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Sample records for factor-1 alpha gene

  1. CHARACTERIZATION AND GENE EXPRESSION OF BABESIA BOVIS ELONGATION FACTOR-1ALPHA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1') is a constitutively expressed, abundant protein that is a key element in eukaryotic protein translation. Because of its high level of transcription, the EF-1''promoter has been utilized to drive exogenous gene expression in transfected cells. In this study, we ident...

  2. Genes for the dimerization cofactor of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1[alpha] (DCOH) are on human and murine chromsomes 10

    SciTech Connect

    Milatovich, A.; Mendel, D.B.; Crabtree, G.R.; Francke, U. )

    1993-04-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1[alpha] (HNF-1[alpha]; gene symbol, TCF1) forms dimers with itself as well as with HNF-1[beta] and regulates the expression of several liver-specific genes. Recently, a dimerization cofactor of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1[alpha], called DCOH, has been identified. Here, the authors report the chromosomal localization of the genes for this cofactor to chromosomes 10 in both humans and mice by Southern blot analyses of somatic cell hybrids. 25 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha is required for expression but dispensable for histone acetylation of the lactase-phlorizin hydrolase gene in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Tjalling; van Wering, Herbert M; Gielen, Marieke; Dowling, Lauren N; Fialkovich, John J; Piaseckyj, Christina M; Gonzalez, Frank J; Akiyama, Taro E; Montgomery, Robert K; Grand, Richard J; Krasinski, Stephen D

    2006-05-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (HNF-1alpha) is a modified homeodomain-containing transcription factor that has been implicated in the regulation of intestinal genes. To define the importance and underlying mechanism of HNF-1alpha for the regulation of intestinal gene expression in vivo, we analyzed the expression of the intestinal differentiation markers and putative HNF-1alpha targets lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) and sucrase-isomaltase (SI) in hnf1alpha null mice. We found that in adult jejunum, LPH mRNA in hnf1alpha(-/-) mice was reduced 95% compared with wild-type controls (P < 0.01, n = 4), whereas SI mRNA was virtually identical to that in wild-type mice. Furthermore, SI mRNA abundance was unchanged in the absence of HNF-1alpha along the length of the adult mouse small intestine as well as in newborn jejunum. We found that HNF-1alpha occupies the promoters of both the LPH and SI genes in vivo. However, in contrast to liver and pancreas, where HNF-1alpha regulates target genes by recruitment of histone acetyl transferase activity to the promoter, the histone acetylation state of the LPH and SI promoters was not affected by the presence or absence of HNF-1alpha. Finally, we showed that a subset of hypothesized intestinal target genes is regulated by HNF-1alpha in vivo and that this regulation occurs in a defined tissue-specific and developmental context. These data indicate that HNF-1alpha is an activator of a subset of intestinal genes and induces these genes through an alternative mechanism in which it is dispensable for chromatin remodeling. PMID:16223943

  4. Suppression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha and its downstream genes reduces acute hyperglycemia-enhanced hemorrhagic transformation in a rat model of cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunhua; Ostrowski, Robert P; Zhou, Changman; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2010-07-01

    We evaluated a role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and its downstream genes in acute hyperglycemia-induced hemorrhagic transformation in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 280-300 g (n = 105) were divided into sham, 90 min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), MCAO plus HIF-1alpha inhibitors, 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2) or 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole (YC-1), groups. Rats received an injection of 50% dextrose (6 ml/kg intraperitoneally) at 15 min before MCAO. HIF-1alpha inhibitors were administered at the onset of reperfusion. The animals were examined for neurological deficits and sacrificed at 6, 12, 24, and 72 hr following MCAO. The cerebral tissues were collected for histology, zymography, and Western blot analysis. The expression of HIF-1alpha was increased in ischemic brain tissues after MCAO and reduced by HIF-1alpha inhibitors. In addition, 2ME2 reduced the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the elevation of active matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2/MMP-9) in the ipsilateral hemisphere. Both 2ME2 and YC-1 reduced infarct volume and ameliorated neurological deficits. However, only 2ME2 attenuated hemorrhagic transformation in the ischemic territory. In conclusion, the inhibition of HIF-1alpha and its downstream genes attenuates hemorrhagic conversion of cerebral infarction and ameliorates neurological deficits after focal cerebral ischemia. PMID:20155812

  5. Effects of 12 metal ions on iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP-1) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1{alpha}) and HIF-regulated genes

    SciTech Connect

    Li Qin; Chen Haobin; Huang Xi; Costa, Max . E-mail: costam@env.med.nyu.edu

    2006-06-15

    Several metal ions that are carcinogenic affect cellular iron homeostasis by competing with iron transporters or iron-regulated enzymes. Some metal ions can mimic a hypoxia response in cells under normal oxygen tension, and induce expression of HIF-1{alpha}-regulated genes. This study investigated whether 12 metal ions altered iron homeostasis in human lung carcinoma A549 cells as measured by an activation of IRP-1 and ferritin level. We also studied hypoxia signaling by measuring HIF-1{alpha} protein levels, hypoxia response element (HRE)-driven luciferase reporter activity, and Cap43 protein level (an HIF-1{alpha} responsive gene). Our results show the following: (i) Ni(II), Co(II), V(V), Mn(II), and to a lesser extent As(III) and Cu(II) activated the binding of IRP-1 to IRE after 24 h, while the other metal ions had no effect; (ii) 10 of 12 metal ions induced HIF-1{alpha} protein but to strikingly different degrees. Two of these metal ions, Al(III) and Cd(II), did not induce HIF-1{alpha} protein; however, as indicated below, only Ni(II), Co (II), and to lesser extent Mn(II) and V(V) activated HIF-1{alpha}-dependent transcription. The combined effects of both [Ni(II) + As(III)] and [Ni(II) + Cr(VI)] on HIF-1{alpha} protein were synergistic; (iii) Addition of Fe(II) with Ni(II), Co(II), and Cr(VI) attenuated the induction of HIF-1{alpha} after 4 h treatment; (iv) Ni(II), Co(II), and Mn(II) significantly decrease ferritin level after 24 h exposure; (v) Ni(II), Co(II), V(V), and Mn(II) activated HRE reporter gene after 20 h treatment; (vi) Ni(II), Co(II), V(V), and Mn(II) increased the HIF-1-dependent Cap43 protein level after 24 h treatment. In conclusion, only Ni (II), Co (II), and to a lesser extent Mn(II) and V(V) significantly stabilized HIF-1{alpha} protein, activated IRP, decreased the levels of ferritin, induced the transcription of HIF-dependent reporter, and increased the expression of Cap43 protein levels (HIF-dependent gene). The mechanism for the

  6. Diffuse Glomerular Nodular Lesions in Diabetic Pigs Carrying a Dominant-Negative Mutant Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-Alpha, an Inheritant Diabetic Gene in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Satoshi; Umeyama, Kazuhiro; Yokoo, Takashi; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Nagata, Michio

    2014-01-01

    Glomerular nodular lesions, known as Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules, are a pathological hallmark of progressive human diabetic nephropathy. We have induced severe diabetes in pigs carrying a dominant-negative mutant hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha (HNF1α) P291fsinsC, a maturity-onset diabetes of the young type-3 (MODY3) gene in humans. In this model, glomerular pathology revealed that formation of diffuse glomerular nodules commenced as young as 1 month of age and increased in size and incidence until the age of 10 months, the end of the study period. Immunohistochemistry showed that the nodules consisted of various collagen types (I, III, IV, V and VI) with advanced glycation end-product (AGE) and Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) deposition, similar to those in human diabetic nodules, except for collagen type I. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) was also expressed exclusively in the nodules. The ultrastructure of the nodules comprised predominant interstitial-type collagen deposition arising from the mesangial matrices. Curiously, these nodules were found predominantly in the deep cortex. However, diabetic pigs failed to show any of the features characteristic of human diabetic nephropathy; e.g., proteinuria, glomerular basement membrane thickening, exudative lesions, mesangiolysis, tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, and vascular hyalinosis. The pigs showed only Armanni-Ebstein lesions, a characteristic tubular manifestation in human diabetes. RT-PCR analysis showed that glomeruli in wild-type pigs did not express endogenous HNF1α and HNF1β, indicating that mutant HNF1α did not directly contribute to glomerular nodular formation in diabetic pigs. In conclusion, pigs harboring the dominant-negative mutant human MODY3 gene showed reproducible and distinct glomerular nodules, possibly due to AGE- and CML-based collagen accumulation. Although the pathology differed in several respects from that of human glomerular nodular lesions, the somewhat acute and

  7. Higher-level phylogeny of the Therevidae (Diptera: insecta) based on 28S ribosomal and elongation factor-1 alpha gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Yang, L; Wiegmann, B M; Yeates, D K; Irwin, M E

    2000-06-01

    Therevidae (stilleto flies) are a little-known family of asiloid brachyceran Diptera (Insecta). Separate and combined phylogenetic analyses of 1200 bases of the 28S ribosomal DNA and 1100 bases of elongation factor-1alpha were used to infer phylogenetic relationships within the family. The position of the enigmatic taxon Apsilocephala Kröber is evaluated in light of the molecular evidence. In all analyses, molecular data strongly support the monophyly of Therevidae, excluding Apsilocephala, and the division of Therevidae into two main clades corresponding to a previous classification of the family into the subfamilies Phycinae and Therevinae. Despite strong support for some relationships within these groups, relationships at the base of the two main clades are weakly supported. Short branch lengths for Australasian clades at the base of the Therevinae may represent a rapid radiation of therevids in Australia. PMID:10860652

  8. The homeodomain Pbx2-Prep1 complex modulates hepatocyte nuclear factor 1alpha-mediated activation of the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B17 gene.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Philip A; Mackenzie, Peter I

    2002-07-01

    UDP glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) are expressed in a wide range of tissues in which their levels of expression and distribution are dependent on cell-type specific regulatory mechanisms. The presence of a hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 1 binding site in the proximal promoters of several UGT2B genes has been shown to contribute to their expression in liver cells and possibly other HNF1-containing cell types. In some of these UGT2B genes, a putative pre-B cell homeobox (Pbx) transcription factor binding site is found directly adjacent to the functional HNF1 site. To determine whether this putative Pbx site contributes to the regulation of UGT2B expression, we chose the UGT2B17 gene and investigated the capacity of its Pbx site to bind specific transcription factors and alter promoter activity. The UGT2B17 Pbx site matches a consensus Pbx site known to bind members of the Pbx, Hox, Meis, and Prep1 families of homeodomain-containing proteins and has previously been shown to bind nuclear proteins in DNaseI footprint assays. In this study, we used gel shift and functional assays to show that a Pbx2-Prep1 heterodimer can bind to the UGT2B17 Pbx site and interfere with the binding of HNF1alpha to its site adjacent to the Pbx site. This interaction of Pbx2-Prep1 and HNF1alpha results in down-regulation of HNF1alpha-mediated activation of the UGT2B17 promoter. Modulation of transcription by restricting the binding of transcriptional effectors to their target site is a novel role for Pbx2-Prep1 complexes. PMID:12065766

  9. The novel hypoxic cytotoxin, TX-2098 has antitumor effect in pancreatic cancer; possible mechanism through inhibiting VEGF and hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} targeted gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, Kotaro; Nishioka, Masanori; Imura, Satoru; Batmunkh, Erdenebulgan; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nagasawa, Hideko; Hori, Hitoshi; Shimada, Mitsuo

    2012-08-01

    Tumor hypoxia has been considered to be a potential therapeutic target, because hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors and is associated with their malignant phenotype. In the present study, we investigated the antitumor effect of a novel hypoxic cytotoxin, 3-[2-hydroxyethyl(methyl)amino]-2-quinoxalinecarbonitrile 1,4-dioxide (TX-2098) in inhibiting the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}), and consequently vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) expression in pancreatic cancer. The antitumor effects of TX-2098 under hypoxia were tested against various human pancreatic cancer cell lines using WST-8 assay. VEGF protein induced pancreatic cancer was determined on cell-free supernatant by ELISA. Moreover, nude mice bearing subcutaneously (s.c.) or orthotopically implanted human SUIT-2 were treated with TX-2098. Tumor volume, survival and expression of HIF-1 and associated molecules were evaluated in treatment versus control groups. In vitro, TX-2098 inhibited the proliferation of various pancreatic cancer cell lines. In s.c model, tumors from nude mice injected with pancreatic cancer cells and treated with TX-2098 showed significant reductions in volume (P < 0.01 versus control). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that TX-2098 significantly inhibited mRNA expression of the HIF-1 associated molecules, VEGF, glucose transporter 1 and Aldolase A (P < 0.01 versus control). These treatments also prolong the survival in orthotopic models. These results suggest that the effect of TX-2098 in pancreatic cancer might be correlated with the expression of VEGF and HIF-1 targeted molecules. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We designed and synthesized novel hypoxic cytoxin, TX-2098. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TX-2098 inhibited the proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells than TPZ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TX-2098 reduced VEGF protein level than TPZ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TX-2098

  10. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of five different elongation factor 1 alpha genes in the flatfish Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup): Differential gene expression and thyroid hormones dependence during metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Infante, Carlos; Asensio, Esther; Cañavate, José Pedro; Manchado, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Background Eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha (eEF1A) is one of the four subunits composing eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1. It catalyzes the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the A-site of the ribosome in a GTP-dependent manner during protein synthesis, although it also seems to play a role in other non-translational processes. Currently, little information is still available about its expression profile and regulation during flatfish metamorphosis. With regard to this, Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) is a commercially important flatfish in which eEF1A gene remains to be characterized. Results The development of large-scale genomics of Senegalese sole has facilitated the identification of five different eEF1A genes, referred to as SseEF1A1, SseEF1A2, SseEF1A3, SseEF1A4, and Sse42Sp50. Main characteristics and sequence identities with other fish and mammalian eEF1As are described. Phylogenetic and tissue expression analyses allowed for the identification of SseEF1A1 and SseEF1A2 as the Senegalese sole counterparts of mammalian eEF1A1 and eEF1A2, respectively, and of Sse42Sp50 as the ortholog of Xenopus laevis and teleost 42Sp50 gene. The other two elongation factors, SseEF1A3 and SseEF1A4, represent novel genes that are mainly expressed in gills and skin. The expression profile of the five genes was also studied during larval development, revealing different behaviours. To study the possible regulation of SseEF1A gene expressions by thyroid hormones (THs), larvae were exposed to the goitrogen thiourea (TU). TU-treated larvae exhibited lower SseEF1A4 mRNA levels than untreated controls at both 11 and 15 days after treatment, whereas transcripts of the other four genes remained relatively unchanged. Moreover, addition of exogenous T4 hormone to TU-treated larvae increased significantly the steady-state levels of SseEF1A4 with respect to untreated controls, demonstrating that its expression is up-regulated by THs. Conclusion We have identified five

  11. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha and multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Tiwary, Bhupendra Nath

    2016-01-01

    Rapid tumor growth creates a state of hypoxia in the tumor microenvironment and results in release of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HiF-1α) in the local milieu. Hypoxia inducible factor activity is deregulated in many human cancers, especially those that are highly hypoxic. In multiple myeloma (MM) in initial stages of disease establishment, the hypoxic bone marrow microenvironment supports the initial survival and growth of the myeloma cells. Hypoxic tumour cells are usually resistant to radiotherapy and most conventional chemotherapeutic agents, rendering them highly aggressive and metastatic. Therefore, HIF is an attractive, although challenging, therapeutic target in MM directly or indirectly in recent years. PMID:26900575

  12. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Induced Modifications of the Gene Expression Kinetics of Differentiating Skeletal Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Swanhild U.; Krebs, Stefan; Thirion, Christian; Blum, Helmut; Krause, Sabine; Pfaffl, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction TNF-α levels are increased during muscle wasting and chronic muscle degeneration and regeneration processes, which are characteristic for primary muscle disorders. Pathologically increased TNF-α levels have a negative effect on muscle cell differentiation efficiency, while IGF1 can have a positive effect; therefore, we intended to elucidate the impact of TNF-α and IGF1 on gene expression during the early stages of skeletal muscle cell differentiation. Methodology/Principal Findings This study presents gene expression data of the murine skeletal muscle cells PMI28 during myogenic differentiation or differentiation with TNF-α or IGF1 exposure at 0 h, 4 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 72 h after induction. Our study detected significant coregulation of gene sets involved in myoblast differentiation or in the response to TNF-α. Gene expression data revealed a time- and treatment-dependent regulation of signaling pathways, which are prominent in myogenic differentiation. We identified enrichment of pathways, which have not been specifically linked to myoblast differentiation such as doublecortin-like kinase pathway associations as well as enrichment of specific semaphorin isoforms. Moreover to the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of a specific inverse regulation of the following genes in myoblast differentiation and response to TNF-α: Aknad1, Cmbl, Sepp1, Ndst4, Tecrl, Unc13c, Spats2l, Lix1, Csdc2, Cpa1, Parm1, Serpinb2, Aspn, Fibin, Slc40a1, Nrk, and Mybpc1. We identified a gene subset (Nfkbia, Nfkb2, Mmp9, Mef2c, Gpx, and Pgam2), which is robustly regulated by TNF-α across independent myogenic differentiation studies. Conclusions This is the largest dataset revealing the impact of TNF-α or IGF1 treatment on gene expression kinetics of early in vitro skeletal myoblast differentiation. We identified novel mRNAs, which have not yet been associated with skeletal muscle differentiation or response to TNF-α. Results of this study may facilitate

  13. Targeted genes and interacting proteins of hypoxia inducible factor-1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Shen, Shao-Ming; Zhao, Xu-Yun; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Heterodimeric transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) functions as a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis in almost all nucleated mammalian cells. The fundamental process adapted to cellular oxygen alteration largely depends on the refined regulation on its alpha subunit, HIF-1α. Recent studies have unraveled expanding and critical roles of HIF-1α, involving in a multitude of developmental, physiological, and pathophysiological processes. This review will focus on the current knowledge of HIF-1α-targeting genes and its interacting proteins, as well as the concomitant functional relationships between them. PMID:22773957

  14. Altered Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha expression levels correlate with coronary vessel anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Wikenheiser, Jamie; Wolfram, Julie A.; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Yang, Ke; Karunamuni, Ganga; Wilson, David L.; Semenza, Gregg L.; Agani, Faton; Fisher, Steven A.; Ward, Nicole; Watanabe, Michiko

    2009-01-01

    The outflow tract myocardium and other regions corresponding to the location of the major coronary vessels of the developing chicken heart, display a high level of hypoxia as assessed by the hypoxia indicator EF5. The EF5 positive tissues were also specifically positive for nuclear-localized hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), the oxygen-sensitive component of the hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) heterodimer. This led to our hypothesis that there is a “template” of hypoxic tissue that determines the stereotyped pattern of the major coronary vessels. In this study we disturbed this template by altering ambient oxygen levels (hypoxia 15%; hyperoxia 75-40%) during the early phases of avian coronary vessel development, in order to alter tissue hypoxia, HIF-1α protein expression and its downstream target genes without high mortality. We also altered HIF-1α gene expression in the embryonic outflow tract cardiomyocytes by injecting an adenovirus containing a constitutively active form of HIF-1α (AdCA5). We assayed for coronary anomalies using anti-alpha-smooth muscle actin immunohistology. When incubated under abnormal oxygen levels or injected with a low titer of the AdCA5, coronary arteries displayed deviations from their normal proximal connections to the aorta. These deviations were similar to known clinical anomalies of coronary arteries. These findings indicated that developing coronary vessels may be subject to a level of regulation that is dependent on differential oxygen levels within cardiac tissues and subsequent HIF-1 regulation of gene expression. PMID:19777592

  15. Interaction of plant chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase with a homolog of eukaryotic elongation factor-1alpha

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, W.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1999-01-01

    A chimeric Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) was previously cloned and characterized in this laboratory. To investigate the biological functions of CCaMK, the yeast two-hybrid system was used to isolate genes encoding proteins that interact with CCaMK. One of the cDNA clones obtained from the screening (LlEF-1alpha1) has high similarity with the eukaryotic elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1alpha). CCaMK phosphorylated LlEF-1alpha1 in a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent manner. The phosphorylation site for CCaMK (Thr-257) was identified by site-directed mutagenesis. Interestingly, Thr-257 is located in the putative tRNA-binding region of LlEF-1alpha1. An isoform of Ca2+-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) phosphorylated multiple sites of LlEF-1alpha1 in a Ca2+-dependent but calmodulin-independent manner. Unlike CDPK, CCaMK phosphorylated only one site, and this site is different from CDPK phosphorylation sites. This suggests that the phosphorylation of EF-1alpha by these two kinases may have different functional significance. Although the phosphorylation of LlEF-1alpha1 by CCaMK is Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent, in vitro binding assays revealed that CCaMK binds to LlEF-1alpha1 in a Ca2+-independent manner. This was further substantiated by coimmunoprecipitation of CCaMK and EF-1alpha using the protein extract from lily anthers. Dissociation of CCaMK from EF-1alpha by Ca2+ and phosphorylation of EF-1alpha by CCaMK in a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent manner suggests that these interactions may play a role in regulating the biological functions of EF-1alpha.

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of the Xenopus hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (xHIF1alpha).

    PubMed

    de Beaucourt, Arnaud; Coumailleau, Pascal

    2007-12-15

    We report the molecular cloning and the characterization of the Xenopus homolog of mammalian hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF1alpha), a member of the bHLH/PAS transcription factor family. Searches in Xenopus genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis reveal the existence of HIF1alpha and HIF2alpha paralogs in the Xenopus laevis species. Sequence data analyses indicate that the organization of protein domains in Xenopus HIF1alpha (xHIF1alpha) is strongly conserved. We also show that xHIF1alpha heterodimerizes with the Xenopus Arnt1 protein (xArnt1) with the proteic complex being mediated by the HLH and PAS domains. Subcellular analysis in a Xenopus XTC cell line using chimeric GFP constructs show that over-expression of xHIF1alpha and xArnt1 allows us to detect the xHIF1alpha/xArnt1 complex in the nucleus, but only in the presence of both partners. Further analyses in XTC cell line show that over-producing xHIF1alpha and xArnt1 mediates trans-activation of the hypoxia response element (HRE) reporter. The trans-activation level can be increased in hypoxia conditions. Interestingly such trans-activation properties can be also observed when human Arnt1 is used together with the xHIF1alpha. PMID:17471499

  17. Interaction of the human cytomegalovirus particle with the host cell induces hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Steven; Nicholl, Mary Jane; Sutherland, Jane S.; Preston, Chris M.

    2011-05-25

    The cellular protein hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1{alpha}) was induced after infection of human fibroblasts with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). HCMV irradiated with ultraviolet light (uv-HCMV) also elicited the effect, demonstrating that the response was provoked by interaction of the infecting virion with the cell and that viral gene expression was not required. Although induction of HIF-1{alpha} was initiated by an early event, accumulation of the protein was not detected until 9 hours post infection, with levels increasing thereafter. Infection with uv-HCMV resulted in increased abundance of HIF-1{alpha}-specific RNA, indicating stimulation of transcription. In addition, greater phosphorylation of the protein kinase Akt was observed, and the activity of this enzyme was required for induction of HIF-1{alpha} to occur. HIF-1{alpha} controls the expression of many cellular gene products; therefore the findings reveal new ways in which interaction of the HCMV particle with the host cell may cause significant alterations to cellular physiology.

  18. Molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis of Clonorchis sinensis elongation factor-1alpha.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Yun; Cho, Pyo Yun; Na, Jong Won; Hong, Sung-Jong

    2007-11-01

    Elongation factor-1 (EF-1) plays a primary role in protein synthesis, e.g., in the regulation of cell growth, aging, motility, embryogenesis, and signal transduction. The authors identified a clone CsIH23 by immunoscreening a Clonorchis sinensis cDNA library. The cDNA of CsIH23 was found to have a putative open reading frame containing 461 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 50.5 kDa. Its polypeptide sequence was highly homologous with EF-1alpha of parasites and vertebrate animals. CsIH23 polypeptide contained three GTP/GDP-binding sites, one ribosome-binding domain, one actin-binding domain, one tRNA-binding domain, and two glyceryl-phosphoryl-ethanolamine attachment sites. Based on these primary and secondary structural similarities, it was concluded that CsIH23 cDNA encodes C. sinensis EF-1alpha (CsEF-1alpha). In a molecular phylogenic tree, CsEF-1alpha clustered with the EF-1alpha of helminthic parasites. Subsequently, CsEF-1alpha recombinant protein was bacterially overexpressed and purified by Ni-NTA affinity column chromatography. Immunoblotting using CsEF-1alpha recombinant protein produced positive signals for all serum samples tested from clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis viverinii, and paragonimiasis westermani patients and normal healthy controls. These findings suggest that recombinant CsEF-1alpha is of limited usefulness as serodiagnostic antigen for clonorchiasis. PMID:17674047

  19. Elongation factor 1 alpha concentration is highly correlated with the lysine content of maize endosperm.

    PubMed Central

    Habben, J E; Moro, G L; Hunter, B G; Hamaker, B R; Larkins, B A

    1995-01-01

    Lysine is the most limiting essential amino acid in cereals, and for many years plant breeders have attempted to increase its concentration to improve the nutritional quality of these grains. The opaque2 mutation in maize doubles the lysine content in the endosperm, but the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. We show that elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) is overexpressed in opaque2 endosperm compared with its normal counterpart and that there is a highly significant correlation between EF-1 alpha concentration and the total lysine content of the endosperm. This relationship is also true for two other cereals, sorghum and barley. It appears that genetic selection for genotypes with a high concentration of EF-1 alpha can significantly improve the nutritional quality of maize and other cereals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7567989

  20. Isolation and characterization of three cassava elongation factor 1 alpha (MeEF1A) promoters.

    PubMed

    Suhandono, Sony; Apriyanto, Ardha; Ihsani, Nisa

    2014-01-01

    In plant genetic engineering, the identification of gene promoters leading to particular expression patterns is crucial for the development of new genetically modified plant generations. This research was conducted in order to isolate and characterize several new promoters from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1A) gene family.Three promoters MeEF1A3, MeEF1A5 and MeEF1A6 were successfully isolated [corrected]. Sequence analyses showed that all of the promoters contain three conserved putative cis-acting elements which are located upstream of the transcription start site. These elements are included a TEF1, a TELO and TATA boxes. In addition, all of the promoters also have the 5'UTR intron but with a different lengths. These promoters were constructed translationally with gusA reporter gene (promoter::gusA fusion) in pBI-121 binary vector to build a new binary vector using Overlap Extension PCR Cloning (OEPC) technique. Transient expression assay that was done by using agroinfiltration method was used to show functionality of these promoters. Qualitative and quantitative analysis from GUS assay showed that these promoters were functional and conferred a specific activity in tobacco seedlings (Nicotiana tabacum), tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) and banana fruits (Musa acuminata). We hypothesized that MeEF1A6 could be categorized as a constitutive promoter because it was able to drive the gene expression in all transformed tissue described in here and also comparable to CaMV35S. On the other hand, MeEF1A3 drove specific expression in the aerial parts of seedlings such as hypocotyl and cotyledon thus MeEF1A5 drove specific expression in fruit tissue. The results obtained from transient analysis showed that these promoters had a distinct activity although they came from same gene family. The DNA sequences identified here are new promoters potentially use for genetic engineering in cassava or other plants. PMID:24404183

  1. Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 Alpha Is Expressed in Germ Cells throughout the Murine Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Lauren H.; Mathews, Juanita; Yamazaki, Yuki; Allsopp, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells of the early embryo, and germ line cells, are essential to ensure uncompromised development to adulthood as well as species propagation, respectively. Recently, the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (Hif1α) has been shown to have important roles in embryonic stem cells; in particular, regulation of conversion to glycolytic metabolism and, as we have shown, maintenance of functional levels of telomerase. In the present study, we sought to assess whether Hif1α was also expressed in the primitive cells of the murine embryo. We observed expression of Hif1α in pre-implantation embryos, specifically the 2-cell stage, morula, and blastocyst. Robust Hif1α expression was also observed in male and female primordial germ cells. We subsequently assessed whether Hif1α was expressed in adult male and female germ cells. In the testis, Hif1α was robustly expressed in spermatogonial cells, in both juvenile (6-week old) and adult (3-month old) males. In the ovaries, Hif1α was expressed in mature oocytes from adult females, as assessed both in situ and in individual oocytes flushed from super-ovulated females. Analysis of Hif1α transcript levels indicates a mechanism of regulation during early development that involves stockpiling of Hif1α protein in mature oocytes, presumably to provide protection from hypoxic stress until the gene is re-activated at the blastocyst stage. Together, these observations show that Hif1α is expressed throughout the life-cycle, including both the male and female germ line, and point to an important role for Hif1α in early progenitor cells. PMID:27148974

  2. Activation of vascular endothelial growth factor gene transcription by hypoxia-inducible factor 1.

    PubMed Central

    Forsythe, J A; Jiang, B H; Iyer, N V; Agani, F; Leung, S W; Koos, R D; Semenza, G L

    1996-01-01

    Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is induced in cells exposed to hypoxia or ischemia. Neovascularization stimulated by VEGF occurs in several important clinical contexts, including myocardial ischemia, retinal disease, and tumor growth. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimeric basic helix-loop-helix protein that activates transcription of the human erythropoietin gene in hypoxic cells. Here we demonstrate the involvement of HIF-1 in the activation of VEGF transcription. VEGF 5'-flanking sequences mediated transcriptional activation of reporter gene expression in hypoxic Hep3B cells. A 47-bp sequence located 985 to 939 bp 5' to the VEGF transcription initiation site mediated hypoxia-inducible reporter gene expression directed by a simian virus 40 promoter element that was otherwise minimally responsive to hypoxia. When reporters containing VEGF sequences, in the context of the native VEGF or heterologous simian virus 40 promoter, were cotransfected with expression vectors encoding HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta (ARNT [aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator]), reporter gene transcription was much greater in both hypoxic and nonhypoxic cells than in cells transfected with the reporter alone. A HIF-1 binding site was demonstrated in the 47-bp hypoxia response element, and a 3-bp substitution eliminated the ability of the element to bind HIF-1 and to activate transcription in response to hypoxia and/or recombinant HIF-1. Cotransfection of cells with an expression vector encoding a dominant negative form of HIF-1alpha inhibited the activation of reporter transcription in hypoxic cells in a dose-dependent manner. VEGF mRNA was not induced by hypoxia in mutant cells that do not express the HIF-1beta (ARNT) subunit. These findings implicate HIF-1 in the activation of VEGF transcription in hypoxic cells. PMID:8756616

  3. Roles of adrenomedullin and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha in patients with varicocele.

    PubMed

    Hu, W; Zhou, P-H; Zhang, X-B; Xu, C-G; Wang, W

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to assess any changes in the plasma concentrations of adrenomedullin (ADM) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF 1a) in patients with varicocele (VC). Plasma concentrations of ADM and HIF 1a were measured in brachial vein (BV) and internal spermatic vein (ISV) of 30 fertile VC subjects and 35 untreated infertile VC patients. The results demonstrated that plasma levels of ADM and HIF 1a were significantly higher in ISV than those in BV in the fertile or infertile group respectively. The values of ADM and HIF 1a in BV or ISV of the infertile group were significantly higher than in BV or ISV of the fertile group respectively. Similar changes in values of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) were observed. Plasma HIF 1a concentration positively correlated with ROM levels. Plasma ADM concentration positively correlated with ROM values and HIF 1a levels in the two groups. Moreover, remarkable improvement in clinical sperm parameters was observed 3 months after surgery for the infertile patients. It is concluded that ADM may participate, along with HIF 1a, in mechanisms that aid spermatogenic cells in adapting to hypoxia. These predictors may have potential in infertility development in VC patients. Furthermore, early surgical repair is extremely important for infertile VC patients with poor semen quality. PMID:25335788

  4. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha: A promising therapeutic target in endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Lei; Wang, Wenyan; Zhang, Yu; Song, Enxue; Fan, Yijun; Wei, Bing

    2016-04-01

    Endometriosis is a common gynecologic disease defined as the presence of ectopic endometrial tissues on the ovaries and pelvic peritoneum, and it is a significant cause of pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea and infertility of women in their reproductive age. However, the etiology of endometriosis remains obscure. In recent years, a growing body of evidence validated that hypoxia developed a close relationship with endometriosis and the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α) was increased significantly in the development of endometriosis. Furthermore, inhibiting the expression of HIF-1α contributed to suppress endometriosis progression, suggesting HIF-1α plays a critical function in endometriosis. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which HIF-1α associates with endometriosis are still undefined. In this brief review, we had a general understanding of HIF-1α firstly, and then we tried to sum up the collective knowledge of HIF-1α in endometriosis. Finally, we will discuss kinds of novel therapeutic approaches to endometriosis based on the functions of HIF-1α. PMID:26898675

  5. A Polymorphism in Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1 Alpha, rs7310409, Is Associated with Left Main Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Liu, Hanning; Gu, Haiyong; Teng, Xiao; Nie, Yu; Zhou, Zhou; Zhao, Yan; Hu, Shengshou; Zheng, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) is a particularly severe phenotypic form of CAD and has a genetic basis. We hypothesized that some inflammation- and hyperhomocysteinemia-related gene polymorphisms may contribute to LMCAD susceptibility in a Chinese population. We studied the association between polymorphisms in the genes hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A; rs7310409, G/A), C-reactive protein (rs1800947 and rs3093059 T/C), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (rs1801133, C/T), and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (rs1076991, A/G) in 402 LMCAD and 804 more peripheral CAD patients in a Chinese population. Genotyping was performed using the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry method. When the HNF1A rs7310409 GG homozygote genotype was used as the reference group, both the individual, GA and AA, and combined GA/AA genotypes were associated with an increased risk of LMCAD. This single nucleotide polymorphism (rs7310409) is strongly associated with plasma CRP levels. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that the HNF1A rs7310409 G/A functional polymorphism may contribute to the risk of LMCAD. PMID:25202455

  6. Gene transfer mediated by alpha2-macroglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, H; Huse, K; Birkenmeier, G; Otto, A; Scholz, G H

    1996-01-01

    alpha2-Macroglobulin covalently linked to poly(L)-lysine can be used as a vehicle for receptor-mediated gene transfer. This modified alpha2-macroglobulin maintains its ability to bind to the alpha2-macroglobulin receptor, and was shown to introduce a luciferase reporter gene plasmid into HepG2 human hepatoma cells in vitro. The alpha2-macroglobulin receptor is a very large and multifunctional cell surface receptor, whose rapid and efficient internalization rate makes it attractive for gene therapy, e.g. for hepatic gene targeting via injection into the portal vein. PMID:8871570

  7. Functional defect of truncated hepatocyte nuclear factor-1{alpha} (G554fsX556) associated with maturity-onset diabetes of the young

    SciTech Connect

    Kooptiwut, Suwattanee; Sujjitjoon, Jatuporn; Plengvidhya, Nattachet; Boonyasrisawat, Watip; Chongjaroen, Nalinee; Jungtrakoon, Prapapron; Semprasert, Namoiy; Furuta, Hiroto; Nanjo, Kishio; Banchuin, Napatawn; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2009-05-22

    A novel frameshift mutation attributable to 14-nucleotide insertion in hepatocyte nuclear factor-1{alpha} (HNF-1{alpha}) encoding a truncated HNF-1{alpha} (G554fsX556) with 76-amino acid deletion at its carboxyl terminus was identified in a Thai family with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). The wild-type and mutant HNF-1{alpha} proteins were expressed by in vitro transcription and translation (TNT) assay and by transfection in HeLa cells. The wild-type and mutant HNF-1{alpha} could similarly bind to human glucose-transporter 2 (GLUT2) promoter examined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). However, the transactivation activities of mutant HNF-1{alpha} on human GLUT2 and rat L-type pyruvate kinase (L-PK) promoters in HeLa cells determined by luciferase reporter assay were reduced to approximately 55-60% of the wild-type protein. These results suggested that the functional defect of novel truncated HNF-1{alpha} (G554fsX556) on the transactivation of its target-gene promoters would account for the {beta}-cell dysfunction associated with the pathogenesis of MODY.

  8. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha in high-risk breast cancer: an independent prognostic parameter?

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Günther; Greiner, Richard H; Hlushchuk, Ruslan; Aebersold, Daniel M; Altermatt, Hans J; Berclaz, Gilles; Djonov, Valentin

    2004-01-01

    Background Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (hif-1α) furnishes tumor cells with the means of adapting to stress parameters like tumor hypoxia and promotes critical steps in tumor progression and aggressiveness. We investigated the role of hif-1α expression in patients with node-positive breast cancer. Methods Tumor samples from 77 patients were available for immunohistochemistry. The impact of hif-1α immunoreactivity on survival endpoints was determined by univariate and multivariate analyses, and correlations to clinicopathological characteristics were determined by cross-tabulations. Results hif-1α was expressed in 56% (n = 43/77) of the patients. Its expression correlated with progesterone receptor negativity (P = 0.002). The Kaplan–Meier curves revealed significantly shorter distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) (P = 0.04, log-rank) and disease-free survival (DFS) (P = 0.04, log-rank) in patients with increased hif-1α expression. The difference in overall survival (OS) did not attain statistical significance (5-year OS, 66% without hif-1α expression and 55% with hif-1α expression; P = 0.21). The multivariate analysis failed to reveal an independent prognostic value for hif-1α expression in the whole patient group. The only significant parameter for all endpoints was the T stage (T3/T4 versus T1/T2: DMFS, relative risk = 3.16, P = 0.01; DFS, relative risk = 2.57, P = 0.03; OS, relative risk = 3.03, P = 0.03). Restricting the univariate and multivariate analyses to T1/T2 tumors, hif-1α expression was a significant parameter for DFS and DMFS. Conclusions hif-1α is expressed in the majority of patients with node-positive breast cancer. It can serve as a prognostic marker for an unfavorable outcome in those with T1/T2 tumors and positive axillary lymph nodes. PMID:15084243

  9. Wortmannin influences hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha expression and glycolysis in esophageal carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ling; Zhou, Hai-Yun; Tang, Na-Na; Zhang, Wei-Feng; He, Gui-Jun; Hao, Bo; Feng, Ya-Dong; Zhu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the influence of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT)-HIF-1α signaling pathway on glycolysis in esophageal carcinoma cells under hypoxia. METHODS: Esophageal carcinoma cell lines Eca109 and TE13 were cultured under hypoxia environment, and the protein, mRNA and activity levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), glucose transporter 1, hexokinase-II, phosphofructokinase 2 and lactate dehydrogenase-A were determined. Supernatant lactic acid concentrations were also detected. The PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was then inhibited with wortmannin, and the effects of hypoxia on the expression or activities of HIF-1α, associated glycolytic enzymes and lactic acid concentrations were observed. Esophageal carcinoma cells were then transfected with interference plasmid with HIF-1α-targeting siRNA to assess impact of the high expression of HIF-1α on glycolysis. RESULTS: HIF-1α is highly expressed in the esophageal carcinoma cell lines tested, and with decreasing levels of oxygen, the expression of HIF-1α and the associated glycolytic enzymes and the extracellular lactic acid concentration were enhanced in the esophageal carcinoma cell lines Eca109 and TE13. In both normoxia and hypoxic conditions, the level of glycolytic enzymes and the secretion of lactic acid were both reduced by wortmannin. The expression and activities of glycolytic enzymes and the lactic acid concentration in cells were reduced by inhibiting HIF-1α, especially the decreasing level of glycolysis was significant under hypoxic conditions. CONCLUSION: The PI3K/AKT pathway and HIF-1α are both involved in the process of glycolysis in esophageal cancer cells. PMID:27239113

  10. Functional properties of an isolated. cap alpha beta. heterodimeric human placenta insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Feltz, S.M.; Swanson, M.L.; Wemmie, J.A.; Pessin, J.E.

    1988-05-03

    Treatment of human placenta membranes at pH 8.5 in the presence of 2.0 mM dithiothreitol (DTT) for 5 min, followed by the simultaneous removal of the DTT and pH adjustment of pH 7.6, resulted in the formation of a functional ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor complex from the native ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric disulfide-linked state. The membrane-bound ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric complex displayed similar curvilinear /sup 125/I-IGF-1 equilibrium binding compared to the ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric complex. /sup 125/I-IGF-1 binding to both the isolated ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric and ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric complexes demonstrated a marked straightening of the Scatchard plots, compared to the placenta membrane-bound IGF-1 receptors, with a 2-fold increase in the high-affinity binding component. IGF-1 stimulation of IGF-1 receptor autophosphorylation indicated that the ligand-dependent activation of ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric protein kinase activity occurred concomitant with the reassociation into a covalent ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric state. These data demonstrate that (i) a combination of alkaline pH and DTT treatment of human placenta membranes results in the formation of an ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric IGF-1 receptor complex, (ii) unlike the insulin receptor, high-affinity homogeneous IGF-1 binding occurs in both the ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric and ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric complexes, and (iii) IGF-1-dependent autophosphorylation of the ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric IGF-1 receptor complex correlates wit an IGF-1 dependent covalent reassociation into an ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric disulfide-linked state.

  11. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha expression in experimental cirrhosis: correlation with vascular endothelial growth factor expression and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bozova, Sevgi; Elpek, Gülsüm Ozlem

    2007-07-01

    Angiogenesis progresses together with fibrogenesis during chronic liver injury. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), a master regulator of homeostasis, plays a pivotal role in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis through its regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The association between hypoxia, angiogenesis and VEGF expression has been demonstrated in experimental cirrhosis. However, expression of HIF-1alpha has yet to be reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of HIF-1alpha expression during experimental liver fibrosis and the relationships between HIF-1alpha expression, VEGF expression and angiogenesis. Cirrhosis was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal administration of diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) (100 mg/kg, once a week). The serial sections from liver tissues were stained with anti-HIF-1alpha, anti-VEGF and anti-CD34 antibodies before being measured by light microscopy. Our results showed that HIF-1alpha expression gradually increases according to the severity of fibrosis (p<0.01). Moreover, its expression was found to be correlated with angiogenesis (r=0.916) and VEGF expression (r=0.969). The present study demonstrates that HIF-1alpha might have a role in the development of angiogenesis via regulation of VEGF during experimental liver fibrogenesis and suggests that this factor could be a potential target in the manipulation of angiogenesis in chronic inflammatory diseases of the liver. PMID:17614845

  12. Divergence of human [alpha]-chain constant region gene sequences: A novel recombinant [alpha]2 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Chintalacharuvu, K. R.; Morrison, S.L. ); Raines, M. )

    1994-06-01

    IgA is the major Ig synthesized in humans and provides the first line of defense at the mucosal surfaces. The constant region of IgA heavy chain is encoded by the [alpha] gene on chromosome 14. Previous studies have indicated the presence of two [alpha] genes, [alpha]1 and [alpha]2 existing in two allotypic forms, [alpha]2 m(1) and [alpha]2 m(2). Here the authors report the cloning and complete nucleotide sequence determination of a novel human [alpha] gene. Nucleotide sequence comparison with the published [alpha] sequences suggests that the gene arose as a consequence of recombination or gene conversion between the two [alpha]2 alleles. The authors have expressed the gene as a chimeric protein in myeloma cells indicating that it encodes a functional protein. The novel IgA resembles IgA2 m(2) in that disulfide bonds link H and L chains. This novel recombinant gene provides insights into the mechanisms of generation of different constant regions and suggests that within human populations, multiple alleles of [alpha] may be present providing IgAs of different structures.

  13. Role of hypoxia-inducible factor 1{alpha} in modulating cobalt-induced lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Saini, Yogesh; Kim, Kyung Y; Lewandowski, Ryan; Bramble, Lori A; Harkema, Jack R; Lapres, John J

    2010-02-01

    Hypoxia plays an important role in development, cellular homeostasis, and pathological conditions, such as cancer and stroke. There is also growing evidence that hypoxia is an important modulator of the inflammatory process. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are a family of proteins that regulate the cellular response to oxygen deficit, and loss of HIFs impairs inflammatory cell function. There is little known, however, about the role of epithelial-derived HIF signaling in modulating inflammation. Cobalt is capable of eliciting an allergic response and promoting HIF signaling. To characterize the inflammatory function of epithelial-derived HIF in response to inhaled cobalt, a conditional lung-specific HIF1alpha, the most ubiquitously expressed HIF, deletion mouse, was created. Control mice showed classic signs of metal-induced injury following cobalt exposure, including fibrosis and neutrophil infiltration. In contrast, HIF1alpha-deficient mice displayed a Th2 response that resembled asthma, including increased eosinophilic infiltration, mucus cell metaplasia, and chitinase-like protein expression. The results suggest that epithelial-derived HIF signaling has a critical role in establishing a tissue's inflammatory response, and compromised HIF1alpha signaling biases the tissue towards a Th2-mediated reaction. PMID:19915160

  14. The nuclear elongation factor-1α gene: a promising marker for phylogenetic studies of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Díaz, Sebastián; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Gómez-Palacio, Andrés

    2016-09-01

    Molecular systematics is a remarkable approach for understanding the taxonomic traits and allows the exploration of the inter-population dynamics of several species in the Triatominae subfamily that are involved in Trypanosoma cruzi transmission. Compared to other relevant species that transmit vector-borne diseases, such as some species of the Diptera, there are relatively few nuclear genetic markers available for systematic studies in the Triatominae subfamily. Molecular systematic studies performed on Triatominae are based on mitochondrial gene fragments and, less frequently, on nuclear ribosomal genes or spacers. Due to the fact that these markers can occasionally present problems such as nuclear mitochondrial genes (NUMTs) or intra-genomic variation for high gene copy numbers, it is necessary to use additional nuclear markers to more reliably address the molecular evolution of Triatominae. In this study, we performed phylogenetic analysis using the nuclear elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) gene in individuals from 12 species belonging to the Triatomini and Rhodniini tribes. Genetic diversities and phylogenetic topologies were compared with those obtained for the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and Cytochrome b (cyt b) genes, as well as for the D2 variable region of the ribosomal 28S rRNA gene. These results indicate that the EF-1α marker exhibits an intermediate level of diversity compared to mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal genes, and that phylogenetic analysis based on EF-1α is highly informative for resolving deep phylogenetic relationships in Triatominae, such as tribe or genera. PMID:27268149

  15. Prognostic Significance of Tumor Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1{alpha} Expression for Outcome After Radiotherapy in Oropharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Priyamal; Slevin, Nick J.; Sloan, Philip; Valentine, Helen; Cresswell, Jo; Ryder, David; Price, Patricia; Homer, Jarrod J.; West, Catharine

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: Head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represents a heterogeneous group of patients in terms of subsite, treatment, and biology. Currently most management decisions are based on clinical parameters with little appreciation of patient differences in underlying tumor biology. We investigated the prognostic significance of clinicopathologic features and tumor hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) expression in a homogeneous series of patients who underwent radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: An audit identified 133 consecutive patients with histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil or tongue base. All patients received primary radiotherapy between 1996 and 2001. Tumor HIF-1{alpha} expression was examined in 79 patients. Results: Features associated with poor locoregional control were low Hb level (p = 0.05) and advancing T (p = 0.008), N (p = 0.03), and disease (p = 0.008) stage. HIF-1{alpha} expression was a more significant adverse prognostic factor in the tonsil (hazard ratio [HR], 23.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]. 3.04-176.7) than the tongue-base tumor (HR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.14-7.19) group (p = 0.03, test for interaction). High tumor HIF-1{alpha} expression was associated with low blood Hb levels (p = 0.03). In a multivariate analysis HIF-1{alpha} expression retained prognostic significance for locoregional control (HR, 7.10; 95% CI, 3.07-16.43) and cancer-specific survival (HR, 9.19; 95% CI, 3.90-21.6). Conclusions: There are significant differences in radiation therapy outcome within a homogeneous subsite of the oropharynx related to molecular marker expression. The work highlights the importance of studying homogeneous groups of patients in HNSCC, and the complex interrelationships between tumor biology and clinicopathologic factors. The establishment of tumor-type specific markers would represent a major advance in this area.

  16. Sphingosine kinase 1: a new modulator of hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha during hypoxia in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ader, Isabelle; Brizuela, Leyre; Bouquerel, Pierre; Malavaud, Bernard; Cuvillier, Olivier

    2008-10-15

    Here, we provide the first evidence that sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), an oncogenic lipid kinase balancing the intracellular level of key signaling sphingolipids, modulates the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha), master regulator of hypoxia. SphK1 activity is stimulated under low oxygen conditions and regulated by reactive oxygen species. The SphK1-dependent stabilization of HIF-1alpha levels is mediated by the Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3beta signaling pathway that prevents its von Hippel-Lindau protein-mediated degradation by the proteasome. The pharmacologic and RNA silencing inhibition of SphK1 activity prevents the accumulation of HIF-1alpha and its transcriptional activity in several human cancer cell lineages (prostate, brain, breast, kidney, and lung), suggesting a canonical pathway. Therefore, we propose that SphK1 can act as a master regulator for hypoxia, giving support to its inhibition as a valid strategy to control tumor hypoxia and its molecular consequences. PMID:18922940

  17. Alpha globin gene analysis in a Sardinian family with interacting alpha and beta thalassaemia genes.

    PubMed

    Melis, M A; Galanello, R; Cao, A

    1983-04-01

    This paper reports the results of alpha globin gene analysis in a Sardinian family with interacting alpha and beta thalassaemia genes. The propositus, who was identified in a newborn survey as he had 26.0% Hb Bart's and 74.0% Hb F, successively developed the clinical and haematological picture of a transfusion-dependent thalassaemia major. According to the haemoglobin pattern, restriction endonuclease analysis of the DNA from this patient showed the deletion of three of the four alpha-globin structural genes. Thus beta 0-thalassaemia homozygotes with the delection of three alpha-structural genes seem to have a severe clinical phenotype similar to that of patients with a full complement of four alpha-globin structural genes. PMID:6299325

  18. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha as a therapeutic target in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Terragna, Carolina; Martello, Marina; Dico, Angela F.; Solaini, Giancarlo; Baracca, Alessandra; Sgarbi, Gianluca; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Valente, Sabrina; Zamagni, Elena; Tacchetti, Paola; Martinelli, Giovanni; Cavo, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The increasing importance of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in tumorigenesis raises the possibility that agents which specifically inhibit this transcription factor, would provide significant therapeutic benefit. The constitutive expression of HIF-1α in about 35% of Multiple Myeloma (MM) patients suggests HIF-1α suppression might be part of a therapeutic strategy. Accordingly, we explored the effect of EZN-2968, a small 3rd generation antisense oligonucleotide against HIF-1α, in a panel of MM cell lines and primary patients samples. Here, we demonstrated that EZN-2968 is highly specific for HIF-1α mRNA and that exposure of MM cells to EZN-2968 resulted in an efficient and homogeneous loading of the cells showing a long lasting low HIF-1α protein level. In MM cells, HIF-1α suppression induced a permanent cell cycle arrest by prolonging S-phase through cyclin A modulation and in addition it induced a mild apoptotic cell death. Moreover, HIF-1α suppression caused a metabolic shift that leaded to increased production of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation (i.e. Warburg effect reversion), that was confirmed by the observed mitochondrial membrane potential decrease. These results show that HIF-1α is an important player in MM homeostasis and that its inhibition by small antisense oligonucleotides provides a rationale for novel therapeutic strategy to improving MM treatment. PMID:24732040

  19. The Role of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 Alpha in Bypassing Oncogene-Induced Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Kilic Eren, Mehtap; Tabor, Vedrana

    2014-01-01

    Oncogene induced senescence (OIS) is a sustained anti-proliferative response acutely induced in primary cells via activation of mitogenic oncogenes such as Ras/BRAF. This mechanism acts as an initial barrier preventing normal cells transformation into malignant cell. Besides oncogenic activation and DNA damage response (DDR), senescence is modulated by a plethora of other factors, and one of the most important one is oxygen tension of the tissue. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of hypoxia on RasV12-induced senescence in human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs). We showed here that hypoxia prevents execution of oncogene induced senescence (OIS), through a strong down-regulation of senescence hallmarks, such as SA- β-galactosidase, H3K9me3, HP1γ, p53, p21CIP1 and p16INK4a in association with induction of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). In addition, hypoxia also decreased marks of H-RasV12-induced DDR in both cell lines through down-regulation of ATM/ATR, Chk1 and Chk2 phosphorylation as well as decreased γ-H2AX positivity. Utilizing shRNA system targeting HIF-1α we show that HIF-1α is directly involved in down regulation of p53 and its target p21CIP1 but not p16INK4a. In line with this finding we found that knock down of HIF-1α leads to a strong induction of apoptotic response, but not restoration of senescence in Ras expressing HDFs in hypoxia. This indicates that HIF-1α is an important player in early steps of tumorigenesis, leading to suppression of senescence through its negative regulation of p53 and p21CIP1. In our work we describe a mechanism through which hypoxia and specifically HIF-1α preclude cells from maintaining senescence-driven anti proliferative response. These findings indicate the possible mechanism through which hypoxic environment helps premalignant cells to evade impingement of cellular failsafe pathways. PMID:24984035

  20. Chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha}, suppress amyloid {beta}-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, Dayanidhi; Milatovic, Snjezana-Zaja; Milatovic, Dejan; Fan, Guo-Huang; Richmond, Ann

    2011-11-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive cognitive decline and accumulation of neurotoxic oligomeric peptides amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}). Although the molecular events are not entirely known, it has become evident that inflammation, environmental and other risk factors may play a causal, disruptive and/or protective role in the development of AD. The present study investigated the ability of the chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha} (SDF-1{alpha}), the respective ligands for chemokine receptors CXCR2 and CXCR4, to suppress A{beta}-induced neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment with MIP-2 or SDF-1{alpha} significantly protected neurons from A{beta}-induced dendritic regression and apoptosis in vitro through activation of Akt, ERK1/2 and maintenance of metalloproteinase ADAM17 especially with SDF-1{alpha}. Intra-cerebroventricular (ICV) injection of A{beta} led to reduction in dendritic length and spine density of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and increased oxidative damage 24 h following the exposure. The A{beta}-induced morphometric changes of neurons and increase in biomarkers of oxidative damage, F{sub 2}-isoprostanes, were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with the chemokines MIP-2 or SDF-1{alpha}. Additionally, MIP-2 or SDF-1{alpha} was able to suppress the aberrant mislocalization of p21-activated kinase (PAK), one of the proteins involved in the maintenance of dendritic spines. Furthermore, MIP-2 also protected neurons against A{beta} neurotoxicity in CXCR2-/- mice, potentially through observed up regulation of CXCR1 mRNA. Understanding the neuroprotective potential of chemokines is crucial in defining the role for their employment during the early stages of neurodegeneration. -- Research highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neuroprotective ability of the chemokines MIP2 and CXCL12 against A{beta} toxicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MIP-2 or

  1. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), and microvessel density in endometrial tissue in women with adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Goteri, Gaia; Lucarini, Guendalina; Montik, Nina; Zizzi, Antonio; Stramazzotti, Daniela; Fabris, Guidalberto; Tranquilli, Andrea Luigi; Ciavattini, Andrea

    2009-03-01

    Adenomyosis is a disease with a mysterious pathogenesis, defined by an abnormal displacement of the eutopic endometrium deeply and haphazardly inside the myometrium. Angiogenesis has been indicated to play an important role and our aim was to investigate whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) expression and microvessel density (MVD) were different in women with and without adenomyosis. Immunohistochemistry was performed in endometrial tissues in 23 patients who underwent radical hysterectomy for adenomyosis (14) and for ovarian cysts and fibroids (9) at an Academic Hospital. Compared to women without the disease, VEGF expression was increased in endometrium with a normal location in patients with adenomyosis, although not associated to a significant increase of HIF-1alpha and MVD. Moreover, the endometrium with an abnormal location in patients with adenomyosis showed an increased VEGF and HIF-1alpha expression, particularly in the epithelial cells, associated to an increase of MVD, compared with the endometrium in a normal location in the same group of patients. Our present findings suggest that VEGF-mediated angiogenesis might be associated with the development of adenomyosis. In the ectopic foci the abnormal location might contribute to increased HIF-1a expression, stimulation of VEGF production, and increased vessel formation. In endometrium with a normal location, instead, where VEGF increased expression seems not to be correlated with HIF-1alpha increased expression nor with an increased MVD, other mechanisms might be reasonably postulated. Additional studies are required to explore new targeted and more effective treatment modalities. PMID:19188818

  2. Sporadic cutaneous angiosarcomas generally lack hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha: a histologic and immunohistochemical study of 45 cases.

    PubMed

    Abedalthagafi, Malak; Rushing, Elisabeth J; Auerbach, Aaron; Desouki, Mohamed M; Marwaha, Jason; Wang, Zengfeng; Fanburg-Smith, Julie C

    2010-02-01

    Cutaneous angiosarcoma (AS) is a rare malignant neoplasm of dermis composed of infiltrating cells of endothelial phenotype with overall poor prognosis. Although autocrine stimulation by vascular endothelial growth factor secretion may play a role in the pathogenesis of angiosarcoma, its mechanism has not been fully established. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that mediates cellular and systemic homeostatic responses to hypoxia.. The stability of HIF can regulate key proteins in angiogenesis and the alpha-subunit has been found in epithelial tumors, only 1 case of human retroperitoneal angiosarcoma, and rare vascular proliferations and tumors in knockout mice. We wanted to observe the utility of HIF-1alpha as a marker or explanatory factor in AS. Cases coded as "angiosarcoma" of dermis were culled and re-reviewed for inclusion as AS, based on patient folder, slides, and obtained immunohistochemistry including CD31 and smooth muscle actin (SMA). Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha was performed on a subset of cases, with additional available material. Forty-five cases met the criteria for AS; there were 17% females and 83% males, with a mean age at presentation of 67 years (range, 27-88 years). Tumors presented most commonly in the skin of the scalp followed by the left lower leg, face, nose, lower arm, neck, thigh, eyelid, ear, and temple. Associated basal cell carcinoma was noted in 1 patient; no others had other neoplasms or unrelated surgeries. There was no history of other primary, lymphedema, radiation, breast-associated, or thorotrast-induced angiosarcoma. The tumors ranged in size from 0.4 up to 9.5 cm, with a mean size of 2.4 cm. Histopathologically, most tumors were vasoformative, with either solid architecture (n = 35) or papillary endothelial hyperplasia-like foci (n = 7). All cases demonstrated infiltrative growth pattern, cytologic atypia, and mitotic activity, including atypical forms. Surface ulceration was present in 44% and

  3. High glucose concentrations attenuate hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} expression and signaling in non-tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dehne, Nathalie; Bruene, Bernhard

    2010-04-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is the major transcription factor mediating adaption to hypoxia e.g. by enhancing glycolysis. In tumor cells, high glucose concentrations are known to increase HIF-1{alpha} expression even under normoxia, presumably by enhancing the concentration of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, while reactions of non-tumor cells are not well defined. Therefore, we analyzed cellular responses to different glucose concentrations in respect to HIF activation comparing tumor to non-tumor cells. Using cells derived from non-tumor origin, we show that HIF-1{alpha} accumulation was higher under low compared to high glucose concentrations. Low glucose allowed mRNA expression of HIF-1 target genes like adrenomedullin. Transfection of C{sub 2}C{sub 12} cells with a HIF-1{alpha} oxygen-dependent degradation domaine-GFP fusion protein revealed that prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) activity is impaired at low glucose concentrations, thus stabilizing the fusion protein. Mechanistic considerations suggested that neither O{sub 2} redistribution nor an altered redox state explains impaired PHD activity in the absence of glucose. In order to affect PHD activity, glucose needs to be metabolized. Amino acids present in the medium also diminished HIF-1{alpha} expression, while the addition of fatty acids did not. This suggests that glucose or amino acid metabolism increases oxoglutarate concentrations, which enhances PHD activity in non-tumor cells. Tumor cells deprived of glutamine showed HIF-1{alpha} accumulation in the absence of glucose, proposing that enhanced glutaminolysis observed in many tumors enables these cells to compensate reduced oxoglutarate production in the absence of glucose.

  4. Toll-like receptor 3 regulates angiogenesis and apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines through hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha.

    PubMed

    Paone, Alessio; Galli, Roberta; Gabellini, Chiara; Lukashev, Dmitriy; Starace, Donatella; Gorlach, Agnes; De Cesaris, Paola; Ziparo, Elio; Del Bufalo, Donatella; Sitkovsky, Michail V; Filippini, Antonio; Riccioli, Anna

    2010-07-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize microbial/viral-derived components that trigger innate immune response and conflicting data implicate TLR agonists in cancer, either as protumor or antitumor agents. We previously demonstrated that TLR3 activation mediated by its agonist poly(I:C) induces antitumor signaling, leading to apoptosis of prostate cancer cells LNCaP and PC3 with much more efficiency in the former than in the second more aggressive line. The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) regulates several cellular processes, including apoptosis, in response to hypoxia and to other stimuli also in normoxic conditions. Here we describe a novel protumor machinery triggered by TLR3 activation in PC3 cells consisting of increased expression of the specific I.3 isoform of HIF-1 alpha and nuclear accumulation of HIF-1 complex in normoxia, resulting in reduced apoptosis and in secretion of functional vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Moreover, we report that, in the less aggressive LNCaP cells, TLR3 activation fails to induce nuclear accumulation of HIF-1 alpha. However, the transfection of I.3 isoform of hif-1 alpha in LNCaP cells allows poly(I:C)-induced HIF-1 activation, resulting in apoptosis protection and VEGF secretion. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that differences in the basal level of HIF-1 alpha expression in different prostate cancer cell lines underlie their differential response to TLR3 activation, suggesting a correlation between different stages of malignancy, hypoxic gene expression, and beneficial responsiveness to TLR agonists. PMID:20651983

  5. Recombination between elongation factor 1α genes from distantly related archaeal lineages

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, Yuji; Susko, Edward; Roger, Andrew J.

    2006-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) and lateral gene transfer are major processes in genome evolution. The combination of the two processes, HR between genes in different species, has been documented but is thought to be restricted to very similar sequences in relatively closely related organisms. Here we report two cases of interspecific HR in the gene encoding the core translational protein translation elongation factor 1α (EF-1α) between distantly related archaeal groups. Maximum-likelihood sliding window analyses indicate that a fragment of the EF-1α gene from the archaeal lineage represented by Methanopyrus kandleri was recombined into the orthologous gene in a common ancestor of the Thermococcales. A second recombination event appears to have occurred between the EF-1α gene of the genus Methanothermobacter and its ortholog in a common ancestor of the Methanosarcinales, a distantly related euryarchaeal lineage. These findings suggest that HR occurs across a much larger evolutionary distance than generally accepted and affects highly conserved essential “informational” genes. Although difficult to detect by standard whole-gene phylogenetic analyses, interspecific HR in highly conserved genes may occur at an appreciable frequency, potentially confounding deep phylogenetic inference and hypothesis testing. PMID:16537397

  6. Stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha} (SDF-1{alpha}/CXCL12) stimulates ovarian cancer cell growth through the EGF receptor transactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Porcile, Carola; Bajetto, Adriana . E-mail: bajetto@cba.unige.it; Barbieri, Federica; Barbero, Simone; Bonavia, Rudy; Biglieri, Marianna; Pirani, Paolo; Florio, Tullio . E-mail: florio@cba.unige.it; Schettini, Gennaro

    2005-08-15

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is the leading cause of death in gynecologic diseases in which there is evidence for a complex chemokine network. Chemokines are a family of proteins that play an important role in tumor progression influencing cell proliferation, angiogenic/angiostatic processes, cell migration and metastasis, and, finally, regulating the immune cells recruitment into the tumor mass. We previously demonstrated that astrocytes and glioblastoma cells express both the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), and that SDF-1{alpha} treatment induced cell proliferation, supporting the hypothesis that chemokines may play an important role in tumor cells' growth in vitro. In the present study, we report that CXCR4 and SDF-1 are expressed in OC cell lines. We demonstrate that SDF-1{alpha} induces a dose-dependent proliferation in OC cells, by the specific interaction with CXCR4 and a biphasic activation of ERK1/2 and Akt kinases. Our results further indicate that CXCR4 activation induces EGF receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation that in turn was linked to the downstream intracellular kinases activation, ERK1/2 and Akt. In addition, we provide evidence for cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase (c-Src) involvement in the SDF-1/CXCR4-EGFR transactivation. These results suggest a possible important 'cross-talk' between SDF-1/CXCR4 and EGFR intracellular pathways that may link signals of cell proliferation in ovarian cancer.

  7. MUC1 mucin stabilizes and activates hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha to regulate metabolism in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chaika, Nina V.; Gebregiworgis, Teklab; Lewallen, Michelle E.; Purohit, Vinee; Radhakrishnan, Prakash; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Bo; Mehla, Kamiya; Brown, Roger B.; Caffrey, Thomas; Yu, Fang; Johnson, Keith R.; Powers, Robert; Hollingsworth, Michael A.; Singh, Pankaj K.

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant glucose metabolism is one of the hallmarks of cancer that facilitates cancer cell survival and proliferation. Here, we demonstrate that MUC1, a large, type I transmembrane protein that is overexpressed in several carcinomas including pancreatic adenocarcinoma, modulates cancer cell metabolism to facilitate growth properties of cancer cells. MUC1 occupies the promoter elements of multiple genes directly involved in glucose metabolism and regulates their expression. Furthermore, MUC1 expression enhances glycolytic activity in pancreatic cancer cells. We also demonstrate that MUC1 expression enhances in vivo glucose uptake and expression of genes involved in glucose uptake and metabolism in orthotopic implantation models of pancreatic cancer. The MUC1 cytoplasmic tail is known to activate multiple signaling pathways through its interactions with several transcription factors/coregulators at the promoter elements of various genes. Our results indicate that MUC1 acts as a modulator of the hypoxic response in pancreatic cancer cells by regulating the expression/stability and activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). MUC1 physically interacts with HIF-1α and p300 and stabilizes the former at the protein level. By using a ChIP assay, we demonstrate that MUC1 facilitates recruitment of HIF-1α and p300 on glycolytic gene promoters in a hypoxia-dependent manner. Also, by metabolomic studies, we demonstrate that MUC1 regulates multiple metabolite intermediates in the glucose and amino acid metabolic pathways. Thus, our studies indicate that MUC1 acts as a master regulator of the metabolic program and facilitates metabolic alterations in the hypoxic environments that help tumor cells survive and proliferate under such conditions. PMID:22869720

  8. Characterization of the bovine C alpha gene.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, W R; Rabbani, H; Butler, J E; Hammarström, L

    1997-01-01

    The complete genomic sequence of a bovine C alpha gene is reported here. The genomic sequence was obtained from a C alpha phage clone that had been cloned from a genomic EMBL4 phage vector library. The C alpha sequence had previously been expressed as a chimeric antibody and identified as IgA using IgA-specific antibodies. Intron/exon boundaries were determined by comparison of the genomic sequence with an expressed bovine C alpha sequence obtained from spleen by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Analysis of 50 Swedish bovine genomic DNA samples using genomic blots and five different restriction enzymes failed to detect evidence of polymorphism. However, PstI digests of Brown Swiss DNA showed a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), suggesting that at least two allelic variants of bovine IgA exist. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of bovine IgA with sequences available for other species indicated that the highest homology was with that of swine, another artiodactyl. This was the highest homology observed for all mammalian IgA compared except for that between IgA1 and IgA2 in humans. Bovine IgA shares with rabbit IgA3 and IgA4, an additional N-linked glycosylation site at position 282. However, the collective data indicate that cattle are like swine and rodents and unlike rabbits in having a single locus of the gene encoding IgA of this species. Images Figure 4 PMID:9203958

  9. Characterization and phylogeny of entomopathogenic Isaria spp. (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) using ITS1-5.8X-ITS2 and elongation factor 1-alpha sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-a) and the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2 (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) sequences were used to characterize and identify Isaria isolates from Argentina and Brazil, as well as to study the phylogenetic relationships among these isolates and other related fungi...

  10. The phylogenetic analysis of variable-length sequence data: elongation factor-1alpha introns in European populations of the parasitoid wasp genus Pauesia (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae).

    PubMed

    Sanchis, A; Michelena, J M; Latorre, A; Quicke, D L; Gärdenfors, U; Belshaw, R

    2001-06-01

    Elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1alpha) is a highly conserved nuclear coding gene that can be used to investigate recent divergences due to the presence of rapidly evolving introns. However, a universal feature of intron sequences is that even closely related species exhibit insertion and deletion events, which cause variation in the lengths of the sequences. Indels are frequently rich in evolutionary information, but most investigators ignore sites that fall within these variable regions, largely because the analytical tools and theory are not well developed. We examined this problem in the taxonomically problematic parasitoid wasp genus Pauesia (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) using congruence as a criterion for assessing a range of methods for aligning such variable-length EF-1alpha intron sequences. These methods included distance- and parsimony-based multiple-alignment programs (CLUSTAL W and MALIGN), direct optimization (POY), and two "by eye" alignment strategies. Furthermore, with one method (CLUSTAL W) we explored in detail the robustness of results to changes in the gap cost parameters. Phenetic-based alignments ("by eye" and CLUSTAL W) appeared, under our criterion, to perform as well as more readily defensible, but computationally more demanding, methods. In general, all of our alignment and tree-building strategies recovered the same basic topological structure, which means that an underlying phylogenetic signal remained regardless of the strategy chosen. However, several relationships between clades were sensitive both to alignment and to tree-building protocol. Further alignments, considering only sequences belonging to the same group, allowed us to infer a range of phylogenetic relationships that were highly robust to tree-building protocol. By comparing these topologies with those obtained by varying the CLUSTAL parameters, we generated the distribution area of congruence and taxonomic compatibility. Finally, we present the first robust estimate

  11. Transcriptional regulation of the human TR2 orphan receptor gene by nuclear factor 1-A

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.-L.; Wang, Y.-H.; Lee, H.-J. . E-mail: hjlee@mail.ndhu.edu.tw

    2006-11-17

    The human testicular receptor 2 (TR2), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, has no identified ligand yet. Previous evidence demonstrated that a 63 bp DNA fragment, named the promoter activating cis-element (PACE), has been identified as a positive regulatory region in the 5' promoter region of the human TR2 gene. In the present report, the human nuclear factor 1-A (NF1-A) was identified as a transcriptional activator to recognize the center of the PACE, called the PACE-C. NF1-A could bind to the 18 bp PACE-C region, and enhance about 13- to 17-fold of the luciferase reporter gene activity via the PACE-C in dose-dependent and orientation-independent manners. This transcriptional activation was further confirmed by real-time RT-PCR assay. In conclusion, our results indicated that NF1-A transcription factor plays an important role in the transcriptional activation of the TR2 gene expression via the PACE-C in the minimal promoter region.

  12. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 {alpha} expression predicts superior survival in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP.

    PubMed

    Evens, Andrew M; Sehn, Laurie H; Farinha, Pedro; Nelson, Beverly P; Raji, Adekunle; Lu, Yi; Brakman, Adam; Parimi, Vamsi; Winter, Jane N; Schumacker, Paul T; Gascoyne, Randy D; Gordon, Leo I

    2010-02-20

    PURPOSE Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) controls the expression of genes in response to hypoxia, as well as a wide range of other cellular processes. We previously showed constitutive stabilization of HIF-1alpha in the majority of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). To our knowledge, the prognostic significance of HIF in lymphoma has never been investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS We studied the immunohistochemical protein expression of HIF-1alpha on tissue microarrays from 153 patients with DLBCL treated in sequential cohorts with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, oncovin, and prednisone (CHOP) or rituximab-CHOP (R-CHOP) from 1999 to 2002. Results were correlated with patient outcome. Results Median follow-up for all patients was 80 months. Among all patients, HIF-1alpha was expressed in 62% of germinal center and 59% of non-germinal center patients. With HIF-1alpha analyzed as a dependent variable, there were no survival differences in CHOP-treated patients. In the R-CHOP group, however, HIF-1alpha protein expression correlated with significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Five-year PFS for HIF-1alpha-positive patients was 71% v 43% for HIF-1alpha-negative patients (P = .0187), whereas 5-year OS was 75% and 54%, respectively (P = .025). In multivariate analysis with International Prognostic Index criteria, HIF-1alpha remained a significant predictor for PFS (P = .026) and OS (P = .043). Compared with other biomarkers, HIF-1alpha correlated only with BCL6 (P = .004). In terms of gene expression, we found several common gene associations of HIF-1alpha and the stromal-1 signature with genes predominantly involved in regulation of the extracellular matrix (eg, BGN, COL1A2, COL5A1, and PLOD2). CONCLUSION The expression of HIF-1alpha protein is an important independent favorable prognostic factor for survival in patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP. PMID:20048181

  13. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 suppresses gene expression of cyclin D1 in tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yasmin, Tania; Takahashi-Yanaga, Fumi . E-mail: yanaga@clipharm.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Mori, Jun; Miwa, Yoshikazu; Hirata, Masato; Watanabe, Yutaka; Morimoto, Sachio; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki

    2005-12-16

    To determine the mechanism by which differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1), a morphogen of Dictyostelium discoideum, inhibits tumor cell proliferation, we examined the effect of DIF-1 on the gene expression of cyclin D1. DIF-1 strongly reduced the expression of cyclin D1 mRNA and correspondingly decreased the amount of {beta}-catenin in HeLa cells and squamous cell carcinoma cells. DIF-1 activated glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) and inhibition of GSK-3{beta} attenuated the DIF-1-induced {beta}-catenin degradation, indicating the involvement of GSK-3{beta} in this effect. Moreover, DIF-1 reduced the activities of T-cell factor (TCF)/lymphoid enhancer factor (LEF) reporter plasmid and a reporter gene driven by the human cyclin D1 promoter. Eliminating the TCF/LEF consensus site from the cyclin D1 promoter diminished the effect of DIF-1. These results suggest that DIF-1 inhibits Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling, resulting in the suppression of cyclin D1 promoter activity.

