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Sample records for factor-alpha induced expression

  1. Effects of schisandrin B pretreatment on tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced apoptosis and Hsp70 expression in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Ip, S P; Che, C T; Kong, Y C; Ko, K M

    2001-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) could cause apoptosis in hepatic tissue of D-galactosamine sensitized mice, as evidenced by the increase in the extent of DNA fragmentation. The hepatic apoptosis induced by TNFalpha was associated with hepatocellular damage as assessed by plasma alanine aminotransferase activity. Schisandrin B (Sch B) pretreatment at daily doses ranging from 0.5 to 2 mmol/kg for 3 days caused a dose-dependent protection against TNFalpha-induced apoptosis in mice. The hepatoprotection was accompanied by a parallel reduction in the extent of hepatocellular damage. The same Sch B pretreatment regimens increased hepatic Hsp70 level in a dose-dependent manner. The relevance of Sch B-induced increase in Hsp70 expression to the prevention of TNFalpha-triggered hepatic apoptosis remains to be elucidated. PMID:11525242

  2. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent TRPC1 expression in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Paria, Biman C; Malik, Asrar B; Kwiatek, Angela M; Rahman, Arshad; May, Michael J; Ghosh, Sankar; Tiruppathi, Chinnaswamy

    2003-09-26

    We investigated the role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in activating the store-operated Ca2+ channels in endothelial cells via the expression of transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) isoforms. We observed that TNF-alpha exposure of human umbilical vein endothelial cells resulted in TRPC1 mRNA and protein expression, whereas it had no effect on TRPC3, TRPC4, or TRPC5 expression. The TRPC1 expression was associated with increased Ca2+ influx after intracellular Ca2+ store depletion with either thrombin or thapsigargin. We cloned the 5'-regulatory region of the human TRPC1 (hTRPC1) gene which contained a TATA box and CCAAT sequence close to the transcription initiation site. We also identified four nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-binding sites in the 5'-regulatory region. To address the contribution of NF-kappaB in the mechanism of TRPC1 expression, we determined the effects of TNF-alpha on expression of the reporter luciferase after transfection of hTRPC1 promoter-luciferase (hTRPC1-Pro-Luc) construct in the human dermal microvascular endothelial cell line. Reporter activity increased >4-fold at 4 h after TNF-alpha challenge. TNF-alpha-induced increase in reporter activity was markedly reduced by co-expression of either kinase-defective IKKbeta kinase mutant or non-phosphorylatable IkappaB mutant. Treatment with NEMO-binding domain peptide, which prevents NF-kappaB activation by selectively inhibiting IKKgamma interaction with IKK complex, also blocked the TNF-alpha-induced TRPC1 expression. Thus, TNF-alpha induces TRPC1 expression through an NF-kappaB-dependent pathway in endothelial cells, which can trigger augmented Ca2+ entry following Ca2+ store depletion. The augmented Ca2+ entry secondary to TRPC1 expression may be an important mechanism of endothelial injury induced by TNF-alpha. PMID:12855710

  3. The coffee diterpene kahweol inhibits tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced expression of cell adhesion molecules in human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyung Gyun; Kim, Ji Young; Hwang, Yong Pil; Lee, Kyung Jin; Lee, Kwang Youl; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jeong, Hye Gwang . E-mail: hgjeong@chosun.ac.kr

    2006-12-15

    Endothelial cells produce adhesion molecules after being stimulated with various inflammatory cytokines. These adhesion molecules play an important role in the development of atherogenesis. Recent studies have highlighted the chemoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of kahweol, a coffee-specific diterpene. This study examined the effects of kahweol on the cytokine-induced monocyte/human endothelial cell interaction, which is a crucial early event in atherogenesis. Kahweol inhibited the adhesion of TNF{alpha}-induced monocytes to endothelial cells and suppressed the TNF{alpha}-induced protein and mRNA expression of the cell adhesion molecules, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. Furthermore, kahweol inhibited the TNF{alpha}-induced JAK2-PI3K/Akt-NF-{kappa}B activation pathway in these cells. Overall, kahweol has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activities, which occurs partly by down-regulating the pathway that affects the expression and interaction of the cell adhesion molecules on endothelial cells.

  4. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 through p21-activated Kinase-1

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ling; Yan, Chunli; Gieling, Roben G; Kida, Yujiro; Garner, Warren; Li, Wei; Han, Yuan-Ping

    2009-01-01

    Background Expressed in embryonic development, matrix metalloprotein-9 (MMP-9) is absent in most of developed adult tissues, but recurs in inflammation during tissue injury, wound healing, tumor formation and metastasis. Expression of MMP-9 is tightly controlled by extracellular cues including pro-inflammatory cytokines and extracellular matrix (ECM). While the pathologic functions of MMP-9 are evident, the intracellular signaling pathways to control its expression are not fully understood. In this study we investigated mechanism of cytokine induced MMP-9 with particular emphasis on the role of p21-activated-kinase-1 (PAK1) and the down stream signaling. Results In response to TNF-alpha or IL-1alpha, PAK1 was promptly activated, as characterized by a sequential phosphorylation, initiated at threonine-212 followed by at threonine-423 in the activation loop of the kinase, in human skin keratinocytes, dermal fibroblasts, and rat hepatic stellate cells. Ectopic expression of PAK1 variants, but not p38 MAP kinase, impaired the TNF-alpha-induced MMP-9 expression, while other MMPs such as MMP-2, -3 and -14 were not affected. Activation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and NF-kappaB has been demonstrated to be essential for MMP-9 expression. Expression of inactive PAK1 variants impaired JNK but not NF-kappaB activation, which consequently suppressed the 5'-promoter activities of the MMP-9 gene. After the cytokine-induced phosphorylation, both ectopically expressed and endogenous PAK1 proteins were promptly accumulated even in the condition of suppressing protein synthesis, suggesting the PAK1 protein is stabilized upon TNF-alpha stimulation. Stabilization of PAK1 protein by TNF-alpha treatment is independent of the kinase catalytic activity and p21 GTPase binding capacities. In contrast to epithelial cells, mesenchymal cells require 3-dimensional type-I collagen in response to TNF-alpha to massively express MMP-9. The collagen effect is mediated, in part, by boost JNK activation in a way to cooperate the cytokine signaling. Conclusion We identified a novel mechanism for MMP-9 expression in response to injury signals, which is mediated by PAK1 activation and stabilization leading JNK activation. PMID:19298660

  5. Apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in rat hepatocyte cell lines expressing hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed Central

    Guilhot, S.; Miller, T.; Cornman, G.; Isom, H. C.

    1996-01-01

    Three well differentiated SV40-immortalized rat hepatocyte cell lines, CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV14, and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-producing cell lines derived from them were examined for sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV14 cells were co-transfected with a DNA construct containing a dimer of the HBV genome and the neo gene and selected in G418 to generate stable cell lines. Characterization of these cell lines indicated that they contain integrated HBV DNA, contain low molecular weight HBV DNA compatible with the presence of HBV replication intermediates, express HBV transcripts, and produce HBV proteins. The viability of CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV2 cells was not significantly altered when they were treated with TNF-alpha at concentrations as high as 20,000 U/ml. The HBV-expressing CWSV1 cell line, SV1di36, and the HBV-expressing CWSV14 cell line, SV14di208, were also not killed when treated with TNF-alpha. However, the HBV-expressing CWSV2 cell line, SV2di366, was extensively killed when treated with TNF-alpha at concentrations ranging from 200 to 20,000 U/ml. Analysis of several different HBV-producing CWSV2 cell lines indicated that TNF-alpha killing depended upon the level of HBV expression. The TNF-alpha-induced cell killing in high HBV-producing CWSV2 cell lines was accompanied by the presence of an oligonucleosomal DNA ladder characteristic of apoptosis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:8774135

  6. Haemophilus ducreyi Lipooligosaccharides Induce Expression of the Immunosuppressive Enzyme Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase via Type I Interferons and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha in Human Dendritic Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Katz, Barry P.; Spinola, Stanley M.

    2011-01-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi causes chancroid, a genital ulcer disease. In human inoculation experiments, most volunteers fail to clear the bacteria despite the infiltration of innate and adaptive immune cells to the infected sites. The immunosuppressive protein indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the l-tryptophan-kynurenine metabolic pathway. Tryptophan depletion and tryptophan metabolites contribute to pathogen persistence by inhibiting T cell proliferation, inducing T cell apoptosis, and promoting the expansion of FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells. We previously found that FOXP3+ Treg cells are enriched in experimental lesions and that H. ducreyi induced IDO transcription in dendritic cells (DC) derived from blood of infected volunteers who developed pustules. Here, we showed that enzymatically active IDO was induced in DC by H. ducreyi. Neutralizing antibodies against interferon alpha/beta receptor 2 chain (IFNAR2) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibited IDO induction. Inhibitors of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) also inhibited IDO expression. Neither bacterial contact with nor uptake by DC was required for IDO activation. H. ducreyi culture supernatant and H. ducreyi lipooligosaccharides (LOS) induced IDO expression, which required type I interferons, TNF-α, and the three MAPK (p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal regulated kinase) and NF-κB pathways. In addition, LOS-induced IFN-β activated the JAK-STAT pathway. Blocking the LOS/Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway greatly reduced H. ducreyi-induced IDO production. These findings indicate that H. ducreyi-induced IDO expression in DC is largely mediated by LOS via type I interferon- and TNF-α-dependent mechanisms and the MAPK, NF-κB, and JAK-STAT pathways. PMID:21576329

  7. Specific NF-kappaB blockade selectively inhibits tumour necrosis factor-alpha-induced COX-2 but not constitutive COX-1 gene expression in HT-29 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Jobin, C; Morteau, O; Han, D S; Balfour Sartor, R

    1998-01-01

    Cyclo-oxygenase (COX) is the key regulatory enzyme of the prostaglandin/eicosanoid pathway. While COX-1 is mostly constitutively expressed, the COX-2 isoform is inducible by proinflammatory cytokines. We used an adenoviral vector containing an NF-kappaB super-repressor (Ad5IkappaB) to investigate the role of NF-kappaB in tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-mediated COX-2 gene expression in a colonic epithelial cell line. COX-1 mRNA and protein were constitutively expressed in uninfected, control Ad5LacZ- or Ad5IkappaB-infected HT-29 cells with no apparent change following TNF-alpha exposure. COX-2 mRNA and protein expression was undetectable in unstimulated cells but was strongly up-regulated after TNF-alpha stimulation in uninfected and Ad5LacZ-infected HT-29 cells. This induction was prevented in Ad5IkappaB cells. TNF-alpha increased prostaglandin E2 production by 20-fold in Ad5LacZ-infected HT-29 cells compared with uninfected cells and was significantly inhibited in Ad5IkappaB-infected cells in agreement with the COX-2 mRNA findings. We conclude that NF-kappaB activation is critical in mediating COX-2, but not COX-1 gene expression in HT-29 cells. Selective inhibition of COX-2 expression with the NF-kappaB super-repressor may be useful in distinguishing the role of inducible versus constitutive prostaglandins in intestinal function and provides greater specificity than pharmacological inhibitors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9893042

  8. Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} induces MMP-9 expression via p42/p44 MAPK, JNK, and nuclear factor-{kappa}B in A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.-C.; Tseng, Hsiao-Wei; Hsieh, Hsi-Lung; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Wu, C.-Y.; Cheng, C.-Y.; Yang, C.-M.

    2008-06-15

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in particular MMP-9, have been shown to be induced by cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and contributes to airway inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying MMP-9 expression induced by TNF-{alpha} in human A549 cells remain unclear. Here, we showed that TNF-{alpha} induced production of MMP-9 protein and mRNA is determined by zymographic, Western blotting, RT-PCR and ELISA assay, which were attenuated by inhibitors of MEK1/2 (U0126), JNK (SP600125), and NF-{kappa}B (helenalin), and transfection with dominant negative mutants of ERK2 ({delta}ERK) and JNK ({delta}JNK), and siRNAs for MEK1, p42 and JNK2. TNF-{alpha}-stimulated phosphorylation of p42/p44 MAPK and JNK were attenuated by pretreatment with the inhibitors U0126 and SP600125 or transfection with dominant negative mutants of {delta}ERK and {delta}JNK. Furthermore, the involvement of NF-{kappa}B in TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 production was consistent with that TNF-{alpha}-stimulated degradation of I{kappa}B-{alpha} and translocation of NF-{kappa}B into the nucleus which were blocked by helenalin, but not by U0126 and SP600125, revealed by immunofluorescence staining. The regulation of MMP-9 gene transcription by MAPKs and NF-{kappa}B was further confirmed by gene luciferase activity assay. MMP-9 promoter activity was enhanced by TNF-{alpha} in A549 cells transfected with wild-type MMP-9-Luc, which was inhibited by helenalin, U0126, or SP600125. In contrast, TNF-{alpha}-stimulated MMP-9 luciferase activity was totally lost in cells transfected with mutant-NF-{kappa}B MMP-9-luc. Moreover, pretreatment with actinomycin D and cycloheximide attenuated TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. These results suggest that in A549 cells, phosphorylation of p42/p44 MAPK, JNK, and transactivation of NF-{kappa}B are essential for TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 gene expression.

  9. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in human endothelial cells by the saponins derived from roots of Platycodon grandiflorum

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Song, Gyu-Yong; Chung, Young Chul; Roh, Seong Hwan; Jeong, Hye Gwang . E-mail: hgjeong@chosun.ac.kr

    2006-01-15

    Adhesion molecules play an important role in the development of atherogenesis and are produced by endothelial cells after being stimulated with various inflammatory cytokines. This study examined the effect of saponins that were isolated from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum A. DC (Campanulaceae), Changkil saponins (CKS), on the cytokine-induced monocyte/human endothelial cell interaction, which is a crucial early event in atherogenesis. CKS significantly inhibited the TNF{alpha}-induced increase in monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells as well as decreased the protein and mRNA expression levels of vascular adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 on endothelial cells. Furthermore, CKS significantly inhibited the TNF{alpha}-induced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of NF-{kappa}B by preventing I{kappa}B degradation and inhibiting I{kappa}B kinase activity. Overall, CKS has anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory activity, which is least in part the result of it reducing the cytokine-induced endothelial adhesion to monocytes by inhibiting intracellular ROS production, NF-{kappa}B activation, and cell adhesion molecule expression in endothelial cells.

  10. Brucella abortus Invasion of Osteocytes Modulates Connexin 43 and Integrin Expression and Induces Osteoclastogenesis via Receptor Activator of NF-κB Ligand and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Secretion.

    PubMed

    Pesce Viglietti, Ayelén Ivana; Arriola Benitez, Paula Constanza; Gentilini, María Virginia; Velásquez, Lis Noelia; Fossati, Carlos Alberto; Giambartolomei, Guillermo Hernán; Delpino, María Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarticular brucellosis is the most common localization of human active disease. Osteocytes are the most abundant cells of bone. They secrete factors that regulate the differentiation of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts during bone remodeling. The aim of this study is to determine if Brucella abortus infection modifies osteocyte function. Our results indicate that B. abortus infection induced matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), receptor activator for NF-κB ligand (RANKL), proinflammatory cytokines, and keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) secretion by osteocytes. In addition, supernatants from B. abortus-infected osteocytes induced bone marrow-derived monocytes (BMM) to undergo osteoclastogenesis. Using neutralizing antibodies against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or osteoprotegerin (OPG), RANKL's decoy receptor, we determined that TNF-α and RANKL are involved in osteoclastogenesis induced by supernatants from B. abortus-infected osteocytes. Connexin 43 (Cx43) and the integrins E11/gp38, integrin-α, integrin-β, and CD44 are involved in cell-cell interactions necessary for osteocyte survival. B. abortus infection inhibited the expression of Cx43 but did not modify the expression of integrins. Yet the expression of both Cx43 and integrins was inhibited by supernatants from B. abortus-infected macrophages. B. abortus infection was not capable of inducing osteocyte apoptosis. However, supernatants from B. abortus-infected macrophages induced osteocyte apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, our results indicate that B. abortus infection could alter osteocyte function, contributing to bone damage. PMID:26459511

  11. Hyaluronate activation of CD44 induces insulin-like growth factor-1 expression by a tumor necrosis factor-alpha-dependent mechanism in murine macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Noble, P W; Lake, F R; Henson, P M; Riches, D W

    1993-01-01

    Macrophages participate in inflammatory and repair processes in part through the selective release of cytokines that contribute to tissue remodeling. Extracellular matrix components generated at inflammatory sites may influence tissue remodeling by effects on leukocyte adherence and local cytokine production. In murine bone marrow-derived macrophages, we found that soluble hyaluronic acid stimulated IL-1 beta, TNF alpha, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mRNA transcript expression as well as IGF-1 protein synthesis. Monoclonal antibodies to the hyaluronic acid receptor CD44 blocked the effects of hyaluronic acid on IL-1 beta, TNF alpha, and IGF-1 expression. TNF alpha and IL-1 beta mRNA expression preceded IGF-1 protein synthesis, and TNF alpha, but not IL-1 beta, was found to directly stimulate IGF-1. Furthermore, IGF-1 induction was dependent on endogenous TNF alpha production since IGF-1 protein synthesis was inhibited in the presence of anti-TNF alpha antiserum. In addition, IL-1 beta was found to exert a regulatory role on IGF-1 production by enhancing the TNF alpha effect. IL-1 beta and TNF alpha mRNA transcript expression as well as IGF-1 protein synthesis were also stimulated by chrysotile asbestos. Anti-CD44 antibodies had no effect whereas anti-TNF alpha antiserum blocked asbestos-stimulated IGF-1 production. These results indicate that hyaluronate activation of CD44 induces cytokine expression and macrophage-derived IGF-1 production is dependent on TNF alpha expression. Images PMID:8514850

  12. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Induced Modifications of the Gene Expression Kinetics of Differentiating Skeletal Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Swanhild U.; Krebs, Stefan; Thirion, Christian; Blum, Helmut; Krause, Sabine; Pfaffl, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction TNF-α levels are increased during muscle wasting and chronic muscle degeneration and regeneration processes, which are characteristic for primary muscle disorders. Pathologically increased TNF-α levels have a negative effect on muscle cell differentiation efficiency, while IGF1 can have a positive effect; therefore, we intended to elucidate the impact of TNF-α and IGF1 on gene expression during the early stages of skeletal muscle cell differentiation. Methodology/Principal Findings This study presents gene expression data of the murine skeletal muscle cells PMI28 during myogenic differentiation or differentiation with TNF-α or IGF1 exposure at 0 h, 4 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 72 h after induction. Our study detected significant coregulation of gene sets involved in myoblast differentiation or in the response to TNF-α. Gene expression data revealed a time- and treatment-dependent regulation of signaling pathways, which are prominent in myogenic differentiation. We identified enrichment of pathways, which have not been specifically linked to myoblast differentiation such as doublecortin-like kinase pathway associations as well as enrichment of specific semaphorin isoforms. Moreover to the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of a specific inverse regulation of the following genes in myoblast differentiation and response to TNF-α: Aknad1, Cmbl, Sepp1, Ndst4, Tecrl, Unc13c, Spats2l, Lix1, Csdc2, Cpa1, Parm1, Serpinb2, Aspn, Fibin, Slc40a1, Nrk, and Mybpc1. We identified a gene subset (Nfkbia, Nfkb2, Mmp9, Mef2c, Gpx, and Pgam2), which is robustly regulated by TNF-α across independent myogenic differentiation studies. Conclusions This is the largest dataset revealing the impact of TNF-α or IGF1 treatment on gene expression kinetics of early in vitro skeletal myoblast differentiation. We identified novel mRNAs, which have not yet been associated with skeletal muscle differentiation or response to TNF-α. Results of this study may facilitate the understanding of transcriptomic networks underlying inhibited muscle differentiation in inflammatory diseases. PMID:26447881

  13. Tumor necrosis factor alpha regulates in vivo intrapulmonary expression of ICAM-1.

    PubMed Central

    Mulligan, M. S.; Vaporciyan, A. A.; Miyasaka, M.; Tamatani, T.; Ward, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    Lung injury following deposition of IgG immune complexes is neutrophil-dependent and requires both tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and CD18. In the current studies, we have evaluated the relationship between TNF alpha and expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in vitro and in vivo. In both rat pulmonary artery endothelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, TNF alpha induced an early (within 60 minutes) increase in ICAM-1 expression, followed by a peak at 6 to 8 hours, with relatively stable expression at 24 hours. Expression of E-selectin did not show the early phase (within 60 minutes) of up-regulation, peaked at 4 hours, and then declined thereafter. Using a radioimmunochemical assay in vivo, it was demonstrated that intrapulmonary deposition of IgG immune complexes caused a progressive increase in ICAM-1 expression in lung over an 8-hour period. In animals pretreated with antibody to TNF alpha, the intrapulmonary expression of ICAM-1 was significantly reduced. These results were confirmed by immunoperoxidase analysis of lung tissue. It was also shown that airway instillation of TNF alpha caused up-regulation of ICAM-1 in lung. These data support the concept that deposition of IgG immune complexes in lung induces intrapulmonary up-regulation of ICAM-1 in a manner that is TNF alpha-dependent. Images Figure 2 Figure 7 PMID:7685152

  14. Interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha induce gene expression and production of leukocyte chemotactic factors, colony-stimulating factors, and interleukin-6 in human mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Zoja, C; Wang, J M; Bettoni, S; Sironi, M; Renzi, D; Chiaffarino, F; Abboud, H E; Van Damme, J; Mantovani, A; Remuzzi, G

    1991-04-01

    The capacity of human cultured mesangial cells to produce soluble factors potentially relevant for mechanisms of inflammation and immunity at the glomerular site was analyzed. The nature of the secreted factors initially was investigated by Northern blot analysis using total cellular RNAs isolated from resting and activated mesangial cells. On exposure of mesangial cells to human recombinant interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), high levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNAs were detected. Similar transcripts were found after stimulation with human recombinant tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Active secretion of IL-8 was documented by radioimmunoassay in supernatants of mesangial cells activated by either IL-1 beta or TNF-alpha. Using an in vitro migration assay, supernatants from resting mesangial cells were found to be devoid of any chemotactic activity for granulocytes or monocytes. On stimulation with IL-1 beta, however, mesangial cell supernatants expressed MCP-1 biologic activity detected as induction of a strong migratory response for human monocytes but not for granulocytes. In addition, IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha induced high levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) mRNAs. Similarly IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha induced the interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene and active secretion of its mature protein. These data strongly support an effector role for mesangial cells in modulating immune-inflammatory responses in glomeruli. Release of cytokines may activate not only infiltrating inflammatory cells through short paracrine pathways, but also mesangial cells themselves through an autocrine pathway. PMID:2012180

  15. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits renin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Vladimir; Müller, Markus; Schweda, Frank; Kurtz, Armin

    2002-11-01

    Renin, produced in renal juxtaglomerular (JG) cells, is a fundamental regulator of blood pressure. Accumulating evidence suggests that cytokines may directly influence renin production in the JG cells. TNF-alpha, which is one of the key mediators in immunity and inflammation, is known to participate in the control of vascular proliferation and contraction and hence in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Thus TNF-alpha may exert its effects on the cardiovascular system through modulation of renal renin synthesis. Therefore we have tested the effect of TNF-alpha on renin transcription in As4.1 cells, which represent transformed mouse JG cells, and in native mouse JG cells in culture. Renin gene expression was also determined in mice lacking the gene for TNF-alpha (TNF-alpha knockout mice). TNF-alpha inhibited renin gene expression via an inhibition of the transcriptional activity, targeting the proximal 4.1 kb of the renin promoter in As4.1 cells. TNF-alpha also attenuated forskolin-stimulated renin gene expression in primary cultures of mouse JG cells. Mice lacking the TNF-alpha gene had almost threefold higher basal renal renin mRNA abundance relative to the control strain. The general physiological regulation of renin expression by salt was not disturbed in TNF-alpha knockout mice. Our data suggest that TNF-alpha inhibits renin gene transcription at the cellular level and thus may act as a modulator of renin synthesis in (physio)pathological situations. PMID:12376397

  16. Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} enhances IL-15-induced natural killer cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jiwon; Lee, Suk Hyung; Korea University of Science and Technology, Yusong, Daejeon 305-333 ; Shin, Nara; Jeong, Mira; Korea University of Science and Technology, Yusong, Daejeon 305-333 ; Kim, Mi Sun; Kim, Mi Jeong; Yoon, Suk Ran; Chung, Jin Woong; Departments of Biological Science, Dong-A University, Busan ; Kim, Tae-Don; Korea University of Science and Technology, Yusong, Daejeon 305-333 ; Choi, Inpyo; Korea University of Science and Technology, Yusong, Daejeon 305-333

    2009-09-04

    The differentiation of natural killer (NK) cells is regulated by various factors including soluble growth factors and transcription factors. Here, we have demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) is a positive regulator of NK cell differentiation. TNF-{alpha} augmented the IL-15-induced expression of NK1.1 and CD122 in mature NK cells, and TNF-{alpha} alone also induced NK cell maturation as well as IL-15. TNF-{alpha} also increased IFN-{gamma} production in NK cells in the presence of IL-15. Meanwhile, mRNA expression of several transcription factors, including T-bet and GATA-3, was increased by the addition of TNF-{alpha} and IL-15. In addition, TNF-{alpha} increased nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activity in NK cells and inhibition of NF-{kappa}B impeded TNF-{alpha}-enhanced NK cell maturation. Overall, these data suggest that TNF-{alpha} significantly increased IL-15-driven NK cell differentiation by increasing the expression of transcription factors that play crucial roles in NK cell maturation and inducing the NF-{kappa}B activity.

  17. Claudin 1 mediates tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced cell migration in human gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Shiozaki, Atsushi; Shimizu, Hiroki; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Konishi, Hirotaka; Komatsu, Shuhei; Kubota, Takeshi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Iitaka, Daisuke; Nakashima, Shingo; Nako, Yoshito; Liu, Mingyao; Otsuji, Eigo

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of claudin 1 in the regulation of genes involved in cell migration and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced gene expression in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. METHODS: Knockdown experiments were conducted with claudin 1 small interfering RNA (siRNA), and the effects on the cell cycle, apoptosis, migration and invasion were analyzed in human gastric adenocarcinoma MKN28 cells. The gene expression profiles of cells were analyzed by microarray and bioinformatics. RESULTS: The knockdown of claudin 1 significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and increased apoptosis. Microarray analysis identified 245 genes whose expression levels were altered by the knockdown of claudin 1. Pathway analysis showed that the top-ranked molecular and cellular function was the cellular movement related pathway, which involved MMP7, TNF-SF10, TGFBR1, and CCL2. Furthermore, TNF- and nuclear frctor-κB were the top-ranked upstream regulators related to claudin 1. TNF-α treatment increased claudin 1 expression and cell migration in MKN28 cells. Microarray analysis indicated that the depletion of claudin 1 inhibited 80% of the TNF-α-induced mRNA expression changes. Further, TNF-α did not enhance cell migration in the claudin 1 siRNA transfected cells. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that claudin 1 is an important messenger that regulates TNF-α-induced gene expression and migration in gastric cancer cells. A deeper understanding of these cellular processes may be helpful in establishing new therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer. PMID:25548484

  18. Role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in lipopolysaccharide-induced pathologic alterations.

    PubMed Central

    Remick, D. G.; Strieter, R. M.; Eskandari, M. K.; Nguyen, D. T.; Genord, M. A.; Raiford, C. L.; Kunkel, S. L.

    1990-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) has been implicated strongly as a principal mediator in the pathogenesis of septic shock. The authors investigated the in vivo production of TNF in CBA/J and CD-1 mice that had been primed by an intraperitoneal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant followed 2 weeks later by an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). TNF bioactivity peaked in both the ascites and plasma one hour after challenge, and TNF mRNA expression in the ascites cells peaked 30 minutes after LPS. After the induction of bioactivity, an interstitial pulmonary neutrophilic infiltrate occurred that was quantitated both morphometrically and by a myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay. Peripheral blood neutrophilia and lymphopenia developed after the LPS injection (PMNs: control, 46 +/- 2%; LPS, 65 +/- 3%; Lymphs control, 53 +/- 2%; LPS, 37 +/- 3%). Treatment with dexamethasone (Dex) completely inhibited the pulmonary neutrophilic infiltrate as measured by the (MPO) assay. Because Dex will inhibit the production of several cytokines, anti-TNF antiserum was given to mice at the same time as the LPS challenge to assess specifically the role of TNF in inducing these changes. This antiserum partially blocked the pulmonary neutrophil infiltrate, and completely blocked the peripheral blood changes at one hour after LPS. These data demonstrate that TNF plays an important role in the early pathophysiologic alterations that occur after systemic exposure to LPS. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 11 PMID:2297050

  19. Expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha and its receptors in carcinoma of the breast.

    PubMed Central

    Pusztai, L.; Clover, L. M.; Cooper, K.; Starkey, P. M.; Lewis, C. E.; McGee, J. O.

    1994-01-01

    The expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and its two distinct receptors, TNF-R p55 and TNF-R p75, was assessed by immunocytochemistry in 28 primary breast cancer and three reduction mammoplasty specimens ('normal' breast tissue). Expression of TNF-alpha or TNF-R p75 was not detectable in normal breast tissue or in non-malignant breast tissue adjacent to the tumours. By contrast, TNF-R p55 was expressed by occasional stromal cells in normal tissue. TNF-alpha was expressed focally in 50% of the tumours studied, being largely localised to macrophage-like cells in the stroma. TNF-R p55 was expressed by a population of stromal cells in all the tumours examined, and a varying proportion of neoplastic cells in 75% of these tissues. TNF-R p75 was detected in about 70% of the tumours, immunoreactivity being confined mainly to cells in the stroma. In this preliminary study there was no association between the above cytokine parameters and such measures of tumour biology as lymph node status, tumour grade, proliferative activity or degree of angiogenesis. However, there was a correlation between the expression of TNF-R p55 by blood vessels and the number of leucocytes present. Images Figure 1 PMID:7519867

  20. Diesel exhaust particles induce the over expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene in alvelor machrophage and failed to induce apoptosis through activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5-10), including diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been reported to induce lung injury and exacerbation of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Alveolar macrophages play a major role in the lung's response to inhaled particles and...

  1. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus induces tumour necrosis factor-alpha in murine astrocyte cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, A; Rubio, N

    1993-01-01

    Cytokines have been postulated to exert an important modulatory and recruiting role in demyelination induced by Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) in SJL/J mice. Using a cytolytic bioassay and ELISA, we have detected and quantified a cytokine, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), in supernatants from astrocyte cultures infected in vitro with TMEV. TNF was detected only after TMEV-specific infection of astrocyte cultures (approximately 200-400 U/ml). In vitro TNF synthesis appeared in a dose- and time-dependent manner and was produced by both SJL/J (a strain susceptible to TMEV-induced demyelination) and BALB/c (a resistant strain) astrocytes. The precise nature of TNF activity was further assessed by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) and antibody neutralization. These results indicate an active role for astrocytes as accessory immune cells in our experimental model for multiple sclerosis. PMID:8478023

  2. Phospholipase C-{delta}{sub 1} regulates interleukin-1{beta} and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} mRNA expression

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eric; Jakinovich, Paul; Bae, Aekyung; Rebecchi, Mario

    2012-10-01

    Phospholipase C-{delta}{sub 1} (PLC{delta}{sub 1}) is a widely expressed highly active PLC isoform, modulated by Ca{sup 2+} that appears to operate downstream from receptor signaling and has been linked to regulation of cytokine production. Here we investigated whether PLC{delta}{sub 1} modulated expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in rat C6 glioma cells. Expression of PLC{delta}{sub 1} was specifically suppressed by small interfering RNA (siRNA) and the effects on cytokine mRNA expression, stimulated by the Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), were examined. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed that PLC{delta}{sub 1} knockdown enhanced expression IL-1{beta} and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) mRNA by at least 100 fold after 4 h of LPS stimulation compared to control siRNA treatment. PLC{delta}{sub 1} knock down caused persistently high Nf{kappa}b levels at 4 h of LPS stimulation compared to control siRNA-treated cells. PLC{delta}{sub 1} knockdown was also associated with elevated nuclear levels of c-Jun after 30 min of LPS stimulation, but did not affect LPS-stimulated p38 or p42/44 MAPK phosphorylation, normally associated with TLR activation of cytokine gene expression; rather, enhanced protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation of cellular proteins was observed in the absence of LPS stimulation. An inhibitor of PKC, bisindolylmaleimide II (BIM), reversed phosphorylation, prevented elevation of nuclear c-Jun levels, and inhibited LPS-induced increases of IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha} mRNA's induced by PLC{delta}{sub 1} knockdown. Our results show that loss of PLC{delta}{sub 1} enhances PKC/c-Jun signaling and up-modulates pro-inflammatory cytokine gene transcription in concert with the TLR-stimulated p38MAPK/Nf{kappa}b pathway. Our findings are consistent with the idea that PLC{delta}{sub 1} is a suppressor of PKC activity.

  3. Enhanced tumor necrosis factor- alpha expression in small sized abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Hamano, Kimikazu; Li, Tao-Sheng; Takahashi, Mutsuo; Kobayashi, Toshiro; Shirasawa, Bungo; Ito, Hiroshi; Zempo, Nobuya

    2003-04-01

    Circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- alpha) are elevated in the patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). We investigated TNF- alpha expression and cellular infiltration in the walls of AAAs of different sizes. Twenty-seven surgical specimens of AAAs were categorized according to the maximum aneurysm diameter into a small size group (less than 50 mm in diameter, n = 8; S group), a medium-sized group (50 to 59 mm in diameter, n = 11; M group), and a large size group (larger than 59 mm in diameter, n = 8; L group). The level of TNF- alpha and interleukin-1 beta(IL-1 beta) in the aneurysm wall was measured by ELISA. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to observe the TNF- alpha expression and the infiltration of macrophages and lymphocytes in aneurysm walls. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that the level of TNF- alpha in the S group (5.47 +/- 3.48 pg/mg protein) was significantly higher ( p < 0.05) than that in the M group (2.70 +/- 1.33 pg/mg protein) or the L group (1.82 +/- 1.21 pg/mg protein). No significant difference in IL-1 beta was observed between the S, M, and L groups. Immunohistochemical analysis also showed that TNF- alpha was expressed strongly in the S group but was negative or weakly positive in the M and L groups. Furthermore, the expression of TNF- alpha was seen mainly where the aneurysm wall showed atheromatous change and macrophage infiltration. These results indicated that the expression of TNF- alpha in the aneurysm wall was enhanced in small AAAs, and this enhancement might be related to the infiltration of macrophages. PMID:12658496

  4. TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF)

    EPA Science Inventory

    TITLE:
    TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF). AUTHORS (ALL): Abbott, Barbara D.1; Best, Deborah S.1; Narotsky, Michael G.1. SPONSOR NAME: None INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1. Repro Tox ...

  5. Cinnamaldehyde inhibits the tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced expression of cell adhesion molecules in endothelial cells by suppressing NF-{kappa}B activation: Effects upon I{kappa}B and Nrf2

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, B.-C.; Hsieh, C.-W.; Liu, Y.-C.; Tzeng, T.-T.; Sun, Y.-W.; Wung, B.-S.

    2008-06-01

    The production of adhesion molecules and subsequent attachment of leukocytes to endothelial cells (ECs) are critical early events in atherogenesis. These adhesion molecules thus play an important role in the development of this disease. Recent studies have highlighted the chemoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of cinnamaldehyde, a Cinnamomum cassia Presl-specific diterpene. In our current study, we have examined the effects of both cinnamaldehyde and extracts of C. cassia on cytokine-induced monocyte/human endothelial cell interactions. We find that these compounds inhibit the adhesion of TNF{alpha}-induced monocytes to endothelial cells and suppress the expression of the cell adhesion molecules, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, at the transcriptional level. Moreover, in TNF{alpha}-treated ECs, the principal downstream signal of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, NF-{kappa}B, was also found to be abolished in a time-dependent manner. Interestingly, cinnamaldehyde exerts its anti-inflammatory effects by blocking the degradation of the inhibitory protein I{kappa}B-{alpha}, but only in short term pretreatments, whereas it does so via the induction of Nrf2-related genes, including heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1), over long term pretreatments. Treating ECs with zinc protoporphyrin, a HO-1 inhibitor, partially blocks the anti-inflammatory effects of cinnamaldehyde. Elevated HO-1 protein levels were associated with the inhibition of TNF{alpha}-induced ICAM-1 expression. In addition to HO-1, we also found that cinnamaldehyde can upregulate Nrf2 in nuclear extracts, and can increase ARE-luciferase activity and upregulate thioredoxin reductase-1, another Nrf2-related gene. Moreover, cinnamaldehyde exposure rapidly reduces the cellular GSH levels in ECs over short term treatments but increases these levels after 9 h exposure. Hence, our present findings indicate that cinnamaldehyde suppresses TNF-induced singling pathways via two distinct mechanisms that are activated by different pretreatment periods.

  6. Glutathione regulation of redox-sensitive signals in tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, T.-C. . E-mail: tctsou@nhri.org.tw; Yeh, S.C.; Tsai, F.-Y.; Chen, J.-W.; Chiang, H.-C.

    2007-06-01

    We investigated the regulatory role of glutathione in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha})-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction as evaluated by using vascular endothelial adhesion molecule expression and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding. Since TNF-{alpha} induces various biological effects on vascular cells, TNF-{alpha} dosage could be a determinant factor directing vascular cells into different biological fates. Based on the adhesion molecule expression patterns responding to different TNF-{alpha} concentrations, we adopted the lower TNF-{alpha} (0.2 ng/ml) to rule out the possible involvement of other TNF-{alpha}-induced biological effects. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis by L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) resulted in down-regulations of the TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion molecule expression and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding. BSO attenuated the TNF-{alpha}-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-{kappa}B) activation, however, with no detectable effect on AP-1 and its related mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Deletion of an AP-1 binding site in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) promoter totally abolished its constitutive promoter activity and its responsiveness to TNF-{alpha}. Inhibition of ERK, JNK, or NF-{kappa}B attenuates TNF-{alpha}-induced ICAM-1 promoter activation and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding. Our study indicates that TNF-{alpha} induces adhesion molecule expression and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding mainly via activation of NF-{kappa}B in a glutathione-sensitive manner. We also demonstrated that intracellular glutathione does not modulate the activation of MAPKs and/or their downstream AP-1 induced by lower TNF-{alpha}. Although AP-1 activation by the lower TNF-{alpha} was not detected in our systems, we could not rule out the possible involvement of transiently activated MAPKs/AP-1 in the regulation of TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion molecule expression.

  7. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Interleukin 1β Up-Regulate Gastric Mucosal Fas Antigen Expression in Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, JeanMarie; Macera-Bloch, Lisa S.; Harrison, Lawrence; Kim, Kyung H.; Korah, Reju M.

    2000-01-01

    Fas-mediated gastric mucosal apoptosis is gaining attention as a cause of tissue damage due to Helicobacter pylori infection. We explored the effects of H. pylori directly, and the effects of the inflammatory environment established subsequent to H. pylori infection, on Fas-mediated apoptosis in a nontransformed gastric mucosal cell line (RGM-1). Exposure to H. pylori-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), but not H. pylori itself, induced Fas antigen (Fas Ag) expression, indicating a Fas-regulatory role for inflammatory cytokines in this system. Of various inflammatory cytokines tested, only interleukin 1β and tumor necrosis factor alpha induced Fas Ag expression, and removal of either of these from the conditioned medium abrogated the response. When exposed to Fas ligand, RGM-1 cells treated with PBMC-conditioned medium underwent massive and rapid cell death, interestingly, with a minimal effect on total cell numbers early on. Cell cycle analysis revealed a substantial increase in S phase cells among cells exposed to Fas ligand, suggesting an increase in their proliferative response. Taken together, these data indicate that the immune environment secondary to H. pylori infection plays a critical role in priming gastric mucosal cells to undergo apoptosis or to proliferate based upon their Fas Ag status. PMID:10678925

  8. Carrageenan Primes Leukocytes To Enhance Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Production

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Masanori; Matsui, Takashi; Kita, Toshiro; Shigematsu, Akio

    1999-01-01

    We have previously reported that pretreatment with carrageenan (CAR) enhances lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production in and lethality for mice. Whole blood cultured in vitro was used to show that CAR pretreatment results in about a 200-fold increase in LPS-induced TNF-α production. CAR by itself did not induce TNF-α production. However, CAR-treated cultured medium sensitized whole blood to make more LPS-induced TNF than did saline-treated cultured medium in vitro. It was also demonstrated that CAR pretreatment increases TNF-α mRNA levels of both blood cells and peritoneal exudate cells, but not of bone marrow cells. Immunoelectron microscopic analysis revealed that polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages are TNF-α-producing cells in CAR-treated mice. In CAR-treated mice, TNF-α was seen early after LPS injection in leukocytes in hepatic sinusoids and on the surfaces of endothelial cells. TNF-α was also detected late after LPS injection in hepatocytes which become edematous. These results suggest that CAR primes leukocytes to produce TNF-α in response to LPS and that they play an important role in the pathogenesis of liver injury. PMID:10377102

  9. Regulation of bovine E-selectin expression by recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha and lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Van Kampen, C; Mallard, B A

    2001-05-30

    Induction of adhesion molecules by cytokines and LPS is an important mechanism of regulating leukocyte migration into tissue. Expression and regulation of E-selectin may be differentially influenced by the stimuli involved with effects on mRNA or surface protein kinetics. Surface protein and mRNA expression kinetics of bovine E-selectin were measured and compared in primary cultures of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) stimulated for various periods of time with recombinant bovine tumor necrosis factor alpha (rbTNF-alpha) or Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). E-selectin mRNA expression was measured via quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR) using a construct that contained multiple synthetic oligonucleotides for several bovine adhesion molecules and cytokines. Surface expression of E-selectin was measured by flow cytometry. Unstimulated BAECs expressed minimum or no E-selectin on the surface. A low number of endothelial cells expressed surface E-selectin as early as 1h post-stimulation and surface expression was sustained after both stimuli for 24-72h. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) indicated peak surface concentration of E-selectin at 6 h post-stimulation after LPS followed by a gradual decrease to 72h without returning to baseline values. Mean fluorescence intensity following stimulation with TNF-alpha increased slightly between 0 and 72h. The pattern of mRNA expression differed between stimuli. LPS-stimulated BAECs expressed peak amounts of E-selectin mRNA at 6 h, followed by a decline to baseline by 24 h. Conversely, BAECs stimulated with rbTNF-alpha expressed significantly (p pound 0.05) higher amounts of mRNA at 1h than compared to unstimulated controls (0 h), but this decreased to below baseline levels by 6h; followed by a gradual increase and eventually a sharp increase between 18 and 72 h. To account for the lack of correlation between mRNA and protein expression, it was hypothesized that shedding of surface E-selectin accounted at least in part, for the large increase in mRNA expression seen at 18-72h. Culture supernatants from rbTNF-alpha-treated BAECs were harvested, and tested for the presence of shed E-selectin using ELISA. Unstimulated culture supernatants contained little or no E-selectin. Between 6 and 48 h, the concentration of E-selectin in culture supernatants from rbTNF-alpha-stimulated BAECs increased approximately two-fold, suggesting that the sharp increase in E-selectin mRNA expression around 18 h may be related to significant loss of surface E-selectin during this period. PMID:11389952

  10. Pentoxifylline prevents indomethacin induced acute gastric mucosal damage in rats: role of tumour necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Santucci, L; Fiorucci, S; Giansanti, M; Brunori, P M; Di Matteo, F M; Morelli, A

    1994-01-01

    Neutrophil adherence within the gastric microcirculation is thought to be a major step in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal damage induced by indomethacin. Pentoxifylline, a methylxanthine derivative, prevents leukocyte adherence to vascular endothelium and protects organs from shock by reducing tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) concentrations. Rats were treated with 20 mg/kg oral indomethacin, pretreated with vehicle or with four different doses of pentoxifylline intraperitoneally, and killed after three hours. The gross gastric mucosal injury, neutrophil margination into the gastric microcirculation, mucosal concentrations of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (PGF1 alpha), and PGE2 and serum TNF alpha values were measured. Whether the pentoxifylline induced protection involved nitric oxide mediated pathways or gastric acid secretion was evaluated. The data indicate that pentoxifylline reduces indomethacin induced mucosal damage and neutrophil margination in a dose dependent manner without exerting any effect on gastric mucosal prostaglandin concentrations. The maximally effective dose (200 mg/kg) of pentoxifylline reduced gastric damage by 90% and slightly stimulated acid secretion. The effect of pentoxifylline was not affected by pretreatment with the nitric oxide inhibitor. Pentoxifylline prevented the indomethacin induced increase in TNF alpha concentrations in a dose dependent fashion. Serum TNF alpha values were 30.5 (7.0) IU/ml (mean (SEM)) in rats treated with indomethacin alone and 5.0 (2.5) IU/ml (p < 0.01) in rats treated with indomethacin plus 200 mg/kg pentoxifylline. Pentoxifylline, therefore, prevents the acute gastric mucosal damage and neutrophil margination induced by indomethacin and reduces indomethacin induced release of TNF alpha. PMID:8063218

  11. Bacterial evasion of host immune defense: Yersinia enterocolitica encodes a suppressor for tumor necrosis factor alpha expression.

    PubMed Central

    Beuscher, H U; Rödel, F; Forsberg, A; Röllinghoff, M

    1995-01-01

    The ability of the enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica to survive and proliferate in host tissue depends on a 70-kb plasmid known to encode a number of released Yersinia outer proteins that act as virulence factors by inducing cytotoxicity and inhibiting phagocytosis. This study demonstrates that one of the Yersinia outer proteins, the 41-kDa YopB, suppresses the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), a macrophage-derived cytokine with central roles in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses to infection. This conclusion is based on several lines of evidence. First, in macrophage cultures, suppression of TNF-alpha mRNA expression was induced by culture supernatant (CS+) of plasmid-bearing yersiniae, the effect which was blocked by anti-YopB antiserum. Second, suppression of TNF-alpha production, but not of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6, was induced by purified YopB. Third, in Yersinia-infected mice, no increase in TNF-alpha mRNA expression was observed in Peyer's patches, the primary site of bacterial invasion, compared with IL-1 (alpha and beta) mRNA. Finally, administration of anti-YopB antiserum to mice prior to infection with Y. enterocolitica increased TNF activity levels in Peyer's patches and coincided with a reduction in bacterial growth. The results thus provide direct evidence for a secreted eubacterial virulence factor that mediates selective suppression of TNF-alpha production. Although suppression of this single cytokine response is probably not sufficient to facilitate survival of the infecting organisms, the results suggest that suppression of TNF-alpha production by YopB significantly contributes to the evasion of Y. enterocolitica from antibacterial host defense. PMID:7890384

  12. The immediate early genes of human cytomegalovirus upregulate tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Geist, L J; Monick, M M; Stinski, M F; Hunninghake, G W

    1994-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important cause of disease in the immunocompromised patient and CMV infection is associated with predominantly mononuclear inflammatory response. Since products of the CMV immediate early (IE) gene region are potent trans-activators, we used the monocyte cell line THP-1 and a transient transfection assay to determine if these viral proteins upregulate expression of the TNF gene. The IE genes of CMV upregulated TNF gene activity as judged by increases in promoter activity, steady state mRNA, and protein production. The presence or absence of the 3' untranslated region of the TNF gene did not affect gene expression induced by the IE gene products. These studies suggest that activation of TNF gene expression by the CMV IE gene products may, in part, account for the inflammatory response associated with CMV infections. Images PMID:8113386

  13. Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF{alpha}) regulates CD40 expression through SMAR1 phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Kamini; Sinha, Surajit; Malonia, Sunil Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Samit

    2010-01-08

    CD40 plays an important role in mediating inflammatory response and is mainly induced by JAK/STAT phosphorylation cascade. TNF{alpha} is the key cytokine that activates CD40 during inflammation and tumorigenesis. We have earlier shown that SMAR1 can repress the transcription of Cyclin D1 promoter by forming a HDAC1 dependent repressor complex. In this study, we show that SMAR1 regulates the transcription of NF-{kappa}B target gene CD40. SMAR1 recruits HDAC1 and forms a repressor complex on CD40 promoter and keeps its basal transcription in check. Further, we show that TNF{alpha} stimulation induces SMAR1 phosphorylation at Ser-347 and promotes its cytoplasmic translocation, thus releasing its negative effect. Concomitantly, TNF{alpha} induced phosphorylation of STAT1 at Tyr-701 by JAK1 facilitates its nuclear translocation and activation of CD40 through p300 recruitment and core Histone-3 acetylation. Thus, TNF{alpha} mediated regulation of CD40 expression occurs by dual phosphorylation of SMAR1 and STAT1.

  14. Detection of perforin and tumour necrosis factor alpha mRNA expressing cells in sclerosing lymphocytic lobulitis of the breast.

    PubMed Central

    Hunger, R E; Hristic, M; Mueller, C; Kappeler, A; Altermatt, H J

    1997-01-01

    The contribution of a cellular immune response to tissue destruction in sclerosing lymphocytic lobulitis of the breast is not well understood. In this study, comparison of one case with two age matched control cases showed an increased frequency of activated perforin mRNA expressing cells at the site of tissue destruction in lobulitis. Along with the detection of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) mRNA expressing cells in the infiltrates, the striking association of perforin expressing activated cytotoxic cells with remaining gland parenchyma and the high level of perforin mRNA suggests activation of cytotoxic cells in situ. These findings are evidence that cell mediated cytotoxicity plays a significant role in the destruction of mammary gland tissue in sclerosing lymphocytic lobulitis. Images PMID:9215147

  15. Ubiquitination-deubiquitination by the TRIM27-USP7 complex regulates tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Mohammad Mahabub-Uz; Nomura, Teruaki; Takagi, Tsuyoshi; Okamura, Tomoo; Jin, Wanzhu; Shinagawa, Toshie; Tanaka, Yasunori; Ishii, Shunsuke

    2013-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) plays a role in apoptosis and proliferation in multiple types of cells, and defects in TNF-α-induced apoptosis are associated with various autoimmune diseases. Here, we show that TRIM27, a tripartite motif (TRIM) protein containing RING finger, B-box, and coiled-coil domains, positively regulates TNF-α-induced apoptosis. Trim27-deficient mice are resistant to TNF-α-d-galactosamine-induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Trim27-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are also resistant to TNF-α-cycloheximide-induced apoptosis. TRIM27 forms a complex with and ubiquitinates the ubiquitin-specific protease USP7, which deubiquitinates receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1), resulting in the positive regulation of TNF-α-induced apoptosis. Our findings indicate that the ubiquitination-deubiquitination cascade mediated by the TRIM27-USP7 complex plays an important role in TNF-α-induced apoptosis. PMID:24144979

  16. Involvement of Mst1 in tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced apoptosis of endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtsubo, Hideki; Ichiki, Toshihiro Imayama, Ikuyo; Ono, Hiroki; Fukuyama, Kae; Hashiguchi, Yasuko; Sadoshima, Junichi; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2008-03-07

    Mammalian sterile 20-kinase 1 (Mst1), a member of the sterile-20 family protein kinase, plays an important role in the induction of apoptosis. However, little is know about the physiological activator of Mst1 and the role of Mst1 in endothelial cells (ECs). We examined whether Mst1 is involved in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}-induced apoptosis of ECs. Western blot analysis revealed that TNF-{alpha} induced activation of caspase 3 and Mst1 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. TNF-{alpha}-induced Mst1 activation is almost completely prevented by pretreatment with Z-DEVD-FMK, a caspase 3 inhibitor. Nuclear staining with Hoechst 33258 and fluorescence-activated cell sorting of propidium iodide-stained cells showed that TNF-{alpha} induced apoptosis of EC. Diphenyleneiodonium, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, and N-acetylcysteine, a potent antioxidant, also inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced activation of Mst1 and caspase 3, as well as apoptosis. Knockdown of Mst1 expression by short interfering RNA attenuated TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis but not cleavage of caspase 3. These results suggest that Mst1 plays an important role in the induction of TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis of EC. However, positive feedback mechanism between Mst1 and caspase 3, which was shown in the previous studies, was not observed. Inhibition of Mst1 function may be beneficial for maintaining the endothelial integrity and inhibition of atherogenesis.

  17. Distinct Mechanisms of Inadequate Erythropoiesis Induced by Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha or Malarial Pigment

    PubMed Central

    Lamikanra, Abigail A.; Merryweather-Clarke, Alison T.; Tipping, Alex J.; Roberts, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The role of infection in erythropoietic dysfunction is poorly understood. In children with P. falciparum malaria, the by-product of hemoglobin digestion in infected red cells (hemozoin) is associated with the severity of anemia which is independent of circulating levels of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α). To gain insight into the common and specific effects of TNF-α and hemozoin on erythropoiesis, we studied the gene expression profile of purified primary erythroid cultures exposed to either TNF-α (10ng/ml) or to hemozoin (12.5μg/ml heme units) for 24 hours. Perturbed gene function was assessed using co-annotation of associated gene ontologies and expression of selected genes representative of the profile observed was confirmed by real time PCR (rtPCR). The changes in gene expression induced by each agent were largely distinct; many of the genes significantly modulated by TNF-α were not affected by hemozoin. The genes modulated by TNF-α were significantly enriched for those encoding proteins involved in the control of type 1 interferon signalling and the immune response to viral infection. In contrast, genes induced by hemozoin were significantly enriched for functional roles in regulation of transcription and apoptosis. Further analyses by rtPCR revealed that hemozoin increases expression of transcription factors that form part of the integrated stress response which is accompanied by reduced expression of genes involved in DNA repair. This study confirms that hemozoin induces cellular stress on erythroblasts that is additional to and distinct from responses to inflammatory cytokines and identifies new genes that may be involved in the pathogenesis of severe malarial anemia. More generally the respective transcription profiles highlight the varied mechanisms through which erythropoiesis may be disrupted during infectious disease. PMID:25781011

  18. ARID3B Induces Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Mediated Apoptosis While a Novel ARID3B Splice Form Does Not Induce Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Stancy; Deneke, Victoria E.; Cowden Dahl, Karen D.

    2012-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a common occurrence in many cancers. Alternative splicing is linked with decreased apoptosis and chemoresistance in cancer cells. We previously demonstrated that ARID3B, a member of the AT-rich interactive domain (ARID) family of DNA binding proteins, is overexpressed in ovarian cancer. Therefore we wanted to assess the effect of ARID3B splice forms on cell viability. We identified a novel splice form of the ARID3B gene (designated as ARID3B Sh), which lacks the C-terminal exons 5–9 present in the full-length isoform (ARID3B Fl). ARID3B Fl is expressed in a variety of cancer cell lines. Expression of ARID3B Sh varied by cell type, but was highly expressed in most ovarian cancer lines. ARID3B is modestly transcriptionally activated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling through the PEA3 transcription factor. We further found that ARID3B Fl is predominantly nuclear but is also present at the plasma membrane and in the cytosol. Endogenous ARID3B Sh is present in nuclear fractions, yet, when overexpressed ARID3B Sh accumulates in the cytosol and membrane fractions. The differential localization of these isoforms suggests they have different functions. Importantly, ARID3B Fl overexpression results in upregulation of pro-apoptotic BIM and induces Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFα) and TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) induced cell death. The ARID3B Fl-induced genes include TNFα, TRAIL, TRADD, TNF-R2, Caspase 10 and Caspase 7. Interestingly, ARID3B Sh does not induce apoptosis or expression of these genes. ARID3B Fl induces death receptor mediated apoptosis while the novel splice form ARID3B Sh does not induce cell death. Therefore alternative splice forms of ARID3B may play different roles in ovarian cancer progression. PMID:22860069

  19. Thermotherapy-induced reduction in glioma invasiveness is mediated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Qin, L J; Zhang, T; Jia, Y S; Zhang, Y B; Zhang, Y X; Wang, H T

    2015-01-01

    Thermotherapy has been proven to be effective for the treatment of various tumors, including glioma. We determined whether tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is involved in the regulation of the biological processes of glioma development. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemistry were used to investigate the levels of TNF-α mRNA and heat shock factor-1 (HSF1) protein, respectively, in glioma cells. Radioimmunoassay was used to dynamically monitor the contents of TNF-α in the nutrient fluid of C6 cells after thermotherapy treatment. Crystal violet staining was used to determine glioma invasiveness. The most obvious increases in HSF1 protein and TNF-α mRNA in C6 cells were observed at 30 and 60 min after thermotherapy, respectively. In addition, the radioactivity of TNF-α in the culture fluid of the C6 cells reached a peak after 120 min of thermotherapy. In addition, glioma invasiveness decreased and the concentration of TNF-α reached a maximum after 120 min of thermotherapy. Our results show that the decrease in thermotherapy-mediated glioma invasiveness is due to the accelerated release of TNF-α, which could promote the release of HSF1 from neurospongioma cells. PMID:26436502

  20. The promoting effect of tumour necrosis factor alpha in radiation-induced cell transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Guo, R. F.; Gong, Y. F.

    1998-01-01

    The ability of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), a potent endogenous inflammatory agent, to promote malignant transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells (SHE) initiated by a 0.5-Gy dose of alpha-particles was investigated. Opsonized zymosan particles, which were phagocytosed by a human macrophage-like cell line, triggered TNF-alpha production from U937 cells. This cell supernatant could significantly increase the transformation frequency (TF) of primary SHE cells previously irradiated by a 0.5-Gy dose of alpha-particles. The TF decreased significantly if monoclonal antibody against TNF-alpha was added to the supernatant. Similarly, recombinant human TNF-alpha (rhTNF-alpha) increased the TF of alpha-irradiated primary SHE cells to an even greater extent. Addition of TNF-alpha to subcultures of irradiated SHE cells permitted the continuous propagation of these primary cells. In contrast, both TNF-alpha-treated control and alpha-irradiated cells without subsequent TNF-alpha treatment senesced after 7-15 passages. Irradiated SHE cells treated continuously with TNF-alpha could be subcultured over 40 passages and produced fibrosarcomas upon inoculation into nude mice. Our results provide the first evidence that TNF-alpha released by activated macrophages may contribute to the process of malignant transformation initiated by low-dose alpha-particles. PMID:9579824

  1. Erythropoietin protects myocardin-expressing cardiac stem cells against cytotoxicity of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Madonna, Rosalinda; Institute of Cardiology, and Center of Excellence on Aging, 'G. d'Annunzio' University, Chieti ; Shelat, Harnath; Xue, Qun; Willerson, James T.; The Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Houston, Texas ; De Caterina, Raffaele; Geng, Yong-Jian; The Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Houston, Texas

    2009-10-15

    Cardiac stem cells are vulnerable to inflammation caused by infarction or ischemic injury. The growth factor, erythropoietin (Epo), ameliorates the inflammatory response of the myocardium to ischemic injury. This study was designed to assess the role of Epo in regulation of expression and activation of the cell death-associated intracellular signaling components in cardiac myoblasts stimulated with the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}. Cardiac myoblasts isolated from canine embryonic hearts characterized by expression of myocardin A, a promyogenic transcription factor for cardiovascular muscle development were pretreated with Epo and then exposed to TNF-{alpha}. Compared to untreated cells, the Epo-treated cardiac myoblasts exhibited better morphology and viability. Immunoblotting revealed lower levels of active caspase-3 and reductions in iNOS expression and NO production in Epo-treated cells. Furthermore, Epo pretreatment reduced nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B and inhibited phosphorylation of inhibitor of kappa B (I{kappa}B) in TNF-{alpha}-stimulated cardiac myoblasts. Thus, Epo protects cardiac myocyte progenitors or myoblasts against the cytotoxic effects of TNF-{alpha} by inhibiting NF-{kappa}B-mediated iNOS expression and NO production and by preventing caspase-3 activation.

  2. Immunocytochemical increased evidence of inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and adrenocorticotropic hormone in human peritumoral lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Aldo; Landolfo, Giovanni; Sassi, Davide; Franchini, Antonella; Ottaviani, Enzo

    2002-03-01

    In the current study, mesenteric and peritumoral lymph nodes surgically removed from patients with colon-rectum cancer were studied. Morphologic and immunocytochemical investigations demonstrated that mesenteric (control) and peritumoral lymph nodes of a same patient showed the same morphologic structure, but a different immunocytochemical pattern. Indeed, an increased immunoreactivity to anti-inducible nitric oxide synthase, anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and anti-adrenocorticotropic hormone antibodies in the lymphatic tissue of peritumoral lymph nodes compared with mesenteric lymph nodes was observed. These findings suggest that in colon-rectum cancer, the pathologic event induces an increased expression of the molecules involved in the processes of inflammation and carcinogenesis that occurs earlier than the appearance of morphologic modifications. PMID:11893036

  3. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide expression and secretion from rat trigeminal ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Elizabeth J; Schmidt, Thomas W; Firm, Christina S; Russo, Andrew F; Durham, Paul L

    2006-01-01

    Expression of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in trigeminal ganglion is implicated in neurovascular headaches and temporomandibular joint disorders. Elevation of cytokines contributes to the pathology of these diseases. However, a connection between cytokines and CGRP gene expression in trigeminal ganglion nerves has not been established. We have focused on the effects of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). TNFR1 receptors were found on the majority of CGRP-containing rat trigeminal ganglion neurons. Treatment of cultures with TNF-alpha stimulated CGRP secretion. In addition, the intracellular signaling intermediate from the TNFR1 receptor, ceramide, caused a similar increase in CGRP release. TNF-alpha caused a coordinate increase in CGRP promoter activity. TNF-alpha treatment activated the transcription factor NF-kappaB, as well as the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways. The importance of TNF-alpha induction of MAP kinase pathways was demonstrated by inhibiting MAP kinases with pharmacological reagents and gene transfer with an adenoviral vector encoding MAP kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1). We propose that selective and regulated inhibition of MAP kinases in trigeminal neurons may be therapeutically beneficial for inflammatory disorders involving elevated CGRP levels. PMID:16277606

  4. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α–β-Catenin Axis Regulates Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Gene Activation through Chromatin Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sadashib; Paul, Arkoprovo

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) plays a crucial role in the progression of glioblastoma multiforme tumors, which are characterized by their effective immune escape mechanisms. As major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) is involved in glioma immune evasion and since HIF-1α is a pivotal link between inflammation and glioma progression, the role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced inflammation in MHC-I gene regulation was investigated. A TNF-α-induced increase in MHC-I expression and transcriptional activation was concurrent with increased HIF-1α, ΝF-κΒ, and β-catenin activities. While knockdown of HIF-1α and β-catenin abrogated TNF-α-induced MHC-I activation, NF-κB had no effect. β-Catenin inhibition abrogated HIF-1α activation and vice versa, and this HIF-1α–β-catenin axis positively regulated CREB phosphorylation. Increased CREB activation was accompanied by its increased association with β-catenin and CBP. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed increased CREB enrichment at CRE/site α on the MHC-I promoter in a β-catenin-dependent manner. β-Catenin replaced human Brahma (hBrm) with Brg1 as the binding partner for CREB at the CRE site. The hBrm-to-Brg1 switch is crucial for MHC-I regulation, as ATPase-deficient Brg1 abolished TNF-α-induced MHC-I expression. β-Catenin also increased the association of MHC-I enhanceosome components RFX5 and NF-YB at the SXY module. CREB acts as a platform for assembling coactivators and chromatin remodelers required for MHC-I activation in a HIF-1α/β-catenin-dependent manner. PMID:23671189

  5. Expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and its receptors type I and type II in human oocytes.

    PubMed

    Naz, R K; Zhu, X; Menge, A C

    1997-06-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and its receptors (types I and II, designated TNFR-I and TNFR-II, respectively) in human oocytes and cumulus cells at the mRNA and protein levels. mRNA expression was investigated using a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/Southern hybridization procedure. DNA-free RNA was isolated from the oocytes/cumulus cells, reverse-transcribed, and PCR-amplified using specific oligonucleotide primers based upon genomic/cDNA sequences. The expected bands of 303 bp and 513 bp were observed in oocytes and cumulus cells using primers based on genomic/cDNA sequences of TNF-alpha and TNFR-II, respectively, that hybridized with specific cDNA probes in Southern blot hybridization procedure. The expected band of 368 bp was not observed in oocytes and cumulus cells using primers based on the TNFR-I cDNA sequence. Similar results were observed for expression at the protein level, as seen by the immunoreactivity of the specific antibodies with the paraformaldehyde-fixed oocytes and cumulus cells in the indirect immunofluorescence technique (IFT). These results indicate that human oocytes and cumulus cells express TNF-alpha and its receptor type II (TNFR-II), and not type I (TNFR-I), both at the mRNA and protein levels. These findings provide further evidence and substantiate the proposed physiologic role of TNF-alpha in ovarian function, and may lead to clinical applications in in vitro fertilization programs and in diagnosis and treatment of infertility in women, especially in cases attributed to ovarian dysfunction. PMID:9136112

  6. Interleukin-1 beta, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Enayati, Samaneh; Seifirad, Soroush; Amiri, Parvin; Abolhalaj, Milad; Mohammad -Amoli, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Several inflammatory mediators have been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quantitative expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in un-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) gene expression were evaluated in angiography confirmed patients with and without CAD in a case-control study using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS A significant increase (P = 0.030) in IL-1β gene expression was found in patients with CAD [median interquartile range (IQR) = 4.890 (6.084)] compared to patients without CAD [median (IQR) = 1.792 (3.172)]. Despite the increase in IFN-γ gene expression in patients with CAD [median (IQR) = 1.298 (3.896)] versus patients without CAD [median (IQR) = 0.841 (2.79)], there was not statistically significant difference (P = 0.990). CONCLUSION Our results provide evidence for possible association between IL-1β and development of atherosclerosis as a crucial cytokine that induce a network of signaling pathways. This finding if proved in future would suggest IL-1β as a potent therapeutic target in CAD. PMID:26715931

  7. Effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma on expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in human bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, K Y; Moon, H S; Park, H Y; Lee, T Y; Woo, Y N; Kim, H J; Lee, S J; Kong, G

    2000-10-31

    We have investigated the effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon (INF-gamma), the potent Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-induced cytokines on the production of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and MT1-MMP in high grade human bladder cancer cell lines, T-24, J-82 and HT-1376 cell lines. MMP-2 expression and activity were decreased in T-24 cells treated with both cytokines in a dose dependent manner. However, J-82 cells treated with TNF-alpha and INF-gamma revealed dose dependent increases of MMP-9 expression and activity with similar baseline expression and activity of MMP-2. HT-1376 cells after exposure to TNF-alpha only enhanced the expression and activity of MMP-9. These results indicate that TNF-alpha and INF-gamma could regulate the production of MMP-2 or MMP-9 on bladder cancer cells and their patterns of regulation are cell specific. Furthermore, this diverse response of bladder cancer cells to TNF-alpha and INF-gamma suggests that BCG immunotherapy may enhance the invasiveness of bladder cancer in certain conditions with induction of MMPs. PMID:10996723

  8. Tumor necrosis factor alpha suppresses osteogenic differentiation of MSCs by inhibiting semaphorin 3B via Wnt/β-catenin signaling in estrogen-deficiency induced osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Sang, Chenglin; Zhang, Yongxian; Chen, Fangjing; Huang, Ping; Qi, Jin; Wang, Pingshan; Zhou, Qi; Kang, Hui; Cao, Xuecheng; Guo, Lei

    2016-03-01

    The proinflammatory cytokines, especially tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), have been shown to inhibit osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and bone formation in estrogen-deficiency-induced osteoporosis, but the mechanisms of TNF-α impaired bone formation remain poorly understood. Semaphorins have been shown to regulate cell growth, cell migration, and cell differentiation in a variety of tissues, including bone tissue. Here, we identified a novel mechanism whereby TNF-α, suppressing Semaphorin3B expression contributes to estrogen-deficiency-induced osteoporosis. In this study, we found that TNF-α could decrease Semaphorin3B expression in osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Overexpression of Semaphorin3B in MSCs attenuated the inhibitory effects of TNF-α on MSCs proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation. Mechanistically, activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling markedly rescued TNF-α-inhibited Semaphorin3B expression, suggesting that Wnt/β-catenin signaling was involved in the regulation of Semaphorin3B expression by TNF-α. Taken together, our results revealed a novel function for Semaphorin3B and suggested that suppressed Semaphorin3B may contribute to impaired bone formation by elevated TNF-α in estrogen-deficiency-induced osteoporosis. This study may indicate a therapeutic target gene of Semaphorin3B for osteoporosis. PMID:26723579

  9. Tumor necrosis factor alpha promotes the expression of immunosuppressive proteins and enhances the cell growth in a human bone marrow-derived stem cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Miettinen, Johanna A.; Pietilae, Mika; Salonen, Riikka J.; Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu ; Ohlmeier, Steffen; Ylitalo, Kari; Huikuri, Heikki V.; Lehenkari, Petri

    2011-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in experimental treatments for various conditions that involve normal tissue regeneration via inflammatory repair. It is known that MSCs can secrete multiple soluble factors and suppress inflammation. Even though the effect of MSCs on inflammation has been extensively studied, the effect of inflammation on MSCs is poorly understood. One of the major cytokines released at the site of inflammation is tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-{alpha}) which is known to induce MSC invasion and proliferation. Therefore, we wanted to test the effects of TNF-{alpha} exposure on MSCs derived from human bone marrow. We found, as expected, that cell proliferation was significantly enhanced during TNF-{alpha} exposure. However, according to the cell surface marker analysis, the intensity of several antigens in the minimum criteria panel for MSCs proposed by International Society of Cellular Therapy (ISCT) was decreased dramatically, and in certain cases, the criteria for MSCs were not fulfilled. In addition, TNF-{alpha} exposure resulted in a significant but transient increase in human leukocyte antigen and CD54 expression. Additional proteomic analysis by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry revealed three proteins whose expression levels decreased and 8 proteins whose expression levels increased significantly during TNF-{alpha} exposure. The majority of these proteins could be linked to immunosuppressive and signalling pathways. These results strongly support reactive and immunosuppressive activation of MSCs during TNF-{alpha} exposure, which might influence MSC differentiation stage and capacity.

  10. Tumor necrosis factor alpha promotes the expression of immunosuppressive proteins and enhances the cell growth in a human bone marrow-derived stem cell culture.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, Johanna A; Pietilä, Mika; Salonen, Riikka J; Ohlmeier, Steffen; Ylitalo, Kari; Huikuri, Heikki V; Lehenkari, Petri

    2011-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in experimental treatments for various conditions that involve normal tissue regeneration via inflammatory repair. It is known that MSCs can secrete multiple soluble factors and suppress inflammation. Even though the effect of MSCs on inflammation has been extensively studied, the effect of inflammation on MSCs is poorly understood. One of the major cytokines released at the site of inflammation is tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) which is known to induce MSC invasion and proliferation. Therefore, we wanted to test the effects of TNF-α exposure on MSCs derived from human bone marrow. We found, as expected, that cell proliferation was significantly enhanced during TNF-α exposure. However, according to the cell surface marker analysis, the intensity of several antigens in the minimum criteria panel for MSCs proposed by International Society of Cellular Therapy (ISCT) was decreased dramatically, and in certain cases, the criteria for MSCs were not fulfilled. In addition, TNF-α exposure resulted in a significant but transient increase in human leukocyte antigen and CD54 expression. Additional proteomic analysis by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry revealed three proteins whose expression levels decreased and 8 proteins whose expression levels increased significantly during TNF-α exposure. The majority of these proteins could be linked to immunosuppressive and signalling pathways. These results strongly support reactive and immunosuppressive activation of MSCs during TNF-α exposure, which might influence MSC differentiation stage and capacity. PMID:21182837

  11. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Up-Regulates ICAM-1 Expression and Release in Intestinal Myofibroblasts by Redox-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Fontani, Filippo; Domazetovic, Vladana; Marcucci, Tommaso; Vincenzini, Maria Teresa; Iantomasi, Teresa

    2016-02-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is distributed and expressed on cell surface and is present in circulation as soluble form (sICAM-1). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and radical oxygen species (ROS) up-regulate the expression of ICAM-1. This study demonstrates for the first time in 18 Co cells, a myofibroblast cell line derived from human colonic mucosa, an up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression and sICAM-1 release induced by oxidative stress and TNFα stimulation. The intracellular redox state was modulated by L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO) or N-acetylcysteine (NAC), inhibitor and precursor respectively of GSH synthesis. ROS production increases in cells treated with BSO or TNFα, and this has been related to an up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression and sICAM-1 release. The involvement of metalloproteinases in ICAM-1 release has been demonstrated. Moreover, also expression and activation of A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17, a membrane-bound enzyme known as TNFα-converting enzyme (TACE), have been related to ROS levels. This suggests the possible involvement of TACE in the cleavage of ICAM-1 on cell surface in condition of oxidative stress. NAC down-regulates the expression and release of ICAM-1 as well as the expression and activation of TACE. However, in TNFα stimulated cells NAC treatment reduces only in part ICAM-1 expression and sICAM-1 release. Given this TNFα may also act on these events by a redox-independent mechanism. PMID:26177712

  12. Erythromycin Inhibits Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Interleukin 6 Production Induced by Heat-Killed Streptococcus pneumoniae in Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Marc J.; Speelman, Peter; Zaat, Sebastian; van Deventer, Sander J. H.; van der Poll, Tom

    1998-01-01

    To determine the effects of penicillin and erythromycin on cytokine production induced by heat-killed Streptococcus pneumoniae (HKSP), we studied the effects of those drugs on cytokine production induced by S. pneumoniae in human whole blood in vitro and ex vivo. In whole blood in vitro, erythromycin, but not penicillin, caused a dose-dependent decrease in HKSP-induced production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), while the production of IL-10, IL-12, and gamma interferon was inhibited only at the highest erythromycin concentration tested (10−3 M). The production of TNF and IL-6 in whole blood obtained from healthy subjects after a 30-min infusion of erythromycin (1,000 mg) was lower after ex vivo stimulation with HKSP than that in blood drawn before the infusion. Inhibition of TNF contributed to erythromycin-induced inhibition of IL-6 synthesis. Inhibition of TNF and IL-6 production by erythromycin may have a negative impact on host defense mechanisms during pneumococcal pneumonia. PMID:9660992

  13. Transforming growth factor-alpha-induced transcriptional activation of the vascular permeability factor (VPF/VEGF) gene requires AP-2-dependent DNA binding and transactivation.

