the DNA replication initiation protein Orc2p in two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays, that Clf1p preferentially associates with origins of DNA replication, and that this association is Orc2p dependent. These observations suggest that Clf1p plays a direct role in the initiation of DNA replication. PMID:11973290

  13. Children's Empowerment in Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canning, Natalie

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the level of empowerment and autonomy children can create in their play experiences. It examines the play discourses that children build and maintain and considers the importance of play contexts in supporting children's emotional and social development. These aspects of play are often unseen or misunderstood by the adult

  14. Two people playing together: some thoughts on play, playing, and playfulness in psychoanalytic work.

    PubMed

    Vliegen, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Children's play and the playfulness of adolescents and adults are important indicators of personal growth and development. When a child is not able to play, or an adolescent/adult is not able to be playful with thoughts and ideas, psychotherapy can help to find a more playful and creative stance. Elaborating Winnicott's (1968, p. 591) statement that "psychotherapy has to do with two people playing together," three perspectives on play in psychotherapy are discussed. In the first point of view, the child gets in touch with and can work through aspects of his or her inner world, while playing in the presence of the therapist. The power of play is then rooted in the playful communication with the self In a second perspective, in play the child is communicating aspects of his or her inner world to the therapist as a significant other. In a third view, in "playing together" child and therapist are coconstructing new meanings. These three perspectives on play are valid at different moments of a therapy process or for different children, depending on the complex vicissitudes of the child's constitution, life experiences, development, and psychic structure. Concerning these three perspectives, a parallel can be drawn between the therapist's attitude toward the child's play and the way the therapist responds to the verbal play of an adolescent or adult. We illustrate this with the case of Jacob, a late adolescent hardly able to play with ideas. PMID:20578437

  15. The Play of Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews the role of play within psychotherapy. She does not discuss the formal play therapy especially popular for young children, nor play from the Jungian perspective that encourages the use of the sand tray with adults. Instead, she focuses on the informal use of play during psychotherapy as it is orchestrated intuitively. Because…

  16. Self-assembled semi-crystallinity at parallel ?-sheet nanocrystal interfaces in clustered MaSp1 (spider silk) proteins.

    PubMed

    Sintya, Erly; Alam, Parvez

    2016-01-01

    In this communication, we use molecular dynamics methods to model the self-assembly of semi-crystalline domains at ?-sheet nanocrystal interfaces in clusters of spider silk (MaSp1) proteins. Our research elucidates that the energetics at interfaces between crystalline and amorphous domains control effectively, the extent to which semi-crystalline domains can form at interfaces. Stability at nanocrystal interfaces is not linearly related to the internal (bulk) stability of the ?-sheet nanocrystal. Rather, interfacial stability is found to be highly sensitive to the number of alanine repeat units that make up each sheet. Intriguingly, the most stable interface for the development of semi-crystallinity is built up of polyalanine ?-sheets of a length similar to that which is spun naturally in spider dragline silk. PMID:26478322

  17. Socioeconomic factors play a more important role in childhood vaccination coverage than parental perceptions: a cross-sectional study in Greece.

    PubMed

    Danis, K; Georgakopoulou, T; Stavrou, T; Laggas, D; Panagiotopoulos, T

    2010-02-17

    To identify predictive factors of complete and age-appropriate vaccination status in Greece, we conducted a cross-sectional study, using stratified cluster sampling, among children attending the first year of the Greek Grammar school (about 6 years of age) and their parents/guardians. Almost 88% (N=3878) of pupils in the selected clusters (school classrooms) provided their vaccination booklet and their parents/guardians completed a questionnaire regarding beliefs and attitudes towards immunization. Belonging to a minority group, having other siblings and perceiving long distance to immunization site as a barrier were independent predictors of both incomplete and delayed vaccination status in the final logistic regression model. Maternal age >or=30 years and the perception that natural disease is preferable to vaccination were associated with complete vaccination, whereas paternal education of high school or higher was the other independent determinant of age-appropriate immunization. Socioeconomic factors rather than parental beliefs and attitudes towards immunization explained underimmunization. Further interventions are warranted to enhance vaccine coverage in high-risk groups identified in this study. PMID:20006570

  18. Play: early and eternal.

    PubMed Central

    Mears, C E; Harlow, H F

    1975-01-01

    A systematic 12-week investigation of development of play behavior was conducted with eight socially reared rhesus monkey infants. A new, basic and primary play form termed self-motion play or peragration was identified and examined. This behavior follows a human model which includes a wide range of pleasurable activities involving motion of the body through space, e.g., rocking, swinging, running, leaping, and water or snow skiing. It can be argued that self-motion play is the initial primate play form and because of its persistence constitutes a reinforcing agent for maintaining many complex patterns and even pastimes. Monkey self-motion play in the present study was divided into five separate patterns in order to compare the relative importance of social and individual peragration play, the role of apparatus and the overall developmental relationships between the different individual and social self-motion play patterns. The data showed that from 90 to 180 days of age self-motion play was independent of other forms of play, that individual self-motion play appeared earlier and with significantly greater increases in frequency than did social self-motion play, and that apparatus was a necessary component for significant increases in social self-motion play. Other findings were that self-motion play existed independent of locomotion and, though initiated by exploration, was separate from it. Therapeutic implications of self-motion play were discussed. Images PMID:1057178

  19. Two synthetic Sp1-binding sites functionally substitute for the 21-base-pair repeat region to activate simian virus 40 growth in CV-1 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lednicky, J; Folk, W R

    1992-01-01

    The 21-bp repeat region of simian virus 40 (SV40) activates viral transcription and DNA replication and contains binding sites for many cellular proteins, including Sp1, LSF, ETF, Ap2, Ap4, GT-1B, H16, and p53, and for the SV40 large tumor antigen. We have attempted to reduce the complexity of this region while maintaining its growth-promoting capacity. Deletion of the 21-bp repeat region from the SV40 genome delays the expression of viral early proteins and DNA replication and reduces virus production in CV-1 cells. Replacement of the 21-bp repeat region with two copies of DNA sequence motifs bound with high affinities by Sp1 promotes SV40 growth in CV-1 cells to nearly wild-type levels, but substitution by motifs bound less avidly by Sp1 or bound by other activator proteins does not restore growth. This indicates that Sp1 or a protein with similar sequence specificity is primarily responsible for the function of the 21-bp repeat region. We speculate about how Sp1 activates both SV40 transcription and DNA replication. Images PMID:1328672

  20. FAS rs2234767 and rs1800682 polymorphisms jointly contributed to risk of colorectal cancer by affecting SP1/STAT1 complex recruitment to chromatin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shizhi; Wu, Shenshen; Meng, Qingtao; Li, Xiaobo; Zhang, Jinchun; Chen, Rui; Wang, Meilin

    2016-01-01

    FAS rs2234767 (-1377?G>A), rs1800682 (-670?A>G) and FASLG rs763110 (-844?C>T) promoter polymorphisms can influence transcriptional activities of the genes and thus multiple tumors susceptibility. To investigate their association with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), the three SNPs were genotyped in 878 cases and 884 controls and the results showed that the FAS rs2234767 and rs1800682 were in a high linkage disequilibrium (LD) with each other (D'?=?0.994) and jointly contributed to an increased risk of CRC (without vs. with rs2234767?GG/rs1800682?AA genotypes, adjusted OR?=?1.30, 95% CI?=?1.05?-?1.61). In vivo ChIP assays evaluated the effect of rs2234767 and rs1800682 on recruitment of SP1 and STAT1, respectively, to chromatin. The results showed SP1 interacting specifically with STAT1 recruited to their respective motifs for transcriptional activation. The mutant alleles rs2234767?A and rs1800682?G jointly affected coupled SP1 and STAT1 recruitment to chromatin. The interplay between SP1 and STAT1 was critical for the functional outcome of rs2234767 and rs1800682 in view of their high LD. In conclusion, the FAS rs2234767 and rs1800682 polymorphisms were in high LD with each other, and they jointly contributed to an increased risk of CRC by altering recruitment of SP1/STAT1 complex to the FAS promoter for transcriptional activation. PMID:26759270

  1. FAS rs2234767 and rs1800682 polymorphisms jointly contributed to risk of colorectal cancer by affecting SP1/STAT1 complex recruitment to chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shizhi; Wu, Shenshen; Meng, Qingtao; Li, Xiaobo; Zhang, Jinchun; Chen, Rui; Wang, Meilin

    2016-01-01

    FAS rs2234767 (?1377?G>A), rs1800682 (?670?A>G) and FASLG rs763110 (?844?C>T) promoter polymorphisms can influence transcriptional activities of the genes and thus multiple tumors susceptibility. To investigate their association with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), the three SNPs were genotyped in 878 cases and 884 controls and the results showed that the FAS rs2234767 and rs1800682 were in a high linkage disequilibrium (LD) with each other (D?=?0.994) and jointly contributed to an increased risk of CRC (without vs. with rs2234767?GG/rs1800682?AA genotypes, adjusted OR?=?1.30, 95% CI?=?1.05???1.61). In vivo ChIP assays evaluated the effect of rs2234767 and rs1800682 on recruitment of SP1 and STAT1, respectively, to chromatin. The results showed SP1 interacting specifically with STAT1 recruited to their respective motifs for transcriptional activation. The mutant alleles rs2234767?A and rs1800682?G jointly affected coupled SP1 and STAT1 recruitment to chromatin. The interplay between SP1 and STAT1 was critical for the functional outcome of rs2234767 and rs1800682 in view of their high LD. In conclusion, the FAS rs2234767 and rs1800682 polymorphisms were in high LD with each other, and they jointly contributed to an increased risk of CRC by altering recruitment of SP1/STAT1 complex to the FAS promoter for transcriptional activation. PMID:26759270

  2. Evidence that tumor necrosis factor plays a pathogenetic role in the paraneoplastic syndromes of cachexia, hypercalcemia, and leukocytosis in a human tumor in nude mice.

    PubMed Central

    Yoneda, T; Alsina, M A; Chavez, J B; Bonewald, L; Nishimura, R; Mundy, G R

    1991-01-01

    Recently, we have established a human squamous cell carcinoma of the maxilla (called MH-85) associated with hypercalcemia, leukocytosis, and cachexia in culture. MH-85 tumor cells caused the same paraneoplastic syndromes in tumor-bearing nude mice. We found that there was a sixfold increase in splenic size in MH-85 tumor-bearing mice. This increase paralleled tumor growth and was reversed by surgical removal of the tumor. Splenectomy in nude mice 1 wk before or 6 wk after tumor inoculation resulted in a decrease in tumor growth, and impairment of hypercalcemia, leukocytosis, and cachexia. In MH-85 tumor-bearing animals that had been pretreated by splenectomy, intravenous injection of fresh normal spleen cells caused an immediate reversal of leukocytosis, hypercalcemia, and cachexia. Since the presence of cachexia in both the patient and the mice carrying the tumor suggested tumor necrosis factor (TNF) may be overproduced, we injected polyclonal neutralizing antibodies raised against murine TNF into tumor-bearing mice. There was a rapid and reproducible decrease in blood ionized calcium, accompanied by suppression of osteoclast activity. No changes in blood ionized calcium were seen in mice injected with normal immune sera. In addition, there was an increase in body weight and decrease in white cell count. Plasma immunoreactive TNF was increased almost fourfold in tumor-bearing nude mice compared with control nude mice. Although TNF activity was undetectable in MH-85 culture supernatants, cells of the macrophage lineage, including spleen cells, released increased amounts of TNF when cultured with MH-85 tumor-conditioned media. These results suggest that splenic cytokines such as TNF may influence the development of the paraneoplastic syndromes of hypercalcemia, leukocytosis, and cachexia in these animals, as well as tumor growth. They also show that paraneoplastic syndromes may be due to factors produced by normal host cells stimulated by the presence of the tumor. Images PMID:1999505

  3. Regulatory factor interactions and somatic silencing of the germ cell-specific ALF gene.

    PubMed

    Kim, MinJung; Li, Dan; Cui, Yunxia; Mueller, Konrad; Chears, William C; DeJong, Jeff

    2006-11-10

    Germ cell-specific genes are active in oocytes and spermatocytes but are silent in all other cell types. To understand the basis for this seemingly simple pattern of regulation, we characterized factors that recognize the promoter-proximal region of the germ cell-specific TFIIA alpha/beta-like factor (ALF) gene. Two of the protein-DNA complexes formed with liver extracts (C4 and C5) are due to the zinc finger proteins Sp1 and Sp3, respectively, whereas another complex (C6) is due to the transcription factor RFX1. Two additional complexes (C1 and C3) are due to the multivalent zinc finger protein CTCF, a factor that plays a role in gene silencing and chromatin insulation. An investigation of CTCF binding revealed a recognition site of only 17 bp that overlaps with the Sp1/Sp3 site. This site is predictive of other genomic CTCF sites and can be aligned to create a functional consensus. Studies on the activity of the ALF promoter in somatic 293 cells revealed mutations that result in increased reporter activity. In addition, RNAi-mediated down-regulation of CTCF is associated with activation of the endogenous ALF gene, and both CTCF and Sp3 repress the promoter in transient transfection assays. Overall, the results suggest a role for several factors, including the multivalent zinc finger chromatin insulator protein CTCF, in mediating somatic repression of the ALF gene. Release of such repression, perhaps in conjunction with other members of the CTCF, RFX, and Sp1 families of transcription factors, could be an important aspect of germ cell gene activation. PMID:16966320

  4. The eukaryotic initiation factor 2-associated 67-kDa polypeptide (p67) plays a critical role in regulation of protein synthesis initiation in animal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ray, M K; Datta, B; Chakraborty, A; Chattopadhyay, A; Meza-Keuthen, S; Gupta, N K

    1992-01-01

    The eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF-2)-associated 67-kDa polypeptide (p67) isolated from reticulocyte lysate protects the eIF-2 alpha subunit from eIF-2 kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation and promotes protein synthesis in the presence of active eIF-2 kinases. We have now studied the roles of p67 and eIF-2 kinases in regulation of protein synthesis using several animal cell lysates and an animal cell line (KRC-7) in culture under various growth conditions. The results are as follows. (i) Both p67 and eIF-2 kinase(s) are present in active forms in all animal cells under normal growth conditions and p67 protects the eIF-2 alpha subunit from eIF-2 kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation, thus promoting protein synthesis in the presence of active eIF-2 kinases. (ii) In heme-deficient reticulocyte lysates and in serum-starved KRC-7 cells in culture, p67 is deglycosylated and subsequently degraded. This leads to eIF-2 kinase-catalyzed eIF-2 alpha-subunit phosphorylation and thus to protein synthesis inhibition. (iii) Addition of a mitogen (namely, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) to serum-starved KRC-7 cells in culture induces an increase of p67 and thus increases protein synthesis. These results suggest the following conclusions. (i) Protein synthesis inhibition in a heme-deficient reticulocyte lysate is not due to the activation of an eIF-2 kinase (heme-regulated inhibitor), as is generally believed, but is due to degradation of p67. The heme-regulated inhibitor is present in an active form and possibly in equal amounts in both heme-deficient and heme-supplemented reticulocyte lysates but cannot phosphorylate eIF-2 alpha subunit because of the presence of p67. (ii) p67 is essential for protein synthesis as it protects the eIF-2 alpha subunit from eIF-2 kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation and promotes protein synthesis in the presence of one or more active eIF-2 kinases present in all animal cells. (iii) p67 is both degradable and inducible. Only the p67 level correlates directly with the protein synthesis activity of the cell, indicating that p67 is a critical factor in protein synthesis regulation in animal cells. Images PMID:1346232

  5. Store-operated Ca2+ Entry-associated Regulatory factor (SARAF) Plays an Important Role in the Regulation of Arachidonate-regulated Ca2+ (ARC) Channels.

