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Sample records for factor-1 alpha gene

  1. CHARACTERIZATION AND GENE EXPRESSION OF BABESIA BOVIS ELONGATION FACTOR-1ALPHA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1') is a constitutively expressed, abundant protein that is a key element in eukaryotic protein translation. Because of its high level of transcription, the EF-1''promoter has been utilized to drive exogenous gene expression in transfected cells. In this study, we ident...

  2. Genes for the dimerization cofactor of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1[alpha] (DCOH) are on human and murine chromsomes 10

    SciTech Connect

    Milatovich, A.; Mendel, D.B.; Crabtree, G.R.; Francke, U. )

    1993-04-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1[alpha] (HNF-1[alpha]; gene symbol, TCF1) forms dimers with itself as well as with HNF-1[beta] and regulates the expression of several liver-specific genes. Recently, a dimerization cofactor of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1[alpha], called DCOH, has been identified. Here, the authors report the chromosomal localization of the genes for this cofactor to chromosomes 10 in both humans and mice by Southern blot analyses of somatic cell hybrids. 25 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha is required for expression but dispensable for histone acetylation of the lactase-phlorizin hydrolase gene in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Tjalling; van Wering, Herbert M; Gielen, Marieke; Dowling, Lauren N; Fialkovich, John J; Piaseckyj, Christina M; Gonzalez, Frank J; Akiyama, Taro E; Montgomery, Robert K; Grand, Richard J; Krasinski, Stephen D

    2006-05-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (HNF-1alpha) is a modified homeodomain-containing transcription factor that has been implicated in the regulation of intestinal genes. To define the importance and underlying mechanism of HNF-1alpha for the regulation of intestinal gene expression in vivo, we analyzed the expression of the intestinal differentiation markers and putative HNF-1alpha targets lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) and sucrase-isomaltase (SI) in hnf1alpha null mice. We found that in adult jejunum, LPH mRNA in hnf1alpha(-/-) mice was reduced 95% compared with wild-type controls (P < 0.01, n = 4), whereas SI mRNA was virtually identical to that in wild-type mice. Furthermore, SI mRNA abundance was unchanged in the absence of HNF-1alpha along the length of the adult mouse small intestine as well as in newborn jejunum. We found that HNF-1alpha occupies the promoters of both the LPH and SI genes in vivo. However, in contrast to liver and pancreas, where HNF-1alpha regulates target genes by recruitment of histone acetyl transferase activity to the promoter, the histone acetylation state of the LPH and SI promoters was not affected by the presence or absence of HNF-1alpha. Finally, we showed that a subset of hypothesized intestinal target genes is regulated by HNF-1alpha in vivo and that this regulation occurs in a defined tissue-specific and developmental context. These data indicate that HNF-1alpha is an activator of a subset of intestinal genes and induces these genes through an alternative mechanism in which it is dispensable for chromatin remodeling. PMID:16223943

  4. Suppression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha and its downstream genes reduces acute hyperglycemia-enhanced hemorrhagic transformation in a rat model of cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunhua; Ostrowski, Robert P; Zhou, Changman; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2010-07-01

    We evaluated a role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and its downstream genes in acute hyperglycemia-induced hemorrhagic transformation in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 280-300 g (n = 105) were divided into sham, 90 min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), MCAO plus HIF-1alpha inhibitors, 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2) or 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole (YC-1), groups. Rats received an injection of 50% dextrose (6 ml/kg intraperitoneally) at 15 min before MCAO. HIF-1alpha inhibitors were administered at the onset of reperfusion. The animals were examined for neurological deficits and sacrificed at 6, 12, 24, and 72 hr following MCAO. The cerebral tissues were collected for histology, zymography, and Western blot analysis. The expression of HIF-1alpha was increased in ischemic brain tissues after MCAO and reduced by HIF-1alpha inhibitors. In addition, 2ME2 reduced the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the elevation of active matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2/MMP-9) in the ipsilateral hemisphere. Both 2ME2 and YC-1 reduced infarct volume and ameliorated neurological deficits. However, only 2ME2 attenuated hemorrhagic transformation in the ischemic territory. In conclusion, the inhibition of HIF-1alpha and its downstream genes attenuates hemorrhagic conversion of cerebral infarction and ameliorates neurological deficits after focal cerebral ischemia. PMID:20155812

  5. Effects of 12 metal ions on iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP-1) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1{alpha}) and HIF-regulated genes

    SciTech Connect

    Li Qin; Chen Haobin; Huang Xi; Costa, Max . E-mail: costam@env.med.nyu.edu

    2006-06-15

    Several metal ions that are carcinogenic affect cellular iron homeostasis by competing with iron transporters or iron-regulated enzymes. Some metal ions can mimic a hypoxia response in cells under normal oxygen tension, and induce expression of HIF-1{alpha}-regulated genes. This study investigated whether 12 metal ions altered iron homeostasis in human lung carcinoma A549 cells as measured by an activation of IRP-1 and ferritin level. We also studied hypoxia signaling by measuring HIF-1{alpha} protein levels, hypoxia response element (HRE)-driven luciferase reporter activity, and Cap43 protein level (an HIF-1{alpha} responsive gene). Our results show the following: (i) Ni(II), Co(II), V(V), Mn(II), and to a lesser extent As(III) and Cu(II) activated the binding of IRP-1 to IRE after 24 h, while the other metal ions had no effect; (ii) 10 of 12 metal ions induced HIF-1{alpha} protein but to strikingly different degrees. Two of these metal ions, Al(III) and Cd(II), did not induce HIF-1{alpha} protein; however, as indicated below, only Ni(II), Co (II), and to lesser extent Mn(II) and V(V) activated HIF-1{alpha}-dependent transcription. The combined effects of both [Ni(II) + As(III)] and [Ni(II) + Cr(VI)] on HIF-1{alpha} protein were synergistic; (iii) Addition of Fe(II) with Ni(II), Co(II), and Cr(VI) attenuated the induction of HIF-1{alpha} after 4 h treatment; (iv) Ni(II), Co(II), and Mn(II) significantly decrease ferritin level after 24 h exposure; (v) Ni(II), Co(II), V(V), and Mn(II) activated HRE reporter gene after 20 h treatment; (vi) Ni(II), Co(II), V(V), and Mn(II) increased the HIF-1-dependent Cap43 protein level after 24 h treatment. In conclusion, only Ni (II), Co (II), and to a lesser extent Mn(II) and V(V) significantly stabilized HIF-1{alpha} protein, activated IRP, decreased the levels of ferritin, induced the transcription of HIF-dependent reporter, and increased the expression of Cap43 protein levels (HIF-dependent gene). The mechanism for the

  6. Diffuse Glomerular Nodular Lesions in Diabetic Pigs Carrying a Dominant-Negative Mutant Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-Alpha, an Inheritant Diabetic Gene in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Satoshi; Umeyama, Kazuhiro; Yokoo, Takashi; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Nagata, Michio

    2014-01-01

    Glomerular nodular lesions, known as Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules, are a pathological hallmark of progressive human diabetic nephropathy. We have induced severe diabetes in pigs carrying a dominant-negative mutant hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha (HNF1α) P291fsinsC, a maturity-onset diabetes of the young type-3 (MODY3) gene in humans. In this model, glomerular pathology revealed that formation of diffuse glomerular nodules commenced as young as 1 month of age and increased in size and incidence until the age of 10 months, the end of the study period. Immunohistochemistry showed that the nodules consisted of various collagen types (I, III, IV, V and VI) with advanced glycation end-product (AGE) and Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) deposition, similar to those in human diabetic nodules, except for collagen type I. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) was also expressed exclusively in the nodules. The ultrastructure of the nodules comprised predominant interstitial-type collagen deposition arising from the mesangial matrices. Curiously, these nodules were found predominantly in the deep cortex. However, diabetic pigs failed to show any of the features characteristic of human diabetic nephropathy; e.g., proteinuria, glomerular basement membrane thickening, exudative lesions, mesangiolysis, tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, and vascular hyalinosis. The pigs showed only Armanni-Ebstein lesions, a characteristic tubular manifestation in human diabetes. RT-PCR analysis showed that glomeruli in wild-type pigs did not express endogenous HNF1α and HNF1β, indicating that mutant HNF1α did not directly contribute to glomerular nodular formation in diabetic pigs. In conclusion, pigs harboring the dominant-negative mutant human MODY3 gene showed reproducible and distinct glomerular nodules, possibly due to AGE- and CML-based collagen accumulation. Although the pathology differed in several respects from that of human glomerular nodular lesions, the somewhat acute and

  7. Higher-level phylogeny of the Therevidae (Diptera: insecta) based on 28S ribosomal and elongation factor-1 alpha gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Yang, L; Wiegmann, B M; Yeates, D K; Irwin, M E

    2000-06-01

    Therevidae (stilleto flies) are a little-known family of asiloid brachyceran Diptera (Insecta). Separate and combined phylogenetic analyses of 1200 bases of the 28S ribosomal DNA and 1100 bases of elongation factor-1alpha were used to infer phylogenetic relationships within the family. The position of the enigmatic taxon Apsilocephala Kröber is evaluated in light of the molecular evidence. In all analyses, molecular data strongly support the monophyly of Therevidae, excluding Apsilocephala, and the division of Therevidae into two main clades corresponding to a previous classification of the family into the subfamilies Phycinae and Therevinae. Despite strong support for some relationships within these groups, relationships at the base of the two main clades are weakly supported. Short branch lengths for Australasian clades at the base of the Therevinae may represent a rapid radiation of therevids in Australia. PMID:10860652

  8. The homeodomain Pbx2-Prep1 complex modulates hepatocyte nuclear factor 1alpha-mediated activation of the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B17 gene.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Philip A; Mackenzie, Peter I

    2002-07-01

    UDP glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) are expressed in a wide range of tissues in which their levels of expression and distribution are dependent on cell-type specific regulatory mechanisms. The presence of a hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 1 binding site in the proximal promoters of several UGT2B genes has been shown to contribute to their expression in liver cells and possibly other HNF1-containing cell types. In some of these UGT2B genes, a putative pre-B cell homeobox (Pbx) transcription factor binding site is found directly adjacent to the functional HNF1 site. To determine whether this putative Pbx site contributes to the regulation of UGT2B expression, we chose the UGT2B17 gene and investigated the capacity of its Pbx site to bind specific transcription factors and alter promoter activity. The UGT2B17 Pbx site matches a consensus Pbx site known to bind members of the Pbx, Hox, Meis, and Prep1 families of homeodomain-containing proteins and has previously been shown to bind nuclear proteins in DNaseI footprint assays. In this study, we used gel shift and functional assays to show that a Pbx2-Prep1 heterodimer can bind to the UGT2B17 Pbx site and interfere with the binding of HNF1alpha to its site adjacent to the Pbx site. This interaction of Pbx2-Prep1 and HNF1alpha results in down-regulation of HNF1alpha-mediated activation of the UGT2B17 promoter. Modulation of transcription by restricting the binding of transcriptional effectors to their target site is a novel role for Pbx2-Prep1 complexes. PMID:12065766

  9. The novel hypoxic cytotoxin, TX-2098 has antitumor effect in pancreatic cancer; possible mechanism through inhibiting VEGF and hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} targeted gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, Kotaro; Nishioka, Masanori; Imura, Satoru; Batmunkh, Erdenebulgan; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nagasawa, Hideko; Hori, Hitoshi; Shimada, Mitsuo

    2012-08-01

    Tumor hypoxia has been considered to be a potential therapeutic target, because hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors and is associated with their malignant phenotype. In the present study, we investigated the antitumor effect of a novel hypoxic cytotoxin, 3-[2-hydroxyethyl(methyl)amino]-2-quinoxalinecarbonitrile 1,4-dioxide (TX-2098) in inhibiting the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}), and consequently vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) expression in pancreatic cancer. The antitumor effects of TX-2098 under hypoxia were tested against various human pancreatic cancer cell lines using WST-8 assay. VEGF protein induced pancreatic cancer was determined on cell-free supernatant by ELISA. Moreover, nude mice bearing subcutaneously (s.c.) or orthotopically implanted human SUIT-2 were treated with TX-2098. Tumor volume, survival and expression of HIF-1 and associated molecules were evaluated in treatment versus control groups. In vitro, TX-2098 inhibited the proliferation of various pancreatic cancer cell lines. In s.c model, tumors from nude mice injected with pancreatic cancer cells and treated with TX-2098 showed significant reductions in volume (P < 0.01 versus control). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that TX-2098 significantly inhibited mRNA expression of the HIF-1 associated molecules, VEGF, glucose transporter 1 and Aldolase A (P < 0.01 versus control). These treatments also prolong the survival in orthotopic models. These results suggest that the effect of TX-2098 in pancreatic cancer might be correlated with the expression of VEGF and HIF-1 targeted molecules. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We designed and synthesized novel hypoxic cytoxin, TX-2098. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TX-2098 inhibited the proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells than TPZ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TX-2098 reduced VEGF protein level than TPZ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TX-2098

  10. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of five different elongation factor 1 alpha genes in the flatfish Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup): Differential gene expression and thyroid hormones dependence during metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Infante, Carlos; Asensio, Esther; Cañavate, José Pedro; Manchado, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Background Eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha (eEF1A) is one of the four subunits composing eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1. It catalyzes the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the A-site of the ribosome in a GTP-dependent manner during protein synthesis, although it also seems to play a role in other non-translational processes. Currently, little information is still available about its expression profile and regulation during flatfish metamorphosis. With regard to this, Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) is a commercially important flatfish in which eEF1A gene remains to be characterized. Results The development of large-scale genomics of Senegalese sole has facilitated the identification of five different eEF1A genes, referred to as SseEF1A1, SseEF1A2, SseEF1A3, SseEF1A4, and Sse42Sp50. Main characteristics and sequence identities with other fish and mammalian eEF1As are described. Phylogenetic and tissue expression analyses allowed for the identification of SseEF1A1 and SseEF1A2 as the Senegalese sole counterparts of mammalian eEF1A1 and eEF1A2, respectively, and of Sse42Sp50 as the ortholog of Xenopus laevis and teleost 42Sp50 gene. The other two elongation factors, SseEF1A3 and SseEF1A4, represent novel genes that are mainly expressed in gills and skin. The expression profile of the five genes was also studied during larval development, revealing different behaviours. To study the possible regulation of SseEF1A gene expressions by thyroid hormones (THs), larvae were exposed to the goitrogen thiourea (TU). TU-treated larvae exhibited lower SseEF1A4 mRNA levels than untreated controls at both 11 and 15 days after treatment, whereas transcripts of the other four genes remained relatively unchanged. Moreover, addition of exogenous T4 hormone to TU-treated larvae increased significantly the steady-state levels of SseEF1A4 with respect to untreated controls, demonstrating that its expression is up-regulated by THs. Conclusion We have identified five

  11. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha and multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Tiwary, Bhupendra Nath

    2016-01-01

    Rapid tumor growth creates a state of hypoxia in the tumor microenvironment and results in release of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HiF-1α) in the local milieu. Hypoxia inducible factor activity is deregulated in many human cancers, especially those that are highly hypoxic. In multiple myeloma (MM) in initial stages of disease establishment, the hypoxic bone marrow microenvironment supports the initial survival and growth of the myeloma cells. Hypoxic tumour cells are usually resistant to radiotherapy and most conventional chemotherapeutic agents, rendering them highly aggressive and metastatic. Therefore, HIF is an attractive, although challenging, therapeutic target in MM directly or indirectly in recent years. PMID:26900575

  12. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Induced Modifications of the Gene Expression Kinetics of Differentiating Skeletal Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Swanhild U.; Krebs, Stefan; Thirion, Christian; Blum, Helmut; Krause, Sabine; Pfaffl, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction TNF-α levels are increased during muscle wasting and chronic muscle degeneration and regeneration processes, which are characteristic for primary muscle disorders. Pathologically increased TNF-α levels have a negative effect on muscle cell differentiation efficiency, while IGF1 can have a positive effect; therefore, we intended to elucidate the impact of TNF-α and IGF1 on gene expression during the early stages of skeletal muscle cell differentiation. Methodology/Principal Findings This study presents gene expression data of the murine skeletal muscle cells PMI28 during myogenic differentiation or differentiation with TNF-α or IGF1 exposure at 0 h, 4 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 72 h after induction. Our study detected significant coregulation of gene sets involved in myoblast differentiation or in the response to TNF-α. Gene expression data revealed a time- and treatment-dependent regulation of signaling pathways, which are prominent in myogenic differentiation. We identified enrichment of pathways, which have not been specifically linked to myoblast differentiation such as doublecortin-like kinase pathway associations as well as enrichment of specific semaphorin isoforms. Moreover to the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of a specific inverse regulation of the following genes in myoblast differentiation and response to TNF-α: Aknad1, Cmbl, Sepp1, Ndst4, Tecrl, Unc13c, Spats2l, Lix1, Csdc2, Cpa1, Parm1, Serpinb2, Aspn, Fibin, Slc40a1, Nrk, and Mybpc1. We identified a gene subset (Nfkbia, Nfkb2, Mmp9, Mef2c, Gpx, and Pgam2), which is robustly regulated by TNF-α across independent myogenic differentiation studies. Conclusions This is the largest dataset revealing the impact of TNF-α or IGF1 treatment on gene expression kinetics of early in vitro skeletal myoblast differentiation. We identified novel mRNAs, which have not yet been associated with skeletal muscle differentiation or response to TNF-α. Results of this study may facilitate

  13. Targeted genes and interacting proteins of hypoxia inducible factor-1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Shen, Shao-Ming; Zhao, Xu-Yun; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Heterodimeric transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) functions as a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis in almost all nucleated mammalian cells. The fundamental process adapted to cellular oxygen alteration largely depends on the refined regulation on its alpha subunit, HIF-1α. Recent studies have unraveled expanding and critical roles of HIF-1α, involving in a multitude of developmental, physiological, and pathophysiological processes. This review will focus on the current knowledge of HIF-1α-targeting genes and its interacting proteins, as well as the concomitant functional relationships between them. PMID:22773957

  14. Altered Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha expression levels correlate with coronary vessel anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Wikenheiser, Jamie; Wolfram, Julie A.; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Yang, Ke; Karunamuni, Ganga; Wilson, David L.; Semenza, Gregg L.; Agani, Faton; Fisher, Steven A.; Ward, Nicole; Watanabe, Michiko

    2009-01-01

    The outflow tract myocardium and other regions corresponding to the location of the major coronary vessels of the developing chicken heart, display a high level of hypoxia as assessed by the hypoxia indicator EF5. The EF5 positive tissues were also specifically positive for nuclear-localized hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), the oxygen-sensitive component of the hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) heterodimer. This led to our hypothesis that there is a “template” of hypoxic tissue that determines the stereotyped pattern of the major coronary vessels. In this study we disturbed this template by altering ambient oxygen levels (hypoxia 15%; hyperoxia 75-40%) during the early phases of avian coronary vessel development, in order to alter tissue hypoxia, HIF-1α protein expression and its downstream target genes without high mortality. We also altered HIF-1α gene expression in the embryonic outflow tract cardiomyocytes by injecting an adenovirus containing a constitutively active form of HIF-1α (AdCA5). We assayed for coronary anomalies using anti-alpha-smooth muscle actin immunohistology. When incubated under abnormal oxygen levels or injected with a low titer of the AdCA5, coronary arteries displayed deviations from their normal proximal connections to the aorta. These deviations were similar to known clinical anomalies of coronary arteries. These findings indicated that developing coronary vessels may be subject to a level of regulation that is dependent on differential oxygen levels within cardiac tissues and subsequent HIF-1 regulation of gene expression. PMID:19777592

  15. Interaction of plant chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase with a homolog of eukaryotic elongation factor-1alpha

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, W.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1999-01-01

    A chimeric Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) was previously cloned and characterized in this laboratory. To investigate the biological functions of CCaMK, the yeast two-hybrid system was used to isolate genes encoding proteins that interact with CCaMK. One of the cDNA clones obtained from the screening (LlEF-1alpha1) has high similarity with the eukaryotic elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1alpha). CCaMK phosphorylated LlEF-1alpha1 in a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent manner. The phosphorylation site for CCaMK (Thr-257) was identified by site-directed mutagenesis. Interestingly, Thr-257 is located in the putative tRNA-binding region of LlEF-1alpha1. An isoform of Ca2+-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) phosphorylated multiple sites of LlEF-1alpha1 in a Ca2+-dependent but calmodulin-independent manner. Unlike CDPK, CCaMK phosphorylated only one site, and this site is different from CDPK phosphorylation sites. This suggests that the phosphorylation of EF-1alpha by these two kinases may have different functional significance. Although the phosphorylation of LlEF-1alpha1 by CCaMK is Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent, in vitro binding assays revealed that CCaMK binds to LlEF-1alpha1 in a Ca2+-independent manner. This was further substantiated by coimmunoprecipitation of CCaMK and EF-1alpha using the protein extract from lily anthers. Dissociation of CCaMK from EF-1alpha by Ca2+ and phosphorylation of EF-1alpha by CCaMK in a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent manner suggests that these interactions may play a role in regulating the biological functions of EF-1alpha.

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of the Xenopus hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (xHIF1alpha).

    PubMed

    de Beaucourt, Arnaud; Coumailleau, Pascal

    2007-12-15

    We report the molecular cloning and the characterization of the Xenopus homolog of mammalian hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF1alpha), a member of the bHLH/PAS transcription factor family. Searches in Xenopus genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis reveal the existence of HIF1alpha and HIF2alpha paralogs in the Xenopus laevis species. Sequence data analyses indicate that the organization of protein domains in Xenopus HIF1alpha (xHIF1alpha) is strongly conserved. We also show that xHIF1alpha heterodimerizes with the Xenopus Arnt1 protein (xArnt1) with the proteic complex being mediated by the HLH and PAS domains. Subcellular analysis in a Xenopus XTC cell line using chimeric GFP constructs show that over-expression of xHIF1alpha and xArnt1 allows us to detect the xHIF1alpha/xArnt1 complex in the nucleus, but only in the presence of both partners. Further analyses in XTC cell line show that over-producing xHIF1alpha and xArnt1 mediates trans-activation of the hypoxia response element (HRE) reporter. The trans-activation level can be increased in hypoxia conditions. Interestingly such trans-activation properties can be also observed when human Arnt1 is used together with the xHIF1alpha. PMID:17471499

  17. Interaction of the human cytomegalovirus particle with the host cell induces hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Steven; Nicholl, Mary Jane; Sutherland, Jane S.; Preston, Chris M.

    2011-05-25

    The cellular protein hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1{alpha}) was induced after infection of human fibroblasts with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). HCMV irradiated with ultraviolet light (uv-HCMV) also elicited the effect, demonstrating that the response was provoked by interaction of the infecting virion with the cell and that viral gene expression was not required. Although induction of HIF-1{alpha} was initiated by an early event, accumulation of the protein was not detected until 9 hours post infection, with levels increasing thereafter. Infection with uv-HCMV resulted in increased abundance of HIF-1{alpha}-specific RNA, indicating stimulation of transcription. In addition, greater phosphorylation of the protein kinase Akt was observed, and the activity of this enzyme was required for induction of HIF-1{alpha} to occur. HIF-1{alpha} controls the expression of many cellular gene products; therefore the findings reveal new ways in which interaction of the HCMV particle with the host cell may cause significant alterations to cellular physiology.

  18. Molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis of Clonorchis sinensis elongation factor-1alpha.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Yun; Cho, Pyo Yun; Na, Jong Won; Hong, Sung-Jong

    2007-11-01

    Elongation factor-1 (EF-1) plays a primary role in protein synthesis, e.g., in the regulation of cell growth, aging, motility, embryogenesis, and signal transduction. The authors identified a clone CsIH23 by immunoscreening a Clonorchis sinensis cDNA library. The cDNA of CsIH23 was found to have a putative open reading frame containing 461 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 50.5 kDa. Its polypeptide sequence was highly homologous with EF-1alpha of parasites and vertebrate animals. CsIH23 polypeptide contained three GTP/GDP-binding sites, one ribosome-binding domain, one actin-binding domain, one tRNA-binding domain, and two glyceryl-phosphoryl-ethanolamine attachment sites. Based on these primary and secondary structural similarities, it was concluded that CsIH23 cDNA encodes C. sinensis EF-1alpha (CsEF-1alpha). In a molecular phylogenic tree, CsEF-1alpha clustered with the EF-1alpha of helminthic parasites. Subsequently, CsEF-1alpha recombinant protein was bacterially overexpressed and purified by Ni-NTA affinity column chromatography. Immunoblotting using CsEF-1alpha recombinant protein produced positive signals for all serum samples tested from clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis viverinii, and paragonimiasis westermani patients and normal healthy controls. These findings suggest that recombinant CsEF-1alpha is of limited usefulness as serodiagnostic antigen for clonorchiasis. PMID:17674047

  19. Elongation factor 1 alpha concentration is highly correlated with the lysine content of maize endosperm.

    PubMed Central

    Habben, J E; Moro, G L; Hunter, B G; Hamaker, B R; Larkins, B A

    1995-01-01

    Lysine is the most limiting essential amino acid in cereals, and for many years plant breeders have attempted to increase its concentration to improve the nutritional quality of these grains. The opaque2 mutation in maize doubles the lysine content in the endosperm, but the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. We show that elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) is overexpressed in opaque2 endosperm compared with its normal counterpart and that there is a highly significant correlation between EF-1 alpha concentration and the total lysine content of the endosperm. This relationship is also true for two other cereals, sorghum and barley. It appears that genetic selection for genotypes with a high concentration of EF-1 alpha can significantly improve the nutritional quality of maize and other cereals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7567989

  20. Isolation and characterization of three cassava elongation factor 1 alpha (MeEF1A) promoters.

    PubMed

    Suhandono, Sony; Apriyanto, Ardha; Ihsani, Nisa

    2014-01-01

    In plant genetic engineering, the identification of gene promoters leading to particular expression patterns is crucial for the development of new genetically modified plant generations. This research was conducted in order to isolate and characterize several new promoters from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1A) gene family.Three promoters MeEF1A3, MeEF1A5 and MeEF1A6 were successfully isolated [corrected]. Sequence analyses showed that all of the promoters contain three conserved putative cis-acting elements which are located upstream of the transcription start site. These elements are included a TEF1, a TELO and TATA boxes. In addition, all of the promoters also have the 5'UTR intron but with a different lengths. These promoters were constructed translationally with gusA reporter gene (promoter::gusA fusion) in pBI-121 binary vector to build a new binary vector using Overlap Extension PCR Cloning (OEPC) technique. Transient expression assay that was done by using agroinfiltration method was used to show functionality of these promoters. Qualitative and quantitative analysis from GUS assay showed that these promoters were functional and conferred a specific activity in tobacco seedlings (Nicotiana tabacum), tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) and banana fruits (Musa acuminata). We hypothesized that MeEF1A6 could be categorized as a constitutive promoter because it was able to drive the gene expression in all transformed tissue described in here and also comparable to CaMV35S. On the other hand, MeEF1A3 drove specific expression in the aerial parts of seedlings such as hypocotyl and cotyledon thus MeEF1A5 drove specific expression in fruit tissue. The results obtained from transient analysis showed that these promoters had a distinct activity although they came from same gene family. The DNA sequences identified here are new promoters potentially use for genetic engineering in cassava or other plants. PMID:24404183

  1. Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 Alpha Is Expressed in Germ Cells throughout the Murine Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Lauren H.; Mathews, Juanita; Yamazaki, Yuki; Allsopp, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells of the early embryo, and germ line cells, are essential to ensure uncompromised development to adulthood as well as species propagation, respectively. Recently, the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (Hif1α) has been shown to have important roles in embryonic stem cells; in particular, regulation of conversion to glycolytic metabolism and, as we have shown, maintenance of functional levels of telomerase. In the present study, we sought to assess whether Hif1α was also expressed in the primitive cells of the murine embryo. We observed expression of Hif1α in pre-implantation embryos, specifically the 2-cell stage, morula, and blastocyst. Robust Hif1α expression was also observed in male and female primordial germ cells. We subsequently assessed whether Hif1α was expressed in adult male and female germ cells. In the testis, Hif1α was robustly expressed in spermatogonial cells, in both juvenile (6-week old) and adult (3-month old) males. In the ovaries, Hif1α was expressed in mature oocytes from adult females, as assessed both in situ and in individual oocytes flushed from super-ovulated females. Analysis of Hif1α transcript levels indicates a mechanism of regulation during early development that involves stockpiling of Hif1α protein in mature oocytes, presumably to provide protection from hypoxic stress until the gene is re-activated at the blastocyst stage. Together, these observations show that Hif1α is expressed throughout the life-cycle, including both the male and female germ line, and point to an important role for Hif1α in early progenitor cells. PMID:27148974

  2. Activation of vascular endothelial growth factor gene transcription by hypoxia-inducible factor 1.

    PubMed Central

    Forsythe, J A; Jiang, B H; Iyer, N V; Agani, F; Leung, S W; Koos, R D; Semenza, G L

    1996-01-01

    Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is induced in cells exposed to hypoxia or ischemia. Neovascularization stimulated by VEGF occurs in several important clinical contexts, including myocardial ischemia, retinal disease, and tumor growth. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimeric basic helix-loop-helix protein that activates transcription of the human erythropoietin gene in hypoxic cells. Here we demonstrate the involvement of HIF-1 in the activation of VEGF transcription. VEGF 5'-flanking sequences mediated transcriptional activation of reporter gene expression in hypoxic Hep3B cells. A 47-bp sequence located 985 to 939 bp 5' to the VEGF transcription initiation site mediated hypoxia-inducible reporter gene expression directed by a simian virus 40 promoter element that was otherwise minimally responsive to hypoxia. When reporters containing VEGF sequences, in the context of the native VEGF or heterologous simian virus 40 promoter, were cotransfected with expression vectors encoding HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta (ARNT [aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator]), reporter gene transcription was much greater in both hypoxic and nonhypoxic cells than in cells transfected with the reporter alone. A HIF-1 binding site was demonstrated in the 47-bp hypoxia response element, and a 3-bp substitution eliminated the ability of the element to bind HIF-1 and to activate transcription in response to hypoxia and/or recombinant HIF-1. Cotransfection of cells with an expression vector encoding a dominant negative form of HIF-1alpha inhibited the activation of reporter transcription in hypoxic cells in a dose-dependent manner. VEGF mRNA was not induced by hypoxia in mutant cells that do not express the HIF-1beta (ARNT) subunit. These findings implicate HIF-1 in the activation of VEGF transcription in hypoxic cells. PMID:8756616

  3. Roles of adrenomedullin and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha in patients with varicocele.

    PubMed

    Hu, W; Zhou, P-H; Zhang, X-B; Xu, C-G; Wang, W

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to assess any changes in the plasma concentrations of adrenomedullin (ADM) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF 1a) in patients with varicocele (VC). Plasma concentrations of ADM and HIF 1a were measured in brachial vein (BV) and internal spermatic vein (ISV) of 30 fertile VC subjects and 35 untreated infertile VC patients. The results demonstrated that plasma levels of ADM and HIF 1a were significantly higher in ISV than those in BV in the fertile or infertile group respectively. The values of ADM and HIF 1a in BV or ISV of the infertile group were significantly higher than in BV or ISV of the fertile group respectively. Similar changes in values of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) were observed. Plasma HIF 1a concentration positively correlated with ROM levels. Plasma ADM concentration positively correlated with ROM values and HIF 1a levels in the two groups. Moreover, remarkable improvement in clinical sperm parameters was observed 3 months after surgery for the infertile patients. It is concluded that ADM may participate, along with HIF 1a, in mechanisms that aid spermatogenic cells in adapting to hypoxia. These predictors may have potential in infertility development in VC patients. Furthermore, early surgical repair is extremely important for infertile VC patients with poor semen quality. PMID:25335788

  4. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha: A promising therapeutic target in endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Lei; Wang, Wenyan; Zhang, Yu; Song, Enxue; Fan, Yijun; Wei, Bing

    2016-04-01

    Endometriosis is a common gynecologic disease defined as the presence of ectopic endometrial tissues on the ovaries and pelvic peritoneum, and it is a significant cause of pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea and infertility of women in their reproductive age. However, the etiology of endometriosis remains obscure. In recent years, a growing body of evidence validated that hypoxia developed a close relationship with endometriosis and the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α) was increased significantly in the development of endometriosis. Furthermore, inhibiting the expression of HIF-1α contributed to suppress endometriosis progression, suggesting HIF-1α plays a critical function in endometriosis. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which HIF-1α associates with endometriosis are still undefined. In this brief review, we had a general understanding of HIF-1α firstly, and then we tried to sum up the collective knowledge of HIF-1α in endometriosis. Finally, we will discuss kinds of novel therapeutic approaches to endometriosis based on the functions of HIF-1α. PMID:26898675

  5. A Polymorphism in Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1 Alpha, rs7310409, Is Associated with Left Main Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Liu, Hanning; Gu, Haiyong; Teng, Xiao; Nie, Yu; Zhou, Zhou; Zhao, Yan; Hu, Shengshou; Zheng, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) is a particularly severe phenotypic form of CAD and has a genetic basis. We hypothesized that some inflammation- and hyperhomocysteinemia-related gene polymorphisms may contribute to LMCAD susceptibility in a Chinese population. We studied the association between polymorphisms in the genes hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A; rs7310409, G/A), C-reactive protein (rs1800947 and rs3093059 T/C), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (rs1801133, C/T), and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (rs1076991, A/G) in 402 LMCAD and 804 more peripheral CAD patients in a Chinese population. Genotyping was performed using the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry method. When the HNF1A rs7310409 GG homozygote genotype was used as the reference group, both the individual, GA and AA, and combined GA/AA genotypes were associated with an increased risk of LMCAD. This single nucleotide polymorphism (rs7310409) is strongly associated with plasma CRP levels. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that the HNF1A rs7310409 G/A functional polymorphism may contribute to the risk of LMCAD. PMID:25202455

  6. Gene transfer mediated by alpha2-macroglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, H; Huse, K; Birkenmeier, G; Otto, A; Scholz, G H

    1996-01-01

    alpha2-Macroglobulin covalently linked to poly(L)-lysine can be used as a vehicle for receptor-mediated gene transfer. This modified alpha2-macroglobulin maintains its ability to bind to the alpha2-macroglobulin receptor, and was shown to introduce a luciferase reporter gene plasmid into HepG2 human hepatoma cells in vitro. The alpha2-macroglobulin receptor is a very large and multifunctional cell surface receptor, whose rapid and efficient internalization rate makes it attractive for gene therapy, e.g. for hepatic gene targeting via injection into the portal vein. PMID:8871570

  7. Functional defect of truncated hepatocyte nuclear factor-1{alpha} (G554fsX556) associated with maturity-onset diabetes of the young

    SciTech Connect

    Kooptiwut, Suwattanee; Sujjitjoon, Jatuporn; Plengvidhya, Nattachet; Boonyasrisawat, Watip; Chongjaroen, Nalinee; Jungtrakoon, Prapapron; Semprasert, Namoiy; Furuta, Hiroto; Nanjo, Kishio; Banchuin, Napatawn; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2009-05-22

    A novel frameshift mutation attributable to 14-nucleotide insertion in hepatocyte nuclear factor-1{alpha} (HNF-1{alpha}) encoding a truncated HNF-1{alpha} (G554fsX556) with 76-amino acid deletion at its carboxyl terminus was identified in a Thai family with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). The wild-type and mutant HNF-1{alpha} proteins were expressed by in vitro transcription and translation (TNT) assay and by transfection in HeLa cells. The wild-type and mutant HNF-1{alpha} could similarly bind to human glucose-transporter 2 (GLUT2) promoter examined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). However, the transactivation activities of mutant HNF-1{alpha} on human GLUT2 and rat L-type pyruvate kinase (L-PK) promoters in HeLa cells determined by luciferase reporter assay were reduced to approximately 55-60% of the wild-type protein. These results suggested that the functional defect of novel truncated HNF-1{alpha} (G554fsX556) on the transactivation of its target-gene promoters would account for the {beta}-cell dysfunction associated with the pathogenesis of MODY.

  8. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha in high-risk breast cancer: an independent prognostic parameter?

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Günther; Greiner, Richard H; Hlushchuk, Ruslan; Aebersold, Daniel M; Altermatt, Hans J; Berclaz, Gilles; Djonov, Valentin

    2004-01-01

    Background Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (hif-1α) furnishes tumor cells with the means of adapting to stress parameters like tumor hypoxia and promotes critical steps in tumor progression and aggressiveness. We investigated the role of hif-1α expression in patients with node-positive breast cancer. Methods Tumor samples from 77 patients were available for immunohistochemistry. The impact of hif-1α immunoreactivity on survival endpoints was determined by univariate and multivariate analyses, and correlations to clinicopathological characteristics were determined by cross-tabulations. Results hif-1α was expressed in 56% (n = 43/77) of the patients. Its expression correlated with progesterone receptor negativity (P = 0.002). The Kaplan–Meier curves revealed significantly shorter distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) (P = 0.04, log-rank) and disease-free survival (DFS) (P = 0.04, log-rank) in patients with increased hif-1α expression. The difference in overall survival (OS) did not attain statistical significance (5-year OS, 66% without hif-1α expression and 55% with hif-1α expression; P = 0.21). The multivariate analysis failed to reveal an independent prognostic value for hif-1α expression in the whole patient group. The only significant parameter for all endpoints was the T stage (T3/T4 versus T1/T2: DMFS, relative risk = 3.16, P = 0.01; DFS, relative risk = 2.57, P = 0.03; OS, relative risk = 3.03, P = 0.03). Restricting the univariate and multivariate analyses to T1/T2 tumors, hif-1α expression was a significant parameter for DFS and DMFS. Conclusions hif-1α is expressed in the majority of patients with node-positive breast cancer. It can serve as a prognostic marker for an unfavorable outcome in those with T1/T2 tumors and positive axillary lymph nodes. PMID:15084243

  9. Wortmannin influences hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha expression and glycolysis in esophageal carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ling; Zhou, Hai-Yun; Tang, Na-Na; Zhang, Wei-Feng; He, Gui-Jun; Hao, Bo; Feng, Ya-Dong; Zhu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the influence of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT)-HIF-1α signaling pathway on glycolysis in esophageal carcinoma cells under hypoxia. METHODS: Esophageal carcinoma cell lines Eca109 and TE13 were cultured under hypoxia environment, and the protein, mRNA and activity levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), glucose transporter 1, hexokinase-II, phosphofructokinase 2 and lactate dehydrogenase-A were determined. Supernatant lactic acid concentrations were also detected. The PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was then inhibited with wortmannin, and the effects of hypoxia on the expression or activities of HIF-1α, associated glycolytic enzymes and lactic acid concentrations were observed. Esophageal carcinoma cells were then transfected with interference plasmid with HIF-1α-targeting siRNA to assess impact of the high expression of HIF-1α on glycolysis. RESULTS: HIF-1α is highly expressed in the esophageal carcinoma cell lines tested, and with decreasing levels of oxygen, the expression of HIF-1α and the associated glycolytic enzymes and the extracellular lactic acid concentration were enhanced in the esophageal carcinoma cell lines Eca109 and TE13. In both normoxia and hypoxic conditions, the level of glycolytic enzymes and the secretion of lactic acid were both reduced by wortmannin. The expression and activities of glycolytic enzymes and the lactic acid concentration in cells were reduced by inhibiting HIF-1α, especially the decreasing level of glycolysis was significant under hypoxic conditions. CONCLUSION: The PI3K/AKT pathway and HIF-1α are both involved in the process of glycolysis in esophageal cancer cells. PMID:27239113

  10. Functional properties of an isolated. cap alpha beta. heterodimeric human placenta insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Feltz, S.M.; Swanson, M.L.; Wemmie, J.A.; Pessin, J.E.

    1988-05-03

    Treatment of human placenta membranes at pH 8.5 in the presence of 2.0 mM dithiothreitol (DTT) for 5 min, followed by the simultaneous removal of the DTT and pH adjustment of pH 7.6, resulted in the formation of a functional ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor complex from the native ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric disulfide-linked state. The membrane-bound ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric complex displayed similar curvilinear /sup 125/I-IGF-1 equilibrium binding compared to the ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric complex. /sup 125/I-IGF-1 binding to both the isolated ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric and ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric complexes demonstrated a marked straightening of the Scatchard plots, compared to the placenta membrane-bound IGF-1 receptors, with a 2-fold increase in the high-affinity binding component. IGF-1 stimulation of IGF-1 receptor autophosphorylation indicated that the ligand-dependent activation of ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric protein kinase activity occurred concomitant with the reassociation into a covalent ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric state. These data demonstrate that (i) a combination of alkaline pH and DTT treatment of human placenta membranes results in the formation of an ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric IGF-1 receptor complex, (ii) unlike the insulin receptor, high-affinity homogeneous IGF-1 binding occurs in both the ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric and ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric complexes, and (iii) IGF-1-dependent autophosphorylation of the ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric IGF-1 receptor complex correlates wit an IGF-1 dependent covalent reassociation into an ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric disulfide-linked state.

  11. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha expression in experimental cirrhosis: correlation with vascular endothelial growth factor expression and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bozova, Sevgi; Elpek, Gülsüm Ozlem

    2007-07-01

    Angiogenesis progresses together with fibrogenesis during chronic liver injury. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), a master regulator of homeostasis, plays a pivotal role in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis through its regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The association between hypoxia, angiogenesis and VEGF expression has been demonstrated in experimental cirrhosis. However, expression of HIF-1alpha has yet to be reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of HIF-1alpha expression during experimental liver fibrosis and the relationships between HIF-1alpha expression, VEGF expression and angiogenesis. Cirrhosis was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal administration of diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) (100 mg/kg, once a week). The serial sections from liver tissues were stained with anti-HIF-1alpha, anti-VEGF and anti-CD34 antibodies before being measured by light microscopy. Our results showed that HIF-1alpha expression gradually increases according to the severity of fibrosis (p<0.01). Moreover, its expression was found to be correlated with angiogenesis (r=0.916) and VEGF expression (r=0.969). The present study demonstrates that HIF-1alpha might have a role in the development of angiogenesis via regulation of VEGF during experimental liver fibrogenesis and suggests that this factor could be a potential target in the manipulation of angiogenesis in chronic inflammatory diseases of the liver. PMID:17614845

  12. Divergence of human [alpha]-chain constant region gene sequences: A novel recombinant [alpha]2 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Chintalacharuvu, K. R.; Morrison, S.L. ); Raines, M. )

    1994-06-01

    IgA is the major Ig synthesized in humans and provides the first line of defense at the mucosal surfaces. The constant region of IgA heavy chain is encoded by the [alpha] gene on chromosome 14. Previous studies have indicated the presence of two [alpha] genes, [alpha]1 and [alpha]2 existing in two allotypic forms, [alpha]2 m(1) and [alpha]2 m(2). Here the authors report the cloning and complete nucleotide sequence determination of a novel human [alpha] gene. Nucleotide sequence comparison with the published [alpha] sequences suggests that the gene arose as a consequence of recombination or gene conversion between the two [alpha]2 alleles. The authors have expressed the gene as a chimeric protein in myeloma cells indicating that it encodes a functional protein. The novel IgA resembles IgA2 m(2) in that disulfide bonds link H and L chains. This novel recombinant gene provides insights into the mechanisms of generation of different constant regions and suggests that within human populations, multiple alleles of [alpha] may be present providing IgAs of different structures.