  14. Improved elongation factor-1 alpha-based vectors for stable high-level expression of heterologous proteins in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Establishing highly productive clonal cell lines with constant productivity over 2–3 months of continuous culture remains a tedious task requiring the screening of tens of thousands of clonal colonies. In addition, long-term cultivation of many candidate lines derived in the absence of drug selection pressure is necessary. Expression vectors based on the elongation factor-1 alpha (EEF1A) gene and the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) selection marker (with separate promoters) can be used to obtain highly productive populations of stably transfected cells in the selection medium, but they have not been tested for their ability to support target gene amplification under gradually increasing methotrexate pressure. Results We have modified EEF1A-based vectors by linking the DHFR selection marker to the target gene in the bicistronic RNA, shortening the overall plasmid size, and adding an Epstein-Barr virus terminal repeat fragment (EBVTR) element. Presence of the EBVTR element increased the rate of stable transfection by the plasmid by 24 times that of the EBVTR-minus control and improved the rate of methotrexate-driven gene amplification. The mean expression level of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) used herein as a model protein, increased up to eight-fold using a single round of amplification in the case of adherent colonies formation and up to 4.5-fold in the case of suspension polyclonal cultures. Several eGFP-expressing cell populations produced using vectors with antibiotic resistance markers instead of the DHFR marker were compared with each other. Stable transfection of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) DG44 cells by the p1.2-Hygro-eGFP plasmid (containing a hygromycin resistance marker) generated highest eGFP expression levels of up to 8.9% of the total cytoplasmic protein, with less than 5% of the cell population being eGFP-negative. Conclusions The p1.1 vector was very effective for stable transfection of CHO cells and capable of rapid MTX

  15. Polymorphisms of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Pathway Genes and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Joy; Aronson, Kristan J.; Grundy, Anne; Kobayashi, Lindsay C.; Burstyn, Igor; Schuetz, Johanna M.; Lohrisch, Caroline A.; SenGupta, Sandip K.; Lai, Agnes S.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Spinelli, John J.; Richardson, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variants of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) pathway genes have been shown to be associated with breast density and IGF1 levels and, therefore, may also influence breast cancer risk via pro-survival signaling cascades. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between IGF1 pathway single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and breast cancer risk among European and East Asian women, and potential interactions with menopausal status and breast tumor subtype. Stratified analyses of 1,037 cases and 1,050 controls from a population-based case–control study were conducted to assess associations with breast cancer for 22 SNPs across 5 IGF1 pathway genes in European and East Asian women. Odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression in additive genetic models. Polytomous logistic regression was used to assess heterogeneity by breast tumor subtype. Two SNPs of the IGF1 gene (rs1019731 and rs12821878) were associated with breast cancer risk among European women. Four highly linked IGF1 SNPs (rs2288378, rs17727841, rs7136446, and rs7956547) were modified by menopausal status among East Asian women only and associated with postmenopausal breast cancers. The association between rs2288378 and breast cancer risk was also modified by breast tumor subtype among East Asian women. Several IGF1 polymorphisms were found to be associated with breast cancer risk and some of these associations were modified by menopausal status or breast tumor subtype. Such interactions should be considered when assessing the role of these variants in breast cancer etiology. PMID:27376028

  16. Polymorphisms of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Pathway Genes and Breast Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Shi, Joy; Aronson, Kristan J; Grundy, Anne; Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Burstyn, Igor; Schuetz, Johanna M; Lohrisch, Caroline A; SenGupta, Sandip K; Lai, Agnes S; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Spinelli, John J; Richardson, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variants of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) pathway genes have been shown to be associated with breast density and IGF1 levels and, therefore, may also influence breast cancer risk via pro-survival signaling cascades. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between IGF1 pathway single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and breast cancer risk among European and East Asian women, and potential interactions with menopausal status and breast tumor subtype. Stratified analyses of 1,037 cases and 1,050 controls from a population-based case-control study were conducted to assess associations with breast cancer for 22 SNPs across 5 IGF1 pathway genes in European and East Asian women. Odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression in additive genetic models. Polytomous logistic regression was used to assess heterogeneity by breast tumor subtype. Two SNPs of the IGF1 gene (rs1019731 and rs12821878) were associated with breast cancer risk among European women. Four highly linked IGF1 SNPs (rs2288378, rs17727841, rs7136446, and rs7956547) were modified by menopausal status among East Asian women only and associated with postmenopausal breast cancers. The association between rs2288378 and breast cancer risk was also modified by breast tumor subtype among East Asian women. Several IGF1 polymorphisms were found to be associated with breast cancer risk and some of these associations were modified by menopausal status or breast tumor subtype. Such interactions should be considered when assessing the role of these variants in breast cancer etiology. PMID:27376028

  17. Plasmid-based transient human stromal cell-derived factor-1 gene transfer improves cardiac function in chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Sundararaman, S; Miller, T J; Pastore, J M; Kiedrowski, M; Aras, R; Penn, M S

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that transient stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1) improved cardiac function when delivered via cell therapy in ischemic cardiomyopathy at a time remote from acute myocardial infarction (MI) rats. We hypothesized that non-viral gene transfer of naked plasmid DNA-expressing hSDF-1 could similarly improve cardiac function. To optimize plasmid delivery, we tested SDF-1 and luciferase plasmids driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter with (pCMVe) or without (pCMV) translational enhancers or α myosin heavy chain (pMHC) promoter in a rodent model of heart failure. In vivo expression of pCMVe was 10-fold greater than pCMV and pMHC expression and continued over 30 days. We directly injected rat hearts with SDF-1 plasmid 1 month after MI and assessed heart function. At 4 weeks after plasmid injection, we observed a 35.97 and 32.65% decline in fractional shortening (FS) in control (saline) animals and pMHC-hSDF1 animals, respectively, which was sustained to 8 weeks. In contrast, we observed a significant 24.97% increase in animals injected with the pCMVe-hSDF1 vector. Immunohistochemistry of cardiac tissue revealed a significant increase in vessel density in the hSDF-1-treated animals compared with control animals. Increasing SDF-1 expression promoted angiogenesis and improved cardiac function in rats with ischemic heart failure along with evidence of scar remodeling with a trend toward decreased myocardial fibrosis. These data demonstrate that stand-alone non-viral hSDF-1 gene transfer is a strategy for improving cardiac function in ischemic cardiomyopathy. PMID:21472007

  18. Methylation of alpha-type embryonic globin gene alpha pi represses transcription in primary erythroid cells.

    PubMed

    Singal, Rakesh; vanWert, Jane M; Ferdinand, Larry

    2002-12-01

    The inverse relationship between expression and methylation of beta-type globin genes is well established. However, little is known about the relationship between expression and methylation of avian alpha-type globin genes. The embryonic alpha(pi)-globin promoter was unmethylated, and alpha(pi)-globin RNA was easily detected in 5-day chicken erythroid cells. A progressive methylation of the CpG dinucleotides in the alpha(pi) promoter associated with loss of expression of alpha(pi)-globin gene was seen during development in primary erythroid cells. A 315-bp alpha(pi)-globin promoter region was cloned in an expression construct (alpha(pi)pGL3E) containing a luciferase reporter gene and SV40 enhancer. The alpha(pi)pGL3E construct was transfected into primary erythroid cells derived from 5-day-old chicken embryos. Methylation of alpha(pi)pGL3E plasmid and alpha(pi)-globin promoter alone resulted in a 20-fold and 7-fold inhibition of expression, respectively. The fully methylated but not the unmethylated 315-bp alpha(pi)-globin gene promoter fragment formed a methyl cytosine-binding protein complex (MeCPC). Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were combined with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to assess histone acetylation associated with the alpha(pi)-globin gene promoter. Slight hyperacetylation of histone H3 but a marked hyperacetylation of histone H4 was seen in 5-day when compared with 14-day erythroid cells. These results demonstrate that methylation can silence transcription of an avian alpha-type embryonic globin gene in homologous primary erythroid cells, possibly by interacting with an MeCPC and histone deacetylase complex. PMID:12393573

  19. Endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide-II modulates endothelial cell responses by degrading hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha through interaction with PSMA7, a component of the proteasome

    SciTech Connect

    Tandle, Anita T.; Calvani, Maura; Uranchimeg, Badarch; Zahavi, David; Melillo, Giovanni; Libutti, Steven K.

    2009-07-01

    The majority of human tumors are angiogenesis dependent. Understanding the specific mechanisms that contribute to angiogenesis may offer the best approach to develop therapies to inhibit angiogenesis in cancer. Endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide-II (EMAP-II) is an anti-angiogenic cytokine with potent effects on endothelial cells (ECs). It inhibits EC proliferation and cord formation, and it suppresses primary and metastatic tumor growth in-vivo. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind the anti-angiogenic activity of EMAP-II. In the present study, we explored the molecular mechanism behind the anti-angiogenic activity exerted by this protein on ECs. Our results demonstrate that EMAP-II binds to the cell surface {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin receptor. The cell surface binding of EMAP-II results in its internalization into the cytoplasmic compartment where it interacts with its cytoplasmic partner PSMA7, a component of the proteasome degradation pathway. This interaction increases hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1{alpha}) degradation under hypoxic conditions. The degradation results in the inhibition of HIF-1{alpha} mediated transcriptional activity as well as HIF-1{alpha} mediated angiogenic sprouting of ECs. HIF-1{alpha} plays a critical role in angiogenesis by activating a variety of angiogenic growth factors. Our results suggest that one of the major anti-angiogenic functions of EMAP-II is exerted through its inhibition of the HIF-1{alpha} activities.

  20. Classification and evolution of alpha-amylase genes in plants.

    PubMed

    Huang, N; Stebbins, G L; Rodriguez, R L

    1992-08-15

    The DNA sequences for 17 plant genes for alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) were analyzed to determine their phylogenetic relationship. A phylogeny for these genes was obtained using two separate approaches, one based on molecular clock assumptions and the other based on a comparison of sequence polymorphisms (i.e., small and localized insertions) in the alpha-amylase genes. These polymorphisms are called "alpha-amylase signatures" because they are diagnostic of the gene subfamily to which a particular alpha-amylase gene belongs. Results indicate that the cereal alpha-amylase genes fall into two major classes: AmyA and AmyB. The AmyA class is subdivided into the Amy1 and Amy2 subfamilies previously used to classify alpha-amylase genes in barley and wheat. The AmyB class includes the Amy3 subfamily to which most of the alpha-amylase genes of rice belong. Using polymerase chain reaction and oligonucleotide primers that flank one of the two signature regions, we show that the AmyA and AmyB gene classes are present in approximately equal amounts in all grass species examined except barley. The AmyB (Amy3 subfamily) genes in the latter case are comparatively underrepresented. Additional evidence suggests that the AmyA genes appeared recently and may be confined to the grass family. PMID:1502164

  1. The insulin-like growth factor-1 gene is associated with cerebral infarction in Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Aoi, Noriko; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Soma, Masayoshi; Kosuge, Kotoko; Haketa, Akira; Sato, Mikano; Sato, Naoyuki; Hinohara, Shigeaki; Doba, Nobutakh; Asai, Satoshi

    2012-10-01

    Atherosclerosis leads to cerebral infarction (CI) and the insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) signaling pathway plays an important role in this process during adult life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the human IGF1 gene and CI in the Japanese population via a case-control study that also included a separate analysis of the two gender groups. A total of 155 CI patients and 316 controls were genotyped for six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the human IGF1 gene (rs2162679, rs7956547, rs2288378, rs2072592, rs978458 and rs6218). All data were analyzed for three separate groups: the total subjects, men and women. The logistic regression analysis revealed that the GG + AG variant of rs2162679 (P = 0.047), the AA + GA variant of rs2072592 (P = 0.005) and the CC + TC variant of rs6218 (P = 0.015) exhibited a protective effect for CI in the total subject group. For the women and the total subjects groups, the overall distribution of the haplotype established by rs7956547-rs978458 was significantly different between the CI patients and the non-CI subjects. For the total subjects, the frequency of the T-G haplotype (rs7956547-rs978458) was also significantly higher (P = 0.034), whereas the frequency of the T-A haplotype (rs7956547-rs978458) was significantly lower (P = 0.008) in the CI patients versus the non-CI subjects. For women, the frequency of the T-A haplotype (rs7956547-rs978458) was significantly lower (P = 0.021) in the CI patients as compared with the non-CI subjects. The specific SNPs and haplotypes can be utilized as genetic markers for CI resistance or CI risk. PMID:23121326

  2. Andrographolide down-regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chou, Fen-Pi; Wang, Chau-Jong; Hsuan, Shu-Wen; Wang, Cheng-Kun; Chen, Jing-Hsien

    2011-02-01

    Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess multiple pharmacological activities. In our previous study, Andro had been shown to inhibit non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cell migration and invasion via down-regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Here we demonstrated that Andro inhibited the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) in A549 cells. HIF-1{alpha} plays an important role in tumor growth, angiogenesis and lymph node metastasis of NSCLC. The Andro-induced decrease of cellular protein level of HIF-1{alpha} was correlated with a rapid ubiquitin-dependent degradation of HIF-1{alpha}, and was accompanied by increased expressions of hydroxyl-HIF-1{alpha} and prolyl hydroxylase (PHD2), and a later decrease of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upon the treatment of Andro. The Andro-inhibited VEGF expression appeared to be a consequence of HIF-1{alpha} inactivation, because its DNA binding activity was suppressed by Andro. Molecular data showed that all these effects of Andro might be mediated via TGF{beta}1/PHD2/HIF-1{alpha} pathway, as demonstrated by the transfection of TGF{beta}1 overexpression vector and PHD2 siRNA, and the usage of a pharmacological MG132 inhibitor. Furthermore, we elucidated the involvement of Andro in HIF-1{alpha} transduced VEGF expression in A549 cells and other NSCLC cell lines. In conclusion, these results highlighted the potential effects of Andro, which may be developed as a chemotherapeutic or an anti-angiogenesis agent for NSCLC in the future.

  3. Fibrinogen {alpha} genes: Conservation of bipartite transcripts and carboxy-terminal-extended {alpha} subunits in vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Y.; Cao, Y.; Hertzberg, K.M.; Grieninger, G.

    1995-11-01

    All three well-studied subunits of the clotting protein fibrinogen ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}) share N-terminal structural homologies, but until recently only the {beta} and {gamma} chains were recognized as having similar globular C-termini. With the discovery of an extra exon in the human fibrinogen {alpha} gene (exon VI), a minor form of the {alpha} subunit ({alpha}{sub E}) with an extended {beta}- and {gamma}-like C-terminus has been identified. In the present study, the polymerase chain reaction has been used to identify sequences that encode counterparts to {alpha}{sub E} in chicken, rabbit, rat, and baboon. The basic six-exon structure of the fibrinogen {alpha} genes is shown to be conserved among mammals and birds, as are the intron positions. Bipartite transcripts - still bearing an intron prior to the last exon - are found among the products of the various vertebrate fibrinogen {alpha} genes. The last exon represents the largest conserved segment of the gene and, in each species examined, encodes exactly 236 amino acids. The C-termini of these {alpha}{sub E} chains align without a single gap and are between 76 and 99% identical. Since the exon VI-encoded domain of {alpha}{sub E} is as well conserved as the corresponding regions of the {beta} and {gamma} chains, it follows that it is equally important and that {alpha}{sub E}-fibrinogen plays a vital, if as-yet unrecognized physiological role. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Correlation of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1{alpha} with Angiogenesis in Liver Tumors After Transcatheter Arterial Embolization in an Animal Model

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Bin; Zheng Chuansheng Feng, Gan-Sheng; Wu Hanping; Wang Yong; Zhao Hui; Qian Jun; Liang Huimin

    2010-08-15

    This study sought to determine the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) and its relation to angiogenesis in liver tumors after transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) in an animal model. A total of 20 New Zealand White rabbits were implanted with VX2 tumor in liver. TAE-treated group animals (n = 10) received TAE with polyvinyl alcohol particles. Control group animals (n = 10) received sham embolization with distilled water. Six hours or 3 days after TAE, animals were humanely killed, and tumor samples were collected. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to evaluate HIF-1{alpha} and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein expression and microvessel density (MVD). Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to examine VEGF mRNA levels. The levels of HIF-1{alpha} protein were significantly higher in TAE-treated tumors than those in the control tumors (P = 0.001). HIF-1{alpha} protein was expressed in viable tumor cells that were located predominantly at the periphery of necrotic tumor regions. The levels of VEGF protein and mRNA, and mean MVD were significantly increased in TAE-treated tumors compared with the control tumors (P = 0.001, 0.000, and 0.001, respectively). HIF-1{alpha} protein level was significantly correlated with VEGF mRNA (r = 0.612, P = 0.004) and protein (r = 0.554, P = 0.011), and MVD (r = 0.683, P = 0.001). We conclude that HIF-1{alpha} is overexpressed in VX2 tumors treated with TAE as a result of intratumoral hypoxia generated by the procedure and involved in activation of the TAE-associated tumor angiogenesis. HIF-1{alpha} might represent a promising therapeutic target for antiangiogenesis in combination with TAE against liver tumors.

  5. THE EPENDYMAL ROUTE FOR INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR-1 GENE THERAPY IN THE BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Hereñú, Claudia B.; Sonntag, William E.; Morel, Gustavo R.; Portiansky, Enrique L.; Goya, Rodolfo G.

    2009-01-01

    Intracerebroventricular administration of the peptide insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been shown to be an effective neuroprotective strategy in the brain of different animal models, a major advantage being the achievement of high concentrations of IGF-1 in the brain without altering serum levels of the peptide. In order to exploit this therapeutic approach further, we used high performance recombinant adenoviral (RAd) vectors expressing their transgene under the control of the potent mouse cytomegalovirus immediate early (mCMV) promoter, to transduce brain ependymal cells with high efficiency and to achieve effective release of transgenic IGF-1 into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We constructed RAd vectors expressing either the chimeric protein (TK/GFP)fus (green fluorescent protein fused to HSV1 thymidine kinase) or the cDNA encoding rat IGF-1, both driven by the mCMV promoter. The vectors were injected into the lateral ventricles of young rats and chimeric GFP expression in brain sections was assessed by fluorescence microscopy. The ependymal cell marker vimentin was detected by immunofluorescence and nuclei were labeled with the DNA dye DAPI. Blood and CSF samples were drawn at different times post vector injection. In all cerebral ventricles, vimentin immunoreactive cells of the ependyma were predominantly transduced by RAd-(TK/GFP)fus, showing nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of the transgene. For tanycytes (TK/GFP)fus expression was evident in their cytoplasmic processes as they penetrated deep into the hypothalamic parenchyma. Intracerebroventricular injection of RAd-IGF-1 induced high levels of IGF-1 in the CSF but not in serum. We conclude that the ependymal route constitutes an effective approach for implementing experimental IGF-1 gene therapy in the brain. PMID:19531373

  6. Structure of the mouse calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide alpha and beta genes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P M; Nasonkin, I; Zhang, H; Gagel, R F; Cote, G J

    2001-01-01

    We report the cloning, genomic organization and sequence of the mouse alpha-CALC and beta-CALC genes. The two genes share extensive sequence homology. The transcription units of both genes contain 6 exons. Transcripts of the alpha-CALC gene were found to alternatively include exon 4 or exons 5 and 6. For the beta-CALC gene exon 4 was not detected in transcripts derived from this gene. The predicted mouse alpha-CGRP was found to be identical to rat alpha-CGRP, however, beta-CGRP predicted amino acid sequences revealed three amino acid differences suggesting these residues are not critical to CGRP function. PMID:11761712

  7. EFFECTS OF HEAT AND BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID ON MALE REPRODUCTION IN HEAT SHOCK FACTOR-1 GENE KNOCKOUT MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of heat and bromochloroacetic acid on male reproduction in heat shock factor-1 gene knockout mice.
    Luft JC1, IJ Benjamin2, JB Garges1 and DJ Dix1. 1Reproductive Toxicology Division, USEPA, RTP, NC, 27711 and 2Dept of Internal Medicine, Univ.of Texas Southwestern Med C...

  8. Fumarate hydratase deficiency in renal cancer induces glycolytic addiction and hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1alpha stabilization by glucose-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Sudarshan, Sunil; Sourbier, Carole; Kong, Hye-Sik; Block, Karen; Valera Romero, Vladimir A; Yang, Youfeng; Galindo, Cynthia; Mollapour, Mehdi; Scroggins, Bradley; Goode, Norman; Lee, Min-Jung; Gourlay, Campbell W; Trepel, Jane; Linehan, W Marston; Neckers, Len

    2009-08-01

    Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is an inherited cancer syndrome linked to biallelic inactivation of the gene encoding the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH). Individuals with HLRCC are at risk to develop cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas and an aggressive form of kidney cancer. Pseudohypoxic drive-the aberrant activation of cellular hypoxia response pathways despite normal oxygen tension-is considered to be a likely mechanism underlying the etiology of this tumor. Pseudohypoxia requires the oxygen-independent stabilization of the alpha subunit of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF-1alpha). Under normoxic conditions, proline hydroxylation of HIF-1alpha permits VHL recognition and subsequent targeting for proteasomal degradation. Here, we demonstrate that inactivating mutations of FH in an HLRCC-derived cell line result in glucose-mediated generation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ROS-dependent HIF-1alpha stabilization. Additionally, we demonstrate that stable knockdown of FH in immortalized renal epithelial cells results in ROS-dependent HIF-1alpha stabilization. These data reveal that the obligate glycolytic switch present in HLRCC is critical to HIF stabilization via ROS generation. PMID:19470762

  9. A novel thiol compound, N-acetylcysteine amide, attenuates allergic airway disease by regulating activation of NF-kappaB and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Sun; Kim, So Ri; Park, Hee Sun; Park, Seoung Ju; Min, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Ka Young; Choe, Yeong Hun; Hong, Sang Hyun; Han, Hyo Jin; Lee, Young Rae; Kim, Jong Suk; Atlas, Daphne; Lee, Yong Chul

    2007-12-31

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. Recent studies have demonstrated that antioxidants are able to reduce airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in animal models of allergic airway disease. A newly developed antioxidant, small molecular weight thiol compound, N-acetylcysteine amide (AD4) has been shown to increase cellular levels of glutathione and to attenuate oxidative stress related disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. However, the effects of AD4 on allergic airway disease such as asthma are unknown. We used ovalbumin (OVA)-inhaled mice to evaluate the role of AD4 in allergic airway disease. In this study with OVA-inhaled mice, the increased ROS generation, the increased levels of Th2 cytokines and VEGF, the increased vascular permeability, the increased mucus production, and the increased airway resistance in the lungs were significantly reduced by the administration of AD4. We also found that the administration of AD4 decreased the increases of the NF-kappaB and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) levels in nuclear protein extracts of lung tissues after OVA inhalation. These results suggest that AD4 attenuates airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness by regulating activation of NF-kappaB and HIF-1alpha as well as reducing ROS generation in allergic airway disease. PMID:18160846

  10. A DC-81-indole conjugate agent suppresses melanoma A375 cell migration partially via interrupting VEGF production and stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha}-mediated signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Ming-Chu; Hu, Wan-Ping; Yu, Hsin-Su; Wu, Wen-Chuan; Chang, Long-Sen; Kao, Ying-Hsien; Wang, Jeh-Jeng

    2011-09-01

    Pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine (PBD) chemicals are antitumor antibiotics inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis. An indole carboxylate-PBD hybrid with six-carbon spacer structure (IN6CPBD) has been previously demonstrated to induce melanoma cell apoptosis and reduce metastasis in mouse lungs. This study aimed at investigating the efficacy of the other hybrid compound with four-carbon spacer (IN4CPBD) and elucidating its anti-metastatic mechanism. Human melanoma A375 cells with IN4CPBD treatment underwent cytotoxicity and apoptosis-associated assays. Transwell migration assay, Western blotting, and ELISA were used for mechanistic study. IN4CPBD exhibited potent melanoma cytotoxicity through interrupting G1/S cell cycle progression, increasing DNA fragmentation and hypodipoidic DNA contents, and reducing mitochondrial membrane potential. Caspase activity elevation suggested that both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways were involved in IN4CPBD-induced melanoma apoptosis. IN4CPBD up-regulated p53 and p21, thereby concomitantly derailing the equilibrium between Bcl-2 and Bax levels. Transwell migration assay demonstrated that stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha} (SDF-1{alpha}) stimulated A375 cell motility, while kinase inhibitors treatment confirmed that Rho/ROCK, Akt, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK pathways were involved in SDF-1{alpha}-enhanced melanoma migration. IN4CPBD not only abolished the SDF-1{alpha}-enhanced chemotactic motility but also suppressed constitutive MMP-9 and VEGF expression. Mechanistically, IN4CPBD down-regulated Akt, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK total proteins and MYPT1 phosphorylation. In conclusion, beyond the fact that IN4CPBD induces melanoma cell apoptosis at cytotoxic dose, the interruption in the VEGF expression and the SDF-1{alpha}-related signaling at cytostatic dose may partially constitute the rationale for its in vivo anti-metastatic potency. - Research Highlights: > A novel carboxylate-PBD hybrid as anti-melanoma drug. > IN4CPBD interrupts melanoma cell

  11. Characterization of the human rod transducin alpha-subunit gene.

    PubMed Central

    Fong, S L

    1992-01-01

    The human rod transducin alpha subunit (Tr alpha) gene has been cloned. A cDNA clone, HG14, contained a 1.1 kb insertion when compared with the human Tr alpha cDNA published by Van Dop et al. (1). Based on two overlapping clones isolated from a human genomic library, the human Tr alpha gene is 4.9 kb in length and consists of nine exons interrupted by eight introns. Northern blots of human retina total RNA showed that the gene is transcribed by rod photoreceptors into two species of mRNA, 1.3 kb and 2.4 kb in size. Apparently, this is the result of alternative splicing. Two putative transcription initiation sites were determined by primer extension and S1 nuclease protection assays. The putative promoter regions of the human and mouse Tr alpha genes have an identity of 78.1%. As found in the mouse gene (2), no TATA consensus sequence is present in the human gene. Images PMID:1614872

  12. Overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha improves vasculogenesis-related functions of endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Kütscher, Christian; Lampert, Florian M; Kunze, Mirjam; Markfeld-Erol, Filiz; Stark, G Björn; Finkenzeller, Günter

    2016-05-01

    Postnatal vasculogenesis is mediated by mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from bone marrow and homing to ischemic tissues. This feature emphasizes this cell type for cell-based therapies aiming at the improvement of neovascularization in tissue engineering applications and regenerative medicine. In animal models, it was demonstrated that implantation of EPCs from cord blood (cbEPCs) led to the formation of a complex functional neovasculature, whereas EPCs isolated from adult peripheral blood (pbEPCs) showed a limited vasculogenic potential, which may be attributed to age-related dysfunction. Recently, it was demonstrated that activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) improves cell functions of progenitor cells of mesenchymal and endothelial origin. Thus, we hypothesized that overexpression of Hif-1α may improve the vasculogenesis-related phenotype of pbEPCs. In the present study, we overexpressed Hif-1α in pbEPCs and cbEPCs by using recombinant adenoviruses and investigated effects on stem cell- and vasculogenesis-related cell parameters. Overexpression of Hif-1α enhanced proliferation, invasion, cell survival and in vitro capillary sprout formation of both EPC populations. Migration was increased in cbEPCs upon Hif-1α overexpression, but not in pbEPCs. Cellular senescence was decreased in pbEPCs, while remained in cbEPCs, which showed, as expected, intrinsically a dramatically lower senescent phenotype in relation to pbEPCs. Similarly, the colony-formation capacity was much higher in cbEPCs in comparison to pbEPCs and was further increased by Hif-1α overexpression, whereas Hif-1α transduction exerted no significant influence on colony formation of pbEPCs. In summary, our experiments illustrated multifarious effects of Hif-1α overexpression on stem cell and vasculogenic parameters. Therefore, Hif-1α overexpression may represent a therapeutic option to improve cellular functions of adult as well as postnatal EPCs. PMID:26827661

  13. Organization and sequence of the human alpha-lactalbumin gene.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, L; Emery, D C; Davies, M S; Parker, D; Craig, R K

    1987-01-01

    A recombinant bacteriophage containing the entire alpha-lactalbumin gene was isolated from a human genomic library constructed in bacteriophage lambda L47. Within this recombinant the 2.5 kb alpha-lactalbumin gene is flanked by about 5 kb of sequence on either side. The complete nucleotide sequence of the gene and its immediate flanking sequences were determined and compared with those of the rat alpha-lactalbumin gene. These studies showed that the size, organization and sequence of the exons have been highly conserved, whereas the introns have diverged considerably. In particular, the first intron of the human gene was found to contain an Alu repetitive sequence not present in the rat. A high degree of homology (67%) was also observed in the 5' flanking regions, extending as far as 655 nucleotide residues upstream of the transcriptional initiation site. Comparison of the 5' flanking sequences of these two alpha-lactalbumin genes with those of five casein genes has revealed the presence of a highly conserved region [consensus sequence: RGAAGRAAA(N)TGGACAGAAATCAA(CG)TTTCTA], extending from position -140 to -110 in all seven sequences examined, suggesting a possible regulatory role in the hormonal control or tissue-specific expression of milk protein genes in the mammary gland. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2954544

  14. The cauliflower Orange gene enhances petiole elongation by suppressing expression of eukaryotic release factor 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cauliflower Or gene affects plant growth and development in addition to conferring beta-carotene accumulation. This study was undertaken to investigate the molecular basis of the Or gene mutation in controlling plant growth. The OR protein was found to interact with cauliflower and Arabidopsis e...

  15. Regulation of alpha o expression by the 5'-flanking region of the alpha o gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Mortensen, R; Neer, E J

    1994-11-01

    Many responses of cells to external signals require activation of the heterotrimeric G proteins. These responses depend on the type and amount of G proteins that are expressed. Each cell has a characteristic complement of G protein subunits. For example, the alpha o subunit is very abundant in neural tissues. Very little is known about the mechanisms that determine cellular levels of G proteins. In the present study, we have isolated a genomic clone for mouse alpha o gene and identified the promoter region. There are multiple transcription initiation sites located about 750 base pairs upstream of the translational start site. The promoter region is GC-rich and contains neither a TATA-box nor a CAAT box. Transient expression assays using a series of constructs containing various lengths of the 5'-flanking region of the alpha o promoter demonstrated that the region 300-700 base pairs upstream of the transcription initiation sites is responsible for the basic promoter activity. The relative activity of alpha o promoter is 8-12-fold higher in cells expressing alpha o than in cells lacking alpha o. The level of alpha o in cells may also be regulated at the level of protein translation because deletions in the 5'-noncoding region of alpha o gene increase reporter enzyme expression without a corresponding increase in reporter enzyme mRNA level. Our results suggest that both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms are involved in regulating the expression of alpha o in vivo. Transcriptional regulation probably is important for control of tissue-specific expression, while posttranscriptional mechanisms may be used to regulate the alpha o level in cells. PMID:7961675

  16. Identification of noncollagenous sites encoding specific interactions and quaternary assembly of alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5(IV) collagen: implications for Alport gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong Suk; Colon, Selene; Hellmark, Thomas; Sado, Yoshikazu; Hudson, Billy G; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan

    2008-12-12

    Defective assembly of alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5(IV) collagen in the glomerular basement membrane causes Alport syndrome, a hereditary glomerulonephritis progressing to end-stage kidney failure. Assembly of collagen IV chains into heterotrimeric molecules and networks is driven by their noncollagenous (NC1) domains, but the sites encoding the specificity of these interactions are not known. To identify the sites directing quaternary assembly of alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5(IV) collagen, correctly folded NC1 chimeras were produced, and their interactions with other NC1 monomers were evaluated. All alpha1/alpha 5 chimeras containing alpha 5 NC1 residues 188-227 replicated the ability of alpha 5 NC1 to bind to alpha3NC1 and co-assemble into NC1 hexamers. Conversely, substitution of alpha 5 NC1 residues 188-227 by alpha1NC1 abolished these quaternary interactions. The amino-terminal 58 residues of alpha3NC1 encoded binding to alpha 5 NC1, but this interaction was not sufficient for hexamer co-assembly. Because alpha 5 NC1 residues 188-227 are necessary and sufficient for assembly into alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5 NC1 hexamers, whereas the immunodominant alloantigenic sites of alpha 5 NC1 do not encode specific quaternary interactions, the findings provide a basis for the rational design of less immunogenic alpha 5(IV) collagen constructs for the gene therapy of X-linked Alport patients. PMID:18930919

  17. Transcriptional promiscuity of the human /alpha/-globin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Whitelaw, E.; Hogben, P.; Hanscombe, O.; Proudfoot, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    The human /alpha/-globin gene displays the unusual property of transcriptional promiscuity: that is, it functions in the absence of an enhancer when transfected into nonerythroid cell lines. It is also unusual in that its promoter region lies in a hypomethylated HpaII tiny fragment (HTF) island containing multiple copies of the consensus sequence for the SP1-binding site. The authors have investigated whether there is a relationship between these two observations. First, they investigated the mouse /alpha/-globin gene since it does not lie in an HTF island. They have demonstrated that it was not transcriptionally promiscuous. Second, they studied the transcriptional activity of the human /alpha/-globin gene in the absence of the GC-rich region containing putative SP1-binding sites and found a small (two- to threefold) but consistent positive effect of this region on transcriptional activity in both nonerythroid and erythroid cell lines. However, this effect did not account for the promiscuous nature of the human /alpha/-globin gene. They found that in a nonreplicating system, the human //a/-globin gene, like that of the mouse, required a simian virus 40 enhancer in order to be transcriptionally active in nonerythroid and erythroid cell lines. Since they only observed enhancer independence of the human /alpha/-globin gene in a high-copy-number replicating system, they suggest that competition for trans-acting factors could explain these results. Finally, the authors' experiments with the erythroid cell line Putko suggest that there are no tissue-specific enhancers within 1 kilobase 5' of the human /alpha/-globin cap site or within the gene itself.

  18. Alpha-amylase gene transcription in tissues of normal dog.

    PubMed

    Mocharla, H; Mocharla, R; Hodes, M E

    1990-02-25

    We studied the distribution of alpha-amylase mRNA in normal dog tissues by northern blotting (NB) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with human pancreatic (AMY2) and salivary (AMY1) alpha-amylase cDNA-specific primers. Analysis of poly(A+) RNA from various normal tissues by NB indicated the presence of detectable levels of alpha-amylase mRNA transcripts only in pancreas. Dot-blot analysis of DNA amplified with primers common to both (human) isoamylase mRNAs showed presence of alpha-amylase gene transcripts not only in pancreas but also in liver, small intestine, large intestine and fallopian tube. Traces of amylase gene transcripts were also observed in ovary, uterus and lung. Interestingly, amylase transcripts were not detectable in the parotid gland by NB or RT-PCR. We have also localized alpha-amylase mRNA transcripts to dog pancreas by in situ transcription and in situ hybridization. Our results suggest that there is high degree of homology between the alpha-amylase mRNA sequences in dog and human at least in the exon 3-4 regions of the human gene. PMID:2315015

  19. Differential expressions of essential and nonessential alpha-tubulin genes in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Y; Toda, T; Niwa, O; Yanagida, M

    1986-06-01

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has two alpha-tubulin genes and one beta-tubulin gene. Gene disruption experiments showed that the alpha 1-tubulin gene (NDA2) is essential whereas the alpha 2 gene is dispensable. The alpha 2-disrupted cells missing alpha 2 transcript and alpha 2 polypeptide could grow and sporulate normally. The alpha 2 gene, however, was expressed in the wild type and the alpha 1 mutant. Alpha 2-Tubulin was distinguished as an electrophoretic band and was assembled into microtubules. The alpha 2-disrupted cells had an increased sensitivity to an antimicrotubule drug thiabendazole, and the alpha 1(cold-sensitive [cs]) alpha 2 (disrupted) cells became not only cs but also temperature sensitive. Northern blot experiments indicated that alpha 2 transcription was minor and constitutive whereas alpha 1 transcription was major and modulated, depending on the gene copy number of the alpha 2 gene. The amounts of alpha 1 and alpha 2 polypeptides estimated by beta-galactosidase activities of the lacZ-fused genes integrated on the chromosome and by intensities of the electrophoretic bands in crude tubulin fractions, however, were comparable, indicating that alpha 2 tubulin is not a minor subtype. We assume that the cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe have no excess tubulin pool. alpha 1 mutants would then be blocked in the cell cycle because only half the amount of functional alpha-tubulin required for growth can be produced by the alpha 2 gene. On the other hand, the alpha 2-disrupted cells became viable because the synthesis of alpha 1 tubulin was increased by transcriptional or translational modulation or both. The real cause for essential alpha 1 and dispensable alpha 2 genes seems to be in their regulatory sequences instead of the coding sequences. PMID:3785193

  20. Abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis overexpressing the multiprotein bridging factor 1a (MBF1a) transcriptional coactivator gene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Jung; Lim, Gah-Hyun; Kim, Eun-Seon; Ko, Chang-Beom; Yang, Kwang-Yeol; Jeong, Jin-An; Lee, Myung-Chul; Kim, Cheol Soo

    2007-03-01

    We conducted a genetic yeast screen to identify salt tolerance (SAT) genes in a maize kernel cDNA library. During the screening, we identified a maize clone (SAT41) that seemed to confer elevated salt tolerance in comparison to control cells. SAT41 cDNA encodes a 16-kDa protein which is 82.4% identical to the Arabidopsis Multiprotein bridging factor 1a (MBF1a) transcriptional coactivator gene. To further examine salinity tolerance in Arabidopsis, we functionally characterized the MBF1a gene and found that dehydration as well as heightened glucose (Glc) induced MBF1a expression. Constitutive expression of MBF1a in Arabidopsis led to elevated salt tolerance in transgenic lines. Interestingly, plants overexpressing MBF1a exhibited insensitivity to Glc and resistance to fungal disease. Our results suggest that MBF1a is involved in stress tolerance as well as in ethylene and Glc signaling in Arabidopsis. PMID:17234157

  1. Transcriptional activity of the human pseudogene psi alpha globin compared with alpha globin, its functional gene counterpart.

    PubMed Central

    Whitelaw, E; Proudfoot, N J

    1983-01-01

    Transcriptional analysis of the human pseudogene psi alpha globin has revealed the following features: (1) The promoter with a 23 bp deletion between the CCAAT and ATA boxes is functional both in vitro and in vivo, 3 fold and 10 fold less efficient, respectively, than alpha. (2) Both the psi alpha and alpha globin gene promoters are active in the absence of transcriptional enhancers, either a gene-encoded or viral enhancer. (3) The mutated poly(A) addition signal in psi alpha (AATGAA) appears to be completely nonfunctional. This result provides an explanation for the absence of psi alpha transcripts in human erythroid cells. Images PMID:6316269

  2. Identification of the human ApoAV gene as a novel ROR{alpha} target gene

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, Ulrika; Nilsson, Tina; McPheat, Jane; Stroemstedt, Per-Erik; Bamberg, Krister; Balendran, Clare; Kang, Daiwu . E-mail: Daiwu.Kang@astrazeneca.com

    2005-04-29

    Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor-{alpha} (ROR{alpha}) (NR1F1) is an orphan nuclear receptor with a potential role in metabolism. Previous studies have shown that ROR{alpha} regulates transcription of the murine Apolipoprotein AI gene and human Apolipoprotein CIII genes. In the present study, we present evidence that ROR{alpha} also induces transcription of the human Apolipoprotein AV gene, a recently identified apolipoprotein associated with triglyceride levels. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of ROR{alpha} increased the endogenous expression of ApoAV in HepG2 cells and ROR{alpha} also enhanced the activity of an ApoAV promoter construct in transiently transfected HepG2 cells. Deletion and mutation studies identified three AGGTCA motifs in the ApoAV promoter that mediate ROR{alpha} transactivation, one of which overlaps with a previously identified binding site for PPAR{alpha}. Together, these results suggest a novel mechanism whereby ROR{alpha} modulates lipid metabolism and implies ROR{alpha} as a potential target for the treatment of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis.

  3. Eye-Specific Gene Expression following Embryonic Ethanol Exposure in Zebrafish: Roles for Heat Shock Factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Bhavani; Pegorsch, Laurel; Frey, Ruth A.; Sun, Chi; Shelden, Eric A.; Stenkamp, Deborah L.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms through which ethanol exposure results in developmental defects remain unclear. We used the zebrafish model to elucidate eye-specific mechanisms that underlie ethanol-mediated microphthalmia (reduced eye size), through time-series microarray analysis of gene expression within eyes of embryos exposed to 1.5% ethanol. 62 genes were differentially expressed (DE) in ethanol-treated as compared to control eyes sampled during retinal neurogenesis (24-48 hours post-fertilization). The EDGE (extraction of differential gene expression) algorithm identified >3000 genes DE over developmental time in ethanol-exposed eyes as compared to controls. The DE lists included several genes indicating a mis-regulated cellular stress response due to ethanol exposure. Combined treatment with sub-threshold levels of ethanol and a morpholino targeting heat shock factor 1 mRNA resulted in microphthalmia, suggesting convergent molecular pathways. Thermal preconditioning partially prevented ethanol-mediated microphthalmia while maintaining Hsf-1 expression. These data suggest roles for reduced Hsf-1 in mediating microphthalmic effects of embryonic ethanol exposure. PMID:24355176

  4. Identification of novel steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1)-target genes and components of the SF-1 nuclear complex.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Tetsuya; Kawabe, Shinya; Ishikane, Shin; Imamichi, Yoshitaka; Umezawa, Akihiro; Miyamoto, Kaoru

    2015-06-15

    Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is a master regulator of adrenal and reproductive development and function. Although SF-1 was identified as a transcriptional regulator for steroid metabolic enzymes, it has been shown that SF-1 also regulates other genes that are involved in various cellular processes. Previously, we showed that introduction of SF-1 into mesenchymal stem cells resulted in the differentiation of these cells to the steroidogenic lineage. By using this method of differentiation, we performed comprehensive analyses to identify the novel SF-1-target genes and components of the SF-1 nuclear complex. Genome-wide analyses with promoter tiling array and DNA microarray identified 10 genes as novel SF-1-target genes including glutathione S-transferase A family, 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 and ferredoxin reductase. Using SF-1 immuno-affinity chromatography of nuclear proteins followed by MS/MS analysis, we identified 24 proteins including CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β as components of SF-1 nuclear complex. In this review, we will describe novel roles of the newly identified genes for steroidogenesis. PMID:25463758

  5. Mice devoid of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) show normal expression of type I interferon genes.

    PubMed Central

    Reis, L F; Ruffner, H; Stark, G; Aguet, M; Weissmann, C

    1994-01-01

    The transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) binds tightly to the interferon (IFN)-beta promoter and has been implicated in the induction of type I IFNs. We generated mice devoid of functional IRF-1 by targeted gene disruption. As reported by others, IRF-1-deficient mice showed a discrete phenotype: the CD4/CD8 ratio was increased and IFN-gamma-induced levels of macrophage iNO synthase mRNA were strongly diminished. However, type I IFN induction in vivo by virus or double-stranded RNA was unimpaired, as evidenced by serum IFN titers and IFN mRNA levels in spleen, liver and lung. There was also no impairment in the response of type I IFN-inducible genes. Therefore, IRF-1 is not essential for these processes in vivo. Images PMID:7957048

  6. Characterization of the L. manihotivorans alpha-amylase gene.

    PubMed

    Morlon-Guyot, J; Mucciolo-Roux, F; Rodriguez Sanoja, R; Guyot, J P

    2001-07-01

    Primers and probes were established from the sequences of the alpha-amylase genes (amyA) of L. amylovorus CIP 102989 and of L. plantarum A6 (Giraud and Cuny 1997). They were successfully used for the detection of the amyA gene in L. manihotivorans strain LMG 18010T and a 2842 bp region, containing the entire gene (2706 bp) with its putative promoter has been sequenced. More than 98% nucleotide sequence identities was found with L. amylovorus and L. plantarum amyA genes. The deduced amino acid sequence shares more than 96% amino acid sequence identities with L. amylovorus and L. plantarum alpha-amylases, and also 65% and 59% identities with the alpha-amylases of B. subtilis and S. bovis, respectively. The 3' terminal part of L. manihotivorans LMG 18010T amyA gene contained four repeated sequences (SRU). The amyA genes of the three lactobacilli species differed mainly in the number of SRU and in the size of the flanking regions of the SRU. PMID:11697143

  7. Chenodeoxycholic Acid Reduces Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α Protein and Its Target Genes.

    PubMed

    Moon, Yunwon; Choi, Su Mi; Chang, Soojeong; Park, Bongju; Lee, Seongyeol; Lee, Mi-Ock; Choi, Hueng-Sik; Park, Hyunsung

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated HIF-1α inhibitors under different hypoxic conditions, physiological hypoxia (5% O2) and severe hypoxia (0.1% O2). We found that chenodeoxy cholic acid (CDCA) reduced the amount of HIF-1α protein only under physiological hypoxia but not under severe hypoxia without decreasing its mRNA level. By using a proteasome inhibitor MG132 and a translation inhibitor cyclohexamide, we showed that CDCA reduced HIF-1α protein by decreasing its translation but not by enhancing its degradation. The following findings indicated that farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a CDCA receptor and its target gene, Small heterodimer partner (SHP) are not involved in this effect of CDCA. Distinctly from CDCA, MG132 prevented SHP and an exogenous FXR agonist, GW4064 from reducing HIF-1α protein. Furthermore a FXR antagonist, guggulsterone failed to prevent CDCA from decreasing HIF-1α protein. Furthermore, guggulsterone by itself reduced HIF-1α protein even in the presence of MG132. These findings suggested that CDCA and guggulsterone reduced the translation of HIF-1α in a mechanism which FXR and SHP are not involved. This study reveals novel therapeutic functions of traditional nontoxic drugs, CDCA and guggulsterone, as inhibitors of HIF-1α protein. PMID:26098428

  8. Dictyostelium ribosomal protein genes and the elongation factor 1B gene show coordinate developmental regulation which is under post-transcriptional control.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, A K; Blumberg, D D

    1999-06-01

    Starvation for amino acids initiates the developmental program in the cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum [19, 20]. One of the earliest developmental events is the decline in ribosomal protein synthesis [2, 17, 29, 30]. The ribosomal protein mRNAs are excluded from polysomes with 20 min to 1 h following the removal of nutrients, and their mRNA levels decline sharply at about 9 h into the 24-h developmental cycle [28, 31, 35, 36]. It has been generally assumed that the decline in r-protein mRNA levels during late development reflected a decline in the transcription rate [12, 32, 43]. Here we demonstrate that this is not the case. The transcription rates of three ribosomal protein genes, rpL11, rpL23 and rpS9 as well as an elongation factor 1B gene have been determined during growth and development in Dictyostelium. Throughout growth and development the transcription rate of the ribosomal protein genes remains relatively constant at 0.2%-0.5% of the rate of rRNA transcription while the elongation factor 1B gene is transcribed at 0.4%-0.6% of the rRNA rate. This low but constant transcription rate is in contrast to a spore coat protein gene Psp D, which is transcribed at 6% of the rRNA rate in late developing cells. The elongation factor 1B gene appears to be co-regulated with the ribosomal protein genes both in terms of its transcription rate and mRNA accumulation. Dictyostelium has been a popular model for understanding signal transduction and the growth to differentiation transition, thus it is of significance that the regulation of ribosome biosynthesis in Dictyostelium resembles that of higher eukaryotes in being regulated largely at the post-transcriptional level in response to starvation as opposed to yeasts where the regulation is largely transcriptional [27]. PMID:10374261

  9. Challenges and Prospects for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Joanna; Wandtke, Tomasz; Kopinski, Piotr; Chorostowska-Wynimko, Joanna

    2015-11-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is a protease inhibitor belonging to the serpin family. A number of identified mutations in the SERPINA1 gene encoding this protein result in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD). A decrease in AAT serum concentration or reduced biological activity causes considerable risk of chronic respiratory and liver disorders. As a monogenic disease, AATD appears to be an attractive target for gene therapy, particularly for patients with pulmonary dysfunction, where augmentation of functional AAT levels in plasma might slow down respiratory disease development. The short AAT coding sequence and its activity in the extracellular matrix would enable an increase in systemic serum AAT production by cellular secretion. In vitro and in vivo experimental AAT gene transfer with gamma-retroviral, lentiviral, adenoviral, and adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors has resulted in enhanced AAT serum levels and a promising safety profile. Human clinical trials using intramuscular viral transfer with AAV1 and AAV2 vectors of the AAT gene demonstrated its safety, but did not achieve a protective level of AAT >11 μM in serum. This review provides an in-depth critical analysis of current progress in AATD gene therapy based on viral gene transfer. The factors affecting transgene expression levels, such as site of administration, dose and type of vector, and activity of the immune system, are discussed further as crucial variables for optimizing the clinical effectiveness of gene therapy in AATD subjects. PMID:26413996

  10. In Vivo Therapeutic Silencing of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Alpha (HIF-1α) Using Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Noncovalently Coated with siRNA

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomeusz, Geoffrey; Cherukuri, Paul; Kingston, John; Cognet, Laurent; Lemos, Robert; Leeuw, Tonya K.; Gumbiner-Russo, Laura; Weisman, R. Bruce; Powis, Garth

    2009-01-01

    A new approach is described for delivering small interfering RNA (siRNA) into cancer cells by noncovalently complexing unmodified siRNA with pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The complexes were prepared by simple sonication of pristine SWCNTs in a solution of siRNA, which then served both as the cargo and as the suspending agent for the SWCNTs. When complexes containing siRNA targeted to hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) were added to cells growing in serum containing culture media, there was strong specific inhibition of cellular HIF-1α activity. The ability to obtain a biological response to SWCNT/siRNA complexes was seen in a wide variety of cancer cell types. Moreover, intratumoral administration of SWCNT-HIF-1α siRNA complexes in mice bearing MiaPaCa-2/HRE tumors significantly inhibited the activity of tumor HIF-1α. As elevated levels of HIF-1α are found in many human cancers and are associated with resistance to therapy and decreased patient survival, these results imply that SWCNT/siRNA complexes may have value as therapeutic agents. PMID:20052401

  11. Characterization of the 5'-flanking region of the gene for the alpha chain of human fibrinogen.

    PubMed

    Hu, C H; Harris, J E; Davie, E W; Chung, D W

    1995-11-24

    The 5'-flanking region of the gene coding for the alpha chain of human fibrinogen was isolated, sequenced, and characterized. The principal site of transcription initiation was determined by primer extension analysis and the RNase protection assay and shown to be at an adenine residue located 55 nucleotides upstream from the initiator methionine codon, or 13,399 nucleotides down-stream from the polyadenylation site of the gene coding for the gamma chain. Transient expression of constructs containing sequentially deleted 5'-flanking sequences of the alpha chain gene fused to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene showed that the promoter was liver-specific and inducible by interleukin 6 (IL-6). The shortest DNA fragment with significant promoter activity and full response to IL-6 stimulation encompassed the region from -217 to +1 base pairs (bp). Although six potential IL-6 responsive sequences homologous to the type II IL-6 responsive element were present, a single sequence of CTGGGA localized from -122 to -127 bp was shown to be a functional element in IL-6 induction. A hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 (HNF-1) binding site, present from -47 to -59 bp, in combination with other upstream elements, was essential for liver-specific expression of the gene. A functional CCAAT/enhancer binding protein site (C/EBP, -134 to -142 bp) was also identified within 217 bp from the transcription initiation site. An additional positive element (-1393 to -1133 bp) and a negative element (-1133 to -749 bp) were also found in the upstream region of the alpha-fibrinogen gene. PMID:7499335

  12. Retina-derived POU domain factor 1 coordinates expression of genes relevant to renal and neuronal development.

    PubMed

    Fiorino, Antonio; Manenti, Giacomo; Gamba, Beatrice; Bucci, Gabriele; De Cecco, Loris; Sardella, Michele; Buscemi, Giacomo; Ciceri, Sara; Radice, Maria T; Radice, Paolo; Perotti, Daniela

    2016-09-01

    Retina-derived POU domain Factor 1 (RPF-1), a member of POU transcription factor family, is encoded by POU6F2 gene, addressed by interstitial deletions at chromosome 7p14 in Wilms tumor (WT). Its expression has been detected in developing kidney and nervous system, suggesting an early role for this gene in regulating development of these organs. To investigate into its functions and determine its role in transcriptional regulation, we generated an inducible stable transfectant from HEK293 cells. RPF-1 showed nuclear localization, elevated stability, and transactivation of promoters featuring POU consensus sites, and led to reduced cell proliferation and in vivo tumor growth. By addressing the whole transcriptome regulated by its induction, we could detect a gross alteration of gene expression that is consistent with promoter occupancy predicted by genome-wide Chip-chip analysis. Comparison of bound regulatory regions with differentially expressed genes allowed identification of 217 candidate targets. Enrichment of divergent octamers in predicted regulatory regions revealed promiscuous binding to bipartite POUS and POUH consensus half-sites with intervening spacers. Gel-shift competition assay confirmed the specificity of RPF-1 binding to consensus motifs, and demonstrated that the Ser-rich region upstream of the POU domain is indispensable to achieve DNA-binding. Promoter-reporter activity addressing a few target genes indicated a dependence by RPF-1 on transcriptional response. In agreement with its expression in developing kidney and nervous system, the induced transcriptome appears to indicate a function for this protein in early renal differentiation and neuronal cell fate, providing a resource for understanding its role in the processes thereby regulated. PMID:27425396

  13. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha gene polymorphisms and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Culpan, Doris; MacGowan, Sian H; Ford, Julia M; Nicoll, James A R; Griffin, W Sue; Dewar, Deborah; Cairns, Nigel J; Hughes, Anthony; Kehoe, Patrick G; Wilcock, Gordon K

    2003-10-16

    Recent findings suggest that production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), is increased in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We used direct sequencing methods on a section of the enhancer/promoter region and on a smaller fragment located 10.5 kb upstream of the TNF-alpha gene to respectively examine TNF-alpha polymorphisms and TNF-a and -b microsatellite alleles in a cohort of 235 post-mortem confirmed AD and 130 control cases. None of the TNF-alpha point mutations or microsatellite alleles investigated proved to be independent risk factors for AD. However, when -308/A, -238/G and TNF-a2 were examined as a 2-1-2 haplotype, we observed that the absence of that haplotype was significantly associated with AD (P = 0.014, Fisher's exact test) suggesting that the 2-1-2 haplotype may be protective against AD. PMID:12962917

  14. Genetic analysis of the Drosophila Gs(alpha) gene.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfgang, W J; Hoskote, A; Roberts, I J; Jackson, S; Forte, M

    2001-01-01

    One of the best understood signal transduction pathways activated by receptors containing seven transmembrane domains involves activation of heterotrimeric G-protein complexes containing Gs(alpha), the subsequent stimulation of adenylyl cyclase, production of cAMP, activation of protein kinase A (PKA), and the phosphorylation of substrates that control a wide variety of cellular responses. Here, we report the identification of "loss-of-function" mutations in the Drosophila Gs(alpha) gene (dgs). Seven mutants have been identified that are either complemented by transgenes representing the wild-type dgs gene or contain nucleotide sequence changes resulting in the production of altered Gs(alpha) protein. Examination of mutant alleles representing loss-of-Gs(alpha) function indicates that the phenotypes generated do not mimic those created by mutational elimination of PKA. These results are consistent with the conclusion reached in previous studies that activation of PKA, at least in these developmental contexts, does not depend on receptor-mediated increases in intracellular cAMP, in contrast to the predictions of models developed primarily on the basis of studies in cultured cells. PMID:11454767

  15. Prostaglandin E2 Via Steroidogenic Factor-1 Coordinately Regulates Transcription of Steroidogenic Genes Necessary for Estrogen Synthesis in Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Attar, Erkut; Tokunaga, Hideki; Imir, Gonca; Yilmaz, M. Bertan; Redwine, David; Putman, Michael; Gurates, Bilgin; Attar, Rukset; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Hales, Dale B.; Bulun, Serdar E.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Products of at least five specific steroidogenic genes, including steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), which facilitates the entry of cytosolic cholesterol into the mitochondrion, side chain cleavage P450 enzyme, 3β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-2, 17-hydroxylase/17-20-lyase, and aromatase, which catalyzes the final step, are necessary for the conversion of cholesterol to estrogen. Expression and biological activity of StAR and aromatase were previously demonstrated in endometriosis but not in normal endometrium. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induces aromatase expression via the transcriptional factor steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1) in endometriosis, which is opposed by chicken-ovalbumin upstream-transcription factor (COUP-TF) and Wilms’ tumor-1 (WT1) in endometrium. Objective: The aim of the study was to demonstrate a complete steroidogenic pathway leading to estrogen biosynthesis in endometriotic cells and the transcriptional mechanisms that regulate basal and PGE2-stimulated estrogen production in endometriotic cells and endometrium. Results: Compared with normal endometrial tissues, mRNA levels of StAR, side chain cleavage P450, 3β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-2, 17-hydroxylase/17-20-lyase, aromatase, and SF1 were significantly higher in endometriotic tissues. PGE2 induced the expression of all steroidogenic genes; production of progesterone, estrone, and estradiol; and StAR promoter activity in endometriotic cells. Overexpression of SF1 induced, whereas COUP-TFII or WT1 suppressed, StAR promoter activity. PGE2 induced coordinate binding of SF1 to StAR and aromatase promoters but decreased COUP-TFII binding in endometriotic cells. COUP-TFII or WT1 binding to both promoters was significantly higher in endometrial compared with endometriotic cells. Conclusion: Endometriotic cells contain the full complement of steroidogenic genes for de novo synthesis of estradiol from cholesterol, which is stimulated by PGE2 via enhanced binding of SF1 to promoters

  16. Analysis of Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A and Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1alpha in Patients Operated on Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Honguero Martínez, Antonio Francisco; Arnau Obrer, Antonio; Figueroa Almánzar, Santiago; León Atance, Pablo; Guijarro Jorge, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Recent studies show that expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α) favours expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), and these biomarkers are linked to cellular proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis in different cancers. We analyze expression of HIF-1α and VEGF-A to clinicopathologic features and survival of patients operated on stage I non-small-cell lung cancer. Methodology. Prospective study of 52 patients operated on with stage I. Expression of VEGF-A and HIF-1α was performed through real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results. Mean age was 64.7 and 86.5% of patients were male. Stage IA represented 23.1% and stage IB 76.9%. Histology classification was 42.3% adenocarcinoma, 34.6% squamous cell carcinoma, and 23.1% others. Median survival was 81.0 months and 5-year survival 67.2%. There was correlation between HIF-1α and VEGF-A (P = 0.016). Patients with overexpression of HIF-1α had a tendency to better survival with marginal statistical significance (P = 0.062). Patients with overexpression of VEGF-A had worse survival, but not statistically significant (P = 0.133). Conclusion. The present study revealed that VEGF-A showed correlation with HIF-1α. HIF-1α had a tendency to protective effect with a P value close to statistical significance. VEGF-A showed a contrary effect but without statistical significance. PMID:26316946

  17. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha is required for the tumourigenic and aggressive phenotype associated with Rab25 expression in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Roman, Natividad; Sahasrabudhe, Neha Mohan; McGregor, Fiona; Chalmers, Anthony J.; Cassidy, Jim; Plumb, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The small GTPase Rab25 has been functionally linked to tumour progression and aggressiveness in ovarian cancer and promotes invasion in three-dimensional environments. This type of migration has been shown to require the expression of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α). In this report we demonstrate that Rab25 regulates HIF-1α protein expression in an oxygen independent manner in a panel of cancer cell lines. Regulation of HIF-1α protein expression by Rab25 did not require transcriptional upregulation, but was dependent on de novo protein synthesis through the Erbb2/ERK1/2 and p70S6K/mTOR pathways. Rab25 expression induced HIF-1 transcriptional activity, increased cisplatin resistance, and conferred intraperitoneal growth to the A2780 cell line in immunocompromised mice. Targeting HIF1 activity by silencing HIF-1β re-sensitised cells to cisplatin in vitro and reduced tumour formation of A2780-Rab25 expressing cells in vivo in a mouse ovarian peritoneal carcinomatosis model. Similar effects on cisplatin resistance in vitro and intraperitoneal tumourigenesis in vivo were obtained after HIF1b knockdown in the ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3, which expresses endogenous Rab25 and HIF-1α at atmospheric oxygen concentrations. Our results suggest that Rab25 tumourigenic potential and chemoresistance relies on HIF1 activity in aggressive and metastatic ovarian cancer. Targeting HIF-1 activity may potentially be effective either alone or in combination with standard chemotherapy for aggressive metastatic ovarian cancer. PMID:26967059

  18. Digoxin and ouabain induce P-glycoprotein by activating calmodulin kinase II and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Riganti, Chiara

    2009-11-01

    Digoxin and ouabain are cardioactive glycosides, which inhibit the Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase pump and in this way they increase the intracellular concentration of cytosolic calcium ([Ca{sup ++}]{sub i}). They are also strong inducers of the P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a transmembrane transporter which extrudes several drugs, including anticancer agents like doxorubicin. An increased amount of Pgp limits the absorption of drugs through epithelial cells, thus inducing resistance to chemotherapy. The mechanism by which cardioactive glycosides increase Pgp is not known and in this work we investigated whether digoxin and ouabain elicited the expression of Pgp with a calcium-driven mechanism. In human colon cancer HT29 cells both glycosides increased the [Ca{sup ++}]{sub i} and this event was dependent on the calcium influx via the Na{sup +}/Ca{sup ++} exchanger. The increased [Ca{sup ++}]{sub i} enhanced the activity of the calmodulin kinase II enzyme, which in turn activated the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha. This one was responsible for the increased expression of Pgp, which actively extruded doxorubicin from the cells and significantly reduced the pro-apoptotic effect of the drug. All the effects of glycosides were prevented by inhibiting the Na{sup +}/Ca{sup ++} exchanger or the calmodulin kinase II. This work clarified the molecular mechanisms by which digoxin and oubain induce Pgp and pointed out that the administration of cardioactive glycosides may widely affect the absorption of drugs in colon epithelia. Moreover, our results suggest that the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agent substrates of Pgp may be strongly reduced in patients taking digoxin.

  19. Activation of Dll4/Notch Signaling and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 Alpha Facilitates Lymphangiogenesis in Lacrimal Glands in Dry Eye

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yong Woo; Yeo, Areum; Noh, Hyemi; Song, Insil; Kim, Eung Kweon; Lee, Hyung Keun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose By using hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha conditional knockout (HIF-1α CKO) mice and a dry eye (DE) mouse model, we aimed to determine the role played by delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4)/Notch signaling and HIF-1α in the lymphangiogenesis of lacrimal glands (LGs). Methods C57BL/6 mice were housed in a controlled-environment chamber for DE induction. During DE induction, the expression level of Dll4/Notch signaling and lymphangiogenesis in LGs was measured by quantitative RT-PCR, immunoblot, and immunofluorescence staining. Next, lymphangiogenesis was measured after Dll4/Notch signal inhibition by anti-Dll4 antibody or γ-secretase inhibitor. Using HIF-1α CKO mice, the expression of Dll4/Notch signaling and lymphangiogenesis in LGs of DE-induced HIF-1α CKO mice were assessed. Additionally, the infiltration of CD45+ cells in LGs was assessed by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining and flow cytometry for each condition. Results DE significantly upregulated Dll4/Notch and lymphangiogenesis in LGs. Inhibition of Dll4/Notch significantly suppressed lymphangiogenesis in LGs. Compared to wild-type (WT) mice, DE induced HIF-1α CKO mice showed markedly low levels of Dll4/Notch and lymphangiogenesis. Inhibition of lymphangiogenesis by Dll4/Notch suppression resulted in increased CD45+ cell infiltration in LGs. Likewise, CD45+ cells infiltrated more in the LGs of HIF-1α CKO DE mice than in non-DE HIF-1α CKO mice. Conclusions Dll4/Notch signaling and HIF-1α are closely related to lymphangiogenesis in DE-induced LGs. Lymphangiogenesis stimulated by Dll4/Notch and HIF-1α may play a role in protecting LGs from DE-induced inflammation by aiding the clearance of immune cells from LGs. PMID:26828208

  20. Enhancement of CYP3A4 Activity in Hep G2 Cells by Lentiviral Transfection of Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-1 Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Tsai-Shin; Yang, Kai-Chiang; Chiou, Ling-Ling; Huang, Guan-Tarn; Lee, Hsuan-Shu

    2014-01-01

    Human hepatoma cell lines are commonly used as alternatives to primary hepatocytes for the study of drug metabolism in vitro. However, the phase I cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities in these cell lines occur at a much lower level than their corresponding activities in primary hepatocytes, and thus these cell lines may not accurately predict drug metabolism. In the present study, we selected hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 alpha (HNF1α) from six transcriptional regulators for lentiviral transfection into Hep G2 cells to optimally increase their expression of the CYP3A4 enzyme, which is the major CYP enzyme in the human body. We subsequently found that HNF1α-transfected Hep G2 enhanced the CYP3A4 expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner and the activity was noted to increase with time and peaked 7 days. With a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 100, CYP3A4 expression increased 19-fold and enzyme activity more than doubled at day 7. With higher MOI (1,000 to 3,000), the activity increased 8- to 10-fold; however, it was noted the higher MOI, the higher cell death rate and lower cell survival. Furthermore, the CYP3A4 activity in the HNF1α-transfected cells could be induced by CYP3A4-specific inducer, rifampicin, and metabolized nifedipine in a dose-dependent manner. With an MOI of 3,000, nifedipine-metabolizing activity was 6-fold of control and as high as 66% of primary hepatocytes. In conclusion, forceful delivery of selected transcriptional regulators into human hepatoma cells might be a valuable method to enhance the CYP activity for a more accurate determination of drug metabolism in vitro. PMID:24733486

  1. Gene Therapy for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Chiuchiolo, Maria J; Crystal, Ronald G

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, characterized by low plasma levels of the serine protease inhibitor AAT, is associated with emphysema secondary to insufficient protection of the lung from neutrophil proteases. Although AAT augmentation therapy with purified AAT protein is efficacious, it requires weekly to monthly intravenous infusion of AAT purified from pooled human plasma, has the risk of viral contamination and allergic reactions, and is costly. As an alternative, gene therapy offers the advantage of single administration, eliminating the burden of protein infusion, and reduced risks and costs. The focus of this review is to describe the various strategies for AAT gene therapy for the pulmonary manifestations of AAT deficiency and the state of the art in bringing AAT gene therapy to the bedside. PMID:27564673

  2. A novel role for 3, 4-dichloropropionanilide (DCPA) in the inhibition of prostate cancer cell migration, proliferation, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha expression

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bing-Hua; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Schafer, Rosana; Flynn, Daniel C; Barnett, John B

    2006-01-01

    Background The amide class compound, 3, 4-dichloropropionanilide (DCPA) is known to affect multiple signaling pathways in lymphocyte and macrophage including the inhibition of NF-κB ability. However, little is known about the effect of DCPA in cancer cells. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) regulates the expression of many genes including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), heme oxygenase 1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, aldolase, enolase, and lactate dehydrogenase A. HIF-1 expression is associated with tumorigenesis and angiogenesis. Methods We used Transwell assay to study cell migration, and used immunoblotting to study specific protein expression in the cells. Results In this report, we demonstrate that DCPA inhibited the migration and proliferation of DU145 and PC-3 prostate cancer cells induced by serum, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). We found that DCPA inhibited HIF-1 expression in a subunit-specific manner in these cancer cell lines induced by serum and growth factors, and decreased HIF-1α expression by affecting its protein stability. Conclusion DCPA can inhibit prostate cancer cell migration, proliferation, and HIF-1α expression, suggesting that DCPA could be potentially used for therapeutic purpose for prostate cancer in the future. PMID:16884534

  3. Human hTM. cap alpha. gene: Expression in muscle and nonmuscle tissue

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, A.R.; Gooding, C.

    1988-01-01

    The authors isolated a cDNA clone from a human skeletal muscle library which contains the complete protein-coding sequence of a skeletal muscle ..cap alpha..-tropomyosin. This cDNA sequence defines a fourth human tropomyosin gene, the hTM..cap alpha.. gene, which is distinct from the hTM/sub nm/ gene encoding a closely related isoform of skeletal muscle ..cap alpha..-tropomyosin. In cultured human fibroblasts, the hTM..cap alpha.. gene encodes both skeletal-muscle- and smooth-muscle-type ..cap alpha..-tropomyosins by using an alternative mRNA-splicing mechanism.

  4. Differentiation inducing factor-1 (DIF-1) induces gene and protein expression of the Dictyostelium nuclear calmodulin-binding protein nucleomorphin.

    PubMed

    O'Day, Danton H; Poloz, Yekaterina; Myre, Michael A

    2009-02-01

    The nucleomorphin gene numA1 from Dictyostelium codes for a multi-domain, calmodulin binding protein that regulates nuclear number. To gain insight into the regulation of numA, we assessed the effects of the stalk cell differentiation inducing factor-1 (DIF-1), an extracellular signalling molecule, on the expression of numA1 RNA and protein. For comparison, the extracellular signalling molecules cAMP (mediates chemotaxis, prestalk and prespore differentiation) and ammonia (NH(3)/NH(4)(+); antagonizes DIF) were also studied. Starvation, which is a signal for multicellular development, results in a greater than 80% decrease in numA1 mRNA expression within 4 h. Treatment with ammonium chloride led to a greater than 90% inhibition of numA1 RNA expression within 2 h. In contrast, the addition of DIF-1 completely blocked the decrease in numA1 gene expression caused by starvation. Treatment of vegetative cells with cAMP led to decreases in numA1 RNA expression that were equivalent to those seen with starvation. Western blotting after various morphogen treatments showed that the maintenance of vegetative levels of numA1 RNA by DIF-1 in starved cells was reflected in significantly increased numA1 protein levels. Treatment with cAMP and/or ammonia led to decreased protein expression and each of these morphogens suppressed the stimulatory effects of DIF-1. Protein expression levels of CBP4a, a calcium-dependent binding partner of numA1, were regulated in the same manner as numA1 suggesting this potential co-regulation may be related to their functional relationship. NumA1 is the first calmodulin binding protein shown to be regulated by developmental morphogens in Dictyostelium being upregulated by DIF-1 and down-regulated by cAMP and ammonia. PMID:19000924

  5. Kamebakaurin inhibits the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and its target genes to confer antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke Si; Ma, Juan; Mi, Chunliu; Li, Jing; Lee, Jung Joon; Jin, Xuejun

    2016-04-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), a heterodimeric transcription factor that mediates the adaptation of tumor cells and tissues to the hypoxic microenvironment, has attracted considerable interest as a potential therapeutic target. Kamebakaurin is a diterpenoid compound isolated from Isodon excia (Maxin.) Hara, which has been used for anti-inflammatory activities. However, its antitumor activity along with molecular mechanism has not been reported. Kamebakaurin showed potent inhibitory activity against HIF-1 activation induced by hypoxia or CoCl2 in various human cancer cell lines. This compound significantly decreased the hypoxia-induced accumulation of HIF-1α protein, whereas it did not affect the expression of topoisomerase-I (Topo-I). Further analysis revealed that kamebakaurin inhibited HIF-1α protein synthesis, without affecting the expression level of HIF-1α mRNA or degradation of HIF-1α protein. Furthermore, kamebakaurin prevented hypoxia-induced expression of HIF-1 target genes for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and erythropoietin (EPO). However, kamebakaurin caused cell growth inhibition via cell cycle arrest at G1 phase in tumor cells. In vivo studies, we further confirmed the inhibitory effect of kamebakaurin on the expression of HIF-1α proteins, leading to growth inhibition of HCT116 cells in a xenograft tumor model. These results show that kamebakaurin is an effective inhibitor of HIF-1 and provide new perspectives into its anticancer activity. PMID:26781327

  6. Elongation Factor 1β′ Gene from Spodoptera exigua: Characterization and Function Identification through RNA Interference

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li-Na; Qin, Zi; Wei, Ping; Guo, Hong-Shuang; Dang, Xiang-Li; Wang, Shi-Gui; Tang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Elongation factor (EF) is a key regulation factor for translation in many organisms, including plants, bacteria, fungi, animals and insects. To investigate the nature and function of elongation factor 1β′ from Spodoptera exigua (SeEF-1β′), its cDNA was cloned. This contained an open reading frame of 672 nucleotides encoding a protein of 223 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 24.04 kDa and pI of 4.53. Northern blotting revealed that SeEF-1β′ mRNA is expressed in brain, epidermis, fat body, midgut, Malpighian tubules, ovary and tracheae. RT-PCR revealed that SeEF-1β′ mRNA is expressed at different levels in fat body and whole body during different developmental stages. In RNAi experiments, the survival rate of insects injected with SeEF-1β′ dsRNA was 58.7% at 36 h after injection, which was significantly lower than three control groups. Other elongation factors and transcription factors were also influenced when EF-1β′ was suppressed. The results demonstrate that SeEF-1β′ is a key gene in transcription in S. exigua. PMID:22942694

  7. Gene Regulatory Network Inference of Immunoresponsive Gene 1 (IRG1) Identifies Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 (IRF1) as Its Transcriptional Regulator in Mammalian Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Tallam, Aravind; Perumal, Thaneer M.; Antony, Paul M.; Jäger, Christian; Fritz, Joëlle V.; Vallar, Laurent; Balling, Rudi; del Sol, Antonio; Michelucci, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Immunoresponsive gene 1 (IRG1) is one of the highest induced genes in macrophages under pro-inflammatory conditions. Its function has been recently described: it codes for immune-responsive gene 1 protein/cis-aconitic acid decarboxylase (IRG1/CAD), an enzyme catalysing the production of itaconic acid from cis-aconitic acid, a tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate. Itaconic acid possesses specific antimicrobial properties inhibiting isocitrate lyase, the first enzyme of the glyoxylate shunt, an anaplerotic pathway that bypasses the TCA cycle and enables bacteria to survive on limited carbon conditions. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying itaconic acid production through IRG1 induction in macrophages, we examined the transcriptional regulation of IRG1. To this end, we studied IRG1 expression in human immune cells under different inflammatory stimuli, such as TNFα and IFNγ, in addition to lipopolysaccharides. Under these conditions, as previously shown in mouse macrophages, IRG1/CAD accumulates in mitochondria. Furthermore, using literature information and transcription factor prediction models, we re-constructed raw gene regulatory networks (GRNs) for IRG1 in mouse and human macrophages. We further implemented a contextualization algorithm that relies on genome-wide gene expression data to infer putative cell type-specific gene regulatory interactions in mouse and human macrophages, which allowed us to predict potential transcriptional regulators of IRG1. Among the computationally identified regulators, siRNA-mediated gene silencing of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) in macrophages significantly decreased the expression of IRG1/CAD at the gene and protein level, which correlated with a reduced production of itaconic acid. Using a synergistic approach of both computational and experimental methods, we here shed more light on the transcriptional machinery of IRG1 expression and could pave the way to therapeutic approaches targeting itaconic acid levels

  8. Gene Regulatory Network Inference of Immunoresponsive Gene 1 (IRG1) Identifies Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 (IRF1) as Its Transcriptional Regulator in Mammalian Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tallam, Aravind; Perumal, Thaneer M; Antony, Paul M; Jäger, Christian; Fritz, Joëlle V; Vallar, Laurent; Balling, Rudi; Del Sol, Antonio; Michelucci, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Immunoresponsive gene 1 (IRG1) is one of the highest induced genes in macrophages under pro-inflammatory conditions. Its function has been recently described: it codes for immune-responsive gene 1 protein/cis-aconitic acid decarboxylase (IRG1/CAD), an enzyme catalysing the production of itaconic acid from cis-aconitic acid, a tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate. Itaconic acid possesses specific antimicrobial properties inhibiting isocitrate lyase, the first enzyme of the glyoxylate shunt, an anaplerotic pathway that bypasses the TCA cycle and enables bacteria to survive on limited carbon conditions. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying itaconic acid production through IRG1 induction in macrophages, we examined the transcriptional regulation of IRG1. To this end, we studied IRG1 expression in human immune cells under different inflammatory stimuli, such as TNFα and IFNγ, in addition to lipopolysaccharides. Under these conditions, as previously shown in mouse macrophages, IRG1/CAD accumulates in mitochondria. Furthermore, using literature information and transcription factor prediction models, we re-constructed raw gene regulatory networks (GRNs) for IRG1 in mouse and human macrophages. We further implemented a contextualization algorithm that relies on genome-wide gene expression data to infer putative cell type-specific gene regulatory interactions in mouse and human macrophages, which allowed us to predict potential transcriptional regulators of IRG1. Among the computationally identified regulators, siRNA-mediated gene silencing of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) in macrophages significantly decreased the expression of IRG1/CAD at the gene and protein level, which correlated with a reduced production of itaconic acid. Using a synergistic approach of both computational and experimental methods, we here shed more light on the transcriptional machinery of IRG1 expression and could pave the way to therapeutic approaches targeting itaconic acid levels

  9. The human HLA class II alpha chain gene DZ alpha is distinct from genes in the DP, DQ and DR subregions.

    PubMed Central

    Trowsdale, J; Kelly, A

    1985-01-01

    A new human HLA class II alpha gene DZ alpha was sequenced. The structure and organisation of the gene was similar to other alpha chain genes except for a particularly small intron (95 bp) after the exon encoding the alpha 2 domain, and the position of the stop codon, which was on a different exon to that encoding the cytoplasmic portion of the molecule. Comparison of the DZ alpha sequence with other class II genes showed that the gene is about as distantly related to alpha chain genes in the DP, DQ and DR subregions as they are to each other. The DZ alpha gene results in an unusually large mRNA transcript of greater than 3.0 kb, detected on Northern blots of B cell lines. From the sequence, there are no obvious features that would render DZ alpha a pseudogene, except for an unusual poly(A)+ addition signal, ACTAAA. Analysis of Northern blots shows that sequences downstream (3') of this signal are present in mature mRNA. The large transcripts are probably due to defects in the signals for processing of the mRNA transcript at the 3' end. Images Fig. 4. PMID:3000765

  10. Association of tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-alpha)gene promoter polymorphisms with TNF-alpha response to endotoxin (LPS)in calves.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Attenuation of TNF-alpha gene expression is a NF-'B-mediated regulatory process essential to avoid deleterious effects of excessive or prolonged synthesis of TNF-alpha, especially in response to gram-negative bacterial infection or LPS. An uncommon G to A transition polymorphism in the promoter regi...

  11. Modulation of gene expression by alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl phosphate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The naturally occurring vitamin E analogue, alpha-tocopheryl phosphate (alphaTP), has been reported to be more potent in reducing cell proliferation and the expression of the CD36 scavenger receptor than the un-phosphorylated alpha-tocopherol (alpha T). We have now assessed the effects of alpha T an...

  12. cap alpha. -skeletal and. cap alpha. -cardiac actin genes are coexpressed in adult human skeletal muscle and heart

    SciTech Connect

    Gunning, P.; Ponte, P.; Blau, H.; Kedes, L.

    1983-11-01

    The authors determined the actin isotypes encoded by 30 actin cDNA clones previously isolated from an adult human muscle cDNA library. Using 3' untranslated region probes, derived from ..cap alpha.. skeletal, ..beta..- and ..gamma..-actin cDNAs and from an ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin genomic clone, they showed that 28 of the cDNAs correspond to ..cap alpha..-skeletal actin transcripts. Unexpectedly, however, the remaining two cDNA clones proved to derive from ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin mRNA. Sequence analysis confirmed that the two skeletal muscle ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin cDNAs are derived from transcripts of the cloned ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin gene. Comparison of total actin mRNA levels in adult skeletal muscle and adult heart revealed that the steady-state levels in skeletal muscle are about twofold greater, per microgram of total cellular RNA, than those in heart. Thus, in skeletal muscle and in heart, both of the sarcomeric actin mRNA isotypes are quite abundant transcripts. They conclude that ..cap alpha..-skeletal and ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin genes are coexpressed as an actin pair in human adult striated muscles. Since the smooth-muscle actins (aortic and stomach) and the cytoplasmic actins (..beta.. and ..gamma..) are known to be coexpressed in smooth muscle and nonmuscle cells, respectively, they postulate that coexpression of actin pairs may be a common feature of mammalian actin gene expression in all tissues.