    PubMed Central

    Gille, J; Swerlick, R A; Caughman, S W

    1997-01-01

    The endothelial cell-specific mitogen vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (VPF/VEGF) represents a central regulator of cutaneous angiogenesis. Increased VPF/VEGF expression has recently been reported in psoriatic skin and healing wounds, both conditions in which transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF alpha) and its ligand, the epidermal growth factor receptor, are markedly up-regulated. Since TGF alpha strongly induces VPF/VEGF synthesis in keratinocytes, TGF alpha-mediated VPF/VEGF expression is likely to play a significant role in the initiation and maintenance of increased vascular hyperpermeability and hyperproliferation in skin biology. The objectives of the present studies were to determine the molecular mechanisms responsible for TGF alpha-induced transcriptional activation of the VPF/VEGF gene. We have identified a GC-rich TGF alpha-responsive region between -88 bp and -65 bp of the VPF/VEGF promoter that is necessary for constitutive and TGF alpha-inducible transcriptional activation. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, this region binds Sp1-dependent protein complexes constitutively and an additional TGF alpha-inducible protein complex that is distinct from Sp1 protein. Both AP-2 and Egr-1 transcription factors were detected as components of the TGF alpha-inducible protein complex in supershift EMSA studies. In co-transfection studies, an AP-2 but not an Egr-1 expression vector activated VPF/VEGF transcription, thus indicating that AP-2 protein is functionally important in TGF alpha-induced VPF/VEGF gene expression. By clarifying regulatory mechanisms that are critical for angiogenic processes in the skin, these studies may form the basis for new therapeutic strategies to modulate VPF/VEGF expression in cutaneous inflammation and wound healing. PMID:9049304

  14. Modulation of uridine phosphorylase gene expression by tumor necrosis factor-alpha enhances the antiproliferative activity of the capecitabine intermediate 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wan, Laxiang; Cao, Deliang; Zeng, Jianmin; Yan, Ruilan; Pizzorno, Giuseppe

    2006-04-01

    Uridine phosphorylase (UPase) has been shown to play an important role in the antineoplastic activity of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and in the anabolism of its oral prodrug, capecitabine, through the conversion of 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-DFUR) into 5-FU. In this study, we investigated the effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on UPase gene expression and 5'-DFUR antiproliferative activity and elucidated the involved signal transduction pathway. Our data indicate that TNF-alpha significantly induced UPase mRNA expression and its enzymatic activity in EMT6 murine breast cancer cells, leading to an enhanced cytotoxicity of 5'-DFUR. This is further confirmed by an increased incorporation of 5'-DFUR-originated 5-FU nucleotides into nucleic acids. To clarify the mechanism of TNF-alpha-induced UPase expression, we first observed the effect of TNF-alpha on the UPase promoter activity with a series of 5'-deleted promoter-luciferase constructs. Transient transfection analysis showed that the TNF-alpha-inductive pattern in EMT6 cells was consistent with the presence of a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) binding element (-1332/-1312 bp) in the UPase promoter region. Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assays, supershift, and cotransfection assays revealed that the activation of p65 was responsible for UPase induction by TNF-alpha. Finally, the induction of UPase by TNF-alpha could be suppressed by PS-341, a NF-kappaB inhibitor. In summary, TNF-alpha efficiently induces UPase gene expression through a NF-kappaB subunit p65-dependent pathway enhancing cell sensitivity to 5'-DFUR. The elucidation of this regulation mechanism may aid in the clinical use of 5-FU-based chemotherapy. PMID:16397116

  15. Transforming growth factor alpha protection against drug-induced injury to the rat gastric mucosa in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Romano, M; Polk, W H; Awad, J A; Arteaga, C L; Nanney, L B; Wargovich, M J; Kraus, E R; Boland, C R; Coffey, R J

    1992-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) protects rat gastric mucosa against ethanol- and aspirin-induced injury. Systemic administration of TGF alpha dose-dependently decreased 100% ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury; a dose of 50 micrograms/kg delivered intraperitoneally 15 min before ethanol decreased macroscopic mucosal injury by > 90%. At the microscopic level, TGF alpha prevented deep gastric necrotic lesions and reduced disruption of surface epithelium. Pretreatment with orogastric TGF alpha (200 micrograms/kg) only partially (40%) decreased macroscopic ethanol damage. Intraperitoneal administration of TGF alpha at a dose of 10 micrograms/kg, which does not significantly inhibit gastric acid secretion, decreased aspirin-induced macroscopic damage by > 80%. TGF alpha protection does not seem to be mediated by prostaglandin, glutathione, or ornithine decarboxylase-related events, as evidenced by lack of influence of the inhibition of their production. Pretreatment with the sulfhydryl blocking agent N-ethylmaleimide partially abolished (40%) the protective effect of TGF alpha. In addition, systemic administration of TGF alpha resulted in a two-fold increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma 1 and in a time- and dose-dependent increase in levels of immunoreactive insoluble gastric mucin; these events occurred in a time frame consistent with their participation in the protective effect of TGF alpha. Images PMID:1281834

  16. Constitutive expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in cytotoxic cells of teleosts and its role in regulation of cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Praveen, Kesavannair; Evans, Donald L; Jaso-Friedmann, Liliana

    2006-02-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells are the main killer cell populations of the immune system. The mechanisms by which these cells recognize target cells vary considerably, while the effector molecules used to facilitate target cell death are highly conserved. The main pathways utilized by killer cells consist of granule exocytosis and those mediated by members of the TNF superfamily. Nonspecific cytotoxic cells (NCC) are the first identified cytotoxic cell population in teleosts. We have previously demonstrated the expression of granzymes and Fas ligand in these cells. This is the first report of the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in these killer cells. A cDNA coding for TNF was cloned and sequenced from NCC purified from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Factors regulating the transcriptional modulation of TNF in these cells were identified by RT-PCR analysis. The mature form of tilapia TNF was expressed as a recombinant protein and biological activities were analyzed. Using a cross-reacting anti-TNF polyclonal antibody, analysis of TNF expression suggested that tilapia NCC constitutively express the membrane-bound as well as secreted forms of TNF. Recombinant tilapia TNF effectively induced cytotoxicity in the mammalian cell line WEHI, although to a lesser extent compared to the murine TNF. Treatment with recombinant TNF protected NCC from activation-induced cell death. Recombinant tilapia TNF was also effective in upregulation of granzyme transcription in tilapia NCC. These data suggest that teleost TNF may play a role in diverse effector functions of cytotoxic cells from ectotherms, similar to the biological functions described for mammalian TNF. PMID:16199264

  17. Association of tumour necrosis factor alpha and its receptors with thymidine phosphorylase expression in invasive breast carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Leek, R. D.; Landers, R.; Fox, S. B.; Ng, F.; Harris, A. L.; Lewis, C. E.

    1998-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential requirement for tumour growth and metastasis and is regulated by a complex network of factors produced by both stromal cells and neoplastic cells within solid tumours. The cytokine tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and the enzyme thymidine phosphorylase (TP) are two factors known to promote tumour angiogenesis. We have demonstrated recently that high numbers of tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) are significantly associated with increased tumour angiogenesis and poor prognosis in invasive carcinoma of the breast. We have also shown that TAMs are a major source of TNF-alpha in invasive breast carcinomas, and that macrophage-like stromal cells as well as tumour cells synthesize TP in such tumours. However, little is known of the factors that regulate the production or activity of these factors in the tumour microenvironment. As TNF-alpha has been shown to up-regulate TP expression in tumour cells in vitro we performed an immunohistochemical study to investigate the possibility that TNF-alpha may be involved in the regulation of TP expression by malignant breast epithelial cells in vivo. To do this, we used a cocktail of non-neutralizing monoclonal anti-TNF-alpha antibodies to visualize both TNF-alpha-expressing macrophages and TNF-alpha bound to its receptors on tumour cells and endothelial cells in a series of 93 invasive carcinomas of the breast. A semiquantitative grading system was then used to compare these staining patterns with that for TP in the same biopsies. TNF-alpha immunoreactivity was also compared with various important tumour variables known to relate to outcome in this disease (microvessel density, node status, grade, stage, receptor status and macrophage infiltration), as well as relapse-free and overall survival data for these patients. Our data show significant positive correlations between TNF-alpha bound to its receptors on tumour cells and: (1) TP protein production by tumour cells, and (2) axillary lymph node status (i.e. metastasis). These results suggest that tumour cell responsiveness to TNF-alpha produced by neighbouring TAMs may play a part in the regulation of TP expression by tumour cells as well as their metastatic behaviour. This may explain, in part, the relationship between increased macrophage infiltration and angiogenesis in breast cancer, and further supports the contention that TAMs may represent an important target for future anti-angiogenic therapies. Images Figure 1 PMID:9649140

  18. Vgamma1+ T cells and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Shigeki; Takeda, Katsuyuki; Jin, Niyun; Okamoto, Masakazu; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Shiraishi, Yoshiki; Park, Jung Won; McConville, Glen; Joetham, Anthony; O'Brien, Rebecca L; Dakhama, Azzeddine; Born, Willi K; Gelfand, Erwin W

    2009-04-01

    gammadelta T cells regulate airway reactivity, but their role in ozone (O3)-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is not known. Our objective was to determine the role of gammadelta T cells in O3-induced AHR. Different strains of mice, including those that were genetically manipulated or antibody-depleted to render them deficient in total gammadelta T cells or specific subsets of gammadelta T cells, were exposed to 2.0 ppm of O3 for 3 hours. Airway reactivity to inhaled methacholine, airway inflammation, and epithelial cell damage were monitored. Exposure of C57BL/6 mice to O3 resulted in a transient increase in airway reactivity, neutrophilia, and increased numbers of epithelial cells in the lavage fluid. TCR-delta(-/-) mice did not develop AHR, although they exhibited an increase in neutrophils and epithelial cells in the lavage fluid. Similarly, depletion of gammadelta T cells in wild-type mice suppressed O3-induced AHR without influencing airway inflammation or epithelial damage. Depletion of Vgamma1+, but not of Vgamma4+ T cells, reduced O3-induced AHR, and transfer of total gammadelta T cells or Vgamma1+ T cells to TCR-delta(-/-) mice restored AHR. After transfer of Vgamma1+ cells to TCR-delta(-/-) mice, restoration of AHR after O3 exposure was blocked by anti-TNF-alpha. However, AHR could be restored in TCR-delta(-/-)mice by transfer of gammadelta T cells from TNF-alpha-deficient mice, indicating that another cell type was the source of TNF-alpha. These results demonstrate that TNF-alpha and activation of Vgamma1+ gammadelta T cells are required for the development of AHR after O3 exposure. PMID:18927346

  19. Involvement of the membrane form of tumour necrosis factor-alpha in lipopolysaccharide-induced priming of mouse peritoneal macrophages for enhanced nitric oxide response to lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Ancuta, P; Fahmi, H; Pons, J F; Le Blay, K; Chaby, R

    1997-01-01

    We studied the pathways of macrophage response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). When mouse macrophages pre-exposed to LPS were restimulated with this agent, reduced tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) responses (desensitization/endotoxin tolerance) were accompanied by increased (priming) nitric oxide (NO) responses. Priming was also inducible with recombinant interferon-beta (IFN-beta). The requirement of TNF-alpha biosynthesis in the LPS-induced priming was also suggested by the observation that both anti-TNF-alpha serum and pentoxifylline inhibited this effect. However, addition of mouse recombinant TNF-alpha (mrTNF-alpha) did not enhance the priming induced by LPS or IFN-beta, and preincubation with mrTNF-alpha alone, or in association with other cytokines produced by macrophages (interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6, or leukaemia inhibitory factor), did not induce a priming effect. We found however, that pentoxifylline, which blocked the priming, also decreased the level of membrane-bound TNF-alpha. Furthermore, exposure to compound BB-3103 (a metalloproteinase inhibitor that blocks the processing of membrane-bound TNF-alpha yielding to the secreted cytokine) enhanced the priming effect, the expression of membrane TNF-alpha and the specific binding of LPS. These observations suggest that the membrane form of TNF-alpha is involved in the interaction of LPS with a receptor required for LPS-induced priming. PMID:9415035

  20. Establishment and evaluation of a transgenic mouse model of arthritis induced by overexpressing human tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed

    Li, Ge; Wu, Yu'e; Jia, Huanhuan; Tang, Lu; Huang, Ren; Peng, Yucai; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Blockade of TNFα by monoclonal antibody has been widely used for the therapy of RA since the 1990s; however, its mechanism of efficacy, and potential safety concerns of the treatment are still not fully understood. This study sought to establish a transgenic arthritic mouse model by overexpressing human TNFα (hTNFα) and to apply this model as a means to evaluate therapeutic consequences of TNFα inhibitors. The transgenic mouse line (TgTC) with FVB background was generated by incorporating 3'-modifiedhTNFαgene sequences. A progressively erosive polyarthritis developed in the TgTC mice, with many characteristics observed in human rheumatoid arthritis, including polyarticular swelling, impairment of movement, synovial hyperplasia, and cartilage and bone erosion. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that hTNFα is not only expressed in hyperplastic synovial membrane, but also in tissues without lesions, including brain, lung and kidney. Treatment of the TgTC mice with anti-hTNFα monoclonal antibodies (mAb) significantly decreased the level of hTNFα in the diseased joint and effectively prevented development of arthritis in a dose-dependent response fashion. Our results indicated that the TgTC mice represent a genetic model which can be used to comprehensively investigate the pathogenesis and therapeutics of TNFα-related diseases. PMID:26977076

  1. Enhancement of antigen- and mitogen-induced human T lymphocyte proliferation by tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Yokota, S; Geppert, T D; Lipsky, P E

    1988-01-15

    The capacity of human recombinant tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rTNF alpha) to modulate human T cell proliferation was examined. To examine the effect of rTNF alpha on the responding T cell directly, T cell activation was studied in the absence of viable accessory cells (AC). Highly purified AC-depleted peripheral blood T4 or T8 cells were stimulated with immobilized monoclonal antibodies to the cluster of differentiation (CD)3 molecular complex, an AC-independent stimulus. rTNF alpha augmented anti-CD3-stimulated T4 and T8 cell proliferation. The capacity of rTNF alpha to enhance T cell proliferation varied inversely with the density of immobilized anti-CD3 and the number of responding cells in each culture. The capacity of rTNF alpha to enhance antigen-induced T4 cell proliferation was also examined. Antigen-bearing paraformaldehyde-fixed antigen-presenting cells induced modest T4 cell proliferation when cultured in flat-bottomed wells; this response was enhanced by rTNF alpha. The results demonstrate that rTNF alpha has direct effects on T cells, facilitating their capacity to proliferate in response to mitogens and antigens. These data indicate that rTNF alpha may play an immunoregulatory role, enhancing the proliferation of T lymphocytes. PMID:3257243

  2. Transforming growth factor-alpha induces sex-specific neurochemical imbalance in the stress- and memory-associated brain structures.

    PubMed

    Koshibu, Kyoko; Levitt, Pat

    2006-06-01

    Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFalpha) is a well-known regulator of many developmental processes. However, its role in adult nervous system is yet unclear. Studies have shown that TGFalpha can regulate stress and memory behavior in adult mice. When TGFalpha is reduced in Waved-1 (Wa-1) mutant mice, the stress response and memory are impaired predominantly in males and only after puberty. To determine the neurochemical changes resulting from the reduced TGFalpha levels that could explain the reported behavioral outcomes, biogenic amine and amino acid levels were determined in the brain regions associated with stress and memory. Interestingly, sex-specific alterations in neurochemical levels were detected, including elevated noradrenaline and reduced glutamate levels in striatum of Wa-1 males, increased noradrenaline and reduced serotonin metabolite levels in hippocampus of Wa-1 females, reduced serotonin metabolite levels in cortex and amygdala of Wa-1 females, and reduced noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin, glutamate and glycine levels in hypothalamus of Wa-1 females compared to their respective controls. Increased dopamine turnover in cortex and reduced dopamine and serotonin turnover in amygdala were observed in both male and female Wa-1 mice. The data indicate sex-specific alterations of specific neurochemicals as a result of reduced TGFalpha expression, which may underlie sex-dependent stress response and memory impairment in Wa-1 mice. PMID:16442134

  3. Canarypox Virus-Induced Maturation of Dendritic Cells Is Mediated by Apoptotic Cell Death and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Ignatius, Ralf; Marovich, Mary; Mehlhop, Erin; Villamide, Loreley; Mahnke, Karsten; Cox, William I.; Isdell, Frank; Frankel, Sarah S.; Mascola, John R.; Steinman, Ralph M.; Pope, Melissa

    2000-01-01

    Recombinant avipox viruses are being widely evaluated as vaccines. To address how these viruses, which replicate poorly in mammalian cells, might be immunogenic, we studied how canarypox virus (ALVAC) interacts with primate antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs). When human and rhesus macaque monocyte-derived DCs were exposed to recombinant ALVAC, immature DCs were most susceptible to infection. However, many of the infected cells underwent apoptotic cell death, and dying infected cells were engulfed by uninfected DCs. Furthermore, a subset of DCs matured in the ALVAC-exposed DC cultures. DC maturation coincided with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secretion and was significantly blocked in the presence of anti-TNF-α antibodies. Interestingly, inhibition of apoptosis with a caspase 3 inhibitor also reduced some of the maturation induced by exposure to ALVAC. This indicates that both TNF-α and the presence of primarily apoptotic cells contributed to DC maturation. Therefore, infection of immature primate DCs with ALVAC results in apoptotic death of infected cells, which can be internalized by noninfected DCs driving DC maturation in the presence of the TNF-α secreted concomitantly by exposed cells. This suggests an important mechanism that may influence the immunogenicity of avipox virus vectors. PMID:11070033

  4. Mycobacterium marinum SecA2 Promotes Stable Granulomas and Induces Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Brigitte Y.; Joshi, Shilpa A.; Ball, David A.; Leggett, Hadley; Park, Summer; Kim, Janice; Austin, Cary D.; Paler-Martinez, Andres; Xu, Min; Downing, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    SecA2 is an ATPase present in some pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, is required for translocation of a limited set of proteins across the cytosolic membrane, and plays an important role in virulence in several bacteria, including mycobacteria that cause diseases such as tuberculosis and leprosy. However, the mechanisms by which SecA2 affects virulence are incompletely understood. To investigate whether SecA2 modulates host immune responses in vivo, we studied Mycobacterium marinum infection in two different hosts: an established zebrafish model and a recently described mouse model. Here we show that M. marinum ΔsecA2 was attenuated for virulence in both host species and SecA2 was needed for normal granuloma numbers and for optimal tumor necrosis factor alpha response in both zebrafish and mice. M. marinum ΔsecA2 was more sensitive to SDS and had unique protrusions from its cell envelope when examined by cryo-electron tomography, suggesting that SecA2 is important for bacterial cell wall integrity. These results provide evidence that SecA2 induces granulomas and is required for bacterial modulation of the host response because it affects the mycobacterial cell envelope. PMID:22851747

  5. The roles of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in colon tight junction protein expression and intestinal mucosa structure in a mouse model of acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a common clinical disease and one of the most severe complications of acute liver failure (ALF). Although the mechanism responsible for SBP is unclear, cytokines play an important role. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) on the structure of the intestinal mucosa and the expression of tight junction (Zona Occludens 1; ZO-1) protein in a mouse model of ALF. Methods We induced ALF using D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS) or GalN/TNF-α and assessed the results using transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, ELISA and real-time quantitative PCR. The effects of administration of anti-TNF-α IgG antibody or anti-TNF-α R1 antibody before administration of GalN/LPS or GalN/TNF-α, respectively, on TNF-α were also assessed. Results Morphological abnormalities in the intestinal mucosa of ALF mice were positively correlated with serum TNF-α level. Electron microscopic analysis revealed tight junction (TJ) disruptions, epithelial cell swelling, and atrophy of intestinal villi. Gut bacteria invaded the body at sites where TJ disruptions occurred. Expression of ZO-1 mRNA was significantly decreased in both ALF models, as was the level of ZO-1 protein. Prophylactic treatment with either anti-TNF-α IgG antibody or anti-tumor necrosis factor-a receptor1 (anti-TNF-α R1) antibody prevented changes in intestinal tissue ultrastructure and ZO-1 expression. Conclusion TNF-α affects the structure of the intestinal mucosa, decreases expression of ZO-1, and affects the morphology of the colon in a mouse model of ALF. It also may participate in the pathophysiological mechanism of SBP complicated to ALF. PMID:19772664

  6. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha up-regulates decay-accelerating factor gene expression in human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Andoh, A; Fujiyama, Y; Sumiyoshi, K; Sakumoto, H; Okabe, H; Bamba, T

    1997-01-01

    The increased expression of decay-accelerating factor (DAF) has been detected in intestinal epithelial cells at the inflamed mucosa. In this study, we examined the effects of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha on DAF expression in three intestinal epithelial cell lines. DAF mRNA expression was evaluated by Northern blot analysis, and DAF protein expression was analysed by biotin labelling and immunoprecipitation. TNF-alpha induced a marked increase in DAF mRNA and protein expression in HT-29, T84 and Caco-2 cells. In HT-29 cells, the effects of TNF-a on DAF mRNA accumulation were observed in a dose-dependent manner; DAF mRNA accumulation reached a maximum at 3-6 hr, and then gradually decreased. These effects of TNF-alpha required de novo protein synthesis. Messenger RNA stability studies suggested that TNF-alpha partially regulated DAF gene expression by a posttranscriptional mechanism. Moreover, the combination of TNF-alpha and interleukin (IL)-4 induced an additive increase in DAF mRNA accumulation in HT-29 and T84 cells. In human intestinal epithelial cells, TNF-alpha acts as a potent inducer of DAF mRNA expression, indicating an important role for TNF-alpha in the regulation of DAF expression at the inflamed mucosa. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9155641

  7. The role of nitric oxide in cardiac depression induced by interleukin-1 beta and tumour necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, R; Panas, D L; Catena, R; Moncada, S; Olley, P M; Lopaschuk, G D

    1995-01-01

    1. Myocardial dysfunction during septic shock is associated with enhanced production of cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). These cytokines depress cardiac mechanical function by a mechanism which is not well defined. 2. Bacterial endotoxin or cytokines cause the expression of Ca(2+)-independent nitric oxide (NO) synthase in cardiac myocytes, vascular endothelial cells and endocardial endothelial cells, causing enhanced production of NO. As NO has negative inotropic actions on cardiac muscle, we tested the sum effects of IL-1 beta plus TNF-alpha in the intact heart to determine whether enhanced expression of NO synthase activity in the cells that comprise the heart is involved in cardiac depression associated with cytokine stimulation. 3. Rat isolated working hearts perfused with IL-1 beta plus TNF-alpha showed a markedly greater depression in contractile function, measured as cardiac work, after 2 h of perfusion compared with time-matched control hearts. The depressant action of IL-1 beta plus TNF-alpha was first apparent after 1 h of perfusion; no early (15 min) cardiac depressant actions were seen. 4. The competitive inhibitor of Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent NO synthases, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 3 microM) when given concurrently with IL-1 beta plus TNF-alpha prevented the loss in contractile function such that these hearts after 2 h of perfusion had similar function to time-matched controls. L-NAME did not acutely reverse the loss of contractile function in hearts exposed for 2 h to IL-1 beta plus TNF-alpha.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7536096

  8. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Transcription in Macrophages Is Attenuated by an Autocrine Factor That Preferentially Induces NF-κB p50

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Mark; Dillner, Allan; Schwartz, Richard C.; Sedon, Constance; Nedospasov, Sergei; Johnson, Peter F.

    1998-01-01

    Macrophages are a major source of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), which are expressed during conditions of inflammation, infection, or injury. We identified an activity secreted by a macrophage tumor cell line that negatively regulates bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of TNF-α. This activity, termed TNF-α-inhibiting factor (TIF), suppressed the induction of TNF-α expression in macrophages, whereas induction of three other proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β [IL-1β], IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1) was accelerated or enhanced. A similar or identical inhibitory activity was secreted by IC-21 macrophages following LPS stimulation. Inhibition of TNF-α expression by macrophage conditioned medium was associated with selective induction of the NF-κB p50 subunit. Hyperinduction of p50 occurred with delayed kinetics in LPS-stimulated macrophages but not in fibroblasts. Overexpression of p50 blocked LPS-induced transcription from a TNF-α promoter reporter construct, showing that this transcription factor is an inhibitor of the TNF-α gene. Repression of the TNF-α promoter by TIF required a distal region that includes three NF-κB binding sites with preferential affinity for p50 homodimers. Thus, the selective repression of the TNF-α promoter by TIF may be explained by the specific binding of inhibitory p50 homodimers. We propose that TIF serves as a negative autocrine signal to attenuate TNF-α expression in activated macrophages. TIF is distinct from the known TNF-α-inhibiting factors IL-4, IL-10, and transforming growth factor β and may represent a novel cytokine. PMID:9742085

  9. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces intestinal insulin resistance and stimulates the overproduction of intestinal apolipoprotein B48-containing lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Qin, Bolin; Qiu, Wei; Avramoglu, Rita Kohen; Adeli, Khosrow

    2007-02-01

    There is growing evidence suggesting intestinal insulin resistance and overproduction of apolipoprotein (apo) B48-containing chylomicrons in insulin-resistant states. In the current study, we investigated the potential role of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the development of insulin resistance and aberrant lipoprotein metabolism in the small intestine in a Syrian golden hamster model. TNF-alpha infusion decreased whole-body insulin sensitivity, based on in vivo euglycemic clamp studies in chow-fed hamsters. Analysis of intestinal tissue in TNF-alpha-treated hamsters indicated impaired phosphorylation of insulin receptor-beta, insulin receptor substrate-1, Akt, and Shc and increased phosphorylation of p38, extracellular signal-related kinase-1/2, and Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase. TNF-alpha infusion also increased intestinal production of total apoB48, triglyceride-rich lipoprotein apoB48, and serum triglyceride levels in both fasting and postprandial (fat load) states. The effects of TNF-alpha on plasma apoB48 levels could be blocked by the p38 inhibitor SB203580. Ex vivo experiments using freshly isolated enterocytes also showed TNF-alpha-induced p38 phosphorylation and intestinal apoB48 overproduction, effects that could be blocked by SB203580. Interestingly, TNF-alpha increased the mRNA and protein mass of intestinal microsomal triglyceride transfer protein without altering apoB mRNA levels. Enterocytes were found to have detectable levels of both TNF-alpha receptor types (p55 and p75), and antibodies against either of the two TNF-alpha receptors partially blocked the stimulatory effect of TNF-alpha on apoB48 production and p38 phosphorylation. In summary, these data suggest that intestinal insulin resistance can be induced in hamsters by TNF-alpha infusion, and it is accompanied by intestinal overproduction of apoB48-containing lipoproteins. TNF-alpha-induced stimulation of intestinal lipoprotein production appears to be mediated via TNF-alpha receptors and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. PMID:17259391

  10. Inhibitory effects of acylated acyclic sesquiterpene oligoglycosides from the pericarps of Sapindus rarak on tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Toshio; Xie, Yuanyuan; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Okamoto, Masaki; Muraoka, Osamu; Yuan, Dan; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Hayakawa, Takao

    2010-09-01

    Four new acylated acyclic sesquiterpene oligoglycosides (1-4) were isolated from the pericarps of Sapindus rarak DC. together with four known acyclic sesquiterpene oligoglycosides, mukuroziosides Ia (5), Ib (6), IIa (7), and IIb (8). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. These newly isolated compounds (1-4) were found to show inhibitory effects on tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced cytotoxicity in L929 cells at concentrations of 30-100 microM. PMID:20823617

  11. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced activation of RhoA in airway smooth muscle cells: role in the Ca2+ sensitization of myosin light chain20 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Irene; Cobban, Hannah J; Vandenabeele, Peter; MacEwan, David J; Nixon, Graeme F

    2003-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), an inflammatory cytokine, has a potentially important role in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma and may contribute to airway hyper-responsiveness. Recent evidence has revealed that TNF can increase the Ca(2+) sensitivity of agonist-stimulated myosin light chain(20) (MLC(20)) phosphorylation and contractility in guinea pig airway smooth muscle (ASM). In the present study, the potential intracellular pathways responsible for this TNF-induced Ca(2+) sensitization were investigated. In permeabilized cultured guinea pig ASM cells, recombinant human TNF stimulated an increase in Ca(2+)-activated MLC(20) phosphorylation under Ca(2+) "clamp" conditions. This increased MLC(20) phosphorylation was inhibited by preincubation with the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y27632. TNF also increased the proportion of GTP-bound RhoA, as measured using rhotekin Rho-binding domain, in a time course compatible with a role in the TNF-induced Ca(2+) sensitization. In cultured human ASM cells, recombinant human TNF also activated RhoA with a similar time course. In addition, TNF stimulated phosphorylation of the regulatory subunit of the myosin phosphatase, which was inhibited by Y27632. Although human ASM cells expressed both receptor subtypes, TNF-R1 and TNF-R2, the activation of RhoA was predominantly via stimulation of the TNF-R1, although RhoA did not immunoprecipitate with the TNF-R1. In conclusion, the TNF-induced increase in the Ca(2+) sensitivity of MLC(20) phosphorylation is through stimulation of the TNF-R1 receptor and via a RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway leading to inhibition of the myosin light chain phosphatase. This intracellular mechanism may contribute to TNF-induced airway hyper-responsiveness. PMID:12606782

  12. Regulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha transcription in macrophages: involvement of four kappa B-like motifs and of constitutive and inducible forms of NF-kappa B.

    PubMed Central

    Collart, M A; Baeuerle, P; Vassalli, P

    1990-01-01

    This study characterizes the interaction of murine macrophage nuclear proteins with the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) promoter. Gel retardation and methylation interference assays showed that stimulation of TNF-alpha gene transcription in peritoneal exudate macrophages was accompanied by induction of DNA-binding proteins that recognized with different affinities four elements related to the kappa B consensus motif and a Y-box motif. We suggest that the basal level of TNF-alpha expression in macrophages is due to the binding of a constitutive form of NF-kappa B, present at low levels in nuclei from resting thioglycolate exudate peritoneal macrophages, to some if not all of the kappa B motifs; we postulate that this constitutive form contains only the 50-kilodalton (kDa) DNA-binding protein subunits of NF-kappa B, not the 65-kDa protein subunits (P. Baeuerle and D. Baltimore, Genes Dev. 3:1689-1698, 1989). Agents such as glucocorticoids, which decrease TNF-alpha transcription, diminished the basal level of nuclear NF-kappa B. Stimulation of Stimulation of TNF-alpha transcription in macrophages by lipopolysaccharide, gamma interferon, or cycloheximide led to an increased content of nuclear NF-kappa B. This induced factor represents a different form of NF-kappa B, since it generated protein-DNA complexes of slower mobility; we propose that this induced form of NF-kappa B contains both the 50- and 65-kDa protein subunits, the latter ones being necessary to bind NF-kappa B to its cytoplasmic inhibitor in uninduced cells (Baeuerle and Baltimore, Genes Dev., 1989). In resting cells, this inducible form of NF-kappa B was indeed detectable in the cytosol after deoxycholate treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:2181276

  13. Regulation of caveolin-1 expression, nitric oxide production and tissue injury by tumor necrosis factor-alpha following ozone inhalation.

    PubMed

    Fakhrzadeh, Ladan; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Laskin, Debra L

    2008-03-15

    Alveolar macrophages (AM) and inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide and peroxynitrite contribute to ozone-induced lung injury. The generation of these mediators is regulated, in part, by the transcription factor NF-kappaB. We previously demonstrated a critical role for NF-kappaB p50 in ozone-induced injury. In the present studies mechanisms regulating NF-kappaB activation in the lung after ozone inhalation were analyzed. Treatment of wild type (WT) mice with ozone (0.8 ppm, 3 h) resulted in a rapid increase in NF-kappaB binding activity in AM, which persisted for at least 12 h. This was not evident in mice lacking TNFalpha which are protected from ozone-induced injury; there was also no evidence of nitric oxide or peroxynitrite production in lungs from these animals. These data demonstrate that TNFalpha plays a role in NF-kappaB activation and toxicity. TNFalpha signaling involves PI-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB), and p44/42 MAP kinase (MAPK) which are important in NF-kappaB activation. Ozone Inhalation resulted in rapid and transient increases in p44/42 MAPK and PI3K/PKB in AM from WT mice, which was evident immediately after exposure. Caveolin-1, a transmembrane protein that negatively regulates PI3K/PKB and p44/42 MAPK signaling, was downregulated in AM from WT mice after ozone exposure. In contrast, ozone had no effect on caveolin-1, PI3K/PKB or p44/42 MAPK expression in AM from TNFalpha knockout mice. These data, together with our findings that TNFalpha suppressed caveolin-1 expression in cultured AM, suggest that TNFalpha and downstream signaling mediate activation of NF-kappaB and the regulation of inflammatory genes important in ozone toxicity, and that this process is linked to caveolin-1. PMID:18207479

  14. Facile purification of Escherichia coli expressed tag-free recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha from supernatant.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun; Liu, Yongdong; Zhao, Dawei; Li, Xiunan; Yu, Rong; Su, Zhiguo

    2014-03-01

    Fusing affinity tag at N-terminus was reported to decrease the biological activity of the recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha. Although preparation of tag-free rhTNF-? has already been achieved, the processes were yet laborious, especially in large scale. In this paper, tag-free rhTNF-? was almost equally synthesized by Escherichia coli in both soluble and insoluble forms. A two-step ion exchange chromatography, DEAE-Sepharose combined with CM-Sepharose, was developed to purify the soluble specie from supernatant after cell lysis. Native PAGE and HP-SEC showed the rhTNF-? extracted from supernatant existed in a homogeneous form. HP-SAX and SDS-PAGE analysis demonstrated the purity of the final fraction was over 98% with a very high recovery of 75%. Circular dichroism spectrum demonstrated that ?-sheet structure was dominant and fluorescence analysis suggested no dramatic exposure of aromatic amino acid residues on the protein surface. Bioassay indicated that purified rhTNF-? was biologically active with a specific activity of approximately 2.010(7)U/mg. All these results suggested that this two-step ion exchange chromatography is efficient for preparation of biologically active tag-free rhTNF-? from supernatant. PMID:24412132

  15. Tumour necrosis factor alpha restores granulomas and induces parasite egg-laying in schistosome-infected SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Amiri, P; Locksley, R M; Parslow, T G; Sadick, M; Rector, E; Ritter, D; McKerrow, J H

    1992-04-16

    Schistosomiasis (bilharzia) is a parasitic disease caused by several species of schistosome worms (blood flukes). The key pathogenic event in this disease is the formation of granulomas around schistosome eggs trapped in portal venules of the liver. Granulomas are a distinctive form of chronic inflammation characterized by localized aggregation of activated macrophages around an inciting stimulus. Each granuloma evolves to form a fibrous scar; in schistosomiasis, the result is widespread hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension. To identify the specific immune signal molecules necessary for granuloma formation, we studied schistosome infections in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, which have normal macrophages but lack functional B or T lymphocytes. Here we report that the immunoregulatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor alpha is necessary and sufficient to reconstitute granuloma formation in schistosome-infected SCID mice. Moreover, we find that the parasitic worms require tumour necrosis factor alpha for egg-laying and for excretion of eggs from the host. The implication of this latter result is that the parasite has adapted so successfully to its host that it uses a host-derived immunoregulatory protein as a signal for replication and transmission. PMID:1560843

  16. Effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha on Erythropoietin- and Erythropoietin Receptor-Induced Erythroid Progenitor Cell Proliferation in β-Thalassemia/Hemoglobin E Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tanyong, Dalina I; Panichob, Prapaporn; Kheansaard, Wasinee; Fucharoen, Suthat

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Thalassemia is one of the genetic diseases that cause anemia and ineffective erythropoiesis. Increased levels of several inflammatory cytokines have been reported in β-thalassemia and might contribute to ineffective erythropoiesis. However, the mechanism by which tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is involved in ineffective erythropoiesis in thalassemic patients remains unclear. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of TNF-α on the erythropoietin (EPO) and erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) expression involved in proliferation of β-thalassemia/hemoglobin (Hb) E erythroid progenitor cells compared with cells from healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: CD34-positive cells were isolated from heparinized blood by using the EasySep® CD34 selection kit. Cells were then cultured with suitable culture medium in various concentrations of EPO for 14 days. The effect of TNF-α on percent cell viability was analyzed by trypan blue staining. In addition, the percentage of apoptosis and levels of EPOR protein were measured by flow cytometry. Results: Upon EPO treatment, a higher cell number was observed for erythroid progenitor cells from both healthy participants and β-thalassemia/Hb E patients. However, a reduction of apoptosis was found in EPO-treated cells especially for β-thalassemia/Hb E patients. Interestingly, TNF-α caused higher levels of cell apoptosis and lower levels of EPOR protein in thalassemic erythroid progenitor cells. Conclusion: TNF-α caused a reduction in the level of EPOR protein and EPO-induced erythroid progenitor cell proliferation. It is possible that TNF-α could be involved in the mechanism of ineffective erythropoiesis in β-thalassemia/Hb E patients. PMID:26376749

  17. In vitro and in vivo expressions of transforming growth factor-alpha and tyrosine kinase receptors in human non-small-cell lung carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, C.; Tsao, M. S.

    1993-01-01

    The mRNA expression of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), c-erbB-2 and c-met proto-oncogenes in eight newly established cell lines and 29 primary tumors of human non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) have been investigated. In vitro, the expressions of TGF-alpha, c-erbB-2, and c-met were consistently high in adenocarcinomas, while EGFR was expressed highest in a squamous cell carcinoma cell line. There was linear correlation between the levels of expression of TGF-alpha and EGFR or c-erbB-2, and between EGFR and c-erbB-2. The c-met expression was also correlated with those of TGF-alpha, EGFR, and c-erbB-2. In vivo, The mean mRNA levels of TGF-alpha, EGFR, and c-met, but not c-erbB-2, were higher in carcinomas than in normal lung tissues (2.8, 1.7, and 3.0 times, respectively); however, only adenocarcinomas expressed a significantly higher level of c-erbB-2 than their corresponding normal tissues (2.2 times). In 20 patients whose paired normal and tumor tissue were examined, the percentage of cases with greater than twofold increase in expression in carcinomas than normal were 55% for both TGF-alpha and EGFR, 30% for c-erbB-2, and 47% for c-met. Among the histological subtypes of NSCLC, a higher percentage of adenocarcinomas than squamous cell carcinomas over-expressed these genes, especially c-erbB-2 and c-met. Over-expression is rarely the result of gene amplification. The results suggest a differential expression of growth factor and receptor genes among the various histological subtypes of NSCLCs. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:8097369

  18. Platelet-derived growth factor alpha receptor gene expression: isolation and characterization of the promoter and upstream regulatory elements.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C; Stiles, C D

    1994-01-01

    Receptors for the platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) are expressed conditionally in developing embryos and adult tissues. Aberrant expression of PDGF receptors is a molecular marker for proliferative disorders such as atherosclerosis, myofibrosis, and malignant astrocytoma. We isolated genomic clones that encompass the 5' end of the mouse PDGF alpha receptor mRNA transcript and extend 10 kb into the upstream flanking region of the gene. Using these clones, we constructed a partial genomic map that locates the promoter and transcription start sites of the gene. One of our genomic clones contains cis-acting regulatory elements that drive expression of reporter gene constructs selectively in cells that express PDGF alpha receptors. Images PMID:8041746

  19. Relationship between the structure of taxol and other taxanes on induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, C A; Berman, J W; Swindell, C S; Horwitz, S B

    1994-11-15

    Taxol is an antitumor drug with cytotoxic properties that correlate with its microtubule-stabilizing activities. It has been reported that taxol parallels lipopolysaccharide in its effects on the induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene expression in macrophages (C. Bogdan and A. Ding, J. Leukocyte Biol., 52: 119-121, 1992; C. L. Manthey, M. E. Brandes, P. Y. Perera, and S. Vogel, J. Immunol., 149: 2459-2465, 1992; J. M. Carboni, C. Singh, and M. A. Tepper, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr., 15: 95-101, 1993). Structure-activity studies using taxol and related taxanes have been done to determine the relationship between the effects of taxol on TNF-alpha gene expression and its cytotoxic and microtubule-stabilizing activities. Using Northern blot analysis, it was found that changes in the structure of taxol that did not alter cytotoxicity did prevent the induction of TNF-alpha gene expression. The data presented in this paper demonstrate that the effects of taxol on TNF-alpha gene expression are distinct from its known cytotoxic properties. PMID:7954398

  20. Tumour necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma and substance P are novel modulators of extrapituitary prolactin expression in human skin.

    PubMed

    Langan, Ewan A; Vidali, Silvia; Pigat, Natascha; Funk, Wolfgang; Lisztes, Erika; Bíró, Tamás; Goffin, Vincent; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Paus, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Human scalp skin and hair follicles (HFs) are extra-pituitary sources of prolactin (PRL). However, the intracutaneous regulation of PRL remains poorly understood. Therefore we investigated whether well-recognized regulators of pituitary PRL expression, which also impact on human skin physiology and pathology, regulate expression of PRL and its receptor (PRLR) in situ. This was studied in serum-free organ cultures of microdissected human scalp HFs and skin, i.e. excluding pituitary, neural and vascular inputs. Prolactin expression was confirmed at the gene and protein level in human truncal skin, where its expression significantly increased (p = 0.049) during organ culture. There was, however, no evidence of PRL secretion into the culture medium as measured by ELISA. PRL immunoreactivity (IR) in female human epidermis was decreased by substance P (p = 0.009), while neither the classical pituitary PRL inhibitor, dopamine, nor corticotropin-releasing hormone significantly modulated PRL IR in HFs or skin respectively. Interferon (IFN) γ increased PRL IR in the epithelium of human HFs (p = 0.044) while tumour necrosis factor (TNF) α decreased both PRL and PRLR IR. This study identifies substance P, TNFα and IFNγ as novel modulators of PRL and PRLR expression in human skin, and suggests that intracutaneous PRL expression is not under dopaminergic control. Given the importance of PRL in human hair growth regulation and its possible role in the pathogenesis of several common skin diseases, targeting intracutaneous PRL production via these newly identified regulatory pathways may point towards novel therapeutic options for inflammatory dermatoses. PMID:23626671

  1. Role of hypoxia-inducible factor-{alpha} in hepatitis-B-virus X protein-mediated MDR1 activation

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Hyo-Kyung; Han, Chang Yeob; Cheon, Eun-Pa; Lee, Jaewon; Kang, Keon Wook . E-mail: kwkang@chosun.ac.kr

    2007-06-01

    The transition from chemotherapy-responsive cancer cells to chemotherapy-resistant cancer cells is mainly accompanied by the increased expression of multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1). We found that hepatitis-B-virus X protein (HBx) increases the transcriptional activity and protein level of MDR1 in a hepatoma cell line, H4IIE. In addition, HBx overexpression made H4IIE cells more resistant to verapamil-uptake. HBx stabilized hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) and induced the nuclear translocation of C/EBP{beta}. Reporter gene analyses showed that HBx increased the reporter activity in the cells transfected with the reporter containing MDR1 gene promoter. Moreover, the luciferase reporter gene activity was significantly inhibited by HIF-1{alpha} siRNA but not by overexpression of C/EBP dominant negative mutant. These results imply that HBx increases the MDR1 transporter activity through the transcriptional activation of the MDR1 gene with HIF-1{alpha} activation, and suggest HIF-1{alpha} for the therapeutic target of HBV-mediated chemoresistance.

  2. Increases in tumor necrosis factor-alpha in response to thyroid hormone-induced liver oxidative stress in the rat.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Virginia; Videla, Luis A; Tapia, Gladys; Israel, Yedy

    2002-07-01

    Thyroid hormone-induced calorigenesis contributes to liver oxidative stress and promotes an increased respiratory burst activity in Kupffer cells, which could conceivably increase the expression of redox-sensitive genes, including those coding for cytokines. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that L-3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3)-induced liver oxidative stress would markedly increase the production of TNF-alpha by Kupffer cells and its release into the circulation. Sprague-Dawley rats receive a single dose of 0.1 mg T3/kg or vehicle (controls) and determinations of liver O2 consumption, serum TNF-alpha, rectal temperature, and serum T3 levels, were carried out at different times after treatment. Hepatic content of total reduced glutathione (GSH) and biliary glutathione disulfide (GSSG) efflux were measured as indices of oxidative stress. In some studies, prior to T3 injection animals were administered either (i) the Kupffer cell inactivator gadolinium chloride (GdCl3), (ii) the antioxidants alpha-tocopherol and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), or (iii) an antisense oligonucleotide against TNF-alpha (ASO TJU-2755). T3 elicited an 80-fold increase in the serum levels of TNF-alpha at 22h after treatment, which coincided with the onset of thyroid calorigenesis. Pretreatment with GdCl3, alpha-tocopherol, NAC, and ASO TJU-2755 virtually abolished this effect and markedly reduced T3-induced liver GSH depletion and the increases in biliary GSSG efflux. It is concluded that the hyperthyroid state in the rat increases the circulating levels of TNF-alpha by actions exerted at the Kupffer cell level and these are related to the oxidative stress status established in the liver by thyroid calorigenesis. PMID:12180121

  3. Changes in body composition and dietary intake induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha and corticosterone--individually and in combination.

    PubMed

    Raina, N; Jeejeebhoy, K N

    1998-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that anorexia and reduced food intake are the main causes of weight loss in rats infused with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), with no influence on corticosterone concentrations. In contrast, in clinical sepsis, muscle wasting due to increased catabolism is associated with increased corticosteroid concentrations. We hypothesized that in the rat model, corticosterone potentiates the catabolic effect of TNF-alpha in amounts that by itself does not influence muscle catabolism. Orally fed rats were divided into 3 treatment groups: continuous infusion of TNF-alpha (TNF; 100 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1)), corticosterone (Cort; 50 microg x g(-1) x d(-1)), or both (TNF+Cort). Each group was compared with a respective pair-fed (PF) group. In addition an ad libitum (AL)-fed group receiving an infusion of physiologic saline was studied to observe unrestricted food intake and weight gain. After 4 d of infusion, dietary intake and weight gain were significantly higher in the Cort and AL groups than in the TNF and TNF+Cort groups. Although wet liver weights and protein contents were significantly higher in the Cort, TNF, and TNF+Cort groups than in their respective PF group, the TNF and TNF+Cort groups had lower relative carcass weights. The weight and protein content of the diaphragm were lower and nitrogen excretion was higher in the TNF+Cort group than in the respective PF group. The results suggest that TNF-alpha plus corticosterone had a specific catabolic effect on the diaphragm. In addition, together they increased overall nitrogen excretion. PMID:9846860

  4. Effects of doxepin on brain-derived neurotrophic factor, tumor necrosis factor alpha, mitogen-activated protein kinase 14, and AKT1 genes expression in rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Eidelkhani, Nastaran; Radahmadi, Maryam; Kazemi, Mohammad; Rafiee, Laleh; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Reisi, Parham

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that doxepin in addition to enhancement of noradrenaline and serotonin levels may have neuroprotective effects. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of doxepin on gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14), and serine-threonine protein kinase AKT1 in rat hippocampus. Materials and Methods: Male rats were divided randomly into three groups: Control, doxepin 1 mg/kg, and doxepin 5 mg/kg. Rats received an i.p injection of doxepin for 21 days. Then the hippocampi were dissected for the measurement of the expression of BDNF, TNF-α, MAPK14, and AKT1 genes. Results: Our results showed no significant effects of doxepin on gene expression of BDNF, TNF-α, MAPK14, and AKT1 genes in the hippocampus. Conclusions: These results did not show significant effects of doxepin on the genes that affect the neuronal survival in intact animals. However, more studies need to be done, especially in models associated with neuronal damage. PMID:26601091

  5. Expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha-Mediated Genes Predicts Recurrence-Free Survival in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lianya; Zhang, Helin; Duan, Lin; He, Wenshu; Zhu, Yihua; Bai, Yunfei; Zhu, Miao

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis on high-throughput gene expression data to identify TNF-α-mediated genes implicated in lung cancer. We first investigated the gene expression profiles of two independent TNF-α/TNFR KO murine models. The EGF receptor signaling pathway was the top pathway associated with genes mediated by TNF-α. After matching the TNF-α-mediated mouse genes to their human orthologs, we compared the expression patterns of the TNF-α-mediated genes in normal and tumor lung tissues obtained from humans. Based on the TNF-α-mediated genes that were dysregulated in lung tumors, we developed a prognostic gene signature that effectively predicted recurrence-free survival in lung cancer in two validation cohorts. Resampling tests suggested that the prognostic power of the gene signature was not by chance, and multivariate analysis suggested that this gene signature was independent of the traditional clinical factors and enhanced the identification of lung cancer patients at greater risk for recurrence. PMID:25548907

  6. Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria increases tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in a rat kidney model of chronic rejection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, L H; Li, C; Wu, J A; Liang, J G; Shi, Y F

    2008-12-01

    Chronic allograft dysfunction is the primary cause of graft loss after the first posttransplantation year. Bacteriocins are biologically active proteins exhibiting antimicrobial properties against other bacterial species, which are usually closely related to the producer organism. The objective of our study was to determine whether lactic acid bacterial bacteriocins were associated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha observed in a rat kidney model of chronic rejection. Using a kidney model of chronic rejection in the rat, we administered cyclosporine (CsA) immunosuppression (5 mg/kg/d). One group of animals was treated with bacteriocins, and the other was left untreated. Grafts were harvested after transplantation for standard histological studies. The expression of TNF-alpha was demonstrated using immunohistochemistry of frozen sections of the grafts. We observed a greater increase in the expression of TNF-alpha among the group treated with bacteriocins compared with the untreated group. These results showed that lactic acid bacterial bacteriocins were associated with TNF-alpha in our kidney graft model. PMID:19100480

  7. Gene expression for interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the spleen of old rats under physiological condition and during septic shock. Possible pharmacological modulation.

    PubMed

    Annoni, G; Arosio, B; Santambrogio, D; Cullurà, D; Gagliano, N; Uslenghi, C

    1994-12-01

    Older individuals are more susceptible to infectious agents than younger and this is related to the disrepair of the immune defence mechanisms associated with aging. In this study we evaluated the activity of a new biological response modifier (BRM), pidotimod ((R)-3-[(S)-(5-oxo-2-pyrrolidinyl)carbonyl]-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, PGT/1A, CAS 121808-62-6) in relation to the expression of some cytokine genes. We utilized 24 month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 24), randomly divided into 4 groups: controls (n = 6), pidotimod-treated (n = 6; 200 mg/kg i.p., for 10 days), infected (n = 6; i.p. infection of E. coli CH 198) and pidotimod-treated + infected (n = 6). Poly(A+)RNA purified from the spleens of the animals killed 48 h after the infection was probed with Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) cDNA clones. Northern blot analysis showed a slight signal of the IL-2 steady state mRNA in the groups of control, pidotimod-treated and infected animals, with an increase (20%) evident only in pidotimod + infected rats, 48 h after E. coli injection. On the contrary, the TNF-alpha mRNA levels were easily detectable in controls and infected rats and lower (20%, 40%) following the drug treatment, independent of i.p. infection. These results account for the BRM activity of pidotimod. PMID:7531977

  8. Trovafloxacin-induced Replication Stress Sensitizes HepG2 Cells to Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha-induced Cytotoxicity Mediated by Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase and Ataxia Telangiectasia and Rad3-related

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Kevin M.; Maiuri, Ashley R.; Fullerton, Aaron M.; Poulsen, Kyle L.; Breier, Anna B.; Ganey, Patricia E.; Roth, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Use of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic trovafloxacin (TVX) was restricted due to idiosyncratic, drug-induced liver injury (IDILI). Previous studies demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) and TVX interact to cause death of hepatocytes in vitro that was associated with prolonged activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), activation of caspases 9 and 3, and DNA damage. The purpose of this study was to explore further the mechanism by which TVX interacts with TNF to cause cytotoxicity. Treatment with TVX caused cell cycle arrest, enhanced expression of p21 and impaired proliferation, but cell death only occurred after cotreatment with TVX and TNF. Cell death involved activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), which in turn activated caspase 3 and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR), both of which contributed to cytotoxicity. Cotreatment of HepG2 cells with TVX and TNF caused double-strand breaks in DNA, and ERK contributed to this effect. Inhibition of caspase activity abolished the DNA strand breaks. The data suggest a complex interaction of TVX and TNF in which TVX causes replication stress, and the downstream effects are exacerbated by TNF, leading to hepatocellular death. These results raise the possibility that IDILI from TVX results from MAPK and ATR activation in hepatocytes initiated by interaction of cytokine signaling with drug-induced replication stress. PMID:25748550

  9. Trovafloxacin-induced replication stress sensitizes HepG2 cells to tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced cytotoxicity mediated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related.

    PubMed

    Beggs, Kevin M; Maiuri, Ashley R; Fullerton, Aaron M; Poulsen, Kyle L; Breier, Anna B; Ganey, Patricia E; Roth, Robert A

    2015-05-01

    Use of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic trovafloxacin (TVX) was restricted due to idiosyncratic, drug-induced liver injury (IDILI). Previous studies demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) and TVX interact to cause death of hepatocytes in vitro that was associated with prolonged activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), activation of caspases 9 and 3, and DNA damage. The purpose of this study was to explore further the mechanism by which TVX interacts with TNF to cause cytotoxicity. Treatment with TVX caused cell cycle arrest, enhanced expression of p21 and impaired proliferation, but cell death only occurred after cotreatment with TVX and TNF. Cell death involved activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), which in turn activated caspase 3 and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR), both of which contributed to cytotoxicity. Cotreatment of HepG2 cells with TVX and TNF caused double-strand breaks in DNA, and ERK contributed to this effect. Inhibition of caspase activity abolished the DNA strand breaks. The data suggest a complex interaction of TVX and TNF in which TVX causes replication stress, and the downstream effects are exacerbated by TNF, leading to hepatocellular death. These results raise the possibility that IDILI from TVX results from MAPK and ATR activation in hepatocytes initiated by interaction of cytokine signaling with drug-induced replication stress. PMID:25748550

  10. A Comprehensive Study of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Genetic Polymorphisms, its Expression in Skin and Relation to Histopathological Features in Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Moorchung, Nikhil N; Vasudevan, Biju; Chatterjee, Manas; Grewal, Rajan Singh; Mani, Narayana S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) is an important inflammatory mediator in psoriasis and several genetic polymorphisms of this cytokine have been reported. Majority of studies have focused on the increased G– A polymorphism at the –308 position in psoriasis. There has been no comprehensive study evaluating the genetic polymorphisms, TNFα expression in the skin and histopathology. We are undertaking this study to outline TNFα genetic polymorphisms, its skin expression and histopathological correlation to help determine its role at the genetic and protein level. Materials and Methods 112 patients of psoriasis and 243 healthy controls were included in this prospective study. 5 ml of peripheral blood was collected to study the TNFα genetic polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Histopathological analysis of biopsies from the 112 patients were done using visual analogue scale and correlated with the findings. 61 of these cases were analyzed for TNFα expression by immunohistochemistry. The results of study were statistically analyzed using SPSS 13.0 statistical package program. Results: A strong association of TNFα –308 G/A polymorphism in psoriasis cases was detected. The A allele of the TNFα –308 G/A polymorphism occurs rarely in the Indian population, however there is an over representation of this allele in psoriatic patients. There was no association seen between TNFα genotype and histopathological severity of psoriasis. Conclusion: The study emphasized the central role of TNFα in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. TNFα genotyping may be helpful in identifying subjects in whom anti-TNFα therapeutic strategies may be tried. PMID:26286396

  11. Effects of acute lindane intoxication and thyroid hormone administration in relation to nuclear factor-kappaB activation, tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression, and Kupffer cell function in the rat.

    PubMed

    Valencia, César; Cornejo, Pamela; Romanque, Pamela; Tapia, Gladys; Varela, Patricia; Videla, Luis A; Fernández, Virginia

    2004-03-14

    Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) DNA binding, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression, and parameters related to liver oxidative stress and Kupffer cell function were assessed in control rats and in animals given 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) (0.1 mg T3/kg) and/or lindane (50 mg/kg; 4 h after T3). Liver NF-kappaB DNA binding and serum TNF-alpha levels were enhanced by the combined T3-lindane administration after 16-22 h, effects that were lower than those elicited by the separate treatments and coincided with increased hepatic TNF-alpha mRNA levels. Thyroid calorigenesis occurred independently of lindane, whereas T3, lindane and T3-lindane groups showed liver glutathione (GSH) depletion, with higher protein carbonyl levels in lindane and T3-lindane groups. Carbon-induced O2 consumption/carbon uptake ratios were not altered by T3 or lindane compared to controls, whereas combined T3-lindane administration elicited a 92% diminution with enhancement in the sinusoidal efflux of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). In conclusion, depression of T3- or lindane-induced liver NF-kappaB activation and TNF-alpha expression occurred after their combined treatment, effects that correlate with the impairment of the respiratory burst activity of Kupffer cells and exacerbation of liver injury. PMID:15019085

  12. Two types of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) genes: Molecular cloning and expression profile in response to several immunological stimulants.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Takeshi; Harada, Hideaki; Sawada, Yoshifumi; Kohchi, Chie; Soma, Gen-Ichiro; Takahashi, Yukinori; Inagawa, Hiroyuki

    2009-11-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a key inflammatory mediator and has also the potential as a prominent biomarker of innate immunity. In this study, we identified and characterized TNF-alpha from bluefin tuna, which is an important cultured species. Two types of TNF-alpha were also cloned incidentally (TNF1 and TNF2). The open reading frame of TNF1 and TNF2 cDNA encoded 247 and 245 amino acids, respectively. The amino acid sequence identity among sea perch, red sea bream, and tiger puffer was 73, 70, 59% for TNF1 and 49, 51, 45% for TNF2, respectively. The identity between TNF1 and TNF2 amino acid sequences of the bluefin tuna was only 43%. The positions of cysteine residues, transmembrane sequence, and protease cleavage site in bluefin tuna TNFs were similar with other reported fish and mammalian TNF-alpha. In a phylogenetic analysis, TNF1 is grouped with other reported Perciformes TNF-alpha. On the other hand, TNF2 is grouped with ayu TNF and is quite distant from the fish TNF-alpha group and lymphotoxin-beta group. While TNF1 mRNA showed no significant difference in all tissues, TNF2 mRNA was expressed significantly higher in the blood than in the gill, intestine, head kidney, spleen, heart, and ovary. In peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL), expressions of TNF2 mRNA were significantly increased by stimulation with lipopolysaccharide, phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, pokeweed mitogen, phorbol myristate acetate in vitro, but those of TNF1 were not. Recombinant mature TNF1 and TNF2 proteins significantly enhanced phagocytic activity of PBL. Our results suggest that bluefin tuna possess two types of TNF-alpha homologue, and TNF2 is a potential biomarker for innate immunity. PMID:19146959

  13. Studies on the role of tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-?) in hepatocytes induced apoptosis in vaccinated, Schistosoma mansoni-challenged mice.

    PubMed

    Etewa, Samia E; Abd El-Aal, Naglaa F; Abdel-Rahman, Sara A; Abd El Bary, Eman H; El-Shafei, Mahmoud A

    2015-04-01

    Tumour Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-?) plays a complex role in pathophysiological changes caused by schistosomiasis in the liver cells as induced apoptosis. So, The highlighted experimentally the role of TNF-? in hepatocytes apoptosis, using that as an assessment of the efficacy of antischistosomal vaccination by mixed crude antigens preparations [Cercarial antigen preparation (CAP) + soluble worm antigen preparation (SWAP) + soluble egg antigen(SEA)] by parasitological, histo-pathological and histochemical studies using Feulgen stain of hepatoytes DNA, a serological study also of serum TNF-? level by ELISA. Fifty two laboratory bred Albino male mice, were used in this study. They were classified into four groups (13 mice in each group), G1: normal control, G2 as infected control while G3 supported by Freund's Adjuvant (F. Adj) then infected and G4 vaccinated with combined antigens (CAP, SWAP and SEA) + F. Adj, then infected. Mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation 9 weeks post infection, parasitological (Kato-Katz thick smear for egg count), histopathologial {haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of hepatic sections}, histochemical (feulgen staining of hepatocytes DNA) and ELISA to estimate serum TNF-? level were performed. The data showed that vaccination with combined antigens showed protective effect on vaccinated then Schistosoma challenged mice, hepatocytes induced apoptosis was directly proportional with the TNF-? serum level, and the protection degree of potential combined vaccine was inversely proportional with serum TNF-? level and induced apoptosis. PMID:26012218

  14. Interleukin 10 inhibits macrophage microbicidal activity by blocking the endogenous production of tumor necrosis factor alpha required as a costimulatory factor for interferon gamma-induced activation.

    PubMed Central

    Oswald, I P; Wynn, T A; Sher, A; James, S L

    1992-01-01

    Interleukin 10 (IL-10) inhibits interferon gamma-induced macrophage activation for cytotoxicity against larvae of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni by suppressing production of the toxic effector molecule nitric oxide (NO). In this study, the mechanism of IL-10 action was identified as inhibition of endogenous tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production by interferon gamma-activated macrophages. TNF-alpha appears to serve as a cofactor for interferon gamma-mediated activation, since both schistosomulum killing and NO production were inhibited by anti-TNF-alpha antibody, whereas TNF-alpha alone was unable to stimulate these macrophage functions. IL-10 blocked TNF-alpha production by interferon gamma-treated macrophages at the levels of both protein and mRNA synthesis. Addition of exogenous TNF-alpha reversed IL-10-mediated suppression of macrophage cytotoxic activity as well as NO production. Likewise, addition of a macrophage-triggering agent (bacterial lipopolysaccharide or muramyl dipeptide), which induced the production of TNF-alpha, also reversed the suppressive effect of IL-10 on cytotoxic function. In contrast to IL-10, two other cytokines, IL-4 and transforming growth factor beta, which also inhibit macrophage activation for schistosomulum killing and NO production, did not substantially suppress endogenous TNF-alpha production. These results, therefore, describe a separate pathway by which macrophage microbicidal function is inhibited by the down-regulatory cytokine IL-10. Images PMID:1528880

  15. Peripheral Administration of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Induces Neuroinflammation and Sickness but Not Depressive-Like Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Biesmans, Steven; Bouwknecht, Jan A.; Ver Donck, Luc; Langlois, Xavier; Acton, Paul D.; De Haes, Patrick; Davoodi, Nima; Meert, Theo F.; Hellings, Niels; Nuydens, Rony

    2015-01-01

    Clinical observations indicate that activation of the TNF-α system may contribute to the development of inflammation-associated depression. Here, we tested the hypothesis that systemic upregulation of TNF-α induces neuroinflammation and behavioral changes relevant to depression. We report that a single intraperitoneal injection of TNF-α in mice increased serum and brain levels of the proinflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but not IL-1β. Protein levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 increased in serum but not in the brain. The transient release of immune molecules was followed by glial cell activation as indicated by increased astrocyte activation in bioluminescent Gfap-luc mice and elevated immunoreactivity against the microglial marker Iba1 in the dentate gyrus of TNF-α-challenged mice. Additionally, TNF-α-injected mice were evaluated in a panel of behavioral tests commonly used to study sickness and depressive-like behavior in rodents. Our behavioral data imply that systemic administration of TNF-α induces a strong sickness response characterized by reduced locomotor activity, decreased fluid intake, and body weight loss. Depressive-like behavior could not be separated from sickness at any of the time points studied. Together, these results demonstrate that peripheral TNF-α affects the central nervous system at a neuroimmune and behavioral level. PMID:26290874

  16. ROLES OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF-A) IN MEDIATION OF DIOXIN (TCDD)-INDUCED DELAYS IN DEVELOPMENT OF THE MOUSE MAMMARY GLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Roles of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) and Transforming Growth Factor-alpha (TGF-a) in Mediation of Dioxin (TCDD)-Induced Delays in Development of the Mouse Mammary Gland.
    Suzanne E. Fenton, Barbara Abbott, Lamont Bryant, and Angela Buckalew. U.S. EPA, NHEERL, Reproductive Tox...

  17. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate protects against tumor necrosis factor alpha induced inhibition of osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Fan, Jian-Bo; Xu, Da-Wei; Zhang, Jie; Cui, Zhi-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Anabolic bone accruement through osteogenic differentiation is important for the maintenance of physiological bone mass and often disrupted in various inflammatory diseases. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, has been suggested for potential therapeutic use in this context, possibly by the inhibition of bone resorption as well as the enhancement of bone formation through directly activating osteoblast differentiation. However, the reported effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate modulating osteoblast differentiation are mixed, and the underlying molecular mechanism is still elusive. Moreover, there is limited information regarding the effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on osteogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cell in inflammation. Here, we examined the in vitro osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. We found that the cell viability and osteoblast differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells are significantly inhibited by inflammatory cytokine TNFα treatment. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate is able to enhance the cell viability and osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and is capable of reversing the TNFα-induced inhibition. Notably, only low doses of epigallocatechin-3-gallate have such benefits, which potentially act through the inhibition of NF-κB signaling that is stimulated by TNFα. These data altogether clarify the controversy on epigallocatechin-3-gallate promoting osteoblast differentiation and further provide molecular basis for the putative clinical use of epigallocatechin-3-gallate in stem cell-based bone regeneration for inflammatory bone loss diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and prosthetic osteolysis. PMID:26748399

  18. Clostridium difficile toxin A induces the release of neutrophil chemotactic factors from rat peritoneal macrophages: role of interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and leukotrienes.

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, M F; Maia, M E; Bezerra, L R; Lyerly, D M; Guerrant, R L; Ribeiro, R A; Lima, A A

    1997-01-01

    Clostridium difficile produces a potent enterotoxin and cytotoxin, toxins A and B, respectively, which appear to be responsible for pseudomenbranous colitis and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. In the present study we explored the neutrophil migration evoked by toxin A in the peritoneal cavities and subcutaneous air pouches of rats and examined the role of macrophages and their inflammatory mediators in this process. Toxin A causes a significant dose-dependent neutrophil influx into the peritoneal cavity, with a maximal response at 0.1 microg/ml and at 4 h. The depletion of macrophages by peritoneal washing prevents the toxin A-induced neutrophil migration into the peritoneal cavity. In contrast, an increase in macrophages induced by peritoneal injection of thioglycolate amplifies this toxin effect on neutrophil migration. Furthermore, the injection of supernatants from toxin A-stimulated macrophages into the rat peritoneal cavity causes significant neutrophil migration. Pretreatment of rats with BWA4C, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, mepacrine, or dexamethasone inhibits the neutrophil migration evoked by toxin A in the peritoneal cavities. However, pretreatment with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin or the platelet-activating factor antagonist BN52021 fails to alter toxin A-induced neutrophil migration. Toxin A was also injected into air pouches of normal rats or rats pretreated with anti-interleukin-1beta (anti-IL-1beta) or anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF-alpha) antibodies. Anti-TNF-alpha or anti-IL-1beta antibodies significantly reduce the neutrophil migration induced by toxin A. These data suggest that neutrophil migration evoked by toxin A is in part dependent on macrophage-derived cytokines, such as TNF-alpha and IL-1beta, and leukotrienes. These mediators may help to explain the intense inflammatory colitis caused by C. dificile toxin A in an experimental animal model of this disease. PMID:9199444

  19. Lovastatin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha exhibit potentiated antitumor effects against Ha-ras-transformed murine tumor via inhibition of tumor-induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Feleszko, W; Bałkowiec, E Z; Sieberth, E; Marczak, M; Dabrowska, A; Giermasz, A; Czajka, A; Jakóbisiak, M

    1999-05-17

    Lovastatin, a drug commonly used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, has previously been reported to exert potentiated antitumor activity when combined with either tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), cisplatin or doxorubicin in a melanoma model in mice. Since lovastatin interferes with the function of ras oncogene-encoded (Ras) proteins, we have investigated the antitumor activity of lovastatin and TNF-alpha using a Ha-ras-transformed murine tumor model. In in vitro studies, lovastatin inhibited the growth of cells transformed with Ha-ras oncogene (Ras-3T3 and HBL100-ras cells) more effectively than control NIH-3T3 and HBL100-neo cells. In in vivo experiments, the Ras-3T3 tumor demonstrated significantly increased sensitivity to combined treatment with both lovastatin (50 mg/kg) and TNF-alpha (1 microg/day) compared with either agent alone. Combined treatment with both agents also resulted in greater inhibition of blood-vessel formation. Ras-3T3 tumor cells produced increased amounts of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and lovastatin effectively suppressed VEGF production by these cells. Our results suggest that lovastatin increases antitumor activity of TNF-alpha against tumor cells transformed with v-Ha-ras oncogene via inhibition of tumor-induced blood-vessel formation. PMID:10225445

  20. 17 beta-estradiol inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced nuclear factor-kappa B activation by increasing nuclear factor-kappa B p105 level in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, S M; Chen, Y C; Jiang, M C

    2000-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) exerts many cytological effects on a wide range of cells. TNF-alpha can activate nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B). Activation of NF-kappa B by TNF-alpha mediates many functions of TNF-alpha. The NF-kappa B inhibitor, I kappa B alpha, negatively regulates the activity of NF-kappa B. In MCF-7 cells (an estrogen and TNF-alpha receptor positive cell line), treatment with 17 beta-estradiol (E(2)) inhibited TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappa B DNA binding activity in the gel retardation assays. But, the level of the I kappa B alpha and the TNF-alpha receptor, TNF-R1, were not obviously affected. The NF-kappa B precursor, NF-kappa B p105, has been shown to be associated with NF-kappa B in the cytoplasm and efficiently blocks its nuclear translocation and activation. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with E(2) increased the level of NF-kappa B p105 protein. The anti-estrogen, 4OH-tamoxifen, treatment inhibited E(2)-induced NF-kappa B p105 expression. Our findings indicate that NF-kappa B p105 plays a role in modulating the functions of TNF-alpha in the estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells. PMID:11112416

  1. Simian immunodeficiency virus-induced alterations in monocyte production of tumor necrosis factor alpha contribute to reduced immune activation in sooty mangabeys.

    PubMed

    Mir, Kiran D; Bosinger, Steven E; Gasper, Melanie; Ho, On; Else, James G; Brenchley, Jason M; Kelvin, David J; Silvestri, Guido; Hu, Shiu-Lok; Sodora, Donald L

    2012-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is characterized by persistent viral replication in the context of CD4(+) T cell depletion and elevated immune activation associated with disease progression. In contrast, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of African-origin sooty mangabeys (SM) generally does not result in simian AIDS despite high viral loads and therefore affords a unique model in which to study the immunologic contributions to a nonpathogenic lentiviral disease outcome. A key feature of these natural SIV infections is the maintenance of low levels of immune activation during chronic infection. Our goal was to delineate the contribution of monocytes to maintaining low levels of immune activation in SIV-infected SM. Utilizing an ex vivo whole-blood assay, proinflammatory cytokine production was quantified in monocytes in response to multiple Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and a specific, significant reduction in the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was observed in SIV-infected SM. In contrast, monocytes from hosts of pathogenic infections (HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected Asian macaques) maintained a robust TNF-α response. In SIV-infected SM, monocyte TNF-α responses to low levels of LPS could be augmented by the presence of plasma from uninfected control animals. The impact of LPS-induced TNF-α production on immune activation was demonstrated in vitro, as TNF-α blocking antibodies inhibited downstream CD8(+) T cell activation in a dose-dependent manner. These data demonstrate an association between nonpathogenic SIV infection of SM and a reduced monocyte TNF-α response to LPS, and they identify a role for monocytes in contributing to the suppressed chronic immune activation observed in these natural hosts. PMID:22553338

  2. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme (TACE) is a growth hormone binding protein (GHBP) sheddase: the metalloprotease TACE/ADAM-17 is critical for (PMA-induced) GH receptor proteolysis and GHBP generation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Jiang, J; Black, R A; Baumann, G; Frank, S J

    2000-12-01

    The GH binding protein (GHBP), which exists in many vertebrates, is a circulating high affinity binding protein corresponding to the extracellular domain of the GH receptor (GHR). In humans, rabbits, and several other species, the GHBP is generated by proteolysis of the GHR and shedding of its extracellular domain. We previously showed that GHBP shedding is inducible by the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate,13-acetate (PMA) and inhibited by the metalloprotease inhibitor, Immunex Corp. Compound 3 (IC3). The metzincin metalloprotease, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-converting enzyme (TACE), catalyzes the shedding of TNF-alpha from its transmembrane precursor, a process that is also inhibitable by IC3. TACE may hence be a candidate for GHBP sheddase. In this study, we reconstitute fibroblasts derived from a TACE knockout mouse (Null cells) with either the rabbit (rb) GHR alone (Null/R) or rbGHR plus murine TACE (Null/R+T). Although GHR in both cells was expressed at similar abundance, dimerized normally and caused JAK2 activation in response to GH independent of TACE expression, PMA was unable to generate GHBP from Null/R cells. In contrast, PMA caused ample GHBP generation from TACE reconstituted (Null/R + T) cells, and this GHBP shedding was substantially inhibited by IC3 pretreatment. Corresponding to the induced shedding of GHBP from Null/R + T cells, PMA treatment caused a significant loss of immunoblottable GHR in Null/R+T, but not in Null/R cells. We conclude that TACE is an enzyme required for PMA-induced GHBP shedding and that PMA-induced down-regulation of GHR abundance may in significant measure be attributable to TACE-mediated GHR proteolysis. PMID:11108241

  3. Mechanistic links between oxidative/nitrosative stress and tumor necrosis factor alpha in letrozole-induced murine polycystic ovary: biochemical and pathological evidences for beneficial effect of pioglitazone.

    PubMed

    Rezvanfar, M A; Rezvanfar, M A; Ahmadi, A; Saadi, H A Shojaei; Baeeri, M; Abdollahi, M

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the possible relationship between ovarian functionality and the oxidative response during cystogenesis induced by hyperandrogenization with letrozole and examine protective effect of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonist, pioglitazone (PIO), in polycystic ovary (PCO). Ovarian cysts were induced by oral administration of letrozol (1 mg/kg/day) for 21 consecutive days in the female rats. Effective dose of PIO (20 mg/kg/day) was administrated orally for 21 days. Serum estradiol (E), progesterone (P), testosterone (T), and the ovarian immunomodulator prostaglandin E (PGE) were analyzed as biomarkers of ovarian function. To determine the role of oxidative stress in PCO, the level of cellular lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and peroxynitrite (ONOO), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as a marker of inflammation and apoptosis were measured in serum and the ovaries. Letrozole-induced PCO in rats exhibited a significant increase in LPO and ONOO in serum and ovary while significantly decreased serum and ovarian SOD, CAT, and GPx. Serum T and TNF-α, and ovarian PGE were increased in animals with cysts compared with healthy controls, while E and P diminished. When compared to control group, letrozole-treated group showed irregular sexual cycles, polycystic ovaries characterized by high incidence of sub-capsular ovarian cyst with diminished or scant granulosa cell layer, increased number of atretic pre-antral and antral follicles and absence of corpus luteum. There were almost no primary, secondary, and tertiary follicles observed in PCO rats. All measured parameters were improved by PIO and reached close to normal levels. The present study further supports the role of oxidative/nitrosative stress and infiammatory responses in the pathogenesis of letrozole-induced hyperandrogenic PCO rats. Results indicate that PIO is able to exert direct antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects on the endocrine, biochemical, and pathological alterations independent of its possible effects mediated via increased insulin sensitivity in hyperandrogenized PCO. PMID:22076494

  4. Ketamine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} and interleukin-6 gene expressions in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages through suppression of toll-like receptor 4-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation and activator protein-1 activation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, G.-J.; Chen, T.-L.; Ueng, Y.-F.; Chen, R.-M.

    2008-04-01

    Our previous study showed that ketamine, an intravenous anesthetic agent, has anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we further evaluated the effects of ketamine on the regulation of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) gene expressions and its possible signal-transducing mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. Exposure of macrophages to 1, 10, and 100 {mu}M ketamine, 100 ng/ml LPS, or a combination of ketamine and LPS for 1, 6, and 24 h was not cytotoxic to macrophages. A concentration of 1000 {mu}M of ketamine alone or in combined treatment with LPS caused significant cell death. Administration of LPS increased cellular TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 protein levels in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Meanwhile, treatment with ketamine concentration- and time-dependently alleviated the enhanced effects. LPS induced TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 mRNA syntheses. Administration of ketamine at a therapeutic concentration (100 {mu}M) significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 mRNA expressions. Application of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) small interfering (si)RNA into macrophages decreased cellular TLR4 levels. Co-treatment of macrophages with ketamine and TLR4 siRNA decreased the LPS-induced TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 productions more than alone administration of TLR4 siRNA. LPS stimulated phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and translocation of c-Jun and c-Fos from the cytoplasm to nuclei. However, administration of ketamine significantly decreased LPS-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and translocation of c-Jun and c-Fos. LPS increased the binding of nuclear extracts to activator protein-1 consensus DNA oligonucleotides. Administration of ketamine significantly ameliorated LPS-induced DNA binding activity of activator protein-1. Therefore, a clinically relevant concentration of ketamine can inhibit TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 gene expressions in LPS-activated macrophages. The suppressive mechanisms occur through suppression of TLR4-mediated sequential activations of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and activator protein-1.