  13. Role of hypoxia-inducible factor 1{alpha} in modulating cobalt-induced lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Saini, Yogesh; Kim, Kyung Y; Lewandowski, Ryan; Bramble, Lori A; Harkema, Jack R; Lapres, John J

    2010-02-01

    Hypoxia plays an important role in development, cellular homeostasis, and pathological conditions, such as cancer and stroke. There is also growing evidence that hypoxia is an important modulator of the inflammatory process. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are a family of proteins that regulate the cellular response to oxygen deficit, and loss of HIFs impairs inflammatory cell function. There is little known, however, about the role of epithelial-derived HIF signaling in modulating inflammation. Cobalt is capable of eliciting an allergic response and promoting HIF signaling. To characterize the inflammatory function of epithelial-derived HIF in response to inhaled cobalt, a conditional lung-specific HIF1alpha, the most ubiquitously expressed HIF, deletion mouse, was created. Control mice showed classic signs of metal-induced injury following cobalt exposure, including fibrosis and neutrophil infiltration. In contrast, HIF1alpha-deficient mice displayed a Th2 response that resembled asthma, including increased eosinophilic infiltration, mucus cell metaplasia, and chitinase-like protein expression. The results suggest that epithelial-derived HIF signaling has a critical role in establishing a tissue's inflammatory response, and compromised HIF1alpha signaling biases the tissue towards a Th2-mediated reaction. PMID:19915160

  14. The nuclear elongation factor-1α gene: a promising marker for phylogenetic studies of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Díaz, Sebastián; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Gómez-Palacio, Andrés

    2016-09-01

    Molecular systematics is a remarkable approach for understanding the taxonomic traits and allows the exploration of the inter-population dynamics of several species in the Triatominae subfamily that are involved in Trypanosoma cruzi transmission. Compared to other relevant species that transmit vector-borne diseases, such as some species of the Diptera, there are relatively few nuclear genetic markers available for systematic studies in the Triatominae subfamily. Molecular systematic studies performed on Triatominae are based on mitochondrial gene fragments and, less frequently, on nuclear ribosomal genes or spacers. Due to the fact that these markers can occasionally present problems such as nuclear mitochondrial genes (NUMTs) or intra-genomic variation for high gene copy numbers, it is necessary to use additional nuclear markers to more reliably address the molecular evolution of Triatominae. In this study, we performed phylogenetic analysis using the nuclear elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) gene in individuals from 12 species belonging to the Triatomini and Rhodniini tribes. Genetic diversities and phylogenetic topologies were compared with those obtained for the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and Cytochrome b (cyt b) genes, as well as for the D2 variable region of the ribosomal 28S rRNA gene. These results indicate that the EF-1α marker exhibits an intermediate level of diversity compared to mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal genes, and that phylogenetic analysis based on EF-1α is highly informative for resolving deep phylogenetic relationships in Triatominae, such as tribe or genera. PMID:27268149

  15. Prognostic Significance of Tumor Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1{alpha} Expression for Outcome After Radiotherapy in Oropharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Priyamal; Slevin, Nick J.; Sloan, Philip; Valentine, Helen; Cresswell, Jo; Ryder, David; Price, Patricia; Homer, Jarrod J.; West, Catharine

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: Head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represents a heterogeneous group of patients in terms of subsite, treatment, and biology. Currently most management decisions are based on clinical parameters with little appreciation of patient differences in underlying tumor biology. We investigated the prognostic significance of clinicopathologic features and tumor hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) expression in a homogeneous series of patients who underwent radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: An audit identified 133 consecutive patients with histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil or tongue base. All patients received primary radiotherapy between 1996 and 2001. Tumor HIF-1{alpha} expression was examined in 79 patients. Results: Features associated with poor locoregional control were low Hb level (p = 0.05) and advancing T (p = 0.008), N (p = 0.03), and disease (p = 0.008) stage. HIF-1{alpha} expression was a more significant adverse prognostic factor in the tonsil (hazard ratio [HR], 23.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]. 3.04-176.7) than the tongue-base tumor (HR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.14-7.19) group (p = 0.03, test for interaction). High tumor HIF-1{alpha} expression was associated with low blood Hb levels (p = 0.03). In a multivariate analysis HIF-1{alpha} expression retained prognostic significance for locoregional control (HR, 7.10; 95% CI, 3.07-16.43) and cancer-specific survival (HR, 9.19; 95% CI, 3.90-21.6). Conclusions: There are significant differences in radiation therapy outcome within a homogeneous subsite of the oropharynx related to molecular marker expression. The work highlights the importance of studying homogeneous groups of patients in HNSCC, and the complex interrelationships between tumor biology and clinicopathologic factors. The establishment of tumor-type specific markers would represent a major advance in this area.

  16. Sphingosine kinase 1: a new modulator of hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha during hypoxia in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ader, Isabelle; Brizuela, Leyre; Bouquerel, Pierre; Malavaud, Bernard; Cuvillier, Olivier

    2008-10-15

    Here, we provide the first evidence that sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), an oncogenic lipid kinase balancing the intracellular level of key signaling sphingolipids, modulates the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha), master regulator of hypoxia. SphK1 activity is stimulated under low oxygen conditions and regulated by reactive oxygen species. The SphK1-dependent stabilization of HIF-1alpha levels is mediated by the Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3beta signaling pathway that prevents its von Hippel-Lindau protein-mediated degradation by the proteasome. The pharmacologic and RNA silencing inhibition of SphK1 activity prevents the accumulation of HIF-1alpha and its transcriptional activity in several human cancer cell lineages (prostate, brain, breast, kidney, and lung), suggesting a canonical pathway. Therefore, we propose that SphK1 can act as a master regulator for hypoxia, giving support to its inhibition as a valid strategy to control tumor hypoxia and its molecular consequences. PMID:18922940

  17. Alpha globin gene analysis in a Sardinian family with interacting alpha and beta thalassaemia genes.

    PubMed

    Melis, M A; Galanello, R; Cao, A

    1983-04-01

    This paper reports the results of alpha globin gene analysis in a Sardinian family with interacting alpha and beta thalassaemia genes. The propositus, who was identified in a newborn survey as he had 26.0% Hb Bart's and 74.0% Hb F, successively developed the clinical and haematological picture of a transfusion-dependent thalassaemia major. According to the haemoglobin pattern, restriction endonuclease analysis of the DNA from this patient showed the deletion of three of the four alpha-globin structural genes. Thus beta 0-thalassaemia homozygotes with the delection of three alpha-structural genes seem to have a severe clinical phenotype similar to that of patients with a full complement of four alpha-globin structural genes. PMID:6299325

  18. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha as a therapeutic target in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Terragna, Carolina; Martello, Marina; Dico, Angela F.; Solaini, Giancarlo; Baracca, Alessandra; Sgarbi, Gianluca; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Valente, Sabrina; Zamagni, Elena; Tacchetti, Paola; Martinelli, Giovanni; Cavo, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The increasing importance of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in tumorigenesis raises the possibility that agents which specifically inhibit this transcription factor, would provide significant therapeutic benefit. The constitutive expression of HIF-1α in about 35% of Multiple Myeloma (MM) patients suggests HIF-1α suppression might be part of a therapeutic strategy. Accordingly, we explored the effect of EZN-2968, a small 3rd generation antisense oligonucleotide against HIF-1α, in a panel of MM cell lines and primary patients samples. Here, we demonstrated that EZN-2968 is highly specific for HIF-1α mRNA and that exposure of MM cells to EZN-2968 resulted in an efficient and homogeneous loading of the cells showing a long lasting low HIF-1α protein level. In MM cells, HIF-1α suppression induced a permanent cell cycle arrest by prolonging S-phase through cyclin A modulation and in addition it induced a mild apoptotic cell death. Moreover, HIF-1α suppression caused a metabolic shift that leaded to increased production of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation (i.e. Warburg effect reversion), that was confirmed by the observed mitochondrial membrane potential decrease. These results show that HIF-1α is an important player in MM homeostasis and that its inhibition by small antisense oligonucleotides provides a rationale for novel therapeutic strategy to improving MM treatment. PMID:24732040

  19. The Role of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 Alpha in Bypassing Oncogene-Induced Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Kilic Eren, Mehtap; Tabor, Vedrana

    2014-01-01

    Oncogene induced senescence (OIS) is a sustained anti-proliferative response acutely induced in primary cells via activation of mitogenic oncogenes such as Ras/BRAF. This mechanism acts as an initial barrier preventing normal cells transformation into malignant cell. Besides oncogenic activation and DNA damage response (DDR), senescence is modulated by a plethora of other factors, and one of the most important one is oxygen tension of the tissue. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of hypoxia on RasV12-induced senescence in human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs). We showed here that hypoxia prevents execution of oncogene induced senescence (OIS), through a strong down-regulation of senescence hallmarks, such as SA- β-galactosidase, H3K9me3, HP1γ, p53, p21CIP1 and p16INK4a in association with induction of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). In addition, hypoxia also decreased marks of H-RasV12-induced DDR in both cell lines through down-regulation of ATM/ATR, Chk1 and Chk2 phosphorylation as well as decreased γ-H2AX positivity. Utilizing shRNA system targeting HIF-1α we show that HIF-1α is directly involved in down regulation of p53 and its target p21CIP1 but not p16INK4a. In line with this finding we found that knock down of HIF-1α leads to a strong induction of apoptotic response, but not restoration of senescence in Ras expressing HDFs in hypoxia. This indicates that HIF-1α is an important player in early steps of tumorigenesis, leading to suppression of senescence through its negative regulation of p53 and p21CIP1. In our work we describe a mechanism through which hypoxia and specifically HIF-1α preclude cells from maintaining senescence-driven anti proliferative response. These findings indicate the possible mechanism through which hypoxic environment helps premalignant cells to evade impingement of cellular failsafe pathways. PMID:24984035

  20. Chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha}, suppress amyloid {beta}-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, Dayanidhi; Milatovic, Snjezana-Zaja; Milatovic, Dejan; Fan, Guo-Huang; Richmond, Ann

    2011-11-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive cognitive decline and accumulation of neurotoxic oligomeric peptides amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}). Although the molecular events are not entirely known, it has become evident that inflammation, environmental and other risk factors may play a causal, disruptive and/or protective role in the development of AD. The present study investigated the ability of the chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha} (SDF-1{alpha}), the respective ligands for chemokine receptors CXCR2 and CXCR4, to suppress A{beta}-induced neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment with MIP-2 or SDF-1{alpha} significantly protected neurons from A{beta}-induced dendritic regression and apoptosis in vitro through activation of Akt, ERK1/2 and maintenance of metalloproteinase ADAM17 especially with SDF-1{alpha}. Intra-cerebroventricular (ICV) injection of A{beta} led to reduction in dendritic length and spine density of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and increased oxidative damage 24 h following the exposure. The A{beta}-induced morphometric changes of neurons and increase in biomarkers of oxidative damage, F{sub 2}-isoprostanes, were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with the chemokines MIP-2 or SDF-1{alpha}. Additionally, MIP-2 or SDF-1{alpha} was able to suppress the aberrant mislocalization of p21-activated kinase (PAK), one of the proteins involved in the maintenance of dendritic spines. Furthermore, MIP-2 also protected neurons against A{beta} neurotoxicity in CXCR2-/- mice, potentially through observed up regulation of CXCR1 mRNA. Understanding the neuroprotective potential of chemokines is crucial in defining the role for their employment during the early stages of neurodegeneration. -- Research highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neuroprotective ability of the chemokines MIP2 and CXCL12 against A{beta} toxicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MIP-2 or

  1. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), and microvessel density in endometrial tissue in women with adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Goteri, Gaia; Lucarini, Guendalina; Montik, Nina; Zizzi, Antonio; Stramazzotti, Daniela; Fabris, Guidalberto; Tranquilli, Andrea Luigi; Ciavattini, Andrea

    2009-03-01

    Adenomyosis is a disease with a mysterious pathogenesis, defined by an abnormal displacement of the eutopic endometrium deeply and haphazardly inside the myometrium. Angiogenesis has been indicated to play an important role and our aim was to investigate whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) expression and microvessel density (MVD) were different in women with and without adenomyosis. Immunohistochemistry was performed in endometrial tissues in 23 patients who underwent radical hysterectomy for adenomyosis (14) and for ovarian cysts and fibroids (9) at an Academic Hospital. Compared to women without the disease, VEGF expression was increased in endometrium with a normal location in patients with adenomyosis, although not associated to a significant increase of HIF-1alpha and MVD. Moreover, the endometrium with an abnormal location in patients with adenomyosis showed an increased VEGF and HIF-1alpha expression, particularly in the epithelial cells, associated to an increase of MVD, compared with the endometrium in a normal location in the same group of patients. Our present findings suggest that VEGF-mediated angiogenesis might be associated with the development of adenomyosis. In the ectopic foci the abnormal location might contribute to increased HIF-1a expression, stimulation of VEGF production, and increased vessel formation. In endometrium with a normal location, instead, where VEGF increased expression seems not to be correlated with HIF-1alpha increased expression nor with an increased MVD, other mechanisms might be reasonably postulated. Additional studies are required to explore new targeted and more effective treatment modalities. PMID:19188818

  2. Sporadic cutaneous angiosarcomas generally lack hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha: a histologic and immunohistochemical study of 45 cases.

    PubMed

    Abedalthagafi, Malak; Rushing, Elisabeth J; Auerbach, Aaron; Desouki, Mohamed M; Marwaha, Jason; Wang, Zengfeng; Fanburg-Smith, Julie C

    2010-02-01

    Cutaneous angiosarcoma (AS) is a rare malignant neoplasm of dermis composed of infiltrating cells of endothelial phenotype with overall poor prognosis. Although autocrine stimulation by vascular endothelial growth factor secretion may play a role in the pathogenesis of angiosarcoma, its mechanism has not been fully established. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that mediates cellular and systemic homeostatic responses to hypoxia.. The stability of HIF can regulate key proteins in angiogenesis and the alpha-subunit has been found in epithelial tumors, only 1 case of human retroperitoneal angiosarcoma, and rare vascular proliferations and tumors in knockout mice. We wanted to observe the utility of HIF-1alpha as a marker or explanatory factor in AS. Cases coded as "angiosarcoma" of dermis were culled and re-reviewed for inclusion as AS, based on patient folder, slides, and obtained immunohistochemistry including CD31 and smooth muscle actin (SMA). Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha was performed on a subset of cases, with additional available material. Forty-five cases met the criteria for AS; there were 17% females and 83% males, with a mean age at presentation of 67 years (range, 27-88 years). Tumors presented most commonly in the skin of the scalp followed by the left lower leg, face, nose, lower arm, neck, thigh, eyelid, ear, and temple. Associated basal cell carcinoma was noted in 1 patient; no others had other neoplasms or unrelated surgeries. There was no history of other primary, lymphedema, radiation, breast-associated, or thorotrast-induced angiosarcoma. The tumors ranged in size from 0.4 up to 9.5 cm, with a mean size of 2.4 cm. Histopathologically, most tumors were vasoformative, with either solid architecture (n = 35) or papillary endothelial hyperplasia-like foci (n = 7). All cases demonstrated infiltrative growth pattern, cytologic atypia, and mitotic activity, including atypical forms. Surface ulceration was present in 44% and

  3. Toll-like receptor 3 regulates angiogenesis and apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines through hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha.

    PubMed

    Paone, Alessio; Galli, Roberta; Gabellini, Chiara; Lukashev, Dmitriy; Starace, Donatella; Gorlach, Agnes; De Cesaris, Paola; Ziparo, Elio; Del Bufalo, Donatella; Sitkovsky, Michail V; Filippini, Antonio; Riccioli, Anna

    2010-07-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize microbial/viral-derived components that trigger innate immune response and conflicting data implicate TLR agonists in cancer, either as protumor or antitumor agents. We previously demonstrated that TLR3 activation mediated by its agonist poly(I:C) induces antitumor signaling, leading to apoptosis of prostate cancer cells LNCaP and PC3 with much more efficiency in the former than in the second more aggressive line. The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) regulates several cellular processes, including apoptosis, in response to hypoxia and to other stimuli also in normoxic conditions. Here we describe a novel protumor machinery triggered by TLR3 activation in PC3 cells consisting of increased expression of the specific I.3 isoform of HIF-1 alpha and nuclear accumulation of HIF-1 complex in normoxia, resulting in reduced apoptosis and in secretion of functional vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Moreover, we report that, in the less aggressive LNCaP cells, TLR3 activation fails to induce nuclear accumulation of HIF-1 alpha. However, the transfection of I.3 isoform of hif-1 alpha in LNCaP cells allows poly(I:C)-induced HIF-1 activation, resulting in apoptosis protection and VEGF secretion. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that differences in the basal level of HIF-1 alpha expression in different prostate cancer cell lines underlie their differential response to TLR3 activation, suggesting a correlation between different stages of malignancy, hypoxic gene expression, and beneficial responsiveness to TLR agonists. PMID:20651983

  4. High glucose concentrations attenuate hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} expression and signaling in non-tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dehne, Nathalie; Bruene, Bernhard

    2010-04-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is the major transcription factor mediating adaption to hypoxia e.g. by enhancing glycolysis. In tumor cells, high glucose concentrations are known to increase HIF-1{alpha} expression even under normoxia, presumably by enhancing the concentration of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, while reactions of non-tumor cells are not well defined. Therefore, we analyzed cellular responses to different glucose concentrations in respect to HIF activation comparing tumor to non-tumor cells. Using cells derived from non-tumor origin, we show that HIF-1{alpha} accumulation was higher under low compared to high glucose concentrations. Low glucose allowed mRNA expression of HIF-1 target genes like adrenomedullin. Transfection of C{sub 2}C{sub 12} cells with a HIF-1{alpha} oxygen-dependent degradation domaine-GFP fusion protein revealed that prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) activity is impaired at low glucose concentrations, thus stabilizing the fusion protein. Mechanistic considerations suggested that neither O{sub 2} redistribution nor an altered redox state explains impaired PHD activity in the absence of glucose. In order to affect PHD activity, glucose needs to be metabolized. Amino acids present in the medium also diminished HIF-1{alpha} expression, while the addition of fatty acids did not. This suggests that glucose or amino acid metabolism increases oxoglutarate concentrations, which enhances PHD activity in non-tumor cells. Tumor cells deprived of glutamine showed HIF-1{alpha} accumulation in the absence of glucose, proposing that enhanced glutaminolysis observed in many tumors enables these cells to compensate reduced oxoglutarate production in the absence of glucose.

  5. Recombination between elongation factor 1α genes from distantly related archaeal lineages

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, Yuji; Susko, Edward; Roger, Andrew J.

    2006-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) and lateral gene transfer are major processes in genome evolution. The combination of the two processes, HR between genes in different species, has been documented but is thought to be restricted to very similar sequences in relatively closely related organisms. Here we report two cases of interspecific HR in the gene encoding the core translational protein translation elongation factor 1α (EF-1α) between distantly related archaeal groups. Maximum-likelihood sliding window analyses indicate that a fragment of the EF-1α gene from the archaeal lineage represented by Methanopyrus kandleri was recombined into the orthologous gene in a common ancestor of the Thermococcales. A second recombination event appears to have occurred between the EF-1α gene of the genus Methanothermobacter and its ortholog in a common ancestor of the Methanosarcinales, a distantly related euryarchaeal lineage. These findings suggest that HR occurs across a much larger evolutionary distance than generally accepted and affects highly conserved essential “informational” genes. Although difficult to detect by standard whole-gene phylogenetic analyses, interspecific HR in highly conserved genes may occur at an appreciable frequency, potentially confounding deep phylogenetic inference and hypothesis testing. PMID:16537397

  6. Stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha} (SDF-1{alpha}/CXCL12) stimulates ovarian cancer cell growth through the EGF receptor transactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Porcile, Carola; Bajetto, Adriana . E-mail: bajetto@cba.unige.it; Barbieri, Federica; Barbero, Simone; Bonavia, Rudy; Biglieri, Marianna; Pirani, Paolo; Florio, Tullio . E-mail: florio@cba.unige.it; Schettini, Gennaro

    2005-08-15

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is the leading cause of death in gynecologic diseases in which there is evidence for a complex chemokine network. Chemokines are a family of proteins that play an important role in tumor progression influencing cell proliferation, angiogenic/angiostatic processes, cell migration and metastasis, and, finally, regulating the immune cells recruitment into the tumor mass. We previously demonstrated that astrocytes and glioblastoma cells express both the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), and that SDF-1{alpha} treatment induced cell proliferation, supporting the hypothesis that chemokines may play an important role in tumor cells' growth in vitro. In the present study, we report that CXCR4 and SDF-1 are expressed in OC cell lines. We demonstrate that SDF-1{alpha} induces a dose-dependent proliferation in OC cells, by the specific interaction with CXCR4 and a biphasic activation of ERK1/2 and Akt kinases. Our results further indicate that CXCR4 activation induces EGF receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation that in turn was linked to the downstream intracellular kinases activation, ERK1/2 and Akt. In addition, we provide evidence for cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase (c-Src) involvement in the SDF-1/CXCR4-EGFR transactivation. These results suggest a possible important 'cross-talk' between SDF-1/CXCR4 and EGFR intracellular pathways that may link signals of cell proliferation in ovarian cancer.

  7. MUC1 mucin stabilizes and activates hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha to regulate metabolism in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chaika, Nina V.; Gebregiworgis, Teklab; Lewallen, Michelle E.; Purohit, Vinee; Radhakrishnan, Prakash; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Bo; Mehla, Kamiya; Brown, Roger B.; Caffrey, Thomas; Yu, Fang; Johnson, Keith R.; Powers, Robert; Hollingsworth, Michael A.; Singh, Pankaj K.

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant glucose metabolism is one of the hallmarks of cancer that facilitates cancer cell survival and proliferation. Here, we demonstrate that MUC1, a large, type I transmembrane protein that is overexpressed in several carcinomas including pancreatic adenocarcinoma, modulates cancer cell metabolism to facilitate growth properties of cancer cells. MUC1 occupies the promoter elements of multiple genes directly involved in glucose metabolism and regulates their expression. Furthermore, MUC1 expression enhances glycolytic activity in pancreatic cancer cells. We also demonstrate that MUC1 expression enhances in vivo glucose uptake and expression of genes involved in glucose uptake and metabolism in orthotopic implantation models of pancreatic cancer. The MUC1 cytoplasmic tail is known to activate multiple signaling pathways through its interactions with several transcription factors/coregulators at the promoter elements of various genes. Our results indicate that MUC1 acts as a modulator of the hypoxic response in pancreatic cancer cells by regulating the expression/stability and activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). MUC1 physically interacts with HIF-1α and p300 and stabilizes the former at the protein level. By using a ChIP assay, we demonstrate that MUC1 facilitates recruitment of HIF-1α and p300 on glycolytic gene promoters in a hypoxia-dependent manner. Also, by metabolomic studies, we demonstrate that MUC1 regulates multiple metabolite intermediates in the glucose and amino acid metabolic pathways. Thus, our studies indicate that MUC1 acts as a master regulator of the metabolic program and facilitates metabolic alterations in the hypoxic environments that help tumor cells survive and proliferate under such conditions. PMID:22869720

  8. Characterization of the bovine C alpha gene.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, W R; Rabbani, H; Butler, J E; Hammarström, L

    1997-01-01

    The complete genomic sequence of a bovine C alpha gene is reported here. The genomic sequence was obtained from a C alpha phage clone that had been cloned from a genomic EMBL4 phage vector library. The C alpha sequence had previously been expressed as a chimeric antibody and identified as IgA using IgA-specific antibodies. Intron/exon boundaries were determined by comparison of the genomic sequence with an expressed bovine C alpha sequence obtained from spleen by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Analysis of 50 Swedish bovine genomic DNA samples using genomic blots and five different restriction enzymes failed to detect evidence of polymorphism. However, PstI digests of Brown Swiss DNA showed a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), suggesting that at least two allelic variants of bovine IgA exist. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of bovine IgA with sequences available for other species indicated that the highest homology was with that of swine, another artiodactyl. This was the highest homology observed for all mammalian IgA compared except for that between IgA1 and IgA2 in humans. Bovine IgA shares with rabbit IgA3 and IgA4, an additional N-linked glycosylation site at position 282. However, the collective data indicate that cattle are like swine and rodents and unlike rabbits in having a single locus of the gene encoding IgA of this species. Images Figure 4 PMID:9203958

  9. Characterization and phylogeny of entomopathogenic Isaria spp. (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) using ITS1-5.8X-ITS2 and elongation factor 1-alpha sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-a) and the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2 (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) sequences were used to characterize and identify Isaria isolates from Argentina and Brazil, as well as to study the phylogenetic relationships among these isolates and other related fungi...

  10. The phylogenetic analysis of variable-length sequence data: elongation factor-1alpha introns in European populations of the parasitoid wasp genus Pauesia (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae).

    PubMed

    Sanchis, A; Michelena, J M; Latorre, A; Quicke, D L; Gärdenfors, U; Belshaw, R

    2001-06-01

    Elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1alpha) is a highly conserved nuclear coding gene that can be used to investigate recent divergences due to the presence of rapidly evolving introns. However, a universal feature of intron sequences is that even closely related species exhibit insertion and deletion events, which cause variation in the lengths of the sequences. Indels are frequently rich in evolutionary information, but most investigators ignore sites that fall within these variable regions, largely because the analytical tools and theory are not well developed. We examined this problem in the taxonomically problematic parasitoid wasp genus Pauesia (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) using congruence as a criterion for assessing a range of methods for aligning such variable-length EF-1alpha intron sequences. These methods included distance- and parsimony-based multiple-alignment programs (CLUSTAL W and MALIGN), direct optimization (POY), and two "by eye" alignment strategies. Furthermore, with one method (CLUSTAL W) we explored in detail the robustness of results to changes in the gap cost parameters. Phenetic-based alignments ("by eye" and CLUSTAL W) appeared, under our criterion, to perform as well as more readily defensible, but computationally more demanding, methods. In general, all of our alignment and tree-building strategies recovered the same basic topological structure, which means that an underlying phylogenetic signal remained regardless of the strategy chosen. However, several relationships between clades were sensitive both to alignment and to tree-building protocol. Further alignments, considering only sequences belonging to the same group, allowed us to infer a range of phylogenetic relationships that were highly robust to tree-building protocol. By comparing these topologies with those obtained by varying the CLUSTAL parameters, we generated the distribution area of congruence and taxonomic compatibility. Finally, we present the first robust estimate

  11. Transcriptional regulation of the human TR2 orphan receptor gene by nuclear factor 1-A

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.-L.; Wang, Y.-H.; Lee, H.-J. . E-mail: hjlee@mail.ndhu.edu.tw

    2006-11-17

    The human testicular receptor 2 (TR2), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, has no identified ligand yet. Previous evidence demonstrated that a 63 bp DNA fragment, named the promoter activating cis-element (PACE), has been identified as a positive regulatory region in the 5' promoter region of the human TR2 gene. In the present report, the human nuclear factor 1-A (NF1-A) was identified as a transcriptional activator to recognize the center of the PACE, called the PACE-C. NF1-A could bind to the 18 bp PACE-C region, and enhance about 13- to 17-fold of the luciferase reporter gene activity via the PACE-C in dose-dependent and orientation-independent manners. This transcriptional activation was further confirmed by real-time RT-PCR assay. In conclusion, our results indicated that NF1-A transcription factor plays an important role in the transcriptional activation of the TR2 gene expression via the PACE-C in the minimal promoter region.

  12. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 {alpha} expression predicts superior survival in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP.

    PubMed

    Evens, Andrew M; Sehn, Laurie H; Farinha, Pedro; Nelson, Beverly P; Raji, Adekunle; Lu, Yi; Brakman, Adam; Parimi, Vamsi; Winter, Jane N; Schumacker, Paul T; Gascoyne, Randy D; Gordon, Leo I

    2010-02-20

    PURPOSE Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) controls the expression of genes in response to hypoxia, as well as a wide range of other cellular processes. We previously showed constitutive stabilization of HIF-1alpha in the majority of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). To our knowledge, the prognostic significance of HIF in lymphoma has never been investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS We studied the immunohistochemical protein expression of HIF-1alpha on tissue microarrays from 153 patients with DLBCL treated in sequential cohorts with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, oncovin, and prednisone (CHOP) or rituximab-CHOP (R-CHOP) from 1999 to 2002. Results were correlated with patient outcome. Results Median follow-up for all patients was 80 months. Among all patients, HIF-1alpha was expressed in 62% of germinal center and 59% of non-germinal center patients. With HIF-1alpha analyzed as a dependent variable, there were no survival differences in CHOP-treated patients. In the R-CHOP group, however, HIF-1alpha protein expression correlated with significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Five-year PFS for HIF-1alpha-positive patients was 71% v 43% for HIF-1alpha-negative patients (P = .0187), whereas 5-year OS was 75% and 54%, respectively (P = .025). In multivariate analysis with International Prognostic Index criteria, HIF-1alpha remained a significant predictor for PFS (P = .026) and OS (P = .043). Compared with other biomarkers, HIF-1alpha correlated only with BCL6 (P = .004). In terms of gene expression, we found several common gene associations of HIF-1alpha and the stromal-1 signature with genes predominantly involved in regulation of the extracellular matrix (eg, BGN, COL1A2, COL5A1, and PLOD2). CONCLUSION The expression of HIF-1alpha protein is an important independent favorable prognostic factor for survival in patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP. PMID:20048181

  13. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 suppresses gene expression of cyclin D1 in tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yasmin, Tania; Takahashi-Yanaga, Fumi . E-mail: yanaga@clipharm.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Mori, Jun; Miwa, Yoshikazu; Hirata, Masato; Watanabe, Yutaka; Morimoto, Sachio; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki

    2005-12-16

    To determine the mechanism by which differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1), a morphogen of Dictyostelium discoideum, inhibits tumor cell proliferation, we examined the effect of DIF-1 on the gene expression of cyclin D1. DIF-1 strongly reduced the expression of cyclin D1 mRNA and correspondingly decreased the amount of {beta}-catenin in HeLa cells and squamous cell carcinoma cells. DIF-1 activated glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) and inhibition of GSK-3{beta} attenuated the DIF-1-induced {beta}-catenin degradation, indicating the involvement of GSK-3{beta} in this effect. Moreover, DIF-1 reduced the activities of T-cell factor (TCF)/lymphoid enhancer factor (LEF) reporter plasmid and a reporter gene driven by the human cyclin D1 promoter. Eliminating the TCF/LEF consensus site from the cyclin D1 promoter diminished the effect of DIF-1. These results suggest that DIF-1 inhibits Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling, resulting in the suppression of cyclin D1 promoter activity.

  14. Plasmid-based transient human stromal cell-derived factor-1 gene transfer improves cardiac function in chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Sundararaman, S; Miller, T J; Pastore, J M; Kiedrowski, M; Aras, R; Penn, M S

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that transient stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1) improved cardiac function when delivered via cell therapy in ischemic cardiomyopathy at a time remote from acute myocardial infarction (MI) rats. We hypothesized that non-viral gene transfer of naked plasmid DNA-expressing hSDF-1 could similarly improve cardiac function. To optimize plasmid delivery, we tested SDF-1 and luciferase plasmids driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter with (pCMVe) or without (pCMV) translational enhancers or α myosin heavy chain (pMHC) promoter in a rodent model of heart failure. In vivo expression of pCMVe was 10-fold greater than pCMV and pMHC expression and continued over 30 days. We directly injected rat hearts with SDF-1 plasmid 1 month after MI and assessed heart function. At 4 weeks after plasmid injection, we observed a 35.97 and 32.65% decline in fractional shortening (FS) in control (saline) animals and pMHC-hSDF1 animals, respectively, which was sustained to 8 weeks. In contrast, we observed a significant 24.97% increase in animals injected with the pCMVe-hSDF1 vector. Immunohistochemistry of cardiac tissue revealed a significant increase in vessel density in the hSDF-1-treated animals compared with control animals. Increasing SDF-1 expression promoted angiogenesis and improved cardiac function in rats with ischemic heart failure along with evidence of scar remodeling with a trend toward decreased myocardial fibrosis. These data demonstrate that stand-alone non-viral hSDF-1 gene transfer is a strategy for improving cardiac function in ischemic cardiomyopathy. PMID:21472007

  15. Improved elongation factor-1 alpha-based vectors for stable high-level expression of heterologous proteins in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Establishing highly productive clonal cell lines with constant productivity over 2–3 months of continuous culture remains a tedious task requiring the screening of tens of thousands of clonal colonies. In addition, long-term cultivation of many candidate lines derived in the absence of drug selection pressure is necessary. Expression vectors based on the elongation factor-1 alpha (EEF1A) gene and the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) selection marker (with separate promoters) can be used to obtain highly productive populations of stably transfected cells in the selection medium, but they have not been tested for their ability to support target gene amplification under gradually increasing methotrexate pressure. Results We have modified EEF1A-based vectors by linking the DHFR selection marker to the target gene in the bicistronic RNA, shortening the overall plasmid size, and adding an Epstein-Barr virus terminal repeat fragment (EBVTR) element. Presence of the EBVTR element increased the rate of stable transfection by the plasmid by 24 times that of the EBVTR-minus control and improved the rate of methotrexate-driven gene amplification. The mean expression level of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) used herein as a model protein, increased up to eight-fold using a single round of amplification in the case of adherent colonies formation and up to 4.5-fold in the case of suspension polyclonal cultures. Several eGFP-expressing cell populations produced using vectors with antibiotic resistance markers instead of the DHFR marker were compared with each other. Stable transfection of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) DG44 cells by the p1.2-Hygro-eGFP plasmid (containing a hygromycin resistance marker) generated highest eGFP expression levels of up to 8.9% of the total cytoplasmic protein, with less than 5% of the cell population being eGFP-negative. Conclusions The p1.1 vector was very effective for stable transfection of CHO cells and capable of rapid MTX

  16. Polymorphisms of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Pathway Genes and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Joy; Aronson, Kristan J.; Grundy, Anne; Kobayashi, Lindsay C.; Burstyn, Igor; Schuetz, Johanna M.; Lohrisch, Caroline A.; SenGupta, Sandip K.; Lai, Agnes S.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Spinelli, John J.; Richardson, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variants of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) pathway genes have been shown to be associated with breast density and IGF1 levels and, therefore, may also influence breast cancer risk via pro-survival signaling cascades. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between IGF1 pathway single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and breast cancer risk among European and East Asian women, and potential interactions with menopausal status and breast tumor subtype. Stratified analyses of 1,037 cases and 1,050 controls from a population-based case–control study were conducted to assess associations with breast cancer for 22 SNPs across 5 IGF1 pathway genes in European and East Asian women. Odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression in additive genetic models. Polytomous logistic regression was used to assess heterogeneity by breast tumor subtype. Two SNPs of the IGF1 gene (rs1019731 and rs12821878) were associated with breast cancer risk among European women. Four highly linked IGF1 SNPs (rs2288378, rs17727841, rs7136446, and rs7956547) were modified by menopausal status among East Asian women only and associated with postmenopausal breast cancers. The association between rs2288378 and breast cancer risk was also modified by breast tumor subtype among East Asian women. Several IGF1 polymorphisms were found to be associated with breast cancer risk and some of these associations were modified by menopausal status or breast tumor subtype. Such interactions should be considered when assessing the role of these variants in breast cancer etiology. PMID:27376028

  17. Polymorphisms of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Pathway Genes and Breast Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Shi, Joy; Aronson, Kristan J; Grundy, Anne; Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Burstyn, Igor; Schuetz, Johanna M; Lohrisch, Caroline A; SenGupta, Sandip K; Lai, Agnes S; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Spinelli, John J; Richardson, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variants of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) pathway genes have been shown to be associated with breast density and IGF1 levels and, therefore, may also influence breast cancer risk via pro-survival signaling cascades. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between IGF1 pathway single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and breast cancer risk among European and East Asian women, and potential interactions with menopausal status and breast tumor subtype. Stratified analyses of 1,037 cases and 1,050 controls from a population-based case-control study were conducted to assess associations with breast cancer for 22 SNPs across 5 IGF1 pathway genes in European and East Asian women. Odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression in additive genetic models. Polytomous logistic regression was used to assess heterogeneity by breast tumor subtype. Two SNPs of the IGF1 gene (rs1019731 and rs12821878) were associated with breast cancer risk among European women. Four highly linked IGF1 SNPs (rs2288378, rs17727841, rs7136446, and rs7956547) were modified by menopausal status among East Asian women only and associated with postmenopausal breast cancers. The association between rs2288378 and breast cancer risk was also modified by breast tumor subtype among East Asian women. Several IGF1 polymorphisms were found to be associated with breast cancer risk and some of these associations were modified by menopausal status or breast tumor subtype. Such interactions should be considered when assessing the role of these variants in breast cancer etiology. PMID:27376028

  18. Methylation of alpha-type embryonic globin gene alpha pi represses transcription in primary erythroid cells.

    PubMed

    Singal, Rakesh; vanWert, Jane M; Ferdinand, Larry

    2002-12-01

    The inverse relationship between expression and methylation of beta-type globin genes is well established. However, little is known about the relationship between expression and methylation of avian alpha-type globin genes. The embryonic alpha(pi)-globin promoter was unmethylated, and alpha(pi)-globin RNA was easily detected in 5-day chicken erythroid cells. A progressive methylation of the CpG dinucleotides in the alpha(pi) promoter associated with loss of expression of alpha(pi)-globin gene was seen during development in primary erythroid cells. A 315-bp alpha(pi)-globin promoter region was cloned in an expression construct (alpha(pi)pGL3E) containing a luciferase reporter gene and SV40 enhancer. The alpha(pi)pGL3E construct was transfected into primary erythroid cells derived from 5-day-old chicken embryos. Methylation of alpha(pi)pGL3E plasmid and alpha(pi)-globin promoter alone resulted in a 20-fold and 7-fold inhibition of expression, respectively. The fully methylated but not the unmethylated 315-bp alpha(pi)-globin gene promoter fragment formed a methyl cytosine-binding protein complex (MeCPC). Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were combined with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to assess histone acetylation associated with the alpha(pi)-globin gene promoter. Slight hyperacetylation of histone H3 but a marked hyperacetylation of histone H4 was seen in 5-day when compared with 14-day erythroid cells. These results demonstrate that methylation can silence transcription of an avian alpha-type embryonic globin gene in homologous primary erythroid cells, possibly by interacting with an MeCPC and histone deacetylase complex. PMID:12393573

  19. Endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide-II modulates endothelial cell responses by degrading hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha through interaction with PSMA7, a component of the proteasome

    SciTech Connect

    Tandle, Anita T.; Calvani, Maura; Uranchimeg, Badarch; Zahavi, David; Melillo, Giovanni; Libutti, Steven K.

    2009-07-01

    The majority of human tumors are angiogenesis dependent. Understanding the specific mechanisms that contribute to angiogenesis may offer the best approach to develop therapies to inhibit angiogenesis in cancer. Endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide-II (EMAP-II) is an anti-angiogenic cytokine with potent effects on endothelial cells (ECs). It inhibits EC proliferation and cord formation, and it suppresses primary and metastatic tumor growth in-vivo. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind the anti-angiogenic activity of EMAP-II. In the present study, we explored the molecular mechanism behind the anti-angiogenic activity exerted by this protein on ECs. Our results demonstrate that EMAP-II binds to the cell surface {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin receptor. The cell surface binding of EMAP-II results in its internalization into the cytoplasmic compartment where it interacts with its cytoplasmic partner PSMA7, a component of the proteasome degradation pathway. This interaction increases hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1{alpha}) degradation under hypoxic conditions. The degradation results in the inhibition of HIF-1{alpha} mediated transcriptional activity as well as HIF-1{alpha} mediated angiogenic sprouting of ECs. HIF-1{alpha} plays a critical role in angiogenesis by activating a variety of angiogenic growth factors. Our results suggest that one of the major anti-angiogenic functions of EMAP-II is exerted through its inhibition of the HIF-1{alpha} activities.

  20. Classification and evolution of alpha-amylase genes in plants.

    PubMed

    Huang, N; Stebbins, G L; Rodriguez, R L

    1992-08-15

    The DNA sequences for 17 plant genes for alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) were analyzed to determine their phylogenetic relationship. A phylogeny for these genes was obtained using two separate approaches, one based on molecular clock assumptions and the other based on a comparison of sequence polymorphisms (i.e., small and localized insertions) in the alpha-amylase genes. These polymorphisms are called "alpha-amylase signatures" because they are diagnostic of the gene subfamily to which a particular alpha-amylase gene belongs. Results indicate that the cereal alpha-amylase genes fall into two major classes: AmyA and AmyB. The AmyA class is subdivided into the Amy1 and Amy2 subfamilies previously used to classify alpha-amylase genes in barley and wheat. The AmyB class includes the Amy3 subfamily to which most of the alpha-amylase genes of rice belong. Using polymerase chain reaction and oligonucleotide primers that flank one of the two signature regions, we show that the AmyA and AmyB gene classes are present in approximately equal amounts in all grass species examined except barley. The AmyB (Amy3 subfamily) genes in the latter case are comparatively underrepresented. Additional evidence suggests that the AmyA genes appeared recently and may be confined to the grass family. PMID:1502164

  1. The insulin-like growth factor-1 gene is associated with cerebral infarction in Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Aoi, Noriko; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Soma, Masayoshi; Kosuge, Kotoko; Haketa, Akira; Sato, Mikano; Sato, Naoyuki; Hinohara, Shigeaki; Doba, Nobutakh; Asai, Satoshi

    2012-10-01

    Atherosclerosis leads to cerebral infarction (CI) and the insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) signaling pathway plays an important role in this process during adult life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the human IGF1 gene and CI in the Japanese population via a case-control study that also included a separate analysis of the two gender groups. A total of 155 CI patients and 316 controls were genotyped for six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the human IGF1 gene (rs2162679, rs7956547, rs2288378, rs2072592, rs978458 and rs6218). All data were analyzed for three separate groups: the total subjects, men and women. The logistic regression analysis revealed that the GG + AG variant of rs2162679 (P = 0.047), the AA + GA variant of rs2072592 (P = 0.005) and the CC + TC variant of rs6218 (P = 0.015) exhibited a protective effect for CI in the total subject group. For the women and the total subjects groups, the overall distribution of the haplotype established by rs7956547-rs978458 was significantly different between the CI patients and the non-CI subjects. For the total subjects, the frequency of the T-G haplotype (rs7956547-rs978458) was also significantly higher (P = 0.034), whereas the frequency of the T-A haplotype (rs7956547-rs978458) was significantly lower (P = 0.008) in the CI patients versus the non-CI subjects. For women, the frequency of the T-A haplotype (rs7956547-rs978458) was significantly lower (P = 0.021) in the CI patients as compared with the non-CI subjects. The specific SNPs and haplotypes can be utilized as genetic markers for CI resistance or CI risk. PMID:23121326

  2. Fibrinogen {alpha} genes: Conservation of bipartite transcripts and carboxy-terminal-extended {alpha} subunits in vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Y.; Cao, Y.; Hertzberg, K.M.; Grieninger, G.

