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Sample records for factor-alpha induced expression

  1. Arsenite enhances tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, T.-C. . E-mail: tctsou@nhri.org.tw; Yeh, Szu Ching; Tsai, E.-M.; Tsai, F.-Y.; Chao, H.-R.; Chang, Louis W.

    2005-11-15

    Epidemiological studies demonstrated a high association of vascular diseases with arsenite exposure. We hypothesize that arsenite potentiates the effect of proinflammatory cytokines on vascular endothelial cells, and hence contributes to atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of arsenite and its induction of glutathione (GSH) on vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) protein expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in response to tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), a typical proinflammatory cytokine. Our study demonstrated that arsenite pretreatment potentiated the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression with up-regulations of both activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). To elucidate the role of GSH in regulation of AP-1, NF-{kappa}B, and VCAM-1 expression, we employed L-buthionine (S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), a specific {gamma}-glutamylcysteine synthetase ({gamma}-GCS) inhibitor, to block intracellular GSH synthesis. Our investigation revealed that, by depleting GSH, arsenite attenuated the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression as well as a potentiation of AP-1 and an attenuation of NF-{kappa}B activations by TNF-{alpha}. Moreover, we found that depletion of GSH would also attenuate the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression with a down-regulation of the TNF-{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activation and without significant effect on AP-1. On the other hand, the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression could be completely abolished by inhibition of AP-1 or NF-{kappa}B activity, suggesting that activation of both AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B was necessary for VCAM-1 expression. In summary, we demonstrate that arsenite enhances the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression in HUVECs via regulation of AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B activities in a GSH-sensitive manner. Our present study suggested a potential mechanism for arsenite in the induction of vascular inflammation and vascular diseases via modulating the actions

  2. Tumor necrosis factor alpha induces expression of human immunodeficiency virus in a chronically infected T-cell clone.

    PubMed Central

    Folks, T M; Clouse, K A; Justement, J; Rabson, A; Duh, E; Kehrl, J H; Fauci, A S

    1989-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), also known as cachectin, was demonstrated to induce the expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in a chronically infected T-cell clone (ACH-2). Concentrations of recombinant TNF-alpha as low as 50 pg/ml induced a significant increase over background of HIV expression in the ACH-2 cells as determined by supernatant reverse transcriptase activity. The HIV-inducing effects of TNF-alpha could not be explained by toxic effects on the cells. In addition, both the uninfected parental cell line (A3.01) and the infected ACH-2 cells were shown to have high-affinity receptors for TNF-alpha. Transient-transfection experiments demonstrated that the inductive effects of TNF-alpha were due to specific activation of the HIV long terminal repeat. These studies provide evidence that TNF-alpha may play a role in the mechanisms of pathogenesis of HIV infection. Images PMID:2784570

  3. Expression of transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor in rat lung neoplasms induced by plutonium-239

    SciTech Connect

    Stegelmeier, B.L.; Gillett, N.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Kelly, G.; Rebar, A.H.

    1994-11-01

    Ninety-two rat lung proliferative lesions and neoplasms induced by inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} were evaluated for aberrant expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-{alpha}) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Expression of TGF-{alpha} protein, measured by immunohistochemistry, was higher in 94% of the squamous cell carcinomas and 87% of the foci of alveolar epithelial squamous metaplasia than that exhibited by the normal-appearing, adjacent lung parenchyma. In contrast, only 20% of adenocarcinomas and foci of epithelial hyperplasia expressed elevated levels of TGF-{alpha}. Many neoplasms expressing TGF-{alpha} also expressed excessive levels of EGFR mRNA. Southern and DNA slot blot analyses showed that the elevated EGFR expression was not due to amplification of the EGFR gene. These data suggest that increased amounts of TGF-{alpha} were early alterations in the progression of plutonium-induced squamous cell carcinoma, and these increases may occur in parallel with overexpression of the receptor for this growth factor. Together, these alterations create a potential autocrine loop for sustaining clonal expansion of cells initiated by high-LET radiation. 44 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent TRPC1 expression in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Paria, Biman C; Malik, Asrar B; Kwiatek, Angela M; Rahman, Arshad; May, Michael J; Ghosh, Sankar; Tiruppathi, Chinnaswamy