  5. Adalimumab (tumor necrosis factor-blocker) reduces the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity increased by exogenous tumor necrosis factor alpha in an organotypic culture of porcine neuroretina

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Gutierrez, M.T.; Srivastava, G.K.; Gayoso, M.J.; Gonzalo-Orden, J.M.; Pastor, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine if exogenous addition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) exacerbates retinal reactive gliosis in an organotypic culture of porcine neuroretina and to evaluate if concomitant adalimumab, a TNF-blocker, diminishes it. Methods Porcine retinal explants from 20 eyeballs were cultured. Cultures with 100 pg/ml TNFα, 10 µg/ml adalimumab, 100 pg/ml TNFα plus 10 µg/ml adalimumab, or controls without additives were maintained for 9 days. Freshly detached retinas were processed in parallel. TNFα levels in control culture supernatants were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cryostat sections were doubly immunostained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker for reactive gliosis, and cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP), a marker for Müller cells. Sections were also labeled with the isolectin IB4, a label for microglia/macrophages. Results TNFα in control culture supernatants was detected only at day 1. Compared to the fresh neuroretinal samples, upregulation of GFAP and downregulation of CRALBP occurred during the 9 days of culture. Exogenous TNFα stimulated glial cells to upregulate GFAP and downregulate CRALBP immunoreactivity. TNFα-treated cultures also initiated the growth of gliotic membranes and underwent retinal disorganization. Adalimumab inhibited the spontaneous increases in GFAP and maintained CRALBP. In combination with TNFα, adalimumab reduced GFAP expression and conserved CRALBP, with only slight retinal disorganization. No appreciable changes in IB4 labeling were observed under the different culture conditions. Conclusions In cultured porcine neuroretina, spontaneous reactive gliosis and retinal disorganization were exacerbated by exogenous TNFα. Adalimumab reduced spontaneous changes and those induced by TNFα. Therefore, inhibiting TNFα may represent a novel approach to controlling retinal fibrosis observed in some human diseases. PMID:23687426

  6. Beneficial effect of a sturgeon-based bioactive compound on gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, matrix metalloproteinases and type-10 collagen in human chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Catanzaro, R; Marotta, F; Jain, S; Rastmanesh, R; Allegri, F; Celep, G; Lorenzetti, A; Polimeni, A; Yadav, H

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of a marine bioactive compound containing high-purity caviar-derived DNA, collagen elastin and protein extracts from sturgeon (LD-1227, Caviarlieri, Laboratoires Dom, Switzerland) on IL-1beta-induced activation and production of TNFalpha and MMP-13 in human osteo-arthritis (OA) chondrocytes and intracellular signaling factors. Human chondrocytes were derived from OA cartilage and stimulated with IL-1beta. Gene expression of TNFalpha, MMP-13, MMP-1 and Col10A1 was measured by quantitative RT-PCR. TNFalpha protein in culture medium was determined using cytokine-specific ELISA. Western immunoblotting was used to analyze the MMP-13 production in the culture medium and the activation of NF-kB. DNA binding activity of NF-kB p65 was determined using a highly sensitive and specific ELISA. MMP-13 activity in the culture medium was assayed by gelatine zymography. LD-1227 significantly decreased IL-1beta-stimulated gene expression and production of TNFalpha, MMP-1, MMP-13 and Col10A1 in human chondrocytes. The inhibitory effect of LD-1227 on the IL-1beta-induced expression of these genes was mediated at least in part via suppression of NF-kB p65. These data show that LD-1227 can inhibit IL-1beta-induced proliferation and inflammatory reactions via inhibited activation of the transcription factor NF-kB pathway in human chondrocytes derived from OA patients. These novel pharmacological actions of LD-1227 on IL-1beta-stimulated human OA chondrocytes provide suggestions that this marine biology compound may inhibit cartilage degradation by suppressing IL-1beta-mediated activation and the catabolic response in human chondrocytes. PMID:23034253

  7. Key roles for GRB2-associated-binding protein 1, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, cyclooxygenase 2, prostaglandin E2 and transforming growth factor alpha in linoleic acid-induced upregulation of lung and breast cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Mouradian, M; Kikawa, K D; Johnson, E D; Beck, K L; Pardini, R S

    2014-04-01

    The distribution of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake in Western diets is disproportionate, containing an overabundance of the omega-6 PUFA, linoleic acid (LA; C18:2). Increased enrichment with LA has been shown to contribute to the enhancement of tumorigenesis in several cancer models. Previous work has indicated that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) may play a key role in LA-induced tumorigenesis. However, the modes by which LA affects carcinogenesis have not been fully elucidated. In this study, a mechanism for LA-induced upregulation of cancer cell growth is defined. LA treatment enhanced cellular proliferation in BT-474 human breast ductal carcinoma and A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. Enrichment of LA increased cyclooxygenase (COX) activity and led to increases in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), followed by increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α) levels, which are all key elements involved in the enhancement of cancer cell growth. Further investigation revealed that LA supplementation in both BT-474 breast and A549 lung cancer cell lines greatly increased the association between the scaffolding protein GRB2-associated-binding protein 1 (Gab1) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), although Gab1 protein levels were significantly decreased. These LA-induced changes were associated with increases in activated Akt (pAkt), a downstream signaling component in the PI3K pathway. Treatment with inhibitors of EGFR, PI3K and Gab1-specific siRNAs reversed the upregulation of pAkt, as well as the observed increases in cell proliferation by LA in both cell lines. A549 xenograft assessment in athymic nude mice fed high levels of LA exhibited similar increases in EGFR-Gab1 association and increased levels of pAkt, while mice fed with high levels of the omega-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6), demonstrated an opposite response. The involvement of Gab1 in LA-induced tumorigenesis was further defined utilizing murine cell lines that express high levels of Gab1. Significant increases in cell proliferation were observed with the addition of increasing concentrations of LA. However, no changes in cell proliferation were detected in the murine paired cell lines expressing little or no Gab1 protein, establishing Gab1 as major target in LA-induced enhancement of tumorigenesis. PMID:24374147

  8. Internalization, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in rat alveolar macrophages exposed to various dusts occurring in the ceramics industry.

    PubMed

    Attik, G; Brown, R; Jackson, P; Creutzenberg, O; Aboukhamis, I; Rihn, B H

    2008-09-01

    In 1997 The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified some exposures to crystalline silica as carcinogenic to humans. Such exposures were acknowledged to be very variable, and even in the same monograph it was admitted that coal dust, containing as much as 20% quartz, could not be classified. Clearly there is a need to develop methods for assessing any risks posed by various silica containing dusts in different workplaces. A European collective research project, SILICERAM, was launched with the aim of assessing the toxicity of various dusts in the ceramics industry and improving worker protection. This study examined the effect of particles, namely, DQ12 quartz, China clay, feldspar, and a sample resembling a typical mixture used in the ceramic industry (a "contrived sample" or CS), on NR8383, a rat alveolar macrophage (AM) cell line. Titanium dioxide and aluminum oxide were also used as negative controls. Confocal microscopy observations showed internalization of DQ12 and CS in NR8383. Cell viability decreased dramatically after a 2-h incubation exposure period with DQ12 (-71%). CS was less toxic than DQ12 at 2 h. China clay and feldspar were slightly cytotoxic to NR8383 cells. DQ12 induced apoptosis, with a smaller effect of CS and China clay. TNFalpha gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR. DQ12, at a noncytotoxic dose of 10 microg/cm(2), induced a significant expression of TNFalpha (+2 times increase). In contrast, similar doses of CS and China clay did not produce a significant increase, while TiO2 and Al2O3 displayed no effect. Co-treatment with 10 microM aluminum lactate significantly reduced the effects of silica-containing particles on cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and TNFalpha expression. PMID:18803060

  9. Inhibition of Hypoxia Inducible Factor Alpha and Astrocyte-Elevated Gene-1 Mediates Cryptotanshinone Exerted Antitumor Activity in Hypoxic PC-3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Jung, Deok-Beom; Sohn, Eun Jung; Kim, Hanna Hyun; Park, Moon Nyeo; Lew, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Seok Geun; Kim, Bonglee; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Although cryptotanshinone (CT) was known to exert antitumor activity in several cancers, its molecular mechanism under hypoxia still remains unclear. Here, the roles of AEG-1 and HIF-1α in CT-induced antitumor activity were investigated in hypoxic PC-3 cells. CT exerted cytotoxicity against prostate cancer cells and suppressed HIF-1α accumulation and AEG-1 expression in hypoxic PC-3 cells. Also, AEG-1 was overexpressed in prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, HIF-1α siRNA transfection enhanced the cleavages of caspase-9,3, and PAPR and decreased expression of Bcl-2 and AEG1 induced by CT in hypoxic PC-3 cells. Of note, DMOG enhanced the stability of AEG-1 and HIF-1α during hypoxia. Additionally, CT significantly reduced cellular level of VEGF in PC-3 cells and disturbed tube formation of HUVECs. Consistently, ChIP assay revealed that CT inhibited the binding of HIF-1α to VEGF promoter. Furthermore, CT at 10 mg/kg suppressed the growth of PC-3 cells in BALB/c athymic nude mice by 46.4% compared to untreated control. Consistently, immunohistochemistry revealed decreased expression of Ki-67, CD34, VEGF, carbonic anhydrase IX, and AEG-1 indices in CT-treated group compared to untreated control. Overall, our findings suggest that CT exerts antitumor activity via inhibition of HIF-1α, AEG1, and VEGF as a potent chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:23243443

  10. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells and associates with the nucleus in response to tumour necrosis factor {alpha} signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Catherine A.; Sun Zhong; Cliche, Dominic O.; Ming, Hong; Eshaque, Bithi; Jin Songmu; Hopkins, Marianne T.; Thai, Boun; Thompson, John E. . E-mail: jet@sciborg.uwaterloo.ca

    2007-02-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is thought to function as a nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein. There are reports of its involvement in cell proliferation, and more recently it has also been implicated in the regulation of apoptosis. In the present study, we examined the effects of eIF5A over-expression on apoptosis and of siRNA-mediated suppression of eIF5A on expression of the tumour suppressor protein, p53. Over-expression of either eIF5A or a mutant of eIF5A incapable of being hypusinated was found to induce apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells. Our results also indicate that eIF5A is required for expression of p53 following the induction of apoptosis by treatment with Actinomycin D. Depiction of eIF5A localization by indirect immunofluorescence has indicated, for the first time, that the protein is rapidly translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus by death receptor activation or following treatment with Actinomycin D. These findings collectively indicate that unhypusinated eIF5A may have pro-apoptotic functions and that eIF5A is rapidly translocated to the nucleus following the induction of apoptotic cell death.

  11. Flavones mitigate tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced adhesion molecule upregulation in cultured human endothelial cells: role of nuclear factor-kappa B.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Suk; Choi, Yean-Jung; Park, Sung-Hee; Kang, Jung-Sook; Kang, Young-Hee

    2004-05-01

    Flavones have been classified as anti-atherogenic agents that inhibit monocyte adhesion to stimulated endothelium, possibly by blocking induction of cell adhesion molecules (CAM). This anti-atherogenic feature of these flavonoids appears to be related to their chemical structures. Flavones may interfere with key signaling events involved in endothelial cell activation by inflammatory mediators. This study examined the effects of flavones on the induction of CAM and the translocation and DNA binding of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) in TNF-alpha-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The effects of flavones, luteolin and apigenin, on adhesion of THP-1 monocytes to the TNF-alpha-activated HUVEC, protein expression and mRNA levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin, and nuclear appearance and DNA binding activity of NF-kappa B were determined. Flavanols, flavonols, and flavanones were used for comparison. TNF-alpha significantly induced HUVEC protein expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin with increasing mRNA levels. Luteolin and apigenin inhibited the TNF-alpha-induced upregulation of THP-1 adhesion and VCAM-1 expression; these inhibitory effects were dose-dependent. The flavones at doses of > or =25 micromol/L almost completely abolished the increased CAM protein and mRNA regardless of their anti-oxidative activity. With the exception of the flavonol quercetin, flavonoids had no such effect; quercetin substantially attenuated the CAM induction. The flavones inhibited nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of the NF-kappa B-containing binding site in the promoter region of the CAM genes in TNF-alpha-activated HUVEC. The inhibition of endothelial CAM induction by flavones is mediated by their interference with the NF-kappa B-dependent transcription pathway. Thus, the flavones may hamper initial atherosclerotic events involving endothelial CAM induction. PMID:15113938

  12. Dietary fiber down-regulates colonic tumor necrosis factor alpha and nitric oxide production in trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitic rats.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cabezas, Maria Elena; Gálvez, Julio; Lorente, Maria Dolores; Concha, Angel; Camuesco, Desirée; Azzouz, Shamira; Osuna, Antonio; Redondo, Luis; Zarzuelo, Antonio

    2002-11-01

    Previous studies have revealed the beneficial effects exerted by dietary fiber in human inflammatory bowel disease, which were associated with an increased production of SCFA in distal colon. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the probable mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of a fiber-supplemented diet (5% Plantago ovata seeds) in the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis, with special attention to its effects on the production of some of the mediators involved in the inflammatory response, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and nitric oxide (NO). Rats were fed the fiber-supplemented diet for 2 wk before TNBS colitis induction and thereafter until colonic evaluation 1 wk later. The results obtained showed that dietary fiber supplementation facilitated recovery from intestinal insult as evidenced both histologically, by a preservation of intestinal cytoarchitecture, and biochemically, by a significant reduction in colonic myeloperoxidase activity and by restoration of colonic glutathione levels. This intestinal anti-inflammatory effect was associated with lower TNFalpha levels and lower NO synthase activity in the inflamed colon, showing significant differences when compared with nontreated colitic rats. Moreover, the intestinal contents from fiber-treated colitic rats showed a significantly higher production of SCFA, mainly butyrate and propionate. We conclude that the increased production of these SCFA may contribute to recovery of damaged colonic mucosa because they constitute substrates for the colonocyte and, additionally, that they can inhibit the production of proinflammatory mediators, such as TNFalpha and NO. PMID:12421838

  13. Transforming growth factor-alpha mRNA and epidermal growth factor receptor mRNA expression in normal and neoplastic mammary glands of four strains of mice with different mammary tumor potentials.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, S; Ikezaki, Y; Nagasawa, H

    1997-10-01

    Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF alpha) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) mRNAs were determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the normal and neoplastic mammary glands of four strains of mice with different mammary tumor potentials (from highest to lowest potential): SHN, GR/A, SLN and C3H/He. At 2 months of age, when the mammary glands of these strains consisted mostly of normal tissue, the samples examined showed the positive expressions of both TGF alpha and EGF-R mRNAs in all strains (4-6 mice per group), except for EGF-R mRNA in the SLN mice, expressed in only 2 of 4 samples associated with no end-bud formation in the mammary glands. At 10 months, all of the samples from all four strains had a positive expression of TGF alpha mRNA. The EGF-R mRNA expression paralleled the degree of the formation of preneoplastic hyperplastic alveolar nodules (HAN) in all strains. These findings indicate that TGF alpha and EGF-R participate in the growth of the mammary glands, and that EGF-R especially contributes to the formation of end-buds at younger ages and to that of preneoplastic HAN at later ages. All of the samples of mammary tumors from four strains had positive expressions of both TGF alpha and EGF-R mRNAs. PMID:9450392

  14. Regulation of drug transporter expression in human hepatocytes exposed to the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha or interleukin-6.

    PubMed

    Le Vee, Marc; Lecureur, Valrie; Stieger, Bruno; Fardel, Olivier

    2009-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 are proinflammatory cytokines known to alter expression of drug transporters in rodent liver. However, their effects toward human hepatic transporters remain poorly characterized. Therefore, this study was designed to analyze the effects of these cytokines on drug transporter expression in primary human hepatocytes. Exposure to 100 ng/ml TNF-alpha or 10 ng/ml IL-6 for 48 h was found to down-regulate mRNA levels of major sinusoidal influx transporters, including sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1, organic cation transporter (OCT) 1, and organic anion transporter 2. TNF-alpha and IL-6 concomitantly reduced NTCP and OATP1B1 protein expression and NTCP, OATP, and OCT1 transport activities. IL-6, but not TNF-alpha, was also found to decrease mRNA expression of the canalicular transporters multidrug resistance 1 gene, multidrug resistance gene-associated protein (MRP) 2, and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP); it concomitantly decreased MRP2 and BCRP protein expression. TNF-alpha, unlike IL-6, markedly reduced bile salt export pump mRNA levels and increased BCRP protein expression. Expression of the sinusoidal MRP3 efflux pump was found to be up-regulated at protein level by both TNF-alpha and IL-6. Taken together, these data show that TNF-alpha and IL-6 similarly altered expression of sinusoidal drug transporters and rather differentially that of canalicular efflux transporters. Such pronounced changes in hepatic transporter expression are likely to contribute to both cholestasis and alterations of pharmacokinetics caused by inflammation in humans. PMID:19074973

  15. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Induces a Serotonin Dependent Early Increase in Ciliary Beat Frequency and Epithelial Transport Velocity in Murine Tracheae

    PubMed Central

    Weiterer, Sebastian; Schulte, Dagmar; Müller, Sabrina; Kohlen, Thomas; Uhle, Florian; Weigand, Markus A.; Henrich, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The tracheal epithelium prevents via its highly effective clearance mechanism the contamination of the lower airways by pathogens. This mechanism is driven by ciliary bearing cells which are not only in contact with the gas phase; in addition they are also influenced by inflammatory mediators. These mediators can alter the protective function of the epithelium. Since the pro-inflammatoric cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays a pivotal role within the inflammatory cascade, we investigated its effect onto the tracheal epithelium measured by its ciliary beat frequency and the particle transport velocity. In organ explant experiments the ciliary beat frequency and the particle transport velocity were measured under the application of TNF-α using tracheae from male C57BL6J mice. We observed a dose dependent TNF-α induced increase of both particle transport velocity and ciliary beat frequency. Knock out mice experiments made evident that the increase was depended on the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1). The increases in ciliary beat frequency as well as the accelerated particle transport velocity were either inhibited by the unspecific serotonin antagonist methysergide or by cyproheptadine a specific 5-HT2 receptor antagonist. Thus, acetylcholine antagonists or nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors failed to inhibit the TNF-α induced activation. In conclusion, TNF-α may play a pivotal role in the protection of lower airways by inducing ciliary activity and increase in particle transport velocity via TNF-R1 and 5-HT2 receptor. PMID:24626175

  16. Involvement of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Interleukin-1β in Enhancement of Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Seizures Caused by Shigella dysenteriae

    PubMed Central

    Yuhas, Yael; Shulman, Lester; Weizman, Abraham; Kaminsky, Elizabeth; Vanichkin, Alexey; Ashkenazi, Shai

    1999-01-01

    Neurologic manifestations, mainly convulsions, are the most frequent extraintestinal complications of shigellosis. We used an animal model to study the roles of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 β (IL-1β) in Shigella-related seizures. Administration of Shigella dysenteriae 60R sonicate enhanced the sensitivity of mice to the proconvulsant pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) within 7 h. This was indicated by a significantly higher mean convulsion score and an increased number of mice responding with clonic-tonic seizures in the Shigella-pretreated group. Preinjection of mice with anti-murine TNF-α (anti-mTNF-α) or anti-murine IL-1β (anti-mIL-1β) 30 min prior to administration of Shigella sonicate abolished their enhanced response to PTZ at 7 h. Mean convulsion scores were reduced by anti-mTNF-α from 1.2 to 0.8 (P = 0.017) and by anti-mIL-1β from 1.3 to 0.7 (P = 0.008). Preinjection of anti-mTNF-α also reduced the percentage of mice responding with clonic-tonic seizures, from 48 to 29% (P = 0.002), and preinjection of anti-mIL-1β reduced it from 53 to 21% (P = 0.012). Neutralization of TNF-α or IL-1β did not protect the mice from death due to S. dysenteriae 60R. These findings indicate that TNF-α and IL-1β play a role in the very early sensitization of the central nervous system to convulsive activity after S. dysenteriae administration. Similar mechanisms may trigger neurologic disturbances in other infectious diseases. PMID:10024595

  17. Effect of mast cell granules on the gene expression of nitric oxide synthase and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y; Nguyen, T D; Stechschulte, A C; Stechschulte, D J; Dileepan, K N

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that mast cell granules (MCG) inhibit numerous macrophage functions including tumour cytotoxicity, superoxide and nitric oxide (NO) production, and FCgamma2a receptor-mediated phagocytosis. In this study, the effect of MCG on macrophage TNF alpha and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression, and the production and fate of TNF alpha were examined. Upon activation with LPS+IFN gamma, macrophages expressed both TNF alpha and iNOS mRNA and produced both TNF alpha and NO. Co-incubation of LPS+IFN gamma-activated macrophages with MCG resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of iNOS mRNA expression. TNF alpha production in the activated macrophages was decreased by MCG, which was associated with a reduction in TNF alpha mRNA expression. MCG were also capable of degrading both macrophage-generated and recombinant TNF alpha. The direct effect of MCG on TNF alpha was partially reversed by a mixture of protease inhibitors. These results demonstrate that MCG decrease the production of NO and TNF alpha by inhibiting macrophage iNOS and TNF alpha gene expression. Furthermore, MCG post-transcriptionally alter TNF alpha levels via proteolytic degradation. PMID:9883971

  18. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF RETINOIC ACID ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: EGF and TGF regulate cell proliferation and differentiation in the embryo. The induction of cleft palate (CP) by all trans retinoic acid (RA) was associated with altered expression of TGF, EGF receptor and binding of EGF. The present study uses knockout (KO) mice to e...

  19. Elevated Dengue Virus Nonstructural Protein 1 Serum Levels and Altered Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression, Nitric Oxide, and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Production in Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Patients

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Denise Maciel; Garcia, Fernanda Gonçalves; Terra, Ana Paula Sarreta; Lopes Tosta, Ana Cristina; Silva, Luciana de Almeida; Castellano, Lúcio Roberto; Silva Teixeira, David Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Background. During dengue virus (DV) infection, monocytes produce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) which might be critical to immunopathogenesis. Since intensity of DV replication may determine clinical outcomes, it is important to know the effects of viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) on innate immune parameters of infected patients. The present study investigates the relationships between dengue virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) serum levels and innate immune response (TLR4 expression and TNF-α/NO production) of DV infected patients presenting different clinical outcomes. Methodology/Principal Findings. We evaluated NO, NS1 serum levels (ELISA), TNF-α production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and TLR4 expression on CD14+ cells from 37 dengue patients and 20 healthy controls. Early in infection, increased expression of TLR4 in monocytes of patients with dengue fever (DF) was detected compared to patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Moreover, PBMCs of DHF patients showed higher NS1 and lower NO serum levels during the acute febrile phase and a reduced response to TLR4 stimulation by LPS (with a reduced TNF-α production) when compared to DF patients. Conclusions/Significance. During DV infection in humans, some innate immune parameters change, depending on the NS1 serum levels, and phase and severity of the disease which may contribute to development of different clinical outcomes. PMID:25580138

  20. Extrachromosomal inducible expression.

    PubMed

    Veltman, Douwe M; Van Haastert, Peter J M

    2013-01-01

    Inducible expression systems are very convenient for proteins that induce strong side effects such as retardation of growth or development and are essential for the expression of toxic proteins. In this chapter we describe the doxycycline-inducible expression system, optimized for the controlled expression in. Two types of inducible plasmids are presented, in which transcription is induced by either adding or removing doxycycline, respectively. Detailed protocols are provided for the construction of the plasmids and the inducible expression of the target protein. PMID:23494312

  1. Neonatal exposure to estradiol-17β modulates tumour necrosis factor alpha and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in brain and also in ovaries of adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Shridharan, Radhika Nagamangalam; Krishnagiri, Harshini; Govindaraj, Vijayakumar; Sarangi, SitiKantha; Rao, Addicam Jagannadha

    2016-02-01

    The sexually dimorphic organization in perinatal rat brain is influenced by steroid hormones. Exposure to high levels of estrogen or endocrine-disrupting compounds during perinatal period may perturb this process, resulting in compromised reproductive physiology and behavior as observed in adult In our recent observation neonatal exposure of the female rats to estradiol-17β resulted in down-regulation of TNF-α, up-regulation of COX-2 and increase in SDN-POA size in pre-optic area in the adulthood. It is known that the control of reproductive performance in female involves a complex interplay of the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovary. The present study was undertaken to understand the possible molecular mechanism involved in changes observed in the ovarian morphology and expression of selected genes in the ovary. Administration of estradiol-17β (100 μg) on day 2 and 3 after birth revealed up-regulation of ER-α, ER-β, COX-2 and down-regulation of TNF-α expression. Also the decrease in the ovarian weight, altered ovarian morphology and changes in the 2D protein profiles were also seen. This is apparently the first report documenting that neonatal estradiol exposure modulates TNF-α and COX-2 expression in the ovary as seen during adult stage. Our results permit us to suggest that cues originating from the modified brain structure due to neonatal exposure of estradiol-17β remodel the ovary at the molecular level in such a way that there is a disharmony in the reproductive function during adulthood and these changes are perennial and can lead to infertility and changes of reproductive behavior. PMID:26872318

  2. Increased Expression of Interleukin-5 (IL-5), IL-13, and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Genes in Intestinal Lymph Cells of Sheep Selected for Enhanced Resistance to Nematodes during Infection with Trichostrongylus colubriformis

    PubMed Central

    Pernthaner, Anton; Cole, Sally-Ann; Morrison, Lilian; Hein, Wayne R.

    2005-01-01

    Cytokine gene expression in cells migrating in afferent and efferent intestinal lymph was monitored for extended time periods in individual sheep experimentally infected with the nematode Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Animals from stable selection lines with increased levels of either genetic resistance (R) or susceptibility (S) to nematode infection were used. Genes for interleukin-5 (IL-5), IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), but not for IL-4, IL-10, or gamma interferon (IFN-γ), were consistently expressed at higher levels in both afferent and efferent lymph cells of R sheep than in S sheep. However, only minor differences were observed in the surface phenotypes and antigenic and mitogenic responsiveness of cells in intestinal lymph between animals from the two selection lines. The IL-4 and IL-10 genes were expressed at higher levels in afferent lymph cells than in efferent lymph cells throughout the course of the nematode infection in animals of both genotypes, while the proinflammatory TNF-α gene was relatively highly expressed in both lymph types. These relationships notwithstanding, expression of the IL-10 and TNF-α genes declined significantly in afferent lymph cells but not in efferent lymph cells during infection. Collectively, the results showed that R-line sheep developed a strong polarization toward a Th2-type cytokine profile in immune cells migrating in lymph from sites where the immune response to nematodes was initiated, although the IFN-γ gene was also expressed at moderate levels. Genes or alleles that predispose an animal to develop this type of response appear to have segregated with the R selection line and may contribute to the increased resistance of these animals. PMID:15784560

  3. Insulin-like growth factor-I protects colon cancer cells from death factor-induced apoptosis by potentiating tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor kappaB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Remacle-Bonnet, M M; Garrouste, F L; Heller, S; André, F; Marvaldi, J L; Pommier, G J

    2000-04-01

    Resistance of cancer cells against apoptosis induced by death factors contributes to the limited efficiency of immune- and drug-induced destruction of tumors. We report here that insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) fully protect HT29-D4 colon carcinoma cells from IFN-gamma/tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) induced apoptosis. Survival signaling initiated by IGF-I was not dependent on the canonical survival pathway involving phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase. In addition, neither pp70(S6K) nor protein kinase C conveyed IGF-I antiapoptotic function. Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) with the MAPK/ERK kinase inhibitor PD098059 and MAPK/p38 with the specific inhibitor SB203580 partially reversed, in a nonadditive manner, the IGF-I survival effect. Inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity by preventing degradation of the inhibitor of NF-kappaB (IkappaB-alpha) with BAY 11-7082 also blocked in part the IGF-I antiapoptotic effect. However, the complete reversal of the IGF-I effect was obtained only when NF-kappaB and either MAPK/ERK or MAPK/p38 were inhibited together. Because these pathways are also those used by TNF to signal inflammation and survival, these data point to a cross talk between IGF-I- and TNF-induced signaling. We further report that TNF-induced IL-8 production was indeed strongly enhanced upon IGF-I addition, and this effect was totally abrogated by both MAPK and NF-kappaB inhibitors. The IGF-I antiapoptotic function was stimulus-dependent because Fas- and IFN/Fas-induced apoptosis was not efficiently inhibited by IGF-I. This was correlated with the weak ability of Fas ligation to enhance IL-8 production in the presence or absence of IGF-I. These findings indicate that the antiapoptotic function of IGF-I in HT29-D4 cells is based on the enhancement of the survival pathways initiated by TNF, but not Fas, and mediated by MAPK/p38, MAPK/ERK, and NF-kappaB, which act in concert to suppress the proapoptotic signals. In agreement with this model, we show that it was possible to render HT29-D4 cells resistant to Fas-induced apoptosis provided that IGF-I and TNF receptors were activated simultaneously. PMID:10766192

  4. PLASMA TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA CONCENTRATIONS DURING THE TRANSITION PERIOD OF COWS FED EITHER AD LIBITUM OR RESTRICTED DIETS DURING THE DRY PERIOD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-') is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that upregulates mRNA expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) and induces nitric oxide (NO) production. Both SOCS and NO inhibit intracellular growth hormone (GH) signaling and uncouple the somatotropic axis. Expressio...

  5. Expression and purification of recombinant tristetraprolin that can bind to tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA and serve as a substrate for mitogen-activated protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Cao, Heping; Dzineku, Frederick; Blackshear, Perry J

    2003-04-01

    Tristetraprolin (TTP) is an mRNA-binding protein, but studies of this interaction have been difficult due to problems with the purification of recombinant TTP. In the present study, we expressed human and mouse TTP as glutathione S-transferase and maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion proteins in Escherichia coli, and purified them by affinity resins and Mono Q chromatography. TTP cleaved from the fusion protein was identified by immunoblotting, MALDI-MS, and protein sequencing, and was further purified to homogeneity by continuous-elution SDS-gel electrophoresis. Purified recombinant TTP bound to the AU-rich element of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) mRNA and this binding was dependent on Zn(2+). Results from sizing columns suggested that the active species might be in the form of an oligomer of MBP-TTP. Recombinant TTP was phosphorylated by three members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family, p42, p38, and JNK, with half-maximal phosphorylation occurring at approximately 0.5, 0.25, and 0.25 microM protein, respectively. Phosphorylation by these kinases did not appear to affect the ability of TTP to bind to TNFalpha mRNA under the assay conditions. This study describes a procedure for purifying nonfusion protein TTP to homogeneity, demonstrates that TTP's RNA-binding activity is zinc dependent, and that TTP can be phosphorylated by JNK as well as by the other members of the greater MAP kinase family. PMID:12646273

  6. Inhibition of leucocyte adhesion molecule upregulation by tumor necrosis factor alpha: a novel mechanism of action of sulphasalazine.

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, S M; Hamblin, A S; Shakoor, Z S; Teare, J P; Punchard, N A; Thompson, R P

    1993-01-01

    The effects of the cytokine tumour necrosis factor alpha and the calcium ionophore A23187 upon CD11a, CD11b, CD11c and CD18 leucocyte membrane expression was analysed in whole blood using monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry. Both agents significantly increased the density of CD11b/CD18 membrane expression on monocytes and granulocytes, but had no effects on adhesion molecule expression on lymphocytes. The effects of sulphasalazine, 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and sulphapyridine upon adhesion molecule upregulation were then examined; 10(-3) and 10(-4) M sulphasalazine and 5-ASA significantly reduced tumour necrosis factor alpha induced CD11b/CD18 upregulation on monocytes and granulocytes but had no effects upon A23187 mediated upregulation. Sulphapyridine was inactive. These results suggest that sulphasalazine and 5-ASA may interfere with mechanisms of leucocyte recruitment in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:8094364

  7. The CATERPILLER protein monarch-1 is an antagonist of toll-like receptor-, tumor necrosis factor alpha-, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced pro-inflammatory signals.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kristi L; Lich, John D; Duncan, Joseph A; Reed, William; Rallabhandi, Prasad; Moore, Christopher; Kurtz, Sherry; Coffield, V McNeil; Accavitti-Loper, Mary A; Su, Lishan; Vogel, Stefanie N; Braunstein, Miriam; Ting, Jenny P-Y

    2005-12-01

    The CATERPILLER (CLR, also NOD and NLR) proteins share structural similarities with the nucleotide binding domain (NBD)-leucine-rich repeat (LRR) superfamily of plant disease-resistance (R) proteins and are emerging as important immune regulators in animals. CLR proteins contain NBD-LRR motifs and are linked to a limited number of distinct N-terminal domains including transactivation, CARD (caspase activation and recruitment), and pyrin domains (PyD). The CLR gene, Monarch-1/Pypaf7, is expressed by resting primary myeloid/monocytic cells, and its expression in these cells is reduced by Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Monarch-1 reduces NFkappaB activation by TLR-signaling molecules MyD88, IRAK-1 (type I interleukin-1 receptor-associated protein kinase), and TRAF6 (TNF receptor (TNFR)-associated factor) as well as TNFR signaling molecules TRAF2 and RIP1 but not the downstream NFkappaB subunit p65. This indicates that Monarch-1 is a negative regulator of both TLR and TNFR pathways. Reducing Monarch-1 expression with small interference RNA in myeloid/monocytic cells caused a dramatic increase in NFkappaB activation and cytokine expression in response to TLR2/TLR4 agonists, TNFalpha, or M. tuberculosis infection, suggesting that Monarch-1 is a negative regulator of inflammation. Because Monarch-1 is the first CLR protein that interferes with both TLR2 and TLR4 activation, the mechanism of this interference is significant. We find that Monarch-1 associates with IRAK-1 but not MyD88, resulting in the blockage of IRAK-1 hyperphosphorylation. Mutants containing the NBD-LRR or PyD-NBD also blocked IRAK-1 activation. This is the first example of a CLR protein that antagonizes inflammatory responses initiated by TLR agonists via interference with IRAK-1 activation. PMID:16203735

  8. Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is required for tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9: its direct inhibition by quercetin.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Mun Kyung; Song, Nu Ry; Kang, Nam Joo; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2009-07-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in various skin disorders, including photoaging, dermatitis, and tumorigenesis. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is a key proinflammatory cytokine that acts to provoke inflammation, proliferation, and tumorigenesis. The present study investigated the possible inhibitory effects of red wine polyphenols on TNF-alpha-induced upregulation of MMP-9 and on the migratory phenotype of JB6 P+ mouse epidermal (JB6 P+) cells. Red wine extract (RWE) and quercetin, which is a major flavonoid present in red wine, inhibited significantly the TNF-alpha-induced upregulation of MMP-9 and cell migration, whereas resveratrol did not have significant inhibitory effects. The inhibitory effects of RWE and quercetin were mediated by suppression of the phosphorylation of Akt and the transactivation of activator protein-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB, as determined by Western blotting and luciferase assays, respectively. Aside from Akt, quercetin had no effect on the phosphorylation of other mitogen-activated protein kinases. Direct kinase assay data revealed that RWE and quercetin inhibited phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity. The results of direct and cell-based pull-down assays demonstrated that RWE and quercetin bound to PI3K, resulting in the inhibition of PI3K activity. Using chemical inhibitors, it was confirmed that the PI3K-dependent Akt pathway was involved in TNF-alpha-induced MMP-9 upregulation and migration in JB6 P+ cells. Collectively, these results indicate that TNF-alpha-induced MMP-9 upregulation and the migratory phenotype are associated with the PI3K/Akt pathway, and that these effects are inhibited strongly by RWE and quercetin. PMID:19401153

  9. Human cytomegalovirus-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells induce HIV-1 replication via a tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, P K; Gekker, G; Chao, C C; Hu, S X; Edelman, C; Balfour, H H; Verhoef, J

    1992-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a potential cofactor in HIV-1 infection. To investigate the mechanism whereby HCMV promotes HIV-1 replication, a PBMC coculture assay which measures HIV-1 p24 antigen release was used as an index of viral replication. HCMV-stimulated PBMC were capable of inducing HIV-1 replication in cocultures with acutely infected PBMC; however, this occurred only when the PBMC were from HCMV-seropositive donors (598 +/- 207 versus 27 +/- 10 pg/ml p24 antigen with PBMC from HCMV-seronegative donors on day 6 of coculture). Upon stimulation with HCMV, PBMC obtained exclusively from HCMV-seropositive donors released tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha (270 +/- 79 pg/ml at 18 h of culture). Monoclonal antibodies to TNF-alpha blocked the activity of HCMV-stimulated PBMC in cocultures both with acutely HIV-1-infected PBMC and with the chronically infected promonocytic line U1. Also, treatment of HCMV-stimulated PBMC with pentoxifylline, an inhibitor of TNF-alpha mRNA, markedly reduced HIV-1 replication in cocultures both with acutely and chronically infected cells. These results indicate that TNF-alpha is a key mediator of HIV-1 replication induced by HCMV-stimulated PBMC and support the concept that this cytokine plays an important role in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. PMID:1310698

  10. Induced autocrine signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor contributes to the response of mammary epithelial cells to tumor necrosis factor alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wan-Nan U.; Woodbury, Ronald L.; Kathmann, Loel E.; Opresko, Lee; Zangar, Richard C.; Wiley, H S.; Thrall, Brian D.

    2004-04-30

    In contrast to the well-known cytotoxic effects of tumor necrosis factor a (TNF) in many mammary cancer cells, we have found that TNF stimulates the proliferation and motility of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC). Since the response of HMEC to TNF is similar to effects mediated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation, we explored the potential role of cross-talk through the EGFR signaling pathways in mediating cellular responses to TNF. Using a microarray enzyme-linked immunoassay, we found that exposure to TNF stimulated the dose-dependent shedding of the EGFR ligand transforming growth factor a (TGFa). Both proliferation and motility of HMEC induced by TNF was prevented either by inhibiting membrane protein shedding with a metalloprotease inhibitor, by blocking EGFR kinase activity, or by limiting ligand-receptor interactions with an antagonistic anti-EGFR antibody. EGFR activity was also necessary for TNF-induced release of MMP-9, a matrix metalloprotease thought to be an essential regulator of mammary cell migration. The cellular response to TNF was associated with a biphasic temporal pattern of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, which was EGFR-dependent and modulated by inhibition of metalloprotease-mediated shedding. Significantly, the late phase of ERK phosphorylation, detectable within 4 hours after exposure, was blocked by the metalloprotease inhibitor batimastat, indicating that autocrine signaling through ligand shedding was responsible for this secondary wave of ERK activity. Our results indicate a novel and important role for metalloprotease activation and EGFR transmodulation in mediating the cellular response to TNF.

  11. Cytosine-Phosphorothionate-Guanine Oligodeoxynucleotides Exacerbates Hemophagocytosis by Inducing Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Production in Mice after Bone Marrow Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiajia; Guo, Yong-Mei; Onai, Nobuyuki; Ohyagi, Hideaki; Hirokawa, Makoto; Takahashi, Naoto; Tagawa, Hiroyuki; Ubukawa, Kumi; Kobayashi, Isuzu; Tezuka, Hiroyuki; Minamiya, Yoshihiro; Ohteki, Toshiaki; Sawada, Kenichi

    2016-04-01

    Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is frequently associated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and is treated with some benefit derived from TNF-α inhibitors. However, the mechanisms of how HPS occurs and how a TNF-α inhibitor exerts some benefit to HPS management have remained unclear. We evaluated the effect of toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, especially focusing on cytosine-phosphorothionate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG), a TLR9 ligand, on HPS in mice that underwent transplantation with syngeneic or allogeneic bone marrow (BM) cells (Syn-BMT, Allo-BMT), or with allogeneic BM cells plus splenocytes to promote graft-versus-host disease (GVHD mice). Hemophagocytosis was a common feature early after all BMT, but it subsided in Syn-BMT and Allo-BMT mice. In GVHD mice, however, hemophagocytosis persisted and was accompanied by upregulated production of IFN-γ but not TNF-α, and it was suppressed by blockade of IFN-γ but not TNF-α. A single injection of the TLR9 ligand CpG promoted HPS in all BMT mice and was lethal in GVHD mice, accompanied by greatly upregulated production of TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ. Blocking of TNF-α, but not IL-6 or IFN-γ, suppressed CpG-induced HPS in all BMT mice and rescued GVHD mice from CpG-induced mortality. Thus, TLR9 signaling mediates TNF-α-driven HPS in BMT mice and is effectively treated through TNF-α inhibition. PMID:26740374

  12. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) Expression in Preeclamptic Decidua and MMP9 Induction by Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Interleukin 1 Beta in Human First Trimester Decidual Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Charles J.; Oner, Ceyda; Uz, Yesim H.; Kayisli, Umit A.; Huang, S. Joseph; Buchwalder, Lynn F.; Murk, William; Funai, Edmund F.; Schatz, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) invade human decidua via sequential integrin-mediated binding and proteolysis of basement membrane proteins in the extracellular matrix (ECM). In preeclampsia, shallow EVT invasion impairs spiral artery and arteriole remodeling to reduce uteroplacental blood flow. Excess decidual cell-expressed matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9, in response to preeclampsia-related interleukin 1 beta (IL1B) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), may inappropriately degrade these basement membrane proteins and impede EVT invasion. This study found significantly higher immunohistochemical MMP9 levels in decidual cells and adjacent interstitial trophoblasts in placental sections of preeclamptic versus gestational age-matched control women. In contrast, immunostaining for MMP2 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2 (TIMP1 and TIMP2) were similar in preeclamptic and control groups. First-trimester decidual cells were incubated with estradiol (E2) or E2 + medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), with or without TNF or IL1B. As measured by ELISA, both cytokines elicited concentration-dependent increases in secreted MMP9 levels that were unaffected by MPA. In contrast, secreted levels of MMP2, TIMP1, and TIMP2 were unchanged in all treatment groups. Substrate gel zymography and Western blotting confirmed that each cytokine increased secreted levels of MMP9 but not MMP2. Similarly, quantitative RT-PCR found that TNF and IL1B enhanced MMP9, but not MMP2, mRNA levels. At the implantation site, inflammatory cytokine-enhanced MMP9 may promote preeclampsia by disrupting the decidual ECM to interfere with normal stepwise EVT invasion. PMID:18276934

  13. Toll-Like Receptor 2- and 6-Mediated Stimulation by Macrophage-Activating Lipopeptide 2 Induces Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Cross Tolerance in Mice, Which Results in Protection from Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha but in Only Partial Protection from Lethal LPS Doses

    PubMed Central

    Deiters, Ursula; Gumenscheimer, Marina; Galanos, Chris; Mühlradt, Peter F.

    2003-01-01

    Patients or experimental animals previously exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) become tolerant to further LPS challenge. We investigated the potential of the macrophage-activating lipopeptide 2 (MALP-2) to induce in vivo cross tolerance to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and LPS. MALP-2-induced tolerance could be of practical interest, as MALP-2 proved much less pyrogenic in rabbits than LPS. Whereas LPS signals via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), MALP-2 uses TLR2 and TLR6. LPS-mediated cytokine release was studied in mice pretreated with intraperitoneal injections of MALP-2. No biologically active TNF-α could be detected in the serum of MALP-2-treated animals when challenged with LPS 24 or 72 h later, whereas suppression of LPS-dependent interleukin (IL)-6 lasted for only 24 h. Protection from lethal TNF-α shock was studied in galactosamine-treated mice. Dose dependently, MALP-2 prevented death from lethal TNF-α doses in TLR4−/− but not in TLR2−/− mice, with protection lasting from 5 to 24 h. To assay protection from LPS, mice were pretreated with MALP-2 doses of up to 10 μg. Five and 24 h later, the animals were simultaneously sensitized and challenged by intravenous coinjection of galactosamine and a lethal dose of 50 ng of LPS. There was only limited protection (four of seven mice survived) when mice were challenged 5 h after MALP-2 pretreatment, and no protection when mice were challenged at later times. The high effectiveness of MALP-2 in suppressing TNF-α, the known ways of biological inactivation, and low pyrogenicity make MALP-2 a potential candidate for clinical use. PMID:12874325

  14. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase ICP0 Protein Inhibits Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced NF-κB Activation by Interacting with p65/RelA and p50/NF-κB1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Kezhen

    2013-01-01

    NF-κB plays central roles in regulation of diverse biological processes, including innate and adaptive immunity and inflammation. HSV-1 is the archetypal member of the alphaherpesviruses, with a large genome encoding over 80 viral proteins, many of which are involved in virus-host interactions and show immune modulatory capabilities. In this study, we demonstrated that the HSV-1 ICP0 protein, a viral E3 ubiquitin ligase, was shown to significantly suppress tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-mediated NF-κB activation. ICP0 was demonstrated to bind to the NF-κB subunits p65 and p50 by coimmunoprecipitation analysis. ICP0 bound to the Rel homology domain (RHD) of p65. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that ICP0 abolished nuclear translocation of p65 upon TNF-α stimulation. Also, ICP0 degraded p50 via its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. The RING finger (RF) domain mutant ICP0 (ICP0-RF) lost its ability to inhibit TNF-α-mediated NF-κB activation and p65 nuclear translocation and degrade p50. Notably, the RF domain of ICP0 was sufficient to interact with p50 and abolish NF-κB reporter gene activity. Here, it is for the first time shown that HSV-1 ICP0 interacts with p65 and p50, degrades p50 through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, and prevents NF-κB-dependent gene expression, which may contribute to immune evasion and pathogenesis of HSV-1. PMID:24067962

  15. Modulation of in vitro monocyte cytokine responses to Leishmania donovani. Interferon-gamma prevents parasite-induced inhibition of interleukin 1 production and primes monocytes to respond to Leishmania by producing both tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 1.

    PubMed Central

    Reiner, N E; Ng, W; Wilson, C B; McMaster, W R; Burchett, S K

    1990-01-01

    Cytokines produced by mononuclear cells are important regulatory and effector molecules and evidence has been presented to support a role at least for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in host defense against Leishmania. In the present study, we examined the production of TNF-alpha and interleukin 1 (IL-1) by resting and IFN-gamma-primed peripheral blood monocytes infected in vitro with Leishmania donovani. Monocytes produced neither IL-1 nor TNF-alpha during challenge with Leishmania. Cells preinfected with Leishmania synthesized normal amounts of TNF-alpha, but had diminished production of IL-1 in response to stimulation with either S. aureus or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The induction by S. aureus or LPS of IL-1 beta mRNA accumulation in infected cells was normal despite diminished intracellular or supernatant IL-1 protein and bioactivity. Thus, inhibition of IL-1 production by Leishmania most probably reflected diminished translation of IL-1 beta mRNA. Pretreatment of cells with IFN-gamma abrogated infection-induced inhibition of IL-1 production and primed cells for the production of both IL-1 and TNF-alpha upon subsequent exposure to Leishmania. These results indicate that L. donovani has evolved the capacity to infect mononuclear phagocytes, without stimulating the production of two potentially host-protective monokines. The ability of IFN-gamma to prime monocytes to produce TNF-alpha and IL-1 in response to infection with Leishmania and to prevent inhibition of IL-1 production may have implications for immunotherapy with this lymphokine. Images PMID:2112157

  16. NF-κB, ERK, p38 MAPK and JNK contribute to the initiation and/or maintenance of mechanical allodynia induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the red nucleus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Jing; Duan, Mei-Ting; Han, Shui-Ping; Zeng, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Jun-Yang

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the red nucleus (RN) plays facilitated roles in the development of abnormal pain. Here, the roles of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in TNF-α-evoked mechanical allodynia were investigated. Repeated microinjection of recombinant rat TNF-α (20 ng daily for 3 days) into the unilateral RN of normal rats induced a significant mechanical allodynia in the contralateral but not ipsilateral hind paw at the fifth day and disappeared 24h later. Re-injection of a single bolus of 20 ng TNF-α into the same RN reproduced this mechanical allodynia within 30 min, which was used as a pain model for further experiments. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that NF-κB, phospho-ERK (p-ERK) and p-p38 MAPK in the RN were significantly up-regulated at 1h after TNF-α microinjection, the up-regulations of NF-κB and p-ERK but not p-p38 MAPK remained at high levels till 4h later. A significant up-regulation of p-JNK occurred at 4h (but not 1h) after TNF-α microinjection, which was later than those of NF-κB, p-ERK and p-p38 MAPK. Pre-treatment with NF-κB inhibitor PDTC, ERK inhibitor PD98059 or p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 at 30 min before TNF-α microinjected into the RN completely prevented TNF-α-evoked mechanical allodynia. Pre-treatment with JNK inhibitor SP600125 did not prevent but reversed TNF-α-evoked mechanical allodynia during the subsequent detection time. Post-treatment with PDTC, PD98059 or SP600125 (but not SB203580) at 4h after TNF-α microinjected into the RN significantly reversed TNF-α-evoked mechanical allodynia. These results further prove that TNF-α in the RN plays a crucial role in the development of abnormal pain, and the algesic effect of TNF-α is initiated through activating NF-κB, ERK and p38 MAPK. The later maintenance of TNF-α-evoked mechanical allodynia mainly relies on the activation of NF-κB, ERK and JNK, but not p38 MAPK. PMID:24161765

  17. Glucocorticoids Regulate Tristetraprolin Synthesis and Posttranscriptionally Regulate Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Inflammatory Signaling▿

    PubMed Central

    Smoak, Kathleen; Cidlowski, John A.

    2006-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are used to treat various inflammatory disorders, but the mechanisms underlying these actions are incompletely understood. The zinc finger protein tristetraprolin (TTP) destabilizes several proinflammatory cytokine mRNAs by binding to AU-rich elements within their 3′ untranslated regions, targeting them for degradation. Here we report that glucocorticoids induce the synthesis of TTP mRNA and protein in A549 lung epithelial cells and in rat tissues. Dexamethasone treatment leads to a sustained induction of TTP mRNA expression that is abrogated by RU486. Glucocorticoid induction of TTP mRNA is also blocked by actinomycin D but not by cycloheximide, suggesting a transcriptional mechanism which has been confirmed by transcription run-on experiments. The most widely characterized TTP-regulated gene is the AU-rich tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) gene. Dexamethasone represses TNF-α mRNA in A549 cells and decreases luciferase expression of a TNF-α 3′ untranslated region reporter plasmid in an orientation-dependent manner. Small interfering RNAs to TTP significantly prevent this effect, and a cell line stably expressing a short-hairpin RNA to TTP conclusively establishes that TTP is critical for dexamethasone inhibition of TNF-α mRNA expression. These studies provide the molecular evidence for glucocorticoid regulation of human TTP and reflect a novel inductive anti-inflammatory signaling pathway for glucocorticoids that acts via posttranscriptional mechanisms. PMID:16982682

  18. Tissue angiotensinogen gene expression induced by lipopolysaccharide in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Nyui, N; Tamura, K; Yamaguchi, S; Nakamaru, M; Ishigami, T; Yabana, M; Kihara, M; Ochiai, H; Miyazaki, N; Umemura, S; Ishii, M

    1997-10-01

    There is now convincing evidence that various tissues express their own tissue renin-angiotensin system, which may be regulated independently of the systemic renin-angiotensin system. However, little information is available on the regulation of the tissue renin-angiotensin system. We investigated the regulation of tissue angiotensinogen gene expression with respect to the development of hypertension. We measured basal and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated plasma angiotensinogen concentrations by radioimmunoassay and examined the expression of tissue angiotensinogen by Northern blot analysis in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) at 4 and 13 weeks of age. Basal plasma angiotensinogen concentration in SHR was comparable to that in WKY at 4 weeks of age and was significantly higher than that in WKY at 13 weeks of age. Lipopolysaccharide induced a significant increase in plasma angiotensinogen concentration in both WKY and SHR at 4 and 13 weeks of age. At 4 weeks of age, the basal levels of angiotensinogen mRNA in the liver, fat, adrenal, and aorta were higher in WKY than in SHR. At 13 weeks of age, the basal levels of angiotensinogen mRNA in the fat, adrenal, aorta, spleen, and kidney were higher in WKY than in SHR, while that in the liver did not differ significantly between the two strains. At 4 weeks of age, pretreatment with lipopolysaccharide increased the angiotensinogen mRNA levels in the liver, fat, adrenal, and aorta in both WKY and SHR. At 13 weeks of age, pretreatment with lipopolysaccharide increased the angiotensinogen mRNA levels in the liver, aorta, and adrenal; decreased those in the spleen; and had no effect in the kidney in both WKY and SHR. Interestingly, lipopolysaccharide increased the angiotensinogen mRNA level in fat only in SHR, with no effect in WKY, at 13 weeks of age. Lipopolysaccharide stimulated tumor necrosis factor-a mRNA expression in fat of WKY and SHR, and the increase in tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA level in SHR was significantly greater than that in WKY. Therefore, the increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA expression may be involved in the increased lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of angiotensinogen gene in fat of SHR at 13 weeks of age. These data suggest that the transcriptional and probably posttranscriptional regulation of angiotensinogen mRNA differs between SHR and WKY, that the regulation of angiotensinogen gene expression is tissue-specific, and that the altered expression of the angiotensinogen gene may be involved in the development of hypertension. PMID:9336385

  19. Lichenoid Reactions in Association with Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Amy; Bair, Brooke; Fivenson, David

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, a clinical case of a patient treated with adalimumab for Behcets disease develops lichen planopilaris. A variety of mucocutaneous lichenoid eruptions have recently been described in association with tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors. The authors briefly discuss the clinical and pathological presentation of lichen planopilaris as well as a potential pathogenesis of cutaneous adverse effects seen as the result of tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor therapy. They review all case reports of lichen planopilaris occurring on tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors and suggest its classification as a fourth recognized pattern on this therapy. PMID:26155327

  20. In vivo expression of monokine and inducible nitric oxide synthase in experimentally induced pulmonary granulomatous inflammation. Evidence for sequential production of interleukin-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and tumor necrosis factor.

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, M.; Dimov, V. B.; Yoshida, T.

    1995-01-01

    The present study examined the temporal pattern and localization of interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in lung tissue undergoing foreign body granuloma formation. Pulmonary granulomas were induced by the intratracheal injection of dextran beads into genetically high granuloma responder, carrying Bcgs (BALB/c), and low responder, carrying Bcgr (C3H/HeJ and DBA/2), mice. There was a pattern of sequential expression of these molecules in BALB/c mice. Thus, interleukin-1 alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase were induced mostly in the cells accumulated around the beads and also in some bronchiolar epithelial cells during the early phase (1 to 3 days), whereas tumor necrosis factor-alpha was induced in the cells around the beads at the later resolution phase (3 to 7 days). By contrast, in low responder mice, an increase in the expression of interleukin-1 alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase was detected in lung macrophages as well as in alveolar cells and bronchiolar epithelial cells on day 1, but that of tumor necrosis factor-alpha was not detected throughout the period. These results together with our previous findings on cytokine activity in granuloma extract suggest that interleukin-1 and nitric oxide produced by recruited macrophages may take part in the early, macrophage-dependent phase of granuloma formation whereas tumor necrosis factor-alpha may be more crucial as a mediator responsible for the difference in innate resistance or susceptibility to granuloma formation. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:7573346

  1. Synergistic activation of NF-kappaB by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Jono, Hirofumi; Han, Jiahuai; Lim, David J; Li, Jian-Dong

    2004-03-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an important human pathogen causing otitis media in children and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults. Like most other bacterial infections, NTHi infections are also characterized by inflammation, which is mainly mediated by cytokines and chemokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Among a variety of transcription regulators, NF-kappaB has been shown to play a critical role in regulating the expression of large numbers of genes encoding inflammatory mediators. In review of the current studies on NF-kappaB regulation, most of them have focused on investigating how NF-kappaB is activated by a single inducer at a time. However, in bacteria-induced inflammation in vivo, multiple inducers including both exogenous and endogenous mediators are present simultaneously. A key issue that has yet to be addressed is whether the exogenous inducers such as NTHi and the endogenous factors such as TNF-alpha activate NF-kappaB in a synergistic manner. We show that NTHi and TNF-alpha, when present together, synergistically induce NF-kappaB activation via two distinct signaling pathways: NF-kappaB translocation-dependent and -independent pathways. The NF-kappaB translocation-dependent pathway involves NF-kappaB-inducing kinase-IkappaB kinase beta/gamma-dependent phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaBalpha, whereas the NF-kappaB translocation-independent pathway involves mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase kinase 1-dependent activation of MAPK kinase 3/6-p38 MAPK pathway. In addition, the same signaling pathways are also involved in synergistic induction of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-8. These studies should deepen our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the combinatorial regulation of inflammation and lead to development of therapeutic strategies for NTHi-induced infections. PMID:14993593

  2. Comparison of inhibition of ovalbumin-induced bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs and in vitro inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha formation with phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) selective inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Muise, Eric S; Chute, Ian C; Claveau, David; Masson, Paul; Boulet, Louise; Tkalec, Lydia; Pon, Douglas J; Girard, Yves; Frenette, Richard; Mancini, Joseph A

    2002-04-15

    Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors elevate cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate (cAMP), and this elevation has been shown to inhibit inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Using TNF-alpha as a biomarker, we have developed transcription-based assays to examine inhibition of PDE4 activity in human and guinea pig whole blood. In vitro inhibition by PDE4 inhibitors was measured using quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of TNF-alpha mRNA levels in whole blood stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The kinetics of human TNF-alpha mRNA production were analyzed and shown to be highest 4 hr following LPS stimulation. The guinea pig displayed kinetics of TNF-alpha transcription similar to those of the human. Analysis of inhibition of human TNF-alpha protein production was performed by immunoassay and shown to correlate with inhibition of transcription for three of the four compounds tested. Roflumilast was found to be 9-fold more potent for TNF-alpha inhibition in the qPCR assay than in the protein assay. The potencies of L-826,141 and roflumilast were determined in human and guinea pig whole blood by qPCR, with IC(50) values of 270 and 20 nM, respectively, in humans and 100 and 10 nM, respectively, in guinea pigs. These results show that the potency of PDE4 inhibitors can be monitored in whole blood using a transcription-based assay, and that this type of assay can be adapted to various species provided the TNF-alpha nucleotide sequence is known. The in vitro whole blood IC(50) for TNF-alpha inhibition was compared to inhibition in the ovalbumin-challenged guinea pig model of bronchoconstriction. Obtaining plasma levels at the IC(50) determined in vitro for L-826,141 and roflumilast provides significant inhibition of bronchoconstriction. This suggests that TNF-alpha can be used as a whole blood biomarker in the guinea pig for PDE4 inhibition in this inflammatory model. PMID:11996895

  3. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) gene polymorphism and expression of membrane-bound TNFα protein on CD11b+ and IgM+ cells in cows naturally infected with bovine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Bojarojć-Nosowicz, B; Kaczmarczyk, E; Stachura, A; Kubińska, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether SNP at position -824 (promoter region) of the TNFα gene significantly differentiates the size of IgM+, CD5+ and CD11b+ cell subpopulations and affects the expression of membrane-bound TNFα protein (mTNFα) on these cells and their susceptibility to BLV infections. In this study, significant differences were determined for the first time between TNFα genotypes and the percentage of cells with the CD11b+TNFα+p24+ immunophenotype. Furthermore, greater expansion of lymphocytes with the IgM+TNFα+p24+ immunophenotype was reported in cows with the G/G genotype than in A/A homozygotes. Cells with the above immunophenotype were more frequently observed in cows with persistent leukocytosis than in aleukemic cattle. Our results suggest that polymorphism of the TNFα-824 A>G gene and mTNFα protein expression play an important role in the pathogenesis of enzootic bovine leukosis. PMID:26618585

  4. IgE low affinity receptor (CD23) expression, Plasmodium falciparum specific IgE and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in Thai uncomplicated and severe falciparum malaria patients.

    PubMed

    Kumsiri, Ratchanok; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Krudsood, Srivicha; Maneerat, Yaowapa

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested that Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) specific IgE in the form of immune complexes crosslinking the low-affinity receptor (CD23) on monocyte results in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and nitric oxide (NO) production. However, the roles of these parameters in severity and immune protection are still unclear. This study aimed to determine the association between CD23 expression on monocytes, plasma soluble CD23 (sCD23), total IgE, malaria-specific IgE and IgG, and TNF-? levels in P. falciparum infected patients. We evaluated 64 uncomplicated (UC) and 25 severe patients (S), admitted at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Mahidol University, and 34 healthy controls (C) enrolled in 2001. Flow cytometry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) demonstrated that trends of the CD23 expression, levels of sCD23 and specific IgE were higher in the S group as compared to those in the UC and C groups. Plasma levels of P. falciparum specific IgE in the UC (p=0.011) and S groups (p=0.025) were significantly higher than those in C group. In contrast the TNF-? levels tended to be higher in the UC than those in the S (p=0.343) and significantly higher than those in C (p=0.004) groups. The specific IgG levels in UC were significantly higher than those in S and C (p<0.001) groups. At admission, a strong significant negative correlation was found between specific IgG and sCD23 (r=-0.762, p=0.028), and TNF-? and IgE-IgG complexes (r=-0.715, p=0.002). Significant positive correlations between levels of specific IgE and TNF-? (r=0.575, p=0.010); and sCD23 (r=0.597, p=0.000) were also observed. In conclusion, our data suggest that CD23 expression and malaria-specific IgE levels may be involved in the severity of the disease while TNF-? and the malaria-specific IgG may correlate with protection against falciparum malaria. PMID:26519199

  5. Methyl ester of avenathramide-C inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interlenkin-Ibeta(IL-beta)-induced NF-kappaB activation in endothelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease accompanied by the expression of endothelial proinflammatory molecules. Avenanthramides (Avn) are polyphenols which are present exclusively in oats. We have reported the avenanthramide-enriched mixture extracted from oats significantly suppressed int...

  6. Phenol induced acute cutaneous inflammation (AI) in mice: Diminished response in mast cell-deficient (W/W sup v ) mice and evidence of a role for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)

    SciTech Connect

    Wershil, B.K.; Wang, Z.S.; Gordon, J.R.; Galli, S.J. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA )

    1991-03-11

    AI can be induced by a variety of chemical agents. The authors examined AI in mast cell-deficient (WBB6F{sub 1}-W/W{sup v}) and congenic normal (WBB6F{sub 1}-+/+) mice; AI was induced by the epicutaneous application to the ear of phenol (2 mg), benzalkonium chloride (BC; 1 mg) and ethyl phenylpropiolate (EPP, 2 or 5 mg). Phenol induced significantly greater swelling in +/+ than in W/W{sup v} mice. No difference in swelling was seen in +/+ versus W/W{sup v} mice with BC or EEP. Phenol application induced significantly greater neutrophil infiltration in +/+ than in W/W{sup v} mice. Mast cells represent a rich source of TNF and TNF has been shown to participate in the neutrophil accumulation seen in mast cell-dependent, IgE-mediated cutaneous late phase reactions. The authors injected +/+ mice i.d. with 20 {mu}l of 1:100 dilution of a polyclonal rabbit anti-mouse TNF antiserum or 20 {mu}l of medium and then applied 2 mg phenol at the same sites. At 24 hrs, significantly less neutrophil accumulation was seen in the ear treated with anti-TNF antibodies than in the control ear. The authors conclude that mast cells may participate in phenol-induced AI, and that TNF contributes to this response.

  7. Production and regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in lipopolysaccharide- or monosodium urate crystal-induced arthritis in rabbits: roles of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1, and interleukin-8.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, A; Miyazaki, S; Maeda, T; Tanase, S; Feng, L; Ohkawara, S; Yoshinaga, M; Yoshimura, T

    1998-08-01

    The production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and its regulation by TNFalpha, IL-1, and IL-8 were investigated in two rabbit models of arthritis induced by intra-articular injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. We first prepared recombinant rabbit MCP-1 and antibodies and then developed an immunoassay. The immunoassay detected 3 pg/ml rabbit MCP-1 and did not cross-react with other rabbit chemokines such as IL-8 or GRO. MCP-1 was first detected in synovial fluid (SF) at 1 hour, and peaked at 4 or 2 hours after the injection of LPS or MSU crystals, respectively. Immunohistochemically, MCP-1 was detected in synovial lining cells and infiltrating neutrophils. The amounts of MCP-1 detected in SF from neutrophil-depleted rabbits were similar to those in normal rabbits, suggesting that synovial lining cells were the main source of MCP-1 detected in SF. The peak level of MCP-1 in SF after LPS-injection was inhibited by 57% with anti-TNFalpha mAb and by 41% with IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). Coadministration of anti-TNFalpha mAb and IL-1Ra inhibited 90% of MCP-1 production. In contrast, the peak level of MCP-1 in SF after MSU crystal-injection was not affected by any cytokine inhibitor, but was reduced by 52% with coadministration of anti-TNFalpha mAb and IL-1Ra. Anti-IL-8 IgG had no effect on the production of MCP-1 in either model. Thus, the production of MCP-1 in LPS-induced arthritis was mostly regulated by TNFalpha and IL-1, whereas half the extent of MCP-1 production in MSU crystal-induced arthritis was independent of TNFalpha or IL-1. IL-8 does not seem to regulate the production of MCP-1 in SF either directly or indirectly. Finally, administration of neutralizing anti-MCP-1 antibody inhibited LPS- and MSU crystal-induced monocyte infiltration by 58.4% and 44.9%, respectively, suggesting that synovial production of MCP-1 plays an important role in the recruitment of monocytes in these arthritis models. PMID:9714185

  8. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes as a significant source of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in endotoxin-challenged lung tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Z.; Kirpalani, H.; Torry, D.; Jordana, M.; Gauldie, J.

    1993-01-01

    The kinetic expression and potential cellular source of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in lipopolysaccharide-(LPS) induced acute lung inflammation was investigated using a rat model by Northern blot analysis, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. LPS induced a polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltrate in the lung that peaked between 6 and 24 hours. TNF-alpha messenger (m)RNA was strongly induced by LPS in whole lung tissues shown by Northern analysis. Both alveolar macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), purified from bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of LPS-treated rats, were shown to express TNF-alpha mRNA by Northern analysis. However, PMNs displayed several times more TNF-alpha mRNA, relative to actin mRNA, than alveolar macrophages at 6 and 12 hours. By in situ hybridization, most of the cells positive for TNF-alpha mRNA at 6 and 12 hours seemed to be PMNs located within the tissue near bronchioles or vessels. By immunohistochemistry, TNF-alpha protein was localized mainly to alveolar macrophages at early times (1 to 3 hours) after LPS challenge, and thereafter, PMNs seemed to be the predominant source of TNF-alpha protein as more than 90% of total intraalveolar positive cells at 6 and 12 hours were PMN. Thus, our data provide the first in vivo evidence that PMNs can serve as a significant source of TNF-alpha at sites of acute inflammation. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8213996

  9. Effect of triclosan on interleukin-1 beta production in human gingival fibroblasts challenged with tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, M; Wondimu, B; Ibrahim, M; Modéer, T

    1998-04-01

    The effect of the dentifrice ingredient triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxyldiphenyl ether) on the production of interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 was studied in human gingival fibroblasts challenged with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) in vitro. When gingival fibroblasts were treated simultaneously with triclosan (0.25, 0.5 microg/ml) and TNFalpha (10 ng/ml), the stimulatory effect of TNFalpha on IL-1beta production was reduced by the agent. In situ hybridisation showed that the TNFalpha-induced expression of IL-1beta mRNA was significantly reduced by triclosan. Furthermore, when the cells were treated simultaneously with a known protein kinase C (PKC) activator, phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and TNFalpha in the presence of triclosan (0.5 microg/ml), the agent reduced the production of IL-1beta. In contrast to its effect on IL-1beta, triclosan did not influence the mRNA expression or the production of IL-6 induced by TNFalpha. The finding that triclosan reduces the production of the inflammatory mediator IL-1beta in gingival fibroblasts further supports the view that triclosan exhibits an anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:9584910

  10. Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and other targets of tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme (TACE) in murine polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Nemo, Raghad; Murcia, Noel; Dell, Katherine Macrae

    2005-05-01

    Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) is abnormally expressed in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme (TACE), a metalloproteinase, mediates TGF-alpha processing. In this study, we sought to determine whether TGF-alpha was an absolute requirement for renal cystogenesis and whether its absence would modulate disease severity or related growth factors/receptors expression. Bpk heterozygotes were bred with TGF-alpha null mice to produce cystic and noncystic offspring with or without TGF-alpha. Assessments included kidney weight (KW), body weight (BW), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and kidney and liver immunohistology. Western analysis assessed kidney expression of amphiregulin (AR), epidermal growth factor (EGF), heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF), and their receptors, EGFR and ErbB4. A PCR-based methodology for genotyping bpk mice was also developed. No significant differences in KW, BW, KW/BW%, or BUN were seen in cystic mice with versus without TGF-alpha. Cystic kidney disease and liver disease histology were similar. AR, EGF, HB-EGF, EGFR, and ErbB4 were abnormally expressed to an equal degree in kidneys of mice with versus without TGF-alpha. Although previous data suggest a critical role of TGF-alpha in murine PKD, these data show that TGF-alpha is not required for renal cyst formation or kidney or liver disease progression. We speculate that the therapeutic effect of WTACE2 could have been due to effects on several TACE targets, including TGF-alpha, AR, and ErbB4, as well as metalloproteinases other than TACE. PMID:15774823

  11. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits UV-induced MMP-1 expression in human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon Ho; Shin, Chung Min; Park, Chi-Hyun; Kim, Kyu Han; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Eun, Hee Chul; Chung, Jin Ho

    2005-08-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation regulates UV-responsive genes, including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Moreover, UV-induced MMPs cause connective tissue damage and the skin to become wrinkled and aged. Here, we investigated the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a dietary omega-3 fatty acid, on UV-induced MMP-1 expression in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). We found that UV radiation increases MMP-1 expression and that this is mediated by p44 and p42 MAP kinase (ERK) and Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation but not by p38 activation. Pretreatment of HDFs with EPA inhibited UV-induced MMP-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner and also inhibited the UV-induced activation of ERK and JNK by inhibiting ERK kinase (MEK1) and SAPK/ERK kinase 1 (SEK1) activation, respectively. Moreover, inhibition of ERK and JNK by EPA resulted in the decrease of c-Fos expression and c-Jun phosphorylation/expression induced by UV, respectively, which led to the inhibition of UV-induced activator protein-1 DNA binding activity. This inhibitory effect of EPA on MMP-1 was not mediated by an antioxidant effect. We also found that EPA inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- or tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced MMP-1 expression in HDFs and UV-induced MMP-1 expression in HaCaT cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that EPA can inhibit UV-induced MMP-1 expression by inhibiting the MEK1/ERK/c-Fos and SEK1/JNK/c-Jun pathways. Therefore, EPA is a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of skin aging. PMID:15930517

  12. Transactivation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeats by cell surface tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Tadmori, W; Mondal, D; Tadmori, I; Prakash, O

    1991-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is expressed in secreted and cell surface (csTNF-alpha) forms by activated monocytic and T cells. In this report, we demonstrate that csTNF-alpha may predominantly regulate the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat (LTR) activation in the promonocytic cell line U937 and in the Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B-cell line BH1. Anti-TNF-alpha antibody suppressed both the constitutive expression of the HIV-1 LTR in BH1 cells and the expression induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in U937 cells. This suppression was found to be mediated via csTNF-alpha. No correlation between the HIV-1 LTR activation and the secretion of TNF-alpha was evident in these cell lines. Suppression of TNF-alpha secretion by cyclosporin A or by a serine protease inhibitor did not suppress the HIV-1 LTR activation. These observations suggest a novel biological role for csTNF-alpha in the immunopathogenesis of AIDS. PMID:1942242

  13. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced enhancement of cryosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Raghav; Paciotti, Guilio F.; Bischof, John C.

    2008-02-01

    Local recurrence of cancer after cryosurgery is related to the inability to monitor and predict destruction of cancer (temperatures > -40°C) within an iceball. We previously reported that a cytokine adjuvant TNF-α could be used to achieve complete cancer destruction at the periphery of an iceball (0 to -40°C). This study is a further development of that work in which cryosurgery was performed using cryoprobes operating at temperatures > -40°C. LNCaP Pro 5 tumor grown in a dorsal skin fold chamber (DSFC) was frozen at -6°C after TNF-α incubation for 4 or 24 hours. Tumors grown in the hind limb were frozen with a probe tip temperature of -40°C, 4 or 24 hours after systemic injection with TNF-α. Both cryosurgery alone or TNF-α treatment alone caused only a minimal damage to the tumor tissue at the conditions used in the study. The combination of TNF-α and cryosurgery produced a significant damage to the tumor tissue in both the DSFC and the hind limb model system. This augmentation in cryoinjury was found to be time-dependent with 4-hour time period between the two treatments being more effective than 24-hour. These results suggests the possibility of cryotreatment at temperatures > -40°C with the administration of TNF-α.

  14. Inflammatory cytokines induce a reduction in E-cadherin expression and morphological changes in MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tomochika; Yoshida, Kota; Matsumoto, Kaori; Saeki, Kohei; Tanaka, Yuiko; Ong, Siew-Mei; Sasaki, Nobuo; Nishimura, Ryohei; Nakagawa, Takayuki

    2014-04-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental phenomenon in organisms that occurs during gastrulation, wound healing, and cancer metastasis. Various cytokines induce EMT processes through complex mechanisms. Inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), induce EMT in human cell lines. However, whether inflammatory cytokines can affect EMT processes in canine cell lines remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), TNF-α, and IL-6 in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. We found that the localization of E-cadherin, a cell adhesion molecule, was shifted and that its expression was decreased. We also observed morphological changes in MDCK cells under persistent stimulation of inflammatory cytokines. Morphological changes in cells may occur during late stages of EMT processes; inflammatory cytokines may be important in these changes. PMID:24565002

  15. Evidence for a direct central anorectic effect of tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha in the rat.

    PubMed

    Fantino, M; Wieteska, L

    1993-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) on the control of food intake in rat. The specific aims were: a) to evaluate the effects of central (ICV) or peripheral (IP) microdoses of TNF on food intake; b) to show that the TNF-induced anorexia results from a direct action of the mediator on the central nervous system; c) to demonstrate that the anorexic activity of TNF is not due to nonspecific malaise. In the first experiment, ICV administration (0.5-4.0 micrograms) of recombinant-murine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rmTNF) significantly reduced food intake in a dose-dependent manner. The maximal effect (-66%) was observed 5 h after a 4.0 micrograms dose. In contrast, rm TNF did not affect feeding behavior when injected IP, indicating that the anorexic activity was centrally mediated. The estimated DE50 was 2.0 micrograms/rat by the ICV route. In the second experiment, the place conditioning paradigm was used to show that TNF administered ICV at 2.0 micrograms/rat did not induce aversive or deleterious effects as compared to naltrexone given IP at the equi-anorectic dose 5.0 mg/kg. It was concluded that TNF reduces food intake in rats by a direct action on the central nervous system. PMID:8451312

  16. The role of tumour necrosis factor alpha and soluble tumour necrosis factor alpha receptors in the symptomatology of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Turhan, Levent; Batmaz, Sedat; Kocbiyik, Sibel; Soygur, Arif Haldun

    2016-07-01

    Background Immunological mechanisms may be responsible for the development and maintenance of schizophrenia symptoms. Aim The aim of this study is to measure tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), soluble tumour necrosis factor-alpha receptor I (sTNF-αRI), and soluble tumour necrosis factor-alpha receptor II (sTNF-αRII) levels in patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals, and to determine their relationship with the symptoms of schizophrenia. Methods Serum TNF-α, sTNF-αRI and sTNF-αRII levels were measured. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was administered for patients with schizophrenia (n = 35), and the results were compared with healthy controls (n = 30). Hierarchical regression analyses were undertaken to predict the levels of TNF-α, sTNF-αRI and sTNF-αRII. Results No significant difference was observed in TNF-α levels, but sTNF-αRI and sTNF-αRII levels were lower in patients with schizophrenia. Serum sTNF-αRI and sTNF-αRII levels were found to be negatively correlated with the negative subscale score of the PANSS, and sTNF-αRI levels were also negatively correlated with the total score of the PANSS. Smoking, gender, body mass index were not correlated with TNF-α and sTNF-α receptor levels. Conclusions These results suggest that there may be a change in anti-inflammatory response in patients with schizophrenia due to sTNF-αRI and sTNF-αRII levels. The study also supports low levels of TNF activity in schizophrenia patients with negative symptoms. PMID:26754110

  17. Tumor necrosis factor alpha gene -376 polymorphism and susceptibility to multiple sclerosis: an Egyptian study.

    PubMed

    Nada, Mona Abd el Fattah; Labib, Dalia Ahmed

    2011-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha, a proinflammatory cytokine, plays an important role in the clinical activity of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and the development of progression. Dysregulation in the expression of tumor necrosis factor gene had been suggested in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between tumor necrosis factor α-376 polymorphism with disease susceptibility and course of multiple sclerosis in Egyptian patients. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism were carried out on 36 primary progressive multiple sclerosis patients, 36 age- and sex-matched remitting relapsing multiple sclerosis patients (diagnosed according to McDonald's Diagnostic criteria) and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The GG genotype and the guanine allele (G) were detected significantly more often in the primary progressive (p = 0.02; p = 0.004, respectively) and remitting relapsing (p = 0.015; p = 0.024, respectively) multiple sclerosis groups as compared with the healthy control group. The G allele in the examined position in tumor necrosis factor alpha might have a role as regards susceptibility in both remitting relapsing and primary progressive multiple sclerosis. PMID:20499285

  18. The development of novel inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor-alpha production based on substituted [5,5]-bicyclic pyrozolones

    SciTech Connect

    Laufersweiler, Matthew; Brugel, Todd; Clark, Michael; Golebiowski, Adam; Bookland, Roger; Laughlin, Steven; Sabat, Mark; Townes, Jennifer; VanRens, John; De, Biswanath; Hsieh, Lily; Heitmeyer, Sandra; Juergens, Karen; Brown, Kimberly; Mekel, Marlene; Walter, Richard; Janusz, Michael

    2010-11-16

    Novel substituted [5,5]-bicyclic pyrzazolones are presented as inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) production. Many of these compounds show low nanomolar activity against lipopolysaccaride (LPS)-induced TNF-{alpha} production in THP-1 cells. This class of molecules was co-crystallized with mutated p38, and several analogs showed good oral bioavailability in the rat. Oral activity of these compounds in the rat iodoacetate model for osteoarthritis is discussed.