    1995-11-01

    All three well-studied subunits of the clotting protein fibrinogen ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}) share N-terminal structural homologies, but until recently only the {beta} and {gamma} chains were recognized as having similar globular C-termini. With the discovery of an extra exon in the human fibrinogen {alpha} gene (exon VI), a minor form of the {alpha} subunit ({alpha}{sub E}) with an extended {beta}- and {gamma}-like C-terminus has been identified. In the present study, the polymerase chain reaction has been used to identify sequences that encode counterparts to {alpha}{sub E} in chicken, rabbit, rat, and baboon. The basic six-exon structure of the fibrinogen {alpha} genes is shown to be conserved among mammals and birds, as are the intron positions. Bipartite transcripts - still bearing an intron prior to the last exon - are found among the products of the various vertebrate fibrinogen {alpha} genes. The last exon represents the largest conserved segment of the gene and, in each species examined, encodes exactly 236 amino acids. The C-termini of these {alpha}{sub E} chains align without a single gap and are between 76 and 99% identical. Since the exon VI-encoded domain of {alpha}{sub E} is as well conserved as the corresponding regions of the {beta} and {gamma} chains, it follows that it is equally important and that {alpha}{sub E}-fibrinogen plays a vital, if as-yet unrecognized physiological role. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Andrographolide down-regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chou, Fen-Pi; Wang, Chau-Jong; Hsuan, Shu-Wen; Wang, Cheng-Kun; Chen, Jing-Hsien

    2011-02-01

    Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess multiple pharmacological activities. In our previous study, Andro had been shown to inhibit non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cell migration and invasion via down-regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Here we demonstrated that Andro inhibited the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) in A549 cells. HIF-1{alpha} plays an important role in tumor growth, angiogenesis and lymph node metastasis of NSCLC. The Andro-induced decrease of cellular protein level of HIF-1{alpha} was correlated with a rapid ubiquitin-dependent degradation of HIF-1{alpha}, and was accompanied by increased expressions of hydroxyl-HIF-1{alpha} and prolyl hydroxylase (PHD2), and a later decrease of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upon the treatment of Andro. The Andro-inhibited VEGF expression appeared to be a consequence of HIF-1{alpha} inactivation, because its DNA binding activity was suppressed by Andro. Molecular data showed that all these effects of Andro might be mediated via TGF{beta}1/PHD2/HIF-1{alpha} pathway, as demonstrated by the transfection of TGF{beta}1 overexpression vector and PHD2 siRNA, and the usage of a pharmacological MG132 inhibitor. Furthermore, we elucidated the involvement of Andro in HIF-1{alpha} transduced VEGF expression in A549 cells and other NSCLC cell lines. In conclusion, these results highlighted the potential effects of Andro, which may be developed as a chemotherapeutic or an anti-angiogenesis agent for NSCLC in the future.

  4. Correlation of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1{alpha} with Angiogenesis in Liver Tumors After Transcatheter Arterial Embolization in an Animal Model

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Bin; Zheng Chuansheng Feng, Gan-Sheng; Wu Hanping; Wang Yong; Zhao Hui; Qian Jun; Liang Huimin

    2010-08-15

    This study sought to determine the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) and its relation to angiogenesis in liver tumors after transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) in an animal model. A total of 20 New Zealand White rabbits were implanted with VX2 tumor in liver. TAE-treated group animals (n = 10) received TAE with polyvinyl alcohol particles. Control group animals (n = 10) received sham embolization with distilled water. Six hours or 3 days after TAE, animals were humanely killed, and tumor samples were collected. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to evaluate HIF-1{alpha} and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein expression and microvessel density (MVD). Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to examine VEGF mRNA levels. The levels of HIF-1{alpha} protein were significantly higher in TAE-treated tumors than those in the control tumors (P = 0.001). HIF-1{alpha} protein was expressed in viable tumor cells that were located predominantly at the periphery of necrotic tumor regions. The levels of VEGF protein and mRNA, and mean MVD were significantly increased in TAE-treated tumors compared with the control tumors (P = 0.001, 0.000, and 0.001, respectively). HIF-1{alpha} protein level was significantly correlated with VEGF mRNA (r = 0.612, P = 0.004) and protein (r = 0.554, P = 0.011), and MVD (r = 0.683, P = 0.001). We conclude that HIF-1{alpha} is overexpressed in VX2 tumors treated with TAE as a result of intratumoral hypoxia generated by the procedure and involved in activation of the TAE-associated tumor angiogenesis. HIF-1{alpha} might represent a promising therapeutic target for antiangiogenesis in combination with TAE against liver tumors.

  5. THE EPENDYMAL ROUTE FOR INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR-1 GENE THERAPY IN THE BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Hereñú, Claudia B.; Sonntag, William E.; Morel, Gustavo R.; Portiansky, Enrique L.; Goya, Rodolfo G.

    2009-01-01

    Intracerebroventricular administration of the peptide insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been shown to be an effective neuroprotective strategy in the brain of different animal models, a major advantage being the achievement of high concentrations of IGF-1 in the brain without altering serum levels of the peptide. In order to exploit this therapeutic approach further, we used high performance recombinant adenoviral (RAd) vectors expressing their transgene under the control of the potent mouse cytomegalovirus immediate early (mCMV) promoter, to transduce brain ependymal cells with high efficiency and to achieve effective release of transgenic IGF-1 into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We constructed RAd vectors expressing either the chimeric protein (TK/GFP)fus (green fluorescent protein fused to HSV1 thymidine kinase) or the cDNA encoding rat IGF-1, both driven by the mCMV promoter. The vectors were injected into the lateral ventricles of young rats and chimeric GFP expression in brain sections was assessed by fluorescence microscopy. The ependymal cell marker vimentin was detected by immunofluorescence and nuclei were labeled with the DNA dye DAPI. Blood and CSF samples were drawn at different times post vector injection. In all cerebral ventricles, vimentin immunoreactive cells of the ependyma were predominantly transduced by RAd-(TK/GFP)fus, showing nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of the transgene. For tanycytes (TK/GFP)fus expression was evident in their cytoplasmic processes as they penetrated deep into the hypothalamic parenchyma. Intracerebroventricular injection of RAd-IGF-1 induced high levels of IGF-1 in the CSF but not in serum. We conclude that the ependymal route constitutes an effective approach for implementing experimental IGF-1 gene therapy in the brain. PMID:19531373

  6. Structure of the mouse calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide alpha and beta genes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P M; Nasonkin, I; Zhang, H; Gagel, R F; Cote, G J

    2001-01-01

    We report the cloning, genomic organization and sequence of the mouse alpha-CALC and beta-CALC genes. The two genes share extensive sequence homology. The transcription units of both genes contain 6 exons. Transcripts of the alpha-CALC gene were found to alternatively include exon 4 or exons 5 and 6. For the beta-CALC gene exon 4 was not detected in transcripts derived from this gene. The predicted mouse alpha-CGRP was found to be identical to rat alpha-CGRP, however, beta-CGRP predicted amino acid sequences revealed three amino acid differences suggesting these residues are not critical to CGRP function. PMID:11761712

  7. EFFECTS OF HEAT AND BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID ON MALE REPRODUCTION IN HEAT SHOCK FACTOR-1 GENE KNOCKOUT MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of heat and bromochloroacetic acid on male reproduction in heat shock factor-1 gene knockout mice.
    Luft JC1, IJ Benjamin2, JB Garges1 and DJ Dix1. 1Reproductive Toxicology Division, USEPA, RTP, NC, 27711 and 2Dept of Internal Medicine, Univ.of Texas Southwestern Med C...

  8. Fumarate hydratase deficiency in renal cancer induces glycolytic addiction and hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1alpha stabilization by glucose-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Sudarshan, Sunil; Sourbier, Carole; Kong, Hye-Sik; Block, Karen; Valera Romero, Vladimir A; Yang, Youfeng; Galindo, Cynthia; Mollapour, Mehdi; Scroggins, Bradley; Goode, Norman; Lee, Min-Jung; Gourlay, Campbell W; Trepel, Jane; Linehan, W Marston; Neckers, Len

    2009-08-01

    Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is an inherited cancer syndrome linked to biallelic inactivation of the gene encoding the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH). Individuals with HLRCC are at risk to develop cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas and an aggressive form of kidney cancer. Pseudohypoxic drive-the aberrant activation of cellular hypoxia response pathways despite normal oxygen tension-is considered to be a likely mechanism underlying the etiology of this tumor. Pseudohypoxia requires the oxygen-independent stabilization of the alpha subunit of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF-1alpha). Under normoxic conditions, proline hydroxylation of HIF-1alpha permits VHL recognition and subsequent targeting for proteasomal degradation. Here, we demonstrate that inactivating mutations of FH in an HLRCC-derived cell line result in glucose-mediated generation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ROS-dependent HIF-1alpha stabilization. Additionally, we demonstrate that stable knockdown of FH in immortalized renal epithelial cells results in ROS-dependent HIF-1alpha stabilization. These data reveal that the obligate glycolytic switch present in HLRCC is critical to HIF stabilization via ROS generation. PMID:19470762

  9. A novel thiol compound, N-acetylcysteine amide, attenuates allergic airway disease by regulating activation of NF-kappaB and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Sun; Kim, So Ri; Park, Hee Sun; Park, Seoung Ju; Min, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Ka Young; Choe, Yeong Hun; Hong, Sang Hyun; Han, Hyo Jin; Lee, Young Rae; Kim, Jong Suk; Atlas, Daphne; Lee, Yong Chul

    2007-12-31

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. Recent studies have demonstrated that antioxidants are able to reduce airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in animal models of allergic airway disease. A newly developed antioxidant, small molecular weight thiol compound, N-acetylcysteine amide (AD4) has been shown to increase cellular levels of glutathione and to attenuate oxidative stress related disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. However, the effects of AD4 on allergic airway disease such as asthma are unknown. We used ovalbumin (OVA)-inhaled mice to evaluate the role of AD4 in allergic airway disease. In this study with OVA-inhaled mice, the increased ROS generation, the increased levels of Th2 cytokines and VEGF, the increased vascular permeability, the increased mucus production, and the increased airway resistance in the lungs were significantly reduced by the administration of AD4. We also found that the administration of AD4 decreased the increases of the NF-kappaB and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) levels in nuclear protein extracts of lung tissues after OVA inhalation. These results suggest that AD4 attenuates airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness by regulating activation of NF-kappaB and HIF-1alpha as well as reducing ROS generation in allergic airway disease. PMID:18160846

  10. Characterization of the human rod transducin alpha-subunit gene.

    PubMed Central

    Fong, S L

    1992-01-01

    The human rod transducin alpha subunit (Tr alpha) gene has been cloned. A cDNA clone, HG14, contained a 1.1 kb insertion when compared with the human Tr alpha cDNA published by Van Dop et al. (1). Based on two overlapping clones isolated from a human genomic library, the human Tr alpha gene is 4.9 kb in length and consists of nine exons interrupted by eight introns. Northern blots of human retina total RNA showed that the gene is transcribed by rod photoreceptors into two species of mRNA, 1.3 kb and 2.4 kb in size. Apparently, this is the result of alternative splicing. Two putative transcription initiation sites were determined by primer extension and S1 nuclease protection assays. The putative promoter regions of the human and mouse Tr alpha genes have an identity of 78.1%. As found in the mouse gene (2), no TATA consensus sequence is present in the human gene. Images PMID:1614872

  11. A DC-81-indole conjugate agent suppresses melanoma A375 cell migration partially via interrupting VEGF production and stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha}-mediated signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Ming-Chu; Hu, Wan-Ping; Yu, Hsin-Su; Wu, Wen-Chuan; Chang, Long-Sen; Kao, Ying-Hsien; Wang, Jeh-Jeng

    2011-09-01

    Pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine (PBD) chemicals are antitumor antibiotics inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis. An indole carboxylate-PBD hybrid with six-carbon spacer structure (IN6CPBD) has been previously demonstrated to induce melanoma cell apoptosis and reduce metastasis in mouse lungs. This study aimed at investigating the efficacy of the other hybrid compound with four-carbon spacer (IN4CPBD) and elucidating its anti-metastatic mechanism. Human melanoma A375 cells with IN4CPBD treatment underwent cytotoxicity and apoptosis-associated assays. Transwell migration assay, Western blotting, and ELISA were used for mechanistic study. IN4CPBD exhibited potent melanoma cytotoxicity through interrupting G1/S cell cycle progression, increasing DNA fragmentation and hypodipoidic DNA contents, and reducing mitochondrial membrane potential. Caspase activity elevation suggested that both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways were involved in IN4CPBD-induced melanoma apoptosis. IN4CPBD up-regulated p53 and p21, thereby concomitantly derailing the equilibrium between Bcl-2 and Bax levels. Transwell migration assay demonstrated that stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha} (SDF-1{alpha}) stimulated A375 cell motility, while kinase inhibitors treatment confirmed that Rho/ROCK, Akt, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK pathways were involved in SDF-1{alpha}-enhanced melanoma migration. IN4CPBD not only abolished the SDF-1{alpha}-enhanced chemotactic motility but also suppressed constitutive MMP-9 and VEGF expression. Mechanistically, IN4CPBD down-regulated Akt, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK total proteins and MYPT1 phosphorylation. In conclusion, beyond the fact that IN4CPBD induces melanoma cell apoptosis at cytotoxic dose, the interruption in the VEGF expression and the SDF-1{alpha}-related signaling at cytostatic dose may partially constitute the rationale for its in vivo anti-metastatic potency. - Research Highlights: > A novel carboxylate-PBD hybrid as anti-melanoma drug. > IN4CPBD interrupts melanoma cell

  12. Overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha improves vasculogenesis-related functions of endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Kütscher, Christian; Lampert, Florian M; Kunze, Mirjam; Markfeld-Erol, Filiz; Stark, G Björn; Finkenzeller, Günter

    2016-05-01

    Postnatal vasculogenesis is mediated by mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from bone marrow and homing to ischemic tissues. This feature emphasizes this cell type for cell-based therapies aiming at the improvement of neovascularization in tissue engineering applications and regenerative medicine. In animal models, it was demonstrated that implantation of EPCs from cord blood (cbEPCs) led to the formation of a complex functional neovasculature, whereas EPCs isolated from adult peripheral blood (pbEPCs) showed a limited vasculogenic potential, which may be attributed to age-related dysfunction. Recently, it was demonstrated that activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) improves cell functions of progenitor cells of mesenchymal and endothelial origin. Thus, we hypothesized that overexpression of Hif-1α may improve the vasculogenesis-related phenotype of pbEPCs. In the present study, we overexpressed Hif-1α in pbEPCs and cbEPCs by using recombinant adenoviruses and investigated effects on stem cell- and vasculogenesis-related cell parameters. Overexpression of Hif-1α enhanced proliferation, invasion, cell survival and in vitro capillary sprout formation of both EPC populations. Migration was increased in cbEPCs upon Hif-1α overexpression, but not in pbEPCs. Cellular senescence was decreased in pbEPCs, while remained in cbEPCs, which showed, as expected, intrinsically a dramatically lower senescent phenotype in relation to pbEPCs. Similarly, the colony-formation capacity was much higher in cbEPCs in comparison to pbEPCs and was further increased by Hif-1α overexpression, whereas Hif-1α transduction exerted no significant influence on colony formation of pbEPCs. In summary, our experiments illustrated multifarious effects of Hif-1α overexpression on stem cell and vasculogenic parameters. Therefore, Hif-1α overexpression may represent a therapeutic option to improve cellular functions of adult as well as postnatal EPCs. PMID:26827661

  13. Organization and sequence of the human alpha-lactalbumin gene.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, L; Emery, D C; Davies, M S; Parker, D; Craig, R K

    1987-01-01

    A recombinant bacteriophage containing the entire alpha-lactalbumin gene was isolated from a human genomic library constructed in bacteriophage lambda L47. Within this recombinant the 2.5 kb alpha-lactalbumin gene is flanked by about 5 kb of sequence on either side. The complete nucleotide sequence of the gene and its immediate flanking sequences were determined and compared with those of the rat alpha-lactalbumin gene. These studies showed that the size, organization and sequence of the exons have been highly conserved, whereas the introns have diverged considerably. In particular, the first intron of the human gene was found to contain an Alu repetitive sequence not present in the rat. A high degree of homology (67%) was also observed in the 5' flanking regions, extending as far as 655 nucleotide residues upstream of the transcriptional initiation site. Comparison of the 5' flanking sequences of these two alpha-lactalbumin genes with those of five casein genes has revealed the presence of a highly conserved region [consensus sequence: RGAAGRAAA(N)TGGACAGAAATCAA(CG)TTTCTA], extending from position -140 to -110 in all seven sequences examined, suggesting a possible regulatory role in the hormonal control or tissue-specific expression of milk protein genes in the mammary gland. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2954544

  14. The cauliflower Orange gene enhances petiole elongation by suppressing expression of eukaryotic release factor 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cauliflower Or gene affects plant growth and development in addition to conferring beta-carotene accumulation. This study was undertaken to investigate the molecular basis of the Or gene mutation in controlling plant growth. The OR protein was found to interact with cauliflower and Arabidopsis e...

  15. Regulation of alpha o expression by the 5'-flanking region of the alpha o gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Mortensen, R; Neer, E J

    1994-11-01

    Many responses of cells to external signals require activation of the heterotrimeric G proteins. These responses depend on the type and amount of G proteins that are expressed. Each cell has a characteristic complement of G protein subunits. For example, the alpha o subunit is very abundant in neural tissues. Very little is known about the mechanisms that determine cellular levels of G proteins. In the present study, we have isolated a genomic clone for mouse alpha o gene and identified the promoter region. There are multiple transcription initiation sites located about 750 base pairs upstream of the translational start site. The promoter region is GC-rich and contains neither a TATA-box nor a CAAT box. Transient expression assays using a series of constructs containing various lengths of the 5'-flanking region of the alpha o promoter demonstrated that the region 300-700 base pairs upstream of the transcription initiation sites is responsible for the basic promoter activity. The relative activity of alpha o promoter is 8-12-fold higher in cells expressing alpha o than in cells lacking alpha o. The level of alpha o in cells may also be regulated at the level of protein translation because deletions in the 5'-noncoding region of alpha o gene increase reporter enzyme expression without a corresponding increase in reporter enzyme mRNA level. Our results suggest that both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms are involved in regulating the expression of alpha o in vivo. Transcriptional regulation probably is important for control of tissue-specific expression, while posttranscriptional mechanisms may be used to regulate the alpha o level in cells. PMID:7961675

  16. Identification of noncollagenous sites encoding specific interactions and quaternary assembly of alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5(IV) collagen: implications for Alport gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong Suk; Colon, Selene; Hellmark, Thomas; Sado, Yoshikazu; Hudson, Billy G; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan

    2008-12-12

    Defective assembly of alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5(IV) collagen in the glomerular basement membrane causes Alport syndrome, a hereditary glomerulonephritis progressing to end-stage kidney failure. Assembly of collagen IV chains into heterotrimeric molecules and networks is driven by their noncollagenous (NC1) domains, but the sites encoding the specificity of these interactions are not known. To identify the sites directing quaternary assembly of alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5(IV) collagen, correctly folded NC1 chimeras were produced, and their interactions with other NC1 monomers were evaluated. All alpha1/alpha 5 chimeras containing alpha 5 NC1 residues 188-227 replicated the ability of alpha 5 NC1 to bind to alpha3NC1 and co-assemble into NC1 hexamers. Conversely, substitution of alpha 5 NC1 residues 188-227 by alpha1NC1 abolished these quaternary interactions. The amino-terminal 58 residues of alpha3NC1 encoded binding to alpha 5 NC1, but this interaction was not sufficient for hexamer co-assembly. Because alpha 5 NC1 residues 188-227 are necessary and sufficient for assembly into alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5 NC1 hexamers, whereas the immunodominant alloantigenic sites of alpha 5 NC1 do not encode specific quaternary interactions, the findings provide a basis for the rational design of less immunogenic alpha 5(IV) collagen constructs for the gene therapy of X-linked Alport patients. PMID:18930919

  17. Transcriptional promiscuity of the human /alpha/-globin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Whitelaw, E.; Hogben, P.; Hanscombe, O.; Proudfoot, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    The human /alpha/-globin gene displays the unusual property of transcriptional promiscuity: that is, it functions in the absence of an enhancer when transfected into nonerythroid cell lines. It is also unusual in that its promoter region lies in a hypomethylated HpaII tiny fragment (HTF) island containing multiple copies of the consensus sequence for the SP1-binding site. The authors have investigated whether there is a relationship between these two observations. First, they investigated the mouse /alpha/-globin gene since it does not lie in an HTF island. They have demonstrated that it was not transcriptionally promiscuous. Second, they studied the transcriptional activity of the human /alpha/-globin gene in the absence of the GC-rich region containing putative SP1-binding sites and found a small (two- to threefold) but consistent positive effect of this region on transcriptional activity in both nonerythroid and erythroid cell lines. However, this effect did not account for the promiscuous nature of the human /alpha/-globin gene. They found that in a nonreplicating system, the human //a/-globin gene, like that of the mouse, required a simian virus 40 enhancer in order to be transcriptionally active in nonerythroid and erythroid cell lines. Since they only observed enhancer independence of the human /alpha/-globin gene in a high-copy-number replicating system, they suggest that competition for trans-acting factors could explain these results. Finally, the authors' experiments with the erythroid cell line Putko suggest that there are no tissue-specific enhancers within 1 kilobase 5' of the human /alpha/-globin cap site or within the gene itself.

  18. Differential expressions of essential and nonessential alpha-tubulin genes in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Y; Toda, T; Niwa, O; Yanagida, M

    1986-06-01

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has two alpha-tubulin genes and one beta-tubulin gene. Gene disruption experiments showed that the alpha 1-tubulin gene (NDA2) is essential whereas the alpha 2 gene is dispensable. The alpha 2-disrupted cells missing alpha 2 transcript and alpha 2 polypeptide could grow and sporulate normally. The alpha 2 gene, however, was expressed in the wild type and the alpha 1 mutant. Alpha 2-Tubulin was distinguished as an electrophoretic band and was assembled into microtubules. The alpha 2-disrupted cells had an increased sensitivity to an antimicrotubule drug thiabendazole, and the alpha 1(cold-sensitive [cs]) alpha 2 (disrupted) cells became not only cs but also temperature sensitive. Northern blot experiments indicated that alpha 2 transcription was minor and constitutive whereas alpha 1 transcription was major and modulated, depending on the gene copy number of the alpha 2 gene. The amounts of alpha 1 and alpha 2 polypeptides estimated by beta-galactosidase activities of the lacZ-fused genes integrated on the chromosome and by intensities of the electrophoretic bands in crude tubulin fractions, however, were comparable, indicating that alpha 2 tubulin is not a minor subtype. We assume that the cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe have no excess tubulin pool. alpha 1 mutants would then be blocked in the cell cycle because only half the amount of functional alpha-tubulin required for growth can be produced by the alpha 2 gene. On the other hand, the alpha 2-disrupted cells became viable because the synthesis of alpha 1 tubulin was increased by transcriptional or translational modulation or both. The real cause for essential alpha 1 and dispensable alpha 2 genes seems to be in their regulatory sequences instead of the coding sequences. PMID:3785193

  19. Alpha-amylase gene transcription in tissues of normal dog.

    PubMed

    Mocharla, H; Mocharla, R; Hodes, M E

    1990-02-25

    We studied the distribution of alpha-amylase mRNA in normal dog tissues by northern blotting (NB) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with human pancreatic (AMY2) and salivary (AMY1) alpha-amylase cDNA-specific primers. Analysis of poly(A+) RNA from various normal tissues by NB indicated the presence of detectable levels of alpha-amylase mRNA transcripts only in pancreas. Dot-blot analysis of DNA amplified with primers common to both (human) isoamylase mRNAs showed presence of alpha-amylase gene transcripts not only in pancreas but also in liver, small intestine, large intestine and fallopian tube. Traces of amylase gene transcripts were also observed in ovary, uterus and lung. Interestingly, amylase transcripts were not detectable in the parotid gland by NB or RT-PCR. We have also localized alpha-amylase mRNA transcripts to dog pancreas by in situ transcription and in situ hybridization. Our results suggest that there is high degree of homology between the alpha-amylase mRNA sequences in dog and human at least in the exon 3-4 regions of the human gene. PMID:2315015

  20. Abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis overexpressing the multiprotein bridging factor 1a (MBF1a) transcriptional coactivator gene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Jung; Lim, Gah-Hyun; Kim, Eun-Seon; Ko, Chang-Beom; Yang, Kwang-Yeol; Jeong, Jin-An; Lee, Myung-Chul; Kim, Cheol Soo

    2007-03-01

    We conducted a genetic yeast screen to identify salt tolerance (SAT) genes in a maize kernel cDNA library. During the screening, we identified a maize clone (SAT41) that seemed to confer elevated salt tolerance in comparison to control cells. SAT41 cDNA encodes a 16-kDa protein which is 82.4% identical to the Arabidopsis Multiprotein bridging factor 1a (MBF1a) transcriptional coactivator gene. To further examine salinity tolerance in Arabidopsis, we functionally characterized the MBF1a gene and found that dehydration as well as heightened glucose (Glc) induced MBF1a expression. Constitutive expression of MBF1a in Arabidopsis led to elevated salt tolerance in transgenic lines. Interestingly, plants overexpressing MBF1a exhibited insensitivity to Glc and resistance to fungal disease. Our results suggest that MBF1a is involved in stress tolerance as well as in ethylene and Glc signaling in Arabidopsis. PMID:17234157

  1. Transcriptional activity of the human pseudogene psi alpha globin compared with alpha globin, its functional gene counterpart.

    PubMed Central

    Whitelaw, E; Proudfoot, N J

    1983-01-01

    Transcriptional analysis of the human pseudogene psi alpha globin has revealed the following features: (1) The promoter with a 23 bp deletion between the CCAAT and ATA boxes is functional both in vitro and in vivo, 3 fold and 10 fold less efficient, respectively, than alpha. (2) Both the psi alpha and alpha globin gene promoters are active in the absence of transcriptional enhancers, either a gene-encoded or viral enhancer. (3) The mutated poly(A) addition signal in psi alpha (AATGAA) appears to be completely nonfunctional. This result provides an explanation for the absence of psi alpha transcripts in human erythroid cells. Images PMID:6316269

  2. Identification of the human ApoAV gene as a novel ROR{alpha} target gene

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, Ulrika; Nilsson, Tina; McPheat, Jane; Stroemstedt, Per-Erik; Bamberg, Krister; Balendran, Clare; Kang, Daiwu . E-mail: Daiwu.Kang@astrazeneca.com

    2005-04-29

    Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor-{alpha} (ROR{alpha}) (NR1F1) is an orphan nuclear receptor with a potential role in metabolism. Previous studies have shown that ROR{alpha} regulates transcription of the murine Apolipoprotein AI gene and human Apolipoprotein CIII genes. In the present study, we present evidence that ROR{alpha} also induces transcription of the human Apolipoprotein AV gene, a recently identified apolipoprotein associated with triglyceride levels. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of ROR{alpha} increased the endogenous expression of ApoAV in HepG2 cells and ROR{alpha} also enhanced the activity of an ApoAV promoter construct in transiently transfected HepG2 cells. Deletion and mutation studies identified three AGGTCA motifs in the ApoAV promoter that mediate ROR{alpha} transactivation, one of which overlaps with a previously identified binding site for PPAR{alpha}. Together, these results suggest a novel mechanism whereby ROR{alpha} modulates lipid metabolism and implies ROR{alpha} as a potential target for the treatment of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis.

  3. Eye-Specific Gene Expression following Embryonic Ethanol Exposure in Zebrafish: Roles for Heat Shock Factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Bhavani; Pegorsch, Laurel; Frey, Ruth A.; Sun, Chi; Shelden, Eric A.; Stenkamp, Deborah L.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms through which ethanol exposure results in developmental defects remain unclear. We used the zebrafish model to elucidate eye-specific mechanisms that underlie ethanol-mediated microphthalmia (reduced eye size), through time-series microarray analysis of gene expression within eyes of embryos exposed to 1.5% ethanol. 62 genes were differentially expressed (DE) in ethanol-treated as compared to control eyes sampled during retinal neurogenesis (24-48 hours post-fertilization). The EDGE (extraction of differential gene expression) algorithm identified >3000 genes DE over developmental time in ethanol-exposed eyes as compared to controls. The DE lists included several genes indicating a mis-regulated cellular stress response due to ethanol exposure. Combined treatment with sub-threshold levels of ethanol and a morpholino targeting heat shock factor 1 mRNA resulted in microphthalmia, suggesting convergent molecular pathways. Thermal preconditioning partially prevented ethanol-mediated microphthalmia while maintaining Hsf-1 expression. These data suggest roles for reduced Hsf-1 in mediating microphthalmic effects of embryonic ethanol exposure. PMID:24355176

  4. Identification of novel steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1)-target genes and components of the SF-1 nuclear complex.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Tetsuya; Kawabe, Shinya; Ishikane, Shin; Imamichi, Yoshitaka; Umezawa, Akihiro; Miyamoto, Kaoru

    2015-06-15

    Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is a master regulator of adrenal and reproductive development and function. Although SF-1 was identified as a transcriptional regulator for steroid metabolic enzymes, it has been shown that SF-1 also regulates other genes that are involved in various cellular processes. Previously, we showed that introduction of SF-1 into mesenchymal stem cells resulted in the differentiation of these cells to the steroidogenic lineage. By using this method of differentiation, we performed comprehensive analyses to identify the novel SF-1-target genes and components of the SF-1 nuclear complex. Genome-wide analyses with promoter tiling array and DNA microarray identified 10 genes as novel SF-1-target genes including glutathione S-transferase A family, 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 and ferredoxin reductase. Using SF-1 immuno-affinity chromatography of nuclear proteins followed by MS/MS analysis, we identified 24 proteins including CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β as components of SF-1 nuclear complex. In this review, we will describe novel roles of the newly identified genes for steroidogenesis. PMID:25463758

  5. Mice devoid of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) show normal expression of type I interferon genes.

    PubMed Central

    Reis, L F; Ruffner, H; Stark, G; Aguet, M; Weissmann, C

    1994-01-01

    The transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) binds tightly to the interferon (IFN)-beta promoter and has been implicated in the induction of type I IFNs. We generated mice devoid of functional IRF-1 by targeted gene disruption. As reported by others, IRF-1-deficient mice showed a discrete phenotype: the CD4/CD8 ratio was increased and IFN-gamma-induced levels of macrophage iNO synthase mRNA were strongly diminished. However, type I IFN induction in vivo by virus or double-stranded RNA was unimpaired, as evidenced by serum IFN titers and IFN mRNA levels in spleen, liver and lung. There was also no impairment in the response of type I IFN-inducible genes. Therefore, IRF-1 is not essential for these processes in vivo. Images PMID:7957048

  6. Characterization of the L. manihotivorans alpha-amylase gene.

    PubMed

    Morlon-Guyot, J; Mucciolo-Roux, F; Rodriguez Sanoja, R; Guyot, J P

    2001-07-01

    Primers and probes were established from the sequences of the alpha-amylase genes (amyA) of L. amylovorus CIP 102989 and of L. plantarum A6 (Giraud and Cuny 1997). They were successfully used for the detection of the amyA gene in L. manihotivorans strain LMG 18010T and a 2842 bp region, containing the entire gene (2706 bp) with its putative promoter has been sequenced. More than 98% nucleotide sequence identities was found with L. amylovorus and L. plantarum amyA genes. The deduced amino acid sequence shares more than 96% amino acid sequence identities with L. amylovorus and L. plantarum alpha-amylases, and also 65% and 59% identities with the alpha-amylases of B. subtilis and S. bovis, respectively. The 3' terminal part of L. manihotivorans LMG 18010T amyA gene contained four repeated sequences (SRU). The amyA genes of the three lactobacilli species differed mainly in the number of SRU and in the size of the flanking regions of the SRU. PMID:11697143

  7. Chenodeoxycholic Acid Reduces Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α Protein and Its Target Genes.

    PubMed

    Moon, Yunwon; Choi, Su Mi; Chang, Soojeong; Park, Bongju; Lee, Seongyeol; Lee, Mi-Ock; Choi, Hueng-Sik; Park, Hyunsung

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated HIF-1α inhibitors under different hypoxic conditions, physiological hypoxia (5% O2) and severe hypoxia (0.1% O2). We found that chenodeoxy cholic acid (CDCA) reduced the amount of HIF-1α protein only under physiological hypoxia but not under severe hypoxia without decreasing its mRNA level. By using a proteasome inhibitor MG132 and a translation inhibitor cyclohexamide, we showed that CDCA reduced HIF-1α protein by decreasing its translation but not by enhancing its degradation. The following findings indicated that farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a CDCA receptor and its target gene, Small heterodimer partner (SHP) are not involved in this effect of CDCA. Distinctly from CDCA, MG132 prevented SHP and an exogenous FXR agonist, GW4064 from reducing HIF-1α protein. Furthermore a FXR antagonist, guggulsterone failed to prevent CDCA from decreasing HIF-1α protein. Furthermore, guggulsterone by itself reduced HIF-1α protein even in the presence of MG132. These findings suggested that CDCA and guggulsterone reduced the translation of HIF-1α in a mechanism which FXR and SHP are not involved. This study reveals novel therapeutic functions of traditional nontoxic drugs, CDCA and guggulsterone, as inhibitors of HIF-1α protein. PMID:26098428

  8. Dictyostelium ribosomal protein genes and the elongation factor 1B gene show coordinate developmental regulation which is under post-transcriptional control.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, A K; Blumberg, D D

    1999-06-01

    Starvation for amino acids initiates the developmental program in the cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum [19, 20]. One of the earliest developmental events is the decline in ribosomal protein synthesis [2, 17, 29, 30]. The ribosomal protein mRNAs are excluded from polysomes with 20 min to 1 h following the removal of nutrients, and their mRNA levels decline sharply at about 9 h into the 24-h developmental cycle [28, 31, 35, 36]. It has been generally assumed that the decline in r-protein mRNA levels during late development reflected a decline in the transcription rate [12, 32, 43]. Here we demonstrate that this is not the case. The transcription rates of three ribosomal protein genes, rpL11, rpL23 and rpS9 as well as an elongation factor 1B gene have been determined during growth and development in Dictyostelium. Throughout growth and development the transcription rate of the ribosomal protein genes remains relatively constant at 0.2%-0.5% of the rate of rRNA transcription while the elongation factor 1B gene is transcribed at 0.4%-0.6% of the rRNA rate. This low but constant transcription rate is in contrast to a spore coat protein gene Psp D, which is transcribed at 6% of the rRNA rate in late developing cells. The elongation factor 1B gene appears to be co-regulated with the ribosomal protein genes both in terms of its transcription rate and mRNA accumulation. Dictyostelium has been a popular model for understanding signal transduction and the growth to differentiation transition, thus it is of significance that the regulation of ribosome biosynthesis in Dictyostelium resembles that of higher eukaryotes in being regulated largely at the post-transcriptional level in response to starvation as opposed to yeasts where the regulation is largely transcriptional [27]. PMID:10374261

  9. Challenges and Prospects for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Joanna; Wandtke, Tomasz; Kopinski, Piotr; Chorostowska-Wynimko, Joanna

    2015-11-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is a protease inhibitor belonging to the serpin family. A number of identified mutations in the SERPINA1 gene encoding this protein result in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD). A decrease in AAT serum concentration or reduced biological activity causes considerable risk of chronic respiratory and liver disorders. As a monogenic disease, AATD appears to be an attractive target for gene therapy, particularly for patients with pulmonary dysfunction, where augmentation of functional AAT levels in plasma might slow down respiratory disease development. The short AAT coding sequence and its activity in the extracellular matrix would enable an increase in systemic serum AAT production by cellular secretion. In vitro and in vivo experimental AAT gene transfer with gamma-retroviral, lentiviral, adenoviral, and adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors has resulted in enhanced AAT serum levels and a promising safety profile. Human clinical trials using intramuscular viral transfer with AAV1 and AAV2 vectors of the AAT gene demonstrated its safety, but did not achieve a protective level of AAT >11 μM in serum. This review provides an in-depth critical analysis of current progress in AATD gene therapy based on viral gene transfer. The factors affecting transgene expression levels, such as site of administration, dose and type of vector, and activity of the immune system, are discussed further as crucial variables for optimizing the clinical effectiveness of gene therapy in AATD subjects. PMID:26413996

  10. In Vivo Therapeutic Silencing of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Alpha (HIF-1α) Using Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Noncovalently Coated with siRNA

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomeusz, Geoffrey; Cherukuri, Paul; Kingston, John; Cognet, Laurent; Lemos, Robert; Leeuw, Tonya K.; Gumbiner-Russo, Laura; Weisman, R. Bruce; Powis, Garth

    2009-01-01

    A new approach is described for delivering small interfering RNA (siRNA) into cancer cells by noncovalently complexing unmodified siRNA with pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The complexes were prepared by simple sonication of pristine SWCNTs in a solution of siRNA, which then served both as the cargo and as the suspending agent for the SWCNTs. When complexes containing siRNA targeted to hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) were added to cells growing in serum containing culture media, there was strong specific inhibition of cellular HIF-1α activity. The ability to obtain a biological response to SWCNT/siRNA complexes was seen in a wide variety of cancer cell types. Moreover, intratumoral administration of SWCNT-HIF-1α siRNA complexes in mice bearing MiaPaCa-2/HRE tumors significantly inhibited the activity of tumor HIF-1α. As elevated levels of HIF-1α are found in many human cancers and are associated with resistance to therapy and decreased patient survival, these results imply that SWCNT/siRNA complexes may have value as therapeutic agents. PMID:20052401

  11. Characterization of the 5'-flanking region of the gene for the alpha chain of human fibrinogen.

    PubMed

    Hu, C H; Harris, J E; Davie, E W; Chung, D W

    1995-11-24

    The 5'-flanking region of the gene coding for the alpha chain of human fibrinogen was isolated, sequenced, and characterized. The principal site of transcription initiation was determined by primer extension analysis and the RNase protection assay and shown to be at an adenine residue located 55 nucleotides upstream from the initiator methionine codon, or 13,399 nucleotides down-stream from the polyadenylation site of the gene coding for the gamma chain. Transient expression of constructs containing sequentially deleted 5'-flanking sequences of the alpha chain gene fused to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene showed that the promoter was liver-specific and inducible by interleukin 6 (IL-6). The shortest DNA fragment with significant promoter activity and full response to IL-6 stimulation encompassed the region from -217 to +1 base pairs (bp). Although six potential IL-6 responsive sequences homologous to the type II IL-6 responsive element were present, a single sequence of CTGGGA localized from -122 to -127 bp was shown to be a functional element in IL-6 induction. A hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 (HNF-1) binding site, present from -47 to -59 bp, in combination with other upstream elements, was essential for liver-specific expression of the gene. A functional CCAAT/enhancer binding protein site (C/EBP, -134 to -142 bp) was also identified within 217 bp from the transcription initiation site. An additional positive element (-1393 to -1133 bp) and a negative element (-1133 to -749 bp) were also found in the upstream region of the alpha-fibrinogen gene. PMID:7499335

  12. Retina-derived POU domain factor 1 coordinates expression of genes relevant to renal and neuronal development.

    PubMed

    Fiorino, Antonio; Manenti, Giacomo; Gamba, Beatrice; Bucci, Gabriele; De Cecco, Loris; Sardella, Michele; Buscemi, Giacomo; Ciceri, Sara; Radice, Maria T; Radice, Paolo; Perotti, Daniela

    2016-09-01

    Retina-derived POU domain Factor 1 (RPF-1), a member of POU transcription factor family, is encoded by POU6F2 gene, addressed by interstitial deletions at chromosome 7p14 in Wilms tumor (WT). Its expression has been detected in developing kidney and nervous system, suggesting an early role for this gene in regulating development of these organs. To investigate into its functions and determine its role in transcriptional regulation, we generated an inducible stable transfectant from HEK293 cells. RPF-1 showed nuclear localization, elevated stability, and transactivation of promoters featuring POU consensus sites, and led to reduced cell proliferation and in vivo tumor growth. By addressing the whole transcriptome regulated by its induction, we could detect a gross alteration of gene expression that is consistent with promoter occupancy predicted by genome-wide Chip-chip analysis. Comparison of bound regulatory regions with differentially expressed genes allowed identification of 217 candidate targets. Enrichment of divergent octamers in predicted regulatory regions revealed promiscuous binding to bipartite POUS and POUH consensus half-sites with intervening spacers. Gel-shift competition assay confirmed the specificity of RPF-1 binding to consensus motifs, and demonstrated that the Ser-rich region upstream of the POU domain is indispensable to achieve DNA-binding. Promoter-reporter activity addressing a few target genes indicated a dependence by RPF-1 on transcriptional response. In agreement with its expression in developing kidney and nervous system, the induced transcriptome appears to indicate a function for this protein in early renal differentiation and neuronal cell fate, providing a resource for understanding its role in the processes thereby regulated. PMID:27425396

  13. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha gene polymorphisms and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Culpan, Doris; MacGowan, Sian H; Ford, Julia M; Nicoll, James A R; Griffin, W Sue; Dewar, Deborah; Cairns, Nigel J; Hughes, Anthony; Kehoe, Patrick G; Wilcock, Gordon K

    2003-10-16

    Recent findings suggest that production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), is increased in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We used direct sequencing methods on a section of the enhancer/promoter region and on a smaller fragment located 10.5 kb upstream of the TNF-alpha gene to respectively examine TNF-alpha polymorphisms and TNF-a and -b microsatellite alleles in a cohort of 235 post-mortem confirmed AD and 130 control cases. None of the TNF-alpha point mutations or microsatellite alleles investigated proved to be independent risk factors for AD. However, when -308/A, -238/G and TNF-a2 were examined as a 2-1-2 haplotype, we observed that the absence of that haplotype was significantly associated with AD (P = 0.014, Fisher's exact test) suggesting that the 2-1-2 haplotype may be protective against AD. PMID:12962917

  14. Genetic analysis of the Drosophila Gs(alpha) gene.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfgang, W J; Hoskote, A; Roberts, I J; Jackson, S; Forte, M

    2001-01-01

    One of the best understood signal transduction pathways activated by receptors containing seven transmembrane domains involves activation of heterotrimeric G-protein complexes containing Gs(alpha), the subsequent stimulation of adenylyl cyclase, production of cAMP, activation of protein kinase A (PKA), and the phosphorylation of substrates that control a wide variety of cellular responses. Here, we report the identification of "loss-of-function" mutations in the Drosophila Gs(alpha) gene (dgs). Seven mutants have been identified that are either complemented by transgenes representing the wild-type dgs gene or contain nucleotide sequence changes resulting in the production of altered Gs(alpha) protein. Examination of mutant alleles representing loss-of-Gs(alpha) function indicates that the phenotypes generated do not mimic those created by mutational elimination of PKA. These results are consistent with the conclusion reached in previous studies that activation of PKA, at least in these developmental contexts, does not depend on receptor-mediated increases in intracellular cAMP, in contrast to the predictions of models developed primarily on the basis of studies in cultured cells. PMID:11454767