    2003-09-26

    We investigated the role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in activating the store-operated Ca2+ channels in endothelial cells via the expression of transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) isoforms. We observed that TNF-alpha exposure of human umbilical vein endothelial cells resulted in TRPC1 mRNA and protein expression, whereas it had no effect on TRPC3, TRPC4, or TRPC5 expression. The TRPC1 expression was associated with increased Ca2+ influx after intracellular Ca2+ store depletion with either thrombin or thapsigargin. We cloned the 5'-regulatory region of the human TRPC1 (hTRPC1) gene which contained a TATA box and CCAAT sequence close to the transcription initiation site. We also identified four nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-binding sites in the 5'-regulatory region. To address the contribution of NF-kappaB in the mechanism of TRPC1 expression, we determined the effects of TNF-alpha on expression of the reporter luciferase after transfection of hTRPC1 promoter-luciferase (hTRPC1-Pro-Luc) construct in the human dermal microvascular endothelial cell line. Reporter activity increased >4-fold at 4 h after TNF-alpha challenge. TNF-alpha-induced increase in reporter activity was markedly reduced by co-expression of either kinase-defective IKKbeta kinase mutant or non-phosphorylatable IkappaB mutant. Treatment with NEMO-binding domain peptide, which prevents NF-kappaB activation by selectively inhibiting IKKgamma interaction with IKK complex, also blocked the TNF-alpha-induced TRPC1 expression. Thus, TNF-alpha induces TRPC1 expression through an NF-kappaB-dependent pathway in endothelial cells, which can trigger augmented Ca2+ entry following Ca2+ store depletion. The augmented Ca2+ entry secondary to TRPC1 expression may be an important mechanism of endothelial injury induced by TNF-alpha. PMID:12855710

  5. 5-Azacytidine treatment of HA-A melanoma cells induces Sp1 activity and concomitant transforming growth factor alpha expression.

    PubMed Central

    Shin, T H; Paterson, A J; Grant, J H; Meluch, A A; Kudlow, J E

    1992-01-01

    Evidence indicates DNA methylation as a part of the regulatory machinery controlling mammalian gene expression. The human melanoma cell line HA-A expresses low levels of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha). TGF-alpha mRNA accumulated, however, in response to DNA demethylation induced by a nucleoside analog, 5-azacytidine (5-azaC). The importance of DNA methylation in the TGF-alpha promoter region was examined by a transient transfection assay with luciferase reporter plasmids containing a portion of the TGF-alpha promoter. 5-azaC treatment of HA-A cells before the transfection caused a significant increase in the luciferase activity. Since input plasmids were confirmed to remain unmethylated, DNA demethylation of the TGF-alpha promoter itself does not account for the observed increase in TGF-alpha mRNA. Using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, enhanced formation of protein-TGF-alpha promoter complex was detected in response to 5-azaC treatment. This 5-azaC-induced complex was shown to contain the transcription factor Sp1 by the following criteria: the protein-DNA complex formed on the TGF-alpha promoter contained immunoreactive Sp1; the mobility of the complex in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay was similar to that formed by recombinant Sp1; and DNase I footprinting analysis demonstrated that the 5-azaC-induced complex produced a footprint on the TGF-alpha promoter identical to that of authentic Sp1. These observations suggest that 5-azaC induces TGF-alpha expression by augmenting the Sp1 activity. However, neither the Sp1 mRNA nor its protein was induced by 5-azaC. These results suggest that in HA-A cells, TGF-alpha expression is down-modulated by DNA methylation. In addition, this process may involve the specific regulation of Sp1 activity without altering the amount of the transcription factor. Images PMID:1380648