  19. Potential roles for tumour necrosis factor alpha during embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Wride, M A; Sanders, E J

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the evidence indicating possible roles for tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) in development. It is proposed that TNF alpha may have essentially three major roles during embryonic development, which may be analogous to its roles in the immune system and during inflammation: a role in programmed cell death; a role as a cellular growth and differentiation factor; and also a role in the remodelling of extracellular matrix, and the regulation of cell adhesion molecules and integrins. The concept of the existence of a cytokine array during embryogenesis, analogous to that occurring in inflammation, is discussed, as well as potential roles for TNF alpha in the induction of ubiquitin; protective mechanisms embryonic cells may employ against TNF alpha-mediated cytotoxicity; and a consideration of the role TNF alpha may play in a "free radical theory of development". PMID:7717528

  20. Enterohaemorrhagic, but not enteropathogenic, Escherichia coli infection of epithelial cells disrupts signalling responses to tumour necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Gareau, Mélanie G; Ho, Nathan K; Brenner, Dirk; Sousa, Andrew J; Lebourhis, Lionel; Mak, Tak W; Girardin, Stephen E; Philpott, Dana J; Sherman, Philip M

    2011-10-01

    Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), serotype O157 : H7 is a non-invasive, pathogenic bacterium that employs a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject effector proteins into infected cells. In this study, we demonstrate that EHEC blocks tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα)-induced NF-κB signalling in infected epithelial cells. HEK293T and INT407 epithelial cells were challenged with EHEC prior to stimulation with TNFα. Using complementary techniques, stimulation with TNFα caused activation of NF-κB, as determined by luciferase reporter assay (increase in gene expression), Western blotting (phosphorylation of IκBα), immunofluorescence (p65 nuclear translocation) and immunoassay (CXCL-8 secretion), and each was blocked by EHEC O157 : H7 infection. In contrast, subversion of host cell signalling was not observed following exposure to either enteropathogenic E. coli, strain E2348/69 (O127 : H6) or the laboratory E. coli strain HB101. Heat-killed EHEC had no effect on NF-κB activation by TNFα. Inhibition was mediated, at least in part, by Shiga toxins and by the O157 plasmid, but not by the T3SS or flagellin, as demonstrated by using isogenic mutant strains. These findings indicate the potential for developing novel therapeutic targets to interrupt the infectious process. PMID:21798984

  1. Dual function of interleukin-1beta for the regulation of interleukin-6-induced suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 expression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiang-Ping; Albrecht, Ute; Zakowski, Vera; Sobota, Radoslaw M; Häussinger, Dieter; Heinrich, Peter C; Ludwig, Stephan; Bode, Johannes G; Schaper, Fred

    2004-10-22

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) exerts pro- as well as anti-inflammatory activities in response to infection, injury, or other stimuli that affect the homeostasis of the organism. IL-6-induced expression of acute-phase protein genes in the liver is tightly regulated through both IL-6-induced feedback inhibitors and the activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1beta. In previous studies mechanisms for how IL-1beta counteracts IL-6-dependent acute-phase protein gene induction have been proposed. Herein we analyzed IL-1beta-mediated regulation of IL-6-induced expression of the feedback inhibitor SOCS3. In hepatocytes IL-1beta alone does not induce SOCS3 expression, but it counteracts SOCS3-promoter activation in long term studies. Surprisingly, short term stimulation revealed IL-1beta to be a potent enhancer of SOCS3 expression in concert with IL-6. This activity of IL-1beta does not depend on IL-1beta-dependent STAT1-serine phosphorylation but on NF-kappaB-dependent gene induction. Such a regulatory network allows IL-1beta to counteract IL-6-dependent expression of acute-phase protein genes without inhibiting IL-6-induced SOCS3 expression and provides a reasonable mechanism for the IL-1beta-dependent inhibition of acute-phase gene induction, because reduced SOCS3 expression would lead to enhanced IL-6 activity. PMID:15308667

  2. Salmonellae activate tumor necrosis factor alpha production in a human promonocytic cell line via a released polypeptide.

    PubMed Central

    Ciacci-Woolwine, F; Kucera, L S; Richardson, S H; Iyer, N P; Mizel, S B

    1997-01-01

    Invasive strains of Salmonella spp. cause both systemic and localized infections in humans. The ability to resist infection and some aspects of the tissue pathology associated with the presence of Salmonella in the gastrointestinal tract have been shown to be mediated in part by the induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), a proinflammatory cytokine produced by activated macrophages and lymphocytes. Recent reports indicate that TNF-alpha is involved in the induction of human immunodeficiency virus replication by Salmonella in the latently infected human promonocytic cell line U1. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Salmonella on TNF-alpha production in U1 cells and a related cell line, U38. Unlike Escherichia coli or Yersinia enterocolitica, salmonellae rapidly induce TNF-alpha expression in these cells through a released factor(s). Time course experiments show that the kinetics of TNF-alpha production by U38 cells stimulated with Salmonella conditioned medium closely resemble those observed in response to live Salmonella. The observation that TNF-alpha levels are elevated by 60 min after exposure to either bacteria or their conditioned medium suggests that the soluble inducer is continuously released or shed by the bacteria and that the signal acts rapidly to increase TNF-alpha production. Furthermore, the ability to produce the TNF-alpha inducer is shared by at least four Salmonella serotypes and does not correlate with the abilities to invade and to survive within phagocytes. Treatment of active conditioned medium with trypsin, but not low pH, high temperature, or urea, significantly inhibits its TNF-alpha-inducing effect on U38 cells, a finding which points to a polypeptide product of Salmonella as the mediator of TNF-alpha production. Gel filtration chromatography of Salmonella conditioned medium reveals two peaks of activity, consistent with molecular masses of approximately 150 and 110 kDa. PMID:9353043

  3. Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of Recombinant Guinea Pig Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Dirisala, Vijaya R.; Jeevan, Amminikutty; Ly, Lan H.; McMurray, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine which plays opposing roles in the context of infectious disease pathogenesis. TNF-α is essential for the development of a protective immune response to some pathogens, for example, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, by synergizing with other cytokines. However, exorbitant or uncontrolled TNF-α activity may also drive pathology and disease symptoms in many infectious diseases. In order to elucidate the beneficial and detrimental roles of TNF-α in tuberculosis (TB) and other diseases for which the guinea pig is the small animal model of choice, recombinant guinea pig (rgp)TNF-α has been produced using prokaryotic expression systems. However, it is unknown whether posttranslational modifications which cannot be made in the prokaryotic expression systems may be important for rgpTNF-α structure and function. Therefore, we carried out a comparative study by expressing rgpTNF-α in prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems and analyzed the eukaryotic-expressed rgpTNF-α for the presence of posttranslational modifications by subjecting it to NanoLC-MS/MS. We conclude that the eukaryotic-expressed rgpTNF-α lacks posttranslational modifications, and we found no significant difference in terms of the biological activity between prokaryotic- and eukaryotic-expressed rgpTNF-α. Taken together, results from our study show that a prokaryotic expression system can be used for generating large amounts of rgpTNF-α without concern for the biological integrity. PMID:25999670

  4. Flavonoids inhibit cytokine-induced endothelial cell adhesion protein gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Gerritsen, M. E.; Carley, W. W.; Ranges, G. E.; Shen, C. P.; Phan, S. A.; Ligon, G. F.; Perry, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    Treatment of human endothelial cells with cytokines such as interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or interferon-gamma induces the expression of specific leukocyte adhesion molecules on the endothelial cell surface. Interfering with either leukocyte adhesion or adhesion protein upregulation is an important therapeutic target as evidenced by the potent anti-inflammatory actions of neutralizing antibodies to these ligands in various animal models and in patients. In the present study we report that cotreatment of human endothelial cells with certain hydroxyflavones and flavanols blocks cytokine-induced ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin expression on human endothelial cells. One of the most potent flavones, apigenin, exhibited a dose- and time-dependent, reversible effect on adhesion protein expression as well as inhibiting adhesion protein upregulation at the transcriptional level. Apigenin also inhibited IL-1 alpha-induced prostaglandin synthesis and TNF-alpha-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production, suggesting that the hydroxyflavones may act as general inhibitors of cytokine-induced gene expression. Although apigenin did not inhibit TNF-alpha-induced nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B(p50(NFKB1)/p65(RelA)) we found this flavonoid did inhibit TNF-alpha induced beta-galactosidase activity in SW480 cells stably transfected with a beta-galactosidase reporter construct driven by four NF-kappa B elements, suggesting an action on NF-kappa B transcriptional activation. Adhesion of leukocytes to cytokine-treated endothelial cells was blocked in endothelial cells cotreated with apigenin. Finally, apigenin demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw edema and delayed type hypersensitivity in the mouse. We conclude that flavonoids offer important therapeutic potential for the treatment of a variety of inflammatory diseases involving an increase in leukocyte adhesion and trafficking. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 11 PMID:7543732

  5. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) stimulates chemotactic response in mouse myogenic cells.

    PubMed

    Torrente, Y; El Fahime, E; Caron, N J; Del Bo, R; Belicchi, M; Pisati, F; Tremblay, J P; Bresolin, N

    2003-01-01

    Migration of transplanted myogenic cells occurs during both embryogenesis and regeneration of skeletal muscles and is important for successful myoblast transplantation, but little is known about factors that promote chemotaxis of these cells. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is known to induce chemotactic effect on several cell types. In this study, we investigated its influence on the in vitro and in vivo motility of C2C12 and primary myoblasts. In the in vitro test performed in the blind-well Boyden chambers, we showed that TNF-alpha (50-400 U/ml) significantly enhanced the ability of myogenic cells to migrate. The dose-response curve for this factor was bell shaped, with maximum activity in the 200 U/ml range. In the in vivo test, intramuscular administration of TNF-alpha was performed by an Alzet pump connected to a perforated polyethylene microtube inserted in the tibialis anterior (TA) of CD1 mice. In these experiments, myoblasts were injected under the muscle epimysium. The recipient mice were immunosuppressed with FK506. Our results showed that, 5 days after myoblast transplantation, cells migrated further in the muscles infused with TNF-alpha than in the muscles not exposed to TNF-alpha. TNF-alpha not only has a chemotactic activity but may also modify cell migration via its action on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. The proteolytic activities of the MMPs secreted in the muscles were thus also assessed by gelatin zymography. The results showed an increased of MMP-2 and MMP-9 transcripts in the TNF-alpha-infused muscles injected with myogenic cells. Myoblast migration during transplantation may be enhanced by overlapping gradients of several effector molecules such as TNF-alpha, interferon-gamma (INF-gamma), and interleukins, released at the site of muscle injury. We propose that TNF-alpha may promote myoblast migration directly through chemotactic activity and indirectly by enhancing MMP activity at the site of muscle injury. PMID:12693669

  6. Collagenase-3 (matrix metalloproteinase-13) expression is induced in oral mucosal epithelium during chronic inflammation.

    PubMed Central

    Uitto, V. J.; Airola, K.; Vaalamo, M.; Johansson, N.; Putnins, E. E.; Firth, J. D.; Salonen, J.; López-Otín, C.; Saarialho-Kere, U.; Kähäri, V. M.

    1998-01-01

    Increased proliferation of mucosal epithelium during inflammation is associated with degradation of subepithelial connective tissue matrix and local invasion of the epithelial cells. Here we have studied, whether collagenase-3 (MMP-13), a collagenolytic matrix metalloproteinase with an exceptionally wide substrate specificity, is expressed in the epithelium of chronically inflamed mucosa. Examination of human gingival tissue sections from subjects with chronic adult periodontitis with in situ hybridization revealed marked expression of MMP-13 in basal cells of some epithelial rete ridges expanding into connective tissue. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that these cells also expressed strongly laminin-5, suggesting that they are actively migrating cells. A strong signal for MMP-13 mRNA was occasionally also noted in the suprabasal epithelial cells facing the gingival pocket, whereas no collagenase-1 (MMP-1) mRNA was detected in any areas of the epithelium. MMP-13 expression was also detected in fibroblast-like cells associated with collagen fibers of the inflamed subepithelial connective tissue. In organ culture of human oral mucosa, MMP-13 mRNA expression was observed in epithelial cells growing into connective tissue of the specimens. Regulation of MMP-13 expression was examined in cultured normal nonkeratinizing epithelial cells isolated from porcine periodontal ligament. In these cells, MMP-13 expression at the mRNA and protein level was potently enhanced (up to sixfold) by tumor necrosis factor-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta(1), and transforming growth factor-alpha and by keratinocyte growth factor in the presence of heparin. In addition, plating periodontal ligament epithelial cells on type I collagen stimulated MMP-13 expression (sevenfold) as compared with cells grown on tissue culture plastic. The results of this study show, that expression of MMP-13 is specifically induced in undifferentiated epithelial cells during chronic inflammation due to exposure to cytokines and collagen. Thus, it is likely that MMP-13 expression is instrumental in the subepithelial collagenolysis and local invasion of the activated mucosal epithelium into the connective tissue. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9626053

  7. Analysis of Subcellular RNA Fractions Revealed a Transcription-Independent Effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha on Splicing, Mediated by Spt5.

    PubMed

    Diamant, Gil; Eisenbaum, Tal; Leshkowitz, Dena; Dikstein, Rivka

    2016-05-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) modulates the expression of many genes, primarily through activation of NF-κB. Here, we examined the global effects of the elongation factor Spt5 on nascent and mature mRNAs of TNF-α-induced cells using chromatin and cytosolic subcellular fractions. We identified several classes of TNF-α-induced genes controlled at the level of transcription, splicing, and chromatin retention. Spt5 was found to facilitate splicing and chromatin release in genes displaying high induction rates. Further analysis revealed striking effects of TNF-α on the splicing of 25% of expressed genes; the vast majority were not transcriptionally induced. Splicing enhancement of noninduced genes by TNF-α was transient and independent of NF-κB. Investigating the underlying basis, we found that Spt5 is required for the splicing facilitation of the noninduced genes. In line with this, Spt5 interacts with Sm core protein splicing factors. Furthermore, following TNF-α treatment, levels of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) but not Spt5 are reduced from the splicing-induced genes, suggesting that these genes become enriched with a Pol II-Spt5 form. Our findings revealed the Pol II-Spt5 complex as a highly competent coordinator of cotranscriptional splicing. PMID:26903558

  8. Interferon-inducible protein-10 is highly expressed in rats with experimental nephrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Chiarri, M.; Ortiz, A.; González-Cuadrado, S.; Serón, D.; Emancipator, S. N.; Hamilton, T. A.; Barat, A.; Plaza, J. J.; González, E.; Egido, J.

    1996-01-01

    Interferon-inducible protein (IP)-10 is a small glycoprotein member of a family of chemotactic cytokines structurally related to interleukin-8. We have recently described the induction of IP-10 mRNA in mouse mesangial cells stimulated with lipopolysacharide, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. To further evaluate a possible role for this chemokine in renal injury, we have studied IP-10 in an experimental model of nephrosis induced in rats by adriamycin. High levels of glomerular IP-10 mRNA expression and glomerular and tubulointerstitial IP-10 protein were seen on day 21, coinciding with maximal proteinuria, glomerular tumor necrosis factor mRNA expression, and interstitial cellular infiltrates. Maintenance on a low protein diet not only delayed the appearance of proteinuria and interstitial cellular infiltrate but also decreased glomerular IP-10 mRNA expression. Isolated normal glomeruli and cultured glomerular epithelial and mesangial cells from normal rats expressed IP-10 mRNA upon stimulation with 100 U/ml interferon or 1 microgram/ml lipopolysaccharide for 3 hours. IP-10 mRNA expression was also inducible by lipopolysaccharide and cytokines in NRK 49F renal interstitial fibroblasts and, to a lesser extent, in NRK 52E tubular epithelial cells. Furthermore, IP-10 protein was inducible in murine mesangial cells. We conclude that IP-10 is highly inducible in vitro and in vivo in resident glomerular and tubulointerstitial cells. IP-10 may participate in the modulation of renal damage in experimental nephrosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:8546219

  9. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha gene polymorphisms and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Culpan, Doris; MacGowan, Sian H; Ford, Julia M; Nicoll, James A R; Griffin, W Sue; Dewar, Deborah; Cairns, Nigel J; Hughes, Anthony; Kehoe, Patrick G; Wilcock, Gordon K

    2003-10-16

    Recent findings suggest that production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), is increased in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We used direct sequencing methods on a section of the enhancer/promoter region and on a smaller fragment located 10.5 kb upstream of the TNF-alpha gene to respectively examine TNF-alpha polymorphisms and TNF-a and -b microsatellite alleles in a cohort of 235 post-mortem confirmed AD and 130 control cases. None of the TNF-alpha point mutations or microsatellite alleles investigated proved to be independent risk factors for AD. However, when -308/A, -238/G and TNF-a2 were examined as a 2-1-2 haplotype, we observed that the absence of that haplotype was significantly associated with AD (P = 0.014, Fisher's exact test) suggesting that the 2-1-2 haplotype may be protective against AD. PMID:12962917

  10. Elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha in postdialysis fatigue.

    PubMed

    Dreisbach, A W; Hendrickson, T; Beezhold, D; Riesenberg, L A; Sklar, A H

    1998-02-01

    Postdialysis fatigue (PDF) has been ascribed to excessive ultrafiltration and decline in osmolality during hemodialysis. We evaluated the potential role for the sommogenic cytokines, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), in the genesis of PDF Patients dialyzing with cuprophane membrane were assigned to PDF (N=25) and non-PDF (N=25) groups based on a fatigue index questionnaire. Pre- and postdialysis samples were obtained from 3 consecutive treatments and later assayed for serum levels of IL-1beta and TNFalpha by ELISA. Our results show significant intradialytic elevation of TNFalpha in both non-PDF groups (non-PDF: pre- 3.36+/-0.80 pg/ml to post 3.75+/-0.88 pg/ml, p<0.04; PDF: pre- 5.95+/-0.80 pg/ml to post- 8.66-/+1.35 pg/ml, p<0.02). The degree of intradialytic augmentation was significantly greater for TNFalpha in the PDF group (46+/-18% vs 11+/-5%; p<0.03). There were no significant intradialytic changes in serum levels of IL-1beta in either the PDF or non-PDF groups. There also were no significant differences in dialysis-related body weights, systolic blood pressures, or osmolalities. These findings suggest that TNFalpha may be involved in the pathogenesis of PDF. PMID:9569129

  11. Tumor necrosis factor alpha is a determinant of pathogenesis and disease progression in mycobacterial infection in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Tsenova, L; Bergtold, A; Freedman, V H; Young, R A; Kaplan, G

    1999-05-11

    The pathogenesis of tuberculous meningitis, a devastating complication of tuberculosis in man, is poorly understood. We previously reported that rabbits with experimental tuberculous meningitis were protected from death by a combination of antibiotics and thalidomide therapy. Survival was associated with inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production by thalidomide. To test whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of TNF-alpha correlated with pathogenesis, the response of rabbits infected in the central nervous system (CNS) with various mycobacterial strains was studied. CNS infection with Mycobacterium bovis Ravenel, M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Pasteur, and M. bovis BCG Montreal were compared. M. bovis Ravenel induced the highest levels of TNF-alpha in the CSF in association with high leukocytosis, protein accumulation, and severe meningeal inflammation. BCG Pasteur had intermediate effects, and BCG Montreal was the least virulent. In addition, M. bovis Ravenel numbers were highest in the brain and CSF and the bacilli also disseminated more efficiently to distant organs, compared with BCG Pasteur and BCG Montreal. In subsequent experiments, rabbits were infected with either recombinant M. bovis BCG Montreal (vector), or BCG Montreal expressing the murine gene for TNF-alpha (BCG mTNF-alpha). BCG Montreal was rendered virulent by the expression of murine TNF-alpha, as demonstrated by high CSF leukocytosis, high protein accumulation, severe meningeal inflammation, persistent bacillary load, and progressive clinical deterioration. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the level of TNF-alpha produced during mycobacterial CNS infection determines, at least in part, the extent of pathogenesis. PMID:10318940

  12. Induction of epithelial cell apoptosis in the uterus by a mouse uterine ischemia-reperfusion model: possible involvement of tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Mitsuo; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Kohno, Tomoko; Shindo, Hisakazu; Koji, Takehiko; Morimoto, Yoshiharu; Ishimaru, Tadayuki

    2005-05-01

    Menstruation in primates is preceded by a period of intense vasoconstriction, with resultant ischemia-reperfusion. Although apoptosis is involved in endometrial breakdown, the relationship between ischemia-reperfusion and apoptosis in the female genital tract has not been determined. To investigate the relationship between ischemia-reperfusion and apoptosis in the uterus, we analyzed a uterine ischemia-reperfusion model using BDF1 and C57BL/6 mice. Ischemia was induced by clamping the uterine horn and uterine artery for 5 to 30 min, followed by 6, 12, 24, or 48 h of reperfusion (n = 4 for each group). The number of TUNEL-positive endometrial cells increased with the duration of ischemia and reached a maximum at 24 h of reperfusion, but then tended to decrease at 48 h. Transmission electron micrographs of endometrial cells revealed a typical nuclear condensation, confirming the occurrence of apoptosis. The mRNA expression level of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) in the uterus increased after reperfusion. Ischemia-reperfusion-induced endometrial apoptosis was markedly decreased in TNF-R p55-deficient mice, confirming the essential role of TNFalpha in the induction of apoptosis by ischemia-reperfusion (n = 4). Our results suggest that ischemia-reperfusion and subsequent TNFalpha expression may be critical factors in inducing endometrial cell apoptosis. Our mouse model could be suitable for investigating ischemia-related uterine injury in humans, particularly in menstruation. PMID:15673605

  13. Purified Shiga-like toxins induce expression of proinflammatory cytokines from murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tesh, V L; Ramegowda, B; Samuel, J E

    1994-11-01

    Infections with Shiga toxin-producing Shigella dysenteriae type 1 and Shiga-like toxin (SLT)-producing Escherichia coli cause outbreaks of bloody diarrhea in which patients are at risk for developing life-threatening complications involving the renal and central nervous systems. Histopathology studies and in vitro experiments suggested that the toxins damage toxin receptor-expressing endothelial cells (EC) lining glomerular and central nervous system capillaries. In the presence of inducible host factors (cytokines), EC sensitivity to SLT toxicity was increased approximately 1 million-fold. We hypothesized that to manifest the vascular lesions characteristic of infection with toxin-producing bacteria, two signals were needed: systemic toxins and elevated proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha], interleukin 1 [IL-1], and IL-6). Human EC do not secrete these cytokines when stimulated with SLTs in vitro, suggesting that additional cells may be involved in pathogenesis. Therefore, we carried out comparative analyses of the capacity of purified (endotoxin-free) SLTs and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to induce cytokine mRNA and proteins from murine macrophages. The cells were essentially refractory to SLT cytotoxicity, expressing low to undetectable levels of toxin receptor. SLTs and LPS induced TNF activity and IL-6 expression from macrophages, although dose response and kinetics of cytokine induction differed. LPS was a more effective inducing agent than SLTs. SLT-I-induced TNF activity and IL-6 expression were delayed compared with induction mediated by LPS. IL-1 alpha production required approximately 24 h of exposure to SLTs or LPS. Macrophages from LPS-hyporesponsive C3H/HeJ mice produced low levels of TNF activity when treated with SLT-I, suggesting that LPS and SLTs may utilize separate signaling pathways for cytokine induction. PMID:7927791

  14. Evaluation of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Polymorphism Frequencies in Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Abutorabi, Roshanak; Baradaran, Azar; Sadat Mostafavi, Fatemeh; Zarrin, Yasaman; Mardanian, Farahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background The pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), is a pathogenic element for a number of disorders. Previous studies have reported that the -1031 T/C and -238 G/A polymorphisms in the promoter region of the TNF-α gene are important factors in reproductive-related disorders. One of the most common gynecological diseases of women during the reproductive years is endometriosis. This study aims to assess an association between the -1031 T/C, -238 G/A and -308 G/A polymorphisms of the TNF-α gene promoter region to endometriosis. Materials and Methods In this case-control study, we enrolled 65 endometriosis patients and 65 matched healthy control women by simple sampling. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was used to analyze -1031 T/C, -238 G/A and -308 G/A polymorphisms in the TNF-α gene promoter region. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results We found a strong association between the -1031 T/C polymorphism in the promoter region of the TNF-α gene with endometriosis (P=0.001). There were no significant associations between the -238 G/A (P=0.243) and -308 G/A (P=1) polymorphisms with endometriosis and again endometriosis stages have no association with these polymorphisms. Conclusion The -1031 T/C polymorphism and CC genotype can be used as a relevant marker to identify women at risk of developing endometriosis. PMID:26644856

  15. Localization of transforming growth factor-alpha in human appendageal tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Finzi, E.; Ho, T.; Anhalt, G.; Hawkins, W.; Harkins, R.; Horn, T.

    1992-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF alpha) is a potent mitogen for epithelial cells that has been localized to normal human appendageal epithelia. To further understand the role of TGF alpha in human appendages, we examined TGF alpha expression immunohistochemically in 17 types of human appendageal tumors differentiating toward hair follicles, eccrine, apocrine, and sebaceous glands. In order of decreasing degrees of differentiation, tumors could be divided into hyperplasias, adenomas, benign epitheliomas, and primordial epitheliomas. Using an antibody that recognizes primarily the 6-kd and 13-kd forms of TGF alpha, TGF alpha immunostaining in 16 of 17 tumor types analyzed was found to follow a similar pattern, with expression in hyperplasias greater than adenomas greater than benign epitheliomas greater than primordial epitheliomas. Within a given tumor, TGF alpha expression also correlated well with the known differentiation state of the tumor cell types. The results suggest that TGF alpha expression is directly correlated with the differentiation state of hair follicle, eccrine, apocrine, and sebaceous tumors in human skin, and raises the possibility that TGF alpha may play a role in the differentiation of appendageal epithelia. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1519669

  16. Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Xia; Li, Xiaonan; Liu, Fuli; Tan, Hui; Shang, Deya

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin reduces expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha} in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK and NF-{kappa}B activation in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin supreeses TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway. -- Abstract: In the present study, we investigated whether omentin affected the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our data showed that omentin decreased TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in HUVECs. In addition, omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Further, we found that omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-activated signal pathway of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) by preventing NF-{kappa}B inhibitory protein (I{kappa}B{alpha}) degradation and NF-{kappa}B/DNA binding activity. Omentin pretreatment significantly inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK activity and ERK phosphorylation in HUVECs. Pretreatment with PD98059 suppressed TNF-{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activity. Omentin, NF-kB inhibitor (BAY11-7082) and ERK inhibitor (PD98059) reduced the up-regulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha}. These results suggest that omentin may inhibit TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via blocking ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway.

  17. Induction of the E-selectin promoter by interleukin 1 and tumour necrosis factor alpha, and inhibition by glucocorticoids.

    PubMed Central

    Ray, K P; Farrow, S; Daly, M; Talabot, F; Searle, N

    1997-01-01

    Cytokine-induced expression of the endothelial cell surface adhesion molecule E-selectin is inhibited by glucocorticoids (GCs). To investigate possible mechanisms for steroid inhibition, a reporter gene (ESAP) was constructed, comprising the cytokine responsive region of the E-selectin gene (nt -383 to +81) coupled to alkaline phosphatase (AP). In A549 cells stably transfected with the ESAP gene, AP production was highly responsive to the cytokines interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and tumour necrosis factor alpha, with ED50 values of 3 pM and 1000 pM respectively. Furthermore the cytokine-induced AP responses were inhibited by GCs, indicating that both transcriptional activation and GC suppression of the E-selectin gene were mediated via regulatory elements within the same region of the promoter. The relative potencies of GC drugs as inhibitors of IL-1beta (10 pM)-stimulated ESAP-gene activation were fluticasone> beclomethasone>dexamethasone, with IC50 values of 0.13, 1.1 and 2.7 nM respectively. Inhibition by fluticasone was blocked by the GC receptor (GR) antagonist drug mifepristone (Ru486), which is consistent with the suppressive effects of GCs being mediated via the GR. However, because the E-selectin promoter lacks a consensus glucocorticoid responsive element, mechanisms for inhibition independent of GR-DNA binding were investigated. Evidence that GCs also inhibited cytokine activation of a synthetic nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB)-driven reporter gene transiently transfected into A549 cells suggested that interference with the activation and/or function of this transcription factor was important for GC inhibition of ESAP. However, in A549-ESAP cells, fluticasone (100 nM) did not affect IL-1beta (10 pM)-induced IkBalpha degradation, NFkappaB-p65 nuclear translocation or the DNA-binding capacity of nuclear NFkappaB complexes, over a period during which cytokine-induced ESAP-gene activation was inhibited. Finally, there was no evidence to suggest that GC enhancement of IkBalpha gene expression contributed to the suppression of the cytokine response. We conclude that interference by GR with the transcriptional activation potential of DNA-bound NFkappaB complexes might contribute to mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of GCs. PMID:9371735

  18. Gastric Metaplasia Induced by Helicobacter pylori Is Associated with Enhanced SOX9 Expression via Interleukin-1 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Serizawa, Takako; Hirata, Yoshihiro; Hayakawa, Yoku; Suzuki, Nobumi; Sakitani, Kosuke; Hikiba, Yohko; Ihara, Sozaburo; Kinoshita, Hiroto; Nakagawa, Hayato; Tateishi, Keisuke; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Histopathological changes of the gastric mucosa after Helicobacter pylori infection, such as atrophy, metaplasia, and dysplasia, are considered to be precursors of gastric cancer, yet the mechanisms of histological progression are unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the histopathological features of the gastric mucosa in mice infected with H. pylori strain PMSS1 in relation to gastric stem cell marker expression. C57BL/6J mice infected with PMSS1 were examined for histopathological changes, levels of proinflammatory cytokines, and expression of stem cell markers. Histopathological gastritis scores, such as atrophy and metaplasia, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), were increased after PMSS1 infection. Expression levels of the cell proliferation and stem cell markers CD44 and SOX9 were also significantly increased in PMSS1-infected mice. Importantly, almost all metaplastic cells induced by PMSS1 infection expressed SOX9. When IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) knockout mice were infected with PMSS1, metaplastic changes and expression levels of stem cell markers were significantly decreased compared with those in wild-type (WT) mice. In conclusion, H. pylori infection induced the expression of cytokines and stem cell markers and histopathological metaplasia in the mouse gastric mucosa. SOX9 expression, in particular, was strongly associated with metaplastic changes, and these changes were dependent on IL-1 signaling. The results suggested the importance of SOX9 in gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26644382

  19. Resistance exercise decreases skeletal muscle tumor necrosis factor alpha in frail elderly humans.

    PubMed

    Greiwe, J S; Cheng, B; Rubin, D C; Yarasheski, K E; Semenkovich, C F

    2001-02-01

    Skeletal muscle protein and function decline with advancing age but the underlying pathophysiology is poorly understood. To test the hypothesis that the catabolic cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) contributes to this process, we studied the effects of aging and resistance exercise on TNF-alpha expression in human muscle. Using in situ hybridization, TNF-alpha message was localized to myocytes in sections of skeletal muscle from elderly humans. Both TNF-alpha mRNA and protein levels were elevated in skeletal muscle from frail elderly (81+/-1 year) as compared to healthy young (23+/-1 year) men and women. To determine whether resistance exercise affects TNF-alpha expression, frail elderly men and women were randomly assigned to a training group or to a nonexercising control group. Muscle biopsies were performed before and after 3 months. Muscle TNF-alpha mRNA and protein levels decreased in the exercise group but did not change in the control group. Muscle protein synthesis rate in the exercise group was inversely related to levels of TNF-alpha protein. These data suggest that TNF-alpha contributes to age-associated muscle wasting and that resistance exercise may attenuate this process by suppressing skeletal muscle TNF-alpha expression. PMID:11156963

  20. Expression of Osterix in mechanical stress-induced osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanhong; Wang, Chunling; Li, Shu; Song, Hui; Wei, Fulan; Pan, Keqing; Zhu, Kun; Yang, Pishan; Tu, Qisheng; Chen, Jake

    2008-06-01

    Osterix (Osx) is an osteoblast-specific transcription factor required for the differentiation of pre-osteoblasts into functional osteoblasts. This study sought to examine the changes of Osx expression in periodontal ligament cells (PDLC) subjected to mechanical force, and to investigate whether Osx is involved in the mechanical stress-induced differentiation of PDLC. Human PDLC were exposed to centrifugal force for 1-12 h. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), western blot, and immunofluorescence assays were used to examine the mRNA and protein expression of Osx and its subcellular localization. Furthermore, PDLC were transfected with the expression vector pcDNA3.1 flag-Osx and subjected to mechanical force for 6 h. The changes in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and in the expression of core-binding factor alpha1 (Cbfa1), ALP, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and collagen I were measured. After the application of mechanical force, Osx was upregulated in a time-dependent manner at both mRNA and protein levels, and Osx protein was translocated from the cytosol into the cell nuclei. Overexpression of Osx did not affect the expression of Cbfa1, but it significantly enhanced the ALP activity and the mRNA expression of all the aforementioned osteogenic marker genes, all of which increased further under mechanical stress. These results suggest that Osx might play an important role in the mechanical stress-induced osteogenic differentiation of PDLC and therefore be involved in alveolar bone remodeling during orthodontic therapy. PMID:18471237

  1. The protective effects of ambroxol on radiation lung injury and influence on production of transforming growth factor beta1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed

    Xia, De-Hong; Xi, Lei; Xv, Chen; Mao, Wei-Dong; Shen, Wei-Sheng; Shu, Zhong-Qin; Yang, Hong-Zhi; Dai, Min

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the effect of ambroxol on radiation lung injury and the expression of transforming growth factor beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)), as well as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in plasma. Totally, 120 patients with locally advanced lung cancer in radiotherapy were randomized into treatment and control groups. Patients in the treatment group took ambroxol orally at a dosage of 90 mg, three times per day for 3 months from the beginning of radiotherapy. The expression of TGF-beta(1) and TNF-alpha in plasma was analyzed. The clinical symptoms and lung diffusing capacity were monitored using high resolving power computed tomography. The level of TGF-beta(1) in the control group was increased (11.8 +/- 5.5 ng/ml), whereas in ambroxol-treated patients, the increase was not significant (5.6 +/- 2.6 ng/ml, P < 0.001). Radiotherapy-induced elevation of TNF-alpha levels, seen in control patients, was also abolished after treatment with ambroxol (5.1 +/- 1.0 vs. 2.4 +/- 0.8 ng/ml, P < 0.001). In the treatment group, carbon monoxide diffusion capacity was not significantly decreased at 6, 12, and 18 months post-radiotherapy, compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Ambroxol decreased the expression of TGF-beta(1) and TNF-alpha, and minimized the diminishment of lung diffusion capacity after radiotherapy. PMID:19636975

  2. Loss of ADAM17-Mediated Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Signaling in Intestinal Cells Attenuates Mucosal Atrophy in a Mouse Model of Parenteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yongjia; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Xiao, Weidong; Ralls, Matthew W.; Stoeck, Alex; Wilson, Carole L.; Raines, Elaine W.

    2015-01-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is commonly used clinically to sustain patients; however, TPN is associated with profound mucosal atrophy, which may adversely affect clinical outcomes. Using a mouse TPN model, removing enteral nutrition leads to decreased crypt proliferation, increased intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) apoptosis and increased mucosal tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) expression that ultimately produces mucosal atrophy. Upregulation of TNF-α signaling plays a central role in mediating TPN-induced mucosal atrophy without intact epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Currently, the mechanism and the tissue-specific contributions of TNF-α signaling to TPN-induced mucosal atrophy remain unclear. ADAM17 is an ectodomain sheddase that can modulate the signaling activity of several cytokine/growth factor receptor families, including the TNF-α/TNF receptor and ErbB ligand/EGFR pathways. Using TPN-treated IEC-specific ADAM17-deficient mice, the present study demonstrates that a loss of soluble TNF-α signaling from IECs attenuates TPN-induced mucosal atrophy. Importantly, this response remains dependent on the maintenance of functional EGFR signaling in IECs. TNF-α blockade in wild-type mice receiving TPN confirmed that soluble TNF-α signaling is responsible for downregulation of EGFR signaling in IECs. These results demonstrate that ADAM17-mediated TNF-α signaling from IECs has a significant role in the development of the proinflammatory state and mucosal atrophy observed in TPN-treated mice. PMID:26283731

  3. Transcription factor oscillations induce differential gene expressions.

    PubMed

    Wee, Keng Boon; Yio, Wee Kheng; Surana, Uttam; Chiam, Keng Hwee

    2012-06-01

    Intracellular protein levels of diverse transcription factors (TFs) vary periodically with time. However, the effects of TF oscillations on gene expression, the primary role of TFs, are poorly understood. In this study, we determined these effects by comparing gene expression levels induced in the presence and in the absence of TF oscillations under same mean intracellular protein level of TF. For all the nonlinear TF transcription kinetics studied, an oscillatory TF is predicted to induce gene expression levels that are distinct from a nonoscillatory TF. The conditions dictating whether TF oscillations induce either higher or lower average gene expression levels were elucidated. Subsequently, the predicted effects from an oscillatory TF, which follows sigmoid transcription kinetics, were applied to demonstrate how oscillatory dynamics provide a mechanism for differential target gene transactivation. Generally, the mean TF concentration at which oscillations occur relative to the promoter binding affinity of a target gene determines whether the gene is up- or downregulated whereas the oscillation amplitude amplifies the magnitude of the differential regulation. Notably, the predicted trends of differential gene expressions induced by oscillatory NF-κB and glucocorticoid receptor match the reported experimental observations. Furthermore, the biological function of p53 oscillations is predicted to prime the cell for death upon DNA damage via differential upregulation of apoptotic genes. Lastly, given N target genes, an oscillatory TF can generate between (N-1) and (2N-1) distinct patterns of differential transactivation. This study provides insights into the mechanism for TF oscillations to induce differential gene expressions, and underscores the importance of TF oscillations in biological regulations. PMID:22713556

  4. Transcription Factor Oscillations Induce Differential Gene Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Keng Boon; Yio, Wee Kheng; Surana, Uttam; Chiam, Keng Hwee

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular protein levels of diverse transcription factors (TFs) vary periodically with time. However, the effects of TF oscillations on gene expression, the primary role of TFs, are poorly understood. In this study, we determined these effects by comparing gene expression levels induced in the presence and in the absence of TF oscillations under same mean intracellular protein level of TF. For all the nonlinear TF transcription kinetics studied, an oscillatory TF is predicted to induce gene expression levels that are distinct from a nonoscillatory TF. The conditions dictating whether TF oscillations induce either higher or lower average gene expression levels were elucidated. Subsequently, the predicted effects from an oscillatory TF, which follows sigmoid transcription kinetics, were applied to demonstrate how oscillatory dynamics provide a mechanism for differential target gene transactivation. Generally, the mean TF concentration at which oscillations occur relative to the promoter binding affinity of a target gene determines whether the gene is up- or downregulated whereas the oscillation amplitude amplifies the magnitude of the differential regulation. Notably, the predicted trends of differential gene expressions induced by oscillatory NF-κB and glucocorticoid receptor match the reported experimental observations. Furthermore, the biological function of p53 oscillations is predicted to prime the cell for death upon DNA damage via differential upregulation of apoptotic genes. Lastly, given N target genes, an oscillatory TF can generate between (N – 1) and (2N – 1) distinct patterns of differential transactivation. This study provides insights into the mechanism for TF oscillations to induce differential gene expressions, and underscores the importance of TF oscillations in biological regulations. PMID:22713556

  5. Macrophage tropism of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) of subgroup-C and increased production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha by FeLV-infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Khan, K N; Kociba, G J; Wellman, M L

    1993-05-15

    Erythroid aplasia is induced in cats by feline leukemia virus (FeLV) of subgroup C but not by FeLV of subgroup A. In an investigation of the role of macrophages in FeLV-C-induced diseases, the concentrations of FeLV and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were compared between feline peritoneal macrophages incubated with FeLV of subgroup A or C. FeLV of both subgroups infected macrophages, but expression of FeLV-C was 21-fold higher than FeLV-A in peritoneal macrophages (P = .004). The supernatants of FeLV-C-inoculated macrophage cultures contained significantly higher levels of TNF-alpha (70 +/- 14 U/mL) at 72 hours postincubation compared with FeLV-A-inoculated (38 +/- 8 U/mL) and uninoculated (31 +/- 8 U/mL) cultures. Moreover, a positive correlation was shown between cell-associated FeLV surface glycoprotein gp70 and TNF-alpha expression in FeLV-C-infected macrophages by immunofluorescence (r = .6; P = .001), measured with a computer-assisted, laser-based digital imaging system. The addition of TNF-alpha to a uniform population of FeLV-infected cells (feline embryonic fibroblasts) caused an enhancement of viral expression (P < .05). These results indicate that FeLV-C has tropism for macrophages, FeLV expression is positively correlated with TNF-alpha expression in macrophages, and TNF-alpha enhances FeLV replication in fibroblasts. We suggest that FeLV-C infection of macrophages and secretion of TNF-alpha may be important in hematopoietic suppression in FeLV-C-infected cats. PMID:8387834

  6. Anogenital Human Papillomavirus Prevalence is Unaffected by Therapeutic Tumour Necrosis Factor-alpha Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Handisurya, Alessandra; Lázár, Stefanie; Papay, Pavol; Primas, Christian; Haitel, Andrea; Horvat, Reinhard; Tanew, Adrian; Vogelsang, Harald; Kirnbauer, Reinhard

    2016-04-12

    Patients receiving tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors are at increased risk of exacerbation of (myco-)bacterial and some viral infections. However, information on anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in these patients is sparse or conflicting. In this study 222 patients with psoriasis or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), who received either anti-TNF-α inhibitors or alternatives (purine-, folic acid analogues, phototherapy, fumaric ester, mesalazine) continuously for at least 6 months, were evaluated for the presence of anogenital HPV-induced lesions, mucosal HPV DNA, and serological status of mucosal low-risk HPV6 and high-risk HPV16/HPV18. Hallmarks of anogenital HPV infection were more frequently detected in patients with psoriasis than in those with IBD. HPV-induced lesions, viral DNA, and seroprevalence were not elevated in participants with psoriasis or IBD, who received TNF-α inhibitors for a mean duration of 31.4 months (range 6-96 months) compared with recipients of alternative or no treatment. TNF-α blockade for a mean period of 31.4 months does not increase detectable anogenital HPV infection or disease. PMID:26581127

  7. Mitochondria mediate tumor necrosis factor-alpha/NF-kappaB signaling in skeletal muscle myotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Y. P.; Atkins, C. M.; Sweatt, J. D.; Reid, M. B.; Hamilton, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is implicated in muscle atrophy and weakness associated with a variety of chronic diseases. Recently, we reported that TNF-alpha directly induces muscle protein degradation in differentiated skeletal muscle myotubes, where it rapidly activates nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). We also have found that protein loss induced by TNF-alpha is NF-kappaB dependent. In the present study, we analyzed the signaling pathway by which TNF-alpha activates NF-kappaB in myotubes differentiated from C2C12 and rat primary myoblasts. We found that activation of NF-kappaB by TNF-alpha was blocked by rotenone or amytal, inhibitors of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. On the other hand, antimycin A, an inhibitor of complex III, enhanced TNF-alpha activation of NK-kappaB. These results suggest a key role of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating NF-kappaB activation in muscle. In addition, we found that TNF-alpha stimulated protein kinase C (PKC) activity. However, other signal transduction mediators including ceramide, Ca2+, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and nitric oxide (NO) do not appear to be involved in the activation of NF-kappaB.

  8. Hypoxia induces apelin expression in human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Geiger, K; Muendlein, A; Stark, N; Saely, C H; Wabitsch, M; Fraunberger, P; Drexel, H

    2011-06-01

    Adipokines play a central role in the development of diseases associated with insulin resistance and obesity. Hypoxia in adipose tissue leads to a dysregulation of the expression of adipokines. The effect of hypoxia on the more recently identified adipokine apelin in human adipocytes is unclear. Therefore, we aimed at investigating the role of hypoxia on the expression of the adipokine apelin. Differentiated human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes were cultured under hypoxic conditions for varying time periods. A modular incubator chamber was used to create a hypoxic tissue culture environment (defined as 1% O(2), 94% N, and 5% CO(2)). In addition, hypoxic conditions were mimicked by using CoCl(2). The effect of hypoxia on the expression of the investigated adipokines was measured by real-time PCR and the secretion of apelin was quantified by ELISA. Induction of hypoxia significantly induced mRNA expression of leptin and apelin in differentiated SGBS adipocytes compared with the normoxic control condition. Expression of adiponectin was significantly decreased by hypoxia. In addition, the amount of secreted apelin protein in response to hypoxia was elevated compared to untreated cells. Furthermore, we could demonstrate that the observed hypoxia-induced induction of apelin mRNA expression is in the first phase dependent on HIF-1α. In our study, we could demonstrate for the first time that apelin expression and secretion by human adipocytes are strongly induced under hypoxic conditions and that the early response on hypoxia with apelin induction is dependent on HIF-1α. PMID:21448846

  9. Induction of HIV-1 replication in latently infected syncytiotrophoblast cells by contact with placental macrophages: role of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Bácsi, A; Csoma, E; Beck, Z; Andirkó, I; Kónya, J; Gergely, L; Tóth, F D

    2001-12-01

    The syncytiotrophoblast (ST) layer of the human placenta has an important role in limiting transplacental viral spread from mother to fetus. Although certain strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) may enter ST cells, the trophoblast does not exhibit permissiveness for HIV-1. The present study tested the possibility that placental macrophages might induce replication of HIV-1 carried in ST cells and, further, that infected ST cells would be capable of transmitting virus into neighboring macrophages. For this purpose, we investigated HIV-1 replication in ST cells grown alone or cocultured with uninfected placental macrophages. The macrophage-tropic Ba-L strain of HIV-1, capable of entering ST cells, was used throughout our studies. We demonstrated that interactions between ST cells and macrophages activated HIV-1 from latency and induced its replication in ST cells. After having become permissive for viral replication, ST cells delivered HIV-1 to the cocultured macrophages, as evidenced by detection of virus-specific antigens in these cells. The stimulatory effect of coculture on HIV-1 gene expression in ST cells was mediated by marked tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) release from macrophages, an effect caused by contact between the different placental cells. Results of this study suggest an interactive role for the ST layer and placental macrophages in the dissemination of HIV-1 among placental tissue. Data reported here may also explain why macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strains are transmitted preferentially during pregnancy. PMID:11798466

  10. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and its receptor in bovine corpus luteum throughout the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Sakumoto, R; Berisha, B; Kawate, N; Schams, D; Okuda, K

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) expression, the presence of functional TNF-alpha receptors, and expression of TNF receptor type I (TNF-RI) mRNA in the bovine corpus luteum (CL) during different stages of the estrous cycle. Reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed no difference in TNF-alpha mRNA expression during the estrous cycle. Concentrations of TNF-alpha in the CL tissue increased significantly from the mid to the late luteal stage and decreased thereafter (P < 0.05). An RT-PCR analysis showed higher levels of TNF-RI mRNA in CL of Days 3-7 than of other stages (P < 0.05). (125)I-TNF-alpha binding to the membranes of bovine CL was maximal after incubation at 38 degrees C for 48 h. The binding was much greater for TNF-alpha than for related peptides. A Scatchard analysis revealed the presence of a high-affinity binding site in the CL membranes collected at each phase of the estrous cycle (dissociation constant: 3.60 +/- 0.58-5.79 +/- 0.19 nM). In contrast to TNF-RI mRNA expression, the levels of receptor protein were similar at each stage of the estrous cycle. When cultured cells of all luteal stages were exposed to TNF-alpha (1-100 ng/ml), TNF-alpha stimulated prostaglandin F(2alpha) and prostaglandin E(2) secretion by the cells in a dose-dependent fashion (P < 0.01), especially during the early luteal phase, although it did not affect progesterone secretion. These results indicate the local production of TNF-alpha and the presence of functional TNF-RI in bovine CL throughout the estrous cycle, and suggest that TNF-alpha plays some roles in regulating bovine CL function throughout the estrous cycle. PMID:10611085

  11. The 19-kilodalton adenovirus E1B transforming protein inhibits programmed cell death and prevents cytolysis by tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed Central

    White, E; Sabbatini, P; Debbas, M; Wold, W S; Kusher, D I; Gooding, L R

    1992-01-01

    The adenovirus E1A and E1B proteins are required for transformation of primary rodent cells. When expressed in the absence of the 19,000-dalton (19K) E1B protein, however, the E1A proteins are acutely cytotoxic and induce host cell chromosomal DNA fragmentation and cytolysis, analogous to cells undergoing programmed cell death (apoptosis). E1A alone can efficiently initiate the formation of foci which subsequently undergo abortive transformation whereby stimulation of cell growth is counteracted by continual cell death. Cell lines with an immortalized growth potential eventually arise with low frequency. Coexpression of the E1B 19K protein with E1A is sufficient to overcome abortive transformation to produce high-frequency transformation. Like E1A, the tumoricidal cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) evokes a programmed cell death response in many tumor cell lines by inducing DNA fragmentation and cytolysis. Expression of the E1B 19K protein by viral infection, by transient expression, or in transformed cells completely and specifically blocks this TNF-alpha-induced DNA fragmentation and cell death. Cosegregation of 19K protein transforming activity with protection from TNF-alpha-mediated cytolysis demonstrates that both activities are likely the consequence of the same function of the protein. Therefore, we propose that by suppressing an intrinsic cell death mechanism activated by TNF-alpha or E1A, the E1B 19K protein enhances the transforming activity of E1A and enables adenovirus to evade TNF-alpha-dependent immune surveillance. Images PMID:1317006

  12. Behavioral Effects of Systemic Transforming Growth Factor-alpha in Syrian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Jenifer; Davis, Fred C.

    2009-01-01

    The growth factor, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α) is strongly expressed in the hypothalamic circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). TGF-α is one of several SCN peptides recently suggested to function as a circadian output signal for the regulation of locomotor activity rhythms in nocturnal rodents. When infused in the brain, TGF-α suppresses activity. TGF-α suppresses other behaviors as well including feeding, resulting in weight loss. Elevated TGF-α is correlated with some cancers, and it is possible the TGF-α and its receptor, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mediate fatigue and weight loss associated with cancer. If true for cancers outside of the brain, then systemic TGF-α should also affect behavior. We tested this hypothesis in hamsters with intraperitoneal injections or week-long subcutaneous infusions of TGF-α. Both treatments suppressed activity and infusions caused reduced food consumption and weight loss. To identify areas of the brain that might mediate these effects of systemic TGF-α, we used immunohistochemistry to localize cells with an activated MAP kinase signaling pathway (phosphorylated ERK1). Cells were activated in two hypothalamic areas, the paraventricular nucleus and a narrow region surrounding the third ventricle. These sites could be targets of TGF-α produced in the SCN but could also mediate effects of elevated TGF-α from tumors both within and outside the central nervous system. PMID:19110003

  13. The role of tumour necrosis factor-alpha in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Odeh, M

    1990-12-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is a primary mediator in the pathogenesis of infection, tissue injury and inflammation. It is synthesised by various activated, phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells, and a wide variety of infectious or inflammatory stimulae are capable of triggering TNF biosynthesis. Recent studies indicate that overproduction of TNF in septicaemia is a critical step in triggering septic shock and multiple organ damage. Intravenous administration of recombinant human TNF induced the same types of derangement in cardiovascular homatologic, inflammatory and metabolic homeostasis that are found with endotoxic or septic shock. Chronic TNF production causes a potentially lethal syndrome of cachexia, anaemia, and protein and lipid wasting. Several investigators have recently demonstrated elevated levels of serum TNF in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), these levels being closely correlated with the severity of the disease. This review discusses the role of TNF in the pathophysiology of AIDS and of several disorders associated with the latter. In addition, it discusses the interactions between TNF and several agents used in AIDS therapy, and suggests the use of TNF-antagonists in combination as a therapeutic regimen for AIDS patients. PMID:2126279

  14. Curcumin half analog modulates interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Kondamudi, Phani Krishna; Kovelamudi, Hemalatha; Nayak, Pawan G.; Rao, Mallikarjuna Chamallamudi; Shenoy, Rekha Raghuveer

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study was aimed at examining the effect of dehydrozingerone (DHZ), half analogue of curcumin which is the active constituent of turmeric (Curcuma longa) in the di-nitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) induced model for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (200–220 g) were divided into four groups (n = 6). Chemical induction of IBD was done by sensitizing with 300 µL of 20 g/L of DNCB (in acetone) onto the nape of rats for 14 days followed by intra-colonic instillation of 250 µL of DNCB (0.1% DNCB in 50% alcohol) solution on day 15. Rats in Group 1 (normal control) and Group 2 (DNCB control) were treated with vehicle. Rats in Group 3 were treated with DHZ (100 mg/kg, p.o.; 8 days) and Group 4 animals were treated with sulfasalazine (SS) (100 mg/kg, p.o.; 8 days). On 24th day, the rats were killed, colon removed and the macroscopic, biochemical, and histopathological evaluations were performed. Results: The levels of myeloperoxidase, thiobarbituric acid reactive substrate, and nitrite increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the DNCB group whereas reduced significantly in the DHZ and SS treated groups. Serum nitrite levels were found to be insignificant between the different groups. Interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha level was significantly high in the DNCB group. Conclusion: These findings show that DHZ can be a promising molecule for the treatment of IBD. PMID:26664018

  15. Inhibition of hepatic ketogenesis by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in rats.

    PubMed

    Beylot, M; Vidal, H; Mithieux, G; Odeon, M; Martin, C

    1992-11-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) stimulates hepatic lipogenesis. Therefore, it could play a role in the control of ketogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we measured simultaneously free fatty acids (FFA; [1-13C]palmitate) and ketone body (KB; [3,4-13C2]acetoacetate) kinetics, before and after intraperitoneal injection of saline or TNF-alpha, in postabsorptive rats or rats starved for 24 h. In both groups of rats, TNF-alpha injection did not modify insulinemia and induced a moderate increase of FFA concentrations and appearance rates (P < 0.05). Despite increased FFA availability, ketogenesis was impaired after TNF-alpha injection, as shown by lower KB concentrations and appearance rates; this effect was more important in postabsorptive than in starved rats. The percentage of FFA flux used for ketogenesis was decreased by TNF-alpha in the postabsorptive group (P < 0.05) and starved (P < 0.05) rats. In both groups, maximal liver acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase activity and estimated phosphorylation state were not modified by TNF-alpha injection, but hepatic concentrations of citrate were increased (P < 0.05). This increased citrate level could be related to a mobilization of glucose stored as glycogen since liver glycogen was decreased by TNF-alpha injection (P < 0.05). In conclusion, TNF-alpha injection in rats decreased hepatic ketogenesis. This action could be related to an increased mobilization and utilization of carbohydrate stores. PMID:1443123

  16. Genetically engineered bacteriophage delivers a tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist coating on neural electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Jun; Jin, Young-Hyun; Salieb-Beugelaar, Georgette B; Nam, Chang-Hoon; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports a novel approach for the formation of anti-inflammatory surface coating on a neural electrode. The surface coating is realized using a recombinant f88 filamentous bacteriophage, which displays a short platinum binding motif and a tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist (TNF-α antagonist) on p3 and p8 proteins, respectively. The recombinant bacteriophages are immobilized on the platinum surface by a simple dip coating process. The selective and stable immobilization of bacteriophages on a platinum electrode is confirmed by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, atomic force microscope and fluorescence microscope. From the in vitro cell viability test, the inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α) induced cell death was prevented by presenting recombinant bacteriophage coating, albeit with no significant cytotoxic effect. It is also observed that the bacteriophage coating does not have critical effects on the electrochemical properties such as impedance and charge storage capacities. Thus, this approach demonstrates a promising anti-apoptotic as well as anti-inflammatory surface coating for neural implant applications. PMID:24448635

  17. Hepatitis C Virus Induced Endothelial Inflammatory Response Depends on the Functional Expression of TNFα Receptor Subtype 2

    PubMed Central

    Mannell, Hanna; Krötz, Florian; Ribeiro, Andrea; Vielhauer, Volker; Nadjiri, Jonathan; Gaitzsch, Erik; Niemeyer, Markus; Porubsky, Stefan; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Wörnle, Markus

    2014-01-01

    In hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, morbidity and mortality often result from extrahepatic disease manifestations. We provide evidence for a role of receptors of the innate immune system in virally induced inflammation of the endothelium in vitro and in vivo. Corresponding to the in vitro finding of an HCV-dependent induction of proinflammatory mediators in endothelial cells, mice treated with poly (I:C) exhibit a significant reduction in leukocyte rolling velocity, an increase in leukocyte adhesion to the vessel wall and an increased extravasation of leukocytes. HCV directly promotes activation, adhesion and infiltration of inflammatory cells into the vessel wall by activation of endothelial viral receptors. Poly (I:C) induces the expression of TLR3 in vivo and hereby allows for amplification of all of the aforementioned responses upon viral infection. Proinflammatory effects of viral RNA are specifically mediated by TLR3 and significantly enhanced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). HCV-RNA induces the endothelial expression of TNFα and TNFα receptor subtype 2 and we provide evidence that leucocyte adhesion and transmigration in response to activation of viral RNA receptors seem to depend on expression of functional TNFR2. Our results demonstrate that endothelial cells actively participate in immune mediated vascular inflammation caused by viral infections. PMID:25419735

  18. Murine tumor necrosis factor-alpha sensitizes plasma corticosterone activity and the manifestation of shock: modulation by histamine.

    PubMed

    Hayley, Shawn; Kelly, O; Anisman, H

    2002-10-01

    Murine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (mTNF-alpha) results in the sensitization of mechanisms underlying plasma corticosterone activity and sickness behavior, the latter being reminiscent of septic or anaphylactic shock. The mTNF-alpha induced a sensitization of sickness and corticosterone in mice that was attenuated by pretreatment with the combinations of histamine H(1) (diphenhydramine, mepyramine) and H(2) (cimetidine) antagonists. Likewise, coadministration of diphenhydramine and cimetidine prevented the mTNF-alpha-provoked rise of monoamine activity within the posterior hypothalamus. Although dexamethasone ameliorated the mTNF-alpha-induced sensitization of corticosterone, illness behavior was unaffected. It is suggested that mTNF-alpha-induced illness and the neuroendocrine sensitization are mediated by endogenous histamine. PMID:12458037

  19. Human recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha infusion mimics endotoxemia in awake sheep.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J; Meyrick, B; Jesmok, G; Brigham, K L

    1989-03-01

    The macrophage-derived cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) has been proposed as the major mediator of endotoxin-induced injury. To examine whether a single infusion of human recombinant TNF alpha (rTNF alpha) reproduces the pulmonary effects of endotoxemia, we infused rTNF alpha (0.01 mg/kg) over 30 min into six chronically instrumented awake sheep and assessed the ensuing changes in hemodynamics, lung lymph flow and protein concentration, and number of peripheral blood and lung lymph leukocytes. In addition, levels of thromboxane B2, 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha, prostaglandin E2, and leukotriene B4 were measured in lung lymph. Pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa) peaked within 15 min of the start of rTNF alpha infusion [base-line Ppa = 22.0 +/- 1.5 (SE) cmH2O; after 15 min of rTNF alpha infusion, Ppa = 54.2 +/- 5.4] and then fell toward base line. The pulmonary hypertension was accompanied by hypoxemia and peripheral blood and lung lymph leukopenia, both of which persisted throughout the 4 h of study. These changes were followed by an increase in protein-rich lung lymph flow (base-line lymph protein clearance = 1.8 +/- 0.4 cmH2O; 3 h after rTNF alpha infusion, clearance = 5.6 +/- 1.2), consistent with an increase in pulmonary microvascular permeability. Cardiac output and left atrial pressure did not change significantly throughout the experiment. Light-microscopic examination of lung tissue at autopsy revealed congestion, neutrophil sequestration, and patchy interstitial edema. We conclude that rTNF alpha induces a response in awake sheep remarkable similar to that of endotoxemia. Because endotoxin is a known stimulant of TNF alpha production, TNF alpha may mediate endotoxin-induced lung injury. PMID:2708260

  20. Inducible gene expression systems and plant biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Corrado, Giandomenico; Karali, Marianthi

    2009-01-01

    Plant biotechnology relies heavily on the genetic manipulation of crops. Almost invariantly, the gene of interest is expressed in a constitutive fashion, although this may not be strictly necessary for several applications. Currently, there are several regulatable expression systems for the temporal, spatial and quantitative control of transgene activity. These molecular switches are based on components derived from different organisms, which range from viruses to higher eukaryotes. Many inducible systems have been designed for fundamental and applied research and since their initial development, they have become increasingly popular in plant molecular biology. This review covers a broad number of inducible expression systems examining their properties and relevance for plant biotechnology in its various guises, from molecular breeding to pharmaceutical and industrial applications. For each system, we examine some advantages and limitations, also in relation to the strategy on which they rely. Besides being necessary to control useful genes that may negatively affect crop yield and quality, we discuss that inducible systems can be also used to increase public acceptance of GMOs, reducing some of the most common concerns. Finally, we suggest some directions and future developments for their further diffusion in agriculture and biotechnology. PMID:19460424

  1. Transcriptional regulation of the gene encoding the human C-type lectin leukocyte receptor AIM/CD69 and functional characterization of its tumor necrosis factor-alpha-responsive elements.

    PubMed

    Lpez-Cabrera, M; Muoz, E; Blzquez, M V; Ursa, M A; Santis, A G; Snchez-Madrid, F

    1995-09-15

    The human activation antigen CD69 is a member of the C-type animal lectin superfamily that functions as a signal-transmitting receptor. Although the expression of CD69 can be induced in vitro on cells of most hematopoietic lineages with a wide variety of stimuli, in vivo it is mainly expressed by T-lymphocytes located in the inflammatory infiltrates of several human diseases. To elucidate the mechanisms that regulate the constitutive and inducible expression of CD69 by leukocytes, we isolated the promoter region of the CD69 gene and carried out its functional characterization. Sequence analysis of the 5'-flanking region of the CD69 gene revealed the presence of a potential TATA element 30 base pairs upstream of the major transcription initiation site and several putative binding sequences for inducible transcription factors (NF-kappa B, Egr-1, AP-1), which might mediate the inducible expression of this gene. Transient expression of CD69 promoter-based reporter gene constructs in K562 cells indicated that the proximal promoter region spanning positions -78 to +16 contained the cis-acting sequences necessary for basal and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-inducible transcription of the CD69 gene. Removal of the upstream sequences located between positions -78 and -38 resulted in decreased promoter strength and abolished the response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. We also found that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is capable of inducing the surface expression of the CD69 molecule as well as the promoter activity of fusion plasmids that contain 5'-flanking sequences of the CD69 gene, suggesting that this cytokine may regulate in vivo the expression of CD69.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7665567

  2. Increased cell death in rat blastocysts exposed to maternal diabetes in utero and to high glucose or tumor necrosis factor-alpha in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pampfer, S; Vanderheyden, I; McCracken, J E; Vesela, J; De Hertogh, R

    1997-12-01

    The morphogenetic function of the transient phase of cell death that occurs during blastocyst maturation is not known but it is thought that its regulation results from a delicate balance between survival and lethal signals in the uterine milieu. In this paper, we show that blastocysts from diabetic rats have a higher incidence of dead cells than control embryos. Differential lineage staining indicated that increased nuclear fragmentation occurred mainly in the inner cell mass. In addition, terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) demonstrated an increase in the incidence of non-fragmented DNA-damaged nuclei in these blastocysts. Analysis of the expression of clusterin, a gene associated with apoptosis, by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction detected an increase in the steady-state level of its transcripts in blastocysts from diabetic rats. In situ hybridization revealed that about half the cells identified as expressing clusterin mRNA exhibited signs of nuclear fragmentation. In vitro experiments demonstrated that high D-glucose increased nuclear fragmentation, TUNEL labeling and clusterin transcription. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a cytokine whose synthesis is up-regulated in the diabetic uterus, did not induce nuclear fragmentation nor clusterin expression but increased the incidence of TUNEL-positive nuclei. The data suggest that excessive cell death in the blastocyst, most probably resulting from the overstimulation of a basal suicidal program by such inducers as glucose and TNF-alpha, may be a contributing factor of the early embryopathy associated with maternal diabetes. PMID:9428419

  3. Expression of inflammatory mediators in the otitis media induced by Helicobacter pylori antigen in mice.

    PubMed

    Kariya, S; Okano, M; Fukushima, K; Nomiya, S; Kataoka, Y; Nomiya, R; Akagi, H; Nishizaki, K

    2008-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that is recognized as one of the key factors in gastric diseases such as gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. Recent studies have shown relationships between H. pylori and extra-digestive diseases, and the presence of H. pylori in the middle ear and upper respiratory tract has been reported. However, the role of H. pylori in middle ear disease remains unclear. The present study demonstrated that H. pylori whole-cell protein directly induces macrophage migration inhibitory factor, macrophage inflammatory protein 2, interleukin 1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha in middle ear epithelium in mice, and severe proliferation of inflammatory cells was observed in middle ear cavity inoculated with H. pylori whole-cell protein. In addition, trans-tympanic injection of macrophage migration inhibitory factor up-regulated expression of macrophage inflammatory protein 2 in the middle ear. These findings indicate that H. pylori infection causes immunological inflammation in middle ear epithelium, and H. pylori may play a significant role in otitis media. PMID:18727622

  4. The aporphine alkaloid boldine induces adiponectin expression and regulation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bangning; Cook, Carla; Santanam, Nalini

    2009-10-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by differentiated adipocytes. Clinical studies suggest a negative correlation between oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in patients with metabolic syndrome or cardiovascular disease. Natural compounds that can prevent oxidative stress mediated inhibition of adiponectin may be potentially therapeutic. Boldine, an aporphine alkaloid abundant in the medicinal plant Peumus boldus, is a powerful antioxidant. The current study demonstrates the effects of boldine on the expression of adiponectin and its regulators, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBPalpha) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma, in 3T3-L1 cells. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were exposed to either hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) (100 microM) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) (1 ng/mL) for 24 hours in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of boldine (5-100 microM). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that both the oxidants decreased the mRNA levels of adiponectin, PPARgamma, and C/EBPalpha to half of the control levels. Boldine, at all concentrations, counteracted the inhibitory effect of H(2)O(2) or TNFalpha and increased the expression of adiponectin and its regulators. The effect of boldine on adiponectin expression was biphasic, with the lower concentrations (5-25 microM) having a larger inductive effect compared to higher concentrations (50-100 microM). Boldine treatment alone in the absence of H(2)O(2) or TNFalpha was also able to induce adiponectin at the inductive phase of adipogenesis. Peroxisome proliferator response element-luciferase promoter transactivity analysis showed that boldine interacts with the PPAR response element and could potentially modulate PPAR responsive genes. Our results indicate that boldine is able to modulate the expression of adiponectin and its regulators in 3T3-L1 cells and has the potential to be beneficial in obesity-related cardiovascular disease. PMID:19857072

  5. Expression of fibroblast growth factors in ultraviolet radiation-induced corneal tumors and corneal tumor cell lines from Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Sabourin, C L; Kusewitt, D F; Applegate, L A; Budge, C L; Ley, R D

    1993-01-01

    Chronic exposure of the gray, short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica, to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces highly vascularized mesenchymal tumors of the cornea. Cell lines derived from these UVR-induced corneal tumors and the corneal tumors themselves were examined for the presence of mRNA coding for basic and acidic fibroblast growth factors (FGF), transforming growth factors-beta and -alpha (TGF-beta and TGF-alpha), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Basic FGF was expressed in the cell lines derived from corneal tumors and in the corneal tumors. Expression of basic FGF was high in one corneal tumor. Transcripts for acidic FGF were detected only in the corneal tumor cell lines, not in primary tumors. TGF-beta expression was detected in the corneal tumors and tumor-derived cell lines. TGF-alpha, EGF, and TNF-alpha transcripts were not detectable in any opossum material; however, homologous gene sequences for TGF-alpha and EGF were detected on Southern blots of opossum genomic DNA. Southern blot analysis revealed no evidence of amplification or rearrangement of the genes for basic FGF or acidic FGF in the UVR-induced corneal tumor that expressed high levels of basic FGF. Opossum basic FGF, which stimulated the proliferation of fetal bovine heart endothelial cells, was purified by heparin affinity chromatography from a UVR-induced corneal tumor and a corneal tumor cell line. Immunoblotting of opossum basic FGF from a corneal tumor cell line using antiserum to bovine basic FGF showed two prominent immunoreactive bands of 17.5 and 18.5 kDa. Expression of basic FGF and acidic FGF may play a role in the development and progression of UVR-induced corneal tumors in M. domestica. PMID:7683886

  6. Enhancement of slow-wave sleep by tumor necrosis factor-alpha is mediated by cyclooxygenase-2 in rats.

    PubMed

    Terao, A; Matsumura, H; Yoneda, H; Saito, M

    1998-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) was infused into the subarachnoid space of the rat rostral basal forebrain, which was previously defined as a prostaglandin (PG) D2-sensitive, sleep-promoting zone. TNFalpha increased the amount of slow-wave sleep (SWS), decreased that of paradoxical sleep (PS), and caused fever and anorexia. The TNFalpha-induced SWS enhancement, fever and anorexia were all blocked by co-infusion of diclofenac, a non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, and by pretreatment with NS-398, a COX-2-specific inhibitor. In striking contrast, the TNFalpha-induced suppression of PS was not affected by the inhibitors. These results indicate that COX-2-mediated hyperproduction of PGs is critically involved in the enhancement of SWS, fever, and anorexia but not in the suppression of PS, caused by TNFalpha infused into the PGD2-sensitive zone. PMID:9875706

  7. Salt induced gene expression in Prosopis farcta

    SciTech Connect

    Heimer, I.M.; Golan, A.; Lips, H.

    1987-04-01

    The authors hypothesize that in facultative halophytes, the genes which impart salt tolerance are expressed when the plants are exposed to salt. As a first step towards possible identification of these genes, they examined salt induced changes of gene expression in the facultative halophyte Prosopis farcta at the protein level, by SDS-PAGE. Exposure to salt of aseptically grown, two-week old seedlings, was carried out in one of two ways: (1) a one step transfer of seedlings from medium without salt to that with the indicated concentrations followed by 5 hr or 24 hr incubation periods. During the last 2 hrs of each incubation period the seedlings were pulse-labelled with /sup 35/S Sulfate or L-Methionine; (2) a gradual increase of the salt concentration at 50 mM increments at 2-4 day intervals. Two days after reaching the desired salt concentration, the seedlings were pulse-labelled for 2 hrs with /sup 35/S sulfate or L-methionine. Protein from roots were extracted and analyzed. Polypeptides were visualized by staining with coomassie blue or by fluorography. Qualitative as well as quantitative changes of gene expression as induced by salt could be observed. Their significance regarding salt tolerance will be discussed.

  8. Involvement of interleukin-8, vascular endothelial growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor in tumor necrosis factor alpha-dependent angiogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, S; Ono, M; Shono, T; Izumi, H; Ishibashi, T; Suzuki, H; Kuwano, M

    1997-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a macrophage/monocyte-derived polypeptide which modulates the expression of various genes in vascular endothelial cells and induces angiogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism by which TNF-alpha mediates angiogenesis is not completely understood. In this study, we assessed whether TNF-alpha-induced angiogenesis is mediated through TNF-alpha itself or indirectly through other TNF-alpha-induced angiogenesis-promoting factors. Cellular mRNA levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and their receptors were increased after the treatment of human microvascular endothelial cells with TNF-alpha (100 U/ml). TNF-alpha-dependent tubular morphogenesis in vascular endothelial cells was inhibited by the administration of anti-IL-8, anti-VEGF, and anti-bFGF antibodies, and coadministration of all three antibodies almost completely abrogated tubular formation. Moreover, treatment with Sp1, NF-kappaB, and c-Jun antisense oligonucleotides inhibited TNF-alpha-dependent tubular morphogenesis by microvascular endothelial cells. Administration of a NF-kappaB antisense oligonucleotide almost completely inhibited TNF-alpha-dependent IL-8 production and partially abrogated TNF-alpha-dependent VEGF production, and an Sp1 antisense sequence partially inhibited TNF-alpha-dependent production of VEGF. A c-Jun antisense oligonucleotide significantly inhibited TNF-alpha-dependent bFGF production but did not affect the production of IL-8 and VEGF. Administration of an anti-IL-8 or anti-VEGF antibody also blocked TNF-alpha-induced neovascularization in the rabbit cornea in vivo. Thus, angiogenesis by TNF-alpha appears to be modulated through various angiogenic factors, both in vitro and in vivo, and this pathway is controlled through paracrine and/or autocrine mechanisms. PMID:9199336

  9. Skin lesions and treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Maria Victoria; Meineri, Melina; Sanmartí, Raimon

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy shown by biological therapy with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists has led in the recent years to its increased and extended use in different inflammatory arthopathies. Initially, safety studies of these drugs were mainly focused on the risk of infection and the development of malignancies. Recently, several cases of skin lesions induced by anti-TNF drugs have been reported with an increased incidence, highlighting the importance of the skin as a major target of the side effects of these drugs. In addition to skin lesions directly related to drug administration there is a wide spectrum of skin lesions of different morphology and etiology, especially the development of cutaneous immune-mediated conditions, an emergent phenomenon associated with this treatment. We describe the main skin lesions associated with treatment with anti-TNF drugs according to an extensive review of the literature. PMID:22766431

  10. Dissecting Cellulitis of the Scalp Responding to Intravenous Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe; Gemmeke, Astrid; Koch, Andr

    2012-01-01

    The authors present the case of a 30-year-old male patient with a severe and long-standing dissecting cellulitis of the scalp. The disease did not respond to conventional treatment, including oral antibiotics, isotretinoin, and prednisolone. Quality of life was significantly impaired. After introduction of anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha treatment (infliximab), the malodorous discharge stopped, inflammation was reduced significantly, nodules became flat, and pain decreased. The treatment was well tolerated although he developed a temporary psoriasiform rash after the second intravenous infusion. In conclusion, anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha treatment is a new therapeutic option in this severe and recalcitrant disorder. PMID:22708007

  11. [Tumor necrosis factor-alpha in a children population with overweight].

    PubMed

    Carrizo, Teresita Del R; Díaz, Elba I; Velarde, María S; Prado, María M; Bazán, María C; Abregú, Adela V

    2013-01-01

    The child overweight is associated with overweight/obesity at the adult age. The obese adipose tissue produces an increase of proinflammatory cytokines as the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), causing a deleterious effect on vascular functions. The aim of this work was to evaluate TNF-α levels in a children's population with overweight and its relationship with clinical and laboratory variables. Thirty overweight children were studied, with ages between 8-13 years old, and twenty control children. In both groups waist circumference was measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated. The inclusion criterium was a >85th < 95 th BMI percentile for age and sex. In both groups were determined: fasting blood glucose (glucose-oxidase method); plasma insulin (ECLIA); plasma fibrinogen (Fg, Clauss method); high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP, immunoturbidimetric method); plasma myeloperoxidase (ELISA); TNF-α (ELISA); lipid profile (enzymatic methods); erythrosedimentation rate (ESR) and homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA). Data were expressed as the median and interquartile range. Correlations between variables were investigated with the Spearman's coefficient. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. The TNF-α levels were higher in overweight children [15.4 (13.2-24.0) vs. 12.7 (11.2-14.8) pg/ml; p = 0.028]. Levels of Fg, plasma insulin, HOMA index, uCRP and triglycerides were also statistically significant higher than the control group. The TNF-α was positively correlated with the waist circumference (r = 0.654; p = 0.021). The high TNF-α levels found, with the CRP and Fg levels, confirm a low grade proinflammatory state associated to abdominal obesity in the studied population. PMID:23924528

  12. LXR antagonists induce ABCD2 expression.

    PubMed

    Gondcaille, Catherine; Genin, Emmanuelle C; Lopez, Tatiana E; Dias, Alexandre M M; Geillon, Flore; Andreoletti, Pierre; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha; Nury, Thomas; Lizard, Gérard; Weinhofer, Isabelle; Berger, Johannes; Kase, Eili T; Trompier, Doriane; Savary, Stéphane

    2014-02-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of very-long-chain fatty acids resulting from a beta-oxidation defect. Oxidative stress and inflammation are also key components of the pathogenesis. X-ALD is caused by mutations in the ABCDI gene, which encodes for a peroxisomal half ABC transporter predicted to participate in the entry of VLCFA-CoA into the peroxisome, the unique site of their beta-oxidation. Two homologous peroxisomal ABC transporters, ABCD2 and ABCD3 have been proven to compensate for ABCD1 deficiency when overexpressed. Pharmacological induction of these target genes could therefore represent an alternative therapy for X-ALD patients. Since LXR activation was shown to repress ABCD2 expression, we investigated the effects of LXR antagonists in different cell lines. Cells were treated with GSK(17) (a LXR antagonist recently discovered from the GlaxoSmithKline compound collection), 22(S)-hydroxycholesterol (22S-HC, another LXR antagonist) and 22R-HC (an endogenous LXR agonist). We observed up-regulation of ABCD2,ABCD3 and CTNNB1 (the gene encoding for beta-catenin, which was recently demonstrated to induce ABCD2 expression) in human HepG2 hepatoma cells and in X-ALD skin fibroblasts treated with LXR antagonists. Interestingly, induction in X-ALD fibroblasts was concomitant with a decrease in oxidative stress. Rats treated with 22S-HC showed hepatic induction of the 3 genes of interest. In human, we show by multiple tissue expression array that expression of ABCD2 appears to be inversely correlated with NR1H3 (LXRalpha) expression. Altogether, antagonists of LXR that are currently developed in the context of dyslipidemia may find another indication with X-ALD. PMID:24239766

  13. Tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonism improves neurological recovery in murine intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating stroke subtype characterized by a prominent neuroinflammatory response. Antagonism of pro-inflammatory cytokines by specific antibodies represents a compelling therapeutic strategy to improve neurological outcome in patients after ICH. To test this hypothesis, the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) antibody CNTO5048 was administered to mice after ICH induction, and histological and functional endpoints were assessed. Methods Using 10 to 12-week-old C57BL/6J male mice, ICH was induced by collagenase injection into the left basal ganglia. Brain TNF-α concentration, microglia activation/macrophage recruitment, hematoma volume, cerebral edema, and rotorod latency were assessed in mice treated with the TNF-α antibody, CNTO5048, or vehicle. Results After ICH induction, mice treated with CNTO5048 demonstrated reduction in microglial activation/macrophage recruitment compared to vehicle-treated animals, as assessed by unbiased stereology (P = 0.049). This reduction in F4/80-positive cells was associated with a reduction in cleaved caspase-3 (P = 0.046) and cerebral edema (P = 0.026) despite similar hematoma volumes, when compared to mice treated with vehicle control. Treatment with CNTO5048 after ICH induction was associated with a reduction in functional deficit when compared to mice treated with vehicle control, as assessed by rotorod latencies (P = 0.024). Conclusions Post-injury treatment with the TNF-α antibody CNTO5048 results in less neuroinflammation and improved functional outcomes in a murine model of ICH. PMID:23962089

  14. Differential regulation of C-terminal splice variants of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in primary cultures of astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Focant, Marylène C; Goursaud, Stéphanie; Nizet, Yannick; Hermans, Emmanuel

    2011-06-01

    The high-affinity glutamate transporter GLT-1 plays a key role in the control of the glutamate homeostasis in the central nervous system and protects neurons against excitotoxicity. Splice variants of the original transcript have been identified and their involvement in neurodegenerative disorders has been proposed. However, the functions and the regulations of these isoforms remain unclear. In this study, we focused our interest on the expression of two C-terminal splice variants of GLT-1 (GLT-1a and b) in primary astrocyte cultures exposed to distinct chemical environments. While GLT-1a and GLT-1b mRNAs were both increased in response to treatment with N(6),2'-O-dibutyryladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (dBcAMP), the culture supplement G5 or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), the regulation of GLT-1b appeared quicker and was more pronounced. Besides, using validated antibodies, we evidenced a differential regulation of the two proteins in cells exposed to TNF-α. Thus, while dBcAMP and the G5 supplement stimulated the expression of both isoforms at 3 and 7 days, a transient upregulation of GLT-1a was induced by TNF-α, which contrasts with the sustained induction of the GLT-1b isoform. These results shed light on the complex influence of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α on GLT-1a mRNA and protein expression and on the necessity to distinctly consider the GLT-1 isoforms with appropriate tools in studies addressing the regulation of glutamate transporters. PMID:21371514

  15. Endotoxin-induced cytokine gene expression in vivo. II. Regulation of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 alpha/beta expression and suppression.