    PubMed

    Albarran, Letizia; Lopez, Jose J; Woodard, Geoffrey E; Salido, Gines M; Rosado, Juan A

    2016-03-25

    The store-operated Ca(2+)entry-associated regulatory factor (SARAF) has recently been identified as a STIM1 regulatory protein that facilitates slow Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation of store-operated Ca(2+)entry (SOCE). Both the store-operated channels and the store-independent arachidonate-regulated Ca(2+)(ARC) channels are regulated by STIM1. In the present study, we show that, in addition to its location in the endoplasmic reticulum, SARAF is constitutively expressed in the plasma membrane, where it can interact with plasma membrane (PM)-resident ARC forming subunits in the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Using siRNA-based and overexpression approaches we report that SARAF negatively regulates store-independent Ca(2+)entry via the ARC channels. Arachidonic acid (AA) increases the association of PM-resident SARAF with Orai1. Finally, our results indicate that SARAF modulates the ability of AA to promote cell survival in neuroblastoma cells. In addition to revealing new insight into the biology of ARC channels in neuroblastoma cells, these findings provide evidence for an unprecedented location of SARAF in the plasma membrane. PMID:26817842

  6. Downregulation of growth differentiation factor-15 in trichostatin A-induced apoptosis could play a role in progression of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun-Long; Cui, Wu; Gao, Feng; Cao, Zhi-Gang; Li, Xiao-Lin; Zhou, Wen-Xue

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of trichostatin A (TSA) on gastric cancer cell line BGC-823, and identify the differentially expressed genes induced by TSA, which might participate in the progression of gastric cancer. Methods: MTT, fluorescence microscopy, and flow cytometry were used to detect the effect of TSA on growth inhibition and apoptosis of BGC-823 cells. Using gene microarray, we analyzed the changes in gene expression. Change in growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) was verified by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. The expression of GDF-15 in gastric cancer and adjacent normal tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: Apoptosis of BGC-823 cells induced by TSA (75 ng/mL for 48 h) was demonstrated by flow cytometry. There were significant variations between TSA treated groups and control groups (P = 0.02). Nuclear chromatin condensation and fluorescence intensity were observed by fluorescence microscopy. GDF-15 gene expression and protein level were significantly reduced in the TSA treated group (75 ng/mL for 48 h). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the expression of GDF-15 in gastric adenocarcinoma was significantly higher than in the surrounding normal tissues (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Lower GDF-15 gene expression due to TSA-induced apoptosis was found in gastric cancer cell line BGC-823. Higher GDF-15 gene expression was seen in gastric adenocarcinoma tissues. PMID:26339382

  7. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    PubMed

    Drozd, Valentina M; Saenko, Vladimir A; Brenner, Alina V; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Pashkevich, Vasilii I; Kudelsky, Anatoliy V; Demidchik, Yuri E; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Rogounovitch, Tatiana I; Yamashita, Shunichi; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I) thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus, we reviewed evidence of the effects of radiation, thyroid screening, and iodine deficiency on regional differences in incidence rates of thyroid cancer. We also reviewed current evidence on content of nitrate in groundwater and thyroid cancer risk drawing attention to high levels of nitrates in open well water in several contaminated regions of Belarus, i.e. Gomel and Brest, related to the usage of nitrogen fertilizers. In this hypothesis generating study, based on ecological data and biological plausibility, we suggest that nitrate pollution may modify the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer contributing to regional differences in rates of pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus. Analytic epidemiological studies designed to evaluate joint effect of nitrate content in groundwater and radiation present a promising avenue of research and may provide useful insights into etiology of thyroid cancer. PMID:26397978

  8. PwHAP5, a CCAAT-binding transcription factor, interacts with PwFKBP12 and plays a role in pollen tube growth orientation in Picea wilsonii

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yanli; Huang, Guixue; Meng, Zhaodong; Zhang, Dun; Wei, Jing; Yan, Kang; Zheng, Chengchao; Zhang, Lingyun

    2011-01-01

    The HAP complex occurs in many eukaryotic organisms and is involved in multiple physiological processes. Here it was found that in Picea wilsonii, HAP5 (PwHAP5), a putative CCAAT-binding transcription factor gene, is involved in pollen tube development and control of tube orientation. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR showed that PwHAP5 transcripts were expressed strongly in germinating pollen and could be induced by Ca2+. Overexpression of PwHAP5 in pollen altered pollen tube orientation, whereas the tube with PwHAP5RNAi showed normal growth without diminishing pollen tube growth. Furthermore, PwFKBP12, which encodes an FK506-binding protein (FKBP) was screened and a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay performed to confirm the interaction of PwHAP5 and PwFKBP12 in vivo. Transient expression of PwFKBP12 in pollen showed normal pollen tube growth, whereas the tube with PwFKBP12RNAi bent. The phenotype of overexpression of HAP5 on pollen tube was restored by FKBP12. Altogether, our study supported the role of HAP5 in pollen tube development and orientation regulation and identified FKBP12 as a novel partner to interact with HAP5 involved in the process. PMID:21784992

  9. Intestinal endotoxemia plays a central role in development of hepatopulmonary syndrome in a cirrhotic rat model induced by multiple pathogenic factors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui-Ying; Han, De-Wu; Su, Ai-Rong; Zhang, Li-Tong; Zhao, Zhong-Fu; Ji, Jing-Quan; Li, Bao-Hong; Ji, Cheng

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the correlation between severity of hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) and degree of hepatic dysfunction, and to explore how intestinal endotoxemia (IETM) affects the development of HPS in cirrhotic rats. METHODS: Male Wister rats were fed with a diet containing maize flour, lard, cholesterol, and alcohol and injected subcutaneously with CCl4 oil solution every two days for 8 wk to induce typical cirrhosis and development of HPS. The animals were also given a nitric oxide (NO) production inhibitor, N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) intraperitoneally, and an iNOS inhibitor, aminoguanidine hydrochloride (AG) via gavage daily from the end of the 4th wk to the end of the 6th or 8th wk, or a HO-1 inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) intraperitoneally 12 h prior to killing. Blood, liver and lung tissues were sampled. RESULTS: Histological deterioration of the lung paralleled to that of the liver in the cirrhotic rats. The number of pulmonary capillaries was progressively increased from 6.1 1.1 (count/filed) at the 4th wk to 14.5 2.4 (count/filed) at the 8th wk in the cirrhotic rats. Increased pulmonary capillaries were associated with increased blood levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (0.31 0.08 EU/mL vs control 0.09 0.03 EU/mL), alanine transferase (ALT, 219.1 17.4 U/L vs control 5.9 2.2 U/L) and portal vein pressure. Compared with normal control animals, the number of total cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of the cirrhotic rats at the 8th wk was not changed, but the number of macrophages and the ratio of macrophages to total cells were increased by nearly 2-fold, protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) started to increase significantly at the 4th wk, and reached its peak at the 8th wk in the lung of cirrhotic rats. The increase of iNOS expression appeared to be quicker than that of eNOS. NO2-/NO3- was also increased, which was correlated to the increase of iNOS (r = 0.7699, P < 0.0001) and eNOS (r = 0.5829, P < 0.002). mRNA expression of eNOS and iNOS was highly consistent with their protein expression. CONCLUSION: Progression and severity of HPS as indicated by both increased pulmonary capillaries and histological changes are closely associated with LPS levels and progression of hepatic dysfunction as indicated by increased levels of ALT and portal vein pressure. Intestinal endotoxemia plays a central role in the development of HPS in the cirrhotic rat model by inducing NO and/or CO. PMID:18081228

  10. The Arabidopsis homologs of CCR4-associated factor 1 show mRNA deadenylation activity and play a role in plant defence responses.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wenxing; Li, Changbao; Liu, Fang; Jiang, Hongling; Li, Shuyu; Sun, Jiaqiang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Li, Chuanyou

    2009-03-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) turnover in eukaryotic cells begins with shortening of the poly (A) tail at the 3' end, a process called deadenylation. In yeast, the deadenylation reaction is predominantly mediated by CCR4 and CCR4-associated factor 1 (CAF1), two components of the well-characterised protein complex named CCR4-NOT. We report here that AtCAF1a and AtCAF1b, putative Arabidopsis homologs of the yeast CAF1 gene, partially complement the growth defect of the yeast caf1 mutant in the presence of caffeine or at high temperatures. The expression of AtCAF1a and AtCAF1b is induced by multiple stress-related hormones and stimuli. Both AtCAF1a and AtCAF1b show deadenylation activity in vitro and point mutations in the predicted active sites disrupt this activity. T-DNA insertion mutants disrupting the expression of AtCAF1a and/or AtCAF1b are defective in deadenylation of stress-related mRNAs, indicating that the two AtCAF1 proteins are involved in regulated mRNA deadenylation in vivo. Interestingly, the single and double mutants of AtCAF1a and AtCAF1b show reduced expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes PR1 and PR2 and are more susceptible to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) infection, whereas transgenic plants over-expressing AtCAF1a show elevated expression of PR1 and PR2 and increased resistance to the same pathogen. Our results suggest roles of the AtCAF1 proteins in regulated mRNA deadenylation and defence responses to pathogen infections. PMID:19065152

  11. 14-3-3 sigma and 14-3-3 zeta plays an opposite role in cell growth inhibition mediated by transforming growth factor-beta 1.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hye-Young; Jeon, Woo-Kwang; Bae, Eun-Jin; Kim, Shin-Tae; Lee, Ho-Jae; Kim, Seong-Jin; Kim, Byung-Chul

    2010-03-01

    The expression of 14-3-3 proteins is dysregulated in various types of cancer. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of 14-3-3 zeta and 14-3-3 sigma on cell growth inhibition mediated by transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1). Mouse mammary epithelial cells (Eph4) that are transformed with oncogenic c-H-Ras (EpRas) and no longer sensitive to TGF-beta1-mediated growth inhibition displayed increased expression of 14-3-3 zeta and decreased expression of 14-3-3 sigma compared with parental Eph4 cells. Using small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown and overexpression of 14-3-3 sigma or 14-3-3 zeta, we showed that 14-3-3 sigma is required for TGF-beta1-mediated growth inhibition whereas 14-3-3 zeta negatively modulates this growth inhibitory response. Notably, overexpression of 14-3-3 zeta increased the level of Smad3 protein that is phosphorylated at linker regions and cannot mediate the TGF-beta1 growth inhibitory response. Consistent with this finding, mutation of the 14-3-3 zeta phosphorylation sites in Smad3 markedly reduced the 14-3-3 zeta-mediated inhibition of TGF-beta1-induced p15 promoter-reporter activity and cell cycle arrest, suggesting that these residues are critical targets of 14-3-3 zeta in the suppression of TGF-beta1-mediated growth. Taken together, our findings indicate that dysregulation of 14-3-3 sigma or 14-3-3 zeta contributes to TGF-beta1 resistance in cancer cells. PMID:20082218

  12. Inflammatory Cascades Driven by Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Play a Major Role in the Progression of Acute Liver Failure and Its Neurological Complications

    PubMed Central

    Chastre, Anne; Blanger, Mireille; Beauchesne, Elizabeth; Nguyen, Bich N.; Desjardins, Paul; Butterworth, Roger F.

    2012-01-01

    Background/aims Acute liver failure (ALF) due to ischemic or toxic liver injury is a clinical condition that results from massive loss of hepatocytes and may lead to hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a serious neuropsychiatric complication. Although increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) in liver, plasma and brain has been observed, conflicting results exist concerning its roles in drug-induced liver injury and on the progression of HE. The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic value of etanercept, a TNF-? neutralizing molecule, on the progression of liver injury and HE in mice with ALF resulting from azoxymethane (AOM) hepatotoxicity. Methods/Principal Findings Mice were administered saline or etanercept (10 mg/kg; i.p.) 30 minutes prior to, or up to 6 h after AOM. Etanercept-treated ALF mice were sacrificed in parallel with vehicle-treated comatose ALF mice and controls. AOM induced severe hepatic necrosis, leading to HE, and etanercept administered prior or up to 3 h after AOM significantly delayed the onset of coma stages of HE. Etanercept pretreatment attenuated AOM-induced liver injury, as assessed by histological examination, plasma ammonia and transaminase levels, and by hepatic glutathione content. Peripheral inflammation was significantly reduced by etanercept as shown by decreased plasma IL-6 (4.1-fold; p<0.001) and CD40L levels (3.7-fold; p<0.001) compared to saline-treated ALF mice. Etanercept also decreased IL-6 levels in brain (1.2-fold; p<0.05), attenuated microglial activation (assessed by OX-42 immunoreactivity), and increased brain glutathione concentrations. Conclusions These results indicate that systemic sequestration of TNF-? attenuates both peripheral and cerebral inflammation leading to delayed progression of liver disease and HE in mice with ALF due to toxic liver injury. These results suggest that etanercept may provide a novel therapeutic approach for the management of ALF patients awaiting liver transplantation. PMID:23166746

  13. Play the MRI Game

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Teachers' Questionnaire MRI Play MRI the Magnetic Miracle Game About the game In the MRI imaging technique, strong magnets and ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  14. Play the Electrocardiogram Game

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Electrocardiogram Play the ECG Game About the game ECG is used for diagnosing heart conditions by ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  15. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  16. Ancient properties of spider silks revealed by the complete gene sequence of the prey-wrapping silk protein (AcSp1).

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Nadia A; Garb, Jessica E; Kuelbs, Amanda; Hayashi, Cheryl Y

    2013-03-01

    Spider silk fibers have impressive mechanical properties and are primarily composed of highly repetitive structural proteins (termed spidroins) encoded by a single gene family. Most characterized spidroin genes are incompletely known because of their extreme size (typically >9 kb) and repetitiveness, limiting understanding of the evolutionary processes that gave rise to their unusual gene architectures. The only complete spidroin genes characterized thus far form the dragline in the Western black widow, Latrodectus hesperus. Here, we describe the first complete gene sequence encoding the aciniform spidroin AcSp1, the primary component of spider prey-wrapping fibers. L. hesperus AcSp1 contains a single enormous (?19 kb) exon. The AcSp1 repeat sequence is exceptionally conserved between two widow species (?94% identity) and between widows and distantly related orb-weavers (?30% identity), consistent with a history of strong purifying selection on its amino acid sequence. Furthermore, the 16 repeats (each 371-375 amino acids long) found in black widow AcSp1 are, on average, >99% identical at the nucleotide level. A combination of stabilizing selection on amino acid sequence, selection on silent sites, and intragenic recombination likely explains the extreme homogenization of AcSp1 repeats. In addition, phylogenetic analyses of spidroin paralogs support a gene duplication event occurring concomitantly with specialization of the aciniform glands and the tubuliform glands, which synthesize egg-case silk. With repeats that are dramatically different in length and amino acid composition from dragline spidroins, our L. hesperus AcSp1 expands the knowledge base for developing silk-based biomimetic technologies. PMID:23155003

  17. Increased Expression of Colonic Wnt9A through Sp1-mediated Transcriptional Effects involving Arylsulfatase B, Chondroitin 4-Sulfate, and Galectin-3

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Feferman, Leo; Tobacman, Joanne K.

    2014-01-01

    In cultured human colonic epithelial cells and mouse colonic tissue, exposure to the common food additive carrageenan leads to inflammation, activation of Wnt signaling, increased Wnt9A expression, and decline in the activity of the enzyme arylsulfatase B (ARSB; N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase). In this study, the novel transcriptional mechanism by which carrageenan and decline in ARSB increase Wnt9A expression in NCM460 and HT-29 human colonic epithelial cells and in mouse colon is presented. Increased expression of Wnt9A has been associated with multiple malignancies, including colon carcinoma, and with ectodermal and mesoendodermal morphogenesis. When ARSB activity was reduced by siRNA or by exposure to carrageenan (1 ?g/ml for 24 h), degradation of chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4S) was inhibited, leading to accumulation of more highly sulfated C4S, which binds less galectin-3, a ?-galactoside-binding protein. Nuclear galectin-3 increased and mediated increased binding of Sp1 to the Sp1 consensus sequence in the Wnt9A promoter, shown by oligonucleotide-binding assay and by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. When galectin-3 was silenced, the increases in Sp1 binding to the Wnt9A promoter and in Wnt9A expression, which followed carrageenan or ARSB silencing, were inhibited. Mithramycin A, a specific inhibitor of Sp1 oligonucleotide binding, and Sp1 siRNA blocked the carrageenan- and ARSB siRNA-induced increases in Wnt9A expression. These studies reveal how carrageenan exposure can lead to transcriptional events in colonic epithelial cells through decline in arylsulfatase B activity, with subsequent impact on C4S, galectin-3, Sp1, and Wnt9A and can exert significant effects on Wnt-initiated signaling and related vital cell processes. PMID:24778176

  18. Changes in spawning time led to the speciation of the broadcast spawning corals Acropora digitifera and the cryptic species Acropora sp. 1 with similar gamete recognition systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohki, Shun; Kowalski, Radoslaw K.; Kitanobo, Seiya; Morita, Masaya

    2015-12-01

    Multi-species spawning is reported in the coral genus Acropora, but hybridization in nature rarely occurs because of the incompatibility of gametes and the timing of spawning. However, the evolutionary relationships between gamete compatibility and spawning time are obscure. Investigations of gamete compatibility in sister species that spawn at different times may provide clues to answering this question. Acropora sp. 1 has been defined as a cryptic species of Acropora digitifera, and they are morphologically similar, but spawn in different months, suggesting that they are either a cryptic species or a different species. We examined the morphology and conducted crossing experiments using cryopreserved sperm. The morphologies (branch length, branch width, and outer diameter of axial corallites) of A. digitifera and Acropora sp. 1 differed significantly. A phylogenetic tree of partial Pax- C nuclear sequences from A. digitifera and Acropora sp. 1 shows that they are monophyletic and closely related genetically, based on F ST values and P-distance. These results imply that these two species originated recently from a common ancestor. In addition, cryopreserved sperm from both A. digitifera and Acropora sp. 1 showed bidirectional inter-crossing (cryopreserved sperm of A. digitifera and eggs of Acropora sp. 1 from Sesoko: 32.1 ± 6.7 %, control-conspecific cryopreserved sperm and eggs: 46.1 ± 10.6 %; cryopreserved sperm of Acropora sp. 1 and eggs of A. digitifera from Oku: 63.3 ± 16.6 %, control: 83.6 ± 6.0 %). The results suggest that the gametes of these two species are compatible and that the pre-zygotic isolation mechanism is relaxed because their gametes do not interact. Overall, these two species should be classified as distinct species, and changes in spawning time are related to speciation in a similar gamete recognition system.

  19. The Pedagogy of Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesbrecht, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    Play is important. Environmental educators Sobel and Louv write about the relationship between children and outside play and suggest that early transcendental experiences within nature allow children to develop empathetic orientations towards the natural world. Children who play out-of-doors develop an appreciation for the environment and

  20. Play the Mosquito Game

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Malaria Play the Mosquito Game Play the Parasite Game About the games Malaria is one of the world's most common ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  1. The Excellence of Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyles, Janet R., Ed.

    Recognizing that for young children, play is a tool for learning, this book compiles contributions by different authors, reflecting both up-to-date research and current classroom practice as they relate to children's play. Part 1 of the book explores the value of play as a cross-cultural concept as well as one rooted in the Western world. Gender

  2. Play, Policy & Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klugman, Edgar, Ed.

    In 1992, the U.S.-Israel Binational Science Foundation (BSF), in conjunction with Wheelock College (Boston), sponsored its second workshop on children's play, entitled "Play and Cognitive Ability: The Cultural Context." This volume reflects the presentations and discussions held at the workshop, offering perspectives on children's play that, taken

  3. Playful Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelis, Bill

    2005-01-01

    In physical education, playful teaching practices are essential to relationship building and creating "connections" for successful group dynamics. Perhaps most importantly, playful teachers develop positive attitudes in their students and help students understand that learning can be fun and joyful. Playful teaching practices also greatly enhance…

  4. Playful "Moments" in Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terr, Lenore C.; Deeney, John M.; Drell, Martin; Dodson, Jerry W.; Gaensbauer, Theodore J.; Massie, Henry; Minde, Klaus; Stewart, George; Teal, Stewart; Winters, Nancy C.