  13. Radioprotective effect on HepG2 cells of low concentrations of cobalt chloride: induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha and clearance of reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Wensen; Wang, Juan; Xu, Shiguo; Xiao, Linlin; Chen, Guangfu; Zhang, Wukui; Li, Jun

    2013-01-01

    It has been found that low doses of certain toxicants might generate a protective response to cellular damage. Previous data have shown that elevated doses of cobalt (Co) induce injury to cells and organisms or result in radiological combined toxicity. Whether low doses of Co generate a protective effect or not, however, remains controversial. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of action of low dose cobalt chloride (CoCl2, 100 μM) on the viability of irradiated cells. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay was used to observe the radio-sensitivity of HepG2 cells under different pretreatments. The alteration of intracellular DNA damage was further measured using micronucleus (MN) assay. Levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression and its target gene, EPO, were monitored by western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content was determined by 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) probe staining. Our results show that low dose CoCl2does not influence HepG2 cell viability, but induces the expression of HIF-1α, followed by increased radio-resistance. Additionally, cells treated with HIF-1α siRNA retained a partial refractory response to irradiation concomitant with a marked reduction in intracellular ROS. The change of MN further indicated that the reduction of DNA damage was confirmed with the alteration of ROS. Our results demonstrate that low dose CoCl2may protect cells against irradiative harm by two mechanisms, namely HIF-1α expression and ROS clearance. PMID:23065176

  14. Polymorphisms in the kinesin-like factor 1 B gene and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in Eastern Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ting-Yan; Jiang, Zhi; Jiang, Rong; Yin, Sheng; Wang, Meng-Yun; Yu, Ke-Da; Shao, Zhi-Ming; Sun, Meng-Hong; Zang, Rongyu; Wei, Qingyi

    2015-09-01

    The kinesin-like factor 1 B (KIF1B) gene plays an important role in the process of apoptosis and the transformation and progression of malignant cells. Genetic variations in KIF1B may contribute to risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). In this study of 1,324 EOC patients and 1,386 cancer-free female controls, we investigated associations between two potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in KIF1B and EOC risk by the conditional logistic regression analysis. General linear regression model was used to evaluate the correlation between the number of variant alleles and KIF1B mRNA expression levels. We found that the rs17401966 variant AG/GG genotypes were significantly associated with a decreased risk of EOC (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.81, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.68-0.97), compared with the AA genotype, but no associations were observed for rs1002076. Women who carried both rs17401966 AG/GG and rs1002076 AG/AA genotypes of KIF1B had a 0.82-fold decreased risk (adjusted 95 % CI = 0.69-0.97), compared with others. Additionally, there was no evidence of possible interactions between about-mentioned co-variants. Further genotype-phenotype correlation analysis indicated that the number of rs17401966 variant G allele was significantly associated with KIF1B mRNA expression levels (P for GLM = 0.003 and 0.001 in all and Chinese subjects, respectively), with GG carriers having the lowest level of KIF1B mRNA expression. Taken together, the rs17401966 polymorphism likely regulates KIF1B mRNA expression and thus may be associated with EOC risk in Eastern Chinese women. Larger, independent studies are warranted to validate our findings. PMID:25854172

  15. The mutated human gene encoding hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β inhibits kidney formation in developing Xenopus embryos

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Wiltrud; Pogge von Strandmann, Elke; Nastos, Aristotelis; Senkel, Sabine; Lingott-Frieg, Anja; Bulman, Michael; Bingham, Coralie; Ellard, Sian; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Ryffel, Gerhart U.

    2000-01-01

    The transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β (HNF1β) is a tissue-specific regulator that also plays an essential role in early development of vertebrates. In humans, four heterozygous mutations in the HNF1β gene have been identified that lead to early onset of diabetes and severe primary renal defects. The degree and type of renal defects seem to depend on the specific mutation. We show that the frameshift mutant P328L329fsdelCCTCT associated with nephron agenesis retains its DNA-binding properties and acts as a gain-of-function mutation with increased transactivation potential in transfection experiments. Expression of this mutated factor in the Xenopus embryo leads to defective development and agenesis of the pronephros, the first kidney form of amphibians. Very similar defects are generated by overexpressing in Xenopus the wild-type HNF1β, which is consistent with the gain-of-function property of the mutant. In contrast, introduction of the human HNF1β mutant R137-K161del, which is associated with a reduced number of nephrons with hypertrophy of the remaining ones and which has an impaired DNA binding, shows only a minor effect on pronephros development in Xenopus. Thus, the overexpression of both human mutants has a different effect on renal development in Xenopus, reflecting the variation in renal phenotype seen with these mutations. We conclude that mutations in human HNF1β can be functionally characterized in Xenopus. Our findings imply that HNF1β not only is an early marker of kidney development but also is functionally involved in morphogenetic events, and these processes can be investigated in lower vertebrates. PMID:10758154

  16. Polymorphism in the interferon-alpha gene family.

    PubMed Central

    Golovleva, I.; Kandefer-Szerszen, M.; Beckman, L.; Lundgren, E.

    1996-01-01

    A pronounced genetic polymorphism of the interferon type I gene family has been assumed on the basis of RFLP analysis of the genomic region as well as the large number of sequences published compared to the number of loci. However, IFNA2 is the only locus that has been carefully analyzed concerning gene frequency, and only naturally occurring rare alleles have been found. We have extended the studies on a variation of expressed sequences by studying the IFNA1, IFNA2, IFNA10, IFNA13, IFNA14, and IFNA17 genes. Genomic white-blood-cell DNA from a population sample of blood donors and from a family material were screened by single-nucleotide primer extension (allele-specific primer extension) of PCR fragments. Because of sequence similarities, in some cases "nested" PCR was used, and, when applicable, restriction analysis or control sequencing was performed. All individuals carried the interferon-alpha 1 and interferon-alpha 13 variants but not the LeIF D variant. At the IFNA2 and IFNA14 loci only one sequence variant was found, while in the IFNA10 and IFNA17 groups two alleles were detected in each group. The IFNA10 and IFNA17 alleles segregated in families and showed a close fit to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There was a significant linkage disequilibrium between IFNA10 and IFNA17 alleles. The fact that the extent of genetic polymorphism was lower than expected suggests that a majority of the previously described gene sequences represent nonpolymorphic rare mutants that may have arisen in tumor cell lines. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8751858

  17. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 mediates hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte lipid accumulation by reducing the DNA binding activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha}/retinoid X receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Belanger, Adam J.; Luo Zhengyu; Vincent, Karen A.; Akita, Geoffrey Y.; Cheng, Seng H.; Gregory, Richard J.; Jiang Canwen

    2007-12-21

    In response to cellular hypoxia, cardiomyocytes adapt to consume less oxygen by shifting ATP production from mitochondrial fatty acid {beta}-oxidation to glycolysis. The transcriptional activation of glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes by hypoxia is mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). In this study, we examined whether HIF-1 was involved in the suppression of mitochondrial fatty acid {beta}-oxidation in hypoxic cardiomyocytes. We showed that either hypoxia or adenovirus-mediated expression of a constitutively stable hybrid form (HIF-1{alpha}/VP16) suppressed mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism, as indicated by an accumulation of intracellular neutral lipid. Both treatments also reduced the mRNA levels of muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase I which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the mitochondrial import of fatty acids for {beta}-oxidation. Furthermore, adenovirus-mediated expression of HIF-1{alpha}/VP16 in cardiomyocytes under normoxic conditions also mimicked the reduction in the DNA binding activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha})/retinoid X receptor (RXR), in the presence or absence of a PPAR{alpha} ligand. These results suggest that HIF-1 may be involved in hypoxia-induced suppression of fatty acid metabolism in cardiomyocytes by reducing the DNA binding activity of PPAR{alpha}/RXR.

  18. Non random usage of T cell receptor alpha gene expression in atopy using anchored PCR.

    PubMed

    Mansur, A H; Gelder, C M; Holland, D; Campell, D A; Griffin, A; Cunliffe, W; Markham, A F; Morrison, J F

    1996-01-01

    The T cell receptor (TCR) alpha beta heterodimer recognises antigenic peptide fragments presented by Class II MHC. This interaction initiates T cell activation and cytokine release with subsequent recruitment of inflammatory cells. Previous work from our group suggests a qualitative difference in variable alpha gene expression in atopy as compared to non atopic controls. In this study we examine TCR alpha repertoire using anchored PCR to provide a quantitative assessment of the V alpha and J alpha repertoire. One atopic (DRB1*0701,DRB1*15: DRB4*0101, DRB5*01: DQB1* 0303, DQB1*601/2) and one non-atopic (DRB1*0701,DRB1*03011/2: DRB4*01, DRB3*0x: DQB1* 0303, DQB1*0201/2) control were studied. Variable gene usage was markedly limited in the atopic individual. V alpha 1, 3, 8 accounted for 60% and J alpha 12, 31 30% of the gene usage. There was evidence of preferential V alpha-J alpha gene pairing and clonal expansion. We conclude that there is a marked non random TCR alpha gene distribution in atopy using both V alpha family and anchored PCR. This may be due in part to antigen driven clonal expansion. PMID:9095269

  19. The human alpha 2(IV) collagen gene, COL4A2, is syntenic with the alpha 1(IV) gene, COL4A1, on chromosome 13.

    PubMed

    Solomon, E; Hall, V; Kurkinen, M

    1987-05-01

    We have previously assigned the gene for the alpha 1 chain of type IV collagen to chromosome 13. In this report we show that the gene coding for the second chain of this heterotrimer is on the same chromosome. This is the first example of the genes for both chains of one collagen molecule being syntenic. PMID:3674752

  20. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits albumin gene expression in a murine model of cachexia.

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, D A; Buck, M; Feitelberg, S P; Chojkier, M

    1990-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for decreased serum albumin levels in patients with cachexia-associated infection, inflammation, and cancer are unknown. Since tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) is elevated in cachexia-associated diseases, and chronic administration of TNF alpha induces cachexia in animal models, we assessed the regulation of albumin gene expression by TNF alpha in vivo. In this animal model of cachexia, Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with the functional gene for human TNF alpha were inoculated into nude mice (TNF alpha mice). TNF alpha mice became cachectic and manifested decreased serum albumin levels, albumin synthesis, and albumin mRNA levels. However, even before the TNF alpha mice lost weight, their albumin mRNA steady-state levels were decreased approximately 90%, and in situ hybridization revealed a low level of albumin gene expression throughout the hepatic lobule. The mRNA levels of several other genes were unchanged. Hepatic nuclei from TNF alpha mice before the onset of weight loss were markedly less active in transcribing the albumin gene than hepatic nuclei from control mice. Therefore, TNF alpha selectively inhibits the genetic expression of albumin in this model before weight loss. Images PMID:2295699

  1. Sequence heterogeneity and differential expression of the alpha-Amy2 gene family in wheat.

    PubMed

    Huttly, A K; Martienssen, R A; Baulcombe, D C

    1988-10-01

    The alpha-Amy2 genes of wheat are a multigene family which is expressed in the aleurone cells of germinating grain under control of the plant hormone gibberellin. A subset of the genes are also expressed in developing grain. Comparison of five genomic clones containing alpha-Amy2 genes, using DNA sequence analysis and Southern hybridisation, showed that the extent of similarity between genes differed. Two of the most heterogeneous genes compared were located to the same group 7 chromosome while the most similar genes alpha-Amy2/54 and alpha-Amy2/8 were located to different ones; hence sequence variation could not be correlated to the ancestry of the alpha-Amy2 genes during the separate existence of the constituent genomes of hexaploid wheat. Expression of the cloned genes was measured using an S1 nuclease protection assay and this identified alpha-Amy2/54 and alpha-Amy2/8 as part of the subset of alpha-Amy2 genes expressed in both the developing grain and in aleurone cells. Comparison of the 5' upstream regions of all five genes showed high similarity, with the exception of one gene, up to -280 nucleotides from the transcriptional start, while similarity between alpha-Amy2/54 and alpha-Amy2/8 extended a further 90 bp upstream of this point. It is suggested that regulatory elements responsible for tissue specificity and gibberellin regulation may be located within these regions of similarity. PMID:2467183

  2. Partial activation of gene activity and chromatin remodeling of the human 14q32.1 serpin gene cluster by HNF-1 alpha and HNF-4 in fibroblast microcell hybrids.

    PubMed

    Rollini, P; Xu, L; Fournier, R E

    1999-07-01

    The genes encoding alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT, gene symbol P I) and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) are part of a cluster of serine protease inhibitor (serpin) genes on human chromosome 14q32.1. Both genes are highly expressed in the liver and in cultured hepatoma cells, and the approximately 100-kb region around these genes contains an extensive array of expression-associated DNase I-hypersensitive sites (DHSs). Activation of human alpha 1AT and CBG transcription occurred when human chromosome 14 was transferred from nonexpressing cells to rat hepatoma cells. This activation event was accompanied by long-range chromatin reorganization of the entire region and the de novo formation of 17 expression-associated DHSs. Both gene activation and chromatin remodeling in hepatic cells required the liver-enriched transactivators hepatocyte nuclear factors-1 alpha and -4 (HNF-1 alpha and HNF-4). In this study, we tested whether ectopic expression of HNF-1 alpha and HNF-4 in nonexpressing cells could activate alpha 1AT and/or CBG transcription, and we monitored the chromatin structure of the locus in stably transfected fibroblasts. We report that both alpha 1AT and CBG mRNAs were expressed in fibroblast transfectants that stably expressed HNF-1 alpha and HNF-4, but expression was only approximately 1-10% of that observed in hepatic cells. Gene activation in these cells was accompanied by partial chromatin remodeling, as 6 of 17 expression-associated DHSs were formed. The potential implications of these results are discussed. PMID:11586788

  3. Immunohistochemical detection of osteopontin in advanced head-and-neck cancer: Prognostic role and correlation with oxygen electrode measurements, hypoxia-inducible-factor-1{alpha}-related markers, and hemoglobin levels

    SciTech Connect

    Bache, Matthias; Reddemann, Rolf; Said, Harun M.; Holzhausen, Hans-Juergen; Taubert, Helge; Becker, Axel; Kuhnt, Thomas; Haensgen, Gabriele; Dunst, Juergen; Vordermark, Dirk . E-mail: vordermark_d@klinik.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2006-12-01

    Purpose: The tumor-associated glycoprotein osteopontin (OPN) is discussed as a plasma marker of tumor hypoxia. However, the association of immunohistochemical OPN expression in tumor sections with tumor oxygenation parameters (HF5, median pO{sub 2}), the hypoxia-related markers hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), or hemoglobin and systemic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels has not been investigated. Methods and Materials: Tumor tissue sections of 34 patients with advanced head-and-neck cancer treated with radiotherapy were assessed by immunochemistry for the expression of OPN, HIF-1{alpha}, and CA IX. Relationship of OPN expression with tumor oxygenation parameters (HF5, median pO{sub 2}), HIF-1{alpha} and CA IX expression, hemoglobin and serum VEGF level, and clinical parameters was studied. Results: Bivariate analysis showed a significant correlation of positive OPN staining with low hemoglobin level (p = 0.02), high HIF-1{alpha} expression (p = 0.02), and high serum vascular endothelial growth factor level (p = 0.02) for advanced head-and-neck cancer. Furthermore, considering the 31 Stage IV patients, the median pO{sub 2} correlated significantly with the OPN expression (p = 0.02). OPN expression alone had only a small impact on prognosis. However, in a univariate Cox proportional hazard regression model, the expression of either OPN or HIF-1{alpha} or CA IX was associated with a 4.1-fold increased risk of death (p = 0.02) compared with negativity of all three markers. Conclusion: Osteopontin expression detected immunohistochemically is associated with oxygenation parameters in advanced head-and-neck cancer. When the results of OPN, HIF-1{alpha}, and CA IX immunohistochemistry are combined into a hypoxic profile, a strong and statistically significant impact on overall survival is found.

  4. Vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α gene polymorphisms and coronary collateral formation in patients with coronary chronic total occlusions

    PubMed Central

    Amoah, Vincent; Wrigley, Benjamin; Holroyd, Eric; Smallwood, Andrew; Armesilla, Angel L; Nevill, Alan; Cotton, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluated the association between two single nucleotide polymorphisms of the vascular endothelial growth factor gene and one of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α gene and the degree of coronary collateral formation in patients with a coronary chronic total occlusion. Methods: Totally, 98 patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease and a chronic total occlusion observed during coronary angiography were recruited. Genotyping of two vascular endothelial growth factor promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (−152G>A and −165C>T) and the C1772T single nucleotide polymorphism of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α were performed using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The presence and extent of collateral vessel filling was scored by blinded observers using the Rentrop grade. Results: We found no association between the vascular endothelial growth factor −152G>A, −165C>T and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α −1772C>T with the presence and filling of coronary collateral vessels. A history of percutaneous coronary intervention and transient ischaemic attack/cerebrovascular accident were associated with the presence of enhanced collateral vessel formation following binary logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: The study findings suggest that coronary collateral formation is not associated with the tested polymorphic variants of vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease and the presence of a chronic total occlusion. PMID:27621802

  5. Lactation is disrupted by alpha-lactalbumin deficiency and can be restored by human alpha-lactalbumin gene replacement in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, A; Schnieke, A; Kerr, M; Scott, A; McKee, C; Cottingham, I; Binas, B; Wilde, C; Colman, A

    1995-01-01

    Mice carrying either a deletion of the murine alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-lac) gene (null allele) or its replacement by the human alpha-lac gene (humanized allele) have been generated by gene targeting. Homozygous null females are alpha-lac-deficient, produce reduced amounts of thickened milk containing little or no lactose, and cannot sustain their offspring. This provides definitive evidence that alpha-lac is required for lactose synthesis and that lactose is important for milk production. Females homozygous for the humanized allele lactate normally, indicating that human alpha-lac can replace murine alpha-lac. Mouse and human alpha-lac expression was compared in mice heterozygous for the humanized allele. The human gene expressed approximately 15-fold greater mRNA and approximately 14-fold greater protein than the mouse, indicating that the major determinants of human alpha-lac expression are close to, or within, the human gene and that the mouse locus does not exert a negative influence on alpha-lac expression. Variations in alpha-lac expression levels in nondeficient mice did not affect milk lactose concentration, but the volume of milk increased slightly in mice homozygous for the humanized allele. These variations demonstrated that alpha-lac expression in mice is gene dosage dependent. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7708733

  6. The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}7 subunit gene: Cloning, mapping, structure, and targeting in mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Orr-Urtreger, A.; Baldini, A.; Beaudet, A.L.

    1994-09-01

    The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}7 subunit is a member of a family of ligand-gated ion channels, and is the only subunit know to bind {alpha}-bungarotoxin in mammalian brain. {alpha}-Bungarotoxin binding sites are known to be more abundant in the hippocampus of mouse strains that are particularly sensitive to nicotine-induced seizures. The {alpha}7 receptor is highly permeable to calcium, which could suggest a role in synaptic plasticity in the nervous system. Auditory gating deficiency, an abnormal response to a second auditory stimulus, is characteristic of schizophrenia. Mouse strains that exhibit a similar gating deficit have reduced hippocampal expression of the {alpha}7 subunit. We have cloned and sequenced the full length cDNA for the mouse {alpha}7 gene (Acra-7) and characterized its gene structure. The murine {alpha}7 shares amino acid identity of 99% and 93% with the rat and human {alpha}7 subunits, respectively. Using an interspecies backcross panel, the murine gene was mapped to chromosome 7 near the p locus, a region syntenic with human chromosome 15; the human gene (CHRNA7) was confirmed to map to 15q13-q14 by FISH. To generate a mouse {alpha}7 mutant by homologous recombination, we have constructed a replacement vector which will delete transmembrane domains II-IV and the cytoplasmic domain from the gene product. Recombinant embryonic stem (ES) cell clones were selected and used to develop mouse chimeras that are currently being bred to obtain germline transmission.

  7. Methylation impact analysis of erythropoietin (EPO) Gene to hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) activity.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Firli Rahmah Primula; Fatchiyah, Fatchiyah

    2013-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone that play a role as key regulator in the production of red blood cells. The promoter region of EPO is methylated in normoxic (non-hypoxia) condition, but not in hypoxic condition. Methylation of the EPO enhancer region decline the transcription activity of EPO gene. The aim of this study is to investigate how different methylation percentage affected on the regulation and transcriptional activity of EPO gene. The DNA sequence of erythropoietin gene and protein sequence was retrieved from the sequence database of NCBI. DNA structure was constructed using 3D-DART web server and modeling structure of HIF1 predicted using SWISS-MODEL web server. Methylated DNA sequence of EPO gene using performed with YASARA View software and docking of EPO gene and transcription factor HIF1 analyzed by using HADDOCK webserver. Our result showed that binding energy in 46% methylated DNA was higher (-161,45 kcal/mol) than in unmethylated DNA (-194,16 kcal/mol) and 8% methylated DNA (-175,94 kcal/mol). So, we presume that a silencing mechanism of the Epo gene by methylation is correlated with the binding energy, which is required for interaction. A higher methylation percentage correlates with a higher binding energy which can cause an unstable interaction between DNA and transcription factor. In conclution, methylation of promoter and enhancer region of Epo gene leads to silencing. PMID:24023421

  8. AMPK activation represses the human gene promoter of the cardiac isoform of acetyl-CoA carboxylase: Role of nuclear respiratory factor-1

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, Tasneem; Opie, Lionel H.; Essop, M. Faadiel

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} AMPK inhibits acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta gene promoter activity. {yields} Nuclear respiratory factor-1 inhibits acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta promoter activity. {yields} AMPK regulates acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta at transcriptional level. -- Abstract: The cardiac-enriched isoform of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC{beta}) produces malonyl-CoA, a potent inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1. AMPK inhibits ACC{beta} activity, lowering malonyl-CoA levels and promoting mitochondrial fatty acid {beta}-oxidation. Previously, AMPK increased promoter binding of nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), a pivotal transcriptional modulator controlling gene expression of mitochondrial proteins. We therefore hypothesized that NRF-1 inhibits myocardial ACC{beta} promoter activity via AMPK activation. A human ACC{beta} promoter-luciferase construct was transiently transfected into neonatal cardiomyocytes {+-} a NRF-1 expression construct. NRF-1 overexpression decreased ACC{beta} gene promoter activity by 71 {+-} 4.6% (p < 0.001 vs. control). Transfections with 5'-end serial promoter deletions revealed that NRF-1-mediated repression of ACC{beta} was abolished with a pPII{beta}-18/+65-Luc deletion construct. AMPK activation dose-dependently reduced ACC{beta} promoter activity, while NRF-1 addition did not further decrease it. We also investigated NRF-1 inhibition in the presence of upstream stimulatory factor 1 (USF1), a known transactivator of the human ACC{beta} gene promoter. Here NRF-1 blunted USF1-dependent induction of ACC{beta} promoter activity by 58 {+-} 7.5% (p < 0.001 vs. control), reversed with a dominant negative NRF-1 construct. NRF-1 also suppressed endogenous USF1 transcriptional activity by 55 {+-} 6.2% (p < 0.001 vs. control). This study demonstrates that NRF-1 is a novel transcriptional inhibitor of the human ACC{beta} gene promoter in the mammalian heart. Our data extends AMPK regulation of ACC{beta} to the transcriptional level.

  9. Transcriptional regulation of human retinoic acid receptor-alpha (RAR-{alpha}) by Wilms` tumour gene product

    SciTech Connect

    Goodyer, P.R.; Torban, E.; Dehbi, M.

    1994-09-01

    The Wilms` tumor gene encodes a 47-49 kDa transcription factor expressed in kidney, gonads and mesothelium during embryogenesis. Inherited mutations of WT1 lead to aberrant urogenital development and Wilms` tumor, but the role of WT1 in development is not fully understood. Since the human RAR-{alpha} gene contains a potential WT1 binding site at its 5{prime} end, we studied the effect of WT1 co-transfection on expression of an RAR-{alpha} promoter/CAT reporter construct in COS cells. COS cells were plated at 5X10{sup 5} cells/dish in DMEM with 10% FBS and transfected by the Ca/PO4 method with an expression plasmid containing the full-length WT1 (-/-) cDNA under the control of the CMV promoter, plasmid containing the RAR-{alpha} promoter (-519 to +36)/CAT reporter and TK/growth hormone plasmid to control for efficiency of transfection. CAT/GH activity at 48 hours was inhibited by co-transfection with increasing amounts of WT1 (-/-); maximum inhibition = 5% of control. WT1 co-transfection did not affect expression of TKGH, nor of a CMV-CAT vector. Expression of WT1 protein in tranfected COS cells was demonstrated by Western blotting. Minimal inhibiton of RAR-{alpha}/CAT activity was seen when cells were co-transfected with vectors containing WT1 deletion mutants, alternate WT1 splicing variants, or WT1 (-/-) cDNA bearing a mutation identified in a patient with Drash syndrome. Gel shift assays indicated binding of WT1 to RAR-{alpha} cDNA but not to an RAR-{alpha} deletion mutant lacking the GCGGGGGGCG site. These observations suggest that WT1 may function to regulate RAR-{alpha} expression during normal development.

  10. Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} modulates the expression of adipogenesis-related genes during adipocyte differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ijichi, Nobuhiro; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Yagi, Ken; Okazaki, Yasushi; Inoue, Satoshi . E-mail: INOUE-GER@h.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2007-07-06

    Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} (ERR{alpha}) is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates cellular energy metabolism by modulating gene expression involved in fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in brown adipose tissue. However, the physiological role of ERR{alpha} in adipogenesis and white adipose tissue development has not been well studied. Here, we show that ERR{alpha} and ERR{alpha}-related transcriptional coactivators, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) and PGC-1{beta}, can be up-regulated in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes at mRNA levels under the adipogenic differentiation condition including the inducer of cAMP, glucocorticoid, and insulin. Gene knockdown by ERR{alpha}-specific siRNA results in mRNA down-regulation of fatty acid binding protein 4, PPAR{gamma}, and PGC-1{alpha} in 3T3-L1 cells in the adipogenesis medium. ERR{alpha} and PGC-1{beta} mRNA expression can be also up-regulated in another preadipocyte lineage DFAT-D1 cells and a pluripotent mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2 under the differentiation condition. Furthermore, stable expression of ERR{alpha} in 3T3-L1 cells up-regulates adipogenic marker genes and promotes triglyceride accumulation during 3T3-L1 differentiation. These results suggest that ERR{alpha} may play a critical role in adipocyte differentiation by modulating the expression of various adipogenesis-related genes.

  11. SNAIL gene inhibited by hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengnan; Liu, Yanmei; Feng, Youji; Gao, Shujun

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between HIF-1α and SNAIL gene expression in the epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cell line. EOC cells were treated with hypoxia, hypoxia combined with rapamycin, and control. The expression of HIF-1α and E-cad were assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting. The gene expression of SNAIL was studied by RT-PCR and real-time PCR. RNA interference technology was used to determine the relationship between HIF-1α and SNAIL. The present study indicated that the HIF-1α protein was expressed and increased in EOC cell line. SNAIL mRNA was found to increase and E-cad expression decreased with the time of hypoxia prolonged. Hypoxia increased invasion abilities of EOC cell line, but compared with cells exposed to hypoxia, the change of invasive ability of cells with rapamycin had no effect. The expression of HIF-1α protein and SNAIL mRNA could be inhibited gradually by rapamycin. siRNA of HIF-1α could suppress the expression of SNAIL while siRNA of SNAIL had no influence on HIF-1α protein expression. HIF-1α may be the upstream of the SNAIL gene in EOC. Our data suggested that HIF-1α might be an upregulator of the SNAIL gene and HIF-1α-SNAIL-E-cad pathway may play an important role in EOC invasion and metastasis. PMID:27044634

  12. Insulin-like growth factor-1- and interleukin-6-related gene variation and risk of multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Birmann, Brenda M.; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Giovannucci, Edward; Rosner, Bernard; Hunter, David J.; Kraft, Peter; Mitsiades, Constantine; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Colditz, Graham A.

    2009-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and interleukin (IL)-6 promote the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma cells. Variation in genes related to IGF-1 and IL-6 signaling may influence susceptibility to multiple myeloma. To assess their etiologic role, we examined the association of 70 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in seven IGF-1 and three IL-6 pathway genes with multiple myeloma risk in two prospective cohorts, the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Among participants who provided DNA specimens, we identified 58 women and 24 men with multiple myeloma and matched two controls per case. We used multivariable logistic regression models to assess the association of the SNPs or tagged haplotypes with multiple myeloma risk. Several SNPs had suggestive associations with multiple myeloma based on large odds ratios (OR), although corresponding omnibus p-values were not more than nominally significant (i.e., at p<0.05). These SNPs included rs1801278 in the gene encoding insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1; C/T v. C/C genotypes; OR=4.3, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.5-12.1), and three IL-6 receptor SNPs: rs6684439 (T/T v. C/C: 2.9, 1.2-7.0), rs7529229 (C/C v. T/T; 2.5, 1.1-6.0), and rs8192284 (C/C v. A/A; 2.5, 1.1-6.0). Additional SNPs in genes encoding IGF-1, IGF binding protein-2, IRS2, and gp130 also demonstrated suggestive associations with multiple myeloma risk. We conducted a large number of statistical tests, and the findings may be due to chance. Nonetheless, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that IGF-1- and IL-6-related gene variation influences susceptibility to multiple myeloma and warrant confirmation in larger populations. PMID:19124510

  13. The Effects of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Gene Therapy and Cell Transplantation on Rat Acute Wound Model

    PubMed Central

    Talebpour Amiri, Fereshteh; Fadaei Fathabadi, Fatemeh; Mahmoudi Rad, Mahnaz; Piryae, Abbas; Ghasemi, Azar; Khalilian, Alireza; Yeganeh, Farshid; Mosaffa, Nariman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Wound healing is a complex process. Different types of skin cells, extracellular matrix and variety of growth factors are involved in wound healing. The use of recombinant growth factors in researches and production of skin substitutes are still a challenge. Objectives: Much research has been done on the effects of gene therapy and cell therapy on wound healing. In this experimental study, the effect of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) gene transfer in fibroblast cells was assessed on acute dermal wound healing. Materials and Methods: Fibroblasts were cultured and transfected with IGF-1. Lipofectamine 2000 was used as a reagent of transfection. Transgene expression levels were measured by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To study in vivo, rats (weighing 170-200 g) were randomly divided into three groups (five/group) and full-thickness wounds were created on the dorsum region. Suspensions of transfected fibroblast cells were injected into the wound and were compared with wounds treated with native fibroblast cells and normal saline. For the microscopic examination, biopsy was performed on day seven. Results: In vitro, the maximum expression of IGF1 (96.95 pg/mL) in transfected fibroblast cells was 24 hours after gene transfer. In vivo, it was clear that IGF-1 gene therapy caused an increase in the number of keratinocyte cells during the wound healing process (mean of group A vs. group B with P value = 0.01, mean of group A vs. group C with P value = 0.000). Granulation of tissue formation in the transfected fibroblast group was more organized when compared with the normal saline group and native fibroblast cells. Conclusions: This study indicated that the optimization of gene transfer increases the expression of IGF-1. High concentrations of IGF-1, in combination with cell therapy, have a significant effect on wound healing. PMID:25558384

  14. Expression pattern of the RAR alpha-PML fusion gene in acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Alcalay, M; Zangrilli, D; Fagioli, M; Pandolfi, P P; Mencarelli, A; Lo Coco, F; Biondi, A; Grignani, F; Pelicci, P G

    1992-06-01

    Two chimeric genes, PML-RAR alpha and RAR alpha-PML, are formed as a consequence of the acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL)-specific reciprocal translocation of chromosomes 15 and 17 [t(15;17)]. PML-RAR alpha is expressed as a fusion protein. We investigated the organization and expression pattern of the RAR alpha-PML gene in a series of APL patients representative of the molecular heterogeneity of the t(15;17) and found (i) two types of RAR alpha-PML mRNA junctions (RAR alpha exon 2/PML exon 4 or RAR alpha exon 2/PML exon 7) that maintain the RAR alpha and PML longest open reading frames aligned and are the result of chromosome 15 breaking at two different sites; and (ii) 10 different RAR alpha-PML fusion transcripts that differ for the assembly of their PML coding exons. A RAR alpha-PML transcript was present in most, but not all, APL patients. PMID:1317574

  15. Steroid sulfotransferase 2A1 gene transcription is regulated by steroidogenic factor 1 and GATA-6 in the human adrenal.

    PubMed

    Saner, Karla J; Suzuki, Takashi; Sasano, Hironobu; Pizzey, John; Ho, Clement; Strauss, Jerome F; Carr, Bruce R; Rainey, William E

    2005-01-01

    Sulfonation is a phase II conjugation reaction responsible for the biotransformation of many compounds including steroids, bile acids, and drugs. Humans are presently known to express at least five cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes, of which only two are hydroxysteroid SULT, SULT2A1, commonly known as steroid sulfotransferase, and the cholesterol sulfotransferase SULT2B1. SULT2A1 is highly expressed in the adrenal where it is responsible for the sulfation of hydroxysteroids including conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone to dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and in the liver where it is responsible for sulfation of bile acids and circulating hydroxysteroids. Little is known concerning the transcriptional regulation of human SULT2A1 in adrenal. Herein we demonstrate the role of two transcription factors, steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) and GATA-6, in the regulation of SULT2A1 transcription. These transcription factors were quantified by real-time RT-PCR in normal human adrenal tissue. Transient transfection assays with deleted and mutated SULT2A1 promoter constructs allowed for the determination of specific SF1 and GATA binding cis-regulatory elements necessary for transactivation of SULT2A1 promoter, and binding was confirmed by EMSA analysis. Both SF1 and GATA-6 were positive regulators of SULT2A1 promoter constructs. These data support the hypothesis that adrenal SULT2A1 expression is regulated by SF1 and GATA-6. PMID:15388788

  16. Comparison of nonerythroid alpha-spectrin genes reveals strict homology among diverse species.

    PubMed Central

    Leto, T L; Fortugno-Erikson, D; Barton, D; Yang-Feng, T L; Francke, U; Harris, A S; Morrow, J S; Marchesi, V T; Benz, E J

    1988-01-01

    The spectrins are a family of widely distributed filamentous proteins. In association with actin, spectrins form a supporting and organizing scaffold for cell membranes. Using antibodies specific for human brain alpha-spectrin (alpha-fodrin), we have cloned a rat brain alpha-spectrin cDNA from an expression library. Several closely related human clones were also isolated by hybridization. Comparison of sequences of these and other overlapping nonerythroid and erythroid alpha-spectrin genes demonstrated that the nonerythroid genes are strictly conserved across species, while the mammalian erythroid genes have diverged rapidly. Peptide sequences deduced from these cDNAs revealed that the nonerythroid alpha-spectrin chain, like the erythroid spectrin, is composed of multiple 106-amino-acid repeating units, with the characteristic invariant tryptophan as well as other charged and hydrophobic residues in conserved locations. However, the carboxy-terminal sequence varies markedly from this internal repeat pattern and may represent a specialized functional site. The nonerythroid alpha-spectrin gene was mapped to human chromosome 9, in contrast to the erythroid alpha-spectrin gene, which has previously been assigned to a locus on chromosome 1. Images PMID:3336352

  17. High Nuclear Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Alpha Expression Is a Predictor of Distant Recurrence in Patients With Resected Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Colbert, Lauren E.; Fisher, Sarah B.; Balci, Serdar; Saka, Burcu; Chen, Zhengjia; Kim, Sungjin; El-Rayes, Bassel F.; Adsay, N. Volkan; Maithel, Shishir K.; Landry, Jerome C.; and others

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate nuclear hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) expression as a prognostic factor for distant recurrence (DR) and local recurrence (LR) after pancreatic adenocarcinoma resection. Methods and Materials: Tissue specimens were collected from 98 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma who underwent resection without neoadjuvant therapy between January 2000 and December 2011. Local recurrence was defined as radiographic or pathologic evidence of progressive disease in the pancreas, pancreatic bed, or associated nodal regions. Distant recurrence was defined as radiographically or pathologically confirmed recurrent disease in other sites. Immunohistochemical staining was performed and scored by an independent pathologist blinded to patient outcomes. High HIF-1α overall expression score was defined as high percentage and intensity staining and thus score >1.33. Univariate analysis was performed for HIF-1α score with LR alone and with DR. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine predictors of LR and DR. Results: Median follow-up time for all patients was 16.3 months. Eight patients (8%) demonstrated isolated LR, 26 patients (26.5%) had isolated DR, and 13 patients had both LR and DR. Fifty-three patients (54%) had high HIF-1α expression, and 45 patients (46%) had low HIF-1α expression. High HIF-1α expression was significantly associated with DR (P=.03), and low HIF-1α expression was significantly associated with isolated LR (P=.03). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, high HIF-1α was the only significant predictor of DR (odds ratio 2.46 [95% confidence interval 1.06-5.72]; P=.03). In patients with a known recurrence, an HIF-1α score ≥2.5 demonstrated a specificity of 100% for DR. Conclusions: High HIF-1α expression is a significant predictor of distant failure versus isolated local failure in patients undergoing resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Expression of HIF-1α may have utility in determining candidates for

  18. Functional Characterization of Hevea brasiliensis CRT/DRE Binding Factor 1 Gene Revealed Regulation Potential in the CBF Pathway of Tropical Perennial Tree.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Han; Cai, Haibin; Fu, Haitian; An, Zewei; Fang, Jialin; Hu, Yanshi; Guo, Dianjing; Huang, Huasun

    2015-01-01

    Rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) are susceptible to low temperature and therefore are only planted in the tropical regions. In the past few decades, although rubber trees have been successfully planted in the northern margin of tropical area in China, they suffered from cold injury during the winter. To understand the physiological response under cold stress, we isolated a C-repeat binding factor 1 (CBF1) gene from the rubber tree. This gene (HbCBF1) was found to respond to cold stress but not drought or ABA stress. The corresponding HbCBF1 protein showed CRT/DRE binding activity in gel shift experiment. To further characterize its molecular function, the HbCBF1 gene was overexpressed in Arabidopsis. The HbCBF1 over expression (OE) line showed enhanced cold resistance and relatively slow dehydration, and the expression of Arabidopsis CBF pathway downstream target genes, e.g. AtCOR15a and AtRD29a, were significantly activated under non-acclimation condition. These data suggest HbCBF1 gene is a functional member of the CBF gene family, and may play important regulation function in rubber tree. PMID:26361044

  19. Functional Characterization of Hevea brasiliensis CRT/DRE Binding Factor 1 Gene Revealed Regulation Potential in the CBF Pathway of Tropical Perennial Tree

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Han; Cai, Haibin; Fu, Haitian; An, Zewei; Fang, Jialin; Hu, Yanshi; Guo, Dianjing; Huang, Huasun

    2015-01-01

    Rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) are susceptible to low temperature and therefore are only planted in the tropical regions. In the past few decades, although rubber trees have been successfully planted in the northern margin of tropical area in China, they suffered from cold injury during the winter. To understand the physiological response under cold stress, we isolated a C-repeat binding factor 1 (CBF1) gene from the rubber tree. This gene (HbCBF1) was found to respond to cold stress but not drought or ABA stress. The corresponding HbCBF1 protein showed CRT/DRE binding activity in gel shift experiment. To further characterize its molecular function, the HbCBF1 gene was overexpressed in Arabidopsis. The HbCBF1 over expression (OE) line showed enhanced cold resistance and relatively slow dehydration, and the expression of Arabidopsis CBF pathway downstream target genes, e.g. AtCOR15a and AtRD29a, were significantly activated under non-acclimation condition. These data suggest HbCBF1 gene is a functional member of the CBF gene family, and may play important regulation function in rubber tree. PMID:26361044

  20. Structure, organization, and transcription units of the human {alpha}-platelet-derived growth factor receptor gene, PDGFRA

    SciTech Connect

    Kawagishi, Jun; Yamamoto, Tokuo; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Yoshimoto, Takashi

    1995-11-20

    Isolation and characterization of genomic clones encoding human {alpha}-platelet derived growth factor receptor (HGAM-approved symbol PDGFRA) revealed that the gene spans approximately 65 kb and contains 23 exons. The 5{prime}-untranslated region of the mRNA is encoded by exon 1, and a large intron of 23 kb separates exon 2 encoding the translation initiator codon AUG and the signal sequence. The locations of exon/intron boundaries in the extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains, the transmembrane domain, the two cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domains, and the kinase insertion domain are very similar to those in c-kit and macrophage colony stimulating factor-1 receptor genes. The transcription start site was mapped to a position 393 bp upstream of the AUG translation initiator codon by Si mapping and primer extension analysis. The 5{prime}-flanking region of the gene lacks a typical TATA box but contains a typical CCAAT box and GATA motifs. This region also contains potential sites for AP-1, AP-2, Oct-1, Oct-2, and Sp1. The 5{prime}-flanking region of the gene was fused to the luciferase reporter gene, and transcription units of the gene were determined. 49 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Gene trapping uncovers sex-specific mechanisms for upstream stimulatory factors 1 and 2 in angiotensinogen expression.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungmi; Liu, Xuebo; Davis, Deborah R; Sigmund, Curt D

    2012-06-01

    A single-nucleotide polymorphism (C/A) located within an E-box at the -20 position of the human angiotensinogen (AGT) promoter may regulate transcriptional activation through differential recruitment of the transcription factors upstream stimulatory factor (USF) 1 and 2. To study the contribution of USF1 on AGT gene expression, mice carrying a (-20C) human AGT (hAGT) transgene were bred with mice harboring a USF1 gene trap allele designed to knock down USF1 expression. USF1 mRNA was reduced relative to controls in liver (9 ± 1%), perigenital adipose (16 ± 3%), kidney (17 ± 1%), and brain (34 ± 2%) in double-transgenic mice. This decrease was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses revealed a decrease in USF1, with retention of USF2 binding at the hAGT promoter in the liver of male mice. hAGT expression was reduced in the liver and other tissues of female but not male mice. The decrease in endogenous AGT expression was insufficient to alter systolic blood pressure at baseline but caused reduced systolic blood pressure in female USF1 gene trap mice fed a high-fat diet. Treatment of USF1 knockdown males with intravenous adenoviral short hairpin RNA targeting USF2 resulted in reduced expression of USF1, USF2, and hAGT protein. Our data from chromatin immunoprecipitation assays suggests that this decrease in hAGT is attributed to decreased USF2 binding to the hAGT promoter. In conclusion, both USF1 and USF2 are essential for AGT transcriptional regulation, and distinct sex-specific and tissue-specific mechanisms are involved in the activities of these transcription factors in vivo. PMID:22547438

  2. The anti-proliferative effect of L-carnosine correlates with a decreased expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Iovine, Barbara; Oliviero, Giorgia; Garofalo, Mariangela; Orefice, Maria; Nocella, Francesca; Borbone, Nicola; Piccialli, Vincenzo; Centore, Roberto; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Piccialli, Gennaro; Bevilacqua, Maria Assunta

    2014-01-01

    In recent years considerable attention has been given to the use of natural substances as anticancer drugs. The natural antioxidant dipeptide L-carnosine belongs to this class of molecules because it has been proved to have a significant anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies have shown that L-carnosine inhibits the proliferation of human colorectal carcinoma cells by affecting the ATP and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production. In the present study we identified the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α (HIF-1α) as a possible target of L-carnosine in HCT-116 cell line. HIF-1α protein is over-expressed in multiple types of human cancer and is the major cause of resistance to drugs and radiation in solid tumours. Of particular interest are experimental data supporting the concept that generation of ROS provides a redox signal for HIF-1α induction, and it is known that some antioxidants are able to suppress tumorigenesis by inhibiting HIF-1α. In the current study we found that L-carnosine reduces the HIF-1α protein level affecting its stability and decreases the HIF-1 transcriptional activity. In addition, we demonstrated that L-carnosine is involved in ubiquitin-proteasome system promoting HIF-1α degradation. Finally, we compared the antioxidant activity of L-carnosine with that of two synthetic anti-oxidant bis-diaminotriazoles (namely 1 and 2, respectively). Despite these three compounds have the same ability in reducing intracellular ROS, 1 and 2 are more potent scavengers and have no effect on HIF-1α expression and cancer cell proliferation. These findings suggest that an analysis of L-carnosine antioxidant pathway will clarify the mechanism underlying the anti-proliferative effects of this dipeptide on colon cancer cells. However, although the molecular mechanism by which L-carnosine down regulates or inhibits the HIF-1α activity has not been yet elucidated, this ability may be promising in treating hypoxia-related diseases. PMID

  3. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene is not associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Zai, Gwyneth; Arnold, Paul D; Burroughs, Eliza; Richter, Margaret A; Kennedy, James L

    2006-02-01

    Dysregulation of the immune system has been suggested to play a role in the complex etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. In this context, tumor necrosis factor-alpha is considered an interesting candidate for genetic studies as overproduction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which may be genetically modulated, can exert neurotoxic effects and influence neural cell growth and proliferation. Moreover, the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene is located on chromosome 6p21.3, a region that has been found to be weakly associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder in linkage studies. One functional polymorphism, G-308A, has been found within the gene. PMID:16395130

  4. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma synergistically activate the RANTES promoter through nuclear factor kappaB and interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Lee, A H; Hong, J H; Seo, Y S

    2000-08-15

    Inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) synergistically activate expression of the RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted) gene, which plays a crucial role in the chemoattraction of leukocytes during the inflammatory response. To understand at the molecular level the mechanism by which the two cytokines activate RANTES gene expression, we determined the requirement of cis-acting elements in the RANTES promoter and trans-acting factors. The murine RANTES promoter contained one putative interferon regulatory factor, IRF, and three putative nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) binding sites. Specific destruction of the IRF binding site and one of the three NF-kappaB binding sites abolished the inducibility of promoter activity by IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, respectively. In contrast, mutation of the other two putative NF-kappaB binding sites did not affect RANTES promoter activity significantly. In addition, the RANTES promoter was stimulated by co-transfection of plasmids that expressed either p65, an NF-kappaB family protein, or the IRF-1 transcription factor. RANTES promoters with mutations in the NF-kappaB or IRF binding sites were not stimulated by p65 or IRF-1 expression, respectively. In electrophoretic mobility-shift and immunologic assays, we showed that IRF-1 was induced after cells were treated with IFN-gamma and that NF-kappaB was activated by TNF-alpha treatment. These results demonstrate that both NF-kappaB and IRF-1 transcription factors mediate the induction of RANTES expression via their cognate cis-acting elements when cells are stimulated by TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. PMID:10926836

  5. Thiazolidinediones inhibit REG I{alpha} gene transcription in gastrointestinal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, Akiyo; Takahashi, Iwao; Takasawa, Shin; Nata, Koji; Noguchi, Naoya; Ikeda, Takayuki; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Shervani, Nausheen J.; Suzuki, Iwao; Uruno, Akira; Unno, Michiaki; Okamoto, Hiroshi Sugawara, Akira

    2009-02-13

    REG (Regenerating gene) I{alpha} protein functions as a growth factor for gastrointestinal cancer cells, and its mRNA expression is strongly associated with a poor prognosis in gastrointestinal cancer patients. We here demonstrated that PPAR{gamma}-agonist thiazolidinediones (TZDs) inhibited cell proliferation and REG I{alpha} protein/mRNA expression in gastrointestinal cancer cells. TZDs inhibited the REG I{alpha} gene promoter activity, via its cis-acting element which lacked PPAR response element and could not bind to PPAR{gamma}, in PPAR{gamma}-expressing gastrointestinal cancer cells. The inhibition was reversed by co-treatment with a specific PPAR{gamma}-antagonist GW9662. Although TZDs did not inhibit the REG I{alpha} gene promoter activity in PPAR{gamma}-non-expressing cells, PPAR{gamma} overexpression in the cells recovered their inhibitory effect. Taken together, TZDs inhibit REG I{alpha} gene transcription through a PPAR{gamma}-dependent pathway. The TZD-induced REG I{alpha} mRNA reduction was abolished by cycloheximide, indicating the necessity of novel protein(s) synthesis. TZDs may therefore be a candidate for novel anti-cancer drugs for patients with gastrointestinal cancer expressing both REG I{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}.

  6. Mapping of the {alpha}{sub 4} subunit gene (GABRA4) to human chromosome 4 defines an {alpha}{sub 2}-{alpha}{sub 4}-{beta}{sub 1}-{gamma}{sub 1} gene cluster: Further evidence that modern GABA{sub a} receptor gene clusters are derived from an ancestral cluster

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, P.J.; Farb, D.H.; Russek, S.J.

    1995-04-10

    We demonstrated previously that an {alpha}{sub 1}-{beta}{sub 2}-{gamma}{sub 2} gene cluster of the {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA{sub A}) receptor is located on human chromosome 5q34-q35 and that an ancestral {alpha}-{beta}-{gamma} gene cluster probably spawned clusters on chromosomes 4, 5, and 15. Here, we report that the {alpha}{sub 4} gene (GABRA4) maps to human chromosome 4p14-q12, defining a cluster comprising the {alpha}{sub 2}, {alpha}{sub 4}, {beta}{sub 1}, and {gamma}{sub 1} genes. The existence of an {alpha}{sub 2}-{alpha}{sub 4}-{beta}{sub 1}-{gamma}{sub 2} cluster on chromosome 4 and an {alpha}{sub 1}-{alpha}{sub 6}-{beta}{sub 2}-{gamma}{sub 2} cluster on chromosome 5 provides further evidence that the number of ancestral GABA{sub A} receptor subunit genes has been expanded by duplication within an ancestral gene cluster. Moreover, if duplication of the {alpha} gene occurred before duplication of the ancestral gene cluster, then a heretofore undiscovered subtype of a subunit should be located on human chromosome 15q11-q13 within an {alpha}{sub 5}-{alpha}{sub x}-{beta}{sub 3}-{gamma}{sub 3} gene cluster at the locus for Angelman and Prader-Willi syndromes. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. A novel function of interferon regulatory factor-1: inhibition of Th2 cells by down-regulating the Il4 gene during Listeria infection.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Saho; Kanoh, Makoto; Matsumoto, Akira; Kuwahara, Makoto; Yamashita, Masakatsu; Asano, Yoshihiro

    2015-03-01

    Infection with certain pathogens induces a shift of the Th subset balance to a Th1 dominant state. This, in turn, results in the suppression of Th2 responses. We focused on the involvement of interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) in the suppression of Th2 cells during Listeria infection. We found that the inhibition of IL-4 production by Th2 cells is mediated by a soluble factor (LmSN) produced by Listeria-infected antigen-presenting cells. The inhibition is not observed with T cells from Irf1 gene-targeted mice. IRF-1 suppresses transcription of the Il4 gene in Th2 cells. Under the influence of the LmSN, IRF-1 binds to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) region of the Il4 gene and down-regulates Il4 gene transcription. Finally, we identified IL-1α and IL-1β as the mediator of the LmSN activity. Signaling through IL-1R induces the stabilization and/or nuclear translocation of IRF-1. We propose that IRF-1 functions to induce the T-cell subset shift via a novel mechanism. Under the influence of IL-1, IRF-1 translocates into the nucleus and acts on the 3'UTR region of the Il4 gene, thus inhibiting its transcription in Th2 cells. As a result, the immune system shifts predominantly to a Th1 response during Listeria infection, resulting in effective protection of the host. PMID:25280793

  8. RAmy2A; a novel alpha-amylase-encoding gene in rice.

    PubMed

    Huang, N; Reinl, S J; Rodriguez, R L

    1992-02-15

    The structure and expression of the alpha-amylase-encoding gene, RAmy2A, are described. This only representative of the Amy2 subfamily in rice differs from other cereal alpha-amylase-encoding genes in several respects. It contains the largest introns of all the cereal alpha-amylase-encoding genes examined to date. Moreover, the second of three introns in this gene contains a long inverted repeat sequence that can potentially form a large and stable stem-loop structure in the unspliced RNA transcript. Finally, RAmy2A is constitutively expressed at very low levels in germinated seeds, root, etiolated leaves, immature seeds and callus. This is in marked contrast to the Amy2 genes of wheat and barley which are highly expressed in the aleurone layer of the germinated seeds. PMID:1541400

  9. Differential expression of rice alpha-amylase genes during seedling development under anoxia.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Y S; Thomas, B R; Rodriguez, R L

    1999-08-01

    The unique capability of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings to grow under anoxic conditions may result in part from their ability to express alpha-amylase and maintain the supply of sugar needed for energy metabolism. Previous studies have demonstrated that under aerobic conditions the Amy1 and Amy2 subfamily genes are regulated primarily by phytohormones while the Amy3 subfamily genes are induced during sugar starvation. The expression patterns for these alpha-amylase genes were considerably different in anoxic vs. aerobic rice seedlings. The level of total alpha-amylase mRNA under anoxic conditions was decreased in aleurone layers while it increased in the embryo. Anoxic conditions greatly diminished the expression of the Amy1A gene in aleurone. Conversely, expression of many Amy3 subfamily genes was up-regulated and prolonged in embryo tissues under anoxic conditions. PMID:10527416

  10. Modulation of gene expression by alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl phosphate in thp-1 monocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The naturally occurring vitamin E analogue, alpha-tocopheryl phosphate (alphaTP), has been reported to be more potent than the un-phosphorylated alpha alpha-tocopherol (alphaT). We have now measured plasma levels of alphaTP and compared the cellular effects of alphaTP and gamma-tocopheryl phosphate ...

  11. Human tumor necrosis factor alpha gene regulation by virus and lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Goldfeld, A E; Doyle, C; Maniatis, T

    1990-01-01

    We have identified a region of the human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene promoter that is necessary for maximal constitutive, virus-induced, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced transcription. This region contains three sites that match an NF-kappa B binding-site consensus sequence. We show that these three sites specifically bind NF-kappa B in vitro, yet each of these sites can be deleted from the TNF-alpha promoter with little effect on the induction of the gene by virus or LPS. Moreover, when multimers of these three sites are placed upstream from a truncated TNF-alpha promoter, or a heterologous promoter, an increase in the basal level of transcription is observed that is influenced by sequence context and cell type. However, these multimers are not sufficient for virus or LPS induction of either promoter. Thus, unlike other virus- and LPS-inducible promoters that contain NF-kappa B binding sites, these sites from the TNF-alpha promoter are neither required nor sufficient for virus or LPS induction. Comparison of the sequence requirements of virus induction of the human TNF-alpha gene in mouse L929 and P388D1 cells reveals significant differences, indicating that the sequence requirements for virus induction of the gene are cell type-specific. However, the sequences required for virus and LPS induction of the gene in a single cell type, P388D1, overlap. Images PMID:2263628

  12. Interferon-regulatory factor 1 is an immediate-early gene under transcriptional regulation by prolactin in Nb2 T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Yu-Lee, L Y; Hrachovy, J A; Stevens, A M; Schwarz, L A

    1990-01-01

    The pituitary peptide hormone prolactin (Prl) is a potent inducer of Nb2 T lymphoma cell proliferation. To analyze the early genetic response to the mitogenic signals of Prl, a cDNA library was constructed from Nb2 T cells stimulated for 4 h with Prl and the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Of 26 distinct clones isolated by differential screening, one clone, designated c25, exhibited extremely rapid but transient kinetics of induction by Prl and superinduction by Prl plus cycloheximide. Run-on transcription analysis indicated that c25 gene transcription was induced greater than 20-fold within 30 to 60 min of Prl stimulation. Surprisingly, DNA sequence analysis of c25 cDNA revealed that this Prl-inducible early-response gene is the rat homolog of the mouse transcription factor interferon-regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1), sharing 91% coding sequence similarity with mouse IRF-1. At the protein level, rat IRF-1 shares 97% and 92% homology with mouse IRF-1 and human IRF-1, respectively, suggesting that this molecule has been functionally conserved throughout evolution. Our studies show that the gene for IRF-1 is an immediate-early gene in Prl-stimulated T cells, which suggests that IRF-1 is a multifunctional molecule. In addition to its role in regulating growth-inhibitory interferon genes, IRF-1 may, therefore, also play a stimulatory role in cell proliferation. The gene for IRF-1 is one of the earliest genes known to be transcriptionally regulated by Prl. Images PMID:2342469

  13. Gene expression profile of human lymphocytes exposed to (211)At alpha particles.

    PubMed

    Turtoi, A; Brown, I; Schläger, M; Schneeweiss, F H A

    2010-08-01

    In this study, the Whole Human Genome 44K DNA microarray assay was used for the first time to obtain gene expression profiles in human peripheral blood lymphocytes 2 h after exposure (in suspension) to 6.78 MeV mean energy alpha particles from extracellular (211)At. Lymphocytes were exposed to fluences of 0.3-9.6 x 10(6) alpha particles/cm(2) [corresponding to mean absorbed alpha-particle doses (D(alpha)) of 0.05-1.60 Gy] over 30 min. Significantly modulated expression was identified in 338 early-response genes. Up-regulated expression was evident in 183 early-response genes, while the remaining 155 were down-regulated. Over half of the up-regulated genes and 40% of the down-regulated genes had a known biological process related primarily to cell growth and maintenance and cell communication. Genes associated with cell death were found only in the up-regulated genes and those with development only in the down-regulated genes. Eight selected early-response genes that displayed a sustained up- or down-regulation (CD36, HSPA2, MS4A6A, NFIL3, IL1F9, IRX5, RASL11B and SULT1B1) were further validated in alpha-particle-irradiated lymphocytes of two human individuals using the TaqMan(R) RT-qPCR technique. The results confirmed the observed microarray gene expression patterns. The expression modulation profiles of IL1F9, IRX5, RASL11B and SULT1B1 genes demonstrated similar trends in the two individuals studied. However, no significant linear correlation between increasing relative gene expression and the alpha-particle dose was evident. The results suggest the possibility that a panel of genes that react to alpha-particle radiation does exist and that they merit further study in a greater number of individuals to determine their possible value regarding alpha-particle biodosimetry. PMID:20681779

  14. Tobacco plants transformed with the bean. alpha. ai gene express an inhibitor of insect. alpha. -amylase in their seeds. [Nicotiana tabacum; Tenebrio molitor

    SciTech Connect

    Altabella, T.; Chrispeels, M.J. )

    1990-06-01

    Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds contain a putative plant defense protein that inhibits insect and mammalian but not plant {alpha}-amylases. We recently presented strong circumstantial evidence that this {alpha}-amylase inhibitor ({alpha}Al) is encoded by an already-identified lectin gene whose product is referred to as lectin-like-protein (LLP). We have now made a chimeric gene consisting of the coding sequence of the lectin gene that encodes LLP and the 5{prime} and 3{prime} flanking sequences of the lectin gene that encodes phytohemagglutinin-L. When this chimeric gene was expressed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), we observed in the seeds a series of polypeptides (M{sub r} 10,000-18,000) that cross-react with antibodies to the bean {alpha}-amylase inhibitor. Most of these polypeptides bind to a pig pancreas {alpha}-amylase affinity column. An extract of the seeds of the transformed tobacco plants inhibits pig pancreas {alpha}-amylase activity as well as the {alpha}-amylase present in the midgut of Tenebrio molitor. We suggest that introduction of this lectin gene (to be called {alpha}ai) into other leguminous plants may be a strategy to protect the seeds from the seed-eating larvae of Coleoptera.

  15. Phytol directly activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) and regulates gene expression involved in lipid metabolism in PPAR{alpha}-expressing HepG2 hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kato, Sota; Egawa, Kahori; Ebisu, Shogo; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Fushiki, Tohru; Kawada, Teruo . E-mail: fat@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2005-11-18

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) is one of the indispensable transcription factors for regulating lipid metabolism in various tissues. In our screening for natural compounds that activate PPAR using luciferase assays, a branched-carbon-chain alcohol (a component of chlorophylls), phytol, has been identified as a PPAR{alpha}-specific activator. Phytol induced the increase in PPAR{alpha}-dependent luciferase activity and the degree of in vitro binding of a coactivator, SRC-1, to GST-PPAR{alpha}. Moreover, the addition of phytol upregulated the expression of PPAR{alpha}-target genes at both mRNA and protein levels in PPAR{alpha}-expressing HepG2 hepatocytes. These findings indicate that phytol is functional as a PPAR{alpha} ligand and that it stimulates the expression of PPAR{alpha}-target genes in intact cells. Because PPAR{alpha} activation enhances circulating lipid clearance, phytol may be important in managing abnormalities in lipid metabolism.

  16. Molecular evolution of serpins: homologous structure of the human. cap alpha. /sub 1/-antichymotrypsin and. cap alpha. /sub 1/-antitrypsin genes

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, J.; Sifers, R.N.; Kidd, V.J.; Ledley, F.D.; Woo, S.L.C.

    1987-12-01

    ..cap alpha../sub 1/-Antichymotrypsin belongs to a supergene family that includes ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin, antithrombin III, ovalbumin, and angiotensinogen. The human chromosomal ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antichymotrypsin gene has been cloned and its molecular structure established. The gene is approximately 12 kb in length and contains five exons and four introns. The locations of the introns within the ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antichymotrypsin gene are identical with those of the human ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin and angiotensinogen genes. Other members of this supergene family contain introns located at nonhomologous positions of the genes. The homologous organization of the ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antichymotrypsin and ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin genes corresponds with the high degree of homology between their protein sequences and suggest that these loci arose by recent gene duplication. A model is presented for the evolution of both the genomic structure and the protein sequences of the serine protease inhibitor superfamily.

  17. Assessment of fecal bacteria with bile acid 7 alpha-dehydroxylating activity for the presence of bai-like genes.

    PubMed Central

    Doerner, K C; Takamine, F; LaVoie, C P; Mallonee, D H; Hylemon, P B

    1997-01-01

    Eubacterium sp. strain VPI 12708 has several bile acid-inducible (bai) genes which encode enzymes in the bile acid 7 alpha-dehydroxylation (7 alpha DeOH) pathway. Twelve 7 alpha DeOH-positive intestinal bacterial strains were assayed for 7 alpha DeOH activity, and 13 strains were tested for hybridization with bai genes. Cholic acid 7 alpha DeOH activity varied greatly (> 100-fold) among these strains. Southern blot experiments showed that DNA prepared from 7 of 13 strains hybridized with at least one of the bai genes from Eubacterium sp. strain VPI 12708. PMID:9055436

  18. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha modulates monocyte/macrophage apoprotein E gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Duan, H; Li, Z; Mazzone, T

    1995-01-01

    apo E has been shown to modulate cholesterol balance in arterial wall cells. Production of apo E by macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques could thereby influence the development of the plaque lesion. Cytokines, including TNF alpha, have been identified in human lesions, therefore, we undertook a series of studies to evaluate the effect of TNF alpha on monocyte/macrophage apo E production. The addition of TNF alpha to freshly isolated human monocytes led to a four- to fivefold increase of apo E mRNA abundance. The addition of TNF alpha to fully differentiated macrophages either had no effect or modestly inhibited apo E mRNA expression. THP1 human monocytic cells also responded to TNF alpha in a phenotype-specific manner. Treatment of these cells with TNF alpha produced a dose- and time-dependent increase in apo E mRNA. This increase was reflected in apo E synthesis and was associated with inhibition of DNA synthesis, and with induction of c-fos and ICAM-1 gene expression. Cell-permanent analogues of ceramide did not reproduce TNF alpha effect on apo E, but antagonists of protein kinase C did inhibit its effect. TNF alpha induction of apo E mRNA abundance was associated with stimulation of apo E promoter-dependent gene transcription. In summary, TNF alpha stimulates apo E gene transcription, mRNA abundance, and protein synthesis in the monocyte/macrophage in a phenotype-specific manner. Such regulation could significantly modify the amount of apo E present in vessel wall lesions. Images PMID:7635986

  19. Early B-cell factor 1 (EBF1) is critical for transcriptional control of SLAMF1 gene in human B cells.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Anton M; Putlyaeva, Lidia V; Covich, Milica; Klepikova, Anna V; Akulich, Kseniya A; Vorontsov, Ilya E; Korneev, Kirill V; Dmitriev, Sergey E; Polanovsky, Oleg L; Sidorenko, Svetlana P; Kulakovskiy, Ivan V; Kuprash, Dmitry V

    2016-10-01

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family member 1 (SLAMF1)/CD150 is a co-stimulatory receptor expressed on a variety of hematopoietic cells, in particular on mature lymphocytes activated by specific antigen, costimulation and cytokines. Changes in CD150 expression level have been reported in association with autoimmunity and with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We characterized the core promoter for SLAMF1 gene in human B-cell lines and explored binding sites for a number of transcription factors involved in B cell differentiation and activation. Mutations of SP1, STAT6, IRF4, NF-kB, ELF1, TCF3, and SPI1/PU.1 sites resulted in significantly decreased promoter activity of varying magnitude, depending on the cell line tested. The most profound effect on the promoter strength was observed upon mutation of the binding site for Early B-cell factor 1 (EBF1). This mutation produced a 10-20 fold drop in promoter activity and pinpointed EBF1 as the master regulator of human SLAMF1 gene in B cells. We also identified three potent transcriptional enhancers in human SLAMF1 locus, each containing functional EBF1 binding sites. Thus, EBF1 interacts with specific binding sites located both in the promoter and in the enhancer regions of the SLAMF1 gene and is critical for its expression in human B cells. PMID:27424222

  20. [Cloning the alpha-amylase gene of Streptococcus bovis and its expression in Bacillus subtilis cells].

    PubMed

    Iakorski, P; Kuntsova, M M; Loseva, E F; Khasanov, F K

    1991-06-01

    The gene coding for alpha-amylase from the ruminant bacterium Streptococcus bovis was cloned on the plasmid pMX39 in Bacillus subtilis cells. An alpha-amylase positive colony was isolated in the initial screening of 3900 colonies on the medium containing insoluble starch. The size of the insert was approximately 2.8 kb. The recombinant plasmid was stably maintained in Bacillus subtilis cells under the nonselective conditions. PMID:1944323

  1. Sequence of the dog immunoglobulin alpha and epsilon constant region genes

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, M.; Selinger, D.; Mark, G.E.; Hollis, G.F.; Hickey, G.J.

    1995-03-01

    The immunoglobulin alpha (IGHAC) and epsilon (IGHEC) germline constant region genes were isolated from a dog liver genomic DNA library. Sequence analysis indicates that the dog IGHEC gene is encoded by four exons spread out over 1.7 kilobases (kb). The IGHAC sequence encompasses 1.5 kb and includes all three constant region coding exons. The complete exon/intron sequence of these genes is described. 28 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} is essential for the expression of antioxidant protection genes and mitochondrial function

    SciTech Connect

    Rangwala, Shamina M. . E-mail: shamina.rangwala@novartis.com; Li, Xiaoyan; Lindsley, Loren; Wang, Xiaomei; Shaughnessy, Stacey; Daniels, Thomas G.; Szustakowski, Joseph; Nirmala, N.R.; Wu, Zhidan; Stevenson, Susan C.

    2007-05-25

    Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} (ERR{alpha}) is an important mediator of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. To investigate the transcriptional network controlling these phenomena, we investigated mitochondrial gene expression in embryonic fibroblasts isolated from ERR{alpha} null mice. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) stimulated mitochondrial gene expression program in control cells, but not in the ERR{alpha} null cells. Interestingly, the induction of levels of mitochondrial oxidative stress protection genes in response to increased PGC-1{alpha} levels was dependent on ERR{alpha}. Furthermore, we found that the PGC-1{alpha}-mediated induction of estrogen-related receptor {gamma} and nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF-2), was dependent on the presence of ERR{alpha}. Basal levels of NRF-2 were decreased in the absence of ERR{alpha}. The absence of ERR{alpha} resulted in a decrease in citrate synthase enzyme activity in response to PGC-1{alpha} overexpression. Our results indicate an essential role for ERR{alpha} as a key regulator of oxidative metabolism.

  3. Characterization of alpha-gliadin genes from diploid wheats and the comparative analysis with those from polyploid wheats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Z C; Wei, Y M; Yan, Z H; Zheng, Y L

    2007-11-01

    To carry out the comparative analysis of alpha-gliadin genes on A genomes of diploid and polyploid wheats, 8 full-length alpha-gliadin genes, including 3 functional genes and 5 pseudogenes, were obtained from diploid wheats, among which 2, 2 and 4 alpha-gliadin genes were isolated from T. urartu, T. monococcum and T. boeoticum, respectively. The results indicated that higher number of alpha-gliadin pseudogenes have been present in diploid wheats before the formation of polyploid wheats. Amino acid sequence comparative analysis among 26 alpha-gliadin genes, including 16 functional genes and 10 pseudogenes, from diploid and polyploid wheats was conducted. The results indicated that all alpha-gliadins contained four coeliac toxic peptide sequences (i.e., PSQQ, QQQP, QQPY and QPYP). The polyglutamine domains are highly variable, and the second polyglutamine stretch is usually disrupted by the lysine or arginine residue at the fourth position. The unique domain I is the most conserved domain. There are 4 and 2 conserved cysteine residues in the unique domains I and II, respectively. Comparative analysis indicated that the functional alpha-gliadin genes from A genome are highly conserved, whereas the identity of pseudogenes in diploid wheats are higher than those in hexaploid wheats. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that all the analyzed functional alpha-gliadin genes could be clustered into two major groups, among which one group could be further divided into 5 subgroups. The origin of alpha-gliadin pseudogene and functional genes were also discussed. PMID:18186192

  4. Neuronal-type alpha-bungarotoxin receptors and the alpha 5-nicotinic receptor subunit gene are expressed in neuronal and nonneuronal human cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Chini, B; Clementi, F; Hukovic, N; Sher, E

    1992-01-01

    alpha-Bungarotoxin (alpha Bgtx) is a toxin known to interact with muscle nicotinic receptors and with some neuronal nicotinic receptors. We show that alpha Bgtx binding sites are also expressed in nonmuscle and nonneuronal human cells, including small cell lung carcinoma and several epithelial cell lines. These receptors are immunologically related to the alpha Bgtx receptors of unknown function described in the nervous system and in the IMR32 neuroblastoma cell line and are distinct from muscle nicotinic receptors. We have also cloned from IMR32 cells the human alpha 5-nicotinic receptor subunit, which is supposed to participate in the formation of alpha Bgtx receptors. Transcripts corresponding to the alpha 5-subunit gene were found not only in neuroblastoma cells but also in all the cell lines expressing alpha Bgtx receptors, with the exception of the TE671 cell line, whose nicotinic receptor subunits are of the muscle type. We conclude that both alpha Bgtx receptors and the alpha 5-nicotinic subunit gene are not neuron-specific, as previously thought, but are expressed in a number of human cell lines of various origin. Images PMID:1542648

  5. Structure and expression of the guinea-pig alpha-lactalbumin gene.

    PubMed Central

    Laird, J E; Jack, L; Hall, L; Boulton, A P; Parker, D; Craig, R K

    1988-01-01

    The entire guinea-pig alpha-lactalbumin gene was isolated from a genomic DNA library constructed in the bacteriophage lambda L47. The complete nucleotide sequence of the gene and its immediate 5' and 3' flanking sequences were determined and compared with those of the human and rat alpha-lactalbumin genes. This demonstrates that the size, organization and sequence of the exons is highly conserved between species, and reveals the presence of the highly conserved potential regulatory 'milk box' consensus sequence [RGAAGRAAA(N)TGGACAGAAATCAA(CG)TTTCTA] between positions -140 and -110 relative to the transcriptional start point. A guinea-pig LINE repeat sequence was also present in the 5' flanking region between positions -520 and -1195. Transfection of the alpha-lactalbumin gene cloned in a bovine papilloma virus vector into the mouse C127 and human MCF-7 mammary tumour cell-lines gave rise to stable but seemingly constitutive expression of alpha-lactalbumin. Expression was from the correct transcriptional start point, resulting in the accumulation of correctly processed mRNA and the secretion of alpha-lactalbumin into the culture medium. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2845947

  6. Sequence heterogeneity, multiplicity, and genomic organization of. cap alpha. - and. beta. -tubulin genes in Sea Urchins

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandraki, D.; Ruderman, J.V.

    1981-12-01

    The authors analyzed the multiplicity, heterogeneity, and organization of the genes encoding the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. tubulins in the sea urchin Lytechinus pictus by using cloned complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) and genomic tubulin sequences. cDNA clones were constructed by using immature spermatogenic testis polyadenylic acid-containing ribonucleic acid as a template. ..cap alpha.. and ..beta..-tubulin clones were identified by hybrid selection and in vitro translation of the corresponding messenger ribonucleic acids, followed by immunoprecipitation and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the translation products. The ..cap alpha.. cDNA clone contains a sequence that encodes the 48 C-terminal amino acids of ..cap alpha.. tubulin and 104 base pairs of the 3' nontranslated portion of the messenger ribonucleic acid. The ..beta.. cDNA insertion contains the coding sequence for the 100 C-terminal amino acids of ..beta.. tubulin and 83 base pairs of the 3' noncoding sequence. Hybrid selections performed at different criteria demonstrated the presence of several heterogeneous, closely related tubulin messenger ribonucleic acids, suggesting the existence of heterogeneous ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-tubulin genes. Hybridization analyses indicated that there are at least 9 to 13 sequences for each of the two tubulin gene families per haploid genome. Hybridization of the cDNA probes to both total genomic DNA and cloned germline DNA fragments gave no evidence for close physical linkage of ..cap alpha..-tubulin genes with ..beta..-tubulin genes at the DNA level. In contrast, these experiments indicated that some genes within the same family are clustered.

  7. A lectin gene encodes the alpha-amylase inhibitor of the common bean.

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, J; Chrispeels, M J

    1989-01-01

    An alpha-amylase inhibitor that inhibits insect and mammalian alpha-amylases but not plant alpha-amylases, is present in seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). We have purified the alpha-amylase inhibitor by using a selective heat treatment in acidic medium and affinity chromatography with porcine pancreas alpha-amylase coupled to agarose. Under sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis, the purified inhibitor gave rise to five bands with mobilities corresponding to molecular masses ranging from 14 to 19 kDa. N-terminal sequencing (up to 15 amino acids) of the polypeptides obtained from these bands resulted in only two different sequences matching two stretches of the amino acid sequence deduced from an already described lectin gene [Hoffman, L. M. (1984) J. Mol. Appl. Gen. 2,447-453]. This gene is different from but closely related to the genes that code for phytohemagglutinin, the major lectin of bean. Further evidence based on amino acid composition, identification of a precursor, and recognition of the product of the gene (expressed in Escherichia coli) by an anti-alpha-amylase inhibitor serum confirms that the inhibitor is encoded by this or a closely related lectin gene. This finding assigns a biological function, which has been described at the molecular level, to a plant lectin gene product and supports the defense role postulated for seed lectins. The lack of homology with other families of enzyme inhibitors suggests that this may be the first member of a new family of plant enzyme inhibitors. Images PMID:2682631

  8. Host cell factor-1 recruitment to E2F-bound and cell-cycle-control genes is mediated by THAP11 and ZNF143.

    PubMed

    Parker, J Brandon; Yin, Hanwei; Vinckevicius, Aurimas; Chakravarti, Debabrata

    2014-11-01

    Host cell factor-1 (HCF-1) is a metazoan transcriptional coregulator essential for cell-cycle progression and cell proliferation. Current models suggest a mechanism whereby HCF-1 functions as a direct coregulator of E2F proteins, facilitating the expression of genes necessary for cell proliferation. In this report, we show that HCF-1 recruitment to numerous E2F-bound promoters is mediated by the concerted action of zinc finger transcription factors THAP11 and ZNF143, rather than E2F proteins directly. THAP11, ZNF143, and HCF-1 form a mutually dependent complex on chromatin, which is independent of E2F occupancy. Disruption of the THAP11/ZNF143/HCF-1 complex results in altered expression of cell-cycle control genes and leads to reduced cell proliferation, cell-cycle progression, and cell viability. These data establish a model in which a THAP11/ZNF143/HCF-1 complex is a critical component of the transcriptional regulatory network governing cell proliferation. PMID:25437553

  9. Host Cell Factor-1 Recruitment to E2F-bound and Cell Cycle Control Genes is Mediated by THAP11 and ZNF143

    PubMed Central

    Parker, J. Brandon; Yin, Hanwei; Vinckevicius, Aurimas; Chakravarti, Debabrata

    2014-01-01

    Summary Host cell factor-1 (HCF-1) is a metazoan transcriptional co-regulator essential for cell cycle progression and cell proliferation. Current models suggest a mechanism whereby HCF-1 functions as a direct co-regulator of E2F proteins, facilitating the expression of genes necessary for cell proliferation. In this report, we show that HCF-1 recruitment to numerous E2F-bound promoters is mediated by the concerted action of zinc finger transcription factors THAP11 and ZNF143, rather than E2F proteins directly. THAP11, ZNF143, and HCF-1 form a mutually dependent complex on chromatin, which is independent of E2F occupancy. Disruption of the THAP11/ZNF143/HCF-1 complex results in altered expression of cell cycle control genes and leads to reduced cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and cell viability. These data establish a new model which suggests that a THAP11/ZNF143/HCF-1 complex is a critical component of the transcriptional regulatory network governing cell proliferation. PMID:25437553

  10. Increased messenger RNA for allograft inflammatory factor-1, LERK-5, and a novel gene in 17.5-day relative to 15.5-day bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Glover, Michelle D; Seidel, George E

    2003-09-01

    Considerable embryonic loss occurs between Gestation Days 15 and 18 in cattle when critical cellular and molecular events occur, including maternal recognition of pregnancy. To gain insight into these events, mRNA differential display analysis was used to identify eight unique cDNA fragments present in greater abundance in 17.5-day than in 15.5-day bovine embryos. Four cDNA fragments, confirmed to be upregulated in 17.5-day embryos using Northern analysis, were cloned and sequenced. Three cDNA fragments shared sequence identities with known homologs: human allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1), human LERK-5, and bovine interferon-tau. One novel cDNA fragment did not share sequence identity to previously reported genes, except for a similar DNA sequence in the human genome. AIF-1 mRNA was present in developing placenta through Gestation Day 36, and abundant levels were observed in adult bovine spleen and lung. The novel gene, which we have named periattachment factor (PAF), was not detected in adult tissues using Northern analysis or in conceptuses between Days 30 and 36 of pregnancy. Additional sequence information for bPAF was obtained from a cDNA library constructed from a 25-day bovine embryo. The protein corresponding to the open reading frame has four protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, two casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, a nuclear targeting sequence, but no obvious DNA or RNA binding motifs. Abundant expression of this gene during a narrow but critical window of embryonic development makes it worthy of further study. PMID:12773430

  11. Plant Translation Elongation Factor 1Bβ Facilitates Potato Virus X (PVX) Infection and Interacts with PVX Triple Gene Block Protein 1.