    PubMed Central

    Ulich, T. R.; Guo, K. Z.; Irwin, B.; Remick, D. G.; Davatelis, G. N.

    1990-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) mRNA is present in a preformed intracellular pool in the spleen, liver, and small bowel of naive rats. Endotoxin (Salmonella typhus lipopolysaccharide) injected intravenously induces little or no increase in whole-organ TNF mRNA levels at 15', 30', 1 degree, 2 degrees, or 4 degrees, whereas serum TNF levels are markedly elevated at 1 and 2 hours. Dexamethasone pretreatment of rats suppresses LPS-induced serum TNF concentrations, but does not suppress TNF mRNA levels in the spleen or bowel. Tachyphylaxis experiments demonstrate that a second injection of endotoxin 2 hours after an initial injection fails to induce a second peak of serum TNF, although TNF mRNA levels in the spleen and bowel remain at the levels found in naive rats. Corynebacterium parvum upregulates endotoxin-induced serum TNF release and intravenous injection of IL-1 induces the release of serum TNF but neither alters whole-organ TNF mRNA levels. Interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) mRNA was not constitutively detected in whole-organ RNA preparations of the spleen, liver, and small bowel of naive rats. Endotoxin induces IL-1 alpha mRNA most easily appreciated in the spleen beginning at 1 hour, peaking at 2 to 4 hours, and disappearing by 6 hours. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) mRNA was not constitutively detected in the organs examined or was present in small amounts. Endotoxin induces IL-1 beta mRNA beginning at 0.5 hours, peaking at 1 hour, and disappearing by 6 hours. Dexamethasone pretreatment prevents the LPS-induced appearance of IL-1 alpha mRNA and suppresses but does not completely inhibit the appearance of IL-1 beta mRNA. C. parvum upregulates endotoxin-induced IL-1 mRNA expression. Intravenous injection of TNF or IL-1 both induce IL-1 mRNA expression. In conclusion, TNF mRNA is constitutively expressed and TNF mRNA levels as analyzed in whole-organ RNA preparations do not change in concert with serum TNF protein levels during conditions of endotoxemia, dexamethasone treatment, tachyphylaxis, priming with C. parvum, or after injection of IL-1. In contrast, IL-1 mRNA expression during endotoxemia, dexamethasone treatment, priming with C. parvum, or after injection of TNF or IL-1 shows clear increases and decreases in whole-organ RNA preparations. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:2240164

  16. Alveolar macrophages in AIDS patients: increased spontaneous tumour necrosis factor-alpha production in Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, V L; Meager, A; Mitchell, D M; Pinching, A J

    1990-01-01

    In order to assess the role of alveolar macrophages and their products in the control of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and other infections in AIDS, bronchoalveolar lavage cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-positive AIDS/ARC patients (with and without PCP) and HIV-negative patients were counted and cultured in vitro; spontaneous and LPS-induced tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production was measured. Markedly increased spontaneous TNF-alpha production by alveolar macrophages and, to a lesser extent, peripheral blood monocytes was found in HIV-positive patients with active PCP but not in patients without the infection. Higher TNF production was associated with lower counts of Pneumocystis in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. These results suggest that TNF-alpha production by macrophages may play an important role in the control of Pn. carinii infection in AIDS. PMID:2357841

  17. TNF-{alpha} promotes human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression through activation of Akt/mTORC1 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Cheng-hu; Cao, Guo-Fan; Jiang, Qin; Yao, Jin

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} induces MMP-9 expression and secretion to promote RPE cell migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAPK activation is not critical for TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Akt and mTORC1 signaling mediate TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIN1 knockdown showed no significant effect on MMP-9 expression by TNF-{alpha}. -- Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) promotes in vitro retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration to initiate proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Here we report that TNF-{alpha} promotes human RPE cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression. Inhibition of MMP-9 by its inhibitor or its neutralizing antibody inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced in vitro RPE cell migration. Reversely, exogenously-added active MMP-9 promoted RPE cell migration. Suppression Akt/mTOR complex 1(mTORC1) activation by LY 294002 and rapamycin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-mediated MMP-9 expression. To introduce a constitutively active Akt (CA-Akt) in cultured RPE cells increased MMP-9 expression, and to block mTORC1 activation by rapamycin inhibited its effect. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of SIN1, a key component of mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), had no effect on MMP-9 expression or secretion. In conclusion, this study suggest that TNF-{alpha} promotes RPE cell migration by inducing MMP-9 expression through activation of Akt/ mTORC1, but not mTORC2 signaling.

  18. Oral N-acetylcysteine reduces bleomycin-induced lung damage and mucin Muc5ac expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Mata, M; Ruíz, A; Cerdá, M; Martinez-Losa, M; Cortijo, J; Santangelo, F; Serrano-Mollar, A; Llombart-Bosch, A; Morcillo, E J

    2003-12-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, therefore antioxidants may be of therapeutic value. Clinical work indicates that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may be beneficial in this disease. The activity of this antioxidant was examined on bleomycin-induced lung damage, mucus secretory cells hyperplasia and mucin Muc5ac gene expression in rats. NAC (3 mmol x kg(-1) x day(-1)) or saline was given orally to Sprague-Dawley rats for 1 week prior to a single intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (2.5 U x kg(-1)) and for 14 days postinstillation. NAC decreased collagen deposition in bleomycin-exposed rats (hydroxyproline content was 4,257+/-323 and 3,200+/-192 microg x lung(-1) in vehicle- and NAC-treated rats, respectively) and lessened the fibrotic area assessed by morphometric analysis. The bleomycin-induced increases in lung tumour necrosis factor-alpha and myeloperoxidase activity were reduced by NAC treatment. The numbers of mucus secretory cells in airway epithelium, and the Muc5ac messenger ribonucleic acid and protein expression, were markedly augmented in rats exposed to bleomycin. These changes were significantly reduced in NAC-treated rats. These results indicate that bleomycin increases the number of airway secretory cells and their mucin production, and that oral N-acetylcysteine improved pulmonary lesions and reduced the mucus hypersecretion in the bleomycin rat model. PMID:14680076

  19. Gravity-Induced Gene Expression in Plants.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sederoff, Heike; Heber, Steffen; Howard, Brian; Myburg-Nichols, Henrietta; Hammond, Rebecca; Salinas-Mondragon, Raul; Brown, Christopher S.

    Plants sense changes in their orientation towards the vector of gravity and respond with directional growth. Several metabolites in the signal transduction cascade have been identified. However, very little is known about the interaction between these sensing and signal transduction events and even less is known about their role in the differential growth response. Gravity induced changes in transcript abundance have been identified in Arabidopsis whole seedlings and root apices (Moseyko et al. 2002; Kimbrough et al. 2004). Gravity induced transcript abundance changes can be observed within less than 1 min after stimulation (Salinas-Mondragon et al. 2005). Gene expression however requires not only transcription but also translation of the mRNA. Translation can only occur when mRNA is associated with ribosomes, even though not all mRNA associated with ribosomes is actively translated. To approximate translational capacity we quantified whole genome transcript abundances in corn stem pulvini during the first hour after gravity stimulation in total and poly-ribosomal fractions. As in Arabidopsis root apices, transcript abundances of several clusters of genes responded to gravity stimulation. The vast majority of these transcripts were also found to associate with polyribosomes in the same temporal and quantitative pattern. These genes are transcriptionally regulated by gravity stimulation, but do not exhibit translational regulation. However, a small group of genes showed increased transcriptional regulation after gravity stimulation, but no association with polysomes. These transcripts likely are translationally repressed. The mechanism of translational repression for these transcripts is unknown. Based on the hypothesis that the genes essential for gravitropic responses should be expressed in most or all species, we compared the temporal gravity induced expression pattern of all orthologs identified between maize and Arabidopsis. A small group of genes showed high sequence identity as well as a conserved pattern of transcript abundance changes after gravity stimulation between corn pulvinus tissue and Arabidopsis root apices. The functions of these genes in gravitropic responses are currently being analyzed and should give us important information about evolutionary conserved elements in plant gravity signal transduction. (This research was funded by NASA). Kimbrough, J. M., R. Salinas-Mondragon, et al. (2004). "The Fast and Transient Transcriptional Network of Gravity and Mechanical Stimulation in the Arabidopsis Root Apex." Plant Physiol. 136(1): 2790-2805. Moseyko, N., T. Zhu, et al. (2002). "Transcription profiling of the early gravitropic response in Arabidopsis using high-density oligonucleotide probe microarrays." Plant Physiol 130(2): 720-8. Salinas-Mondragon, R., A. Brogan, et al. (2005). "Gravity and light: integrating transcriptional regulation in roots." Gravit Space Biol Bull 18(2): 121-2.

  20. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1-infected T lymphocytes impair catabolism and uptake of glutamate by astrocytes via Tax-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed

    Szymocha, R; Akaoka, H; Dutuit, M; Malcus, C; Didier-Bazes, M; Belin, M F; Giraudon, P

    2000-07-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of a chronic progressive myelopathy called tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). In this disease, lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) are associated with perivascular infiltration by lymphocytes. We and others have hypothesized that these T lymphocytes infiltrating the CNS may play a prominent role in TSP/HAM. Here, we show that transient contact of human or rat astrocytes with T lymphocytes chronically infected by HTLV-1 impairs some of the major functions of brain astrocytes. Uptake of extracellular glutamate by astrocytes was significantly decreased after transient contact with infected T cells, while the expression of the glial transporters GLAST and GLT-1 was decreased. In two-compartment cultures avoiding direct cell-to-cell contact, similar results were obtained, suggesting possible involvement of soluble factors, such as cytokines and the viral protein Tax-1. Recombinant Tax-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) decreased glutamate uptake by astrocytes. Tax-1 probably acts by inducing TNF-alpha, as the effect of Tax-1 was abolished by anti-TNF-alpha antibody. The expression of glutamate-catabolizing enzymes in astrocytes was increased for glutamine synthetase and decreased for glutamate dehydrogenase, the magnitudes of these effects being correlated with the level of Tax-1 transcripts. In conclusion, Tax-1 and cytokines produced by HTLV-1-infected T cells impair the ability of astrocytes to manage the steady-state level of glutamate, which in turn may affect neuronal and oligodendrocytic functions and survival. PMID:10864655

  1. Intracellular reactive oxygen species as apparent modulators of heat-shock protein 27 (hsp27) structural organization and phosphorylation in basal and tumour necrosis factor alpha-treated T47D human carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mehlen, P; Kretz-Remy, C; Briolay, J; Fostan, P; Mirault, M E; Arrigo, A P

    1995-01-01

    The small stress protein heat-shock protein 27 (hsp27) is an oligomeric phosphoprotein, constitutively expressed in most human cells, which enhances cellular resistance to tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). This phenomenon correlates with dramatic changes in hsp27 cellular location, structural organization and phosphorylation. To gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating these properties of hsp27, we investigated whether they were a consequence of the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by TNF alpha. Here, we report that, in T47D carcinoma cell lines, the rapid burst of intracellular ROS production and changes in hsp27 locale, structural organization and phosphoisoform composition induced by TNF alpha were abolished by the overexpression of the antioxidant enzyme seleno-glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx). These effects were greatly diminished when GSHPx-expressing cells were grown in the absence of selenium, a cofactor that is essential for seleno-GSHPx activity, indicating that they are directly linked to the increased GSHPx activity. Moreover, in growing T47D cells, GSHPx expression induced intracellular redistribution of hsp27 and decreased the phosphorylation of this protein without altering its pattern of oligomerization. In contrast, the heat-mediated phosphorylation of hsp27 was not altered by decreased intracellular ROS levels. Hence, in growing and TNF-treated cells, several hsp27 properties appear to be modulated by fluctuations in intracellular ROS levels. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8526844

  2. Effects of Puerariae Radix Extract on Endotoxin Receptors and TNF-α Expression Induced by Gut-Derived Endotoxin in Chronic Alcoholic Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jing-Hua; Cui, Tuan; Sun, Zhao-Lin; Huang, Fu; Chen, Liang; Xu, Lin; Feng, Qin; Hu, Yi-Yang

    2012-01-01

    Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) is one of the earliest medicinal plants used to treat alcohol abuse in traditional Chinese medicine for more than a millennium. However, little is known about its effects on chronic alcoholic liver injury. Therefore, the present study observed the effects of puerariae radix extract (RPE) on chronic alcoholic liver injury as well as Kupffer cells (KCs) activation to release tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) induced by gut-derived endotoxin in rats and macrophage cell line. RPE was observed to alleviate the pathological changes and lipids deposition in liver tissues as well as the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity. Meanwhile, RPE inhibited KCs activation and subsequent hepatic TNF-α expression and downregulated the protein expression of endotoxin receptors, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), CD14, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, and TLR4 in chronic alcohol intake rats. Furthermore, an in vitro study showed that RPE inhibited the expression of TNF-α and endotoxin receptors, CD14 and TLR4, induced by LPS in RAW264.7 cells. In summary, this study demonstrated that RPE mitigated liver damage and lipid deposition induced by chronic alcohol intake in rats, as well as TNF-α release, protein expression of endotoxin receptors in vivo or in vitro. PMID:23133491

  3. Gemella morbillorum Bacteremia after Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha as Acne Inversa Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Vossen, Matthias G.; Gattringer, Klaus B.; Khalifeh, Neda; Koreny, Maria; Spertini, Verena; Mallouhi, Ammar; Willeit, Markus; Volc-Platzer, Beatrix; Asboth, Friederike; Graninger, Wolfgang; Thalhammer, Florian

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of fever, brain abscesses, and Gemella morbillorum bacteremia after anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) therapy in a 21-year-old acne inversa patient currently taking long-term dapsone. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing such a case. During antimicrobial therapy, the patient developed systemic varicella infection with severe thrombocytopenia. PMID:22189120

  4. Inhibition of the cytokine-mediated inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in rat insulinoma cells by phenyl N-tert-butylnitrone.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaie, T; Graham, K L; Vasquez, A M; Floyd, R A; Kotake, Y

    2000-04-01

    Cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). We have shown that the spin-trapping agent phenyl N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) protects against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced IDDM in mice. In order to gain more insights into the mechanism(s) of the protective action of PBN against IDDM, we have investigated the effect of this compound on the cytokine-induced NO generation (measured as nitrite) in rat insulinoma RIN-5F cells. Our results demonstrate that PBN cotreatment prevents the generation of nitrite by RIN-5F cells induced by treatment with tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 1beta, and interferon-gamma in a dose-dependent fashion. The generation of NO as a result of cytokine treatment and the inhibitory effect of PBN were further confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Aminoguanidine, a selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), abolished the cytokine-induced nitrite generation whereas N-nitro-l-arginine, an inhibitor more selective for other NOS isoforms, was significantly less effective. Western and Northern analyses demonstrated that PBN inhibits the cytokine-mediated expression of iNOS at the transcriptional level. Cytokine-induced nitrite formation was also inhibited by the two antioxidant agents alpha-lipoic acid and N-acetylcysteine. These results indicate that PBN protects against IDDM at least in part by prevention of cytokine-induced NO generation by pancreatic beta-cells. PMID:10835296

  5. Implication of TNF-alpha convertase (TACE/ADAM17) in inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and inflammation in an experimental model of colitis.

    PubMed

    Colón, A L; Menchén, L A; Hurtado, O; De Cristóbal, J; Lizasoain, I; Leza, J C; Lorenzo, P; Moro, M A

    2001-12-21

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine which is shed in its soluble form by a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) called TNF-alpha convertase (TACE; ADAM17). TNF-alpha plays a role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and is involved in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) which has also been implicated in IBD. The study was designed to investigate whether colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) in rats produces an increase in TACE activity and/or expression and whether its pharmacological inhibition reduces TNF-alpha levels, iNOS expression and colonic damage in this model. TNBS (30 mg in 0.4 ml of 50% ethanol) was instilled into the colon of female Wistar rats. Saline or TACE inhibitor BB1101 (10 mg/kg/day) was administered intraperitoneally 5 days after TNBS instillation. On day 10, colons were removed and assessed for pathological score, myeloperoxidase (MPO), NO synthase (NOS), TACE enzymatic activity and protein levels, colonic TNF-alpha and NOx- levels. Instillation of TNBS caused an increase in TACE activity and expression and the release of TNF-alpha. TNBS also resulted in iNOS expression and colonic damage. BB1101 blocked TNBS-induced increase in TACE activity, TNF-alpha release and iNOS expression. Concomitantly, BB1101 ameliorated TNBS-induced colonic damage and inflammation. TNBS causes TNF-alpha release by an increase in TACE activity and expression and this results in the expression of iNOS and subsequent inflammation, suggesting that TACE inhibition may prove useful as a therapeutic means in IBD. PMID:11884025

  6. Similar mechanisms of action of defined polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides: characterization of binding and tumor necrosis factor alpha induction.

    PubMed Central

    Otterlei, M; Sundan, A; Skjåk-Braek, G; Ryan, L; Smidsrød, O; Espevik, T

    1993-01-01

    Little has been reported about the effects of different polysaccharides on cytokine production from human monocytes. In this study, we show that several well-defined polysaccharides, including polymers with different sizes of beta 1-4-linked D-mannuronic acid (poly-M, high-M alginate, and M-blocks) and cellulose oxidized in the C-6 position, induced human monocytes to produce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Poly-M was the most efficient polysaccharide tested and, on a weight basis, was approximately as efficient as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli. TNF-alpha production was shown to depend strongly on the molecular weights of poly-M and high-M alginate, with maximal TNF-alpha production occurring at molecular weights above 50,000 and 200,000, respectively. G-blocks, alpha 1-4-linked L-guluronic acid polymers that did not induce cytokine production from monocytes, reduced the cytokine production induced by the beta 1-4-linked polyuronic acids and LPS. Furthermore, both G-blocks and LPS were found to inhibit the binding of poly-M to monocytes, as measured by flow cytometry. In addition, we found that the binding of LPS to monocytes was inhibited by G-blocks, M-blocks, and poly-M. Our results indicate that beta 1-4-linked polyuronic acids and LPS may stimulate monocytes to produce TNF-alpha by similar mechanisms and may bind to a common receptor. PMID:8478081

  7. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma synergistically activate the RANTES promoter through nuclear factor kappaB and interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) transcription factors.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A H; Hong, J H; Seo, Y S

    2000-01-01

    Inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) synergistically activate expression of the RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted) gene, which plays a crucial role in the chemoattraction of leukocytes during the inflammatory response. To understand at the molecular level the mechanism by which the two cytokines activate RANTES gene expression, we determined the requirement of cis-acting elements in the RANTES promoter and trans-acting factors. The murine RANTES promoter contained one putative interferon regulatory factor, IRF, and three putative nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) binding sites. Specific destruction of the IRF binding site and one of the three NF-kappaB binding sites abolished the inducibility of promoter activity by IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, respectively. In contrast, mutation of the other two putative NF-kappaB binding sites did not affect RANTES promoter activity significantly. In addition, the RANTES promoter was stimulated by co-transfection of plasmids that expressed either p65, an NF-kappaB family protein, or the IRF-1 transcription factor. RANTES promoters with mutations in the NF-kappaB or IRF binding sites were not stimulated by p65 or IRF-1 expression, respectively. In electrophoretic mobility-shift and immunologic assays, we showed that IRF-1 was induced after cells were treated with IFN-gamma and that NF-kappaB was activated by TNF-alpha treatment. These results demonstrate that both NF-kappaB and IRF-1 transcription factors mediate the induction of RANTES expression via their cognate cis-acting elements when cells are stimulated by TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. PMID:10926836

  8. Interferon alpha induction of metallothionein in rat liver is not linked to interleukin-1, interleukin-6, or tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Ortiz, Juan Manuel; Omar-Castellanos, Victor; León-Chávez, Bertha Alicia; Achanzar, William E; Brambila, Eduardo

    2005-08-01

    Synthesis of metallothionein (MT) is induced by interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) in vitro and in vivo. In addition, IFN-alpha promotes redistribution of zinc (Zn) from the plasma to the liver in mice. However, it is not clear if IFN-alpha induces hepatic MT synthesis directly or indirectly via liberation of other cytokines. In order to address this issue, we determined hepatic MT levels, Zn concentration in plasma, liver, and urine, and plasma levels interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) in rats following intramuscular injection of human IFN-alpha (1.5 x 10(6) UI/m(2)). Animals were housed in metabolic cages and sacrificed at various times after IFN-alpha administration. Zn concentrations in serum, urine, and hepatic tissue were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. MT protein was measured using the MT silver saturation method and expression of MT-1 and MT-2 mRNA was measured by RT-PCR. Plasma levels of rat IL-1, IL-6, and TNFalpha were determined using an ELISA method. Hepatic MT levels began to increase at 2 h following IFN-alpha administration and reached maximum levels at 12 h post-treatment. Induction of MT gene expression was confirmed by increases in MT-1 and MT-2 mRNA levels 6, 12, and 18 h after IFN-alpha administration. IFN-alpha treatment also resulted in biphasic increases in hepatic Zn, with levels peaking at 2 h, the time-point when MT levels are first increased, and again at 18 h. Concurrently, there were decreases in serum Zn levels at these time points, suggesting IFN-alpha induced movement of Zn from the blood to hepatic tissue. The decrease in serum Zn was not due to increased excretion since urinary Zn levels were unaffected following IFN-alpha treatment. IFN-alpha administration had no effect on plasma IL-1, IL-6, and TNFalpha levels. These results show that IFN-alpha promotes the increase of hepatic MT levels and plasma/liver redistribution directly, without IL-1, IL-6, or TNFalpha participation. PMID:16005709

  9. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) regulation of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) from human alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, L.; Jordan, N.; Millar, A.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Regulation of the inflammatory response within the human lung is essential to prevent this important part of the normal host defence response becoming a pathological process. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of shock and in granuloma formation, tissue necrosis, and fibrosis in many organ systems including the lung. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) has been proposed as having an inhibitory effect on the production of several inflammatory cytokines including TNF-alpha. METHODS: The effect of IL-10 administration on TNF-alpha production was explored in human alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes from matched individuals. The effects of IL-10 on TNF-alpha protein production were determined by sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA), whereas the TNF-alpha mRNA response was established by Northeren blotting using a TNF-alpha specific oligonucleotide probe. The protein synthesis inhibitors actinomycin D and cyclohexamide were utilised to monitor IL-10 effects on mRNA degradation and de novo protein synthesis, respectively. RESULTS: The lipopolysaccharide-mediated TNF-alpha production in alveolar macrophages was reduced from 3.508 (0.629) to 2.035 (0.385) ng/ml by 100 U/ml IL-10. Lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha production in peripheral blood monocytes was reduced from 2.035 (0.284) to 0.698 (0.167) ng/ml. TNF-alpha gene expression was also inhibited in both alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes; lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha mRNA was reduced by 47.8 (15.2)% and 83.1 (4.2)%, respectively, by IL-10. The IL-10 mediated suppression of TNF-alpha mRNA was unaffected by addition of cyclohexamide, suggesting that de novo protein synthesis was not required for TNF-alpha inhibition. mRNA stability experiments indicated no acceleration in lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha mRNA degradation in response to IL-10. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that IL-10 is a potent inhibitor of TNF-alpha expression and release from alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes, and thus it may have an important role in the cytokine network of the pulmonary immune response. Images PMID:8711645

  10. Benzoic Acid-Inducible Gene Expression in Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dragset, Marte S.; Barczak, Amy K.; Kannan, Nisha; Mærk, Mali; Flo, Trude H.; Valla, Svein; Rubin, Eric J.; Steigedal, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Conditional expression is a powerful tool to investigate the role of bacterial genes. Here, we adapt the Pseudomonas putida-derived positively regulated XylS/Pm expression system to control inducible gene expression in Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of human tuberculosis. By making simple changes to a Gram-negative broad-host-range XylS/Pm-regulated gene expression vector, we prove that it is possible to adapt this well-studied expression system to non-Gram-negative species. With the benzoic acid-derived inducer m-toluate, we achieve a robust, time- and dose-dependent reversible induction of Pm-mediated expression in mycobacteria, with low background expression levels. XylS/Pm is thus an important addition to existing mycobacterial expression tools, especially when low basal expression is of particular importance. PMID:26348349

  11. Benzoic Acid-Inducible Gene Expression in Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Dragset, Marte S; Barczak, Amy K; Kannan, Nisha; Mærk, Mali; Flo, Trude H; Valla, Svein; Rubin, Eric J; Steigedal, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Conditional expression is a powerful tool to investigate the role of bacterial genes. Here, we adapt the Pseudomonas putida-derived positively regulated XylS/Pm expression system to control inducible gene expression in Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of human tuberculosis. By making simple changes to a Gram-negative broad-host-range XylS/Pm-regulated gene expression vector, we prove that it is possible to adapt this well-studied expression system to non-Gram-negative species. With the benzoic acid-derived inducer m-toluate, we achieve a robust, time- and dose-dependent reversible induction of Pm-mediated expression in mycobacteria, with low background expression levels. XylS/Pm is thus an important addition to existing mycobacterial expression tools, especially when low basal expression is of particular importance. PMID:26348349

  12. Butyrate inhibits cytokine-induced VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression in cultured endothelial cells: the role of NF-kappaB and PPARalpha.

    PubMed

    Zapolska-Downar, Danuta; Siennicka, Aldona; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Ko?odziej, Blanka; Naruszewicz, Marek

    2004-04-01

    Adhesion and migration of leukocytes into the surrounding tissues is a crucial step in inflammation, immunity, and atherogenesis. Expression of cell adhesion molecules by endothelial cells plays a leading role in this process. Butyrate, a natural short-chain fatty acid produced by bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber, has been attributed with anti-inflammatory activity in inflammatory bowel disease. Butyrate in vitro is active in colonocytes and several other cell types. We have studied the effect of butyrate on expression of endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecules by cytokine-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Pretreatment of HUVEC with butyrate-inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha)-induced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in a time and concentration-dependent manner. Butyrate at 10 mM/L inhibited interleukin-1 (IL-1)-stimulated VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression. The effect of butyrate on cytokine-stimulated VCAM-1 expression was more pronounced than in the case of ICAM-1. Butyrate decreased TNFalpha-induced expression of mRNA for VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. Suppressed expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 was associated with reduced adherence of monocytes and lymphocytes to cytokine-stimulated HUVEC. Butyrate inhibited TNFalpha-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in HUVEC. Finally, butyrate enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) expression in HUVEC. These results demonstrate that butyrate may have anti-inflammatory properties not only in colonocytes but also in endothelial cells. The anti-inflammatory and (perhaps) antiatherogenic properties of butyrate may partly be attributed to an effect on activation of NF-kappaB and PPARalpha and to the associated expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. The present findings support further investigations on the therapeutic benefits of butyrate in several pathological events involving leukocyte recruitment. PMID:15068815

  13. The increased gastroprotective effect of pioglitazone in cholestatic rats: role of nitric oxide and tumour necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed

    Moezi, Leila; Janahmadi, Zeinab; Amirghofran, Zahra; Nekooeian, Ali Akbar; Dehpour, Ahmad R

    2014-02-01

    The prevalence of gastric ulcers is high in cholestatic patients, but the exact mechanism of this increased frequency remains uncertain. It has been shown that pioglitazone accelerates the healing of pre-existing gastric ulcers. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of pioglitazone, on the gastric mucosal lesions in cholestatic rats. Cholestasis was induced by surgical ligation of common bile duct and sham-operated rats served as control. Different groups of sham and cholestatic animals received solvent or pioglitazone (5, 15, 30 mg/kg) for 7 days. On the day eight rats were killed after oral ethanol administration and the area of gastric lesions was measured. The serums of rats were also collected to determine serum levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-1β and bilirubin. The ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage was significantly more severe in cholestatic rats than sham-operated ones. Pretreatment with pioglitazone dose-dependently attenuated gastric lesions induced by ethanol in both sham and cholestatic rats, but this effect was more prominent in cholestatic ones. The effect of pioglitazone was associated with a significant fall in serum levels of TNF-α in cholestatic rats. L-NAME, a non-selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, and decreased pioglitazone-induced gastroprotective effect in cholestatic rats, while aminoguanidine, a selective inducible NOS inhibitor, potentiated pioglitazone-induced gastroprotective effect in the cholestatic rats. Chronic treatment with pioglitazone exerts an enhanced gastroprotective effect on the stomach ulcers of cholestatic rats compared to sham rats probably due to constitutive NOS induction and/or inducible NOS inhibition and attenuating release of TNF-α. PMID:24456333

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Denis, F; Archambault, D

    2001-01-01

    Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are cytokines produced primarily by monocytes and macrophages with regulatory effects in inflammation and multiple aspects of the immune response. As yet, no molecular data have been reported for IL-1beta and TNF-alpha of the beluga whale. In this study, we cloned and determined the entire cDNA sequence encoding beluga whale IL-1beta and TNF-alpha. The genetic relationship of the cytokine sequences was then analyzed with those from several mammalian species, including the human and the pig. The homology of beluga whale IL-1beta nucleic acid and deduced amino acid sequences with those from these mammalian species ranged from 74.6 to 86.0% and 62.7 to 77.1%, respectively, whereas that of TNF-alpha varied from 79.3 to 90.8% and 75.3 to 87.7%, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses based on deduced amino acid sequences showed that the beluga whale IL-1beta and TNF-alpha were most closely related to those of the ruminant species (cattle, sheep, and deer). The beluga whale IL-1beta- and TNF-alpha-encoding sequences were thereafter successfully expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins by using procaryotic expression vectors. The fusion proteins were used to produce beluga whale IL-1beta- and TNF-alpha-specific rabbit antisera. Images Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:11768130

  15. Increased hypoxia-inducible factor 1α expression in lung cells of horses with recurrent airway obstruction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO, also known as equine heaves) is an inflammatory condition caused by exposure of susceptible horses to organic dusts in hay. The immunological processes responsible for the development and the persistence of airway inflammation are still largely unknown. Hypoxia-inducible factor (Hif) is mainly known as a major regulator of energy homeostasis and cellular adaptation to hypoxia. More recently however, Hif also emerged as an essential regulator of innate immune responses. Here, we aimed at investigating the potential involvement of Hif1-α in myeloid cells in horse with recurrent airway obstruction. Results In vitro, we observed that Hif is expressed in equine myeloid cells after hay dust stimulation and regulates genes such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A). We further showed in vivo that airway challenge with hay dust upregulated Hif1-α mRNA expression in myeloid cells from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of healthy and RAO-affected horses, with a more pronounced effect in cells from RAO-affected horses. Finally, Hif1-α mRNA expression in BALF cells from challenged horses correlated positively with lung dysfunction. Conclusion Taken together, our results suggest an important role for Hif1-α in myeloid cells during hay dust-induced inflammation in horses with RAO. We therefore propose that future research aiming at functional inactivation of Hif1 in lung myeloid cells could open new therapeutic perspectives for RAO. PMID:22621400

  16. Brain cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression in mice induced by intranasal instillation with ultrafine carbon black.

    PubMed

    Tin-Tin-Win-Shwe; Yamamoto, Shoji; Ahmed, Sohel; Kakeyama, Masaki; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Fujimaki, Hidekazu

    2006-05-25

    Ambient air ultrafine particles (UFPs) have gained enormous attention to many researchers with recent evidence showing them to have more hazardous effects on human health than larger ambient particles. Studies focusing the possibility of effects on brain are quite limited. To examine the effect of ultrafine carbon black (ufCB) on mice brain, we instilled 125 microg of 14 nm or 95 nm CB into the nostrils of 8-week-old male BALB/c mice, once a week for 4 weeks. Four hours after the last instillation, we collected olfactory bulb and hippocampus and detected the expression of cytokine and chemokine mRNA by quantitative real-time PCR method. In this study, we found the induction of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/CCL2, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha/CCL3), and monokine induced interferon-gamma/CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL9) mRNA in brain olfactory bulb, not in the hippocampus of mice instilled with 14 nm ufCB intranasally. We suggest that the intranasal instillation of ufCB may influence the brain immune function depending on their size. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate region-specific brain cytokine and chemokine mRNA-induction in mice triggered by intranasal instillation of specific-sized ufCB, in a physiologically relevant condition. PMID:16293374

  17. Effects of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on macrophage enzyme levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierangeli, Silvia S.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1989-01-01

    Murine peritoneal macrophages were treated with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). Measurements of changes in acid phosphatase and beta-glucuronidase levels were made as an indication of activation by cytokine treatment. IFN-gamma or TNF-gamma treatment resulted in a significant increase in the activities of both enzymes measured in the cell lysates. This increase was observable after 6 h of incubation, but reached its maximum level after 24 h of incubation. The effect of the treatment of the cell with both cytokines together was additive. No synergistic effect of addition of both cytokines on the enzyme levels was observed.

  18. Isoprenaline Induces Periostin Expression in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guo-Xiao; Xi, Hong-Qing; Sun, Xiao-Yan; Geng, Zhi-Jun; Yang, Shao-Wei; Lu, Yan-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Periostin mediates critical steps in gastric cancer and is involved in various signaling pathways. However, the roles of periostin in promoting gastric cancer metastasis are not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relevance between periostin expression and gastric cancer progression and the role of stress-related hormones in the regulation of cancer development and progression. Materials and Methods Normal, cancerous and metastatic gastric tissues were collected from patients diagnosed with advanced gastric cancer. The in vivo expression of periostin was evaluated by in situ hybridization and immunofluorescent staining. Meanwhile, human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines MKN-45 and BGC-803 were used to detect the in vitro expression of periostin by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting. Results Periostin is expressed in the stroma of the primary gastric tumors and metastases, but not in normal gastric tissue. In addition, we observed that periostin is located mainly in pericryptal fibroblasts, but not in the tumor cells, and strongly correlated to the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (SMA). Furthermore, the distribution patterns of periostin were broader as the clinical staging of tumors progressed. We also identified a role of stress-related signaling in promoting cancer development and progression, and found that isoprenaline upregulated expression levels of periostin in gastric cancer cells. Conclusion These findings suggest that the distribution pattern of periostin was broader as the clinical staging of the tumor progressed and found that isoprenaline upregulated expression levels of periostin in gastric cancer cells. PMID:26996552

  19. Inhibition of the tumour necrosis factor-alpha autocrine loop enhances the sensitivity of multiple myeloma cells to anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Tsubaki, Masanobu; Komai, Makiko; Itoh, Tatsuki; Imano, Motohiro; Sakamoto, Kotaro; Shimaoka, Hirotaka; Ogawa, Naoki; Mashimo, Kenji; Fujiwara, Daichiro; Takeda, Tomoya; Mukai, Junji; Sakaguchi, Katsuhiko; Satou, Takao; Nishida, Shozo

    2013-11-01

    Several autocrine soluble factors, including macrophage inflammatory protein-1α and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), promote the survival and growth of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. We hypothesised that inhibition of the TNF-α autocrine loop may enhance the cytotoxic effect of anticancer drugs in MM cell lines. In the present study, a TNF-α-neutralizing antibody suppressed cell proliferation and enhanced the cytotoxic effect of anticancer drugs on MM cells. In addition, combination treatment with the TNF-α-neutralizing antibody and the chemotherapy agent melphalan inhibited nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 nuclear translocation and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation and upregulated the expression of Bax and Bim. Treatment of ARH-77 cells with the NF-κB inhibitor dimethyl fumarate or the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin suppressed NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and enhanced the cytotoxic effect of melphalan. Furthermore, infliximab, a monoclonal antibody against TNF-α, also enhanced the cytotoxic effect of anticancer drugs in ARH-77 cells. These results indicated that TNF-α-neutralizing antibodies or infliximab enhanced the cytotoxic effect of anticancer drugs by suppressing the TNF receptor/mTOR/NF-κB pathways. The inhibition of TNF-α may thus provide a new therapeutic approach to control tumour progression and bone destruction in MM patients. PMID:23932230

  20. Efficient, Repeated Adenovirus-Mediated Gene Transfer in Mice Lacking both Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Lymphotoxin α

    PubMed Central

    Benihoud, Karim; Saggio, Isabella; Opolon, Paule; Salone, Barbara; Amiot, Franck; Connault, Elisabeth; Chianale, Colette; Dautry, François; Yeh, Patrice; Perricaudet, Michel

    1998-01-01

    The efficiency of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer is now well established. However, the cellular and the humoral immune responses triggered by vector injection lead to the rapid elimination of the transduced cells and preclude any efficient readministration. The present investigation focuses on the role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), a proinflammatory cytokine, and the related cytokine lymphotoxin α (LTα), in mounting an immune reaction against recombinant adenovirus vectors. After gene transfer in the liver, mice genetically deficient for both cytokines (TNF-α/LTα−/−), in comparison with normal mice, presented a weak acute-phase inflammatory reaction, a reduction in cellular infiltrates in the liver, and a severely impaired T-cell proliferative response to both Adenoviral and transgene product antigens. Moreover, we observed a strong reduction in the humoral response to the vector and the transgene product, with a drastic reduction of anti-adenovirus immunoglobulin A and G antibody isotypes. In addition, the reduction in antibody response observed in TNF-α/LTα−/− and TNF-α/LTα+/− mice versus TNF-α/LTα+/+ mice links antibody levels to TNF-α/LTα gene dosage. Due to the absence of neutralizing antibodies, the TNF-α/LTα knockout mice successfully express a second gene transduced by a second vector injection. The discovery of the pivotal role played by TNF-α in controlling the antibody response against adenovirus will allow more efficient adenovirus-based strategies for gene therapy to be proposed. PMID:9811684

  1. Synergistic antiproliferative activity of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and lovastatin.

    PubMed

    Sora, M K; Kruszewski, A A; Stokłosa, T; Czyzyk, J; Lasek, W; Malejczyk, J; Jakóbisiak, M

    1994-01-01

    We assessed the antiproliferative effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and lovastatin, an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, alone and in combination, on two murine tumor cell lines. Recombinant TNF-alpha inhibited proliferation of murine MmB16 melanoma cells in a concentration-dependent fashion but stimulated growth of murine L1210 leukemia cells at 0.1 ng/ml concentration. Lovastatin inhibited proliferation both of murine MmB16 melanoma cells and of murine L1210 leukemia cells in a concentration-dependent fashion. In combination with tumor necrosis factor alpha lovastatin inhibited synergistically growth of both cell lines as assessed by isobologram analysis. Our data show that lovastatin, a cholesterol synthesis inhibitor, introduced to the clinic to treat hypercholesterolemia, used either as a single or in combination with TNF-alpha inhibits growth of MmB16 melanoma and L1210 leukemia cells. PMID:7487365

  2. Risk of open angle glaucoma due to tumor necrosis factor alpha gene polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Mona Abdel; Moemen, Leqaa; Labib, Hany; Helmy, Hazem; Elsergany, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Axonal degeneration and retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in glaucoma is associated with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), which is an important pro-inflammatory cytokine. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the risk of open angle glaucoma (OAG) in the Egyptian population and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) gene polymorphisms. Methods Sixty OAG patients and 26 healthy unrelated controls were used to analyze TNF-α polymorphism G-308A using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results the GG genotype was found at a higher frequency in the controls than in the patients, and the AA and GA genotypes were associated strongly with OAG. Conclusion In this study, we found that the TNF-α polymorphism G-308A was associated significantly with OAG in the Egyptian population. However, there is a need for population-based studies with large numbers of subjects. Also, long-term follow up is required to verify the association between TNF-α polymorphism G-308A and glaucoma susceptibility. PMID:27054008

  3. Vocalization Induced CFos Expression in Marmoset Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cory T.; DiMauro, Audrey; Pistorio, Ashley; Hendry, Stewart; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2010-01-01

    All non-human primates communicate with conspecifics using vocalizations, a system involving both the production and perception of species-specific vocal signals. Much of the work on the neural basis of primate vocal communication in cortex has focused on the sensory processing of vocalizations, while relatively little data are available for vocal production. Earlier physiological studies in squirrel monkeys had shed doubts on the involvement of primate cortex in vocal behaviors. The aim of the present study was to identify areas of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) cortex that are potentially involved in vocal communication. In this study, we quantified cFos expression in three areas of marmoset cortex – frontal, temporal (auditory), and medial temporal – under various vocal conditions. Specifically, we examined cFos expression in these cortical areas during the sensory, motor (vocal production), and sensory–motor components of vocal communication. Our results showed an increase in cFos expression in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex as well as the medial and lateral belt areas of auditory cortex in the vocal perception condition. In contrast, subjects in the vocal production condition resulted in increased cFos expression only in dorsal premotor cortex. During the sensory–motor condition (antiphonal calling), subjects exhibited cFos expression in each of the above areas, as well as increased expression in perirhinal cortex. Overall, these results suggest that various cortical areas outside primary auditory cortex are involved in primate vocal communication. These findings pave the way for further physiological studies of the neural basis of primate vocal communication. PMID:21179582

  4. Transforming growth factor alpha may be a physiological regulator of liver regeneration by means of an autocrine mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Mead, J E; Fausto, N

    1989-01-01

    We investigated whether transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) is involved in hepatocyte growth responses both in vivo and in culture. During liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in rats, TGF-alpha mRNA increased; it reached a maximum (approximately 9-fold higher than normal) at the peak of DNA synthesis. The message and the peptide were localized in hepatocytes and found in higher amounts in hepatocytes obtained from regenerating liver. TGF-alpha caused a 13-fold elevation of DNA synthesis in hepatocytes in primary culture and was slightly more effective than epidermal growth factor. TGF-beta blocked TGF-alpha stimulation when added either simultaneously with TGF-alpha or a day later. TGF-alpha message increased in hepatocytes stimulated to undergo DNA synthesis by TGF-alpha or epidermal growth factor, and the peptide was detected in the culture medium by RIA. In the regenerating liver, the increase in TGF-alpha mRNA during the first day after partial hepatectomy coincided with an increase in epidermal growth factor/TGF-alpha receptor mRNA and a decrease (already reported) in the number of these receptors. We conclude that TGF-alpha may function as a physiological inducer of hepatocyte DNA synthesis during liver regeneration by means of an autocrine mechanism and that its stimulatory effects in this growth process are balanced by the inhibitory action of TGF-beta 1. Images PMID:2922399

  5. Sensitive Immunoassay of a Biomarker Tumor Necrosis Factor-[alpha] Based on Poly(guanine)-Functionalized Silica Nanoparticle Label

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Guodong; Engelhard, Mark H.; Lin, Yuehe

    2006-10-01

    A novel electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) based on poly(guanine)-functionalized silica nanoparticles (NPs) label is presented. The detection of mouse TNF-a via immunological reaction is based on a dual amplification: 1) a large amount of guanine residues is introduced on the electrode surface through the silica nanoparticle and immunoreaction, 2) mediator-induced catalytic oxidation of guanine, which results in great enhancement of anodic current. The synthesized silica NP conjugates were characterized with atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemistry. These experiments confirmed that poly[G] and avidin were immobilized on the surface of silica NPs. The performance of the electrochemical immunosensor was evaluated and some experiment parameters (e.g., concentration of Ru(bpy)32+, incubation time of TNF-a, etc.) were optimized. The detection of limit for TNF-a is found to be 5.0x10-11 g mL-1 (2.0 pM), which corresponds to 60 attomoles TNF-a in 30 uL. This immunosensor based on the poly[G] functionalized silica NP label offers great promise for rapid, simple, cost-effective analysis of biological samples.

  6. Cellular basis for the negative inotropic effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the adult mammalian heart.

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, T; Vaca, L; Rossen, R D; Durante, W; Hazarika, P; Mann, D L

    1993-01-01

    To define the mechanism(s) responsible for the negative inotropic effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) in the adult heart, we examined the functional effects of TNF alpha in the intact left ventricle and the isolated adult cardiac myocyte. Studies in both the ventricle and the isolated adult cardiac myocyte showed that TNF alpha exerted a concentration- and time-dependent negative inotropic effect that was fully reversible upon removal of this cytokine. Further, treatment with a neutralizing anti-TNF alpha antibody prevented the negative inotropic effects of TNF alpha in isolated myocytes. A cellular basis for the above findings was provided by studies which showed that treatment with TNF alpha resulted in decreased levels of peak intracellular calcium during the systolic contraction sequence; moreover, these findings did not appear to be secondary to alterations in the electrophysiological properties of the cardiac myocyte. Further studies showed that increased levels of nitric oxide, de novo protein synthesis, and metabolites of the arachidonic acid pathway were unlikely to be responsible for the TNF alpha-induced abnormalities in contractile function. Thus, these studies constitute the initial demonstration that the negative inotropic effects of TNF alpha are the direct result of alterations in intracellular calcium homeostasis in the adult cardiac myocyte. Images PMID:8227345

  7. Molecular design of hybrid tumour necrosis factor alpha with polyethylene glycol increases its anti-tumour potency.

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumi, Y.; Kihira, T.; Tsunoda, S.; Kanamori, T.; Nakagawa, S.; Mayumi, T.

    1995-01-01

    This study was conducted to increase the anti-tumour potency and reduce the toxic side-effects of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Natural human TNF-alpha was chemically conjugated with monomethoxy polyethylene glycol (PEG) using succinimidyl coupling of lysine amino groups of TNF-alpha. The number-average molecular weight of PEG-modified TNF-alpha (PEG-TNF-alpha) increased with an increase in the reaction time and the initial molar ratio of PEG relative to TNF-alpha. The resulting modified TNF-alpha was separated into fractions of various molecular weights. The specific activity of separated PEG-TNF-alpha s relative to that of native TNF-alpha gradually decreased with an increase in the degree of PEG modification, but the plasma half-life was drastically increased with the increase in molecular weight of modified TNF-alpha. PEG-TNF-alpha s, in which 29% and 56% of lysine residues were coupled to PEG, had anti-tumour activity approximately 4 and 100 times greater than unmodified TNF-alpha in the murine Meth-A fibrosarcoma model. Extensive PEG modification did not increase its in vivo activity. A high dose of unmodified TNF-alpha induced toxic side-effects, but these were not observed with the modified TNF-alpha s. Optimal PEG modification of TNF-alpha markedly increased its bioavailability and may facilitate its potential anti-tumour therapeutic use. PMID:7734321

  8. A synthetic chalcone derivative, 2-hydroxy-3',5,5'-trimethoxychalcone (DK-139), suppresses the TNFα-induced invasive capability of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells by inhibiting NF-κB-mediated GROα expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da Young; Lee, Da Hyun; Jung, Jung You; Koh, Dongsoo; Kim, Geum-Soog; Ahn, Young-Sup; Lee, Young Han; Lim, Yoongho; Shin, Soon Young

    2016-01-01

    2-Hydroxy-3',5,5'-trimenthoxyochalcone (DK-139) is a synthetic chalcone-derived compound. This study evaluated the biological activity of DK-139 on the inhibition of tumor metastasis. Growth-regulated oncogene-alpha (GROα) plays an important role in the progression of tumor development by stimulating angiogenesis and metastasis. In this study, DK-139 inhibited tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-induced GROα gene promoter activity by inhibiting of IκB kinase (IKK) in MDA-MB231 cells. In addition, DK-139 prevented the TNFα-induced cell migration, F-actin formation, and invasive capability of MDA-MB-231 cells. These findings suggest that DK-139 is a potential drug candidate for the inhibition of tumor cell locomotion and invasion via the suppression of NF-κB-mediated GROα expression. PMID:26602275

  9. N-Formyl-Methionyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine Inhibits both Gamma Interferon- and Interleukin-10-Induced Expression of FcγRI on Human Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Beigier-Bompadre, Macarena; Barrionuevo, Paula; Alves-Rosa, Fernanda; Rubel, Carolina J.; Palermo, Marina S.; Isturiz, Martín A.

    2001-01-01

    Three different classes of receptors for the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G (FcγRs), FcγRI, FcγRII, and FcγRIII, have been identified on human leukocytes. One of them, FcγRI, is a high-affinity receptor capable of induction of functions that include phagocytosis, respiratory burst, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), and secretion of cytokines. This receptor is expressed on mononuclear phagocytes, and this expression is regulated by cytokines and hormones such as gamma interferon (IFN-γ), IFN-β, interleukin-10 (IL-10), and glucocorticoids. We have recently demonstrated that the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) is capable of inducing a time-dependent downregulation of both FcγRIIIB and FcγRII in human neutrophils, altering FcγR-dependent functions. Considering the biological relevance of the regulation of FcγRI, we investigated the effect of FMLP on the overexpression of FcγRI induced by both IFN-γ and IL-10 on human monocytes. We demonstrate that FMLP significantly abrogated IFN-γ- and IL-10-induced FcγRI expression, although its basal level of expression was not altered. However, other IFN-γ-mediated effects such as the overexpression of the major histocompatibility complex class II antigens and the enhancement of lipopolysaccharide-induced secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha were not affected by FMLP treatment. The formyl peptide completely inhibited the IFN-γ- and IL-10-induced enhancement of ADCC and phagocytosis carried out by adherent cells. The inhibitory effect of FMLP on FcγRI upregulation could exert an important regulatory effect during the evolution of bacterial infections. PMID:11238229

  10. Differential expression of phosphorylated Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein in the mouse hippocampus induced by various nociceptive stimuli.

    PubMed

    Seo, Y-J; Kwon, M-S; Choi, H-W; Choi, S-M; Kim, Y-W; Lee, J-K; Park, S-H; Jung, J-S; Suh, H-W

    2008-10-15

    In the present study, we characterized differential expressions of phosphorylated Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIalpha (pCaMKIIalpha) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein (pERK) in the mouse hippocampus induced by various nociceptive stimuli. In an immunoblot study, s.c. injection of formalin and intrathecal (i.t.) injections of glutamate, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1 beta) significantly increased pCaMKIIalpha expression in the hippocampus, but i.p. injections of acetic acid did not. pERK1/2 expression was also increased by i.t. injection of glutamate, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta but not by s.c. injections of formalin or i.p. injections of acetic acid. In an immunohistochemical study, we found that increased pCaMKIIalpha and pERK expressions were mainly located at CA3 or the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In a behavioral study, we assessed the effects of PD98059 (a MEK 1/2 inhibitor) and KN-93 (a CaMKII inhibitor) following i.c.v. administration on the nociceptive behaviors induced by i.t. injections of glutamate, pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha or IL-1beta), and i.p. injections of acetic acid. PD98059 as well as KN-93 significantly attenuated the nociceptive behavior induced by glutamate, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and acetic acid. Our results suggest that (1) pERKalpha and pCaMK-II located in the hippocampus are important regulators during the nociceptive processes induced by s.c. formalin, i.t. glutamate, i.t. pro-inflammatory cytokines, and i.p. acetic acid injection, respectively, and (2) the alteration of pERK and pCaMKIIalpha in nociceptive processing induced by formalin, glutamate, pro-inflammatory cytokines and acetic acid was modulated in a different manner. PMID:18771711

  11. Interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibit migration activity of chondrogenic progenitor cells from non-fibrillated osteoarthritic cartilage

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The repair capability of traumatized articular cartilage is highly limited so that joint injuries often lead to osteoarthritis. Migratory chondrogenic progenitor cells (CPC) might represent a target cell population for in situ regeneration. This study aims to clarify, whether 1) CPC are present in regions of macroscopically intact cartilage from human osteoarthritic joints, 2) CPC migration is stimulated by single growth factors and the cocktail of factors released from traumatized cartilage and 3) CPC migration is influenced by cytokines present in traumatized joints. Methods We characterized the cells growing out from macroscopically intact human osteoarthritic cartilage using a panel of positive and negative surface markers and analyzed their differentiation capacity. The migratory response to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), supernatants obtained from in vitro traumatized cartilage and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) as well as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were tested with a modified Boyden chamber assay. The influence of IL-1β and TNF-α was additionally examined by scratch assays and outgrowth experiments. Results A comparison of 25 quadruplicate marker combinations in CPC and bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells showed a similar expression profile. CPC cultures had the potential for adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. PDGF-BB and IGF-1, such as the supernatant from traumatized cartilage, induced a significant site-directed migratory response. IL-1β and TNF-α significantly reduced basal cell migration and abrogated the stimulative effect of the growth factors and the trauma supernatant. Both cytokines also inhibited cell migration in the scratch assay and primary outgrowth of CPC from cartilage tissue. In contrast, the cytokine IL-6, which is present in trauma supernatant, did not affect growth factor induced migration of CPC. Conclusion These results indicate that traumatized cartilage releases chemoattractive factors for CPC but IL-1β and TNF-α inhibit their migratory activity which might contribute to the low regenerative potential of cartilage in vivo. PMID:24034344

  12. An IPTG Inducible Conditional Expression System for Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ravishankar, Sudha; Ambady, Anisha; Ramu, Haripriya; Mudugal, Naina Vinay; Tunduguru, Ragadeepthi; Anbarasu, Anand; Sharma, Umender K.; Sambandamurthy, Vasan K.; Ramaiah, Sudha

    2015-01-01

    Conditional expression strains serve as a valuable tool to study the essentiality and to establish the vulnerability of a target under investigation in a drug discovery program. While essentiality implies an absolute requirement of a target function, vulnerability provides valuable information on the extent to which a target function needs to be depleted to achieve bacterial growth inhibition followed by cell death. The critical feature of an ideal conditional expression system is its ability to tightly regulate gene expression to achieve the full spectrum spanning from a high level of expression in order to support growth and near zero level of expression to mimic conditions of gene knockout. A number of bacterial conditional expression systems have been reported for use in mycobacteria. The utility of an isopropylthiogalactoside (IPTG) inducible system in mycobacteria has been reported for protein overexpression and anti-sense gene expression from a replicating multi-copy plasmid. Herein, we report the development of a versatile set of non-replicating IPTG inducible vectors for mycobacteria which can be used for generation of conditional expression strains through homologous recombination. The role of a single lac operator versus a double lac operator to regulate gene expression was evaluated by monitoring the expression levels of β-galactosidase in Mycobacterium smegmatis. These studies indicated a significant level of leaky expression from the vector with a single lac operator but none from the vector with double lac operator. The significance of the double lac operator vector for target validation was established by monitoring the growth kinetics of an inhA, a rpoB and a ftsZ conditional expression strain grown in the presence of different concentrations of IPTG. The utility of this inducible system in identifying target specific inhibitors was established by screening a focussed library of small molecules using an inhA and a rpoB conditional expression strain. PMID:26247874

  13. Interleukin-12-induced adhesion molecule expression in murine liver.

    PubMed Central

    Myers, K. J.; Eppihimer, M. J.; Hall, L.; Wolitzky, B.

    1998-01-01

    Systemically administered interleukin (IL)-12 causes liver inflammation in mice characterized by Kupffer cell proliferation and hypertrophy, hepatocyte necrosis, and multifocal accumulations of leukocytes in the hepatic parenchyma and around portal tracts and central veins. We have used both immunohistochemical staining and radiolabeled antibody quantitation to examine adhesion molecule expression in the livers of mice dosed daily with murine IL-12. Cells infiltrating livers of IL-12-treated mice were primarily mononuclear leukocytes expressing LFA-1, VLA-4, MAC-1, and CD18 adhesion molecules but little L-selectin. Kupffer cells constitutively expressed LFA-1 and smaller amounts of MAC-1, and high levels of ICAM-1 were constitutively expressed by liver sinusoidal lining cells, portal tract, and central vein endothelia. With IL-12 treatment, existing ICAM-1 expression was up-regulated and de novo expression occurred along bile duct epithelia. VCAM-1 levels were dramatically increased, with induced expression occurring along portal tract and central vein endothelia and scattered bile duct epithelial cells and in aggregations of cells in perivascular areas and the liver parenchyma. Although constitutive expression of E- and P-selectin was negligible, Il-12 induced a moderate rise in E-selectin levels. These increases in adhesion molecule expression may have implications for the therapeutic use of IL-12, especially in patients with liver disease or autoimmune conditions where augmented adhesion molecule expression may be critical to disease pathogenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9466572

  14. RANKL stimulates inducible nitric-oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide production in developing osteoclasts. An autocrine negative feedback mechanism triggered by RANKL-induced interferon-beta via NF-kappaB that restrains osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hong; Yu, Xuefeng; Collin-Osdoby, Patricia; Osdoby, Philip

    2006-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a multifunctional signaling molecule and a key vasculoprotective and potential osteoprotective factor. NO regulates normal bone remodeling and pathological bone loss in part through affecting the recruitment, formation, and activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Using murine RAW 264.7 and primary bone marrow cells or osteoclasts formed from them by receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) differentiation, we found that inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO generation were stimulated by interferon (IFN)-gamma or lipopolysaccharide, but not by interleukin-1 or tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Surprisingly, iNOS expression and NO release were also triggered by RANKL. This response was time- and dose-dependent, required NF-kappaB activation and new protein synthesis, and was specifically blocked by the RANKL decoy receptor osteoprotegerin. Preventing RANKL-induced NO (via iNOS-selective inhibition or use of marrow cells from iNOS-/- mice) increased osteoclast formation and bone pit resorption, indicating that such NO normally restrains RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis. Additional studies suggested that RANKL-induced NO inhibition of osteoclast formation does not occur via NO activation of a cGMP pathway. Because IFN-beta is also a RANKL-induced autocrine negative feedback inhibitor that limits osteoclastogenesis, we investigated whether IFN-beta is involved in this novel RANKL/iNOS/NO autoregulatory pathway. IFN-beta was induced by RANKL and stimulated iNOS expression and NO release, and a neutralizing antibody to IFN-beta inhibited iNOS/NO elevation in response to RANKL, thereby enhancing osteoclast formation. Thus, RANKL-induced IFN-beta triggers iNOS/NO as an important negative feedback signal during osteoclastogenesis. Specifically targeting this novel autoregulatory pathway may provide new therapeutic approaches to combat various osteolytic bone diseases. PMID:16613848

  15. Express yourself: bold individuals induce enhanced morphological defences

    PubMed Central

    Hulthn, Kaj; Chapman, Ben B.; Nilsson, P. Anders; Hollander, Johan; Brnmark, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Organisms display an impressive array of defence strategies in nature. Inducible defences (changes in morphology and/or behaviour within a prey's lifetime) allow prey to decrease vulnerability to predators and avoid unnecessary costs of expression. Many studies report considerable interindividual variation in the degree to which inducible defences are expressed, yet what underlies this variation is poorly understood. Here, we show that individuals differing in a key personality trait also differ in the magnitude of morphological defence expression. Crucian carp showing risky behaviours (bold individuals) expressed a significantly greater morphological defence response when exposed to a natural enemy when compared with shy individuals. Furthermore, we show that fish of different personality types differ in their behavioural plasticity, with shy fish exhibiting greater absolute plasticity than bold fish. Our data suggest that individuals with bold personalities may be able to compensate for their risk-prone behavioural type by expressing enhanced morphological defences. PMID:24335987

  16. Neuroinflammation induces glial aromatase expression in the uninjured songbird brain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Estrogens from peripheral sources as well as central aromatization are neuroprotective in the vertebrate brain. Under normal conditions, aromatase is only expressed in neurons, however following anoxic/ischemic or mechanical brain injury; aromatase is also found in astroglia. This increased glial aromatization and the consequent estrogen synthesis is neuroprotective and may promote neuronal survival and repair. While the effects of estradiol on neuroprotection are well studied, what induces glial aromatase expression remains unknown. Methods Adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were given a penetrating injury to the entopallium. At several timepoints later, expression of aromatase, IL-1β-like, and IL-6-like were examined using immunohisotchemistry. A second set of zebra birds were exposed to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), an inflammatory agent, directly on the dorsal surface of the telencephalon without creating a penetrating injury. Expression of aromatase, IL-1β-like, and IL-6-like were examined using both quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to examine mRNA expression and immunohistochemistry to determine cellular expression. Statistical significance was determined using t-test or one-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey Kramers post hoc test. Results Following injury in the zebra finch brain, cytokine expression occurs prior to aromatase expression. This temporal pattern suggests that cytokines may induce aromatase expression in the damaged zebra finch brain. Furthermore, evoking a neuroinflammatory response characterized by an increase in cytokine expression in the uninjured brain is sufficient to induce glial aromatase expression. Conclusions These studies are among the first to examine a neuroinflammatory response in the songbird brain following mechanical brain injury and to describe a novel neuroimmune signal to initiate aromatase expression in glia. PMID:21767382

  17. Airway-Specific Inducible Transgene Expression Using Aerosolized Doxycycline

    PubMed Central

    Tata, Purushothama Rao; Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Prabhu, Mythili; Vinarsky, Vladimir; Law, Brandon M.; Fontaine, Benjamin A.; Tager, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    Tissue-specific transgene expression using tetracycline (tet)-regulated promoter/operator elements has been used to revolutionize our understanding of cellular and molecular processes. However, because most tet-regulated mouse strains use promoters of genes expressed in multiple tissues, to achieve exclusive expression in an organ of interest is often impossible. Indeed, in the extreme case, unwanted transgene expression in other organ systems causes lethality and precludes the study of the transgene in the actual organ of interest. Here, we describe a novel approach to activating tet-inducible transgene expression solely in the airway by administering aerosolized doxycycline. By optimizing the dose and duration of aerosolized doxycycline exposure in mice possessing a ubiquitously expressed Rosa26 promoter–driven reverse tet-controlled transcriptional activator (rtTA) element, we induce transgene expression exclusively in the airways. We detect no changes in the cellular composition or proliferative behavior of airway cells. We used this newly developed method to achieve airway basal stem cell–specific transgene expression using a cytokeratin 5 (also known as keratin 5)–driven rtTA driver line to induce Notch pathway activation. We observed a more robust mucous metaplasia phenotype than in mice receiving doxycycline systemically. In addition, unwanted phenotypes outside of the lung that were evident when doxycycline was received systemically were now absent. Thus, our approach allows for rapid and efficient airway-specific transgene expression. After the careful strain by strain titration of the dose and timing of doxycycline inhalation, a suite of preexisting transgenic mice can now be used to study airway biology specifically in cases where transient transgene expression is sufficient to induce a phenotype. PMID:23848320

  18. Impact of Residual Inducer on Titratable Expression Systems

    PubMed Central

    Afroz, Taliman; Luo, Michelle L.; Beisel, Chase L.

    2015-01-01

    Inducible expression systems are widely employed for the titratable control of gene expression, yet molecules inadvertently present in the growth medium or synthesized by the host cells can alter the response profile of some of these systems. Here, we explored the quantitative impact of these residual inducers on the apparent response properties of inducible systems. Using a simple mathematical model, we found that the presence of residual inducer shrinks the apparent dynamic range and causes the apparent Hill coefficient to converge to one. We also found that activating systems were more sensitive than repressing systems to the presence of residual inducer and the response parameters were most heavily dependent on the original Hill coefficient. Experimental interrogation of common titratable systems based on an L-arabinose inducible promoter or a thiamine pyrophosphate-repressing riboswitch in Escherichia coli confirmed the predicted trends. We finally found that residual inducer had a distinct effect on all-or-none systems, which exhibited increased sensitivity to the added inducer until becoming fully induced. Our findings indicate that residual inducer or repressor alters the quantitative response properties of titratable systems, impacting their utility for scientific discovery and pathway engineering. PMID:26348036

  19. Erythromycin inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated tumor necrosis factor alpha production by human monocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Iino, Y; Toriyama, M; Kudo, K; Natori, Y; Yuo, A

    1992-10-01

    The mechanism of clinical effectiveness of low-dose and long-term erythromycin (EM) treatment for diffuse panbronchiolitis, sinobronchial syndrome, and associated otitis media with effusion was investigated by studying the effects of EM on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production by cultured human monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. At concentrations of 0.1 microgram/mL or more, EM inhibited TNF-alpha release from human monocytes stimulated by lipopolysaccharide in a dose-dependent manner. Of the other macrolides tested, roxithromycin, an EM derivative, also showed significant inhibition of TNF-alpha production, whereas josamycin failed to inhibit TNF-alpha release from monocytes. Nonmacrolidic drugs such as minocycline hydrochloride, ofloxacin, or penicillin G had no significant effect on TNF-alpha production. These results suggest that the clinical improvement of chronic respiratory diseases by EM may depend on the suppression of production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha. PMID:1416647

  20. The effect of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha on ovarian function

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Erin J.; Sibley, Kelly; Miller, Aleisha N.; Lane, Elizabeth A.; Fishwick, John; Nash, Deborah M.; Herath, Shan; England, Gary CW; Dobson, Hilary; Sheldon, I. Martin

    2009-01-01

    Problem Pelvic inflammatory disease and metritis are important causes of infertility in humans and domestic animals. Uterine infection with Escherichia coli in cattle is associated with reduced ovarian follicle growth and decreased estradiol secretion. We hypothesized that this effect could be mediated by the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). Method of study In vitro, bovine ovarian theca and granulosa cells were treated with LPS or TNFα and steroid secretion measured. In vivo, the effect of LPS or TNFα intrauterine infusion was determined by ovarian ultrasonography and measurement of hormones in cattle. Results LPS reduced granulosa cell estradiol secretion, whilst TNFα decreased theca and granulosa cell androstenedione and estradiol production, respectively. In vivo, fewer animals ovulated following intrauterine infusion with LPS or TNFα. Conclusion LPS and TNFα suppress ovarian cell function, supporting the concept that pelvic inflammatory disease and metritis are detrimental for bovine ovarian health. PMID:19238751

  1. Effect of transforming growth factor-alpha on inositol phospholipid metabolism in human epidermoid carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Takenawa, T.; Twardzik, D.R.

    1988-08-01

    Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) stimulates (in a dose-dependent manner) the incorporation of (/sup 32/P)Pi into phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP), phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), and phosphatidic acid (PA) in the human epidermoid carcinoma cell line (A431). The effect of TGF-alpha on the incorporation was found to be similar to that of EGF. On the other hand, a striking difference in the activation of diacylglycerol (DG) kinase activity was seen between TGF-alpha and EGF. At least 100 times more TGF-alpha was required to achieve maximal stimulation of DG kinase activity relative to EGF. These results suggest that the activation of DG kinase by TGF-alpha may involve a mechanism independent from or subsequent to activation of the EGF receptor.

  2. Treatment of ulcerative colitis in the cottontop tamarin using antibody to tumour necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, P E; Warren, B F; Stephens, S; Ward, P; Foulkes, R

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aetiology and pathophysiology of ulcerative colitis remains unclear; however, there is increasing recognition of the critical role of inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of this disease. Among these, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) seems to play an important role. AIM: To study the effects of an engineered human monoclonal antibody to TNF alpha (CDP571) in the treatment of idiopathic ulcerative colitis in the cottontop tamarin. METHODS: Six cottontop tamarins with confirmed ulcerative colitis received repeated doses of CDP571. Progression of disease was assessed by measuring both body weight and rectal biopsy pathology. RESULTS: All animals showed a rapid improvement in clinical condition and rectal biopsy pathology that was maintained following completion of the therapy. CONCLUSION: These studies indicate the efficacy of selective antibody therapy to TNF alpha for the treatment of ulcerative colitis in a primate and suggest that similar therapy in human could be of value. Images PMID:9203942

  3. Cloning of the DNA-binding subunit of human nuclear factor. kappa. B: The level of its mRNA is strongly regulated by phorbol ester or tumor necrosis factor. alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.; Hatada, E.N.; Bartsch, C.; Scheidereit, C. ); Hohmann, H.P.; Haiker, M.; Roethlisberger, U.; Lahm, H.W.; Schlaeger, E.J.; van Loon, A.P.G.M. )

    1991-02-01

    The DNA binding subunit of nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B), a B-cell protein that interacts with the immunoglobulin {kappa} light-chain gene enhancer, has been purified from nuclei of human HL-60 cells stimulated with tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha}), and internal peptide sequences were obtained. Overlapping cDNA clones were isolated and sequenced. The encoded open reading frame of about 105 kDa contained at its N-terminal half all six tryptic peptide sequences, suggesting that the 51-kDa NF-{kappa}B protein is processed from a 105-kDa precursor. An in vitro synthesized protein containing most of the N-terminal half of the open reading frame bound specifically to an NF-{kappa}B binding site. This region also showed high homology to a domain shared by the Drosophila dorsal gene and the avian and mammalian rel (proto)oncogene products. The level of the 3.8-kilobase mRNA was strongly increased after stimulation with TNF{alpha} or phorbol ester. Thus, both factors not only activate NF-{kappa}B protein, as described previously, but also induce expression of the gene encoding the DNA-binding subunit of NF-{kappa}B.

  4. Transient, inducible, placenta-specific gene expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiujun; Petitt, Matthew; Gamboa, Matthew; Huang, Mei; Dhal, Sabita; Druzin, Maurice L; Wu, Joseph C; Chen-Tsai, Yanru; Nayak, Nihar R

    2012-11-01

    Molecular understanding of placental functions and pregnancy disorders is limited by the absence of methods for placenta-specific gene manipulation. Although persistent placenta-specific gene expression has been achieved by lentivirus-based gene delivery methods, developmentally and physiologically important placental genes have highly stage-specific functions, requiring controllable, transient expression systems for functional analysis. Here, we describe an inducible, placenta-specific gene expression system that enables high-level, transient transgene expression and monitoring of gene expression by live bioluminescence imaging in mouse placenta at different stages of pregnancy. We used the third generation tetracycline-responsive tranactivator protein Tet-On 3G, with 10- to 100-fold increased sensitivity to doxycycline (Dox) compared with previous versions, enabling unusually sensitive on-off control of gene expression in vivo. Transgenic mice expressing Tet-On 3G were created using a new integrase-based, site-specific approach, yielding high-level transgene expression driven by a ubiquitous promoter. Blastocysts from these mice were transduced with the Tet-On 3G-response element promoter-driving firefly luciferase using lentivirus-mediated placenta-specific gene delivery and transferred into wild-type pseudopregnant recipients for placenta-specific, Dox-inducible gene expression. Systemic Dox administration at various time points during pregnancy led to transient, placenta-specific firefly luciferase expression as early as d 5 of pregnancy in a Dox dose-dependent manner. This system enables, for the first time, reliable pregnancy stage-specific induction of gene expression in the placenta and live monitoring of gene expression during pregnancy. It will be widely applicable to studies of both placental development and pregnancy, and the site-specific Tet-On G3 mouse will be valuable for studies in a broad range of tissues. PMID:23011919

  5. A riboswitch-based inducible gene expression system for mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Seeliger, Jessica C; Topp, Shana; Sogi, Kimberly M; Previti, Mary L; Gallivan, Justin P; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2012-01-01

    Research on the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) would benefit from novel tools for regulated gene expression. Here we describe the characterization and application of a synthetic riboswitch-based system, which comprises a mycobacterial promoter for transcriptional control and a riboswitch for translational control. The system was used to induce and repress heterologous protein overexpression reversibly, to create a conditional gene knockdown, and to control gene expression in a macrophage infection model. Unlike existing systems for controlling gene expression in Mtb, the riboswitch does not require the co-expression of any accessory proteins: all of the regulatory machinery is encoded by a short DNA segment directly upstream of the target gene. The inducible riboswitch platform has the potential to be a powerful general strategy for creating customized gene regulation systems in Mtb. PMID:22279533

  6. A Riboswitch-Based Inducible Gene Expression System for Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Seeliger, Jessica C.; Topp, Shana; Sogi, Kimberly M.; Previti, Mary L.; Gallivan, Justin P.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2012-01-01

    Research on the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) would benefit from novel tools for regulated gene expression. Here we describe the characterization and application of a synthetic riboswitch-based system, which comprises a mycobacterial promoter for transcriptional control and a riboswitch for translational control. The system was used to induce and repress heterologous protein overexpression reversibly, to create a conditional gene knockdown, and to control gene expression in a macrophage infection model. Unlike existing systems for controlling gene expression in Mtb, the riboswitch does not require the co-expression of any accessory proteins: all of the regulatory machinery is encoded by a short DNA segment directly upstream of the target gene. The inducible riboswitch platform has the potential to be a powerful general strategy for creating customized gene regulation systems in Mtb. PMID:22279533

  7. Suppression of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell induction mediated by interleukin-4 and transforming growth factor-beta 1: effect of addition of exogenous tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, and measurement of their endogenous production.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, B; Chapman, K; Lawry, J; Meager, A; Rees, R C

    1990-01-01

    Recombinant human interleukin-4 (rhIL-4) and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) suppressed the induction of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) activity induced by recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2) in peripheral blood lymphocytes. DNA synthesis and the expression of the p55 alpha chain of the IL-2 receptor (Tac antigen) were also inhibited. The inhibitory effect was greatest when these factors were added during the first 48 h of a 4-day culture, with reduced cytolytic activity against both natural killer (NK) resistant and NK-sensitive tumour cell line targets. The suppressive action of both cytokines was accompanied by a reduction in tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) levels in lymphocyte culture supernatants. Recombinant human IFN-gamma (rhIFN-gamma), but not recombinant human TNF-alpha (rhTNF-alpha) was able to overcome the inhibitory effect of recombinant human interleukin-4 (rhIL-4) on LAK induction and DNA synthesis but not Tac antigen expression. However, cytotoxicity induced by rhIFN-gamma alone was also suppressed by rhIL-4 and TGF-beta 1, inferring that rhIFN-gamma-mediated abrogation of rhIL4 suppression was not simply a direct IL-2-independent effect on cytotoxicity. In addition, rhIL-4 did not increase TGF-beta production from rhIL-2-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, suggesting that rhIL-4 did not mediate reduction of rhIL-2 responses through the induction of TGF-beta release. PMID:2124961

  8. Sensitization to the neuroendocrine, central monoamine and behavioural effects of murine tumor necrosis factor-alpha: peripheral and central mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hayley, S; Wall, P; Anisman, H

    2002-03-01

    Systemic administration of murine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (mTNF-alpha; 0.1-2.0 microg, i.p.) dose-dependently increased plasma corticosterone and augmented monoamine utilization within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), locus coeruleus, medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), central and medial amygdala. A time-dependent sensitization was induced in mice, wherein reexposure to mTNF-alpha 28 days (but not 1 day) following the initial cytokine treatment provoked marked signs of illness (diminished activity, ptosis, piloerection) and increased plasma corticosterone levels. Serotonin (5-HT) activity was augmented upon mTNF-alpha reexposure at the 1- or 28-day intervals in the PFC and medial amygdala, respectively. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.; 1-500 ng) mTNF-alpha did not promote illness, but modestly increased plasma corticosterone levels. Neither the illness nor the corticosterone changes were subject to a sensitization upon i.c.v. cytokine reexposure. Acute i.c.v. mTNF-alpha increased norepinephrine (NE), 5-HT and dopamine (DA) activity within the PVN and median eminence/arcuate nucleus complex (ME/ARC), and NE utilization within the central amygdala. Subsequent i.c.v. mTNF-alpha further enhanced the hypothalamic monoamine variations. Finally, systemic (i.p.) mTNF-alpha pretreatment did not proactively influence sickness or corticosterone responses upon later i.c.v. cytokine challenge, but augmented locus coeruleus NE activity and 5-HT and DA utilization within the ME/ARC. It is suggested that the sensitization with respect to sickness and corticosterone activity in response to mTNF-alpha reflect the involvement of peripheral mechanisms. Moreover, it appears that mTNF-alpha promotes central neurochemical plasticity through independent central and peripheral mechanisms. PMID:11918665

  9. Does Inhibition of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Affect Chlamydial Genital Tract Infection in Mice and Guinea Pigs?

    PubMed Central

    Darville, Toni; Andrews, C. W.; Rank, R. G.