  6. Pamidronate Down-regulates Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Induced Matrix Metalloproteinases Expression in Human Intervertebral Disc Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Young-Mi; Hong, Seong-Hwan; Yang, Jae-Ho; Oh, Jin-Cheol; Park, Jin-Oh; Lee, Byung Ho; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Hak-Sun; Lee, Hwan-Mo

    2016-01-01

    Background N-containing bisphosphonates (BPs), such as pamidronate and risedronate, can inhibit osteoclastic function and reduce osteoclast number by inducing apoptotic cell death in osteoclasts. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the effect of pamidronate, second generation nitrogen-containing BPs and to elucidate matrix metallo-proteinases (MMPs) mRNA expression under serum starvation and/or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) stimulation on metabolism of intervertebral disc (IVD) cells in vitro. Methods Firstly, to test the effect of pamidronate on IVD cells in vitro, various concentrations (10-12, 10-10, 10-8, and 10-6 M) of pamidronate were administered to IVD cells. Then DNA and proteoglycan synthesis were measured and messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of type I collagen, type II collagen, and aggrecan were analyzed. Secondly, to elucidate the expression of MMPs mRNA in human IVD cells under the lower serum status, IVD cells were cultivated in full serum or 1% serum. Thirdly, to elucidate the expression of MMPs mRNA in IVD cells under the stimulation of 1% serum and TNF-α (10 ng/mL) In this study, IVD cells were cultivated in three dimensional alginate bead. Results Under the lower serum culture, IVD cells in alginate beads showed upregulation of MMP 2, 3, 9, 13 mRNA. The cells in lower serum and TNF-α also demonstrated upregulation of MMP-2, 3, 9, and 13 mRNA. The cells with various doses of pamidronate and lower serum and TNF-α were reveled partial down-regulation of MMPs. Conclusions Pamidronate, N-containing second generation BPs, was safe in metabolism of IVD in vitro maintaining chondrogenic phenotype and matrix synthesis, and down-regulated TNF-α induced MMPs expression. PMID:27622181

  7. Lipopolysaccharide induces expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha in rat brain: inhibition by methylprednisolone and by rolipram

    PubMed Central

    Buttini, M; Mir, A; Appel, K; Wiederhold, K H; Limonta, S; Gebicke-Haerter, P J; Boddeke, H W G M

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of the phosphodiesterase (PDE) type IV inhibitor rolipram and of the glucocorticoid methylprednisolone on the induction of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) mRNA and protein in brains of rats after peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS).After intravenous administration of LPS, a similar time-dependent induction of both TNF-α mRNA and protein was observed in rat brain. Peak mRNA and protein levels were found 7 h after administration of LPS.In situ hybridization experiments with a specific antisense TNF-α riboprobe suggested that the cells responsible for TNF-α production in the brain were microglia.Intraperitoneal administration of methylprednisolone inhibited the induction of TNF-α protein in a dose-dependent manner. A maximal inhibition of TNF-α protein production by 42.9±10.2% was observed at a dose regimen consisting of two injections of each 30 mg kg−1 methylprednisolone.Intraperitoneal administration of rolipram also inhibited the induction of TNF-α protein in a dose-dependent manner. The maximal inhibition of TNF-α protein production was 96.1±12.2% and was observed at a dose regimen of three separate injections of each 3 mg kg−1 rolipram.In situ hybridization experiments showed that the level of TNF-α mRNA induced in rat brain by LPS challenge was reduced by intraperitoneal administration of methylprednisolone (2×15 mg kg−1) and of rolipram (3×3 mg kg−1).We suggest that peripheral administration of LPS induces a time-dependent expression of TNF-α in rat brain, presumably in microglial cells, and that methylprednisolone and rolipram inhibit LPS-induced expression of TNF-α in these cells via a decrease of TNF-α mRNA stability and/or TNF-α gene transcription. PMID:9421299

  8. The coffee diterpene kahweol inhibits tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced expression of cell adhesion molecules in human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyung Gyun; Kim, Ji Young; Hwang, Yong Pil; Lee, Kyung Jin; Lee, Kwang Youl; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jeong, Hye Gwang . E-mail: hgjeong@chosun.ac.kr