    2006-01-01

    This article demonstrates how taking the time out to play, commenting pungently on play, serving up surprise and adventure, and developing mutually understood codes or inside jokes help the psychiatrist to turn a child around. In this article, the authors categorized what principles of treatment their 10 vignettes about playfulness illustrated,…

  5. The Pedagogy of Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesbrecht, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    Play is important. Environmental educators Sobel and Louv write about the relationship between children and outside play and suggest that early transcendental experiences within nature allow children to develop empathetic orientations towards the natural world. Children who play out-of-doors develop an appreciation for the environment and…

  6. Play Is the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Steve; Sanderson, Rebecca Cornelli

    2012-01-01

    Historically, play has been viewed as a frivolous break from important endeavors like working and learning when, in fact, a child's ability to fully and freely engage in play is essential to their learning, productivity, and overall development. A natural drive to play is universal across all young mammals. Children from every society on earth

  7. Caloric Cost of Playing Golf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampley, James H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Women who play golf at the same rate of speed as men will use energy at a higher rate, but the rapidity with which the course is completed, which is dependent on the number of members of the golfing party, is a factor in the caloric expenditure of both sexes. (JD)

  8. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  9. Achromobacter denitrificans SP1 produces pharmaceutically active 25C prodigiosin upon utilizing hazardous di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, S; Sarath Josh, M K; Balachandran, S; Sudha Devi, R; Sadasivam, R; Thirugnanam, P E; Doble, Mukesh; Anderson, Robin C; Benjamin, Sailas

    2014-11-01

    This first report describes the purification and identification of an orange-red pigment produced by Achromobacter denitrificans strain SP1 (isolated from sewage sludge heavily contaminated with plastics) during its growth in a simple basal salt medium supplemented with the hazardous di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) blended in PVC blood bag (in situ) or free DEHP (ex situ) as carbon source. The cell-bound pigment was elucidated, characterized at molecular level, and described as an unusual 25C prodigiosin analog for the first time. At laboratory conditions (in flasks), the dry cell mass was 75.2mg/g blood bag, which upon extraction yielded 7.1mg prodigiosin; at this stage the pH of the medium was dropped from 7.2 to 3.5. Considering its pharmaceutical importance, taking 10 known prodigiosins as controls, this 25C prodigiosin was subjected to molecular docking studies, showed comparable and promising binding efficiencies with the crucial molecular human targets like cycloxygenase-2, ZAP-70 kinase and Jak-3 kinase. PMID:25201292

  10. [EFFICIENCY OF INTRODUCING CAROTENE PRODUCING STRAINS BACILLUS SP. 1.1 AND B. AMYLOLIQUEFACIENS UCM B-5113 INTO THE CHIKENS DIET].

    PubMed

    Nechypurenko, O O; Kharhota M A; Avdeeva, L V

    2015-01-01

    It was shown the efficiency of carotene producing strains Bacillus sp. 1.1 and B. amyloliquefaciens UCM B-5113 in the diet of chickens. Also it was detected the lowering of the quantitative content of bacterial genera Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, family Enterobacteriaceae in the gut after eating by chickens cross "H&N Brown Nick" fodder with strains Bacillus sp. 1.1 and B. amyloliquefaciens UCM B-5113 alone and in composition in quantities 1 x 10(10) CFU per 1 g of feed. On the 18th day after introduction of cultures Bacillus sp. 1.1, B. amyloliquefaciens UCM B-5113 and their composition in the diet of poultry we revealed the increasing of body weight by 21.6, 7.6 and 22.0%, respectively, comparesing to controls. Also due to Bacillus sp. 1.1 it was detected the restore of intestinal villous structures, tissues of spleen, liver and heart. We found the additive effect of the composition of the investigated strains of bacteria genus Bacillus to the chickens. PMID:26214892

  11. Gap junctional communication modulates gene transcription by altering the recruitment of Sp1 and Sp3 to connexin-response elements in osteoblast promoters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stains, Joseph P.; Lecanda, Fernando; Screen, Joanne; Towler, Dwight A.; Civitelli, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations of gap junction proteins, connexins, represent a mechanism of disease in a variety of tissues. We have shown that recessive (gene deletion) or dominant (connexin45 overexpression) disruption of connexin43 function results in osteoblast dysfunction and abnormal expression of osteoblast genes, including down-regulation of osteocalcin transcription. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of gap junction-sensitive transcriptional regulation, we systematically analyzed the rat osteocalcin promoter for sensitivity to gap junctional intercellular communication. We identified an Sp1/Sp3 containing complex that assembles on a minimal element in the -70 to -57 region of the osteocalcin promoter in a gap junction-dependent manner. This CT-rich connexin-response element is necessary and sufficient to confer gap junction sensitivity to the osteocalcin proximal promoter. Repression of osteocalcin transcription occurs as a result of displacement of the stimulatory Sp1 by the inhibitory Sp3 on the promoter when gap junctional communication is perturbed. Modulation of Sp1/Sp3 recruitment also occurs on the collagen Ialpha1 promoter and translates into gap junction-sensitive transcriptional control of collagen Ialpha1 gene expression. Thus, regulation of Sp1/Sp3 recruitment to the promoter may represent a potential general mechanism for transcriptional control of target genes by signals passing through gap junctions.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of "Candidatus Methanomethylophilus" sp. 1R26, Enriched from Bovine Rumen, a Methanogenic Archaeon Belonging to the Methanomassiliicoccales Order.

    PubMed

    Noel, Samantha Joan; Hjberg, Ole; Urich, Tim; Poulsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome of "Candidatus Methanomethylophilus" sp. 1R26, a member of the newly described Methanomassiliicoccales order of Euryarcheaota. The enrichment culture was established from bovine rumen contents and produced methane from trimethylamine and methanol. The draft genome contains genes for methanogenesis from methylated compounds. PMID:26893425

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of “Candidatus Methanomethylophilus” sp. 1R26, Enriched from Bovine Rumen, a Methanogenic Archaeon Belonging to the Methanomassiliicoccales Order

    PubMed Central

    Højberg, Ole; Urich, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome of “Candidatus Methanomethylophilus” sp. 1R26, a member of the newly described Methanomassiliicoccales order of Euryarcheaota. The enrichment culture was established from bovine rumen contents and produced methane from trimethylamine and methanol. The draft genome contains genes for methanogenesis from methylated compounds. PMID:26893425

  14. Playful behaviour of piglets.

    PubMed

    Newberry, R C; Wood-Gush, D G; Hall, J W

    1988-09-01

    Domestic piglets living in multi-litter groups with their dams and other pigs in a large, socially and ecologically rich outdoor enclosure were observed, to obtain a quantitative description of the frequencies and sequences of behaviour patterns performed during play. Focal animal sampling was used to collect data on the playful behaviour of 14 male and 21 female piglets from birth to 14 weeks of age. The "play markers" hop, scamper, pivot, toss head, shake object and carry object were used to identify playful behaviour sequences. The variety of different behaviour patterns performed in first order transitions with play markers was highest in the first 6 weeks and declined thereafter with increasing age. Behaviour patterns occurring in transitions with play markers significantly more often than expected included stand, walk, trot, gallop, freeze, shove and circle. The overall frequency of play markers was significantly affected by age, with a peak frequency occurring between 2 and 6 weeks of age. Male and female piglets performed play markers at similar rates. Results are discussed with reference to the welfare of piglets kept in housing systems which limit playful behaviour. PMID:24897547

  15. Methylation-enhanced binding of Sp1 to the stage selector element of the human gamma-globin gene promoter may regulate development specificity of expression.

    PubMed

    Jane, S M; Gumucio, D L; Ney, P A; Cunningham, J M; Nienhuis, A W

    1993-06-01

    The human gamma-globin gene promoter contains a stage selector element (SSE) responsible for preferential interaction of the promoter with a powerful erythroid-specific enhancer in the fetal developmental stage (S.M. Jane, P.A. Ney, E.F. Vanin, D.L. Gumucio, and A.W. Nienhuis. EMBO J. 11:2691-2699, 1992). The element binds two proteins, the ubiquitous activator Sp1 and a protein previously known as -50 gamma and now named the stage selector protein (SSP). Binding of the second protein correlates with SSE activity in transient-transfection assays. We now report that a de novo binding site for the SSP is created by the -202(C-->G) mutation that causes hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH). This site functions in an analogous manner to the SSE in hybrid beta-promoter/reporter gene constructs transfected into K562 cells. In contrast, the wild-type -202 sequence, which fails to bind the SSP, is incapable of activating the beta-gene promoter. Both the -50 and -202 HPFH sites for SSP binding overlap a consensus sequence for the transcriptional regulator Sp1. In addition, both sites contain CpG dinucleotides that are contact bases for SSP. Since the gamma promoter is known to be hypomethylated in fetal cells but fully methylated at CpG residues in adult erythroid cells, we examined the effects of this DNA modification on protein binding to the two regions. Gel mobility shift assays with nuclear extract from K562 cells (which contain both Sp1 and SSP) demonstrate preferential binding of SSP to the SSE and HPFH sites under conditions in which probe was limiting. Methylation of the CpG residues reverses this preference only in the SSE site, with a marked increase in the binding of Sp1 at the expense of the SSP. Purified Sp1 binds with 10-fold higher affinity to the methylated than to the nonmethylated -50 probe but with the same affinity to the -202 HPFH probe. The methylation-induced preferential binding of Sp1 to the SSE at the expense of SSP may be part of the mechanism by which the gamma genes are repressed in normal adult erythroid cells. In cells containing the -202 HPFH mutation, the inability of Sp1 to displace SSP in the methylated state may explain the persistence of gamma-promoter activity and gamma-gene expression observed in adults with this mutation. PMID:7684493

  16. Expression of transcription factors in keratoconus, a cornea-thinning disease.

    PubMed

    Whitelock, R B; Li, Y; Zhou, L L; Sugar, J; Yue, B Y

    1997-06-01

    Transcription factors are known to regulate gene transcription through the recognition and binding of specific DNA sequences in the promoter or enhancer regions of many genes. Keratoconus is a cornea-thinning disease in which upregulated expression of degradative enzymes and downregulated expression of protease inhibitors have been demonstrated. In view of the alteration in gene expression for multiple proteins, five common transcription factors, AP1, AP2, CREB, Sp1, and NF-kappa B were examined for their possible roles in keratoconus. Immunostaining experiments and Western blotting showed that Sp1 exhibited enhanced expression in keratoconus corneas. Increased binding of Sp1 consensus sequence oligonucleotides with nuclear extracts from the epithelium of keratoconus corneas was also seen by gel mobility shift assays. This is believed to be a first demonstration connecting Sp1 alteration to a human disease. The elevated Sp1 expression may contribute to the enzyme and inhibitor abnormalities found in keratoconus corneas. PMID:9196072

  17. Play as Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henricks, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    The author investigates what he believes one of the more important aspects of play--the experience it generates in its participants. He considers the quality of this experience in relation to five ways of viewing play--as action, interaction, activity, disposition, and within a context. He treats broadly the different forms of affect, including

  18. Is Play Serious?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, John

    1983-01-01

    The importance of play (1) to players--players' values, attitudes, and mental states, and whether or not players take their playing seriously; (2) in child development as argued by Rousseau, Froebel, and Neill; and (3) as serious or nonserious business as argued by Johan Huizinga and R. F. Dearden is examined. (SR)

  19. Play, Toys and Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brougere, Gilles

    In Western societies, television has transformed the life, culture, and points of reference of the child. Its particular sphere of influence is the child's play culture. This play culture is not hermetic: it is very oriented toward manipulation; has a symbolic role as a representational medium; evolves along with the child; has a certain amount of

  20. Growing Up with Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Many adults are afraid of boys' play today, believing that the aggression that is so common in boys' fantasies is dangerous and might make them become violent men. This personal reflection describes the importance of multiage play in showing little boys how to become big boys while encouraging empathy and emotional growth in older boys. The author

  1. Let's Just Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Children have a right to play. The idea is so simple it seems self-evident. But a stroll through any toy superstore, or any half-hour of so-called "children's" programming on commercial TV, makes it clear that violence, not play, dominates what's being sold. In this article, the author discusses how teachers and parents share the responsibility in…

  2. Let's Just Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Children have a right to play. The idea is so simple it seems self-evident. But a stroll through any toy superstore, or any half-hour of so-called "children's" programming on commercial TV, makes it clear that violence, not play, dominates what's being sold. In this article, the author discusses how teachers and parents share the responsibility in

  3. Clinical Intuition at Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2014-01-01

    A clinical psychologist and consulting psychotherapist discusses how elements of play, inherent in the intuition required in analysis, can provide a cornerstone for serious therapeutic work. She argues that many aspects of play--its key roles in human development, individual growth, and personal creativity, among others--can help therapists and

  4. Role Playing and Skits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letwin, Robert, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Explores non-scripted role playing, dialogue role playing, sociodrama, and skits as variations of simulation techniques. Provides step-by-step guidelines for conducting such sessions. Successful Meetings, Bill Communications, Inc., 1422 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 19102. Subscription Rates: yearly (US, Canada, Mexico) $14.00; elsewhere,

  5. Theories of Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peller, Lili E.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses several theories of play advanced before the development of psychoanalysis, including the theories of surplus energy, recreation, and practice. Examines the psychoanalytical view advanced by Freud and others, which focuses on the emotional release of play and its role in discovery and learning. (MDM)

  6. The Fear of Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almon, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Real play--play that is initiated and directed by children and that bubbles up from within the child rather than being imposed by adults--has largely disappeared from the landscape of childhood in the United States. There are many reasons for this, such as the long hours spent in front of screens each day or in activities organized by adults. In…

  7. Return to Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Call it physical activity, call it games, or call it play. Whatever its name, it's a place we all need to return to. In the physical education, recreation, and dance professions, we need to redesign programs to address the need for and want of play that is inherent in all of us.

  8. Krppel-like Factor 4 activates HBG gene expression in primary erythroid cells

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Inderdeep S.; Alam, Md M.; Choudhary, Pankaj K.; Pace, Betty S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The SP1/Krppel-like Factor (SP1/KLF) family of transcription factors plays a role in diverse cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation and control of gene transcription. The discovery of KLF1 (EKLF), a key regulator of HBB (?-globin) gene expression, expanded our understanding of the role of KLFs in erythropoiesis. In this study, we investigated a mechanism of HBG (?-globin) regulation by KLF4. siRNA-mediated gene silencing and enforced expression of KLF4 in K562 cells substantiated the ability of KLF4 to positively regulate endogenous HBG gene transcription. The physiological significance of this finding was confirmed in primary erythroid cells, where KLF4 knockdown at day 11 significantly attenuated HBG mRNA levels and enforced expression at day 28 stimulated the silenced HBG genes. In vitro binding characterization using the ?-CACCC and ?-CACCC probes demonstrated KLF4 preferentially binds the endogenous ?-CACCC, while CREB binding protein (CREBBP) binding was not selective. Co-immunoprecipitation studies confirmed protein-protein interaction between KLF4 and CREBBP. Furthermore, sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed co-localization of both factors in the ?-CACCC region. Subsequent luciferase reporter studies demonstrated that KLF4 trans-activated HBG promoter activity and that CREBBP enforced expression resulted in gene repression. Our data supports a model of antagonistic interaction of KLF4/CREBBP trans-factors in HBG regulation. PMID:21539536

  9. Melanoma upregulates ICAM-1 expression on endothelial cells through engagement of tumor CD44 with endothelial E-selectin and activation of a PKCα–p38–SP-1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pu; Goodrich, Chris; Fu, Changliang; Dong, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Cancer metastasis involves multistep adhesive interactions between tumor cells (TCs) and endothelial cells (ECs), but the molecular mechanisms of intercellular communication in the tumor microenvironment remain elusive. Using static and flow coculture systems in conjunction with flow cytometry, we discovered that certain receptors on the ECs are upregulated on melanoma cell adhesion. Direct contact but not separate coculture between human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) and a human melanoma cell line (Lu1205) increased intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin expression on HUVECs by 3- and 1.5-fold, respectively, compared with HUVECs alone. The nonmetastatic cell line WM35 failed to promote ICAM-1 expression changes in HUVECs on contact. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed that EC–TC contact has a synergistic effect on the expression of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6, and growth-related oncogene α (Gro-α). By using E-selectin cross-linking and beads coated with CD44 immunopurified from Lu1205 cells, we showed that CD44/selectin ligation was responsible for the ICAM-1 up-regulation on HUVECs. Protein kinase Cα (PKC-α) activation was found to be the downstream target of the CD44/selectin-initiated signaling, as ICAM-1 elevation was inhibited by siRNA targeting PKCα or a dominant negative form of PKCα (PKCα DN). Western blot analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) showed that TC–EC contact mediated p38 phosphorylation and binding of the transcription factor SP-1 to its regulation site. In conclusion, CD44/selectin binding signals ICAM-1 up-regulation on the EC surface through a PKCα–p38–SP-1 pathway, which further enhances melanoma cell adhesion to ECs during metastasis.—Zhang, P., Goodrich, C., Fu, C., Dong, C. Melanoma upregulates ICAM-1 expression on ECs through engagement of tumor CD44 with endothelial E-selectin and activation of a PKCα–p38–SP-1 pathway. PMID:25138157

  10. Curcumin Down-Regulates DNA Methyltransferase 1 and Plays an Anti-Leukemic Role in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jianhua; Peng, Yong; Wu, Lai-Chu; Xie, Zhiliang; Deng, Youcai; Hughes, Tiffany; He, Shun; Mo, XiaoKui; Chiu, Ming; Wang, Qi-En; He, Xiaoming; Liu, Shujun; Grever, Michael R.; Chan, Kenneth K.; Liu, Zhongfa

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive components from dietary supplements such as curcumin may represent attractive agents for cancer prevention or treatment. DNA methylation plays a critical role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) development, and presents an excellent target for treatment of this disease. However, it remains largely unknown how curcumin, a component of the popular Indian spice turmeric, plays a role in DNA hypomethylation to reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes and to present a potential treatment option for AML. Here we show that curcumin down-regulates DNMT1 expression in AML cell lines, both in vitro and in vivo, and in primary AML cells ex vivo. Mechanistically, curcumin reduced the expression of positive regulators of DNMT1, p65 and Sp1, which correlated with a reduction in binding of these transcription factors to the DNMT1 promoter in AML cell lines. This curcumin-mediated down-regulation of DNMT1 expression was concomitant with p15INK4B tumor suppressor gene reactivation, hypomethylation of the p15INK4B promoter, G1 cell cycle arrest, and induction of tumor cell apoptosis in vitro. In mice implanted with the human AML MV4–11 cell line, administration of curcumin resulted in remarkable suppression of AML tumor growth. Collectively, our data indicate that curcumin shows promise as a potential treatment for AML, and our findings provide a basis for future studies to test the clinical efficacy of curcumin – whether used as a single agent or as an adjuvant – for AML treatment. PMID:23457487

  11. Nuclear-factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) and radical oxygen species play contrary roles in transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1)-induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Fang Kaur, Swayamjot; Cavin, Lakita G.; Arsura, Marcello

    2008-12-26

    Nuclear-Factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}{beta} can counteract transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1)-induced apoptosis in malignant hepatocytes through up-regulation of its downstream genes, such as X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). Reports have demonstrated that TGF-{beta}1 can induce oxidative stress, and c-Jun N-terminal Kinase1 (JNK1) is indispensable for TGF-{beta}1-induced apoptosis pathway, but the relationship between radical oxygen species (ROS) and the activation of JNKs is still unclear. In the present study, we found that ROS can induce JNK activation in TGF-{beta}1 mediated apoptosis in hepatocytes. The inhibitors of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, which were produced by mitochondria under stress, could inhibit the phosphorylation of c-Jun in XIAP knockdown cells. In conclusion, it is the first time to show that both NF-{kappa}B and antioxidants can counteract TGF-{beta}1-induced apoptosis in hepatic cell death through JNK1 pathway.