  15. Prostaglandin E2 Via Steroidogenic Factor-1 Coordinately Regulates Transcription of Steroidogenic Genes Necessary for Estrogen Synthesis in Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Attar, Erkut; Tokunaga, Hideki; Imir, Gonca; Yilmaz, M. Bertan; Redwine, David; Putman, Michael; Gurates, Bilgin; Attar, Rukset; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Hales, Dale B.; Bulun, Serdar E.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Products of at least five specific steroidogenic genes, including steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), which facilitates the entry of cytosolic cholesterol into the mitochondrion, side chain cleavage P450 enzyme, 3β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-2, 17-hydroxylase/17-20-lyase, and aromatase, which catalyzes the final step, are necessary for the conversion of cholesterol to estrogen. Expression and biological activity of StAR and aromatase were previously demonstrated in endometriosis but not in normal endometrium. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induces aromatase expression via the transcriptional factor steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1) in endometriosis, which is opposed by chicken-ovalbumin upstream-transcription factor (COUP-TF) and Wilms’ tumor-1 (WT1) in endometrium. Objective: The aim of the study was to demonstrate a complete steroidogenic pathway leading to estrogen biosynthesis in endometriotic cells and the transcriptional mechanisms that regulate basal and PGE2-stimulated estrogen production in endometriotic cells and endometrium. Results: Compared with normal endometrial tissues, mRNA levels of StAR, side chain cleavage P450, 3β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-2, 17-hydroxylase/17-20-lyase, aromatase, and SF1 were significantly higher in endometriotic tissues. PGE2 induced the expression of all steroidogenic genes; production of progesterone, estrone, and estradiol; and StAR promoter activity in endometriotic cells. Overexpression of SF1 induced, whereas COUP-TFII or WT1 suppressed, StAR promoter activity. PGE2 induced coordinate binding of SF1 to StAR and aromatase promoters but decreased COUP-TFII binding in endometriotic cells. COUP-TFII or WT1 binding to both promoters was significantly higher in endometrial compared with endometriotic cells. Conclusion: Endometriotic cells contain the full complement of steroidogenic genes for de novo synthesis of estradiol from cholesterol, which is stimulated by PGE2 via enhanced binding of SF1 to promoters

  16. Enhancement of CYP3A4 Activity in Hep G2 Cells by Lentiviral Transfection of Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-1 Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Tsai-Shin; Yang, Kai-Chiang; Chiou, Ling-Ling; Huang, Guan-Tarn; Lee, Hsuan-Shu

    2014-01-01

    Human hepatoma cell lines are commonly used as alternatives to primary hepatocytes for the study of drug metabolism in vitro. However, the phase I cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities in these cell lines occur at a much lower level than their corresponding activities in primary hepatocytes, and thus these cell lines may not accurately predict drug metabolism. In the present study, we selected hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 alpha (HNF1α) from six transcriptional regulators for lentiviral transfection into Hep G2 cells to optimally increase their expression of the CYP3A4 enzyme, which is the major CYP enzyme in the human body. We subsequently found that HNF1α-transfected Hep G2 enhanced the CYP3A4 expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner and the activity was noted to increase with time and peaked 7 days. With a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 100, CYP3A4 expression increased 19-fold and enzyme activity more than doubled at day 7. With higher MOI (1,000 to 3,000), the activity increased 8- to 10-fold; however, it was noted the higher MOI, the higher cell death rate and lower cell survival. Furthermore, the CYP3A4 activity in the HNF1α-transfected cells could be induced by CYP3A4-specific inducer, rifampicin, and metabolized nifedipine in a dose-dependent manner. With an MOI of 3,000, nifedipine-metabolizing activity was 6-fold of control and as high as 66% of primary hepatocytes. In conclusion, forceful delivery of selected transcriptional regulators into human hepatoma cells might be a valuable method to enhance the CYP activity for a more accurate determination of drug metabolism in vitro. PMID:24733486

  17. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha is required for the tumourigenic and aggressive phenotype associated with Rab25 expression in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Roman, Natividad; Sahasrabudhe, Neha Mohan; McGregor, Fiona; Chalmers, Anthony J.; Cassidy, Jim; Plumb, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The small GTPase Rab25 has been functionally linked to tumour progression and aggressiveness in ovarian cancer and promotes invasion in three-dimensional environments. This type of migration has been shown to require the expression of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α). In this report we demonstrate that Rab25 regulates HIF-1α protein expression in an oxygen independent manner in a panel of cancer cell lines. Regulation of HIF-1α protein expression by Rab25 did not require transcriptional upregulation, but was dependent on de novo protein synthesis through the Erbb2/ERK1/2 and p70S6K/mTOR pathways. Rab25 expression induced HIF-1 transcriptional activity, increased cisplatin resistance, and conferred intraperitoneal growth to the A2780 cell line in immunocompromised mice. Targeting HIF1 activity by silencing HIF-1β re-sensitised cells to cisplatin in vitro and reduced tumour formation of A2780-Rab25 expressing cells in vivo in a mouse ovarian peritoneal carcinomatosis model. Similar effects on cisplatin resistance in vitro and intraperitoneal tumourigenesis in vivo were obtained after HIF1b knockdown in the ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3, which expresses endogenous Rab25 and HIF-1α at atmospheric oxygen concentrations. Our results suggest that Rab25 tumourigenic potential and chemoresistance relies on HIF1 activity in aggressive and metastatic ovarian cancer. Targeting HIF-1 activity may potentially be effective either alone or in combination with standard chemotherapy for aggressive metastatic ovarian cancer. PMID:26967059

  18. Digoxin and ouabain induce P-glycoprotein by activating calmodulin kinase II and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Riganti, Chiara

    2009-11-01

    Digoxin and ouabain are cardioactive glycosides, which inhibit the Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase pump and in this way they increase the intracellular concentration of cytosolic calcium ([Ca{sup ++}]{sub i}). They are also strong inducers of the P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a transmembrane transporter which extrudes several drugs, including anticancer agents like doxorubicin. An increased amount of Pgp limits the absorption of drugs through epithelial cells, thus inducing resistance to chemotherapy. The mechanism by which cardioactive glycosides increase Pgp is not known and in this work we investigated whether digoxin and ouabain elicited the expression of Pgp with a calcium-driven mechanism. In human colon cancer HT29 cells both glycosides increased the [Ca{sup ++}]{sub i} and this event was dependent on the calcium influx via the Na{sup +}/Ca{sup ++} exchanger. The increased [Ca{sup ++}]{sub i} enhanced the activity of the calmodulin kinase II enzyme, which in turn activated the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha. This one was responsible for the increased expression of Pgp, which actively extruded doxorubicin from the cells and significantly reduced the pro-apoptotic effect of the drug. All the effects of glycosides were prevented by inhibiting the Na{sup +}/Ca{sup ++} exchanger or the calmodulin kinase II. This work clarified the molecular mechanisms by which digoxin and oubain induce Pgp and pointed out that the administration of cardioactive glycosides may widely affect the absorption of drugs in colon epithelia. Moreover, our results suggest that the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agent substrates of Pgp may be strongly reduced in patients taking digoxin.

  19. Analysis of Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A and Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1alpha in Patients Operated on Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Honguero Martínez, Antonio Francisco; Arnau Obrer, Antonio; Figueroa Almánzar, Santiago; León Atance, Pablo; Guijarro Jorge, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Recent studies show that expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α) favours expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), and these biomarkers are linked to cellular proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis in different cancers. We analyze expression of HIF-1α and VEGF-A to clinicopathologic features and survival of patients operated on stage I non-small-cell lung cancer. Methodology. Prospective study of 52 patients operated on with stage I. Expression of VEGF-A and HIF-1α was performed through real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results. Mean age was 64.7 and 86.5% of patients were male. Stage IA represented 23.1% and stage IB 76.9%. Histology classification was 42.3% adenocarcinoma, 34.6% squamous cell carcinoma, and 23.1% others. Median survival was 81.0 months and 5-year survival 67.2%. There was correlation between HIF-1α and VEGF-A (P = 0.016). Patients with overexpression of HIF-1α had a tendency to better survival with marginal statistical significance (P = 0.062). Patients with overexpression of VEGF-A had worse survival, but not statistically significant (P = 0.133). Conclusion. The present study revealed that VEGF-A showed correlation with HIF-1α. HIF-1α had a tendency to protective effect with a P value close to statistical significance. VEGF-A showed a contrary effect but without statistical significance. PMID:26316946

  20. Activation of Dll4/Notch Signaling and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 Alpha Facilitates Lymphangiogenesis in Lacrimal Glands in Dry Eye

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yong Woo; Yeo, Areum; Noh, Hyemi; Song, Insil; Kim, Eung Kweon; Lee, Hyung Keun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose By using hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha conditional knockout (HIF-1α CKO) mice and a dry eye (DE) mouse model, we aimed to determine the role played by delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4)/Notch signaling and HIF-1α in the lymphangiogenesis of lacrimal glands (LGs). Methods C57BL/6 mice were housed in a controlled-environment chamber for DE induction. During DE induction, the expression level of Dll4/Notch signaling and lymphangiogenesis in LGs was measured by quantitative RT-PCR, immunoblot, and immunofluorescence staining. Next, lymphangiogenesis was measured after Dll4/Notch signal inhibition by anti-Dll4 antibody or γ-secretase inhibitor. Using HIF-1α CKO mice, the expression of Dll4/Notch signaling and lymphangiogenesis in LGs of DE-induced HIF-1α CKO mice were assessed. Additionally, the infiltration of CD45+ cells in LGs was assessed by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining and flow cytometry for each condition. Results DE significantly upregulated Dll4/Notch and lymphangiogenesis in LGs. Inhibition of Dll4/Notch significantly suppressed lymphangiogenesis in LGs. Compared to wild-type (WT) mice, DE induced HIF-1α CKO mice showed markedly low levels of Dll4/Notch and lymphangiogenesis. Inhibition of lymphangiogenesis by Dll4/Notch suppression resulted in increased CD45+ cell infiltration in LGs. Likewise, CD45+ cells infiltrated more in the LGs of HIF-1α CKO DE mice than in non-DE HIF-1α CKO mice. Conclusions Dll4/Notch signaling and HIF-1α are closely related to lymphangiogenesis in DE-induced LGs. Lymphangiogenesis stimulated by Dll4/Notch and HIF-1α may play a role in protecting LGs from DE-induced inflammation by aiding the clearance of immune cells from LGs. PMID:26828208

  1. Gene Therapy for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Chiuchiolo, Maria J; Crystal, Ronald G

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, characterized by low plasma levels of the serine protease inhibitor AAT, is associated with emphysema secondary to insufficient protection of the lung from neutrophil proteases. Although AAT augmentation therapy with purified AAT protein is efficacious, it requires weekly to monthly intravenous infusion of AAT purified from pooled human plasma, has the risk of viral contamination and allergic reactions, and is costly. As an alternative, gene therapy offers the advantage of single administration, eliminating the burden of protein infusion, and reduced risks and costs. The focus of this review is to describe the various strategies for AAT gene therapy for the pulmonary manifestations of AAT deficiency and the state of the art in bringing AAT gene therapy to the bedside. PMID:27564673

  2. Human hTM. cap alpha. gene: Expression in muscle and nonmuscle tissue

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, A.R.; Gooding, C.

    1988-01-01

    The authors isolated a cDNA clone from a human skeletal muscle library which contains the complete protein-coding sequence of a skeletal muscle ..cap alpha..-tropomyosin. This cDNA sequence defines a fourth human tropomyosin gene, the hTM..cap alpha.. gene, which is distinct from the hTM/sub nm/ gene encoding a closely related isoform of skeletal muscle ..cap alpha..-tropomyosin. In cultured human fibroblasts, the hTM..cap alpha.. gene encodes both skeletal-muscle- and smooth-muscle-type ..cap alpha..-tropomyosins by using an alternative mRNA-splicing mechanism.

  3. A novel role for 3, 4-dichloropropionanilide (DCPA) in the inhibition of prostate cancer cell migration, proliferation, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha expression

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bing-Hua; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Schafer, Rosana; Flynn, Daniel C; Barnett, John B

    2006-01-01

    Background The amide class compound, 3, 4-dichloropropionanilide (DCPA) is known to affect multiple signaling pathways in lymphocyte and macrophage including the inhibition of NF-κB ability. However, little is known about the effect of DCPA in cancer cells. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) regulates the expression of many genes including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), heme oxygenase 1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, aldolase, enolase, and lactate dehydrogenase A. HIF-1 expression is associated with tumorigenesis and angiogenesis. Methods We used Transwell assay to study cell migration, and used immunoblotting to study specific protein expression in the cells. Results In this report, we demonstrate that DCPA inhibited the migration and proliferation of DU145 and PC-3 prostate cancer cells induced by serum, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). We found that DCPA inhibited HIF-1 expression in a subunit-specific manner in these cancer cell lines induced by serum and growth factors, and decreased HIF-1α expression by affecting its protein stability. Conclusion DCPA can inhibit prostate cancer cell migration, proliferation, and HIF-1α expression, suggesting that DCPA could be potentially used for therapeutic purpose for prostate cancer in the future. PMID:16884534

  4. Differentiation inducing factor-1 (DIF-1) induces gene and protein expression of the Dictyostelium nuclear calmodulin-binding protein nucleomorphin.

    PubMed

    O'Day, Danton H; Poloz, Yekaterina; Myre, Michael A

    2009-02-01

    The nucleomorphin gene numA1 from Dictyostelium codes for a multi-domain, calmodulin binding protein that regulates nuclear number. To gain insight into the regulation of numA, we assessed the effects of the stalk cell differentiation inducing factor-1 (DIF-1), an extracellular signalling molecule, on the expression of numA1 RNA and protein. For comparison, the extracellular signalling molecules cAMP (mediates chemotaxis, prestalk and prespore differentiation) and ammonia (NH(3)/NH(4)(+); antagonizes DIF) were also studied. Starvation, which is a signal for multicellular development, results in a greater than 80% decrease in numA1 mRNA expression within 4 h. Treatment with ammonium chloride led to a greater than 90% inhibition of numA1 RNA expression within 2 h. In contrast, the addition of DIF-1 completely blocked the decrease in numA1 gene expression caused by starvation. Treatment of vegetative cells with cAMP led to decreases in numA1 RNA expression that were equivalent to those seen with starvation. Western blotting after various morphogen treatments showed that the maintenance of vegetative levels of numA1 RNA by DIF-1 in starved cells was reflected in significantly increased numA1 protein levels. Treatment with cAMP and/or ammonia led to decreased protein expression and each of these morphogens suppressed the stimulatory effects of DIF-1. Protein expression levels of CBP4a, a calcium-dependent binding partner of numA1, were regulated in the same manner as numA1 suggesting this potential co-regulation may be related to their functional relationship. NumA1 is the first calmodulin binding protein shown to be regulated by developmental morphogens in Dictyostelium being upregulated by DIF-1 and down-regulated by cAMP and ammonia. PMID:19000924

  5. Elongation Factor 1β′ Gene from Spodoptera exigua: Characterization and Function Identification through RNA Interference

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li-Na; Qin, Zi; Wei, Ping; Guo, Hong-Shuang; Dang, Xiang-Li; Wang, Shi-Gui; Tang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Elongation factor (EF) is a key regulation factor for translation in many organisms, including plants, bacteria, fungi, animals and insects. To investigate the nature and function of elongation factor 1β′ from Spodoptera exigua (SeEF-1β′), its cDNA was cloned. This contained an open reading frame of 672 nucleotides encoding a protein of 223 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 24.04 kDa and pI of 4.53. Northern blotting revealed that SeEF-1β′ mRNA is expressed in brain, epidermis, fat body, midgut, Malpighian tubules, ovary and tracheae. RT-PCR revealed that SeEF-1β′ mRNA is expressed at different levels in fat body and whole body during different developmental stages. In RNAi experiments, the survival rate of insects injected with SeEF-1β′ dsRNA was 58.7% at 36 h after injection, which was significantly lower than three control groups. Other elongation factors and transcription factors were also influenced when EF-1β′ was suppressed. The results demonstrate that SeEF-1β′ is a key gene in transcription in S. exigua. PMID:22942694

  6. Kamebakaurin inhibits the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and its target genes to confer antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke Si; Ma, Juan; Mi, Chunliu; Li, Jing; Lee, Jung Joon; Jin, Xuejun

    2016-04-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), a heterodimeric transcription factor that mediates the adaptation of tumor cells and tissues to the hypoxic microenvironment, has attracted considerable interest as a potential therapeutic target. Kamebakaurin is a diterpenoid compound isolated from Isodon excia (Maxin.) Hara, which has been used for anti-inflammatory activities. However, its antitumor activity along with molecular mechanism has not been reported. Kamebakaurin showed potent inhibitory activity against HIF-1 activation induced by hypoxia or CoCl2 in various human cancer cell lines. This compound significantly decreased the hypoxia-induced accumulation of HIF-1α protein, whereas it did not affect the expression of topoisomerase-I (Topo-I). Further analysis revealed that kamebakaurin inhibited HIF-1α protein synthesis, without affecting the expression level of HIF-1α mRNA or degradation of HIF-1α protein. Furthermore, kamebakaurin prevented hypoxia-induced expression of HIF-1 target genes for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and erythropoietin (EPO). However, kamebakaurin caused cell growth inhibition via cell cycle arrest at G1 phase in tumor cells. In vivo studies, we further confirmed the inhibitory effect of kamebakaurin on the expression of HIF-1α proteins, leading to growth inhibition of HCT116 cells in a xenograft tumor model. These results show that kamebakaurin is an effective inhibitor of HIF-1 and provide new perspectives into its anticancer activity. PMID:26781327

  7. Gene Regulatory Network Inference of Immunoresponsive Gene 1 (IRG1) Identifies Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 (IRF1) as Its Transcriptional Regulator in Mammalian Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tallam, Aravind; Perumal, Thaneer M; Antony, Paul M; Jäger, Christian; Fritz, Joëlle V; Vallar, Laurent; Balling, Rudi; Del Sol, Antonio; Michelucci, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Immunoresponsive gene 1 (IRG1) is one of the highest induced genes in macrophages under pro-inflammatory conditions. Its function has been recently described: it codes for immune-responsive gene 1 protein/cis-aconitic acid decarboxylase (IRG1/CAD), an enzyme catalysing the production of itaconic acid from cis-aconitic acid, a tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate. Itaconic acid possesses specific antimicrobial properties inhibiting isocitrate lyase, the first enzyme of the glyoxylate shunt, an anaplerotic pathway that bypasses the TCA cycle and enables bacteria to survive on limited carbon conditions. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying itaconic acid production through IRG1 induction in macrophages, we examined the transcriptional regulation of IRG1. To this end, we studied IRG1 expression in human immune cells under different inflammatory stimuli, such as TNFα and IFNγ, in addition to lipopolysaccharides. Under these conditions, as previously shown in mouse macrophages, IRG1/CAD accumulates in mitochondria. Furthermore, using literature information and transcription factor prediction models, we re-constructed raw gene regulatory networks (GRNs) for IRG1 in mouse and human macrophages. We further implemented a contextualization algorithm that relies on genome-wide gene expression data to infer putative cell type-specific gene regulatory interactions in mouse and human macrophages, which allowed us to predict potential transcriptional regulators of IRG1. Among the computationally identified regulators, siRNA-mediated gene silencing of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) in macrophages significantly decreased the expression of IRG1/CAD at the gene and protein level, which correlated with a reduced production of itaconic acid. Using a synergistic approach of both computational and experimental methods, we here shed more light on the transcriptional machinery of IRG1 expression and could pave the way to therapeutic approaches targeting itaconic acid levels

  8. Gene Regulatory Network Inference of Immunoresponsive Gene 1 (IRG1) Identifies Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 (IRF1) as Its Transcriptional Regulator in Mammalian Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Tallam, Aravind; Perumal, Thaneer M.; Antony, Paul M.; Jäger, Christian; Fritz, Joëlle V.; Vallar, Laurent; Balling, Rudi; del Sol, Antonio; Michelucci, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Immunoresponsive gene 1 (IRG1) is one of the highest induced genes in macrophages under pro-inflammatory conditions. Its function has been recently described: it codes for immune-responsive gene 1 protein/cis-aconitic acid decarboxylase (IRG1/CAD), an enzyme catalysing the production of itaconic acid from cis-aconitic acid, a tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate. Itaconic acid possesses specific antimicrobial properties inhibiting isocitrate lyase, the first enzyme of the glyoxylate shunt, an anaplerotic pathway that bypasses the TCA cycle and enables bacteria to survive on limited carbon conditions. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying itaconic acid production through IRG1 induction in macrophages, we examined the transcriptional regulation of IRG1. To this end, we studied IRG1 expression in human immune cells under different inflammatory stimuli, such as TNFα and IFNγ, in addition to lipopolysaccharides. Under these conditions, as previously shown in mouse macrophages, IRG1/CAD accumulates in mitochondria. Furthermore, using literature information and transcription factor prediction models, we re-constructed raw gene regulatory networks (GRNs) for IRG1 in mouse and human macrophages. We further implemented a contextualization algorithm that relies on genome-wide gene expression data to infer putative cell type-specific gene regulatory interactions in mouse and human macrophages, which allowed us to predict potential transcriptional regulators of IRG1. Among the computationally identified regulators, siRNA-mediated gene silencing of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) in macrophages significantly decreased the expression of IRG1/CAD at the gene and protein level, which correlated with a reduced production of itaconic acid. Using a synergistic approach of both computational and experimental methods, we here shed more light on the transcriptional machinery of IRG1 expression and could pave the way to therapeutic approaches targeting itaconic acid levels

  9. The human HLA class II alpha chain gene DZ alpha is distinct from genes in the DP, DQ and DR subregions.

    PubMed Central

    Trowsdale, J; Kelly, A

    1985-01-01

    A new human HLA class II alpha gene DZ alpha was sequenced. The structure and organisation of the gene was similar to other alpha chain genes except for a particularly small intron (95 bp) after the exon encoding the alpha 2 domain, and the position of the stop codon, which was on a different exon to that encoding the cytoplasmic portion of the molecule. Comparison of the DZ alpha sequence with other class II genes showed that the gene is about as distantly related to alpha chain genes in the DP, DQ and DR subregions as they are to each other. The DZ alpha gene results in an unusually large mRNA transcript of greater than 3.0 kb, detected on Northern blots of B cell lines. From the sequence, there are no obvious features that would render DZ alpha a pseudogene, except for an unusual poly(A)+ addition signal, ACTAAA. Analysis of Northern blots shows that sequences downstream (3') of this signal are present in mature mRNA. The large transcripts are probably due to defects in the signals for processing of the mRNA transcript at the 3' end. Images Fig. 4. PMID:3000765

  10. Association of tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-alpha)gene promoter polymorphisms with TNF-alpha response to endotoxin (LPS)in calves.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Attenuation of TNF-alpha gene expression is a NF-'B-mediated regulatory process essential to avoid deleterious effects of excessive or prolonged synthesis of TNF-alpha, especially in response to gram-negative bacterial infection or LPS. An uncommon G to A transition polymorphism in the promoter regi...

  11. Modulation of gene expression by alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl phosphate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The naturally occurring vitamin E analogue, alpha-tocopheryl phosphate (alphaTP), has been reported to be more potent in reducing cell proliferation and the expression of the CD36 scavenger receptor than the un-phosphorylated alpha-tocopherol (alpha T). We have now assessed the effects of alpha T an...

  12. cap alpha. -skeletal and. cap alpha. -cardiac actin genes are coexpressed in adult human skeletal muscle and heart

    SciTech Connect

    Gunning, P.; Ponte, P.; Blau, H.; Kedes, L.

    1983-11-01

    The authors determined the actin isotypes encoded by 30 actin cDNA clones previously isolated from an adult human muscle cDNA library. Using 3' untranslated region probes, derived from ..cap alpha.. skeletal, ..beta..- and ..gamma..-actin cDNAs and from an ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin genomic clone, they showed that 28 of the cDNAs correspond to ..cap alpha..-skeletal actin transcripts. Unexpectedly, however, the remaining two cDNA clones proved to derive from ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin mRNA. Sequence analysis confirmed that the two skeletal muscle ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin cDNAs are derived from transcripts of the cloned ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin gene. Comparison of total actin mRNA levels in adult skeletal muscle and adult heart revealed that the steady-state levels in skeletal muscle are about twofold greater, per microgram of total cellular RNA, than those in heart. Thus, in skeletal muscle and in heart, both of the sarcomeric actin mRNA isotypes are quite abundant transcripts. They conclude that ..cap alpha..-skeletal and ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin genes are coexpressed as an actin pair in human adult striated muscles. Since the smooth-muscle actins (aortic and stomach) and the cytoplasmic actins (..beta.. and ..gamma..) are known to be coexpressed in smooth muscle and nonmuscle cells, respectively, they postulate that coexpression of actin pairs may be a common feature of mammalian actin gene expression in all tissues.

  13. Radioprotective effect on HepG2 cells of low concentrations of cobalt chloride: induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha and clearance of reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Wensen; Wang, Juan; Xu, Shiguo; Xiao, Linlin; Chen, Guangfu; Zhang, Wukui; Li, Jun

    2013-01-01

    It has been found that low doses of certain toxicants might generate a protective response to cellular damage. Previous data have shown that elevated doses of cobalt (Co) induce injury to cells and organisms or result in radiological combined toxicity. Whether low doses of Co generate a protective effect or not, however, remains controversial. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of action of low dose cobalt chloride (CoCl2, 100 μM) on the viability of irradiated cells. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay was used to observe the radio-sensitivity of HepG2 cells under different pretreatments. The alteration of intracellular DNA damage was further measured using micronucleus (MN) assay. Levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression and its target gene, EPO, were monitored by western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content was determined by 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) probe staining. Our results show that low dose CoCl2does not influence HepG2 cell viability, but induces the expression of HIF-1α, followed by increased radio-resistance. Additionally, cells treated with HIF-1α siRNA retained a partial refractory response to irradiation concomitant with a marked reduction in intracellular ROS. The change of MN further indicated that the reduction of DNA damage was confirmed with the alteration of ROS. Our results demonstrate that low dose CoCl2may protect cells against irradiative harm by two mechanisms, namely HIF-1α expression and ROS clearance. PMID:23065176

  14. The mutated human gene encoding hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β inhibits kidney formation in developing Xenopus embryos

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Wiltrud; Pogge von Strandmann, Elke; Nastos, Aristotelis; Senkel, Sabine; Lingott-Frieg, Anja; Bulman, Michael; Bingham, Coralie; Ellard, Sian; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Ryffel, Gerhart U.

    2000-01-01

    The transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β (HNF1β) is a tissue-specific regulator that also plays an essential role in early development of vertebrates. In humans, four heterozygous mutations in the HNF1β gene have been identified that lead to early onset of diabetes and severe primary renal defects. The degree and type of renal defects seem to depend on the specific mutation. We show that the frameshift mutant P328L329fsdelCCTCT associated with nephron agenesis retains its DNA-binding properties and acts as a gain-of-function mutation with increased transactivation potential in transfection experiments. Expression of this mutated factor in the Xenopus embryo leads to defective development and agenesis of the pronephros, the first kidney form of amphibians. Very similar defects are generated by overexpressing in Xenopus the wild-type HNF1β, which is consistent with the gain-of-function property of the mutant. In contrast, introduction of the human HNF1β mutant R137-K161del, which is associated with a reduced number of nephrons with hypertrophy of the remaining ones and which has an impaired DNA binding, shows only a minor effect on pronephros development in Xenopus. Thus, the overexpression of both human mutants has a different effect on renal development in Xenopus, reflecting the variation in renal phenotype seen with these mutations. We conclude that mutations in human HNF1β can be functionally characterized in Xenopus. Our findings imply that HNF1β not only is an early marker of kidney development but also is functionally involved in morphogenetic events, and these processes can be investigated in lower vertebrates. PMID:10758154

  15. Polymorphisms in the kinesin-like factor 1 B gene and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in Eastern Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ting-Yan; Jiang, Zhi; Jiang, Rong; Yin, Sheng; Wang, Meng-Yun; Yu, Ke-Da; Shao, Zhi-Ming; Sun, Meng-Hong; Zang, Rongyu; Wei, Qingyi

    2015-09-01

    The kinesin-like factor 1 B (KIF1B) gene plays an important role in the process of apoptosis and the transformation and progression of malignant cells. Genetic variations in KIF1B may contribute to risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). In this study of 1,324 EOC patients and 1,386 cancer-free female controls, we investigated associations between two potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in KIF1B and EOC risk by the conditional logistic regression analysis. General linear regression model was used to evaluate the correlation between the number of variant alleles and KIF1B mRNA expression levels. We found that the rs17401966 variant AG/GG genotypes were significantly associated with a decreased risk of EOC (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.81, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.68-0.97), compared with the AA genotype, but no associations were observed for rs1002076. Women who carried both rs17401966 AG/GG and rs1002076 AG/AA genotypes of KIF1B had a 0.82-fold decreased risk (adjusted 95 % CI = 0.69-0.97), compared with others. Additionally, there was no evidence of possible interactions between about-mentioned co-variants. Further genotype-phenotype correlation analysis indicated that the number of rs17401966 variant G allele was significantly associated with KIF1B mRNA expression levels (P for GLM = 0.003 and 0.001 in all and Chinese subjects, respectively), with GG carriers having the lowest level of KIF1B mRNA expression. Taken together, the rs17401966 polymorphism likely regulates KIF1B mRNA expression and thus may be associated with EOC risk in Eastern Chinese women. Larger, independent studies are warranted to validate our findings. PMID:25854172

  16. Polymorphism in the interferon-alpha gene family.

    PubMed Central

    Golovleva, I.; Kandefer-Szerszen, M.; Beckman, L.; Lundgren, E.

    1996-01-01

    A pronounced genetic polymorphism of the interferon type I gene family has been assumed on the basis of RFLP analysis of the genomic region as well as the large number of sequences published compared to the number of loci. However, IFNA2 is the only locus that has been carefully analyzed concerning gene frequency, and only naturally occurring rare alleles have been found. We have extended the studies on a variation of expressed sequences by studying the IFNA1, IFNA2, IFNA10, IFNA13, IFNA14, and IFNA17 genes. Genomic white-blood-cell DNA from a population sample of blood donors and from a family material were screened by single-nucleotide primer extension (allele-specific primer extension) of PCR fragments. Because of sequence similarities, in some cases "nested" PCR was used, and, when applicable, restriction analysis or control sequencing was performed. All individuals carried the interferon-alpha 1 and interferon-alpha 13 variants but not the LeIF D variant. At the IFNA2 and IFNA14 loci only one sequence variant was found, while in the IFNA10 and IFNA17 groups two alleles were detected in each group. The IFNA10 and IFNA17 alleles segregated in families and showed a close fit to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There was a significant linkage disequilibrium between IFNA10 and IFNA17 alleles. The fact that the extent of genetic polymorphism was lower than expected suggests that a majority of the previously described gene sequences represent nonpolymorphic rare mutants that may have arisen in tumor cell lines. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8751858

  17. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 mediates hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte lipid accumulation by reducing the DNA binding activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha}/retinoid X receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Belanger, Adam J.; Luo Zhengyu; Vincent, Karen A.; Akita, Geoffrey Y.; Cheng, Seng H.; Gregory, Richard J.; Jiang Canwen

    2007-12-21

    In response to cellular hypoxia, cardiomyocytes adapt to consume less oxygen by shifting ATP production from mitochondrial fatty acid {beta}-oxidation to glycolysis. The transcriptional activation of glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes by hypoxia is mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). In this study, we examined whether HIF-1 was involved in the suppression of mitochondrial fatty acid {beta}-oxidation in hypoxic cardiomyocytes. We showed that either hypoxia or adenovirus-mediated expression of a constitutively stable hybrid form (HIF-1{alpha}/VP16) suppressed mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism, as indicated by an accumulation of intracellular neutral lipid. Both treatments also reduced the mRNA levels of muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase I which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the mitochondrial import of fatty acids for {beta}-oxidation. Furthermore, adenovirus-mediated expression of HIF-1{alpha}/VP16 in cardiomyocytes under normoxic conditions also mimicked the reduction in the DNA binding activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha})/retinoid X receptor (RXR), in the presence or absence of a PPAR{alpha} ligand. These results suggest that HIF-1 may be involved in hypoxia-induced suppression of fatty acid metabolism in cardiomyocytes by reducing the DNA binding activity of PPAR{alpha}/RXR.

  18. Non random usage of T cell receptor alpha gene expression in atopy using anchored PCR.

    PubMed

    Mansur, A H; Gelder, C M; Holland, D; Campell, D A; Griffin, A; Cunliffe, W; Markham, A F; Morrison, J F

    1996-01-01

    The T cell receptor (TCR) alpha beta heterodimer recognises antigenic peptide fragments presented by Class II MHC. This interaction initiates T cell activation and cytokine release with subsequent recruitment of inflammatory cells. Previous work from our group suggests a qualitative difference in variable alpha gene expression in atopy as compared to non atopic controls. In this study we examine TCR alpha repertoire using anchored PCR to provide a quantitative assessment of the V alpha and J alpha repertoire. One atopic (DRB1*0701,DRB1*15: DRB4*0101, DRB5*01: DQB1* 0303, DQB1*601/2) and one non-atopic (DRB1*0701,DRB1*03011/2: DRB4*01, DRB3*0x: DQB1* 0303, DQB1*0201/2) control were studied. Variable gene usage was markedly limited in the atopic individual. V alpha 1, 3, 8 accounted for 60% and J alpha 12, 31 30% of the gene usage. There was evidence of preferential V alpha-J alpha gene pairing and clonal expansion. We conclude that there is a marked non random TCR alpha gene distribution in atopy using both V alpha family and anchored PCR. This may be due in part to antigen driven clonal expansion. PMID:9095269

  19. The human alpha 2(IV) collagen gene, COL4A2, is syntenic with the alpha 1(IV) gene, COL4A1, on chromosome 13.

    PubMed

    Solomon, E; Hall, V; Kurkinen, M

    1987-05-01

    We have previously assigned the gene for the alpha 1 chain of type IV collagen to chromosome 13. In this report we show that the gene coding for the second chain of this heterotrimer is on the same chromosome. This is the first example of the genes for both chains of one collagen molecule being syntenic. PMID:3674752

  20. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits albumin gene expression in a murine model of cachexia.

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, D A; Buck, M; Feitelberg, S P; Chojkier, M

    1990-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for decreased serum albumin levels in patients with cachexia-associated infection, inflammation, and cancer are unknown. Since tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) is elevated in cachexia-associated diseases, and chronic administration of TNF alpha induces cachexia in animal models, we assessed the regulation of albumin gene expression by TNF alpha in vivo. In this animal model of cachexia, Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with the functional gene for human TNF alpha were inoculated into nude mice (TNF alpha mice). TNF alpha mice became cachectic and manifested decreased serum albumin levels, albumin synthesis, and albumin mRNA levels. However, even before the TNF alpha mice lost weight, their albumin mRNA steady-state levels were decreased approximately 90%, and in situ hybridization revealed a low level of albumin gene expression throughout the hepatic lobule. The mRNA levels of several other genes were unchanged. Hepatic nuclei from TNF alpha mice before the onset of weight loss were markedly less active in transcribing the albumin gene than hepatic nuclei from control mice. Therefore, TNF alpha selectively inhibits the genetic expression of albumin in this model before weight loss. Images PMID:2295699

  1. Sequence heterogeneity and differential expression of the alpha-Amy2 gene family in wheat.

    PubMed

    Huttly, A K; Martienssen, R A; Baulcombe, D C

    1988-10-01

    The alpha-Amy2 genes of wheat are a multigene family which is expressed in the aleurone cells of germinating grain under control of the plant hormone gibberellin. A subset of the genes are also expressed in developing grain. Comparison of five genomic clones containing alpha-Amy2 genes, using DNA sequence analysis and Southern hybridisation, showed that the extent of similarity between genes differed. Two of the most heterogeneous genes compared were located to the same group 7 chromosome while the most similar genes alpha-Amy2/54 and alpha-Amy2/8 were located to different ones; hence sequence variation could not be correlated to the ancestry of the alpha-Amy2 genes during the separate existence of the constituent genomes of hexaploid wheat. Expression of the cloned genes was measured using an S1 nuclease protection assay and this identified alpha-Amy2/54 and alpha-Amy2/8 as part of the subset of alpha-Amy2 genes expressed in both the developing grain and in aleurone cells. Comparison of the 5' upstream regions of all five genes showed high similarity, with the exception of one gene, up to -280 nucleotides from the transcriptional start, while similarity between alpha-Amy2/54 and alpha-Amy2/8 extended a further 90 bp upstream of this point. It is suggested that regulatory elements responsible for tissue specificity and gibberellin regulation may be located within these regions of similarity. PMID:2467183

  2. Partial activation of gene activity and chromatin remodeling of the human 14q32.1 serpin gene cluster by HNF-1 alpha and HNF-4 in fibroblast microcell hybrids.

    PubMed

    Rollini, P; Xu, L; Fournier, R E

    1999-07-01

    The genes encoding alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT, gene symbol P I) and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) are part of a cluster of serine protease inhibitor (serpin) genes on human chromosome 14q32.1. Both genes are highly expressed in the liver and in cultured hepatoma cells, and the approximately 100-kb region around these genes contains an extensive array of expression-associated DNase I-hypersensitive sites (DHSs). Activation of human alpha 1AT and CBG transcription occurred when human chromosome 14 was transferred from nonexpressing cells to rat hepatoma cells. This activation event was accompanied by long-range chromatin reorganization of the entire region and the de novo formation of 17 expression-associated DHSs. Both gene activation and chromatin remodeling in hepatic cells required the liver-enriched transactivators hepatocyte nuclear factors-1 alpha and -4 (HNF-1 alpha and HNF-4). In this study, we tested whether ectopic expression of HNF-1 alpha and HNF-4 in nonexpressing cells could activate alpha 1AT and/or CBG transcription, and we monitored the chromatin structure of the locus in stably transfected fibroblasts. We report that both alpha 1AT and CBG mRNAs were expressed in fibroblast transfectants that stably expressed HNF-1 alpha and HNF-4, but expression was only approximately 1-10% of that observed in hepatic cells. Gene activation in these cells was accompanied by partial chromatin remodeling, as 6 of 17 expression-associated DHSs were formed. The potential implications of these results are discussed. PMID:11586788

  3. Immunohistochemical detection of osteopontin in advanced head-and-neck cancer: Prognostic role and correlation with oxygen electrode measurements, hypoxia-inducible-factor-1{alpha}-related markers, and hemoglobin levels

    SciTech Connect

    Bache, Matthias; Reddemann, Rolf; Said, Harun M.; Holzhausen, Hans-Juergen; Taubert, Helge; Becker, Axel; Kuhnt, Thomas; Haensgen, Gabriele; Dunst, Juergen; Vordermark, Dirk . E-mail: vordermark_d@klinik.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2006-12-01

    Purpose: The tumor-associated glycoprotein osteopontin (OPN) is discussed as a plasma marker of tumor hypoxia. However, the association of immunohistochemical OPN expression in tumor sections with tumor oxygenation parameters (HF5, median pO{sub 2}), the hypoxia-related markers hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), or hemoglobin and systemic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels has not been investigated. Methods and Materials: Tumor tissue sections of 34 patients with advanced head-and-neck cancer treated with radiotherapy were assessed by immunochemistry for the expression of OPN, HIF-1{alpha}, and CA IX. Relationship of OPN expression with tumor oxygenation parameters (HF5, median pO{sub 2}), HIF-1{alpha} and CA IX expression, hemoglobin and serum VEGF level, and clinical parameters was studied. Results: Bivariate analysis showed a significant correlation of positive OPN staining with low hemoglobin level (p = 0.02), high HIF-1{alpha} expression (p = 0.02), and high serum vascular endothelial growth factor level (p = 0.02) for advanced head-and-neck cancer. Furthermore, considering the 31 Stage IV patients, the median pO{sub 2} correlated significantly with the OPN expression (p = 0.02). OPN expression alone had only a small impact on prognosis. However, in a univariate Cox proportional hazard regression model, the expression of either OPN or HIF-1{alpha} or CA IX was associated with a 4.1-fold increased risk of death (p = 0.02) compared with negativity of all three markers. Conclusion: Osteopontin expression detected immunohistochemically is associated with oxygenation parameters in advanced head-and-neck cancer. When the results of OPN, HIF-1{alpha}, and CA IX immunohistochemistry are combined into a hypoxic profile, a strong and statistically significant impact on overall survival is found.

  4. Vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α gene polymorphisms and coronary collateral formation in patients with coronary chronic total occlusions

    PubMed Central

    Amoah, Vincent; Wrigley, Benjamin; Holroyd, Eric; Smallwood, Andrew; Armesilla, Angel L; Nevill, Alan; Cotton, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluated the association between two single nucleotide polymorphisms of the vascular endothelial growth factor gene and one of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α gene and the degree of coronary collateral formation in patients with a coronary chronic total occlusion. Methods: Totally, 98 patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease and a chronic total occlusion observed during coronary angiography were recruited. Genotyping of two vascular endothelial growth factor promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (−152G>A and −165C>T) and the C1772T single nucleotide polymorphism of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α were performed using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The presence and extent of collateral vessel filling was scored by blinded observers using the Rentrop grade. Results: We found no association between the vascular endothelial growth factor −152G>A, −165C>T and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α −1772C>T with the presence and filling of coronary collateral vessels. A history of percutaneous coronary intervention and transient ischaemic attack/cerebrovascular accident were associated with the presence of enhanced collateral vessel formation following binary logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: The study findings suggest that coronary collateral formation is not associated with the tested polymorphic variants of vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease and the presence of a chronic total occlusion. PMID:27621802

  5. Lactation is disrupted by alpha-lactalbumin deficiency and can be restored by human alpha-lactalbumin gene replacement in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, A; Schnieke, A; Kerr, M; Scott, A; McKee, C; Cottingham, I; Binas, B; Wilde, C; Colman, A

    1995-01-01

    Mice carrying either a deletion of the murine alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-lac) gene (null allele) or its replacement by the human alpha-lac gene (humanized allele) have been generated by gene targeting. Homozygous null females are alpha-lac-deficient, produce reduced amounts of thickened milk containing little or no lactose, and cannot sustain their offspring. This provides definitive evidence that alpha-lac is required for lactose synthesis and that lactose is important for milk production. Females homozygous for the humanized allele lactate normally, indicating that human alpha-lac can replace murine alpha-lac. Mouse and human alpha-lac expression was compared in mice heterozygous for the humanized allele. The human gene expressed approximately 15-fold greater mRNA and approximately 14-fold greater protein than the mouse, indicating that the major determinants of human alpha-lac expression are close to, or within, the human gene and that the mouse locus does not exert a negative influence on alpha-lac expression. Variations in alpha-lac expression levels in nondeficient mice did not affect milk lactose concentration, but the volume of milk increased slightly in mice homozygous for the humanized allele. These variations demonstrated that alpha-lac expression in mice is gene dosage dependent. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7708733

  6. The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}7 subunit gene: Cloning, mapping, structure, and targeting in mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Orr-Urtreger, A.; Baldini, A.; Beaudet, A.L.