    2006-12-15

    Endothelial cells produce adhesion molecules after being stimulated with various inflammatory cytokines. These adhesion molecules play an important role in the development of atherogenesis. Recent studies have highlighted the chemoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of kahweol, a coffee-specific diterpene. This study examined the effects of kahweol on the cytokine-induced monocyte/human endothelial cell interaction, which is a crucial early event in atherogenesis. Kahweol inhibited the adhesion of TNF{alpha}-induced monocytes to endothelial cells and suppressed the TNF{alpha}-induced protein and mRNA expression of the cell adhesion molecules, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. Furthermore, kahweol inhibited the TNF{alpha}-induced JAK2-PI3K/Akt-NF-{kappa}B activation pathway in these cells. Overall, kahweol has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activities, which occurs partly by down-regulating the pathway that affects the expression and interaction of the cell adhesion molecules on endothelial cells.

  9. Ultraviolet radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha, which is linked to the development of cutaneous SCC, modulates differential epidermal microRNAs expression.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ashok; Willems, Estelle; Singh, Anupama; Hafeez, Bilal Bin; Ong, Irene M; Mehta, Suresh L; Verma, Ajit Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is linked to the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), a non-melanoma form of skin cancer that can metastasize. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is linked to UVR-induced development of SCC. To find clues about the mechanisms by which TNFα may promote UVR-induced development of SCC, we investigated changes in the expression profiling of microRNAs (miRNA), a novel class of short noncoding RNAs, which affects translation and stability of mRNAs. In this experiment, TNFα knockout (TNFα KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates were exposed to acute UVR (2.0 kJ/m2) and the expression profiling of epidermal miRNA was determined 4hr post UVR exposure. TNFα deletion in untreated WT mice resulted in differential expression (log fold change>1) of seventeen miRNA. UVR exposure in WT mice induced differential expression of 22 miRNA. However, UVR exposure in TNFα KO mice altered only two miRNAs. Four miRNA, were differentially expressed between WT+UVR and TNFα KO+UVR groups. Differentially expressed selected miRNAs were further validated using real time PCR. Few of the differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-31-5p, miR-196a-5p, miR-127-3p, miR-206-3p, miR-411-5p, miR-709, and miR-322-5p) were also observed in UVR-induced SCC. Finally, bio-informatics analysis using DIANA, MIRANDA, Target Scan, and miRDB algorithms revealed a link with major UVR-induced pathways (MAPK, PI3K-Akt, transcriptional mis-regulation, Wnt, and TGF-beta). PMID:26918454

  10. Ultraviolet radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha, which is linked to the development of cutaneous SCC, modulates differential epidermal microRNAs expression

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ashok; Willems, Estelle; Singh, Anupama; Hafeez, Bilal Bin; Ong, Irene M.; Mehta, Suresh L.; Verma, Ajit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is linked to the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), a non-melanoma form of skin cancer that can metastasize. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is linked to UVR-induced development of SCC. To find clues about the mechanisms by which TNFα may promote UVR-induced development of SCC, we investigated changes in the expression profiling of microRNAs (miRNA), a novel class of short noncoding RNAs, which affects translation and stability of mRNAs. In this experiment, TNFα knockout (TNFα KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates were exposed to acute UVR (2.0 kJ/m2) and the expression profiling of epidermal miRNA was determined 4hr post UVR exposure. TNFα deletion in untreated WT mice resulted in differential expression (log fold change>1) of seventeen miRNA. UVR exposure in WT mice induced differential expression of 22 miRNA. However, UVR exposure in TNFα KO mice altered only two miRNAs. Four miRNA, were differentially expressed between WT+UVR and TNFα KO+UVR groups. Differentially expressed selected miRNAs were further validated using real time PCR. Few of the differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-31-5p, miR-196a-5p, miR-127-3p, miR-206-3p, miR-411-5p, miR-709, and miR-322-5p) were also observed in UVR-induced SCC. Finally, bio-informatics analysis using DIANA, MIRANDA, Target Scan, and miRDB algorithms revealed a link with major UVR-induced pathways (MAPK, PI3K-Akt, transcriptional mis-regulation, Wnt, and TGF-beta). PMID:26918454

  11. Apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in rat hepatocyte cell lines expressing hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed Central

    Guilhot, S.; Miller, T.; Cornman, G.; Isom, H. C.