  12. A 1.2 kb deletion in the 5' region of the beta-amylase gene is responsible for the lack of beta-amylase activity in soybean cultivar Altona sp 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have identified near-isogenic soybean lines, one containing normal beta-amylase activity (Altona Sp 1b) and the other with undetectable beta-amylase activity (Altona sp 1). The molecular basis for the absence of beta-amylase activity in the mutant has not been investigated. In thi...

  13. Play down protein to play up metabolism?

    PubMed

    Mller, Timo D; Tschp, Matthias H

    2014-09-01

    Who among us hasn't fantasized about a diet that allows ingestion of a surfeit of calories that are burned off effortlessly by ramping up energy expenditure? In this issue of the JCI, research led by Christopher Morrison suggests that this dream may become a reality; however, a complete understanding of the molecular interface that connects nutrient choices with our cellular metabolism will be required. Laeger et al. show that the expression and secretion of the weight-reducing hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is regulated by dietary proteins and not, as has been heretofore assumed, simply triggered by reduced caloric intake. This study not only sheds new light on the role of FGF21 in systems metabolism, but also on the ways our bodies cope with the ever-changing availability of different dietary macronutrients. PMID:25133420

  14. Play down protein to play up metabolism?

    PubMed Central

    Mller, Timo D.; Tschp, Matthias H.

    2014-01-01

    Who among us hasnt fantasized about a diet that allows ingestion of a surfeit of calories that are burned off effortlessly by ramping up energy expenditure? In this issue of the JCI, research led by Christopher Morrison suggests that this dream may become a reality; however, a complete understanding of the molecular interface that connects nutrient choices with our cellular metabolism will be required. Laeger et al. show that the expression and secretion of the weight-reducing hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is regulated by dietary proteins and not, as has been heretofore assumed, simply triggered by reduced caloric intake. This study not only sheds new light on the role of FGF21 in systems metabolism, but also on the ways our bodies cope with the ever-changing availability of different dietary macronutrients. PMID:25133420

  15. Endangered Play, Endangered Development: A Constructivist View of the Role of Play in Development and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Diane E.

    Piagetian and Vygotskian theories may be used as starting points to examine the role of play in development and learning from a constructivist perspective, including how children use play to deepen their understanding and skills, encounter new problems, and incorporate newly mastered skills into their play. Contemporary factors such as an emphasis…

  16. Looking into Children's Play Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, Mark; Fucigna, Carolee

    2009-01-01

    Play, particularly children's sociodramatic play, is the cornerstone of early childhood classrooms in the United States. Early childhood educators learn and expound mantras of "the value of play," "play-based programs," "children learning through play," and "play as child's work." They strive to promote the importance of making a place for play in

  17. PI3K/Akt signaling pathway triggers P2X7 receptor expression as a pro-survival factor of neuroblastoma cells under limiting growth conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Villafuertes, Rosa; García-Huerta, Paula; Díaz-Hernández, Juan Ignacio; Miras-Portugal, Mª Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The expression of purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) in neuroblastoma cells is associated to accelerated growth rate, angiogenesis, metastasis and poor prognosis. Noticeably, P2X7R allows the survival of neuroblastoma cells under restrictive conditions, including serum and glucose deprivation. Previously we identified specificity protein 1 (Sp1) as the main factor involved in the transcriptional regulation of P2rx7 gene, reporting that serum withdrawal triggers the expression of P2X7R in Neuro-2a (N2a) neuroblastoma cell line. Here we demonstrate that PI3K/Akt pathway is crucial for the upregulation of P2X7R expression in serum-deprived neuroblastoma cells, circumstance that facilitates cell proliferation in the absence of trophic support. The effect exerted by PI3K/Akt is independent of both mTOR and GSK3, but requires the activation of EGF receptor (EGFR). Nuclear levels of Sp1 are strongly reduced by inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathway, and blockade of Sp1-dependent transcription with mithramycin A prevents upregulation of P2rx7 gene expression following serum withdrawal. Furthermore, atypical PKCζ plays a key role in the regulation of P2X7R expression by preventing phosphorylation and, consequently, activation of Akt. Altogether, these data indicate that activation of EGFR enhanced the expression of P2X7R in neuroblastoma cells lacking trophic support, being PI3K/Akt/PKCζ signaling pathway and Sp1 mediating this pro-survival outcome. PMID:26687764

  18. PI3K/Akt signaling pathway triggers P2X7 receptor expression as a pro-survival factor of neuroblastoma cells under limiting growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Gmez-Villafuertes, Rosa; Garca-Huerta, Paula; Daz-Hernndez, Juan Ignacio; Miras-Portugal, M Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The expression of purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) in neuroblastoma cells is associated to accelerated growth rate, angiogenesis, metastasis and poor prognosis. Noticeably, P2X7R allows the survival of neuroblastoma cells under restrictive conditions, including serum and glucose deprivation. Previously we identified specificity protein 1 (Sp1) as the main factor involved in the transcriptional regulation of P2rx7 gene, reporting that serum withdrawal triggers the expression of P2X7R in Neuro-2a (N2a) neuroblastoma cell line. Here we demonstrate that PI3K/Akt pathway is crucial for the upregulation of P2X7R expression in serum-deprived neuroblastoma cells, circumstance that facilitates cell proliferation in the absence of trophic support. The effect exerted by PI3K/Akt is independent of both mTOR and GSK3, but requires the activation of EGF receptor (EGFR). Nuclear levels of Sp1 are strongly reduced by inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathway, and blockade of Sp1-dependent transcription with mithramycin A prevents upregulation of P2rx7 gene expression following serum withdrawal. Furthermore, atypical PKC? plays a key role in the regulation of P2X7R expression by preventing phosphorylation and, consequently, activation of Akt. Altogether, these data indicate that activation of EGFR enhanced the expression of P2X7R in neuroblastoma cells lacking trophic support, being PI3K/Akt/PKC? signaling pathway and Sp1 mediating this pro-survival outcome. PMID:26687764

  19. Psychological Approaches to the Study of Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, Doris

    2015-01-01

    In this survey of the research on psychological approaches to play, the author outlines its various focuses on the similarities and differences in the thinking and behavior of individuals and groups in relation to play and on the environmental factors that influence these. She notes that although psychologists often use standard experimental…

  20. Play's Importance in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette; Heden, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute knowledge on and gain an understanding of elementary school teachers' perspectives on the function of play in children's learning processes. The study is qualitative with a hermeneutical approach and has George Herbert Mead as a theoretical frame of reference. Interviews have been carried out with seven…

  1. Statistics at Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Lyn D.

    2014-01-01

    An exciting event had occurred for the grade 3 classes at Woodlands State School. A new play space designated for the older grades had now been opened to the third graders. In sharing their excitement over this "real treat, real privilege," the teachers invited the children to find out more about playgrounds and, in particular, their new

  2. One Play a Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate theater students rarely get the chance to work on a major world premiere, but this year hundreds of them will. Currently, more than 70 colleges and universities are participating in "365 Days/365 Plays," an ambitious project from Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright Suzan-Lori Parks. Every week, as they mount their portion of this epic

  3. Creative Outdoor Play Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Peggy L.

    Considering the creation of proper play areas for children (school sites, municipal and mini parks, private homes and backyards, shopping centers, apartment complexes, recreational areas, roadside parks, nursery schools, churches, summer camps, and drive-in theaters) as one of today's major challenges, the author recommends that professional

  4. "Playing" with Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Dave

    2012-01-01

    When faced with a multitude of tasks, any opportunity to "kill two birds with one stone" is welcome. Drama has always excited the author: as a child performing in plays, later as a student and now as a teacher directing performances and improvising within lessons. The author was lucky enough to have inspirational teachers during his primary and…

  5. Beginning to Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    This book focuses on the need to equip practitioners to meet the play needs of children in today's early years settings. With babies and very young children increasingly being cared for in out-of-home care settings, it is essential for early years practitioners to be responsive and reflective to ensure that these young children's needs are met in

  6. Playing To Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Dale; Shakeshaft, Charol; Kottkamp, Robert; Becker, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    A study to determine effects of Lightspan Partnership Inc.'s interactive materials on student achievement in a Denver- area elementary school revealed higher reading and math test scores for Lightspan schools, compared to control schools. This serious play curriculum, assisted by parents, benefited neediest kids most. (MLH)

  7. Integrated Play Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glovak, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    As an occupational therapist running social play groups with sensory integration for children on the autism spectrum, the author frequently doubted the wisdom of combining several children on the spectrum into a group. In fact, as the owner of a clinic she said, "No more!" The groups seemed like a waste of parents' time and money, and she refused

  8. Who's Calling the Plays?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Jay P.

    1990-01-01

    Without an enforceable policy, school athletics programs are beset by politics, high finance, and public sentiment. The most nettlesome problems include loss of instructional time to sports and extracurricular activities; the appropriateness and effectiveness of no-pass/no-play rules; lack of sportsmanship; proliferation of interstate competition;…

  9. Play's Importance in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette; Heden, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute knowledge on and gain an understanding of elementary school teachers' perspectives on the function of play in children's learning processes. The study is qualitative with a hermeneutical approach and has George Herbert Mead as a theoretical frame of reference. Interviews have been carried out with seven

  10. bHLH-PAS family transcription factor methoprene-tolerant plays a key role in JH action in preventing the premature development of adult structures during larval-pupal metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, R; Tan, Anjiang; Palli, Subba R

    2008-07-01

    The biological actions of juvenile hormones are well studied; they regulate almost all aspects of an insect's life. However, the molecular actions of these hormones are not well understood. Recent studies in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, demonstrated the utility of this insect as a model system to study JH action. These studies confirmed that the bHLH-PAS family transcription factor, methoprene-tolerant (TcMet,) plays a key role in JH action during larval stages. In this study, we investigated the role of TcMet in JH action during larval-pupal metamorphosis. The phenotypes of TcMet RNAi insects shared similarity with the phenotypes of some allatectomized lepidopteran larvae that were attempting to undergo precocious larval-pupal metamorphosis. Knocking-down TcMet during the final instar also disrupted larval-pupal ecdysis, resulting in the development of adultoid underneath the larval skin. However, the loss of TcMet did not completely block remodeling of internal tissues such as midgut. T. castaneum larvae injected with TcMet dsRNA demonstrated a resistance to a JH analog (JHA), hydroprene, irrespective of time and route of application. Knocking-down TcMet also caused down regulation of JH-response genes, JHE and Kr-h1 suggesting that TcMet might be involved in the expression of these genes. Based on the phenotype, gene expression, and JHA action studies in TcMet RNAi insects, this study concludes that Met plays a key role in JH action for preventing the premature development of adult structures during larval-pupal metamorphosis. PMID:18450431

  11. bHLH-PAS family transcription factor methoprene-tolerant plays a key role in JH action in preventing the premature development of adult structures during larval-pupal metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, R.; Tan, Anjiang; Palli, Subba R.

    2008-01-01

    The biological actions of juvenile hormones are well studied; they regulate almost all aspects of an insect’s life. However, the molecular actions of these hormones are not well understood. Recent studies in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, demonstrated the utility of this insect as a model system to study JH action. These studies confirmed that the bHLH-PAS family transcription factor, methoprene-tolerant (TcMet,) plays a key role in JH action during larval stages. In this study, we investigated the role of TcMet in JH action during larval-pupal metamorphosis. The phenotypes of TcMet RNAi insects shared similarity with the phenotypes of some allatectomized lepidopteran larvae that were attempting to undergo precocious larval-pupal metamorphosis. Knocking-down TcMet during the final instar also disrupted larval-pupal ecdysis, resulting in the development of adultoid underneath the larval skin. However, the loss of TcMet did not completely block remodeling of internal tissues such as midgut. T. castaneum larvae injected with TcMet dsRNA demonstrated a resistance to a JH analog (JHA), hydroprene, irrespective of time and route of application. Knocking-down TcMet also caused down regulation of JH-response genes, JHE and Kr-h1 suggesting that TcMet might be involved in the expression of these genes. Based on the phenotype, gene expression, and JHA action studies in TcMet RNAi insects, this study concludes that Met plays a key role in JH action for preventing the premature development of adult structures during larval-pupal metamorphosis. PMID:18450431

  12. Viewpoints: The High School Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbison, Lawrence; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents opinions of professionals on the current state of the high school play. Participants include a playwright, play supplier, high school theater instructor, workshop leader, and play publisher. Discusses selection, production, and performance of plays. (JMF)

  13. Cell Growth Defect Factor1/CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 Plays a Role in Stabilization of Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Yong; Lee, Ho-Seok; Song, Ji-Young; Jung, Young Jun; Reinbothe, Steffen; Park, Youn-Il; Lee, Sang Yeol; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Angiosperms require light for chlorophyll biosynthesis because one reaction in the pathway, the reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide, is catalyzed by the light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). Here, we report that Cell growth defect factor1 (Cdf1), renamed here as CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 (CPP1), an essential protein for chloroplast development, plays a role in the regulation of POR stability and function. Cdf1/CPP1 contains a J-like domain and three transmembrane domains, is localized in the thylakoid and envelope membranes, and interacts with POR isoforms in chloroplasts. CPP1 can stabilize POR proteins with its holdase chaperone activity. CPP1 deficiency results in diminished POR protein accumulation and defective chlorophyll synthesis, leading to photobleaching and growth inhibition of plants under light conditions. CPP1 depletion also causes reduced POR accumulation in etioplasts of dark-grown plants and as a result impairs the formation of prolamellar bodies, which subsequently affects chloroplast biogenesis upon illumination. Furthermore, in cyanobacteria, the CPP1 homolog critically regulates POR accumulation and chlorophyll synthesis under high-light conditions, in which the dark-operative Pchlide oxidoreductase is repressed by its oxygen sensitivity. These findings and the ubiquitous presence of CPP1 in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms suggest the conserved nature of CPP1 function in the regulation of POR. PMID:24151298

  14. Solar Power at Play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    For the very first time, astronomers have witnessed the speeding up of an asteroid's rotation, and have shown that it is due to a theoretical effect predicted but never seen before. The international team of scientists used an armada of telescopes to discover that the asteroid's rotation period currently decreases by 1 millisecond every year, as a consequence of the heating of the asteroid's surface by the Sun. Eventually it may spin faster than any known asteroid in the solar system and even break apart. ESO PR Photo 11a/07 ESO PR Photo 11a/07 Asteroid 2000 PH5 "The Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect is believed to alter the way small bodies in the Solar System rotate," said Stephen Lowry (Queens University Belfast, UK), lead-author of one of the two companion papers in which this work is reported [1, 2]. "The warming caused by sunlight hitting the surfaces of asteroids and meteoroids leads to a gentle recoil effect as the heat is released," he added. "By analogy, if one were to shine light on a propeller over a long enough period, it would start spinning." Although this is an almost immeasurably weak force, its effect over millions of years is far from negligible. Astronomers believe the YORP effect may be responsible for spinning some asteroids up so fast that they break apart, perhaps leading to the formation of double asteroids. Others may be slowed down so that they take many days to complete a full turn. The YORP effect also plays an important role in changing the orbits of asteroids between Mars and Jupiter, including their delivery to planet-crossing orbits, such as those of near-Earth asteroids. Despite its importance, the effect has never been seen acting on a solar system body, until now. Using extensive optical and radar imaging from powerful Earth-based observatories, astronomers have directly observed the YORP effect in action on a small near-Earth asteroid, known as (54509) 2000 PH5. Shortly after its discovery in 2000, it was realised that asteroid 2000 PH5 would be the ideal candidate for such a YORP detection. With a diameter of just 114 metres, it is relatively small and so more susceptible to the effect. Also, it rotates very fast, with one 'day' on the asteroid lasting just over 12 Earth minutes, implying that the YORP effect may have been acting on it for some time. With this in mind, the team of astronomers undertook a long term monitoring campaign of the asteroid with the aim of detecting any tiny changes in its rotation speed. Over a 4-year time span, Stephen Lowry, Alan Fitzsimmons and colleagues took images of the asteroid at a range of telescope sites including ESO's 8.2-m Very Large Telescope array and 3.5-m New Technology Telescope in Chile, the 3.5-m telescope at Calar Alto, Spain, along with a suite of other telescopes from the Czech Republic, the Canary Islands, Hawaii, Spain and Chile. With these facilities the astronomers measured the slight brightness variations as the asteroid rotated. ESO PR Photo 11b/07 ESO PR Photo 11b/07 Radar Images of 2000 PH5 Over the same time period, the radar team led by Patrick Taylor and Jean-Luc Margot of Cornell University employed the unique capabilities of the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico and the Goldstone radar facility in California to observe the asteroid by 'bouncing' a radar pulse off the asteroid and analysing its echo. "With this technique we can reconstruct a 3-D model of the asteroid's shape, with the necessary detail to allow a comparison between the observations and theory," said Taylor. After careful analysis of the optical data, the asteroid's spin rate was seen to steadily increase with time, at a rate that can be explained by the YORP theory. Critically, the effect was observed year after year, for more than 4 years. Furthermore, this number was elegantly supported via analysis of the combined radar and optical data, as it was required that the asteroid is increasing its spin rate at exactly this rate in order for a satisfactory 3-D shape model to be determined. ESO PR Video 11/07 ESO PR Video 11c/07 Watch the Asteroid Move! To predict what will happen to the asteroid in the future, Lowry and his colleagues performed detailed computer simulations using the measured strength of the YORP effect and the detailed shape model. They found that the orbit of the asteroid about the Sun could remain stable for up to the next 35 million years, allowing the rotation period to be reduced by a factor of 36, to just 20 seconds, faster than any asteroid whose rotation has been measured until now. "This exceptionally fast spin-rate could force the asteroid to reshape itself or even split apart, leading to the birth of a new double system," said Lowry.