    PubMed

    Hwang, JeeNa; Lee, Seonhee; Lee, Joung-Ho; Kang, Won-Hee; Kang, Jin-Ho; Kang, Min-Young; Oh, Chang-Sik; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2015-01-01

    The eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 (eEF1) has two components: the G-protein eEF1A and the nucleotide exchange factor eEF1B. In plants, eEF1B is itself composed of a structural protein (eEF1Bγ) and two nucleotide exchange subunits (eEF1Bα and eEF1Bβ). To test the effects of elongation factors on virus infection, we isolated eEF1A and eEF1B genes from pepper (Capsicum annuum) and suppressed their homologs in Nicotiana benthamiana using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). The accumulation of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Potato virus X (PVX) was significantly reduced in the eEF1Bβ- or eEF1Bɣ-silenced plants as well as in eEF1A-silenced plants. Yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that eEF1Bα and eEF1Bβ interacted with eEF1A and that eEF1A and eEF1Bβ interacted with triple gene block protein 1 (TGBp1) of PVX. These results suggest that both eEF1A and eEF1Bβ play essential roles in the multiplication of PVX by physically interacting with TGBp1. Furthermore, using eEF1Bβ deletion constructs, we found that both N- (1-64 amino acids) and C-terminal (150-195 amino acids) domains of eEF1Bβ are important for the interaction with PVX TGBp1 and that the C-terminal domain of eEF1Bβ is involved in the interaction with eEF1A. These results suggest that eEF1Bβ could be a potential target for engineering virus-resistant plants. PMID:26020533

  12. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor protein expression and gene copy number alterations in non-small cell lung carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Tsuta, Koji; Mimae, Takahiro; Nitta, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Akihiko; Maeshima, Akiko M; Asamura, Hisao; Grogan, Thomas M; Furuta, Koh; Tsuda, Hitoshi

    2013-06-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is a tyrosine kinase receptor implicated in the pathogenesis of several malignancies and is potentially an attractive target for anticancer treatment. In this study, we included 379 patients who underwent surgical resection (179 diagnosed as having adenocarcinoma [ADC]; 150, squamous cell carcinoma [SCC]; 41, sarcomatoid carcinoma and 9, large cell carcinoma). IGF-1R expression and gene copy number were assessed by immunohistochemistry and bright-field in situ hybridization (BISH), respectively. IGF-1R expression in non-small cell lung carcinoma was observed in 41.4% of samples and was more prevalent in SCC (69.3%) than in ADC (25.1%), large cell carcinoma (33.3%), and sarcomatoid carcinoma (12.2%) (P < .001). Among ADCs, most mucinous ADCs (75%) showed strong membranous staining with the IGF-1R antibody. Compared with protein expression, IGF-1R gene alteration was rare (8.4%). A statistically significant correlation between IGF-1R expression and positive IGF-1R BISH was observed (γ = 0.762, P < .001). IGF-1R-positive tumors were more common in smokers (P = .004), and these tumors were larger (P = .006) than the IGF-1R-negative tumors. IGF-1R BISH positivity was not correlated with any clinicopathologic factor. IGF-1R expression and IGF-1R BISH positivity were not correlated with overall survival. IGF-1R is highly expressed in SCC and mucinous ADC, although copy number alterations in the IGF-1R gene were rare. These findings may have important implications for future anti-IGF-1R therapeutic approaches. PMID:23266446

  13. MHC evolution in three salmonid species: a comparison between class II alpha and beta genes.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Daniela; Conejeros, Pablo; Marshall, Sergio H; Consuegra, Sofia

    2010-08-01

    The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are amongst the most variable in vertebrates and represent some of the best candidates to study processes of adaptive evolution. However, despite the number of studies available, most of the information on the structure and function of these genes come from studies in mammals and birds in which the MHC class I and II genes are tightly linked and class II alpha exhibits low variability in many cases. Teleost fishes are among the most primitive vertebrates with MHC and represent good organisms for the study of MHC evolution because their class I and class II loci are not physically linked, allowing for independent evolution of both classes of genes. We have compared the diversity and molecular mechanisms of evolution of classical MH class II alpha and class II beta loci in farm populations of three salmonid species: Oncorhynchus kisutch, Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo salar. We found single classical class II loci and high polymorphism at both class II alpha and beta genes in the three species. Mechanisms of evolution were common for both class II genes, with recombination and point mutation involved in generating diversity and positive selection acting on the peptide-binding residues. These results suggest that the maintenance of variability at the class IIalpha gene could be a mechanism to increase diversity in the MHC class II in salmonids in order to compensate for the expression of one single classical locus and to respond to a wider array of parasites. PMID:20521040

  14. Inhibition of DNA topoisomerase II alpha gene expression by the p53 tumor suppressor.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Q; Zambetti, G P; Suttle, D P

    1997-01-01

    DNA topoisomerase II (topo II) is an essential nuclear enzyme involved in major cellular functions such as DNA replication, transcription, recombination, and mitosis. While an elevated level of topo II alpha is associated with cell proliferation, wild-type (wt) p53 inhibits the expression of various growth-stimulatory genes. To determine if p53 downregulates topo II alpha gene expression, a murine cell line, (10)1val, that expresses a temperature-sensitive p53 was utilized. The (10)1val cells had significantly lower levels of topo II alpha mRNA and protein following incubation for 24 h at 32 degrees C (p53 with wt conformation) than at 39 degrees C (p53 with mutant conformation). The effect of p53 on the human topo II alpha gene promoter was determined by using luciferase reporter plasmids containing varying lengths of the topo II alpha promoter transiently cotransfected into p53-deficient (10)1 cells together with wt or mutant p53 expression plasmids. Transcription from the full-length (bp -557 to +90) topo II alpha promoter was decreased 15-fold by wt p53 in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas mutant p53 exerted much weaker inhibition. Consecutive deletion of the five inverted CCAAT elements (ICEs) from the topo II alpha promoter reduced both the basal promoter activity and wt p53-induced suppression. Transcription of the minimal promoter (-32 to +90), which contains no ICE, was slightly stimulated by wt or mutant p53 expression. When point mutations were introduced into the most proximal ICE (-68), the inhibitory effect of wt p53 was alleviated and stimulation of topo II alpha expression resulted. Our study suggests that wt p53 functions as a transcriptional repressor of topo II alpha gene expression, possibly through a functional interaction with specific ICEs. Inactivation of wt p53 may reduce normal regulatory suppression of topo II alpha and contribute to abortive cell cycle checkpoints, accelerated cell proliferation, and alterations in genomic

  15. Structural organization of the human cardiac [alpha]-myosin heavy chain gene (MYH6)

    SciTech Connect

    Epp, T.A.; Dixon, I.M.C.; Wang, H.Y.; Sole, M.J.; Liew, C.C. )

    1993-12-01

    The human myocardium expresses two cardiac myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms, [alpha] and [beta], that exist in tandem array on chromosome 14q12. The authors have previously sequenced the entire human cardiac [beta]-MyHC gene and now report the complete nucleotide sequence of the human cardiac [alpha]-MyHC, encompassing 26,159 bp as well as the entire 4484-bp 5'-flanking intergenic region. The gene (MYH6) consists of 39 exons, 37 of which contain coding information. The 5'-untranslated region is split into 3 exons, with the third exon containing the AUG translocation initiation codon. With the exception of the 13th intron of the human cardiac [beta]-MyHC, which is not present within the [alpha]-isogene, all exon/intron boundaries are conserved. Conspicuous sequence motifs contained within the [alpha]-MyHC gene include four Alu repeats, a single (GT)[sub n] element, and a homopurine-homopyrimidine tract containing 23 GAA repeating units followed by 10 GAG repeating units. Comparison of the encoded amino acid sequence with a previously reported human [alpha]-MyHC cDNA sequence reveals several potential polymorphisms. 29 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. The mouse dead-end gene isoform alpha is necessary for germ cell and embryonic viability.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Chitralekha; Aggarwal, Sita; Zhu, Rui; Kumar, Madhu; Zhao, Ming; Meistrich, Marvin L; Matin, Angabin

    2007-03-30

    Inactivation of the dead-end (Dnd1) gene in the Ter mouse strain results in depletion of primordial germ cells (PGCs) so that mice become sterile. However, on the 129 mouse strain background, loss of Dnd1 also increases testicular germ cell tumor incidence in parallel to PGC depletion. We report that inactivation of Dnd1 also affects embryonic viability in the 129 strain. Mouse Dnd1 encodes two protein isoforms, DND1-isoform alpha (DND1-alpha) and DND1-isoform beta (DND1-beta). Using isoform-specific antibodies, we determined DND1-alpha is expressed in embryos and embryonic gonads whereas DND1-beta expression is restricted to germ cells of the adult testis. Our data implicate DND1-alpha isoform to be necessary for germ cell viability and therefore its loss in Ter mice results in PGC depletion, germ cell tumor development and partial embryonic lethality in the 129 strain. PMID:17291453

  17. Radiation-induced mitotic cell death and glioblastoma radioresistance: a new regulating pathway controlled by integrin-linked kinase, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha and survivin in U87 cells.

    PubMed

    Lanvin, Olivia; Monferran, Sylvie; Delmas, Caroline; Couderc, Bettina; Toulas, Christine; Cohen-Jonathan-Moyal, Elizabeth

    2013-09-01

    We have previously shown that integrin-linked kinase (ILK) regulates U87 glioblastoma cell radioresistance by modulating the main radiation-induced cell death mechanism in solid tumours, the mitotic cell death. To decipher the biological pathways involved in these mechanisms, we constructed a U87 glioblastoma cell model expressing an inducible shRNA directed against ILK (U87shILK). We then demonstrated that silencing ILK enhanced radiation-induced centrosome overduplication, leading to radiation-induced mitotic cell death. In this model, ionising radiations induce hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) stabilisation which is inhibited by silencing ILK. Moreover, silencing HIF-1α in U87 cells reduced the surviving fraction after 2 Gy irradiation by increasing cell sensitivity to radiation-induced mitotic cell death and centrosome amplification. Because it is known that HIF-1α controls survivin expression, we then looked at the ILK silencing effect on survivin expression. We show that survivin expression is decreased in U87shILK cells. Furthermore, treating U87 cells with the specific survivin suppressor YM155 significantly increased the percentage of giant multinucleated cells, centrosomal overduplication and thus U87 cell radiosensitivity. In consequence, we decipher here a new pathway of glioma radioresistance via the regulation of radiation-induced centrosome duplication and therefore mitotic cell death by ILK, HIF-1α and survivin. This work identifies new targets in glioblastoma with the intention of radiosensitising these highly radioresistant tumours. PMID:23747271

  18. Repression by ARP-1 sensitizes apolipoprotein AI gene responsiveness to RXR alpha and retinoic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Widom, R L; Rhee, M; Karathanasis, S K

    1992-01-01

    The gene coding for apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), a lipid binding protein involved in the transport of cholesterol and other lipids in the plasma, is expressed in mammals predominantly in the liver and the intestine. Liver-specific expression is controlled by synergistic interactions between transcription factors bound to three separate sites, sites A (-214 to -192), B (-169 to -146), and C (-134 to -119), within a powerful liver-specific enhancer located between nucleotides -222 and -110 upstream of the apoAI gene transcription start site (+1). Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that ARP-1, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily whose ligand is unknown (orphan receptor), binds to site A and represses transcription of the apoAI gene in liver cells. In a more recent series of experiments, we found that site A is a retinoic acid (RA) response element that responds preferentially to the recently identified RA-responsive receptor RXR alpha over the previously characterized RA receptors RAR alpha and RAR beta. In this study we investigated the combined effects of ARP-1 and RXR alpha on apoAI gene expression in liver cells. Transient transfection assays showed that site A is necessary and sufficient for RXR alpha-mediated transactivation of the apoAI gene basal promoter in human hepatoma HepG2 cells in the presence of RA and that this transactivation is abolished by increasing amounts of cotransfected ARP-1. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and subsequent Scatchard analysis of the data revealed that ARP-1 and RXR alpha bind to site A with similar affinities. These assays also revealed that ARP-1 and RXR alpha bind to site A as heterodimers with an affinity approximately 10 times greater than that of either ARP-1 or RXR alpha alone. Further transfection assays in HepG2 cells, using as a reporter a construct containing the apoAI gene basal promoter and its upstream regulatory elements (including site A) in their natural context, revealed that RXR alpha

  19. Cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides increase macrophage CD36 gene expression via PPAR{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Jedidi, Iness; Couturier, Martine; Therond, Patrice; Gardes-Albert, Monique; Legrand, Alain; Barouki, Robert; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Aggerbeck, Martine . E-mail: Martine.Aggerbeck@univ-paris5.fr

    2006-12-22

    The uptake of oxidized LDL by macrophages is a key event in the development of atherosclerosis. The scavenger receptor CD36 is one major receptor that internalizes oxidized LDL. In differentiated human macrophages, we compared the regulation of CD36 expression by copper-oxidized LDL or their products. Only oxidized derivatives of cholesteryl ester (CEOOH) increased the amount of CD36 mRNA (2.5-fold). Both oxidized LDL and CEOOH treatment increased two to fourfold the transcription of promoters containing peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor responsive elements (PPRE) in the presence of PPAR{alpha} or {gamma}. Electrophoretic-mobility-shift-assays with nuclear extracts prepared from macrophages treated by either oxidized LDL or CEOOH showed increased binding of PPAR{alpha} to the CD36 gene promoter PPRE. In conclusion, CEOOH present in oxidized LDL increase CD36 gene expression in a pathway involving PPAR{alpha}.

  20. The PPAR alpha gene is associated with triglyceride, low-density cholesterol and inflammation marker response to fenofibrate intervention: the GOLDN study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR Alpha) agonist, fenofibrate favorably modulates dyslipidemia and inflammation markers, which are associated with cardiovascular risk. To determine whether variation in the PPAR Alpha receptor gene was associated with lipid and inflammatory ...

  1. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha and bile acids regulate human concentrative nucleoside transporter-1 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Klein, Kerstin; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A; Wagner, Martin; Trauner, Michael; Eloranta, Jyrki J

    2009-04-01

    The concentrative nucleoside transporter-1 (CNT1) is a member of the solute carrier 28 (SLC28) gene family and is expressed in the liver, intestine, and kidneys. CNT1 mediates the uptake of naturally occurring pyrimidine nucleosides, but also nucleoside analogs used in anticancer and antiviral therapy. Thus expression levels of CNT1 may affect the pharmacokinetics of these drugs and the outcome of drug therapy. Because little is known about the transcriptional regulation of human CNT1 gene expression, we have characterized the CNT1 promoter with respect to DNA response elements and their binding factors. The transcriptional start site of the CNT1 gene was determined by 5'-RACE. In silico analysis revealed the existence of three putative binding sites for the nuclear receptor hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha (HNF-4alpha) within the CNT1 promoter. A luciferase reporter gene construct containing the CNT1 promoter region was transactivated by HNF-4alpha in human cell lines derived from the liver, intestine, and kidneys. Consistent with this, we showed in electromobility shift assays that HNF-4alpha specifically binds to two conserved direct repeat-1 motifs within the proximal CNT1 promoter. In cotransfection experiments, the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha further increased, whereas the bile acid-inducible corepressor small heterodimer partner reduced, HNF-4alpha-dependent CNT1 promoter activity. Consistent with the latter phenomenon, CNT1 mRNA expression levels were suppressed in primary human hepatocytes upon bile acid treatment. Supporting the physiological relevance and species conservation of this effect, ileal Cnt1 mRNA expression was decreased upon bile acid feeding and increased upon bile duct ligation in mice. PMID:19228884

  2. Structure-function of human 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases: genes and proteins.

    PubMed

    Penning, T M; Jin, Y; Steckelbroeck, S; Lanisnik Rizner, T; Lewis, M

    2004-02-27

    Four soluble human 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) isoforms exist which are aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily members. They share 86% sequence identity and correspond to: AKR1C1 (20 alpha(3 alpha)-HSD); AKR1C2 (type 3 3 alpha-HSD and bile-acid binding protein); AKR1C3 (type 2 3 alpha-HSD and type 5 17 beta-HSD); and AKR1C4 (type 1 3 alpha-HSD). Each of the homogeneous recombinant enzymes are plastic and display 3-, 17- and 20-ketosteroid reductase and 3 alpha- 17 beta- and 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidase activities with different k(cat)/K(m) ratios in vitro. The crystal structure of the AKR1C2.NADP(+).ursodeoxycholate complex provides an explanation for this functional plasticity. Ursodeoxycholate is bound backwards (D-ring in the A-ring position) and upside down (beta-face of steroid inverted) relative to the position of 3-ketosteroids in the related rat liver 3 alpha-HSD (AKR1C9) structure. Transient transfection indicates that in COS-1 cells, AKR1C enzymes function as ketosteroid reductases due to potent inhibition of their oxidase activity by NADPH. By acting as ketosteroid reductases they may regulate the occupancy of the androgen, estrogen and progesterone receptors. RT-PCR showed that AKRs are discretely localized. AKR1C4 is virtually liver specific, while AKR1C2 and AKR1C3 are dominantly expressed in prostate and mammary gland. AKR1C genes are highly conserved in structure and may be transcriptionally regulated by steroid hormones and stress. PMID:15026176

  3. Cloning, characterization, and expression of two alpha-amylase genes from Aspergillus niger var. awamori.

    PubMed

    Korman, D R; Bayliss, F T; Barnett, C C; Carmona, C L; Kodama, K H; Royer, T J; Thompson, S A; Ward, M; Wilson, L J; Berka, R M

    1990-03-01

    Using synthetic oligonucleotide probes, we cloned genomic DNA sequences encoding an alpha-amylase gene from Aspergillus niger var. awamori (A. awamori) on a 5.8 kb EcoRI fragment. Hybridization experiments, using a portion of this cloned fragment to probe DNA from A. awamori, suggested the presence of two alpha-amylase gene copies which were subsequently cloned as 7 kb (designated as amyA) and 4 kb (amyB) HindIII fragments. DNA sequence analysis of the amyA and amyB genes revealed the following: (1) Both genes are arranged as nine exons and eight introns; (2) The nucleotide sequences of amyA and amyB are identical throughout all but the last few nucleotides of their respective coding regions; (3) The amyA and amyB genes from A. awamori share extensive homology (greater than or equal to 98% identity) with the genes encoding Taka-amylase from A. oryzae. In order to test whether both amyA and amyB were functional in the genome, we constructed vectors containing gene fusions of either amyA and amyB to bovine prochymosin cDNA and used these vectors to transform A. awamori. Transformants which contained either the amyA- or amyB-prochymosin gene fusions produced extracellular chymosin, suggesting that both genes are functional. PMID:2340591

  4. Hypermethylation of XIAP-associated factor 1, a putative tumor suppressor gene from the 17p13.2 locus, in human gastric adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Byun, Do-Sun; Cho, Kyucheol; Ryu, Byung-Kyu; Lee, Min-Goo; Kang, Min-Ju; Kim, Hak-Ryul; Chi, Sung-Gil

    2003-11-01

    X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) is the most potent member of the IAP family that exerts antiapoptotic effects by interfering with the activities of caspases. Recently, XIAP-associated factor 1 (XAF1) and two mitochondrial proteins, Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2, have been identified to negatively regulate the caspase-inhibiting activity of XIAP. To explore the candidacy of XAF1, Smac/DIABLO, and HtrA2 as a tumor suppressor in gastric tumorigenesis, we investigated the expression and mutation status of the genes in 123 gastric tissues and 15 cancer cell lines. Whereas Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2 transcripts were normally expressed in all cancer specimens we examined, XAF1 transcript was not expressed or present at extremely low levels in 40% (6 of 15) of cancer cell lines and in 23% (20 of 87) of primary carcinomas. Abnormal reduction of XAF1 expression showed a strong correlation with stage and grade of tumors, and a tumor-specific down-regulation of XAF1 was observed in 45% (9 of 20) of matched sets. Unlike XAF1, XIAP expression exhibited no detectable alteration in cancers. Whereas loss of heterozygosity within the XAF1 region or somatic mutations of the gene was not detected, expression of XAF1 transcript was reactivated in all nonexpressor cell lines after 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment. The 5' upstream region of the XAF1 gene encompasses no gastric cell-rich region that rigorously satisfies the formal criteria for CpG islands. However, bisulfite DNA sequencing analysis for 34 CpG sites in the promoter region revealed a strong association between hypermethylation and gene silencing. Moreover, transcriptional silencing of XAF1 was tightly associated with hypermethylation of seven CpGs located in the 5' proximal region (nucleotides -23 to -234). Additionally, loss or abnormal reduction of XAF1 expression was found to inversely correlate with p53 mutations, suggesting that epigenetic inactivation of XAF1 and mutational alteration of p53 might be mutually exclusive

  5. The association between hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α gene G1790A polymorphism and cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 28 case–control studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a key transcription factor that regulates the cellular adaptation to hypoxia. HIF-1α gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are implicated to be associated with cancer risks. However, results from the published studies remained inconclusive. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of HIF-1α gene G1790A polymorphism with cancer using meta-analysis. Methods A comprehensive search in Pubmed, EMBASE and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) was conducted to identify all publications on the association between this polymorphism and cancer until December 13, 2013. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to evaluate the strength of this association. Association between lymph node metastasis and G1790A was also investigated. Results A total of 5985 cases and 6809 controls in 28 case–control studies were included in this meta-analysis. The A allele of HIF-1α gene G1790A polymorphism was found to be significantly associated with increased cancer risk in four genetic models: AA + AG vs. GG (dominant model OR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.27-2.69), AA vs. AG + GG (recessive model OR = 5.69, 95% CI = 3.87-8.37), AA vs. GG (homozygote comparison OR = 6.63, 95% CI = 4.49-9.79), and AG vs. GG (heterozygote comparison OR = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.53-3.75). This variant was also significantly associated with higher risks of pancreatic cancer, head and neck cancer, lung cancer and renal cell carcinoma. However, the A allele of G1790A was not significantly associated with increased lymph node metastasis in the dominant model by overall meta-analysis. Conclusions Our meta-analysis suggests that the substitution of G with A of HIF-1α gene G1790A polymorphism is a risk factor of cancer, especially for pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma and head and neck cancer. The association is significant in Asian, Caucasian population and public based

  6. Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1 Regulates the Expression of the Organic Cation Transporter 1 via Binding to an Evolutionary Conserved Region in Intron 1 of the OCT1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Valerie P.; Bokelmann, Kristin; Ramírez, Jacqueline; Jobst, Karoline; Ratain, Mark J.; Brockmöller, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    The organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1), also known as solute carrier family 22 member 1, is strongly and specifically expressed in the human liver. Here we show that the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 (HNF1) regulates OCT1 transcription and contributes to the strong, liver-specific expression of OCT1. Bioinformatic analyses revealed strong conservation of HNF1 binding motifs in an evolutionary conserved region (ECR) in intron 1 of the OCT1 gene. Electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed the specific binding of HNF1 to the intron 1 ECR. In reporter gene assays performed in HepG2 cells, the intron 1 ECR increased SV40 promoter activity by 22-fold and OCT1 promoter activity by 13-fold. The increase was reversed when the HNF1 binding sites in the intron 1 ECR were mutated or the endogenous HNF1α expression was downregulated with small interfering RNA. Following HNF1α overexpression in Huh7 cells, the intron 1 ECR increased SV40 promoter activity by 11-fold and OCT1 promoter activity by 6-fold. Without HNF1α overexpression, the increases were only 3- and 2-fold, respectively. Finally, in human liver samples, high HNF1 expression was significantly correlated with high OCT1 expression (r = 0.48, P = 0.002, n = 40). In conclusion, HNF1 is a strong regulator of OCT1 expression. It remains to be determined whether genetic variants, disease conditions, or drugs that affect HNF1 activity may affect the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of OCT1-transported drugs such as morphine, tropisetron, ondansetron, tramadol, and metformin. Beyond OCT1, this study demonstrates the validity and usefulness of interspecies comparisons in the discovery of functionally relevant genomic sequences. PMID:23922447

  7. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 regulates the expression of the organic cation transporter 1 via binding to an evolutionary conserved region in intron 1 of the OCT1 gene.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Valerie P; Bokelmann, Kristin; Ramírez, Jacqueline; Jobst, Karoline; Ratain, Mark J; Brockmöller, Jürgen; Tzvetkov, Mladen V

    2013-10-01

    The organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1), also known as solute carrier family 22 member 1, is strongly and specifically expressed in the human liver. Here we show that the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 (HNF1) regulates OCT1 transcription and contributes to the strong, liver-specific expression of OCT1. Bioinformatic analyses revealed strong conservation of HNF1 binding motifs in an evolutionary conserved region (ECR) in intron 1 of the OCT1 gene. Electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed the specific binding of HNF1 to the intron 1 ECR. In reporter gene assays performed in HepG2 cells, the intron 1 ECR increased SV40 promoter activity by 22-fold and OCT1 promoter activity by 13-fold. The increase was reversed when the HNF1 binding sites in the intron 1 ECR were mutated or the endogenous HNF1α expression was downregulated with small interfering RNA. Following HNF1α overexpression in Huh7 cells, the intron 1 ECR increased SV40 promoter activity by 11-fold and OCT1 promoter activity by 6-fold. Without HNF1α overexpression, the increases were only 3- and 2-fold, respectively. Finally, in human liver samples, high HNF1 expression was significantly correlated with high OCT1 expression (r = 0.48, P = 0.002, n = 40). In conclusion, HNF1 is a strong regulator of OCT1 expression. It remains to be determined whether genetic variants, disease conditions, or drugs that affect HNF1 activity may affect the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of OCT1-transported drugs such as morphine, tropisetron, ondansetron, tramadol, and metformin. Beyond OCT1, this study demonstrates the validity and usefulness of interspecies comparisons in the discovery of functionally relevant genomic sequences. PMID:23922447

  8. A polymorphism in the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene is associated with postpartum resumption of ovarian cyclicity in Holstein-Friesian cows under grazing conditions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) gene is considered as a promising candidate for the identification of polymorphisms affecting cattle performance. The objectives of the current study were to determine the association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) IGF-1/SnaBI with fertility, milk production and body condition traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows under grazing conditions. Methods Seventy multiparous cows from a commercial herd were genotyped for the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI. Fertility measures evaluated were: interval to commencement of luteal activity (CLA), calving to first service (CFS) and calving to conception (CC) intervals. Milk production and body condition score were also evaluated. The study period extended from 3 wk before calving to the fourth month of lactation. Results and discussion Frequencies of the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI alleles A and B were 0.59 and 0.41, respectively. Genotype frequencies were 0.31, 0.54 and 0.14 for AA, AB and BB, respectively. Cows with the AA genotype presented an early CLA and were more likely to resume ovarian cyclicity in the early postpartum than AB and BB ones. No effect of the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI genotype was evidenced on body condition change over the experimental period, suggesting that energy balance is not responsible for the outcome of postpartum ovarian resumption in this study. Traditional fertility measures were not affected by the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI. Conclusion To our knowledge this is the first report describing an association of the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI with an endocrine fertility measure like CLA in cattle. Results herein remark the important role of the IGF-1gene in the fertility of dairy cows on early lactation and make the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI an interesting candidate marker for genetic improvement of fertility in dairy cattle. PMID:23409757

  9. Association between Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Gene rs12423791 or rs6214 Polymorphisms and High Myopia: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lan; Du, Xueying; Lu, Ciyong; Zhang, Wei-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of insulin-like growth factor 1 gene rs12423791 and rs6214 polymorphisms with high myopia. Methods An electronic search was conducted on PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and the Chinese Biological Abstract Database for articles published prior to May 6, 2014. A meta-analysis was performed using Revman 5.1 and Stata 12.0, and the odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated in fixed or random effects models based on the results of the Q test. The subgroup analysis was conducted on the basis of the various regions, the sensitivity analysis was also performed to evaluate the stability of the results, and the publication bias was evaluated by a funnel plot and Egger’s linear regression analysis. Results This comprehensive meta-analysis included 2808 high myopia patients and 2778 controls from five unrelated studies. The results demonstrated that the significant association was not present in any genetic models between IGF-1 rs12423791 or rs6214 and high myopia. However, subgroup analysis indicated that rs12423791 polymorphism was associated with high myopia in the Chinese populations in the allelic contrast model (C vs. G: OR=1.24, 95% CI=1.04-1.48 in the fixed-effects model), the dominant model (CC+CG vs. GG: OR=1.40, 95% CI=1.16-1.69 in the fixed-effects model), and the codominant model (CG vs. GG: OR=1.37, 95% CI= 1.12-1.68 in the fixed-effects model). Additionally, none of the individual studies significantly affected the association between IGF-1 rs12423791 and high myopia, according to sensitivity analysis. Conclusion This meta-analysis shows that IGF-1 rs12423791 or rs6214 gene polymorphism is not associated with high myopia. PMID:26076017

  10. Molecular cloning, pathologically-correlated expression and functional characterization of the colonystimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) gene from a teleost, Plecoglossus altivelis

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, Qiang; LU, Xin-Jiang; LI, Ming-Yun; CHEN, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) is an important regulator of monocytes/macrophages (MO/MΦ). Although several CSF-1R genes have been identified in teleosts, the precise role of CSF- 1R in ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) remains unclear. In this study, we characterized the CSF-1R homologue from P. altivelis, and named it PaCSF-1R. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that PaCSF-1R was most closely related to that of Japanese ricefish (Oryzias latipes). Tissue distribution and expression analysis showed that the PaCSF-1R transcript was mainly expressed in the head kidney-derived MO/MΦ, spleen, and head kidney, and its expression was significantly altered in various tissues upon Vibrio anguillarum infection. After PaCSF-1R neutralization for 48 h, the phagocytic activity of MO/MΦ was significantly decreased, suggesting that PaCSF-1R plays a role in regulating the phagocytic function of ayu MO/MΦ. PMID:27029867

  11. Comprehensive sequence analysis of the NR5A1 gene encoding steroidogenic factor 1 in a large group of infertile males

    PubMed Central

    Röpke, Albrecht; Tewes, Ann-Christin; Gromoll, Jörg; Kliesch, Sabine; Wieacker, Peter; Tüttelmann, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) protein, encoded by the NR5A1 gene, plays a central role in gonadal development and steroidogenesis. Mutations in NR5A1 were first described in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency and 46,XY disorders of sexual development and later also in men with hypospadias, bilateral anorchia and micropenis and women with primary ovarian insufficiency. Recently, heterozygous missense mutations were found in 4% of infertile men with unexplained reduced sperm counts living in France, but all mutation carriers were of non-Caucasian ancestry. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive NR5A1 sequence analysis in 488 well-characterised predominantly Caucasian patients with azoo- or severe oligozoospermia. Two-hundred-thirty-seven men with normal semen parameters were sequenced as controls. In addition to several synonymous variants of unclear pathogenicity, three heterozygous missense mutations predicted to be damaging to SF1 protein function were identified. The andrological phenotype in infertile but otherwise healthy mutation carriers seems variable. In conclusion, mutations altering SF1 protein function and causing spermatogenic failure are also found in men of German origin, but the prevalence seems markedly lower than in other populations. PMID:23299922

  12. Localisation of cis elements in the promoter of a wheat alpha-Amy2 gene.

    PubMed

    Huttly, A K; Phillips, A L; Tregear, J W

    1992-09-01

    A functional analysis of the promoter from the wheat alpha-amylase gene alpha-Amy2/54 is described. Mutant alpha-Amy2/54 promoters containing replacements or deletions were constructed and their ability to direct expression of the reporter gene beta-glucuronidase (GUS) in gibberellin-responsive oat aleurone protoplasts analysed. Chimaeric promoters using regions of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S and alpha-Amy2/54 promoters were also analysed. The results suggest that at least three regions within the alpha-Amy2/54 promoter contain cis elements that are necessary for high-level gibberellin-regulated transcription. Fusion of 1.8 kb of promoter sequence upstream from -117 bp to a minimal (-55 CaMV 35S) promoter gave rise to hormone-independent expression implying that the region 3' to -117 bp contains an element which represses transcription in the absence of gibberellin or presence of abscisic acid. PMID:1511136

  13. Kidney development and gene expression in the HIF2alpha knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Steenhard, Brooke M; Freeburg, Paul B; Isom, Kathryn; Stroganova, Larysa; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan; Hudson, Billy G; St John, Patricia L; Zelenchuk, Adrian; Abrahamson, Dale R

    2007-04-01

    The hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-2 (HIF2), a heterodimer composed of HIF2alpha and HIF1beta subunits, drives expression of genes essential for vascularization, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2, Flk-1). Here, we used a HIF2alpha/LacZ transgenic mouse to define patterns of HIF2alpha transcription during kidney development and maturation. Our results from embryonic heterozygotes showed HIF2alpha/LacZ expression by apparently all renal endothelial cells. At 4 weeks of age, glomerular mesangial and vascular smooth muscle cells were also positive together with endothelial cells. These expression patterns were confirmed by electron microscopy using Bluo-gal as a beta-galactosidase substrate. Small numbers of glomerular and tubular epithelial cells were also positive at all stages examined. Light and electron microscopic examination of kidneys from HIF2alpha null embryos showed no defects in renal vascular development or nephrogenesis. Similarly, the same amounts of Flk-1 protein were seen on Western blots of kidney extracts from homozygous and heterozygous HIF2alpha mutants. To examine responsiveness of HIF2alpha null kidneys to hypoxia, embryonic day 13.5 metanephroi were cultured in room air or in mild (5% O(2)) hypoxia. For both heterozygous and null samples, VEGF mRNA levels doubled when metanephroi were cultured in mild hypoxia. Anterior chamber grafts of embryonic HIF2alpha knockouts were morphologically indistinguishable from heterozygous grafts. Endothelial markers, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule and BsLB4, as well as glomerular epithelial markers, GLEPP1 and WT-1, were all expressed appropriately. Finally, we undertook quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction of kidneys from HIF2alpha null embryos and wild-type siblings and found no compensatory up-regulation of HIF1alpha or -3alpha. Our results show that, although HIF2alpha was widely transcribed by kidney endothelium and vascular

  14. Involvement of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 in the regulation of the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A7 (UGT1A7) gene in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Metz, R P; Auyeung, D J; Kessler, F K; Ritter, J K

    2000-08-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A7 (UGT1A7) is a major UGT contributing to the glucuronidation of xenobiotic phenols in rats. Its expression in rat liver is tightly regulated, with low constitutive and high inducible expression in response to aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands and oltipraz. Previously, we reported the absence of 3-methylcholanthrene- or oltipraz-responsive elements in the 1.6-kbp region flanking the UGT1A7 promoter. However, potential binding sites were noted for several liver-enriched transcription factors. Here we show that deletion of the hepatic nuclear factor (HNF)3, HNF4, and CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-like binding sites had no effect on the expression of a UGT1A7 reporter plasmid, p(-965/+56)1A7-Luc, in primary rat hepatocytes. The full activity of the promoter was contained in the region between bases -157 and +76. Two sites of binding by rat liver nuclear proteins were detected in this region by DNase footprinting. PR-1 corresponded to the HNF1-like binding site between bases -52 and -38, whereas PR-2 was located between -30 to -6. Gel retardation studies supported the presence of HNF1alpha in the PR-1 DNA-liver nuclear protein complex. Mutation of PR-1 inhibited binding in the gel shift assay, prevented activation by overexpressed HNF1 in human embryonic kidney cells, and reduced by >80% the maximal luciferase activities expressed from basal and 3-methylcholanthrene-responsive UGT1A7 gene reporter constructs in primary rat hepatocytes. These data provide evidence for an important stimulatory role of HNF1 in promoting UGT1A7 gene expression in rat liver. PMID:10908299

  15. Concomitant alpha- and gamma-sarcoglycan deficiencies in a Turkish boy with a novel deletion in the alpha-sarcoglycan gene.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Gulden; Tosun Yildirim, Hulya; Gokben, Sarenur; Serdaroglu, Gul; Hazan, Filiz; Yararbas, Kanay; Tukun, Ajlan

    2014-01-01

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2D (LGMD-2D) is caused by autosomal recessive defects in the alpha-sarcoglycan gene located on chromosome 17q21. In this study, we present a child with alpha-sarcoglycanopathy and describe a novel deletion in the alpha-sarcoglycan gene. A 5-year-old boy had a very high serum creatinine phosphokinase level, which was determined incidentally, and a negative molecular test for the dystrophin gene. Muscle biopsy showed dystrophic features. Immunohistochemistry showed that there was diminished expression of alpha- and gamma-sarcoglycans. DNA analysis revealed a novel 7 bp homozygous deletion in exon 3 of the alpha-sarcoglycan gene. His parents were consanguineous heterozygous carriers of the same deletion. We believe this is the first confirmed case of primary alpha-sarcoglycanopathy with a novel deletion in Turkey. In addition, this study demonstrated that both muscle biopsy and DNA analysis remain important methods for the differential diagnosis of muscular dystrophies because dystrophinopathies and sarcoglycanopathies are so similar. PMID:25050186

  16. Analyses of alpha/beta-type gliadin genes from diploid and hexaploid wheats.

    PubMed

    Reeves, C D; Okita, T W

    1987-01-01

    The alpha/beta-gliadin genes isolated from both hexaploid wheat (cv. Yamhill) and the diploid A genome progenitor Triticum urartu had remarkably similar sequences and differ by only a few point mutations. Primer extension analysis indicated that the transcriptional start points for individual genes in the family cluster within a few nucleotides. Comparison of the promoter region of several alpha/beta-gliadin and B-hordein genes reveals two conserved regions at about -130 and -250 bp. DNA from the hexaploid cultivars, Cheyenne and Chinese Spring, and the diploid progenitors T. urartu and Aegilops squarrosa was analysed by Southern blotting. Restriction fragment lengths of the alpha/beta-gliadin genes varied only slightly between the various wheats, although the overall copy number varied significantly. A region between approx. -1700 and -700 bp upstream from the TATA box was highly repeated in all three wheat genomes. For the hexaploid-derived gene, over 1700 bp of sequence upstream from the TATA box was determined, revealing an additional open reading frame between approx. -1550 and -1250 bp relative to the gliadin TATA box. Northern blot analysis indicated that RNA homologous to this repeated sequence family was present only in developing seed and accumulated to a maximum at late stages of maturation. PMID:3038689

  17. Regulation of cytochrome b5 gene transcription by Sp3, GATA-6, and steroidogenic factor 1 in human adrenal NCI-H295A cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ningwu; Dardis, Andrea; Miller, Walter L

    2005-08-01

    Sex steroid synthesis requires the 17,20 lyase activity of P450c17, which is enhanced by cytochrome b5, acting as an allosteric factor to promote association of P450c17 with its electron donor, P450 oxidoreductase. Cytochrome b5 is preferentially expressed in the fetal adrenal and postadrenarchal adrenal zona reticularis; the basis of this tissue-specific, developmentally regulated transcription of the b5 gene is unknown. We found b5 expression in all cell lines tested, including human adrenal NCI-H295A cells, where its mRNA is reduced by cAMP and phorbol ester. Multiple sites, between -83 and -122 bp upstream from the first ATG, initiate transcription. Deletional mutagenesis localized all detectable promoter activity within -327/+15, and deoxyribonuclease I footprinting identified protein binding at -72/-107 and -157/-197. DNA segments -65/-40, -114/-70 and -270/-245 fused to TK32/Luc yielded significant activity, and mutations in their Sp sites abolished that activity; electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that Sp3, but not Sp1, binds to these Sp sites. Nuclear factor 1 (NF-1) and GATA-6, but not GATA-4 bind to the NF-1 and GATA sites in -157/-197. In Drosophila S2 cells, Sp3 increased -327/Luc activity 58-fold, but Sp1 and NF-1 isoforms were inactive. Mutating the three Sp sites ablated activity without or with cotransfection of Sp1/Sp3. In NCI-H295A cells, mutating the three Sp sites reduced activity to 39%; mutating the Sp, GATA, and NF-1 sites abolished activity. In JEG-3 cells, GATA-4 was inactive, GATA-6 augmented -327/Luc activity to 231% over the control, and steroidogenic factor 1 augmented activity to 655% over the control; these activities required the Sp and NF-1 sites. Transcription of cytochrome b5 shares many features with the regulation of P450c17, whose activity it enhances. PMID:15831526

  18. Amelioration of laminin-alpha2-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy by somatic gene transfer of miniagrin.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Chunping; Li, Jianbin; Zhu, Tong; Draviam, Romesh; Watkins, Simon; Ye, Xiaojing; Chen, Chunlian; Li, Juan; Xiao, Xiao

    2005-08-23

    Congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) is characterized by severe muscle wasting, premature death in early childhood, and lack of effective treatment. Most of the CMD cases are caused by genetic mutations of laminin-alpha2, which is essential for the structural integrity of muscle extracellular matrix. Here, we report that somatic gene delivery of a structurally unrelated protein, a miniature version of agrin, functionally compensates for laminin-alpha2 deficiency in the murine models of CMD. Adeno-associated virus-mediated overexpression of miniagrin restored the structural integrity of myofiber basal lamina, inhibited interstitial fibrosis, and ameliorated dystrophic pathology. Furthermore, systemic gene delivery of miniagrin into multiple vital muscles significantly improved whole body growth and motility and quadrupled the lifespan (50% survival) of the dystrophic mice. Thus, our study demonstrated the efficacy of somatic gene therapy in a mouse model of CMD. PMID:16103356

  19. Multiple octamer binding sites in the promoter region of the bovine alpha s2-casein gene.

    PubMed Central

    Groenen, M A; Dijkhof, R J; van der Poel, J J; van Diggelen, R; Verstege, E

    1992-01-01

    Using a set of overlapping oligonucleotides from the promoter region of the bovine alpha s2-casein gene we have identified two nuclear factors which probably are involved in expression of this gene and the related calcium sensitive alpha s1- and beta-casein genes. One of these factors which was present in extracts of all tissues that have been tested including Hela cells turned out to be the octamer binding protein OCT-1. Oct-1 binds with different affinity to 4 sites at positions centred around -480, -260, -210 and -50. The strongest of these 4 binding sites, the one around position -50, is highly conserved in all calcium sensitive caseins of mouse, rat, rabbit and cattle. The other nuclear factor (MGF, mammary gland factor) which is specifically expressed in the mammary gland, binds to a site around position -90. This binding site is also highly conserved in all calcium sensitive caseins of mouse, rat, rabbit and cattle. Images PMID:1508722

  20. The bean. alpha. -amylase inhibitor is encoded by a lectin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.; Altabella, T.; Chrispeels, M.J. )

    1989-04-01

    The common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, contains an inhibitor of insect and mammalian {alpha}-amylases that does not inhibit plant {alpha}-amylase. This inhibitor functions as an anti-feedant or seed-defense protein. We purified this inhibitor by affinity chromatography and found that it consists of a series of glycoforms of two polypeptides (Mr 14,000-19,000). Partial amino acid sequencing was carried out, and the sequences obtained are identical with portions of the derived amino acid sequence of a lectin-like gene. This lectin gene encodes a polypeptide of MW 28,000, and the primary in vitro translation product identified by antibodies to the {alpha}-amylase inhibitor has the same size. Co- and posttranslational processing of this polypeptide results in glycosylated polypeptides of 14-19 kDa. Our interpretation of these results is that the bean lectins constitute a gene family that encodes diverse plant defense proteins, including phytohemagglutinin, arcelin and {alpha}-amylase inhibitor.

  1. A functional polymorphism of the TNF-{alpha} gene that is associated with type 2 DM

    SciTech Connect

    Susa, Shinji; Daimon, Makoto Sakabe, Jun-Ichi; Sato, Hidenori; Oizumi, Toshihide; Karasawa, Shigeru; Wada, Kiriko; Jimbu, Yumi; Kameda, Wataru; Emi, Mitsuru; Muramatsu, Masaaki; Kato, Takeo

    2008-05-09

    To examine the association of the tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) gene region with type 2 diabetes (DM), 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the region were analyzed. The initial study using a sample set (148 cases vs. 227 controls) showed a significant association of the SNP IVS1G + 123A of the TNF-{alpha} gene with DM (p = 0.0056). Multiple logistic regression analysis using an enlarged sample set (225 vs. 716) revealed the significant association of the SNP with DM independently of any clinical traits examined (OR: 1.49, p = 0.014). The functional relevance of the SNP were examined by the electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from the U937 and NIH3T3 cells and luciferase assays in these cells with Simian virus 40 promoter- and TNF-{alpha} promoter-reporter gene constructs. The functional analyses showed that YY1 transcription factor bound allele-specifically to the SNP region and, the IVS1 + 123A allele had an increase in luciferase expression compared with the G allele.

  2. Integration and expression of alpha-amylase and endoglucanase genes in the Lactobacillus plantarum chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Scheirlinck, T; Mahillon, J; Joos, H; Dhaese, P; Michiels, F

    1989-01-01

    A commercial grass silage starter strain of Lactobacillus plantarum was transformed by high-frequency electroporation with plasmids containing an alpha-amylase gene from Bacillus stearothermophilus and an endoglucanase gene from Clostridium thermocellum. Both genes were expressed from their native regulatory signals, and active enzymes were found in the supernatant. However, the segregational stability of the transforming plasmids was rather low. Therefore, the transforming genes were inserted in the L. plantarum chromosome by means of single homologous recombination. In the majority of the transformants, this led to extremely stable segregation and expression of the transforming genes, without generating secondary mutations in the host. Increased selective pressure led to tandem amplification of the transforming DNA. The transformed strains demonstrated the ability of L. plantarum to express heterologous gene products; they can be used to detect the inoculum in silage ecology studies; and they demonstrate the feasibility of engineering truly cellulolytic silage starter bacteria. Images PMID:2679379

  3. Do HLA genes play a prominent role in determining T cell receptor V{alpha} segment usage in humans?

    SciTech Connect

    Gulwani-Akolkar, B.; Shi, B.; Akolkar, P.N.

    1995-04-15

    Previous studies in humans have demonstrated that HLA genes can profoundly influence the TCR V{beta} repertoire. To similarly assess the influence of HLA genes on the TCR V{alpha} segment repertoire, the V{alpha} repertoires of 12 individuals from three unrelated families were determined by quantitative PCR. Each family contained at least one pair of HLA-identical and -nonidentical siblings. Repertoire analysis was performed on purified CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} cells by using V{alpha}-specific primers. We were unable to demonstrate more similar V{alpha} repertoires between HLA-identical siblings than between HLA-nonidentical siblings. In contrast, when a similar analysis was performed on the same individuals for the V{beta} repertoire, HLA-identical siblings were found to have significantly more similar repertoires than HLA-nonidentical siblings. Furthermore, both the V{alpha} and V{beta} repertoires of monozygotic twins showed striking similarity. Despite our inability to shown an influence of HLA genes on the V{alpha} repertoire, we did observe a very strong skewing in terms of preferential expression on CD4{sup +} or CD8{sup +} cells of several V{alpha} segments, notably TCRAV1, -2, -5, -6, -7, -11, -12, and -13. These studies suggest that HLA genes play less of a role in determining V{alpha} segment usage than V{beta}. Nevertheless, the pronounced skewing of V{alpha} segment expression in the CD4{sup +} or CD8{sup +} populations suggests some role for HLA genes in determining the V{alpha} TCR repertoire. Furthermore, the striking similarity of V{alpha} repertoires of identical twins suggests a major role for non-HLA genes in determining the V{alpha} repertoire. 35 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Growth-related gene product {alpha}: A chemotactic cytokine for neutrophils in rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, A.E.; Pope, R.M. |; Shah, M.R.; Hosaka, S.

    1995-10-01

    Leukocyte recruitment is critical in the inflammation seen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To determine whether the chemokine growth-related gene product {alpha} (gro{alpha}) plays a role in this process, we examined synovial tissue (ST), synovial fluid (SF), and plasma samples from 102 patients with arthritis. RA SF contained more antigenic gro{alpha} (mean 5.3 {+-} 1.9 ng/ml) than did SFs from either osteoarthritis (OA) or other forms of arthritis (mean 0.1 ng/ml) (p < 0.05). RA plasma contained more gro{alpha} (mean 4.3 {+-} 1.8 ng/ml) than normal plasma (mean 0.1 ng/ml) (p < 0.05). RA ST fibroblasts (1.2 x 10{sup 5}/cells/ml RPMI 1640/24 h) produced antigenic gro{alpha} (mean 0.2 {+-} 0.1 ng/ml), and this production was increased significantly upon incubation with TNF-{alpha} (mean 1.3 {+-} 0.3 ng/ml) or IL-1{beta} (mean 2.3 {+-} 0.6 ng/ml) (p < 0.05). Cells from RA SF also produced gro{alpha}: neutrophils (PMNs) (10{sup 7} cells/ml/24 h) produced 3.7 {+-} 0.7 ng/ml. RA SF mononuclear cells produced gro{alpha}, particularly upon incubation with LPS or PHA. Immunoreactive ST gro{alpha} was found in greater numbers of RA compared with either OA or normal lining cells, as well as in RA compared with OA subsynovial macrophages (p < 0.05). IL-8 accounted for a mean of 36% of the RA SF chemotactic activity for PMNs, while epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide-78 accounted for 34%, and gro{alpha} for 28%, of this activity. Combined neutralization of all three chemokines in RA SFs resulted in a mean decrease of 50% of the chemotactic activity for PMNs present in the RA SFs. These results indicate that gro{alpha} plays an important role in the ingress of PMNs into the RA joint. 54 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Three NF-kappa B sites in the I kappa B-alpha promoter are required for induction of gene expression by TNF alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, C Y; Kazantsev, A G; Baldwin, A S

    1994-01-01

    NF-kappa B was first identified as a postive regulator which bound to a 10 bp sequence in the first intron of the Ig kappa light chain gene. Further characterization of this transcription factor has revealed that NF-kappa B is kept from binding to its consensus sequence by its inhibitor, IkB-alpha, which retains NF-kappa B in the cytoplasm. Upon receiving various extra- and intracellular signals, I kappa B-alpha is rapidly degraded and NF-kappa B is induced to translocate into the nucleus. This process precedes the rapid induction of I kappa B-alpha mRNA and protein. To understand how I kappa B-alpha is replenished, we have cloned and sequenced the 5' flanking region of the I kappa B-alpha gene and have identified the transcription start site and three NF-kappa B sites in this region. Further characterization of these NF-kappa B sites show that they have different affinities for three specific protein complexes which we identify here to consist of various members of the Rel family. In transient assays, cotransfection with a p65 expression vector is able to activate an I kappa B-alpha promoter-CAT reporter construct and all three NF-kappa B sites are required for full activation of the I kappa B-alpha gene following stimulation with TNF-alpha. Our data confirm a transcriptional autoregulatory loop involved in maintaining appropriate NF-kappa B and I kappa B-alpha levels in the cell. Images PMID:7937093

  6. Cloning and characterization of a third type of human alpha-amylase gene, AMY2B.

    PubMed

    Yokouchi, H; Horii, A; Emi, M; Tomita, N; Doi, S; Ogawa, M; Mori, T; Matsubara, K

    1990-06-15

    We have previously reported concerning the existence of a third type of human alpha-amylase gene, AMY3 [Emi et al., Gene 62 (1988) 229-235; Tomita et al., Gene 76 (1989) 11-18], which is expressed in a lung carcinoid tissue, and differs in nucleotide sequence from the two previously characterized human alpha-amylase genes coding for salivary and pancreatic isozymes, termed AMY1 and AMY2, respectively. Here, we rename this gene AMY2B to coincide with the designation by Gumucio et al. [Mol. Cell Biol. 8 (1988) 1197-1205] and describe its genetic properties as revealed by sequencing studies. It consists of ten major exons whose sequences are highly homologous to those of AMY1 and AMY2. Not only the exons, but also most of the introns seem to be highly conserved, as judged from physical mapping data. The AMY2B gene identified from mRNA in a lung carcinoid tissue has at least two additional untranslated exons in its 5' region; hence the promoter lies far upstream relative to the other two AMY genes. PMID:2401405

  7. Rapid evolution and diversification of mammalian alpha-defensins as revealed by comparative analysis of rodent and primate genes.

    PubMed

    Patil, Amar; Hughes, Austin L; Zhang, Guolong

    2004-12-15

    Mammalian alpha-defensins constitute a family of cysteine-rich, cationic antimicrobial peptides produced by phagocytes and intestinal Paneth cells, playing an important role in innate host defense. Following comprehensive computational searches, here we report the discovery of complete repertoires of the alpha-defensin gene family in the human, chimpanzee, rat, and mouse with new genes identified in each species. The human genome was found to encode a cluster of 10 distinct alpha-defensin genes and pseudogenes expanding 132 kb continuously on chromosome 8p23. Such alpha-defensin loci are also conserved in the syntenic chromosomal regions of chimpanzee, rat, and mouse. Phylogenetic analyses showed formation of two distinct clusters with primate alpha-defensins forming one cluster and rodent enteric alpha-defensins forming the other cluster. Species-specific clustering of genes is evident in nonprimate species but not in the primates. Phylogenetically distinct subsets of alpha-defensins also exist in each species, with most subsets containing multiple members. In addition, natural selection appears to have acted to diversify the functionally active mature defensin region but not signal or prosegment sequences. We concluded that mammalian alpha-defensin genes may have evolved from two separate ancestors originated from beta-defensins. The current repertoires of the alpha-defensin gene family in each species are primarily a result of repeated gene duplication and positive diversifying selection after divergence of mammalian species from each other, except for the primate genes, which were evolved prior to the separation of the primate species. We argue that the presence of multiple, divergent subsets of alpha-defensins in each species may help animals to better cope with different microbial challenges in the ecological niches which they inhabit. PMID:15494476

  8. Promoter activity of the 5'-flanking regions of medaka fish soluble guanylate cyclase alpha1 and beta1 subunit genes.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Takehiro; Suzuki, Norio

    2002-01-01

    We examined the spatial expression pattern of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) soluble guanylate cyclase alpha(1) and beta(1) subunit genes, OlGCS-alpha(1) and OlGCS-beta(1), and characterized the 5'-flanking region required for expression of both genes by introducing various promoter-luciferase fusion-gene constructs into COS-1 cells and medaka fish embryos. The OlGCS-alpha(1) and OlGCS-beta(1) gene transcripts were detected in whole brain and kidney in 7-day and 9-day embryos. Primer-extension analysis demonstrated that there were no differences among various adult organs (brain, eye, kidney, ovary and testis) in the transcription start site of the OlGCS-alpha(1) and OlGCS-beta(1) genes. Neither gene contained the functional TATA box within its 5'-flanking region, and the basal promoter activity was found between nucleotides +33 and +42 in the OlGCS-alpha(1) gene and between nucleotides +146 and +155 in the OlGCS-beta(1) gene. In the assay of medaka fish embryos, the 5'-flanking region of the OlGCS-beta(1) gene exhibited lower promoter activity than that of the OlGCS-alpha(1) gene. In the experiments on dual-luciferase fusion-gene constructs, the 5'-flanking region of the OlGCS-alpha(1) gene connected to the 5'-flanking region of the OlGCS-beta(1) gene was introduced into medaka fish embryos, and the 5'-flanking regions of both subunit genes were shown to mutually influence each other's promoter activity. PMID:11772405

  9. Associations between genetic variants in the promoter region of the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) gene and blood serum IGF1 concentration in Hanwoo cattle.

    PubMed

    Chung, H Y; Choi, Y J; Park, H N; Davis, M E

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the associations between genetic variants in the promoter region of the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) gene and blood serum IGF1 concentration in Hanwoo cattle. Polymerase chain reaction primers were based on GenBank accession No. AF404761 and amplified approximately 533-bp segments. Newly identified sequences were submitted to GenBank (accession No. DQ267493). Sequence analysis revealed that genetic variants were located at a nucleotide position 323 for the nucleotide substitution C/A that was first reported in this study and positions 326-349 for a repeat motif (CA10-11). The allele frequencies of g.323C>A were 0.264 (C) and 0.736 (A) without significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Frequencies of the repeat motif CA(10) and CA(11) were 0.604 and 0.396, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that the genetic variation g.323C>A was significantly associated with blood serum IGF1 concentrations with significant additive genetic effects, whereas no associations were found for the repeat motif. IGF1 concentrations were positively (r = 0.453) and negatively (r = -0.445) correlated with weights in the growing stages (16-21 months) and late fattening stages (22-30 months), respectively. The results of the present study and future genotypic data for Hanwoo beef cattle based on the robust genetic variation of IGF1 will provide critical information for genetic improvement and will have a large impact on commercial markets. PMID:25966067

  10. Regulation of Molecular Chaperone Gene Transcription Involves the Serine Phosphorylation, 14-3-3ɛ Binding, and Cytoplasmic Sequestration of Heat Shock Factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, XiaoZhe; Grammatikakis, Nicholas; Siganou, Aliki; Calderwood, Stuart K.

    2003-01-01

    Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) regulates the transcription of molecular chaperone hsp genes. However, the cellular control mechanisms that regulate HSF1 activity are not well understood. In this study, we have demonstrated for the first time that human HSF1 binds to the essential cell signaling protein 14-3-3ɛ. Binding of HSF1 to 14-3-3ɛ occurs in cells in which extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) is activated and blockade of the ERK pathway by treatment with the specific ERK pathway inhibitor PD98059 in vivo strongly suppresses the binding. We previously showed that ERK1 phosphorylates HSF1 on serine 307 and leads to secondary phosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) on serine 303 within the regulatory domain and that these phosphorylation events repress HSF1. We show here that HSF1 binding to 14-3-3ɛ requires HSF1 phosphorylation on serines 303 and 307. Furthermore, the serine phosphorylation-dependent binding of HSF1 to 14-3-3ɛ results in the transcriptional repression of HSF1 and its sequestration in the cytoplasm. Leptomycin B, a specific inhibitor of nuclear export receptor CRM1, was found to reverse the cytoplasmic sequestration of HSF1 mediated by 14-3-3ɛ, suggesting that CRM1/14-3-3ɛ directed nuclear export plays a major role in repression of HSF1 by the ERK/GSK3/14-3-3ɛ pathway. Our experiments indicate a novel pathway for HSF1 regulation and suggest a mechanism for suppression of its activity during cellular proliferation. PMID:12917326

  11. Muscle-targeted hydrodynamic gene introduction of insulin-like growth factor-1 using polyplex nanomicelle to treat peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Kazuya; Itaka, Keiji; Baba, Miyuki; Uchida, Satoshi; Ishii, Takehiko; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2014-06-10

    The recovery of neurologic function after peripheral nerve injury often remains incomplete because of the prolonged reinnervation process, which leads to skeletal muscle atrophy and articular contracture from disuse over time. To rescue the skeletal muscle and promote functional recovery, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), a potent myogenic factor, was introduced into the muscle by hydrodynamic injection of IGF-1-expressing plasmid DNA using a biocompatible nonviral gene carrier, a polyplex nanomicelle. In a mouse model of sciatic nerve injury, the introduction of IGF-1 into the skeletal muscle of the paralyzed limb effectively alleviated a decrease in muscle weight compared with that in untreated control mice. Histologic analysis of the muscle revealed the IGF-1-expressing plasmid DNA (pDNA) to have a myogenic effect, inducing muscle hypertrophy with the upregulation of the myogenic regulatory factors, myogenin and MyoD. The evaluation of motor function by walking track analysis revealed that the group that received the hydrodynamic injection of IGF-1-expressing pDNA using the polyplex nanomicelle had significantly early recovery of motor function compared with groups receiving negative control pDNA and untreated controls. Early recovery of sensation in the distal area of sciatic nerve injury was also induced by the introduction of IGF-1-expressing pDNA, presumably because of the effect of secreted IGF-1 protein in the vicinity of the injured sciatic nerve exerting a synergistic effect with muscle hypertrophy, inducing a more favorable prognosis. This approach of introducing IGF-1 into skeletal muscle is promising for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury by promoting early motor function recovery. PMID:24657809

  12. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) Gene are Associated with Performance in Holstein-Friesian Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Michael Paul; Berry, Donagh P.; Howard, Dawn J.; Diskin, Michael G.; Lynch, Ciaran O.; Giblin, Linda; Kenny, David A.; Magee, David A.; Meade, Kieran G.; Waters, Sinead M.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has been shown to be associated with fertility, growth, and development in cattle. The aim of this study was to (1) identify novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine IGF-1 gene and alongside previously identified SNPs (2) determine their association with traits of economic importance in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. Nine novel SNPs were identified across a panel of 22 beef and dairy cattle by sequence analysis of the 5′ promoter, intronic, and 3′ regulatory regions, encompassing ~5 kb of IGF-1. Genotyping and associations with daughter performance for milk production, fertility, survival, and measures of body size were undertaken on 848 Holstein-Friesian AI sires. Using multiple regression analysis nominal associations (P < 0.05) were identified between six SNPs (four novel and two previously identified) and milk composition, survival, body condition score, and body size. The C allele of AF017143 a previously published SNP (C-512T) in the promoter region of IGF-1 predicted to introduce binding sites for transcription factors HSF1 and ZNF217 was associated (P < 0.05) with increased cow carcass weight (i.e., an indicator of mature cow size). Novel SNPs were identified in the 3′ region of IGF-1 were associated (P < 0.05) with functional survival and chest width. The remaining four SNPs, all located within introns of IGF-1 were associated (P < 0.05) with milk protein yield, milk fat yield, milk fat concentration, somatic cell score, carcass conformation, and carcass fat. Results of this study further demonstrate the multifaceted influences of IGF-1 on milk production and growth related traits in cattle. PMID:22303302

  13. Cloning and gene expression of allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) provide new insights into injury and bacteria response of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka, 1867).

    PubMed

    Ji, Nanjing; Chang, Yaqing; Zhao, Chong; Pang, Zhengguo; He, Zhou

    2014-06-01

    Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is an interferon (IFN)-γ-inducible Ca(2+)-binding cytokine that associates with the immune defense and inflammatory response. In this study, we reported AIF-1 gene in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (AjAIF-1). The full-length cDNA of AjAIF-1 is 1541 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 477 bp encoding 158 amino acids. Two EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding motifs were found in the deduced AjAIF-1. AjAIF-1 was widely expressed in all tested tissues (body wall, intestine, respiratory tree, tube feet, coelomocytes and longitudinal muscle), with the highest expression in respiratory tree. After Vibrio splendidus challenge and physical injury, AjAIF-1 transcripts were significantly upregulated in coelomocytes. The mRNA expression level of AjAIF-1 in coelomocytes reached to the highest value at 4 h (3.38-folds vs. the PBS control, P < 0.05) post injection. After papilla injury, the mRNA level of AjAIF-1 in coelomocytes was upregulated, and its peak value was found at 4 h (3.88-folds vs. the control, P < 0.05). These results indicated that 1) AjAIF-1 sensitively responds to pathogen infection; 2) AjAIF-1 is involved in acute inflammatory response. Our findings gain general information about the role of AjAIF-1 in the innate immunity of A. japonicus. PMID:24704420

  14. Six mouse alpha-tubulin mRNAs encode five distinct isotypes: testis-specific expression of two sister genes.

    PubMed Central

    Villasante, A; Wang, D; Dobner, P; Dolph, P; Lewis, S A; Cowan, N J

    1986-01-01

    Five mouse alpha-tubulin isotypes are described, each distinguished by the presence of unique amino acid substitutions within the coding region. Most, though not all of these isotype-specific amino acids, are clustered at the carboxy terminus. One of the alpha-tubulin isotypes described is expressed exclusively in testis and is encoded by two closely related genes (M alpha 3 and M alpha 7) which have homologous 3' untranslated regions but which differ at multiple third codon positions and in their 5' untranslated regions. We show that a subfamily of alpha-tubulin genes encoding the same testis-specific isotype also exists in humans. Thus, we conclude that the duplication event leading to a pair of genes encoding a testis-specific alpha-tubulin isotype predated the mammalian radiation, and both members of the duplicated sequence have been maintained since species divergence. A second alpha-tubulin gene, M alpha 6, is expressed ubiquitously at a low level, whereas a third gene, M alpha 4, is unique in that it does not encode a carboxy-terminal tyrosine residue. This gene yields two transcripts: a 1.8-kilobase (kb) mRNA that is abundant in muscle and a 2.4-kb mRNA that is abundant in testis. Whereas the 1.8-kb mRNA encodes a distinct alpha-tubulin isotype, the 2.4-kb mRNA is defective in that the methionine residue required for translational initiation is missing. Patterns of developmental expression of the various alpha-tubulin isotypes are presented. Our data support the view that individual tubulin isotypes are capable of conferring functional specificity on different kinds of microtubules. Images PMID:3785200

  15. Mouse keratinocytes express c98, a novel gene homologous to bcl-2, that is stimulated by insulin-like growth factor 1 and prevents dexamethasone-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Su, Hung-Yi; Cheng, Winston T K; Chen, Shih-Chu; Lin, Chen-Tse; Lien, Yi-Yang; Liu, Hung-Jen; Gilmour, R Stewart

    2004-01-20

    Many studies have been undertaken to investigate the mechanisms of skin differentiation. In particular, growth factors and hormones are believed to play important roles in skin proliferation, differentiation and survival. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been identified as a survival factor in many tissues including the skin, but the molecular mechanism of IGF-1 in epidermal differentiation is not completely understood. Neonatal mouse skin is useful for studying changes in gene expression, as the mitotic activity of skin cells changes shortly after birth. Using RNA differential display (DD), a 357-nt message that is specifically expressed in the epidermal keratinocytes of IGF-1-injected newborn mice but not in controls, has been identified. Confirmation of expression of this gene by ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) showed that its mRNA expression in the epidermal keratinocytes is induced by IGF-1. Using RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of 5' cDNA ends (RLM-5'-RACE), we have successfully isolated a 3473-bp full-length gene, c98, that has 97% sequence homology to a bcl-2-like gene, bcl-w. The latter has been identified as a proto-oncogene in several murine myeloid cell lines. Amino acid sequence analysis of the c98 showed that it has 97% sequence identity to the bcl-w protein and possesses bcl-2 homology domains (BH) 1, 2 and 3. Immunoblotting data revealed similar increases of c98 protein expression to its mRNA expression in the keratinocytes of IGF-1-injected animals. Weak expression of other bcl-2 family member proteins, bax, bcl-2 and bcl-xL, were also found in the immunoblots. Additionally, IGF-1 was found to be able to protect epidermal keratinocytes from dexamethasone (DEX)-induced apoptosis, based on the findings that after the cells were treated with DEX, DNA laddering was present in the control mice but not in those injected with IGF-1. Further, using a photometric enzyme-linked immunoassay to quantitate keratinocyte death, we found that

  16. Comparative gene expression profiles induced by PPAR{gamma} and PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists in rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rogue, Alexandra; Renaud, Marie Pierre; Claude, Nancy; Guillouzo, Andre; Spire, Catherine

    2011-07-01

    Species-differential toxic effects have been described with PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} agonists between rodent and human liver. PPAR{alpha} agonists (fibrates) are potent hypocholesterolemic agents in humans while they induce peroxisome proliferation and tumors in rodent liver. By contrast, PPAR{gamma} agonists (glitazones) and even dual PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists (glitazars) have caused idiosyncratic hepatic and nonhepatic toxicities in human without evidence of any damage in rodent during preclinical studies. The mechanisms involved in such differences remain largely unknown. Several studies have identified the major target genes of PPAR{alpha} agonists in rodent liver while no comprehensive analysis has been performed on gene expression changes induced by PPAR{gamma} and dual PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists. Here, we investigated transcriptomes of rat hepatocytes after 24 h treatment with two PPAR{gamma} (troglitazone and rosiglitazone) and two PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} (muraglitazar and tesaglitazar) agonists. Although, hierarchical clustering revealed a gene expression profile characteristic of each PPAR agonist class, only a limited number of genes was specifically deregulated by glitazars. Functional analyses showed that many genes known as PPAR{alpha} targets were also modulated by both PPAR{gamma} and PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists and quantitative differences in gene expression profiles were observed between these two classes. Moreover, most major genes modulated in rat hepatocytes were also found to be deregulated in rat liver after tesaglitazar treatment. Taken altogether, these results support the conclusion that differential toxic effects of PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} agonists in rodent liver do not result from transcriptional deregulation of major PPAR target genes but rather from qualitative and/or quantitative differential responses of a small subset of genes.

  17. Detection of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin gene in lambs by loop mediated isothermal amplification

    PubMed Central

    Radhika, B.; Kumar, N. Vinod; Sreenivasulu, D.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was standardized for rapid detection of Clostridium perfringens. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 fecal samples were collected from enterotoxemia suspected lambs were used for screening of C. perfringens cpa gene by LAMP. The specificity of the LAMP amplified products was tested by digesting with restriction enzyme XmnI for alpha toxin gene. Results: Out of 120 samples screened 112 (93.3%) samples were positive by both LAMP and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of cpa gene which indicated the equal sensitivity of both the tests. The enzyme produced single cut in 162 base pair amplified product of alpha toxin gene at 81 base pair resulting in a single band in gel electrophoresis. Conclusion: Both LAMP and PCR for detection of cpa gene indicated the equal sensitivity of both the tests. Standardization of LAMP reaction for amplification of epsilon and beta toxin genes will help to identify the C. perfringens toxin types from the clinical samples. The test could be a suitable alternative to the PCR in detection of toxin types without the help of sophisticated machinery like thermal cycler. Considering its simplicity in operation and high sensitivity, there is the potential use of this technique in clinical diagnosis and surveillance of infectious diseases. PMID:27051186

  18. alpha. -Amylase of Clostridium thermosulfurogenes EM1: Nucleotide sequence of the gene, processing of the enzyme, and comparison to other. alpha. -amylases

    SciTech Connect

    Bahl, H.; Burchhardt, G.; Spreinat, A.; Haeckel, K.; Wienecke, A.; Antranikian, G.; Schmidt, B. )

    1991-05-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the {alpha}-amylase gene (amyA) from Clostridium thermosulfurogenes EM1 cloned in Escherichia coli was determined. The reading frame of the gene consisted of 2,121 bp. Comparison of the DNA sequence data with the amino acid sequence of the N terminus of the purified secreted protein of C. thermosulfurogenes Em1 suggested that the {alpha}-amylase is translated form mRNA as a secretory precursor with a signal peptide of 27 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mature {alpha}-amylase contained 679 residues, resulting in a protein with a molecular mass of 75,112 Da. In E. coli the enzyme was transported to the periplasmic space and the signal peptide was cleaved at exactly the same site between two alanine residues. Comparison of the amino acid sequence of the C. thermosulfurogenes EM1 {alpha}-amylase with those from other bacterial and eukaryotic {alpha}-amylases showed several homologous regions, probably in the enzymatically functioning regions. The tentative Ca{sup 2+}-binding site (consensus region I) of this Ca{sub 2+}-independent enzyme showed only limited homology. The deduced amino acid sequence of a second obviously truncated open reading frame showed significant homology to the malG gene product of E. coli. Comparison of the {alpha}-amylase gene region of C. thermosulfurogenes EM1 (DSM3896) with the {beta}-amylase gene region of C. thermosulfurogenes (ATCC 33743) indicated that both genes have been exchanged with each other at identical sites in the chromosomes of these strains.

  19. PPAR{alpha} gene expression is up-regulated by LXR and PXR activators in the small intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Jun; Satoh, Shin-ichi; Kita, Mariko; Nakahara, Mayuko; Hachimura, Satoshi; Miyata, Masaaki; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko; Sato, Ryuichiro

    2008-07-11

    LXR, PXR, and PPAR{alpha} are members of a nuclear receptor family which regulate the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. Here, we show the administration of T0901317 stimulates PPAR{alpha} gene expression in the small intestine but not in the liver of both normal and FXR-null mice. The administration of LXR specific ligand GW3965, or PXR specific ligand PCN has the same effect, indicating that ligand-dependent activation of LXR and PXR, but not FXR, is responsible for the increased gene expression of PPAR{alpha} in the mouse small intestine.

  20. Organization of the V gene segments in mouse T-cell antigen receptor [alpha]/[delta] locus

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, K.; Klotz, J.L.; Kiser, G.; Bristol, G.; Hays, E.; Lai, E.; Gese, E.; Kronenberg, M.; Hood, L. )

    1994-04-01

    The mouse T-cell receptor (TCR) [alpha]/[delta] was mapped using 17 V[alpha] and 4 V[delta] subfamily-specific probes. Four complementary methods were used: (1) an estimate of the V gene repertoire by Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA with subfamily-specific probes; (2) an analysis of V gene segments deleted by TCR gene rearrangements from a panel of T-cell tumors and hybridomas; (3) an analysis of overlapping clusters of cosmid clones; and (4) an analysis of large DNA fragments separated by field-inversion gel electrophoresis. The [alpha]/[delta] locus spans about 1 Mb. The distance between the 3[prime]-most V gene segments (V[delta]1) and the [delta] constant gene (C[delta]) is no more than 150 kb. Sixty-six V gene segments have been mapped physically on cosmids. The members of individual V[alpha] gene segments subfamilies are dispersed throughout the locus. In contrast, the V[delta] gene segments V[delta]1 to 5 are clustered at the 3[prime] end of the V gene segments cluster. At least two DNA segment duplications, 45 to 80 kb in length, are present in the locus. These data provide information on the evolution of the [alpha]/[delta] locus and on organizational features that might influence the expression of specific V gene segments in [gamma][delta] cells. 35 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Cloning and sequencing of the gene for alpha antigen from Mycobacterium avium and mapping of B-cell epitopes.

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, N; Matsuo, K; Yamaguchi, R; Yamazaki, A; Tasaka, H; Yamada, T

    1993-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of alpha antigen secreted from Mycobacterium avium (A-alpha) was determined. The gene encodes 330 amino acids, including 40 amino acids for the signal peptide, followed by 290 amino acids for the mature protein with a molecular mass of 30,811 Da. This is the first sequence of A-alpha. Comparisons between A-alpha and alpha antigens of Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, and Mycobacterium kansasii showed highly homologous regions which suggested a conserved functional domain and two less-homologous regions. Serological analysis of recombinant A-alpha, expressed by a series of deletion constructs, indicated the possibility that A-alpha carries at least six B-cell epitopes. The three antigenic determinants were common to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. kansasii, and M. avium. The results also suggested the possibility that there are three species-specific epitopes. Images PMID:7681039

  2. Dexamethasone impairs hypoxia-inducible factor-1 function

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, A.E.; Huck, G.; Stiehl, D.P.; Jelkmann, W.; Hellwig-Buergel, T.

    2008-07-25

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimeric transcription-factor composed of {alpha}- and {beta}-subunits. HIF-1 is not only necessary for the cellular adaptation to hypoxia, but it is also involved in inflammatory processes and wound healing. Glucocorticoids (GC) are therapeutically used to suppress inflammatory responses. Herein, we investigated whether GC modulate HIF-1 function using GC receptor (GR) possessing (HepG2) and GR deficient (Hep3B) human hepatoma cell cultures as model systems. Dexamethasone (DEX) treatment increased HIF-1{alpha} levels in the cytosol of HepG2 cells, while nuclear HIF-1{alpha} levels and HIF-1 DNA-binding was reduced. In addition, DEX dose-dependently lowered the hypoxia-induced luciferase activity in a reporter gene system. DEX suppressed the hypoxic stimulation of the expression of the HIF-1 target gene VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) in HepG2 cultures. DEX did not reduce hypoxically induced luciferase activity in HRB5 cells, a Hep3B derivative lacking GR. Transient expression of the GR in HRB5 cells restored the susceptibility to DEX. Our study discloses the inhibitory action of GC on HIF-1 dependent gene expression, which may be important with respect to the impaired wound healing in DEX-treated patients.