    1994-09-01

    The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}7 subunit is a member of a family of ligand-gated ion channels, and is the only subunit know to bind {alpha}-bungarotoxin in mammalian brain. {alpha}-Bungarotoxin binding sites are known to be more abundant in the hippocampus of mouse strains that are particularly sensitive to nicotine-induced seizures. The {alpha}7 receptor is highly permeable to calcium, which could suggest a role in synaptic plasticity in the nervous system. Auditory gating deficiency, an abnormal response to a second auditory stimulus, is characteristic of schizophrenia. Mouse strains that exhibit a similar gating deficit have reduced hippocampal expression of the {alpha}7 subunit. We have cloned and sequenced the full length cDNA for the mouse {alpha}7 gene (Acra-7) and characterized its gene structure. The murine {alpha}7 shares amino acid identity of 99% and 93% with the rat and human {alpha}7 subunits, respectively. Using an interspecies backcross panel, the murine gene was mapped to chromosome 7 near the p locus, a region syntenic with human chromosome 15; the human gene (CHRNA7) was confirmed to map to 15q13-q14 by FISH. To generate a mouse {alpha}7 mutant by homologous recombination, we have constructed a replacement vector which will delete transmembrane domains II-IV and the cytoplasmic domain from the gene product. Recombinant embryonic stem (ES) cell clones were selected and used to develop mouse chimeras that are currently being bred to obtain germline transmission.

  7. Methylation impact analysis of erythropoietin (EPO) Gene to hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) activity.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Firli Rahmah Primula; Fatchiyah, Fatchiyah

    2013-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone that play a role as key regulator in the production of red blood cells. The promoter region of EPO is methylated in normoxic (non-hypoxia) condition, but not in hypoxic condition. Methylation of the EPO enhancer region decline the transcription activity of EPO gene. The aim of this study is to investigate how different methylation percentage affected on the regulation and transcriptional activity of EPO gene. The DNA sequence of erythropoietin gene and protein sequence was retrieved from the sequence database of NCBI. DNA structure was constructed using 3D-DART web server and modeling structure of HIF1 predicted using SWISS-MODEL web server. Methylated DNA sequence of EPO gene using performed with YASARA View software and docking of EPO gene and transcription factor HIF1 analyzed by using HADDOCK webserver. Our result showed that binding energy in 46% methylated DNA was higher (-161,45 kcal/mol) than in unmethylated DNA (-194,16 kcal/mol) and 8% methylated DNA (-175,94 kcal/mol). So, we presume that a silencing mechanism of the Epo gene by methylation is correlated with the binding energy, which is required for interaction. A higher methylation percentage correlates with a higher binding energy which can cause an unstable interaction between DNA and transcription factor. In conclution, methylation of promoter and enhancer region of Epo gene leads to silencing. PMID:24023421

  8. AMPK activation represses the human gene promoter of the cardiac isoform of acetyl-CoA carboxylase: Role of nuclear respiratory factor-1

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, Tasneem; Opie, Lionel H.; Essop, M. Faadiel

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} AMPK inhibits acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta gene promoter activity. {yields} Nuclear respiratory factor-1 inhibits acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta promoter activity. {yields} AMPK regulates acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta at transcriptional level. -- Abstract: The cardiac-enriched isoform of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC{beta}) produces malonyl-CoA, a potent inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1. AMPK inhibits ACC{beta} activity, lowering malonyl-CoA levels and promoting mitochondrial fatty acid {beta}-oxidation. Previously, AMPK increased promoter binding of nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), a pivotal transcriptional modulator controlling gene expression of mitochondrial proteins. We therefore hypothesized that NRF-1 inhibits myocardial ACC{beta} promoter activity via AMPK activation. A human ACC{beta} promoter-luciferase construct was transiently transfected into neonatal cardiomyocytes {+-} a NRF-1 expression construct. NRF-1 overexpression decreased ACC{beta} gene promoter activity by 71 {+-} 4.6% (p < 0.001 vs. control). Transfections with 5'-end serial promoter deletions revealed that NRF-1-mediated repression of ACC{beta} was abolished with a pPII{beta}-18/+65-Luc deletion construct. AMPK activation dose-dependently reduced ACC{beta} promoter activity, while NRF-1 addition did not further decrease it. We also investigated NRF-1 inhibition in the presence of upstream stimulatory factor 1 (USF1), a known transactivator of the human ACC{beta} gene promoter. Here NRF-1 blunted USF1-dependent induction of ACC{beta} promoter activity by 58 {+-} 7.5% (p < 0.001 vs. control), reversed with a dominant negative NRF-1 construct. NRF-1 also suppressed endogenous USF1 transcriptional activity by 55 {+-} 6.2% (p < 0.001 vs. control). This study demonstrates that NRF-1 is a novel transcriptional inhibitor of the human ACC{beta} gene promoter in the mammalian heart. Our data extends AMPK regulation of ACC{beta} to the transcriptional level.

  9. Transcriptional regulation of human retinoic acid receptor-alpha (RAR-{alpha}) by Wilms` tumour gene product

    SciTech Connect

    Goodyer, P.R.; Torban, E.; Dehbi, M.

    1994-09-01

    The Wilms` tumor gene encodes a 47-49 kDa transcription factor expressed in kidney, gonads and mesothelium during embryogenesis. Inherited mutations of WT1 lead to aberrant urogenital development and Wilms` tumor, but the role of WT1 in development is not fully understood. Since the human RAR-{alpha} gene contains a potential WT1 binding site at its 5{prime} end, we studied the effect of WT1 co-transfection on expression of an RAR-{alpha} promoter/CAT reporter construct in COS cells. COS cells were plated at 5X10{sup 5} cells/dish in DMEM with 10% FBS and transfected by the Ca/PO4 method with an expression plasmid containing the full-length WT1 (-/-) cDNA under the control of the CMV promoter, plasmid containing the RAR-{alpha} promoter (-519 to +36)/CAT reporter and TK/growth hormone plasmid to control for efficiency of transfection. CAT/GH activity at 48 hours was inhibited by co-transfection with increasing amounts of WT1 (-/-); maximum inhibition = 5% of control. WT1 co-transfection did not affect expression of TKGH, nor of a CMV-CAT vector. Expression of WT1 protein in tranfected COS cells was demonstrated by Western blotting. Minimal inhibiton of RAR-{alpha}/CAT activity was seen when cells were co-transfected with vectors containing WT1 deletion mutants, alternate WT1 splicing variants, or WT1 (-/-) cDNA bearing a mutation identified in a patient with Drash syndrome. Gel shift assays indicated binding of WT1 to RAR-{alpha} cDNA but not to an RAR-{alpha} deletion mutant lacking the GCGGGGGGCG site. These observations suggest that WT1 may function to regulate RAR-{alpha} expression during normal development.

  10. Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} modulates the expression of adipogenesis-related genes during adipocyte differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ijichi, Nobuhiro; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Yagi, Ken; Okazaki, Yasushi; Inoue, Satoshi . E-mail: INOUE-GER@h.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2007-07-06

    Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} (ERR{alpha}) is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates cellular energy metabolism by modulating gene expression involved in fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in brown adipose tissue. However, the physiological role of ERR{alpha} in adipogenesis and white adipose tissue development has not been well studied. Here, we show that ERR{alpha} and ERR{alpha}-related transcriptional coactivators, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) and PGC-1{beta}, can be up-regulated in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes at mRNA levels under the adipogenic differentiation condition including the inducer of cAMP, glucocorticoid, and insulin. Gene knockdown by ERR{alpha}-specific siRNA results in mRNA down-regulation of fatty acid binding protein 4, PPAR{gamma}, and PGC-1{alpha} in 3T3-L1 cells in the adipogenesis medium. ERR{alpha} and PGC-1{beta} mRNA expression can be also up-regulated in another preadipocyte lineage DFAT-D1 cells and a pluripotent mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2 under the differentiation condition. Furthermore, stable expression of ERR{alpha} in 3T3-L1 cells up-regulates adipogenic marker genes and promotes triglyceride accumulation during 3T3-L1 differentiation. These results suggest that ERR{alpha} may play a critical role in adipocyte differentiation by modulating the expression of various adipogenesis-related genes.

  11. SNAIL gene inhibited by hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengnan; Liu, Yanmei; Feng, Youji; Gao, Shujun

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between HIF-1α and SNAIL gene expression in the epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cell line. EOC cells were treated with hypoxia, hypoxia combined with rapamycin, and control. The expression of HIF-1α and E-cad were assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting. The gene expression of SNAIL was studied by RT-PCR and real-time PCR. RNA interference technology was used to determine the relationship between HIF-1α and SNAIL. The present study indicated that the HIF-1α protein was expressed and increased in EOC cell line. SNAIL mRNA was found to increase and E-cad expression decreased with the time of hypoxia prolonged. Hypoxia increased invasion abilities of EOC cell line, but compared with cells exposed to hypoxia, the change of invasive ability of cells with rapamycin had no effect. The expression of HIF-1α protein and SNAIL mRNA could be inhibited gradually by rapamycin. siRNA of HIF-1α could suppress the expression of SNAIL while siRNA of SNAIL had no influence on HIF-1α protein expression. HIF-1α may be the upstream of the SNAIL gene in EOC. Our data suggested that HIF-1α might be an upregulator of the SNAIL gene and HIF-1α-SNAIL-E-cad pathway may play an important role in EOC invasion and metastasis. PMID:27044634

  12. Insulin-like growth factor-1- and interleukin-6-related gene variation and risk of multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Birmann, Brenda M.; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Giovannucci, Edward; Rosner, Bernard; Hunter, David J.; Kraft, Peter; Mitsiades, Constantine; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Colditz, Graham A.

    2009-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and interleukin (IL)-6 promote the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma cells. Variation in genes related to IGF-1 and IL-6 signaling may influence susceptibility to multiple myeloma. To assess their etiologic role, we examined the association of 70 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in seven IGF-1 and three IL-6 pathway genes with multiple myeloma risk in two prospective cohorts, the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Among participants who provided DNA specimens, we identified 58 women and 24 men with multiple myeloma and matched two controls per case. We used multivariable logistic regression models to assess the association of the SNPs or tagged haplotypes with multiple myeloma risk. Several SNPs had suggestive associations with multiple myeloma based on large odds ratios (OR), although corresponding omnibus p-values were not more than nominally significant (i.e., at p<0.05). These SNPs included rs1801278 in the gene encoding insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1; C/T v. C/C genotypes; OR=4.3, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.5-12.1), and three IL-6 receptor SNPs: rs6684439 (T/T v. C/C: 2.9, 1.2-7.0), rs7529229 (C/C v. T/T; 2.5, 1.1-6.0), and rs8192284 (C/C v. A/A; 2.5, 1.1-6.0). Additional SNPs in genes encoding IGF-1, IGF binding protein-2, IRS2, and gp130 also demonstrated suggestive associations with multiple myeloma risk. We conducted a large number of statistical tests, and the findings may be due to chance. Nonetheless, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that IGF-1- and IL-6-related gene variation influences susceptibility to multiple myeloma and warrant confirmation in larger populations. PMID:19124510

  13. The Effects of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Gene Therapy and Cell Transplantation on Rat Acute Wound Model

    PubMed Central

    Talebpour Amiri, Fereshteh; Fadaei Fathabadi, Fatemeh; Mahmoudi Rad, Mahnaz; Piryae, Abbas; Ghasemi, Azar; Khalilian, Alireza; Yeganeh, Farshid; Mosaffa, Nariman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Wound healing is a complex process. Different types of skin cells, extracellular matrix and variety of growth factors are involved in wound healing. The use of recombinant growth factors in researches and production of skin substitutes are still a challenge. Objectives: Much research has been done on the effects of gene therapy and cell therapy on wound healing. In this experimental study, the effect of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) gene transfer in fibroblast cells was assessed on acute dermal wound healing. Materials and Methods: Fibroblasts were cultured and transfected with IGF-1. Lipofectamine 2000 was used as a reagent of transfection. Transgene expression levels were measured by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To study in vivo, rats (weighing 170-200 g) were randomly divided into three groups (five/group) and full-thickness wounds were created on the dorsum region. Suspensions of transfected fibroblast cells were injected into the wound and were compared with wounds treated with native fibroblast cells and normal saline. For the microscopic examination, biopsy was performed on day seven. Results: In vitro, the maximum expression of IGF1 (96.95 pg/mL) in transfected fibroblast cells was 24 hours after gene transfer. In vivo, it was clear that IGF-1 gene therapy caused an increase in the number of keratinocyte cells during the wound healing process (mean of group A vs. group B with P value = 0.01, mean of group A vs. group C with P value = 0.000). Granulation of tissue formation in the transfected fibroblast group was more organized when compared with the normal saline group and native fibroblast cells. Conclusions: This study indicated that the optimization of gene transfer increases the expression of IGF-1. High concentrations of IGF-1, in combination with cell therapy, have a significant effect on wound healing. PMID:25558384

  14. Expression pattern of the RAR alpha-PML fusion gene in acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Alcalay, M; Zangrilli, D; Fagioli, M; Pandolfi, P P; Mencarelli, A; Lo Coco, F; Biondi, A; Grignani, F; Pelicci, P G

    1992-06-01

    Two chimeric genes, PML-RAR alpha and RAR alpha-PML, are formed as a consequence of the acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL)-specific reciprocal translocation of chromosomes 15 and 17 [t(15;17)]. PML-RAR alpha is expressed as a fusion protein. We investigated the organization and expression pattern of the RAR alpha-PML gene in a series of APL patients representative of the molecular heterogeneity of the t(15;17) and found (i) two types of RAR alpha-PML mRNA junctions (RAR alpha exon 2/PML exon 4 or RAR alpha exon 2/PML exon 7) that maintain the RAR alpha and PML longest open reading frames aligned and are the result of chromosome 15 breaking at two different sites; and (ii) 10 different RAR alpha-PML fusion transcripts that differ for the assembly of their PML coding exons. A RAR alpha-PML transcript was present in most, but not all, APL patients. PMID:1317574

  15. Steroid sulfotransferase 2A1 gene transcription is regulated by steroidogenic factor 1 and GATA-6 in the human adrenal.

    PubMed

    Saner, Karla J; Suzuki, Takashi; Sasano, Hironobu; Pizzey, John; Ho, Clement; Strauss, Jerome F; Carr, Bruce R; Rainey, William E

    2005-01-01

    Sulfonation is a phase II conjugation reaction responsible for the biotransformation of many compounds including steroids, bile acids, and drugs. Humans are presently known to express at least five cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes, of which only two are hydroxysteroid SULT, SULT2A1, commonly known as steroid sulfotransferase, and the cholesterol sulfotransferase SULT2B1. SULT2A1 is highly expressed in the adrenal where it is responsible for the sulfation of hydroxysteroids including conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone to dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and in the liver where it is responsible for sulfation of bile acids and circulating hydroxysteroids. Little is known concerning the transcriptional regulation of human SULT2A1 in adrenal. Herein we demonstrate the role of two transcription factors, steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) and GATA-6, in the regulation of SULT2A1 transcription. These transcription factors were quantified by real-time RT-PCR in normal human adrenal tissue. Transient transfection assays with deleted and mutated SULT2A1 promoter constructs allowed for the determination of specific SF1 and GATA binding cis-regulatory elements necessary for transactivation of SULT2A1 promoter, and binding was confirmed by EMSA analysis. Both SF1 and GATA-6 were positive regulators of SULT2A1 promoter constructs. These data support the hypothesis that adrenal SULT2A1 expression is regulated by SF1 and GATA-6. PMID:15388788

  16. Comparison of nonerythroid alpha-spectrin genes reveals strict homology among diverse species.

    PubMed Central

    Leto, T L; Fortugno-Erikson, D; Barton, D; Yang-Feng, T L; Francke, U; Harris, A S; Morrow, J S; Marchesi, V T; Benz, E J

    1988-01-01

    The spectrins are a family of widely distributed filamentous proteins. In association with actin, spectrins form a supporting and organizing scaffold for cell membranes. Using antibodies specific for human brain alpha-spectrin (alpha-fodrin), we have cloned a rat brain alpha-spectrin cDNA from an expression library. Several closely related human clones were also isolated by hybridization. Comparison of sequences of these and other overlapping nonerythroid and erythroid alpha-spectrin genes demonstrated that the nonerythroid genes are strictly conserved across species, while the mammalian erythroid genes have diverged rapidly. Peptide sequences deduced from these cDNAs revealed that the nonerythroid alpha-spectrin chain, like the erythroid spectrin, is composed of multiple 106-amino-acid repeating units, with the characteristic invariant tryptophan as well as other charged and hydrophobic residues in conserved locations. However, the carboxy-terminal sequence varies markedly from this internal repeat pattern and may represent a specialized functional site. The nonerythroid alpha-spectrin gene was mapped to human chromosome 9, in contrast to the erythroid alpha-spectrin gene, which has previously been assigned to a locus on chromosome 1. Images PMID:3336352

  17. High Nuclear Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Alpha Expression Is a Predictor of Distant Recurrence in Patients With Resected Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Colbert, Lauren E.; Fisher, Sarah B.; Balci, Serdar; Saka, Burcu; Chen, Zhengjia; Kim, Sungjin; El-Rayes, Bassel F.; Adsay, N. Volkan; Maithel, Shishir K.; Landry, Jerome C.; and others

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate nuclear hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) expression as a prognostic factor for distant recurrence (DR) and local recurrence (LR) after pancreatic adenocarcinoma resection. Methods and Materials: Tissue specimens were collected from 98 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma who underwent resection without neoadjuvant therapy between January 2000 and December 2011. Local recurrence was defined as radiographic or pathologic evidence of progressive disease in the pancreas, pancreatic bed, or associated nodal regions. Distant recurrence was defined as radiographically or pathologically confirmed recurrent disease in other sites. Immunohistochemical staining was performed and scored by an independent pathologist blinded to patient outcomes. High HIF-1α overall expression score was defined as high percentage and intensity staining and thus score >1.33. Univariate analysis was performed for HIF-1α score with LR alone and with DR. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine predictors of LR and DR. Results: Median follow-up time for all patients was 16.3 months. Eight patients (8%) demonstrated isolated LR, 26 patients (26.5%) had isolated DR, and 13 patients had both LR and DR. Fifty-three patients (54%) had high HIF-1α expression, and 45 patients (46%) had low HIF-1α expression. High HIF-1α expression was significantly associated with DR (P=.03), and low HIF-1α expression was significantly associated with isolated LR (P=.03). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, high HIF-1α was the only significant predictor of DR (odds ratio 2.46 [95% confidence interval 1.06-5.72]; P=.03). In patients with a known recurrence, an HIF-1α score ≥2.5 demonstrated a specificity of 100% for DR. Conclusions: High HIF-1α expression is a significant predictor of distant failure versus isolated local failure in patients undergoing resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Expression of HIF-1α may have utility in determining candidates for

  18. Functional Characterization of Hevea brasiliensis CRT/DRE Binding Factor 1 Gene Revealed Regulation Potential in the CBF Pathway of Tropical Perennial Tree.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Han; Cai, Haibin; Fu, Haitian; An, Zewei; Fang, Jialin; Hu, Yanshi; Guo, Dianjing; Huang, Huasun

    2015-01-01

    Rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) are susceptible to low temperature and therefore are only planted in the tropical regions. In the past few decades, although rubber trees have been successfully planted in the northern margin of tropical area in China, they suffered from cold injury during the winter. To understand the physiological response under cold stress, we isolated a C-repeat binding factor 1 (CBF1) gene from the rubber tree. This gene (HbCBF1) was found to respond to cold stress but not drought or ABA stress. The corresponding HbCBF1 protein showed CRT/DRE binding activity in gel shift experiment. To further characterize its molecular function, the HbCBF1 gene was overexpressed in Arabidopsis. The HbCBF1 over expression (OE) line showed enhanced cold resistance and relatively slow dehydration, and the expression of Arabidopsis CBF pathway downstream target genes, e.g. AtCOR15a and AtRD29a, were significantly activated under non-acclimation condition. These data suggest HbCBF1 gene is a functional member of the CBF gene family, and may play important regulation function in rubber tree. PMID:26361044

  19. Functional Characterization of Hevea brasiliensis CRT/DRE Binding Factor 1 Gene Revealed Regulation Potential in the CBF Pathway of Tropical Perennial Tree

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Han; Cai, Haibin; Fu, Haitian; An, Zewei; Fang, Jialin; Hu, Yanshi; Guo, Dianjing; Huang, Huasun

    2015-01-01

    Rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) are susceptible to low temperature and therefore are only planted in the tropical regions. In the past few decades, although rubber trees have been successfully planted in the northern margin of tropical area in China, they suffered from cold injury during the winter. To understand the physiological response under cold stress, we isolated a C-repeat binding factor 1 (CBF1) gene from the rubber tree. This gene (HbCBF1) was found to respond to cold stress but not drought or ABA stress. The corresponding HbCBF1 protein showed CRT/DRE binding activity in gel shift experiment. To further characterize its molecular function, the HbCBF1 gene was overexpressed in Arabidopsis. The HbCBF1 over expression (OE) line showed enhanced cold resistance and relatively slow dehydration, and the expression of Arabidopsis CBF pathway downstream target genes, e.g. AtCOR15a and AtRD29a, were significantly activated under non-acclimation condition. These data suggest HbCBF1 gene is a functional member of the CBF gene family, and may play important regulation function in rubber tree. PMID:26361044

  20. Structure, organization, and transcription units of the human {alpha}-platelet-derived growth factor receptor gene, PDGFRA

    SciTech Connect

    Kawagishi, Jun; Yamamoto, Tokuo; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Yoshimoto, Takashi

    1995-11-20

    Isolation and characterization of genomic clones encoding human {alpha}-platelet derived growth factor receptor (HGAM-approved symbol PDGFRA) revealed that the gene spans approximately 65 kb and contains 23 exons. The 5{prime}-untranslated region of the mRNA is encoded by exon 1, and a large intron of 23 kb separates exon 2 encoding the translation initiator codon AUG and the signal sequence. The locations of exon/intron boundaries in the extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains, the transmembrane domain, the two cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domains, and the kinase insertion domain are very similar to those in c-kit and macrophage colony stimulating factor-1 receptor genes. The transcription start site was mapped to a position 393 bp upstream of the AUG translation initiator codon by Si mapping and primer extension analysis. The 5{prime}-flanking region of the gene lacks a typical TATA box but contains a typical CCAAT box and GATA motifs. This region also contains potential sites for AP-1, AP-2, Oct-1, Oct-2, and Sp1. The 5{prime}-flanking region of the gene was fused to the luciferase reporter gene, and transcription units of the gene were determined. 49 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Gene trapping uncovers sex-specific mechanisms for upstream stimulatory factors 1 and 2 in angiotensinogen expression.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungmi; Liu, Xuebo; Davis, Deborah R; Sigmund, Curt D

    2012-06-01

    A single-nucleotide polymorphism (C/A) located within an E-box at the -20 position of the human angiotensinogen (AGT) promoter may regulate transcriptional activation through differential recruitment of the transcription factors upstream stimulatory factor (USF) 1 and 2. To study the contribution of USF1 on AGT gene expression, mice carrying a (-20C) human AGT (hAGT) transgene were bred with mice harboring a USF1 gene trap allele designed to knock down USF1 expression. USF1 mRNA was reduced relative to controls in liver (9 ± 1%), perigenital adipose (16 ± 3%), kidney (17 ± 1%), and brain (34 ± 2%) in double-transgenic mice. This decrease was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses revealed a decrease in USF1, with retention of USF2 binding at the hAGT promoter in the liver of male mice. hAGT expression was reduced in the liver and other tissues of female but not male mice. The decrease in endogenous AGT expression was insufficient to alter systolic blood pressure at baseline but caused reduced systolic blood pressure in female USF1 gene trap mice fed a high-fat diet. Treatment of USF1 knockdown males with intravenous adenoviral short hairpin RNA targeting USF2 resulted in reduced expression of USF1, USF2, and hAGT protein. Our data from chromatin immunoprecipitation assays suggests that this decrease in hAGT is attributed to decreased USF2 binding to the hAGT promoter. In conclusion, both USF1 and USF2 are essential for AGT transcriptional regulation, and distinct sex-specific and tissue-specific mechanisms are involved in the activities of these transcription factors in vivo. PMID:22547438

  2. The anti-proliferative effect of L-carnosine correlates with a decreased expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Iovine, Barbara; Oliviero, Giorgia; Garofalo, Mariangela; Orefice, Maria; Nocella, Francesca; Borbone, Nicola; Piccialli, Vincenzo; Centore, Roberto; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Piccialli, Gennaro; Bevilacqua, Maria Assunta

    2014-01-01

    In recent years considerable attention has been given to the use of natural substances as anticancer drugs. The natural antioxidant dipeptide L-carnosine belongs to this class of molecules because it has been proved to have a significant anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies have shown that L-carnosine inhibits the proliferation of human colorectal carcinoma cells by affecting the ATP and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production. In the present study we identified the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α (HIF-1α) as a possible target of L-carnosine in HCT-116 cell line. HIF-1α protein is over-expressed in multiple types of human cancer and is the major cause of resistance to drugs and radiation in solid tumours. Of particular interest are experimental data supporting the concept that generation of ROS provides a redox signal for HIF-1α induction, and it is known that some antioxidants are able to suppress tumorigenesis by inhibiting HIF-1α. In the current study we found that L-carnosine reduces the HIF-1α protein level affecting its stability and decreases the HIF-1 transcriptional activity. In addition, we demonstrated that L-carnosine is involved in ubiquitin-proteasome system promoting HIF-1α degradation. Finally, we compared the antioxidant activity of L-carnosine with that of two synthetic anti-oxidant bis-diaminotriazoles (namely 1 and 2, respectively). Despite these three compounds have the same ability in reducing intracellular ROS, 1 and 2 are more potent scavengers and have no effect on HIF-1α expression and cancer cell proliferation. These findings suggest that an analysis of L-carnosine antioxidant pathway will clarify the mechanism underlying the anti-proliferative effects of this dipeptide on colon cancer cells. However, although the molecular mechanism by which L-carnosine down regulates or inhibits the HIF-1α activity has not been yet elucidated, this ability may be promising in treating hypoxia-related diseases. PMID

  3. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene is not associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Zai, Gwyneth; Arnold, Paul D; Burroughs, Eliza; Richter, Margaret A; Kennedy, James L

    2006-02-01

    Dysregulation of the immune system has been suggested to play a role in the complex etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. In this context, tumor necrosis factor-alpha is considered an interesting candidate for genetic studies as overproduction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which may be genetically modulated, can exert neurotoxic effects and influence neural cell growth and proliferation. Moreover, the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene is located on chromosome 6p21.3, a region that has been found to be weakly associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder in linkage studies. One functional polymorphism, G-308A, has been found within the gene. PMID:16395130

  4. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma synergistically activate the RANTES promoter through nuclear factor kappaB and interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Lee, A H; Hong, J H; Seo, Y S

    2000-08-15

    Inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) synergistically activate expression of the RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted) gene, which plays a crucial role in the chemoattraction of leukocytes during the inflammatory response. To understand at the molecular level the mechanism by which the two cytokines activate RANTES gene expression, we determined the requirement of cis-acting elements in the RANTES promoter and trans-acting factors. The murine RANTES promoter contained one putative interferon regulatory factor, IRF, and three putative nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) binding sites. Specific destruction of the IRF binding site and one of the three NF-kappaB binding sites abolished the inducibility of promoter activity by IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, respectively. In contrast, mutation of the other two putative NF-kappaB binding sites did not affect RANTES promoter activity significantly. In addition, the RANTES promoter was stimulated by co-transfection of plasmids that expressed either p65, an NF-kappaB family protein, or the IRF-1 transcription factor. RANTES promoters with mutations in the NF-kappaB or IRF binding sites were not stimulated by p65 or IRF-1 expression, respectively. In electrophoretic mobility-shift and immunologic assays, we showed that IRF-1 was induced after cells were treated with IFN-gamma and that NF-kappaB was activated by TNF-alpha treatment. These results demonstrate that both NF-kappaB and IRF-1 transcription factors mediate the induction of RANTES expression via their cognate cis-acting elements when cells are stimulated by TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. PMID:10926836

  5. Thiazolidinediones inhibit REG I{alpha} gene transcription in gastrointestinal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, Akiyo; Takahashi, Iwao; Takasawa, Shin; Nata, Koji; Noguchi, Naoya; Ikeda, Takayuki; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Shervani, Nausheen J.; Suzuki, Iwao; Uruno, Akira; Unno, Michiaki; Okamoto, Hiroshi Sugawara, Akira

    2009-02-13

    REG (Regenerating gene) I{alpha} protein functions as a growth factor for gastrointestinal cancer cells, and its mRNA expression is strongly associated with a poor prognosis in gastrointestinal cancer patients. We here demonstrated that PPAR{gamma}-agonist thiazolidinediones (TZDs) inhibited cell proliferation and REG I{alpha} protein/mRNA expression in gastrointestinal cancer cells. TZDs inhibited the REG I{alpha} gene promoter activity, via its cis-acting element which lacked PPAR response element and could not bind to PPAR{gamma}, in PPAR{gamma}-expressing gastrointestinal cancer cells. The inhibition was reversed by co-treatment with a specific PPAR{gamma}-antagonist GW9662. Although TZDs did not inhibit the REG I{alpha} gene promoter activity in PPAR{gamma}-non-expressing cells, PPAR{gamma} overexpression in the cells recovered their inhibitory effect. Taken together, TZDs inhibit REG I{alpha} gene transcription through a PPAR{gamma}-dependent pathway. The TZD-induced REG I{alpha} mRNA reduction was abolished by cycloheximide, indicating the necessity of novel protein(s) synthesis. TZDs may therefore be a candidate for novel anti-cancer drugs for patients with gastrointestinal cancer expressing both REG I{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}.

  6. Mapping of the {alpha}{sub 4} subunit gene (GABRA4) to human chromosome 4 defines an {alpha}{sub 2}-{alpha}{sub 4}-{beta}{sub 1}-{gamma}{sub 1} gene cluster: Further evidence that modern GABA{sub a} receptor gene clusters are derived from an ancestral cluster

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, P.J.; Farb, D.H.; Russek, S.J.

    1995-04-10

    We demonstrated previously that an {alpha}{sub 1}-{beta}{sub 2}-{gamma}{sub 2} gene cluster of the {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA{sub A}) receptor is located on human chromosome 5q34-q35 and that an ancestral {alpha}-{beta}-{gamma} gene cluster probably spawned clusters on chromosomes 4, 5, and 15. Here, we report that the {alpha}{sub 4} gene (GABRA4) maps to human chromosome 4p14-q12, defining a cluster comprising the {alpha}{sub 2}, {alpha}{sub 4}, {beta}{sub 1}, and {gamma}{sub 1} genes. The existence of an {alpha}{sub 2}-{alpha}{sub 4}-{beta}{sub 1}-{gamma}{sub 2} cluster on chromosome 4 and an {alpha}{sub 1}-{alpha}{sub 6}-{beta}{sub 2}-{gamma}{sub 2} cluster on chromosome 5 provides further evidence that the number of ancestral GABA{sub A} receptor subunit genes has been expanded by duplication within an ancestral gene cluster. Moreover, if duplication of the {alpha} gene occurred before duplication of the ancestral gene cluster, then a heretofore undiscovered subtype of a subunit should be located on human chromosome 15q11-q13 within an {alpha}{sub 5}-{alpha}{sub x}-{beta}{sub 3}-{gamma}{sub 3} gene cluster at the locus for Angelman and Prader-Willi syndromes. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. A novel function of interferon regulatory factor-1: inhibition of Th2 cells by down-regulating the Il4 gene during Listeria infection.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Saho; Kanoh, Makoto; Matsumoto, Akira; Kuwahara, Makoto; Yamashita, Masakatsu; Asano, Yoshihiro

    2015-03-01

    Infection with certain pathogens induces a shift of the Th subset balance to a Th1 dominant state. This, in turn, results in the suppression of Th2 responses. We focused on the involvement of interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) in the suppression of Th2 cells during Listeria infection. We found that the inhibition of IL-4 production by Th2 cells is mediated by a soluble factor (LmSN) produced by Listeria-infected antigen-presenting cells. The inhibition is not observed with T cells from Irf1 gene-targeted mice. IRF-1 suppresses transcription of the Il4 gene in Th2 cells. Under the influence of the LmSN, IRF-1 binds to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) region of the Il4 gene and down-regulates Il4 gene transcription. Finally, we identified IL-1α and IL-1β as the mediator of the LmSN activity. Signaling through IL-1R induces the stabilization and/or nuclear translocation of IRF-1. We propose that IRF-1 functions to induce the T-cell subset shift via a novel mechanism. Under the influence of IL-1, IRF-1 translocates into the nucleus and acts on the 3'UTR region of the Il4 gene, thus inhibiting its transcription in Th2 cells. As a result, the immune system shifts predominantly to a Th1 response during Listeria infection, resulting in effective protection of the host. PMID:25280793

  8. RAmy2A; a novel alpha-amylase-encoding gene in rice.

    PubMed

    Huang, N; Reinl, S J; Rodriguez, R L

    1992-02-15

    The structure and expression of the alpha-amylase-encoding gene, RAmy2A, are described. This only representative of the Amy2 subfamily in rice differs from other cereal alpha-amylase-encoding genes in several respects. It contains the largest introns of all the cereal alpha-amylase-encoding genes examined to date. Moreover, the second of three introns in this gene contains a long inverted repeat sequence that can potentially form a large and stable stem-loop structure in the unspliced RNA transcript. Finally, RAmy2A is constitutively expressed at very low levels in germinated seeds, root, etiolated leaves, immature seeds and callus. This is in marked contrast to the Amy2 genes of wheat and barley which are highly expressed in the aleurone layer of the germinated seeds. PMID:1541400

  9. Differential expression of rice alpha-amylase genes during seedling development under anoxia.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Y S; Thomas, B R; Rodriguez, R L

    1999-08-01

    The unique capability of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings to grow under anoxic conditions may result in part from their ability to express alpha-amylase and maintain the supply of sugar needed for energy metabolism. Previous studies have demonstrated that under aerobic conditions the Amy1 and Amy2 subfamily genes are regulated primarily by phytohormones while the Amy3 subfamily genes are induced during sugar starvation. The expression patterns for these alpha-amylase genes were considerably different in anoxic vs. aerobic rice seedlings. The level of total alpha-amylase mRNA under anoxic conditions was decreased in aleurone layers while it increased in the embryo. Anoxic conditions greatly diminished the expression of the Amy1A gene in aleurone. Conversely, expression of many Amy3 subfamily genes was up-regulated and prolonged in embryo tissues under anoxic conditions. PMID:10527416

  10. Human tumor necrosis factor alpha gene regulation by virus and lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Goldfeld, A E; Doyle, C; Maniatis, T

    1990-01-01

    We have identified a region of the human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene promoter that is necessary for maximal constitutive, virus-induced, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced transcription. This region contains three sites that match an NF-kappa B binding-site consensus sequence. We show that these three sites specifically bind NF-kappa B in vitro, yet each of these sites can be deleted from the TNF-alpha promoter with little effect on the induction of the gene by virus or LPS. Moreover, when multimers of these three sites are placed upstream from a truncated TNF-alpha promoter, or a heterologous promoter, an increase in the basal level of transcription is observed that is influenced by sequence context and cell type. However, these multimers are not sufficient for virus or LPS induction of either promoter. Thus, unlike other virus- and LPS-inducible promoters that contain NF-kappa B binding sites, these sites from the TNF-alpha promoter are neither required nor sufficient for virus or LPS induction. Comparison of the sequence requirements of virus induction of the human TNF-alpha gene in mouse L929 and P388D1 cells reveals significant differences, indicating that the sequence requirements for virus induction of the gene are cell type-specific. However, the sequences required for virus and LPS induction of the gene in a single cell type, P388D1, overlap. Images PMID:2263628

  11. Modulation of gene expression by alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl phosphate in thp-1 monocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The naturally occurring vitamin E analogue, alpha-tocopheryl phosphate (alphaTP), has been reported to be more potent than the un-phosphorylated alpha alpha-tocopherol (alphaT). We have now measured plasma levels of alphaTP and compared the cellular effects of alphaTP and gamma-tocopheryl phosphate ...

  12. Interferon-regulatory factor 1 is an immediate-early gene under transcriptional regulation by prolactin in Nb2 T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Yu-Lee, L Y; Hrachovy, J A; Stevens, A M; Schwarz, L A

    1990-01-01

    The pituitary peptide hormone prolactin (Prl) is a potent inducer of Nb2 T lymphoma cell proliferation. To analyze the early genetic response to the mitogenic signals of Prl, a cDNA library was constructed from Nb2 T cells stimulated for 4 h with Prl and the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Of 26 distinct clones isolated by differential screening, one clone, designated c25, exhibited extremely rapid but transient kinetics of induction by Prl and superinduction by Prl plus cycloheximide. Run-on transcription analysis indicated that c25 gene transcription was induced greater than 20-fold within 30 to 60 min of Prl stimulation. Surprisingly, DNA sequence analysis of c25 cDNA revealed that this Prl-inducible early-response gene is the rat homolog of the mouse transcription factor interferon-regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1), sharing 91% coding sequence similarity with mouse IRF-1. At the protein level, rat IRF-1 shares 97% and 92% homology with mouse IRF-1 and human IRF-1, respectively, suggesting that this molecule has been functionally conserved throughout evolution. Our studies show that the gene for IRF-1 is an immediate-early gene in Prl-stimulated T cells, which suggests that IRF-1 is a multifunctional molecule. In addition to its role in regulating growth-inhibitory interferon genes, IRF-1 may, therefore, also play a stimulatory role in cell proliferation. The gene for IRF-1 is one of the earliest genes known to be transcriptionally regulated by Prl. Images PMID:2342469

  13. Gene expression profile of human lymphocytes exposed to (211)At alpha particles.

    PubMed

    Turtoi, A; Brown, I; Schläger, M; Schneeweiss, F H A

    2010-08-01

    In this study, the Whole Human Genome 44K DNA microarray assay was used for the first time to obtain gene expression profiles in human peripheral blood lymphocytes 2 h after exposure (in suspension) to 6.78 MeV mean energy alpha particles from extracellular (211)At. Lymphocytes were exposed to fluences of 0.3-9.6 x 10(6) alpha particles/cm(2) [corresponding to mean absorbed alpha-particle doses (D(alpha)) of 0.05-1.60 Gy] over 30 min. Significantly modulated expression was identified in 338 early-response genes. Up-regulated expression was evident in 183 early-response genes, while the remaining 155 were down-regulated. Over half of the up-regulated genes and 40% of the down-regulated genes had a known biological process related primarily to cell growth and maintenance and cell communication. Genes associated with cell death were found only in the up-regulated genes and those with development only in the down-regulated genes. Eight selected early-response genes that displayed a sustained up- or down-regulation (CD36, HSPA2, MS4A6A, NFIL3, IL1F9, IRX5, RASL11B and SULT1B1) were further validated in alpha-particle-irradiated lymphocytes of two human individuals using the TaqMan(R) RT-qPCR technique. The results confirmed the observed microarray gene expression patterns. The expression modulation profiles of IL1F9, IRX5, RASL11B and SULT1B1 genes demonstrated similar trends in the two individuals studied. However, no significant linear correlation between increasing relative gene expression and the alpha-particle dose was evident. The results suggest the possibility that a panel of genes that react to alpha-particle radiation does exist and that they merit further study in a greater number of individuals to determine their possible value regarding alpha-particle biodosimetry. PMID:20681779

  14. Tobacco plants transformed with the bean. alpha. ai gene express an inhibitor of insect. alpha. -amylase in their seeds. [Nicotiana tabacum; Tenebrio molitor

    SciTech Connect

    Altabella, T.; Chrispeels, M.J. )

    1990-06-01

    Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds contain a putative plant defense protein that inhibits insect and mammalian but not plant {alpha}-amylases. We recently presented strong circumstantial evidence that this {alpha}-amylase inhibitor ({alpha}Al) is encoded by an already-identified lectin gene whose product is referred to as lectin-like-protein (LLP). We have now made a chimeric gene consisting of the coding sequence of the lectin gene that encodes LLP and the 5{prime} and 3{prime} flanking sequences of the lectin gene that encodes phytohemagglutinin-L. When this chimeric gene was expressed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), we observed in the seeds a series of polypeptides (M{sub r} 10,000-18,000) that cross-react with antibodies to the bean {alpha}-amylase inhibitor. Most of these polypeptides bind to a pig pancreas {alpha}-amylase affinity column. An extract of the seeds of the transformed tobacco plants inhibits pig pancreas {alpha}-amylase activity as well as the {alpha}-amylase present in the midgut of Tenebrio molitor. We suggest that introduction of this lectin gene (to be called {alpha}ai) into other leguminous plants may be a strategy to protect the seeds from the seed-eating larvae of Coleoptera.

  15. Phytol directly activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) and regulates gene expression involved in lipid metabolism in PPAR{alpha}-expressing HepG2 hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kato, Sota; Egawa, Kahori; Ebisu, Shogo; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Fushiki, Tohru; Kawada, Teruo . E-mail: fat@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2005-11-18

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) is one of the indispensable transcription factors for regulating lipid metabolism in various tissues. In our screening for natural compounds that activate PPAR using luciferase assays, a branched-carbon-chain alcohol (a component of chlorophylls), phytol, has been identified as a PPAR{alpha}-specific activator. Phytol induced the increase in PPAR{alpha}-dependent luciferase activity and the degree of in vitro binding of a coactivator, SRC-1, to GST-PPAR{alpha}. Moreover, the addition of phytol upregulated the expression of PPAR{alpha}-target genes at both mRNA and protein levels in PPAR{alpha}-expressing HepG2 hepatocytes. These findings indicate that phytol is functional as a PPAR{alpha} ligand and that it stimulates the expression of PPAR{alpha}-target genes in intact cells. Because PPAR{alpha} activation enhances circulating lipid clearance, phytol may be important in managing abnormalities in lipid metabolism.

  16. Molecular evolution of serpins: homologous structure of the human. cap alpha. /sub 1/-antichymotrypsin and. cap alpha. /sub 1/-antitrypsin genes

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, J.; Sifers, R.N.; Kidd, V.J.; Ledley, F.D.; Woo, S.L.C.

    1987-12-01

    ..cap alpha../sub 1/-Antichymotrypsin belongs to a supergene family that includes ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin, antithrombin III, ovalbumin, and angiotensinogen. The human chromosomal ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antichymotrypsin gene has been cloned and its molecular structure established. The gene is approximately 12 kb in length and contains five exons and four introns. The locations of the introns within the ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antichymotrypsin gene are identical with those of the human ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin and angiotensinogen genes. Other members of this supergene family contain introns located at nonhomologous positions of the genes. The homologous organization of the ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antichymotrypsin and ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin genes corresponds with the high degree of homology between their protein sequences and suggest that these loci arose by recent gene duplication. A model is presented for the evolution of both the genomic structure and the protein sequences of the serine protease inhibitor superfamily.