  15. Characterization of the promoter region of the bovine long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 gene: Roles of E2F1, Sp1, KLF15, and E2F4

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhi-Dong; Zan, Lin-Sen; Li, An-Ning; Cheng, Gong; Li, Shi-Jun; Zhang, Ya-Ran; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Ying-Ying

    2016-01-01

    The nutritional value and eating qualities of beef are enhanced when the unsaturated fatty acid content of fat is increased. Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (ACSL1) plays key roles in fatty acid transport and degradation, as well as lipid synthesis. It has been identified as a plausible functional and positional candidate gene for manipulations of fatty acid composition in bovine skeletal muscle. In the present study, we determined that bovine ACSL1was highly expressed in subcutaneous adipose tissue and longissimus thoracis. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in bovine ACSL1 regulation, we cloned and characterized the promoter region of ACSL1. Applying 5′-rapid amplification of cDNA end analysis (RACE), we identified multiple transcriptional start sites (TSSs) in its promoter region. Using a series of 5′ deletion promoter plasmids in luciferase reporter assays, we found that the proximal minimal promoter of ACSL1 was located within the region −325/−141 relative to the TSS and it was also located in the predicted CpG island. Mutational analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that E2F1, Sp1, KLF15 and E2F4 binding to the promoter region drives ACSL1 transcription. Together these interactions integrate and frame a key functional role for ACSL1 in mediating the lipid composition of beef. PMID:26782942

  16. Characterization of the promoter region of the bovine long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 gene: Roles of E2F1, Sp1, KLF15, and E2F4.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Dong; Zan, Lin-Sen; Li, An-Ning; Cheng, Gong; Li, Shi-Jun; Zhang, Ya-Ran; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Ying-Ying

    2016-01-01

    The nutritional value and eating qualities of beef are enhanced when the unsaturated fatty acid content of fat is increased. Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (ACSL1) plays key roles in fatty acid transport and degradation, as well as lipid synthesis. It has been identified as a plausible functional and positional candidate gene for manipulations of fatty acid composition in bovine skeletal muscle. In the present study, we determined that bovine ACSL1was highly expressed in subcutaneous adipose tissue and longissimus thoracis. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in bovine ACSL1 regulation, we cloned and characterized the promoter region of ACSL1. Applying 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA end analysis (RACE), we identified multiple transcriptional start sites (TSSs) in its promoter region. Using a series of 5' deletion promoter plasmids in luciferase reporter assays, we found that the proximal minimal promoter of ACSL1 was located within the region -325/-141 relative to the TSS and it was also located in the predicted CpG island. Mutational analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that E2F1, Sp1, KLF15 and E2F4 binding to the promoter region drives ACSL1 transcription. Together these interactions integrate and frame a key functional role for ACSL1 in mediating the lipid composition of beef. PMID:26782942

  17. Cognitive underpinnings of pretend play in autism.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, M D; Rogers, Sally J

    2003-06-01

    This article examines the cognitive underpinnings of spontaneous and prompted pretend play in 28 young children with autism, 24 children with other developmental disorders, and 26 typical children. The article compares theories that consider either theory of mind (ToM) or executive function (EF) to be causally important deficits in the development of pretend play in autism and important factors in pretend play. Each of these two theories posits a cognitive precursor to pretense, which would need to be present in typical development, and the absence of which could explain pretend play deficits in children with developmental disabilities such as autism. We tested which of these theories better predicts a child's production of pretend play. Children with autism were significantly delayed on pretend play scores. They also had significant deficits in our ToM measure, but not our EF measures. Regression analyses suggested a role for our measure of generativity, one of the EF measures. PMID:12908832

  18. PlayStation purpura.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Susan J; Leonard, Jane; Chamberlain, Alex J

    2010-08-01

    A 16-year-old boy presented with a number of asymptomatic pigmented macules on the volar aspect of his index fingers. Dermoscopy of each macule revealed a parallel ridge pattern of homogenous reddish-brown pigment. We propose that these lesions were induced by repetitive trauma from a Sony PlayStation 3 (Sony Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) vibration feedback controller. The lesions completely resolved following abstinence from gaming over a number of weeks. Although the parallel ridge pattern is typically the hallmark for early acral lentiginous melanoma, it may be observed in a limited number of benign entities, including subcorneal haematoma. PMID:20695869

  19. Sp1 Regulates Chromatin Looping between an Intronic Enhancer and Distal Promoter of the Human Heme Oxygenase-1 Gene in Renal Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Deshane, Jessy; Kim, Junghyun; Bolisetty, Subhashini; Hock, Thomas D.; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie; Agarwal, Anupam

    2010-01-01

    HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1) is an inducible microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of pro-oxidant heme. The goal of this study was to characterize a minimal enhancer region within the human HO-1 gene and delineate its role in modulating HO-1 expression by participation with its promoter elements in renal epithelial cells. Deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis identified a 220-bp minimal enhancer in intron 1 of the HO-1 gene, which regulates hemin-mediated HO-1 gene expression. Small interfering RNA, decoy oligonucleotides, site-directed mutagenesis, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed the functional interaction of Sp1 with a consensus binding sequence within the 220-bp region. Mutations of regulatory elements within the ?4.5 kb promoter region (a cyclic AMP response and a downstream NF-E2/AP-1 element, both located at ?4.0 kb, and/or an E-box sequence located at ?44 bp) resulted in the loss of enhancer activity. A chromosome conformation capture assay performed in human renal epithelial (HK-2) cells demonstrated hemin-inducible chromatin looping between the intronic enhancer and the ?4.0 kb promoter region in a time-dependent manner. Restriction digestion with ApaLI (which cleaves the 220-bp enhancer) led to a loss of stimulus-dependent chromatin looping. Sp1 small interfering RNA and mithramycin A, a Sp1 binding site inhibitor, resulted in loss of the loop formation between the intronic enhancer and the distal HO-1 promoter by the chromosome conformation capture assay. These results provide novel insight into the complex molecular interactions that underlie human HO-1 regulation in renal epithelial cells. PMID:20351094

  20. Promoter hypomethylation up-regulates CD147 expression through increasing Sp1 binding and associates with poor prognosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ling-Min; Liao, Cheng-Gong; Chen, Liang; Yang, Hu-Shan; Zhang, Si-He; Zhang, Zheng; Bian, Hui-Jie; Xing, Jin-Liang; Chen, Zhi-Nan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract CD147 is a transmembrane glycoprotein overexpressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) which could promote HCC progression and metastasis. Promoter methylation is one of the most important processes in gene regulation. In this study, we aim to investigate CD147 promoter methylation status and the correlation with clinicopathological features and prognosis in HCC. CD147 promoter methylation statuses and expression levels in normal and HCC cell lines and 54 paired HCC and adjacent non-tumour (ANT) tissues were, respectively, examined by bisulphite genomic sequencing, methylation-specific PCR, real-time RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The correlations of promoter methylation statuses with CD147 expression level and the clinicopathological features were statistically analysed in HCC patients. Significantly higher expression of CD147 and significantly lower promoter methylation level were observed in HCC cell lines compared to normal cell lines and tissues control. In vivo and in vitro analysis indicated that demethylation with 5-Aza-2?-deoxycytidine led to increased CD147 expression through enhancing Sp1 binding affinity, and methylation with methyltransferase reduced CD147 transcriptional activity through interfering Sp1 binding. CD147 promoter methylation level in HCC tissues (22.22%) was lower than that in ANT tissues (46.30%; P < 0.05). Within HCC tissues, a significant inverse correlation was observed between CD147 expression and methylation level (r=?0.615). Moreover, HCC patients with unmethylated CD147 promoter had a significantly higher recurrence rate (88.1%versus 58.3%; P < 0.05) and death rate (83.3%versus 50.0%; P < 0.05) than patients with methylated CD147 promoter. In conclusions, promoter hypomethylation up-regulates CD147 expression primarily through increasing Sp1 binding and associates with poor prognosis in HCC patients. PMID:20629990

  1. MiR-200b expression in breast cancer: a prognostic marker and act on cell proliferation and apoptosis by targeting Sp1.

    PubMed

    Yao, YaSai; Hu, Jian; Shen, Zan; Yao, RuYong; Liu, ShiHai; Li, Yong; Cong, Hui; Wang, XinGang; Qiu, WenSheng; Yue, Lu

    2015-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as important post-transcriptional regulators involved in various biological and pathological processes of cells. In the present study, we investigated the roles and mechanisms of miR-200b in human breast cancer (BC). MiR-200b expression was carried out by qRT-PCR in human BC cell lines and clinical samples and the prognostic potential of miR-200b expression was further evaluated. In vitro, effects of miR-200b on BC cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were tested by CCK-8 kit, flow cytometric analysis respectively. Luciferase assay and Western blot analysis were performed to validate the potential targets of miR-200b after the preliminary screening by employing open access software. We found that miR-200b was significantly down-regulated in both BC tissues and cell lines. The low expression of miR-200b was correlated with late TNM stage, negative oestrogen receptor and positive HER-2 status. Multivariate analysis showed that miR-200b expression was an independent prognostic predictor for BC patients. Integrated analysis identified Sp1 as a direct and functional target of miR-200b. Knockdown of Sp1 inhibited cell proliferation, induce apoptosis and act on cell cycle resembling that of miR-200b high expression. Our data demonstrates that miR-200b has potential to serve as prognostic biomarker and tumour suppressor for BC patients. As a direct and functional target of miR-200b, Sp1 and miR-200b both could be an exciting target for BC treatment strategy. PMID:25639535

  2. Development of a real-time PCR assay (SYBR Green I) for rapid identification and quantification of scyphomedusae Aurelia sp.1 planulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianyan; Zhen, Yu; Mi, Tiezhu; Yu, Zhigang; Wang, Guoshan

    2015-07-01

    The complicated life cycle of Aurelia spp., comprising benthic asexually-reproducing polyps and sexually-reproducing medusae, makes it hard for researchers to identify and track them, especially for early stage individuals, such as planulae. To solve this problem, we developed a real-time PCR assay (SYBR Green I) to identify planulae in both cultured and natural seawater samples. Species-specific primers targeting Aurelia sp.1 mitochondrial 16S rDNA (mt 16S rDNA) regions were designed. Using a calibration curve constructed with plasmids containing the Aurelia sp.1 mt 16S rDNA fragment and a standard curve for planulae, the absolute number of mt 16S rDNA copies per planula was determined and from that the total number of planulae per sample was estimated. For the field samples, a 100-fold dilution of the sample DNA combined with a final concentration of 0.2 μg/μL BSA in the PCR reaction mixture was used to remove real-time PCR inhibitors. Samples collected in Jiaozhou Bay from July to September 2012 were subsequently analyzed using this assay. Peak Aurelia sp.1 planula abundance occurred in July 2012 at stations near Hongdao Island and Qingdao offshore; abundances were very low in August and September. The real-time PCR assay (SYBR Green I) developed here negates the need for traditional microscopic identification, which is laborious and time-consuming, and can detect and quantify jellyfish planulae in field plankton samples rapidly and specifically.

  3. Evidence for cooperative mineralization of diuron by Arthrobacter sp. BS2 and Achromobacter sp. SP1 isolated from a mixed culture enriched from diuron exposed environments.

    PubMed

    Devers-Lamrani, Marion; Pesce, Stphane; Rouard, Nadine; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2014-12-01

    Diuron was found to be mineralized in buffer strip soil (BS) and in the sediments (SED) of the Morcille river in the Beaujolais vineyard repeatedly treated with this herbicide. Enrichment cultures from BS and SED samples led to the isolation of three bacterial strains transforming diuron to 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) its aniline derivative. 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that they belonged to the genus Arthrobacter (99% of similarity to Arthrobacter globiformis strain K01-01) and were designated as Arthrobacter sp. BS1, BS2 and SED1. Diuron-degrading potential characterized by sequencing of the puhA gene, characterizing the diuron-degradaing potential, revealed 99% similarity to A. globiformis strain D47 puhA gene isolated a decade ago in the UK. These isolates were also able to use chlorotoluron for their growth. Although able to degrade linuron and monolinuron to related aniline derivatives they were not growing on them. Enrichment cultures led to the isolation of a strain from the sediments entirely degrading 3,4-DCA. 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that it was affiliated to the genus Achromobacter (99% of similarity to Achromobacter sp. CH1) and was designated as Achromobacter sp. SP1. The dcaQ gene encoding enzyme responsible for the transformation of 3,4-DCA to chlorocatechol was found in SP1 with 99% similarity to that of Comamonas testosteroni WDL7. This isolate also used for its growth a range of anilines (3-chloro-4-methyl-aniline, 4-isopropylaniline, 4-chloroaniline, 3-chloroaniline, 4-bromoaniline). The mixed culture composed of BS2 and SP1 strains entirely mineralizes (14)C-diuron to (14)CO2. Diuron-mineralization observed in the enrichment culture could result from the metabolic cooperation between these two populations. PMID:25061887

  4. Glucosamine-induced Sp1 O-GlcNAcylation ameliorates hypoxia-induced SGLT dysfunction in primary cultured renal proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Suh, Han Na; Lee, Yu Jin; Kim, Mi Ok; Ryu, Jung Min; Han, Ho Jae

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether GlcN could recover the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced dysfunction of Na(+) /glucose cotransporter (SGLT) in renal proximal tubule cells (PTCs) under hypoxia. With the rabbit model, the renal ischemia induced tubulointerstitial abnormalities and decreased SGLTs expression in tubular brush-border, which were recovered by GlcN. Thus, the protective mechanism of GlcN against renal ischemia was being examined by using PTCs. Hypoxia decreased the level of protein O-GlcNAc and the expression of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) while increased O-GlcNAcase (OGA) and these were reversed by GlcN. Hypoxia also decreased the expression of SGLTs (SGLT1 and 2) and [(14) C]-?-methyl-D-glucopyranoside (?-MG) uptake which were recovered by GlcN and PUGNAc (OGA inhibitor). Hypoxia enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and then ER stress proteins, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), and C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP). However, the expression of GRP78 increased till 6?h and then decreased whereas CHOP increased gradually. Moreover, decreased GRP78 and increased CHOP were reversed by NAC (antioxidant) and GlcN. GlcN ameliorated hypoxia-induced decrease of O-GlcNAc modification of Sp1 but OGT or Sp1 siRNAs blocked the recovery effect of GlcN on SGLT expression and ?-MG uptake. In addition, hypoxia-decreased GRP78 and HIF-1? expression was reversed by GlcN but OGT siRNA or Sp1 siRNA ameliorated the effect of GlcN. When PTCs were transfected with GRP78 siRNA or HIF-1? siRNA, SGLT expression and ?-MG uptake was decreased. Taken together, these data suggest that GlcN-induced O-GlcNAc modified Sp1 with stimulating GRP78 and HIF-1? activity ameliorate hypoxia-induced SGLT dysfunction in renal PTCs. J. Cell. Physiol. 229: 1557-1568, 2014. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24591095

  5. Farm Hall: The Play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, David C.

    2013-03-01

    It's July 1945. Germany is in defeat and the atomic bombs are on their way to Japan. Under the direction of Samuel Goudsmit, the Allies are holding some of the top German nuclear scientists-among them Heisenberg, Hahn, and Gerlach-captive in Farm Hall, an English country manor near Cambridge, England. As secret microphones record their conversations, the scientists are unaware of why they are being held or for how long. Thinking themselves far ahead of the Allies, how will they react to the news of the atomic bombs? How will these famous scientists explain to themselves and to the world their failure to achieve even a chain reaction? How will they come to terms with the horror of the Third Reich, their work for such a regime, and their behavior during that period? This one-act play is based upon the transcripts of their conversations as well as the author's historical work on the subject.

  6. Imagination, Playfulness, and Creativity in Children's Play with Different Toys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mo????ller, Signe?? Juhl?

    2015-01-01

    Based on a four-month experimental study of preschool children's play with creative-construction and social-fantasy toys, the author examines the in?uence of both types of toys on the play of preschool children. Her comparative analysis considers the impact of transformative play on the development of imagination during play activities and…

  7. Child's Play: Revisiting Play in Early Childhood Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dau, Elizabeth, Ed.; Jones, Elizabeth, Ed.

    Noting that play is an essential aspect of learning for young children, this book presents a collection of articles on children's play in Australia. Part 1, "Play, Development, and Learning," contains the following chapters: (1) "The Role of Play in Development and Learning" (Ann Glover); (2) "Stop, Look, and Listen: Adopting an Investigative…

  8. Playing My Heart Out: Original Play as Adventure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, O. Fred

    1999-01-01

    "Original" play denotes play that is pre-cultural--before conceptualizations and learned responses. Four anecdotes about play with an infant with Down's syndrome, a child with leukemia, a lioness, and a dying woman illustrate the connections between beings and between the ordinary and the sacred during trusting, fearless, playful encounters. (SV)

  9. Inhibition of breast cancer invasion by TIS21(/BTG2/Pc3)-Akt1-Sp1-Nox4 pathway targeting actin nucleators, mDia genes.