    2000-01-01

    The role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in host defense against chlamydial infection remains unclear. In order to further evaluate the relevance of TNF-α to host resistance in chlamydial genital tract infection, we examined the effect of local inhibition of the TNF-α response in normal C57 mice and in interferon gamma gene-deficient C57 mice infected intravaginally with the mouse pneumonitis agent of Chlamydia trachomatis. Since the guinea pig model of female genital tract infection more closely approximates the human in terms of ascending infection and development of pathology, we also examined the effect of local inhibition of the TNF-α response in guinea pigs infected intravaginally with the guinea pig strain of Chlamydia psittaci. We successfully blocked the early TNF-α response in the respective animal models. This blockade had no effect on the numbers of organisms isolated from the genital tract during the time of TNF-α inhibition in mice or guinea pigs. Analysis of interleukin-1β, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor in the mouse model revealed that blockade of the TNF-α response did not alter the release of these proinflammatory proteins. Yet, in TNF-α-depleted mice, increased numbers of neutrophils were detected in the genital tract, and, in TNF-α-depleted guinea pigs, increased numbers of neutrophils as well as infiltrating lymphocytes were seen in the endocervix. Blockade of TNF-α does not affect the level of infection in mice or guinea pigs, but it may decrease TNF-α-induced apoptosis of infiltrating inflammatory cells. PMID:10948158

  10. The roles of Nramp1 and Tnfa genes in nitric oxide production and their effect on the growth of Salmonella typhimurium in macrophages from Nramp1 congenic and tumor necrosis factor-alpha-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Ables, G P; Takamatsu, D; Noma, H; El-Shazly, S; Jin, H K; Taniguchi, T; Sekikawa, K; Watanabe, T

    2001-01-01

    The macrophages from Nramp1 congenic mice and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha(-/-) mice were used to examine the functions of Nramp1 and Tnfa genes in nitric oxide (NO) production and Salmonella typhimurium infection. It was confirmed that the level of inducible NO synthase (iNOS)-mediated NO production in Nramp1(r) peritoneal macrophages was generally higher than that of Nramp1(s) macrophages after stimulation by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) alone or in combination. Nramp1 mRNA expression in both Nramp1 congenic macrophages was constitutive notwithstanding cytokine stimulation. During infection with S. typhimurium strain 6203, Nramp1(r) macrophages produced a lower amount of NO because of an initial strong reaction and unsustained iNOS gene expression as compared with Nramp1(s) macrophages. An inhibitory effect of the Nramp1(r) gene on bacterial replication was also observed during the early stage of S. typhimurium infection, whereas the effect of TNF-alpha occurred later. NO production and iNOS expression in TNF-alpha(-/-) macrophages were not detected from the start of the bacterial infection or at 24 h after infection. We also observed that S. typhimurium strain 6203 grew more profoundly without TNF-alpha, especially in Nramp1(s) macrophages. These data, therefore, demonstrate that there is cooperation of the Nramp1 and Tnfa genes in NO production and a growth inhibitory effect in response to S. typhimurium infection. PMID:11177581

  11. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity exacerbates ultraviolet B radiation-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and cell survival signals in ultraviolet B-irradiated mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Som D.; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2010-05-01

    Obesity has been implicated in several inflammatory diseases and in different types of cancer. Chronic inflammation induced by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been implicated in various skin diseases, including melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. As the relationship between obesity and susceptibility to UV radiation-caused inflammation is not clearly understood, we assessed the role of obesity on UVB-induced inflammation, and mediators of this inflammatory response, using the genetically obese (leptin-deficient) mouse model. Leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob) mice and wild-type counterparts (C57/BL6 mice) were exposed to UVB radiation (120 mJ/cm{sup 2}) on alternate days for 1 month. The mice were then euthanized and skin samples collected for analysis of biomarkers of inflammatory responses using immunohistochemistry, western blotting, ELISA and real-time PCR. Here, we report that the levels of inflammatory responses were higher in the UVB-exposed skin of the ob/ob obese mice than those in the UVB-exposed skin of the wild-type non-obese mice. The levels of UVB-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression, prostaglandin-E{sub 2} production, proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cell survival signals (phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and p-Akt-Ser{sup 473}) were higher in the skin of the ob/ob obese mice than the those in skin of their wild-type non-obese counterparts. Compared with the wild-type non-obese mice, the leptin-deficient obese mice also exhibited greater activation of NF-kappaB/p65 and fewer apoptotic cells in the UVB-irradiated skin. Our study suggests for the first time that obesity in mice is associated with greater susceptibility to UVB-induced inflammatory responses and, therefore, obesity may increase susceptibility to UVB-induced inflammation-associated skin diseases, including the risk of skin cancer.

  12. An immunohistochemical method for the detection of tumour necrosis factor alpha in cytospins of human bronchoalveolar lavage cells.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, S; Healy, M; Corris, P; Scott, R

    1995-06-01

    An immunohistochemical method for assessing the level of tumour necrosis factor-alpha in alveolar macrophages obtained by brochoalveolar lavage is described. Cytospins of mixed populations of lung cells were incubated first with a monoclonal antibody to CD68 and then with a specific peroxidase-labelled second antibody in a two-step reaction for the detection of the macrophage marker CD68. A second similarly based two-step reaction for the detection of tumour necrosis factor-alpha followed. Both reactions were visualized, on completion, using different coloured peroxidase substrates which produced a third colour in the event of dual deposition of the substrates. Dual substrate deposition was indicative of alveolar macrophages positive for tumour necrosis factor-alpha. This method has provided a specific and reproducible semi-quantitative test for the presence of tumour necrosis factor-alpha in human activated alveolar macrophages, which can be performed retrospectively on clinical material. A range of concentrations of the cytokine has been demonstrated in individual samples. This dual detection method has the potential for detection of any cell-associated protein product by minor modification of the described method. PMID:7558899

  13. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Stimulates the Overproduction of Intestinal Apolipoprotein B48-containing Very Low Density Lipoproproteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha(a)(TNFa), a proinflammatory cytokine, is involved in obesity-associated pathologies including type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. TNFa enhanced postprandial apoB48-VLDL1 overproduction by about 89% compared with the control after 90 min olive oil loading; TNFa did not si...

  14. Oncogenic Myc Induces Expression of Glutamine Synthetase through Promoter Demethylation.

    PubMed

    Bott, Alex J; Peng, I-Chen; Fan, Yongjun; Faubert, Brandon; Zhao, Lu; Li, Jinyu; Neidler, Sarah; Sun, Yu; Jaber, Nadia; Krokowski, Dawid; Lu, Wenyun; Pan, Ji-An; Powers, Scott; Rabinowitz, Joshua; Hatzoglou, Maria; Murphy, Daniel J; Jones, Russell; Wu, Song; Girnun, Geoffrey; Zong, Wei-Xing

    2015-12-01

    c-Myc is known to promote glutamine usage by upregulating glutaminase (GLS), which converts glutamine to glutamate that is catabolized in the TCA cycle. Here we report that in a number of human and murine cells and cancers, Myc induces elevated expression of glutamate-ammonia ligase (GLUL), also termed glutamine synthetase (GS), which catalyzes the de novo synthesis of glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. This is through upregulation of a Myc transcriptional target thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG), which promotes active demethylation of the GS promoter and its increased expression. Elevated expression of GS promotes cell survival under glutamine limitation, while silencing of GS decreases cell proliferation and xenograft tumor growth. Upon GS overexpression, increased glutamine enhances nucleotide synthesis and amino acid transport. These results demonstrate an unexpected role of Myc in inducing glutamine synthesis and suggest a molecular connection between DNA demethylation and glutamine metabolism in Myc-driven cancers. PMID:26603296

  15. Effects of prostaglandin E2, cholera toxin and 8-bromo-cyclic AMP on lipopolysaccharide-induced gene expression of cytokines in human macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, W W; Burke, P A; Drotar, M E; Chavali, S R; Forse, R A

    1995-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) appears to regulate macrophage cytokine production through the stimulatory GTP-binding protein (Gs protein)-mediated cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent transmembrane signal transduction pathway. In this study, we used PGE2, cholera toxin (CT; a direct G alpha s protein stimulator) and 8-bromo-cAMP (a membrane permeable cAMP analogue) to stimulate this pathway, and investigated their influence on cytokine gene expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated human macrophages. The mRNA expression for interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), IL-1 beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-6 and IL-8 were determined employing reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific primers. We demonstrated that PGE2, CT and 8-bromo-cAMP inhibited the LPS-induced gene activation of TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha, and had no effect on the gene activation of IL-1 beta and IL-8. Further, our data indicate that PGE2 suppressed the gene activation of IL-6 following LPS stimulation, but neither CT nor 8-bromo-cAMP had an effect. These data suggest that PGE2 alters LPS-stimulated gene activation of only some of the early macrophage cytokines, and does so either by a Gs transmembrane cAMP-dependent or an independent system. Images Figure 1 PMID:7751029

  16. Salmonella induces prominent gene expression in the rat colon

    PubMed Central

    Rodenburg, Wendy; Keijer, Jaap; Kramer, Evelien; Roosing, Susanne; Vink, Carolien; Katan, Martijn B; van der Meer, Roelof; Bovee-Oudenhoven, Ingeborg MJ

    2007-01-01

    Background Salmonella enteritidis is suggested to translocate in the small intestine. In vivo it induces gene expression changes in the ileal mucosa and Peyer's patches. Stimulation of Salmonella translocation by dietary prebiotics fermented in colon suggests involvement of the colon as well. However, effects of Salmonella on colonic gene expression in vivo are largely unknown. We aimed to characterize time dependent Salmonella-induced changes of colonic mucosal gene expression in rats using whole genome microarrays. For this, rats were orally infected with Salmonella enteritidis to mimic a foodborne infection and colonic gene expression was determined at days 1, 3 and 6 post-infection (n = 8 rats per time-point). As fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) affect colonic physiology, we analyzed colonic mucosal gene expression of FOS-fed versus cellulose-fed rats infected with Salmonella in a separate experiment. Colonic mucosal samples were isolated at day 2 post-infection. Results Salmonella affected transport (e.g. Chloride channel calcium activated 6, H+/K+ transporting Atp-ase), antimicrobial defense (e.g. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein, Defensin 5 and phospholipase A2), inflammation (e.g. calprotectin), oxidative stress related genes (e.g. Dual oxidase 2 and Glutathione peroxidase 2) and Proteolysis (e.g. Ubiquitin D and Proteosome subunit beta type 9). Furthermore, Salmonella translocation increased serum IFNγ and many interferon-related genes in colonic mucosa. The gene most strongly induced by Salmonella infection was Pancreatitis Associated Protein (Pap), showing >100-fold induction at day 6 after oral infection. Results were confirmed by Q-PCR in individual rats. Stimulation of Salmonella translocation by dietary FOS was accompanied by enhancement of the Salmonella-induced mucosal processes, not by induction of other processes. Conclusion We conclude that the colon is a target tissue for Salmonella, considering the abundant changes in mucosal gene expression. PMID:17850650

  17. Estrogen induces Vav1 expression in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Ming-juan; Chen, Xiang-dong; Zhou, Xiao-li; Wan, Ya-juan; Lan, Bei; Zhang, Cui-zhu; Cao, Youjia

    2014-01-01

    Vav1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rho family GTPases, is a hematopoietic protein involved in a variety of cellular events. In recent years, aberrant expression of Vav1 has been reported in non-hematopoietic cancers including human breast cancer. It remains to be answered how Vav1 is expressed and what Vav1 does in its non-resident tissues. In this study, we aimed to explore the mechanism for Vav1 expression in breast cancer cells in correlation with estrogen-ER pathway. We not only verified the ectopic expression of Vav1 in human breast cancer cell lines, but also observed that Vav1 expression was induced by 17?-estradiol (E2), a typical estrogen receptor (ER) ligand, in ER-positive cell lines. On the other hand, Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), and ICI 182,780, an ER antagonist, suppressed the expression of Vav1. The estrogen receptor modulating Vav1 expression was identified to be ? form, not ?. Furthermore, treatment of E2 increased the transcription of vav1 gene by enhancing the promoter activity, though there was no recognizable estrogen response element (ERE). Nevertheless, two regions at the vav1 gene promoter were defined to be responsible for E2-induced activation of vav1 promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) analyses suggested that ER? might access to the vav1 promoter via interacting with transcription factors, c-Myb and ELF-1. Consequently, the enhanced expression of Vav1 led to the elevation of Cyclin D1 and the progression of cell cycle. The present study implies that estrogen-ER modulates the transcription and expression of Vav1, which may contribute to the proliferation of cancerous cells. PMID:24905577

  18. Estrogen Induces Vav1 Expression in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Du, Ming-juan; Chen, Xiang-dong; Zhou, Xiao-li; Wan, Ya-juan; Lan, Bei; Zhang, Cui-zhu; Cao, Youjia

    2014-01-01

    Vav1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rho family GTPases, is a hematopoietic protein involved in a variety of cellular events. In recent years, aberrant expression of Vav1 has been reported in non-hematopoietic cancers including human breast cancer. It remains to be answered how Vav1 is expressed and what Vav1 does in its non-resident tissues. In this study, we aimed to explore the mechanism for Vav1 expression in breast cancer cells in correlation with estrogen-ER pathway. We not only verified the ectopic expression of Vav1 in human breast cancer cell lines, but also observed that Vav1 expression was induced by 17?-estradiol (E2), a typical estrogen receptor (ER) ligand, in ER-positive cell lines. On the other hand, Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), and ICI 182,780, an ER antagonist, suppressed the expression of Vav1. The estrogen receptor modulating Vav1 expression was identified to be ? form, not ?. Furthermore, treatment of E2 increased the transcription of vav1 gene by enhancing the promoter activity, though there was no recognizable estrogen response element (ERE). Nevertheless, two regions at the vav1 gene promoter were defined to be responsible for E2-induced activation of vav1 promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) analyses suggested that ER? might access to the vav1 promoter via interacting with transcription factors, c-Myb and ELF-1. Consequently, the enhanced expression of Vav1 led to the elevation of Cyclin D1 and the progression of cell cycle. The present study implies that estrogen-ER modulates the transcription and expression of Vav1, which may contribute to the proliferation of cancerous cells. PMID:24905577

  19. Inducible regulation of GDNF expression in human neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, ShuYan; Ren, Ping; Guan, YunQian; Zou, ChunLin; Fu, LinLin; Zhang, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) holds promises for treating neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. Human neural stem cells (hNSCs) have proved to be a suitable cell delivery vehicle for the safe and efficient introduction of GDNF into the brain. In this study, we used hNSCs-infected with a lentivirus encoding GDNF and the hygromycin resistance gene as such vehicles. A modified tetracycline operator 7 (tetO7) was inserted into a region upstream of the EF1-α promoter to drive GDNF expression. After hygromycin selection, hNSCs were infected with a lentivirus encoding a KRAB-tetracycline repressor fusion protein (TTS). TTS bound to tetO7 and suppressed the expression of GDNF in hNSCs. Upon administration of doxycycline (Dox) the TTS-tetO7 complex separated and the expression of GDNF resumed. The hNSCs infected with GDNF expressed the neural stem cell specific markers, nestin and sox2, and exhibited no significant change in proliferation rate. However, the rate of apoptosis in hNSCs expressing GDNF was lower compared with normal NSCs in response to actinomycin treatment. Furthermore, a higher percentage of Tuj-1 positive cells were obtained from GDNF-producing NSCs under conditions that induced differentiation compared to control NSCs. The inducible expression of GDNF in hNSCs may provide a system for the controllable delivery of GDNF in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23269553

  20. Interleukin 10 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Pregnancy: Aspects of Interest in Clinical Obstetrics

    PubMed Central

    Brogin Moreli, Jusciele; Cirino Ruocco, Ana Maria; Vernini, Joice Monaliza; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha; Calderon, Iracema Mattos Paranhos

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the literature regarding the action of the cytokines interleukin 10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in pregnancy and to emphasize the factors that are of interest to clinical obstetrics. The literature highlights several actions of IL-10 and TNF-α during pregnancy. The actions of these cytokines seem to be antagonistic and dependent on the balance between them, which is orchestrated by the specific immunosuppressive action of IL-10. TNF-α has a characteristic inflammatory action, and it is an additional diabetogenic factor in pregnancy. The loss of the control of the production of these cytokines, with increase of TNF-α, is related to the risk for developing obstetric complications, particularly recurrent fetal loss, gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertensive syndromes, and fetal growth restriction. However, study results are controversial and are not clearly defined. These issues are attributed to the heterogeneity of the studies, particularly regarding their sample sizes and sources, the evaluation methods, and the multiplicity of factors and conditions that influence cytokine production. These questions are fundamental and should be addressed in future investigations to obtain more consistent results that can be applied to obstetric practice. PMID:22462002

  1. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme (TACE) levels in periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Bostanci, N; Emingil, G; Afacan, B; Han, B; Ilgenli, T; Atilla, G; Hughes, F J; Belibasakis, G N

    2008-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme (TACE) is a metalloprotease which can shed several cytokines from the cell membrane, including receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL). This study aimed to investigate the hypothesis that TACE would be elevated in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of persons with periodontitis. Total TACE amounts in GCF were higher in persons with chronic and aggressive periodontitis than in those with gingivitis or in healthy persons. TACE concentrations in GCF were higher in persons with chronic and aggressive periodontitis than in those with gingivitis, although not significantly higher than in healthy persons. Persons with chronic periodontitis receiving immunosuppressive treatment exhibited over 10-fold lower TACE levels than the other periodontitis groups. TACE was positively correlated with probing pocket depth, clinical attachment levels, and RANKL concentrations in GCF. In conclusion, the increased GCF TACE levels in persons with periodontitis and their positive correlation with RANKL may indicate an association of this enzyme with alveolar bone loss, and may warrant special attention in future therapeutic approaches. PMID:18296613

  2. Characterization of the survival effect of tumour necrosis factor-alpha in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, S R; Cowburn, A S; Sobolewski, A; Murray, J; Farahi, N; Sabroe, I; Chilvers, E R

    2004-06-01

    Granulocyte apoptosis has been proposed as a fundamental, injury-limiting granulocyte-clearance mechanism. As such, inhibition of this process may prevent the resolution of inflammation. Our previous studies have shown that TNFalpha (tumour necrosis factor-alpha) has a bi-modal influence on the rate of constitutive neutrophil apoptosis in vitro, causing early acceleration and late inhibition of this process. The pro-apoptotic effect is uniquely TNFR1 (TNF receptor 1) and TNFR2-dependent and the latter survival process is mediated via phosphoinositide 3-kinase and NF-kappaB (nuclear factor-kappaB) activation. In the present study, we show that, in contrast with GM-CSF (granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor), the delayed addition (i.e. at 6 h) of TNFalpha increases its survival effect despite substantial loss of neutrophil TNFR1 and TNFR2 at that time. This paradox was resolved using PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cell)-deplete and 5% PBMC-replete neutrophil cultures, where the enhanced survival effect observed after delayed TNFalpha addition was shown to be PBMC-dependent. TNFR2-blocking antibodies had no effect on the late survival effect of TNFalpha, implying a TNFR1-dependent process. Finally, I-kappaBalpha (inhibitory kappaB-alpha) and NF-kappaB time-course studies demonstrated that the survival effects of both GM-CSF and TNFalpha could be explained by maintenance of functional NF-kappaB. PMID:15157159

  3. Dissociative symptoms reflect levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha in patients with unipolar depression

    PubMed Central

    Bizik, Gustav; Bob, Petr; Raboch, Jiri; Pavlat, Josef; Uhrova, Jana; Benakova, Hana; Zima, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the nature of interactions between the nervous system and immune system is important in the pathogenesis of depression. Specifically, alterations in pro-inflammatory cytokines have been related to the development of several psychological and neurobiological manifestations of depressive disorder, as well as to stress exposure. A number of findings point to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as one of the central factors in these processes. Accordingly, in the present study, we test the hypothesis that specific influences of chronic stressors related to traumatic stress and dissociation are related to alterations in TNF-α levels. We performed psychometric measurement of depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]-II), traumatic stress symptoms (Trauma Symptom Checklist [TSC]-40), and psychological and somatoform dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale [DES] and Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire [SDQ]-20, respectively), and immunochemical measure of serum TNF-α in 66 inpatients with unipolar depression (mean age 43.1 ± 7.3 years). The results show that TNF-α is significantly related to DES (Spearman R=−0.42, P<0.01), SDQ-20 (Spearman R=−0.38, P<0.01), and TSC-40 (Spearman R=−0.41, P<0.01), but not to BDI-II. Results of the present study suggest that TNF-α levels are related to dissociative symptoms and stress exposure in depressed patients. PMID:24851049

  4. Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha values in elk neonates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber-Meyer, S. M.; Johnson, C.R.; Murtaugh, M.P.; Mech, L.D.; White, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Serological indicators of general condition would be helpful for monitoring or assessing ungulate wildlife. Toward that end, we report the 1st reference values for 2 cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-??), in neonatal elk (Cervus elaphus). We obtained blood samples from 140 calves ??? 6 days old in Yellowstone National Park during summer 2003-2005. TL-6 values ranged from 0 to 1.21 pg/ml with a median of 0.03 pg/ml. TNF-?? values ranged from 0 to 225.43 pg/ml with a median of 1.85 pg/ml. IL-6 and TNF-?? concentrations were not significant predictors of elk calf survival through 21 days. Development of ungulate-based IL-6 and TNF-?? assays that provide greater sensitivity than cross-reacting human-based assays could be helpful in monitoring ungulate condition and health status comparisons among herds. Such information could provide indirect assessments of range quality or environmental influences among herds. ?? 2007 American Society of Mammalogists.

  5. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Peripical Tissue Exudates of Teeth with Apical Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Pezelj-Ribarić, Sonja; Magašić, Karolina; Prpić, Jelena; Miletić, Ivana; Karlović, Zoran

    2007-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to determine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels in periapical exudates and to evaluate their relationship with radiological findings. Methodology. Periapical exudates were collected from root canals of 60 single-rooted teeth using absorbent paper points. TNF-α levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The samples were divided into three groups according to the periapical radiolucent area. Results. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant differences between TNF-α concentrations in control group (40, 57±28, 15 pg/mL) and group with larger radiolucent areas (2365, 79±582, 95 pg/mL), as well as between control and canals with small radiolucent areas (507, 66±278, 97) (P<.05). Conclusions. The levels of TNF-α increase significantly in teeth with periapical pathosis, from smaller to bigger lesions. This research and its results have shown that objective analysis of the TNF-α levels enables establishment of a relationship between different concentrations of TNF-α and different radiological changes. PMID:18320014

  6. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha deficiency impairs host defense against Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Dong-Gu; Seo, Jin-Hee; Heo, Seung-Ho; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen that is involved in community-acquired pneumonia. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that activates immune responses against infection, invasion, injury, or inflammation. To study the role of TNF-α during S. pneumoniae infection, a murine pneumococcal pneumonia model was used. We intranasally infected C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) and TNF-α knockout (KO) mice with S. pneumoniae D39 serotype 2. In TNF-α KO mice, continuous and distinct loss of body weight, and low survival rates were observed. Bacterial counts in the lungs and blood of TNF-α KO mice were significantly higher than those in WT mice. Histopathological lesions in the spleen of TNF-α KO mice were more severe than those in WT mice. In TNF-α KO mice, severe depletion of white pulp was observed and the number of apoptotic cells was significantly increased. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), IL-12p70 and IL-10 levels in serum were significantly increased in TNF-α KO mice. TNF-α is clearly involved in the regulation of S. pneumoniae infections. Early death and low survival rates of TNF-α KO mice were likely caused by a combination of impaired bacterial clearance and damage to the spleen. Our findings suggest that TNF-α plays a critical role in protecting the host from systemic S. pneumoniae infection. PMID:26155202

  7. Radiocurability by Targeting Tumor Necrosis Factor-{alpha} Using a Bispecific Antibody in Carcinoembryonic Antigen Transgenic Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Larbouret, Christel; Robert, Bruno; Linard, Christine; Teulon, Isabelle; Gourgou, Sophie M.Sc.; Bibeau, Frederic; Martineau, Pierre; Santoro, Lore; Pouget, Jean-Pierre; Pelegrin, Andre; Azria, David

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) enhances radiotherapy (RT) killing of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. To overcome systemic side effects, we used a bispecific antibody (BsAb) directed against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and TNF-{alpha} to target this cytokine in a CEA-expressing colon carcinoma. We report the evaluation of this strategy in immunocompetent CEA-transgenic mice. Methods and Materials: The murine CEA-transfected colon carcinoma MC-38 was used for all experiments. In vitro, clonogenic assays were performed after RT alone, TNF-{alpha} alone, and RT plus TNF-{alpha}. In vivo, the mice were randomly assigned to treatment groups: control, TNF-{alpha}, BsAb, BsAb plus TNF-{alpha}, RT, RT plus TNF-{alpha}, and RT plus BsAb plus TNF-{alpha}. Measurements of endogenous TNF-{alpha} mRNA levels and evaluation of necrosis (histologic evaluation) were assessed per treatment group. Results: In vitro, combined RT plus TNF-{alpha} resulted in a significant decrease in the survival fraction at 2 Gy compared with RT alone (p < 0.00001). In vivo, we observed a complete response in 5 (50%) of 10, 2 (20%) of 10, 2 (18.2%) of 11, and 0 (0%) of 12 treated mice in the RT plus BsAb plus TNF-{alpha}, RT plus TNF-{alpha}, RT alone, and control groups, respectively. This difference was statistically significant when TNF-{alpha} was targeted with the BsAb (p = 0.03). The addition of exogenous TNF-{alpha} to RT significantly increased the endogenous TNF-{alpha} mRNA level, particularly when TNF-{alpha} was targeted with BsAb (p < 0.01). The percentages of necrotic area were significantly augmented in the RT plus BsAb plus TNF-{alpha} group. Conclusion: These results suggest that targeting TNF-{alpha} with the BsAb provokes RT curability in a CEA-expressing digestive tumor syngenic model and could be considered as a solid rationale for clinical trials.

  8. Mechanical stress induces Interleukin-11 expression to stimulate osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kido, Shinsuke; Kuriwaka-Kido, Rika; Imamura, Takeshi; Ito, Yuji; Inoue, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2009-12-01

    Molecular mechanism of mechanical stress-induced bone formation remains unclear. We demonstrate that mechanical unloading suppresses and reloading enhances Interleukin (IL)-11 gene expression in the hindlimb of mice in vivo. Mechanical stress to osteoblasts by fluid shear stress (FSS) in vitro rapidly and transiently enhances fosB gene transcription, stimulates binding of DeltaFosB/JunD complex to activator protein (AP)-1 site of the IL-11 gene promoter, and enhances IL-11 gene transcription. Anti-IL-11 antibody blocks mechanical stress-induced enhancement of osteoblastogenesis and suppression of adipogenesis, suggesting the requirement of IL-11 for the stimulation of osteoblast differentiation by mechanical stress. Down-regulation of DeltaFosB/JunD by small interfering RNA (siRNA) suppresses and overexpression of DeltaFosB/JunD enhances IL-11 gene promoter activity. Consistent with our previous observations that up-regulation of DeltaFosB depends upon activation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) via Ca(2+)-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) to phosphorylate CREB, mechanical stress-induced activation of IL-11 gene transcription is dependent upon Ca(2+)-ERK pathway. Present results also demonstrated that FSS to osteoblasts enhances canonical Wnt signaling in vitro, and that mechanical unloading induces and reloading suppresses the expression of a canonical Wnt signal inhibitor, dickkopf2 (Dkk2), in vivo. In addition, IL-11 siRNA enhances Dkk2 expression suppressed by FSS, and osteoblasts from IL-11 transgenic mice show reduced Dkk2 mRNA expression than those from wild-type mice. These observations are consistent with the notion that mechanical stress stimulates IL-11 gene transcription via an enhanced DeltaFosB/JunD binding to the IL-11 gene promoter, and that increased IL-11 enhances canonical Wnt signal at least in part via a reduction in Dkk2 expression to stimulate osteoblast differentiation. PMID:19665600

  9. Regulated in Development and DNA Damage 1 Is Necessary for Hyperglycemia-induced Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in the Retina of Diabetic Rodents*

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Michael D.; Kimball, Scot R.; Fort, Patrice E.; Jefferson, Leonard S.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is considered a major role player in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, yet the mechanisms regulating its expression are not fully understood. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that diabetes-induced VEGF expression in the retina was dependent on the repressor of mRNA translation 4E-BP1. Interaction of 4E-BP1 with the cap-binding protein eIF4E regulates protein expression by controlling the selection of mRNAs for translation. The process is regulated by the master kinase mTOR in complex 1 (mTORC1), which phosphorylates 4E-BP1, thus promoting its disassociation from eIF4E. In the present study, we investigated the role of the Akt/mTORC1 repressor REDD1 (regulated in development and DNA damage) in diabetes-induced VEGF expression. REDD1 expression was induced by hyperglycemia in the retina of diabetic rodents and by hyperglycemic conditions in Müller cells concomitant with increased VEGF expression. In Müller cells, hyperglycemic conditions attenuated global rates of protein synthesis and cap-dependent mRNA translation concomitant with up-regulated cap-independent VEGF mRNA translation, as assessed by a bicistronic luciferase reporter assay. Hyperglycemic conditions also attenuated mTORC1 signaling and enhanced 4E-BP1 binding to eIF4E. Furthermore, ectopic expression of REDD1 in Müller cells was sufficient to promote both increased 4E-BP1 binding to eIF4E and VEGF expression. Whereas the retina of wild-type mice exhibited increased expression of VEGF and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) 4 weeks after streptozotocin administration, the retina of REDD1 knock-out mice failed to do so. Overall, the results demonstrate that REDD1 contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetes in the retina by mediating the pathogenic effects of hyperglycemia. PMID:25548280

  10. Gas-inducible product gene expression in bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Weber, Wilfried; Rimann, Markus; de Glutz, François-Nicolas; Weber, Eric; Memmert, Klaus; Fussenegger, Martin

    2005-05-01

    Inducible transgene expression technologies are of unmatched potential for biopharmaceutical manufacturing of unstable, growth-impairing and cytotoxic proteins as well as conditional metabolic engineering to improve desired cell phenotypes. Currently available transgene dosing modalities which rely on physical parameters or small-molecule drugs for transgene fine-tuning compromise downstream processing and/or are difficult to implement technologically. The recently designed gas-inducible acetaldehyde-inducible regulation (AIR) technology takes advantage of gaseous acetaldehyde to modulate product gene expression levels. At regulation effective concentrations gaseous acetaldehyde is physiologically inert and approved as food additive by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA). During standard bioreactor operation, gaseous acetaldehyde could simply be administered using standard/existing gas supply tubing and eventually eliminated by stripping with inducer-free air. We have determined key parameters controlling acetaldehyde transfer in three types of bioreactors and designed a mass balance-based model for optimal product gene expression fine-tuning using gaseous acetaldehyde. Operating a standard stirred-tank bioreactor set-up at 10 L scale we have validated AIR technology using CHO-K1-derived serum-free suspension cultures transgenic for gas-inducible production of human interferon-beta (IFN-beta). Gaseous acetaldehyde-inducible IFN-beta production management was fully reversible while maintaining cell viability at over 95% during the entire process. Compatible with standard bioreactor design and downstream processing procedures AIR-based technology will foster novel opportunities for pilot and large-scale manufacturing of difficult-to-produce protein pharmaceuticals. PMID:15885616

  11. TNF alpha gene and protein expression in alveolar macrophages in acute and chronic hyperoxia-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Horinouchi, H; Wang, C C; Shepherd, K E; Jones, R

    1996-06-01

    Alveolar-capillary membrane remodeling, including microvessel wall thickening and interstitial fibrosis, is a well-known sequela of cell proliferation in the hyperoxia-injured lung. The array of growth molecules released locally that potentially mediate this response, and their cell(s) of origin, are currently being defined. To elucidate the role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), an effector molecule of cell injury and proliferation, and the role of the alveolar macrophage (AM) as its source during the acute (1 to 24 h) and chronic stages (3 to 28 days) of hyperoxia-induced injury, we have analyzed gene and protein expression in cells recovered from rat lung by bronchoalveolar lavage. In the hyperoxic lung, cell number was similar to that in normal lung (1 x 10(6)) except on day 7, when it was higher (5 x 10(6)). Virtually all cells recovered from the normal and hyperoxic lung were AMs, with the exception that on days 3 and 7 of hyperoxia these cells represented 69% and 55% of the population, respectively, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes and lymphocytes the remainder. Probe specificity was confirmed by detection of TNF alpha RNA (1.6 kb) from lung cells recovered after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment (positive control) and from the hyperoxic lung (at day 3), with an extremely low level of constitutive expression detected in cells from normal lung. In cytospin preparations, TNF alpha mRNA transcripts were detected in few AMs recovered from normal lung and in most AMs after LPS treatment. In the hyperoxic lung, a signal was detected at 3 h, when approximately 25% of the population was positive. The number of hybridizing cells then increased, being highest on day 7 (day 1 approximately 30%, day 3 approximately 58%, day 7 approximately 90%, day 28 approximately 65%). No expression of TNF alpha protein was detected in AMs from normal lung; positive cells were detected in the hyperoxic lung from day 1 and thereafter. We conclude from upregulation of the TNF alpha gene in a significant number of cells, and from the increase in the number expressing biologically active protein, that AMs are an important source of this molecule both in the acute and chronic stages of hyperoxic lung injury. It is anticipated that an increased understanding of the cellular sources of mediators effecting vascular and alveolar wall remodeling in vivo will contribute to the development of strategies to inhibit the response. PMID:8652183

  12. Microarray studies of psychostimulant-induced changes in gene expression.

    PubMed

    Yuferov, Vadim; Nielsen, David; Butelman, Eduardo; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2005-03-01

    Alterations in the expression of multiple genes in many brain regions are likely to contribute to psychostimulant-induced behaviours. Microarray technology provides a powerful tool for the simultaneous interrogation of gene expression levels of a large number of genes. Several recent experimental studies, reviewed here, demonstrate the power, limitations and progress of microarray technology in the field of psychostimulant addiction. These studies vary in the paradigms of cocaine or amphetamine administration, drug doses, route and also mode of administration, duration of treatment, animal species, brain regions studied and time of tissue collection after final drug administration. The studies also utilize different microarray platforms and statistical techniques for analysis of differentially expressed genes. These variables influence substantially the results of these studies. It is clear that current microarray techniques cannot detect small changes reliably in gene expression of genes with low expression levels, including functionally significant changes in components of major neurotransmission systems such as glutamate, dopamine, opioid and GABA receptors, especially those that may occur after chronic drug administration or drug withdrawal. However, the microarray studies reviewed here showed cocaine- or amphetamine-induced alterations in the expression of numerous genes involved in the modulation of neuronal growth, cytoskeletal structures, synaptogenesis, signal transduction, apoptosis and cell metabolism. Application of laser capture microdissection and single-cell cDNA amplification may greatly enhance microarray studies of gene expression profiling. The combination of rapidly evolving microarray technology with established methods of neuroscience, molecular biology and genetics, as well as appropriate behavioural models of drug reinforcement, may provide a productive approach for delineating the neurobiological underpinnings of drug responses that lead to addiction. PMID:15849024

  13. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha concentrations and clinical abnormalities in colostrum-fed and colostrum-deprived neonatal foals given endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Allen, G K; Green, E M; Robinson, J A; Garner, H E; Loch, W E; Walsh, D M

    1993-09-01

    We examined the effect of infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) concentration and clinical attitude in 2- 3-day-old colostrum-fed (CF) and colostrum-deprived (CD) foals. Eleven CF and 8 CD neonatal foals were given a bolus i.v. infusion of Escherichia coli O55:B5 lipopolysaccharide (0.5 microgram/kg of body weight) in sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Four CF and 2 CD foals were given saline solution alone. Serum IgG concentration and serum anti-LPS IgG(T) antibody titer were determined for each foal prior to infusion. A depression index was used to score clinical abnormalities. Serum TNF alpha concentration was estimated by use of an in vitro cytotoxicity bioassay that used WEHI 164 clone 13 cells as targets. The cytotoxic serum factor was identified as TNF alpha by immunoprecipitation with caprine antisera raised against the 15 NH2-terminal amino acids of human TNF alpha. Tumor necrosis factor alpha was not detected in any preinfusion serum samples nor in any samples from foals given saline solution alone. Serum TNF alpha concentration increased in all LPS-infused foals and peaked between 60 and 90 minutes after infusion. Serum TNF alpha concentrations, expressed as mean percentage of peak serum TNF alpha concentration, persisted longer in CD foals given LPS than in CF foals given LPS. All LPS-infused foals displayed clinical signs of endotoxemia, but mean depression index scores of the CF and CD foals given LPS were not significantly different at any time. Serum TNF alpha concentrations were correlated with depression index scores in both LPS-infused groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8239125

  14. Orofacial clefts, parental cigarette smoking, and transforming growth factor-alpha gene variants

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, G.M.; Wasserman, C.R.; O`Malley, C.D.

    1996-03-01

    Results of studies determine whether women who smoke during early pregnancy are at increased risk of delivering infants with orofacial clefts have been mixed, and recently a gene-environment interaction between maternal smoking, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFa), and clefting has been reported. Using a large population-based case-control study, we investigated whether parental periconceptional cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk for having offspring with orofacial clefts. We also investigated the influence of genetic variation of the TGFa locus on the relation between smoking and clefting. Parental smoking information was obtained from telephone interviews with mothers of 731 (84.7% of eligible) orofacial cleft case infants and with mothers of 734 (78.2%) nonmalformed control infants. DNA was obtained from newborn screening blood spots and genotyped for the allelic variants of TGFa. We found that risks associated with maternal smoking were most elevated for isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate, (odds ratio 2.1 [95% confidence interval 1.3-3.6]) and for isolated cleft palate (odds ratio 2.2 [1.1-4.5]) when mothers smoked {ge} 20 cigarrettes/d. These risks for white infants ranged from 3-fold to 11-fold across phenotypic groups. Paternal smoking was not associated with clefting among the offspring of nonsmoking mothers, and passive smoke exposures were associated with at most slightly increased risks. This study offers evidence that the risk for orofacial clefting in infants may be influenced by maternal smoke exposures alone as well as in combination (gene-environment interaction) with the presence of the uncommon TGFa allele. 56 refs., 5 tabs.

  15. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ferraiolo, B.L.; Moore, J.A.; Crase, D.; Gribling, P.; Wilking, H.; Baughman, R.A.

    1988-03-01

    The serum pharmacokinetics and the major organs of accumulation of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rHuTNF) were determined in BDF1 mice after intravenous and intramuscular administration. Serum concentrations of immunoreactive protein were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and radioactivity was quantitated by beta and gamma scintigraphy. The serum pharmacokinetics of labeled and unlabeled rHuTNF were identical when administered by the intravenous route. After intravenous doses of 165 to 320 micrograms/kg, the clearance was 2.9-3.6 ml/hr, the initial volume of distribution was 1.4-1.6 ml (70-80 ml/kg), and the half-life was 18.5-19.2 min. Intramuscular administration of 320 micrograms/kg resulted in a peak serum concentration of 112 ng/ml. The time of the peak concentration was 1 hr, and the bioavailability of the intramuscular dose was 12%. The data suggest that the disposition of this protein may be biexponential. If this is the case, the terminal phase would appear to account for less than 1% of the total AUC. Since serum concentrations in the terminal phase are at the sensitivity limit of the assay, a single half-life is reported. 125I-Labeled and metabolically labeled 3H-rHuTNF were used to examine tissue distribution. After intravenous 125I-rHuTNF administration, the rank order of accumulation of the 125I-radiolabel in the major organs (per cent dose per organ over 1440 min) was: liver greater than kidney greater than lung greater than heart greater than spleen. This rank order of accumulation was confirmed by intravenous 3H-rHuTNF administration.

  16. Myelin contains neutral sphingomyelinase activity that is stimulated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, G; Ziemba, S; Drivas, A; Ledeen, R W

    1997-11-01

    Purified myelin from mouse brain was found to contain two forms of neutral sphingomyelinase, one Mg2+ dependent and the other Mg2+ independent. The former had a pH optimum of 7.5 and Km of 0.35 mM, whereas the corresponding values for the latter were pH 8.0 and Km 3.03 mM. Specific activity of the Mg(2+)-dependent enzyme showed a rostral-caudal gradient, ranging from 75 nmol/mg protein/hr in myelin from cerebral hemispheres to 21 nmol/mg protein/hr in myelin from spinal cord. Relative specific activity was approximately 20% that of brain stem or cerebral hemisphere homogenate. Treatment of myelin with taurocholate or high salt concentration did not significantly reduce activity of the Mg(2+)-dependent enzyme. The activity of that enzyme did not change with time or in the presence or absence of protease inhibitors; by contrast, that of Mg(2+)-independent enzyme decreased sharply in the absence of protease inhibitors but rose in their presence. To test for the effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) on myelin sphingomyelinase, mouse brain myelin was labeled in vivo by intracerebral injection of [3H]acetate into 18-20-day-old mice. After 40 hr, brain stems were removed, minced, and treated with TNF alpha in Krebs-Ringer solution, after which myelin was immediately isolated. Separation and counting of individual lipids revealed TNF alpha treatment to cause increased labeling of myelin ceramide and cholesterol ester with concomitant decrease in myelin sphingomyelin. Western blotting of myelin proteins using antibodies to the two TNF alpha receptors as probes revealed the presence of the p75 receptor. Implications of these findings in relation to possible mechanisms of autoimmune demyelination are discussed. PMID:9364332

  17. Estimation of salivary tumor necrosis factor-alpha in chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Sheeja S.; Thomas, Hima; Jayakumar, N. D.; Sankari, M.; Lakshmanan, Reema

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Periodontitis is a chronic bacterial infection characterized by persistent inflammation, connective tissue breakdown and alveolar bone destruction mediated by pro-inflammatory mediators. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is an important pro-inflammatory mediator that produced causes destruction of periodontal tissues. Objective: The aim of the study is to estimate the salivary TNF-α in chronic and aggressive periodontitis and control participants and further correlate the levels with clinical parameter such as gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment loss. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 75 subjects age ranging from 25 to 55 years attending the outpatient section of Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital. The study groups included Groups 1, 2, and 3 with participants with healthy periodontium (n = 25), generalized chronic periodontitis (n = 25) and generalized aggressive periodontitis (n = 25), respectively. Salivary samples from the participants were used to assess the TNF-α levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: GI and PI were found to be significantly higher in chronic and aggressive periodontitis compared to the controls. The mean TNF-α value in chronic periodontitis patients (12.92 ± 17.21 pg/ml) was significantly higher than in control subjects (2.15 ± 3.60 pg/ml). Whereas, in aggressive periodontitis patients the mean TNF-α (7.23 ± 7.67) were not significantly different from chronic periodontitis or healthy subjects. Among periodontitis participants, aggressive periodontitis subjects exhibited a significant positive correlation between the salivary TNF-α and PPD. Conclusion: Salivary TNF-α levels are significantly higher in chronic periodontitis than in healthy subjects, but there was no significant correlation with the clinical parameters. PMID:26604566

  18. Sputum tumour necrosis factor-alpha and leukotriene concentrations in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Greally, P; Hussein, M J; Cook, A J; Sampson, A P; Piper, P J; Price, J F

    1993-01-01

    It is postulated that a vigorous host inflammatory response in the cystic fibrosis lung contributes to lung injury. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) may play a part in that process and in the generation of leukotrienes. Therefore, the relationships between sputum TNF-alpha, leukotriene concentration, and lung function abnormalities in 16 children with cystic fibrosis were investigated. Each subject provided sputum samples and performed spirometry. TNF-alpha was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; individual leukotrienes were separated using high performance liquid chromatography and quantified by radioimmunoassay. The geometric mean concentration of TNF-alpha was 129.7 pg/ml and 95% confidence interval 48.2 to 348.3. Mean (SEM) leukotriene B4 (LTB4) was 97.8 (22.9) pmol/g and total cysteinyl leukotrienes were 60.9 (14.8) pmol/g. Mean (SD) forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of the group was 53 (15)% of predicted and forced vital capacity (FVC) was 65 (14)% of predicted. There was a significant positive correlation between TNF-alpha and both LTB4 and the total cysteinyl leukotriene sputum content. An inverse relationship existed between TNF-alpha and FEV1 and FVC. Moreover, a negative correlation was observed between sputum LTB4 and FEV1 and FVC. These results suggest that TNF-alpha and the leukotrienes may participate in the airways inflammation and airflow obstruction observed in cystic fibrosis subjects and support the hypothesis that TNF-alpha upregulates the 5-lipoxygenase pathway in vivo. PMID:8385438

  19. Hypoxic-induced stress protein expression in rat cardiac myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, G.; Geoghegan, T.E.

    1986-05-01

    Mammalian stress proteins can be induced in cells and tissues exposed to a variety of conditions including hyperthermia and diminished O/sub 2/ supply. The authors have previously shown that the expression of three stress proteins (71, 85, and 95 kDa) was induced in cardiac tissue from mice exposed to hypoxic conditions. The expression of mRNAs coding for the 85 and 95 kDa proteins increase with time of exposure to hypoxia, while the mRNA coding for the 71 kDa protein is transiently induced. The authors extended these studies to investigate the expression of stress proteins in isolated rat cardiac myocytes. Freshly prepared myocytes were exposed to control, hypoxic, anoxic, or heat-shock environments for up to 16 h. The proteins were then labeled for 6 hours with (/sup 35/S)methionine. Analysis of the solubilized proteins by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography showed that there was a 6-fold increase in synthesis of the 85 kDa protein upon exposure to hypoxia but not heat-shock conditions. The 71 kDa protein was present at high levels in both control and treated myocyte protein preparations, and presumably had been induced during the isolation procedure. Total RNA isolated from intact rat heart and isolated myocytes was compared by cell-free translation analysis and showed induction of RNAs coding for several stress proteins in the myocyte preparation. The induced proteins at 85 and 95 kDa have molecular weights similar to reported cell stress and/or glucose-regulated proteins.

  20. Fetuin-A Induces Cytokine Expression and Suppresses Adiponectin Production

    PubMed Central

    Wicke, Corinna; Machicao, Fausto; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Stefan, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Background The secreted liver protein fetuin-A (AHSG) is up-regulated in hepatic steatosis and the metabolic syndrome. These states are strongly associated with low-grade inflammation and hypoadiponectinemia. We, therefore, hypothesized that fetuin-A may play a role in the regulation of cytokine expression, the modulation of adipose tissue expression and plasma concentration of the insulin-sensitizing and atheroprotective adipokine adiponectin. Methodology and Principal Findings Human monocytic THP1 cells and human in vitro differenttiated adipocytes as well as C57BL/6 mice were treated with fetuin-A. mRNA expression of the genes encoding inflammatory cytokines and the adipokine adiponectin (ADIPOQ) was assessed by real-time RT-PCR. In 122 subjects, plasma levels of fetuin-A, adiponectin and, in a subgroup, the multimeric forms of adiponectin were determined. Fetuin-A treatment induced TNF and IL1B mRNA expression in THP1 cells (p<0.05). Treatment of mice with fetuin-A, analogously, resulted in a marked increase in adipose tissue Tnf mRNA as well as Il6 expression (27- and 174-fold, respectively). These effects were accompanied by a decrease in adipose tissue Adipoq mRNA expression and lower circulating adiponectin levels (p<0.05, both). Furthermore, fetuin-A repressed ADIPOQ mRNA expression of human in vitro differentiated adipocytes (p<0.02) and induced inflammatory cytokine expression. In humans in plasma, fetuin-A correlated positively with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, a marker of subclinical inflammation (r = 0.26, p = 0.01), and negatively with total- (r = −0.28, p = 0.02) and, particularly, high molecular weight adiponectin (r = −0.36, p = 0.01). Conclusions and Significance We provide novel evidence that the secreted liver protein fetuin-A induces low-grade inflammation and represses adiponectin production in animals and in humans. These data suggest an important role of fatty liver in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. PMID:18335040

  1. Insulin decreases atherosclerosis by inducing endothelin receptor B expression

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyoungmin; Mima, Akira; Li, Qian; Rask-Madsen, Christian; He, Pingnian; Mizutani, Koji; Katagiri, Sayaka; Maeda, Yasutaka; Wu, I-Hsien; Khamaisi, Mogher; Preil, Simone Rordam; Maddaloni, Ernesto; Sørensen, Ditte; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt; Huang, Paul L.; King, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) insulin resistance and dysfunction, caused by diabetes, accelerates atherosclerosis. It is unknown whether specifically enhancing EC-targeted insulin action can decrease atherosclerosis in diabetes. Accordingly, overexpressing insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) in the endothelia of Apoe−/− mice (Irs1/Apoe−/−) increased insulin signaling and function in the aorta. Atherosclerosis was significantly reduced in Irs1/ApoE−/− mice on diet-induced hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. The mechanism of insulin’s enhanced antiatherogenic actions in EC was related to remarkable induction of NO action, which increases endothelin receptor B (EDNRB) expression and intracellular [Ca2+]. Using the mice with knockin mutation of eNOS, which had Ser1176 mutated to alanine (AKI), deleting the only known mechanism for insulin to activate eNOS/NO pathway, we observed that IRS1 overexpression in the endothelia of Aki/ApoE−/− mice significantly decreased atherosclerosis. Interestingly, endothelial EDNRB expression was selectively reduced in intima of arteries from diabetic patients and rodents. However, endothelial EDNRB expression was upregulated by insulin via P13K/Akt pathway. Finally EDNRB deletion in EC of Ldlr−/− and Irs1/Ldlr−/− mice decreased NO production and accelerated atherosclerosis, compared with Ldlr−/− mice. Accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetes may be reduced by improving insulin signaling selectively via IRS1/Akt in the EC by inducing EDNRB expression and NO production. PMID:27200419

  2. Salmonella enterica induces joint inflammation and expression of interleukin-17 in draining lymph nodes early after onset of enterocolitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Noto Llana, Mariángeles; Sarnacki, Sebastián Hernán; Vázquez, María Victoria; Gartner, Alejandra Sonia; Giacomodonato, Mónica Nancy; Cerquetti, María Cristina

    2012-06-01

    In developing countries, one-third of reactive arthritis (ReA) cases are associated with Salmonella enterocolitis; nevertheless, there is no animal model for studying this pathology. Here we induced a self-limiting Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis enterocolitis in mice to analyze the onset of ReA. BALB/c mice received orally 20 μg of streptomycin 24 h before intragastric inoculation of a low dose (3 × 10(3) to 4 × 10(3) CFU) of S. Enteritidis. In response to Salmonella infection, a 30-fold increase in the expression of interleukin-17 (IL-17), measured by quantitative PCR, was observed in mesenteric lymph nodes 5 days postinfection. At this time synovitis was already evident, and concomitantly, a significant increase in joint tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The early development of joint lesions was accompanied by an increased expression of IL-17 in inguinal and popliteal lymph nodes. Infection with 10(7) CFU of an isogenic ΔinvG mutant bearing a defective type III secretion system of Salmonella encoded in the pathogenicity island 1 apparatus (TTSS-1) induced enterocolitis histologically similar to that triggered by the wild-type strain. Interestingly, despite the higher infective dose used, the mutant did not trigger intestinal IL-17. Moreover, no synovitis was observed in mice suffering ΔinvG enterocolitis. Neutralization of IL-17 in mice infected with S. Enteritidis prevented both synovitis and the increment of TNF-α in the joints, suggesting that IL-17 participates in the generation of Salmonella-induced ReA through the induction of TNF-α in the joints. PMID:22493084

  3. Rat retinal pigment epithelial cells express an inducible form of nitric oxide synthase and produce nitric oxide in response to inflammatory cytokines and activated T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Liversidge, J; Grabowski, P; Ralston, S; Benjamin, N; Forrester, J V

    1994-01-01

    In this report we show that rat retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells express an inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and secrete high levels of nitric oxide (NO.) when co-cultured with activated lymphocytes. We have previously shown that cultured rat RPE cells suppress syngeneic lymphocyte proliferation, an effect attributed to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion by the RPE cells. However supernatants from such co-cultures were also found to contain high levels of nitrite (NO2-), the stable end-product of NO. synthesis. RPE cell secretion of NO. was stimulated by the cytokines interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), an effect enhanced by endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)], reduced by the competitive inhibitor of L-arginine metabolism, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and inhibited by cycloheximide. These effects were dose dependent. Using reverse transcription (RT)/PCR a product of 1398 bp was amplified which showed sequence identity with iNOS cloned from rat vascular smooth muscle. Northern blot analysis of total RNA extracted from rat RPE before and after cytokine stimulation showed induction of a 4.5 kb (kilobase) transcript which hybridized with a 1398 bp (base pair) polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-generated cDNA probe derived from the sequence of rat RPE cell iNOS. These results indicate RPE cells express an inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and that high levels of NO. may be produced locally in the eye by the RPE in the presence of activated lymphocytes. Given the cytostatic and cytotoxic properties of this molecule, NO. may play an important role as an inducible mediator of immunosuppressive mechanisms within the microenvironment of the eye at the site of lymphocyte activation. Images Figure 3 PMID:7530691

  4. Expression of hyaluronidase by tumor cells induces angiogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, D; Pearlman, E; Diaconu, E; Guo, K; Mori, H; Haqqi, T; Markowitz, S; Willson, J; Sy, M S

    1996-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid is a proteoglycan present in the extracellular matrix and is important for the maintenance of tissue architecture. Depolymerization of hyaluronic acid may facilitate tumor invasion. In addition, oligosaccharides of hyaluronic acid have been reported to induce angiogenesis. We report here that a hyaluronidase similar to the one on human sperm is expressed by metastatic human melanoma, colon carcinoma, and glioblastoma cell lines and by tumor biopsies from patients with colorectal carcinomas, but not by tissues from normal colon. Moreover, angiogenesis is induced by hyaluronidase+ tumor cells but not hyaluronidase- tumor cells and can be blocked by an inhibitor of hyaluronidase. Tumor cells thus use hyaluronidase as one of the "molecular saboteurs" to depolymerize hyaluronic acid to facilitate invasion. As a consequence, breakdown products of hyaluronic acid can further promote tumor establishment by inducing angiogenesis. Hyaluronidase on tumor cells may provide a target for anti-neoplastic drugs. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8755562

  5. Expression of Hyaluronidase by Tumor Cells Induces Angiogenesis in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dacai; Pearlman, Eric; Diaconu, Eugenia; Guo, Kun; Mori, Hiroshi; Haqqi, Tariq; Markowitz, Sanford; Willson, James; Sy, Man-Sun

    1996-07-01

    Hyaluronic acid is a proteoglycan present in the extracellular matrix and is important for the maintenance of tissue architecture. Depolymerization of hyaluronic acid may facilitate tumor invasion. In addition, oligosaccharides of hyaluronic acid have been reported to induce angiogenesis. We report here that a hyaluronidase similar to the one on human sperm is expressed by metastatic human melanoma, colon carcinoma, and glioblastoma cell lines and by tumor biopsies from patients with colorectal carcinomas, but not by tissues from normal colon. Moreover, angiogenesis is induced by hyaluronidase+ tumor cells but not hyaluronidase- tumor cells and can be blocked by an inhibitor of hyaluronidase. Tumor cells thus use hyaluronidase as one of the ``molecular saboteurs'' to depolymerize hyaluronic acid to facilitate invasion. As a consequence, breakdown products of hyaluronic acid can further promote tumor establishment by inducing angiogenesis. Hyaluronidase on tumor cells may provide a target for anti-neoplastic drugs.

  6. Interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha exert their antirickettsial effect via induction of synthesis of nitric oxide.

    PubMed Central

    Feng, H. M.; Walker, D. H.

    1993-01-01

    How the host defenses control rickettsiae in the cytosol of nonphagocytic host cells, where they are not exposed to antibodies or phagocytes, has posed a difficult question. Rickettsia conorii infection of a mouse fibroblast cell line was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by nitrogen oxide synthesized by eukaryotic host cells stimulated by interferon-gamma or tumor necrosis factor-alpha. L-arginine was the source of the nitric oxide as demonstrated by competitive inhibition by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine. Nitric oxide synthesis required host cell protein synthesis and had an approximately 48-hour lag phase following cytokine stimulation. At low doses of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which had no detectable response as single agents, dramatic synergistic nitric oxide synthesis and antirickettsial effects were observed. PMID:8213997

  7. RANKL directly induces bone morphogenetic protein-2 expression in RANK-expressing POS-1 osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wittrant, Yohann; Lamoureux, François; Mori, Kanji; Riet, Anne; Kamijo, Akira; Heymann, Dominique; Redini, Françoise

    2006-01-01

    The POS-1 murine model of osteolytic osteosarcoma was used to elucidate the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the development of primary bone tumors and associated lung metastasis. The POS-1 cell line is derived from an osteosarcoma tumor which develops spontaneously in C3H mice. The POS-1 cell line was characterized in vitro by mineralization capacity and expression of bone markers by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, compared to primary osteoblasts and bone marrow cells. POS-1 cells showed no mineralization capacity and exhibited an undifferentiated phenotype, expressing both osteoblastic and unexpected osteoclastic markers (TRAP, cathepsin K and RANK). Thereby, experiments were performed to determine whether RANK was functional, by studying the biological activity of murine RANKL through the receptor RANK expressed on POS-1 cells. Results revealed a RANKL-induced increase in ERK phosphorylation, as well as BMP-2 induction at the mRNA and protein levels, and a decrease of POS-1 cell proliferation in the presence of 10 ng/ml RANKL. BMP-2 induction is dependent on the ERK 1/2 signal transduction pathway, as its expression is abolished in the presence of UO126, a specific synthetic inhibitor of the ERK 1/2 pathway. Moreover, a 2-fold molar excess of soluble RANK blocks the RANKL-induced BMP-2 expression, demonstrating that the biological effects of RANKL observed in POS-1 cells are mediated by RANK. This is the first report describing a functional RANK expressed on osteosarcoma cells, as shown by its ability to induce signal transduction pathways and biological activity when stimulated by RANKL. PMID:16328004

  8. Co-expression analysis of differentially expressed genes in hepatitis C virus-induced hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    SONG, QINGFENG; ZHAO, CHANG; OU, SHENGQIU; MENG, ZHIBIN; KANG, PING; FAN, LIWEI; QI, FENG; MA, YILONG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using the expression profiles of HCV-infected Huh7 cells at different time points. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified with the Samr package in R software once the data were normalized. Functional and pathway enrichment analysis of the identified DEGs was also performed. Subsequently, MCODE in Cytoscape software was applied to conduct module analysis of the constructed co-expression networks. A total of 1,100 DEGs were identified between the HCV-infected and control samples at 12, 18, 24 and 48 h post-infection. DEGs at 24 and 48 h were involved in the same signaling pathways and biological processes, including sterol biosynthetic processes and tRNA amino-acylation. There were 22 time series genes which were clustered into 3 expression patterns, and the demarcation point of the 2 expression patterns that 401 overlapping DEGs at 24 and 48 h clustered into was 24 h post-infection. tRNA synthesis-related biological processes emerged at 24 and 48 h. Replication and assembly of HCV in HCV-infected Huh7 cells occurred mainly at 24 h post-infection. In view of this, the screened time series genes have the potential to become candidate target molecules for monitoring, diagnosing and treating HCV-induced HCC. PMID:25339452

  9. Gemcitabine-induced CXCL8 expression counteracts its actions by inducing tumor neovascularization

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Yao; Baba, Tomohisa; Li, Ying-Yi; Furukawa, Kaoru; Tanabe, Yamato; Matsugo, Seiichi; Sasaki, Soichiro; Mukaida, Naofumi

    2015-03-06

    Patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are frequently complicated with metastatic disease or locally advanced tumors, and consequently need chemotherapy. Gemcitabine is commonly used for PDAC treatment, but with limited efficacy. The capacity of gemcitabine to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human pancreatic cancer cells, prompted us to examine its effects on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We observed that gemcitabine enhanced selectively the expression of CXCL8 in human pancreatic cancer cells through ROS generation and NF-κB activation. In vitro blocking of CXCL8 failed to modulate gemcitabine-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation in human pancreatic cancer cells. Gemcitabine also enhanced CXCL8 expression in pancreatic cancer cells in xenografted tumor tissues. Moreover, anti-CXCL8 antibody treatment in vivo attenuated tumor formation as well as intra-tumoral vascularity in nude mice, which were transplanted with Miapaca-2 cells and treated with gemcitabine. Thus, gemcitabine-induced CXCL8 may counteract the drug through inducing neovascularization. - Highlights: • Gemcitabine induced CXCL8 expression in human pancreatic cancer cells. • CXCL8 expression required ROS generation and NF-κB activation. • CXCL8 did not affect in vitro proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells. • CXCL8 in vivo counteracted gemcitabine by inducing neovascularization.

  10. Single nucleotide polymorphism in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene affects inflammatory bowel diseases risk

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Lynnette R; Huebner, Claudia; Petermann, Ivonne; Gearry, Richard B; Barclay, Murray L; Demmers, Pieter; McCulloch, Alan; Han, Dug Yeo

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter of the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) gene play in the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) in a New Zealand population, in the context of international studies. METHODS: DNA samples from 388 patients with Crohn’s disease (CD), 405 ulcerative colitis (UC), 27 indeterminate colitis (IC) and 201 randomly selected controls, from Canterbury, New Zealand were screened for 3 common polymorphisms in the TNF-α receptor: -238 G→A, -308 G→A and -857C→T, using a TaqmanR assay. A meta-analysis was performed on the data obtained on these polymorphisms combined with that from other published studies. RESULTS: Individuals carrying the -308 G/A allele had a significantly (OR = 1.91, χ2 = 17.36, P < 0.0001) increased risk of pancolitis, and a 1.57-fold increased risk (OR = 1.57, χ2 = 4.34, P = 0.037) of requiring a bowel resection in UC. Carrying the -857 C/T variant decreased the risk of ileocolonic CD (OR = 0.56, χ2 = 4.32, P = 0.037), and the need for a bowel resection (OR = 0.59, χ2 = 4.85, P = 0.028). The risk of UC was reduced in individuals who were smokers at diagnosis, (OR = 0.48, χ2 = 4.86, P = 0.028). CONCLUSION: TNF-α is a key cytokine known to play a role in inflammatory response, and the locus for the gene is found in the IBD3 region on chromosome 6p21, known to be associated with an increased risk for IBD. The -308 G/A SNP in the TNF-α promoter is functional, and may account in part for the increased UC risk associated with the IBD3 genomic region. The -857 C/T SNP may decrease IBD risk in certain groups. Pharmaco- or nutrigenomic approaches may be desirable for individuals with such affected genotypes. PMID:18698679

  11. Low doses of neutrons induce changes in gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Chang-Liu, C.M. ); Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R. )

    1993-01-01

    Studies were designed to identify genes induced following low-dose neutron but not following [gamma]-ray exposure in fibroblasts. Our past work had shown differences in the expression of [beta]-protein kinase C and c-fos genes, both being induced following [gamma]-ray but not neutron exposure. We have identified two genes that are induced following neutron, but not [gamma]-ray, exposure: Rp-8 (a gene induced by apoptosis) and the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the human immunodeficiency (HIV). Rp-8 mRNA induction was demonstrated in Syrian hamster embryo fibroblasts and was found to be induced in cells exposed to neutrons administered at low (0.5 cGy/min) and at high dose rate (12 cGy/min). The induction of transcription from the LTR of HIV was demonstrated in HeLa cells bearing a transfected construct of the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene driven by the HIV-LTR promoter. Measures of CAT activity and CAT transcripts following irradiation demonstrated an unresponsiveness to [gamma] rays over a broad range of doses. Twofold induction of the HIV-LTR was detected following neutron exposure (48 cGy) administered at low (0.5 cGy/min) but not high (12 cGy/min) dose rates. Ultraviolet-mediated HIV-LTR induction was inhibited by low-dose-rate neutron exposure.

  12. Low doses of neutrons induce changes in gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Chang-Liu, C.M.; Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R.

    1993-06-01

    Studies were designed to identify genes induced following low-dose neutron but not following {gamma}-ray exposure in fibroblasts. Our past work had shown differences in the expression of {beta}-protein kinase C and c-fos genes, both being induced following {gamma}-ray but not neutron exposure. We have identified two genes that are induced following neutron, but not {gamma}-ray, exposure: Rp-8 (a gene induced by apoptosis) and the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the human immunodeficiency (HIV). Rp-8 mRNA induction was demonstrated in Syrian hamster embryo fibroblasts and was found to be induced in cells exposed to neutrons administered at low (0.5 cGy/min) and at high dose rate (12 cGy/min). The induction of transcription from the LTR of HIV was demonstrated in HeLa cells bearing a transfected construct of the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene driven by the HIV-LTR promoter. Measures of CAT activity and CAT transcripts following irradiation demonstrated an unresponsiveness to {gamma} rays over a broad range of doses. Twofold induction of the HIV-LTR was detected following neutron exposure (48 cGy) administered at low (0.5 cGy/min) but not high (12 cGy/min) dose rates. Ultraviolet-mediated HIV-LTR induction was inhibited by low-dose-rate neutron exposure.

  13. Regulation of gene expression by macrolide-induced ribosomal frameshifting.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pulkit; Kannan, Krishna; Mankin, Alexander S; Vázquez-Laslop, Nora

    2013-12-12

    The expression of many genes is controlled by upstream ORFs (uORFs). Typically, the progression of the ribosome through a regulatory uORF, which depends on the physiological state of the cell, influences the expression of the downstream gene. In the classic mechanism of induction of macrolide resistance genes, antibiotics promote translation arrest within the uORF, and the static ribosome induces a conformational change in mRNA, resulting in the activation of translation of the resistance cistron. We show that ketolide antibiotics, which do not induce ribosome stalling at the uORF of the ermC resistance gene, trigger its expression via a unique mechanism. Ketolides promote frameshifting at the uORF, allowing the translating ribosome to invade the intergenic spacer. The dynamic unfolding of the mRNA structure leads to the activation of resistance. Conceptually similar mechanisms may control other cellular genes. The identified property of ketolides to reduce the fidelity of reading frame maintenance may have medical implications. PMID:24239289

  14. EGR-1 regulates Ho-1 expression induced by cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Huaqun; Wang, Lijuan; Gong, Tao; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Chunhua; Li, Fen; Wang, Li; Li, Chaojun; Model Animal Research Center and The School of Medicine, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210095

    2010-05-28

    As an anti-oxidant molecule, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been implicated in the protection of lung injury by cigarette smoke (CS). The mechanisms regulating its expression have not been defined. In this report, the role of early growth response 1 (EGR-1) in the regulation of Ho-1 expression was investigated. In C57BL/6 mice with CS exposure, HO-1 was greatly increased in bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar inflammatory cells. In primary cultured mouse lung fibroblasts and RAW264.7 cells exposed to cigarette smoke water extract (CSE), an increase in HO-1 protein level was detected. In addition, CSE induced HO-1 expression was decreased in Egr-1 deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (Egr-1{sup -/-} MEFs). Nuclear localization of EGR-1 was examined in mouse lung fibroblasts after exposure to CSE. Luciferase reporter activity assays showed that the enhancer region of the Ho-1 gene containing a proposed EGR-1 binding site was responsible for the induction of HO-1. A higher increase of alveolar mean linear intercept (Lm) was observed in lung tissues, and a larger increase in the number of total cells and monocytes/macrophages from bronchial alveolar lavage fluid was found in CS-exposed mice by loss of function of EGR-1 treatment. In summary, the present data demonstrate that EGR-1 plays a critical role in HO-1 production induced by CS.

  15. Development of an anhydrotetracycline-inducible expression system for expression of a neopullulanase in B. subtilis.

    PubMed

    Heravi, Kambiz Morabbi; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2015-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a widely used bacterium for production of heterologous and homologous proteins. The primary challenge in the production of proteins in B. subtilis is choosing a relevant expression system. In this study, we developed a robust expression system based on optimized PtetR of transposon Tn1721, which is repressible by its specific repressor, TetR. The first step of this work was focused on the optimization of structure and core elements of Tn1721 anhydrotetracycline-inducible promoters, PtetA and PtetR. Both promoters were inserted upstream of eGFP on a pUB110-derivative with high copy number. Reduction of the 18 bp spacer region of both PtetA and PtetR to 17 bp significantly increased their strength in B. subtilis. Nevertheless, only the optimized PtetR with 17 bp spacer region (PtetR2) directed high level of eGFP expression. In the second step, regulation of the system was optimized by testing the expression of tetR using well-known promoters, such as PmtlA, PmtlR, PptsG and PpenP. Expression of tetR by PptsG resulted in a tight regulation of PtetR2-eGFP showing 44-fold induction. By using the final expression plasmid in B. subtilis, neopullulanase was produced up to 15% of the total soluble protein. PMID:26455535

  16. Lipopolysaccharide induces autotaxin expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li Song; Zhang Junjie

    2009-01-09

    Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted enzyme with lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD) activity, which converts lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) into lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive phospholipid involved in numerous biological activities, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. In the present study, we found that bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a well-known initiator of the inflammatory response, induced ATX expression in monocytic THP-1 cells. The activation of PKR, JNK, and p38 MAPK was required for the ATX induction. The LPS-induced ATX in THP-1 cells was characterized as the {beta} isoform. In the presence of LPC, ATX could promote the migrations of THP-1 and Jurkat cells, which was inhibited by pertussis toxin (PTX), an inhibitor of Gi-mediated LPA receptor signaling. In summary, LPS induces ATX expression in THP-1 cells via a PKR, JNK and p38 MAPK-mediated mechanism, and the ATX induction is likely to enhance immune cell migration in proinflammatory response by regulating LPA levels in the microenvironment.

  17. Effect of nonselective and selective COX-2 inhibitors on memory dysfunction, glutathione system, and tumor necrosis factor alpha level against cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Vaibhav; Kumar, Anil

    2012-04-01

    Involvement of the glutathione system is well established in stroke-induced memory dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of celecoxib (a selective cyclooxygenase-2 [COX-2] inhibitor), nimesulide (a preferential COX-2 inhibitor), and ibuprofen (a nonselective COX-2 inhibitor) against bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO)-induced memory dysfunction. BCCAO for 30 minutews, followed by 24-hour reperfusion, significantly delayed transfer latency in the plus-maze performance task and shortened fall-off time in the hanging-wire experimental test. Besides significant alterations in glutathione defense (i.e., glutathione S-transferase and redox ratio), increased acetylcholinesterase activity and proinflammatory marker (tumor necrosis factor alpha TNF-?) in the hippocampus was seen. Seven days of treatment with celecoxib (3 and 10?mg/kg, p.o.), nimesulide (10?mg/kg, p.o.), and ibuprofen (30?mg/kg, p.o.) significantly improved behavioral alterations and glutathione defense and attenuated acetylcholinesterase activity and TNF-? levels, as compared to the control (i.e., ischemic reperfusion) group. The present study highlights the neuroprotective effect of celecoxib and nimesulide against ischemia reperfusion injury-induced memory dysfunction, neuroinflammation, and oxidative damage. PMID:21995864

  18. Brain CB1 receptor expression following lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Huangming; Ho, Winnie; Mackie, Ken; Pittman, Quentin J.; Sharkey, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    Cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1) are highly expressed on presynaptic terminals in the brain where they are importantly involved in the control of neurotransmitter release. Alteration of CB1 expression is associated with a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. There is now compelling evidence that peripheral inflammatory disorders are associated with depression and cognitive impairments. These can be modeled in rodents with peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but central effects of this treatment remain to be fully elucidated. As a reduction in endocannabinoid tone is thought to contribute to depression, we asked whether the expression of CB1 in the central nervous system (CNS) is altered following LPS treatment. CD1 mice received LPS (0.1–1 mg/kg, ip) and 6 hours later activated microglial cells were observed only in circumventricular organs and only at the higher dose. At 24 hours, activated microglial cells were identified in other brain regions, including the hippocampus, a structure implicated in some mood disorders. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR were utilized to evaluate the change of CB1 expression 24 hours after inflammation. LPS induced an increase of CB1 mRNA in hippocampus and brainstem. Subsequent immunohistochemical analysis revealed reduced CB1 in hippocampus, especially in CA3 pyramidal layer. Analysis of co-localization with markers of excitatory and inhibitory terminals indicated that the decrease in CB1 expression was restricted to glutamatergic terminals. Despite widespread microglial activation, these results suggest that peripheral LPS treatment leads to limited changes in CB1 expression in the brain. PMID:23041513

  19. EHMT1 and EHMT2 inhibition induces fetal hemoglobin expression

    PubMed Central

    Renneville, Aline; Van Galen, Peter; Canver, Matthew C.; McConkey, Marie; Krill-Burger, John M.; Dorfman, David M.; Holson, Edward B.; Bernstein, Bradley E.; Orkin, Stuart H.; Bauer, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    Fetal hemoglobin (HbF, α2γ2) induction is a well-validated strategy for sickle cell disease (SCD) treatment. Using a small-molecule screen, we found that UNC0638, a selective inhibitor of EHMT1 and EHMT2 histone methyltransferases, induces γ-globin expression. EHMT1/2 catalyze mono- and dimethylation of lysine 9 on histone 3 (H3K9), raising the possibility that H3K9Me2, a repressive chromatin mark, plays a role in silencing γ-globin expression. In primary human adult erythroid cells, UNC0638 and EHMT1 or EHMT2 short hairpin RNA–mediated knockdown significantly increased γ-globin expression, HbF synthesis, and the percentage of cells expressing HbF. At effective concentrations, UNC0638 did not alter cell morphology, proliferation, or erythroid differentiation of primary human CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in culture ex vivo. In murine erythroleukemia cells, UNC0638 and Ehmt2 CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout both led to a marked increase in expression of embryonic β-globin genes Hbb-εy and Hbb-βh1. In primary human adult erythroblasts, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing analysis revealed that UNC0638 treatment leads to genome-wide depletion in H3K9Me2 and a concomitant increase in the activating mark H3K9Ac, which was especially pronounced at the γ-globin gene region. In RNA-sequencing analysis of erythroblasts, γ-globin genes were among the most significantly upregulated genes by UNC0638. Further increase in γ-globin expression in primary human adult erythroid cells was achieved by combining EHMT1/2 inhibition with the histone deacetylase inhibitor entinostat or hypomethylating agent decitabine. Our data provide genetic and pharmacologic evidence that EHMT1 and EHMT2 are epigenetic regulators involved in γ-globin repression and represent a novel therapeutic target for SCD. PMID:26320100

  20. EHMT1 and EHMT2 inhibition induces fetal hemoglobin expression.

    PubMed

    Renneville, Aline; Van Galen, Peter; Canver, Matthew C; McConkey, Marie; Krill-Burger, John M; Dorfman, David M; Holson, Edward B; Bernstein, Bradley E; Orkin, Stuart H; Bauer, Daniel E; Ebert, Benjamin L

    2015-10-15

    Fetal hemoglobin (HbF, α2γ2) induction is a well-validated strategy for sickle cell disease (SCD) treatment. Using a small-molecule screen, we found that UNC0638, a selective inhibitor of EHMT1 and EHMT2 histone methyltransferases, induces γ-globin expression. EHMT1/2 catalyze mono- and dimethylation of lysine 9 on histone 3 (H3K9), raising the possibility that H3K9Me2, a repressive chromatin mark, plays a role in silencing γ-globin expression. In primary human adult erythroid cells, UNC0638 and EHMT1 or EHMT2 short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown significantly increased γ-globin expression, HbF synthesis, and the percentage of cells expressing HbF. At effective concentrations, UNC0638 did not alter cell morphology, proliferation, or erythroid differentiation of primary human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in culture ex vivo. In murine erythroleukemia cells, UNC0638 and Ehmt2 CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout both led to a marked increase in expression of embryonic β-globin genes Hbb-εy and Hbb-βh1. In primary human adult erythroblasts, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing analysis revealed that UNC0638 treatment leads to genome-wide depletion in H3K9Me2 and a concomitant increase in the activating mark H3K9Ac, which was especially pronounced at the γ-globin gene region. In RNA-sequencing analysis of erythroblasts, γ-globin genes were among the most significantly upregulated genes by UNC0638. Further increase in γ-globin expression in primary human adult erythroid cells was achieved by combining EHMT1/2 inhibition with the histone deacetylase inhibitor entinostat or hypomethylating agent decitabine. Our data provide genetic and pharmacologic evidence that EHMT1 and EHMT2 are epigenetic regulators involved in γ-globin repression and represent a novel therapeutic target for SCD. PMID:26320100

  1. Inducible nitric oxide synthase is expressed in synovial fluid granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Cedergren, J; Forslund, T; Sundqvist, T; Skogh, T

    2002-10-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the NO-producing potential of synovial fluid (SF) cells. SF from 15 patients with arthritis was compared with blood from the same individuals and with blood from 10 healthy controls. Cellular expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was analysed by flow cytometry. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure l-arginine and l-citrulline. Nitrite and nitrate were measured colourimetrically utilizing the Griess' reaction. Compared to whole blood granulocytes in patients with chronic arthritis, a prominent iNOS expression was observed in SF granulocytes (P < 0.001). A slight, but statistically significant, increase in iNOS expression was also recorded in lymphocytes and monocytes from SF. l-arginine was elevated in SF compared to serum (257 +/- 78 versus 176 +/- 65 micro mol/l, P = 0.008), whereas a slight increase in l-citrulline (33 +/- 11 versus 26 +/- 9 micro mol/l), did not reach statistical significance. Great variations but no significant differences were observed comparing serum and SF levels of nitrite and nitrate, respectively, although the sum of nitrite and nitrate tended to be elevated in SF (19.2 +/- 20.7 versus 8.6 +/- 6.5 micro mol/l, P = 0.054). Synovial fluid leucocytes, in particular granulocytes, express iNOS and may thus contribute to intra-articular NO production in arthritis. PMID:12296866

  2. Rhamnose-Inducible Gene Expression in Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Teiserskas, Justinas; Loessner, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Acid production from rhamnose is a characteristic phenotype of Listeria monocytogenes. We report the identification of the rhamnose transport and utilization operon located at lmo2846 to lmo2851, including the rhamnose-dependent promoter Prha. Expression of reporter genes under control of Prha on a single copy integration vector demonstrated its suitability for inducible gene expression in L. monocytogenes. Transcription initiation from Prha is dose dependent, and a concentration as low as 100 µM rhamnose was found sufficient for induction. Moreover, Prha is subject to glucose catabolite repression, which provides additional options for strict control of expression. Infection of human THP1 macrophages revealed that Prha is repressed in intracellular L. monocytogenes, which is explained by the absence of rhamnose in the cytosol and possible interference by catabolite repression. The Prha promoter provides a novel and useful tool for triggering gene expression in extracellular L. monocytogenes, whereas intracellular conditions prevent transcription from this promoter. PMID:22927968

  3. Temporal Quantification of MAPK Induced Expression in Single Yeast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pelet, Serge; Aymoz, Delphine; Durandau, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The quantification of gene expression at the single cell level uncovers novel regulatory mechanisms obscured in measurements performed at the population level. Two methods based on microscopy and flow cytometry are presented to demonstrate how such data can be acquired. The expression of a fluorescent reporter induced upon activation of the high osmolarity glycerol MAPK pathway in yeast is used as an example. The specific advantages of each method are highlighted. Flow cytometry measures a large number of cells (10,000) and provides a direct measure of the dynamics of protein expression independent of the slow maturation kinetics of the fluorescent protein. Imaging of living cells by microscopy is by contrast limited to the measurement of the matured form of the reporter in fewer cells. However, the data sets generated by this technique can be extremely rich thanks to the combinations of multiple reporters and to the spatial and temporal information obtained from individual cells. The combination of these two measurement methods can deliver new insights on the regulation of protein expression by signaling pathways. PMID:24121725

  4. Temporal quantification of MAPK induced expression in single yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Pelet, Serge; Aymoz, Delphine; Durandau, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The quantification of gene expression at the single cell level uncovers novel regulatory mechanisms obscured in measurements performed at the population level. Two methods based on microscopy and flow cytometry are presented to demonstrate how such data can be acquired. The expression of a fluorescent reporter induced upon activation of the high osmolarity glycerol MAPK pathway in yeast is used as an example. The specific advantages of each method are highlighted. Flow cytometry measures a large number of cells (10,000) and provides a direct measure of the dynamics of protein expression independent of the slow maturation kinetics of the fluorescent protein. Imaging of living cells by microscopy is by contrast limited to the measurement of the matured form of the reporter in fewer cells. However, the data sets generated by this technique can be extremely rich thanks to the combinations of multiple reporters and to the spatial and temporal information obtained from individual cells. The combination of these two measurement methods can deliver new insights on the regulation of protein expression by signaling pathways. PMID:24121725

  5. Strong Magnetic Field Induced Changes of Gene Expression in Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, A.-L.; Ferl, R. J.; Klingenberg, B.; Brooks, J. S.; Morgan, A. N.; Yowtak, J.; Meisel, M. W.