  17. Assessment of fecal bacteria with bile acid 7 alpha-dehydroxylating activity for the presence of bai-like genes.

    PubMed Central

    Doerner, K C; Takamine, F; LaVoie, C P; Mallonee, D H; Hylemon, P B

    1997-01-01

    Eubacterium sp. strain VPI 12708 has several bile acid-inducible (bai) genes which encode enzymes in the bile acid 7 alpha-dehydroxylation (7 alpha DeOH) pathway. Twelve 7 alpha DeOH-positive intestinal bacterial strains were assayed for 7 alpha DeOH activity, and 13 strains were tested for hybridization with bai genes. Cholic acid 7 alpha DeOH activity varied greatly (> 100-fold) among these strains. Southern blot experiments showed that DNA prepared from 7 of 13 strains hybridized with at least one of the bai genes from Eubacterium sp. strain VPI 12708. PMID:9055436

  18. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha modulates monocyte/macrophage apoprotein E gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Duan, H; Li, Z; Mazzone, T

    1995-01-01

    apo E has been shown to modulate cholesterol balance in arterial wall cells. Production of apo E by macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques could thereby influence the development of the plaque lesion. Cytokines, including TNF alpha, have been identified in human lesions, therefore, we undertook a series of studies to evaluate the effect of TNF alpha on monocyte/macrophage apo E production. The addition of TNF alpha to freshly isolated human monocytes led to a four- to fivefold increase of apo E mRNA abundance. The addition of TNF alpha to fully differentiated macrophages either had no effect or modestly inhibited apo E mRNA expression. THP1 human monocytic cells also responded to TNF alpha in a phenotype-specific manner. Treatment of these cells with TNF alpha produced a dose- and time-dependent increase in apo E mRNA. This increase was reflected in apo E synthesis and was associated with inhibition of DNA synthesis, and with induction of c-fos and ICAM-1 gene expression. Cell-permanent analogues of ceramide did not reproduce TNF alpha effect on apo E, but antagonists of protein kinase C did inhibit its effect. TNF alpha induction of apo E mRNA abundance was associated with stimulation of apo E promoter-dependent gene transcription. In summary, TNF alpha stimulates apo E gene transcription, mRNA abundance, and protein synthesis in the monocyte/macrophage in a phenotype-specific manner. Such regulation could significantly modify the amount of apo E present in vessel wall lesions. Images PMID:7635986

  19. Early B-cell factor 1 (EBF1) is critical for transcriptional control of SLAMF1 gene in human B cells.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Anton M; Putlyaeva, Lidia V; Covich, Milica; Klepikova, Anna V; Akulich, Kseniya A; Vorontsov, Ilya E; Korneev, Kirill V; Dmitriev, Sergey E; Polanovsky, Oleg L; Sidorenko, Svetlana P; Kulakovskiy, Ivan V; Kuprash, Dmitry V

    2016-10-01

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family member 1 (SLAMF1)/CD150 is a co-stimulatory receptor expressed on a variety of hematopoietic cells, in particular on mature lymphocytes activated by specific antigen, costimulation and cytokines. Changes in CD150 expression level have been reported in association with autoimmunity and with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We characterized the core promoter for SLAMF1 gene in human B-cell lines and explored binding sites for a number of transcription factors involved in B cell differentiation and activation. Mutations of SP1, STAT6, IRF4, NF-kB, ELF1, TCF3, and SPI1/PU.1 sites resulted in significantly decreased promoter activity of varying magnitude, depending on the cell line tested. The most profound effect on the promoter strength was observed upon mutation of the binding site for Early B-cell factor 1 (EBF1). This mutation produced a 10-20 fold drop in promoter activity and pinpointed EBF1 as the master regulator of human SLAMF1 gene in B cells. We also identified three potent transcriptional enhancers in human SLAMF1 locus, each containing functional EBF1 binding sites. Thus, EBF1 interacts with specific binding sites located both in the promoter and in the enhancer regions of the SLAMF1 gene and is critical for its expression in human B cells. PMID:27424222

  20. [Cloning the alpha-amylase gene of Streptococcus bovis and its expression in Bacillus subtilis cells].

    PubMed

    Iakorski, P; Kuntsova, M M; Loseva, E F; Khasanov, F K

    1991-06-01

    The gene coding for alpha-amylase from the ruminant bacterium Streptococcus bovis was cloned on the plasmid pMX39 in Bacillus subtilis cells. An alpha-amylase positive colony was isolated in the initial screening of 3900 colonies on the medium containing insoluble starch. The size of the insert was approximately 2.8 kb. The recombinant plasmid was stably maintained in Bacillus subtilis cells under the nonselective conditions. PMID:1944323

  1. Sequence of the dog immunoglobulin alpha and epsilon constant region genes

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, M.; Selinger, D.; Mark, G.E.; Hollis, G.F.; Hickey, G.J.

    1995-03-01

    The immunoglobulin alpha (IGHAC) and epsilon (IGHEC) germline constant region genes were isolated from a dog liver genomic DNA library. Sequence analysis indicates that the dog IGHEC gene is encoded by four exons spread out over 1.7 kilobases (kb). The IGHAC sequence encompasses 1.5 kb and includes all three constant region coding exons. The complete exon/intron sequence of these genes is described. 28 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} is essential for the expression of antioxidant protection genes and mitochondrial function

    SciTech Connect

    Rangwala, Shamina M. . E-mail: shamina.rangwala@novartis.com; Li, Xiaoyan; Lindsley, Loren; Wang, Xiaomei; Shaughnessy, Stacey; Daniels, Thomas G.; Szustakowski, Joseph; Nirmala, N.R.; Wu, Zhidan; Stevenson, Susan C.

    2007-05-25

    Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} (ERR{alpha}) is an important mediator of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. To investigate the transcriptional network controlling these phenomena, we investigated mitochondrial gene expression in embryonic fibroblasts isolated from ERR{alpha} null mice. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) stimulated mitochondrial gene expression program in control cells, but not in the ERR{alpha} null cells. Interestingly, the induction of levels of mitochondrial oxidative stress protection genes in response to increased PGC-1{alpha} levels was dependent on ERR{alpha}. Furthermore, we found that the PGC-1{alpha}-mediated induction of estrogen-related receptor {gamma} and nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF-2), was dependent on the presence of ERR{alpha}. Basal levels of NRF-2 were decreased in the absence of ERR{alpha}. The absence of ERR{alpha} resulted in a decrease in citrate synthase enzyme activity in response to PGC-1{alpha} overexpression. Our results indicate an essential role for ERR{alpha} as a key regulator of oxidative metabolism.

  3. Characterization of alpha-gliadin genes from diploid wheats and the comparative analysis with those from polyploid wheats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Z C; Wei, Y M; Yan, Z H; Zheng, Y L

    2007-11-01

    To carry out the comparative analysis of alpha-gliadin genes on A genomes of diploid and polyploid wheats, 8 full-length alpha-gliadin genes, including 3 functional genes and 5 pseudogenes, were obtained from diploid wheats, among which 2, 2 and 4 alpha-gliadin genes were isolated from T. urartu, T. monococcum and T. boeoticum, respectively. The results indicated that higher number of alpha-gliadin pseudogenes have been present in diploid wheats before the formation of polyploid wheats. Amino acid sequence comparative analysis among 26 alpha-gliadin genes, including 16 functional genes and 10 pseudogenes, from diploid and polyploid wheats was conducted. The results indicated that all alpha-gliadins contained four coeliac toxic peptide sequences (i.e., PSQQ, QQQP, QQPY and QPYP). The polyglutamine domains are highly variable, and the second polyglutamine stretch is usually disrupted by the lysine or arginine residue at the fourth position. The unique domain I is the most conserved domain. There are 4 and 2 conserved cysteine residues in the unique domains I and II, respectively. Comparative analysis indicated that the functional alpha-gliadin genes from A genome are highly conserved, whereas the identity of pseudogenes in diploid wheats are higher than those in hexaploid wheats. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that all the analyzed functional alpha-gliadin genes could be clustered into two major groups, among which one group could be further divided into 5 subgroups. The origin of alpha-gliadin pseudogene and functional genes were also discussed. PMID:18186192

  4. Neuronal-type alpha-bungarotoxin receptors and the alpha 5-nicotinic receptor subunit gene are expressed in neuronal and nonneuronal human cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Chini, B; Clementi, F; Hukovic, N; Sher, E

    1992-01-01

    alpha-Bungarotoxin (alpha Bgtx) is a toxin known to interact with muscle nicotinic receptors and with some neuronal nicotinic receptors. We show that alpha Bgtx binding sites are also expressed in nonmuscle and nonneuronal human cells, including small cell lung carcinoma and several epithelial cell lines. These receptors are immunologically related to the alpha Bgtx receptors of unknown function described in the nervous system and in the IMR32 neuroblastoma cell line and are distinct from muscle nicotinic receptors. We have also cloned from IMR32 cells the human alpha 5-nicotinic receptor subunit, which is supposed to participate in the formation of alpha Bgtx receptors. Transcripts corresponding to the alpha 5-subunit gene were found not only in neuroblastoma cells but also in all the cell lines expressing alpha Bgtx receptors, with the exception of the TE671 cell line, whose nicotinic receptor subunits are of the muscle type. We conclude that both alpha Bgtx receptors and the alpha 5-nicotinic subunit gene are not neuron-specific, as previously thought, but are expressed in a number of human cell lines of various origin. Images PMID:1542648

  5. Structure and expression of the guinea-pig alpha-lactalbumin gene.

    PubMed Central

    Laird, J E; Jack, L; Hall, L; Boulton, A P; Parker, D; Craig, R K

    1988-01-01

    The entire guinea-pig alpha-lactalbumin gene was isolated from a genomic DNA library constructed in the bacteriophage lambda L47. The complete nucleotide sequence of the gene and its immediate 5' and 3' flanking sequences were determined and compared with those of the human and rat alpha-lactalbumin genes. This demonstrates that the size, organization and sequence of the exons is highly conserved between species, and reveals the presence of the highly conserved potential regulatory 'milk box' consensus sequence [RGAAGRAAA(N)TGGACAGAAATCAA(CG)TTTCTA] between positions -140 and -110 relative to the transcriptional start point. A guinea-pig LINE repeat sequence was also present in the 5' flanking region between positions -520 and -1195. Transfection of the alpha-lactalbumin gene cloned in a bovine papilloma virus vector into the mouse C127 and human MCF-7 mammary tumour cell-lines gave rise to stable but seemingly constitutive expression of alpha-lactalbumin. Expression was from the correct transcriptional start point, resulting in the accumulation of correctly processed mRNA and the secretion of alpha-lactalbumin into the culture medium. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2845947

  6. A lectin gene encodes the alpha-amylase inhibitor of the common bean.

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, J; Chrispeels, M J

    1989-01-01

    An alpha-amylase inhibitor that inhibits insect and mammalian alpha-amylases but not plant alpha-amylases, is present in seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). We have purified the alpha-amylase inhibitor by using a selective heat treatment in acidic medium and affinity chromatography with porcine pancreas alpha-amylase coupled to agarose. Under sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis, the purified inhibitor gave rise to five bands with mobilities corresponding to molecular masses ranging from 14 to 19 kDa. N-terminal sequencing (up to 15 amino acids) of the polypeptides obtained from these bands resulted in only two different sequences matching two stretches of the amino acid sequence deduced from an already described lectin gene [Hoffman, L. M. (1984) J. Mol. Appl. Gen. 2,447-453]. This gene is different from but closely related to the genes that code for phytohemagglutinin, the major lectin of bean. Further evidence based on amino acid composition, identification of a precursor, and recognition of the product of the gene (expressed in Escherichia coli) by an anti-alpha-amylase inhibitor serum confirms that the inhibitor is encoded by this or a closely related lectin gene. This finding assigns a biological function, which has been described at the molecular level, to a plant lectin gene product and supports the defense role postulated for seed lectins. The lack of homology with other families of enzyme inhibitors suggests that this may be the first member of a new family of plant enzyme inhibitors. Images PMID:2682631

  7. Sequence heterogeneity, multiplicity, and genomic organization of. cap alpha. - and. beta. -tubulin genes in Sea Urchins

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandraki, D.; Ruderman, J.V.

    1981-12-01

    The authors analyzed the multiplicity, heterogeneity, and organization of the genes encoding the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. tubulins in the sea urchin Lytechinus pictus by using cloned complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) and genomic tubulin sequences. cDNA clones were constructed by using immature spermatogenic testis polyadenylic acid-containing ribonucleic acid as a template. ..cap alpha.. and ..beta..-tubulin clones were identified by hybrid selection and in vitro translation of the corresponding messenger ribonucleic acids, followed by immunoprecipitation and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the translation products. The ..cap alpha.. cDNA clone contains a sequence that encodes the 48 C-terminal amino acids of ..cap alpha.. tubulin and 104 base pairs of the 3' nontranslated portion of the messenger ribonucleic acid. The ..beta.. cDNA insertion contains the coding sequence for the 100 C-terminal amino acids of ..beta.. tubulin and 83 base pairs of the 3' noncoding sequence. Hybrid selections performed at different criteria demonstrated the presence of several heterogeneous, closely related tubulin messenger ribonucleic acids, suggesting the existence of heterogeneous ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-tubulin genes. Hybridization analyses indicated that there are at least 9 to 13 sequences for each of the two tubulin gene families per haploid genome. Hybridization of the cDNA probes to both total genomic DNA and cloned germline DNA fragments gave no evidence for close physical linkage of ..cap alpha..-tubulin genes with ..beta..-tubulin genes at the DNA level. In contrast, these experiments indicated that some genes within the same family are clustered.

  8. Host Cell Factor-1 Recruitment to E2F-bound and Cell Cycle Control Genes is Mediated by THAP11 and ZNF143

    PubMed Central

    Parker, J. Brandon; Yin, Hanwei; Vinckevicius, Aurimas; Chakravarti, Debabrata

    2014-01-01

    Summary Host cell factor-1 (HCF-1) is a metazoan transcriptional co-regulator essential for cell cycle progression and cell proliferation. Current models suggest a mechanism whereby HCF-1 functions as a direct co-regulator of E2F proteins, facilitating the expression of genes necessary for cell proliferation. In this report, we show that HCF-1 recruitment to numerous E2F-bound promoters is mediated by the concerted action of zinc finger transcription factors THAP11 and ZNF143, rather than E2F proteins directly. THAP11, ZNF143, and HCF-1 form a mutually dependent complex on chromatin, which is independent of E2F occupancy. Disruption of the THAP11/ZNF143/HCF-1 complex results in altered expression of cell cycle control genes and leads to reduced cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and cell viability. These data establish a new model which suggests that a THAP11/ZNF143/HCF-1 complex is a critical component of the transcriptional regulatory network governing cell proliferation. PMID:25437553

  9. Host cell factor-1 recruitment to E2F-bound and cell-cycle-control genes is mediated by THAP11 and ZNF143.

    PubMed

    Parker, J Brandon; Yin, Hanwei; Vinckevicius, Aurimas; Chakravarti, Debabrata

    2014-11-01

    Host cell factor-1 (HCF-1) is a metazoan transcriptional coregulator essential for cell-cycle progression and cell proliferation. Current models suggest a mechanism whereby HCF-1 functions as a direct coregulator of E2F proteins, facilitating the expression of genes necessary for cell proliferation. In this report, we show that HCF-1 recruitment to numerous E2F-bound promoters is mediated by the concerted action of zinc finger transcription factors THAP11 and ZNF143, rather than E2F proteins directly. THAP11, ZNF143, and HCF-1 form a mutually dependent complex on chromatin, which is independent of E2F occupancy. Disruption of the THAP11/ZNF143/HCF-1 complex results in altered expression of cell-cycle control genes and leads to reduced cell proliferation, cell-cycle progression, and cell viability. These data establish a model in which a THAP11/ZNF143/HCF-1 complex is a critical component of the transcriptional regulatory network governing cell proliferation. PMID:25437553

  10. MHC evolution in three salmonid species: a comparison between class II alpha and beta genes.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Daniela; Conejeros, Pablo; Marshall, Sergio H; Consuegra, Sofia

    2010-08-01

    The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are amongst the most variable in vertebrates and represent some of the best candidates to study processes of adaptive evolution. However, despite the number of studies available, most of the information on the structure and function of these genes come from studies in mammals and birds in which the MHC class I and II genes are tightly linked and class II alpha exhibits low variability in many cases. Teleost fishes are among the most primitive vertebrates with MHC and represent good organisms for the study of MHC evolution because their class I and class II loci are not physically linked, allowing for independent evolution of both classes of genes. We have compared the diversity and molecular mechanisms of evolution of classical MH class II alpha and class II beta loci in farm populations of three salmonid species: Oncorhynchus kisutch, Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo salar. We found single classical class II loci and high polymorphism at both class II alpha and beta genes in the three species. Mechanisms of evolution were common for both class II genes, with recombination and point mutation involved in generating diversity and positive selection acting on the peptide-binding residues. These results suggest that the maintenance of variability at the class IIalpha gene could be a mechanism to increase diversity in the MHC class II in salmonids in order to compensate for the expression of one single classical locus and to respond to a wider array of parasites. PMID:20521040

  11. Increased messenger RNA for allograft inflammatory factor-1, LERK-5, and a novel gene in 17.5-day relative to 15.5-day bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Glover, Michelle D; Seidel, George E

    2003-09-01

    Considerable embryonic loss occurs between Gestation Days 15 and 18 in cattle when critical cellular and molecular events occur, including maternal recognition of pregnancy. To gain insight into these events, mRNA differential display analysis was used to identify eight unique cDNA fragments present in greater abundance in 17.5-day than in 15.5-day bovine embryos. Four cDNA fragments, confirmed to be upregulated in 17.5-day embryos using Northern analysis, were cloned and sequenced. Three cDNA fragments shared sequence identities with known homologs: human allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1), human LERK-5, and bovine interferon-tau. One novel cDNA fragment did not share sequence identity to previously reported genes, except for a similar DNA sequence in the human genome. AIF-1 mRNA was present in developing placenta through Gestation Day 36, and abundant levels were observed in adult bovine spleen and lung. The novel gene, which we have named periattachment factor (PAF), was not detected in adult tissues using Northern analysis or in conceptuses between Days 30 and 36 of pregnancy. Additional sequence information for bPAF was obtained from a cDNA library constructed from a 25-day bovine embryo. The protein corresponding to the open reading frame has four protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, two casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, a nuclear targeting sequence, but no obvious DNA or RNA binding motifs. Abundant expression of this gene during a narrow but critical window of embryonic development makes it worthy of further study. PMID:12773430

  12. Plant Translation Elongation Factor 1Bβ Facilitates Potato Virus X (PVX) Infection and Interacts with PVX Triple Gene Block Protein 1.

    PubMed

    Hwang, JeeNa; Lee, Seonhee; Lee, Joung-Ho; Kang, Won-Hee; Kang, Jin-Ho; Kang, Min-Young; Oh, Chang-Sik; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2015-01-01

    The eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 (eEF1) has two components: the G-protein eEF1A and the nucleotide exchange factor eEF1B. In plants, eEF1B is itself composed of a structural protein (eEF1Bγ) and two nucleotide exchange subunits (eEF1Bα and eEF1Bβ). To test the effects of elongation factors on virus infection, we isolated eEF1A and eEF1B genes from pepper (Capsicum annuum) and suppressed their homologs in Nicotiana benthamiana using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). The accumulation of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Potato virus X (PVX) was significantly reduced in the eEF1Bβ- or eEF1Bɣ-silenced plants as well as in eEF1A-silenced plants. Yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that eEF1Bα and eEF1Bβ interacted with eEF1A and that eEF1A and eEF1Bβ interacted with triple gene block protein 1 (TGBp1) of PVX. These results suggest that both eEF1A and eEF1Bβ play essential roles in the multiplication of PVX by physically interacting with TGBp1. Furthermore, using eEF1Bβ deletion constructs, we found that both N- (1-64 amino acids) and C-terminal (150-195 amino acids) domains of eEF1Bβ are important for the interaction with PVX TGBp1 and that the C-terminal domain of eEF1Bβ is involved in the interaction with eEF1A. These results suggest that eEF1Bβ could be a potential target for engineering virus-resistant plants. PMID:26020533

  13. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor protein expression and gene copy number alterations in non-small cell lung carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Tsuta, Koji; Mimae, Takahiro; Nitta, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Akihiko; Maeshima, Akiko M; Asamura, Hisao; Grogan, Thomas M; Furuta, Koh; Tsuda, Hitoshi

    2013-06-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is a tyrosine kinase receptor implicated in the pathogenesis of several malignancies and is potentially an attractive target for anticancer treatment. In this study, we included 379 patients who underwent surgical resection (179 diagnosed as having adenocarcinoma [ADC]; 150, squamous cell carcinoma [SCC]; 41, sarcomatoid carcinoma and 9, large cell carcinoma). IGF-1R expression and gene copy number were assessed by immunohistochemistry and bright-field in situ hybridization (BISH), respectively. IGF-1R expression in non-small cell lung carcinoma was observed in 41.4% of samples and was more prevalent in SCC (69.3%) than in ADC (25.1%), large cell carcinoma (33.3%), and sarcomatoid carcinoma (12.2%) (P < .001). Among ADCs, most mucinous ADCs (75%) showed strong membranous staining with the IGF-1R antibody. Compared with protein expression, IGF-1R gene alteration was rare (8.4%). A statistically significant correlation between IGF-1R expression and positive IGF-1R BISH was observed (γ = 0.762, P < .001). IGF-1R-positive tumors were more common in smokers (P = .004), and these tumors were larger (P = .006) than the IGF-1R-negative tumors. IGF-1R BISH positivity was not correlated with any clinicopathologic factor. IGF-1R expression and IGF-1R BISH positivity were not correlated with overall survival. IGF-1R is highly expressed in SCC and mucinous ADC, although copy number alterations in the IGF-1R gene were rare. These findings may have important implications for future anti-IGF-1R therapeutic approaches. PMID:23266446

  14. Inhibition of DNA topoisomerase II alpha gene expression by the p53 tumor suppressor.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Q; Zambetti, G P; Suttle, D P

    1997-01-01

    DNA topoisomerase II (topo II) is an essential nuclear enzyme involved in major cellular functions such as DNA replication, transcription, recombination, and mitosis. While an elevated level of topo II alpha is associated with cell proliferation, wild-type (wt) p53 inhibits the expression of various growth-stimulatory genes. To determine if p53 downregulates topo II alpha gene expression, a murine cell line, (10)1val, that expresses a temperature-sensitive p53 was utilized. The (10)1val cells had significantly lower levels of topo II alpha mRNA and protein following incubation for 24 h at 32 degrees C (p53 with wt conformation) than at 39 degrees C (p53 with mutant conformation). The effect of p53 on the human topo II alpha gene promoter was determined by using luciferase reporter plasmids containing varying lengths of the topo II alpha promoter transiently cotransfected into p53-deficient (10)1 cells together with wt or mutant p53 expression plasmids. Transcription from the full-length (bp -557 to +90) topo II alpha promoter was decreased 15-fold by wt p53 in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas mutant p53 exerted much weaker inhibition. Consecutive deletion of the five inverted CCAAT elements (ICEs) from the topo II alpha promoter reduced both the basal promoter activity and wt p53-induced suppression. Transcription of the minimal promoter (-32 to +90), which contains no ICE, was slightly stimulated by wt or mutant p53 expression. When point mutations were introduced into the most proximal ICE (-68), the inhibitory effect of wt p53 was alleviated and stimulation of topo II alpha expression resulted. Our study suggests that wt p53 functions as a transcriptional repressor of topo II alpha gene expression, possibly through a functional interaction with specific ICEs. Inactivation of wt p53 may reduce normal regulatory suppression of topo II alpha and contribute to abortive cell cycle checkpoints, accelerated cell proliferation, and alterations in genomic

  15. Structural organization of the human cardiac [alpha]-myosin heavy chain gene (MYH6)

    SciTech Connect

    Epp, T.A.; Dixon, I.M.C.; Wang, H.Y.; Sole, M.J.; Liew, C.C. )

    1993-12-01

    The human myocardium expresses two cardiac myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms, [alpha] and [beta], that exist in tandem array on chromosome 14q12. The authors have previously sequenced the entire human cardiac [beta]-MyHC gene and now report the complete nucleotide sequence of the human cardiac [alpha]-MyHC, encompassing 26,159 bp as well as the entire 4484-bp 5'-flanking intergenic region. The gene (MYH6) consists of 39 exons, 37 of which contain coding information. The 5'-untranslated region is split into 3 exons, with the third exon containing the AUG translocation initiation codon. With the exception of the 13th intron of the human cardiac [beta]-MyHC, which is not present within the [alpha]-isogene, all exon/intron boundaries are conserved. Conspicuous sequence motifs contained within the [alpha]-MyHC gene include four Alu repeats, a single (GT)[sub n] element, and a homopurine-homopyrimidine tract containing 23 GAA repeating units followed by 10 GAG repeating units. Comparison of the encoded amino acid sequence with a previously reported human [alpha]-MyHC cDNA sequence reveals several potential polymorphisms. 29 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. The mouse dead-end gene isoform alpha is necessary for germ cell and embryonic viability.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Chitralekha; Aggarwal, Sita; Zhu, Rui; Kumar, Madhu; Zhao, Ming; Meistrich, Marvin L; Matin, Angabin

    2007-03-30

    Inactivation of the dead-end (Dnd1) gene in the Ter mouse strain results in depletion of primordial germ cells (PGCs) so that mice become sterile. However, on the 129 mouse strain background, loss of Dnd1 also increases testicular germ cell tumor incidence in parallel to PGC depletion. We report that inactivation of Dnd1 also affects embryonic viability in the 129 strain. Mouse Dnd1 encodes two protein isoforms, DND1-isoform alpha (DND1-alpha) and DND1-isoform beta (DND1-beta). Using isoform-specific antibodies, we determined DND1-alpha is expressed in embryos and embryonic gonads whereas DND1-beta expression is restricted to germ cells of the adult testis. Our data implicate DND1-alpha isoform to be necessary for germ cell viability and therefore its loss in Ter mice results in PGC depletion, germ cell tumor development and partial embryonic lethality in the 129 strain. PMID:17291453

  17. Radiation-induced mitotic cell death and glioblastoma radioresistance: a new regulating pathway controlled by integrin-linked kinase, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha and survivin in U87 cells.

    PubMed

    Lanvin, Olivia; Monferran, Sylvie; Delmas, Caroline; Couderc, Bettina; Toulas, Christine; Cohen-Jonathan-Moyal, Elizabeth

    2013-09-01

    We have previously shown that integrin-linked kinase (ILK) regulates U87 glioblastoma cell radioresistance by modulating the main radiation-induced cell death mechanism in solid tumours, the mitotic cell death. To decipher the biological pathways involved in these mechanisms, we constructed a U87 glioblastoma cell model expressing an inducible shRNA directed against ILK (U87shILK). We then demonstrated that silencing ILK enhanced radiation-induced centrosome overduplication, leading to radiation-induced mitotic cell death. In this model, ionising radiations induce hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) stabilisation which is inhibited by silencing ILK. Moreover, silencing HIF-1α in U87 cells reduced the surviving fraction after 2 Gy irradiation by increasing cell sensitivity to radiation-induced mitotic cell death and centrosome amplification. Because it is known that HIF-1α controls survivin expression, we then looked at the ILK silencing effect on survivin expression. We show that survivin expression is decreased in U87shILK cells. Furthermore, treating U87 cells with the specific survivin suppressor YM155 significantly increased the percentage of giant multinucleated cells, centrosomal overduplication and thus U87 cell radiosensitivity. In consequence, we decipher here a new pathway of glioma radioresistance via the regulation of radiation-induced centrosome duplication and therefore mitotic cell death by ILK, HIF-1α and survivin. This work identifies new targets in glioblastoma with the intention of radiosensitising these highly radioresistant tumours. PMID:23747271

  18. Repression by ARP-1 sensitizes apolipoprotein AI gene responsiveness to RXR alpha and retinoic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Widom, R L; Rhee, M; Karathanasis, S K

    1992-01-01

    The gene coding for apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), a lipid binding protein involved in the transport of cholesterol and other lipids in the plasma, is expressed in mammals predominantly in the liver and the intestine. Liver-specific expression is controlled by synergistic interactions between transcription factors bound to three separate sites, sites A (-214 to -192), B (-169 to -146), and C (-134 to -119), within a powerful liver-specific enhancer located between nucleotides -222 and -110 upstream of the apoAI gene transcription start site (+1). Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that ARP-1, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily whose ligand is unknown (orphan receptor), binds to site A and represses transcription of the apoAI gene in liver cells. In a more recent series of experiments, we found that site A is a retinoic acid (RA) response element that responds preferentially to the recently identified RA-responsive receptor RXR alpha over the previously characterized RA receptors RAR alpha and RAR beta. In this study we investigated the combined effects of ARP-1 and RXR alpha on apoAI gene expression in liver cells. Transient transfection assays showed that site A is necessary and sufficient for RXR alpha-mediated transactivation of the apoAI gene basal promoter in human hepatoma HepG2 cells in the presence of RA and that this transactivation is abolished by increasing amounts of cotransfected ARP-1. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and subsequent Scatchard analysis of the data revealed that ARP-1 and RXR alpha bind to site A with similar affinities. These assays also revealed that ARP-1 and RXR alpha bind to site A as heterodimers with an affinity approximately 10 times greater than that of either ARP-1 or RXR alpha alone. Further transfection assays in HepG2 cells, using as a reporter a construct containing the apoAI gene basal promoter and its upstream regulatory elements (including site A) in their natural context, revealed that RXR alpha

  19. Cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides increase macrophage CD36 gene expression via PPAR{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Jedidi, Iness; Couturier, Martine; Therond, Patrice; Gardes-Albert, Monique; Legrand, Alain; Barouki, Robert; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Aggerbeck, Martine . E-mail: Martine.Aggerbeck@univ-paris5.fr

    2006-12-22

    The uptake of oxidized LDL by macrophages is a key event in the development of atherosclerosis. The scavenger receptor CD36 is one major receptor that internalizes oxidized LDL. In differentiated human macrophages, we compared the regulation of CD36 expression by copper-oxidized LDL or their products. Only oxidized derivatives of cholesteryl ester (CEOOH) increased the amount of CD36 mRNA (2.5-fold). Both oxidized LDL and CEOOH treatment increased two to fourfold the transcription of promoters containing peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor responsive elements (PPRE) in the presence of PPAR{alpha} or {gamma}. Electrophoretic-mobility-shift-assays with nuclear extracts prepared from macrophages treated by either oxidized LDL or CEOOH showed increased binding of PPAR{alpha} to the CD36 gene promoter PPRE. In conclusion, CEOOH present in oxidized LDL increase CD36 gene expression in a pathway involving PPAR{alpha}.

  20. The PPAR alpha gene is associated with triglyceride, low-density cholesterol and inflammation marker response to fenofibrate intervention: the GOLDN study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR Alpha) agonist, fenofibrate favorably modulates dyslipidemia and inflammation markers, which are associated with cardiovascular risk. To determine whether variation in the PPAR Alpha receptor gene was associated with lipid and inflammatory ...

  1. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha and bile acids regulate human concentrative nucleoside transporter-1 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Klein, Kerstin; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A; Wagner, Martin; Trauner, Michael; Eloranta, Jyrki J

    2009-04-01

    The concentrative nucleoside transporter-1 (CNT1) is a member of the solute carrier 28 (SLC28) gene family and is expressed in the liver, intestine, and kidneys. CNT1 mediates the uptake of naturally occurring pyrimidine nucleosides, but also nucleoside analogs used in anticancer and antiviral therapy. Thus expression levels of CNT1 may affect the pharmacokinetics of these drugs and the outcome of drug therapy. Because little is known about the transcriptional regulation of human CNT1 gene expression, we have characterized the CNT1 promoter with respect to DNA response elements and their binding factors. The transcriptional start site of the CNT1 gene was determined by 5'-RACE. In silico analysis revealed the existence of three putative binding sites for the nuclear receptor hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha (HNF-4alpha) within the CNT1 promoter. A luciferase reporter gene construct containing the CNT1 promoter region was transactivated by HNF-4alpha in human cell lines derived from the liver, intestine, and kidneys. Consistent with this, we showed in electromobility shift assays that HNF-4alpha specifically binds to two conserved direct repeat-1 motifs within the proximal CNT1 promoter. In cotransfection experiments, the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha further increased, whereas the bile acid-inducible corepressor small heterodimer partner reduced, HNF-4alpha-dependent CNT1 promoter activity. Consistent with the latter phenomenon, CNT1 mRNA expression levels were suppressed in primary human hepatocytes upon bile acid treatment. Supporting the physiological relevance and species conservation of this effect, ileal Cnt1 mRNA expression was decreased upon bile acid feeding and increased upon bile duct ligation in mice. PMID:19228884

  2. Structure-function of human 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases: genes and proteins.

    PubMed

    Penning, T M; Jin, Y; Steckelbroeck, S; Lanisnik Rizner, T; Lewis, M

    2004-02-27

    Four soluble human 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) isoforms exist which are aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily members. They share 86% sequence identity and correspond to: AKR1C1 (20 alpha(3 alpha)-HSD); AKR1C2 (type 3 3 alpha-HSD and bile-acid binding protein); AKR1C3 (type 2 3 alpha-HSD and type 5 17 beta-HSD); and AKR1C4 (type 1 3 alpha-HSD). Each of the homogeneous recombinant enzymes are plastic and display 3-, 17- and 20-ketosteroid reductase and 3 alpha- 17 beta- and 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidase activities with different k(cat)/K(m) ratios in vitro. The crystal structure of the AKR1C2.NADP(+).ursodeoxycholate complex provides an explanation for this functional plasticity. Ursodeoxycholate is bound backwards (D-ring in the A-ring position) and upside down (beta-face of steroid inverted) relative to the position of 3-ketosteroids in the related rat liver 3 alpha-HSD (AKR1C9) structure. Transient transfection indicates that in COS-1 cells, AKR1C enzymes function as ketosteroid reductases due to potent inhibition of their oxidase activity by NADPH. By acting as ketosteroid reductases they may regulate the occupancy of the androgen, estrogen and progesterone receptors. RT-PCR showed that AKRs are discretely localized. AKR1C4 is virtually liver specific, while AKR1C2 and AKR1C3 are dominantly expressed in prostate and mammary gland. AKR1C genes are highly conserved in structure and may be transcriptionally regulated by steroid hormones and stress. PMID:15026176

  3. Cloning, characterization, and expression of two alpha-amylase genes from Aspergillus niger var. awamori.

    PubMed

    Korman, D R; Bayliss, F T; Barnett, C C; Carmona, C L; Kodama, K H; Royer, T J; Thompson, S A; Ward, M; Wilson, L J; Berka, R M

    1990-03-01

    Using synthetic oligonucleotide probes, we cloned genomic DNA sequences encoding an alpha-amylase gene from Aspergillus niger var. awamori (A. awamori) on a 5.8 kb EcoRI fragment. Hybridization experiments, using a portion of this cloned fragment to probe DNA from A. awamori, suggested the presence of two alpha-amylase gene copies which were subsequently cloned as 7 kb (designated as amyA) and 4 kb (amyB) HindIII fragments. DNA sequence analysis of the amyA and amyB genes revealed the following: (1) Both genes are arranged as nine exons and eight introns; (2) The nucleotide sequences of amyA and amyB are identical throughout all but the last few nucleotides of their respective coding regions; (3) The amyA and amyB genes from A. awamori share extensive homology (greater than or equal to 98% identity) with the genes encoding Taka-amylase from A. oryzae. In order to test whether both amyA and amyB were functional in the genome, we constructed vectors containing gene fusions of either amyA and amyB to bovine prochymosin cDNA and used these vectors to transform A. awamori. Transformants which contained either the amyA- or amyB-prochymosin gene fusions produced extracellular chymosin, suggesting that both genes are functional. PMID:2340591

  4. Hypermethylation of XIAP-associated factor 1, a putative tumor suppressor gene from the 17p13.2 locus, in human gastric adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Byun, Do-Sun; Cho, Kyucheol; Ryu, Byung-Kyu; Lee, Min-Goo; Kang, Min-Ju; Kim, Hak-Ryul; Chi, Sung-Gil

    2003-11-01

    X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) is the most potent member of the IAP family that exerts antiapoptotic effects by interfering with the activities of caspases. Recently, XIAP-associated factor 1 (XAF1) and two mitochondrial proteins, Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2, have been identified to negatively regulate the caspase-inhibiting activity of XIAP. To explore the candidacy of XAF1, Smac/DIABLO, and HtrA2 as a tumor suppressor in gastric tumorigenesis, we investigated the expression and mutation status of the genes in 123 gastric tissues and 15 cancer cell lines. Whereas Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2 transcripts were normally expressed in all cancer specimens we examined, XAF1 transcript was not expressed or present at extremely low levels in 40% (6 of 15) of cancer cell lines and in 23% (20 of 87) of primary carcinomas. Abnormal reduction of XAF1 expression showed a strong correlation with stage and grade of tumors, and a tumor-specific down-regulation of XAF1 was observed in 45% (9 of 20) of matched sets. Unlike XAF1, XIAP expression exhibited no detectable alteration in cancers. Whereas loss of heterozygosity within the XAF1 region or somatic mutations of the gene was not detected, expression of XAF1 transcript was reactivated in all nonexpressor cell lines after 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment. The 5' upstream region of the XAF1 gene encompasses no gastric cell-rich region that rigorously satisfies the formal criteria for CpG islands. However, bisulfite DNA sequencing analysis for 34 CpG sites in the promoter region revealed a strong association between hypermethylation and gene silencing. Moreover, transcriptional silencing of XAF1 was tightly associated with hypermethylation of seven CpGs located in the 5' proximal region (nucleotides -23 to -234). Additionally, loss or abnormal reduction of XAF1 expression was found to inversely correlate with p53 mutations, suggesting that epigenetic inactivation of XAF1 and mutational alteration of p53 might be mutually exclusive

  5. The association between hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α gene G1790A polymorphism and cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 28 case–control studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a key transcription factor that regulates the cellular adaptation to hypoxia. HIF-1α gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are implicated to be associated with cancer risks. However, results from the published studies remained inconclusive. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of HIF-1α gene G1790A polymorphism with cancer using meta-analysis. Methods A comprehensive search in Pubmed, EMBASE and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) was conducted to identify all publications on the association between this polymorphism and cancer until December 13, 2013. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to evaluate the strength of this association. Association between lymph node metastasis and G1790A was also investigated. Results A total of 5985 cases and 6809 controls in 28 case–control studies were included in this meta-analysis. The A allele of HIF-1α gene G1790A polymorphism was found to be significantly associated with increased cancer risk in four genetic models: AA + AG vs. GG (dominant model OR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.27-2.69), AA vs. AG + GG (recessive model OR = 5.69, 95% CI = 3.87-8.37), AA vs. GG (homozygote comparison OR = 6.63, 95% CI = 4.49-9.79), and AG vs. GG (heterozygote comparison OR = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.53-3.75). This variant was also significantly associated with higher risks of pancreatic cancer, head and neck cancer, lung cancer and renal cell carcinoma. However, the A allele of G1790A was not significantly associated with increased lymph node metastasis in the dominant model by overall meta-analysis. Conclusions Our meta-analysis suggests that the substitution of G with A of HIF-1α gene G1790A polymorphism is a risk factor of cancer, especially for pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma and head and neck cancer. The association is significant in Asian, Caucasian population and public based

  6. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 regulates the expression of the organic cation transporter 1 via binding to an evolutionary conserved region in intron 1 of the OCT1 gene.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Valerie P; Bokelmann, Kristin; Ramírez, Jacqueline; Jobst, Karoline; Ratain, Mark J; Brockmöller, Jürgen; Tzvetkov, Mladen V

    2013-10-01

    The organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1), also known as solute carrier family 22 member 1, is strongly and specifically expressed in the human liver. Here we show that the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 (HNF1) regulates OCT1 transcription and contributes to the strong, liver-specific expression of OCT1. Bioinformatic analyses revealed strong conservation of HNF1 binding motifs in an evolutionary conserved region (ECR) in intron 1 of the OCT1 gene. Electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed the specific binding of HNF1 to the intron 1 ECR. In reporter gene assays performed in HepG2 cells, the intron 1 ECR increased SV40 promoter activity by 22-fold and OCT1 promoter activity by 13-fold. The increase was reversed when the HNF1 binding sites in the intron 1 ECR were mutated or the endogenous HNF1α expression was downregulated with small interfering RNA. Following HNF1α overexpression in Huh7 cells, the intron 1 ECR increased SV40 promoter activity by 11-fold and OCT1 promoter activity by 6-fold. Without HNF1α overexpression, the increases were only 3- and 2-fold, respectively. Finally, in human liver samples, high HNF1 expression was significantly correlated with high OCT1 expression (r = 0.48, P = 0.002, n = 40). In conclusion, HNF1 is a strong regulator of OCT1 expression. It remains to be determined whether genetic variants, disease conditions, or drugs that affect HNF1 activity may affect the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of OCT1-transported drugs such as morphine, tropisetron, ondansetron, tramadol, and metformin. Beyond OCT1, this study demonstrates the validity and usefulness of interspecies comparisons in the discovery of functionally relevant genomic sequences. PMID:23922447

  7. Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1 Regulates the Expression of the Organic Cation Transporter 1 via Binding to an Evolutionary Conserved Region in Intron 1 of the OCT1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Valerie P.; Bokelmann, Kristin; Ramírez, Jacqueline; Jobst, Karoline; Ratain, Mark J.; Brockmöller, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    The organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1), also known as solute carrier family 22 member 1, is strongly and specifically expressed in the human liver. Here we show that the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 (HNF1) regulates OCT1 transcription and contributes to the strong, liver-specific expression of OCT1. Bioinformatic analyses revealed strong conservation of HNF1 binding motifs in an evolutionary conserved region (ECR) in intron 1 of the OCT1 gene. Electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed the specific binding of HNF1 to the intron 1 ECR. In reporter gene assays performed in HepG2 cells, the intron 1 ECR increased SV40 promoter activity by 22-fold and OCT1 promoter activity by 13-fold. The increase was reversed when the HNF1 binding sites in the intron 1 ECR were mutated or the endogenous HNF1α expression was downregulated with small interfering RNA. Following HNF1α overexpression in Huh7 cells, the intron 1 ECR increased SV40 promoter activity by 11-fold and OCT1 promoter activity by 6-fold. Without HNF1α overexpression, the increases were only 3- and 2-fold, respectively. Finally, in human liver samples, high HNF1 expression was significantly correlated with high OCT1 expression (r = 0.48, P = 0.002, n = 40). In conclusion, HNF1 is a strong regulator of OCT1 expression. It remains to be determined whether genetic variants, disease conditions, or drugs that affect HNF1 activity may affect the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of OCT1-transported drugs such as morphine, tropisetron, ondansetron, tramadol, and metformin. Beyond OCT1, this study demonstrates the validity and usefulness of interspecies comparisons in the discovery of functionally relevant genomic sequences. PMID:23922447

  8. A polymorphism in the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene is associated with postpartum resumption of ovarian cyclicity in Holstein-Friesian cows under grazing conditions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) gene is considered as a promising candidate for the identification of polymorphisms affecting cattle performance. The objectives of the current study were to determine the association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) IGF-1/SnaBI with fertility, milk production and body condition traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows under grazing conditions. Methods Seventy multiparous cows from a commercial herd were genotyped for the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI. Fertility measures evaluated were: interval to commencement of luteal activity (CLA), calving to first service (CFS) and calving to conception (CC) intervals. Milk production and body condition score were also evaluated. The study period extended from 3 wk before calving to the fourth month of lactation. Results and discussion Frequencies of the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI alleles A and B were 0.59 and 0.41, respectively. Genotype frequencies were 0.31, 0.54 and 0.14 for AA, AB and BB, respectively. Cows with the AA genotype presented an early CLA and were more likely to resume ovarian cyclicity in the early postpartum than AB and BB ones. No effect of the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI genotype was evidenced on body condition change over the experimental period, suggesting that energy balance is not responsible for the outcome of postpartum ovarian resumption in this study. Traditional fertility measures were not affected by the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI. Conclusion To our knowledge this is the first report describing an association of the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI with an endocrine fertility measure like CLA in cattle. Results herein remark the important role of the IGF-1gene in the fertility of dairy cows on early lactation and make the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI an interesting candidate marker for genetic improvement of fertility in dairy cattle. PMID:23409757