    PubMed

    Choi, J-A; Jung, Y S; Kim, J Y; Kim, H M; Lim, I K

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian homolog of Drosophila diaphanous (mDia), actin nucleator, has been known to participate in the process of invasion and metastasis of cancer cells via regulating a number of actin-related biological processes. We have previously reported that tumor suppressor TIS21(/BTG2/Pc3) (TIS21) inhibits invadopodia formation by downregulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) in MDA-MB-231 cells. We herein report that TIS21(/BTG2/Pc3) downregulates diaphanous-related formin (DRF) expression via reducing NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4)-derived ROS generation by Akt1 activation and subsequently impairs invasion activity of the highly invasive breast cancer cells. Knockdown of Akt1 by RNA interference recovered the TIS21(/BTG2/Pc3)-inhibited F-actin remodeling and ROS generation by recovering Nox4 expression. Furthermore, Sp1-mediated Nox4 transcription was downregulated by TIS21(/BTG2/Pc3)-Akt1 signals, leading to the inhibition of cancer cell invasion via F-actin remodeling by mDia genes. To our best knowledge, this is the first study to show that TIS21(/BTG2/Pc3)-Akt1 inhibited Sp1-Nox4-ROS cascade, subsequently reducing invasion activity via inhibition of mDia family genes. PMID:25798836

  10. The activity of a novel mithramycin analog is related to its binding to DNA, cellular accumulation, and inhibition of Sp1-driven gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Guizán, Azahara; Mansilla, Sylvia; Barceló, Francisca; Vizcaíno, Carolina; Núñez, Luz-Elena; Morís, Francisco; González, Segundo; Portugal, José

    2014-08-01

    DIG-MSK (demycarosyl-3D-β-D-digitoxosyl-mithramycin SK) is a recently isolated compound of the mithramycin family of antitumor antibiotics, which includes mithramycin A (MTA) and mithramycin SK (MSK). Here, we present evidence that the binding of DIG-MSK to DNA shares the general features of other mithramycins such as the preference for C/G-rich tracts, but there are some differences in the strength of binding and the DNA sequence preferentially recognized by DIG-MSK. We aimed at gaining further insights into the DIG-MSK mechanism of action by direct comparison with the effects of the parental MTA. Similar to MTA, MSK and DIG-MSK accumulated rapidly in A2780, IGROV1 and OVCAR3 human ovarian cancer cell lines, and DIG-MSK was a potent inhibitor of both basal and induced expression of an Sp1-driven luciferase vector. This inhibitory activity was confirmed for the endogenous Sp1 gene and a set of Sp-responsive genes, and compared to that of MTA and MSK. Furthermore, DIG-MSK was stronger than MTA as inhibitor of Sp3-driven transcription and endogenous Sp3 gene expression. Differences in the effects of MTA, MSK and DIG-MSK on gene expression may have a large influence on their biological activities. PMID:24907531

  11. Serine proteases SP1 and SP13 mediate the melanization response of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, against entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yuan; Liu, Yang; Shen, Dongxu; Hong, Fang; Wang, Guirong; An, Chunju

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to entomopathogenic fungi is one approach for insect pest control. Little is known about the immune interactions between fungus and its insect host. Melanization is a prominent immune response in insects in defending against pathogens such as bacteria and fungi. Clip domain serine proteases in insect plasma have been implicated in the activation of prophenoloxidase, a key enzyme in the melanization. The relationship between host melanization and the infection by a fungus needs to be established. We report here that the injection of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana induced both melanin synthesis and phenoloxidase activity in its host insect, the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guene). qRT-PCR analysis showed several distinct patterns of expression of 13 clip-domain serine proteases in response to the challenge of fungi, with seven increased, two decreased, and four unchanged. Of special interest among these clip-domain serine protease genes are SP1 and SP13, the orthologs of Manduca sexta HP6 and PAP1 which are involved in the prophenoloxidase activation pathway. Recombinant O. furnacalis SP1 was found to activate proSP13 and induce the phenoloxidase activity in corn borer plasma. Additionally, SP13 was determined to directly cleave prophenoloxidase and therefore act as the prophenoloxidase activating protease. Our work thus reveals a biochemical mechanism in the melanization in corn borer associated with the challenge by B. bassiana injection. These insights could provide valuable information for better understanding the immune responses of Asian corn borer against B. bassiana. PMID:25900291

  12. Playing with molecules.

    PubMed

    Toon, Adam

    2011-12-01

    Recent philosophy of science has seen a number of attempts to understand scientific models by looking to theories of fiction. In previous work, I have offered an account of models that draws on Kendall Walton's 'make-believe' theory of art. According to this account, models function as 'props' in games of make-believe, like children's dolls or toy trucks. In this paper, I assess the make-believe view through an empirical study of molecular models. I suggest that the view gains support when we look at the way that these models are used and the attitude that users take towards them. Users' interaction with molecular models suggests that they do imagine the models to be molecules, in much the same way that children imagine a doll to be a baby. Furthermore, I argue, users of molecular models imagine themselves viewing and manipulating molecules, just as children playing with a doll might imagine themselves looking at a baby or feeding it. Recognising this 'participation' in modelling, I suggest, points towards a new account of how models are used to learn about the world, and helps us to understand the value that scientists sometimes place on three-dimensional, physical models over other forms of representation. PMID:22332319

  13. Intensity of tennis match play

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, J; Mendez?Villanueva, A; Pluim, B M

    2006-01-01

    This review focuses on the characteristics of tennis players during match play and provides a greater insight into the energy demands of tennis. A tennis match often lasts longer than an hour and in some cases more than five hours. During a match there is a combination of periods of maximal or near maximal work and longer periods of moderate and low intensity activity. Match intensity varies considerably depending on the players' level, style, and sex. It is also influenced by factors such as court surface and ball type. This has important implications for the training of tennis players, which should resemble match intensity and include interval training with appropriate work to rest ratios. PMID:16632566

  14. Play Therapy in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landreth, Garry L.; Ray, Dee C.; Bratton, Sue C.

    2009-01-01

    Because the child's world is a world of action and activity, play therapy provides the psychologist in elementary-school settings with an opportunity to enter the child's world. In the play therapy relationship, toys are like the child's words and play is the child's language. Therefore, children play out their problems, experiences, concerns, and

  15. Playful Learning and Montessori Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillard, Angeline S.

    2013-01-01

    Although Montessori education is often considered a form of playful learning, Maria Montessori herself spoke negatively about a major component of playful learning--pretend play, or fantasy--for young children. In this essay, the author discusses this apparent contradiction: how and why Montessori education includes elements of playful learning…

  16. Asbestos in play sand

    SciTech Connect

    Langer, A.M.; Nolan, R.P.

    1987-04-02

    A letter in the New England Journal of Medicine (Oct. 2 issue) stated that a carbonate sand marketed in New Jersey was contaminated with 2 to 4 percent tremolite asbestos. The authors were called on by one of the federal agencies to repeat the analysis of this sand, specifically for its asbestos content. The sand was pulverized and immersed in oils with known refractive indexes, and the predominant amphibole was characterized by polarized light microscopy. The optical characteristics were noted, and the indexes of refraction were measured and found to be consistent with tremolite. On the basis of optical characterization, the authors concluded that all the tremolite visualized with light microscopy consisted of large, single cleavage fragments and was not asbestiform. They used the technique of x-ray diffraction, as did the author of the original report, which showed the presence of an amphibole mineral (probably tremolite) in the carbonate sand. The technique was not used, and cannot be used, to distinguish between the tremolite habits (asbestiform or nonasbestiform). An acid-insoluble residue, recovered from the carbonate sand, was examined by analytic electron microscopy. The tremolite grains were observed to consist of single untwinned, crystalline fragments. Few defects were noted. Selected area electron diffraction nets were indicative of fragments lying near or at the common amphibole cleavage plane. These characteristics are consistent with cleavage fragments and not asbestos. Aspect ratios reflected short particles (less than 5.1). On the basis of their examination of the carbonate play sand, they conclude that it did not contain tremolite asbestos.

  17. Regulation of Histone Deacetylase 4 Expression by the SP Family of Transcription FactorsD?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Pore, Nabendu; Kim, Mijin; Voong, K. Ranh; Dowling, Melissa; Maity, Amit; Kao, Gary D.

    2006-01-01

    Histone deacetylases mediate critical cellular functions but relatively little is known about mechanisms controlling their expression, including expression of HDAC4, a class II HDAC implicated in the modulation of cellular differentiation and viability. Endogenous HDAC4 mRNA, protein levels and promoter activity were all readily repressed by mithramycin, suggesting regulation by GC-rich DNA sequences. We validated consensus binding sites for Sp1/Sp3 transcription factors in the HDAC4 promoter through truncation studies and targeted mutagenesis. Specific and functional binding by Sp1/Sp3 at these sites was confirmed with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and electromobility shift assays (EMSA). Cotransfection of either Sp1 or Sp3 with a reporter driven by the HDAC4 promoter led to high activities in SL2 insect cells (which lack endogenous Sp1/Sp3). In human cells, restored expression of Sp1 and Sp3 up-regulated HDAC4 protein levels, whereas levels were decreased by RNA-interference-mediated knockdown of either protein. Finally, variable levels of Sp1 were in concordance with that of HDAC4 in a number of human tissues and cancer cell lines. These studies together characterize for the first time the activity of the HDAC4 promoter, through which Sp1 and Sp3 modulates expression of HDAC4 and which may contribute to tissue or cell-line-specific expression of HDAC4. PMID:16280357

  18. Rough and Tumble Play 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Frances

    2009-01-01

    Many people fear that play-fighting or rough and tumble play is the same as real fighting. There is also a fear that this rough play will become real fighting if allowed to continue. Most of all, parents and teachers fear that during the course of rough and tumble play a child may be hurt. To provide for and allow children to play rough without

  19. Turnabout is fair play

    PubMed Central

    Krachler, Anne Marie; Ham, Hyeilin; Orth, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Pathogen attachment to host tissues is one of the initial and most crucial events during the establishment of bacterial infections and thus interference with this step could be an efficient strategy to fight bacterial colonization. Our recent work has identified one of the factors involved in initial binding of host cells by a wide range of Gram-negative pathogens, Multivalent Adhesion Molecule (MAM) 7. Interference with MAM7-mediated attachment, for example by pre-incubation of host cells with recombinant MAM7, significantly delays the onset of hallmarks of infection, such as pathogen-mediated cytotoxicity or the development of other adhesive structures such as actin pedestals. Thus, we are trying to develop tools based on MAM7 that can be used to prevent or diminish certain Gram-negative bacterial infections. Herein, we describe the use of bead-coupled MAM7 as an inhibitor of infection with the clinically relevant pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:22086133

  20. Playing the Game? Exploring Role Play from Children's Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Sue; Evans, Julie

    2006-01-01

    There has been little research on play undertaken in the UK from the child's perspective. This article is based on a year long ethnographic study of children's role play in school. It draws on two main sources of data. First, data from the children concerning their perceptions of role play, what they liked and disliked about it, and secondly

  1. Playing with Switches, Birth through Two. Let's Play! Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Buffalo. Center for Assistive Technology.

    This guide to playing with switches for parents and early intervention personnel was developed by the "Let's Play! Project," a 3-year federally supported project that worked to promote play in infants and toddlers with disabilities through the use of assistive technology. Switches are used with electronic toys to help young children easily

  2. Social Studies Teacher Writes Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaleo, Ralph J.

    1985-01-01

    The text of a teacher-written play "The Tragedy of Woodrow Wilson" that can be used in high school social studies classes is presented. The author also discusses how he went about writing the play. (RM)

  3. Learning, Play, and Your Newborn

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Learning, Play, and Your Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Learning, ... juega su recién nacido What Is My Newborn Learning? Play is the chief way that infants learn ...

  4. Safety Play Surfaces Buying Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Describes standards for playing surfaces and characteristics of play surfaces made of organic loose material, inorganic loose material, and compact materials. Necessary site preparation is discussed. An extensive, annotated list of manufacturers of surfaces is included. (DR)

  5. Problematic game play: the diagnostic value of playing motives, passion, and playing time in men.

    PubMed

    Kneer, Julia; Rieger, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Internet gaming disorder is currently listed in the DSM-not in order to diagnose such a disorder but to encourage research to investigate this phenomenon. Even whether it is still questionable if Internet Gaming Disorder exists and can be judged as a form of addiction, problematic game play is already very well researched to cause problems in daily life. Approaches trying to predict problematic tendencies in digital game play have mainly focused on playing time as a diagnostic criterion. However, motives to engage in digital game play and obsessive passion for game play have also been found to predict problematic game play but have not yet been investigated together. The present study aims at (1) analyzing if obsessive passion can be distinguished from problematic game play as separate concepts, and (2) testing motives of game play, passion, and playing time for their predictive values for problematic tendencies. We found (N = 99 males, Age: M = 22.80, SD = 3.81) that obsessive passion can be conceptually separated from problematic game play. In addition, the results suggest that compared to solely playing time immersion as playing motive and obsessive passion have added predictive value for problematic game play. The implications focus on broadening the criteria in order to diagnose problematic playing. PMID:25942516

  6. Problematic Game Play: The Diagnostic Value of Playing Motives, Passion, and Playing Time in Men

    PubMed Central

    Kneer, Julia; Rieger, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Internet gaming disorder is currently listed in the DSM—not in order to diagnose such a disorder but to encourage research to investigate this phenomenon. Even whether it is still questionable if Internet Gaming Disorder exists and can be judged as a form of addiction, problematic game play is already very well researched to cause problems in daily life. Approaches trying to predict problematic tendencies in digital game play have mainly focused on playing time as a diagnostic criterion. However, motives to engage in digital game play and obsessive passion for game play have also been found to predict problematic game play but have not yet been investigated together. The present study aims at (1) analyzing if obsessive passion can be distinguished from problematic game play as separate concepts, and (2) testing motives of game play, passion, and playing time for their predictive values for problematic tendencies. We found (N = 99 males, Age: M = 22.80, SD = 3.81) that obsessive passion can be conceptually separated from problematic game play. In addition, the results suggest that compared to solely playing time immersion as playing motive and obsessive passion have added predictive value for problematic game play. The implications focus on broadening the criteria in order to diagnose problematic playing. PMID:25942516

  7. Sp1 and Sp3 Are the Transcription Activators of Human ek1 Promoter in TSA-Treated Human Colon Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kuan, Chee Sian; See Too, Wei Cun; Few, Ling Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethanolamine kinase (EK) catalyzes the phosphorylation of ethanolamine, the first step in the CDP-ethanolamine pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Human EK exists as EK1, EK2α and EK2β isoforms, encoded by two separate genes, named ek1 and ek2. EK activity is stimulated by carcinogens and oncogenes, suggesting the involvement of EK in carcinogenesis. Currently, little is known about EK transcriptional regulation by endogenous or exogenous signals, and the ek gene promoter has never been studied. Methodology/Principal Findings In this report, we mapped the important regulatory regions in the human ek1 promoter. 5’ deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis identified a Sp site at position (-40/-31) that was essential for the basal transcription of this gene. Treatment of HCT116 cells with trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, significantly upregulated the ek1 promoter activity through the Sp(-40/-31) site and increased the endogenous expression of ek1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that TSA increased the binding of Sp1, Sp3 and RNA polymerase II to the ek1 promoter in HCT116 cells. The effect of TSA on ek1 promoter activity was cell-line specific as TSA treatment did not affect ek1 promoter activity in HepG2 cells. Conclusion/Significance In conclusion, we showed that Sp1 and Sp3 are not only essential for the basal transcription of the ek1 gene, their accessibility to the target site on the ek1 promoter is regulated by histone protein modification in a cell line dependent manner. PMID:26807725

  8. Children's play provisions: time for change.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A; Khosla, R

    1992-01-01

    An overview is provided of essential features of play environments for children which enhance their creative development: play space, play environments, equipment for play, safe equipment, creative adult input, and time factors. Safety measures are described along with a list of do's and don'ts. Management of play areas and the training of educators were also discussed. Arguments are given as support for creative play provisions, but the conclusion is that the trend is to restrict children's expression, to limit their freedom, to impose limits to action and thought, to encourage normative behavior, and to inhibit creative thinking. Space requirements are that the area be ample. In rural and tribal areas, space is unlimited; in cities, creative use of space may involve use of terraces, enclosed courtyards, dead end road areas free of traffic, or a large open area away from traffic. In spite of space limitations, children tend to adapt to the space available. For instance, a pipe sticking out of a wall could be a bar to swing on. Effective use of space is dependent on organization and structuring. In rural areas, children learn by their own discoveries, and many are denied the exposure to educators who can organize their play or play objects to foster creativity. Play is divorced from work and learning, when it can also be structured to offer opportunities for development of cognitive skills. Stimulating play environments may include a mound of earth that separates one part of an open space from another; children find looking to see what is on the other side intriguing. Children can run up and down the hill. A sand pit with building and digging instruments can provide hours of fascination. A water hole with stones could provide a place to jump across and foster imaginative games. A tunnel could be carved out of the hill to provide a place of dramatic play. A low tree with a twisted trunk is inviting for climbing, swinging, jumping, or playing hide and seek. Play equipment should be simple, natural, everyday objects, available at low cost and able to withstand rough use. Highly structured equipment tends to be ignored over time. Rope, drums, old tires, wooden planks and poles, metal pipes, sacks, and cardboard boxes are some types of equipment that are described for play use. These discarded objects must be safe and can be enhanced with a fresh coat of nontoxic paint. PMID:12318360

  9. Play Therapy in School Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trice-Black, Shannon; Bailey, Carrie Lynn; Kiper Riechel, Morgan E.