    2005-07-01

    We review our studies of the biological impact of magnetic field strengths of up to 30 T on transgenic arabidopsis plants engineered with a stress response gene consisting of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter driving the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene reporter. Field strengths in excess of 15 T induce expression of the Adh/GUS transgene in the roots and leaves. Microarray analyses indicate that such field strengths have a far reaching effect on the genome. Wide spread induction of stress-related genes and transcription factors, and a depression of genes associated with cell wall metabolism are prominent examples.

  6. Involvement of ERK, p38 and NF-kappaB signal transduction in regulation of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 gene expression induced by lipopolysaccharide in mouse dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    An, Huazhang; Yu, Yizhi; Zhang, Minghui; Xu, Hongmei; Qi, Runzi; Yan, Xiaoyi; Liu, Shuxun; Wang, Wenya; Guo, Zhenghong; Guo, Jun; Qin, Zhihai; Cao, Xuetao

    2002-05-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are sentinel receptors capable of recognizing pathogen-associated molecule patterns (PAMP) such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and CpG-containing oligonucleotides (CpG ODN). TLR2 and TLR4 are major receptors for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cell wall components, respectively. TLR9 is necessary for CpG signalling. LPS or CpG ODN can activate immature dendritic cells (DC) and induce DC maturation characterized by production of cytokines, up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules, and increased ability to activate T cells. However, little is known regarding the regulation of TLR gene expression in mouse DC. In this study, we investigated the regulation of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 gene expression by LPS in murine immature DC. TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 mRNA were up-regulated following LPS stimulation. The up-regulation of TLR9 expression coincided with significantly increased production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha induced by LPS plus CpG ODN. While inhibition of extracellular signal-related kinase and NF-kappaB activation suppressed the up-regulation of the expression of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 mRNA, inhibition of p38 kinase prevented the up-regulation of TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA expression but enhanced the up-regulation of TLR9 expression. These results demonstrated that TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 gene expression was differently regulated by LPS in mouse immature DC. Up-regulation of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 expression by LPS might promote the overall responses of DC to bacteria and help to explain the synergy between LPS and other bacterial products in the induction of cytokine production. PMID:11972630

  7. Changes in leukocyte gene expression profiles induced by antineoplastic chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    GONZLEZ-FERNNDEZ, REBECA; MORALES, MANUEL; AVILA, JULIO; MARTN-VASALLO, PABLO

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we studied changes in gene expression induced by chemotherapy (CT) on normal peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs), at baseline and following three CT cycles, in order to identify which genes were specifically affected and were potentially useful as biomarkers for a personalised prognosis and follow-up. A PBL subtraction cDNA library was constructed from four patients undergoing CT with paclitaxel and carboplatin (PC). mRNA from the PBLs was isolated prior to the patients receiving the first cycle and following the completion of the third cycle. The library was screened and the expression of the identified genes was studied in PBLs obtained from patients suffering from cancer prior to and following three cycles of PC and a reference group of patients undergoing treatment with Adriamycin-cyclophosphamide (AC). From the 1,200 screened colonies, 65 positive clones showed varied expression intensity and were sequenced; 27 of these were mitochondrial DNA and 38 clones (27 different) were coded for cytosolic and nuclear proteins. The genes that were studied in patients undergoing CT were ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene), eIF4B (translation initiation factor 4B), MATR3 (Matrin 3), MORC3 (microrchidia 3), PCMTD2 (protein-L-isoaspartate O-methyltransferase), PDCD10 (programmed cell death gene 10), PSMB1 (proteasome subunit type ?), RMND5A (required for meiotic nuclear division 5 homologue A), RUNX2 (runt-related transcription factor 2), SACM1L (suppressor of actin mutations 1-like), TMEM66 (transmembrane protein 66) and ZNF644 (zinc finger protein 644). Certain variations were observed in the expression of the genes that are involved in drug resistance mechanisms, some of which may be secondary to non-desirable effects and others of which may cause the undesired effects of CT. The expression of genes with a dynamic cellular role showed a marked positive correlation, indicating that their upregulation may be involved in a specific pattern of cell survival versus apoptosis in response to the cell damage induced by CT. Whether these CT-induced changes are random or directed in a specific selection-evolution manner needs to be elucidated. PMID:22783446

  8. OXIDANT ALTERATIONS IN CD16 EXPRESSION ARE CYTOSKELETAL INDUCED1

    PubMed Central

    Cuschieri, Joseph; Sakr, Sana; Bulger, Eileen; Knoll, Megan; Arbabi, Saman; Maier, Ronald V.

    2009-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress during reperfusion of ischemia is associated with a phenotypic change in circulating monocytes from CD14++CD16- to a pro-inflammatory CD14+CD16+ subpopulation resulting in altered immunity and development of organ failure. However, the mechanism responsible remains unknown. We hypothesize that this phenotypic change, modeled by hydrogen peroxide exposure in vitro, is due to oxidative-induced intracellular calcium flux, and distinct cytoskeletal and lipid raft changes. Methods Peripheral blood monocytes obtained from healthy volunteers underwent 100 mM H2O2 exposure for 0-24 hours. Selected cells were pretreated with 2 μM cytochalasin D (CD), 1 μM lactrunculin A (LA) or 30 μM 1,2-Bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N’,N’-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) for 30 minutes. Cells underwent FACS for CD14, CD16 and cytokine expression. Cellular and lipid raft CD16 expression was determined by immunoblot and confocal microscopy. Results H2O2 exposed monocytes underwent a rapid time dependent increase in the surface expression of CD16 from 12.81 ± 3.53% to 37.12 ± 7.61% at 24 hours (p=0.001). Total cellular CD16 was not changed by H2O2, but an increase in lipid raft and decrease in intracellular CD16 expression was seen following H2O2 exposure. This increase in CD16 expression was associated with a 27% increase in intracellular TNF-α, an alteration in actin polymerization, and the formation of raft macrodomains. These changes induced by H2O2 were inhibited by inhibition of actin polymerization (CD and LA) and intracellular calcium flux (BAPTA). Conclusion This study provides the first evidence that phenotypic alterations induced by oxidative stress during reperfusion may occur as a result of changes in cytoskeletal architecture due to calcium flux that result in lipid raft alterations rather than solely from demargination and/or production of bone marrow derived CD16+ monocytes. PMID:19333136

  9. Localization of transforming growth factor alpha and its receptor in gastric mucosal cells. Implications for a regulatory role in acid secretion and mucosal renewal.

    PubMed Central

    Beauchamp, R D; Barnard, J A; McCutchen, C M; Cherner, J A; Coffey, R J

    1989-01-01

    Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) shares with epidermal growth factor (EGF) structural homology (35%), a common cell-surface membrane receptor (TGF alpha/EGF receptor), and a nearly identical spectrum of biological activity, including inhibition of gastric acid secretion. Herein, we report expression of TGF alpha mRNA in normal gastric mucosa of the adult guinea pig, rat, and dog. TGF alpha mRNA was also detected in matched surgically resected gastric mucosa and adjacent gastric carcinoma from 10 patients, and in gastric mucosa adjacent to a benign ulcer from an additional patient. TGF alpha protein was quantitated by radioimmunoassay and was present in tumor and adjacent mucosa. TGF alpha/EGF receptor mRNA was also detected in gastric mucosa from all species studied. Localization of TGF alpha and TGF alpha/EGF receptor mRNA expression was examined in samples of unfractionated guinea pig gastric mucosa and from chief cell-enriched and parietal cell-enriched fractions. All samples exhibited TGF alpha and TGF alpha/EGF receptor expression. The TGF alpha signal was greatest in the parietal cell fraction (5.8-fold increase), but was also enhanced in the chief cell fraction (1.9-fold increase) relative to the unfractionated gastric mucosa. Like TGF alpha expression, TGF alpha/EGF receptor mRNA expression was most intense in the parietal cell-enriched fraction (7.8-fold increase), but was also increased in the chief cell-enriched fraction (2.7-fold increase) relative to the unfractionated guinea pig gastric mucosa. We conclude that TGF alpha and TGF alpha/EGF receptor genes are expressed in normal adult mammalian gastric mucosa. These findings, when interpreted in light of described actions of TGF alpha and EGF, provide evidence that local production of TGF alpha could play an important role in the regulation of acid secretion and mucosal renewal in the stomach. Images PMID:2760208

  10. Early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) regulates pro-inflammatory gene expression in response to palmitate and TNF alpha in human placenta cells and is induced in obese placenta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal obesity has been hypothesized to induce a pro-inflammatory response in the placenta. However, the specific factors contributing to this pro-infalmmatory response are yet to be determined. Our objective was to examine the effects of palmitic acid (PA), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alph...

  11. The effects of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in rat allograft adventitial inflammation and allograft arteriosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, H; Lu, X; Wu, S; Sun, W

    2009-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) during allograft adventitial inflammation and arteriosclerosis. Lewis rats were used as donors and Wistar rats as recipients for the experimental groups, while both donors and recipients were Wistar rats in the control groups. The 36 experimental and 16 control allografts were divided into four groups (nine in each experimental and four in each control group): group A animals were euthanized at 1 week posttransplantation; groups B, C, and D animals were euthanized at 2, 3, and 4 weeks posttransplantation, respectively. The method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to test serum levels of CRP, IL-6, and TNF-alpha. Immunohistological and pathological studies were performed to evaluate allograft adventitial inflammation, arteriosclerosis, and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Allografts collected from group D demonstrated abundant infiltration of smooth muscle cells and collagenous fibers with inflammatory cells in the adventitia. ELISA demonstrated a higher levels of CRP, IL-6, and TNF-alpha in experimental than control groups. Additionally, PCNA increased over time in the adventitia. Our results suggested that the expressions of CRP, IL-6, and TNF-alpha play important roles during the development of allograft adventitial inflammation and arteriosclerosis. PMID:19917410

  12. Association between hepatocellular carcinoma and tumor necrosis factor alpha polymorphisms in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Suk Pyo; Kim, Nam Keun; Kim, Ju Hwan; Lee, Ju Ho; Kim, Jung Oh; Cho, Sung Hwan; Park, Hana; Kim, Mi Na; Rim, Kyu Sung; Hwang, Seong Gyu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate associations between the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) -1031 T>C, -863 C>A, -857 C>T, -308 G>A, and -238 G>A polymorphisms and HCC in Korea. METHODS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases were diagnosed at CHA Bundang Medical Center from June 1996 to August 2008. The association between TNF-α polymorphisms and HCC was analyzed in 157 HCC patients and 201 controls using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. We investigated five TNF-α polymorphisms, which are TNF-α -1031 T>C, -863 C>A, -857 C>T, -308 G>A, and -238 G>A. The TNF-α genotype frequencies, genotype combinations and haplotypes were analyzed to disclose the association with HCC. RESULTS: None of the TNF-α polymorphisms was significantly associated with HCC. However, nine genotype combinations had associations with increased likelihood of HCC. Among them, TNF-α -1031/-857/-238 TT/CC/GA (AOR = 18.849, 95%CI: 2.203-161.246, P = 0.007), TNF-α -1031/-308/-238 TT/GG/GA (AOR = 26.956, 95%CI: 3.071-236.584, P = 0.003), and TNF-α -1031/-238 TT/GA (AOR = 21.576, 95%CI: 2.581-180.394, P = 0.005) showed marked association with HCC. There were five haplotypes of TNF-α polymorphisms which were significantly associated with HCC. They are TNF-α -1031/-863/-857/-308/-238 T-C-C-G-A (OR = 25.824, 95%CI: 1.491-447.223, P = 0.0005), TNF-α -1031/-857/-308/-238 T-C-G-A (OR = 12.059, 95%CI: 2.747-52.950, P < 0.0001), TNF-α -1031/-857/-238 T-C-A (OR = 10.696, 95%CI: 2.428-47.110, P = 0.0001), TNF-α -1031/-308/-238 T-G-A (OR = 7.556, 95%CI: 2.173-26.280, P = 0.0002) and TNF-α -1031/-238 T-A (OR = 10.865, 95%CI: 2.473-47.740, P = 0.0001). Moreover, HCC Okuda stage III cases with the TNF-α -1031 CC genotype had better survival than those with the TT genotype (AOR = 5.795, 95%CI: 1.145-29.323). CONCLUSION: Although no single TNF-α polymorphism is associated with HCC in this study, some TNF-α genotype combinations and haplotypes are associated with HCC. In addition, HCC Okuda stage III cases with the TNF-α -1031 TT genotype may have a better prognosis than those with the CC genotype. PMID:26672513

  13. MicroRNA (miRNA) expression is regulated by butyrate induced epigenetic modulation of gene expression in bovine cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present evidence that butyrate induced histone acetylation regulates miRNA expression. MicroRNA expression microarray profiling revealed that 35 miRNA transcripts are significantly (p <0.05) differentially expressed after cells were treated with 10 mM butyrate. Among them, 11 transcripts are dif...

  14. Roles of factorial noise in inducing bimodal gene expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peijiang; Yuan, Zhanjiang; Huang, Lifang; Zhou, Tianshou

    2015-06-01

    Some gene regulatory systems can exhibit bimodal distributions of mRNA or protein although the deterministic counterparts are monostable. This noise-induced bimodality is an interesting phenomenon and has important biological implications, but it is unclear how different sources of expression noise (each source creates so-called factorial noise that is defined as a component of the total noise) contribute separately to this stochastic bimodality. Here we consider a minimal model of gene regulation, which is monostable in the deterministic case. Although simple, this system contains factorial noise of two main kinds: promoter noise due to switching between gene states and transcriptional (or translational) noise due to synthesis and degradation of mRNA (or protein). To better trace the roles of factorial noise in inducing bimodality, we also analyze two limit models, continuous and adiabatic approximations, apart from the exact model. We show that in the case of slow gene switching, the continuous model where only promoter noise is considered can exhibit bimodality; in the case of fast switching, the adiabatic model where only transcriptional or translational noise is considered can also exhibit bimodality but the exact model cannot; and in other cases, both promoter noise and transcriptional or translational noise can cooperatively induce bimodality. Since slow gene switching and large protein copy numbers are characteristics of eukaryotic cells, whereas fast gene switching and small protein copy numbers are characteristics of prokaryotic cells, we infer that eukaryotic stochastic bimodality is induced mainly by promoter noise, whereas prokaryotic stochastic bimodality is induced primarily by transcriptional or translational noise. PMID:26172735

  15. Roles of factorial noise in inducing bimodal gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peijiang; Yuan, Zhanjiang; Huang, Lifang; Zhou, Tianshou

    2015-06-01

    Some gene regulatory systems can exhibit bimodal distributions of mRNA or protein although the deterministic counterparts are monostable. This noise-induced bimodality is an interesting phenomenon and has important biological implications, but it is unclear how different sources of expression noise (each source creates so-called factorial noise that is defined as a component of the total noise) contribute separately to this stochastic bimodality. Here we consider a minimal model of gene regulation, which is monostable in the deterministic case. Although simple, this system contains factorial noise of two main kinds: promoter noise due to switching between gene states and transcriptional (or translational) noise due to synthesis and degradation of mRNA (or protein). To better trace the roles of factorial noise in inducing bimodality, we also analyze two limit models, continuous and adiabatic approximations, apart from the exact model. We show that in the case of slow gene switching, the continuous model where only promoter noise is considered can exhibit bimodality; in the case of fast switching, the adiabatic model where only transcriptional or translational noise is considered can also exhibit bimodality but the exact model cannot; and in other cases, both promoter noise and transcriptional or translational noise can cooperatively induce bimodality. Since slow gene switching and large protein copy numbers are characteristics of eukaryotic cells, whereas fast gene switching and small protein copy numbers are characteristics of prokaryotic cells, we infer that eukaryotic stochastic bimodality is induced mainly by promoter noise, whereas prokaryotic stochastic bimodality is induced primarily by transcriptional or translational noise.

  16. Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} enhanced fusions between oral squamous cell carcinoma cells and endothelial cells via VCAM-1/VLA-4 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Kai; Zhu, Fei; Zhang, Han-zhong; Shang, Zheng-jun; First Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan

    2012-08-15

    Fusion between cancer cells and host cells, including endothelial cells, may strongly modulate the biological behavior of tumors. However, no one is sure about the driving factors and underlying mechanism involved in such fusion. We hypothesized in this study that inflammation, one of the main characteristics in tumor microenvironment, serves as a prominent catalyst for fusion events. Our results showed that oral cancer cells can fuse spontaneously with endothelial cells in co-culture and inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) increased fusion of human umbilical vein endothelium cells and oral cancer cells by up to 3-fold in vitro. Additionally, human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and 35 out of 50 (70%) oral squamous carcinoma specimens express VLA-4, an integrin, previously implicated in fusions between human peripheral blood CD34-positive cells and murine cardiomyocytes. Expression of VCAM-1, a ligand for VLA-4, was evident on vascular endothelium of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Moreover, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry analysis revealed that expression of VCAM-1 increased obviously in TNF-{alpha}-stimulated endothelial cells. Anti-VLA-4 or anti-VCAM-1 treatment can decrease significantly cancer-endothelial adhesion and block such fusion. Collectively, our results suggested that TNF-{alpha} could enhance cancer-endothelial cell adhesion and fusion through VCAM-1/VLA-4 pathway. This study provides insights into regulatory mechanism of cancer-endothelial cell fusion, and has important implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for prevention of metastasis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spontaneous oral cancer-endothelial cell fusion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} enhanced cell fusions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VCAM-1/VLA-4 expressed in oral cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} increased expression of VCAM-1 on endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VCAM-1/VLA-4 mediated TNF-{alpha}-enhanced cell fusions.

  17. Interferon-tau blocks the stimulatory effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha on prostaglandin F2alpha synthesis by bovine endometrial stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Kiyoshi; Kasahara, Yuko; Murakami, Shuko; Takahashi, Hitomi; Woclawek-Potocka, Izabela; Skarzynski, Dariusz J

    2004-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) has been shown to be a potent stimulator of prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha synthesis in bovine endometrial stromal cells. The aims of the present study were to determine the effect of interferon-tau (IFNtau) on TNFalpha-stimulated PGF2alpha synthesis and the intracellular mechanisms of TNFalpha and IFNtau action in the stromal cells. When cultured bovine stromal cells were exposed to TNFalpha (0.006-0.6 nM) for 24 h, the production of PGF2alpha and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 gene expression were stimulated by TNFalpha (0.06-0.6 nM, P < 0.05). Moreover, a specific COX-2 inhibitor (NS-398; 5 nM) blocked the stimulatory effect of TNFalpha on PGF2alpha production (P < 0.05). Although IFNtau (0.03-30 ng/ml) did not stimulate basal PGF2alpha production in the stromal cells, it suppressed TNFalpha action in PGF2alpha production dose dependently (P < 0.05). Moreover, the stimulatory effect of TNFalpha (0.6 nM) on COX-2 gene expression was completely blocked by IFNtau (30 ng/ml; P < 0.05), although the gene expression of COX-2 was not influenced by IFNtau. The overall results indicate that the stimulatory effect of TNFalpha on PGF2alpha production is mediated by the up-regulation of COX-2 gene expression and suggest that one of the mechanisms of the inhibitory effect of IFNtau on luteolysis is the inhibition of TNFalpha action in PGF2alpha production in the stromal cells by the down-regulation of COX-2 gene expression stimulated by TNFalpha. PMID:13679315

  18. Mechanisms of Deoxynivalenol-Induced Gene Expression and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Pestka, James J.

    2008-01-01

    Fusarium infection of agricultural staples such as wheat, barley and corn with concurrent production of deoxynivalenol (DON) and other trichothecene mycotoxins is an increasingly common problem worldwide. In addition to its emetic effects, chronic dietary exposure to DON causes impaired weight gain, anorexia, decreased nutritional efficiency and immune dysregulation in experimental animals. Trichothecenes are both immunostimulatory or immunosuppressive depending on dose, frequency and duration of exposure as well as type of immune function assay. Monocytes, macrophages, as well as T and B lymphocytes of the immune system can be cellular targets of DON and other trichothecenes. In vitro exposure to low trichothecene concentrations upregulates expression both transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally of cytokines, chemokines and inflammatory genes with concurrent immune stimulation, whereas exposure to high concentrations promotes leukocyte apoptosis with concomitant immune suppression. DON and other trichothecenes, via a mechanism known as the “ribotoxic stress response”, bind to ribosomes and rapidly activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The latter are important transducers of downstream signaling events related to immune response and apoptosis. Using cloned macrophages, we have identified two critical upstream transducers of DON-induced MAPK activation. One transducer is double-stranded RNA-(dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR), a widely-expressed serine/theonine protein kinase that can be activated by dsRNA, interferon and other agents. The other transducer is hematopoetic cell kinase (Hck), a non-receptor associated Src oncogene family kinase. Pharmacologic inhibitors and gene suppression studies have revealed that Hck and PKR contribute to DON-induced gene expression and apoptosis. PKR, Hck and other kinases bind to the ribosome and are activated following DON interaction. Future studies will focus on the sequence of molecular events at the ribosome level that drive selective activation of these upstream kinases. PMID:19238623

  19. Bitumen fume-induced gene expression profile in rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Gate, Laurent . E-mail: laurent.gate@inrs.fr; Langlais, Cristina; Micillino, Jean-Claude; Nunge, Herve; Bottin, Marie-Claire; Wrobel, Richard; Binet, Stephane

    2006-08-15

    Exposure to bitumen fumes during paving and roofing activities may represent an occupational health risk. To date, most of the studies performed on the biological effect of asphalt fumes have been done with regard to their content in carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In order to gain an additional insight into the mechanisms of action of bitumen fumes, we studied their pulmonary effects in rodents following inhalation using the microarray technology. Fisher 344 rats were exposed for 5 days, 6 h/day to bitumen fumes generated at road paving temperature (170 {sup o}C) using a nose-only exposition device. With the intention of studying the early transcriptional events induced by asphalt fumes, lung tissues were collected immediately following exposure and gene expression profiles in control and exposed rats were determined by using oligonucleotide microarrays. Data analysis revealed that genes involved in lung inflammatory response as well as genes associated with PAH metabolization and detoxification were highly expressed in bitumen-exposed animals. In addition, the expression of genes related to elastase activity and its inhibition which are associated with emphysema was also modulated. More interestingly genes coding for monoamine oxidases A and B involved in the metabolism of neurotransmitters and xenobiotics were downregulated in exposed rats. Altogether, these data give additional information concerning the bitumen fumes biological effects and would allow to better review the health effects of occupational asphalt fumes exposure.

  20. Lactobacillus fermentum ZYL0401 Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Hepatic TNF-α Expression and Liver Injury via an IL-10- and PGE2-EP4-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Longxian; Yang, Jianzhuan; Lu, Haifeng; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has essential role in the pathogenesis of D-galactosamine-sensitized animal models and alcoholic liver diseases of humans, by stimulating release of pro-inflammatory mediators that cause hepatic damage and intestinal barrier impairment. Oral pretreatment of probiotics has been shown to attenuate LPS-induced hepatic injury, but it is unclear whether the effect is direct or due to improvement in the intestinal barrier. The present study tested the hypothesis that pretreatment with probiotics enables the liver to withstand directly LPS-induced hepatic injury and inflammation. In a mouse model of LPS-induced hepatic injury, the levels of hepatic tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of mice with depleted intestinal commensal bacteria were not significantly different from that of the control models. Pre-feeding mice for 10 days with Lactobacillus fermentum ZYL0401 (LF41), significantly alleviated LPS-induced hepatic TNF-α expression and liver damage. After LF41 pretreatment, mice had dramatically more L.fermentum-specific DNA in the ileum, significantly higher levels of ileal cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and interleukin 10 (IL-10) and hepatic prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). However, hepatic COX-1, COX-2, and IL-10 protein levels were not changed after the pretreatment. There were also higher hepatic IL-10 protein levels after LPS challenge in LF41-pretreaed mice than in the control mice. Attenuation of hepatic TNF-α was mediated via the PGE2/E prostanoid 4 (EP4) pathway, and serum ALT levels were attenuated in an IL-10-dependent manner. A COX-2 blockade abolished the increase in hepatic PGE2 and IL-10 associated with LF41. In LF41-pretreated mice, a blockade of IL-10 caused COX-2-dependent promotion of hepatic PGE2, without affecting hepatic COX-2levels. In LF41-pretreated mice, COX2 prevented enhancing TNF-α expression in both hepatic mononuclear cells and the ileum, and averted TNF-α-mediated increase in intestinal permeability. Together, we demonstrated that LF41 pre-feeding enabled the liver to alleviate LPS-induced hepatic TNF-α expression and injury via a PGE2-EP4- and IL-10-dependent mechanism. PMID:25978374

  1. Intranasal immune challenge induces sex-dependent depressive-like behavior and cytokine expression in the brain.

    PubMed

    Tonelli, Leonardo H; Holmes, Andrew; Postolache, Teodor T

    2008-04-01

    The association between activation of the immune system and mood disorders has been reported by several studies. However, the mechanisms by which the immune system affects mood are only partially understood. In the present study, we detected depressive-like behavior in a rat animal model which involves the induction of inflammation in the nasal cavities by intranasal (i.n.) instillation of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Female rats showed depressive-like behavior as evidenced by the forced swim test after repeated i.n. administration of LPS. These responses were not paralleled by alterations in motor activity as measured by the open field test. In the same animals, corticosterone responses after the swimming sessions were the highest of all the groups evaluated. Real-time RT PCR was used to analyze the transcriptional regulation of the cytokines interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-6 in several brain regions. Increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha was detected in the hippocampus and brainstem of female rats challenged with i.n. LPS. These results suggest that peripheral inflammation in the upper respiratory tract is an immune challenge capable of inducing depressive-like behavior, promoting exaggerated glucocorticoid responses to stress, and increasing cytokine transcription in the brain. These results further our understanding of the role that the immune system may play in the pathophysiology of depression. PMID:17593929

  2. Variation in Protein Intake Induces Variation in Spider Silk Expression

    PubMed Central

    Blamires, Sean J.; Wu, Chun-Lin; Tso, I-Min

    2012-01-01

    Background It is energetically expensive to synthesize certain amino acids. The proteins (spidroins) of spider major ampullate (MA) silk, MaSp1 and MaSp2, differ in amino acid composition. Glutamine and proline are prevalent in MaSp2 and are expensive to synthesize. Since most orb web spiders express high proline silk they might preferentially attain the amino acids needed for silk from food and shift toward expressing more MaSp1 in their MA silk when starved. Methodology/Principal Findings We fed three spiders; Argiope aetherea, Cyrtophora moluccensis and Leucauge blanda, high protein, low protein or no protein solutions. A. aetherea and L. blanda MA silks are high in proline, while C. moluccesnsis MA silks are low in proline. After 10 days of feeding we determined the amino acid compositions and mechanical properties of each species' MA silk and compared them between species and treatments with pre-treatment samples, accounting for ancestry. We found that the proline and glutamine of A. aetherea and L. blanda silks were affected by protein intake; significantly decreasing under the low and no protein intake treatments. Glutmaine composition in C. moluccensis silk was likewise affected by protein intake. However, the composition of proline in their MA silk was not significantly affected by protein intake. Conclusions Our results suggest that protein limitation induces a shift toward different silk proteins with lower glutamine and/or proline content. Contradictions to the MaSp model lie in the findings that C. moluccensis MA silks did not experience a significant reduction in proline and A. aetherea did not experience a significant reduction in serine on low/no protein. The mechanical properties of the silks could not be explained by a MaSp1 expressional shift. Factors other than MaSp expression, such as the expression of spidroin-like orthologues, may impact on silk amino acid composition and spinning and glandular processes may impact mechanics. PMID:22363691

  3. Redox regulation of chemokine receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Saccani, A; Saccani, S; Orlando, S; Sironi, M; Bernasconi, S; Ghezzi, P; Mantovani, A; Sica, A

    2000-03-14

    Cytokines and reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) are frequent companions at sites of acute inflammation. We have shown previously that in human monocytes, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, IL-1, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha induce a rapid down-regulation of the monocyte chemotactic protein-1 receptor CCR2 (CC chemokine receptor-2). These stimuli also induce production of ROI. In this paper, we investigate the influence of antioxidants and/or ROI on chemokine-receptor expression. In human monocytes, the antioxidant pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) rapidly inhibited CCR2 (95-100% of inhibition) and CCR5 (77-100% of inhibition) mRNA expression by strongly decreasing transcript stability. CCR2 half-life was decreased from 1.5 h to 45 min; CCR5 half-life was decreased from 2 h to 70 min. This inhibitory activity also included CXCR4 (CXC chemokine receptor-4) but not CXCR2 receptor and, although to a lesser extent, was shared by the antioxidants N-acetyl-l-cysteine and 2-mercaptoethanol. In contrast, the ROI-generating system xanthine/xanthine oxidase increased CCR5 and CXCR4 mRNA expression and counteracted the inhibitory effect of PDTC. Accordingly, H(2)O(2) and the glutathione-depleting drug buthionine sulfoximine increased to different extents CCR2, CCR5, and CXCR4 mRNA expression. The PDTC-mediated inhibition of CCR5 and CXCR4 mRNA expression was associated with decreased chemotactic responsiveness (>90% inhibition) and with a marked inhibition of surface-receptor expression. In contrast, xanthine/xanthine oxidase opposed the bacterial lipopolysaccharide- and tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated inhibition of CCR5 and CXCR4 mRNA expression and increased both the CCR5 surface expression and the cell migration (3-fold) in response to macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta. These results suggest that the redox status of cells is a crucial determinant in the regulation of the chemokine system. PMID:10716998

  4. Inducible Expression of CXCL1 within the Central Nervous System Amplifies Viral-Induced Demyelination

    PubMed Central

    Marro, Brett S.; Grist, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    The functional role of the ELR+ chemokine CXCL1 in host defense and disease following infection of the CNS with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) was examined. Mice in which expression of CXCL1 is under the control of a tetracycline-inducible promoter active within glial fibrillary acidic protein–positive cells were generated and this allowed for selectively increasing CNS expression of CXCL1 in response to JHMV infection and evaluating the effects on neuroinflammation, control of viral replication, and demyelination. Inducible expression of CNS-derived CXCL1 resulted in increased levels of CXCL1 protein within the serum, brain, and spinal cord that correlated with increased frequency of Ly6G+CD11b+ neutrophils present within the CNS. Elevated levels of CXCL1 did not influence the generation of virus-specific T cells, and there was no difference in control of JHMV replication compared with control mice, indicating that T cell infiltration into the CNS is CXCL1-independent. Sustained CXCL1 expression within the CNS resulted in increased mortality that correlated with elevated neutrophil infiltration, diminished numbers of mature oligodendrocytes, and an increase in the severity of demyelination. Neutrophil ablation in CXCL1-transgenic mice reduced the severity of demyelination in mice, arguing for a role for these cells in white matter damage. Collectively, these findings illustrate that sustained CXCL1 expression amplifies the severity of white matter damage and that neutrophils can contribute to this process in a model of viral-induced neurologic disease. PMID:26773148

  5. An essential amino acid induces epithelial β-defensin expression

    PubMed Central

    Fehlbaum, Pascale; Rao, Meena; Zasloff, Michael; Anderson, G. Mark

    2000-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides constitute an important component of the mammalian innate immune response. Several types of antimicrobial peptides, including the β-defensins, are produced at epithelial surfaces in response to infectious threats. Here we show that a class of small molecules, including l-isoleucine and several of its analogs, can specifically induce epithelial β-defensin expression. This induction is transcriptional in nature and involves activation of the NF-κB/rel family of trans-activating factors. We hypothesize that these substances represent unique markers for the presence of pathogens and are recognized by innate immune pattern recognition receptors. Isoleucine or its analogs ultimately may have clinical utility as novel immunostimulants that could bolster the barrier defenses of mucosal surfaces. PMID:11058160

  6. Protective mechanism of glycyrrhizin on acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chan-Ho; Park, Sang-Won; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kang, Sam Sik; Kim, Jeong Ah; Lee, Seung Ho; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2007-10-01

    Glycyrrhizin is the major active component extracted from licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) roots, one of the most widely used herbal preparations for the treatment of liver disorders. This study evaluated the potential beneficial effect of glycyrrhizin in a mouse model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver injury. The mice were treated intraperitoneally with CCl(4) (0.5 ml/kg). They received glycyrrhizin (50, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg) 24 h and 0.5 h before and 4 h after administering CCl(4). The serum activities of aminotransferase and the hepatic level of malondialdehyde were significantly higher 24 h after the CCl(4) treatment, while the concentration of reduced glutathione was lower. These changes were attenuated by glycyrrhizin. CCl(4) increased the level of circulating tumor necrosis factor-alpha markedly, which was reduced by glycyrrhizin. The levels of hepatic inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and heme oxygenase-1 protein expression were markedly higher after the CCl(4) treatment. Glycyrrhizin diminished these alterations for inducible nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase-2 but the protein expression of heme oxygenase-1 was further elevated by the treatment of glycyrrhizin. CCl(4) increased the level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and heme oxygenase-1 mRNA expressions. The mRNA expression of heme oxygenase-1 was augmented by the glycyrrhizin treatment, while glycyrrhizin attenuated the increase in tumor necrosis factor-alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expressions. These results suggest that glycyrrhizin alleviates CCl(4)-induced liver injury, and this protection is likely due to the induction of heme oxygenase-1 and the downregulation of proinflammatory mediators. PMID:17917259

  7. Regulation of neutrophil apoptosis by tumor necrosis factor-alpha: requirement for TNFR55 and TNFR75 for induction of apoptosis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Murray, J; Barbara, J A; Dunkley, S A; Lopez, A F; Van Ostade, X; Condliffe, A M; Dransfield, I; Haslett, C; Chilvers, E R

    1997-10-01

    Granulocyte apoptosis is an important mechanism underlying the removal of redundant neutrophils from an inflammatory focus. The ability of many proinflammatory agents to impede this event suggests that such agents act not only in a priming or secretagogue capacity but also increase neutrophil longevity by delaying apoptosis. We have examined whether this hypothesis holds true for all neutrophil priming agents, in particular tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), which has been variably reported to either induce, delay, or have no effect on neutrophil apoptosis. After 20 hours coincubation TNF-alpha inhibited neutrophil apoptosis; however, more detailed analysis demonstrated its ability to promote apoptosis in a subpopulation of cells at earlier (2 to 8 hours) times. Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe, platelet-activating factor, inositol hexakisphosphate, lipopolysaccharide, leukotriene B4, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor all inhibited apoptosis at 6 and 20 hours. The early proapoptotic effect of TNF-alpha was concentration-dependent (EC50 2.8 ng/mL), abolished by TNF-alpha neutralizing antibody, and was not associated with any change in cell viability or recovery. Of relevance to the inflamed site, the ability of TNF-alpha to accelerate apoptosis was lost if neutrophils were primed with 1 micromol/L PAF or aged for 6 hours before TNF-alpha addition. The TNFR55-selective TNF-alpha mutants (E146K, R32W-S86T) induced neutrophil apoptosis but with a potency 14-fold lower than wild-type TNF-alpha. Although the TNFR75-selective mutant (D143F) did not induce apoptosis, blocking antibodies to both receptor subtypes abolished TNF-alpha-stimulated apoptosis. Hence, TNF-alpha has the unique ability to induce apoptosis in human neutrophils via a mechanism where TNFR75 facilitates the dominant TNFR55 death effect. This may be an important mechanism controlling neutrophil longevity and clearance in vivo. PMID:9326245

  8. In Vitro Infection of Bovine Monocytes with Mycoplasma bovis Delays Apoptosis and Suppresses Production of Gamma Interferon and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha but Not Interleukin-10

    PubMed Central

    Mulongo, Musa; Prysliak, Tracy; Scruten, Erin; Napper, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is one of the major causative pathogens of bovine respiratory complex disease (BRD), which is characterized by enzootic pneumonia, mastitis, pleuritis, and polyarthritis. M. bovis enters and colonizes bovine respiratory epithelial cells through inhalation of aerosol from contaminated air. The nature of the interaction between M. bovis and the bovine innate immune system is not well understood. We hypothesized that M. bovis invades blood monocytes and regulates cellular function to support its persistence and systemic dissemination. We used bovine-specific peptide kinome arrays to identify cellular signaling pathways that could be relevant to M. bovis-monocyte interactions in vitro. We validated these pathways using functional, protein, and gene expression assays. Here, we show that infection of bovine blood monocytes with M. bovis delays spontaneous or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)/staurosporine-driven apoptosis, activates the NF-κB p65 subunit, and inhibits caspase-9 activity. We also report that M. bovis-infected bovine monocytes do not produce gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and TNF-α, although the level of production of interleukin-10 (IL-10) is elevated. Our findings suggest that M. bovis takes over the cellular machinery of bovine monocytes to prolong bacterial survival and to possibly facilitate subsequent systemic distribution. PMID:24126524

  9. Analysis and Quantitation of NF-[kappa]B Nuclear Translocation in Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-[alpha]) Activated Vascular Endothelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuseler, John W.; Merrill, Dana M.; Rogers, Jennifer A.; Grisham, Matthew B.; Wolf, Robert E.

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-[kappa]B) is a heterodimeric transcription factor typically composed of p50 and p65 subunits and is a pleiotropic regulator of various inflammatory and immune responses. In quiescent cells, p50/p65 dimers are sequestered in the cytoplasm bound to its inhibitors, the I-[kappa]Bs, which prevent entry into the nucleus. Following cellular stimulation, the I-[kappa]Bs are rapidly degraded, activating NF-[kappa]B. The active form of NF-[kappa]B rapidly translocates into the nucleus, binding to consensus sequences in the promoter/enhancer region of various genes, promoting their transcription. In human vascular endothelial cells activated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha, the activation and translocation of NF-[kappa]B is rapid, reaching maximal nuclear localization by 30 min. In this study, the appearance of NF-[kappa]B (p65 subunit, p65-NF-[kappa]B) in the nucleus visualized by immunofluorescence and quantified by morphometric image analysis (integrated optical density, IOD) is compared to the appearance of activated p65-NF-[kappa]B protein in the nucleus determined biochemically. The appearance of p65-NF-[kappa]B in the nucleus measured by fluorescence image analysis and biochemically express a linear correlation (R2 = 0.9477). These data suggest that localization and relative protein concentrations of NF-[kappa]B can be reliably determined from IOD measurements of the immunofluorescent labeled protein.

  10. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Gamma Interferon, but Not Hemorrhage or Pathogen Burden, Dictate Levels of Protective Fibrin Deposition during Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mullarky, Isis K.; Szaba, Frank M.; Berggren, Kiera N.; Kummer, Lawrence W.; Wilhelm, Lindsey B.; Parent, Michelle A.; Johnson, Lawrence L.; Smiley, Stephen T.

    2006-01-01

    While coagulation often causes pathology during infectious disease, we recently demonstrated that fibrin, a product of the coagulation pathway, performs a critical protective function during acute toxoplasmosis (L. L. Johnson, K. N. Berggren, F. M. Szaba, W. Chen, and S. T. Smiley, J. Exp. Med. 197:801-806, 2003). Here, we investigate the mechanisms regulating the formation of this protective fibrin. Through comparisons of Toxoplasma-infected wild-type and cytokine-deficient mice we dissociate, for the first time, the relative fibrin-regulating capacities of pathogen products, host cytokines, and infection-stimulated hemorrhage. Remarkably, neither the pathogen burden nor hemorrhage is a primary regulator of fibrin levels. Rather, two type 1 cytokines exert dominant and counterregulatory roles: tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), acting via the type 1 TNF-? receptor, promotes fibrin deposition, while gamma interferon (IFN-?), acting via STAT1 and IFN-? receptors expressed on radioresistant cells, suppresses fibrin deposition. These findings have important clinical implications, as they establish that cytokines known to regulate pathological coagulation also dictate levels of protective fibrin deposition. We present a novel model depicting mechanisms by which the immune system can destroy infected tissue while independently restraining hemorrhage and promoting tissue repair through the deliberate deposition of protective fibrin. PMID:16428767

  11. PACAP Modulates Expression of Hypoxia-Inducible Factors in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat Retina.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Agata Grazia; Maugeri, Grazia; Reitano, Rita; Bucolo, Claudio; Saccone, Salvatore; Drago, Filippo; D'Agata, Velia

    2015-12-01

    Retinal hypoxia has been related to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. This event is mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), including HIF-1α, HIF-2α, and HIF-3α. Previously, we have demonstrated the protective role of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) in the early phase of diabetic retinopathy. In the present work, we investigated whether PACAP effect in hyperglycemic retina is mediated through modulation of HIFs' expression. Diabetes was induced with a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ) in rats. After 1 week, a group of diabetic animals was treated with a single intravitreal injection of 100 μM PACAP or saline solution. Then, changes in HIFs' expression levels were evaluated in the retina after 3 weeks of hyperglycemia. The expression of HIF-1α and HIF-2α was significantly (p < 0.001 vs control) increased in diabetic rats as compared to controls. Instead, their expression levels were significantly (p < 0.001 vs STZ) decreased after PACAP intraocular administration, as detected by Western blot analysis. Conversely, the expression of HIF-3α was significantly (p < 0.001 vs control) downregulated in retinas of STZ-injected rats and significantly (p < 0.001 vs control) increased after PACAP treatment. These data were supported by the immunohistochemical analysis. HIFs were localized either in inner and outer retinal layers. Diabetes interferes with their distribution, which is changed following intravitreal injection of PACAP. The present results suggest that the protective effect of the peptide in diabetic retina might be also mediated through modulation of HIFs' expression. PMID:26202258

  12. Verproside inhibits TNF-α-induced MUC5AC expression through suppression of the TNF-α/NF-κB pathway in human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su Ui; Sung, Min Hee; Ryu, Hyung Won; Lee, Jinhyuk; Kim, Hui-Seong; In, Hyun Ju; Ahn, Kyung-Seop; Lee, Hyun-Jun; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Shin, Dae-Hee; Lee, Yongnam; Hong, Sung-Tae; Oh, Sei-Ryang

    2016-01-01

    Airway mucus secretion is an essential innate immune response for host protection. However, overproduction and hypersecretion of mucus, mainly composed of MUC5AC, are significant risk factors in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Previously, we reported that verproside, a catalpol derivative iridoid glycoside isolated from Pseudolysimachion rotundum var. subintegrum, is a potent anti-asthmatic candidate drug in vivo. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pharmacological actions of verproside remain unknown. Here, we found that verproside significantly reduces the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced MUC5AC mRNA and protein by inhibiting both nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcriptional activity and the phosphorylation of its upstream effectors such as IκB kinase (IKK)β, IκBα, and TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) in NCI-H292 cells. Moreover, verproside attenuated TNF-α-induced MUC5AC transcription more effectively when combined with an IKK (BAY11-7082) or a TAK1 (5z-7-oxozeaenol) inhibitor than when administered alone. Importantly, we demonstrated that verproside negatively modulates the formation of the TNF-α-receptor (TNFR) 1 signaling complex [TNF-RSC; TNFR1-recruited TNFR1-associated death domain protein (TRADD), TNFR-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1), and TAK1], the most upstream signaling factor of NF-κB signaling. In silico molecular docking studies show that verproside binds between TRADD and TRAF2 subunits. Altogether, these results suggest that verproside could be a good therapeutic candidate for treatment of inflammatory airway diseases such as asthma and COPD by blocking the TNF-α/NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:26318254

  13. Recombinant low-seroprevalent adenoviral vectors Ad26 and Ad35 expressing the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion protein induce protective immunity against RSV infection in cotton rats.

    PubMed

    Widjojoatmodjo, Myra N; Bogaert, Lies; Meek, Bob; Zahn, Roland; Vellinga, Jort; Custers, Jerome; Serroyen, Jan; Radošević, Katarina; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2015-10-01

    RSV is an important cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children, the elderly and in those with underlying medical conditions. Although the high disease burden indicates an urgent need for a vaccine against RSV, no licensed RSV vaccine is currently available. We developed an RSV vaccine candidate based on the low-seroprevalent human adenovirus serotypes 26 and 35 (Ad26 and Ad35) encoding the RSV fusion (F) gene. Single immunization of mice with either one of these vectors induced high titers of RSV neutralizing antibodies and high levels of F specific interferon-gamma-producing T cells. A Th1-type immune response was indicated by a high IgG2a/IgG1 ratio of RSV-specific antibodies, strong induction of RSV-specific interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha cytokine producing CD8 Tcells, and low RSV-specific CD4 T-cell induction. Both humoral and cellular responses were increased upon a boost with RSV-F expressing heterologous adenovirus vector (Ad35 boost after Ad26 prime or vice versa). Both single immunization and prime-boost immunization of cotton rats induced high and long-lasting RSV neutralizing antibody titers and protective immunity against lung and nasal RSV A2 virus load up to at least 30 weeks after immunization. Cotton rats were also completely protected against challenge with a RSV B strain (B15/97) after heterologous prime-boost immunization. Lungs from vaccinated animals showed minimal damage or inflammatory infiltrates post-challenge, in contrast to animals vaccinated with formalin-inactivated virus. Our results suggest that recombinant human adenoviral Ad26 and Ad35 vectors encoding the RSV F gene have the potential to provide broad and durable protection against RSV in humans, and appear safe to be investigated in infants. PMID:26319741

  14. Decreased calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in the dorsal root ganglia of TNF-deficient mice in a monoiodoacetate-induced knee osteoarthritis model

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Aya; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Miyagi, Masayuki; Kamoda, Hiroto; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Kubota, Go; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Nakamura, Junichi; Aoki, Yasuchika; Toyone, Tomoaki; Inoue, Gen; Suzuki, Miyako; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Takane; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Ohtori, Seiji; Orita, Sumihisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: The detailed mechanisms of knee osteoarthritis (OA) pain have not been clarified, but involvement of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) has been suggested. The present study aimed to investigate the more detailed neurological involvement of TNF in joint pain using a TNF-knockout mouse OA model. Methods: The right knees of twelve-week-old C57BL/6J wild and TNF-deficient knockout (TNF-ko) mice (n=15, each group) were given a single intra-articular injection of 10 µg monoiodoacetate in 10 mL sterile saline. The left knees were only punctured as the control. Evaluations were performed immediately after the injection (baseline) and at 7, 14, and 28 days after the injection with a subsequent intra-articular injection of neurotracer into both knees. The animals were evaluated for immunofluorescence of the lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) innervating the knee joints. The injected knees were observed macroscopically and mouse pain-related behaviors were scored. Results: Macroscopic observation showed similar knee OA development in both wild and TNF-ko mice. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, a neuropeptide identified as a inflammatory pain-related biomarker) was significantly increased in DRG neurons innervating OA-induced knee joints with significantly less CGRP expression in TNF-ko animals. Pain-related behavior scoring showed a significant increase in pain in OA-induced joints, but there was no significant difference in pain observed between the wild and TNF-ko mice. Conclusions: The result of the present study indicates the possible association of TNF-alpha in OA pain but not OA development. PMID:26722492

  15. Light-induced currents in Xenopus oocytes expressing bovine rhodopsin.

    PubMed Central

    Knox, B E; Khorana, H G; Nasi, E

    1993-01-01

    1. We have investigated the functioning of bovine rod opsin, which is efficiently synthesized from RNA made by in vitro transcription, following injection into Xenopus oocytes. We found that oocytes expressing the gene for opsin exhibit light-dependent ionic currents only after pigment generation by incubation with 11-cis-retinal. These currents are similar to the endogenous muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) response of oocytes, but their amplitude is substantially smaller. 2. In order to optimize the conditions for obtaining light-induced currents in RNA-injected oocytes, the native ACh response was examined under several conditions. It was found that elevated external calcium markedly enhances the muscarinic response and that these currents have a non-linear dependence on membrane voltage, increasing substantially with depolarization. 3. Using the optimal conditions for evoking the largest ACh responses, (28 mM [Ca2+]o, 0 mV, omission of serum and Hepes from the media), the light-evoked currents obtained in RNA-injected oocytes were remarkably enhanced, and responses to multiple light stimuli could be obtained. 4. The light response appeared to desensitize, even after long periods of recovery and pigment regeneration. By contrast, the ACh responses continued to appear normal. These results suggest that desensitization of photoresponses expressed in Xenopus oocytes involve changes at early stages of the pathway, resulting in a reduced ability of rhodopsin to couple to the endogenous signalling system. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7692039

  16. Glomerulonephritis-induced changes in kidney gene expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Pavkovic, Mira; Riefke, Björn; Frisk, Anna-Lena; Gröticke, Ina; Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, Heidrun

    2015-12-01

    We investigated a glomerulonephritis (GN) model in rats induced by nephrotoxic serum (NTS) which contains antibodies against the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). The anti-GBM GN model in rats is widely used since its biochemical and histopathological characteristics are similar to crescentic nephritis and Goodpasture's disease in humans (Pusey, 2003[2]). Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were dosed once with 1, 2.5 and 5 ml/kg nephrotoxic serum (NTS) or 1.5 and 5 ml/kg NTS, respectively. GN and tubular damage were observed histopathologically in all treated rats after 14 days. To obtain insight into molecular processes during GN pathogenesis, mRNA expression was investigated in WKY and SD kidneys using Affymetrix's GeneChip Rat genome 230_2.0 arrays (GSE64265). The immunopathological processes during GN are still not fully understood and likely involve both innate and adaptive immunity. In the present study, several hundred mRNAs were found deregulated, which functionally were mostly associated with inflammation and regeneration. The β-chain of the major histocompatibility complex class II RT1.B (Rt1-Bb) and complement component 6 (C6) were identified as two mRNAs differentially expressed between WKY and SD rat strains which could be related to known different susceptibilities to NTS of different rat strains; both were increased in WKY and decreased in SD rats (Pavkovic et al., 2015 [1]). Increased Rt1-Bb expression in WKY rats could indicate a stronger and more persistent cellular reaction of the adaptive immune system in this strain, in line with findings indicating adaptive immune reactions during GN. The complement cascade is also known to be essential for GN development, especially terminal cascade products like C6. PMID:26697341

  17. Epimorphin expression in intestinal myofibroblasts induces epithelial morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fritsch, Christine; Swietlicki, Elzbieta A.; Lefebvre, Olivier; Kedinger, Michele; Iordanov, Hristo; Levin, Marc S.; Rubin, Deborah C.

    2002-01-01

    The formation of the crypt-villus axis during gut ontogeny requires continued reciprocal interactions between the endoderm and mesenchyme. Epimorphin/syntaxin 2 (epimorphin) is a mesenchymal protein expressed in the fetal gastrointestinal tract during villus morphogenesis. To elucidate its role in gut ontogeny, the epimorphin cDNA was transfected, in sense and antisense orientations, into a rat intestinal myofibroblast cell line, MIC 216. To determine the effects of epimorphin on the epithelium, myofibroblasts were cocultured with the Caco2 cell line. Caco2 cells spread in a simple monolayer over antisense-transfected cells lacking epimorphin. In contrast, sense-transfected myofibroblasts induced Caco2 cells to form compact, round clusters with small lumens. These morphologic differences were preserved in Transwell cocultures in which cell-cell contact was prevented, suggesting that epimorphin’s effects were mediated by secreted factor(s). To determine the effects of epimorphin on crypt-villus axis formation in an in vivo model, rat gut endoderm was combined with epimorphin-transfected myofibroblasts and implanted into the chick intracoelomic cavity. The grafts in which epimorphin was overexpressed revealed multiple well-formed villi with crypt-like units, whereas those in which epimorphin expression was inhibited developed into round cystic structures without crypts or villi. Of several potential secreted morphogens, only the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) was increased in the epimorphin-transfected cells. Incubation with noggin partially blocked the transfected myofibroblasts’ effects on Caco2 colony morphology. These results indicate that mesenchymal epimorphin has profound effects on crypt-villus morphogenesis, mediated in part by secreted factor(s) including the Bmp’s. PMID:12464668

  18. Slow rise of Ca2+ and slow release of reactive oxygen species are two cross-talked events important in tumour necrosis factor-alpha-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ko, S; Kwok, T T; Fung, K P; Choy, Y M; Lee, C Y; Kong, S K

    2000-09-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was found to be a cell cycle-independent apoptogenic cytokine in cultured fibroblast L929 cells. This assertion is based on the observations (1) TNF-alpha increased the number of cells with hypo-diploid DNA in a time dependent manner as revealed by flow cytometry, and (2) TNF-alpha induced DNA fragmentation as resolved by agarose gel electrophoresis. When cells were exposed to TNF-alpha (50 ng/ml), a slow rise in intracellular free Ca2+ level and a delayed increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (both observed 3 h after the addition of TNF-alpha) were observed in fluo-3 and fura-red or dichlorofluorescein loaded cells, respectively. Interestingly, challenge of cells with TNF-alpha in the presence of BAPTA/AM, an intracellular Ca2+ chelator, decreased the release of ROS. Removal of ROS by 4-hydroxy 2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piperidinooxy (4OH-TEMPO) blocked the TNF-alpha-mediated Ca2+ rise. Moreover, when cells were exposed to TNF-alpha with both 4OH-TEMPO and BAPTA/AM, more viable cells were found than from treatment with either BAPTA/AM or 4OH-TEMPO. These results suggest that ROS and cellular Ca2+ are two cross-talk messengers important in TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis. PMID:10993483

  19. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha- vs. growth factor deprivation-promoted cell death: different receptor requirements for mediating nerve growth factor-promoted rescue.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Todd C; Decorti, Francesco; Macdonald, Nancy J; Neet, Kenneth E; Taglialatela, Giulio

    2003-04-01

    Physiological and pathological aging of the central nervous system (CNS) is characterized by functional neuronal impairments which may lead to perturbed cell homeostasis and eventually to neuronal death. Many toxic events may underlie age-related neurodegeneration. These include the effects of beta amyloid, Tau and mutated presenilin proteins, free radicals and oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines and lack of growth factor support, which can be individually or collectively involved. Taken individually, these toxicants can induce very diverse cell responses, thus requiring individually targeted corrective interventions upstream of common cell death (apoptotic) pathways. Recent preliminary evidence suggests that the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and growth factor withdrawal can both activate a common apoptotic pathway in nerve growth factor (NGF)-responsive PC12 cells involving caspase 3, albeit through very distinct upstream pathways: the former through active signalling and the latter through passive or lack of survival signalling. Here, we show that NGF can rescue PC12 cells from both growth factor withdrawal- and TNFalpha-promoted cell death. However, NGF rescue from growth factor withdrawal requires NGF signalling through the high-affinity tyrosine kinase receptor (TrkA), while NGF rescue from TNFalpha-promoted cell death requires NGF signalling through the low-affinity p75NTR receptor. These results strengthen the idea that prevention of age- or pathology-associated neurodegeneration may require varied molecular approaches reflecting the diversity of the toxicants involved, possibly acting simultaneously. PMID:12882321

  20. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 antagonists alleviate inflammatory skin changes associated with epidermal growth factor receptor antibody therapy in mice.

    PubMed

    Surguladze, David; Deevi, Dhanvanthri; Claros, Nidia; Corcoran, Erik; Wang, Su; Plym, Mary Jane; Wu, Yan; Doody, Jacqueline; Mauro, David J; Witte, Larry; Busam, Klaus J; Pytowski, Bronek; Rodeck, Ulrich; Tonra, James R

    2009-07-15

    Cancer patients receiving epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody therapy often experience an acneiform rash of uncertain etiology in skin regions rich in pilosebaceous units. Currently, this condition is treated symptomatically with very limited, often anecdotal success. Here, we show that a monoclonal antibody targeting murine EGFR, ME1, caused a neutrophil-rich hair follicle inflammation in mice, similar to that reported in patients. This effect was preceded by the appearance of lipid-filled hair follicle distensions adjacent to enlarged sebaceous glands. The cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), localized immunohistochemically to this affected region of the pilosebaceous unit, was specifically up-regulated by ME1 in skin but not in other tissues examined. Moreover, skin inflammation was reduced by cotreatment with the TNFalpha signaling inhibitor, etanercept, indicating the involvement of TNFalpha in this inflammatory process. Interleukin-1, a cytokine that frequently acts in concert with TNFalpha, is also involved in this process given the efficacy of the interleukin-1 antagonist Kineret. Our results provide a mechanistic framework to develop evidence-based trials for EGFR antibody-induced skin rash in patients with cancer. PMID:19584274

  1. Effects of anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha and anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 antibodies on ischemia/reperfusion lung injury.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chi-Huei

    2006-10-31

    Inhibition of neutrophil activation and adherence to endothelium by antibodies to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1), respectively, might attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R). I/R was conducted in an isolated rat lung model. Anti-TNF-alpha antibody and/or anti-ICAM-1 antibody were added before ischemia or after reperfusion. Hemodynamic changes, lung weight gain (LWG), capillary filtration coefficients (Kfc), and pathologic changes were assessed to evaluate the severity of I/R. The LWG, Kfc, pathological changes and lung injury score of treatment groups with anti-TNF-alpha antibody treatment, either pre-ischemia or during reperfusion, were less than those observed in control groups. Similar findings were found in group treated with anti-ICAM-1 antibody or combination therapy during reperfusion. In contrast, pre-I/R treatment with anti-ICAM-1 antibody induced severe lung edema and failure to complete the experimental procedure. No additional therapeutic effect was found in combination therapy. We conclude that TNF-alpha and ICAM-1 play important roles in I/R. Anti-TNF-alpha antibody has therapeutic and preventive effects on I/R. However, combined therapy with anti-TNF-alpha antibody and anti-ICAM-1 antibody may have no additive effect and need further investigation. PMID:17294835

  2. Novel Program of Macrophage Gene Expression Induced by Phagocytosis of Leishmania chagasi

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Nilda E.; Chang, Haeok K.; Wilson, Mary E.

    2004-01-01

    Leishmania spp. are protozoans that survive and replicate intracellularly in mammalian macrophages. Antileishmanial immunity requires gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-mediated macrophage activation and generation of microbicidal effector molecules. The presence of intracellular Leishmania sp. impairs macrophage responses to IFN-γ, which has led to the description of macrophages as deactivated. It has recently become apparent that in addition to classical activation, macrophages can be activated by distinct triggers to express noninflammatory or anti-inflammatory genes. These nonclassical activation programs have been called alternative or type II pathways. We hypothesized that during initial contact with a phagocyte, leishmaniae activate one of these nonclassical pathways, resulting in expression of genes whose products suppress microbicidal responses. Using DNA microarrays, we studied gene expression in RNAs from BALB/c bone marrow macrophages with and without Leishmania chagasi infection. Some changes were verified by an RNase protection assay, reverse transcription-PCR, immunoblotting, or a bioassay. The pattern of genes activated by leishmania phagocytosis differed from the pattern of genes activated by bacteria or lipopolysaccharide and IFN-γ. Genes encoding some proinflammatory cytokines, receptors, and Th1-type immune response genes were down-modulated, and some genes associated with anti-inflammatory or Th2-like immune responses were up-regulated. Nonetheless, some markers of alternative (arginase) or type II activation (interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha) were unchanged. These data suggest that macrophages infected with L. chagasi exhibit a hybrid activation profile that is more characteristic of alternative or type II activation than of classical activation but does not strictly fall into either of these categories. We speculate that the pattern of genes upregulated by leishmania phagocytosis optimizes the chance of parasite survival in this hostile environment. PMID:15039333

  3. Measles virus infection enhances IL-1 beta but reduces tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Leopardi, R; Vainionpää, R; Hurme, M; Siljander, P; Salmi, A A

    1992-10-01

    Monocytes may play a role in the immunologic abnormalities caused by measles. The effect of measles virus (MV) infection on peripheral blood monocyte functions is poorly known. We report that MV-infected PBM have an altered pattern of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha production in response to stimulation with LPS and PMA in vitro. MV-infected peripheral blood monocytes produced higher amounts of IL-1 beta, whereas the production of TNF-alpha was reduced. The same effect was observed in the human monocytic cell line THP-1, which was used for RNA analysis. An increased steady-state level of IL-1 beta mRNA was observed in MV-infected cells, and the level of TNF-alpha mRNA was reduced. However, both IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha had about 50% increased transcription rate. Analysis of the mRNA stability after transcriptional block by actinomycin D showed that the TNF-alpha mRNA had a reduced half-life in MV-infected cells (about 30 vs 80 min in uninfected cells), whereas IL-1 beta mRNA stability was similar in uninfected and MV-infected cells. These results indicate that MV infection disturbs the immunoregulatory network by interfering with the monocyte functions. PMID:1527385

  4. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha mediates activation of NF-κB and JNK signaling cascades in retinal ganglion cells and astrocytes in opposite ways

    PubMed Central

    Dvoriantchikova, Galina; Ivanov, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is an important mediator of the innate immune response in the retina. TNF can activate various signaling cascades, including NF-κB, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways. The harmful role of these pathways, as well as of TNF, has previously been shown in several retinal neurodegenerative conditions including glaucoma and retinal ischemia. However, TNF and TNF-regulated signaling cascades are capable not only of mediating neurotoxicity, but of being protective. We performed this study to delineate the beneficial and detrimental effects of TNF signaling in the retina. To this end, we used TNF-treated primary retinal ganglion cell (RGC) and astrocyte cultures. Levels of expression of NF-κB subunits in RGCs and astrocytes were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot (WB) analysis. NF-κB and JNK activity in TNF-treated cells was determined in a time-dependent manner using ELISA and WB. Gene expression in TNF-treated astrocytes was measured by qRT-PCR. We found that NF-κB family members were present in RGCs and astrocytes at the mRNA and protein levels. RGCs failed to activate NF-κB in the presence of TNF, a phenomenon that was associated with sustained JNK activation and RGC death. However, TNF initiated the activation of NF-κB and mediated transient JNK activation in astrocytes. These events were associated with glial survival and increased expression of neurotoxic pro-inflammatory factors. Our findings suggest that, in the presence of TNF, NF-κB and JNK signaling cascades are activated in opposite ways in RGCs and astrocytes. These events can directly and indirectly facilitate RGC death. PMID:25160799

  5. Factors Affecting Inducible Expression of Outer Membrane Protein A (OmpA) of Shigella dysenteriae Type-1 in Lactococcus lactis Using Nisin Inducible Controlled Expression (NICE).

    PubMed

    Yagnik, Bhrugu; Patel, Shivangi; Dave, Maitree; Sharma, Drashya; Padh, Harish; Desai, Priti

    2016-03-01

    Potential use of Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) as a heterologous protein expression host as well as for delivery of multiple therapeutic proteins has been investigated extensively using Nisin Inducible Controlled Expression (NICE) system. Optimum inducible expression of heterologous protein by NICE system in L. lactis depends on multiple factors. To study the unexplored role of factors affecting heterologous protein expression in L. lactis using NICE, the present study outlines the optimization of various key parameters such as inducer concentration, host's proteases and precipitating agent using Outer membrane protein A (OmpA). For efficient expression and secretion of OmpA, pSEC:OmpA vector was successfully constructed. To circumvent the troubles encountered during detection of expressed OmpA, the precipitating agent was switched from TCA to methanol. Nevertheless, detection was achieved accompanied by degraded protein products. Speculating the accountability of observed degradation at higher inducer concentration, different nisin concentrations were evaluated. Lower nisin concentrations were found desirable for optimum expression of OmpA. Consistently observed degradation was eliminated by incorporation of protease inhibitor cocktail which inhibits intracellular proteases and expression in VEL1153 (NZ9000 ΔhtrA) strain which inhibits extracellular protease leading to optimum expression of OmpA. Versatility and complexity of NICE system in L. lactis requires fine-tuning of target protein specific parameters for optimum expression. PMID:26843700

  6. Assessing the likelihood of new-onset inflammatory bowel disease following tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor therapy for rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Asha; Stobaugh, Derrick J; Deepak, Parakkal

    2015-04-01

    The association between inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and the onset of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unclear. We sought to evaluate this association by analyzing adverse events (AEs) reported to the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) with a standardized scoring tool for drug-induced AEs. A search of the FAERS for RA or JRA (January 2003-December 2011) reported with adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, golimumab, or infliximab was performed. This dataset was then queried for cases indicating IBD. Full-length reports were accessed using the Freedom of Information Act and organized by age, sex, concomitant medications, co-morbidities, type of TNF-α inhibitor used, and diagnosis/treatment details. The Naranjo score was used to determine whether the drug-induced AEs were definite, probable, possible, or doubtful. There were 158 cases of IBD after TNF-α inhibitor exposure in RA or JRA patients. Use of the Naranjo score revealed that, in a majority of the cases (71.5 %), TNF-α inhibitor exposure was considered a 'possible' cause. A majority of the 'probable cases' in JRA were reported with etanercept (40 patients, 90.91 %). There were no 'definite' cases of anti-TNF-induced IBD. After applying the Naranjo scale, a weak association between new-onset IBD and TNF-α inhibitor therapy in RA patients and a moderately strong association especially with etanercept exposure in JRA patients was observed. However, causality cannot be determined due to limitations of the FAERS and the Naranjo score. PMID:25228459

  7. Dietary Blue Pigments Derived from Genipin, Attenuate Inflammation by Inhibiting LPS-Induced iNOS and COX-2 Expression via the NF-κB Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang-Song; Xiang, Yaozu; Cui, Yuan-Lu; Lin, Ke-Ming; Zhang, Xin-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose The edible blue pigments produced by gardenia fruits have been used as value-added colorants for foods in East Asia for 20 years. However, the biological activity of the blue pigments derived from genipin has not been reported. Methodology/Principal Findings The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments was studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage in vitro. The secretions of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were inhibited in concentration-dependent manner by blue pigments. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (Real-time RT-PCR) analyses demonstrated that the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was inhibited, moreover, ELISA results showed that the productions of IL-6 and TNF-α were inhibited. Cell-based ELISA revealed the COX-2 protein expression was inhibited. The proteome profiler array showed that 12 cytokines and chemokines involved in the inflammatory process were down-regulated by blue pigments. Blue pigments inhibited the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation induced by LPS, and this was associated with decreasing the DNA-binding activity of p65 and p50. Furthermore, blue pigments suppressed the degradation of inhibitor of κB (IκB) α, Inhibitor of NF-κB Kinase (IKK) α, IKK-β, and phosphorylation of IκB-α. The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments in vivo was studied in carrageenan-induced paw edema and LPS-injecting ICR mice. Finally, blue pigments significantly inhibited paw swelling and reduced plasma TNF-α and IL-6 production in vivo. Conclusions and Implications These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of blue pigments might be the results from the inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α expression through the down-regulation of NF-κB activation, which will provide strong scientific evidence for the edible blue pigments to be developed as a new health-enhancing nutritional food for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:22479539

  8. Production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) by cultured endothelial cells in response to Borrelia burgdorferi occurs independently of secreted [corrected] IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha and is required for subsequent transendothelial migration of neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, M J; Sellati, T J; Teng, E I; Furie, M B

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochetal agent of Lyme disease, promotes inflammation by stimulating endothelial cells to upregulate adhesion molecules for leukocytes and to produce a soluble agent that is chemotactic for neutrophils. We determined that interleukin-8 (IL-8) was the chemotactic agent for neutrophils present in conditioned media from cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells stimulated with B. burgdorferi. As few as one spirochete per endothelial cell stimulated production of IL-8 within 8 h of coincubation. When 10 spirochetes per endothelial cell were added, IL-8 was detected after 4 h of coculture. Production of IL-8 continued in a linear fashion for at least 24 h. Neutralizing antibodies against IL-8 reduced migration of neutrophils across spirochete-stimulated endothelial monolayers by 93%. In contrast, pretreatment of neutrophils with antagonists of platelet-activating factor did not inhibit migration. Increases in production of IL-8 and expression of the adhesion molecule E-selectin by endothelial cells in response to B. burgdorferi were not inhibited by IL-1 receptor antagonist or a neutralizing monoclonal antibody directed against tumor necrosis factor alpha, used either alone or in combination. These results suggest that activation of endothelium by B. burgdorferi is not mediated through the autocrine action of secreted IL-1 or tumor necrosis factor alpha. Rather, it appears that B. burgdorferi must stimulate endothelium either by a direct signaling mechanism or by induction of a novel host-derived proinflammatory cytokine. PMID:9119454

  9. Lactoferrin regulates the release of tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6 in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Machnicki, M.; Zimecki, M.; Zagulski, T.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of bovine lactoferrin on the serum cytokine levels, induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice, are described. Bovine lactoferrin (BLF) introduced intravenously, 24 hours before i.v. injection of 50 micrograms of LPS, significantly lowered the serum concentration of TNF-alpha. Doses of BLF lower than 100 micrograms as well as pretreatment of mice with BLF on days 6-2 or 12-2 hours before LPS challenge, were not effective. Moreover, BLF induces by itself a relatively high level of IL-6, peaking at 1 hour following injection. Pretreatment of LPS-injected mice with BLF causes, in addition, a small but statistically significant drop in IL-6 level. Human albumin, used as a control protein, did not cause any changes in the cytokine levels. The data reported herein provide a satisfactory explanation with regard to preventive activity of LF in infection. PMID:8217778

  10. Identification of the galactose-adherence lectin epitopes of Entamoeba histolytica that stimulate tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Séguin, R; Mann, B J; Keller, K; Chadee, K

    1995-01-01

    The 170-kDa subunit of the galactose-adherence lectin (Gal-lectin) of Entamoeba histolytica mediates adherence to human colonic mucins and intestinal epithelium as a prerequisite to amebic invasion. The Gal-lectin is an immunodominant molecule and a protective antigen in the gerbil model of amebiasis. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) produced by activated macrophages enhances nitric oxide-dependent cytotoxicity in host defense against E. histolytica. The purpose of this study was to identify the Gal-lectin epitopes which stimulate TNF-alpha production by macrophages. Murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) exposed to Gal-lectin (100-500 ng/ml) stimulated stable expression of TNF-alpha mRNA (8-fold increase) and TNF-alpha production similar to that of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cells (100 ng/ml). Polyclonal anti-lectin serum specifically inhibited TNF-alpha mRNA induction in response to the Gal-lectin but not to lipopolysaccharide. Anti-lectin monoclonal antibodies 8C12, H85 and 1G7, which recognize nonoverlapping epitopes of the cysteine-rich region of the 170-kDa heavy subunit, inhibited both amebic adherence to mammalian cells and Gal-lectin-stimulated TNF-alpha mRNA expression by BMMs,but monoclonal antibody 7F4 did neither. As these inhibitory antibodies map to amino acids 596-1082 of the 170-kDa Gal-lectin, our results have identified the functional region that mediates amebic adherence and TNF-alpha mRNA induction in BMMMs; thus, this region of the Gal-lectin is a subunit vaccine candidate. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 PMID:8618866

  11. Autocrine stimulation of a human lung mesothelioma cell line is mediated through the transforming growth factor alpha/epidermal growth factor receptor mitogenic pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Mórocz, I. A.; Schmitter, D.; Lauber, B.; Stahel, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Malignant cells frequently acquire a certain independency of exogenous growth factors via the coexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-related molecules. In the present study we investigate a possible involvement of EGF-related molecules in the growth of human lung mesothelioma. Four well-characterised cell lines are analysed for their responsiveness to exogenous EGF and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) as well as for coexpression of EGFR and EGF/TGF-alpha. Both growth factors are able to stimulate DNA synthesis in three cell lines, although the degree of responsiveness is very variable, but neither EGF nor TGF-alpha has an effect on the cell line ZL34. In contrast, no heterogeneity is observed in the expression of EGFR, which is similarly high in all cell lines. Analysis of cell supernatants reveals that, whereas no EGF is detected, TGF-alpha is released by two cell lines. Furthermore, these two cell lines, ZL5 and ZL34, are shown to express the membrane anchored precursor pro-TGF-alpha. Thus, coexpression of EGFR and TGF-alpha is observed on two mesothelioma cell lines. The potential autocrine mitogenic role of TGF-alpha in these two cell lines was tested using neutralising antibodies against TGF-alpha and EGFR. In ZL5 cells DNA synthesis was not affected by the presence of neutralising antibodies, indicating that an external autocrine mitogenic pathway is not active in these cells. In ZL34 cells, however, the potential autocrine loop could be disrupted, as DNA synthesis was significantly reduced in the presence of neutralising antibodies. This result gives strong evidence for an autocrine role of TGF-alpha in the growth of the mesothelioma cell line ZL34. Images Figure 4 PMID:7947089

  12. Octylphenol induced gene expression in testes of Frog, Rana chensinensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinyi; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Yuhui

    2016-06-01

    Octylphenol (OP) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC), which can disrupt the reproductive system. To understand the effect of OP, a subtractive cDNA library was constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to identify alterations of gene transcription in the testes of the frog Rana chensinensis after OP exposure. Two hundred positive clones were selected and 134 sequences of gene fragments were produced from the subtractive library randomly. These genes were identified to be involved in metabolic process, cellular process, biological regulation, stimulus, immune system and female pregnancy process. In order to verify the efficiency of the subtractive cDNA library, PSG9 and PAPP-A were analyzed further as two representatives of differentially expressed transcription genes using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Our result was the first successful construction of the subtractive cDNA library in frog testes after OP treatment. Based on this cDNA library, OP was shown to affect multiple physiological processes including inducing immune response, disrupting the steroid hormone synthesis and influencing spermatogenesis in the testis by up-regulation of specific genes. PMID:26896894

  13. Neurochemical sensitization associated with systemic administration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha: adjuvant action in combination with bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Anisman, Hymie; Turrin, Nicolas P; Merali, Zul; Hayley, Shawn

    2003-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) provokes a time-dependent sensitization of brain monoamine activity, plasma corticosterone activity and sickness behavior, the latter being reminiscent of septic or anaphylactic shock. In this investigation, bovine serum albumin (BSA) elicited similar corticosterone and sickness profiles, whereas the monoamine changes were not observed. The sensitization elicited by mTNF-alpha plus BSA was markedly greater than that elicited by BSA alone. Carrier-free TNF-alpha promoted the sensitization of brain monoamine activity, but not sickness or corticosterone. It is suggested that mTNF-alpha acts as an adjuvant to the anaphylactic actions elicited by BSA, but may provoke a sensitization of monoamine activity which is time-dependent and varies across brain regions. PMID:14644035

  14. Dietary fatty acids influence the appearance of tumour necrosis factor-alpha receptors on adipocytes following an immune challenge.