  9. Association between Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Gene rs12423791 or rs6214 Polymorphisms and High Myopia: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lan; Du, Xueying; Lu, Ciyong; Zhang, Wei-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of insulin-like growth factor 1 gene rs12423791 and rs6214 polymorphisms with high myopia. Methods An electronic search was conducted on PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and the Chinese Biological Abstract Database for articles published prior to May 6, 2014. A meta-analysis was performed using Revman 5.1 and Stata 12.0, and the odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated in fixed or random effects models based on the results of the Q test. The subgroup analysis was conducted on the basis of the various regions, the sensitivity analysis was also performed to evaluate the stability of the results, and the publication bias was evaluated by a funnel plot and Egger’s linear regression analysis. Results This comprehensive meta-analysis included 2808 high myopia patients and 2778 controls from five unrelated studies. The results demonstrated that the significant association was not present in any genetic models between IGF-1 rs12423791 or rs6214 and high myopia. However, subgroup analysis indicated that rs12423791 polymorphism was associated with high myopia in the Chinese populations in the allelic contrast model (C vs. G: OR=1.24, 95% CI=1.04-1.48 in the fixed-effects model), the dominant model (CC+CG vs. GG: OR=1.40, 95% CI=1.16-1.69 in the fixed-effects model), and the codominant model (CG vs. GG: OR=1.37, 95% CI= 1.12-1.68 in the fixed-effects model). Additionally, none of the individual studies significantly affected the association between IGF-1 rs12423791 and high myopia, according to sensitivity analysis. Conclusion This meta-analysis shows that IGF-1 rs12423791 or rs6214 gene polymorphism is not associated with high myopia. PMID:26076017

  10. Molecular cloning, pathologically-correlated expression and functional characterization of the colonystimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) gene from a teleost, Plecoglossus altivelis

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, Qiang; LU, Xin-Jiang; LI, Ming-Yun; CHEN, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) is an important regulator of monocytes/macrophages (MO/MΦ). Although several CSF-1R genes have been identified in teleosts, the precise role of CSF- 1R in ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) remains unclear. In this study, we characterized the CSF-1R homologue from P. altivelis, and named it PaCSF-1R. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that PaCSF-1R was most closely related to that of Japanese ricefish (Oryzias latipes). Tissue distribution and expression analysis showed that the PaCSF-1R transcript was mainly expressed in the head kidney-derived MO/MΦ, spleen, and head kidney, and its expression was significantly altered in various tissues upon Vibrio anguillarum infection. After PaCSF-1R neutralization for 48 h, the phagocytic activity of MO/MΦ was significantly decreased, suggesting that PaCSF-1R plays a role in regulating the phagocytic function of ayu MO/MΦ. PMID:27029867

  11. Comprehensive sequence analysis of the NR5A1 gene encoding steroidogenic factor 1 in a large group of infertile males

    PubMed Central

    Röpke, Albrecht; Tewes, Ann-Christin; Gromoll, Jörg; Kliesch, Sabine; Wieacker, Peter; Tüttelmann, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) protein, encoded by the NR5A1 gene, plays a central role in gonadal development and steroidogenesis. Mutations in NR5A1 were first described in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency and 46,XY disorders of sexual development and later also in men with hypospadias, bilateral anorchia and micropenis and women with primary ovarian insufficiency. Recently, heterozygous missense mutations were found in 4% of infertile men with unexplained reduced sperm counts living in France, but all mutation carriers were of non-Caucasian ancestry. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive NR5A1 sequence analysis in 488 well-characterised predominantly Caucasian patients with azoo- or severe oligozoospermia. Two-hundred-thirty-seven men with normal semen parameters were sequenced as controls. In addition to several synonymous variants of unclear pathogenicity, three heterozygous missense mutations predicted to be damaging to SF1 protein function were identified. The andrological phenotype in infertile but otherwise healthy mutation carriers seems variable. In conclusion, mutations altering SF1 protein function and causing spermatogenic failure are also found in men of German origin, but the prevalence seems markedly lower than in other populations. PMID:23299922

  12. Localisation of cis elements in the promoter of a wheat alpha-Amy2 gene.

    PubMed

    Huttly, A K; Phillips, A L; Tregear, J W

    1992-09-01

    A functional analysis of the promoter from the wheat alpha-amylase gene alpha-Amy2/54 is described. Mutant alpha-Amy2/54 promoters containing replacements or deletions were constructed and their ability to direct expression of the reporter gene beta-glucuronidase (GUS) in gibberellin-responsive oat aleurone protoplasts analysed. Chimaeric promoters using regions of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S and alpha-Amy2/54 promoters were also analysed. The results suggest that at least three regions within the alpha-Amy2/54 promoter contain cis elements that are necessary for high-level gibberellin-regulated transcription. Fusion of 1.8 kb of promoter sequence upstream from -117 bp to a minimal (-55 CaMV 35S) promoter gave rise to hormone-independent expression implying that the region 3' to -117 bp contains an element which represses transcription in the absence of gibberellin or presence of abscisic acid. PMID:1511136

  13. Kidney development and gene expression in the HIF2alpha knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Steenhard, Brooke M; Freeburg, Paul B; Isom, Kathryn; Stroganova, Larysa; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan; Hudson, Billy G; St John, Patricia L; Zelenchuk, Adrian; Abrahamson, Dale R

    2007-04-01

    The hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-2 (HIF2), a heterodimer composed of HIF2alpha and HIF1beta subunits, drives expression of genes essential for vascularization, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2, Flk-1). Here, we used a HIF2alpha/LacZ transgenic mouse to define patterns of HIF2alpha transcription during kidney development and maturation. Our results from embryonic heterozygotes showed HIF2alpha/LacZ expression by apparently all renal endothelial cells. At 4 weeks of age, glomerular mesangial and vascular smooth muscle cells were also positive together with endothelial cells. These expression patterns were confirmed by electron microscopy using Bluo-gal as a beta-galactosidase substrate. Small numbers of glomerular and tubular epithelial cells were also positive at all stages examined. Light and electron microscopic examination of kidneys from HIF2alpha null embryos showed no defects in renal vascular development or nephrogenesis. Similarly, the same amounts of Flk-1 protein were seen on Western blots of kidney extracts from homozygous and heterozygous HIF2alpha mutants. To examine responsiveness of HIF2alpha null kidneys to hypoxia, embryonic day 13.5 metanephroi were cultured in room air or in mild (5% O(2)) hypoxia. For both heterozygous and null samples, VEGF mRNA levels doubled when metanephroi were cultured in mild hypoxia. Anterior chamber grafts of embryonic HIF2alpha knockouts were morphologically indistinguishable from heterozygous grafts. Endothelial markers, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule and BsLB4, as well as glomerular epithelial markers, GLEPP1 and WT-1, were all expressed appropriately. Finally, we undertook quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction of kidneys from HIF2alpha null embryos and wild-type siblings and found no compensatory up-regulation of HIF1alpha or -3alpha. Our results show that, although HIF2alpha was widely transcribed by kidney endothelium and vascular

  14. Involvement of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 in the regulation of the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A7 (UGT1A7) gene in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Metz, R P; Auyeung, D J; Kessler, F K; Ritter, J K

    2000-08-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A7 (UGT1A7) is a major UGT contributing to the glucuronidation of xenobiotic phenols in rats. Its expression in rat liver is tightly regulated, with low constitutive and high inducible expression in response to aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands and oltipraz. Previously, we reported the absence of 3-methylcholanthrene- or oltipraz-responsive elements in the 1.6-kbp region flanking the UGT1A7 promoter. However, potential binding sites were noted for several liver-enriched transcription factors. Here we show that deletion of the hepatic nuclear factor (HNF)3, HNF4, and CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-like binding sites had no effect on the expression of a UGT1A7 reporter plasmid, p(-965/+56)1A7-Luc, in primary rat hepatocytes. The full activity of the promoter was contained in the region between bases -157 and +76. Two sites of binding by rat liver nuclear proteins were detected in this region by DNase footprinting. PR-1 corresponded to the HNF1-like binding site between bases -52 and -38, whereas PR-2 was located between -30 to -6. Gel retardation studies supported the presence of HNF1alpha in the PR-1 DNA-liver nuclear protein complex. Mutation of PR-1 inhibited binding in the gel shift assay, prevented activation by overexpressed HNF1 in human embryonic kidney cells, and reduced by >80% the maximal luciferase activities expressed from basal and 3-methylcholanthrene-responsive UGT1A7 gene reporter constructs in primary rat hepatocytes. These data provide evidence for an important stimulatory role of HNF1 in promoting UGT1A7 gene expression in rat liver. PMID:10908299

  15. Concomitant alpha- and gamma-sarcoglycan deficiencies in a Turkish boy with a novel deletion in the alpha-sarcoglycan gene.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Gulden; Tosun Yildirim, Hulya; Gokben, Sarenur; Serdaroglu, Gul; Hazan, Filiz; Yararbas, Kanay; Tukun, Ajlan

    2014-01-01

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2D (LGMD-2D) is caused by autosomal recessive defects in the alpha-sarcoglycan gene located on chromosome 17q21. In this study, we present a child with alpha-sarcoglycanopathy and describe a novel deletion in the alpha-sarcoglycan gene. A 5-year-old boy had a very high serum creatinine phosphokinase level, which was determined incidentally, and a negative molecular test for the dystrophin gene. Muscle biopsy showed dystrophic features. Immunohistochemistry showed that there was diminished expression of alpha- and gamma-sarcoglycans. DNA analysis revealed a novel 7 bp homozygous deletion in exon 3 of the alpha-sarcoglycan gene. His parents were consanguineous heterozygous carriers of the same deletion. We believe this is the first confirmed case of primary alpha-sarcoglycanopathy with a novel deletion in Turkey. In addition, this study demonstrated that both muscle biopsy and DNA analysis remain important methods for the differential diagnosis of muscular dystrophies because dystrophinopathies and sarcoglycanopathies are so similar. PMID:25050186

  16. Analyses of alpha/beta-type gliadin genes from diploid and hexaploid wheats.

    PubMed

    Reeves, C D; Okita, T W

    1987-01-01

    The alpha/beta-gliadin genes isolated from both hexaploid wheat (cv. Yamhill) and the diploid A genome progenitor Triticum urartu had remarkably similar sequences and differ by only a few point mutations. Primer extension analysis indicated that the transcriptional start points for individual genes in the family cluster within a few nucleotides. Comparison of the promoter region of several alpha/beta-gliadin and B-hordein genes reveals two conserved regions at about -130 and -250 bp. DNA from the hexaploid cultivars, Cheyenne and Chinese Spring, and the diploid progenitors T. urartu and Aegilops squarrosa was analysed by Southern blotting. Restriction fragment lengths of the alpha/beta-gliadin genes varied only slightly between the various wheats, although the overall copy number varied significantly. A region between approx. -1700 and -700 bp upstream from the TATA box was highly repeated in all three wheat genomes. For the hexaploid-derived gene, over 1700 bp of sequence upstream from the TATA box was determined, revealing an additional open reading frame between approx. -1550 and -1250 bp relative to the gliadin TATA box. Northern blot analysis indicated that RNA homologous to this repeated sequence family was present only in developing seed and accumulated to a maximum at late stages of maturation. PMID:3038689

  17. Multiple octamer binding sites in the promoter region of the bovine alpha s2-casein gene.

    PubMed Central

    Groenen, M A; Dijkhof, R J; van der Poel, J J; van Diggelen, R; Verstege, E

    1992-01-01

    Using a set of overlapping oligonucleotides from the promoter region of the bovine alpha s2-casein gene we have identified two nuclear factors which probably are involved in expression of this gene and the related calcium sensitive alpha s1- and beta-casein genes. One of these factors which was present in extracts of all tissues that have been tested including Hela cells turned out to be the octamer binding protein OCT-1. Oct-1 binds with different affinity to 4 sites at positions centred around -480, -260, -210 and -50. The strongest of these 4 binding sites, the one around position -50, is highly conserved in all calcium sensitive caseins of mouse, rat, rabbit and cattle. The other nuclear factor (MGF, mammary gland factor) which is specifically expressed in the mammary gland, binds to a site around position -90. This binding site is also highly conserved in all calcium sensitive caseins of mouse, rat, rabbit and cattle. Images PMID:1508722

  18. Amelioration of laminin-alpha2-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy by somatic gene transfer of miniagrin.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Chunping; Li, Jianbin; Zhu, Tong; Draviam, Romesh; Watkins, Simon; Ye, Xiaojing; Chen, Chunlian; Li, Juan; Xiao, Xiao

    2005-08-23

    Congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) is characterized by severe muscle wasting, premature death in early childhood, and lack of effective treatment. Most of the CMD cases are caused by genetic mutations of laminin-alpha2, which is essential for the structural integrity of muscle extracellular matrix. Here, we report that somatic gene delivery of a structurally unrelated protein, a miniature version of agrin, functionally compensates for laminin-alpha2 deficiency in the murine models of CMD. Adeno-associated virus-mediated overexpression of miniagrin restored the structural integrity of myofiber basal lamina, inhibited interstitial fibrosis, and ameliorated dystrophic pathology. Furthermore, systemic gene delivery of miniagrin into multiple vital muscles significantly improved whole body growth and motility and quadrupled the lifespan (50% survival) of the dystrophic mice. Thus, our study demonstrated the efficacy of somatic gene therapy in a mouse model of CMD. PMID:16103356

  19. Regulation of cytochrome b5 gene transcription by Sp3, GATA-6, and steroidogenic factor 1 in human adrenal NCI-H295A cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ningwu; Dardis, Andrea; Miller, Walter L

    2005-08-01

    Sex steroid synthesis requires the 17,20 lyase activity of P450c17, which is enhanced by cytochrome b5, acting as an allosteric factor to promote association of P450c17 with its electron donor, P450 oxidoreductase. Cytochrome b5 is preferentially expressed in the fetal adrenal and postadrenarchal adrenal zona reticularis; the basis of this tissue-specific, developmentally regulated transcription of the b5 gene is unknown. We found b5 expression in all cell lines tested, including human adrenal NCI-H295A cells, where its mRNA is reduced by cAMP and phorbol ester. Multiple sites, between -83 and -122 bp upstream from the first ATG, initiate transcription. Deletional mutagenesis localized all detectable promoter activity within -327/+15, and deoxyribonuclease I footprinting identified protein binding at -72/-107 and -157/-197. DNA segments -65/-40, -114/-70 and -270/-245 fused to TK32/Luc yielded significant activity, and mutations in their Sp sites abolished that activity; electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that Sp3, but not Sp1, binds to these Sp sites. Nuclear factor 1 (NF-1) and GATA-6, but not GATA-4 bind to the NF-1 and GATA sites in -157/-197. In Drosophila S2 cells, Sp3 increased -327/Luc activity 58-fold, but Sp1 and NF-1 isoforms were inactive. Mutating the three Sp sites ablated activity without or with cotransfection of Sp1/Sp3. In NCI-H295A cells, mutating the three Sp sites reduced activity to 39%; mutating the Sp, GATA, and NF-1 sites abolished activity. In JEG-3 cells, GATA-4 was inactive, GATA-6 augmented -327/Luc activity to 231% over the control, and steroidogenic factor 1 augmented activity to 655% over the control; these activities required the Sp and NF-1 sites. Transcription of cytochrome b5 shares many features with the regulation of P450c17, whose activity it enhances. PMID:15831526

  20. A functional polymorphism of the TNF-{alpha} gene that is associated with type 2 DM

    SciTech Connect

    Susa, Shinji; Daimon, Makoto Sakabe, Jun-Ichi; Sato, Hidenori; Oizumi, Toshihide; Karasawa, Shigeru; Wada, Kiriko; Jimbu, Yumi; Kameda, Wataru; Emi, Mitsuru; Muramatsu, Masaaki; Kato, Takeo

    2008-05-09

    To examine the association of the tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) gene region with type 2 diabetes (DM), 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the region were analyzed. The initial study using a sample set (148 cases vs. 227 controls) showed a significant association of the SNP IVS1G + 123A of the TNF-{alpha} gene with DM (p = 0.0056). Multiple logistic regression analysis using an enlarged sample set (225 vs. 716) revealed the significant association of the SNP with DM independently of any clinical traits examined (OR: 1.49, p = 0.014). The functional relevance of the SNP were examined by the electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from the U937 and NIH3T3 cells and luciferase assays in these cells with Simian virus 40 promoter- and TNF-{alpha} promoter-reporter gene constructs. The functional analyses showed that YY1 transcription factor bound allele-specifically to the SNP region and, the IVS1 + 123A allele had an increase in luciferase expression compared with the G allele.

  1. The bean. alpha. -amylase inhibitor is encoded by a lectin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.; Altabella, T.; Chrispeels, M.J. )

    1989-04-01

    The common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, contains an inhibitor of insect and mammalian {alpha}-amylases that does not inhibit plant {alpha}-amylase. This inhibitor functions as an anti-feedant or seed-defense protein. We purified this inhibitor by affinity chromatography and found that it consists of a series of glycoforms of two polypeptides (Mr 14,000-19,000). Partial amino acid sequencing was carried out, and the sequences obtained are identical with portions of the derived amino acid sequence of a lectin-like gene. This lectin gene encodes a polypeptide of MW 28,000, and the primary in vitro translation product identified by antibodies to the {alpha}-amylase inhibitor has the same size. Co- and posttranslational processing of this polypeptide results in glycosylated polypeptides of 14-19 kDa. Our interpretation of these results is that the bean lectins constitute a gene family that encodes diverse plant defense proteins, including phytohemagglutinin, arcelin and {alpha}-amylase inhibitor.

  2. Integration and expression of alpha-amylase and endoglucanase genes in the Lactobacillus plantarum chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Scheirlinck, T; Mahillon, J; Joos, H; Dhaese, P; Michiels, F

    1989-01-01

    A commercial grass silage starter strain of Lactobacillus plantarum was transformed by high-frequency electroporation with plasmids containing an alpha-amylase gene from Bacillus stearothermophilus and an endoglucanase gene from Clostridium thermocellum. Both genes were expressed from their native regulatory signals, and active enzymes were found in the supernatant. However, the segregational stability of the transforming plasmids was rather low. Therefore, the transforming genes were inserted in the L. plantarum chromosome by means of single homologous recombination. In the majority of the transformants, this led to extremely stable segregation and expression of the transforming genes, without generating secondary mutations in the host. Increased selective pressure led to tandem amplification of the transforming DNA. The transformed strains demonstrated the ability of L. plantarum to express heterologous gene products; they can be used to detect the inoculum in silage ecology studies; and they demonstrate the feasibility of engineering truly cellulolytic silage starter bacteria. Images PMID:2679379

  3. Do HLA genes play a prominent role in determining T cell receptor V{alpha} segment usage in humans?

    SciTech Connect

    Gulwani-Akolkar, B.; Shi, B.; Akolkar, P.N.

    1995-04-15

    Previous studies in humans have demonstrated that HLA genes can profoundly influence the TCR V{beta} repertoire. To similarly assess the influence of HLA genes on the TCR V{alpha} segment repertoire, the V{alpha} repertoires of 12 individuals from three unrelated families were determined by quantitative PCR. Each family contained at least one pair of HLA-identical and -nonidentical siblings. Repertoire analysis was performed on purified CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} cells by using V{alpha}-specific primers. We were unable to demonstrate more similar V{alpha} repertoires between HLA-identical siblings than between HLA-nonidentical siblings. In contrast, when a similar analysis was performed on the same individuals for the V{beta} repertoire, HLA-identical siblings were found to have significantly more similar repertoires than HLA-nonidentical siblings. Furthermore, both the V{alpha} and V{beta} repertoires of monozygotic twins showed striking similarity. Despite our inability to shown an influence of HLA genes on the V{alpha} repertoire, we did observe a very strong skewing in terms of preferential expression on CD4{sup +} or CD8{sup +} cells of several V{alpha} segments, notably TCRAV1, -2, -5, -6, -7, -11, -12, and -13. These studies suggest that HLA genes play less of a role in determining V{alpha} segment usage than V{beta}. Nevertheless, the pronounced skewing of V{alpha} segment expression in the CD4{sup +} or CD8{sup +} populations suggests some role for HLA genes in determining the V{alpha} TCR repertoire. Furthermore, the striking similarity of V{alpha} repertoires of identical twins suggests a major role for non-HLA genes in determining the V{alpha} repertoire. 35 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Growth-related gene product {alpha}: A chemotactic cytokine for neutrophils in rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, A.E.; Pope, R.M. |; Shah, M.R.; Hosaka, S.

    1995-10-01

    Leukocyte recruitment is critical in the inflammation seen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To determine whether the chemokine growth-related gene product {alpha} (gro{alpha}) plays a role in this process, we examined synovial tissue (ST), synovial fluid (SF), and plasma samples from 102 patients with arthritis. RA SF contained more antigenic gro{alpha} (mean 5.3 {+-} 1.9 ng/ml) than did SFs from either osteoarthritis (OA) or other forms of arthritis (mean 0.1 ng/ml) (p < 0.05). RA plasma contained more gro{alpha} (mean 4.3 {+-} 1.8 ng/ml) than normal plasma (mean 0.1 ng/ml) (p < 0.05). RA ST fibroblasts (1.2 x 10{sup 5}/cells/ml RPMI 1640/24 h) produced antigenic gro{alpha} (mean 0.2 {+-} 0.1 ng/ml), and this production was increased significantly upon incubation with TNF-{alpha} (mean 1.3 {+-} 0.3 ng/ml) or IL-1{beta} (mean 2.3 {+-} 0.6 ng/ml) (p < 0.05). Cells from RA SF also produced gro{alpha}: neutrophils (PMNs) (10{sup 7} cells/ml/24 h) produced 3.7 {+-} 0.7 ng/ml. RA SF mononuclear cells produced gro{alpha}, particularly upon incubation with LPS or PHA. Immunoreactive ST gro{alpha} was found in greater numbers of RA compared with either OA or normal lining cells, as well as in RA compared with OA subsynovial macrophages (p < 0.05). IL-8 accounted for a mean of 36% of the RA SF chemotactic activity for PMNs, while epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide-78 accounted for 34%, and gro{alpha} for 28%, of this activity. Combined neutralization of all three chemokines in RA SFs resulted in a mean decrease of 50% of the chemotactic activity for PMNs present in the RA SFs. These results indicate that gro{alpha} plays an important role in the ingress of PMNs into the RA joint. 54 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Three NF-kappa B sites in the I kappa B-alpha promoter are required for induction of gene expression by TNF alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, C Y; Kazantsev, A G; Baldwin, A S

    1994-01-01

    NF-kappa B was first identified as a postive regulator which bound to a 10 bp sequence in the first intron of the Ig kappa light chain gene. Further characterization of this transcription factor has revealed that NF-kappa B is kept from binding to its consensus sequence by its inhibitor, IkB-alpha, which retains NF-kappa B in the cytoplasm. Upon receiving various extra- and intracellular signals, I kappa B-alpha is rapidly degraded and NF-kappa B is induced to translocate into the nucleus. This process precedes the rapid induction of I kappa B-alpha mRNA and protein. To understand how I kappa B-alpha is replenished, we have cloned and sequenced the 5' flanking region of the I kappa B-alpha gene and have identified the transcription start site and three NF-kappa B sites in this region. Further characterization of these NF-kappa B sites show that they have different affinities for three specific protein complexes which we identify here to consist of various members of the Rel family. In transient assays, cotransfection with a p65 expression vector is able to activate an I kappa B-alpha promoter-CAT reporter construct and all three NF-kappa B sites are required for full activation of the I kappa B-alpha gene following stimulation with TNF-alpha. Our data confirm a transcriptional autoregulatory loop involved in maintaining appropriate NF-kappa B and I kappa B-alpha levels in the cell. Images PMID:7937093

  6. Cloning and characterization of a third type of human alpha-amylase gene, AMY2B.

    PubMed

    Yokouchi, H; Horii, A; Emi, M; Tomita, N; Doi, S; Ogawa, M; Mori, T; Matsubara, K

    1990-06-15

    We have previously reported concerning the existence of a third type of human alpha-amylase gene, AMY3 [Emi et al., Gene 62 (1988) 229-235; Tomita et al., Gene 76 (1989) 11-18], which is expressed in a lung carcinoid tissue, and differs in nucleotide sequence from the two previously characterized human alpha-amylase genes coding for salivary and pancreatic isozymes, termed AMY1 and AMY2, respectively. Here, we rename this gene AMY2B to coincide with the designation by Gumucio et al. [Mol. Cell Biol. 8 (1988) 1197-1205] and describe its genetic properties as revealed by sequencing studies. It consists of ten major exons whose sequences are highly homologous to those of AMY1 and AMY2. Not only the exons, but also most of the introns seem to be highly conserved, as judged from physical mapping data. The AMY2B gene identified from mRNA in a lung carcinoid tissue has at least two additional untranslated exons in its 5' region; hence the promoter lies far upstream relative to the other two AMY genes. PMID:2401405

  7. Rapid evolution and diversification of mammalian alpha-defensins as revealed by comparative analysis of rodent and primate genes.

    PubMed

    Patil, Amar; Hughes, Austin L; Zhang, Guolong

    2004-12-15

    Mammalian alpha-defensins constitute a family of cysteine-rich, cationic antimicrobial peptides produced by phagocytes and intestinal Paneth cells, playing an important role in innate host defense. Following comprehensive computational searches, here we report the discovery of complete repertoires of the alpha-defensin gene family in the human, chimpanzee, rat, and mouse with new genes identified in each species. The human genome was found to encode a cluster of 10 distinct alpha-defensin genes and pseudogenes expanding 132 kb continuously on chromosome 8p23. Such alpha-defensin loci are also conserved in the syntenic chromosomal regions of chimpanzee, rat, and mouse. Phylogenetic analyses showed formation of two distinct clusters with primate alpha-defensins forming one cluster and rodent enteric alpha-defensins forming the other cluster. Species-specific clustering of genes is evident in nonprimate species but not in the primates. Phylogenetically distinct subsets of alpha-defensins also exist in each species, with most subsets containing multiple members. In addition, natural selection appears to have acted to diversify the functionally active mature defensin region but not signal or prosegment sequences. We concluded that mammalian alpha-defensin genes may have evolved from two separate ancestors originated from beta-defensins. The current repertoires of the alpha-defensin gene family in each species are primarily a result of repeated gene duplication and positive diversifying selection after divergence of mammalian species from each other, except for the primate genes, which were evolved prior to the separation of the primate species. We argue that the presence of multiple, divergent subsets of alpha-defensins in each species may help animals to better cope with different microbial challenges in the ecological niches which they inhabit. PMID:15494476

  8. Promoter activity of the 5'-flanking regions of medaka fish soluble guanylate cyclase alpha1 and beta1 subunit genes.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Takehiro; Suzuki, Norio

    2002-01-01

    We examined the spatial expression pattern of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) soluble guanylate cyclase alpha(1) and beta(1) subunit genes, OlGCS-alpha(1) and OlGCS-beta(1), and characterized the 5'-flanking region required for expression of both genes by introducing various promoter-luciferase fusion-gene constructs into COS-1 cells and medaka fish embryos. The OlGCS-alpha(1) and OlGCS-beta(1) gene transcripts were detected in whole brain and kidney in 7-day and 9-day embryos. Primer-extension analysis demonstrated that there were no differences among various adult organs (brain, eye, kidney, ovary and testis) in the transcription start site of the OlGCS-alpha(1) and OlGCS-beta(1) genes. Neither gene contained the functional TATA box within its 5'-flanking region, and the basal promoter activity was found between nucleotides +33 and +42 in the OlGCS-alpha(1) gene and between nucleotides +146 and +155 in the OlGCS-beta(1) gene. In the assay of medaka fish embryos, the 5'-flanking region of the OlGCS-beta(1) gene exhibited lower promoter activity than that of the OlGCS-alpha(1) gene. In the experiments on dual-luciferase fusion-gene constructs, the 5'-flanking region of the OlGCS-alpha(1) gene connected to the 5'-flanking region of the OlGCS-beta(1) gene was introduced into medaka fish embryos, and the 5'-flanking regions of both subunit genes were shown to mutually influence each other's promoter activity. PMID:11772405

  9. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) Gene are Associated with Performance in Holstein-Friesian Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Michael Paul; Berry, Donagh P.; Howard, Dawn J.; Diskin, Michael G.; Lynch, Ciaran O.; Giblin, Linda; Kenny, David A.; Magee, David A.; Meade, Kieran G.; Waters, Sinead M.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has been shown to be associated with fertility, growth, and development in cattle. The aim of this study was to (1) identify novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine IGF-1 gene and alongside previously identified SNPs (2) determine their association with traits of economic importance in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. Nine novel SNPs were identified across a panel of 22 beef and dairy cattle by sequence analysis of the 5′ promoter, intronic, and 3′ regulatory regions, encompassing ~5 kb of IGF-1. Genotyping and associations with daughter performance for milk production, fertility, survival, and measures of body size were undertaken on 848 Holstein-Friesian AI sires. Using multiple regression analysis nominal associations (P < 0.05) were identified between six SNPs (four novel and two previously identified) and milk composition, survival, body condition score, and body size. The C allele of AF017143 a previously published SNP (C-512T) in the promoter region of IGF-1 predicted to introduce binding sites for transcription factors HSF1 and ZNF217 was associated (P < 0.05) with increased cow carcass weight (i.e., an indicator of mature cow size). Novel SNPs were identified in the 3′ region of IGF-1 were associated (P < 0.05) with functional survival and chest width. The remaining four SNPs, all located within introns of IGF-1 were associated (P < 0.05) with milk protein yield, milk fat yield, milk fat concentration, somatic cell score, carcass conformation, and carcass fat. Results of this study further demonstrate the multifaceted influences of IGF-1 on milk production and growth related traits in cattle. PMID:22303302

  10. Cloning and gene expression of allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) provide new insights into injury and bacteria response of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka, 1867).

    PubMed

    Ji, Nanjing; Chang, Yaqing; Zhao, Chong; Pang, Zhengguo; He, Zhou

    2014-06-01

    Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is an interferon (IFN)-γ-inducible Ca(2+)-binding cytokine that associates with the immune defense and inflammatory response. In this study, we reported AIF-1 gene in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (AjAIF-1). The full-length cDNA of AjAIF-1 is 1541 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 477 bp encoding 158 amino acids. Two EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding motifs were found in the deduced AjAIF-1. AjAIF-1 was widely expressed in all tested tissues (body wall, intestine, respiratory tree, tube feet, coelomocytes and longitudinal muscle), with the highest expression in respiratory tree. After Vibrio splendidus challenge and physical injury, AjAIF-1 transcripts were significantly upregulated in coelomocytes. The mRNA expression level of AjAIF-1 in coelomocytes reached to the highest value at 4 h (3.38-folds vs. the PBS control, P < 0.05) post injection. After papilla injury, the mRNA level of AjAIF-1 in coelomocytes was upregulated, and its peak value was found at 4 h (3.88-folds vs. the control, P < 0.05). These results indicated that 1) AjAIF-1 sensitively responds to pathogen infection; 2) AjAIF-1 is involved in acute inflammatory response. Our findings gain general information about the role of AjAIF-1 in the innate immunity of A. japonicus. PMID:24704420

  11. Associations between genetic variants in the promoter region of the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) gene and blood serum IGF1 concentration in Hanwoo cattle.

    PubMed

    Chung, H Y; Choi, Y J; Park, H N; Davis, M E

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the associations between genetic variants in the promoter region of the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) gene and blood serum IGF1 concentration in Hanwoo cattle. Polymerase chain reaction primers were based on GenBank accession No. AF404761 and amplified approximately 533-bp segments. Newly identified sequences were submitted to GenBank (accession No. DQ267493). Sequence analysis revealed that genetic variants were located at a nucleotide position 323 for the nucleotide substitution C/A that was first reported in this study and positions 326-349 for a repeat motif (CA10-11). The allele frequencies of g.323C>A were 0.264 (C) and 0.736 (A) without significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Frequencies of the repeat motif CA(10) and CA(11) were 0.604 and 0.396, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that the genetic variation g.323C>A was significantly associated with blood serum IGF1 concentrations with significant additive genetic effects, whereas no associations were found for the repeat motif. IGF1 concentrations were positively (r = 0.453) and negatively (r = -0.445) correlated with weights in the growing stages (16-21 months) and late fattening stages (22-30 months), respectively. The results of the present study and future genotypic data for Hanwoo beef cattle based on the robust genetic variation of IGF1 will provide critical information for genetic improvement and will have a large impact on commercial markets. PMID:25966067

  12. Regulation of Molecular Chaperone Gene Transcription Involves the Serine Phosphorylation, 14-3-3ɛ Binding, and Cytoplasmic Sequestration of Heat Shock Factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, XiaoZhe; Grammatikakis, Nicholas; Siganou, Aliki; Calderwood, Stuart K.

    2003-01-01

    Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) regulates the transcription of molecular chaperone hsp genes. However, the cellular control mechanisms that regulate HSF1 activity are not well understood. In this study, we have demonstrated for the first time that human HSF1 binds to the essential cell signaling protein 14-3-3ɛ. Binding of HSF1 to 14-3-3ɛ occurs in cells in which extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) is activated and blockade of the ERK pathway by treatment with the specific ERK pathway inhibitor PD98059 in vivo strongly suppresses the binding. We previously showed that ERK1 phosphorylates HSF1 on serine 307 and leads to secondary phosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) on serine 303 within the regulatory domain and that these phosphorylation events repress HSF1. We show here that HSF1 binding to 14-3-3ɛ requires HSF1 phosphorylation on serines 303 and 307. Furthermore, the serine phosphorylation-dependent binding of HSF1 to 14-3-3ɛ results in the transcriptional repression of HSF1 and its sequestration in the cytoplasm. Leptomycin B, a specific inhibitor of nuclear export receptor CRM1, was found to reverse the cytoplasmic sequestration of HSF1 mediated by 14-3-3ɛ, suggesting that CRM1/14-3-3ɛ directed nuclear export plays a major role in repression of HSF1 by the ERK/GSK3/14-3-3ɛ pathway. Our experiments indicate a novel pathway for HSF1 regulation and suggest a mechanism for suppression of its activity during cellular proliferation. PMID:12917326

  13. Muscle-targeted hydrodynamic gene introduction of insulin-like growth factor-1 using polyplex nanomicelle to treat peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Kazuya; Itaka, Keiji; Baba, Miyuki; Uchida, Satoshi; Ishii, Takehiko; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2014-06-10

    The recovery of neurologic function after peripheral nerve injury often remains incomplete because of the prolonged reinnervation process, which leads to skeletal muscle atrophy and articular contracture from disuse over time. To rescue the skeletal muscle and promote functional recovery, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), a potent myogenic factor, was introduced into the muscle by hydrodynamic injection of IGF-1-expressing plasmid DNA using a biocompatible nonviral gene carrier, a polyplex nanomicelle. In a mouse model of sciatic nerve injury, the introduction of IGF-1 into the skeletal muscle of the paralyzed limb effectively alleviated a decrease in muscle weight compared with that in untreated control mice. Histologic analysis of the muscle revealed the IGF-1-expressing plasmid DNA (pDNA) to have a myogenic effect, inducing muscle hypertrophy with the upregulation of the myogenic regulatory factors, myogenin and MyoD. The evaluation of motor function by walking track analysis revealed that the group that received the hydrodynamic injection of IGF-1-expressing pDNA using the polyplex nanomicelle had significantly early recovery of motor function compared with groups receiving negative control pDNA and untreated controls. Early recovery of sensation in the distal area of sciatic nerve injury was also induced by the introduction of IGF-1-expressing pDNA, presumably because of the effect of secreted IGF-1 protein in the vicinity of the injured sciatic nerve exerting a synergistic effect with muscle hypertrophy, inducing a more favorable prognosis. This approach of introducing IGF-1 into skeletal muscle is promising for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury by promoting early motor function recovery. PMID:24657809

  14. Six mouse alpha-tubulin mRNAs encode five distinct isotypes: testis-specific expression of two sister genes.

    PubMed Central

    Villasante, A; Wang, D; Dobner, P; Dolph, P; Lewis, S A; Cowan, N J

    1986-01-01

    Five mouse alpha-tubulin isotypes are described, each distinguished by the presence of unique amino acid substitutions within the coding region. Most, though not all of these isotype-specific amino acids, are clustered at the carboxy terminus. One of the alpha-tubulin isotypes described is expressed exclusively in testis and is encoded by two closely related genes (M alpha 3 and M alpha 7) which have homologous 3' untranslated regions but which differ at multiple third codon positions and in their 5' untranslated regions. We show that a subfamily of alpha-tubulin genes encoding the same testis-specific isotype also exists in humans. Thus, we conclude that the duplication event leading to a pair of genes encoding a testis-specific alpha-tubulin isotype predated the mammalian radiation, and both members of the duplicated sequence have been maintained since species divergence. A second alpha-tubulin gene, M alpha 6, is expressed ubiquitously at a low level, whereas a third gene, M alpha 4, is unique in that it does not encode a carboxy-terminal tyrosine residue. This gene yields two transcripts: a 1.8-kilobase (kb) mRNA that is abundant in muscle and a 2.4-kb mRNA that is abundant in testis. Whereas the 1.8-kb mRNA encodes a distinct alpha-tubulin isotype, the 2.4-kb mRNA is defective in that the methionine residue required for translational initiation is missing. Patterns of developmental expression of the various alpha-tubulin isotypes are presented. Our data support the view that individual tubulin isotypes are capable of conferring functional specificity on different kinds of microtubules. Images PMID:3785200

  15. Comparative gene expression profiles induced by PPAR{gamma} and PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists in rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rogue, Alexandra; Renaud, Marie Pierre; Claude, Nancy; Guillouzo, Andre; Spire, Catherine

    2011-07-01

    Species-differential toxic effects have been described with PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} agonists between rodent and human liver. PPAR{alpha} agonists (fibrates) are potent hypocholesterolemic agents in humans while they induce peroxisome proliferation and tumors in rodent liver. By contrast, PPAR{gamma} agonists (glitazones) and even dual PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists (glitazars) have caused idiosyncratic hepatic and nonhepatic toxicities in human without evidence of any damage in rodent during preclinical studies. The mechanisms involved in such differences remain largely unknown. Several studies have identified the major target genes of PPAR{alpha} agonists in rodent liver while no comprehensive analysis has been performed on gene expression changes induced by PPAR{gamma} and dual PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists. Here, we investigated transcriptomes of rat hepatocytes after 24 h treatment with two PPAR{gamma} (troglitazone and rosiglitazone) and two PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} (muraglitazar and tesaglitazar) agonists. Although, hierarchical clustering revealed a gene expression profile characteristic of each PPAR agonist class, only a limited number of genes was specifically deregulated by glitazars. Functional analyses showed that many genes known as PPAR{alpha} targets were also modulated by both PPAR{gamma} and PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists and quantitative differences in gene expression profiles were observed between these two classes. Moreover, most major genes modulated in rat hepatocytes were also found to be deregulated in rat liver after tesaglitazar treatment. Taken altogether, these results support the conclusion that differential toxic effects of PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} agonists in rodent liver do not result from transcriptional deregulation of major PPAR target genes but rather from qualitative and/or quantitative differential responses of a small subset of genes.

  16. Mouse keratinocytes express c98, a novel gene homologous to bcl-2, that is stimulated by insulin-like growth factor 1 and prevents dexamethasone-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Su, Hung-Yi; Cheng, Winston T K; Chen, Shih-Chu; Lin, Chen-Tse; Lien, Yi-Yang; Liu, Hung-Jen; Gilmour, R Stewart

    2004-01-20

    Many studies have been undertaken to investigate the mechanisms of skin differentiation. In particular, growth factors and hormones are believed to play important roles in skin proliferation, differentiation and survival. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been identified as a survival factor in many tissues including the skin, but the molecular mechanism of IGF-1 in epidermal differentiation is not completely understood. Neonatal mouse skin is useful for studying changes in gene expression, as the mitotic activity of skin cells changes shortly after birth. Using RNA differential display (DD), a 357-nt message that is specifically expressed in the epidermal keratinocytes of IGF-1-injected newborn mice but not in controls, has been identified. Confirmation of expression of this gene by ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) showed that its mRNA expression in the epidermal keratinocytes is induced by IGF-1. Using RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of 5' cDNA ends (RLM-5'-RACE), we have successfully isolated a 3473-bp full-length gene, c98, that has 97% sequence homology to a bcl-2-like gene, bcl-w. The latter has been identified as a proto-oncogene in several murine myeloid cell lines. Amino acid sequence analysis of the c98 showed that it has 97% sequence identity to the bcl-w protein and possesses bcl-2 homology domains (BH) 1, 2 and 3. Immunoblotting data revealed similar increases of c98 protein expression to its mRNA expression in the keratinocytes of IGF-1-injected animals. Weak expression of other bcl-2 family member proteins, bax, bcl-2 and bcl-xL, were also found in the immunoblots. Additionally, IGF-1 was found to be able to protect epidermal keratinocytes from dexamethasone (DEX)-induced apoptosis, based on the findings that after the cells were treated with DEX, DNA laddering was present in the control mice but not in those injected with IGF-1. Further, using a photometric enzyme-linked immunoassay to quantitate keratinocyte death, we found that

  17. Detection of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin gene in lambs by loop mediated isothermal amplification

    PubMed Central

    Radhika, B.; Kumar, N. Vinod; Sreenivasulu, D.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was standardized for rapid detection of Clostridium perfringens. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 fecal samples were collected from enterotoxemia suspected lambs were used for screening of C. perfringens cpa gene by LAMP. The specificity of the LAMP amplified products was tested by digesting with restriction enzyme XmnI for alpha toxin gene. Results: Out of 120 samples screened 112 (93.3%) samples were positive by both LAMP and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of cpa gene which indicated the equal sensitivity of both the tests. The enzyme produced single cut in 162 base pair amplified product of alpha toxin gene at 81 base pair resulting in a single band in gel electrophoresis. Conclusion: Both LAMP and PCR for detection of cpa gene indicated the equal sensitivity of both the tests. Standardization of LAMP reaction for amplification of epsilon and beta toxin genes will help to identify the C. perfringens toxin types from the clinical samples. The test could be a suitable alternative to the PCR in detection of toxin types without the help of sophisticated machinery like thermal cycler. Considering its simplicity in operation and high sensitivity, there is the potential use of this technique in clinical diagnosis and surveillance of infectious diseases. PMID:27051186

  18. alpha. -Amylase of Clostridium thermosulfurogenes EM1: Nucleotide sequence of the gene, processing of the enzyme, and comparison to other. alpha. -amylases

    SciTech Connect

    Bahl, H.; Burchhardt, G.; Spreinat, A.; Haeckel, K.; Wienecke, A.; Antranikian, G.; Schmidt, B. )

    1991-05-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the {alpha}-amylase gene (amyA) from Clostridium thermosulfurogenes EM1 cloned in Escherichia coli was determined. The reading frame of the gene consisted of 2,121 bp. Comparison of the DNA sequence data with the amino acid sequence of the N terminus of the purified secreted protein of C. thermosulfurogenes Em1 suggested that the {alpha}-amylase is translated form mRNA as a secretory precursor with a signal peptide of 27 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mature {alpha}-amylase contained 679 residues, resulting in a protein with a molecular mass of 75,112 Da. In E. coli the enzyme was transported to the periplasmic space and the signal peptide was cleaved at exactly the same site between two alanine residues. Comparison of the amino acid sequence of the C. thermosulfurogenes EM1 {alpha}-amylase with those from other bacterial and eukaryotic {alpha}-amylases showed several homologous regions, probably in the enzymatically functioning regions. The tentative Ca{sup 2+}-binding site (consensus region I) of this Ca{sub 2+}-independent enzyme showed only limited homology. The deduced amino acid sequence of a second obviously truncated open reading frame showed significant homology to the malG gene product of E. coli. Comparison of the {alpha}-amylase gene region of C. thermosulfurogenes EM1 (DSM3896) with the {beta}-amylase gene region of C. thermosulfurogenes (ATCC 33743) indicated that both genes have been exchanged with each other at identical sites in the chromosomes of these strains.