    1996-01-01

    Three well differentiated SV40-immortalized rat hepatocyte cell lines, CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV14, and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-producing cell lines derived from them were examined for sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV14 cells were co-transfected with a DNA construct containing a dimer of the HBV genome and the neo gene and selected in G418 to generate stable cell lines. Characterization of these cell lines indicated that they contain integrated HBV DNA, contain low molecular weight HBV DNA compatible with the presence of HBV replication intermediates, express HBV transcripts, and produce HBV proteins. The viability of CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV2 cells was not significantly altered when they were treated with TNF-alpha at concentrations as high as 20,000 U/ml. The HBV-expressing CWSV1 cell line, SV1di36, and the HBV-expressing CWSV14 cell line, SV14di208, were also not killed when treated with TNF-alpha. However, the HBV-expressing CWSV2 cell line, SV2di366, was extensively killed when treated with TNF-alpha at concentrations ranging from 200 to 20,000 U/ml. Analysis of several different HBV-producing CWSV2 cell lines indicated that TNF-alpha killing depended upon the level of HBV expression. The TNF-alpha-induced cell killing in high HBV-producing CWSV2 cell lines was accompanied by the presence of an oligonucleosomal DNA ladder characteristic of apoptosis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:8774135

  12. Extract of corn silk (stigma of Zea mays) inhibits the tumour necrosis factor-alpha- and bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced cell adhesion and ICAM-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Habtemariam, S

    1998-05-01

    Treatment of human endothelial cells with cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) or E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces the expression of several adhesion molecules and enhances leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cell surface. Interfering with this leukocyte adhesion or adhesion molecules upregulation is an important therapeutic target for the treatment of bacterial sepsis and various inflammatory diseases. In the course of screening marketed European anti-inflammatory herbal drugs for TNF antagonistic activity, a crude ethanolic extract of corn silk (stigma of Zea mays) exhibited significant activity. The extract at concentrations of 9-250 micrograms/ml effectively inhibited the TNF- and LPS-induced adhesiveness of EAhy 926 endothelial cells to monocytic U937 cells. Similar concentration ranges of corn silk extract did also block the TNF and LPS but not the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced ICAM-1 expression on EAhy 926 endothelial cell surface. The extract did not alter the production of TNF by LPS-activated macrophages and failed to inhibit the cytotoxic activity of TNF. It is concluded that corn silk possesses important therapeutic potential for TNF- and LPS-mediated leukocyte adhesion and trafficking. PMID:9619111

  13. Respiratory epithelial cell expression of human transforming growth factor-alpha induces lung fibrosis in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Korfhagen, T R; Swantz, R J; Wert, S E; McCarty, J M; Kerlakian, C B; Glasser, S W; Whitsett, J A

    1994-01-01

    Increased production of EGF or TGF-alpha by the respiratory epithelial cells has been associated with the pathogenesis of various forms of lung injury. Growth factors and cytokines are thought to act locally, via paracrine and autocrine mechanisms, to stimulate cell proliferation and matrix deposition by interstitial lung cells resulting in pulmonary fibrosis. To test whether TGF-alpha mediates pulmonary fibrotic responses, we have generated transgenic mice expressing human TGF-alpha under control of regulatory regions of the human surfactant protein C (SP-C) gene. Human TGF-alpha mRNA was expressed in pulmonary epithelial cells in the lungs of the transgenic mice. Adult mice bearing the SP-C-TGF-alpha transgene developed severe pulmonary fibrosis. Fibrotic lesions were observed in peribronchial, peribronchiolar, and perivascular regions, as well as subjacent to pleural surfaces. Lesions consisted of fibrous tissue that included groups of epithelial cells expressing endogenous SP-C mRNA, consistent with their identification as distal respiratory epithelial cells. Peripheral fibrotic regions consisted of thickened pleura associated with extensive collagen deposition. Alveolar architecture was disrupted in the transgenic mice with loss of alveoli in the lung parenchyma. Pulmonary epithelial cell expression of TGF-alpha in transgenic mice disrupts alveolar morphogenesis and produces fibrotic lesions mediated by paracrine signaling between respiratory epithelial and interstitial cells of the lung. Images PMID:8163670