  3. Genomic remnants of alpha-globin genes in the hemoglobinless antarctic icefishes.

    PubMed Central

    Cocca, E; Ratnayake-Lecamwasam, M; Parker, S K; Camardella, L; Ciaramella, M; di Prisco, G; Detrich, H W

    1995-01-01

    Alone among piscine taxa, the antarctic icefishes (family Channichthyidae, suborder Notothenioidei) have evolved compensatory adaptations that maintain normal metabolic functions in the absence of erythrocytes and the respiratory oxygen transporter hemoglobin. Although the uniquely "colorless" or "white" condition of the blood of icefishes has been recognized since the early 20th century, the status of globin genes in the icefish genomes has, surprisingly, remained unexplored. Using alpha- and beta-globin cDNAs from the antarctic rockcod Notothenia coriiceps (family Nototheniidae, suborder Notothenioidei), we have probed the genomes of three white-blooded icefishes and four red-blooded notothenioid relatives (three antarctic, one temperate) for globin-related DNA sequences. We detect specific, high-stringency hybridization of the alpha-globin probe to genomic DNAs of both white- and red-blooded species, whereas the beta-globin cDNA hybridizes only to the genomes of the red-blooded fishes. Our results suggest that icefishes retain inactive genomic remnants of alpha-globin genes but have lost, either through deletion or through rapid mutation, the gene that encodes beta-globin. We propose that the hemoglobinless phenotype of extant icefishes is the result of deletion of the single adult beta-globin locus prior to the diversification of the clade. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7892183

  4. Smartamine M and MetaSmart supplementation during the peripartal period alter hepatic expression of gene networks in 1-carbon metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, and the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor 1 axis pathways.

    PubMed

    Osorio, J S; Ji, P; Drackley, J K; Luchini, D; Loor, J J

    2014-12-01

    Peripartal cows likely require greater amounts of Met not only at the tissue and cell level for methylation reactions but also for milk protein synthesis after calving. Thirty-nine Holstein cows were fed throughout the peripartal period (-21 d to 30 d in milk) a basal control (CON) diet (n=14) with no Met supplementation, CON plus MetaSmart (MS; Adisseo Inc., Antony, France; n=12), or CON plus Smartamine M (SM; Adisseo Inc.; n=13). The Met supplements were adjusted daily and top-dressed over the total mixed ration at a rate of 0.19 or 0.07% (dry matter) of feed for MS or SM. Liver tissue was collected on -10, 7, and 21 d for transcriptome profiling of genes associated with Met and glutathione metabolism as well as components of the inflammation, oxidative stress, growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis, and DNA methylation pathways. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) with the preplanned contrasts CON versus SM + MS and SM versus MS. The S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) gene was the most abundant among all genes evaluated, with overall greater expression in Met-supplemented cows than CON, and in SM than MS. Expression of Met adenosyltransferase 1A (MAT1A) was greater in Met-supplemented cows than CON by 21 d postpartum. A greater overall expression of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR) occurred in Met-supplemented cows than CON. In contrast, the expression of glutathione synthase (GSS); glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit (GCLC); and superoxide dismutase 1, cytosolic (SOD1) was lower in Met-supplemented cows than CON. A greater overall expression of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 (NFKB1) and greater upregulation of haptoglobin (HP) on d 7 occurred in Met-supplemented cows than CON. Expression of DNA cytosine-5-methyltransferase 3 alpha (DNMT3A) was greater but expression of DNMT1 was lower in Met-supplemented cows than CON. The response

  5. Molecular nature of alpha-globin genes in the Saudi population

    PubMed Central

    Borgio, J. Francis

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-thalassemia (α-thal) is a disorder caused by the deletion of single or double α-globin genes, and/or point mutations in the α-globin genes. There are 2 common types of α-globin genes; HBA2 and HBA1. Recently, it has been discovered that the HBA2 gene is replaced by a unique HBA12 gene convert in 5.7% of the Saudi population. The α-globin genes have been emerging as a molecular target for the treatment of β-thalassemia (β-thal). Hence, it is essential to understand the molecular nature of α-globin genes to treat the most prevalent hemoglobin disorders, such as sickle cell disease, α-thal, and β-thal prevalent in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Thirty-two different α-globin genotypes have been observed in the Saudi population. This review outlines the classification of the α-globin genes on the basis of their molecular nature and complex combinations of α-globin genes, and their variants predominant in Saudis. PMID:26593158

  6. Nucleotide sequence and expression of alpha-glucosidase-encoding gene (agdA) from Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Minetoki, T; Gomi, K; Kitamoto, K; Kumagai, C; Tamura, G

    1995-08-01

    We have isolated an alpha-glucosidase(AGL)-encoding gene (agdA) from Aspergillus oryzae by heterologous hybridization using the corresponding Aspergillus niger gene as a probe. Southern hybridization analysis showed that the agdA gene is on a 5.0-kb ScaI fragment and there is a single copy in the A. oryzae chromosome. Comparison with the A. niger agdA gene indicated that the agdA gene contains three putative introns from 52 to 59 nucleotides long, and that it encodes 985 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence of A. oryzae AGL is 78% homologous with the A. niger AGL. The high degree of homology with the amino acid sequence bordering the putative catalytic residue of a number of AGL enzymes, and this enzyme suggests that Asp492 is a catalytic residue of A. oryzae AGL. The cloned gene was functional. Transformants of A. oryzae containing multiple copies of the cloned agdA gene showed a 6-16 fold increase in AGL activity. Like the Taka-amylase A and glucoamylase genes of A. oryzae, expression of the agdA gene was induced when maltose was provided as a carbon source, but expression was not induced by glucose. This result suggested that cis-element(s) involved in maltose induction may be also present in the agdA promoter region. PMID:7549103

  7. Effect of TNF{alpha} on activities of different promoters of human apolipoprotein A-I gene

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, Sergey V.; Mogilenko, Denis A.; Shavva, Vladimir S.; Dizhe, Ella B.; Ignatovich, Irina A.; Perevozchikov, Andrej P.

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} TNF{alpha} stimulates the distal alternative promoter of human apoA-I gene. {yields} TNF{alpha} acts by weakening of promoter competition within apoA-I gene (promoter switching). {yields} MEK1/2 and nuclear receptors PPAR{alpha} and LXRs take part in apoA-I promoter switching. -- Abstract: Human apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is a major structural and functional protein component of high-density lipoproteins. The expression of the apolipoprotein A-I gene (apoA-I) in hepatocytes is repressed by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1{beta} and TNF{alpha}. Recently, two novel additional (alternative) promoters for human apoA-I gene have been identified. Nothing is known about the role of alternative promoters in TNF{alpha}-mediated downregulation of apoA-I gene. In this article we report for the first time about the different effects of TNF{alpha} on two alternative promoters of human apoA-I gene. Stimulation of HepG2 cells by TNF{alpha} leads to activation of the distal alternative apoA-I promoter and downregulation of the proximal alternative and the canonical apoA-I promoters. This effect is mediated by weakening of the promoter competition within human apoA-I 5'-regulatory region (apoA-I promoter switching) in the cells treated by TNF{alpha}. The MEK1/2-ERK1/2 cascade and nuclear receptors PPAR{alpha} and LXRs are important for TNF{alpha}-mediated apoA-I promoter switching.

  8. Modular organization and development activity of an Arabidopsis thaliana EF-1 alpha gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Curie, C; Axelos, M; Bardet, C; Atanassova, R; Chaubet, N; Lescure, B

    1993-04-01

    The activity of the Arabidopsis thalana A1 EF-1 alpha gene promoter was analyzed in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. The 5' upstream sequence of the A1 gene and several promoter deletions were fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) coding region. Promoter activity was monitored by quantitative and histochemical assays of GUS activity. The results show that the A1 promoter exhibits a modular organization. Sequences both upstream and downstream relative to the transcription initiation site are involved in quantitative and tissue-specific expression during vegetative growth. One upstream element may be involved in the activation of expression in meristematic tissues; the downstream region, corresponding to an intron within the 5' non-coding region (5'IVS), is important for expression in roots; both upstream and downstream sequences are required for expression in leaves, suggesting combinatorial properties of EF-1 alpha cis-regulatory elements. This notion of specific combinatorial regulation is reinforced by the results of transient expression experiments in transfected Arabidopsis protoplasts. The deletion of the 5'IVS has much more effect on expression when the promoter activity is under the control of A1 EF-1 alpha upstream sequences than when these upstream sequences were replaced by the 35S enhancer. Similarly, a synthetic oligonucleotide corresponding to an A1 EF-1 alpha upstream cis-acting element (the TEF1 box), is able to restore partially the original activity when fused to a TEF1-less EF1-alpha promoter but has no significant effect when fused to an enhancer-less 35S promoter. PMID:8492811

  9. Interindividual concordance of methylation profiles in human genes for tumor necrosis factors alpha and beta.

    PubMed Central

    Kochanek, S; Toth, M; Dehmel, A; Renz, D; Doerfler, W

    1990-01-01

    The DNA in mammalian genomes is characterized by complex patterns of DNA methylation that reflect the states of all genetic activities of that genome. The modified nucleotide 5-methyldeoxycytidine (5mdC) can affect the interactions of specific proteins with DNA sequence motifs. The most extensively studied effect of sequence-specific methylations is that of the long-term silencing of eukaryotic (mammalian) promoters. We have initiated studies on the methylation status of parts of the human genome to view patterns of DNA methylation as indicators for genetic activities. In this report, analyses using both restriction enzyme--Southern blotting and the very precise genomic sequencing technique have been done. The genes for tumor necrosis factors (TNF) alpha and beta--in particular, their 5'-upstream and promoter regions--have been investigated in DNA isolated from human lymphocytes, granulocytes, and sperm. The results are characterized by a remarkable interindividual concordance of DNA methylation in specific human cell types. The patterns are identical in the DNA from one cell type for different individuals even of different genetic origins but different in the DNA from different cell types. As an example, in the DNA from human granulocytes of 15 different individuals (ages 20-48 yr, both sexes), 5mdC residues have been localized by the genomic sequencing technique in three identical sequence positions in the 5'-upstream region and in one downstream position of the gene encoding TNF-alpha. The promoter of this gene is free of 5mdC, and TNF-alpha is expressed in human granulocytes. The TNF-beta promoter is methylated in granulocytes from 9 different individuals, and TNF-beta is not expressed. In human lymphocytes, the main source of TNF-beta, the TNF-beta promoter is free of 5mdC residues. All 5'-CG-3' sites studied in the TNF-alpha and -beta genes are methylated in DNA from human sperm. In human cell lines HL-60, Jurkat, and RPMI 1788, the extent of DNA methylation

  10. Tumor necrosis factor alpha negatively regulates hepatitis B virus gene expression in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Gilles, P N; Fey, G; Chisari, F V

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that several inflammatory cytokines can modulate hepatocellular gene expression in a complex physiological process known as the hepatic acute-phase response. Since hepatitis B virus (HBV) characteristically induces a vigorous lymphomononuclear inflammatory response in the liver during acute and chronic hepatitis, it is possible that hepatocellular HBV gene expression may also be modulated by one or more of the cytokines produced by these cells. Using bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a surrogate inducer of inflammatory cytokines in vivo, we have tested this hypothesis in a transgenic mouse model system. In experiments with two independent transgenic mouse lineages that express the HBV envelope region under the control of either HBV or cellular promoters, we observed a 50 to 80% reduction in the hepatic steady-state content of a 2.1-kb HBV mRNA following administration of a single intraperitoneal dose of LPS. The regulatory influence of several inflammatory cytokines known to be induced by LPS was also examined in this system. The negative regulatory effect of LPS was consistently reproduced by the administration of a single nontoxic dose of tumor necrosis factor alpha, and it was occasionally observed following the administration of high doses of alpha interferon and interleukin-6, while no effect was detectable in response to high-dose interleukin-1 alpha or to gamma interferon. These observations suggest that tumor necrosis factor alpha and perhaps other cytokines may activate a heretofore unsuspected intracellular pathway that negatively regulates HBV gene expression. The intracellular mechanism(s) responsible for this effect and its pathophysiologic relevance remain to be elucidated. Images PMID:1583737

  11. Identification of gene-based responses in human blood cells exposed to alpha particle radiation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The threat of a terrorist-precipitated nuclear event places humans at danger for radiological exposures. Isotopes which emit alpha (α)-particle radiation pose the highest risk. Currently, gene expression signatures are being developed for radiation biodosimetry and triage with respect to ionizing photon radiation. This study was designed to determine if similar gene expression profiles are obtained after exposures involving α-particles. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were used to identify sensitive and robust gene-based biomarkers of α-particle radiation exposure. Cells were isolated from healthy individuals and were irradiated at doses ranging from 0-1.5 Gy. Microarray technology was employed to identify transcripts that were differentially expressed relative to unirradiated cells 24 hours post-exposure. Statistical analysis identified modulated genes at each of the individual doses. Results Twenty-nine genes were common to all doses with expression levels ranging from 2-10 fold relative to control treatment group. This subset of genes was further assessed in independent complete white blood cell (WBC) populations exposed to either α-particles or X-rays using quantitative real-time PCR. This 29 gene panel was responsive in the α-particle exposed WBCs and was shown to exhibit differential fold-changes compared to X-irradiated cells, though no α-particle specific transcripts were identified. Conclusion Current gene panels for photon radiation may also be applicable for use in α-particle radiation biodosimetry. PMID:25017500

  12. Identification of four soybean reference genes for gene expression normalization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene expression analysis requires the use of reference genes stably expressed independently of specific tissues or environmental conditions. Housekeeping genes (e.g., actin, tubulin, ribosomal, polyubiquitin and elongation factor 1-alpha) are commonly used as reference genes with the assumption tha...

  13. Genes encoding tumor necrosis factor alpha and granzyme A are expressed during development of autoimmune diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Held, W; MacDonald, H R; Weissman, I L; Hess, M W; Mueller, C

    1990-01-01

    Progressive destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in nonobese diabetic mice is observed after infiltration of the pancreas with lymphocytes [Makino, S., Kunimoto, K., Muraoka, Y., Mizushima, Y., Katagiri, K. & Tochino, Y. (1980) Exp. Anim. (Tokyo) 29, 1-13]. We show that the genes for tumor necrosis factor alpha and granzyme A, a serine protease associated with cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic cells, are expressed during the development of spontaneous diabetes mellitus in the nonobese diabetic mouse. Granzyme A-positive cells are found both in and surrounding the islets, implying induction prior to islet infiltration. Tumor necrosis factor alpha expression is exclusively observed in the intra-islet infiltrate, predominantly in lymphocytes adjacent to insulin-producing beta cells, the targets of the autoimmune destruction, implying that tumor necrosis factor alpha expression is induced locally--i.e., in the islet. A considerable portion of cells expressing tumor necrosis factor alpha appear to be CD4+ T cells. This T-cell subset was previously shown to be necessary for development of the disease. Thus, these findings may be important for understanding the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes mellitus and potentially also for that of other T-cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. Images PMID:2179951

  14. Matrix metalloproteinase-12 gene regulation by a PPAR alpha agonist in human monocyte-derived macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Souissi, Imen Jguirim; Billiet, Ludivine; Cuaz-Perolin, Clarisse; Rouis, Mustapha

    2008-11-01

    MMP-12, a macrophage-specific matrix metalloproteinase with large substrate specificity, has been reported to be highly expressed in mice, rabbits and human atherosclerotic lesions. Increased MMP-12 from inflammatory macrophages is associated with several degenerative diseases such as atherosclerosis. In this manuscript, we show that IL-1{beta}, a proinflammatory cytokine found in atherosclerotic plaques, increases both mRNA and protein levels of MMP-12 in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM). Since peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), such as PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}, are expressed in macrophages and because PPAR activation exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on vascular cells, we have investigated the effect of PPAR{alpha} and {gamma} isoforms on MMP-12 regulation in HMDM. Our results show that MMP-12 expression (mRNA and protein) is down regulated in IL-1{beta}-treated macrophages only in the presence of a specific PPAR{alpha} agonist, GW647, in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, this inhibitory effect was abolished in IL-1{beta}-stimulated peritoneal macrophages isolated from PPAR{alpha}{sup -/-} mice and treated with the PPAR{alpha} agonist, GW647. Moreover, reporter gene transfection experiments using different MMP-12 promoter constructs showed a reduction of the promoter activities by {approx} 50% in IL-1{beta}-stimulated PPAR{alpha}-pre-treated cells. However, MMP-12 promoter analysis did not reveal the presence of a PPRE response element. The IL-1{beta} effect is known to be mediated through the AP-1 binding site. Mutation of the AP-1 site, located at - 81 in the MMP-12 promoter region relative to the transcription start site, followed by transfection analysis, gel shift and ChIP experiments revealed that the inhibitory effect was the consequence of the protein-protein interaction between GW 647-activated PPAR{alpha} and c-Fos or c-Jun transcription factors, leading to inhibition of their binding to the AP-1 motif. These studies

  15. [Association of TNF-alpha and IL-13 genes polymorphisms with bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Liang, Wenhua; Zhou, Zhaoshan; Ji, Zhongqiang; Wang, Yanqing; Xue, Weilin; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the association of polymorphisms of TNF-alpha gene (rs1799724, rs1800630, rs1799964 and rs769178) and IL-13 gene (rs2158177 and rs1295687) with susceptibility to asthma among ethnic Chinese in Qingdao region. METHODS For 400 asthma patients and 200 healthy subjects, above polymorphisms were detected with a SNaPshot method. RESULTS For rs2158177, the frequency of genotype of GG in the asthma group was significantly lower than the control group (2.8% vs. 5%, OR = 0.31, 95%CI: 0.12-0.82, P = 0.021). No significant difference was detected in the genotypic frequencies for the remaining 5 polymorphisms between the two groups (All P > 0.05). CONCLUSION The study has indicated that rs2158177 polymorphism of the IL-13 gene is associated with asthma in ethnic Han Chinese from Qingdao. No association has been found between polymorphisms of TNF-alpha gene with susceptibility to asthma. PMID:26418997

  16. Association of ER-alpha gene polymorphism with metabolic phenotypes in Chinese Hans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Jiang, Xiao-yan; Xu, Li; Li, Xia; Cao, Fei-fei; Li, Lei; Lu, Ming; Jin, Li; Wang, Xiao-feng

    2009-08-01

    Recently, two polymorphisms (rs1884052 and rs3778099) of estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha) gene were identified as being associated with primary quantitative bone mineral density (BMD) in a genome-wide association (GWA) study in Framingham cohorts. In this study we aimed at investigating the association of rs1884052 and rs3778099, and another polymorphism (rs2234693) located at intron 1 of the ER-alpha gene with BMD, body mass index (BMI), glucose, triglyceride, and total cholesterol (CHO) levels in Chinese Hans. We recruited 425 consecutive adult volunteers who had a physical examination in the Jinan Maternity and Child Care Hospital. We did not observe significant association of rs1884052 and rs3778099 with BMD, BMI, glucose, triglyceride, and total cholesterol (CHO) levels. For rs2234693, increased levels of BMD for hip, spine or whole-body regions were consistently observed in TT/TC genotype carriers than in CC genotype carriers, although the board line significance diminished after adjusting for age and gender. However, significant association of rs2234693 with glucose and CHO levels were observed in our sample. Subjects with TC/CC genotypes were associated with an increased level of glucose (p = 0.013) and CHO (p = 0.032) levels than subjects with TT genotypes. In conclusion, we did not confirm the association of rs1884052 and rs3778099 with BMD originally discovered in a GWA study; however, we made novel discoveries that rs2234693 was associated with glucose and CHO levels in Chinese Hans. PMID:19578917

  17. Genome analysis of DNA repair genes in the alpha proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus

    PubMed Central

    Martins-Pinheiro, Marinalva; Marques, Regina CP; Menck, Carlos FM

    2007-01-01

    Background The integrity of DNA molecules is fundamental for maintaining life. The DNA repair proteins protect organisms against genetic damage, by removal of DNA lesions or helping to tolerate them. DNA repair genes are best known from the gamma-proteobacterium Escherichia coli, which is the most understood bacterial model. However, genome sequencing raises questions regarding uniformity and ubiquity of these DNA repair genes and pathways, reinforcing the need for identifying genes and proteins, which may respond to DNA damage in other bacteria. Results In this study, we employed a bioinformatic approach, to analyse and describe the open reading frames potentially related to DNA repair from the genome of the alpha-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus. This was performed by comparison with known DNA repair related genes found in public databases. As expected, although C. crescentus and E. coli bacteria belong to separate phylogenetic groups, many of their DNA repair genes are very similar. However, some important DNA repair genes are absent in the C. crescentus genome and other interesting functionally related gene duplications are present, which do not occur in E. coli. These include DNA ligases, exonuclease III (xthA), endonuclease III (nth), O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (ada gene), photolyase-like genes, and uracil-DNA-glycosylases. On the other hand, the genes imuA and imuB, which are involved in DNA damage induced mutagenesis, have recently been described in C. crescentus, but are absent in E. coli. Particularly interesting are the potential atypical phylogeny of one of the photolyase genes in alpha-proteobacteria, indicating an origin by horizontal transfer, and the duplication of the Ada orthologs, which have diverse structural configurations, including one that is still unique for C. crescentus. Conclusion The absence and the presence of certain genes are discussed and predictions are made considering the particular aspects of the C. crescentus

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of a Candida tsukubaensis alpha-glucosidase gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kinsella, B T; Larkin, A; Bolton, M; Cantwell, B A

    1991-07-01

    The molecular cloning of an alpha-glucosidase gene isolated from a Candida tsukubaensis (CBS 6389) genomic library in Saccharomyces cervisiae is reported. The cloned gene is contained within a 6.2 kb Sau3A DNA fragment and directs the synthesis and secretion of an amylolytic enzyme into the extracellular medium of the recombinant host, S. cerevisiae. The cloned enzyme was found to have an unusually broad substrate specificity and is capable of hydrolysing alpha-1,2, alpha-1,3, alpha-1,4 and alpha-1,6 linked, as well as aryl and alkyl, D-glucosides. On the basis of its substrate specificity profile, the cloned enzyme was classified as an alpha-glucosidase (E.C. 3.2.1.20). It has a pH optimum in the range 4.2-4.6, a temperature optimum of 58 degrees C and is readily inactivated at pasteurization temperature (60 degrees C). Southern blot analysis failed to reveal any homology between the cloned gene and genomic DNA isolated from other well characterized amylolytic yeasts. A rapid plate-assay, based on the utilization of a chromogenic substrate X-alpha-D-glucoside to detect the expression of the cloned alpha-glucosidase in S. cerevisiae transformants, was developed. PMID:1934116

  19. High tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected pregnant mice and increased TNF-alpha gene transcription in their offspring.

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, M T; Marques de Araujo, S; Lucas, R; Deman, J; Truyens, C; Defresne, M P; de Baetselier, P; Carlier, Y

    1995-01-01

    Since tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is known to be involved in the feto-maternal relationship, this cytokine was studied in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected pregnant BALB/c mice and their fetuses and offspring. Pregnant chronically infected mice displayed significantly higher levels of circulating TNF-alpha than animals either only infected or only pregnant. TNF-alpha was undetectable in sera of uninfected and nonpregnant mice as well as in breast milk obtained from infected and uninfected animals. Fetuses from infected mice exhibited significantly more cells containing TNF-alpha mRNA in their thymus than fetuses from uninfected mothers. When infected 2 months after birth, offspring born to infected and uninfected mothers displayed similar amounts of circulating TNF-alpha during chronic infection, whereas this cytokine was only weakly detectable during the acute phase of the disease. An intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide during acute infection strongly increased the production of TNF-alpha in offspring born to infected mothers to levels higher than those in progeny from uninfected mice. These results suggest that TNF-alpha is an important cytokine in the feto-maternal relationship during T. cruzi infection and that fetuses and offspring of infected mothers are primed to produce elevated levels of TNF-alpha. PMID:7822027

  20. Emergence of new alleles of the MSP-3alpha gene in Plasmodium vivax isolates from Korea.

    PubMed

    Nam, Deok Hwa; Oh, Jun Seo; Nam, Myoung Hyun; Park, Hae Chul; Lim, Chae Seung; Lee, Won Ja; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Klein, Terry A; Ayala, Francisco J

    2010-04-01

    Nucleotide sequence analysis of the Plasmodium vivax PvMSP-3alpha gene was conducted on blood from 143 malaria patients admitted to Korea University Medical Center from 1996 to 2007 in the Republic of Korea (ROK). From 1996 to 2002, the PvMSP-3alpha alleles were of two types, SKOR-67 (2.53 kb) and SKOR-69 (1.78 kb), which differed in length and amino acid sequence. Two new variants with similar size to SKOR-67 were first observed in 2002 and in 2006-2007 accounted for nearly 50% (25/51) of the sampled isolates. The new variants had the same amino acid sequence as SKOR-69 in the N-terminal region, but in Blocks I and II and in the C-terminal region, they were similar to previously reported isolates from Thailand, Papua New Guinea, India, Brazil, and Ecuador strains. PMID:20348492

  1. Expression of a bacterial alpha-amylase gene in transgenic rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoli; Fang, Jun; Wang, Wei; Guo, Jianli; Chen, Pinnan; Cheng, Jiaan; Shen, Zhicheng

    2008-08-01

    An alpha-amylase gene from Bacillus stearothermophilus under the control of the promoter of a major rice-seed storage protein was introduced into rice. The transgenic line with the highest alpha-amylase activity reached about 15,000 U/g of seeds (one unit is defined as the amount of enzyme that produces 1 mumol of reducing sugar in 1 min at 70 degrees C). The enzyme produced in the seeds had an optimum pH of 5.0-5.5 and optimum temperature of 60-70 degrees C. Without extraction or purification, the power of transgenic rice seeds was able to liquify 100 times its weight of corn powder in 2 h. Thus, the transgenic rice could be used for industrial starch liquefaction. PMID:17926139

  2. The alpha/beta fold family of proteins database and the cholinesterase gene server ESTHER.

    PubMed Central

    Cousin, X; Hotelier, T; Giles, K; Lievin, P; Toutant, J P; Chatonnet, A

    1997-01-01

    ESTHER (for esterases, alpha/betahydrolase enzyme and relatives) is a database of sequences phylogenetically related to cholinesterases. These sequences define a homogeneous group of enzymes (carboxylesterases, lipases and hormone-sensitive lipases) sharing a similar structure of a central beta-sheet surrounded by alpha-helices. Among these proteins a wide range of functions can be found (hydrolases, adhesion molecules, hormone precursors). The purpose of ESTHER is to help comparison of structures and functions of members of the family. Since the last release, new features have been added to the server. A BLAST comparison tool allows sequence homology searches within the database sequences. New sections are available: kinetics and inhibitors of cholinesterases, fasciculin-acetylcholinesterase interaction and a gene structure review. The mutation analysis compilation has been improved with three-dimensional images. A mailing list has been created. PMID:9016525

  3. Three alpha-amylase genes of Aspergillus oryzae exhibit identical intron-exon organization.

    PubMed

    Wirsel, S; Lachmund, A; Wildhardt, G; Ruttkowski, E

    1989-01-01

    We have cloned three genes (amy1, amy2 and amy3) encoding alpha-amylase in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae. The established overall sequences have a very high degree of homology, showing divergences mainly in the 3'-untranslated regions. The positions and the sequences of the eight introns were found to be absolutely identical in the three genes. The sequence analysis of the 5'-regions revealed presumptive TATA, CAAT and GC boxes. Primer extension analysis was performed to determine the transcription start. We were able to detect mRNAs from amy1 and amy3 but not from amy2 with gene-specific oligonucleotide probes complementary to the 3'-noncoding regions. PMID:2785629

  4. The Drosophila melanogaster importin alpha3 locus encodes an essential gene required for the development of both larval and adult tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Mason, D Adam; Máthé, Endre; Fleming, Robert J; Goldfarb, David S

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear transport of classical nuclear localization signal (cNLS)-containing proteins is mediated by the cNLS receptor importin alpha. The conventional importin alpha gene family in metazoan animals is composed of three clades that are conserved between flies and mammals and are referred to here as alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3. In contrast, plants and fungi contain only alpha1 genes. In this study we report that Drosophila importin alpha3 is required for the development of both larval and adult tissues. Importin alpha3 mutant flies die around the transition from first to second instar larvae, and homozygous importin alpha3 mutant eyes are defective. The transition to second instar larvae was rescued with importin alpha1, alpha2, or alpha3 transgenes, indicating that Importin alpha3 is normally required at this stage for an activity shared by all three importin alpha's. In contrast, an alpha3-specific biochemical activity(s) of Importin alpha3 is probably required for development to adults and photoreceptor cell development, since only an importin alpha3 transgene rescued these processes. These results are consistent with the view that the importin alpha's have both overlapping and distinct functions and that their role in animal development involves the spatial and temporal control of their expression. PMID:14704178

  5. Modulation of ozone-sensitive genes in alpha-tocopherol transfer protein null mice

    PubMed Central

    Vasu, Vihas T.; Oommen, Saji; Lim, Yunsook; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Hobson, Brad; Eiserich, Jason P.; Leonard, Scott W.; Traber, Maret G.; Cross, Carroll E.; Gohil, Kishorchandra

    2009-01-01

    Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (ATTP) null mice (ATTP−/−) have a systemic alpha-tocopherol (AT) deficiency, with their lung AT levels being < 10% of those in AT-replete ATTP+/+ mice when fed a standard rodent chow diet. ATTP+/+ and ATTP−/− mice (4 wk old male mice, n = 16 per group) were fed a standard diet (35 IU AT/kg diet) for 8–12 wk, exposed 6 h/day for 3 days to either to O3 (0.5 ppm) or filtered air, then sacrificed. No significant differences in plasma or lung AT concentrations were observed in response to this level of O3 exposure. Lung genomic responses of the lungs to O3 were determined using Affymetrix 430A 2.0 arrays containing over 22,600 probe sets representing 14,000 well-characterized mouse genes. As compared with filtered air exposure, O3 exposure resulted in 99 genes being differentially expressed in ATTP−/− mice, as compared to 52 differentially expressed genes in ATTP+/+ mice. The data revealed an O3-induced upregulation of genes related to cell proliferation/DNA repair and inflammatory-immune responses in both ATTP+/+ and ATTP−/− mice, with the expression of 22 genes being common to both, whereas 30 and 77 genes were unique to ATTP+/+ and ATTP−/− mice, respectively. The expressions of O3 sensitive genes—Timp1, Areg, Birc5 and Tnc—were seen to be further modulated by AT status. The present study reveals AT modulation of adaptive response of lung genome to O3 exposure. PMID:19555225

  6. Variation in salivary and pancreatic alpha-amylase genes in Italian horse breeds.

    PubMed

    Coizet, Beatrice; Nicoloso, Letizia; Marletta, Donata; Tamiozzo-Calligarich, Alessandra; Pagnacco, Giulio; Crepaldi, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The dietary demand of the modern horse relies on high-cereal feeding and limited forage compared with natural grazing conditions, predisposing the horse to several important diseases. Salivary and pancreatic alpha-amylases (coded by AMY1 and AMY2 genes, respectively) play a crucial role in carbohydrate digestion in nonruminants, but little is known about these 2 genes in the horse. Aim of this work has been to distinguish genomic sequences of horse AMY1 and AMY2 genes and to analyze any polymorphisms in breeds historically characterized by marked differences in nutritional management. A single nucleotide polymorphism detection was performed and 7 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms were found. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms are in exons and were genotyped in 112 horses belonging to 6 breeds. One single nucleotide polymorphism in AMY1 gene distinguished Haflinger and the Italian native Murgese from the other breeds, whereas both the single nucleotide polymorphisms in AMY2 gene showed different allelic frequencies in Friesian compared with the other breeds. These differences are confirmed by quite high fixation index (Fst) values for these 2 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms. These preliminary results highlight marked divergences in allele frequencies of AMY1 and AMY2 genes, involved in starch digestion, between horse breeds characterized by different histories of selection, thus providing first indications of possible relations between genetics and nutritional management. PMID:24558100

  7. c-Ha-ras down regulates the alpha-fetoprotein gene but not the albumin gene in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, K; Lawless, D; Ohe, Y; Miyao, Y; Nakabayashi, H; Kamiya, H; Miura, K; Ohtsuka, E; Tamaoki, T

    1990-01-01

    We studied the effects of transfection of the normal c-Ha-ras gene, rasGly-12, and its oncogenic mutant, rasVal-12, on expression of the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and albumin genes in a human hepatoma cell line, HuH-7. The mutant and, to a lesser extent, the normal ras gene caused reduction of the AFP mRNA but not the albumin mRNA level in transfected HuH-7 cells. Cotransfection experiments with a rasVal-12 expression plasmid and a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene fused to AFP regulatory sequences showed that rasVal-12 suppressed the activity of enhancer and promoter regions containing A + T-rich sequences (AT motif). In contrast, rasVal-12 did not affect the promoter activity of the albumin and human hepatitis B virus pre-S1 genes even though these promoters contain homologous A + T-rich elements. ras transfection appeared to induce phosphorylation of nuclear proteins that interact with the AFP AT motif, since gel mobility analysis revealed the formation of slow-moving complexes which was reversed by phosphatase treatment. However, similar changes in complex formation were observed with the albumin and hepatitis B surface antigen pre-S1 promoters. Therefore, this effect alone cannot explain the specific down regulation of the AFP promoter and enhancer activity. ras-mediated suppression of the AFP gene may reflect the process of developmental gene regulation in which AFP gene transcription is controlled by a G-protein-linked signal transduction cascade triggered by external growth stimuli. Images PMID:1690841

  8. Expression of modified gene encoding functional human alpha-1-antitrypsin protein in transgenic tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Saurabh; Singh, Rahul; Sanyal, Indraneel; Amla, D V

    2008-10-01

    Transgenic plants offer promising alternative for large scale, sustainable production of safe, functional, recombinant proteins of therapeutic and industrial importance. Here, we report the expression of biologically active human alpha-1-antitrypsin in transgenic tomato plants. The 1,182 bp cDNA sequence of human AAT was strategically designed, modified and synthesized to adopt codon usage pattern of dicot plants, elimination of mRNA destabilizing sequences and modifications around 5' and 3' flanking regions of the gene to achieve high-level regulated expression in dicot plants. The native signal peptide sequence was substituted with modified signal peptide sequence of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) pathogenesis related protein PR1a, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) sporamineA and with dicot-preferred native signal peptide sequence of AAT gene. A dicot preferred translation initiation context sequence, 38 bp alfalfa mosaic virus untranslated region were incorporated at 5' while an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal (KDEL) was incorporated at 3' end of the gene. The modified gene was synthesized by PCR based method using overlapping oligonucleotides. Tomato plants were genetically engineered by nuclear transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harbouring three different constructs pPAK, pSAK and pNAK having modified AAT gene with different signal peptide sequences under the control of CaMV35S duplicated enhancer promoter. Promising transgenic plants expressing recombinant AAT protein upto 1.55% of total soluble leaf protein has been developed and characterized. Plant-expressed recombinant AAT protein with molecular mass of around approximately 50 kDa was biologically active, showing high specific activity and efficient inhibition of elastase activity. The enzymatic deglycosylation established proper glycosylation of the plant-expressed recombinant AAT protein in contrast to unglycosylated rAAT expressed in E. coli ( approximately 45 kDa). Our results demonstrate

  9. Molecular cloning and expression of two alpha-amylase genes from Streptococcus bovis 148 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, E; Niimura, Y; Uchimura, T; Kozaki, M; Komagata, K

    1993-01-01

    The alpha-amylase genes of Streptococcus bovis 148 were cloned in Escherichia coli MC1061, using pBR322. The recombinant plasmids were classified into two groups on the basis of their restriction maps. Southern blot analysis did not show homology between the two types of alpha-amylase genes, and the two alpha-amylase genes existed on the chromosomal DNA of S. bovis 148. The enzymatic properties and N-terminal amino acid sequences of the two purified enzymes produced by the cloned E. coli strains were quite different from each other. Particularly, one alpha-amylase (Amy I) was adsorbed on raw corn starch and hydrolyzed raw corn starch, and another (Amy II) was not adsorbed on raw corn starch and did not hydrolyze raw corn starch. Amy I was considered to be the same as the extracellular alpha-amylase of S. bovis 148 in raw starch absorbability, ability to hydrolyze raw corn starch, enzymatic characteristics, N-terminal amino acid sequence, and mode of action on soluble starch. Amy II showed a unique pattern of oligosaccharide production from soluble starch compared with the extracellular alpha-amylase of S. bovis 148. Amy II was suggested to be an intracellular alpha-amylase of S. bovis 148. Images PMID:8285674

  10. Molecular cloning and expression of two alpha-amylase genes from Streptococcus bovis 148 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Satoh, E; Niimura, Y; Uchimura, T; Kozaki, M; Komagata, K

    1993-11-01

    The alpha-amylase genes of Streptococcus bovis 148 were cloned in Escherichia coli MC1061, using pBR322. The recombinant plasmids were classified into two groups on the basis of their restriction maps. Southern blot analysis did not show homology between the two types of alpha-amylase genes, and the two alpha-amylase genes existed on the chromosomal DNA of S. bovis 148. The enzymatic properties and N-terminal amino acid sequences of the two purified enzymes produced by the cloned E. coli strains were quite different from each other. Particularly, one alpha-amylase (Amy I) was adsorbed on raw corn starch and hydrolyzed raw corn starch, and another (Amy II) was not adsorbed on raw corn starch and did not hydrolyze raw corn starch. Amy I was considered to be the same as the extracellular alpha-amylase of S. bovis 148 in raw starch absorbability, ability to hydrolyze raw corn starch, enzymatic characteristics, N-terminal amino acid sequence, and mode of action on soluble starch. Amy II showed a unique pattern of oligosaccharide production from soluble starch compared with the extracellular alpha-amylase of S. bovis 148. Amy II was suggested to be an intracellular alpha-amylase of S. bovis 148. PMID:8285674

  11. Estrogen Receptor beta binds Sp1 and recruits a Corepressor Complex to the Estrogen Receptor alpha Gene Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Bartella, V; Rizza, P; Barone, I; Zito, D; Giordano, F; Giordano, C; Catalano, S; Mauro, L; Sisci, D; Panno, ML; Fuqua, SA; Andò, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    Human estrogen receptors (ERs) alpha and beta are crucially involved in the regulation of mammary growth and development. Normal breast tissues display a prevalently expression of ER beta than ER alpha, which drastically increases during breast tumorogenesis. So, it is reasonable to assume how a dysregulation of the two estrogen receptor subtypes may induce breast cancer development. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the opposite role played by the two estrogen receptors on tumor cell growth remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we have demonstrated that ER beta overexpression in breast cancer cells decreases cell proliferation and down-regulates ER alpha mRNA and protein content along with a concomitant repression of estrogen-regulated genes. Transient transfection experiments, using a vector containing the human ER alpha promoter region, showed that elevated levels of the ER beta down-regulated basal ER alpha promoter activity. Furthermore, side-directed mutagenesis and deletion analysis have revealed that the proximal GC-rich motifs at −223 and −214 is crucial for the ER beta-induced ER alpha down-regulation in breast cancer cells. This occurred through ER beta-Sp1 protein-protein interaction within the ER alpha promoter region and the recruitment of a corepressor complex containing NCoR/SMRT (nuclear receptor corepressor/silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor), accompanied by hypoacetylation of histone H4 and displacement of RNA polymerase II. Silencing of NCoR gene expression by RNA interference reversed the down-regulatory effect of ER beta on ER alpha gene expression and cell proliferation. Our results provide evidence for a novel mechanism by which overexpression of ER beta through NCoR is able to down regulate ER alpha gene expression, thus inhibiting ER alpha’s driving role on breast cancer cell growth. PMID:22622808

  12. [Cloning of Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin gene and extracellular expression in Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Masaharu; Kikuchi, Maho; Komoriya, Tomoe; Watanabe, Kunitomo; Kouno, Hideki

    2007-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen that widely propagets in the soil and the gastrointestinal tract of human and animals. This bacteria causes food poisoning, gas gangrene and other various range of infectious diseases. But there is no standard diagnosis method of C. perfringens. In order to develop a new type of immunoassay for clinical purpose, we studied expression and extracellular secretion of recombinant alpha-toxin having enzyme activity in E. coli expression system. Cloning was carried out after PCR amplification from C. perfringens GAI 94074 which was clinical isolate. Three kinds of fragment were cloned using pET100/D-TOPO vector. These fragments coded for ribosome binding site, signal peptide, and alpha-toxin gene respectively. Recombinant pET100 plasmid transformed into TOP 10 cells and the obtained plasmids were transformed into BL21 (DE3) cells. Then, the transformants were induced expression with IPTG. In conclusion, we successfully cloned, expressed and exteracellular secreted C. perfringens alpha-toxin containing signal peptide. Biologically, the obtained recombinant protein was positive for phospholipase C activity. PMID:18154441

  13. Analysis and expression of the alpha-expansin and beta-expansin gene families in maize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Y.; Meeley, R. B.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    Expansins comprise a multigene family of proteins in maize (Zea mays). We isolated and characterized 13 different maize expansin cDNAs, five of which are alpha-expansins and eight of which are beta-expansins. This paper presents an analysis of these 13 expansins, as well as an expression analysis by northern blotting with materials from young and mature maize plants. Some expansins were expressed in restricted regions, such as the beta-expansins ExpB1 (specifically expressed in maize pollen) and ExpB4 (expressed principally in young husks). Other expansins such as alpha-expansin Exp1 and beta-expansin ExpB2 were expressed in several organs. The expression of yet a third group was not detected in the selected organs and tissues. An analysis of expansin sequences from the maize expressed sequence tag collection is also presented. Our results indicate that expansin genes may have general, overlapping expression in some instances, whereas in other cases the expression may be highly specific and limited to a single organ or cell type. In contrast to the situation in Arabidopsis, beta-expansins in maize seem to be more numerous and more highly expressed than are alpha-expansins. The results support the concept that beta-expansins multiplied and evolved special functions in the grasses.

  14. Incidence of Alpha-Globin Gene Defect in the Lebanese Population: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Daher, Rose; Badra, Rebecca; el Rafei, Rym; Charafeddine, Lama

    2015-01-01

    Background. It is well established that the Mediterranean and Arab populations are at high risk for thalassemias in general and for alpha-thalassemia in particular. Yet, reports on alpha-thalassemia in Lebanon are still lacking. In this study, we aim at assessing the incidence of alpha-thalassemia in the Lebanese population. Methods. 230 newborns' dried blood cards remaining from routine neonatal screening at the American University of Beirut Medical Center were collected for DNA extraction. Samples were screened for the 21 most common α-globin deletions and point mutations reported worldwide, through multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Reverse-Hybridization technique. Results. Upon analyses, the carrier rate of α-thalassemia was found to be 8%. Two mutations detected the −α3,7 single gene deletion found in 75% of cases and the nongene deletion α2 IVS1 [−5nt] in the remaining samples. Conclusion. This study is the first dedicated to investigate α-thalassemia trait incidence in Lebanon. Data obtained demonstrates a high carrier rate in a relatively, highly consanguineous population; it also highlighted the presence of two common mutations. These results may be of an important impact on premarital and newborn screening policies in our country. PMID:25834820

  15. Perilipin, a critical regulator of fat storage and breakdown, is a target gene of estrogen receptor-related receptor {alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Akter, Mst. Hasina; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Hirose, Fumiko; Osumi, Takashi

    2008-04-11

    Perilipin is a protein localized on lipid droplet surfaces in adipocytes and steroidogenic cells, playing a central role in regulated lipolysis. Expression of the perilipin gene is markedly induced during adipogenesis. We found that transcription from the perilipin gene promoter is activated by an orphan nuclear receptor, estrogen receptor-related receptor (ERR){alpha}. A response element to this receptor was identified in the promoter region by a gene reporter assay, the electrophoretic-gel mobility-shift assay and the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} coactivator (PGC)-1{alpha} enhanced, whereas small heterodimer partner (SHP) repressed, the transactivating function of ERR{alpha} on the promoter. Thus, the perilipin gene expression is regulated by a transcriptional network controlling energy metabolism, substantiating the functional importance of perilipin in the maintenance of body energy balance.

  16. Tumor necrosis factor alpha -308 gene locus promoter polymorphism: an analysis of association with health and disease.

    PubMed

    Elahi, Maqsood M; Asotra, Kamlesh; Matata, Bashir M; Mastana, Sarabjit S

    2009-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a potent immunomediator and proinflammatory cytokine that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a large number of human diseases. The location of its gene within major histocompatibility complex and biological activities has raised the possibility that polymorphisms within this locus may contribute to the pathogenesis of wide range of autoimmune and infectious diseases. For example, a bi-allelic single nucleotide substitution of G (TNFA1 allele) with A (TNFA2 allele) polymorphism at -308 nucleotides upstream from the transcription initiation site in the TNF-alpha promoter is associated with elevated TNF-alpha levels and disease susceptibilities. However, it is still unclear whether TNF-alpha -308 polymorphism plays a part in the disease process, in particular whether it could affect transcription factor binding and in turn influence TNF-alpha transcription and synthesis. Several studies have suggested that TNFA2 allele is significantly linked with the high TNF-alpha-producing autoimmune MHC haplotype HLA-A1, B8, DR3, with elevated serum TNF-alpha levels and a more severe outcome in diseases. This review discusses the genetics of the TNF-alpha -308 polymorphism in selected major diseases and evaluates its common role in health and disease. PMID:19708125

  17. Double gene deletion reveals the lack of cooperation between PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{beta} in skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Bedu, E.; Desplanches, D.; Pequignot, J.; Bordier, B.; Desvergne, B. . E-mail: beatrice.desvergne@unil.ch

    2007-06-15

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are involved in the regulation of most of the pathways linked to lipid metabolism. PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{beta} isotypes are known to regulate muscle fatty acid oxidation and a reciprocal compensation of their function has been proposed. Herein, we investigated muscle contractile and metabolic phenotypes in PPAR{alpha}-/-, PPAR{beta}-/-, and double PPAR{alpha}-/- {beta}-/- mice. Heart and soleus muscle analyses show that the deletion of PPAR{alpha} induces a decrease of the HAD activity ({beta}-oxidation) while soleus contractile phenotype remains unchanged. A PPAR{beta} deletion alone has no effect. However, these mild phenotypes are not due to a reciprocal compensation of PPAR{beta} and PPAR{alpha} functions since double gene deletion PPAR{alpha}-PPAR{beta} mostly reproduces the null PPAR{alpha}-mediated reduced {beta}-oxidation, in addition to a shift from fast to slow fibers. In conclusion, PPAR{beta} is not required for maintaining skeletal muscle metabolic activity and does not compensate the lack of PPAR{alpha} in PPAR{alpha} null mice.

  18. Molecular study of the 5 {alpha}-reductase type 2 gene in three European families with 5 {alpha}-reductase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Boudon, C.; Lumbroso, S.; Lobaccaro, J.M.

    1995-07-01

    The molecular basis of 5{alpha}-reductase (5{alpha}R) deficiency was investigated in four patients from three European families. In the French family, the first patient was raised as a female, and gonadectomy was performed before puberty. The second sibling, also raised as female, differed in that gonadal removal was performed after the onset of pubertal masculinization. The other two patients, both from Polish families, developed masculinization of external genitalia during puberty. All patients developed a female sexual identity. In all cases, no known consanguinity or family history of 5{alpha}R deficiency was reported. The genomic DNAs of the patients were sequenced after polymerase chain reaction amplification of the five exons of the 5{alpha}R type 2 gene. We found two homozygous mutations responsible for gutamine to arginine and histidine to arginine substitution in families 1 and 3, respectively. In family 2, we found a heterozygous mutation responsible for an asparagine to serine substitution at position 193. The glutamine/arginine 126 mutation in the French family was previously reported in a Creole ethnic group, and the Polish histidine/arginine 231 mutation was previously reported in a patient from Chicago, Moreover, all of the mutations created new restriction sites, which were used to determine the kindred carrier status in the three families. Because 5{alpha}R deficiency is known to be heterogenous disease in terms of clinical and biochemical expression, our data suggest that molecular biology analysis of the type 2 gene could be an essential step in diagnosing 5{alpha}R deficiency. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. PU.1 (Spi-1) and C/EBP alpha regulate expression of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor alpha gene.

    PubMed Central

    Hohaus, S; Petrovick, M S; Voso, M T; Sun, Z; Zhang, D E; Tenen, D G

    1995-01-01

    Growth factor receptors play an important role in hematopoiesis. In order to further understand the mechanisms directing the expression of these key regulators of hematopoiesis, we initiated a study investigating the transcription factors activating the expression of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor alpha gene. Here, we demonstrate that the human GM-CSF receptor alpha promoter directs reporter gene activity in a tissue-specific fashion in myelomonocytic cells, which correlates with its expression pattern as analyzed by reverse transcription PCR. The GM-CSF receptor alpha promoter contains an important functional site between positions -53 and -41 as identified by deletion analysis of reporter constructs. We show that the myeloid and B cell transcription factor PU.1 binds specifically to this site. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a CCAAT site located upstream of the PU.1 site between positions -70 and -54 is involved in positive-negative regulation of the GM-CSF receptor alpha promoter activity. C/EBP alpha is the major CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) form binding to this site in nuclear extracts of U937 cells. Point mutations of either the PU.1 site or the C/EBP site that abolish the binding of the respective factors result in a significant decrease of GM-CSF receptor alpha promoter activity in myelomonocytic cells only. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in myeloid and B cell extracts, PU.1 forms a novel, specific, more slowly migrating complex (PU-SF) when binding the GM-CSF receptor alpha promoter PU.1 site. This is the first demonstration of a specific interaction with PU.1 on a myeloid PU.1 binding site. The novel complex is distinct from that described previously as binding to B cell enhancer sites and can be formed by addition of PU.1 to extracts from certain nonmyeloid cell types which do not express PU.1, including T cells and epithelial cells, but not from erythroid cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the PU

  20. Alpha-fetoprotein-targeted reporter gene expression imaging in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Il; Chung, Hye Kyung; Park, Ju Hui; Lee, Yong Jin; Kang, Joo Hyun

    2016-07-21

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers in Eastern Asia, and its incidence is increasing globally. Numerous experimental models have been developed to better our understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of HCC and to evaluate novel therapeutic approaches. Molecular imaging is a convenient and up-to-date biomedical tool that enables the visualization, characterization and quantification of biologic processes in a living subject. Molecular imaging based on reporter gene expression, in particular, can elucidate tumor-specific events or processes by acquiring images of a reporter gene's expression driven by tumor-specific enhancers/promoters. In this review, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various experimental HCC mouse models and we present in vivo images of tumor-specific reporter gene expression driven by an alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) enhancer/promoter system in a mouse model of HCC. The current mouse models of HCC development are established by xenograft, carcinogen induction and genetic engineering, representing the spectrum of tumor-inducing factors and tumor locations. The imaging analysis approach of reporter genes driven by AFP enhancer/promoter is presented for these different HCC mouse models. Such molecular imaging can provide longitudinal information about carcinogenesis and tumor progression. We expect that clinical application of AFP-targeted reporter gene expression imaging systems will be useful for the detection of AFP-expressing HCC tumors and screening of increased/decreased AFP levels due to disease or drug treatment. PMID:27468205

  1. Differential Effects of Alpha-Particle Radiation and X-Irradiation on Genes Associated with Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vinita; Howland, Matthew; Chen, Jeremy; Kutzner, Barbara; Wilkins, Ruth C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined differential effects of alpha-(α-) particle radiation and X-rays on apoptosis and associated changes in gene expression. Human monocytic cells were exposed to α-particle radiation and X-rays from 0 to 1.5 Gy. Four days postexposure, cell death was measured by flow cytometry and 84 genes related to apoptosis were analyzed using real-time PCR. On average, 33% of the cells were apoptotic at 1.5 Gy of α-particle radiation. Transcript profiling showed statistical expression of 15 genes at all three doses tested. Cells exposed to X-rays were <5% apoptotic at ~1.5 Gy and induced less than a 2-fold expression in 6 apoptotic genes at the higher doses of radiation. Among these 6 genes, Fas and TNF-α were common to the α-irradiated cells. This data suggests that α-particle radiation initiates cell death by TNF-α and Fas activation and through intermediate signalling mediators that are distinct from X-irradiated cells. PMID:22091383

  2. Preferential expression of an alpha-tubulin gene of Arabidopsis in pollen.

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, J L; Ploense, S E; Snustad, D P; Silflow, C D

    1992-01-01

    The pool of tubulin protein in tissues of Arabidopsis is provided by the expression of multiple alpha-tubulin (TUA) and beta-tubulin genes. Whereas most tubulin genes are expressed in many tissues, previous evidence suggested that the TUA1 gene might be expressed primarily in pollen. We now report a detailed analysis of TUA1 expression during Arabidopsis development. In RNA from tissues of dissected flowers, TUA1 transcripts were detected only in stamens and mature pollen. Chimeric genes containing TUA1 5' flanking DNA fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) coding region were used to create transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Plants containing a chimeric gene with 533 bp of 5' flanking sequence were analyzed by histochemical assay to localize GUS expression within the plant. The blue product of GUS enzyme activity accumulated very rapidly in postmitotic pollen grains. Much lower levels of GUS activity were detected in anthers with uninucleate pollen grains, in flower receptacles, and in a few vegetative tissues. Analysis of 5' deletions of the TUA1 promoter suggested that 97 bp of 5' flanking DNA is sufficient to drive GUS expression in pollen and young anthers, whereas at least 380 bp is required to detect GUS expression in the receptacle. Examination of the TUA1 promoter sequence revealed several motifs that are repeated within the TUA1 promoter and are similar to sequences in other pollen-specific promoters. PMID:1498610

  3. siRNA Screening Identifies the Host Hexokinase 2 (HK2) Gene as an Important Hypoxia-Inducible Transcription Factor 1 (HIF-1) Target Gene in Toxoplasma gondii-Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Menendez, Matthew T.; Teygong, Crystal; Wade, Kristin; Florimond, Celia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although it is established that oxygen availability regulates cellular metabolism and growth, little is known regarding how intracellular pathogens use host factors to grow at physiological oxygen levels. Therefore, large-scale human small interfering RNA screening was performed to identify host genes important for growth of the intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii at tissue oxygen tensions. Among the genes identified by this screen, we focused on the hexokinase 2 (HK2) gene because its expression is regulated by hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1 (HIF-1), which is important for Toxoplasma growth. Toxoplasma increases host HK2 transcript and protein levels in a HIF-1-dependent manner. In addition, parasite growth at 3% oxygen is restored in HIF-1-deficient cells transfected with HK2 expression plasmids. Both HIF-1 activation and HK2 expression were accompanied by increases in host glycolytic flux, suggesting that enhanced HK2 expression in parasite-infected cells is functionally significant. Parasite dependence on host HK2 and HIF-1 expression is not restricted to transformed cell lines, as both are required for parasite growth in nontransformed C2C12 myoblasts and HK2 is upregulated in vivo following infection. While HK2 is normally associated with the cytoplasmic face of the outer mitochondrial membrane at physiological O2 levels, HK2 relocalizes to the host cytoplasm following infection, a process that is required for parasite growth at 3% oxygen. Taken together, our findings show that HIF-1-dependent expression and relocalization of HK2 represent a novel mechanism by which Toxoplasma establishes its replicative niche at tissue oxygen tensions. PMID:26106078

  4. Aleurone nuclear proteins bind to similar elements in the promoter regions of two gibberellin-regulated alpha-amylase genes.

    PubMed

    Rushton, P J; Hooley, R; Lazarus, C M

    1992-09-01

    Binding of nuclear proteins from wild oat aleurone protoplasts to the promoter regions of two gibberellin-regulated wheat alpha-amylase genes (alpha-Amy1/18 and alpha-Amy2/54) has been studied by gel retardation and DNase 1 footprinting. Gel retardation studies using 300-430 bp fragments of the promoters showed similar binding characteristics with nuclear extracts from both gibberellin A1-treated and untreated protoplasts. DNase 1 footprints localised binding of nuclear proteins from gibberellin A1-treated aleurone protoplasts to regions in both promoters. Similar sequence elements in the promoter regions of both genes were protected from digestion although the location and number of footprints in each promoter region were different. Each footprint contained either a sequence similar to the cAMP and/or phorbol ester response elements, or a hyphenated palindrome sequence. The presence of cAMP and/or phorbol ester response element-like sequences in the footprints suggests that transcription factors of the bZIP type may be involved in the expression of alpha-amylase genes in aleurone cells. Footprints containing hyphenated palindrome sequences, found in the promoter regions of both genes, suggest the possible involvement of other classes of transcription factor. The conserved alpha-amylase promoter sequence TAA-CAGA was also shown to bind nuclear protein in the alpha-Amy2/54 promoter. These observations are discussed in relation to alpha-amylase gene expression in aleurone and to functional data concerning these genes. PMID:1511135

  5. Nemaline myopathy caused by mutations in the muscle alpha-skeletal-actin gene.

    PubMed

    Ilkovski, B; Cooper, S T; Nowak, K; Ryan, M M; Yang, N; Schnell, C; Durling, H J; Roddick, L G; Wilkinson, I; Kornberg, A J; Collins, K J; Wallace, G; Gunning, P; Hardeman, E C; Laing, N G; North, K N

    2001-06-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by muscle weakness and the presence of nemaline bodies (rods) in skeletal muscle. Disease-causing mutations have been reported in five genes, each encoding a protein component of the sarcomeric thin filament. Recently, we identified mutations in the muscle alpha-skeletal-actin gene (ACTA1) in a subset of patients with NM. In the present study, we evaluated a new series of 35 patients with NM. We identified five novel missense mutations in ACTA1, which suggested that mutations in muscle alpha-skeletal actin account for the disease in approximately 15% of patients with NM. The mutations appeared de novo and represent new dominant mutations. One proband subsequently had two affected children, a result consistent with autosomal dominant transmission. The seven patients exhibited marked clinical variability, ranging from severe congenital-onset weakness, with death from respiratory failure during the 1st year of life, to a mild childhood-onset myopathy, with survival into adulthood. There was marked variation in both age at onset and clinical severity in the three affected members of one family. Common pathological features included abnormal fiber type differentiation, glycogen accumulation, myofibrillar disruption, and "whorling" of actin thin filaments. The percentage of fibers with rods did not correlate with clinical severity; however, the severe, lethal phenotype was associated with both severe, generalized disorganization of sarcomeric structure and abnormal localization of sarcomeric actin. The marked variability, in clinical phenotype, among patients with different mutations in ACTA1 suggests that both the site of the mutation and the nature of the amino acid change have differential effects on thin-filament formation and protein-protein interactions. The intrafamilial variability suggests that alpha-actin genotype is not the sole determinant of phenotype. PMID:11333380

  6. Glucocorticoid regulation of branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase E2 subunit gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Costeas, P A; Chinsky, J M

    2000-01-01

    Regulation of the mammalian branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKAD) occurs under a variety of stressful conditions associated with changes in circulating glucocorticoids. Multiple levels of regulation in hepatocytes, including alteration of the levels of the structural subunits available for assembly (E1, alpha-ketoacid decarboxylase; E2, dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase; and E3, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase), as well as BCKAD kinase, which serves to phosphorylate the E1alpha subunit and inactivate complex activity, have been proposed. The direct role of glucocorticoids in regulating the expression of the murine gene encoding the major BCKAD subunit E2, upon which the other BCKAD subunits assemble, was therefore examined. Deletion analysis of the 5' proximal 7.0 kb of the murine E2 promoter sequence, using E2 promoter/luciferase expression minigene plasmids introduced into the hepatic H4IIEC3 cell line, suggested a promoter proximal region responsive to glucocorticoid regulation. Linker-scanning mutagenesis combined with deletion analysis established this functional glucocorticoid-responsive unit (GRU) to be located near the murine E2 proximal promoter site at -140 to -70 bp upstream from the transcription initiation site. The presence of this region in plasmid minigenes, containing varying amounts of the murine genomic sequence 5' upstream from proximal E2 promoter sequences, conferred 2-10 fold increases in luciferase reporter gene expression in H4IIEC3 cells, whether introduced by transient transfection or following co-selection for stable transfectants. The GRU region itself appeared to contain multiple interacting elements that combine to regulate overall E2 promoter activity in response to changing physiological conditions associated with varying concentrations of glucocorticoids and likely other hormonal effectors. PMID:10749674

  7. Molecular analysis of the 5 alpha-steroid reductase type 2 gene in a family with deficiency of the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Vilchis, F; Canto, P; Chávez, B; Ulloa-Aguirre, A; Méndez, J P

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the identification of a point mutation in the 5 alpha-reductase type 2 (5 alpha-SR2) gene from a family in which both sibs (6 and 3 years old) have steroid 5 alpha-reductase 2 deficiency. The five exons of the gene were individually amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and analysed for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) to detect mutations. Direct sequencing of the mutant PCR products demonstrated a single C-->T mutation, within exon 4, changing codon 227 from CGA (Arg) to TGA (premature termination signal). Both patients were homozygous for the mutation, but their parents were heterozygous. These results suggest that the mutation at codon 227 impairs normal 5 alpha-SR2 function, thus leading to the phenotypical expression of this rare enzymatic defect. PMID:9066886

  8. Multiple hepatocyte-enriched nuclear factors function in the regulation of transthyretin and. alpha. 1-antitrypsin genes

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, R.H. ); Grayson, D.R. ); Darnell, J.E. Jr. )

    1989-04-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) and {alpha}1-antitrypsin ({alpha}1-AT) are expressed at high levels in the liver and also in at least one other cell type. The authors report here a detailed analysis of the proximal regulatory region of the TTR gene, which has uncovered two new DNA-binding factors that are present mainly (or only) in hepatocytes. One of these new factors, hepatocyte nuclear factor 3 (HNF-3), binds to two sites that are crucial in TTR expression as well as to two additional sites in the {alpha}1-AT proximal enhancer region. The second new factor, HNF-4, binds to two sites in TTR that are required for gene activity. The authors had previously identified binding sites for another hepatocyte-enriched DNA-binding protein (C/EBP or a relative thereof), and additional promoter-proximal sites for that protein in both TTR and {alpha}1-AT are also reported here. From these results it seems clear that cell-specific expression is not simply the result of a single cell-specific factor for each gene but the results of a combination of such factors. The variation and distribution of such factors among different cell types could be an important basis for the coordinate expression of the TTR and {alpha}1-AT genes in the liver or the discordant transcriptional activation of these genes in a few other cell types. The identification of such cell-enriched factors is a necessary prelude to understanding the basis for cell specificity.

  9. Antisense SNF1-related (SnRK1) protein kinase gene represses transient activity of an alpha-amylase (alpha-Amy2) gene promoter in cultured wheat embryos.

    PubMed

    Laurie, Sophie; McKibbin, Rowan S; Halford, Nigel G

    2003-02-01

    A DNA fragment corresponding to part of an SNF1 (sucrose non-fermenting-1)-related protein kinase (SnRK1) transcript was amplified by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from a wheat (Triticum aestivum) endosperm cDNA library. It was used to construct a chimaeric gene, pUasSnRKN, comprising a ubiquitin promoter, the SnRK1 PCR product in the antisense orientation and the nopaline synthase (Nos) gene terminator. This construct was used in transient gene expression experiments in cultured wheat embryos together with a series of reporter gene constructs. These included the wheat alpha amylase gene alpha-Amy2 promoter with UidA (Gus) coding region (palpha2GT), rice actin promoter with Gus (pActIDGus), ubiquitin promoter with Gus (pAHC25) and actin promoter with green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene (pAct1Is-GFP1). All of the reporter genes were found to be active when bombarded into scutellae isolated from immature grains at 25 d post-anthesis and incubated on MS medium for 24 h prior to bombardment. However, co-bombardment of palpha2GT with equimolar amounts of pUasSnRKN resulted in no detectable Gus activity, indicating that the antisense SnRK1 construct repressed the alpha-Amy2 promoter. Co-bombardment with pUasSnRKN had no effect on the activity of the other promoters used in the study. A triple bombardment with palpha2GT, pAct1Is-GFP-1 and pUasSnRKN resulted in clear green fluorescence, indicating that the bombarded cells were still viable, but no Gus activity. RT-PCR analysis showed clearly that the antisense SnRK1 gene was expressing. Northern and RT-PCR analyses confirmed that SnRK1 and both alpha-amylase genes, alpha-Amy1 and alpha-Amy2, are expressed in cultured wheat embryos harvested from grain 25 d post-anthesis. Expression of alpha-Amy1 and alpha-Amy2 was up-regulated by sugar starvation. PMID:12554717

  10. PGC-1alpha induces dynamic protein interactions on the ERRalpha gene multi-hormone response element nucleosome in kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liangli; Li, Yin; Hu, Peng; Teng, Christina T

    2008-12-15

    ERR (oestrogen-related receptor)-alpha modulates the oestrogen signalling pathway and regulates genes participating in the physiological energy balance programme. Oestrogen and PGC-1alpha (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha), the master regulator of the energy homoeostasis programme, both regulate the expression of ERRalpha through the MHRE (multi-hormone response element) of the ERRalpha gene. Although the molecular mechanism of oestrogen action on ERRalpha regulation is well characterized, the mechanism of PGC-1alpha induction is unclear. In this study, we examine chromatin structural changes and protein interactions at the MHRE nucleosome in response to PGC-1alpha expression in HK2 human kidney cells. We mapped the nucleosome positions of the ERRalpha gene promoter and examined the changes of histone acetylation in response to PGC-1alpha expression. The interactions of DNA-binding proteins, ERRalpha and ERRgamma, co-activators {CBP [CREB (cAMP-response-element-binding protein)-binding protein], p300, PCAF (p300/CBP-associated factor)}, co-repressor [RIP140 (receptor-interacting protein of 140 kDa)] and RNA polymerase II at the MHRE nucleosome region were investigated over time before and after PGC-1alpha expression in the HK2 cells. We found a dynamic cyclic interaction of these proteins shortly after PGC-1alpha expression and a slower cycling interaction, with fewer proteins involved, 20 h later. By using the siRNA (small interfering RNA) knockdown approach, we discovered that ERRgamma was involved in the initial phase, but not in the later phase, of PGC-1alpha-induced ERRalpha expression. PMID:18673300

  11. Functional cloning of an endo-alpha-1,5-L-arabinanase gene from a metagenomic library

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel endo-alpha-L-arabinanase gene (arn2) was isolated, and expressed in E. coli in active form. The recombinant enzyme (ARN2) had optimum activity at pH 6.0 and 45o-50oC with stability between pH 5.0-8.0 and at temperatures up to 45oC . The recombinant ARN2 catalyzed internal cleavage of alpha-...

  12. The Mediator Complex MED15 Subunit Mediates Activation of Downstream Lipid-Related Genes by the WRINKLED1 Transcription Factor1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Jung

    2016-01-01

    The Mediator complex is known to be a master coordinator of transcription by RNA polymerase II, and this complex is recruited by transcription factors (TFs) to target promoters for gene activation or repression. The plant-specific TF WRINKLED1 (WRI1) activates glycolysis-related and fatty acid biosynthetic genes during embryogenesis. However, no Mediator subunit has yet been identified that mediates WRI1 transcriptional activity. Promoter-β-glucuronidase fusion experiments showed that MEDIATOR15 (MED15) is expressed in the same cells in the embryo as WRI1. We found that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MED15 subunit of the Mediator complex interacts directly with WRI1 in the nucleus. Overexpression of MED15 or WRI1 increased transcript levels of WRI1 target genes involved in glycolysis and fatty acid biosynthesis; these genes were down-regulated in wild-type or WRI1-overexpressing plants by silencing of MED15. However, overexpression of MED15 in the wri1 mutant also increased transcript levels of WRI1 target genes, suggesting that MED15 also may act with other TFs to activate downstream lipid-related genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed the association of MED15 with six WRI1 target gene promoters. Additionally, silencing of MED15 resulted in reduced fatty acid content in seedlings and mature seeds, whereas MED15 overexpression increased fatty acid content in both developmental stages. Similar results were found in wri1 mutant and WRI1 overexpression lines. Together, our results indicate that the WRI1/MED15 complex transcriptionally regulates glycolysis-related and fatty acid biosynthetic genes during embryogenesis. PMID:27246098

  13. Alpha-fetoprotein-targeted reporter gene expression imaging in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang Il; Chung, Hye Kyung; Park, Ju Hui; Lee, Yong Jin; Kang, Joo Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers in Eastern Asia, and its incidence is increasing globally. Numerous experimental models have been developed to better our understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of HCC and to evaluate novel therapeutic approaches. Molecular imaging is a convenient and up-to-date biomedical tool that enables the visualization, characterization and quantification of biologic processes in a living subject. Molecular imaging based on reporter gene expression, in particular, can elucidate tumor-specific events or processes by acquiring images of a reporter gene’s expression driven by tumor-specific enhancers/promoters. In this review, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various experimental HCC mouse models and we present in vivo images of tumor-specific reporter gene expression driven by an alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) enhancer/promoter system in a mouse model of HCC. The current mouse models of HCC development are established by xenograft, carcinogen induction and genetic engineering, representing the spectrum of tumor-inducing factors and tumor locations. The imaging analysis approach of reporter genes driven by AFP enhancer/promoter is presented for these different HCC mouse models. Such molecular imaging can provide longitudinal information about carcinogenesis and tumor progression. We expect that clinical application of AFP-targeted reporter gene expression imaging systems will be useful for the detection of AFP-expressing HCC tumors and screening of increased/decreased AFP levels due to disease or drug treatment. PMID:27468205

  14. Cloning the mouse homologue of the human lysosomal acid {alpha}-glucosidase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, J.H.; Yang, B.Z.; Liu, H.M.

    1994-09-01

    Pompe disease (GSD II) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of lysosomal acid {alpha}-glucosidase (GAA). In an attempt to create a mouse model for Pompe disease, we isolated and characterized the gene encoding the mouse homologue of the human GAA. Twenty clones that extend from exon 2 to the poly(A) tail were isolated from a mouse liver cDNA library, but the remainder of the mRNA proved difficult to obtain by conventional cDNA library screening. Sequences spanning exons 1-2 were cloned by RACE from mouse liver RNA. The full-length liver GAA cDNA contains 3365 nucleotides with a coding region of 2859 nucleotides and a 394 base pair 3{prime}-nontranslated region. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mouse GAA shows 84% identity to the human GAA. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the mouse GAA was encoded by a single copy gene. Then six bacteriophages containing DNA from the GAA gene were isolated by screening 10{sup 6} phage plaques of a mouse 129 genomic library using a mouse GAA cDNA as a probe. From one of these bacteriophages, an 11-kilobase EcoRI fragment containing exons 3 to 15 was subcloned and sequenced. Work is in progress using this genomic clone to disrupt the GAA gene in murine embryonic stem cells in order to create GSD II mice.

  15. The retinoid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORA) gene and fear-related psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark W.; Wolf, Erika J.; Logue, Mark W.; Baldwin, Clinton T.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study followed on findings from a recent genome-wide association study of PTSD that implicated the retinoid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORA) gene (Logue et al, 2012) by examining its relationship to broader array of disorders. Methods Using data from the same cohort (N = 540), we analyzed patterns of association between 606 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the RORA gene and comorbidity factors termed fear, distress (i.e., internalizing factors) and externalizing. Results Results showed that rs17303244 was associated with the fear component of internalizing (i.e., defined by symptoms of panic, agoraphobia, specific phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder) at a level of significance that withstood correction for gene-wide multiple testing. Limitations The primary limitations were the modest size of the cohort and the absence of a replication sample. Conclusions Results add to a growing literature implicating the RORA gene in a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders and offer new insight into possible molecular mechanisms of the effects of traumatic stress on the brain and the role of genetic factors in those processes. PMID:24007783

  16. Determination of the kappa anti-alpha(1,3) dextran immune response difference by A gene(s) in the VKappa-locus of mice

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    Mice lacking the V(alpha(1,3) (h gamma1)-gene do not produce a gamma1 anti-alpha(1,3) dextran response. However, on hyperimmunization some strains mount a kappa-anti-alpha(1,3) dextran response, whereas other remain nonresponder. Responsiveness in dominant. The kappa-anti- alpha(1,3) response difference is linked to the Ly-3 locus on chromosone 6 and is likely the result of a structural Vkappa-gene(s). In conjunction with previous work, three Vkappa-allogroups can now be distinguished. At present, this is the only example of an immune responsiveness difference associated with the Vkappa-locus. PMID:109565

  17. Polymorphism and structure of the gene coding for the alpha 1 subunit of the Artemia franciscana Na/K-ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    García-Sáez, A; Perona, R; Sastre, L

    1997-01-01

    Genomic clones coding for one of the two identified Artemia franciscana Na/K-ATPase alpha subunits, the alpha 1 subunit, have been isolated. Several overlapping clones were obtained, although their restriction maps showed a large heterogeneity. Sequencing of their exons showed that they differ in up to 3.46% of their nucleotides in translated regions and 8.18% in untranslated regions. Southern blot analysis of DNA purified from different lots of A. franciscana cysts and from isolated individuals suggests that the variation is due to the existence of multiple Na/K-ATPase alpha 1 subunit alleles in A. franciscana. The Na/K-ATPase alpha 1 subunit gene is divided into 15 exons. Ten of the 14 introns are located in identical positions in this gene as in the human Na/K-ATPase alpha 3 subunit gene. Analysis of the 5' flanking region of the gene has allowed identification of the transcription-initiation sites. The adjacent upstream region has been shown to have functional promoter activity in cultured mammalian cells, suggesting the evolutionary conservation of some of the promoter regulatory sequences. PMID:9020888

  18. [Expression of the human interferon alpha F gene in the obligate methylotroph Methylobacillus flagellatum KT and Pseudomonas putida].

    PubMed

    Chistoserdov, A Iu; Eremashvili, M R; Mashko, S V; Lapidus, A L; Skvortsova, M A

    1987-08-01

    The expression of human leucocyte interferon alpha F gene in plasmid pLM-IFN alpha F-273 is controlled by a hybrid tac (trp-lac) promoter. A structural gene for interferon alpha F is a component of the hybrid operon lacZ'-IFN alpha F-TcR, that contains an E. coli trp-operon intercystronic region. Plasmid pLM IFN alpha F-273--directed interferon synthesis allows to obtain about 10(7) IU/l. This plasmid was cloned in broad-host-range vector plasmid pAYC31. The hybrid bi-repliconed plasmid containing interferon gene as well as its single-repliconed deletion derivatives obtained by the in vivo recombination, were introduced into obligate methylotroph Methylobacillus flagellatum KT and Pseudomonas putida PpG6. Methylotrophic strain and Pseudomonas were able to transcribe the interferon gene from E. coli tac promoter, the yield of interferon being 2-4-fold higher as compared with the one in the initial host. PMID:3119998

  19. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) gene are associated with growth-related traits in farmed Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, H Y; Hamilton, A; Guy, D R; Houston, R D

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of variation in traits related to growth and fillet quality in Atlantic salmon is of importance to the aquaculture industry. Several growth-related QTL have been identified via the application of genetic markers. The IGF1 gene is considered a highly conserved and crucial growth-regulating gene in salmonid species. However, the association between polymorphisms in the IGF1 gene and growth-related traits in Atlantic salmon is unknown. Therefore, in this study, regions of the Atlantic salmon IGF1 gene were sequenced, aligned and compared across individuals. Three SNPs were identified in the putative promoter (SNP1, g.5763G>T; GenBank no. AGKD01012745), intron 1 (SNP2, g.7292C>T; GenBank no. AGKD01012745) and intron 3 (SNP3, g.4671A>C; GenBank no. AGKD01133398) regions respectively. These SNPs were genotyped in a population of 4800 commercial Atlantic salmon with data on several weight and fillet traits measured at harvest (at approximately 3 years of age). In a mixed model, association analysis of individual SNPs, SNP1 and SNP3 were both significantly associated with several weight traits (P < 0.05). The estimated additive effect on overall harvest weight was approximately 35 and 110 g for SNPs 1 and 3 respectively. A haplotype analysis confirmed the association between genetic variation in the IGF1 gene with overall body weight (P < 0.05) and fillet component traits (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest the identified nucleotide polymorphisms of the IGF1 gene may either affect farmed Atlantic salmon growth directly or be in population-wide linkage disequilibrium with causal variation, highlighting their possible utility as candidates for marker-assisted selection in the aquaculture industry. PMID:25090910

  20. Cloning of a novel human nonmuscle alpha-actinin gene and characterization of alpha-actinin expression in nemaline rod myopathy (NRM)

    SciTech Connect

    Beggs, A.H.; Knoll, J.H.M.; Kunkel, L.M.