    2013-01-01

    Play therapy is an empirically supported intervention used to address a number of developmental issues faced in childhood. Through the natural language of play, children and adolescents communicate feelings, thoughts, and experiences. Schools provide an ideal setting for play therapy in many ways; however, several challenges exist in implementing

  10. Mathematical Adventures in Role Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyce, Constance

    2002-01-01

    The provision of role play is vital in every early years setting. It provides opportunities for the development of all areas of learning. With careful thought and planning, all role play situations can provide children with mathematical adventures. Many examples of good quality role play had been observed in a variety of settings throughout

  11. Preschoolers' Thinking during Block Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piccolo, Diana L.; Test, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Children build foundations for mathematical thinking in early play and exploration. During the preschool years, children enjoy exploring mathematical concepts--such as patterns, shape, spatial relationships, and measurement--leading them to spontaneously engage in mathematical thinking during play. Block play is one common example that engages

  12. Play in Evolution and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, Anthony D.; Dupuis, Danielle; Smith, Peter K.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we examine the role of play in human ontogeny and phylogeny, following Surplus Resource Theory. We consider how juveniles use play to sample their environment in order to develop adaptive behaviors. We speculate about how innovative behaviors developed in play in response to environmental novelty may influence subsequent evolutionary

  13. Piaget, Play and Cognition, Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton-Smith, Brian

    Piaget's early contribution to theorizing about play is discussed critically with reference to three major interrelated problems. These are: (1) that despite their equipotentiality in Piaget's theory of intelligence, imitation and play are not conceptualized as making an equal contribution to cognition, play taking a subordinate role; (2) that…

  14. Meanings of Play among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Nicole M.; Knight, Camilla J.; Holt, Nicholas L.; Spence, John C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine meanings of play among children. Thirty-eight students aged 7-9 years from a suburban public school in Western Canada participated in focus groups. Data analysis revealed participants saw almost anything as an opportunity for play and would play almost anywhere with anyone. However, they perceived parents

  15. Pretend Play and Creative Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ, Sandra W.; Wallace, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    The authors contend that many cognitive abilities and affective processes important in creativity also occur in pretend play and that pretend play in childhood affects the development of creativity in adulthood. They discuss a variety of theories and observations that attempt to explain the importance of pretend play to creativity. They argue that

  16. Stability of playfulness across environmental settings: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rigby, Patricia; Gaik, Sandy

    2007-01-01

    The Test of Playfulness (ToP) was used in this pilot study to examine the stability of playfulness of 16 children with cerebral palsy (CP), aged 4-8 years, across three environmental settings: home, community, and school. Each videotaped play segment was scored using the ToP. The ANOVA statistic demonstrated a significant variance (p < 0.05) in the playfulness of the children across the 3 settings. The children were most playful at home and least playful at school (p < 0.05). The variability in playfulness across settings suggests that playful behaviors are influenced by factors external to the child. Eleven children were playful (achieving a positive ToP score) in at least one environment, which demonstrates that they had the capacity to be playful. Their play was supported in some settings and not in others. However, there was a lack of playfulness in 65% of the play segments suggesting that these children experience many barriers to their participation in play. Future research is needed to identify factors that help and hinder the playfulness of children with CP. PMID:17298939

  17. Reflections on Research and Practice in Outdoor Play Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Joe L.

    1992-01-01

    Cites research which suggests that U.S. playgrounds are hazardous and developmentally sterile. Factors that affect the relationship of playgrounds to child development include (1) the developmental appropriateness of playground environments; (2) gender differences in outdoor play; (3) well-equipped play environments; (4) the use of portable play

  18. Multidimensional Correlates of Individual Variability in Play and Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachs, Theodore D.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the relationship between play and environmental and biological factors and individual differences. Explores correlates of morbidity, nutrition, and caregiving environments on toddlers' play sophistication in Egypt. Suggests that variability in children's object versus social play may be a function of the goodness of fit between child and

  19. Biomechanical aspects of playing surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nigg, B M; Yeadon, M R

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss some biomechanical aspects of playing surfaces with special focus on (a) surface induced injuries, (b) methodologies used to assess surfaces and (c) findings from various sports. The paper concentrates primarily on questions related to load on the athlete's body. Data from epidemiological studies suggest strongly that the surface is an important factor in the aetiology of injuries. Injury frequencies are reported to be significantly different for different surfaces in several sports. The methodologies used to assess surfaces with respect to load or performance include material tests and tests using experimental subjects. There is only little correlation between the results of these two approaches. Material tests used in many standardized test procedures are not validated which suggests that one should exercise restraint in the interpretation of these results. Point elastic surfaces are widely studied while area elastic surfaces have received little attention to date. Questions of energy losses on sport surfaces have rarely been studied scientifically. PMID:3326948

  20. MicroRNA and Transcription Factor Mediated Regulatory Network Analysis Reveals Critical Regulators and Regulatory Modules in Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Zhou, Meng; Wang, Zhenzhen; Liu, Xiaoxia; Cheng, Liang; Li, Weimin; Li, Xueqi

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a severe coronary artery disease and a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. However, the molecular mechanisms of MI have yet to be fully elucidated. In this study, we compiled MI-related genes, MI-related microRNAs (miRNAs) and known human transcription factors (TFs), and we then identified 1,232 feed-forward loops (FFLs) among these miRNAs, TFs and their co-regulated target genes through integrating target prediction. By merging these FFLs, the first miRNA and TF mediated regulatory network for MI was constructed, from which four regulators (SP1, ESR1, miR-21-5p and miR-155-5p) and three regulatory modules that might play crucial roles in MI were then identified. Furthermore, based on the miRNA and TF mediated regulatory network and literature survey, we proposed a pathway model for miR-21-5p, the miR-29 family and SP1 to demonstrate their potential co-regulatory mechanisms in cardiac fibrosis, apoptosis and angiogenesis. The majority of the regulatory relations in the model were confirmed by previous studies, which demonstrated the reliability and validity of this miRNA and TF mediated regulatory network. Our study will aid in deciphering the complex regulatory mechanisms involved in MI and provide putative therapeutic targets for MI. PMID:26258537

  1. Challenging Notions of Gendered Game Play: Teenagers Playing the Sims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavis, Catherine; Charles, Claire

    2005-01-01

    This paper challenges notions of gendered game playing practice implicit in much research into young women's involvement with the computer gaming culture. It draws on a study of Australian teenagers playing "The Sims Deluxe" as part of an English curriculum unit and insights from feminist media studies to explore relationships between gender and

  2. Understanding Young Children's Learning through Play: Building Playful Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadhead, Pat; Burt, Andy

    2011-01-01

    This timely and accessible text introduces, theorises and practically applies two important concepts which now underpin early years practice: those of "playful learning" and "playful pedagogies". Pat Broadhead and Andy Burt draw upon filmed material, conversations with children, reflection, observation, and parental and staff interviews, in their…

  3. Well Played: The Origins and Future of Playfulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Gwen

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author synthesizes research from several disciplines to shed light on play's central role in healthy development. Gordon builds on research in attachment theory that correlates secure attachment in infancy with adult well-being to demonstrate how playfulness might be a lifelong outcome of secure attachment and a primary…

  4. Let's Play: Teaching Play Skills to Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutot, E. Amanda; Guenther, Tracee; Crozier, Shannon

    2005-01-01

    Watch any young child and you will likely see him or her engaged in some form of play. Play is an integral part of early childhood development in which typically developing children learn social and language skills, as well as appropriate behaviors, problem solving, and a variety of other cognitive skills. By its very definition, autism is a…

  5. Playing with the Multiple Intelligences: How Play Helps Them Grow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberle, Scott G.

    2011-01-01

    Howard Gardner first posited a list of "multiple intelligences" as a liberating alternative to the assumptions underlying traditional IQ testing in his widely read study "Frames of Mind" (1983). Play has appeared only in passing in Gardner's thinking about intelligence, however, even though play instructs and trains the verbal, interpersonal,…

  6. Playing To Get Smart. Viewpoint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that it is through play with materials and relationships, invention of classification systems, and solving problems in dialogue with others that young children develop the basic skills they will need to become effective contributors to the health of a changing world. Offers suggestions for teaching children play skills by providing

  7. Play Therapy with Special Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    This paper notes that therapists often feel unqualified to deal with special populations of children because of a lack of understanding of the universalness of play therapy. Suggestions are offered for beginning play therapists who may work with a number of special populations of children. It is recommended that the social learning approach to

  8. Making Play Work for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisberg, Deena Skolnick; Kittredge, Audrey K.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Klahr, David

    2015-01-01

    Children, especially in the preschool years, learn a tremendous amount through play. Research on guided play demonstrates how schools can couple a curriculum-centered preschool program with a developmentally appropriate pedagogical approach to classroom teaching. However, to fully test this claim, we need a clear definition of the term

  9. The Play of Socratic Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Proponents of philosophy for children generally see themselves as heirs to the "Socratic" tradition. They often claim too that children's aptitude for play leads them naturally to play with abstract, philosophical ideas. However in Plato's dialogues we find in the mouth of "Socrates" many warnings against philosophising with the young. Those

  10. Outdoor Play: Combating Sedentary Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thigpen, Betsy

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly sedentary lifestyles are contributing to overweight and other health concerns as children spend less and less time outside engaged in active play. Outdoor play provides important opportunities to explore the natural world, interact with peers, engage in vigorous physical activity, and learn about our environment. However, outdoor

  11. Transmedia Play: Literacy across Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alper, Meryl; Herr-Stephenson, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Transmedia play is a new way to understand how children develop critical media literacy and new media literacies through their interactions with contemporary media that links stories and structures across platforms. This essay highlights five characteristics of transmedia play that make it particularly useful for learning:…

  12. Invention at Play. Educators' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Michael; Lacasse, Jane; Smith, Monica; Reilly, Katie

    A Smithsonian exhibition was developed that looked at invention in an innovative way. It aimed to encourage visitors to make connections between their own lives and abilities and those of inventors. The role of play in the invention process was examined. Play is a universal and familiar activity and can help people find the link between their own…

  13. Making Play Work for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisberg, Deena Skolnick; Kittredge, Audrey K.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Klahr, David

    2015-01-01

    Children, especially in the preschool years, learn a tremendous amount through play. Research on guided play demonstrates how schools can couple a curriculum-centered preschool program with a developmentally appropriate pedagogical approach to classroom teaching. However, to fully test this claim, we need a clear definition of the term…

  14. A Place for Block Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gary T.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the importance of block play--including its contributions to perceptual, fine motor, and cognitive development--and components of a good preschool block play area. Recommends unit blocks complemented by stacking blocks, toys, beads, cubes, and Brio wooden toys. Makes recommendations for space, size, locations and connections to other

  15. Empowering Groups that Enable Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David Sloan; Marshall, Danielle; Iserhott, Hindi

    2011-01-01

    Creating play environments for children usually requires groups of adults working together. An extensive scientific literature describes how groups function to achieve shared goals in general terms, and groups attempting to empower play may find this literature useful. Design principles for managing natural resources, identified by Elinor Ostrom…

  16. The Fractal Self at Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author draws on contemporary science to illuminate the relationship between early play experiences, processes of self-development, and the later emergence of the fractal self. She argues that orientation within social space is a primary function of early play and developmentally a two-step process. With other people and with…

  17. The Social Competence of Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fein, Greta G.

    This is a study of how young children gain social competence through pretend play or role playing. Subjects were 38 Caucasian children (19 females, 19 males) who were observed at four ages: 12, 18, 24 and 30 months. The same set of toys, which included a doll, a saucepan, doll bottles, coffee mug, teacup, teaspoon, doll crib, blanket, toy phone…

  18. Niger Delta play types, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Akinpelu, A.O.

    1995-08-01

    Exploration databases can be more valuable when sorted by play type. Play specific databases provide a system to organize E & P data used in evaluating the range of values of parameters for reserve estimation and risk assessment. It is important both in focusing the knowledge base and in orienting research effort. A play in this context is any unique combination of trap, reservoir and source properties with the right dynamics of migration and preservation that results in hydrocarbon accumulation. This definitions helps us to discriminate the subtle differences found with these accumulation settings. About 20 play types were identified around the Niger Delta oil province in Nigeria. These are grouped into three parts: (1) The proven plays-constituting the bulk of exploration prospects in Nigeria today. (2) The unproven or semi-proven plays usually with some successes recorded in a few tries but where knowledge is still inadequate. (3) The unproven or analogous play concept. These are untested but geologically sound ideas which may or may not have been tried elsewhere. With classification and sub grouping of these play types into specific databases, intrinsic attributes and uniqueness of each of them with respect to the four major risk elements and the eight parameters for reserve estimation can be better understood.

  19. Sand and Water Table Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ann H.; White, Mary J.; Stone, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    The authors observed preschoolers engaged at the sand and water table to determine if math could be found within their play. Wanting to understand how children interact with provided materials and what kinds of math ideas they explore during these interactions, the authors offer practical examples of how such play can promote mathematical

  20. Engaging Families through Artful Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how aligned arts and play experiences can extend child and family engagement in a public outdoor space. The importance of outdoor play for children is strongly advocated and in response local governments provide playgrounds and recreational open spaces. To extend further the experiences afforded in such spaces some local…

  1. Playground Play: Educational and Inclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    It is easy to understand that fun is one of the key ingredients to any playground activity. But what one may not realize is that play systems--including slides, tunnels, activity panels, and more--encourage a lot more than just fun: there is learning at work in playground play, as well as the opportunity to include children of all abilities in

  2. Playground Play: Educational and Inclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    It is easy to understand that fun is one of the key ingredients to any playground activity. But what one may not realize is that play systems--including slides, tunnels, activity panels, and more--encourage a lot more than just fun: there is learning at work in playground play, as well as the opportunity to include children of all abilities in…

  3. MicroRNA-29b Inhibits Endometrial Fibrosis by Regulating the Sp1-TGF-?1/Smad-CTGF Axis in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingxiong; Du, Shaohua; Sheng, Xiujie; Liu, Juan; Cen, Bohong; Huang, Feng; He, Yuanli

    2016-03-01

    Intrauterine adhesions (IUAs), which are characterized by endometrial fibrosis, increase the risk of secondary infertility and recurrent miscarriage. MicroRNA-29 (miR-29) is a potent inhibitor of TGF-?1/Smad signaling. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of agomir-29b, an miR-29b mimic, in endometrial fibrosis induced by dual injury (uterine curettage and lipopolysaccharide treatment) in a rat model of IUA and explored the underlying mechanism. We found that injured rats developed endometrial fibrosis characterized by increased COL1A1 and ?-smooth muscle actin expression and decreased E-cadherin expression, associated with a loss of miR-29b. Overexpression of miR-29b before injury prevented endometrial fibrosis including collagen accumulation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Delay of agomir-29b treatment until endometrial fibrosis was established on day 4 also halted the progression of disease. Further experiments indicated that miR-29b inhibited endometrial fibrosis via blockade of the Sp1-TGF-?1/Smad-CTGF pathway. In conclusion, agomir-29b may act as a novel and effective therapeutic agent against IUAs. PMID:26392347

  4. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2003-04-01

    Utah oil fields have produced a total of 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 15 million barrels (2.4 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2000 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the second quarter of the first project year (October 1 through December 31, 2002). This work included (1) gathering field and pipeline data to produce a digital oil and gas field and pipeline map, and (2) Uinta Basin well database compilation. The oil and gas field map will help to delineate the various oil plays to be described later in the project. The map will also identify CO{sub 2} resources, and will be useful in the planning and economic evaluation of best practices using CO{sub 2} to flood mature oil reservoirs. The play descriptions will be enhanced with the updated oil and gas pipeline map. It can be used to plan economic evaluation of exploration activities and field development, particularly if H{sub 2}S is produced or CO{sub 2} in needed for best practices. Well databases developed for the project will better define the limits of oil plays in the Uinta Basin and evaluate shows for potential new plays in the basin. Technology transfer activities consisted of a technical presentation to the Utah Stake Holder Board Members belonging to the Uinta Basin Oil and Gas Collaborative Group. The project home page was updated on the Utah Geological Survey Internet web site.

  5. The Many Faces of Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werth, Louise H.

    1984-01-01

    Presents descriptions of play reflecting recent theories, including the psychoanalytic works of Freud, Erikson, and Peller; Piaget's developmental theory (with discussion of Sutton-Smith); and the views of Smilansky and Parten. (AS)

  6. Sp1 Mediates a Therapeutic Role of MiR-7a/b in Angiotensin II-Induced Cardiac Fibrosis via Mechanism Involving the TGF-? and MAPKs Pathways in Cardiac Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rui; Xiao, Jie; Qing, Xiaoteng; Xing, Junhui; Xia, Yanfei; Qi, Jia; Liu, Xiaojun; Zhang, Sen; Sheng, Xi; Zhang, Xinyu; Ji, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA-7a/b (miR-7a/b) protects cardiac myocytes from apoptosis during ischemia/reperfusion injury; however, its role in angiotensin II (ANG II)-stimulated cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) remains unknown. Therefore, the present study investigated the anti-fibrotic mechanism of miR-7a/b in ANG II-treated CFs. ANG II stimulated the expression of specific protein 1 (Sp1) and collagen I in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and the overexpression of miR-7a/b significantly down-regulated the expression of Sp1 and collagen I stimulated by ANG II (100 nM) for 24 h. miR-7a/b overexpression effectively inhibited MMP-2 expression/activity and MMP-9 expression, as well as CF proliferation and migration. In addition, miR-7a/b also repressed the activation of TGF-?, ERK, JNK and p38 by ANG II. The inhibition of Sp1 binding activity by mithramycin prevented collagen I overproduction; however, miR-7a/b down-regulation reversed this effect. Further studies revealed that Sp1 also mediated miR-7a/b-regulated MMP expression and CF migration, as well as TGF-? and ERK activation. In conclusion, miR-7a/b has an anti-fibrotic role in ANG II-treated CFs that is mediated by Sp1 mechanism involving the TGF-? and MAPKs pathways. PMID:25923922

  7. PinX1, a telomere repeat-binding factor 1 (TRF1)-interacting protein, maintains telomere integrity by modulating TRF1 homeostasis, the process in which human telomerase reverse Transcriptase (hTERT) plays dual roles.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jeong Eun; Park, Young Nyun; Oh, Bong-Kyeong

    2014-03-01

    TRF1, a telomere-binding protein, is important for telomere protection and homeostasis. PinX1 interacts with TRF1, but the physiological consequences of their interaction in telomere protection are not yet understood. Here we investigated PinX1 function on TRF1 stability in HeLa cells. PinX1 overexpression stabilized TRF1, but PinX1 depletion by siRNA led to TRF1 degradation, TRF1 ubiquitination, and less TRF1 telomere association. The depletion also induced DNA damage responses at telomeres and chromosome instability. These telomere dysfunctional phenotypes were in fact due to TRF1 deficiency. We also report that hTERT, a catalytic component of telomerase, plays dual roles in the TRF1 steady state pathway. PinX1-mediated TRF1 stability was not observed in hTERT-negative immortal cells, but was pronounced when hTERT was ectopically expressed in the cells, suggesting that hTERT may be needed in the PinX1-mediated TRF1 stability pathway. Interestingly, the knockdown of both PinX1 and hTERT in HeLa cells stabilized TRF1, suppressed DNA damage response activation, and restored chromosome stability. In summary, our findings suggested that PinX1 may maintain telomere integrity by regulating TRF1 stability and that hTERT may act as both a positive and a negative regulator of TRF1 homeostasis in a PinX1-dependent manner. PMID:24415760

  8. PinX1, a Telomere Repeat-binding Factor 1 (TRF1)-interacting Protein, Maintains Telomere Integrity by Modulating TRF1 Homeostasis, the Process in Which Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT) Plays Dual Roles*

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jeong Eun; Park, Young Nyun; Oh, Bong-Kyeong

    2014-01-01

    TRF1, a telomere-binding protein, is important for telomere protection and homeostasis. PinX1 interacts with TRF1, but the physiological consequences of their interaction in telomere protection are not yet understood. Here we investigated PinX1 function on TRF1 stability in HeLa cells. PinX1 overexpression stabilized TRF1, but PinX1 depletion by siRNA led to TRF1 degradation, TRF1 ubiquitination, and less TRF1 telomere association. The depletion also induced DNA damage responses at telomeres and chromosome instability. These telomere dysfunctional phenotypes were in fact due to TRF1 deficiency. We also report that hTERT, a catalytic component of telomerase, plays dual roles in the TRF1 steady state pathway. PinX1-mediated TRF1 stability was not observed in hTERT-negative immortal cells, but was pronounced when hTERT was ectopically expressed in the cells, suggesting that hTERT may be needed in the PinX1-mediated TRF1 stability pathway. Interestingly, the knockdown of both PinX1 and hTERT in HeLa cells stabilized TRF1, suppressed DNA damage response activation, and restored chromosome stability. In summary, our findings suggested that PinX1 may maintain telomere integrity by regulating TRF1 stability and that hTERT may act as both a positive and a negative regulator of TRF1 homeostasis in a PinX1-dependent manner. PMID:24415760

  9. Histone Deacetylase 1/Sp1/MicroRNA-200b Signaling Accounts for Maintenance of Cancer Stem-Like Cells in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ban-Zhou; De, Wei; Wang, Rui; Chen, Long-Bang

    2014-01-01

    The presence of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) is one of the mechanisms responsible for chemoresistance that has been a major hindrance towards lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) treatment. Recently, we have identified microRNA (miR)-200b as a key regulator of chemoresistance in human docetaxel-resistant LAD cells. However, whether miR-200b has effects on regulating CSCs remains largely unclear and needs to be further elucidated. Here, we showed that miR-200b was significantly downregulated in CD133+/CD326+ cells that exhibited properties of CSCs derived from docetaxel-resistant LAD cells. Also, restoration of miR-200b could inhibit maintenance and reverse chemoresistance of CSCs. Furthermore, suppressor of zeste-12 (Suz-12) was identified as a direct and functional target of miR-200b, and silencing of Suz-12 phenocopied the effects of miR-200b on CSCs. Additionally, overexpression of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1 was identified as a pivotal mechanism responsible for miR-200b repression in CSCs through a specificity protein (Sp) 1-dependent mechanism, and restoration of miR-200b by HDAC1 repression significantly suppressed CSCs formation and reversed chemoresistance of CSCs by regulating Suz-12-E-cadherin signaling. Also, downregulation of HDAC1 or upregulation of miR-200b reduced the in vivo tumorigenicity of CSCs. Finally, Suz-12 was inversely correlated with miR-200b, positively correlated with HDAC1 and up-regulated in docetaxel-resistant LAD tissues compared with docetaxel-sensitive tissues. Taken together, the HDAC1/miR-200b/Suz-12-E-cadherin signaling might account for maintenance of CSCs and formation of chemoresistant phenotype in docetaxel-resistant LAD cells. PMID:25279705

  10. Estimation of hormone receptor status and HER2 in cytologic cell blocks from breast cancer using the novel rabbit monoclonal antibodies (SP1, SP2, and SP3).