  14. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha-induced ICAM-1 expression in human vascular endothelial and lung epithelial cells: modulation by tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Burke-Gaffney, A.; Hellewell, P. G.

    1996-01-01

    1. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) increases the expression of the adhesion molecule intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on cultured endothelial and epithelial cells and modulation of this may be important in controlling inflammation. Activation of tyrosine kinase(s) is known to be involved in the signal transduction pathways of many cytokines. In this study we have investigated the effects of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, ST638, tyrphostin AG 1288 and genistein, on TNF alpha-induced ICAM-1 expression in human alveolar epithelial (A549) and vascular endothelial (EAhy926) cell lines and also normal human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVEC). 2. ICAM-1 expression on cultured cells was determined by a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Endothelial or epithelial monolayers were exposed to increasing doses of TNF-alpha (0.01-10 ng ml-1), in the presence or absence of either ST638 (3-100 microM), AG 1288 (3-100 microM) or genistein (100 microM) and ICAM-1 expression was measured at 4 and 24 h. Control experiments examined the effect of ST638 on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 20 ng ml-1, 4 h)-stimulated ICAM-1 and compared it to that of a specific protein kinase C inhibitor, R031-8220 (10 microM). Also, functional consequences of changes in ICAM-1 expression were assessed by measuring adhesion of 111 In-labelled human neutrophils to EAhy926 endothelial and A549 epithelial monolayers treated with TNF alpha, in the presence or absence of ST638. 3. ST638 caused a concentration-dependent reduction in TNF alpha- (0.1-10 ng ml-1)-induced ICAM-1 on EAhy926 endothelial (at 4 h) and A549 epithelial monolayers (at 4 and 24 h). In contrast, ST638 caused a concentration-dependent increase in TNF alpha- (0.1-10 ng ml-1)-induced ICAM-1 on EAhy926 endothelial cells at 24 h. Similar effects were seen with AG 1288 or genistein. ST638 (100 microM) significantly (P < 0.01) inhibited ICAM-1 expression on HLMVEC endothelial cells induced by

  15. Changes in gene expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6 in a canine model of caerulein-induced pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Song, Ruhui; Yu, Dohyeon; Park, Jinho

    2016-07-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process that frequently involves peripancreatic tissues and remote organ systems. It has high morbidity and mortality rates in both human and veterinary patients. The severity of pancreatitis is generally determined by events that occur after acinar cell injury in the pancreas, resulting in elevated levels of various proinflammatory mediators, such as interleukin (IL) 1β and 6, as well as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). When these mediators are excessively released into the systemic circulation, severe pancreatitis occurs with systemic complications. This pathophysiological process is similar to that of sepsis; thus, there are many striking clinical similarities between patients with septic shock and those with severe acute pancreatitis. We induced acute pancreatitis using caerulein in dogs and measured the change in the gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines. The levels of TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA peaked at 3 h, at twice the baseline levels, and the serum concentrations of amylase and lipase also increased. Histopathological examination revealed severe hyperemia of the pancreas and hyperemia in the duodenal villi and the hepatic sinusoid. Thus, pancreatitis can be considered an appropriate model to better understand the development of naturally occurring sepsis and to assist in the effective treatment and management of septic patients. PMID:27408338

  16. Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} induces MMP-9 expression via p42/p44 MAPK, JNK, and nuclear factor-{kappa}B in A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.-C.; Tseng, Hsiao-Wei; Hsieh, Hsi-Lung; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Wu, C.-Y.; Cheng, C.-Y.; Yang, C.-M.