    1994-09-01

    The {alpha}-actinins are a group of actin-binding and crosslinking proteins that are evolutionarily related to the spectrins and dystrophin. Muscle isoforms of {alpha}-actinin are localized at the Z-lines where they anchor actin filaments in a constitutive manner. In contrast, nonmuscle (cytoskeletal) isoforms are found in all tissues at adherens type junctions where they may play a role in organizing the actin cytoskeleton. In addition to the previously identified nonmuscle/smooth muscle ACTN1 gene and the skeletal/cardiac isoforms, ACTN2 and ACTN3, we have identified a fourth gene, ACTN4, which maps to chromosome 19q13.1 and is expressed at similar levels in all tissues tested. Sequence analysis reveals that all four human genes are collinear with about 77% amino acid identity overall. The ACTN4 gene is alternatively spliced at the first EF-hand to generate two alternative isoforms, both of which are predicted to be calcium insensitive. By indirect immunofluorescence, ACTN1 and ACTN4 are both expressed in association with the actin cytoskeleton of cultured fibroblasts. Additionally, both are found in vascular smooth muscle, however, ACTN4, but not ACTN1, was also found in some capillaries in skeletal muscle. ACTN2 was found at Z-lines in all muscle fiber types while ACTN3 expression is limited to Z-lines in a subset of fast (Type II) fibers. Interestingly, both ACTN2 and ACTN3 isoforms were identified in nemaline rods from a patient with NRM, suggesting that the genetic mutation responsible for this disorder may not be in an {alpha}-actinin gene.

  1. Cloning of genes encoding alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase and beta-xylosidase from Trichoderma reesei by expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Margolles-Clark, E; Tenkanen, M; Nakari-Setälä, T; Penttilä, M

    1996-01-01

    A cDNA expression library of Trichoderma reesei RutC-30 was constructed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two genes, abf1 and bxl1, were isolated by screening the yeast library for extracellular alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase activity with the substrate p-nitrophenyl-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside. The genes abf1 and bxl1 encode 500 and 758 amino acids, respectively, including the signal sequences. The deduced amino acid sequence of ABFI displays high-level similarity to the alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase B of Aspergillus niger, and the two can form a new family of glycosyl hydrolases. The deduced amino acid sequence of BXLI shows similarities to the beta-glucosidases grouped in family 3. The yeast-produced enzymes were tested for enzymatic activities against different substrates. ABFI released L-arabinose from p-nitrophenyl-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside and arabinoxylans and showed some beta-xylosidase activity toward p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside. BXLI did not release L-arabinose from arabinoxylan. It showed alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase, alpha-L-arabinopyranosidase, and beta-xylosidase activities against p-nitrophenyl-alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase, p-nitrophenyl-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside, and p-nitrophenyl-beta-D- xylopyranoside, respectively, with the last activity being the highest. It was also able to hydrolyze xylobiose and slowly release xylose from polymeric xylan. ABFI and BXLI correspond to a previously purified alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase and a beta-xylosidase from T. reesei, respectively, as confirmed by partial amino acid sequencing of the Trichoderma-produced enzymes. Both enzymes produced in yeasts displayed hydrolytic properties similar to those of the corresponding enzymes purified from T. reesei. PMID:8837440

  2. Evidence for the involvement of mouse heat shock factor 1 in the atypical expression of the HSP70.1 heat shock gene during mouse zygotic genome activation.

    PubMed Central

    Christians, E; Michel, E; Adenot, P; Mezger, V; Rallu, M; Morange, M; Renard, J P

    1997-01-01

    The mouse HSP70.1 gene, which codes for a heat shock protein (hsp70), is highly transcribed at the onset of zygotic genome activation (ZGA). This expression, which occurs in the absence of stress, is then repressed. It has been claimed that this gene does not exhibit a stress response until the blastocyst stage. The promoter of HSP70.1 contains four heat shock element (HSE) boxes which are the binding sites of heat shock transcription factors (HSF). We have been studying the presence and localization of the mouse HSFs, mHSF1 and mHSF2, at different stages of embryo development. We show that mHSF1 is already present at the one-cell stage and concentrated in the nucleus. Moreover, by mutagenizing HSE sequences and performing competition experiments (in transgenic embryos with the HSP70.1 promoter inserted before a reporter gene), we show that, in contrast with previous findings, HSE boxes are involved in this spontaneous activation. Therefore, we suggest that HSF1 and HSE are important in this transient expression at the two-cell stage and that the absence of typical inducibility at this early stage of development results mainly from the high level of spontaneous transcription of this gene during the ZGA. PMID:9001232

  3. PPAR{alpha} does not suppress muscle-associated gene expression in brown adipocytes but does influence expression of factors that fingerprint the brown adipocyte

    SciTech Connect

    Walden, Tomas B.; Petrovic, Natasa; Nedergaard, Jan

    2010-06-25

    Brown adipocytes and myocytes develop from a common adipomyocyte precursor. PPAR{alpha} is a nuclear receptor important for lipid and glucose metabolism. It has been suggested that in brown adipose tissue, PPAR{alpha} represses the expression of muscle-associated genes, in this way potentially acting to determine cell fate in brown adipocytes. To further understand the possible role of PPAR{alpha} in these processes, we measured expression of muscle-associated genes in brown adipose tissue and brown adipocytes from PPAR{alpha}-ablated mice, including structural genes (Mylpf, Tpm2, Myl3 and MyHC), regulatory genes (myogenin, Myf5 and MyoD) and a myomir (miR-206). However, in our hands, the expression of these genes was not influenced by the presence or absence of PPAR{alpha}, nor by the PPAR{alpha} activator Wy-14,643. Similarly, the expression of genes common for mature brown adipocyte and myocytes (Tbx15, Meox2) were not affected. However, the brown adipocyte-specific regulatory genes Zic1, Lhx8 and Prdm16 were affected by PPAR{alpha}. Thus, it would not seem that PPAR{alpha} represses muscle-associated genes, but PPAR{alpha} may still play a role in the regulation of the bifurcation of the adipomyocyte precursor into a brown adipocyte or myocyte phenotype.

  4. Risk of open angle glaucoma due to tumor necrosis factor alpha gene polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Mona Abdel; Moemen, Leqaa; Labib, Hany; Helmy, Hazem; Elsergany, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Axonal degeneration and retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in glaucoma is associated with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), which is an important pro-inflammatory cytokine. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the risk of open angle glaucoma (OAG) in the Egyptian population and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) gene polymorphisms. Methods Sixty OAG patients and 26 healthy unrelated controls were used to analyze TNF-α polymorphism G-308A using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results the GG genotype was found at a higher frequency in the controls than in the patients, and the AA and GA genotypes were associated strongly with OAG. Conclusion In this study, we found that the TNF-α polymorphism G-308A was associated significantly with OAG in the Egyptian population. However, there is a need for population-based studies with large numbers of subjects. Also, long-term follow up is required to verify the association between TNF-α polymorphism G-308A and glaucoma susceptibility. PMID:27054008

  5. Transcriptional promoter of the human alpha 1(V) collagen gene (COL5A1).

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S; Greenspan, D S

    1995-01-01

    We have characterized the 5' region of the human alpha 1(V) collagen gene (COL5A1). The transcriptional promoter is shown to have a number of features characteristic of the promoters of 'housekeeping' and growth-control-related genes. It lacks obvious TATA and CAAT boxes, has multiple transcription start sites, has a high GC content, lies within a well-defined CpG island and has a number of consensus sites for the potential binding of transcription factor Sp1. This type of promoter structure, while unusual for a collagen gene, is consistent with the broad distribution of expression of COL5A1 and is reminiscent of the promoter structures of the genes encoding type VI collagen, which has a similarly broad distribution of expression. Stepwise deletion of COL5A1 5' sequences, placed upstream of a heterologous reporter gene, yielded a gradual decrease in promoter activity, indicating that the COL5A1 promoter is composed of an array of cis-acting elements. A minimal promoter region contained within the 212 bp immediately upstream of the major transcription start site contained no consensus sequences for the binding of known transcription factors, but gel mobility shift assays showed this region to bind nuclear factors, including Sp1, at a number of sites. The major transcription start site is flanked by an upstream 34-bp oligopurine/oligopyrimidine stretch, or 'GAGA' box, and a downstream 56-bp GAGA box which contains a 10-bp mirror repeat and is sensitive to cleavage with S1 nuclease. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:7646438

  6. Liver-Specific Alpha 2 Interferon Gene Expression Results in Protection from Induced Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Aurisicchio, Luigi; Delmastro, Paola; Salucci, Valentina; Paz, Odalys Gonzalez; Rovere, Patrizia; Ciliberto, Gennaro; La Monica, Nicola; Palombo, Fabio

    2000-01-01

    The current therapy for hepatitis B and C is based on systemic administration of recombinant human alpha interferon (r-hIFN-α). However, systemic delivery of r-hIFN-α is associated with severe side effects, but more importantly, it is effective in only a small percentage of patients. In an effort to maximize IFN-α antiviral efficacy, we have explored the therapeutic potential of murine IFN-α2 (mIFNα2) selectively expressed in the liver. To this end, we have developed a helper-dependent adenovirus vector (HD) containing the mIFN-α2 gene under the control of the liver-specific transthyretin promoter (HD-IFN). Comparison with a first-generation adenovirus carrying the same mIFN-α2 expression cassette indicates that at certain HD-IFN doses, induction of antiviral genes can be achieved in the absence of detectable circulating mIFN-α2. Challenge of injected mice with mouse hepatitis virus type 3 showed that HD-IFN provides high liver protection. Moreover, liver protection was also observed in acute nonviral liver inflammation hepatitis induced by concanavalin A at 1 month postinfection. These results hold promise for the development of a gene therapy treatment for chronic viral hepatitis based on liver-restricted expression of IFN-α2. PMID:10775620

  7. Genetic polymorphism of estrogen receptor alpha gene in Egyptian women with type II diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Motawi, Tarek M.K.; El-Rehany, Mahmoud A.; Rizk, Sherine M.; Ramzy, Maggie M.; el-Roby, Doaa M.

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen might play an important role in type 2 diabetes mellitus pathogenesis. A number of polymorphisms have been reported in the estrogen receptor alpha gene including the XbaI and PvuII restriction enzyme polymorphisms. The aim of this study was to determine if ESRα gene polymorphisms are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and correlated with lipid profile. Ninety diabetic Egyptian patients were compared with forty healthy controls. ESRα genotyping of PvuII and XbaI was performed using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Our study showed that there is more significant difference in the frequency of C and G polymorphic allele between patients and control groups in PvuII and XbaI respectively. Also carriers of minor C and G alleles of PvuII and XbaI gene polymorphisms were associated with increased fasting blood glucose and disturbance in lipid profile as there is an increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides and Low density lipoprotein. So findings of present study suggest the possibility that PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms in ERα are related to T2DM and with increased serum lipids among Egyptian population. PMID:26401488

  8. Estrogen receptor alpha gene amplification in breast cancer: 25 years of debate

    PubMed Central

    Holst, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago, Nembrot and colleagues reported amplification of the estrogen receptor alpha gene (ESR1) in breast cancer, initiating a broad and still ongoing scientific debate on the prevalence and clinical significance of this genetic aberration, which affects one of the most important genes in breast cancer. Since then, a multitude of studies on this topic has been published, covering a wide range of divergent results and arguments. The reported prevalence of this alteration in breast cancer ranges from 0% to 75%, suggesting that ESR1 copy number analysis is hampered by technical and interpreter issues. To date, two major issues related to ESR1 amplification remain to be conclusively addressed: (1) The extent to which abundant amounts of messenger RNA can mimic amplification in standard fluorescence in situ hybridization assays in the analysis of strongly expressed genes like ESR1, and (2) the clinical relevance of ESR1 amplification: Such relevance is strongly disputed, with data showing predictive value for response as well as for resistance of the cancer to anti-estrogen therapies, or for subsequent development of cancers in the case of precursor lesions that display amplification of ESR1. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the various views on ESR1 amplification, and highlights explanations for the contradictions and conflicting data that could inform future ESR1 research. PMID:27081639

  9. Association of transforming growth-factor alpha gene polymorphisms with nonsyndromic cleft palate only (CPO)

    SciTech Connect

    Shiang, R. ); Lidral, A.C.; Ardinger, H.H.; Murray, J.C.; Romitti, P.A.; Munger, R.G.; Buetow, K.H.

    1993-10-01

    Genetic analysis and tissue-specific expression studies support a role for transforming growth-factor alpha (TGFA) in craniofacial development. Previous studies have confirmed an association of alleles for TGFA with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) in humans. The authors carried out a retrospective association study to determine whether specific allelic variants of the TGFA gene are also associated with cleft palate only (CPO). The PCR products from 12 overlapping sets of primers to the TGFA cDNA were examined by using single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis. Four DNA polymorphic sites for TGFA were identified in the 3[prime] untranslated region of the TGFA gene. These variants, as well as previously identified RFLPs for TGFA, were characterized in case and control populations for CPO by using X[sup 2] analysis. A significant association between alleles of TGFA and CPO was identified which further supports a role for this gene as one of the genetic determinants of craniofacial development. Sequence analysis of the variants disclosed a cluster of three variable sites within 30 bp of each other in the 3[prime] untranslated region previously associated with an antisense transcript. These studies extend the role for TGFA in craniofacial morphogenesis and support an interrelated mechanism underlying nonsyndromic forms of CL/P. 46 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Expression and regulation of the macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha gene by nicotine in rat alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chong, Inn-Wen; Lin, Shiu-Ru; Hwang, Jhi-Jhu; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Wang, Tung-Heng; Hung, Jen-Yu; Paulauskis, Joseph D

    2002-01-01

    Cigarette smoking causes inflammation mainly confined to the airway and lung. Nicotine is one of the primary constituents in cigarette smoke. Alveolar macrophages apparently play a pivotal role in mediating pulmonary inflammation via the production of chemokines. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha), a member of CC chemokines, has been shown to contribute to monocyte/macrophage and neutrophil chemotaxis and activation. Our previous work demonstrated that MIP-1 alpha mRNA expression in macrophages is induced by a variety of stimuli. In the present study, we further investigate whether nicotine can regulate the gene expression of MIP-1 alpha in macrophages and determine the mechanism leading to increased expression. A rat alveolar macrophage (RAM) cell line, NR8383, was treated with nicotine at a dose of 3.1, 31, 310 microM, or 3.1 mM. Northern blot analysis showed that the induction of MIP-1 alpha mRNA expression was dose-dependent. To define the time course of the inflammatory response, RAM cells were exposed to 31 microM nicotine, MIP-1 alpha mRNA was induced as early as 1 h after treatment, was maximally expressed at 4 and 6 hours, and reduced by 8 hours. Western blot analysis demonstrated a single band with an estimated molecular weight of 10 kD for MIP-1 alpha which was induced after nicotine treatment, suggesting that expression of MIP-1 alpha mRNA could reflect in protein synthesis. In addition. the increase in MIP-1 alpha mRNA expression induced by nicotine was attenuated by co-treatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), at doses of 10 and 20 mM, suggesting that the induction of MIP-1 alpha mRNA is mediated via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). To further investigate transcriptional regulation of the MIP-1 alpha gene expression, RAM cells were exposed to nicotine. MIP-1 alpha mRNA levels were significantly increased in nuclear RNA preparations, indicating that transcriptional activation is involved in increased

  11. Effect of long-term exposure to mobile phone radiation on alpha-Int1 gene sequence of Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Shahin-jafari, Ariyo; Bayat, Mansour; Shahhosseiny, Mohammad Hassan; Tajik, Parviz; Roudbar-mohammadi, Shahla

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, communication industries have witnessed a tremendous expansion, while, the biological effects of electromagnetic waves have not been fully elucidated. Current study aimed at evaluating the mutagenic effect of long-term exposure to 900-MHz radiation on alpha-Int1 gene sequences of Candida albicans. A standard 900 MHz radiation generator was used for radiation. 10 ml volumes from a stock suspension of C. albicans were transferred into 10 polystyrene tubes. Five tubes were exposed at 4 °C to a fixed magnitude of radiation with different time periods of 10, 70, 210, 350 and 490 h. The other 5 tubes were kept far enough from radiation. The samples underwent genomic DNA extraction. PCR amplification of alpha-Int1 gene sequence was done using one set of primers. PCR products were resolved using agarose gel electrophoresis and the nucleotide sequences were determined. All samples showed a clear electrophoretic band around 441 bp and further sequencing revealed the amplified DNA segments are related to alpha-Int1 gene of the yeast. No mutations in the gene were seen in radiation exposed samples. Long-term exposure of the yeast to mobile phone radiation under the above mentioned conditions had no mutagenic effect on alpha-Int1 gene sequence. PMID:27081370

  12. Effect of long-term exposure to mobile phone radiation on alpha-Int1 gene sequence of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Shahin-Jafari, Ariyo; Bayat, Mansour; Shahhosseiny, Mohammad Hassan; Tajik, Parviz; Roudbar-Mohammadi, Shahla

    2016-05-01

    Over the last decade, communication industries have witnessed a tremendous expansion, while, the biological effects of electromagnetic waves have not been fully elucidated. Current study aimed at evaluating the mutagenic effect of long-term exposure to 900-MHz radiation on alpha-Int1 gene sequences of Candida albicans. A standard 900 MHz radiation generator was used for radiation. 10 ml volumes from a stock suspension of C. albicans were transferred into 10 polystyrene tubes. Five tubes were exposed at 4 °C to a fixed magnitude of radiation with different time periods of 10, 70, 210, 350 and 490 h. The other 5 tubes were kept far enough from radiation. The samples underwent genomic DNA extraction. PCR amplification of alpha-Int1 gene sequence was done using one set of primers. PCR products were resolved using agarose gel electrophoresis and the nucleotide sequences were determined. All samples showed a clear electrophoretic band around 441 bp and further sequencing revealed the amplified DNA segments are related to alpha-Int1 gene of the yeast. No mutations in the gene were seen in radiation exposed samples. Long-term exposure of the yeast to mobile phone radiation under the above mentioned conditions had no mutagenic effect on alpha-Int1 gene sequence. PMID:27081370

  13. A single gene directs synthesis of a precursor protein with beta- and alpha-amylase activities in Bacillus polymyxa.

    PubMed Central

    Uozumi, N; Sakurai, K; Sasaki, T; Takekawa, S; Yamagata, H; Tsukagoshi, N; Udaka, S

    1989-01-01

    The Bacillus polymyxa amylase gene comprises 3,588 nucleotides. The mature amylase comprises 1,161 amino acids with a molecular weight of 127,314. The gene appeared to be divided into two portions by the direct-repeat sequence located at almost the middle of the gene. The 5' region upstream of the direct-repeat sequence was shown to be responsible for the synthesis of beta-amylase. The 3' region downstream of the direct-repeat sequence contained four sequences homologous with those in other alpha-amylases, such as Taka-amylase A. The 48-kilodalton (kDa) amylase isolated from B. polymyxa was proven to have alpha-amylase activity. The amino acid sequences of the peptides generated from the 48-kDa amylase showed complete agreement with the predicted amino acid sequence of the C-terminal portion. The B. polymyxa amylase gene was therefore concluded to contain in-phase beta- and alpha-amylase-coding sequences in the 5' and 3' regions, respectively. A precursor protein, a 130-kDa amylase, directed by a plasmid, pYN520, carrying the entire amylase gene, had both beta- and alpha-amylase activities. This represents the first report of a single protein precursor in procaryotes that gives rise to two enzymes. Images PMID:2464578

  14. Regulatory elements in the first intron contribute to transcriptional control of the human. cap alpha. 1(I) collagen gene

    SciTech Connect

    Bornstein, P.; McKay, J.; Morishima, J.K.; Devarayalu, S.; Gelinas, R.E.

    1987-12-01

    Several lines of evidence have suggested that the regulation of type I collagen gene transcription is complex and that important regulatory elements reside 5' to, and within, the first intron of the ..cap alpha..1(I) gene. The authors therefore sequenced a 2.3-kilobase HindIII fragment that encompasses 804 base pairs of 5' flanking sequence, the first exon, and most of the first intron of the ..cap alpha..1(I) human collagen gene. A 274-base-pair intronic sequence, flanked by Ava I sites (A274), contained a sequence identical to a high-affinity decanucleotide binding site for transcription factor Sp1 and a viral core enhancer sequence. DNase I protection experiments indicated zones of protection that corresponded to these motifs. When A274 was cloned 5' to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene, driven by an ..cap alpha..1(I) collagen promoter sequence, and expression was assessed by transfection, significant orientation-specific inhibition of CAT activity was observed. This effect was most apparent in chicken tendon fibroblasts, which modulate their level of collagen synthesis in culture. They propose that normal regulation of ..cap alpha..1(I) collagen gene transcription results from an interplay of positive and negative elements present in the promoter region and within the first intron.

  15. Regulation of pT alpha gene expression by a dosage of E2A, HEB, and SCL.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mathieu; Herblot, Sabine; Lecuyer, Eric; Hoang, Trang

    2003-04-11

    The expression of the pT alpha gene is required for effective selection, proliferation, and survival of beta T-cell receptor (beta TCR)-expressing immature thymocytes. Here, we have identified two phylogenetically conserved E-boxes within the pT alpha enhancer sequence that are required for optimal enhancer activity and for its stage-specific activity in immature T cells. We have shown that the transcription factors E2A and HEB associate with high affinity to these E-boxes. Moreover, we have identified pT alpha as a direct target of E2A-HEB heterodimers in immature thymocytes because they specifically occupy the enhancer in vivo. In these cells, pT alpha mRNA levels are determined by the presence of one or two functional E2A or HEB alleles. Furthermore, E2A/HEB transcriptional activity is repressed by heterodimerization with SCL, a transcription factor that is turned off in differentiating thymocytes exactly at a stage when pT alpha is up-regulated. Taken together, our observations suggest that the dosage of E2A, HEB, and SCL determines pT alpha gene expression in immature T cells. PMID:12566462

  16. The cAMP Response Element Binding protein (CREB) is activated by Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) and regulates myostatin gene expression in skeletal myoblast

    SciTech Connect

    Zuloaga, R.; Fuentes, E.N.; Molina, A.; Valdés, J.A.

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •IGF-1 induces the activation of CREB via IGF-1R/PI3K/PLC signaling pathway. •Calcium dependent signaling pathways regulate myostatin gene expression. •IGF-1 regulates myostatin gene expression via CREB transcription in skeletal myoblast. -- Abstract: Myostatin, a member of the Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, plays an important role as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth and differentiation. We have previously reported that IGF-1 induces a transient myostatin mRNA expression, through the activation of the Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT) in an IP{sub 3}/calcium-dependent manner. Here we examined the activation of CREB transcription factor as downstream targets of IGF-1 during myoblast differentiation and its role as a regulator of myostatin gene expression. In cultured skeletal myoblast, IGF-1 induced the phosphorylation and transcriptional activation of CREB via IGF-1 Receptor/Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K)/Phospholipase C gamma (PLC γ), signaling pathways. Also, IGF-1 induced calcium-dependent molecules such as Calmodulin Kinase II (CaMK II), Extracellular signal-regulated Kinases (ERK), Protein Kinase C (PKC). Additionally, we examined myostatin mRNA levels and myostatin promoter activity in differentiated myoblasts stimulated with IGF-1. We found a significant increase in mRNA contents of myostatin and its reporter activity after treatment with IGF-1. The expression of myostatin in differentiated myoblast was downregulated by the transfection of siRNA–CREB and by pharmacological inhibitors of the signaling pathways involved in CREB activation. By using pharmacological and genetic approaches together these data demonstrate that IGF-1 regulates the myostatin gene expression via CREB transcription factor during muscle cell differentiation.

  17. Sanfilippo syndrome type B: cDNA and gene encoding human {alpha}-N-acetylglucosaminidase

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, H.G.; Lopez, R.; Rennecker, J.

    1994-09-01

    Deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme {alpha}-N-acetlyglucosaminidase underlies the type B Sanfilippo syndrome (MPS III B), a mucopolysaccharide storage disease with profound neurologic deterioration. We are acquiring tools to study the molecular basis of the disorder. The enzyme was purified from bovine testis; after ConA-, DEAE- and phenyl-Sepharose chromatography, it was subjected to SDS-PAGE without preheating. Of two bands of activity detected on the gel, 170 kDa and 87 kDa, the larger one, which coincided with a well-defined Coomassie blue band, was selected for sequence analysis. Degenerate 17-base oligonucleotides, corresponding to the ends of an internal 23 amino acid sequence, were used for RT-PCR of RNA from human fibroblasts. A 41-mer was synthesized from the sequence of the RT-PCR product and used to screen a human testis cDNA library. A number of cDNA inserts were isolated, all lacking the 5{prime} end and none longer than 1.7 kb. An additional 300 bp segment has been obtained by RACE. The cDNA sequence accounts for 9 of 11 peptides, allowing for species difference. Northern analysis of fibroblast RNA with a 1.5 kb cDNA probe showed the presence of a 3 kb mRNA; marked deficiency of this mRNA in two MPS III B fibroblast lines confirmed the authenticity of the cloned cDNA. While no homologous amino acid sequence has been found in a search of GenBank, the nucleotide sequence (interrupted by 4 introns) is present in a flanking region upstream of an unrelated gene on chromosome 17q11-21 (human 17{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase). This must therefore be the chromosomal locus of the {alpha}-N-acetylglucosaminidase gene and of MPS III B.

  18. S1 nuclease analysis of alpha-globin gene expression in preleukemic patients with acquired hemoglobin H disease after transfer to mouse erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Helder, J; Deisseroth, A

    1987-04-01

    The loss of alpha-globin gene transcriptional activity rarely occurs as an acquired abnormality during the evolution of myeloproliferative disease or preleukemia. To test whether the mutation responsible for the loss of alpha-globin gene expression (hemoglobin H disease) in these patients is linked with the alpha-globin genes on chromosome 16, we transferred chromosome 16 from preleukemic patients with acquired hemoglobin H disease to mouse erythroleukemia cells and measured the transcriptional activity of the human alpha-globin genes. After transfer to mouse erythroleukemia cells, the expression of human alpha-globin genes from the peripheral blood or marrow cells of preleukemic patients with acquired hemoglobin H disease was similar to that of human alpha-globin genes transferred to mouse erythroleukemia cells from normal donors. These data showed that factor(s) in the mouse erythroleukemia cell can genetically complement the alpha-globin gene defect in these preleukemia patients with acquired hemoglobin H disease and suggest that altered expression of a gene in trans to the alpha-globin gene may be responsible for the acquisition of hemoglobin H disease in these patients. PMID:3031681

  19. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha up-regulates decay-accelerating factor gene expression in human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Andoh, A; Fujiyama, Y; Sumiyoshi, K; Sakumoto, H; Okabe, H; Bamba, T

    1997-01-01

    The increased expression of decay-accelerating factor (DAF) has been detected in intestinal epithelial cells at the inflamed mucosa. In this study, we examined the effects of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha on DAF expression in three intestinal epithelial cell lines. DAF mRNA expression was evaluated by Northern blot analysis, and DAF protein expression was analysed by biotin labelling and immunoprecipitation. TNF-alpha induced a marked increase in DAF mRNA and protein expression in HT-29, T84 and Caco-2 cells. In HT-29 cells, the effects of TNF-a on DAF mRNA accumulation were observed in a dose-dependent manner; DAF mRNA accumulation reached a maximum at 3-6 hr, and then gradually decreased. These effects of TNF-alpha required de novo protein synthesis. Messenger RNA stability studies suggested that TNF-alpha partially regulated DAF gene expression by a posttranscriptional mechanism. Moreover, the combination of TNF-alpha and interleukin (IL)-4 induced an additive increase in DAF mRNA accumulation in HT-29 and T84 cells. In human intestinal epithelial cells, TNF-alpha acts as a potent inducer of DAF mRNA expression, indicating an important role for TNF-alpha in the regulation of DAF expression at the inflamed mucosa. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9155641

  20. The chick and human collagen alpha1(XII) gene promoter--activity of highly conserved regions around the first exon and in the first intron.

    PubMed

    Chiquet, M; Mumenthaler, U; Wittwer, M; Jin, W; Koch, M

    1998-10-15

    A single gene encodes collagen XII, an extracellular matrix protein with three large fibronectin-related subunits connected via a short collagen triple helix. Since collagen XII is a component of a specific subset of collagen fibrils in tissues bearing high tensile stress, we are interested to know how its restricted expression is regulated. To this aim, we have isolated the region around the first exon of both the chick and human collagen alpha1(XII) gene. The upstream sequences of the two genes share common features but are not related. Strong similarity starts about 100 bp 5' of the first exon and ends 100 bp into the first intron. In addition, two large conserved regions (56-63% similarity) were found in the first intron. A single major and two clusters of minor transcription start sites were identified in both the chick and human gene. To test for promoter activity, conserved fragments from the chick gene were cloned into reporter plasmids for transient transfection of fibroblasts. A 70-bp stretch containing a conserved nuclear factor-1 binding sequence just upstream of the first transcription start site was found to work as a basal promoter. An adjacent, but nonoverlapping short segment including the more downstream start sites and a conserved TATTAA sequence exhibited independent promoter activity. GC-rich sequences just 5' and 3' of the minimal promoter fragments were required for full activity. In contrast, inclusion of more upstream sequences (up to 2.4 kb) had no effect. The two conserved regions in the first intron showed no promoter activity on their own but modulated activity when linked to autologous or heterologous promoters. Specifically, one of these intronic regions might contain enhancer element(s) that respond to mechanical stress acting on the fibroblasts. We conclude that the collagen XII gene is driven by a basal promoter with two halves that can act independently; conserved control regions are located around the first exon and in the first

  1. Structural organization of a 17 KB segment of the alpha 2 collagen gene: evaluation by R loop mapping.

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, M P; Boyd, C D; Tolstoshev, P; Crystal, R G

    1980-01-01

    A recombinant phage, SpC3, containing a 17 kb genomic DNA insert representing approximately 60% of the 3' portion of the sheep collagen alpha 2 gene, was evaluated by electron microscopic R loop analysis. A minimum of 17 intervening sequences (introns) and 18 alpha 2 coding sequences (exons) were mapped. With the exception of the 850 base pair exon located at the extreme 3' end of the insert, all exons contained 250 base pairs or less. The total length of all the exons in SpC3 was 3,014 base pairs. The length distribution of the 17 introns ranged from 300 to 1600 base pairs; together, all of the introns comprised 14,070 base pairs of SpC3 DNA. Thus, the DNA region required for coding the interspersed 3 kb of alpha 2 collagen genetic information was 5.6 fold longer than the corresponding alpha 2 mRNA coding sequences. Images PMID:7433091

  2. cDNA cloning and disruption of the major vault protein alpha gene (mvpA) in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Vasu, S K; Kedersha, N L; Rome, L H

    1993-07-25

    Vaults are large cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles found in nearly all eukaryotic cells. Dictyostelium vaults contain two major proteins, MVP alpha (94.2 kDa) and MVP beta (approximately 92 kDa). Using an anti-rat vault antibody, we screened a Dictyostelium cDNA expression library and isolated a 2.8-kilobase pair clone that contained a single full-length reading frame. The identity of the clone was established by the presence of a predicted 20-amino acid sequence identical to that found in a peptide sequenced from purified MVP alpha. We have disrupted the single copy gene using homologous recombination and have demonstrated a loss of MVP alpha. Although the cells still produce MVP beta, they do not contain characteristic vault particles, suggesting that MVP alpha is required for normal vault structure. These cells should be a valuable tool for elucidating the function of vaults. PMID:8340365

  3. Stromal cell-derived factor 1 gene polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to adverse long-term allograft outcomes in non-diabetic kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chung-Jieh; Tsai, Jen-Pi; Yang, Shun-Fa; Lian, Jong-Da; Chang, Horng-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Although the genetic polymorphism of Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1 (SDF-1) is associated with higher mortality of liver allograft recipients, the role of SDF-1 in the modulation of renal allograft outcomes is unclear. Between March 2000 and January 2008, we recruited 252 non-diabetic renal transplant recipients (RTRs). Baseline characteristics and blood chemistry were recorded. Genomic DNA extraction with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was utilized to analyze the genetic polymorphisms of SDF-1 (rs1801157). The influence of SDF-1 on an adverse renal allograft outcome, defined as either a doubling of serum creatinine, graft failure, or patient death was evaluated. Sixteen patients with the SDF-1 AA/AG genotype and nine with the SDF-1 GG genotype reached an adverse outcome. According to Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients carrying the SDF-1 AA/AG genotype or A allele showed a significantly higher risk of reaching an adverse outcome than those carrying the SDF-1 GG genotype or G allele (p=0.041; p=0.0051, respectively; log rank test). Stepwise multivariate Cox proportional regression analysis revealed that patients carrying the SDF-1 AA/AG genotype and A allele had a 2.742-fold (95% CI. 1.106-6.799, p=0.03) and 2.306-fold (95% CI. 1.254-4.24, p=0.008) risk of experiencing an adverse outcome. The SDF-1 AA/AG genotype and A allele have a detrimental impact on the long-term outcome of RTRs. PMID:25029540

  4. Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1 Gene Polymorphism Is Associated with Susceptibility to Adverse Long-Term Allograft Outcomes in Non-Diabetic Kidney Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chung-Jieh; Tsai, Jen-Pi; Yang, Shun-Fa; Lian, Jong-Da; Chang, Horng-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Although the genetic polymorphism of Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1 (SDF-1) is associated with higher mortality of liver allograft recipients, the role of SDF-1 in the modulation of renal allograft outcomes is unclear. Between March 2000 and January 2008, we recruited 252 non-diabetic renal transplant recipients (RTRs). Baseline characteristics and blood chemistry were recorded. Genomic DNA extraction with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was utilized to analyze the genetic polymorphisms of SDF-1 (rs1801157). The influence of SDF-1 on an adverse renal allograft outcome, defined as either a doubling of serum creatinine, graft failure, or patient death was evaluated. Sixteen patients with the SDF-1 AA/AG genotype and nine with the SDF-1 GG genotype reached an adverse outcome. According to Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients carrying the SDF-1 AA/AG genotype or A allele showed a significantly higher risk of reaching an adverse outcome than those carrying the SDF-1 GG genotype or G allele (p = 0.041; p = 0.0051, respectively; log rank test). Stepwise multivariate Cox proportional regression analysis revealed that patients carrying the SDF-1 AA/AG genotype and A allele had a 2.742-fold (95% CI. 1.106–6.799, p = 0.03) and 2.306-fold (95% CI. 1.254–4.24, p = 0.008) risk of experiencing an adverse outcome. The SDF-1 AA/AG genotype and A allele have a detrimental impact on the long-term outcome of RTRs. PMID:25029540

  5. Specific inhibition of skeletal alpha-actin gene transcription by applied mechanical forces through integrins and actin.

    PubMed Central

    Lew, A M; Glogauer, M; Mculloch, C A

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal alpha-actin (skA), a prominent fetal actin isoform that is re-expressed by adult cardiac myocytes after chronic overload in vivo, provides a model for studying cytoskeletal gene regulation by mechanical forces in vitro. We have determined the mechanisms by which perpendicular applied forces acting through integrins and the actin cytoskeleton regulate the expression of skA. Rat-2 fibroblasts were transiently transfected with plasmids containing 5'-regulatory regions of the skA gene fused to luciferase coding sequences. A constant, perpendicular force (0.2 pN/micrometer(2)) was applied by using a collagen-magnetic bead model; a 25% deformation was obtained on the dorsal cell surface. In this system, force is applied through focal adhesion integrins and strongly induces actin assembly [Glogauer, Arora, Yao, Sokholov, Ferrier and McCulloch (1997) J. Cell Sci. 110, 11-21]. skA promoter activity was inhibited by 68% in cells subjected to 4 h of applied force, whereas Rous sarcoma virus promoter activity was unaffected. In cells transiently transfected with a skA expression vector there was also a parallel 40% decrease in skA protein levels by force, as shown by Western blotting. In L8 cells, constitutive skA expression was decreased by more than 50%. Analyses of specific motifs in the skA promoter revealed that transcriptional enhancer factor 1 and Yin and Yang 1 sites, but not serum response factor and Sp1 sites, mediated inhibitory responses to force. In cells treated with cycloheximide the force-induced inhibition was abrogated, indicating a dependence on new protein synthesis. Inhibition of actin filament assembly with either cytochalasin D or Ca(2+)-depleted medium blocked the inhibitory effect induced by the applied force, suggesting that actin filaments are required for the regulation of skA promoter activity. Western blot analysis showed that p38 kinase, but not Jun N-terminal kinase or extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2, was activated by

  6. Retroviral interleukin 1alpha gene transfer in bone marrow stromal cells in a primate model: induction of myelopoiesis stimulation.

    PubMed

    de Revel, Thierry; Becard, Nicolas; Sorg, Tania; Rousseau, Sandrine; Spano, Jean Philippe; Thiebot, Hugues; Methali, Magid; Gras, Gabriel; Le Grand, Roger; Dormont, Dominique

    2002-09-01

    Effects of interleukin 1-alpha (IL-1alpha), a proinflammatory cytokine with pleiotropic activity, in the myelopoietic setting, is mainly linked to its ability to increase haematopoietic growth factor production by bone marrow stromal cells. In order to minimize systemic effects of IL-1alpha therapy, we proposed a model of retroviral IL-1alpha gene transfer within bone marrow stromal cells in the macaque cynomolgus. Invitro, 10-15% of bone marrow stromal cells was effectively transduced by retroviral vector (murine Moloney leukaemia virus-derived) expressing IL-1alpha/LacZ, or LacZ alone as control marker, as assessed by betaGal staining. IL-1alpha gene expression was upregulated [semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)] within the transduced cells and the cell supernatant showed an increased production of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-CSF (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and an increased clonogenic activity (colony-forming cell assay). Ex vivo autologous expanded IL-1alpha/LacZ transduced bone marrow stromal cells were reinfused in two macaques (and two control animals for LacZ alone as controls), without clinical systemic toxicity; LacZ expression by RT-PCR was detected in one animal of each group between d 4 and 9. A slight increase of the peripheral blood leucocyte counts (both polymorphonuclear cells and monocytes) of the two animals transduced with IL-1alpha/LacZ was observed within 10 d, indicating stimulation of myelopoiesis. PMID:12181061

  7. Sp1 trans-activates the murine H(+)-K(+)-ATPase alpha(2)-subunit gene.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhiyuan; Li, Mei; Zhang, Dongyu; Xu, William; Kone, Bruce C

    2009-07-01

    The H(+)-K(+)-ATPase alpha(2) (HKalpha2) gene of the renal collecting duct and distal colon plays a central role in potassium and acid-base homeostasis, yet its transcriptional control remains poorly characterized. We previously demonstrated that the proximal 177 bp of its 5'-flanking region confers basal transcriptional activity in murine inner medullary collecting duct (mIMCD3) cells and that NF-kappaB and CREB-1 bind this region to alter transcription. In the present study, we sought to determine whether the -144/-135 Sp element influences basal HKalpha2 gene transcription in these cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays using probes for -154/-127 revealed Sp1-containing DNA-protein complexes in nuclear extracts of mIMCD3 cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays demonstrated that Sp1, but not Sp3, binds to this promoter region of the HKalpha2 gene in mIMCD3 cells in vivo. HKalpha2 minimal promoter-luciferase constructs with point mutations in the -144/-135 Sp element exhibited much lower activity than the wild-type promoter in transient transfection assays. Overexpression of Sp1, but not Sp3, trans-activated an HKalpha2 proximal promoter-luciferase construct in mIMCD3 cells as well as in SL2 insect cells, which lack Sp factors. Conversely, small interfering RNA knockdown of Sp1 inhibited endogenous HKalpha2 mRNA expression, and binding of Sp1 to chromatin associated with the proximal HKalpha2 promoter without altering the binding or regulatory influence of NF-kappaB p65 or CREB-1 on the proximal HKalpha2 promoter. We conclude that Sp1 plays an important and positive role in controlling basal HKalpha2 gene expression in mIMCD3 cells in vivo and in vitro. PMID:19420113

  8. Opposing action of estrogen receptors alpha and beta on cyclin D1 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng-Min; Albanese, Chris; Anderson, Carol M; Hilty, Kristin; Webb, Paul; Uht, Rosalie M; Price, Richard H; Pestell, Richard G; Kushner, Peter J

    2002-07-01

    Induction of cyclin D1 gene transcription by estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) plays an important role in estrogen-mediated proliferation. There is no classical estrogen response element in the cyclin D1 promoter, and induction by ERalpha has been mapped to an alternative response element, a cyclic AMP-response element at -57, with possible participation of an activating protein-1 site at -954. The action of ERbeta at the cyclin D1 promoter is unknown, although evidence suggests that ERbeta may inhibit the proliferative action of ERalpha. We examined the response of cyclin D1 promoter constructs by luciferase assay and the response of the endogenous protein by Western blot in HeLa cells transiently expressing ERalpha, ERalphaK206A (a derivative that is superactive at alternative response elements), or ERbeta. In each case, ER activation at the cyclin D1 promoter is mediated by both the cyclic AMP-response element and the activating protein-1 site, which play partly redundant roles. The activation by ERbeta occurs only with antiestrogens. Estrogens, which activate cyclin D1 gene expression with ERalpha, inhibit expression with ERbeta. Strikingly, the presence of ERbeta completely inhibits cyclin D1 gene activation by estrogen and ERalpha or even by estrogen and the superactive ERalphaK206A. The observation of the opposing action and dominance of ERbeta over ERalpha in activation of cyclin D1 gene expression has implications for the postulated role of ERbeta as a modulator of the proliferative effects of estrogen. PMID:11986316

  9. Targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Downregulating Genes for the Development of Antituberculous Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Aaron; Chen, Yong; Ji, Qingzhou; Zhu, Guofeng; De Silva, Aruna Dharshan; Vilchèze, Catherine; Weisbrod, Torin; Li, Weimin; Xu, Jiayong; Larsen, Michelle; Zhang, Jinghang; Porcelli, Steven A.; Jacobs, William R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) plays a critical role in the control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in part by augmenting T cell responses through promoting macrophage phagolysosomal fusion (thereby optimizing CD4+ T cell immunity by enhancing antigen presentation) and apoptosis (a process that can lead to cross-priming of CD8+ T cells). M. tuberculosis can evade antituberculosis (anti-TB) immunity by inhibiting host cell TNF production via expression of specific mycobacterial components. We hypothesized that M. tuberculosis mutants with an increased capacity to induce host cell TNF production (TNF-enhancing mutants) and thus with enhanced immunogenicity can be useful for vaccine development. To identify mycobacterial genes that regulate host cell TNF production, we used a TNF reporter macrophage clone to screen an H37Rv M. tuberculosis cosmid library constructed in M. smegmatis. The screen has identified a set of TNF-downregulating mycobacterial genes that, when deleted in H37Rv, generate TNF-enhancing mutants. Analysis of mutants disrupted for a subset of TNF-downregulating genes, annotated to code for triacylglycerol synthases and fatty acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) synthetase, enzymes that concern lipid biosynthesis and metabolism, has revealed that these strains can promote macrophage phagolysosomal fusion and apoptosis better than wild-type (WT) bacilli. Immunization of mice with the TNF-enhancing M. tuberculosis mutants elicits CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses that are superior to those engendered by WT H37Rv. The results suggest that TNF-upregulating M. tuberculosis genes can be targeted to enhance the immunogenicity of mycobacterial strains that can serve as the substrates for the development of novel anti-TB vaccines. PMID:27247233

  10. Cloning of the LamA3 gene encoding the alpha 3 chain of the adhesive ligand epiligrin. Expression in wound repair.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M C; Tizard, R; VanDevanter, D R; Carter, W G

    1994-09-01

    We have isolated cDNA clones encoding the entire 170-kDa chain of epiligrin (alpha 3Ep) and a genomic clone encoding the alpha 3Ep gene (LamA3). Analysis of multiple cDNA clones revealed two distinct transcripts (alpha 3EpA and alpha 3EpB). Sequencing of the alpha 3EpA transcript indicated sequence and structural homology to laminin alpha 1 and alpha 2 chains that extend from domain IIIa through the carboxyl-terminal G domain. The alpha 3EpB transcript encodes a larger amino-terminal domain and contains additional epidermal growth factor repeats and sequences corresponding to domain IV of alpha 1 laminin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that the LamA3 gene is located on chromosome 18q11.2, a locus distinct from the LamA1 gene (18p11.3). The G domain of the epiligrin alpha 3 chain contains five subdomains that are individually related to the G subdomains reported for Drosophila and vertebrate laminin alpha chains. Sequence divergence within the G domain of alpha 3 epiligrin suggests that it is functionally distinct from laminin, consistent with our previous report showing that epiligrin interacts with different integrin adhesion receptors. Analysis of RNA from human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) identified multiple epiligrin transcripts that were down-regulated by viral transformation and differentiation. In contrast, epiligrin expression was up-regulated in wound sites of human skin. PMID:8077230

  11. Amplification of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor Gene Is a Rare Event in Adrenocortical Adenocarcinomas: Searching for Potential Mechanisms of Overexpression

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Tamaya Castro; Jorge, Alexander Augusto; Almeida, Madson Q.; Mariani, Beatriz Marinho de Paula; Nishi, Mirian Yumi; Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho; Fragoso, Maria Candida Barisson Villares

    2014-01-01

    Context. IGF1R overexpression appears to be a prognostic biomarker of metastatic pediatric adrenocortical tumors. However, the molecular mechanisms that are implicated in its upregulation remain unknown. Aim. To investigate the potential mechanisms involved in IGF1R overexpression. Patients and Methods. We studied 64 adrenocortical tumors. IGF1R copy number variation was determined in all patients using MLPA and confirmed using real time PCR. In a subgroup of 32 patients, automatic sequencing was used to identify IGF1R allelic variants and the expression of microRNAs involved in IGF1R regulation by real time PCR. Results. IGF1R amplification was detected in an adrenocortical carcinoma that was diagnosed in a 46-year-old woman with Cushing's syndrome and virilization. IGF1R overexpression was demonstrated in this case. In addition, gene amplification of other loci was identified in this adrenocortical malignant tumor, but no IGF1R copy number variation was evidenced in the remaining cases. Automatic sequencing revealed three known polymorphisms but they did not correlate with its expression. Expression of miR-100, miR-145, miR-375, and miR-126 did not correlate with IGF1R expression. Conclusion. We demonstrated amplification and overexpression of IGF1R gene in only one adrenocortical carcinoma, suggesting that these combined events are uncommon. In addition, IGF1R polymorphisms and abnormal microRNA expression did not correlate with IGF1R upregulation in adrenocortical tumors. PMID:25110710

  12. The cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) is activated by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and regulates myostatin gene expression in skeletal myoblast.

    PubMed

    Zuloaga, R; Fuentes, E N; Molina, A; Valdés, J A

    2013-10-18

    Myostatin, a member of the Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, plays an important role as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth and differentiation. We have previously reported that IGF-1 induces a transient myostatin mRNA expression, through the activation of the Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT) in an IP3/calcium-dependent manner. Here we examined the activation of CREB transcription factor as downstream targets of IGF-1 during myoblast differentiation and its role as a regulator of myostatin gene expression. In cultured skeletal myoblast, IGF-1 induced the phosphorylation and transcriptional activation of CREB via IGF-1 Receptor/Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K)/Phospholipase C gamma (PLC γ), signaling pathways. Also, IGF-1 induced calcium-dependent molecules such as Calmodulin Kinase II (CaMK II), Extracellular signal-regulated Kinases (ERK), Protein Kinase C (PKC). Additionally, we examined myostatin mRNA levels and myostatin promoter activity in differentiated myoblasts stimulated with IGF-1. We found a significant increase in mRNA contents of myostatin and its reporter activity after treatment with IGF-1. The expression of myostatin in differentiated myoblast was downregulated by the transfection of siRNA-CREB and by pharmacological inhibitors of the signaling pathways involved in CREB activation. By using pharmacological and genetic approaches together these data demonstrate that IGF-1 regulates the myostatin gene expression via CREB transcription factor during muscle cell differentiation. PMID:24064350

  13. The Association between Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 α Gene C1772T Polymorphism and Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of 37 Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiajia; Liu, Dongjuan; Zhao, Xin; Hu, Ting; Jiang, Lu; Dan, Hongxia; Zeng, Xin; Li, Jing; Wang, Jiayi; Chen, Qianming

    2013-01-01

    Background The possible association between HIF-1α C1772T polymorphism and cancer risk has been studied extensively. However, the results were controversial. In order to get a more precise conclusion of this association, a meta-analysis was performed. Methods A total of 10186 cases and 10926 controls in 37 case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. Allele and genotypic differences between cases and controls were evaluated. Subgroup analysis by cancer site, ethnicity, source of controls and gender was performed. Results The T allele of HIF-1α gene C1772T was significantly associated with increased cancer risk in three genetic models: TT+CT vs.CC (dominant model OR=1.23, 95%CI=1.03-1.47), TT vs. CT+CC (recessive model OR=2.51, 95%CI=1.54-4.09), TT vs. CC (homozygote comparison OR=2.02, 95%CI=1.21-3.39).In subgroup analysis, the frequency of the T variant was found to be significantly increased in cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, head and neck cancer, renal cell carcinoma, Asian and female subgroups. Conclusions Our meta-analysis suggests that the substitution of C allele with T at HIF-1α gene C1772T polymorphism is a risk factor of cancer, especially for cervical, head and neck cancer, pancreatic cancer and renal cell carcinoma. It is also a risk factor of cancer in Asian group as well as in female group. PMID:24367595

  14. The spectrum of low molecular weight alpha-amylase/protease inhibitor genes expressed in the US bread wheat Butte 86

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complement of genes encoding alpha-amylase/protease inhibitors expressed in Triticum aestivum cv. Butte 86 was characterized by transcript and proteomic analysis. Coding sequences for 18 distinct proteins were identified among a collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from Butte 86 developi...

  15. The significance and effect of tandem repeats within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis leuA gene on alpha-isopropylmalate synthase.

    PubMed

    Chanchaem, Wimon; Palittapongarnpim, Prasit

    2008-09-01

    The 57-bp tandem repeats located in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis leuA gene code for the alpha-isopropylmalate synthase (alpha-IPMS). It is unique to this pathogen. It was previously demonstrated that the leuA-coding sequence Rv3710, containing the tandem repeats, can be translated to an active alpha-IPMS. The objective of the present study was to investigate the significance and effect of the two 57-bp tandem repeats upon gene expression and the general properties of alpha-IPMS. The putative M. tuberculosis H37Rv leuA gene with and without the tandem repeats was cloned by PCR and expressed in an Escherichia coli host. The enzyme product was studied for general properties, comparing that from a native leuA gene containing two repeats and that from the 57-bp tandem repeats deletion mutant. Upon deletion of the two 57-bp tandem repeats, the expression level of leuA from M. tuberculosis H37Rv was comparable with that of the native form. The general properties of the two types of enzymes were similar. They were both functional with the same range of optimal temperature and optimal pH for activity and with similar enzyme stability. Deletion of the repeats had no detectable effect on leuA expression level or the general properties of the enzyme product. PMID:18647358

  16. Localization of an alpha-amanitin resistance mutation in the gene encoding the largest subunit of mouse RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Bartolomei, M S; Corden, J L

    1987-01-01

    RNA polymerase II is inhibited by the mushroom toxin alpha-amanitin. A mouse BALB/c 3T3 cell line was selected for resistance to alpha-amanitin and characterized in detail. This cell line, designated A21, was heterozygous, possessing both amanitin-sensitive and -resistant forms of RNA polymerase II; the mutant form was 500 times more resistant to alpha-amanitin than the sensitive form. By using the wild-type mouse RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RPII215) gene (J.A. Ahearn, M.S. Bartolomei, M. L. West, and J. L. Corden, submitted for publication) as the probe, RPII215 genes were isolated from an A21 genomic DNA library. The mutant allele was identified by its ability to transfer amanitin resistance in a transfection assay. Genomic reconstructions between mutant and wild-type alleles localized the mutation to a 450-base-pair fragment that included parts of exons 14 and 15. This fragment was sequenced and compared with the wild-type sequence; a single AT-to-GC transition was detected at nucleotide 6819, corresponding to an asparagine-to-aspartate substitution at amino acid 793 of the predicted protein sequence. Knowledge of the position of the A21 mutation should facilitate the study of the mechanism of alpha-amanitin resistance. Furthermore, the A21 gene will be useful for studying the phenotype of site-directed mutations in the RPII215 gene. Images PMID:3821724

  17. The gene family encoding the Arabidopsis thaliana translation elongation factor EF-1 alpha: molecular cloning, characterization and expression.

    PubMed

    Axelos, M; Bardet, C; Liboz, T; Le Van Thai, A; Curie, C; Lescure, B

    1989-10-01

    The gene family encoding the Arabidopsis thaliana translation elongation factor (EF-1 alpha) was analysed. This family contains four genes (A1-A4) organized in a similar manner in different varieties of Arabidopsis. Based upon both their physical separation and a comparison of their sequences, it is suggested that the A4 gene and the A1, A2, and A3 genes constitute two distinct subfamilies within the genome. By introducing chimaeric gene constructs into Arabidopsis cells, we showed that the A1 gene promoter mediates a transient expression about twofold higher than that obtained using the CaMV 35 S promoter. This expression depends on a 348 bp DNA fragment extending from -982 to -634 bp upstream of the initiation codon. This element contains a characteristic telomeric sequence (AACCCTAA) which is also found in the promoters of the A2 and A4 genes as well as in the promoters of the Drosophila EF-1 alpha F1 gene and of several highly expressed plant genes. PMID:2615757

  18. Mixed Lineage Leukemia 5 (MLL5) Protein Regulates Cell Cycle Progression and E2F1-responsive Gene Expression via Association with Host Cell Factor-1 (HCF-1)*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Peipei; Wang, Zhilong; Yuan, Xiujie; Zhou, Cuihong; Liu, Lulu; Wan, Xiaoling; Zhang, Feng; Ding, Xiaodan; Wang, Chuangui; Xiong, Sidong; Wang, Zhen; Yuan, Jinduo; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Trithorax group proteins methylate lysine 4 of histone 3 (H3K4) at active gene promoters. MLL5 protein, a member of the Trithorax protein family, has been implicated in the control of the cell cycle progression; however, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) have not been fully determined. In this study, we found that the MLL5 protein can associate with the cell cycle regulator “host cell factor” (HCF-1). The interaction between MLL5 and HCF-1 is mediated by the “HCF-1 binding motif” (HBM) of the MLL5 protein and the Kelch domain of the HCF-1 protein. Confocal microscopy showed that the MLL5 protein largely colocalized with HCF-1 in the nucleus. Knockdown of MLL5 resulted in reduced cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. Moreover, down-regulation of E2F1 target gene expression and decreased H3K4me3 levels at E2F1-responsive promoters were observed in MLL5 knockdown cells. Additionally, the core subunits, including ASH2L, RBBP5, and WDR5, that are necessary for effective H3K4 methyltransferase activities of the Trithorax protein complexes, were absent in the MLL5 complex, suggesting that a distinct mechanism may be used by MLL5 for exerting its H3K4 methyltransferase activity. Together, our findings demonstrate that MLL5 could associate with HCF-1 and then be recruited to E2F1-responsive promoters to stimulate H3K4 trimethylation and transcriptional activation, thereby facilitating the cell cycle G1 to S phase transition. PMID:23629655

  19. Cloning and Characterization of an alpha-amylase Gene from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Thermococcus Thioreducens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhardsdotter, Eva C. M. J.; Pusey, Mark L.; Ng, Joseph D.; Garriott, Owen K.

    2004-01-01

    The gene encoding an extracellular alpha-amylase, TTA, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus thioreducens was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Primary structural analysis revealed high similarity with other a-amylases from the Thermococcus and Pyrococcus genera, as well as the four highly conserved regions typical for a-amylases. The 1374 bp gene encodes a protein of 457 amino acids, of which 435 constitute the mature protein preceded by a 22 amino acid signal peptide. The molecular weight of the purified recombinant enzyme was estimated to be 43 kDa by denaturing gel electrophoresis. Maximal enzymatic activity of recombinant TTA was observed at 90 C and pH 5.5 in the absence of exogenous Ca(2+), and the enzyme was considerably stable even after incubation at 90 C for 2 hours. The thermostability at 90 and 102 C was enhanced in the presence of 5 mM Ca(2+). The extraordinarily high specific activity (about 7.4 x 10(exp 3) U/mg protein at 90 C, pH 5.5 with soluble starch as substrate) together with its low pH optimum makes this enzyme an interesting candidate for starch processing applications.

  20. Ancient allelism at the cytosolic chaperonin-alpha-encoding gene of the zebrafish.

    PubMed Central

    Takami, K; Figueroa, F; Mayer, W E; Klein, J

    2000-01-01

    The T-complex protein 1, TCP1, gene codes for the CCT-alpha subunit of the group II chaperonins. The gene was first described in the house mouse, in which it is closely linked to the T locus at a distance of approximately 11 cM from the Mhc. In the zebrafish, Danio rerio, in which the T homolog is linked to the class I Mhc loci, the TCP1 locus segregates independently of both the T and the Mhc loci. Despite its conservation between species, the zebrafish TCP1 locus is highly polymorphic. In a sample of 15 individuals and the screening of a cDNA library, 12 different alleles were found, and some of the allelic pairs were found to differ by up to nine nucleotides in a 275-bp-long stretch of sequence. The substitutions occur in both translated and untranslated regions, but in the former they occur predominantly at synonymous codon sites. Phylogenetically, the alleles fall into two groups distinguished also by the presence or absence of a 10-bp insertion/deletion in the 3' untranslated region. The two groups may have diverged as long as 3.5 mya, and the polymorphic differences may have accumulated by genetic drift in geographically isolated populations. PMID:10628990

  1. Three missense variants of metabolic syndrome-related genes are associated with alpha-1 antitrypsin levels

    PubMed Central

    Setoh, Kazuya; Terao, Chikashi; Muro, Shigeo; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Tabara, Yasuharu; Takahashi, Meiko; Nakayama, Takeo; Kosugi, Shinji; Sekine, Akihiro; Yamada, Ryo; Mishima, Michiaki; Matsuda, Fumihiko

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) encoded by SERPINA1 is an acute-phase inflammation marker, and AAT deficiency (AATD) is known as one of the common genetic disorders in European populations. However, no genetic determinants to AAT levels apart from the SERPINA gene clusters have been identified to date. Here we perform a genome-wide association study of serum AAT levels followed by a two-staged replication study recruiting a total of 9,359 Japanese community-dwelling population. Three missense variants of metabolic syndrome-related genes, namely, rs671 in ALDH2, rs1169288 in HNF1A and rs1260326 in GCKR, significantly associate with AAT levels (P≤1.5 × 10−12). Previous reports have shown the functional relevance of ALDH2 and HNF1A to AAT. We observe a significant interaction of rs671 and alcohol consumption on AAT levels. We confirm the association between AAT and rs2896268 in SERPINA1, which is independent of known causative variants of AATD. These findings would support various AAT functions including metabolic processes. PMID:26174136

  2. Cell type-specific transcriptional regulation of the gene encoding importin-{alpha}1

    SciTech Connect

    Kamikawa, Yasunao; Yasuhara, Noriko; Yoneda, Yoshihiro; Department of Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University; JST, CREST, Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871

    2011-08-15

    Importin-{alpha}1 belongs to a receptor family that recognizes classical nuclear localization signals. Encoded by Kpna2, this receptor subtype is highly expressed in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. In this study, we identified a critical promoter region in Kpna2 and showed that the expression of this gene is differentially regulated in ES cells and NIH3T3 cells. Conserved CCAAT boxes are required for Kpna2 promoter activity in both ES and NIH3T3 cells. Interestingly, deletion of the region from nucleotide position - 251 to - 179 bp resulted in a drastic reduction in Kpna2 transcriptional activity only in ES cells. This region contains Krueppel-like factor (Klf) binding sequences and is responsible for transactivation of the gene by Klf2 and Klf4. Accordingly, endogenous Kpna2 mRNA levels decreased in response to depletion of Klf2 and Klf4 in ES cells. Our results suggest that Klf2 and Klf4 function redundantly to drive high level of Kpna2 expression in ES cells. -- Research Highlights: {yields} We showed the cell type-specific transcriptional regulation of Kpna2 encoding importin-al. {yields} NF-Y binds the CCAAT boxes to activate Kpna2 transcription in NIH3T3 cells. {yields} Klf2 and Klf4 redundantly activate the expression of Kpna2 in ES cells.

  3. Txk, a member of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase of the Tec family, forms a complex with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 and elongation factor 1α and regulates interferon-γ gene transcription in Th1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, T; Nara, K; Yoshikawa, H; Suzuki, N

    2007-01-01

    We have found previously that Txk, a member of the Tec family tyrosine kinases, is involved importantly in T helper 1 (Th1) cytokine production. However, how Txk regulates interferon (IFN)-γ gene transcription in human T lymphocytes was not fully elucidated. In this study, we identified poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) and elongation factor 1α (EF-1α) as Txk-associated molecules that bound to the Txk responsive element of the IFN-γ gene promoter. Txk phosphorylated EF-1α and PARP1 formed a complex with them, and bound to the IFN-γ gene promoter in vitro. In particular, the N terminal region containing the DNA binding domain of PARP1 was important for the trimolecular complex formation involving Txk, EF-1α and PARP1. Several mutant Txk which lacked kinase activity were unable to form the trimolecular complex. A PARP1 inhibitor, PJ34, suppressed IFN-γ but not interleukin (IL)-4 production by normal peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). Multi-colour confocal analysis revealed that Txk and EF-1α located in the cytoplasm in the resting condition. Upon activation, a complex involving Txk, EF-1α and PARP1 was formed and was located in the nucleus. Collectively, Txk in combination with EF-1α and PARP1 bound to the IFN-γ gene promoter, and exerted transcriptional activity on the IFN-γ gene. PMID:17177976

  4. Estrogen Receptor Alpha (ESR1) Gene Polymorphisms in Pre-eclamptic Saudi Patients

    PubMed Central

    El-Beshbishy, Hesham A.; Tawfeek, Manal A.; Al-Azhary, Nevin M.; Mariah, Reham A.; Habib, Fawzia A.; Aljayar, Lamya; Alahmadi, Abrar F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Pre-eclampsia causes maternal mortality worldwide. Estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene polymorphisms were responsible for cardiovascular diseases. This case control study was conducted to investigate whether 2 polymorphic genes of ESR1 are associated with pre-eclampsia among Saudi women in Madina city, Saudi Arabia. Methods: Blood samples from 97 pre-eclamptic and 94 healthy pregnant women were analyzed using restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction method. All the subjects were recruited randomly from outpatient clinics of Madina Maternity Children Hospital (MMCH), Madina, Saudi Arabia, between Dec. 2012 and Jan. 2014. Results: There was no association between pre-eclampsia and PvuII and XbaI ESR1 gene polymorphisms individually. TT/AA and TT/AG genotype combination existed significantly in pre-eclamptic patients compared to control. The frequency of PvuII and XbaI combined TT/AA genotypes between pre-eclamptic women was 36.1% vs 9.6%, however, frequency of PvuII and XbaI combined TT/AG genotypes between pre-eclamptic women was 3.1% vs 17%, compared to control. The homozygous T-A haplotype carriers showed high pre-eclampsia risk, independent of pregnancy, BMI and smoking status (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 3.26, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.71-9.21). The heterozygous T-A haplotype carriers did not differ from that of non-carriers (adjusted OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 0.47-2.75). No association was observed between pre-eclampsia and T-G, C-G and C-A haplotype of PvuII and XbaIESR1 gene polymorphisms. Conclusions: T-A haplotype of homozygous associated with pre eclampsia not heterozygous carriers of ESR 1 PvuII and XbaI gene polymorphisms elicited high risk of pre-eclampsia. GG genotype of XbaI polymorphism decreased pre-eclampsia risk. Further studies using larger sample size are recommended to investigate the ESR 1 gene polymorphisms associated with pre-eclampsia. PMID:26430422

  5. Serum levels of pancreatic stone protein (PSP)/reg1A as an indicator of beta-cell apoptosis suggest an increased apoptosis rate in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A-MODY) carriers from the third decade of life onward

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mutations in the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-alpha (HNF1A) result in the commonest type of maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). HNF1A-MODY carriers have reduced pancreatic beta cell mass, partially due to an increased rate of apoptosis. To date, it has not been possible to determine when apoptosis is occurring in HNF1A-MODY.We have recently demonstrated that beta cell apoptosis stimulates the expression of the pancreatic stone protein/regenerating (PSP/reg) gene in surviving neighbour cells, and that PSP/reg1A protein is subsequently secreted from these cells. The objective of this study was to determine whether serum levels of PSP/reg1A are elevated during disease progression in HNF1A-MODY carriers, and whether it may provide information regarding the onset of beta-cell apoptosis. Methods We analysed serum PSP/reg1A levels and correlated with clinical and biochemical parameters in subjects with HNF1A-MODY, glucokinase (GCK-MODY), and type 1 diabetes mellitus. A control group of normoglycaemic subjects was also analysed. Results PSP/reg1A serum levels were significantly elevated in HNF1A-MODY (n = 37) subjects compared to controls (n = 60) (median = 12.50 ng/ml, IQR = 10.61-17.87 ng/ml versus median = 10.72 ng/ml, IQR = 8.94-12.54 ng/ml, p = 0.0008). PSP/reg1A correlated negatively with insulin levels during OGTT, (rho = −0.40, p = 0.02). Interestingly we noted a significant positive correlation of PSP/reg1A with age of the HNF1A-MODY carriers (rho = 0.40 p = 0.02) with an age of 25 years separating carriers with low and high PSP/reg1A levels. Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus also had elevated serum levels of PSP/reg1A compared to controls, however this was independent of the duration of diabetes. Conclusion Our data suggest that beta cell apoptosis contributes increasingly to the pathophysiology of HNF1A-MODY in patients 25 years and over. PSP/reg1A may be

  6. Cultured Ito cells of rat liver express the alpha 2-macroglobulin gene.

    PubMed

    Andus, T; Ramadori, G; Heinrich, P C; Knittel, T; Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K H

    1987-11-01

    Ito cells were isolated from rat liver and kept in culture for up to 13 days. The capability of the Ito cells to synthesize alpha 2-macroglobulin was analyzed at different times after isolation and by pulse-chase experiments. Newly synthesized alpha 2-macroglobulin was determined by immunoprecipitation followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. alpha 2-Macroglobulin synthesis was hardly detectable in Ito cells and their media 3 days after plating. However, 5-11 days after the isolation of the cells, increasing amounts of alpha 2-macroglobulin were synthesized. The results of pulse-chase experiments performed on day 7 showed that radioactively labeled alpha 2-macroglobulin decreased in the intracellular compartment and increased in the culture medium. alpha 2-Macroglobulin was identified by immunoprecipitation and sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing and non-reducing conditions. Furthermore, when unlabeled alpha 2-macroglobulin was added during the immunoprecipitation, a competition was observed. Incubation of pancreatic elastase with culture medium of rat Ito cells or rat hepatocytes led to the same cleavage products as found with alpha 2-macroglobulin. alpha 2-Macroglobulin-specific mRNA could be demonstrated by Northern blot analysis of total RNA extracted from rat Ito cells. Under the conditions where alpha 2-macroglobulin was synthesized in Ito cells, no synthesis of alpha 1-macroglobulin, alpha 1-inhibitor 3, alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor, alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, alpha 1-acute-phase globulin (T-kininogen) and albumin could be demonstrated. It is concluded that alpha 2-macroglobulin is a true secretory protein of rat Ito cells in culture. This could be of importance for collagen metabolism in liver diseases. PMID:2444437

  7. The human intestinal fatty acid binding protein (hFABP2) gene is regulated by HNF-4{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Klapper, Maja . E-mail: klapper@molnut.uni-kiel.de; Boehme, Mike; Nitz, Inke; Doering, Frank

    2007-04-27

    The cytosolic human intestinal fatty acid binding protein (hFABP2) is proposed to be involved in intestinal absorption of long-chain fatty acids. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulation of hFABP2 by the endodermal hepatocyte nuclear factor 4{alpha} (HNF-4{alpha}), involved in regulation of genes of fatty acid metabolism and differentiation. Electromobility shift assays demonstrated that HNF-4{alpha} binds at position -324 to -336 within the hFABP2 promoter. Mutation of this HNF-4 binding site abolished the luciferase reporter activity of hFABP2 in postconfluent Caco-2 cells. In HeLa cells, this mutation reduced the activation of the hFABP2 promoter by HNF-4{alpha} by about 50%. Thus, binding element at position -336/-324 essentially determines the transcriptional activity of promoter and may be important in control of hFABP2 expression by dietary lipids and differentiation. Studying genotype interactions of hFABP2 and HNF-4{alpha}, that are both candidate genes for diabetes type 2, may be a powerful approach.

  8. Association between estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene polymorphisms and severe preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Molvarec, Attila; Vér, Agota; Fekete, Andrea; Rosta, Klára; Derzbach, László; Derzsy, Zoltán; Karádi, István; Rigó, János

    2007-03-01

    Associations have been reported between estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene polymorphisms and various pathological conditions, including cardiovascular diseases. Our aim was to investigate whether two polymorphisms of the ESR1 gene (ESR1 c.454 -397T>C: PvuII restriction site and c.454 -351A>G: XbaI restriction site) are associated with preeclampsia. In a case-control study, we analyzed blood samples from 119 severely preeclamptic patients and 103 normotensive, healthy pregnant women using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. All of the women were Caucasian. There was no association between severe preeclampsia and the PvuII and XbaI ESR1 gene polymorphisms separately. However, with the simultaneous carriage of both polymorphisms, the TT/AA genotype combination was significantly more frequent in severely preeclamptic patients than in healthy control subjects (24.4% vs. 9.7%, p=0.003), whereas the TT/AG combination was significantly less frequent in the severely preeclamptic group than in the control group (5.0% vs. 18.4%, p=0.002). According to the haplotype estimation, the homozygous T-A haplotype carriers had an increased risk of severe preeclampsia independent of maternal age, prepregnancy BMI, primiparity and smoking status (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 4.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.65-11.53). The GG genotype of the XbaI polymorphism was associated with a lower risk of fetal growth restriction in patients with severe preeclampsia (OR: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.07-0.73). In conclusion, the homozygous T-A haplotype carriers of ESR1 PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms showed an increased risk of severe preeclampsia. In addition, the GG genotype of the XbaI polymorphism decreased the risk of fetal growth restriction in severely preeclamptic patients. PMID:17510501

  9. Induction of liver alpha-1 acid glycoprotein gene expression involves both positive and negative transcription factors.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Y M; Tsai, W H; Lai, M Y; Chen, D S; Lee, S C

    1993-01-01

    Expression of the alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) gene is liver specific and acute phase responsive. Within the 180-bp region of the AGP promoter, at least five cis elements have been found to interact with trans-acting factors. Four of these elements (A, C, D, and E) interacted with AGP/EBP, a liver-enriched transcription factor, as shown by footprinting analysis and by an anti-AGP/EBP antibody-induced supershift in a gel retardation assay. Modification of these sites by site-directed mutagenesis coupled with transfection analysis indicated that AGP/EBP binding to all of these sites resulted in positive regulation of the promoter. Dose-response data suggest that AGP/EBP binding to these sites results in the cooperative activation of the promoter. In contrast, functional assays showed that element B is a negative regulatory element; this element is recognized by heat-stable DNA-binding factors which are found in many cells and tissues. The regulation of these binding proteins was studied in rat liver treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which induced an acute-phase reaction. We found that LPS treatment resulted in a two- to threefold increase in AGP/EBP activity and a severalfold decrease in the activity of factors that bind to element B in the liver. These results indicate that expression of the AGP gene can be regulated by both positive and negative factors and that the modulation of these factors can account for the LPS induction of the AGP gene. Images PMID:8417341

  10. Alpha-globin loci in homozygous beta-thalassemia intermedia.

    PubMed

    Triadou, P; Lapoumeroulie, C; Girot, R; Labie, D

    1983-01-01

    Homozygous beta-thalassemia intermediate (TI) differs from thalassemia major (TM) in being less severe clinically. Associated alpha-thalassemia could account for the TI phenotype by reducing the alpha/non-alpha chain imbalance. We have analyzed the alpha loci of 9 TI and 11 TM patients by restriction endonuclease mapping. All the TM and 7 of the TI patients have the normal complement of four alpha-globin genes (alpha alpha/alpha alpha). One TI patient has three alpha-globin genes (alpha alpha/-alpha), and another TI patient has five alpha genes (alpha alpha/alpha alpha alpha). PMID:6305827

  11. Post-exercise impact of ingested whey protein hydrolysate on gene expression profiles in rat skeletal muscle: activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Atsushi; Ishijima, Tomoko; Shinozaki, Fumika; Nakayama, Kyosuke; Fukasawa, Tomoyuki; Nakai, Yuji; Abe, Keiko; Kawahata, Keiko; Ikegami, Shuji

    2014-06-28

    We have previously shown that whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) causes a greater increase in muscle protein synthesis than does a mixture of amino acids that is identical in amino acid composition. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of WPH on gene expression. Male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to a 2 h swimming exercise were administered either a carbohydrate-amino acid diet or a carbohydrate-WPH diet immediately after exercise. At 1 h after exercise, epitrochlearis muscle mRNA was sampled and subjected to DNA microarray analysis. We found that ingestion of WPH altered 189 genes after considering the false discovery rate. Among the up-regulated genes, eight Gene Ontology (GO) terms were enriched, which included key elements such as Cd24, Ccl2, Ccl7 and Cxcl1 involved in muscle repair after exercise. In contrast, nine GO terms were enriched in gene sets that were down-regulated by the ingestion of WPH, and these GO terms fell into two clusters, 'regulation of ATPase activity' and 'immune response'. Furthermore, we found that WPH activated two upstream proteins, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which might act as key factors for regulating gene expression. These results suggest that ingestion of WPH, compared with ingestion of a mixture of amino acids with an identical amino acid composition, induces greater changes in the post-exercise gene expression profile via activation of the proteins ERK1/2 and HIF-1α. PMID:24598469

  12. Changes in gene expression and cellular localization of insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 in the ovaries during ovary development of the yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Kentaro; Gen, Koichiro; Izumida, Daisuke; Kazeto, Yukinori; Hotta, Takuro; Takashi, Toshinori; Aono, Hideaki; Soyano, Kiyoshi

    2016-06-01

    A method of controlling the somatic growth and reproduction of yellowtail fish (Seriola quinqueradiata) is needed in order to establish methods for the efficient aquaculture production of the species. However, little information about the hormonal interactions between somatic growth and reproduction is available for marine teleosts. There is accumulating evidence that insulin-like growth factor (IGF), a major hormone related somatic growth, plays an important role in fish reproduction. As the first step toward understanding the physiological role of IGF in the development of yellowtail ovaries, we characterized the expression and cellular localization of IGF-1 and IGF-2 in the ovary during development. We histologically classified the maturity of two-year-old females with ovaries at various developmental stages into the perinucleolar (Pn), yolk vesicle (Yv), primary yolk (Py), secondary yolk and tertiary yolk (Ty) stages, according to the most advanced type of oocyte present. The IGF-1 gene expression showed constitutively high levels at the different developmental stages, although IGF-1 mRNA levels tended to increase from the Py to the Ty stage with vitellogenesis, reaching maximum levels during the Ty stage. The IGF-2 mRNA levels increased as ovarian development advanced. Using immunohistochemistry methods, immunoreactive IGF-1 was mainly detected in the theca cells of ovarian follicles during late secondary oocyte growth, and in part of the granulosa cells of Ty stage oocytes. IGF-2 immunoreactivity was observed in all granulosa cells in layer in Ty stage oocytes. These results indicate that follicular IGFs may be involved in yellowtail reproduction via autocrine/paracrine mechanisms. PMID:26764214

  13. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene and protein expression in adult feline myocardium after endotoxin administration.

    PubMed Central

    Kapadia, S; Lee, J; Torre-Amione, G; Birdsall, H H; Ma, T S; Mann, D L

    1995-01-01

    TNF alpha mRNA and protein biosynthesis were examined in the adult feline heart after stimulation with endotoxin. When freshly isolated hearts were stimulated with endotoxin in vitro, de novo TNF alpha mRNA expression occurred within 30 min, and TNF alpha protein production was detected within 60-75 min; however, TNF alpha mRNA and protein production were not detected in diluent-treated hearts. Immunohistochemical studies localized TNF alpha to endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and cardiac myocytes in the endotoxin-treated hearts, whereas TNF alpha immunostaining was absent in the diluent-treated hearts. To determine whether the cardiac myocyte was a source for TNF alpha production, two studies were performed. First, in situ hybridization studies, using highly specific biotinylated probes, demonstrated TNF alpha mRNA in cardiac myocytes from endotoxin-stimulated hearts; in contrast, TNF alpha mRNA was not expressed in myocytes from diluent-treated hearts. Second, TNF alpha protein production was observed when cultured cardiac myocytes were stimulated with endotoxin, whereas TNF alpha protein production was not detected in the diluent-treated cells. The functional significance of the intramyocardial production of TNF alpha was determined by examining cell motion in isolated cardiac myocytes treated with superfusates from endotoxin- and diluent-stimulated hearts. These studies showed that cell motion was depressed in myocytes treated with superfusates from the endotoxin-treated hearts, but was normal with the superfusates from the diluent-treated hearts; moreover, the negative inotropic effects of the superfusates from the endotoxin-treated hearts could be abrogated completely by pretreatment with an anti-TNF alpha antibody. Finally, endotoxin stimulation was also shown to result in the intramyocardial production of TNF alpha mRNA and protein in vivo. Thus, this study shows for the first time that the adult mammalian myocardium synthesizes biologically active

  14. Human and rat mast cell high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptors: Characterization of putative. alpha. -chain gene products

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, Akira; Benfey, P.N.; Leder, P. ); Tepler, I. Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA ); Berenstein, E.H.; Siraganian, R.P. )

    1988-03-01

    The authors have cloned and determined the entire nucleotide sequence of cDNAs corresponding to the putative {alpha} subunits of the human and rat mast cell high-affinity IgE receptors. Both human and rat cDNAs encode an NH{sub 2}-terminal signal peptide, two immunoglobulin-like extracellular domains (encoded by discrete exons), a hydrophobic transmembrane region, and a positively charged cytoplasmic tail. The human and rat {alpha} subunits share an overall homology with one another and the immunoglobulin gene family, suggesting that they arose from a common ancestral gene and continue to share structural homology with their ligands. In addition, the rat gene is transcribed into at least three distinct forms, each of which yields a somewhat different coding sequence.