    PubMed

    MacQueen, H A; Sadler, D; Mattacks, C

    2000-09-01

    Rats were fed from weaning on chow supplemented with suet or sunflower oil (10 % (w/w) each). The appearance of receptors for tumour necrosis factor-alpha on perinodal adipocytes from the popliteal depot following a subcutaneous injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide was examined. In rats fed on sunflower oil-supplemented chow receptors appeared at a time similar to that described in rats fed unsupplemented chow, but in rats fed on chow supplemented with suet receptor appearance was significantly delayed. The popliteal adipocytes were found to contain different proportions of fatty acids as assessed by GLC. These preliminary results suggest that the fatty acid component of the diet can, by influencing the triacylglycerol-fatty acids within adipocytes, directly alter the time course of an early inflammatory immune response. PMID:10967618

  15. Increased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in asymptomatic/"indeterminate" and Chagas disease cardiomyopathy patients.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Renata Cristina; Ianni, Barbara M; Abel, Lucia C J; Buck, Paula; Mady, Charles; Kalil, Jorge; Cunha-Neto, Edecio

    2003-04-01

    We compared plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels among asymptomatic/"indeterminate" Chagas disease patients (ASY) and patients across the clinical spectrum of chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC). Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients and normal controls (NC) were included as controls. ASY Chagas disease patients had significantly higher plasma TNF-alpha levels than NC. TNF-alpha levels among severe CCC patients with significant left ventricular (LV) dysfunction were similar to those of DCM patients, showing average 2-fold higher levels than CCC patients without LV dysfunction and ASY patients, and 8-fold higher levels than NC. In Chagas disease, chronic TNF-a production prior to heart failure may play a role in CCC progression. PMID:12886425

  16. Characterization of a Canine Tetranucleotide Microsatellite Marker Located in the First Intron of the Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Gene

    PubMed Central

    WATANABE, Masashi; TANAKA, Kazuaki; TAKIZAWA, Tatsuya; SEGAWA, Kazuhito; NEO, Sakurako; TSUCHIYA, Ryo; MURATA, Michiko; MURAKAMI, Masaru; HISASUE, Masaharu

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT A polymorphic tetranucleotide (GAAT)n microsatellite in the first intron of the canine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA) gene was characterized in this study; 139 dogs were analyzed: 22 Beagles, 26 Chihuahuas, 20 Miniature Dachshunds, 24 Miniature Poodles, 22 Pembroke Welsh Corgis and 25 Shiba Inus. We detected the presence of the 4 alleles (GAAT)5, (GAAT)6, (GAAT)7 and (GAAT)8, including 9 of the 10 expected genotypes. The expected heterozygosity (He) and the polymorphic information content (PIC) value of this microsatellite locus varied from 0.389 to 0.749 and from 0.333 to 0.682, respectively, among the 6 breeds. The allelic frequency differed greatly among breeds, but this microsatellite marker was highly polymorphic and could be a useful marker for the canine TNFA gene. PMID:24042337

  17. No association between tumor necrosis factor-alpha production and gene polymorphisms among inbred rat strains.

    PubMed

    Warl, Michiel C; van der Laan, Luc J W; Kusters, Johannes G; Pot, Raymond G J; Hop, Wim C J; Segeren, Katja C A; Ijzermans, Jan N M; Metselaar, Herold J; Tilanus, Hugo W

    2005-06-01

    Differences in spontaneous allograft acceptance after liver transplantation among inbred rat strains might be explained by variation in the local production of TNF-alpha as a potent mediator of the inflammatory response. In this study, we hypothesize that nucleotide differences in the rat Tnf gene influence TNF-alpha protein expression. As such, polymorphisms in the Tnf gene may also provide a possible explanation for differences in survival of allogeneic liver grafts among inbred rat strains. We therefore investigated the capacity of mononuclear cells to produce TNF-alpha in response to a mitogenic stimulus and the Tnf locus was sequenced in six different inbred rat strains. Among the six strains (AUG, BN, DA, LEW, PVG and WF), 44 nucleotide differences including 36 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), five simple sequence length polymorphisms, two deletions and one insertion, were found in the Tnf gene. Although, the inbred rat strains differed significantly in mean levels of maximum TNF-alpha production (P = 0.001), no associations were found with nucleotide differences within the Tnf gene. In conclusion, our results indicate that differential in vitro TNF-alpha responses among inbred rat strains are not associated with nucleotide differences within non-coding regulatory regions of the rat TNF-alpha gene. Without an established relationship between polymorphisms and expression of the TNF-alpha gene, it is preliminary to address a possible association of Tnf gene polymorphisms with rat liver allograft survival. PMID:15935297

  18. Lipoic acid and pentoxifylline mitigate nandrolone decanoate-induced neurobehavioral perturbations in rats via re-balance of brain neurotransmitters, up-regulation of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, and down-regulation of TNFR1 expression.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Maha A E; El-Awdan, Sally A

    2015-07-01

    Behavioral perturbations associated with nandrolone decanoate abuse by athletes and adolescents may be attributed to oxidative stress and inflammation. However, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully explored. On the other hand, the natural antioxidant lipoic acid can pass the blood brain barrier and enhance Nrf2/HO-1 (nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2/heme oxygenase-1) pathway. In addition, the phosphodiesterase-IV inhibitor xanthine derivative pentoxifylline has a remarkable inhibitory effect on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Therefore, this study aimed at investigation of the possible protective effects of lipoic acid and/or pentoxifylline against nandrolone-induced neurobehavioral alterations in rats. Accordingly, male albino rats were randomly distributed into seven groups and treated with either vehicle, nandrolone (15mg/kg, every third day, s.c.), lipoic acid (100mg/kg/day, p.o.), pentoxifylline (200mg/kg/day, i.p.), or nandrolone with lipoic acid and/or pentoxifylline. Rats were challenged in the open field, rewarded T-maze, Morris water maze, and resident-intruder aggression behavioral tests. The present findings showed that nandrolone induced hyperlocomotion, anxiety, memory impairment, and aggression in rats. These behavioral abnormalities were accompanied by several biochemical changes, including altered levels of brain monoamines, GABA, and acetylcholine, enhanced levels of malondialdehyde and TNF-α, elevated activity of acetylcholinesterase, and up-regulated expression of TNF-α receptor-1 (TNFR1). In addition, inhibited catalase activity, down-regulated Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, and suppressed acetylcholine receptor expression were observed. Lipoic acid and pentoxifylline combination significantly mitigated all the previously mentioned deleterious effects mainly via up-regulation of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, inhibition of TNF-α and down-regulation of TNFR1 expression. In conclusion, the biochemical and histopathological findings of this study revealed the protective mechanisms of lipoic acid and pentoxifylline against nandrolone-induced behavioral changes and neurotoxicity in rats. PMID:26187709

  19. Murine Hepatic miRNAs Expression and Regulation of Gene Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Ho; Ahn, Jiyun; Kim, Suna; Kwon, Dae Young; Ha, Tae Youl

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs are short, non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression primarily by translational repression or by messenger RNA degradation. MicroRNAs play crucial roles in various biological processes. However, little is known regarding their role in obesity. We investigated differences of microRNA (miRNA) expression in liver tissue from diet-induced obese mice and potential effects of them on gene and protein expression. We used a miRNA microarray and quantitative RT-PCR to determine miRNA expression in murine liver tissue. Gene and protein expression were determined by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Effects of miRNA by knock-down using RNAi or overexpression on putative target genes and/or proteins in a murine hepatic cell line were also investigated. MicroRNA array and qRT-PCR analsysis revealed that > 50 miRNAs were down- or upregulated more than 2-fold in the liver of diet-induced obese mice. While changes in expression of many genes were observed at the mRNA level, some were only altered at the protein level. Overexpression or knock-down of miR-107 in murine hepatic cells revealed that the expression of its putative target, fatty acid synthase, was dramatically decreased or increased, respectively. In conclusion, more than 50 hepatic miRNAs were dysregulated in diet-induced obese mice. Some of them regulate protein expression at translation level and others regulate mRNA expression at transcriptional level. MiR-107 is downregulated while FASN, a putative target of miR-107, was increased in diet-induced obese mice. These findings provide the evidence of the correlation of miRNAs and their targets in diet-induced obese mice. PMID:21120623

  20. Anti-Ehrlichia chaffeensis antibody complexed with E. chaffeensis induces potent proinflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in human monocytes through sustained reduction of IkappaB-alpha and activation of NF-kappaB.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, E H; Rikihisa, Y

    1997-01-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligatory intracellular bacterium that infects monocytes and macrophages and is the etiologic agent of human ehrlichiosis in the United States. Our previous studies showed that the exposure of human monocytes to E. chaffeensis induces the expression of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-8, and IL-10 genes in vitro but not the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and IL-6 mRNAs. In this study, the effect of anti-E. chaffeensis antibody complexed with E. chaffeensis on the expression of major proinflammatory cytokines in human monocytes was examined. Human monocytic cell line THP-1 was treated with E. chaffeensis which had been preincubated with human anti-E. chaffeensis serum for 2 h, and the levels of cytokine mRNAs were evaluated by competitive reverse transcription-PCR. Anti-E. chaffeensis antibody complexed with E. chaffeensis significantly enhanced mRNA expression of IL-1beta in THP-1 cells. The expression of TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNAs was also induced. The levels of secreted IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 during 24 h of stimulation were comparable to those induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide at 1 microg/ml. Fab fragment of anti-E. chaffeensis immunoglobulin G complexed with E. chaffeensis did not induce any of these three cytokines, indicating that ehrlichial binding is required for IL-1beta mRNA expression and that binding of the immune complex to the Fc gamma receptor is required for TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNA expression and enhanced IL-1beta mRNA expression. Furthermore, prolonged degradation of IkappaB-alpha and activation of NF-kappaB were demonstrated in THP-1 cells exposed to anti-E. chaffeensis serum and E. chaffeensis. This result implies that development of anti-E. chaffeensis antibody in patients can result in the production of major proinflammatory cytokines, which may play an important role in the pathophysiology of ehrlichiosis and immune responses to it. PMID:9199464

  1. The tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulating region of galactose-inhibitable lectin of Entamoeba histolytica activates gamma interferon-primed macrophages for amebicidal activity mediated by nitric oxide.

    PubMed Central

    Séguin, R; Mann, B J; Keller, K; Chadee, K

    1997-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica adheres via galactose-lectin (Gal-lectin) to human colonic mucins and intestinal epithelial cells as a prerequisite to amebic invasion. Native Gal-lectin is a protective antigen in the gerbil model of amebiasis. Amino acids 596 to 1082 of Gal-lectin mediate E. histolytica adherence to target cells and stimulate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production by naive murine bone marrow macrophages (BMM). Resistance to amebiasis requires an effective cell-mediated immune response against E. histolytica trophozoites mediated by nitric oxide (NO) released from activated macrophages. Herein, we determine whether the TNF-alpha-stimulating region of Gal-lectin can activate gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-primed BMM for NO production and amebicidal activity. Native Gal-lectin (100 to 500 ng/ml) stimulated TNF-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression in IFN-gamma-primed BMM as did lipopolysaccharide (100 ng/ml). Primed BMM produced TNF-alpha and NO in response to Gal-lectin in a dose-dependent manner. Antilectin monoclonal antibody IG7, which recognizes a domain (amino acids 596 to 818) of the TNF-alpha mRNA-stimulating region of Gal-lectin, specifically inhibited TNF-alpha and iNOS mRNA induction and TNF-alpha and NO production by primed BMM in response to Gal-lectin (100 ng/ml). Simultaneous treatment of BMM with IFN-gamma and Gal-lectin (100 ng/ml) activated the cells to kill E. histolytica trophozoites, whereas IFN-gamma treatment alone had no effect. In the presence of monoclonal antibody 1G7 or aminoguanidine (an iNOS inhibitor), NO production and amebicidal activity were inhibited >80%. These results suggest that the TNF-alpha-stimulating region of native Gal-lectin is a potent stimulus of IFN-gamma-primed BMM for NO production, which is essential for host defense against amebiasis. PMID:9199414

  2. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Polymorphism at Position -238 in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Naderi, Mohammad; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Tara, Fatemeh; Tavakkol Afshari, Jalil; Farid Hosseini, Reza; Ghayour Mobarhan, Majid; Shapouri Moghadam, Abbas; Mirteimouri, Masoumeh; Tara, Seyedeh Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia is the most common serious disorder during pregnancy and studies show several immune-related processes in its pathophysiology. The role of cytokines and their expression remains controversial in this field. One of the cytokines of interest in recent studies has been TNF-α, which has been shown to have a higher level in maternal plasma of preeclamptic women. Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the role of TNF-α polymorphism at position -238 in the risk of developing preeclampsia during pregnancy. Patients and Methods: One hundred fifty three preeclamptic cases and 140 healthy pregnant women were retrieved from two major hospitals of Mashhad, Iran. Methods a case-control study were designed. Anyone with a history of inflammatory disease, hypertension, or chronic kidney disease was excluded. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. Both groups were genotyped for the polymorphism of the TNF-α gene at position -238 by the RFLP method with Ava II enzyme. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared using one-way ANOVA and the Fisher’s exact test. Results: There were significant differences between the two groups in TNF-α genotype at position -238 (P < 0.001). In the preeclamptic group, the frequency of the AA genotype was higher (P < 0.001) and the frequency of the GG genotype was lower (P < 0.001). The overall prevalence of the A allele at position -238 was higher in preeclamptic cases (P < 0.001). Conclusion: In this study group, TNF-α -238 polymorphism was shown to be different in preeclamptic and non-preeclamptic pregnant women. The AA genotype and the A allele may carry an increased risk for developing of preeclampsia. PMID:24719701

  3. Interaction with extracellular matrix proteins influences Lsh/Ity/Bcg (candidate Nramp) gene regulation of macrophage priming/activation for tumour necrosis factor-alpha and nitrite release.

    PubMed

    Formica, S; Roach, T I; Blackwell, J M

    1994-05-01

    The murine resistance gene Lsh/Ity/Bcg regulates activation of macrophages for tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-dependent production of nitric oxide mediating antimicrobial activity against Leishmania, Salmonella and Mycobacterium. As Lsh is differentially expressed in macrophages from different tissue sites, experiments were performed to determine whether interaction with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins would influence the macrophage TNF-alpha response. Plating of bone marrow-derived macrophages onto purified fibrinogen or fibronectin-rich L929 cell-derived matrices, but not onto mannan, was itself sufficient to stimulate TNF-alpha release, with significantly higher levels released from congenic B10.L-Lshr compared to C57BL/10ScSn (Lshs) macrophages. Only macrophages plated onto fibrinogen also released measurable levels of nitrites, again higher in Lshr compared to Lshs macrophages. Addition of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), but not bacterial lipopolysaccharide or mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan, as a second signal enhanced the TNF-alpha and nitrite responses of macrophages plated onto fibrinogen, particularly in the Lshr macrophages. Interaction with fibrinogen and fibronectin also primed macrophages for an enhanced TNF-alpha response to leishmanial parasites, but this was only translated into enhanced nitrite responses in the presence of IFN-gamma. In these experiments, Lshr macrophages remained superior in their TNF-alpha responses throughout, but to a degree which reflected the magnitude of the difference observed on ECM alone. Hence, the specificity for the enhanced TNF-alpha responses of Lshr macrophages lay in their interaction with fibrinogen and fibronectin ECM, while a differential nitrite response was only observed with fibrinogen and/or IFN-gamma. The results are discussed in relation to the possible function of the recently cloned candidate gene Nramp, which has structural identity to eukaryote transporters and an N-terminal cytoplasmic proline/serine-rich putative SH3 binding domain. PMID:8045593

  4. Spatial Control of Gene Expression within a Scaffold by Localized Inducer Release

    PubMed Central

    Baraniak, Priya R.; Nelson, Devin M.; Leeson, Cory E.; Katakam, Anand K.; Friz, Jennifer L.; Cress, Dean E.; Hong, Yi; Guan, Jianjun; Wagner, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Gene expression can be controlled in genetically modified cells by employing an inducer/promoter system where presence of the inducer molecule regulates the timing and level of gene expression. By applying the principles of controlled release, it should be possible to control gene expression on a biomaterial surface by the presence or absence of inducer release from the underlying material matrix, thus avoiding alternative techniques that rely upon uptake of relatively labile DNA from material surfaces. To evaluate this concept, a modified ecdysone-responsive gene expression system was transfected into B16 murine cells and the ability of an inducer ligand, which was released from elastomeric poly(ester urethane) urea (PEUU), to initiate gene expression was studied. The synthetic inducer ligand was first loaded into PEUU to demonstrate extended release of the bioactive molecule at various loading densities over a one year period in vitro. Patterning films of PEUU variably-loaded with inducer resulted in spatially controlled cell expression of the gene product (green fluorescent protein, GFP). In porous scaffolds made from PEUU by salt leaching, where the central region was exclusively loaded with inducer, cells expressed GFP predominately in the loaded central regions whereas expression was minimal in outer regions where ligand was omitted. This scaffold system may ultimately provide a means to precisely control progenitor cell commitment in a spatially-defined manner in vivo for soft tissue repair and regeneration. PMID:21269687

  5. Nutrient induced type 2 and chemical induced type 1 experimental diabetes differently modulate gastric GLP-1 receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Olga; Broide, Efrat; Ben-Yehudah, Gilad; Cantrell, Dror; Shirin, Haim; Rapoport, Micha J

    2015-01-01

    T2DM patients demonstrate reduced GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) expression in their gastric glands. Whether induced T2DM and T1DM differently affect the gastric GLP-1R expression is not known. This study assessed extrapancreatic GLP-1R system in glandular stomach of rodents with different types of experimental diabetes. T2DM and T1DM were induced in Psammomys obesus (PO) by high-energy (HE) diet and by streptozotocin (STZ) in Sprague Dawly (SD) rats, respectively. GLP-1R expression was determined in glandular stomach by RT PCR and immunohistomorphological analysis. The mRNA expression and cellular association of the GLP-1R in principal glands were similar in control PO and SD rats. However, nutrient and chemical induced diabetes resulted in opposite alterations of glandular GLP-1R expression. Diabetic PO demonstrated increased GLP-1R mRNA expression, intensity of cellular GLP-1R immunostaining, and frequency of GLP-1R positive cells in the neck area of principal glands compared with controls. In contrast, SD diabetic rats demonstrated decreased GLP-1 mRNA, cellular GLP-1R immunoreactivity, and frequency of GLP-1R immunoreactive cells in the neck area compared with controls. In conclusion, nutrient and chemical induced experimental diabetes result in distinct opposite alterations of GLP-1R expression in glandular stomach. These results suggest that induced T1DM and T2DM may differently modulate GLP-1R system in enteropancreatic axis. PMID:25893200

  6. Nutrient Induced Type 2 and Chemical Induced Type 1 Experimental Diabetes Differently Modulate Gastric GLP-1 Receptor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Olga; Broide, Efrat; Ben-Yehudah, Gilad; Cantrell, Dror; Shirin, Haim; Rapoport, Micha J.

    2015-01-01

    T2DM patients demonstrate reduced GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) expression in their gastric glands. Whether induced T2DM and T1DM differently affect the gastric GLP-1R expression is not known. This study assessed extrapancreatic GLP-1R system in glandular stomach of rodents with different types of experimental diabetes. T2DM and T1DM were induced in Psammomys obesus (PO) by high-energy (HE) diet and by streptozotocin (STZ) in Sprague Dawly (SD) rats, respectively. GLP-1R expression was determined in glandular stomach by RT PCR and immunohistomorphological analysis. The mRNA expression and cellular association of the GLP-1R in principal glands were similar in control PO and SD rats. However, nutrient and chemical induced diabetes resulted in opposite alterations of glandular GLP-1R expression. Diabetic PO demonstrated increased GLP-1R mRNA expression, intensity of cellular GLP-1R immunostaining, and frequency of GLP-1R positive cells in the neck area of principal glands compared with controls. In contrast, SD diabetic rats demonstrated decreased GLP-1 mRNA, cellular GLP-1R immunoreactivity, and frequency of GLP-1R immunoreactive cells in the neck area compared with controls. In conclusion, nutrient and chemical induced experimental diabetes result in distinct opposite alterations of GLP-1R expression in glandular stomach. These results suggest that induced T1DM and T2DM may differently modulate GLP-1R system in enteropancreatic axis. PMID:25893200

  7. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) inhibits progesterone and estradiol-17beta production from cultured granulosa cells: presence of TNFalpha receptors in bovine granulosa and theca cells.

    PubMed

    Sakumoto, Ryosuke; Shibaya, Masami; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether functional tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) receptors are present in the granulosa cells and the cells of theca interna (theca cells), obtained from bovine follicles classified into one of three groups. Each group was defined as either small vesicular ovarian follicles (small follicles; 3-5 mm in diameter), preovulatory mature ovarian follicles (preovulatory follicles) or atretic follicles (12-18 mm) according to gross examination of the corpus luteum in the epsilateral or contralateral ovary and the uterus (size, color, consistency and mucus), and the ratio of progesterone (P(4)) and estradiol-17beta (E(2)) concentrations in follicular fluid. A Scatchard analysis showed the presence of a high-affinity binding site on both granulosa and theca cells from all follicles examined (dissociation constant: 4.7 +/- 0.15 to 6.9 +/- 1.40 nM). Moreover, TNFalpha receptor concentrations in granulosa and theca cells obtained from atretic follicles were significantly higher than those in the cells from preovulatory follicles (P<0.05). Exposure of cultured granulosa cells from small antral follicles to recombinant human TNFalpha (rhTNFalpha; 0.06-6 nM) inhibited E(2) secretion in a dose-dependent fashion (P<0.01), but did not affect P(4) secretion. In addition, rhTNFalpha inhibited follicle stimulating hormone-, forskolin- or dibutylyl cyclic AMP-induced P(4) and E(2) secretion by the cells (P<0.01). These results indicate the presence of functional TNFalpha receptors in bovine granulosa and theca cells in small, preovulatory and atretic follicles, and suggest that TNFalpha plays a role in regulating their secretory function. PMID:14967894

  8. Inhibition of sup 125 I organification and thyroid hormone release by interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma in human thyrocytes in suspension culture

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, K.; Satoh, T.; Shizume, K.; Ozawa, M.; Han, D.C.; Imamura, H.; Tsushima, T.; Demura, H.; Kanaji, Y.; Ito, Y. )

    1990-06-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of decreased 131I uptake by the thyroid gland in patients with subacute thyroiditis and painless thyroiditis, human thyroid follicles were cultured with interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), and/or interferon-gamma (IFN gamma), and the effects of these cytokines on thyroid function were studied in vitro. When human thyrocytes were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium containing 0.5% fetal calf serum and TSH for 5-8 days, the cells incorporated 125I, synthesized de novo (125I)iodotyrosines and (125I)iodothyronines, and secreted (125I)T4 and (125I)T3 into the medium. IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta inhibited 125I incorporation and (125I)iodothyronine release in a concentration-dependent manner. The minimal inhibitory effect was detected at 10 pg/ml. Electron microscopic examination revealed a marked decrease in lysosome formation in IL-1-treated thyrocytes. TNF alpha and IFN gamma also inhibited thyroid function in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, when thyrocytes were cultured with IL-1, TNF alpha and IFN gamma, these cytokines more than additively inhibited thyroid function. Although the main mechanism of 131I uptake suppression in the thyroid gland in subacute thyroiditis is due to cellular damage and suppression of TSH release, our present findings suggest that IL-1, TNF alpha, and IFN gamma produced in the inflammatory process within the thyroid gland further inhibit iodine incorporation and at least partly account for the decreased 131I uptake by the thyroid gland in destruction-induced hyperthyroidism.

  9. Alterations in mammary gland development following neonatal exposure to estradiol, transforming growth factor alpha, and estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780.

    PubMed

    Hilakivi-Clarke, L; Cho, E; Raygada, M; Kenney, N

    1997-03-01

    High fetal/early postnatal levels of estrogen increase breast cancer risk, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Growth factors, such as transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha), may participate as secondary modifiers in this process. We characterized a modulatory role of early postnatal exposure to 17 beta-estradiol (E2) on the developing mammary gland morphology by treating intact female CD-1 mice with physiological doses of E2 (2-4 micrograms), human recombinant TGF alpha (4 micrograms), or an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI 182,780 (20 micrograms) during postnatal days 1-3. Early postnatal exposure of E2 stimulated mammary ductal growth by days 25 and 35, but by day 50 this was inhibited. The level of differentiation from terminal end buds (TEBs) to the lobulo-alveolar units (LAUs) also was reduced by day 50. The number of TEBs was increased throughout most of the development in the female mice exposed to E2 during early life. An exposure to TGF alpha or ICI 182,780 between postnatal days 1 and 3 stimulated ductal growth, formation of TEBs, and the differentiation of mammary epithelial structures. ICI 182,80 treatment also caused hyperplastic lobular-like structures in 54-day-old females. Thus, neonatal exposure to TGF alpha and ICI 182,780 induced both similar (increase in TEBs) and different (increase/decrease in lobulo-alveolar differentiation) developmental changes in the mouse mammary gland, when compared with an exposure to E2. A unique feature of the postnatal E2 treatment was that it inhibited ductal migration by days 50-54. Our data suggest than an exposure to E2 on postnatal days 1-3, possibly combined with secondary epigenetic alterations, leads to various changes within the developing mammary tree. These changes may be potential prerequisites for mammary tumorigenesis. PMID:9066785

  10. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha activation of protein kinase B in WEHI-164 cells is accompanied by increased phosphorylation of Ser473, but not Thr308.

    PubMed Central

    O'toole, A; Moule, S K; Lockyer, P J; Halestrap, A P

    2001-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) may activate both cell survival and cell death pathways. In the murine fibrosarcoma cell line WEHI-164, physiological concentrations (1 ng/ml) of TNF-alpha induced wortmannin-sensitive cell ruffling characteristic of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) activation associated with cell survival. Wortmannin also enhanced cell death induced by TNF-alpha in the presence of actinomycin D, confirming that TNF-alpha activates a transcription-independent survival pathway requiring PI3-kinase activity. Both TNF-alpha and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) caused a 6-10-fold wortmannin-sensitive increase in protein kinase B (PKB) activity within 5 min. For IGF-1, this was associated with an increase in phosphorylation of both Thr(308) and Ser(473), whereas for TNF-alpha only phosphorylation of Ser(473) was increased, even in the presence of okadaic acid to inhibit protein phosphatases 1 and 2A. TNF-alpha did not decrease the phosphorylation of Thr(308) induced by IGF-1, implying that TNF-alpha neither inhibits phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) nor activates an opposing phosphatase. In WEHI cells overexpressing a form of PKB, IGF-1 increased phosphorylation of Ser(473) on PKB, but not its kinase activity, whereas TNF-alpha failed to induce Ser(473) phosphorylation or kinase activation of either overexpressed T308A or wild-type PKB (where T308A is the mutant bearing the substitution Thr(308)-->A). IGF-1 caused translocation of green-fluorescent-protein-tagged ADP-ribosylation factor nucleotide-binding site opener (ARNO) to the plasma membrane of WEHI cells, but this was not detected with TNF-alpha. We conclude that, at physiological concentrations, TNF-alpha activates endogenous PKB by stimulating PDK2 (increase in Ser(473) phosphorylation) in a PI3-kinase-dependent (wortmannin-sensitive) manner, without causing detectable stimulation of PDK1 (no increase in Thr(308) phosphorylation) or ARNO translocation. Possible explanations of these observations are discussed. PMID:11563975

  11. Effect of dexamethasone and ACC on bacteria-induced mucin expression in human airway mucosa.

    PubMed

    Hauber, Hans-Peter; Goldmann, Torsten; Vollmer, Ekkehard; Wollenberg, Barbara; Zabel, Peter

    2007-11-01

    Gram-negative bacteria can stimulate mucin production, but excessive mucus supports bacterial infection and consequently leads to airway obstruction. Therefore, the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) and the antioxidant acetyl-cysteine (ACC) on bacteria-induced mucus expression was investigated. Explanted human airway mucosa and mucoepidermoid cells (Calu-3) were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or PAM3 (a synthetic lipoprotein). DEX or ACC were added to either LPS- or PAM3-stimulated airway mucosa or Calu-3 cells. Mucin mRNA expression (MUC5AC) and total mucus glycoconjugates (mucin protein) were quantified using real-time PCR and periodic acid Schiff staining. LPS and PAM3 significantly increased mucin expression in airway mucosa and Calu-3 cells (P < 0.05). DEX alone had no significant effect on mucin expression in airway mucosa or Calu-3 cells (P > 0.05). In contrast, DEX significantly reduced LPS- and PAM3-induced mucin expression in explanted mucosal tissue and mucin expression in Calu-3 cells (P < 0.05). In explanted human airway mucosa ACC alone significantly increased mucin expression (P < 0.05). In contrast, ACC significantly decreased LPS- and PAM3-induced mucin expression (P < 0.05). In Calu-3 cells ACC alone had no significant effect on mucin expression (P > 0.05). ACC decreased LPS- and PAM3-induced mucin expression, but this effect was not significant (P > 0.05). These data suggest that DEX can effectively reduce bacteria-induced mucin expression in the airways. ACC alone may increase mucin expression in noninfected mucosa, but it decreased bacteria-induced mucin expression. Further studies are warranted to evaluate whether the effect of DEX or ACC is clinically relevant. PMID:17600317

  12. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Stimulation of Trophoblasts Induces Corticotrophin Releasing Hormone (CRH) Expression through MyD88

    PubMed Central

    Uh, Andy; Nicholson, Richard C.; Gonzalez, Gustavo V.; Simmons, Charles F.; Gombart, Adrian; Smith, Roger; Equils, Ozlem

    2008-01-01

    Objective We hypothesized that intrauterine infection may lead to placental CRH expression via Toll like receptor signaling. Methods In order to test this hypothesis JEG3 cells were stimulated with LPS, chlamydial heat shock protein 60 and IL1. CRH expression was assessed by RT-PCR. The signaling mechanisms involved were examined in transient transfection experiments using β-galactosidase, CRH-luciferase, CRE-luciferase, dominant-negative (DN)-MyD88 and DN-TRIF vectors. Luciferase activity was determined by luciferase assay. β-galactosidase assay was performed to determine transfection efficiency. Results LPS, cHSP60 and IL-1 stimulation led to CRH expression in the JEG3 cells. LPS-induced CRH expression was not due to the autocrine effect of LPS-induced IL1 since the supernatant from LPS conditioned JEG3 cells did not induce CRH expression in the naïve cells. DN-MyD88 but not DN-TRIF blocked the LPS-induced CRH expression. cAMP response element (CRE) did not play a role in LPS induced CRH expression. Conclusion TLR4 may induce placental CRH expression via MyD88. PMID:18771998

  13. C/EBPβ Mediates TNF-α-Induced Cancer Cell Migration by Inducing MMP Expression Dependent on p38 MAPK.

    PubMed

    Xia, Peiyi; Zhang, Rui; Ge, Gaoxiang

    2015-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is a pleiotropic cytokine that triggers cell proliferation, cell death, or inflammation. Besides its cytotoxic effect on cancer cells, TNF-α exerts tumor promoting activity. Aberrant TNF-α signaling promotes cancer cell motility, invasiveness, and enhances cancer metastasis. Exaggerated tumor cell migration, invasion, and metastasis by TNF-α has been attributed to the activation of NF-κB signaling. It is yet to be elucidated if other signaling pathways and effector molecules are involved in TNF-α-induced cancer cell migration and metastasis. Expression of C/EBPβ, a transcription factor involved in metabolism, inflammation, and cancer, is increased upon TNF-α treatment. TNF-α induces C/EBPβ expression by enhancing its transcription and protein stability. Activation of p38 MAPK, but not NF-κB or JNK, is responsible for TNF-α-induced stabilization of C/EBPβ protein. C/EBPβ is involved in TNF-α-induced cancer cell migration. Knockdown of C/EBPβ inhibits TNF-α-induced cell migration, while overexpression of C/EBPβ increases migration of cancer cells. C/EBPβ is translated into transcriptional activator LAP1 and LAP2 and transcriptional repressor LIP utilizing alternative in-frame translation start sites. Despite TNF-α induces expression of all three isoforms, LAP1/2, but not LIP, promote cancer cell migration. TNF-α induced MMP1/3 expression, which was abrogated by C/EBPβ knockdown or p38 MAPK inhibition. MMP inhibitor or knockdown of MMP1/3 diminished TNF-α- and C/EBPβ-induced cell migration. Thus, C/EBPβ mediates TNF-α-induced cancer cell migration by inducing MMP1/3 expression, and may participate in the regulation of inflammation-associated cancer metastasis. PMID:25959126

  14. TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA STIMULATES LIPOLYSIS IN DIFFERENTIATED HUMAN ADIPOCYTES THROUGH ACTIVATION OF EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-RELATED KINASE AND ELEVATION OF INTRACELLULAR CAMP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) stimulates lipolysis in human adipocytes. However, the mechanisms regulating this process are largely unknown. We demonstrate that TNF-alpha increases lipolysis in differentiated human adipocytes by activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)-e...

  15. Dexmedetomidine alleviates pulmonary edema by upregulating AQP1 and AQP5 expression in rats with acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuan-xu; Dai, Zhong-liang; Zhang, Xue-ping; Zhao, Wei; Huang, Qiang; Gao, Li-kun

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to elucidate the mechanisms by which dexmedetomidine alleviates pulmonary edema in rats with acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: normal saline control (NS) group, receiving intravenous 0.9% normal saline (5 mL/kg); LPS group, receiving intravenous LPS (10 mg/kg); small-dose dexmedetomidine (S) group, treated with a small dose of dexmedetomidine (0.5 ?g kg(-1) h(-1)); medium-dose dexmedetomidine (M) group, treated with a medium dose of dexmedetomidine (2.5 ?g kg(-1) h(-1)); high-dose dexmedetomidine (H) group, treated with a high dose of dexmedetomidine (5 ?g kg(-1) h(-1)). The rats were sacrificed 6 h after intravenous injection of LPS or NS, and the lungs were removed for evaluating histological characteristics and determining the lung wet/dry weight ratio (W/D). The levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) in the lung tissues were assessed by enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mRNA and protein expression levels of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and aquaporin-5 (AQP5) were detected by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. The lung tissues from the LPS groups were significantly damaged, which were less pronounced in the H group but not in the small-dose dexmedetomidine group or medium-dose dexmedetomidine group. The W/D and the concentrations of TNF-? and IL-1? in the pulmonary tissues were increased in the LPS group as compared with those in NS group, which were reduced in the H group but not in S group or M group (P<0.01). The expression of AQP1 and AQP5 was lower in the LPS group than in the NS group, and significantly increased in the H group but not in the S group or M group (P<0.01). Our findings suggest that dexmedetomidine may alleviate pulmonary edema by increasing the expression of AQP-1 and AQP-5. PMID:26489622

  16. Thymoquinone inhibits phorbol ester-induced activation of NF-κB and expression of COX-2, and induces expression of cytoprotective enzymes in mouse skin in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Kundu, Joydeb Kumar; Liu, Lijia; Shin, Jun-Wan; Surh, Young-Joon; Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-799

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Thymoquinone inhibits phorbol ester-induced COX-2 expression in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone attenuates phosphorylation of IκBα and DNA binding of NF-κB in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone inhibits phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, JNK and Akt in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone induces the expression of cytoprotective proteins in mouse skin. -- Abstract: Thymoquinone (TQ), the active ingredient of Nigella sativa, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties. The present study was aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities of thymoquinone in mouse skin. Pretreatment of female HR-1 hairless mouse skin with TQ attenuated 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). TQ diminished nuclear translocation and the DNA binding of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) via the blockade of phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of IκBα in TPA-treated mouse skin. Pretreatment with TQ attenuated the phosphorylation of Akt, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, but not that of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2. Moreover, topical application of TQ induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H-quinoneoxidoreductase-1, glutathione-S-transferase and glutamate cysteine ligase in mouse skin. Taken together, the inhibitory effects of TQ on TPA-induced COX-2 expression and NF-κB activation, and its ability to induce the expression of cytoprotective proteins provide a mechanistic basis of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of TQ in hairless mouse skin.

  17. Glucose Oxidase Induces Cellular Senescence in Immortal Renal Cells through ILK by Downregulating Klotho Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Troyano-Suárez, Nuria; del Nogal-Avila, María; Mora, Inés; Sosa, Patricia; López-Ongil, Susana; Rodriguez-Puyol, Diego; Olmos, Gemma; Ruíz-Torres, María Piedad

    2015-01-01

    Cellular senescence can be prematurely induced by oxidative stress involved in aging. In this work, we were searching for novel intermediaries in oxidative stress-induced senescence, focusing our interest on integrin-linked kinase (ILK), a scaffold protein at cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion sites, and on the Klotho gene. Cultured renal cells were treated with glucose oxidase (GOx) for long time periods. GOx induced senescence, increasing senescence associated β-galactosidase activity and the expression of p16. In parallel, GOx increased ILK protein expression and activity. Ectopic overexpression of ILK in cells increased p16 expression, even in the absence of GOx, whereas downregulation of ILK inhibited the increase in p16 due to oxidative stress. Additionally, GOx reduced Klotho gene expression and cells overexpressing Klotho protein did not undergo senescence after GOx addition. We demonstrated a direct link between ILK and Klotho since silencing ILK expression in cells and mice increases Klotho expression and reduces p53 and p16 expression in renal cortex. In conclusion, oxidative stress induces cellular senescence in kidney cells by increasing ILK protein expression and activity, which in turn reduces Klotho expression. We hereby present ILK as a novel downregulator of Klotho gene expression. PMID:26583057

  18. Hypoxia-induced expression of phosducin-like 3 regulates expression of VEGFR-2 and promotes angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Srimathi; Chitalia, Vipul; Meyer, Rosana D.; Hartsough, Edward; Mehta, Manisha; Harrold, Itrat; Anderson, Nicole; Feng, Hui; Smith, Lois E. H.; Jiang, Yan; Costello, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Expression and activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) by VEGF ligands are the main events in the stimulation of pathological angiogenesis. VEGFR-2 expression is generally low in the healthy adult blood vessels, but its expression is markedly increased in the pathological angiogenesis. In this report, we demonstrate that phosducin-like 3 (PDCL3), a recently identified chaperone protein involved in the regulation of VEGFR-2 expression, is required for angiogenesis in zebrafish and mouse. PDCL3 undergoes N-terminal methionine acetylation, and this modification affects PDCL3 expression and its interaction with VEGFR-2. Expression of PDCL3 is regulated by hypoxia, the known stimulator of angiogenesis. The mutant PDCL3 that is unable to undergo N-terminal methionine acetylation was refractory to the effect of hypoxia. The siRNA-mediated silencing of PDCL3 decreased VEGFR-2 expression resulting in a decrease in VEGF-induced VEGFR-2 phosphorylation, whereas PDCL3 over-expression increased VEGFR-2 protein. Furthermore, we show that PDCL3 protects VEGFR-2 from misfolding and aggregation. The data provide new insights for the chaperone function of PDCL3 in angiogenesis and the roles of hypoxia and N-terminal methionine acetylation in PDCL3 expression and its effect on VEGFR-2. PMID:26059764

  19. Inducible transgenic expression in the short-lived fish Nothobranchius furzeri.

    PubMed

    Allard, J B; Kamei, H; Duan, C

    2013-05-01

    This study demonstrates inducible transgenic expression in the exceptionally short-lived turquoise killifish Nothobranchius furzeri, which is a useful vertebrate model for ageing research. Transgenic N. furzeri bearing a green fluorescent protein (Gfp) containing construct under the control of a heat shock protein 70 promoter were generated, heat shock-induced and reversible Gfp expression was demonstrated and germline transmission of the transgene to the F1 and F2 generations was achieved. The availability of this inducible transgenic expression system will make the study of ageing-related antagonistically pleiotropic genes possible using this unique vertebrate model organism. PMID:23639168

  20. Behavioral experience induces zif268 expression in mature granule cells but suppresses its expression in immature granule cells

    PubMed Central

    Huckleberry, Kylie A.; Kane, Gary A.; Mathis, Rita J.; Cook, Sarah G.; Clutton, Jonathan E.; Drew, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of neurons are born each day in the dentate gyrus (DG), but many of these cells die before reaching maturity. Both death and survival of adult-born neurons are regulated by neuronal activity in the DG. The immediate-early gene (IEG) zif268 appears to be an important mediator of these effects, as its expression can be induced by neural activity and knockout of zif268 impairs survival of adult-born neurons (Richardson et al., 1992; Veyrac et al., 2013). Despite the apparent importance of zif268 for adult neurogenesis, its behavior-induced expression has not been fully characterized in adult-born neurons. Here we characterize behavior-evoked expression of zif268 in mature and newborn dentate granule cells (DGCs). We first quantified zif268 expression in doublecortin-positive (DCX+) immature neurons and in the general granule cell population after brief exposure to a novel environment (NE). In the general granule cell population, zif268 expression peaked 1 h after NE exposure and returned to baseline by 8 h post-exposure. However, in the DCX+ cells, zif268 expression was suppressed relative to home cage for at least 8 h post-exposure. We next asked whether suppression of zif268 in DCX+ immature cells occurs in other behavioral paradigms that recruit the hippocampus. Exposure to Morris water maze (MWM) training, an enriched environment, or a NE caused approximately equal suppression of zif268 expression in DCX+ cells and approximately equal activation of zif268 expression among the general granule cell population. The same behavioral procedures activated zif268 expression in 6-week-old BrdU-labeled adult-born neurons, indicating that zif268 suppression is specific to immature neurons. Finally, we asked whether zif268 suppression varied as a function of age within the DCX+ population, which ranges in age from 0 to approximately 4 weeks. NE exposure had no significant effect on zif268 expression in 2- or 4-week-old BrdU-labeled neurons, but it significantly suppressed zif268 expression in 3-week-old neurons. In summary, behavioral experience transiently activated expression of zif268 in mature granule cells but caused a more long-lasting suppression of zif268 expression in immature, adult-born granule cells. We hypothesize that zif268 suppression inhibits memory-related synaptic plasticity in immature neurons or mediates learning-induced apoptosis of immature adult-born neurons. PMID:26347620

  1. Transforming growth factor-alpha in vivo stimulates epithelial cell proliferation in digestive tissues of suckling rats.

    PubMed Central

    Hormi, K; Lehy, T

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role that exogenous transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) may exert on cell proliferation in vivo is poorly understood. AIM: To investigate the effect of rat TGF-alpha on epithelial cell proliferation in all suckling rat digestive tissues and to compare it with that of rat epidermal growth factor (EGF). ANIMAL AND METHODS: TGF-alpha and EGF were given three times daily either subcutaneously (10 or 20 micrograms/kg) or intraperitoneally (100 micrograms/kg) to rats from the ninth postnatal day. Cell proliferation was assessed through 5-bromo- 2-deoxyuridine incorporation and estimation of labelling indices. RESULTS: For both growth factors, the highest dose given for only two days significantly increased stomach and intestinal weights compared with controls (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). The proliferative responded depended on the dose given, colonic mucosa being the most sensitive whereas oxyntic mucosa remained unresponsive. TGF-alpha was as potent as EGF in stimulating epithelial cell proliferation in antral, duodenal, and colonic mucosae. However, EGF was more active on oesophageal and jejunal cell proliferation whereas TGF-alpha was more active on pancreatic exocrine cell proliferation and the differences between the two growth factor treated groups were significant. CONCLUSIONS: These results prove for the first time the stimulating effect in vivo of exogenous rat TGF-alpha on epithelial cell proliferation in rat digestive tissues during the developmental period and support a functional role for TGF-alpha at that time. PMID:8944561

  2. C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in overweight and healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Chaikate, S; Harnroongroj, T; Chantaranipapong, Y; Puduang, S; Mahaisiriyodom, A; Viroonudomphol, D; Singhasivanon, P; Schelp, F P; Tornee, S; Tribunyatkul, S; Changbumrung, S

    2006-03-01

    This study aimed to 1) compare levels of high sensitivity c-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) between overweight Thais and apparently healthy controls, and 2) investigate the association between serum hs-CRP, IL-6, and TNF-alpha levels and other biochemical parameters. A total of 180 health-conscious adults aged 25-60 years, who resided in Bangkok, participated in this study. No significant difference was found in age and sex between the overweight subjects and controls. Serum levels of hs-CRP, IL-6, TNF-alpha, glucose, lipid profile, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and waist hip ratio (WHR) were determined in these volunteers. The mean levels of white blood cells (WBC), uric acid, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and hs-CRP were significantly higher in the overweight subjects than those in the controls, whereas high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) values were significantly higher in the controls than the overweight subjects (p < 0.05). Hs-CRP levels were significantly positively correlated with levels of TG, BMI, WC, HC and WHR. HDL-C levels were significantly negative correlated with hs-CRP levels. In conclusion, the prevalence of elevated serum hs-CRP levels was higher in overweight subjects than controls. However, more data in larger and other population groups are needed to confirm this study. PMID:17125002

  3. A disaccharide that inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha is formed from the extracellular matrix by the enzyme heparanase.

    PubMed Central

    Lider, O; Cahalon, L; Gilat, D; Hershkoviz, R; Siegel, D; Margalit, R; Shoseyov, O; Cohen, I R

    1995-01-01

    The activation of T cells by antigens or mitogens leads to the secretion of cytokines and enzymes that shape the inflammatory response. Among these molecular mediators of inflammation is a heparanase enzyme that degrades the heparan sulfate scaffold of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Activated T cells use heparanase to penetrate the ECM and gain access to the tissues. We now report that among the breakdown products of the ECM generated by heparanase is a trisulfated disaccharide that can inhibit delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) in mice. This inhibition of T-cell mediated inflammation in vivo was associated with an inhibitory effect of the disaccharide on the production of biologically active tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) by activated T cells in vitro; the trisulfated disaccharide did not affect T-cell viability or responsiveness generally. Both the in vivo and in vitro effects of the disaccharide manifested a bell-shaped dose-response curve. The inhibitory effects of the trisulfated disaccharide were lost if the sulfate groups were removed. Thus, the disaccharide, which may be a natural product of inflammation, can regulate the functional nature of the response by the T cell to activation. Such a feedback control mechanism could enable the T cell to assess the extent of tissue degradation and adjust its behavior accordingly. PMID:7761444

  4. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on body fat, tumor necrosis factor alpha and resistin secretion in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Díaz, Guillermo; Alexander-Aguilera, Alfonso; Arzaba-Villalba, Agustin; Soto-Rodríguez, Ida; García, Hugo S

    2010-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a naturally occurring group of dienoic derivaties of linoleic acid found mainly in beef and dairy products. CLA has been reported to reduce body fat, as well as to possess anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic and procatabolic activities in animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of CLA supplementation to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) on body fat, biochemical parameters of serum related tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and resistin secretion. Thirty rats were divided in three groups, the first group of spontaneously hypertensive rats received a standard diet (V-SHR group, n=10), a second group of SHR was fed 1.5% of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-SHR group, n=10) and the third was the control, non-hypertensive group (KW, n=10) also on a standard diet including 7.5% of sunflower oil during eight weeks. After CLA diet administration, spontaneously hypertensive rats showed a significant reduction in blood pressure, serum glucose, cholesterol and triacylglycerols, together with reduction of index of body fat, pericardic, abdominal and epididymal adipose tissue. These effects were accompanied by a decrease in the secretion of TNF-alpha and resistin. PMID:20074923

  5. Metabolism studies of a small-molecule tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) inhibitor, UTL-5b (GBL-5b).

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jiajiu; Shay, Brian; Jiang, Jack; Valeriote, Frederick; Chen, Ben

    2012-06-01

    UTL-5b is an anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic small-molecule tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor and a structural analogue of the anti-arthritic drug, leflunomide. Leflunomide is known to be metabolized to teriflunomide, but the metabolites of UTL-5b have not been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate whether UTL-5b has a similar metabolic behavior as leflunomide. Preliminary studies showed that when exposed to microsomes in vitro with or without NADPH, UTL-5b disappeared within 30min. To further investigate the microsomal metabolism, liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (LC-UV) and LC/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were employed to, respectively, monitor the microsomal metabolites and identify the structure of the metabolites using LC-full scan MS and LC combined with multiple-ion monitoring MS. Fragmentation determination was analyzed by two types of scans: product ion scans and precursor ion scan. The in vitro microsomal treatment of UTL-5b resulted in two major metabolites: 5-methylisoxazole-3-carboxylic acid and 2-chloroaniline. Thus, the in vitro metabolic behavior of UTL-5b appears to be different from that of leflunomide in that the isoxazole ring is cleaved. PMID:22052362

  6. Relationship of endotoxin to tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta in children with otitis media with effusion.

    PubMed

    Willett, D N; Rezaee, R P; Billy, J M; Tighe, M B; DeMaria, T F

    1998-01-01

    Sixty-five middle ear effusions and paired sera from 41 children with chronic otitis media with effusion were assayed for endotoxin and for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) in order to establish whether a correlation exists between the concentrations of endotoxin and of these cytokines. Endotoxin concentration was determined by means of a chromogenic limulus amebocyte lysate assay, and the cytokine concentration by means of a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Forty percent of the effusions had detectable levels of endotoxin, with a mean concentration of 2.9 +/- 7.8 endotoxin units per milligram of total protein. The mean concentration of TNF-alpha was 1.24 +/- 3.1 pg/mg total protein, and that of IL-1 beta was 18.79 pg/mg total protein. A strong, statistically significant correlation exists between the concentrations of endotoxin and TNF-alpha (r = .89) and IL-1 beta (r = .72). The data indicate that endotoxin may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic otitis media with effusion by stimulating the sustained production of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta in the middle ear. PMID:9439385

  7. A novel inducible expression system for the functional study of toxic gene in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jihua; Jia, Rong

    2014-05-01

    The cloning and expression of toxic proteins in bacteria have posed a great challenge because of the leaky expression in inducible expression systems. Using artificial gene synthesis and clone screening methods, we identified a mutant T5 promoter, which significantly reduced leaky expression of lac operator. The mutant T5 promoter contains two T deletions at -35 region and may reduce promoter activity. A bacterial lethal gene, Φ174 lytic gene E, was successfully cloned in this system and expressed in the presence of isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside. The system is compatible with existing T5 inducible expression systems and can be used for the controlled expression of toxic proteins. PMID:24326910

  8. Mifepristone-inducible transgene expression in neural progenitor cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hjelm, B E; Grunseich, C; Gowing, G; Avalos, P; Tian, J; Shelley, B C; Mooney, M; Narwani, K; Shi, Y; Svendsen, C N; Wolfe, J H; Fischbeck, K H; Pierson, T M

    2016-05-01

    Numerous gene and cell therapy strategies are being developed for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Many of these strategies use constitutive expression of therapeutic transgenic proteins, and although functional in animal models of disease, this method is less likely to provide adequate flexibility for delivering therapy to humans. Ligand-inducible gene expression systems may be more appropriate for these conditions, especially within the central nervous system (CNS). Mifepristone's ability to cross the blood-brain barrier makes it an especially attractive ligand for this purpose. We describe the production of a mifepristone-inducible vector system for regulated expression of transgenes within the CNS. Our inducible system used a lentivirus-based vector platform for the ex vivo production of mifepristone-inducible murine neural progenitor cells that express our transgenes of interest. These cells were processed through a series of selection steps to ensure that the cells exhibited appropriate transgene expression in a dose-dependent and temporally controlled manner with minimal background activity. Inducible cells were then transplanted into the brains of rodents, where they exhibited appropriate mifepristone-inducible expression. These studies detail a strategy for regulated expression in the CNS for use in the development of safe and efficient gene therapy for neurological disorders. PMID:26863047

  9. Inducible and Reversible Lentiviral and Recombination Mediated Cassette Exchange (RMCE) Systems for Controlling Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Bersten, David C.; Sullivan, Adrienne E.; Li, Dian; Bhakti, Veronica; Bent, Stephen J.; Whitelaw, Murray L.

    2015-01-01

    Manipulation of gene expression to invoke loss of function (LoF) or gain of function (GoF) phenotypes is important for interrogating complex biological questions both in vitro and in vivo. Doxycycline (Dox)-inducible gene expression systems are commonly used although success is often limited by high background and insufficient sensitivity to Dox. Here we develop broadly applicable platforms for reliable, tightly controlled and reversible Dox-inducible systems for lentiviral mediated generation of cell lines or FLP Recombination-Mediated Cassette Exchange (RMCE) into the Collagen 1a1 (Col1a1) locus (FLP-In Col1a1) in mouse embryonic stem cells. We significantly improve the flexibility, usefulness and robustness of the Dox-inducible system by using Tetracycline (Tet) activator (Tet-On) variants which are more sensitive to Dox, have no background activity and are expressed from single Gateway-compatible constructs. We demonstrate the usefulness of these platforms in ectopic gene expression or gene knockdown in multiple cell lines, primary neurons and in FLP-In Col1a1 mouse embryonic stem cells. We also improve the flexibility of RMCE Dox-inducible systems by generating constructs that allow for tissue or cell type-specific Dox-inducible expression and generate a shRNA selection algorithm that can effectively predict potent shRNA sequences able to knockdown gene expression from single integrant constructs. These platforms provide flexible, reliable and broadly applicable inducible expression systems for studying gene function. PMID:25768837

  10. Repeatable, Inducible Micro-RNA-Based Technology Tightly Controls Liver Transgene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Oprea, Iulian I; Viola, Joana R; Moreno, Pedro M D; Simonson, Oscar E; Rodin, Sergey; Teller, Nathalie; Tryggvason, Karl; Lundin, Karin E; Girnita, Leonard; Smith, Carl Inge Edvard

    2014-01-01

    Inducible systems for gene expression emerge as a new class of artificial vectors offering temporal and spatial exogenous control of gene expression. However, most inducible systems are less efficient in vivo and lack the target-organ specificity. In the present study, we have developed and optimized an oligonucleotide-based inducible system for the in vivo control of transgenes in the liver. We generated a set of simple, inducible plasmid-vectors based on the addition of four units of liver-specific miR-122 target sites to the 3′untranslated region of the gene of interest. Once the vector was delivered into hepatocytes this modification induced a dramatic reduction of gene expression that could be restored by the infusion of an antagomir for miR-122. The efficiency of the system was tested in vivo, and displayed low background and strong increase in gene expression upon induction. Moreover, gene expression was repeatedly induced even several months after the first induction showing no toxic effect in vivo. By combining tissue-specific control elements with antagomir treatment we generated, optimized and validated a robust inducible system that could be used successfully for in vivo experimental models requiring tight and cyclic control of gene expression. PMID:24983837

  11. Homocysteine induces smooth muscle cell proliferation through differential regulation of cyclins A and D1 expression.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Jui-Kun; Sung, Mao-Lin; Yu, Hong-Ren; Chang, Hsin-I; Kuo, Hsing-Chun; Tsai, Tzung-Chieh; Yen, Chia-Kuang; Chen, Cheng-Nan

    2011-04-01

    The mechanism of homocysteine-induced cell proliferation in human vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) remains unclear. We investigated the molecular mechanisms by which homocysteine affects the expression of cyclins A and D1 in human umbilical artery SMCs (HUASMCs). Homocysteine treatment induced proliferation of HUASMCs and increased the expression levels of cyclins A and D1. Knocking down either cyclin A or cyclin D1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited homocysteine-induced cell proliferation. Furthermore, treatment with extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) inhibitor (PD98059) and dominant negative Ras (RasN17) abolished homocysteine-induced cyclin A expression; and treatment with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor (rapamycin) attenuated the homocysteine-induced cyclin D1 expression. Homocysteine also induced transient phosphorylation of ERK, Akt, and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K). Neutralizing antibody and siRNA for β1 integrin blocked cell proliferation, expression of cyclins A and D1, and phosphorylation of ERK and Akt. In conclusion, homocysteine-induced differential activation of Ras/ERK and PI3K/Akt/p70S6K signaling pathways and consequent expression of cyclins A and D1 are dependent on β1 integrin. Homocysteine may accelerate progression of atherosclerotic lesions by promoting SMC proliferation. PMID:20857402

  12. Homocysteine induces cardiac hypertrophy by up-regulating ATP7a expression

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhanwei; Zhang, Yanzhou; Sun, Tongwen; Zhang, Shuguang; Yu, Weiya; Zhu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the study is to investigate the molecular mechanism by which homocysteine (Hcy) induces cardiac hypertrophy. Methods: Primary cardiomyocytes were obtained from baby Sprague-Dawley rats within 3 days after birth. Flow cytometry was used to measure cell sizes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure the expression of β-myosin heavy chain and atrial natriuretic peptide genes. Western blotting assay was employed to determine ATP7a protein expression. Cytochrome C oxidase (COX) activity test was used to evaluate the activity of COX. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was performed to determine copper content. siRNAs were used to target-silence the expression of ATP7a. Results: Hcy induced cardiac hypertrophy and increased the expression of cardiac hypertrophy-related genes. ATP7a was a key factor in cardiac hypertrophy induced by Hcy. Reduced ATP7a expression inhibited cardiac hypertrophy induced by Hcy. Elevated ATP7a expression induced by Hcy inhibited COX activity. Enhanced ATP7a expression inhibited COX activity by lowering intracellular copper content. Conclusions: Hcy elevates ATP7a protein expression, reduces copper content, and lowers COX activity, finally leading to cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:26722473

  13. Icariin Induces Synoviolin Expression through NFE2L1 to Protect Neurons from ER Stress-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fei; Gao, Beixue; Dong, Hongxin; Shi, Jingshan; Fang, Deyu

    2015-01-01

    By suppressing neuronal apoptosis, Icariin is a potential therapeutic drug for neuronal degenerative diseases. The molecular mechanisms of Icariin anti-apoptotic functions are still largely unclear. In this report, we found that Icariin induces the expression of Synoviolin, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-anchoring E3 ubiquitin ligase that functions as a suppressor of ER stress-induced apoptosis. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 1 (NFE2L1) is responsible for Icariin-mediated Synoviolin gene expression. Mutation of the NFE2L1-binding sites in a distal region of the Synoviolin promoter abolished Icariin-induced Synoviolin promoter activity, and knockdown of NFE2L1 expression prevented Icariin-stimulated Synoviolin expression. More importantly, Icariin protected ER stress-induced apoptosis of PC12 cells in a Synoviolin-dependent manner. Therefore, our study reveals Icariin-induced Synoviolin expression through NFE2L1 as a previously unappreciated molecular mechanism underlying the neuronal protective function of Icariin. PMID:25806530

  14. Shigella dysenteriae Modulates BMP Pathway to Induce Mucin Gene Expression In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Ashidha; Iyer, Soumya Chidambaram; Gopal, Udhayakumar; Devaraj, Niranjali; Halagowder, Devaraj

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal epithelial cells in the intestine act as the first line of host defense against pathogens by increasing mucin production for clearance. Despite this fact, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which Shigella dysenteriae transduce mucin gene expression remain poorly defined. The goal of this study was to determine the role of Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway in mucin gene expression during S. dysenteriae infection. In this study we demonstrate that S. dysenteriae activates BMP signaling to induce MUC2 and MUC5AC gene expression in rat ileal loop model and in vitro. We also observed that BMP pathway regulates CDX2 expression which plays a critical role in induction of MUC2 gene during S. dysenteriae infection. In SMAD4 silenced cells S. dysenteriae infection did not abrogate MUC2 and MUC5AC gene expression whereas in CDX2 silenced cells it induces differential expression of MUC5AC gene. These results suggest that SMAD4-CDX2 induces MUC2 gene expression whereas SMAD4 directly influences differential expression of MUC5AC gene. Altogether, our results show that during S. dysenteriae infection the BMP pathway modulates inflammatory transcription factors CDX2 and SMAD4 to induce MUC2 and MUC5AC gene expression which plays a key role in the regulation of host mucosal defense thereby paving a cue for therapeutic application. PMID:25365201

  15. IL-27-Induced Gene Expression Is Downregulated in HIV-Infected Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Guzzo, Christina; Hopman, Wilma M.; Che Mat, Nor Fazila; Wobeser, Wendy; Gee, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    Objective To characterize the effect of HIV infection on IL-27-induced gene expression. Design During HIV infection, cytokine expression and function become deregulated. IL-27 is an important modulator of inflammatory responses. Interestingly, IL-27 can inhibit HIV replication in T cells and monocytes, implicating IL-27 as a potential adjunct to anti-viral treatment. Our previous work demonstrated that circulating HIV may suppress IL-27 expression, therefore, this study, in continuation of our previous work, aimed to understand how HIV affects expression levels of the IL-27 receptor and downstream functions of IL-27. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from whole blood of HIV negative and HIV positive (viremic) individuals to assess IL-27-induced gene expression by flow cytometry and ELISA. PBMC were also processed for monocyte enrichment to assess IL-27 receptor expression by flow cytometry and real-time PCR. Results Expression of the IL-27 receptor subunit, gp130, was upregulated in response to IL-27 in HIV negative individuals, however, in HIV positive individuals, this IL-27 response was diminished. Furthermore, we observed downregulation of IL-27-induced IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 expression in HIV positive subjects. Conclusion In HIV infection, IL-27-induced gene expression was impaired, indicating HIV-mediated dysregulation of IL-27 functions occurs during HIV infection. This study provides evidence for new viral pathogenic mechanisms contributing to the widespread impairment of immune responses observed in HIV pathogenesis. PMID:23049843

  16. Regulation of human lung fibroblast C1q-receptors by transforming growth factor-beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Lurton, J; Soto, H; Narayanan, A S; Raghu, G

    1999-03-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are two polypeptide mediators which are believed to play a role in the evolution of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We have evaluated the effect of these two substances on the expression of receptors for collagen (cC1q-R) and globular (gC1q-R) domains of C1q and on type I collagen in human lung fibroblasts. Two fibroblast subpopulations differing in C1q receptor expression were obtained by culturing human lung explants in medium containing fresh human serum and heated plasma-derived serum and separating them based on C1q binding [Narayanan, Lurton and Raghu: Am J Resp Cell Mol Biol. 1998; 17:84]. The cells, referred to as HH and NL cells, respectively, were exposed to TGF-beta and TNF-alpha in serum-free conditions. The levels of mRNA were assessed by in situ hybridization and Northern analysis, and protein levels compared after SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. NL cells exposed to TGF-beta and TNF-alpha contained 1.4 and 1.6 times as much cC1q-R mRNA, respectively, whereas in HH cells cC1q-R mRNA increased 2.0- and 2.4-fold. The gC1q-R mRNA levels increased to a lesser extent in both cells. These increases were not reflected in protein levels of CC1q-R and gC1q-R, which were similar to or less than controls. Both TGF-beta and TNF-alpha also increased procollagen [I] mRNA levels in both cells. Overall, TNF-alpha caused a greater increase and the degree of response by HH fibroblasts to both TGF-beta and TNF-alpha was higher than NL cells. These results indicated that TGF-beta and TNF-alpha upregulate the mRNA levels for cC1q-R and collagen and that they do not affect gC1q-R mRNA levels significantly. They also indicated different subsets of human lung fibroblasts respond differently to inflammatory mediators. PMID:10188109

  17. METHYL METHANESULFONATE-INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN HUMAN SKIN FIBROBLASTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    METHYL METHANESULFONATE-INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN HUMAN SKIN FIBROBLASTS. Geremy W. Knapp, Alan Tennant, and Russell D. Owen. Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Re...

  18. Infrared laser-induced gene expression in targeted single cells of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Motoshi; Toyoda, Naoya; Shimojou, Masaki; Takagi, Shin

    2013-05-01

    Since the dawn of transgenic technology some 40 years ago, biologists have sought ways to manipulate, at their discretion, the expression of particular genes of interest in living organisms. The infrared laser-evoked gene operator (IR-LEGO) is a recently developed system for inducing gene expression in living organisms in a targeted fashion. It exploits the highly efficient capacity of an infrared laser for heating cells, to provide a high level of gene expression driven by heat-inducible promoters. By irradiating living specimens with a laser under a microscope, heat shock responses can be induced in individual cells, thereby inducing a particular gene, under the control of a heat shock promoter, in specifically targeted cells. In this review we first summarize previous attempts to drive transgene expression in organisms by using heat shock promoters, and then introduce the basic principle of the IR-LEGO system, and its applications. PMID:23614811

  19. X-Radiation Induces Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Apoptosis by Upregulation of Axin Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Han Yang; Wang Yan; Xu Hongtao; Yang Lianhe; Wei Qiang; Liu Yang; Zhang Yong; Zhao Yue; Dai Shundong; Miao Yuan; Yu Juanhan; Zhang Junyi; Li, Guang; Yuan Ximing; Wang Enhua

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: Axis inhibition (Axin) is an important negative regulator of the Wnt pathway. This study investigated the relationship between Axin expression and sensitivity to X-rays in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to find a useful indicator of radiosensitivity. Methods and Materials: Tissue from NSCLC patients, A549 cells, and BE1 cells expressing Axin were exposed to 1-Gy of X-radiation. Axin and p53 expression levels were detected by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-PCR. Apoptosis was determined by TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling) assay and FACS (fluorescence-activate cell sorter) analysis. Caspase-3 activity was determined by Western blotting. Phospho-JNK expression was determined by immunofluorescence. Results: The expression of Axin was significantly lower in NSCLC tissues than in normal lung tissues (p < 0.05). Axin expression correlates with differentiation, TNM staging, and lymph node metastasis of NSCLC (p < 0.05). Its expression negatively correlates with the expression of p53(mt) (p=0.000) and positively correlates with apoptosis (p=0.002). The prognosis of patients with high expression of Axin was better than those with low expression. X-radiation increases Axin expression in NSCLC tissue, and caspase-3 is significantly higher in samples in which Axin is increased (p < 0.05). Both X-radiation and Axin induce apoptosis of A549 and BE1 cells; however, the combination of the two enhances the apoptotic effect (p < 0.05). In A549 cells, inhibition of p53 blocks Axin-induced apoptosis, whereas in BE1 cells, the JNK pathway is required. Conclusions: Axin induces the p53 apoptotic pathway in cells where this pathway is intact; however, in cells expressing p53(mt), Axin induces apoptosis via the JNK pathway. Elevated Axin expression following X-ray exposure is a reliable indicator for determining the radiosensitivity of NSCLC.

  20. Neonatal hyperoxia induces alterations in neurotrophin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Sengoku, T; Murray, K M; Wilson, M E

    2016-02-01

    Each year in the United States, nearly 500,000 infants a year are born prematurely. Babies born before 35 weeks gestation are often placed on ventilators and/or given supplemental oxygen. This increase in oxygen, while critical for survival, can cause long-term damage to lungs, retinas and brains. In particular, hyperoxia causes apoptosis in neurons and alters glial activity. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) are members of the neurotrophin family of proteins that function to promote the growth, differentiation and development of the nervous system. We hypothesized that hyperoxia can alter the regulation of these genes and by doing so adversely affect the development of the brain. We predicted that mice exposed to hyperoxic conditions would have differences in BDNF and GDNF mRNA expression and relative level of methylated promoter regions coinciding with differences in the relative levels of DNMT1 and DNMT3a mRNA expression. To test this hypothesis, newborn C57Bl/6 mice and their littermates were placed in hyperoxic or normoxic conditions from postnatal day 7 to 12. There were significant decreases in BDNF mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex following hyperoxia, but a significant increase in the isocortex. GDNF mRNA expression was significantly increased in both the isocortex and prefrontal cortex following hyperoxia. DNMT1 mRNA expression was significantly decreased in the isocortex but significantly increased in the prefrontal following hyperoxia. Together these data suggest that short-term exposure to hyperoxic conditions can affect the regulation and expression of BDNF and GDNF potentially leading to alterations in neural development. PMID:26592967

  1. Estradiol-induced gene expression in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowman, C.J.; Kroll, K.J.; Gross, T.G.; Denslow, N.D.

    2002-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vtg) and estrogen receptor (ER) gene expression levels were measured in largemouth bass to evaluate the activation of the ER-mediated pathway by estradiol (E2). Single injections of E2 ranging from 0.0005 to 5 mg/kg up-regulated plasma Vtg in a dose-dependent manner. Vtg and ER mRNAs were measured using partial cDNA sequences corresponding to the C-terminal domain for Vtg and the ligand-binding domain of ER?? sequences. After acute E2-exposures (2 mg/kg), Vtg and ER mRNAs and plasma Vtg levels peaked after 2 days. The rate of ER mRNA accumulation peaked 36-42 h earlier than Vtg mRNA. The expression window for ER defines the primary response to E2 in largemouth bass and that for Vtg a delayed primary response. The specific effect of E2 on other estrogen-regulated genes was tested during these same time windows using differential display RT-PCR. Specific up-regulated genes that are expressed in the same time window as Vtg were ERp72 (a membrane-bound disulfide isomerase) and a gene with homology to an expressed gene identified in zebrafish. Genes that were expressed in a pattern that mimics the ER include the gene for zona radiata protein ZP2, and a gene with homology to an expressed gene found in winter flounder. One gene for fibrinogen ?? was down-regulated and an unidentified gene was transiently up-regulated after 12 h of exposure and returned to basal levels by 48 h. Taken together these studies indicate that the acute molecular response to E2 involves a complex network of responses over time. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. GPBAR1/TGR5 mediates bile acid-induced cytokine expression in murine Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Lou, Guiyu; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Fu, Xianghui; Meng, Zhipeng; Zhang, Wenyu; Wang, Yan-Dong; Van Ness, Carl; Yu, Donna; Xu, Rongzhen; Huang, Wendong

    2014-01-01

    GPBAR1/TGR5 is a novel plasma membrane-bound G protein-coupled bile acid (BA) receptor. BAs are known to induce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the liver with unknown mechanism. Here we show that without other external stimuli, TGR5 activation alone induced the expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 or murine Kupffer cells. The TGR5-mediated increase of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was suppressed by JNK inhibition. Moreover, the induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in mouse liver by 1% cholic acid (CA) diet was blunted in JNK-/- mice. TGR5 activation by its ligands enhanced the phosphorylation levels, DNA-binding and trans-activities of c-Jun and ATF2 transcription factors. Finally, the induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in Kupffer cells by TGR5 activation correlated with the suppression of Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1) expression in murine hepatocytes. These results suggest that TGR5 mediates the BA-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in murine Kupffer cells through JNK-dependent pathway. This novel role of TGR5 may correlate to the suppression of Cyp7a1 expression in hepatocytes and contribute to the delicate BA feedback regulation. PMID:24755711

  3. Over-expression of DMRT1 induces the male pathway in embryonic chicken gonads

    PubMed Central

    Lambeth, Luke; Raymond, Christopher S.; Roeszler, Kelly N.; Kuroiwa, Asato; Nakata, Tomohiro; Zarkower, David; Smith, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    DMRT1 encodes a conserved transcription factor with an essential role in gonadal function. In the chicken, DMRT1 is located on the Z sex chromosome and is currently the best candidate master regulator of avian gonadal sex differentiation. We previously showed that knockdown of DMRT1 expression during the period of sexual differentiation induces feminisation of male embryonic chicken gonads. This gene is therefore necessary for proper testis development in the chicken. However, whether it is sufficient to induce testicular differentiation has remained unresolved. We show here that over-expression of DMRT1 induces male pathway genes and antagonises the female pathway in embryonic chicken gonads. Ectopic DMRT1 expression in female gonads induces localised SOX9 and AMH expression. It also induces expression of the recently identified Z-linked male factor, Hemogen (HEMGN). Masculinised gonads show evidence of cord-like structures and retarded female-type cortical development. Furthermore, expression of the critical feminizing enzyme, aromatase, is reduced in the presence of over-expressed DMRT1. These data indicate that DMRT1 is an essential sex-linked regulator of gonadal differentiation in avians, and that it likely acts via a dosage mechanism established through the lack of global Z dosage compensation in birds. PMID:24576538

  4. Interleukin (IL)-1? Is a Strong Inducer of IL-36? Expression in Human Colonic Myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kenichiro; Nishida, Atsushi; Shioya, Makoto; Imaeda, Hirotsugu; Bamba, Shigeki; Inatomi, Osamu; Shimizu, Tomoharu; Kitoh, Katsuyuki; Andoh, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds and aims Interleukin (IL)-36 cytokines are members of the IL-1 cytokine family. In this study, we investigated the expression of IL-36? in human colonic myofibroblasts to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying IL-36? induction. Materials and methods IL-36 mRNA was analyzed by real-time PCR method. Secretion of IL-36? protein was evaluated by Western blot and ELISA analyses. Molecular mechanism of IL-36? induction was evaluated by siRNA analyses and immunofluorescence experiments. Results IL-36? mRNA expression was scarcely detected in the cells without stimulation. IL-1? induced a marked increase of IL-36? mRNA expression. TNF-? markedly enhanced IL-1?-induced IL-36? mRNA expression. These responses were confirmed at the protein levels. The inhibitors for ERK1/2 (PD98059 and U0216) and a p38 MAPK (SB203580) significantly reduced the IL-1?-induced IL-36? mRNA expression. In addition, the siRNAs specific for NF-?B p65 and AP-1 (c-Jun) significantly reduced the expression of IL-1?-induced IL-36? mRNA. Conclusions Colonic myofibroblasts are cellular source of IL-36? in the intestine. IL-36? expression was induced by the combination of IL-1? and TNF-? via activation of MAPKs and transcription factors, NF-?B and AP-1. PMID:26562662

  5. Glutathione peroxidase-1 inhibits UVA-induced AP-2{alpha} expression in human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Lei; Venkataraman, Sujatha; Coleman, Mitchell C.; Spitz, Douglas R.; Wertz, Philip W.; Domann, Frederick E. . E-mail: frederick-domann@uiowa.edu

    2006-12-29

    In this study, we found a role for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in UVA-induced AP-2{alpha} expression in the HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. UVA irradiation not only increased AP-2{alpha}, but also caused accumulation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the cell culture media, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by itself could induce the expression of AP-2{alpha}. By catalyzing the removal of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} from cells through over-expression of GPx-1, induction of AP-2{alpha} expression by UVA was abolished. Induction of transcription factor AP-2{alpha} by UVA had been previously shown to be mediated through the second messenger ceramide. We found that not only UVA irradiation, but also H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by itself caused increases of ceramide in HaCaT cells, and C2-ceramide added to cells induced the AP-2{alpha} signaling pathway. Finally, forced expression of GPx-1 eliminated UVA-induced ceramide accumulation as well as AP-2{alpha} expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that GPx-1 inhibits UVA-induced AP-2{alpha} expression by suppressing the accumulation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  6. GPBAR1/TGR5 Mediates Bile Acid-Induced Cytokine Expression in Murine Kupffer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Guiyu; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Fu, Xianghui; Meng, Zhipeng; Zhang, Wenyu; Wang, Yan-Dong; Van Ness, Carl; Yu, Donna; Xu, Rongzhen; Huang, Wendong

    2014-01-01

    GPBAR1/TGR5 is a novel plasma membrane-bound G protein–coupled bile acid (BA) receptor. BAs are known to induce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the liver with unknown mechanism. Here we show that without other external stimuli, TGR5 activation alone induced the expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 or murine Kupffer cells. The TGR5-mediated increase of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was suppressed by JNK inhibition. Moreover, the induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in mouse liver by 1% cholic acid (CA) diet was blunted in JNK−/− mice. TGR5 activation by its ligands enhanced the phosphorylation levels, DNA-binding and trans-activities of c-Jun and ATF2 transcription factors. Finally, the induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in Kupffer cells by TGR5 activation correlated with the suppression of Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1) expression in murine hepatocytes. These results suggest that TGR5 mediates the BA-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in murine Kupffer cells through JNK-dependent pathway. This novel role of TGR5 may correlate to the suppression of Cyp7a1 expression in hepatocytes and contribute to the delicate BA feedback regulation. PMID:24755711

  7. T-kininogen gene expression is induced during aging.

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, F; Fey, G H; Guigoz, Y

    1989-01-01

    We have constructed a cDNA library from senescent (24-month-old) rat liver mRNA and, by differential screening, have selected clones corresponding to mRNA species with increased abundance in aging rats. Direct sequencing of the inserts indicated that most of the clones (9 of 10) contained sequences coding for T-kininogen, also called major acute-phase protein, cysteine protease inhibitor, or thiostatin. Nuclear elongation experiments showed that the increase in mRNA concentration was controlled at the transcriptional level. RNase mapping and S1 analysis indicated that the age-dependent induction operated preferentially at one of the three transcriptional start sites of the gene(s). The acute-phase reaction (inflammation) is known to also induce these genes at the level of transcription; however, two of the three start sites are induced by inflammation. Transcription from one of these sites was induced by both phenomena, aging and inflammation. Images PMID:2479831