  19. PPAR{alpha} gene expression is up-regulated by LXR and PXR activators in the small intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Jun; Satoh, Shin-ichi; Kita, Mariko; Nakahara, Mayuko; Hachimura, Satoshi; Miyata, Masaaki; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko; Sato, Ryuichiro

    2008-07-11

    LXR, PXR, and PPAR{alpha} are members of a nuclear receptor family which regulate the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. Here, we show the administration of T0901317 stimulates PPAR{alpha} gene expression in the small intestine but not in the liver of both normal and FXR-null mice. The administration of LXR specific ligand GW3965, or PXR specific ligand PCN has the same effect, indicating that ligand-dependent activation of LXR and PXR, but not FXR, is responsible for the increased gene expression of PPAR{alpha} in the mouse small intestine.

  20. Organization of the V gene segments in mouse T-cell antigen receptor [alpha]/[delta] locus

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, K.; Klotz, J.L.; Kiser, G.; Bristol, G.; Hays, E.; Lai, E.; Gese, E.; Kronenberg, M.; Hood, L. )

    1994-04-01

    The mouse T-cell receptor (TCR) [alpha]/[delta] was mapped using 17 V[alpha] and 4 V[delta] subfamily-specific probes. Four complementary methods were used: (1) an estimate of the V gene repertoire by Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA with subfamily-specific probes; (2) an analysis of V gene segments deleted by TCR gene rearrangements from a panel of T-cell tumors and hybridomas; (3) an analysis of overlapping clusters of cosmid clones; and (4) an analysis of large DNA fragments separated by field-inversion gel electrophoresis. The [alpha]/[delta] locus spans about 1 Mb. The distance between the 3[prime]-most V gene segments (V[delta]1) and the [delta] constant gene (C[delta]) is no more than 150 kb. Sixty-six V gene segments have been mapped physically on cosmids. The members of individual V[alpha] gene segments subfamilies are dispersed throughout the locus. In contrast, the V[delta] gene segments V[delta]1 to 5 are clustered at the 3[prime] end of the V gene segments cluster. At least two DNA segment duplications, 45 to 80 kb in length, are present in the locus. These data provide information on the evolution of the [alpha]/[delta] locus and on organizational features that might influence the expression of specific V gene segments in [gamma][delta] cells. 35 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Cloning and sequencing of the gene for alpha antigen from Mycobacterium avium and mapping of B-cell epitopes.

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, N; Matsuo, K; Yamaguchi, R; Yamazaki, A; Tasaka, H; Yamada, T

    1993-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of alpha antigen secreted from Mycobacterium avium (A-alpha) was determined. The gene encodes 330 amino acids, including 40 amino acids for the signal peptide, followed by 290 amino acids for the mature protein with a molecular mass of 30,811 Da. This is the first sequence of A-alpha. Comparisons between A-alpha and alpha antigens of Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, and Mycobacterium kansasii showed highly homologous regions which suggested a conserved functional domain and two less-homologous regions. Serological analysis of recombinant A-alpha, expressed by a series of deletion constructs, indicated the possibility that A-alpha carries at least six B-cell epitopes. The three antigenic determinants were common to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. kansasii, and M. avium. The results also suggested the possibility that there are three species-specific epitopes. Images PMID:7681039

  2. Dexamethasone impairs hypoxia-inducible factor-1 function

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, A.E.; Huck, G.; Stiehl, D.P.; Jelkmann, W.; Hellwig-Buergel, T.

    2008-07-25

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimeric transcription-factor composed of {alpha}- and {beta}-subunits. HIF-1 is not only necessary for the cellular adaptation to hypoxia, but it is also involved in inflammatory processes and wound healing. Glucocorticoids (GC) are therapeutically used to suppress inflammatory responses. Herein, we investigated whether GC modulate HIF-1 function using GC receptor (GR) possessing (HepG2) and GR deficient (Hep3B) human hepatoma cell cultures as model systems. Dexamethasone (DEX) treatment increased HIF-1{alpha} levels in the cytosol of HepG2 cells, while nuclear HIF-1{alpha} levels and HIF-1 DNA-binding was reduced. In addition, DEX dose-dependently lowered the hypoxia-induced luciferase activity in a reporter gene system. DEX suppressed the hypoxic stimulation of the expression of the HIF-1 target gene VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) in HepG2 cultures. DEX did not reduce hypoxically induced luciferase activity in HRB5 cells, a Hep3B derivative lacking GR. Transient expression of the GR in HRB5 cells restored the susceptibility to DEX. Our study discloses the inhibitory action of GC on HIF-1 dependent gene expression, which may be important with respect to the impaired wound healing in DEX-treated patients.

  3. Genomic remnants of alpha-globin genes in the hemoglobinless antarctic icefishes.

    PubMed Central

    Cocca, E; Ratnayake-Lecamwasam, M; Parker, S K; Camardella, L; Ciaramella, M; di Prisco, G; Detrich, H W

    1995-01-01

    Alone among piscine taxa, the antarctic icefishes (family Channichthyidae, suborder Notothenioidei) have evolved compensatory adaptations that maintain normal metabolic functions in the absence of erythrocytes and the respiratory oxygen transporter hemoglobin. Although the uniquely "colorless" or "white" condition of the blood of icefishes has been recognized since the early 20th century, the status of globin genes in the icefish genomes has, surprisingly, remained unexplored. Using alpha- and beta-globin cDNAs from the antarctic rockcod Notothenia coriiceps (family Nototheniidae, suborder Notothenioidei), we have probed the genomes of three white-blooded icefishes and four red-blooded notothenioid relatives (three antarctic, one temperate) for globin-related DNA sequences. We detect specific, high-stringency hybridization of the alpha-globin probe to genomic DNAs of both white- and red-blooded species, whereas the beta-globin cDNA hybridizes only to the genomes of the red-blooded fishes. Our results suggest that icefishes retain inactive genomic remnants of alpha-globin genes but have lost, either through deletion or through rapid mutation, the gene that encodes beta-globin. We propose that the hemoglobinless phenotype of extant icefishes is the result of deletion of the single adult beta-globin locus prior to the diversification of the clade. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7892183

  4. Smartamine M and MetaSmart supplementation during the peripartal period alter hepatic expression of gene networks in 1-carbon metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, and the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor 1 axis pathways.

    PubMed

    Osorio, J S; Ji, P; Drackley, J K; Luchini, D; Loor, J J

    2014-12-01

    Peripartal cows likely require greater amounts of Met not only at the tissue and cell level for methylation reactions but also for milk protein synthesis after calving. Thirty-nine Holstein cows were fed throughout the peripartal period (-21 d to 30 d in milk) a basal control (CON) diet (n=14) with no Met supplementation, CON plus MetaSmart (MS; Adisseo Inc., Antony, France; n=12), or CON plus Smartamine M (SM; Adisseo Inc.; n=13). The Met supplements were adjusted daily and top-dressed over the total mixed ration at a rate of 0.19 or 0.07% (dry matter) of feed for MS or SM. Liver tissue was collected on -10, 7, and 21 d for transcriptome profiling of genes associated with Met and glutathione metabolism as well as components of the inflammation, oxidative stress, growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis, and DNA methylation pathways. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) with the preplanned contrasts CON versus SM + MS and SM versus MS. The S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) gene was the most abundant among all genes evaluated, with overall greater expression in Met-supplemented cows than CON, and in SM than MS. Expression of Met adenosyltransferase 1A (MAT1A) was greater in Met-supplemented cows than CON by 21 d postpartum. A greater overall expression of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR) occurred in Met-supplemented cows than CON. In contrast, the expression of glutathione synthase (GSS); glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit (GCLC); and superoxide dismutase 1, cytosolic (SOD1) was lower in Met-supplemented cows than CON. A greater overall expression of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 (NFKB1) and greater upregulation of haptoglobin (HP) on d 7 occurred in Met-supplemented cows than CON. Expression of DNA cytosine-5-methyltransferase 3 alpha (DNMT3A) was greater but expression of DNMT1 was lower in Met-supplemented cows than CON. The response

  5. Molecular nature of alpha-globin genes in the Saudi population

    PubMed Central

    Borgio, J. Francis

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-thalassemia (α-thal) is a disorder caused by the deletion of single or double α-globin genes, and/or point mutations in the α-globin genes. There are 2 common types of α-globin genes; HBA2 and HBA1. Recently, it has been discovered that the HBA2 gene is replaced by a unique HBA12 gene convert in 5.7% of the Saudi population. The α-globin genes have been emerging as a molecular target for the treatment of β-thalassemia (β-thal). Hence, it is essential to understand the molecular nature of α-globin genes to treat the most prevalent hemoglobin disorders, such as sickle cell disease, α-thal, and β-thal prevalent in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Thirty-two different α-globin genotypes have been observed in the Saudi population. This review outlines the classification of the α-globin genes on the basis of their molecular nature and complex combinations of α-globin genes, and their variants predominant in Saudis. PMID:26593158

  6. Nucleotide sequence and expression of alpha-glucosidase-encoding gene (agdA) from Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Minetoki, T; Gomi, K; Kitamoto, K; Kumagai, C; Tamura, G

    1995-08-01

    We have isolated an alpha-glucosidase(AGL)-encoding gene (agdA) from Aspergillus oryzae by heterologous hybridization using the corresponding Aspergillus niger gene as a probe. Southern hybridization analysis showed that the agdA gene is on a 5.0-kb ScaI fragment and there is a single copy in the A. oryzae chromosome. Comparison with the A. niger agdA gene indicated that the agdA gene contains three putative introns from 52 to 59 nucleotides long, and that it encodes 985 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence of A. oryzae AGL is 78% homologous with the A. niger AGL. The high degree of homology with the amino acid sequence bordering the putative catalytic residue of a number of AGL enzymes, and this enzyme suggests that Asp492 is a catalytic residue of A. oryzae AGL. The cloned gene was functional. Transformants of A. oryzae containing multiple copies of the cloned agdA gene showed a 6-16 fold increase in AGL activity. Like the Taka-amylase A and glucoamylase genes of A. oryzae, expression of the agdA gene was induced when maltose was provided as a carbon source, but expression was not induced by glucose. This result suggested that cis-element(s) involved in maltose induction may be also present in the agdA promoter region. PMID:7549103

  7. Effect of TNF{alpha} on activities of different promoters of human apolipoprotein A-I gene

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, Sergey V.; Mogilenko, Denis A.; Shavva, Vladimir S.; Dizhe, Ella B.; Ignatovich, Irina A.; Perevozchikov, Andrej P.

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} TNF{alpha} stimulates the distal alternative promoter of human apoA-I gene. {yields} TNF{alpha} acts by weakening of promoter competition within apoA-I gene (promoter switching). {yields} MEK1/2 and nuclear receptors PPAR{alpha} and LXRs take part in apoA-I promoter switching. -- Abstract: Human apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is a major structural and functional protein component of high-density lipoproteins. The expression of the apolipoprotein A-I gene (apoA-I) in hepatocytes is repressed by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1{beta} and TNF{alpha}. Recently, two novel additional (alternative) promoters for human apoA-I gene have been identified. Nothing is known about the role of alternative promoters in TNF{alpha}-mediated downregulation of apoA-I gene. In this article we report for the first time about the different effects of TNF{alpha} on two alternative promoters of human apoA-I gene. Stimulation of HepG2 cells by TNF{alpha} leads to activation of the distal alternative apoA-I promoter and downregulation of the proximal alternative and the canonical apoA-I promoters. This effect is mediated by weakening of the promoter competition within human apoA-I 5'-regulatory region (apoA-I promoter switching) in the cells treated by TNF{alpha}. The MEK1/2-ERK1/2 cascade and nuclear receptors PPAR{alpha} and LXRs are important for TNF{alpha}-mediated apoA-I promoter switching.

  8. Modular organization and development activity of an Arabidopsis thaliana EF-1 alpha gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Curie, C; Axelos, M; Bardet, C; Atanassova, R; Chaubet, N; Lescure, B

    1993-04-01

    The activity of the Arabidopsis thalana A1 EF-1 alpha gene promoter was analyzed in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. The 5' upstream sequence of the A1 gene and several promoter deletions were fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) coding region. Promoter activity was monitored by quantitative and histochemical assays of GUS activity. The results show that the A1 promoter exhibits a modular organization. Sequences both upstream and downstream relative to the transcription initiation site are involved in quantitative and tissue-specific expression during vegetative growth. One upstream element may be involved in the activation of expression in meristematic tissues; the downstream region, corresponding to an intron within the 5' non-coding region (5'IVS), is important for expression in roots; both upstream and downstream sequences are required for expression in leaves, suggesting combinatorial properties of EF-1 alpha cis-regulatory elements. This notion of specific combinatorial regulation is reinforced by the results of transient expression experiments in transfected Arabidopsis protoplasts. The deletion of the 5'IVS has much more effect on expression when the promoter activity is under the control of A1 EF-1 alpha upstream sequences than when these upstream sequences were replaced by the 35S enhancer. Similarly, a synthetic oligonucleotide corresponding to an A1 EF-1 alpha upstream cis-acting element (the TEF1 box), is able to restore partially the original activity when fused to a TEF1-less EF1-alpha promoter but has no significant effect when fused to an enhancer-less 35S promoter. PMID:8492811

  9. Interindividual concordance of methylation profiles in human genes for tumor necrosis factors alpha and beta.

    PubMed Central

    Kochanek, S; Toth, M; Dehmel, A; Renz, D; Doerfler, W

    1990-01-01

    The DNA in mammalian genomes is characterized by complex patterns of DNA methylation that reflect the states of all genetic activities of that genome. The modified nucleotide 5-methyldeoxycytidine (5mdC) can affect the interactions of specific proteins with DNA sequence motifs. The most extensively studied effect of sequence-specific methylations is that of the long-term silencing of eukaryotic (mammalian) promoters. We have initiated studies on the methylation status of parts of the human genome to view patterns of DNA methylation as indicators for genetic activities. In this report, analyses using both restriction enzyme--Southern blotting and the very precise genomic sequencing technique have been done. The genes for tumor necrosis factors (TNF) alpha and beta--in particular, their 5'-upstream and promoter regions--have been investigated in DNA isolated from human lymphocytes, granulocytes, and sperm. The results are characterized by a remarkable interindividual concordance of DNA methylation in specific human cell types. The patterns are identical in the DNA from one cell type for different individuals even of different genetic origins but different in the DNA from different cell types. As an example, in the DNA from human granulocytes of 15 different individuals (ages 20-48 yr, both sexes), 5mdC residues have been localized by the genomic sequencing technique in three identical sequence positions in the 5'-upstream region and in one downstream position of the gene encoding TNF-alpha. The promoter of this gene is free of 5mdC, and TNF-alpha is expressed in human granulocytes. The TNF-beta promoter is methylated in granulocytes from 9 different individuals, and TNF-beta is not expressed. In human lymphocytes, the main source of TNF-beta, the TNF-beta promoter is free of 5mdC residues. All 5'-CG-3' sites studied in the TNF-alpha and -beta genes are methylated in DNA from human sperm. In human cell lines HL-60, Jurkat, and RPMI 1788, the extent of DNA methylation

  10. Tumor necrosis factor alpha negatively regulates hepatitis B virus gene expression in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Gilles, P N; Fey, G; Chisari, F V

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that several inflammatory cytokines can modulate hepatocellular gene expression in a complex physiological process known as the hepatic acute-phase response. Since hepatitis B virus (HBV) characteristically induces a vigorous lymphomononuclear inflammatory response in the liver during acute and chronic hepatitis, it is possible that hepatocellular HBV gene expression may also be modulated by one or more of the cytokines produced by these cells. Using bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a surrogate inducer of inflammatory cytokines in vivo, we have tested this hypothesis in a transgenic mouse model system. In experiments with two independent transgenic mouse lineages that express the HBV envelope region under the control of either HBV or cellular promoters, we observed a 50 to 80% reduction in the hepatic steady-state content of a 2.1-kb HBV mRNA following administration of a single intraperitoneal dose of LPS. The regulatory influence of several inflammatory cytokines known to be induced by LPS was also examined in this system. The negative regulatory effect of LPS was consistently reproduced by the administration of a single nontoxic dose of tumor necrosis factor alpha, and it was occasionally observed following the administration of high doses of alpha interferon and interleukin-6, while no effect was detectable in response to high-dose interleukin-1 alpha or to gamma interferon. These observations suggest that tumor necrosis factor alpha and perhaps other cytokines may activate a heretofore unsuspected intracellular pathway that negatively regulates HBV gene expression. The intracellular mechanism(s) responsible for this effect and its pathophysiologic relevance remain to be elucidated. Images PMID:1583737

  11. Identification of four soybean reference genes for gene expression normalization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene expression analysis requires the use of reference genes stably expressed independently of specific tissues or environmental conditions. Housekeeping genes (e.g., actin, tubulin, ribosomal, polyubiquitin and elongation factor 1-alpha) are commonly used as reference genes with the assumption tha...

  12. Identification of gene-based responses in human blood cells exposed to alpha particle radiation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The threat of a terrorist-precipitated nuclear event places humans at danger for radiological exposures. Isotopes which emit alpha (α)-particle radiation pose the highest risk. Currently, gene expression signatures are being developed for radiation biodosimetry and triage with respect to ionizing photon radiation. This study was designed to determine if similar gene expression profiles are obtained after exposures involving α-particles. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were used to identify sensitive and robust gene-based biomarkers of α-particle radiation exposure. Cells were isolated from healthy individuals and were irradiated at doses ranging from 0-1.5 Gy. Microarray technology was employed to identify transcripts that were differentially expressed relative to unirradiated cells 24 hours post-exposure. Statistical analysis identified modulated genes at each of the individual doses. Results Twenty-nine genes were common to all doses with expression levels ranging from 2-10 fold relative to control treatment group. This subset of genes was further assessed in independent complete white blood cell (WBC) populations exposed to either α-particles or X-rays using quantitative real-time PCR. This 29 gene panel was responsive in the α-particle exposed WBCs and was shown to exhibit differential fold-changes compared to X-irradiated cells, though no α-particle specific transcripts were identified. Conclusion Current gene panels for photon radiation may also be applicable for use in α-particle radiation biodosimetry. PMID:25017500

  13. Genes encoding tumor necrosis factor alpha and granzyme A are expressed during development of autoimmune diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Held, W; MacDonald, H R; Weissman, I L; Hess, M W; Mueller, C

    1990-01-01

    Progressive destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in nonobese diabetic mice is observed after infiltration of the pancreas with lymphocytes [Makino, S., Kunimoto, K., Muraoka, Y., Mizushima, Y., Katagiri, K. & Tochino, Y. (1980) Exp. Anim. (Tokyo) 29, 1-13]. We show that the genes for tumor necrosis factor alpha and granzyme A, a serine protease associated with cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic cells, are expressed during the development of spontaneous diabetes mellitus in the nonobese diabetic mouse. Granzyme A-positive cells are found both in and surrounding the islets, implying induction prior to islet infiltration. Tumor necrosis factor alpha expression is exclusively observed in the intra-islet infiltrate, predominantly in lymphocytes adjacent to insulin-producing beta cells, the targets of the autoimmune destruction, implying that tumor necrosis factor alpha expression is induced locally--i.e., in the islet. A considerable portion of cells expressing tumor necrosis factor alpha appear to be CD4+ T cells. This T-cell subset was previously shown to be necessary for development of the disease. Thus, these findings may be important for understanding the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes mellitus and potentially also for that of other T-cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. Images PMID:2179951

  14. Matrix metalloproteinase-12 gene regulation by a PPAR alpha agonist in human monocyte-derived macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Souissi, Imen Jguirim; Billiet, Ludivine; Cuaz-Perolin, Clarisse; Rouis, Mustapha

    2008-11-01

    MMP-12, a macrophage-specific matrix metalloproteinase with large substrate specificity, has been reported to be highly expressed in mice, rabbits and human atherosclerotic lesions. Increased MMP-12 from inflammatory macrophages is associated with several degenerative diseases such as atherosclerosis. In this manuscript, we show that IL-1{beta}, a proinflammatory cytokine found in atherosclerotic plaques, increases both mRNA and protein levels of MMP-12 in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM). Since peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), such as PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}, are expressed in macrophages and because PPAR activation exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on vascular cells, we have investigated the effect of PPAR{alpha} and {gamma} isoforms on MMP-12 regulation in HMDM. Our results show that MMP-12 expression (mRNA and protein) is down regulated in IL-1{beta}-treated macrophages only in the presence of a specific PPAR{alpha} agonist, GW647, in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, this inhibitory effect was abolished in IL-1{beta}-stimulated peritoneal macrophages isolated from PPAR{alpha}{sup -/-} mice and treated with the PPAR{alpha} agonist, GW647. Moreover, reporter gene transfection experiments using different MMP-12 promoter constructs showed a reduction of the promoter activities by {approx} 50% in IL-1{beta}-stimulated PPAR{alpha}-pre-treated cells. However, MMP-12 promoter analysis did not reveal the presence of a PPRE response element. The IL-1{beta} effect is known to be mediated through the AP-1 binding site. Mutation of the AP-1 site, located at - 81 in the MMP-12 promoter region relative to the transcription start site, followed by transfection analysis, gel shift and ChIP experiments revealed that the inhibitory effect was the consequence of the protein-protein interaction between GW 647-activated PPAR{alpha} and c-Fos or c-Jun transcription factors, leading to inhibition of their binding to the AP-1 motif. These studies

  15. [Association of TNF-alpha and IL-13 genes polymorphisms with bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Liang, Wenhua; Zhou, Zhaoshan; Ji, Zhongqiang; Wang, Yanqing; Xue, Weilin; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the association of polymorphisms of TNF-alpha gene (rs1799724, rs1800630, rs1799964 and rs769178) and IL-13 gene (rs2158177 and rs1295687) with susceptibility to asthma among ethnic Chinese in Qingdao region. METHODS For 400 asthma patients and 200 healthy subjects, above polymorphisms were detected with a SNaPshot method. RESULTS For rs2158177, the frequency of genotype of GG in the asthma group was significantly lower than the control group (2.8% vs. 5%, OR = 0.31, 95%CI: 0.12-0.82, P = 0.021). No significant difference was detected in the genotypic frequencies for the remaining 5 polymorphisms between the two groups (All P > 0.05). CONCLUSION The study has indicated that rs2158177 polymorphism of the IL-13 gene is associated with asthma in ethnic Han Chinese from Qingdao. No association has been found between polymorphisms of TNF-alpha gene with susceptibility to asthma. PMID:26418997

  16. Association of ER-alpha gene polymorphism with metabolic phenotypes in Chinese Hans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Jiang, Xiao-yan; Xu, Li; Li, Xia; Cao, Fei-fei; Li, Lei; Lu, Ming; Jin, Li; Wang, Xiao-feng

    2009-08-01

    Recently, two polymorphisms (rs1884052 and rs3778099) of estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha) gene were identified as being associated with primary quantitative bone mineral density (BMD) in a genome-wide association (GWA) study in Framingham cohorts. In this study we aimed at investigating the association of rs1884052 and rs3778099, and another polymorphism (rs2234693) located at intron 1 of the ER-alpha gene with BMD, body mass index (BMI), glucose, triglyceride, and total cholesterol (CHO) levels in Chinese Hans. We recruited 425 consecutive adult volunteers who had a physical examination in the Jinan Maternity and Child Care Hospital. We did not observe significant association of rs1884052 and rs3778099 with BMD, BMI, glucose, triglyceride, and total cholesterol (CHO) levels. For rs2234693, increased levels of BMD for hip, spine or whole-body regions were consistently observed in TT/TC genotype carriers than in CC genotype carriers, although the board line significance diminished after adjusting for age and gender. However, significant association of rs2234693 with glucose and CHO levels were observed in our sample. Subjects with TC/CC genotypes were associated with an increased level of glucose (p = 0.013) and CHO (p = 0.032) levels than subjects with TT genotypes. In conclusion, we did not confirm the association of rs1884052 and rs3778099 with BMD originally discovered in a GWA study; however, we made novel discoveries that rs2234693 was associated with glucose and CHO levels in Chinese Hans. PMID:19578917

  17. Genome analysis of DNA repair genes in the alpha proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus

    PubMed Central

    Martins-Pinheiro, Marinalva; Marques, Regina CP; Menck, Carlos FM

    2007-01-01

    Background The integrity of DNA molecules is fundamental for maintaining life. The DNA repair proteins protect organisms against genetic damage, by removal of DNA lesions or helping to tolerate them. DNA repair genes are best known from the gamma-proteobacterium Escherichia coli, which is the most understood bacterial model. However, genome sequencing raises questions regarding uniformity and ubiquity of these DNA repair genes and pathways, reinforcing the need for identifying genes and proteins, which may respond to DNA damage in other bacteria. Results In this study, we employed a bioinformatic approach, to analyse and describe the open reading frames potentially related to DNA repair from the genome of the alpha-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus. This was performed by comparison with known DNA repair related genes found in public databases. As expected, although C. crescentus and E. coli bacteria belong to separate phylogenetic groups, many of their DNA repair genes are very similar. However, some important DNA repair genes are absent in the C. crescentus genome and other interesting functionally related gene duplications are present, which do not occur in E. coli. These include DNA ligases, exonuclease III (xthA), endonuclease III (nth), O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (ada gene), photolyase-like genes, and uracil-DNA-glycosylases. On the other hand, the genes imuA and imuB, which are involved in DNA damage induced mutagenesis, have recently been described in C. crescentus, but are absent in E. coli. Particularly interesting are the potential atypical phylogeny of one of the photolyase genes in alpha-proteobacteria, indicating an origin by horizontal transfer, and the duplication of the Ada orthologs, which have diverse structural configurations, including one that is still unique for C. crescentus. Conclusion The absence and the presence of certain genes are discussed and predictions are made considering the particular aspects of the C. crescentus

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of a Candida tsukubaensis alpha-glucosidase gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kinsella, B T; Larkin, A; Bolton, M; Cantwell, B A

    1991-07-01

    The molecular cloning of an alpha-glucosidase gene isolated from a Candida tsukubaensis (CBS 6389) genomic library in Saccharomyces cervisiae is reported. The cloned gene is contained within a 6.2 kb Sau3A DNA fragment and directs the synthesis and secretion of an amylolytic enzyme into the extracellular medium of the recombinant host, S. cerevisiae. The cloned enzyme was found to have an unusually broad substrate specificity and is capable of hydrolysing alpha-1,2, alpha-1,3, alpha-1,4 and alpha-1,6 linked, as well as aryl and alkyl, D-glucosides. On the basis of its substrate specificity profile, the cloned enzyme was classified as an alpha-glucosidase (E.C. 3.2.1.20). It has a pH optimum in the range 4.2-4.6, a temperature optimum of 58 degrees C and is readily inactivated at pasteurization temperature (60 degrees C). Southern blot analysis failed to reveal any homology between the cloned gene and genomic DNA isolated from other well characterized amylolytic yeasts. A rapid plate-assay, based on the utilization of a chromogenic substrate X-alpha-D-glucoside to detect the expression of the cloned alpha-glucosidase in S. cerevisiae transformants, was developed. PMID:1934116

  19. High tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected pregnant mice and increased TNF-alpha gene transcription in their offspring.

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, M T; Marques de Araujo, S; Lucas, R; Deman, J; Truyens, C; Defresne, M P; de Baetselier, P; Carlier, Y

    1995-01-01

    Since tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is known to be involved in the feto-maternal relationship, this cytokine was studied in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected pregnant BALB/c mice and their fetuses and offspring. Pregnant chronically infected mice displayed significantly higher levels of circulating TNF-alpha than animals either only infected or only pregnant. TNF-alpha was undetectable in sera of uninfected and nonpregnant mice as well as in breast milk obtained from infected and uninfected animals. Fetuses from infected mice exhibited significantly more cells containing TNF-alpha mRNA in their thymus than fetuses from uninfected mothers. When infected 2 months after birth, offspring born to infected and uninfected mothers displayed similar amounts of circulating TNF-alpha during chronic infection, whereas this cytokine was only weakly detectable during the acute phase of the disease. An intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide during acute infection strongly increased the production of TNF-alpha in offspring born to infected mothers to levels higher than those in progeny from uninfected mice. These results suggest that TNF-alpha is an important cytokine in the feto-maternal relationship during T. cruzi infection and that fetuses and offspring of infected mothers are primed to produce elevated levels of TNF-alpha. PMID:7822027

  20. Emergence of new alleles of the MSP-3alpha gene in Plasmodium vivax isolates from Korea.

    PubMed

    Nam, Deok Hwa; Oh, Jun Seo; Nam, Myoung Hyun; Park, Hae Chul; Lim, Chae Seung; Lee, Won Ja; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Klein, Terry A; Ayala, Francisco J

    2010-04-01

    Nucleotide sequence analysis of the Plasmodium vivax PvMSP-3alpha gene was conducted on blood from 143 malaria patients admitted to Korea University Medical Center from 1996 to 2007 in the Republic of Korea (ROK). From 1996 to 2002, the PvMSP-3alpha alleles were of two types, SKOR-67 (2.53 kb) and SKOR-69 (1.78 kb), which differed in length and amino acid sequence. Two new variants with similar size to SKOR-67 were first observed in 2002 and in 2006-2007 accounted for nearly 50% (25/51) of the sampled isolates. The new variants had the same amino acid sequence as SKOR-69 in the N-terminal region, but in Blocks I and II and in the C-terminal region, they were similar to previously reported isolates from Thailand, Papua New Guinea, India, Brazil, and Ecuador strains. PMID:20348492

  1. Expression of a bacterial alpha-amylase gene in transgenic rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoli; Fang, Jun; Wang, Wei; Guo, Jianli; Chen, Pinnan; Cheng, Jiaan; Shen, Zhicheng

    2008-08-01

    An alpha-amylase gene from Bacillus stearothermophilus under the control of the promoter of a major rice-seed storage protein was introduced into rice. The transgenic line with the highest alpha-amylase activity reached about 15,000 U/g of seeds (one unit is defined as the amount of enzyme that produces 1 mumol of reducing sugar in 1 min at 70 degrees C). The enzyme produced in the seeds had an optimum pH of 5.0-5.5 and optimum temperature of 60-70 degrees C. Without extraction or purification, the power of transgenic rice seeds was able to liquify 100 times its weight of corn powder in 2 h. Thus, the transgenic rice could be used for industrial starch liquefaction. PMID:17926139

  2. The alpha/beta fold family of proteins database and the cholinesterase gene server ESTHER.

    PubMed Central

    Cousin, X; Hotelier, T; Giles, K; Lievin, P; Toutant, J P; Chatonnet, A

    1997-01-01

    ESTHER (for esterases, alpha/betahydrolase enzyme and relatives) is a database of sequences phylogenetically related to cholinesterases. These sequences define a homogeneous group of enzymes (carboxylesterases, lipases and hormone-sensitive lipases) sharing a similar structure of a central beta-sheet surrounded by alpha-helices. Among these proteins a wide range of functions can be found (hydrolases, adhesion molecules, hormone precursors). The purpose of ESTHER is to help comparison of structures and functions of members of the family. Since the last release, new features have been added to the server. A BLAST comparison tool allows sequence homology searches within the database sequences. New sections are available: kinetics and inhibitors of cholinesterases, fasciculin-acetylcholinesterase interaction and a gene structure review. The mutation analysis compilation has been improved with three-dimensional images. A mailing list has been created. PMID:9016525

  3. Three alpha-amylase genes of Aspergillus oryzae exhibit identical intron-exon organization.

    PubMed

    Wirsel, S; Lachmund, A; Wildhardt, G; Ruttkowski, E

    1989-01-01

    We have cloned three genes (amy1, amy2 and amy3) encoding alpha-amylase in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae. The established overall sequences have a very high degree of homology, showing divergences mainly in the 3'-untranslated regions. The positions and the sequences of the eight introns were found to be absolutely identical in the three genes. The sequence analysis of the 5'-regions revealed presumptive TATA, CAAT and GC boxes. Primer extension analysis was performed to determine the transcription start. We were able to detect mRNAs from amy1 and amy3 but not from amy2 with gene-specific oligonucleotide probes complementary to the 3'-noncoding regions. PMID:2785629

  4. The Drosophila melanogaster importin alpha3 locus encodes an essential gene required for the development of both larval and adult tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Mason, D Adam; Máthé, Endre; Fleming, Robert J; Goldfarb, David S

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear transport of classical nuclear localization signal (cNLS)-containing proteins is mediated by the cNLS receptor importin alpha. The conventional importin alpha gene family in metazoan animals is composed of three clades that are conserved between flies and mammals and are referred to here as alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3. In contrast, plants and fungi contain only alpha1 genes. In this study we report that Drosophila importin alpha3 is required for the development of both larval and adult tissues. Importin alpha3 mutant flies die around the transition from first to second instar larvae, and homozygous importin alpha3 mutant eyes are defective. The transition to second instar larvae was rescued with importin alpha1, alpha2, or alpha3 transgenes, indicating that Importin alpha3 is normally required at this stage for an activity shared by all three importin alpha's. In contrast, an alpha3-specific biochemical activity(s) of Importin alpha3 is probably required for development to adults and photoreceptor cell development, since only an importin alpha3 transgene rescued these processes. These results are consistent with the view that the importin alpha's have both overlapping and distinct functions and that their role in animal development involves the spatial and temporal control of their expression. PMID:14704178

  5. Modulation of ozone-sensitive genes in alpha-tocopherol transfer protein null mice

    PubMed Central

    Vasu, Vihas T.; Oommen, Saji; Lim, Yunsook; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Hobson, Brad; Eiserich, Jason P.; Leonard, Scott W.; Traber, Maret G.; Cross, Carroll E.; Gohil, Kishorchandra

    2009-01-01

    Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (ATTP) null mice (ATTP−/−) have a systemic alpha-tocopherol (AT) deficiency, with their lung AT levels being < 10% of those in AT-replete ATTP+/+ mice when fed a standard rodent chow diet. ATTP+/+ and ATTP−/− mice (4 wk old male mice, n = 16 per group) were fed a standard diet (35 IU AT/kg diet) for 8–12 wk, exposed 6 h/day for 3 days to either to O3 (0.5 ppm) or filtered air, then sacrificed. No significant differences in plasma or lung AT concentrations were observed in response to this level of O3 exposure. Lung genomic responses of the lungs to O3 were determined using Affymetrix 430A 2.0 arrays containing over 22,600 probe sets representing 14,000 well-characterized mouse genes. As compared with filtered air exposure, O3 exposure resulted in 99 genes being differentially expressed in ATTP−/− mice, as compared to 52 differentially expressed genes in ATTP+/+ mice. The data revealed an O3-induced upregulation of genes related to cell proliferation/DNA repair and inflammatory-immune responses in both ATTP+/+ and ATTP−/− mice, with the expression of 22 genes being common to both, whereas 30 and 77 genes were unique to ATTP+/+ and ATTP−/− mice, respectively. The expressions of O3 sensitive genes—Timp1, Areg, Birc5 and Tnc—were seen to be further modulated by AT status. The present study reveals AT modulation of adaptive response of lung genome to O3 exposure. PMID:19555225

  6. Variation in salivary and pancreatic alpha-amylase genes in Italian horse breeds.

    PubMed

    Coizet, Beatrice; Nicoloso, Letizia; Marletta, Donata; Tamiozzo-Calligarich, Alessandra; Pagnacco, Giulio; Crepaldi, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The dietary demand of the modern horse relies on high-cereal feeding and limited forage compared with natural grazing conditions, predisposing the horse to several important diseases. Salivary and pancreatic alpha-amylases (coded by AMY1 and AMY2 genes, respectively) play a crucial role in carbohydrate digestion in nonruminants, but little is known about these 2 genes in the horse. Aim of this work has been to distinguish genomic sequences of horse AMY1 and AMY2 genes and to analyze any polymorphisms in breeds historically characterized by marked differences in nutritional management. A single nucleotide polymorphism detection was performed and 7 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms were found. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms are in exons and were genotyped in 112 horses belonging to 6 breeds. One single nucleotide polymorphism in AMY1 gene distinguished Haflinger and the Italian native Murgese from the other breeds, whereas both the single nucleotide polymorphisms in AMY2 gene showed different allelic frequencies in Friesian compared with the other breeds. These differences are confirmed by quite high fixation index (Fst) values for these 2 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms. These preliminary results highlight marked divergences in allele frequencies of AMY1 and AMY2 genes, involved in starch digestion, between horse breeds characterized by different histories of selection, thus providing first indications of possible relations between genetics and nutritional management. PMID:24558100

  7. c-Ha-ras down regulates the alpha-fetoprotein gene but not the albumin gene in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, K; Lawless, D; Ohe, Y; Miyao, Y; Nakabayashi, H; Kamiya, H; Miura, K; Ohtsuka, E; Tamaoki, T

    1990-01-01

    We studied the effects of transfection of the normal c-Ha-ras gene, rasGly-12, and its oncogenic mutant, rasVal-12, on expression of the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and albumin genes in a human hepatoma cell line, HuH-7. The mutant and, to a lesser extent, the normal ras gene caused reduction of the AFP mRNA but not the albumin mRNA level in transfected HuH-7 cells. Cotransfection experiments with a rasVal-12 expression plasmid and a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene fused to AFP regulatory sequences showed that rasVal-12 suppressed the activity of enhancer and promoter regions containing A + T-rich sequences (AT motif). In contrast, rasVal-12 did not affect the promoter activity of the albumin and human hepatitis B virus pre-S1 genes even though these promoters contain homologous A + T-rich elements. ras transfection appeared to induce phosphorylation of nuclear proteins that interact with the AFP AT motif, since gel mobility analysis revealed the formation of slow-moving complexes which was reversed by phosphatase treatment. However, similar changes in complex formation were observed with the albumin and hepatitis B surface antigen pre-S1 promoters. Therefore, this effect alone cannot explain the specific down regulation of the AFP promoter and enhancer activity. ras-mediated suppression of the AFP gene may reflect the process of developmental gene regulation in which AFP gene transcription is controlled by a G-protein-linked signal transduction cascade triggered by external growth stimuli. Images PMID:1690841

  8. Expression of modified gene encoding functional human alpha-1-antitrypsin protein in transgenic tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Saurabh; Singh, Rahul; Sanyal, Indraneel; Amla, D V

    2008-10-01

    Transgenic plants offer promising alternative for large scale, sustainable production of safe, functional, recombinant proteins of therapeutic and industrial importance. Here, we report the expression of biologically active human alpha-1-antitrypsin in transgenic tomato plants. The 1,182 bp cDNA sequence of human AAT was strategically designed, modified and synthesized to adopt codon usage pattern of dicot plants, elimination of mRNA destabilizing sequences and modifications around 5' and 3' flanking regions of the gene to achieve high-level regulated expression in dicot plants. The native signal peptide sequence was substituted with modified signal peptide sequence of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) pathogenesis related protein PR1a, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) sporamineA and with dicot-preferred native signal peptide sequence of AAT gene. A dicot preferred translation initiation context sequence, 38 bp alfalfa mosaic virus untranslated region were incorporated at 5' while an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal (KDEL) was incorporated at 3' end of the gene. The modified gene was synthesized by PCR based method using overlapping oligonucleotides. Tomato plants were genetically engineered by nuclear transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harbouring three different constructs pPAK, pSAK and pNAK having modified AAT gene with different signal peptide sequences under the control of CaMV35S duplicated enhancer promoter. Promising transgenic plants expressing recombinant AAT protein upto 1.55% of total soluble leaf protein has been developed and characterized. Plant-expressed recombinant AAT protein with molecular mass of around approximately 50 kDa was biologically active, showing high specific activity and efficient inhibition of elastase activity. The enzymatic deglycosylation established proper glycosylation of the plant-expressed recombinant AAT protein in contrast to unglycosylated rAAT expressed in E. coli ( approximately 45 kDa). Our results demonstrate

  9. Molecular cloning and expression of two alpha-amylase genes from Streptococcus bovis 148 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, E; Niimura, Y; Uchimura, T; Kozaki, M; Komagata, K

    1993-01-01

    The alpha-amylase genes of Streptococcus bovis 148 were cloned in Escherichia coli MC1061, using pBR322. The recombinant plasmids were classified into two groups on the basis of their restriction maps. Southern blot analysis did not show homology between the two types of alpha-amylase genes, and the two alpha-amylase genes existed on the chromosomal DNA of S. bovis 148. The enzymatic properties and N-terminal amino acid sequences of the two purified enzymes produced by the cloned E. coli strains were quite different from each other. Particularly, one alpha-amylase (Amy I) was adsorbed on raw corn starch and hydrolyzed raw corn starch, and another (Amy II) was not adsorbed on raw corn starch and did not hydrolyze raw corn starch. Amy I was considered to be the same as the extracellular alpha-amylase of S. bovis 148 in raw starch absorbability, ability to hydrolyze raw corn starch, enzymatic characteristics, N-terminal amino acid sequence, and mode of action on soluble starch. Amy II showed a unique pattern of oligosaccharide production from soluble starch compared with the extracellular alpha-amylase of S. bovis 148. Amy II was suggested to be an intracellular alpha-amylase of S. bovis 148. Images PMID:8285674

  10. Molecular cloning and expression of two alpha-amylase genes from Streptococcus bovis 148 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Satoh, E; Niimura, Y; Uchimura, T; Kozaki, M; Komagata, K

    1993-11-01

    The alpha-amylase genes of Streptococcus bovis 148 were cloned in Escherichia coli MC1061, using pBR322. The recombinant plasmids were classified into two groups on the basis of their restriction maps. Southern blot analysis did not show homology between the two types of alpha-amylase genes, and the two alpha-amylase genes existed on the chromosomal DNA of S. bovis 148. The enzymatic properties and N-terminal amino acid sequences of the two purified enzymes produced by the cloned E. coli strains were quite different from each other. Particularly, one alpha-amylase (Amy I) was adsorbed on raw corn starch and hydrolyzed raw corn starch, and another (Amy II) was not adsorbed on raw corn starch and did not hydrolyze raw corn starch. Amy I was considered to be the same as the extracellular alpha-amylase of S. bovis 148 in raw starch absorbability, ability to hydrolyze raw corn starch, enzymatic characteristics, N-terminal amino acid sequence, and mode of action on soluble starch. Amy II showed a unique pattern of oligosaccharide production from soluble starch compared with the extracellular alpha-amylase of S. bovis 148. Amy II was suggested to be an intracellular alpha-amylase of S. bovis 148. PMID:8285674