  15. Alpha Thalassemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... an apparently normal individual has a child with hemoglobin H disease or alpha thalassemia minor. It can ... gene on one chromosome 25% 25% 25% 25% hemoglobin H disease there is a 25% chance with ...

  16. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Viral Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 Interacts with a Member of the Interferon-Stimulated Gene 15 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Sarah R.; Stopford, Charles M.; West, John A.; Bennett, Christopher L.; Giffin, Louise

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a gammaherpesvirus known to establish lifelong latency in the human host. We and others have previously shown that three KSHV homologs of cellular interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), known as viral IRFs (vIRFs), participate in evasion of the host interferon (IFN) response. We report that vIRF1 interacts with the cellular interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) E3 ligase, HERC5, in the context of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) activation and IFN induction. The ISG15 protein is covalently conjugated to target proteins upon activation of the interferon response. Interaction between vIRF1 and HERC5 was confirmed by immunoprecipitation, and the region between amino acids 224 and 349 of vIRF1 was required for interaction with HERC5. We further report that expression of vIRF1 in the context of TLR3 activation results in decreased ISG15 conjugation of proteins. Specifically, TLR3-induced ISG15 conjugation and protein levels of cellular IRF3, a known ISG15 target, were decreased in the presence of vIRF1 compared to the control. vIRF1 itself was also identified as a target of ISG15 conjugation. KSHV-infected cells exhibited increased ISG15 conjugation upon reactivation from latency in coordination with increased IFN. Furthermore, knockdown of ISG15 in latently infected cells resulted in a higher level of KSHV reactivation and an increase in infectious virus. These data suggest that the KSHV vIRF1 protein affects ISG15 conjugation and interferon responses and may contribute to effective KSHV replication. IMPORTANCE The KSHV vIRF1 protein can inhibit interferon activation in response to viral infection. We identified a cellular protein named HERC5, which is the major ligase for ISG15, as a vIRF1 binding partner. vIRF1 association with HERC5 altered ISG15 modification of cellular proteins, and knockdown of ISG15 augmented reactivation of KSHV from latency. PMID:26355087

  17. Regulation of glycoprotein D synthesis: does alpha 4, the major regulatory protein of herpes simplex virus 1, regulate late genes both positively and negatively?

    PubMed Central

    Arsenakis, M; Campadelli-Fiume, G; Roizman, B

    1988-01-01

    Earlier studies have described the alpha 4/c113 baby hamster kidney cell line which constitutively expresses the alpha 4 protein, the major regulatory protein of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Introduction of the HSV-1 glycoprotein B (gB) gene, regulated as a gamma 1 gene, into these cells yielded a cell line which constitutively expressed both the alpha 4 and gamma 1 gB genes. The expression of the gB gene was dependent on the presence of functional alpha 4 protein. In this article we report that we introduced into the alpha 4/c113 and into the parental BHK cells, the HSV-1 BamHI J fragment, which encodes the domains of four genes, including those of glycoproteins D, G, and I (gD, gG, and gI), and most of the coding sequences of the glycoprotein E (gE) gene. In contrast to the earlier studies, we obtained significant constitutive expression of gD (also a gamma 1 gene) in a cell line (BJ) derived from parental BHK cells, but not in a cell line (alpha 4/BJ) which expresses functional alpha 4 protein. RNA homologous to the gD gene was present in significant amounts in the BJ cell line; smaller amounts of this RNA were detected in the alpha 4/BJ cell line. RNA homologous to gE, presumed to be polyadenylated from signals in the vector sequences, was present in the BJ cells but not in the alpha 4/BJ cells. The expression of the HSV-1 gD and gE genes was readily induced in the alpha 4/BJ cells by superinfection with HSV-2. The BJ cell line was, in contrast, resistant to expression of HSV-1 and HSV-2 genes. The BamHI J DNA fragment copy number was approximately 1 per BJ cell genome equivalent and 30 to 50 per alpha 4/BJ cell genome equivalent. We conclude that (i) the genes specifying gD and gB belong to different viral regulatory gene subsets, (ii) the gD gene is subject to both positive and negative regulation, (iii) both gD and gE mRNAs are subject to translational controls although they may be different, and (iv) the absence of expression of gD in the alpha 4/BJ

  18. Pur-Alpha Induces JCV Gene Expression and Viral Replication by Suppressing SRSF1 in Glial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sariyer, Ilker Kudret; Sariyer, Rahsan; Otte, Jessica; Gordon, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Objective PML is a rare and fatal demyelinating disease of the CNS caused by the human polyomavirus, JC virus (JCV), which occurs in AIDS patients and those on immunosuppressive monoclonal antibody therapies (mAbs). We sought to identify mechanisms that could stimulate reactivation of JCV in a cell culture model system and targeted pathways which could affect early gene transcription and JCV T-antigen production, which are key steps of the viral life cycle for blocking reactivation of JCV. Two important regulatory partners we have previously identified for T-antigen include Pur-alpha and SRSF1 (SF2/ASF). SRSF1, an alternative splicing factor, is a potential regulator of JCV whose overexpression in glial cells strongly suppresses viral gene expression and replication. Pur-alpha has been most extensively characterized as a sequence-specific DNA- and RNA-binding protein which directs both viral gene transcription and mRNA translation, and is a potent inducer of the JCV early promoter through binding to T-antigen. Methods and Results Pur-alpha and SRSF1 both act directly as transcriptional regulators of the JCV promoter and here we have observed that Pur-alpha is capable of ameliorating SRSF1-mediated suppression of JCV gene expression and viral replication. Interestingly, Pur-alpha exerted its effect by suppressing SRSF1 at both the protein and mRNA levels in glial cells suggesting this effect can occur independent of T-antigen. Pur-alpha and SRSF1 were both localized to oligodendrocyte inclusion bodies by immunohistochemistry in brain sections from patients with HIV-1 associated PML. Interestingly, inclusion bodies were typically positive for either Pur-alpha or SRSF1, though some cells appeared to be positive for both proteins. Conclusions Taken together, these results indicate the presence of an antagonistic interaction between these two proteins in regulating of JCV gene expression and viral replication and suggests that they play an important role during viral

  19. T cell receptor alpha-chain gene rearrangements in B-precursor leukemia are in contrast to the findings in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Comparative study of T cell receptor gene rearrangement in childhood leukemia.

    PubMed Central

    Hara, J; Benedict, S H; Mak, T W; Gelfand, E W

    1987-01-01

    We have analyzed T cell receptor alpha-chain gene configuration using three genomic joining (J) region probes in 64 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). 11 out of 18 T-ALLs were T3 positive; alpha-chain gene rearrangements were demonstrated in only two of 18, indicating that the majority of T-ALLs would have rearrangements involving J alpha segments located upstream of these probes. In contrast, 15 out of 46 B-precursor ALLs showed rearrangements of the alpha-chain gene and J alpha segments located approximately 20-30 kb upstream of the constant region were involved in 13 of these patients. Nine of 15 B-precursor ALLs with rearranged alpha-chain genes had rearrangements of both gamma- and beta-chain genes, whereas the remaining six had no rearrangements of gamma- and beta-chain genes. These findings indicated that alpha-chain gene rearrangement is not specific for T lineage cells and gamma- and/or beta-chain gene rearrangement does not appear essential for alpha-chain gene rearrangement, at least in B-precursor leukemic cells. Images PMID:3500187

  20. Unilateral Partial Nephrectomy with Warm Ischemia Results in Acute Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1-Alpha (HIF-1α) and Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Overexpression in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Haimovich, Beatrice; Kwon, Young Suk; Lu, Tyler; Fyfe-Kirschner, Billie; Olweny, Ephrem Odoy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) during partial nephrectomy (PN) contributes to acute kidney injury (AKI), which is inaccurately assessed using existent clinical markers of renal function. We evaluated I/R-related changes in expression in hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), within kidney tissue and peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) in a porcine model of PN. Materials and Methods Three adult pigs each underwent unilateral renal hilar cross clamping for 180 min followed by a 15 min reperfusion. The contralateral kidney served as control. Biopsies of clamped kidneys were obtained at baseline (time 0), every 60 min during the hypoxic phase, and post-reperfusion. Control kidneys were biopsied once at 180 min. Peripheral blood was sampled at time 0, every 30 min during the hypoxic phase, and post-reperfusion. HIF-1α and TLR4 expression in kidney tissue and PBL were analyzed by Western blotting. I/R-related histological changes were assessed. Results Expression of HIF-1α in clamped kidneys and PBL was below detection level at baseline, rising to detectable levels after 60 min of hypoxia, and continuing to rise throughout the hypoxic and reperfusion phases. Expression of TLR-4 in clamped kidneys followed a similar trend with initial detection after 30–60 min of hypoxia. Control kidneys exhibited no change in HIF-1α or TLR-4 expression. I/R-related histologic changes were minimal, primarily mild tubular dilatation. Conclusions In a porcine model of PN, HIF-1α and TLR4 exhibited robust, I/R-related increases in expression in kidney tissue and PBL. Further studies investigating these molecules as potential markers of AKI are warranted. PMID:27149666

  1. Anticancer effect of genistein on BG-1 ovarian cancer growth induced by 17 β-estradiol or bisphenol A via the suppression of the crosstalk between estrogen receptor alpha and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Kyung-A; Park, Min-Ah; Kang, Nam-Hee; Yi, Bo-Rim; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2013-11-01

    The interaction between estrogen receptor (ER) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling pathway plays an important role in proliferation of and resistance to endocrine therapy to estrogen dependent cancers. Estrogen (E2) upregulates the expression of components of IGF-1 system and induces the downstream of mitogenic signaling cascades via phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). In the present study, we evaluated the xenoestrogenic effect of bisphenol A (BPA) and antiproliferative activity of genistein (GEN) in accordance with the influence on this crosstalk. BPA was determined to affect this crosstalk by upregulating mRNA expressions of ERα and IGF-1R and inducing phosphorylation of IRS-1 and Akt in protein level in BG-1 ovarian cancer cells as E2 did. In the mouse model xenografted with BG-1 cells, BPA significantly increased a tumor burden of mice and expressions of ERα, pIRS-1, and cyclin D1 in tumor mass compared to vehicle, indicating that BPA induces ovarian cancer growth by promoting the crosstalk between ER and IGF-1R signals. On the other hand, GEN effectively reversed estrogenicity of BPA by reversing mRNA and protein expressions of ERα, IGF-1R, pIRS-1, and pAkt induced by BPA in cellular model and also significantly decreased tumor growth and in vivo expressions of ERα, pIRS-1, and pAkt in xenografted mouse model. Also, GEN was confirmed to have an antiproliferative effect by inducing apoptotic signaling cascades. Taken together, these results suggest that GEN effectively reversed the increased proliferation of BG-1 ovarian cancer by suppressing the crosstalk between ERα and IGF-1R signaling pathways upregulated by BPA or E2.

  2. Association of Retinoid X Receptor Alpha Gene Polymorphism with Clinical Course of Chronic Glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Grzegorzewska, Alicja E; Ostromecki, Grzegorz; Zielińska, Paulina; Mostowska, Adrianna; Niemir, Zofia; Polcyn-Adamczak, Magdalena; Pawlik, Magdalena; Sowińska, Anna; Jagodziński, Paweł P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Vitamin D (VD), VD binding protein, VD receptor (VDR), and retinoids are involved in pathogenesis of chronic glomerulonephritis (ChGN). We aimed to compare distribution of VD pathway gene polymorphisms in ChGN patients showing glomerular filtration rate (GFR) category 1-3, GFR category 5D, and healthy controls in order to elucidate the role of VD-related polymorphisms in the course of ChGN. MATERIAL AND METHODS GFR category 1-3 ChGN patients (n=195), GFR category 5D ChGN patients (n=178), and controls (n=751) underwent testing for polymorphisms of genes encoding VD binding protein (GC, rs2298849, rs7041, rs1155563), VDR (VDR, rs2228570, rs1544410), and retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRA, rs10776909, rs10881578, rs749759). RESULTS Among GFR 1-3 subjects possessing TT genotype of RXRA rs10776909, 75% of patients had nephrotic syndrome, and 37.5% had glomerular hyperfiltration defined as GFR >140 ml/min/1.73 m2, and, consequently, serum creatinine was lower in these patients compared to the remaining subjects (0.67±0.26 vs. 0.94±0.34, P=0.014). In GFR category 5D ChGN patients, frequencies of RXRA rs10776909 allele T (25% vs. 19%) and CT+TT (46% vs. 34%) were higher compared to frequencies of respective variants in controls (Ptrend=0.004, Pgenotype=0.008). CONCLUSIONS RXRA rs10776909 allele T is specifically involved in the pathogenesis of ChGN. This risk allele may be also associated with worse clinical course of ChGN. PMID:26610845

  3. Haplotypes that include the integrin alpha 11 gene are associated with tick burden in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Infestations on cattle by the ectoparasite Boophilus (Rhipicephalus) microplus (cattle tick) impact negatively on animal production systems. Host resistance to tick infestation has a low to moderate heritability in the range 0.13 - 0.64 in Australia. Previous studies identified a QTL on bovine chromosome 10 (BTA10) linked to tick burden in cattle. Results To confirm these associations, we collected genotypes of 17 SNP from BTA10, including three obtained by sequencing part of the ITGA11 (Integrin alpha 11) gene. Initially, we genotyped 1,055 dairy cattle for the 17 SNP, and then genotyped 557 Brahman and 216 Tropical Composite beef cattle for 11 of the 17 SNP. In total, 7 of the SNP were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with tick burden tested in any of the samples. One SNP, ss161109814, was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with tick burden in both the taurine and the Brahman sample, but the favourable allele was different. Haplotypes for three and for 10 SNP were more significantly (P < 0.001) associated with tick burden than SNP analysed individually. Some of the common haplotypes with the largest sample sizes explained between 1.3% and 1.5% of the residual variance in tick burden. Conclusions These analyses confirm the location of a QTL affecting tick burden on BTA10 and position it close to the ITGA11 gene. The presence of a significant association in such widely divergent animals suggests that further SNP discovery in this region to detect causal mutations would be warranted. PMID:20565915

  4. Fibroblast growth factor 7 inhibits cholesterol 7{alpha}-hydroxylase gene expression in hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Zhichao; Yu, Xuemei; Wu, Weibin; Jia, Dongwei; Chen, Yinle; Ji, Lingling; Liu, Xijun; Peng, Xiaomin; Li, Yintao; Yang, Lili; Ruan, Yuanyuan; Gu, Jianxin; Ren, Shifang; Zhang, Songwen

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FGF7 strongly and rapidly down-regulates the expression of CYP7A1 in hepatocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FGF7 suppresses the expression of CYP7A1 via FGFR2 and downstream JNK activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blocking FGF7 abrogates HSC-induced inhibition of CYP7A1 expression in hepatocytes. -- Abstract: Cholesterol 7{alpha}-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) is the initial and rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. Transcription of the CYP7A1 gene is regulated by bile acids, nuclear receptors and cytokines. Fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7) secreted from activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) during chronic liver fibrosis regulates hepatocyte survival and liver regeneration. In the carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced fibrotic mouse liver, we demonstrated that the expression of CYP7A1 was largely decreased while the expression of FGF7 was significantly increased. We further demonstrated that FGF7 inhibited CYP7A1 gene expression in hepatocytes. Knockdown study by short interfering RNA, kinase inhibition and phosphorylation assays revealed that the suppression of CYP7A1 expression by FGF7 was mediated by FGFR2 and its downstream JNK signaling cascade. The FGF7 neutralizing antibody restored CYP7A1 expression in Hep3B cells treated with conditioned medium from HSC. In summary, the data suggest that FGF7 is a novel regulator of CYP7A1 expression in hepatocytes and may prevent hepatocytes from accumulating toxic bile acids during liver injury and fibrosis.

  5. Orofacial clefts, parental cigarette smoking, and transforming growth factor-alpha gene variants

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, G.M.; Wasserman, C.R.; O`Malley, C.D.

    1996-03-01

    Results of studies determine whether women who smoke during early pregnancy are at increased risk of delivering infants with orofacial clefts have been mixed, and recently a gene-environment interaction between maternal smoking, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFa), and clefting has been reported. Using a large population-based case-control study, we investigated whether parental periconceptional cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk for having offspring with orofacial clefts. We also investigated the influence of genetic variation of the TGFa locus on the relation between smoking and clefting. Parental smoking information was obtained from telephone interviews with mothers of 731 (84.7% of eligible) orofacial cleft case infants and with mothers of 734 (78.2%) nonmalformed control infants. DNA was obtained from newborn screening blood spots and genotyped for the allelic variants of TGFa. We found that risks associated with maternal smoking were most elevated for isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate, (odds ratio 2.1 [95% confidence interval 1.3-3.6]) and for isolated cleft palate (odds ratio 2.2 [1.1-4.5]) when mothers smoked {ge} 20 cigarrettes/d. These risks for white infants ranged from 3-fold to 11-fold across phenotypic groups. Paternal smoking was not associated with clefting among the offspring of nonsmoking mothers, and passive smoke exposures were associated with at most slightly increased risks. This study offers evidence that the risk for orofacial clefting in infants may be influenced by maternal smoke exposures alone as well as in combination (gene-environment interaction) with the presence of the uncommon TGFa allele. 56 refs., 5 tabs.

  6. Clofibrate causes an upregulation of PPAR-{alpha} target genes but does not alter expression of SREBP target genes in liver and adipose tissue of pigs.

    PubMed

    Luci, Sebastian; Giemsa, Beatrice; Kluge, Holger; Eder, Klaus

    2007-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of clofibrate treatment on expression of target genes of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha and various genes of the lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissue of pigs. An experiment with 18 pigs was performed in which pigs were fed either a control diet or the same diet supplemented with 5 g clofibrate/kg for 28 days. Pigs treated with clofibrate had heavier livers, moderately increased mRNA concentrations of various PPAR-alpha target genes in liver and adipose tissue, a higher concentration of 3-hydroxybutyrate, and markedly lower concentrations of triglycerides and cholesterol in plasma and lipoproteins than control pigs (P < 0.05). mRNA concentrations of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP)-1 and -2, insulin-induced genes (Insig)-1 and Insig-2, and the SREBP target genes acetyl-CoA carboxylase, 3-methyl-3-hydroxyglutaryl-CoA reductase, and low-density lipoprotein receptor in liver and adipose tissue and mRNA concentrations of apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, and C-III in the liver were not different between both groups of pigs. In conclusion, this study shows that clofibrate treatment activates PPAR-alpha in liver and adipose tissue and has a strong hypotriglyceridemic and hypocholesterolemic effect in pigs. The finding that mRNA concentrations of some proteins responsible for the hypolipidemic action of fibrates in humans were not altered suggests that there were certain differences in the mode of action compared with humans. It is also shown that PPAR-alpha activation by clofibrate does not affect hepatic expression of SREBP target genes involved in synthesis of triglycerides and cholesterol homeostasis in liver and adipose tissue of pigs. PMID:17363680

  7. Identification of Core Alpha 1,3-Fucosyltransferase Gene From Silkworm: An Insect Popularly Used to Express Mammalian Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Minagawa, Sachi; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Nakaso, Yuzuru; Tomita, Masahiro; Takahisa, Manabu; Yasuda, Hideyo

    2015-01-01

    Silkworm has great potential as production system of recombinant mammalian proteins. When the protein products are used for medical purpose, it is required to reduce the risk of an allergy, the content of core alpha 1,3-fucosyl residue attached to the N-glycan of proteins, for example. We isolated the gene of an enzyme responsible for the transfer of core alpha 1,3-fucosyl residue, core alpha 1,3-fucosyltransferase (Fuc-T C3), from silkworm. A candidate cDNA for silkworm Fuc-T C3 was isolated as a homolog of the fruit fly enzyme gene fucTA. The gene was located on chromosome 7 of the silkworm genome and was composed of seven exons, which spanned approximately 10 kb on the genome. The coding region of the gene was 1,350 bp and encoded a 450-amino acid protein with a molecular mass of 52.2 kDa. Deduced amino acid sequence of the coding region showed one transmembrane domain in its N-terminal and typical motifs common to fucosyltransferases including Fuc-T C3s of other organisms in its C-terminal. The extract of CHO cells transfected with the cDNA showed Fuc-T C3 activity using GDP-fucose and DABS-GnGn peptide as substrates. These results showed this cDNA clone actually encodes silkworm Fuc-T C3. PMID:26223947

  8. Chemokine gene expression in the murine renal cell carcinoma, RENCA, following treatment in vivo with interferon-alpha and interleukin-2.

    PubMed Central

    Sonouchi, K.; Hamilton, T. A.; Tannenbaum, C. S.; Tubbs, R. R.; Bukowski, R.; Finke, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    The expression of three chemoattractant cytokine (chemokine) messenger (m)RNAs in the murine renal cell carcinoma (RENCA) from mice treated with a combination of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and interleukin-2 was examined and related to tumor infiltration by inflammatory leukocytes. Using a semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay, mRNAs encoding the KC, JE, and IP-10 genes were all elevated in tumor tissue from mice treated systemically with IFN-alpha/interleukin-2 for 4 days. Similarly, the mRNA for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was also increased in tumors from treated as compared to control animals. The same tumors showed a significant increase in Mac-1+ leukocytes, which correlated well with the increase in chemokine and TNF-alpha gene expression. The renal cell carcinoma tumor itself may be responsible for the expression of chemokine genes in the tumor bed following cytokine therapy. Cultures of freshly explanted RENCA cells expressed significant levels of chemokine mRNAs when stimulated in vitro with IFN alpha, IFN gamma, and/or interleukin-2, demonstrating that this tumor cell has potential for expression of these genes in vivo. In contrast, TNF-alpha expression was not detected in cultured tumor cells. Thus TNF-alpha may be expressed by infiltrating monocytes following exposure to recombinant cytokine therapy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:8160774

  9. Comparative analysis of Napsin A, alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase (AMACR, P504S), and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 beta as diagnostic markers of ovarian clear cell carcinoma: an immunohistochemical study of 279 ovarian tumours.

    PubMed

    Fadare, Oluwole; Zhao, Chengquan; Khabele, Dineo; Parkash, Vinita; Quick, Charles M; Gwin, Katja; Desouki, Mohamed M

    2015-02-01

    Napsin A and α-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase (AMACR, P504S) have recently been described as being frequently expressed in clear cell carcinomas (CCC) of the gynecological tract. The present study was conducted to assess the test performance of these newer markers relative to the more traditional marker, hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β (HNF1β), in a large and histotypically diverse dataset. A total of 279 ovarian tumours in tissue microarrays were immunohistochemically assessed for the expression of Napsin A, AMACR and HNF1β. HNF1β, Napsin A and AMACR were expressed in 92%, 82% and 63% of 65 CCC, 7%, 1% and 1% of 101 serous carcinomas, 37%, 5.3% and 0% of 19 endometrioid carcinomas, 60%, 0% and 0% of 45 mucinous tumours, 100%, 0% and 0% of seven yolk sac tumours, and 0%, 16.7% and 16.7% of six steroid cell tumours NOS, respectively. All other tumours, including 18 adult-type granulosa cell tumours, eight dysgerminomas and nine other miscellaneous tumour types were negative for all three markers. Using a benchmark of ≥1% of tumour cells for positivity and CCC as the diagnostic end-point, the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of Napsin A expression were 0.82, 0.99, 0.94, and 0.98, respectively (odds ratio 439, p < 0.0001). Respective parameters were 0.92, 0.79, 0.97, and 0.58 (odds ratio 44, p < 0.0001) for HNF1β and 0.63, 0.99, 0.89, and 0.5 (odds ratio 112, p < 0.0001) for AMACR. The combination of any two positive markers, irrespective of the staining pattern of the third, significantly predicted the CCC histotype in every analytic scenario. In summary, HNF1β is highly sensitive but is suboptimally specific in isolation, whereas AMACR is highly specific but is suboptimally sensitive. Napsin A is specific but of intermediate sensitivity. Napsin A, AMACR and HNF1β are all viable markers of CCC that can be deployed as components of larger panels when CCC is a diagnostic consideration. PMID:25551297

  10. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-6 stimulates transcription of the alpha-fetoprotein gene and synergizes with the retinoic-acid-receptor-related orphan receptor alpha-4.

    PubMed Central

    Nacer-Cherif, Habib; Bois-Joyeux, Brigitte; Rousseau, Guy G; Lemaigre, Frédéric P; Danan, Jean-Louis

    2003-01-01

    The rat alpha-fetoprotein ( afp ) gene is controlled by three enhancers whose function depends on their interaction with liver-enriched transcription factors. The afp enhancer III, located at -6 kb, is composed of three regions that act in synergy. Two of these regions, called s1 and s2, contain a putative binding site for hepatocyte nuclear factor-6 (HNF-6). This factor is the prototype of the ONECUT family of cut-homoeodomain proteins and is a known regulator of liver gene expression in adults and during development. We show here that the two splicing isoforms of HNF-6 bind to a site in the s1 region and in the s2 region. The core sequence of the s1 site corresponds to none of the known HNF-6 binding sites. Nevertheless, the binding properties of the s1 site are identical with those of the s2 site and of previously characterized HNF-6 binding sequences. The HNF-6 consensus should therefore be rewritten as DRRTCVATND. Binding of HNF-6 to the s1 and s2 sites requires both the cut and the homoeo domains, is co-operative and induces DNA bending. HNF-6 strongly stimulates the activity of the afp enhancer III in transient transfection experiments. This effect requires the stereo-specific alignment of the two HNF-6 sites. Moreover, HNF-6 stimulates the enhancer in synergy with the retinoic-acid-receptor-related orphan receptor alpha (RORalpha), which binds to a neighbouring site in the s1 region. Thus expression of the afp gene requires functional interactions between HNF-6 molecules and between HNF-6 and RORalpha. PMID:12379144

  11. Novel intronic promoter in the rat ER alpha gene responsible for the transient transcription of a variant receptor.

    PubMed

    Tiffoche, C; Vaillant, C; Schausi, D; Thieulant, M L

    2001-09-01

    To analyze the molecular origin of an ER variant, the truncated ER product-1, transiently expressed at the proestrus in lactotrope cells, we generated a 2.5-kb sequence of a genomic region upstream and downstream the specific sequence truncated ER product-1. Genomic Southern blot analysis showed that truncated ER product-1 is spliced from a noncoding leader exon localized within the intron 4 of the ER alpha gene. Analysis of the promoter sequence revealed the presence of a major transcriptional start site, a canonical TATA box and putative cis regulatory elements for pituitary specific expression as well as an E-responsive element. In transient transfection, the truncated ER product-1 promoter was transcriptionally the most active in the lactotrope cell lines (MMQ). Analysis of truncated ER product-1 functionality showed that: 1) the protein inhibited ER alpha binding to the E-responsive element in electromobility shift assays, 2) inhibited the E2 binding to ER alpha in binding assays, 3) the truncated ER product-1/ER alpha complex antagonized the transcriptional activity elicited by E2, 4) nuclear localization of green fluorescent protein-ER alpha was altered in Chinese hamster ovary cell lines stably expressing truncated ER product-1. Collectively, these data demonstrated that the protein exerts full dominant negative activity against ER alpha. Moreover, truncated ER product-1/ER alpha complex also repressed the activity of all promoters tested to date, suggesting a general inhibitory effect toward transcription. In conclusion, the data suggest that truncated ER product-1 could regulate estrogen signaling via a specific promoter in lactotrope cells. PMID:11517190

  12. Secretion, purification, and characterisation of barley alpha-amylase produced by heterologous gene expression in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Juge, N; Svensson, B; Williamson, G

    1998-04-01

    Efficient production of recombinant barley alpha-amylase has been achieved in Aspergillus niger. The cDNA encoding alpha-amylase isozyme 1 (AMY1) and its signal peptide was placed under the control of the Aspergillus nidulans glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) promoter and the A. nidulans trpC gene terminator. Secretion yields up to 60 mg/l were obtained in media optimised for alpha-amylase activity and low protease activity. The recombinant AMY1 (reAMY1) was purified to homogeneity and found to be identical to native barley AMY1 with respect to size, pI, and immunoreactivity. N-terminal sequence analysis of the recombinant protein indicated that the endogenous plant signal peptide is correctly processed in A. niger. Electrospray ionisation/mass spectrometry gave a molecular mass for the dominant form of 44,960 Da, in accordance with the loss of the LQRS C-terminal residues; glycosylation apparently did not occur. The activities of recombinant and native barley alpha-amylases are very similar towards insoluble and soluble starch as well as 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol beta-D-maltoheptaoside and amylose (degree of polymerisation = 17). Barley alpha-amylase is the first plant protein efficiently secreted and correctly processed by A. niger using its own signal sequence. PMID:9615479

  13. A single base mutation in an I-A alpha-chain gene alters T-cell recognition.

    PubMed

    Griffith, I J; Choi, E M; Glimcher, L H

    1987-02-01

    The interaction between the clonally selected T-cell antigen receptor, antigen, and Ia molecule is poorly understood at the molecular level. A cell line bearing an altered I-Ak alpha-chain (Ak alpha) molecule has been examined in order to provide more information about the relationship between Ia structure and function. The cell line, 3J9, was derived from the TA3 B-cell hybridoma through a series of negative and positive immunoselection steps. The 3J9 mutant lacked the binding site recognized by the Ak alpha-specific monoclonal antibody 39J and failed to present antigen to two T-cell hybridomas out of a large panel of I-Ak-restricted T-cell hybridomas examined. Sequence analysis of the mutant Ak alpha gene showed a single base transition (G----A) that resulted in a glutamic acid to lysine substitution at amino acid 75 of the alpha 1 domain. This mutation confirms the importance of amino acid 75 in the expression of the Ia.19 epitope, demonstrates the involvement of this region in the presentation of antigen to specific T cells, and provides a further example of the multiple functional domains on the Ia molecule that are involved in antigen presentation. PMID:3493486

  14. A single base mutation in an I-A alpha-chain gene alters T-cell recognition.

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, I J; Choi, E M; Glimcher, L H

    1987-01-01

    The interaction between the clonally selected T-cell antigen receptor, antigen, and Ia molecule is poorly understood at the molecular level. A cell line bearing an altered I-Ak alpha-chain (Ak alpha) molecule has been examined in order to provide more information about the relationship between Ia structure and function. The cell line, 3J9, was derived from the TA3 B-cell hybridoma through a series of negative and positive immunoselection steps. The 3J9 mutant lacked the binding site recognized by the Ak alpha-specific monoclonal antibody 39J and failed to present antigen to two T-cell hybridomas out of a large panel of I-Ak-restricted T-cell hybridomas examined. Sequence analysis of the mutant Ak alpha gene showed a single base transition (G----A) that resulted in a glutamic acid to lysine substitution at amino acid 75 of the alpha 1 domain. This mutation confirms the importance of amino acid 75 in the expression of the Ia.19 epitope, demonstrates the involvement of this region in the presentation of antigen to specific T cells, and provides a further example of the multiple functional domains on the Ia molecule that are involved in antigen presentation. PMID:3493486

  15. Blood pressure in patients with primary aldosteronism is influenced by bradykinin B(2) receptor and alpha-adducin gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Mulatero, Paolo; Williams, Tracy A; Milan, Alberto; Paglieri, Cristina; Rabbia, Franco; Fallo, Francesco; Veglio, Franco

    2002-07-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of endocrine hypertension. PA is most frequently presented as moderate to severe hypertension, but the clinical and biochemical features vary widely. The aim of our study was to identify genetic variants that influence the phenotype of patients with PA. We hypothesized that genetic variants potentially affecting aldosterone production (aldosterone synthase, CYP11B2), renal proximal tubule reabsorption (alpha-adducin), or the mechanisms of counterbalance leading to vasodilatation and sodium excretion (bradykinin B(2)-receptor, B(2)R) could influence the clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with PA. We studied three polymorphisms of these genes (C-344T of CYP11B2, G460W of alpha-adducin, and C-58T of B(2)R) in 167 primary aldosteronism patients (56 with aldosterone-producing adenoma and 111 with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism). B(2)R and alpha-adducin genotypes were strong independent predictors of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels; plasma renin activity and aldosterone also play a marginal role on BP levels. Body mass index, age, sex, and CYP11B2 genotype displayed no significant effect on the clinical parameters of our population. In particular, alpha-adducin and B(2)R polymorphisms accounted for 13.2% and 11.0% of the systolic and diastolic blood pressure variance, respectively. These data suggest that genetic variants of alpha-adducin and the bradykinin B(2)-R influence the blood pressure levels in patients with primary aldosteronism. PMID:12107246

  16. Two bi-allelic single nucleotide polymorphisms within the promoter region of the horse tumour necrosis factor alpha gene.

    PubMed

    Matiasovic, J; Lukeszová, L; Horín, P

    2002-08-01

    Primers based on GenBank sequences within the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the human and horse tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) genes were designed and used to amplify a 522-bp product. Sequencing of five clones derived from five independent PCRs obtained from three different animals of three different breeds (Old Kladruber, Akhal-Teke and Shetland Pony) revealed a high level of sequence identity to the TNF-alpha promoter regions of other species. The existing GenBank horse sequences were confirmed and extended upstream by 230 nucleotides. Based on the sequence obtained, a new horse-specific forward primer was designed to amplify a 213-bp PCR product, which was screened for polymorphism using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). Three allelic variants of the horse TNF-alpha gene were identified and sequenced (GenBank accession numbers ADF 349558-60). Two single nucleotide polymorphisms explained the existence of the three SSCP alleles detected: C/T and T/C single base pair substitutions at positions 137 and 147, respectively. Differences in allelic frequencies between Old Kladruber and Akhal-Teke breeds were observed. PMID:12121271

  17. Cloning and expression of canine interferon-alpha genes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Taira, Osamu; Watanugi, Itsuki; Hagiwara, Yuko; Takahashi, Masaki; Arai, Setsuo; Sato, Hisaaki; Maehara, Nobutoshi

    2005-10-01

    We cloned five new subtypes of cDNA encoding canine interferon-alpha (CaIFN-alpha) from a canine epithelial cell line. CaIFN-alphas were divided into two groups by amino acid sequences and a molecular phylogenic tree. Two subtypes of them were expressed in Escherichia coli, and IFN proteins were purified. Recombinant CaIFN-alphas were highly species-specific and showed antiviral activity against Vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus and canine adenovirus-1 , but not against canine herpesvirus-1. PMID:16276065

  18. Splicing mutation in the ATR-X gene can lead to a dysmorphic mental retardation phenotype without {alpha}-thalassemia

    SciTech Connect

    Villard, L.; Lossi, A.M.; Fontes, M.

    1996-03-01

    We have previously reported the isolation of a gene from Xq13 that codes for a putative regulator of transcription (XNP) and has now been shown to be the gene involved in the X-linked {alpha}-thalassemia with mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome. The widespread expression and numerous domains present in the putative protein suggest that this gene could be involved in other phenotypes. The predominant expression of the gene in the developing brain, as well as its association with neuron differentiation, indicates that mutations of this gene might result in a mental retardation (MR) phenotype. In this paper we present a family with a splice junction mutation in XNP that results in the skipping of an exon and in the introduction of a stop codon in the middle of the XNP-coding sequence. Only the abnormal transcript is expressed in two first cousins presenting the classic ATR-X phenotype (with {alpha}-thalassemia and HbH inclusions). In a distant cousin presenting a similar dysmorphic MR phenotype but not having thalassemia, {approximately}30% of the XNP transcripts are normal. These data demonstrate that the mode of action of the XNP gene product on globin expression is distinct from its mode of action in brain development and facial morphogenesis and suggest that other dysmorphic mental retardation phenotypes, such as Juberg-Marsidi or some sporadic cases of Coffin-Lowry, could be due to mutations in XNP. 20 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Chromosomal localization, genomic structure, and allelic polymorphism of the human CD79a (lg-{alpha}/mb-1) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, S.; Gregersen, P.K.; Chiorazzi, N. |; Mohrenweiser, H.W.

    1994-12-31

    The germline DNA sequence of the human CD79a (Ig-{alpha}/mb-1) gene was determined by polymerase chain reaction sequencing of a cosmid clone derived from an arrayed human chromosome 19 library. The CD79a gene was localized to chromosome 19q13.2; this localization places the gene within the CEA-like gene cluster with the following gene order: -CEA-CGM1-CD79a-RPS11-ATP1A3-BGP-CGM9-. The genomic organization of the human CD79a gene resembles the mouse counterpart with five exons interrupted by four introns. Computer analyses suggest the presence of transcription regulatory elements known to be important in the regulation of mouse CD79a (AP-1, EBF, AP-2, MUF2, and SP-1 sites), as well as elements not found in the mouse gene (an NK-kB binding site and a series of E-box motifs). Similar to the mouse gene, the 5{prime} flanking region of human CD79a lacks a TATA box; however, unlike mouse CD79a, a classical octamer motif could not be identified in the human gene. Finally, a new Rsa I restriction fragment length polymorphism was defined in the non-coding regions of the human gene. 64 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Tissue-specific loss of fucosylated glycolipids in mice with targeted deletion of alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferase genes.

    PubMed Central

    Iwamori, Masao; Domino, Steven E

    2004-01-01

    Glycolipids in epithelial tissues of the gastrointestinal tract act as receptors for enteric bacteria and are implicated in the activation of the intestinal immune system. To clarify the genes involved in the fucosylation of the major glycolipids, substrate glycolipids and fucosylated products were measured in tissues of wild-type and mutant mice lacking alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferase genes FUT1 or FUT2. Quantitative determination was performed by TLC-immunostaining for GA1 (Gg4Cer), FGA1 (fucosyl GA1), GM1 (II3NeuAc-Gg4Cer), FGM1 (fucosyl GM1), and Forssman glycolipids. Both FGM1 and FGA1 completely disappeared from the antrum, cecum, and colon of FUT2-null mice, but not those of FUT1-null and wild-type mice. Precursor glycolipids, GM1 and GA1, accumulated in tissues of FUT2-null mice, indicating that the FUT2-encoded enzyme preferentially participates in the fucosylation of GA1 and GM1 in these tissues. Female reproductive organs were similarly found to utilize FUT2 for the fucosylation of glycolipids FGA1 (uterus and cervix), and FGM1 (ovary), due to their absence in FUT2-null mice. In FUT1-null mice FGA1 was lost from the pancreas, but was present in wild-type and FUT2-null mice, indicating that FUT1 is essential for fucosylation of GA1 in the pancreas. Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I lectin histochemistry for alpha(1,2)fucose residues confirmed the absence of alpha(1,2)fucose residues from the apical surface of pancreatic acinar glands of FUT1-null mice. Ileum, epididymis, and testis retained specific fucosylated glycolipids, irrespective of targeted deletion of either gene, indicating either compensation for or redundancy of the alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferase genes in these tissues. PMID:14967068

  1. Tissue-specific loss of fucosylated glycolipids in mice with targeted deletion of alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferase genes.

    PubMed

    Iwamori, Masao; Domino, Steven E

    2004-05-15

    Glycolipids in epithelial tissues of the gastrointestinal tract act as receptors for enteric bacteria and are implicated in the activation of the intestinal immune system. To clarify the genes involved in the fucosylation of the major glycolipids, substrate glycolipids and fucosylated products were measured in tissues of wild-type and mutant mice lacking alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferase genes FUT1 or FUT2. Quantitative determination was performed by TLC-immunostaining for GA1 (Gg4Cer), FGA1 (fucosyl GA1), GM1 (II3NeuAc-Gg4Cer), FGM1 (fucosyl GM1), and Forssman glycolipids. Both FGM1 and FGA1 completely disappeared from the antrum, cecum, and colon of FUT2-null mice, but not those of FUT1-null and wild-type mice. Precursor glycolipids, GM1 and GA1, accumulated in tissues of FUT2-null mice, indicating that the FUT2-encoded enzyme preferentially participates in the fucosylation of GA1 and GM1 in these tissues. Female reproductive organs were similarly found to utilize FUT2 for the fucosylation of glycolipids FGA1 (uterus and cervix), and FGM1 (ovary), due to their absence in FUT2-null mice. In FUT1-null mice FGA1 was lost from the pancreas, but was present in wild-type and FUT2-null mice, indicating that FUT1 is essential for fucosylation of GA1 in the pancreas. Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I lectin histochemistry for alpha(1,2)fucose residues confirmed the absence of alpha(1,2)fucose residues from the apical surface of pancreatic acinar glands of FUT1-null mice. Ileum, epididymis, and testis retained specific fucosylated glycolipids, irrespective of targeted deletion of either gene, indicating either compensation for or redundancy of the alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferase genes in these tissues. PMID:14967068

  2. Effect of alpha-tocopherol supplementation during boar semen cryopreservation on sperm characteristics and expression of apoptosis related genes.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yeon-Ji; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Song, Hye-Jin; Kang, Eun-Ju; Ock, Sun-A; Kumar, B Mohana; Balasubramanian, S; Rho, Gyu-Jin

    2009-04-01

    Boar semen is extremely vulnerable to cold shock and sensitive to peroxidative damage due to high content of unsaturated fatty acids in the phospholipids of the plasma membrane and the relatively low antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma. The present study evaluated the influence of alpha-tocopherol supplementation at various concentrations in the boar semen extender during cryopreservation on post-thawed sperm motility characteristics (total sperm motility, MOT; local motility, LCM; curvilinear velocity, VCL; straight linear velocity, VSL; and average path velocity, VAP), sperm qualities (viability, acrosomal integrity and apoptosis), expression of stress protein (HSP70), and the expression of pro-apoptotic (Bax and Bak) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2l and Bcl-xl) genes. Semen collected from 10 Duroc boars was cryopreserved in lactose-egg yolk buffer supplemented with various concentrations of alpha-tocopherol (0, 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 microM) using the straw-freezing procedure and stored at -196 degrees C for a minimum period of one month. In frozen-thawed groups, sperm motility was significantly (P<0.05) lower than that of fresh sperm. In fresh sperm, HSP70 immunoreactivity expression was observed in the equatorial region, but in frozen-thawed groups, expressions were mostly observed in the sperm head. Higher apoptosis rates were observed in 600 and 800 microM alpha-tocopherol supplemented frozen-thawed groups. In alpha-tocopherol supplemented frozen-thawed groups immediately after thawing, the expression was similar to that of fresh group. But after incubation at 37 degrees C for 3h, the expression in 200 and 800 microM alpha-tocopherol supplemented groups was higher than that of others. Expression of pro-apoptotic genes was significantly higher and anti-apoptotic genes was significantly (P<0.01) lower in alpha-tocopherol supplemented frozen-thawed groups compared to fresh sperm group. In conclusion, alpha-tocopherol, supplemented at 200 microM concentration

  3. Identification and characterization of an alternative promoter of the human PGC-1{alpha} gene

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshioka, Toyo; Inagaki, Kenjiro; Noguchi, Tetsuya; Sakai, Mashito; Ogawa, Wataru; Hosooka, Tetsuya; Iguchi, Haruhisa; Watanabe, Eijiro; Matsuki, Yasushi; Hiramatsu, Ryuji; Kasuga, Masato

    2009-04-17

    The transcriptional regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) controls mitochondrial biogenesis and energy homeostasis. Although physical exercise induces PGC-1{alpha} expression in muscle, the underlying mechanism of this effect has remained incompletely understood. We recently identified a novel muscle-enriched isoform of PGC-1{alpha} transcript (designated PGC-1{alpha}-b) that is derived from a previously unidentified first exon. We have now cloned and characterized the human PGC-1{alpha}-b promoter. The muscle-specific transcription factors MyoD and MRF4 transactivated this promoter through interaction with a proximal E-box motif. Furthermore, either forced expression of Ca{sup 2+}- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV), calcineurin A, or the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) kinase MKK6 or the intracellular accumulation of cAMP activated the PGC-1{alpha}-b promoter in cultured myoblasts through recruitment of cAMP response element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB) to a putative CRE located downstream of the E-box. Our results thus reveal a potential molecular basis for isoform-specific regulation of PGC-1{alpha} expression in contracting muscle.

  4. In vivo regulation of gene transcription by alpha- and gamma-Tocopherol in murine T lymphocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Of the 8 different analogues (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta-tocopherols and tocotrienols) designated as vitamin E, alpha-tocopherol (a-T) has been mostly studied, together with gamma-tocopherol (g-T) which is abundant in the US diet. We compared the effect of dietary supplementation with adequate or ...

  5. CTLA-4 +49 and TNF-alpha-308 gene polymorphisms in celiac patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Licul, Vanja; Cizmarević, Nada Starcević; Ristić, Smiljana; Mikolasević, Ivana; Mijandrusić, Brankica Sincić

    2013-12-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a life-long gluten sensitive autoimmune disease of the small intestine affecting genetically susceptible individuals. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype contributes to the genetic risk for CD, but "non-HLA" genes also play a role. Clinical presentation could be classical, but majority of patients present with non-classical, atypical signs and symptoms. Endocrine and/or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EXPI) is common in celiac patients. The aim of our study was to assess EXPI among our CD patients by measurement of faecal pancreatic elastase (FE1) and to find potential association of CTLA-4 +49 and TNF-alpha-308 gene polymorphism and EXPI. Eighty three patients entered the study. Tissue transglutaminase antibodies (anti-TTG), faecal elastase-1 (FE1) assays and genotyping for the CTLA-4 +49A/G and TNF-alpha308 were performed. Of 83 patients with CD EXPI had 13 (15.6 %). There was no statistically significant difference in frequency of polymorphisms for both genes (CTL-4 +49 i TNF-alpha-308) in the group with and without EXPI. In conclusion, EXPI is common in symptomatic CD patients, but further genetic studies with larger number of patients are needed. PMID:24611333

  6. Location of the alpha-amylase gene in rumen Streptococcus bovis strains distinguished by unstable amylase activity.

    PubMed

    Mareková, M; Jonecová, Z; Kmeĭ, V

    1995-01-01

    Genetic stability of amylase activity after serial subcultivation experiments with amylolytic ruminal Streptococcus bovis strains was investigated. Two strains Amy+ and Amy- were obtained. Loss of amylase activity connected with the loss of plasmid DNA was not found in these strains. The presence of the gene responsible for the amylase activity in the chromosome of these strains was revealed by hybridization of the alpha-amylase gene on pJK108 against chromosomal DNA of S. bovis and Bacillus subtilis after a complete restriction with EcoRI. PMID:8851562

  7. Precise mapping of the brain [alpha][sub 2]-adrenergic receptor gene within chromosome 4p16

    SciTech Connect

    Riess, O.; Siedlaczck, I.; Potisek, S.; Epplen, J.T. ); Thies, U. ); Graham, R.; Theilmann, J.; Hayden, M.R. ); Grimm, T. )

    1994-01-15

    The gene encoding the brain [alpha][sub 2]-adrenergic receptor (ADRA2C) is located on human chromosome 4. It has been circumstantially associated with a number of human disorders, including Parkinson disease, panic disorders, and Huntington disease (HD). Using somatic cell hybrids, the authors localized the gene to chromosome 4p16 distal to P8 (D4S62). To investigate this locus further, they isolated several cosmid clones covering the entire gene. The gene was found to be intronless. Two (GT)[sub n] repeats in close proximity to the ADRAC2 gene were analyzed and used to define its precise location. Linkage disequilibrium studies of one microsatellite in HD families showed strong nonrandom association to the HD mutation, indicating its tight linkage to the HD gene. The investigation of families carrying recombinant chromosomes, pulsed-field analysis, and genomic walking mapped the ADRAC2 gene adjacent to D4S81, 500 kb proximal to the HD gene. The newly defined microsatellites at the ADRAC2 locus, its precise localization within 4p16, and the detailed PCR conditions facilitate the identification of any defect caused by this gene. 22 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Cytokine-inducible expression in endothelial cells of an I kappa B alpha-like gene is regulated by NF kappa B.

    PubMed Central

    de Martin, R; Vanhove, B; Cheng, Q; Hofer, E; Csizmadia, V; Winkler, H; Bach, F H

    1993-01-01

    The transient expression of many different genes is mediated by the inducible transcription factor p50-p65 NF kappa B, which in turn is regulated by complex formation with its inhibitor I kappa B alpha. We describe here that in porcine aortic endothelial cells, either IL-1 alpha, TNF alpha or LPS upregulates an inhibitor of NF kappa B which we refer to as ECI-6. ECI-6 is by structural and functional criteria an I kappa B alpha protein, the porcine homologue of MAD-3, pp40 and RL/IF-1. We have studied the promoter of the ECI-6/I kappa B alpha gene and provide three lines of evidence that its expression is directly regulated by NF kappa B. First, the 5' regulatory region of ECI-6/I kappa B alpha contains two sites that bind NF kappa B in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Second, expression following transfection of an ECI-6/I kappa B alpha promoter-luciferase reporter construct is dependent on a co-transfected NF kappa B-p65 subunit. Third, pretreatment of endothelial cells with antioxidants, agents that inhibit activation of NF kappa B, inhibit the expression of ECI-6/I kappa B alpha. We conclude that the regulated expression of ECI-6/I kappa B alpha could represent a novel feedback mechanism by which NF kappa B downregulates its own activity after transient activation of target genes has been achieved. Images PMID:8334993

  9. Coupling of energy metabolism and synaptic transmission at the transcriptional level: Role of nuclear respiratory factor 1 in regulating both cytochrome c oxidase and NMDA glutamate receptor subunit genes

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Shilpa S.; Wong-Riley, Margaret T. T.

    2009-01-01

    Neuronal activity and energy metabolism are tightly coupled processes. Regions high in neuronal activity, especially of the glutamatergic type, have high levels of cytochrome c oxidase (COX). Perturbations in neuronal activity affect the expressions of COX and glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1 (NR1). The present study sought to test our hypothesis that the coupling extends to the transcriptional level, whereby NR1 and possibly other NR subunits and COX are co-regulated by the same transcription factor, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), which regulates all COX subunit genes. By means of multiple approaches, including in silico analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays, in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation, promoter mutations, and real-time quantitative PCR, NRF-1 was found to functionally bind to the promoters of Grin 1 (NR1), Grin 2b (NR2b) and COX subunit genes, but not of Grin2a and Grin3a genes. These transcripts were up-regulated by KCl and down-regulated by TTX in cultured primary neurons. However, silencing of NRF-1 with small interference RNA blocked the up-regulation of Grin1, Grin2b, and COX induced by KCl, and over-expression of NRF-1 rescued these transcripts that were suppressed by TTX. NRF-1 binding sites on Grin1 and Grin2b genes are also highly conserved among mice, rats, and humans. Thus, NRF-1 is an essential transcription factor critical in the co-regulation of NR1, NR2b, and COX, and coupling exists at the transcriptional level to ensure coordinated expressions of proteins important for synaptic transmission and energy metabolism. PMID:19144849

  10. Expression of the ctenophore Brain Factor 1 forkhead gene ortholog (ctenoBF-1) mRNA is restricted to the presumptive mouth and feeding apparatus: implications for axial organization in the Metazoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamada, Atsuko; Martindale, Mark Q.

    2002-01-01

    Ctenophores are thoroughly modern animals whose ancestors are derived from a separate evolutionary branch than that of other eumetazoans. Their major longitudinal body axis is the oral-aboral axis. An apical sense organ, called the apical organ, is located at the aboral pole and contains a highly innervated statocyst and photodetecting cells. The apical organ integrates sensory information and controls the locomotory apparatus of ctenophores, the eight longitudinal rows of ctene/comb plates. In an effort to understand the developmental and evolutionary organization of axial properties of ctenophores we have isolated a forkhead gene from the Brain Factor 1 (BF-1) family. This gene, ctenoBF-1, is the first full-length nuclear gene reported from ctenophores. This makes ctenophores the most basal metazoan (to date) known to express definitive forkhead class transcription factors. Orthologs of BF-1 in vertebrates, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans are expressed in anterior neural structures. Surprisingly, in situ hybridizations with ctenoBF-1 antisense riboprobes show that this gene is not expressed in the apical organ of ctenophores. CtenoBF-1 is expressed prior to first cleavage. Transcripts become localized to the aboral pole by the 8-cell stage and are inherited by ectodermal micromeres generated from this region at the 16- and 32-cell stages. Expression in subsets of these cells persists and is seen around the edge of the blastopore (presumptive mouth) and in distinct ectodermal regions along the tentacular poles. Following gastrulation, stomodeal expression begins to fade and intense staining becomes restricted to two distinct domains in each tentacular feeding apparatus. We suggest that the apical organ is not homologous to the brain of bilaterians but that the oral pole of ctenophores corresponds to the anterior pole of bilaterian animals.

  11. Skeletal muscle microcirculatory response to rat alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide.

    PubMed

    Arden, W A; Fiscus, R R; Beihn, L D; Derbin, M; Oremus, R; Gross, D R

    1994-07-01

    We used in vivo video microscopy to determine the effect of increasing doses of rat alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide (rCGRP) on rat cremaster muscle arterioles in the presence or absence of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N-omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (118-148 g) were anaesthetized with pentobarbital, and neurovascularly intact cremaster muscles were imaged. Changes in the diameter, erythrocyte velocity and volume flow in second-(A2), third-(A3), and fourth-(A4) order arterioles were determined. To produce uniform arteriolar tone, the cremaster preparation was challenged with norepinephrine (NE: 10(-7) M). L-NNA (10(-4) M), which was shown to inhibit acetylcholine-(ACh: 10(-6) M) induced arteriolar dilations, was added to 16 of the preparations. Preparations were then challenged by adding cumulative log concentrations of rCGRP (10(-12)-10-7) M; n = 16) or an equivalent volume of vehicle (n = 19) to the bath. Following rCGRP challenge, arterioles were maximally dilated with 10(-5) M nitroprusside (NP). rCGRP caused significant dose-dependent increases in erythrocyte velocity and volume flow in A2 arterioles, and in diameter, velocity, and volume flow in A3 and A4 arterioles, by 10(-8) M, when compared with vehicle-treated controls. L-NNA had no significant effect on rCGRP-induced responses. These data indicate that rCGRP causes dose-dependent dilation of skeletal muscle resistance arterioles at a concentration similar to that observed in larger vessels. This dilation does not appear to be dependent on the vascular production of nitric oxide from L-arginine. PMID:7526261

  12. Mutations in the PCCA gene encoding the {alpha} subunit of propionyl-CoA carboxylase in patients with propionic acidemia

    SciTech Connect

    Campeau, E.; Leon-Del-Rio, A.; Gravel, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    Propionic acidemia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a deficiency of the mitochondrial biotin-dependent enzyme, propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC). PCC has the structure {alpha}{sub 4}{beta}{sub 4}, with the {alpha} subunit containing the biotin prosthetic group. This study is concerned with defining the spectrum of mutations occurring in the PCCA gene encoding the {alpha} subunit. Mutations were initially assigned to this gene through complementation experiments done after somatic fusion of patient fibroblasts. The analyses were performed on PCR-amplified reverse transcripts of fibroblast RNA. The mutations were identified by single strand conformational polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing of PCR products. Three candidate disease-causing mutations and one DNA polymorphism were identified in the {alpha} subunit sequence in different patients: (1) a 3 bp deletion {triangle}CTG{sub 2058-2060}, which eliminates Cys687 near the biotin binding site (Lys669); (2) T{sub 611}{r_arrow}A which converts Met204 to Lys in a highly conserved region matching that of an ATP binding site; (3) An {approximately}50 bp deletion near the 3{prime} end of the cDNA which likely corresponds to the loss of an exon due to a splicing defect; and (4) a 3 bp insertion, +CAG{sub 2203}, located downstream of the stop codon, which is likely a DNA polymorphism. In order to determine the effect of the Cys687 deletion on the biotinylation of PCC, we expressed the mutation in a 67 amino acid C-terminal fragment of the PCC {alpha} subunit in E. coli in which biotinylation is directed by the bacterial biotin ligase. While the mutant peptide was expressed at about half-normal levels, the biotinylation of the peptide that was present was reduced to only {approximately}20% normal. We suggest, therefore, that the absence of PCC activity due to {triangle}Cys687 results at least in part from defective biotinylation of an unstable protein.

  13. Single nucleotide polymorphism in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene affects inflammatory bowel diseases risk

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Lynnette R; Huebner, Claudia; Petermann, Ivonne; Gearry, Richard B; Barclay, Murray L; Demmers, Pieter; McCulloch, Alan; Han, Dug Yeo

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter of the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) gene play in the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) in a New Zealand population, in the context of international studies. METHODS: DNA samples from 388 patients with Crohn’s disease (CD), 405 ulcerative colitis (UC), 27 indeterminate colitis (IC) and 201 randomly selected controls, from Canterbury, New Zealand were screened for 3 common polymorphisms in the TNF-α receptor: -238 G→A, -308 G→A and -857C→T, using a TaqmanR assay. A meta-analysis was performed on the data obtained on these polymorphisms combined with that from other published studies. RESULTS: Individuals carrying the -308 G/A allele had a significantly (OR = 1.91, χ2 = 17.36, P < 0.0001) increased risk of pancolitis, and a 1.57-fold increased risk (OR = 1.57, χ2 = 4.34, P = 0.037) of requiring a bowel resection in UC. Carrying the -857 C/T variant decreased the risk of ileocolonic CD (OR = 0.56, χ2 = 4.32, P = 0.037), and the need for a bowel resection (OR = 0.59, χ2 = 4.85, P = 0.028). The risk of UC was reduced in individuals who were smokers at diagnosis, (OR = 0.48, χ2 = 4.86, P = 0.028). CONCLUSION: TNF-α is a key cytokine known to play a role in inflammatory response, and the locus for the gene is found in the IBD3 region on chromosome 6p21, known to be associated with an increased risk for IBD. The -308 G/A SNP in the TNF-α promoter is functional, and may account in part for the increased UC risk associated with the IBD3 genomic region. The -857 C/T SNP may decrease IBD risk in certain groups. Pharmaco- or nutrigenomic approaches may be desirable for individuals with such affected genotypes. PMID:18698679

  14. Characterization and regulation of the NADP-linked 7 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene from Clostridium sordellii.

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, J P; Hudson, L L; Adams, M J

    1994-01-01

    A bile acid-inducible NADP-linked 7 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (7 alpha-HSDH) from Clostridium sordellii ATCC 9714 was purified 310-fold by ion-exchange, gel filtration, and dye-ligand affinity chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the purified enzyme showed one predominant peptide band (30,000 Da). The N-terminal sequence was determined, and the corresponding oligonucleotides were synthesized and used to screen EcoRI and HindIII genomic digests of C. sordellii. Two separate fragments (4,500 bp, EcoRI; 3,200 bp, HindIII) were subsequently cloned by ligation to pUC19 and transformation into Escherichia coli DH5 alpha-MCR. The EcoRI fragment was shown to contain a truncated 7 alpha-HSDH gene, while the HindIII fragment contained the entire coding region. E. coli clones containing the HindIII insert expressed high levels of an NADP-linked 7 alpha-HSDH. Nucleotide sequence analyses suggest that the 7 alpha-HSDH is encoded by a monocistronic transcriptional unit, with DNA sequence elements resembling rho-independent terminators located in both the upstream and downstream flanking regions. The transcriptional start site was located by primer extension analysis. Northern (RNA) blot analysis indicated that induction is mediated at the transcriptional level in response to the presence of bile acid in the growth medium. In addition, growth-phase-dependent expression is observed in uninduced cultures. Analysis of the predicted protein sequence indicates that the enzyme can be classified in the short-chain dehydrogenase group. Images PMID:8050999

  15. Decreased expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor 3 alpha during the acute-phase response influences transthyretin gene transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Qian, X; Samadani, U; Porcella, A; Costa, R H

    1995-01-01

    Three distinct hepatocyte nuclear factor 3 (HNF-3) proteins (alpha, beta, and gamma) are known to regulate the transcription of numerous liver-specific genes. The HNF-3 proteins bind to DNA as monomers through a winged-helix motif, which is also utilized by a number of developmental regulators, including the Drosophila homeotic fork head (fkh) protein. We have previously characterized a strong-affinity HNF-3S site in the transthyretin (TTR) promoter region which is essential for expression in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. In the current study, we identify an activating protein 1 (AP-1) site which partially overlaps the HNF-3S sequence in the TTR promoter. We show that in HepG2 cells the AP-1 sequence confers 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate inducibility to the TTR promoter and contributes to normal TTR transcriptional activity. We also demonstrate that the HNF-3 proteins and AP-1 bind independently to the TTR AP-1-HNF-3 site, and cotransfection experiments suggest that they do not cooperate to activate an AP-1-HNF-3 reporter construct. In addition, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate exposure of HepG2 cells results in a reciprocal decrease in HNF-3 alpha and -3 gamma expression which may facilitate interaction of AP-1 with the TTR AP-1-HNF-3 site. In order to explore the role of HNF-3 in the liver, we have examined expression patterns of TTR and HNF-3 during the acute-phase response and liver regeneration. Partial hepatectomy produced minimal fluctuation in HNF-3 and TTR expression, suggesting that HNF-3 expression is not influenced by proliferative signals induced during liver regeneration. In acute-phase livers, we observed a dramatic reduction in HNF-3 alpha expression which correlates with a decrease in the expression of its target gene, the TTR gene. Furthermore, consistent with previous studies, the acute-phase livers are induced for c-jun but not c-fos expression. We propose that the reduction in TTR gene expression during the acute phase is likely due

  16. Complete structural organization of the human {alpha}1(V) collagen gene (COL5A1): Divergence from the conserved organization of other characterized fibrillar collagen genes

    SciTech Connect

    Takahara, Kazuhiko; Hoffman, G.G.; Greenspan, D.S.

    1995-10-10

    Genes that encode the vertebrate fibrillar collagen types I-III have previously been shown to share a highly conserved intron/exon organization, thought to reflect common ancestry and evolutionary pressures at the protein level. We report here the complete intron/exon organization of COL5A1, the human gene that encodes the {alpha}1 chain of fibrillar collagen type V. The structure of COL5A1 is shown to be considerably diverged from the conserved structure of the genes for fibrillar collagen types I-III. COL5A1 has 66 exons, which is greater than the number of exons found in the genes for collagen types I-III. The increased number of exons is partly due to the increased size of the pro-{alpha}1(V) N-propeptide, relative to the sizes of the N-propeptides of the types I-III procollagen molecules. In addition, however, the increased number of exons is due to differences in the intron/exon organization of the triple-helix coding region of COL5A1 compared to the organization of the triple-helix coding regions of the genes for collagen types I-III. Of particular interest is the increase of 54 bp exons in this region of COL5A1, strongly supporting the proposal that the triple-helix coding regions of fibrillar collagen genes evolved from duplication of a 54 bp primordial genetic element. Moreover, comparison of the structure of COL5A1 to the highly conserved structure of the genes of collagen types I-III provides insights into the probable structure of the ancestral gene that gave rise to what appears to be two classes of vertebrate fibrillar collagen genes. 50 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Mutant HNF-1{alpha} and mutant HNF-1{beta} identified in MODY3 and MODY5 downregulate DPP-IV gene expression in Caco-2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gu Ning; Adachi, Tetsuya; Matsunaga, Tetsuro; Takeda, Jun; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Ishihara, Akihiko; Yasuda, Koichiro; Tsuda, Kinsuke . E-mail: jinkan@tom.life.h.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2006-08-04

    Dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPP-IV) is a well-documented drug target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Hepatocyte nuclear factors (HNF)-1{alpha} and HNF-1{beta}, known as the causal genes of MODY3 and MODY5, respectively, have been reported to be involved in regulation of DPP-IV gene expression. But, it is not completely clear (i) that they play roles in regulation of DPP-IV gene expression, and (ii) whether DPP-IV gene activity is changed by mutant HNF-1{alpha} and mutant HNF-1{beta} in MODY3 and MODY5. To explore these questions, we investigated transactivation effects of wild HNF-1{alpha} and 13 mutant HNF-1{alpha}, as well as wild HNF-1{beta} and 2 mutant HNF-1{beta}, on DPP-IV promoter luciferase gene in Caco-2 cells by means of a transient experiment. Both wild HNF-1{alpha} and wild HNF-1{beta} significantly transactivated DPP-IV promoter, but mutant HNF-1{alpha} and mutant HNF-1{beta} exhibited low transactivation activity. Moreover, to study whether mutant HNF-1{alpha} and mutant HNF-1{beta} change endogenous DPP-IV enzyme activity, we produced four stable cell lines from Caco-2 cells, in which wild HNF-1{alpha} or wild HNF-1{beta}, or else respective dominant-negative mutant HNF-1{alpha}T539fsdelC or dominant-negative mutant HNF-1{beta}R177X, was stably expressed. We found that DPP-IV gene expression and enzyme activity were significantly increased in wild HNF-1{alpha} cells and wild HNF-1{beta} cells, whereas they decreased in HNF-1{alpha}T539fsdelC cells and HNF-1{beta}R177X cells, compared with DPP-IV gene expression and enzyme activity in Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that both wild HNF-1{alpha} and wild HNF-1{beta} have a stimulatory effect on DPP-IV gene expression, but that mutant HNF-1{alpha} and mutant HNF-1{beta} attenuate the stimulatory effect.

  18. Novel ring A stereoisomers of 2-methyl-1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and 2-methyl-20-epi-1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3): transactivation of target genes and modulation of differentiation in human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, K; Kurobe, M; Ozono, K; Konno, K; Fujishima, T; Takayama, H; Okano, T

    2000-03-15

    We evaluated the biological activity of two sets of ring A stereoisomers of 2-methyl-1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (2-methyl-1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)) and 2-methyl-20-epi-1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (2-methyl-20-epi-1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)) in terms of the following: transactivation of a rat 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)-24-hydroxylase gene promoter including two vitamin D response elements (VDREs) and a human osteocalcin gene promoter including a VDRE in transfected human osteosarcoma (MG-63) cells; a vitamin D receptor (VDR)-mediated response using a VDR-GAL4 one-hybrid luciferase reporter system and a retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha)-mediated response using an expressed VDR/RXRalpha-GAL4 modified two-hybrid luciferase reporter system in transfected human epitheloid carcinoma, cervix (HeLa) cells; and modulation of cell surface CD11b antigen expression in human leukemia (HL-60) cells. All the diastereomers of both analogues exhibited unique biological activity profiles depending upon the configurations of the C-1 and C-3 hydroxyl groups, the C-2 methyl group in ring A, and the C-20 methyl group in the side chain. Of the eight possible diastereomers of the 2-methyl analogues, 2alpha-methyl-1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) was the most potent and exhibited comparable or even greater biological potency than 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3). Of the eight possible diastereomers of the 2-methyl-20-epi analogues, 2alpha-methyl-20-epi-1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) was the most potent and exhibited 100- to 200-fold higher transcriptional potencies than 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) and exceptionally high cell regulatory activities. 2beta-methyl-20-epi-1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) was nearly as potent as its 2-epimer, 2alpha-methyl-20-epi-1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3), whereas its 20-epimer, 2beta-methyl-1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3), was almost completely biologically inactive. In these respects, it can be postulated that the double modification of 2-methyl substitution and 20-epimerization to 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) induces remarkable changes

  19. Physical linkage of the human growth hormone gene cluster and the skeletal muscle sodium channel {alpha}-subunit gene (SCN4A) on chromosome 17

    SciTech Connect

    Bennani-Baiti, I.M.; Jones, B.K.; Liebhaber, S.A.; Cooke, N.E.

    1995-10-10

    The human growth hormone (GH) locus, a cluster of five genes, spans 47 kb on chromosome 17q22-q24. The skeletal muscle sodium channel {alpha}-subunit locus (SCN4A), a 32.5-kb gene, has previously been mapped to 17q23.1-q25.3. We demonstrate that both the GH gene cluster and the SCN4A gene colocalize to a single 525-kb yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) containing DNA derived from human chromosome 17. Restriction maps of two cosmids encompassing the 5{prime} terminus of the GH locus and including up to 40 kb of 5{prime}-flanking sequences demonstrate a perfect 20-kb overlap with previously published maps of the SCN4A gene. A 720-bp DNA segment, encompassing sequences 32.3 to 31.6 kb 5{prime} to GH, was sequenced and found to be identical to exon 14 of SCN4A. These data demonstrate that the SCN4A gene and the entire GH gene cluster are contained within 100 kb on chromosome 17 and are separated by only 21.5 kb. Remarkably, this physical linkage between GH and SCN4A also reveals that multiple elements critical to tissue-specific transcriptional activation of the GH gene lie within the SCN4A gene. 48 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Physical mapping of four serpin genes: [alpha][sub 1]-antitrypsin, [alpha][sub 1]-antichymotrypsin, corticosteroid-binding globulin, and protein C inhibitor, within a 280-kb region on chromosome 14q32. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Billingsley, G.D.; Cox, D.W. Univ. of Toronto, Ontario ); Walter, M.A. ); Hammond, G.L. )

    1993-02-01

    Alpha[sub 1]-antitrypsin ([alpha]1AT; protease inhibitor [PI] locus), [alpha][sub 1]-antichymotrypsin ([alpha]1ACT; AACT locus), corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG; CBG locus), and protein C inhibitor (PCI; PCI locus) are members of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily. A noncoding PI-like (PIL) gene has been located 12 kb 3[prime] of the PI gene. The PI, PIL, and AACT loci have been localized to 14q32.1, the CBG locus has been localized to 14q31-14q32.1, and PCI has been mapped to chromosome 14. Genetic linkage analysis suggests tight linkage between PI and AACT. The authors have used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to generate a physical map linking these five serpin genes. The order of the genetic loci is AACT/PCI-PI-PIL-CBG, with a maximum distance of about 220 kb between the AACT/PCI and PI genes. These genes form a PI cluster at 14q32.1, similar to that of the homologous genes on murine chromosome 12. The close proximity of these genes has implications for disease-association studies. 44 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Growth hormone-releasing hormone resistance in pseudohypoparathyroidism type ia: new evidence for imprinting of the Gs alpha gene.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Giovanna; Maghnie, Mohamad; Weber, Giovanna; De Menis, Ernesto; Brunelli, Valeria; Cappa, Marco; Loli, Paola; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Spada, Anna

    2003-09-01

    Heterozygous inactivating mutations in the Gs alpha gene cause Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy. Consistent with the observation that only maternally inherited mutations lead to resistance to hormone action [pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP Ia)], recent studies provided evidence for a predominant maternal origin of Gs alpha transcripts in endocrine organs, such as thyroid, gonad, and pituitary. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of pituitary resistance to hypothalamic hormones acting via Gs alpha-coupled receptors in patients with PHP Ia. Six of nine patients showed an impaired GH responsiveness to GHRH plus arginine, consistent with a complete GH deficiency (GH peak from 2.6-8.6 microg/liter, normal > 16.5), and partial (GH peak 13.9 and 13.6 microg/liter) and normal responses were found in two and one patient, respectively. Accordingly, IGF-I levels were below and in the low-normal range in seven and two patients. All patients had a normal cortisol response to 1 microg ACTH test, suggesting a normal corticotroph function that was confirmed by a normal ACTH and cortisol response to CRH test in three patients. In conclusion, we report that in addition to PTH and TSH resistance, patients with PHP Ia display variable degrees of GHRH resistance, consistent with Gs alpha imprinting in human pituitary. PMID:12970263

  2. An amino acid substitution in the pyruvate dehydrogenase E1{alpha} gene, affecting mitochondrial import of the precursor protein

    SciTech Connect

    Takakubo, F.; Thorburn, D.R.; Dahl, H.H.M.

    1995-10-01

    A mutation in the mitochondrial targeting sequence was characterized in a male patient with X chromosome-linked pyruvate dehydrogenase E1{alpha} deficiency. The mutation was a base substitution of G by C at nucleotide 134 in the mitochondrial targeting sequence of the PDHA1 gene, resulting in an arginine-to-proline substitution at codon 10 (R10P). Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in cultured skin fibroblasts was 28% of the control value, and immunoblot analysis revealed a decreased level of pyruvate dehydrogenase E1{alpha}immunoreactivity. Chimeric constructs in which the normal and mutant pyruvate dehydrogenase E1{alpha} targeting sequences were attached to the mitochondrial matrix protein ornithine transcarbamylase were synthesized in a cell free translation system, and mitochondrial import of normal and mutant proteins was compared in vitro. The results show that ornithine transcarbamylase targeted by the mutant pyruvate dehydrogenase E1{alpha} sequence was translocated into the mitochondrial matrix at a reduced rate, suggesting that defective import is responsible for the reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase level in mitochondria. The mutation was also present in an affected brother and the mildly affected mother. The clinical presentations of this X chromosome-linked disorder in affected family members are discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an amino acid substitution in a mitochondrial targeting sequence resulting in a human genetic disease. 58 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Molecular cloning of the mouse gene coding for {alpha}{sub 2}-macroglobulin and targeting of the gene in embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Umans, L.; Serneels, L.; Hilliker, C.

    1994-08-01

    The authors have cloned the mouse gene coding for {alpha}{sub 2}-macroglobulin in overlapping {lambda} clones and have analyzed its structure. The gene contains 36 exons, coding for the 4.8-kb cDNA that we cloned previously. Including putative control elements in the 5{prime} flanking region, the gene covers about 45 kb. A region of 3.8 kb, stretching from 835 bases upstream of the cDNA start site to exon 4, including all intervening sequences, was sequenced completely. The analysis demonstrated that the putative promoter region of the mouse A2M gene differed considerably from the known promoter sequences of the human A2M gene and of the rat acute-phas A2M gene. Comparison of the exon-intron structure of all known genes of the A2M family confirmed that the rat acute phase A2M gene is more closely related to the human gene than to the mouse A2M gene. To generate mice with the A2M gene inactivated, an insertion type of construct containing 7.5 kb of genomic DNA of the mouse strain 129/J, encompassing exons 16 to 19, was synthesized. A hygromycin marker gene was embedded in intron 17. After electroporation, 198 hygromycin-resistant ES cell lines were isolated and analyzed by Southern blotting. Five ES cell lines were obtained with one allele of the mouse A2M gene targeted by this insertion construct, demonstrating that the position and the characteristics of the vector served the intended goal.

  4. Identification and characterization of the Trichoderma harzianum gene encoding alpha-1,3-glucanase involved in streptococcal mutan degradation.

    PubMed

    Wiater, Adrian; Janczarek, Monika; Pleszczyńska, Małgorzata; Szczodrak, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    alpha-1,3-Glucanases (mutanases) are currently of great interest due to their potential use in the field of dental care. These enzymes have been reported in several bacteria, yeasts and fungi, but up to now, characterization of this family of proteins has been relatively poor. In this study, we identify and characterize a mutanase gene from Trichoderma harzianum CCM F-340. Sequence analysis, on the nucleotide and amino acid levels reveals that this alpha-1,3-glucanase is highly homologous to alpha-1,3-glucanases from T harzianum isolate CBS 243.71 and T asperellum CECT 20539. T. harzianum CCM F-340 mutanase is a 634-aa residue protein with a calculated molecular mass of 67.65 kDa, composed of two distinct, highly conserved domains (a long N-terminal catalytic domain and a short C-terminal polysaccharide-binding domain) separated by a less conserved Pro-Ser-Thr-rich linker region. The mutanase gene was expressed in an E. coli BL21 (DE3) host, under the transcriptional control of T7 promoter. The purified enzyme migrated as a band of about 68 kDa after SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which coincided with the predicted size based on the amino acid sequence. Our data indicate that this enzyme is highly conserved in Trichoderma and can be produced in active form in such heterologous expression system. PMID:22390063

  5. Familial Albright`s hereditary osteodystrophy with hypoparathyroidism: Normal structural G{sub s}{alpha} gene

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, H.; Friedman, E.; Farfel, Z.