    PubMed

    Nassar, Aziza; Cohen, Cynthia; Siddiqui, Momin

    2009-12-01

    The determination of estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor status has become standard practice in the evaluation of patients with invasive breast cancer, having important prognostic and therapeutic implications. HER2 assessment is important to evaluate the response to Herceptin (Trastuzumab) therapy for primary and metastatic breast cancer. This study is undertaken to compare rabbit monoclonal antibodies (RabMAb) for ER, PR, and HER2 against FDA-approved monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies (FDAMpab). Cell blocks from primary and metastatic/recurrent breast carcinomas of 52 breast cancer patients were used. Immunohistochemistry was performed, following optimized epitope retrieval, with a polymer based detection system using RabMAb: ER (SP1), PR (SP2), and HER2 (SP3). FDA approved Mpab (Dako) used were: ER (1D5); PR (PgR636); and HercepTest kit according to manufacturer's instructions. HER2 immunostain is correlated with FISH results. Overall, positive, and negative agreement is as follows: 88.5, 88.9, and 88.2% for ER; 84.6, 70.5, and 91.4% for PR; 58.3, 100, and 50% for HER2. There is substantial to moderate agreement between RabMAb and FDAMpab for ER (kappa = 0.75) and PR (kappa = 0.64), respectively. There is poor agreement (kappa = 0.25) between RabMAb (SP3) and FDApab (HercepTest). SP3 shows better concordance (93.8%) than HercepTest (46.9%) with FISH results. RabMAb SP clones are almost comparable with FDA-approved ER and PR, with fair to moderate agreement. Both are as sensitive as their FDA-approved clones. SP3, on the other hand, is superior to HercepTest for detecting HER2 overexpression, with an excellent concordance with FISH. PMID:19530101

  11. Playing in the Gutters: Enhancing Children's Cognitive and Social Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinwiddie, Sue A.

    1993-01-01

    Adding plastic gutters to the nursery school's sand area began as a science curriculum enhancement and evolved into a whole curriculum that stimulated cognitive exploration, cooperative dramatic play, language enhancement, and general fun. The children manipulated the gutters and materials such as sand, water, buckets, and tennis balls in a

  12. Parent-Child Play across Cultures: Advancing Play Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L.; Davidson, Kimberly L.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue for a greater understanding of children's play across cultures through better integration of scientific thinking about the developed and developing societies, through consideration of socialization beliefs and goals, and, finally, through the use of more complex models in research investigations. They draw on…

  13. Guided Play: Where Curricular Goals Meet a Playful Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisberg, Deena Skolnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2013-01-01

    Decades of research demonstrate that a strong curricular approach to preschool education is important for later developmental outcomes. Although these findings have often been used to support the implementation of educational programs based on direct instruction, we argue that "guided play" approaches can be equally effective at delivering content

  14. Rollovers during play: Complementary perspectives.

    PubMed

    Smuts, Barbara; Bauer, Erika; Ward, Camille

    2015-07-01

    In this commentary, we compare and contrast Norman et al.s' findings on rollovers during dog play (Norman et al., 2015; the "target article") with our work on dog play fighting (Bauer and Smuts, 2007; Ward et al., 2008). We first review our major findings and then correct some errors in the target article's descriptions of our work. We then further explore the concept of "defensive" rollovers proposed in the target article. We conclude that a combination of the target article's approach and ours should inform future investigations of dog rollovers. PMID:25907148

  15. MAJOR PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    SciTech Connect

    Craig D. Morgan; Thomas C. Chidsey

    2003-11-01

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land-use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the first quarter of the second project year (July 1 through September 30, 2003). This work included (1) describing the Conventional Southern Uinta Basin Play, subplays, and outcrop reservoir analogs of the Uinta Green River Conventional Oil and Gas Assessment Unit (Eocene Green River Formation), and (2) technology transfer activities. The Conventional Oil and Gas Assessment Unit can be divided into plays having a dominantly southern sediment source (Conventional Southern Uinta Basin Play) and plays having a dominantly northern sediment source (Conventional Northern Uinta Basin Play). The Conventional Southern Uinta Basin Play is divided into six subplays: (1) conventional Uteland Butte interval, (2) conventional Castle Peak interval, (3) conventional Travis interval, (4) conventional Monument Butte interval, (5) conventional Beluga interval, and (6) conventional Duchesne interval fractured shale/marlstone. We are currently conducting basin-wide correlations to define the limits of the six subplays. Production-scale outcrop analogs provide an excellent view, often in three dimensions, of reservoir-facies characteristics and boundaries contributing to the overall heterogeneity of reservoir rocks. They can be used as a ''template'' for evaluation of data from conventional core, geophysical and petrophysical logs, and seismic surveys. Outcrop analogs for each subplay except the Travis interval are found in Indian and Nine Mile Canyons. During this quarter, the project team members submitted an abstract to the American Association of Petroleum Geologists for presentation at the 2004 annual national convention in Dallas, Texas. The project home page was updated on the Utah Geological Survey Internet web site.

  16. Role Playing in VD Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Role playing situations in which the tracing of sexual contacts, advising a sexual contact to be examined for a venereal disease, and reducing the risk of contracting a venereal disease raise specific questions which can be answered in class. Three specific situations are provided which demonstrate how best to handle sensitive problems. (JN)

  17. Building Curriculum during Block Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Blocks are not just for play! In this article, Nicole Andrews describes observing the interactions of three young boys enthusiastically engaged in the kindergarten block center of their classroom, using blocks in a building project that displayed their ability to use critical thinking skills, physics exploration, and the development of language

  18. Science Adventures in Children's Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieger, Edythe

    The stated purpose of this pamphlet is to suggest simple, natural, interesting experiences in children's play that have science implications. It tells how the teacher may capitalize on the innate curiosity of children by incorporating science discovery in daily classroom experiences. This how-to-do-it manual directs map-making and activities for

  19. Play Therapy with the Nonverbal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Henry

    Four developmental outcomes of children's play were identified as acquaintance with the environment and the development of cognitive activity, verification of incidental learning, the development through sensory and motoric activities of relationships with objects and persons, and experience with roles and rules. A child developing atypically may…

  20. Play Chinese Games. 1987, Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Caryn

    This document, designed to introduce all ages to a selection of popular Chinese games, describes these games and provides instructions and materials for making the items needed to play most of them. Section 1 suggests class activities that can be related to some of the games. Section 2 presents instructions for the physical or outdoor games of:

  1. Teaching Technical Skills through Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullion, Laurie

    The value of light-hearted play in teaching technical recreational sport skills is immense. Children as well as adults can learn more quickly and completely with a games-oriented approach. Often without realizing the hidden goal of excellent skiing or paddling, participants respond to intriguing tasks in a game, immerse themselves in good…

  2. Fort Play Children Recreate Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Recess beckons well before it actually arrives. Its allure can be heard in children's lunchtime conversations as they discuss imaginary roles, plans, alliances and teams, with an obvious appetite for play and its unbounded possibility. For some children, recess provides the most important reasons to come to school. In team sports, games of chase

  3. In Search of Serious Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, David

    2005-01-01

    All teaching artists have taken unexpected detours that lead to miracles. They have all created magical experiences in which people are too engaged to notice the incredible amount they are learning. As a TA, one searches for "serious play"--purposeful fun that stimulates exhilarating work and genuine learning. But how does it happen? How do TAs

  4. Playing It Safe: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penman, Kenneth A.; Niccolai, Frances R.

    1985-01-01

    Explains how to prevent outdoor sports injuries; discusses related litigation and specific cases involving playing field turf, tennis, skiing, and pools; and sets out facility design and maintenance considerations and recommendations. A sidebar provides information about injury insurance available to NCAA schools. Part I of this article appeared

  5. Obama Plays Cheerleader for STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2010-01-01

    Amid a struggling economy, a raft of foreign-policy headaches, and the tail end of a heated campaign season, President Barack Obama carved out time in his schedule last month to watch students in the State Dining Room demonstrate a solar-powered model car, a water-purification system, and a soccer-playing robot. The science fair was the fifth

  6. Moral Education through Play Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahalle, Salwa; Zakaria, Gamal Abdul Nasir; Nawi, Aliff

    2014-01-01

    This paper will discuss on how sand therapy (as one type of play therapies) can be applied as an additional technique or approach in counseling. The research questions for this study are to see what are the development, challenges faced by the therapist during the sessions given and how sand therapy can aid to the progress of the client. It is a

  7. Communicating and Cooperating in Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Rosemary

    With increasing pressures being placed on early childhood teachers to provide academic programs, many are turning away from programs that foster pretend play. This study examined two contrasting approaches to teaching preschool children and considered their effects on children's linguistic and social abilities. One of the teaching approaches…

  8. Teaching Shakespeare Through Play Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodder, Joseph H.

    1995-01-01

    A performance-oriented approach to teaching William Shakespeare's literature has been found to be effective and enthusiastically received by college students. Ten years of teaching Shakespeare through full play production has shown that the rewards, eloquently expressed in the testimony of students, more than compensate for extra work required of

  9. Using Play to Teach Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batt, Tom

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the potential of play in the teaching of college composition. Drawing primarily on the theoretical framework of D. W. Winnicott, the author describes how he used ludic pedagogies to provide first-year writing students a "potential space" in which to explore a range of course elements including composing conventions,…

  10. Teaching Shakespeare Through Play Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodder, Joseph H.

    1995-01-01

    A performance-oriented approach to teaching William Shakespeare's literature has been found to be effective and enthusiastically received by college students. Ten years of teaching Shakespeare through full play production has shown that the rewards, eloquently expressed in the testimony of students, more than compensate for extra work required of…

  11. Interpretive Reproduction in Children's Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsaro, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool

  12. Strengthening Play through Father Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruett, Kyle

    2009-01-01

    In his essay exploring the latest research finding on the importance of men in the lives of young children, the author describes two ongoing empirical studies that are proving particularly instructive in understanding the significance of paternal contributions to improving young child outcomes. Both projects are encouraging direct paternal play

  13. Sculpting Cells with Play Doh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Virginia A.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests using Play Doh to mold models of the nucleus, mitochondria, and inner cellular structures. Students can conceptualize the cell's structures as three-dimensional even though they appear two-dimensional under a microscope. Includes instructions for preparing homemade dough. (Author/JN)

  14. Obama Plays Cheerleader for STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2010-01-01

    Amid a struggling economy, a raft of foreign-policy headaches, and the tail end of a heated campaign season, President Barack Obama carved out time in his schedule last month to watch students in the State Dining Room demonstrate a solar-powered model car, a water-purification system, and a soccer-playing robot. The science fair was the fifth…

  15. Recommendations for Child Play Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Uriel; Hill, Ann B.; Lane, Carol G.; McGinty, Tim; Moore, Gary T.

    This interim criteria document provides descriptive information and planning, evaluation, and design guidelines for children's play areas located on military bases. The recommendations are presented in two major sections: planning & architecture design. Subcategories within the planning, criteria, and recommendations section address program master

  16. Playing Piano across the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamel, Barbara L.

    2000-01-01

    Contends that the amount of piano study required of music education majors to pass the piano proficiency examination is insufficient. States that keyboarding across the curriculum will enable music education majors to become proficient in playing the piano. Offers suggestions for including the keyboard within other courses. (CMK)

  17. Building Curriculum during Block Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Blocks are not just for play! In this article, Nicole Andrews describes observing the interactions of three young boys enthusiastically engaged in the kindergarten block center of their classroom, using blocks in a building project that displayed their ability to use critical thinking skills, physics exploration, and the development of language…

  18. The Playful Modes of Knowing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton-Smith, Brian

    All forms of play are transformations of four basic modes by which people know the world: copying, analysis, prediction, and synthesis. Transformation involves foregoing the usual outcomes of adapted intelligence for the sake of voluntary control of one's own behavior in games, and for the excitement of novel affective, cognitive and behavioral

  19. Methylation of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 CpG Sites at E2-Binding Site 1 (E2BS1), E2BS2, and the Sp1-Binding Site in Cervical Cancer Samples as Determined by High-Resolution Melting Analysis–PCR

    PubMed Central

    Jacquin, Elise; Baraquin, Alice; Ramanah, Rajeev; Carcopino, Xavier; Morel, Adrien; Valmary-Degano, Séverine; Bravo, Ignacio G.; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Riethmuller, Didier; Mougin, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    High-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated carcinogenesis is driven mainly by the overexpression of E7 and E6 oncoproteins following viral DNA integration and the concomitant loss of the E2 open reading frame (ORF). However, the integration of HR-HPV DNA is not systematically observed in cervical cancers. The E2 protein acts as a transcription factor that governs viral oncogene expression. The methylation of CpGs in the E2-binding sites (E2BSs) in the viral long control region abrogates E2 binding, thus impairing the E2-mediated regulation of E7/E6 transcription. Here, high-resolution melting (HRM)–PCR was developed to quantitatively analyze the methylation statuses of E2BS1, E2BS2, and the specificity protein 1 (Sp1)-binding site in 119 HPV16-positive cervical smears. This is a rapid assay that is suitable for the analysis of cervical samples. The proportion of cancer samples with methylated E2BS1, E2BS2, and Sp1-binding site CpGs was 47%, whereas the vast majority of samples diagnosed as being within normal limits, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) harbored unmethylated CpGs. Methylation levels varied widely, since some cancer samples harbored up to 60% of methylated HPV16 genomes. A pyrosequencing approach was used as a confirmation test and highlighted that quantitative measurement of methylation can be achieved by HRM-PCR. Its prognostic value deserves to be investigated alone or in association with other biomarkers. The reliability of this single-tube assay offers great opportunities for the investigation of HPV16 methylation in other HPV-related cancers, such as head and neck cancers, which are a major public health burden. PMID:23863566

  20. Sequence-structure correlations in silk: Poly-Ala repeat of N. clavipes MaSp1 is naturally optimized at a critical length scale.

    PubMed

    Bratzel, Graham; Buehler, Markus J

    2012-03-01

    Spider silk is a self-assembling biopolymer that outperforms many known materials in terms of its mechanical performance despite being constructed from simple and inferior building blocks. While experimental studies have shown that the molecular structure of silk has a direct influence on the stiffness, toughness, and failure strength of silk, few molecular-level analyses of the nanostructure of silk assemblies in particular under variations of genetic sequences have been reported. Here we report atomistic-level structures of the MaSp1 protein from the Nephila Clavipes spider dragline silk sequence, obtained using an in silico approach based on replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) and explicit water molecular dynamics. We apply this method to study the effects of a systematic variation of the poly-alanine repeat lengths, a parameter controlled by the genetic makeup of silk, on the resulting molecular structure of silk at the nanoscale. Confirming earlier experimental and computational work, a structural analysis reveals that poly-alanine regions in silk predominantly form distinct and orderly ?-sheet crystal domains while disorderly regions are formed by glycine-rich repeats that consist of 3(10)-helix type structures and ?-turns. Our predictions are directly validated against experimental data based on dihedral angle pair calculations presented in Ramachandran plots combined with an analysis of the secondary structure content. The key result of our study is our finding of a strong dependence of the resulting silk nanostructure depending on the poly-alanine length. We observe that the wildtype poly-alanine repeat length of six residues defines a critical minimum length that consistently results in clearly defined ?-sheet nanocrystals. For poly-alanine lengths below six, the ?-sheet nanocrystals are not well-defined or not visible at all, while for poly-alanine lengths at and above six, the characteristic nanocomposite structure of silk emerges with no significant improvement of the quality of the ?-sheet nanocrystal geometry. We present a simple biophysical model that explains these computational observations based on the mechanistic insight gained from the molecular simulations. Our findings set the stage for understanding how variations in the spidroin sequence can be used to engineer the structure and thereby functional properties of this biological superfiber, and present a design strategy for the genetic optimization of spidroins for enhanced mechanical properties. The approach used here may also find application in the design of other self-assembled molecular structures and fibers and in particular biologically inspired or completely synthetic systems. PMID:22340682