    1996-04-01

    Albright`s hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) is a characteristic skeletal phenotype, including short stature, obesity, round face, and brachydactyly. AHO appears in patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) who have resistance to PTH and in their eumetabolic family members who have pseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP). The differential diagnosis of AHO in families without PHP includes brachydactyly E, whose existence as a distinct entity has been questioned. We studied a patient with familial AHO who presented with hypocalcemia. To our surprise, PTH levels were low, and the response to PTH administration was normal. This is the first case of familial AHO with hypoparathyroidism. The proband`s family included 22 affected subjects spanning 3 generations, who had variable degrees of AHO manifestations, with an autosomal dominant inheritance trait. The metacarpophalangeal pattern profile was typical of that of PHP-PPHP. As deficient activity and inactivating mutations of G{sub s}{alpha} were described in PHP as well as in PPHP, we measured the biological activity of G{sub s} in family members, which was normal. To exclude subtle abnormalities in the G{sub s}{alpha} gene, we sequenced the entire coding region of G{alpha} in the propositus, which was normal. We conclude that hypocalcemia should be adequately evaluated even in the presence of familial AHO, and that familial AHO can occur with a normal coding structural Ga gene. Identification of the molecular defect in familial AHO without PHP will shed light on the pathogenesis of AHO in general. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Haploinsufficiency in the PPAR{alpha} and LDL receptor genes leads to gender- and age-specific obesity and hyperinsulinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, Eiko . E-mail: eikoyoko@nagano-kentan.ac.jp; Tanaka, Naoki; Nakajima, Tamie; Kamijo, Yuji; Yokoyama, Shin; Li Yufeng; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2006-11-17

    When preparing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){alpha}:low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) (-/-) double knockout mice, we unexpectedly found a unique gender- and age-specific obesity in the F1 generation, PPAR{alpha} (+/-):LDLR (+/-), even in mice fed standard chow. Body weights of the male heterozygous mice increased up to about 60 g at 75 weeks of age, then decreased by about 30 g at 100 weeks of age. More than 95% of the heterozygous mice between 35- and 75-week-olds were overweight. Of interest, the obese heterozygous mice also exhibited hyperinsulinemia correlating with moderate insulin resistance. Hepatic gene expression of LDLR was lower than expected in the heterozygous mice, particularly at 50 and 75 weeks of age. In contrast, the hepatic expression of PPAR{alpha} was higher than expected in obese heterozygous mice, but decreased in non-obese older heterozygous mice. Modulated expression of these genes may be partially associated with the onset of the hyperinsulinemia.

  7. Mutational diversity and hot spots in the alpha-sarcoglycan gene in autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy (LGMD2D).

    PubMed Central

    Carrié, A; Piccolo, F; Leturcq, F; de Toma, C; Azibi, K; Beldjord, C; Vallat, J M; Merlini, L; Voit, T; Sewry, C; Urtizberea, J A; Romero, N; Tomé, F M; Fardeau, M; Sunada, Y; Campbell, K P; Kaplan, J C; Jeanpierre, M

    1997-01-01

    Sarcoglycanopathies are a genetically heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive muscular dystrophies in which the primary defect may reside in any of the genes coding for the different partners of the sarcolemmal sarcoglycan (SG) complex: the alpha-SG (LGMD2D at 17q21.2), the beta-SG (LGMD2E at 4q12), the gamma-SG (LGMD2C at 13q12), and the delta-SG (LGMD2F at 5q33). We report a series of 20 new unrelated families with 14 different mutations in the alpha-SG gene. Along with the mutations that we previously reported this brings our cohort of patients with alpha-sarcoglycanopathy to a total of 31 unrelated patients, carrying 25 different mutations. The missense mutations reside in the extracellular domain of the protein. Five of 15 missense mutations, carried by unrelated subjects on different haplotype backgrounds and of widespread geographical origins, account for 58% of the mutated chromosomes, with a striking prevalence of the R77C substitution (32%). The severity of the disease varies strikingly and correlates at least in part with the amount of residual protein and the type of mutation. The recurrent R284C substitution is associated with a benign disease course. Images PMID:9192266

  8. Rescue of type I collagen-deficient phenotype by retroviral-vector-mediated transfer of human pro alpha 1(I) collagen gene into Mov-13 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, A; Mulligan, R; Jaenisch, R

    1987-01-01

    A full-length cDNA clone corresponding to the human pro alpha 1(I) collagen gene was isolated and inserted into a retrovirus vector. Cell lines were obtained which produced recombinant viruses transducing the collagen cDNA (HUC virus). To test whether the transduced cDNA was functional, Mov-13 mouse cells were infected with the virus. These cells do not produce any type I collagen due to an insertional mutation of the pro alpha 1(I) gene which blocks transcription. While normal amounts of pro alpha 2(I) RNA were synthesized, no alpha 2(I) collagen chains were detectable in the mutant Mov-13 cells. Infection with HUC virus, however, resulted in the production of stable type I collagen, which was secreted into the medium. Analysis of pepsin-resistant proteins indicated that interspecies heterotrimers consisting of human alpha 1(I) and mouse alpha 2(I) collagen chains were secreted by the infected Mov-13 cells. Our results show that pro alpha (I) collagen chains from species as distant as human and mouse can associate to form stable type I collagen. The availability of a retrovirus vector transducing a functional pro alpha 1(I) collagen gene combined with the Mov-13 mutant system should enable us to study the effect of specific mutations on the synthesis, assembly, and function of type I collagen, not only in tissue culture but also in the animal. Images PMID:3599181

  9. Influence of a cap site element on tissue-restricted expression of the glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit gene.

    PubMed

    Cox, G S; Xiong, W

    1999-07-14

    Little is known of the transcriptional regulators important for expression of the glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit (GPHalpha) gene in nonendocrine tumors, which secrete free alpha-subunit at an incidence of 25-80%. Consequently, attempts were made to define cis-regulatory elements and their cognate trans-acting factors that modulate promoter activity in epithelial cell types that do not normally express the glycoprotein hormones. DNA-mediated transient expression of promoter-reporter constructs was used to identify a novel negative regulatory element located at the GPHalpha gene transcription start site. Mutagenesis of this element produced a 2- to 10-fold increase in promoter activity, depending on the particular mutation and the transfected tumor cell line. Electrophoretic mobility shift analysis detected a protein that binds specifically to a DNA motif encompassing the cap site. It was present at different levels in a variety of cell types. Significantly, the degree to which activity of the wild-type promoter was suppressed relative to that of the mutant promoter was proportional to the level of cap site binding protein in the collection of cell lines examined. These results indicate that a negative regulatory element centered at the GPHalpha gene cap site and its cognate DNA-binding protein make a significant contribution to the production of alpha-subunit in a variety of tumor tissues. A detailed understanding of this cis/trans pair may further suggest a mechanism to explain, at least in part, how this gene becomes activated in nonendocrine tumors. PMID:10403838

  10. MULTIPLEX PCR ASSAY FOR DETECTION OF HUMAN SOMATOTROPIN AND INTERFERON ALPHA2b GENES IN PLANT MATERIAL.

    PubMed

    Gerasymenko, I M; Mazur, M G; Sheludko, Y V; Kuchuk, N V

    2015-01-01

    Using transgenic plants as factories for production of physiologically active human proteins arouses special concern because occasional escape of such transgenes into environment may cause health problems. Creation of plant varieties producing pharmaceutically valuable proteins should be accompanied by development of detection methods suitable for controlling the transgene behavior. Here we describe a multiplex PCR protocol for revealing of two human genes (encoding growth hormone and interferon alpha2b) that have been successfully introduced into plant genomes. The primer pair designed for detection of human growth hormone coding sequence amplifies fragments of different size from the full-length gene in the human genome and the intronless coding sequence usually used for plant transformation. Application of this primer pair may be recommended for ruling out false positive results due to sample contamination with human DNA. Such a control may be useful also in PCR analysis during establishing of transgenic plants carrying genes of human origin. PMID:26214899

  11. Repression of the herpes simplex virus 1 alpha 4 gene by its gene product occurs within the context of the viral genome and is associated with all three identified cognate sites.

    PubMed Central

    Michael, N; Roizman, B

    1993-01-01

    The infected cell protein 4 (ICP-4), the major regulatory protein encoded by the a4 gene of the herpes simplex virus 1, binds two sites (alpha 4-1 proximal, alpha 4-1 distal) at the 5'-untranscribed domain and at the transcription initiation site (alpha 4-2) of the alpha 4 gene. Chimeric genes consisting of the 5'-untranscribed and transcribed noncoding domains of the alpha 4 gene fused to the coding sequences of the thymidine kinase gene were mutagenized to abolish binding of ICP-4 by substitution of bases, including the guanines whose methylation interferes with binding of the protein, and recombined into the viral genome. The cytoplasmic RNAs extracted from infected cells treated with cycloheximide, from untreated infected cells maintained for 4 or 8 hr, and from cells infected first with a virus deleted in the alpha 22 gene and 3 hr later with the test viruses were tested in RNase protection assay for amounts of the chimeric gene RNA relative to amounts of alpha 22 gene RNA. We report the following: (i) Mutation of the alpha 4-2 binding site resulted in a 5-to 6-fold higher accumulation of chimeric gene RNA at 4 hr and as much as 15-fold higher accumulation by 8 hr after infection. (ii) Mutations of alpha 4-1 sites by themselves had no effect on RNA accumulation. However, mutagenesis of all three sites significantly increased mRNA amounts above the levels seen in cells infected with alpha 4-2 site mutants. (iii) The mutations have no effect on accumulation of alpha 4 mRNA in the absence of ICP-4 synthesis and, therefore, the mutations had no effect on RNA stability or transcription rate. (iv) Accumulation of alpha 4 mRNA relative to that of alpha 22 mRNA is highest in the presence of cycloheximide and decreases with time after infection. We conclude that ICP-4 autoregulates the transcription of its own gene in infected cells and that binding of ICP-4 to three sites in its promoter is additive in its effects on this process. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8384719

  12. Effects of level of nutrient intake and age on mammalian target of rapamycin, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 gene network expression in skeletal muscle of young Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Wang, P; Drackley, J K; Stamey-Lanier, J A; Keisler, D; Loor, J J

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms by which level of nutrient intake enhances skeletal muscle growth in young ruminants are not fully understood. We examined mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene network expression in semitendinosus muscle tissue of young male Holstein calves fed a conventional milk replacer plus conventional starter (CON) or an enhanced milk replacer plus high-protein starter (ENH) for 5 wk followed by a conventional starter or a high-protein starter until 10 wk of age. Feeding ENH led to greater concentration of plasma IGF-1 and leptin and greater carcass protein and fat mass throughout the study. Despite the greater plasma IGF-1 and protein mass at wk 5, calves fed ENH had lower expression of IGF1R, INSR, and RPS6KB1 but greater expression of IRS1 and PDPK1 in muscle tissue. Except for IGF1R expression, which did not differ at wk 10, these differences persisted at wk 10, suggesting a long-term effect of greater nutrient intake on physiological and molecular mechanisms. Components of mTOR complex (mTORC)1 and mTORC2 (RICTOR and RPTOR) and FOXO1 expression decreased by wk 10 regardless of diet. Overall, the present data revealed that greater nutrient intake throughout the milk-fed and early postweaning phase alters body mass composition partly by altering hormonal and molecular profiles of genes associated with glucose and amino acid signaling. Those networks may play a crucial role in coordinating neonatal muscle growth and metabolism in response to level of nutrient intake. PMID:24210480

  13. Transcriptional coupling of synaptic transmission and energy metabolism: Role of nuclear respiratory factor 1 in co-regulating neuronal nitric oxide synthase and cytochrome c oxidase genes in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Shilpa S.; Liang, Huan Ling; Wong-Riley, Margaret T. T.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Neuronal activity is highly dependent on energy metabolism; yet, the two processes have traditionally been regarded as independently regulated at the transcriptional level. Recently, we found that the same transcription factor, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) co-regulates an important energy-generating enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase, as well as critical subunits of glutamatergic receptors. The present study tests our hypothesis that the co-regulation extends to the next level of glutamatergic synapses, namely, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, which generates nitric oxide as a downstream signaling molecule. Using in silico analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation, promoter mutations, and NRF-1 silencing, we documented that NRF-1 functionally bound to Nos1, but not Nos2 (inducible) and Nos3 (endothelial) gene promoters. Both COX and Nos1 transcripts were up-regulated by depolarizing KCl treatment and down-regulated by TTX-mediated impulse blockade in neurons. However, NRF-1 silencing blocked the up-regulation of both Nos1 and COX induced by KCl depolarization, and over-expression of NRF-1 rescued both Nos1 and COX transcripts downregulated by TTX. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis that synaptic neuronal transmission and energy metabolism are tightly coupled at the molecular level. PMID:19615412

  14. Differential stimulation by CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha isoforms of the estrogen-activated promoter of the very-low-density apolipoprotein II gene.

    PubMed

    Calkhoven, C F; Snippe, L; Ab, G

    1997-10-01

    The transcription factors CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins alpha and beta (C/EBP alpha and C/EBP beta) are highly expressed in liver and are believed to function in maintaining the differentiated state of the hepatocytes. C/EBP alpha appears to be a critical regulator of genes involved in metabolic processes. We are interested in the roles of C/EBP in the expression of the very-low-density apolipoprotein II (apoVLDL II) gene. This gene encodes an avian yolk protein, is induced by estrogens and is only expressed in liver. To examine the role of C/EBP in apoVLDL II expression, footprinting and electromobility-shift analysis were performed. For three of the protein-binding sites in the apoVLDL II promoter region, C/EBP alpha and C/EBP beta were identified as the major DNA-binding activities. For one of the C/EBP genes, C/EBP alpha, the effect of the gene products on apoVLDL II transcription was examined. From transfection experiments we conclude that maximal estrogen-dependent activity of the apoVLDL II promoter requires the dual action of the estrogen receptor and C/EBP. The level of activity is different depending on the nature of the C/EBP alpha translational isoform transfected, the full-length C/EBP alpha polypeptide being the most active isoform and the N-terminally truncated isoform being moderately active. The present results suggest a role of C/EBP alpha translational isoform ratio in the modulation of expression of C/EBP target genes, such as those involved in metabolic processes. PMID:9363761

  15. [Antiviral activity of extracts of transgenic cichory and lettuce plants with the human interferon alpha-2b gene].

    PubMed

    Matveeva, N A; Kudriavets, Iu I; Likhova, A A; Shakhovskiĭ, A M; Bezdenezhnykh, N A; Kvasko, E Iu

    2012-01-01

    Biological activity of protein extracts from transgenic plants of chicory Cichorium intybus L. and lettuce Lactuca sativa L. with human interferon alpha2b gene was investigated against vesicular stomatitis virus. It was shown that the extracts from the hairy roots of chicory and lettuce transformed by A. rhizogenes possess the antiviral activity 1620...5400 IU/g weight, and the extracts from leaves of the plants transformed by A. tumefaciens--till 9375 IU/g weight. Dependence of plant extract biological activity on the transformation vector was shown. PMID:23342646

  16. Differential regulation of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I gene isoforms (CPT-I alpha and CPT-I beta) in the rat heart.

    PubMed

    Cook, G A; Edwards, T L; Jansen, M S; Bahouth, S W; Wilcox, H G; Park, E A

    2001-02-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I (CPT-I) is a major control point for fatty acid oxidation. Two kinetically different isoforms, CPT-I alpha and CPT-I beta, have been identified. Cardiac ventricular myocytes are the only cells known to express both CPT-I isoforms. In this study, we characterized the differential regulation of CPT-I alpha and CPT-I beta expression in the heart. Expression of the CPT-I alpha gene was very high in the fetal heart and declined following birth. CPT-I beta was also highly expressed in fetal myocytes and remained so throughout development. CPT-I alpha mRNA abundance was increased in both the liver and heart of diabetic or fasted rats, but CPT-I beta mRNA levels were not altered in these states. A high fat diet elevated expression of the CPT-I alpha gene in the liver but not in the heart. The fat content of the diet did not affect the expression of CPT-I beta. Cultures of neonatal rat cardiac myocytes were transfected with luciferase reporter genes driven by CPT-I alpha or CPT-I beta promoters. Two regions of the CPT-I alpha promoter, including an upstream region (-1300/-960) and a region in the proximal promoter (-193/-52) contributed equally to basal expression in cardiac myocytes. Basal transcription of CPT-I alpha was dependent on Sp1 sites and a CCAAT box in the proximal promoter. Our data indicate that the CPT-I beta gene is expressed in a tissue specific manner, but that it is not subject to the same developmental or hormonal controls imposed on CPT-I alpha. In addition some aspects of CPT-I alpha expression are confined to the liver. The data presented here thus suggest that two types of differential regulation of CPT-I genes exist: (a) differential control of CPT-I alpha and CPT-I beta gene expression in the heart and (b) differential regulation of CPT-I alpha expression in the heart and liver. PMID:11162136

  17. The Trypanosoma brucei DNA polymerase alpha core subunit gene is developmentally regulated and linked to a constitutively expressed open reading frame.

    PubMed Central

    Leegwater, P A; Strating, M; Murphy, N B; Kooy, R F; van der Vliet, P C; Overdulve, J P

    1991-01-01

    As an initial step towards the characterization of replicative DNA polymerases of trypanosomes, we have cloned, sequenced and examined the expression of the Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) brucei brucei gene that encodes the DNA polymerase alpha catalytic core (pol alpha). The protein sequence contains the six conserved regions that have been recognized previously in eukaryotic and viral replicative DNA polymerases. In addition, we have identified a seventh region which appears to be conserved primarily in alpha-type DNA polymerases. The T.brucei DNA pol alpha core N-terminus is 123 and 129 amino acids smaller than that of the human and yeast homologue, respectively. The gene is separated by 386 bp from an upstream open reading frame (ORF) of 442 codons. Stable transcripts of the upstream sequence are detected in both dividing and non-dividing forms, while pol alpha transcripts are detected principally in dividing forms. Allelic copies of the T.brucei pol alpha region exhibit restriction site polymorphisms; one such sequence polymorphism affects the amino acid sequence of the T.brucei DNA pol alpha core. The T.brucei pol alpha region cross-hybridizes weakly with that of T.(Nannomonas) congolense and T.(Duttonella) vivax. Images PMID:1754381

  18. Co-inheritance of compound heterozygous Hb Constant Spring and a single -alpha(3.7) gene deletion with heterozygous deltabeta thalassaemia: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Azma, Raja Zahratul; Othman, Ainoon; Azman, Norazlina; Alauddin, Hafiza; Ithnin, Azlin; Yusof, Nurasyikin; Razak, Noor Farisah; Sardi, Nor Hidayati; Hussin, Noor Hamidah

    2012-06-01

    Haemoglobin Constant Spring (Hb CS) mutation and single gene deletions are common underlying genetic abnormalities for alpha thalassaemias. Co-inheritance of deletional and non-deletional alpha (alpha) thalassaemias may result in various thalassaemia syndromes. Concomitant co-inheritance with beta (beta) and delta (delta) gene abnormalities would result in improved clinical phenotype. We report here a 33-year-old male patient who was admitted with dengue haemorrhagic fever, with a background history of Grave's disease, incidentally noted to have mild hypochromic microcytic red cell indices. Physical examination revealed no thalassaemic features or hepatosplenomegaly. His full blood picture showed hypochromic microcytic red cells with normal haemoglobin (Hb) level. Quantitation of Hb using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) revealed raised Hb F, normal Hb A2 and Hb A levels. There was also small peak of Hb CS noted in CE. H inclusions was negative. Kleihauer test was positive with heterocellular distribution of Hb F among the red cells. DNA analysis for alpha globin gene mutations showed a single -alpha(-3.7) deletion and Hb CS mutation. These findings were suggestive of compound heterozygosity of Hb CS and a single -alpha(-3.7) deletion with a concomitant heterozygous deltabeta thalassaemia. Co-inheritance of Hb CS and a single -alpha(-3.7) deletion is expected to result at the very least in a clinical phenotype similar to that of two alpha genes deletion. However we demonstrate here a phenotypic modification of alpha thalassemia presumptively as a result of co-inheritance with deltabeta chain abnormality as suggested by the high Hb F level. PMID:22870600

  19. Interleukin-1 alpha, interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-8 gene expression in human aural cholesteatomas.

    PubMed

    Kim, C S; Lee, C H; Chung, J W; Kim, C D

    1996-03-01

    Bone destruction is a common characteristic feature of chronic otitis media, especially aural cholesteatoma. A number of immunohistochemical studies have suggested that interleukin-1 (IL-1) may be responsible for cholesteatomatous bone destruction. We designed this study to present the mRNA expression patterns of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-8, which can induce and activate the leukocyte, the major reservoir of potent proteolytic enzymes. Total RNAs were extracted from aural cholesteatomas, external auditory canal skin (EACS), postauricular skin (PAS), and granulation tissues and transcribed into cDNAs. cDNAs were amplified by using PCR technique with primers for IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-8, and beta-actin. Amplified products were hybridized with each internal probe and the relative density was measured. In granulation tissues, the relative density of IL-1 alpha was greater than that of other tissues. The ratio of IL-1 beta and IL-8 of aural cholesteatoma was significantly higher than that of EACS and PAS. We suggest that both of IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta may play a role in the pathological changes, and that IL-8, which is mainly produced from cholesteatomatous epithelium, may have an important role in the pathological changes of cholesteatomas. PMID:8725537

  20. The transcriptional activator Opaque2 recognizes two different target sequences in the 22-kD-like alpha-prolamin genes.

    PubMed Central

    Yunes, J A; Cord Neto, G; da Silva, M J; Leite, A; Ottoboni, L M; Arruda, P

    1994-01-01

    The maize Opaque2 (O2) protein is a "leucine zipper" DNA binding factor that interacts with the sequence TCCACGTAGA in the promoters of the 22-kD alpha-zein genes and activates its transcription. A completely different consensus sequence (GATGAPyPuTGPu) identified in b-32, a gene that encodes an abundant albumin that is also under control of the O2 locus, can also be bound by the O2 protein. We showed that the gene encoding the 22-kD-like alpha-coixin, the alpha-prolamin of the maize-related grass Coix, can also be transactivated by the O2 protein. A binding assay in vitro and footprint analysis demonstrated that the GACATGTC sequence of the alpha-coixin promoter can be recognized and protected by the maize O2 protein. Employing transient expression experiments in immature maize endosperm and tobacco mesophyll protoplasts, we demonstrated that the O2 protein can activate expression of the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene placed under the control of the 22-kD-like alpha-coixin promoter. We also demonstrated that a 22-kD-like alpha-coixin pseudogene promoter is transactivated by the maize O2 protein. PMID:8148647

  1. A stop-gain in the laminin, alpha 3 gene causes recessive junctional epidermolysis bullosa in Belgian Blue cattle.

    PubMed

    Sartelet, Arnaud; Harland, Chad; Tamma, Nico; Karim, Latifa; Bayrou, Calixte; Li, Wanbo; Ahariz, Naima; Coppieters, Wouter; Georges, Michel; Charlier, Carole

    2015-10-01

    Four newborn purebred Belgian Blue calves presenting a severe form of epidermolysis bullosa were recently referred to our heredo-surveillance platform. SNP array genotyping followed by autozygosity mapping located the causative gene in a 8.3-Mb interval on bovine chromosome 24. Combining information from (i) whole-genome sequencing of an affected calf, (ii) transcriptomic data from a panel of tissues and (iii) a list of functionally ranked positional candidates pinpointed a private G to A nucleotide substitution in the LAMA3 gene that creates a premature stop codon (p.Arg2609*) in exon 60, truncating 22% of the corresponding protein. The LAMA3 gene encodes the alpha 3 subunit of the heterotrimeric laminin-332, a key constituent of the lamina lucida that is part of the skin basement membrane connecting epidermis and dermis layers. Homozygous loss-of-function mutations in this gene are known to cause severe junctional epidermolysis bullosa in human, mice, horse, sheep and dog. Overall, our data strongly support the causality of the identified gene and mutation. PMID:26370913

  2. Sequence and diversity of T-cell receptor alpha V, J, and C genes of the owl monkey Aotus nancymaae.

    PubMed

    Favre, N; Daubenberger, C; Marfurt, J; Moreno, A; Patarroyo, M; Pluschke, G

    1998-09-01

    We cloned and sequenced TcR alpha chain cDNA of three healthy Aotus nancymaae monkeys. Fifteen different TRAJ segments and 9 different TRAV genes were identified in the 29 rearrangements analyzed. As expected from the greater phylogenetic distance, A. nancymaae TRA gene sequences diverged more from the human sequences than those of the chimpanzee or the rhesus macaque. However, no Aotus TRAJ segment or TRAV gene was found which lacked a human counterpart. These counterparts were AJ02, AJ05, AJ09, AJ15, AJ22, AJ23, AJ28, AJ30, AJ32, AJ34, AJ37, AJ40, AJ42, AJ45, AJ52 and AV2S1, AV2S3, AV3S1, AV8S1, AV12S1, AV15S1, ADV21S1/DV5, AV22S1S and AV23S1, respectively. In most cases the identity of amino acid sequences between corresponding Aotus and human genes was greater than 80%. This marked conservation of TRA gene sequences indicates a close structural relationship of Aotus and human TcR and demonstrates that the TcR repertoire in primates is remarkably stable. The results support the concept of using Aotus monkeys, which are susceptible to infection with the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, as an animal model for the evaluation of molecularly defined malaria vaccine candidates. PMID:9716644

  3. Polymorphism, recombination and alternative unscrambling in the DNA polymerase alpha gene of the ciliate Stylonychia lemnae (Alveolata; class Spirotrichea).

    PubMed Central

    Ardell, David H; Lozupone, Catherine A; Landweber, Laura F

    2003-01-01

    DNA polymerase alpha is the most highly scrambled gene known in stichotrichous ciliates. In its hereditary micronuclear form, it is broken into >40 pieces on two loci at least 3 kb apart. Scrambled genes must be reassembled through developmental DNA rearrangements to yield functioning macronuclear genes, but the mechanism and accuracy of this process are unknown. We describe the first analysis of DNA polymorphism in the macronuclear version of any scrambled gene. Six functional haplotypes obtained from five Eurasian strains of Stylonychia lemnae were highly polymorphic compared to Drosophila genes. Another incompletely unscrambled haplotype was interrupted by frameshift and nonsense mutations but contained more silent mutations than expected by allelic inactivation. In our sample, nucleotide diversity and recombination signals were unexpectedly high within a region encompassing the boundary of the two micronuclear loci. From this and other evidence we infer that both members of a long repeat at the ends of the loci provide alternative substrates for unscrambling in this region. Incongruent genealogies and recombination patterns were also consistent with separation of the two loci by a large genetic distance. Our results suggest that ciliate developmental DNA rearrangements may be more probabilistic and error prone than previously appreciated and constitute a potential source of macronuclear variation. From this perspective we introduce the nonsense-suppression hypothesis for the evolution of ciliate altered genetic codes. We also introduce methods and software to calculate the likelihood of hemizygosity in ciliate haplotype samples and to correct for multiple comparisons in sliding-window analyses of Tajima's D. PMID:14704164

  4. Retinoic acid activates human inducible nitric oxide synthase gene through binding of RAR{alpha}/RXR{alpha} heterodimer to a novel retinoic acid response element in the promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Zou Fang; Liu Yan; Liu Li; Wu Kailang; Wei Wei; Zhu Ying . E-mail: yingzhu@whu.edu.cn; Wu Jianguo . E-mail: wu9988@vip.sina.com

    2007-04-06

    Human inducible nitric oxide synthase (hiNOS) catalyzes nitric oxide (NO) which has a significant effect on tumor suppression and cancer therapy. Here we revealed the detailed molecular mechanism involved in the regulation of hiNOS expression induced by retinoic acid (RA). We showed that RAR{alpha}/RXR{alpha} heterodimer was important in hiNOS promoter activation, hiNOS protein expression, and NO production. Serial deletion and site-directed mutation analysis revealed two half-sites of retinoic acid response element (RARE) spaced by 5 bp located at -172 to -156 in the hiNOS promoter. EMSA and ChIP assays demonstrated that RAR{alpha}/RXR{alpha} directly bound to this RARE of hiNOS promoter. Our results suggested the identification of a novel RARE in the hiNOS promoter and the roles of the nuclear receptors (RAR{alpha}/RXR{alpha}) in the induction of hiNOS by RA.

  5. Gene expression profiling reveals novel regulation by bisphenol-A in estrogen receptor-{alpha}-positive human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, David W.; Feng, Yuxin; Yang, Jun; Puga, Alvaro; Lee, Adrian V.; Khan, Sohaib A. . E-mail: sohaib.khan@uc.edu

    2006-01-15

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) shows proliferative actions in uterus and mammary glands and may influence the development of male and female reproductive tracts in utero or during early postnatal life. Because of its ability to function as an estrogen receptor (ER) agonist, BPA has the potential to disrupt normal endocrine signaling through regulation of ER target genes. Some genes are regulated by both estradiol (E2) and BPA, but those exclusive to either agent have not been described. Using a yeast strain incorporating a vitellogenin A2 ERE-LacZ reporter gene into the genome, we found that BPA induced expression of the reporter in colonies transformed with the ER{alpha} expression plasmid, illustrating BPA-mediated regulation within a chromatin context. Additionally, a reporter gene transiently transfected into the endometrial cancer (Ishikawa) cell line also showed BPA activity, although at 100-fold less potency than E2. To compare global gene expression in response to BPA and E2, we used a variant of the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line stably expressing HA-tagged ER{alpha}. Cultures were treated for 3 h with an ethanol vehicle, E2 (10{sup -8} M), or BPA (10{sup -6} M), followed by isolation of RNA and microarray analysis with the human U95A probe array (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA, USA). More than 300 genes were changed 2-fold or more by either or both agents, with roughly half being up-regulated and half down-regulated. A number of growth- and development-related genes, such as HOXC1 and C6, Wnt5A, Frizzled, TGF{beta}-2, and STAT inhibitor 2, were found to be affected exclusively by BPA. We used quantitative real-time PCR to verify regulation of the HOXC6 gene, which showed decreased expression of approximately 2.5-fold by BPA. These results reveal novel effects by BPA and E2, raising interesting possibilities regarding the role of endocrine disruptors in sexual development.

  6. Characterization of a Canine Tetranucleotide Microsatellite Marker Located in the First Intron of the Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Gene

    PubMed Central

    WATANABE, Masashi; TANAKA, Kazuaki; TAKIZAWA, Tatsuya; SEGAWA, Kazuhito; NEO, Sakurako; TSUCHIYA, Ryo; MURATA, Michiko; MURAKAMI, Masaru; HISASUE, Masaharu

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT A polymorphic tetranucleotide (GAAT)n microsatellite in the first intron of the canine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA) gene was characterized in this study; 139 dogs were analyzed: 22 Beagles, 26 Chihuahuas, 20 Miniature Dachshunds, 24 Miniature Poodles, 22 Pembroke Welsh Corgis and 25 Shiba Inus. We detected the presence of the 4 alleles (GAAT)5, (GAAT)6, (GAAT)7 and (GAAT)8, including 9 of the 10 expected genotypes. The expected heterozygosity (He) and the polymorphic information content (PIC) value of this microsatellite locus varied from 0.389 to 0.749 and from 0.333 to 0.682, respectively, among the 6 breeds. The allelic frequency differed greatly among breeds, but this microsatellite marker was highly polymorphic and could be a useful marker for the canine TNFA gene. PMID:24042337

  7. Multiple sulfatase deficiency is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the human C(alpha)-formylglycine generating enzyme.

    PubMed

    Dierks, Thomas; Schmidt, Bernhard; Borissenko, Ljudmila V; Peng, Jianhe; Preusser, Andrea; Mariappan, Malaiyalam; von Figura, Kurt

    2003-05-16

    C(alpha)-formylglycine (FGly) is the catalytic residue in the active site of eukaryotic sulfatases. It is posttranslationally generated from a cysteine in the endoplasmic reticulum. The genetic defect of FGly formation causes multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD), a lysosomal storage disorder. We purified the FGly generating enzyme (FGE) and identified its gene and nine mutations in seven MSD patients. In patient fibroblasts, the activity of sulfatases is partially restored by transduction of FGE encoding cDNA, but not by cDNA carrying an MSD mutation. The gene encoding FGE is highly conserved among pro- and eukaryotes and has a paralog of unknown function in vertebrates. FGE is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and is predicted to have a tripartite domain structure. PMID:12757705

  8. Genes 55, alpha gt, 47 and 46 of bacteriophage T4: the genomic organization as deduced by sequence analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Gram, H; Rüger, W

    1985-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of T4 genes 55, alpha gt, 47 and 46 was determined by a combination of 'classical' procedures and a shotgun approach. Small DNA fragments generated by frequent cleavage with restriction enzymes or by sonication of restriction fragments were cloned in phage M13 vectors and sequenced by the dideoxy method. The positions of the genes were determined by marker rescue between the corresponding T4 amber mutants and the cloned T4 DNA fragments used in the sequencing experiments. The sequence gives an insight into the organization of this 7.1-kb early region of the T4 genome and shows that genetically 'silent' portions within this region are not void of genetic information. PMID:4018026

  9. The effects of HIF-1alpha on gene expression profiles of NCI-H446 human small cell lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Gene targeted therapy refers to any therapy focused on one of the many biological features of the tumor. Such features are mediated by specific genes that are involved in tumor metastasis, recurrence, poor response to chemotherapy and others. Hypoxia is an important pathognomonic feature of many malignant tumors including SCLC (small cell lung cancer). HIF-1alpha, which is induced by hypoxia, is the most important regulatory factor of many specific genes that can influence the biological features of tumors. Methods In this study, we tried to elucidate the changes in gene expression profiles of SCLC NCI-H446 cells mediated by HIF-1alpha. According to different treatments of cells, three experimental pairwise comparisons were designed: hypoxia group vs. control group, Ad5-HIF-1alpha group vs. Ad5 group, and Ad5-siHIF-1 alpha group Vs Ad5 group. Results Results from the analysis of gene expression profiles indicated that there were 65 genes upregulated and 28 genes downregulated more than two-fold in all three experimental pairwise comparisons. These genes were involved in transport, signal-transduction, cell adhesion/motility, growth factor/cytokines, transcription, inflammatory response, metabolic process, in addition to others. SOCS1, IGFBP5, IL-6 and STAT3 were also upregulated at protein level. SOCS1 could significantly induce apoptosis and suppress growth of NCI-H446 cells but HIF-1alpha could induce growth and suppress apoptosis. Conclusions Through this research, we are trying to find novel functional genes that are mediated by HIF-1alpha and provide the theoretical basis for new therapeutic targets. HIF-1 alpha maybe upregulate the expression of SOCS1 through mediation of STAT3 and IL-6. In addition, SOCS1 could significantly induce apoptosis and suppress growth of NCI-H446 cells. This was contrary to HIF-1alpha and it indicated that there might be an antagonism effect between HIF-1alpha and SOCS1 on regulating growth and apoptosis of NCI-H446

  10. Characterization of a de novo 43-bp deletion of the Gs[alpha] gene (GNAS1) in Albright hereditary osteodystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Luttikhuis, M.E.M.O.; Trembath, R.C. ); Wilson, L.C. Institute of Child Health, London ); Leonard, J.V. )

    1994-05-15

    Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by short stature, obesity, mental retardation, subcutaneous calcification, and brachy-metaphalangia. Two distinct forms of AHO exist; pseudohypoparathyroidism type I (PHPI) and pseudopseudohypoparathyrodism (PPHP). The classification is dependent upon the presence or absence, respectively, of resistance to parathyroid and other hormones that bind to Gs-protein-coupled membrane receptors stimulating adenylyl cyclase. Gs is a heterotrimeric protein comprising [alpha], [beta], and [gamma]-subunits encoded by separate genes. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral leukocytes from 13 unrelated AHO patients. Exon 4 and flanking intronic sequence of GNAS1 were PCR amplified. A single PCR product corresponding to the expected 159-bp fragment was identified in 12 affected individuals with either PHPIa or PPHP. In patient 10285 an additional smaller fragment was detected but was not present in either of the unaffected parents. These two fragments were isolated from a 2% agarose gel. Direct sequencing of the smaller fragment revealed a 43-bp deletion comprising at least 35 hp of the 3[prime] end of exon 4 and the donor splice site of intron 4 and extending into the following intro. The 43-bp deletion would lead to a premature stop codon, 62 codons downstream of the deletion. The de novo mutation reported here is the largest deletion in the Gs[alpha] gene described so far for AHO patients.

  11. BPOZ-2 Gene Delivery Ameliorates Alpha-Synucleinopathy in A53T Transgenic Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Avik; Rangasamy, Suresh Babu; Kundu, Madhuchhanda; Pahan, Kalipada

    2016-01-01

    Ankyrin-rich BTB/POZ domain containing protein-2 or BPOZ-2, a scaffold protein, has been recently shown to control the degradation of many biological proteins ranging from embryonic development to tumor progression. However, its role in the process of neuronal diseases has not been properly explored. Since, abnormal clearance of metabolic proteins contributes to the development of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) pathologies in Parkinson’s disease (PD), we are interested to explore if BPOZ-2 participates in the amelioration of α-syn in vivo in basal ganglia. Here we report that lentiviral administration of bpoz-2 gene indeed lowers the burden of α-syn in DA neurons in the nigra of A53T transgenic (A53T-Tg) mouse. Our detailed immunological analyses have shown that the overexpression of bpoz-2 dramatically improves both somatic and neuritic α-syn pathologies in the nigral DA neurons. Similarly, the specific ablation of bpoz-2 by lentiviral-shRNA stimulates the load of monomeric and polymeric forms of α-syn in the nigral DA neurons of A53T-Tg. While investigating the mechanism, we observed that BPOZ-2 was involved in a protein-protein association with PINK1 and therefore could stimulate PINK1-dependent autophagic clearance of α-syn. Our results have demonstrated that bpoz-2 gene delivery could have prospect in the amelioration of alpha-synucleinopathy in PD and other Lewy body diseases. PMID:26916519

  12. Gene amplification and microsatellite instability induced in tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cells by alpha particles and heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piao, C. Q.; Hei, T. K.; Hall, E. J. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Gene amplification and microsatellite alteration are useful markers of genomic instability in tumor and transformed cell lines. It has been suggested that genomic instability contributes to the progression of tumorigenesis by accumulating genetic changes. In this study, amplification of the carbamyl-P-synthetase, aspartate transcarbamylase, dihydro-orotase (CAD) gene in transformed and tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial (BEP2D) cells induced by either alpha particles or (56)Fe ions was assessed by measuring resistance to N-(phosphonacetyl)-l-aspartate (PALA). In addition, alterations of microsatellite loci located on chromosomes 3p and 18q were analyzed in a series of primary and secondary tumor cell lines generated in nude mice. The frequency of PALA-resistant colonies was 1-3 x 10(-3) in tumor cell lines, 5-8 x 10(-5) in transformed cells prior to inoculation into nude mice, and less than 10(-7) in control BEP2D cells. Microsatellite alterations were detected in all 11 tumor cell lines examined at the following loci: D18S34, D18S363, D18S877, D3S1038 and D3S1607. No significant difference in either PALA resistance or microsatellite instability was found in tumor cell lines that were induced by alpha particles compared to those induced by (56)Fe ions.

  13. Protein-binding sites within the 5' DNase I-hypersensitive region of the chicken alpha D-globin gene.

    PubMed Central

    Kemper, B; Jackson, P D; Felsenfeld, G

    1987-01-01

    We mapped at high resolution and as a function of development the hypersensitive domain in the 5'-flanking region of the chicken alpha D-globin gene and determined the specific protein-binding sites within the domain. The domain extends from -130 to +80 nucleotides (nt) relative to the cap site. DNase I footprinting within intact embryonic erythrocyte nuclei revealed a strongly protected area from -71 to -52 nt. The same area was weakly protected in adult nuclei. A factor was present in extracts of erythrocyte nuclei from both embryos and adults that protected the sequence AAGATAAGG (-63 to -55 nt) in DNase I footprinting experiments; at higher concentrations of extract, sequences immediately adjacent (-73 to -64 and -53 to -38) were also protected. The same pattern of binding was revealed by gel mobility shift assays. The identical AAGATAAGG sequence is found in the 5'-flanking region of the beta rho gene; it competed for binding of the alpha D-specific factor, suggesting that regulatory elements are shared. Images PMID:3600658

  14. Association between Estrogen Receptor Alpha Gene Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Idiopathic Scoliosis in Bulgarian Patients: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Nikolova, Svetla; Yablanski, Vasil; Vlaev, Evgeni; Stokov, Luben; Savov, Alexey; Kremensky, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The current consensus on idiopathic scoliosis maintains that it has a multifactorial etiology with genetic predisposing factors. AIM: Estrogen receptor alpha gene has been considered as candidate gene of idiopathic scoliosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of Bulgarian population samples (eighty patients with idiopathic scoliosis and one hundred-sixty healthy unrelated gender-matched controls) trying to investigate the association between common genetic polymorphisms of estrogen receptor alpha and the susceptibility to idiopathic scoliosis. Molecular detection of the restriction polymorphisms XbaI and PvuII was performed by polymerase chain reaction following by restriction fragment length polymorphism. The statistical analysis was performed by Pearson’s chi-squared test. RESULTS: Our case-control study showed statistically significant association between the PvuII polymorphism and susceptibility to idiopathic scoliosis and curve progression. No genotype or allele of XbaI polymorphism was found to be correlated with the onset or severity of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of molecular markers with diagnostic and prognostic value could be useful for early detection of children at risk for the development of scoliosis and for prognosis of the risk for a rapid deformity progression. That would facilitate the therapy decisions and early stage treatment of the patient with the least invasive procedures. PMID:27275235

  15. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the 1,2-alpha-D-mannosidase gene, msdS, from Aspergillus saitoi and expression of the gene in yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Inoue, T; Yoshida, T; Ichishima, E

    1995-12-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding 1,2-alpha-D-mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.113) from Aspergillus saitoi was cloned. Analysis of the 1718 bp nucleotide sequence of the cDNA revealed a single open reading frame with 1539 nucleotides of 1,2-alpha-D-mannosidase gene, msdS. The predicted amino-acid sequence of 1,2-alpha-D-mannosidase consists of 513 residues with a molecular mass of 55,767 and is 70%, 26% and 35% identity with those of Penicillium citrinum 1,2-alpha-D-mannosidase, yeast alpha-mannosidase, and mouse alpha-mannosidase. The cDNA of the msdS gene has been cloned and expressed in yeast cells. To identify the activity of expression product methyl-2-O-alpha-mannopyranosyl-alpha-mannopyranoside (Man alpha 1-->2Man-OMe) was used as a substrate at pH 5.0. PMID:8519794

  16. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta isoforms and the regulation of alpha-smooth muscle actin gene expression by IL-1 beta.

    PubMed

    Hu, Biao; Wu, Zhe; Jin, Hong; Hashimoto, Naozumi; Liu, Tianju; Phan, Sem H

    2004-10-01

    The role of IL-1beta in inflammation is amply documented, but its ability to inhibit myofibroblast differentiation and, in particular, the suppression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) gene expression is less well understood. Because IL-1beta can induce C/EBPbeta expression, the role of C/EBPbeta isoforms in IL-1beta regulation of alpha-SMA gene expression was investigated in rat lung myofibroblasts. The results showed that IL-1beta inhibited alpha-SMA expression in a dose-dependent manner, which was associated with stimulation of the expression of both C/EBPbeta isoforms, liver-enriched activating protein (LAP) and liver-enriched inhibitory protein (LIP). However, a greater increase in LIP relative to LAP expression resulted in a reduced LAP/LIP ratio after IL-1beta treatment. Transfection with an LAP-expressing plasmid stimulated, whereas an LIP-expressing plasmid inhibited, alpha-SMA expression. Cells from C/EBPbeta-deficient mice had reduced levels of alpha-SMA expression and promoter activity, which failed to respond to IL-1beta treatment. Sequence analysis identified the presence of a C/EBPbeta consensus binding sequence in the alpha-SMA promoter, which, when mutated, resulted in diminished promoter activity and abolished its responsiveness to IL-1beta treatment. EMSA revealed binding of C/EBPbeta to this C/EBPbeta consensus binding sequence from the alpha-SMA promoter. Finally, IL-1beta enhanced the expression of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E, a stimulator of LIP expression, which may account for a mechanism by which IL-1beta could alter the LAP/LIP ratio. These data taken together suggest that C/EBPbeta isoforms regulate alpha-SMA gene expression, and that its inhibition by IL-1beta was due to preferential stimulation of LIP expression. PMID:15383601

  17. Tumor necrosis factor alpha gene expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells exposed to beryllium.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, G M; Pandey, J P; Schmidt, M G; Arnaud, P; Goust, J M

    1996-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease, which results from occupational exposure to particulate beryllium, is characterized by the development of lung granulomas and progressive pulmonary fibrosis. Increased production of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta) by pulmonary alveolar macrophages occurs in many chronic fibrotic lung diseases and is thought to contribute to the disease process. The purpose of the present study was to investigate cytokine production by human monocytic cells exposed to beryllium in vitro. The results indicated that such cells respond to beryllium ions in the presence of fluoride by accumulation of messenger ribonucleic acid for both tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta. These findings suggest that inhaled beryllium may directly stimulate the production of these cytokines by alveolar macrophages in vitro. PMID:8629860

  18. Comparison of the effects of early pregnancy with human interferon, alpha 2 (IFNA2), on gene expression in bovine endometrium.

    PubMed

    Bauersachs, Stefan; Ulbrich, Susanne E; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Reichenbach, Myriam; Büttner, Mathias; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Spencer, Thomas E; Minten, Megan; Sax, Gerhard; Winter, Gerhard; Wolf, Eckhard

    2012-02-01

    Interferon tau (IFNT), a type I IFN similar to alpha IFNs (IFNA), is the pregnancy recognition signal produced by the ruminant conceptus. To elucidate specific effects of bovine IFNT and of other conceptus-derived factors, endometrial gene expression changes during early pregnancy were compared to gene expression changes after intrauterine application of human IFNA2. In experiment 1, endometrial tissue samples were obtained on Day (D) 12, D15, and D18 postmating from nonpregnant or pregnant heifers. In experiment 2, heifers were treated from D14 to D16 of the estrous cycle with an intrauterine device releasing IFNA2 or, as controls, placebo lipid extrudates or PBS only. Endometrial biopsies were performed after flushing the uterus. All samples from both experiments were analyzed with an Affymetrix Bovine Genome Array. Experiment 1 revealed differential gene expression between pregnant and nonpregnant endometria on D15 and D18. In experiment 2, IFNA2 treatment resulted in differential gene expression in the bovine endometrium. Comparison of the data sets from both studies identified genes that were differentially expressed in response to IFNA2 but not in response to pregnancy on D15 or D18. In addition, genes were found that were differentially expressed during pregnancy but not after IFNA2 treatment. In experiment 3, spatiotemporal alterations in expression of selected genes were determined in uteri from nonpregnant and early pregnant heifers using in situ hybridization. The overall findings of this study suggest differential effects of bovine IFNT compared to human IFNA2 and that some pregnancy-specific changes in the endometrium are elicited by conceptus-derived factors other than IFNT. PMID:22034527

  19. Different forms of Go alpha mRNA arise by alternative splicing of transcripts from a single gene on human chromosome 16.

    PubMed Central

    Murtagh, J J; Eddy, R; Shows, T B; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1991-01-01

    Go alpha, (gene symbol GNA01), a member of the signal-transducing guanine nucleotide-binding (G) protein family, has been implicated in ion channel regulation. Some tissues contain multiple Go alpha mRNAs of different sizes that differ in the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs). Using sequence-specific 48-base oligonucleotides, two complementary to the different 3' UTRs and one complementary to the coding region, we investigated the origin of the multiple Go alpha transcripts, the organization of the Go alpha gene, the interspecies conservation of 3' UTRs, and the chromosomal localization of Go alpha. Oligonucleotides labeled to high specific activity by using terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase each hybridized with a single band of restriction enzyme-digested mouse and human DNAs. In three of four digests of human DNA, the two probes specific for the different 3' UTRs hybridized with the same restriction fragment. Thus, these nucleotide sequences are in close proximity in the human genome. The order of the UTRs in the bovine, human, and mouse genomes was confirmed directly by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing. Hybridization of bovine oligonucleotide sequence with mouse and human genomic DNA indicated a high degree of interspecies sequence conservation: conservation was confirmed by PCR amplification and sequencing. Bands detected by both UTR probes, as well as the predominant bands detected by a bovine Go alpha cDNA, segregated with human chromosome 16 on Southern blot analysis of human-mouse somatic cell hybrids. We conclude that Go alpha mRNAs with different 3' UTRs arise by alternative splicing of transcripts from a single gene. The UTRs, which exhibit a high degree of interspecies conservation, may play a role in regulation of Go alpha expression during differentiation or in specific tissues. The use of oligonucleotide probes of the type described here represents a new strategy, potentially widely applicable for mapping and elucidating

  20. The gene encoding myeloid alpha-3-fucosyl-transferase (FUT4) is located between D1 1S388 and D11S919 on 11q21.

    PubMed

    Reguigne, I; James, M R; Richard, C W; Mollicone, R; Seawright, A; Lowe, J B; Oriol, R; Couillin, P

    1994-01-01

    The last step in the biosynthesis of Le(x) antigen, the addition of a fucose to precursor polysaccharides, can be catalyzed by different alpha-3-fucosyltransferases. We localized the gene (FUT4) encoding myeloid alpha-3-fucosyltransferase by PCR assay using panels of somatic cell and radiation hybrids which retain different rearrangements of chromosome 11. FUT4 was assigned to chromosome band 11q21 between D11S388 and D11S919. PMID:8287679

  1. Intron-exon organization of the active human protein S gene PS. alpha. and its pseudogene PS. beta. : Duplication and silencing during primate evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Ploos van Amstel, H.; Reitsma, P.H.; van der Logt, C.P.; Bertina, R.M. )

    1990-08-28

    The human protein S locus on chromosome 3 consists of two protein S genes, PS{alpha} and PS{beta}. Here the authors report the cloning and characterization of both genes. Fifteen exons of the PS{alpha} gene were identified that together code for protein S mRNA as derived from the reported protein S cDNAs. Analysis by primer extension of liver protein S mRNA, however, reveals the presence of two mRNA forms that differ in the length of their 5{prime}-noncoding region. Both transcripts contain a 5{prime}-noncoding region longer than found in the protein S cDNAs. The two products may arise from alternative splicing of an additional intron in this region or from the usage of two start sites for transcription. The intron-exon organization of the PS{alpha} gene fully supports the hypothesis that the protein S gene is the product of an evolutional assembling process in which gene modules coding for structural/functional protein units also found in other coagulation proteins have been put upstream of the ancestral gene of a steroid hormone binding protein. The PS{beta} gene is identified as a pseudogene. It contains a large variety of detrimental aberrations, viz., the absence of exon I, a splice site mutation, three stop codons, and a frame shift mutation. Overall the two genes PS{alpha} and PS{beta} show between their exonic sequences 96.5% homology. Southern analysis of primate DNA showed that the duplication of the ancestral protein S gene has occurred after the branching of the orangutan from the African apes. A nonsense mutation that is present in the pseudogene of man also could be identified in one of the two protein S genes of both chimpanzee and gorilla. This implicates that silencing of one of the two protein S genes must have taken place before the divergence of the three African apes.

  2. Identification of novel NRF2-regulated genes by ChIP-Seq: influence on retinoid X receptor alpha

    PubMed Central

    Chorley, Brian N.; Campbell, Michelle R.; Wang, Xuting; Karaca, Mehmet; Sambandan, Deepa; Bangura, Fatu; Xue, Peng; Pi, Jingbo; Kleeberger, Steven R.; Bell, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    Cellular oxidative and electrophilic stress triggers a protective response in mammals regulated by NRF2 (nuclear factor (erythroid-derived) 2-like; NFE2L2) binding to deoxyribonucleic acid-regulatory sequences near stress-responsive genes. Studies using Nrf2-deficient mice suggest that hundreds of genes may be regulated by NRF2. To identify human NRF2-regulated genes, we conducted chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-sequencing experiments in lymphoid cells treated with the dietary isothiocyanate, sulforaphane (SFN) and carried out follow-up biological experiments on candidates. We found 242 high confidence, NRF2-bound genomic regions and 96% of these regions contained NRF2-regulatory sequence motifs. The majority of binding sites were near potential novel members of the NRF2 pathway. Validation of selected candidate genes using parallel ChIP techniques and in NRF2-silenced cell lines indicated that the expression of about two-thirds of the candidates are likely to be directly NRF2-dependent including retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRA). NRF2 regulation of RXRA has implications for response to retinoid treatments and adipogenesis. In mouse, 3T3-L1 cells’ SFN treatment affected Rxra expression early in adipogenesis, and knockdown of Nrf2-delayed Rxra expression, both leading to impaired adipogenesis. PMID:22581777

  3. Isolation, characterization, and mapping of gene encoding dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase (E2k) of human [alpha]-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, G.; Cai, Xingang; Sheu, Kwan-Fu R.; Blass, J.P. ); Wasco, W.; Gaston, S.M.; Tanzi, R.E.; Cooper, A.J.L.; Gusella, J.F. ); Szabo, P. )

    1994-03-01

    The authors have isolated and sequenced cDNAs representing the full-length (2987-bp) gene for dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase (E2k component) of the human [alpha]-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KHDHC) from a human fetal brain cDNA library. The E2k cDNA was mapped to human chromosome 14 using a somatic cell hybrid panel, and more precisely to band 14q24.3 by in situ hybridization. This cDNA also cross-hybridized to an apparent E2k pseudogene on chromosome 1p31. Northern analysis revealed the E2k gene to be ubiquitously expressed in peripheral tissues and brain. Interestingly, chromosome 14q24.3 has recently been reported to contain gene defects for an early-onset form of familial Alzheimer's disease and for Machado-Joseph disease. Future studies will be necessary to determine whether the E2K gene plays a role in either of these two disorders.

  4. Deletion of the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene improves cognitive deficits and synaptic pathology in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Dziewczapolski, Gustavo; Glogowski, Carolina M; Masliah, Eliezer; Heinemann, Stephen F

    2009-07-01

    It has been recently shown that the Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenic peptide amyloid beta(1-42) (Abeta(1-42)) binds to the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (alpha7nAChR) with high affinity and the alpha7nAChR and Abeta(1-42) are both found colocalized in neuritic plaques of human brains with AD. Moreover, the intraneuronal accumulation of Abeta(1-42) was shown to be facilitated by its high-affinity binding to the alpha7nAChR, and alpha7nAChR activation mediates Abeta-induced tau protein phosphorylation. To test the hypothesis that alpha7nAChRs are involved in AD pathogenesis, we used a transgenic mouse model of AD overexpressing a mutated form of the human amyloid precursor protein (APP) and lacking the alpha7nAChR gene (APPalpha7KO). We have shown that, despite the presence of high amounts of APP and amyloid deposits, deleting the alpha7nAChR subunit in the mouse model of AD leads to a protection from the dysfunction in synaptic integrity (pathology and plasticity) and learning and memory behavior. Specifically, APPalpha7KO mice express APP and Abeta at levels similar to APP mice, and yet they were able to solve a cognitive challenge such as the Morris water maze test significantly better than APP, with performances comparable to control groups. Moreover, deleting the alpha7nAChR subunit protected the brain from loss of the synaptic markers synaptophysin and MAP2, reduced the gliosis, and preserved the capacity to elicit long-term potentiation otherwise deficient in APP mice. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the alpha7nAChR plays a role in AD and suggest that interrupting alpha7nAChR function could be beneficial in the treatment of AD. PMID:19587288

  5. Sphingosine kinase-1 mediates TNF-alpha-induced MCP-1 gene expression in endothelial cells: upregulation by oscillatory flow.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi-Lin; Grey, Janice Y; Thomas, Suzanne; Qiu, Fei-Hua; Medford, Russell M; Wasserman, Martin A; Kunsch, Charles

    2004-10-01

    Atherosclerosis is a focal inflammatory disease and preferentially occurs in areas of low fluid shear stress and oscillatory flow, whereas the risk of atherosclerosis is decreased in regions of high fluid shear stress and steady laminar flow. Sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK1) catalyzes the conversion of sphingosine to sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P), a sphingolipid metabolite that plays important roles in angiogenesis, inflammation, and cell growth. In the present study, we demonstrated that exposure of human aortic endothelial cells to oscillatory flow (shear stress, +/-5 dyn/cm(2) for 48 h) resulted in a marked increase in SphK1 mRNA levels compared with endothelial cells kept in static culture. In contrast, laminar flow (shear stress, 20 dyn/cm(2) for 48 h) decreased SphK1 mRNA levels. We further investigated the role of SphK1 in TNF-alpha-induced expression of inflammatory genes, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and VCAM-1 by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) specifically for SphK1. Treatment of endothelial cells with SphK1 siRNA suppressed TNF-alpha-induced increase in MCP-1 mRNA levels, MCP-1 protein secretion, and activation of p38 MAPK. SphK1 siRNA also inhibited TNF-alpha-induced cell surface expression of VCAM-1, but not ICAM-1, protein. Exposure of endothelial cells to S1P led to an increase in MCP-1 protein secretion and MCP-1 mRNA levels and activation of NF-kappaB-mediated transcriptional activity. Treatment of endothelial cells with the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB-203580 suppressed S1P-induced MCP-1 protein secretion. These data suggest that SphK1 mediates TNF-alpha-induced MCP-1 gene expression through a p38 MAPK-dependent pathway and may participate in oscillatory flow-mediated proinflammatory signaling pathway in the vasculature. PMID:15191888

  6. The human gene (CSNK2A1) coding for the casein kinase II subunit [alpha] is located on chromosome 20 and contains tandemly arranged Alu repeats

    SciTech Connect

    Wirkner, U.; Lichter, P.; Pyerin, W. ); Voss, H.; Ansorge, W. )

    1994-01-15

    The authors have isolated and characterized an 18.9-kb genomic clone representing a central portion of the human casein kinase II (CKII) subunit [alpha] gene (CSNK2A1). Using the whole clone as a probe, the gene was localized on chromosome 20p13. The clone contains eight exons whose sequences comprise bases 102 to 824 of the coding region of the human CKII[alpha]. The exon/intron splice junctions conform to the gt/ag rule. Three of the nine introns are located at positions corresponding to those in the CKII[alpha] gene of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The introns contain eight complete and eight incomplete Alu repeats. Some of the Alu sequences are arranged in tandems of two or three, which seem to originate from insertions of younger Alu sequences into the poly(A) region of previously integrated Alu sequences, as indicated by flanking direct repeats. 50 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Chromosomal integration of recombinant alpha-amylase and glucoamylase genes in saccharomyces cerevisiae for starch conversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant constructs of barley '-amylase and Lentinula edodes glucoamylase genes were integrated into the chromosomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The insertion was confirmed by PCR amplification of the gene sequence in the chromosomes. The expression was analyzed by SDS-PAGE of the enzymes puri...

  8. Gene transfer of master autophagy regulator TFEB results in clearance of toxic protein and correction of hepatic disease in alpha-1-anti-trypsin deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Pastore, Nunzia; Blomenkamp, Keith; Annunziata, Fabio; Piccolo, Pasquale; Mithbaokar, Pratibha; Maria Sepe, Rosa; Vetrini, Francesco; Palmer, Donna; Ng, Philip; Polishchuk, Elena; Iacobacci, Simona; Polishchuk, Roman; Teckman, Jeffrey; Ballabio, Andrea; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Alpha-1-anti-trypsin deficiency is the most common genetic cause of liver disease in children and liver transplantation is currently the only available treatment. Enhancement of liver autophagy increases degradation of mutant, hepatotoxic alpha-1-anti-trypsin (ATZ). We investigated the therapeutic potential of liver-directed gene transfer of transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master gene that regulates lysosomal function and autophagy, in PiZ transgenic mice, recapitulating the human hepatic disease. Hepatocyte TFEB gene transfer resulted in dramatic reduction of hepatic ATZ, liver apoptosis and fibrosis, which are key features of alpha-1-anti-trypsin deficiency. Correction of the liver phenotype resulted from increased ATZ polymer degradation mediated by enhancement of autophagy flux and reduced ATZ monomer by decreased hepatic NFκB activation and IL-6 that drives ATZ gene expression. In conclusion, TFEB gene transfer is a novel strategy for treatment of liver disease of alpha-1-anti-trypsin deficiency. This study may pave the way towards applications of TFEB gene transfer for treatment of a wide spectrum of human disorders due to intracellular accumulation of toxic proteins. PMID:23381957

  9. Decreased shoot stature and grain alpha-amylase activity following ectopic expression of a gibberellin 2-oxidase gene in transgenic wheat.

    PubMed

    Appleford, Nigel E J; Wilkinson, Mark D; Ma, Qian; Evans, Daniel J; Stone, Marlon C; Pearce, Stephen P; Powers, Stephen J; Thomas, Stephen G; Jones, Huw D; Phillips, Andrew L; Hedden, Peter; Lenton, John R

    2007-01-01

    Ectopic expression of a gibberellin 2-oxidase gene (PcGA2ox1) decreased the content of bioactive gibberellins (GAs) in transgenic wheat, producing a range of dwarf plants with different degrees of severity. In at least one case, a single transformation event gave rise to T(1) plants with different degrees of dwarfism, the phenotypes being stably inherited over at least four generations. The dwarf phenotype, which included dark-green leaves, increased tillering and, in severe cases, a prostrate growth habit, was replicated by the application of a GA biosynthesis inhibitor to the wild type. Ear rachis length, grain set, and grain size were also decreased in the wheat transformants, compared with an azygous (null) line. The extent of post-germination alpha-amylase production in grains reflected the severity of the shoot phenotype of the transformants and both developmental processes were restored to normal by the application of gibberellic acid (GA(3)). Expression of two GA biosynthesis genes (TaGA20ox1 and TaGA3ox2) was up-regulated, and that of two alpha-amylase gene families (alpha-Amy1 and alpha-Amy2) down regulated, in scutella of semi-dwarf lines, compared with controls. The marked decline in transcript abundance of both alpha-amylase gene families in aleurone was associated with a decreased content of bioactive GAs in grains of the semi-dwarf lines. PMID:17916639

  10. Relationship between the structure of taxol and other taxanes on induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, C A; Berman, J W; Swindell, C S; Horwitz, S B

    1994-11-15

    Taxol is an antitumor drug with cytotoxic properties that correlate with its microtubule-stabilizing activities. It has been reported that taxol parallels lipopolysaccharide in its effects on the induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene expression in macrophages (C. Bogdan and A. Ding, J. Leukocyte Biol., 52: 119-121, 1992; C. L. Manthey, M. E. Brandes, P. Y. Perera, and S. Vogel, J. Immunol., 149: 2459-2465, 1992; J. M. Carboni, C. Singh, and M. A. Tepper, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr., 15: 95-101, 1993). Structure-activity studies using taxol and related taxanes have been done to determine the relationship between the effects of taxol on TNF-alpha gene expression and its cytotoxic and microtubule-stabilizing activities. Using Northern blot analysis, it was found that changes in the structure of taxol that did not alter cytotoxicity did prevent the induction of TNF-alpha gene expression. The data presented in this paper demonstrate that the effects of taxol on TNF-alpha gene expression are distinct from its known cytotoxic properties. PMID:7954398

  11. Modulation of gene expression in MHCC97 cells by interferon alpha

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei-Zhong; Sun, Hui-Chuan; Wang, Lu; Chen, Jie; Liu, Kang-Da; Tang, Zhao-You

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of IFN-α on tumor growth and metastasis in MHCC97 xenografts. METHODS: Three thousand international units per milliliter of IFN-α-treated and -untreated MHCC97 cells were enrolled for gene expression analysis using cDNA microarray. The mRNA levels of several differentially expressed genes in cDNA microarray were further identified by Northern blot and RT-PCR. RESULTS: A total of 190 differentially expressed genes including 151 IFN-α-repressed and 39 -stimulated genes or expressed sequence tags from 8 464 known human genes were found to be regulated by IFN-α in MHCC97. With a few exceptions, mRNA levels of the selected genes in RT-PCR and Northern blot were in good agreement with those in cDNA microarray. CONCLUSION: IFN-α might exert its complicated anti-tumor effects on MHCC97 xenografts by regulating the expression of functional genes involved in cell metabolism, proliferation, morphogenesis, angiogenesis, and signaling. PMID:16425353

  12. Application of the extracellular alpha-amylase gene from Streptococcus bovis 148 to construction of a secretion vector for yogurt starter strains.

    PubMed

    Satoh, E; Ito, Y; Sasaki, Y; Sasaki, T

    1997-11-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus ATCC 19258, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus T-11, and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL1403 were transformed with the alpha-amylase gene (amyA) from Streptococcus bovis 148 by using a wide host-range vector, and all the transformants secreted the alpha-amylase successfully. Since the promoter and the secretion signal of the amyA gene were functional in these strains, we constructed a secretion vector using the expression elements of amyA. Trials to secrete foreign enzymes in yogurt starter strains were performed using this novel secretion vector. PMID:9361445

  13. Application of the extracellular alpha-amylase gene from Streptococcus bovis 148 to construction of a secretion vector for yogurt starter strains.

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, E; Ito, Y; Sasaki, Y; Sasaki, T

    1997-01-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus ATCC 19258, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus T-11, and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL1403 were transformed with the alpha-amylase gene (amyA) from Streptococcus bovis 148 by using a wide host-range vector, and all the transformants secreted the alpha-amylase successfully. Since the promoter and the secretion signal of the amyA gene were functional in these strains, we constructed a secretion vector using the expression elements of amyA. Trials to secrete foreign enzymes in yogurt starter strains were performed using this novel secretion vector. PMID:9361445

  14. Antithetical effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene polymorphism on coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.T.; Ohtsuka, Y.; Kimura, K.; Muroi, M.; Ishida, T.; Saito, J.; Munakata, M.

    2005-07-01

    Inter-individual variation in the severity of pneumoconiosis has been described, even with the same environmental exposure. We hypothesized that TNF-alpha promoter polymorphisms associate with lung responses to environmental exposure in coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) patients. We examined polymorphisms at -238, -308, and -376 in 124 patients with CWP who had similar dust exposure history and in 122 non-exposed controls. CWP patients were divided into two groups: (1) nodular CWP (n = 84): (2) progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) (n = 44). The -308 A allele frequency was higher in patients with CWP compared to controls (6.35% and 2.05%, P {lt} 0.01). It was also higher in patients with nodular CWP compared to PMF (P {lt} 0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that patients with the -308 A allele were 3.8 times (P = 0.036) and those with smoking habit were 2.3 times (P {lt} 0.002) more likely to have nodular CWP than PMF. Thus TNF-alpha-308 A allele might interact with smoking to enhance susceptibility to nodular CWP.

  15. PPAR{alpha} regulates the hepatotoxic biomarker alanine aminotransferase (ALT1) gene expression in human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Thulin, Petra; Rafter, Ingalill; Stockling, Kenneth; Tomkiewicz, Celine; Norjavaara, Ensio; Aggerbeck, Martine; Hellmold, Heike; Ehrenborg, Ewa; Andersson, Ulf; Cotgreave, Ian; Glinghammar, Bjoern

    2008-08-15

    In this work, we investigated a potential mechanism behind the observation of increased aminotransferase levels in a phase I clinical trial using a lipid-lowering drug, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {alpha} agonist, AZD4619. In healthy volunteers treated with AZD4619, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were elevated without an increase in other markers for liver injury. These increases in serum aminotransferases have previously been reported in some patients receiving another PPAR{alpha} agonist, fenofibrate. In subsequent in vitro studies, we observed increased expression of ALT1 protein and mRNA in human hepatocytes after treatment with fenofibric acid. The PPAR effect on ALT1 expression was shown to act through a direct transcriptional mechanism involving at least one PPAR response element (PPRE) in the proximal ALT1 promoter, while no effect of fenofibrate and AZD4619 was observed on the ALT2 promoter. Binding of PPARs to the PPRE located at - 574 bp from the transcriptional start site was confirmed on both synthetic oligonucleotides and DNA in hepatocytes. These data show that intracellular ALT expression is regulated by PPAR agonists and that this mechanism might contribute to increased ALT activity in serum.

  16. VITELLOGENIN GENE TRANSCRIPTION AS AN INDICATOR OF EXPOSURE TO 17-ALPHA-ETHYNYLESTRADIOL IN FATHEAD MINNOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmentally persistent chemicals that functionally mimic estrogen are ubiquitous in surface waters and have been shown to effect reproductive health of species living in these habitats. Toxicant induced transcription of specific genes is a sensitive indicator of exposure and ...

  17. Sickle cell disorder, beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes and alpha-thalassemia in neonates and adults from Guadeloupe.

    PubMed

    Kéclard, L; Romana, M; Lavocat, E; Saint-Martin, C; Berchel, C; Mérault, G

    1997-05-01

    We have studied haplotype of beta(S) chromosome and alpha-globin gene status in 534 patients (255 adults and 279 children of whom 159 neonates) from Guadeloupe with various sickle cell-related conditions, namely SS (n = 298), SC (n = 170), S-beta-thal (n = 56), and other rare forms (n = 10). Haplotype data on beta(S) chromosomes confirm our previous observation that Benin type is the most prevalent (75%) beta(S) chromosome in Guadeloupe, in disagreement with the historical records. Comparison of the frequency of distribution of various beta(S) haplotypes between neonates and adults on the one hand and between SS and SC cases on the other shows that the current beta(S) haplotype distribution in this island is not distorted by haplotype-related differential survival. We also show that the frequency of alpha-thalassemia (-3.7 kb) in Guadeloupe is one of the highest recorded in this region involved in Atlantic slave trade and also failed to reveal any age-dependent increase in frequency. We conclude that the African component of Guadeloupe is distinct from that of Brazil and Cuba but is close to that of Jamaica. PMID:9136913

  18. Enhancer and promoter elements directing activation and glucocorticoid repression of the. cap alpha. /sub 1/-fetoprotein gene in hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Guertin, M.; La Rue, H.; Bernier, D.; Wrange, O.; Chevrette, M.; Gingras, M.C.; Belanger, L.

    1988-04-01

    Mutations were introduced in 7 kilobases of 5'-flanking rat ..cap alpha../sub 1/-fetoprotein (AFP) genomic DNA, linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene. AFP promoter activity and its repression by a glucocorticoid hormone were assessed by stable and transient expression assays. Stable transfection assays were more sensitive and accurate than transient expression assays in a Morris 7777 rat hepatoma recipient (Hepa7.6), selected for its strong AFP repression by dexamethasone. The segment of DNA encompassing a hepatocyte-constitutive chromatin DNase I-hypersensitive site at -3.7 kilobases and a liver developmental stage-specific site at -2.5 kilobases contains interacting enhancer elements sufficient for high AFP promoter activity in Hepa7.6 or HepG2 cells. Deletions and point mutations define an upstream promoter domain of AFP gene activation, operating with at least three distinct promoter-activating elements, PEI at -65 base pairs, PEII at -120 base pairs, and DE at -160 base pairs. PEI and PEII share homologies with albumin promoter sequences, PEII is a near-consensus nuclear factor I recognition sequence, and DE overlaps a glucocorticoid receptor recognition sequence. An element conferring glucocorticoid repression of AFP gene activity is located in the upstream AFP promoter domain. Receptor-binding assays indicate that this element is the glucocorticoid receptor recognition sequence which overlaps with promoter-activating element DE.

  19. Thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase influence estrogen receptor alpha-mediated gene expression in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rao, Abhi K; Ziegler, Yvonne S; McLeod, Ian X; Yates, John R; Nardulli, Ann M

    2009-12-01

    Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells damages resident proteins, lipids, and DNA. In order to overcome the oxidative stress that occurs with ROS accumulation, cells must balance free radical production with an increase in the level of antioxidant enzymes that convert free radicals to less harmful species. We identified two antioxidant enzymes, thioredoxin (Trx) and Trx reductase (TrxR), in a complex associated with the DNA-bound estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha). Western analysis and immunocytochemistry were used to demonstrate that Trx and TrxR are expressed in the cytoplasm and in the nuclei of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. More importantly, endogenously expressed ERalpha, Trx, and TrxR interact and ERalpha and TrxR associate with the native, estrogen-responsive pS2 and progesterone receptor genes in MCF-7 cells. RNA interference assays demonstrated that Trx and TrxR differentially influence estrogen-responsive gene expression and that together, 17beta-estradiol, Trx, and TrxR alter hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) levels in MCF-7 cells. Our findings suggest that Trx and TrxR are multifunctional proteins that, in addition to modulating H(2)O(2) levels and transcription factor activity, aid ERalpha in regulating the expression of estrogen-responsive genes in target cells. PMID:19620238

  20. DNA methylation profiles in the human genes for tumor necrosis factors alpha and beta in subpopulations of leukocytes and in leukemias.

    PubMed Central

    Kochanek, S; Radbruch, A; Tesch, H; Renz, D; Doerfler, W

    1991-01-01

    The genomic sequencing technique has been applied to assess the state of methylation in the DNA from human leukocyte subpopulations from healthy individuals and in the DNA from several individuals with myeloid or lymphatic leukemias or non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Leukocyte populations were purified by the high-gradient magnetic cell sorting technique. In the human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene segment between nucleotides 300 and 1150, the specific methylation profile in the DNA from human granulocytes and monocytes is maintained in three cases of myeloid leukemia. In one such case, all 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine residues have been replaced by cytidine. In a chronic lymphatic T-cell leukemia, all 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine residues have been substituted by cytidine. In normal B lymphocytes, in two cases of chronic lymphatic B-cell leukemias and two cases of non-Hodgkin lymphomas, all 5'-CG-3' sequences in this gene segment are devoid of methylation. In the TNF-beta gene, DNA methylation is decreased in several examples of acute or chronic myeloid leukemias in comparison to normal human granulocytes or monocytes, whose DNA is almost completely methylated between nucleotides 700 and 900. In human T and B lymphocytes, the main producers of TNF-beta, in three instances of chronic lymphatic leukemias and two cases of non-Hodgkin lymphomas, all 5'-CG-3' sequences are unmethylated in this region. The DNA from the human HeLa cell line is highly methylated at all 5'-CG-3' sequences in the TNF-alpha and -beta genes. The TNF-alpha gene is transcribed in the cells of one case of acute myeloid leukemia in which the analyzed region of the TNF-alpha gene is completely unmethylated. The TNF-beta gene is not transcribed in any of the malignant cells tested. Images PMID:2062856

  1. Cloning, sequencing, and characterization of ribosomal protein and RNA polymerase genes from the region analogous to the alpha-operon of escherichia coli in halophilic archaea, halobacterium halobium.

    PubMed

    Sano, K; Taguchi, A; Furumoto, H; Uda, T; Itoh, T

    1999-10-14

    A determination was made of the nucleotide sequence of the 3215-bp region of a ribosomal protein gene cluster (HS13, HS4, HS11, and HeL18), RNA polymerase (RNA poly D), and tRNA genes (tRNAser and tRNAarg) of halophilic Archaea Halobacterium halobium, which is analogous to the alpha-operon of Escherichia coli (tRNAser-HS13-HS4-HS11-RNA poly D-tRNAarg-HeL18). The seven-gene string was preceded by a pseudoknot-like structure similar to the proposed S4 ribosomal protein binding site of the alpha-operon mRNA leader in E. coli. Using an inducible expression system H. halobium HS4 was produced in large amounts in E. coli, and immunoblot analysis showed the S4 to constitute a 21-kDa polypeptide component of the ribosome. Analysis of the deduced amino acids sequence revealed that the HS13, HS4, and HS11 sequences including the RNA polymerase subunit are more similar to their eukaryotic than to their bacterial counterparts. HeL18, located downstream of the gene cluster analogous to the E. coli alpha-operon (S13-S11-S4-RNA poly D-L17), was similar to both the eukaryotic (eL18) and eubacterial ribosomal protein L15 located in the spc-operon, but not to L17 positioned as the terminal gene of the bacterial alpha-operon. PMID:10527834

  2. Cyclic AMP regulation of the human glycoprotein hormone. cap alpha. -subunit gene is mediated by an 18-base-pair element

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, B.J.; Bokar, J.A.; Virgin, J.B.; Vallen, E.A.; Milsted, A.; Nilson, J.H.

    1987-04-01

    cAMP regulates transcription of the gene encoding the ..cap alpha..-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the choriocarcinoma cells (BeWo). To define the sequences required for regulation by cAMP, the authors inserted fragments from the 5' flanking region of the ..cap alpha..-subunit gene into a test vector containing the simian virus 40 early promoter (devoid of its enhancer) linked to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene. Results from transient expression assays in BeWo cells indicated that a 1500-base-pair (bp) fragment conferred cAMP responsiveness on the CAT gene regardless of position or orientation of the insert relative to the viral promoter. A subfragment extending from position -169 to position -100 had the same effect on cAMP-induced expression. Furthermore, the entire stimulatory effect could be achieved with an 18-bp synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide corresponding to a direct repeat between position -146 and -111. In the absence of cAMP, the ..cap alpha..-subunit 5' flanking sequence also enhanced transcription from the simian virus 40 early promoter. They localized this enhancer activity to the same -169/-100 fragment containing the cAMP response element. The 18-bp element alone, however, had no effect on basal expression. Thus, this short DN