    2008-06-15

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in particular MMP-9, have been shown to be induced by cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and contributes to airway inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying MMP-9 expression induced by TNF-{alpha} in human A549 cells remain unclear. Here, we showed that TNF-{alpha} induced production of MMP-9 protein and mRNA is determined by zymographic, Western blotting, RT-PCR and ELISA assay, which were attenuated by inhibitors of MEK1/2 (U0126), JNK (SP600125), and NF-{kappa}B (helenalin), and transfection with dominant negative mutants of ERK2 ({delta}ERK) and JNK ({delta}JNK), and siRNAs for MEK1, p42 and JNK2. TNF-{alpha}-stimulated phosphorylation of p42/p44 MAPK and JNK were attenuated by pretreatment with the inhibitors U0126 and SP600125 or transfection with dominant negative mutants of {delta}ERK and {delta}JNK. Furthermore, the involvement of NF-{kappa}B in TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 production was consistent with that TNF-{alpha}-stimulated degradation of I{kappa}B-{alpha} and translocation of NF-{kappa}B into the nucleus which were blocked by helenalin, but not by U0126 and SP600125, revealed by immunofluorescence staining. The regulation of MMP-9 gene transcription by MAPKs and NF-{kappa}B was further confirmed by gene luciferase activity assay. MMP-9 promoter activity was enhanced by TNF-{alpha} in A549 cells transfected with wild-type MMP-9-Luc, which was inhibited by helenalin, U0126, or SP600125. In contrast, TNF-{alpha}-stimulated MMP-9 luciferase activity was totally lost in cells transfected with mutant-NF-{kappa}B MMP-9-luc. Moreover, pretreatment with actinomycin D and cycloheximide attenuated TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. These results suggest that in A549 cells, phosphorylation of p42/p44 MAPK, JNK, and transactivation of NF-{kappa}B are essential for TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 gene expression.

  17. Impairment by interleukin 1 beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha of the glucagon-induced increase in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene expression and gluconeogenesis in cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Christ, B; Nath, A

    1996-01-01

    The influence of the inflammatory mediators interleukin 1 beta (IL1 beta) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) on the glucagon-induced expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK) and on glucose formation via gluconeogenesis was investigated in cultured rat hepatocytes. Gene expression was monitored by determination of mRNA levels and of enzyme activity. Glucose formation was estimated with newly synthesized radioactive glucose derived from a radiolabelled lactate precursor. Glucagon (0.1 or 1 nM) induced PCK mRNA transiently to a maximum 2 h after its application. In the presence of recombinant human (rh) IL1 beta or rhTNF alpha the increase in PCK mRNA levels was totally inhibited at 0.1 nM glucagon, whereas at 1 nM glucagon the maximal increase was inhibited by only 25%. Glucagon (0.1 or 1 nM) induced PCK activity to a maximum after 4 h (4-fold and 6-fold over prestimulatory activity respectively). In the presence of rhIL1 beta or rhTNF alpha the maximal increase was inhibited by approx. 50%. Addition of rhIL1 beta or rhTNF alpha 2 h after glucagon, at the maximal glucagon-induced PCK mRNA levels, accelerated the decay of PCK mRNA. Glucagon (1 or 10 nM) [corrected] increased glucose formation from lactate by 1.3-fold and 1.7-fold respectively over unstimulated rates. In the presence of rhIL1 beta or rhTNF alpha this increase in glucose formation was inhibited by 60-90%. At 0.1 nM, glucagon doubled the intracellular cAMP concentration. This increase was prevented by rhIL1 beta or rhTNF alpha. At 1 nM, glucagon increased cAMP concentrations by 10-fold. In the presence of rhIL1 beta or rhTNF alpha this increase was inhibited by 70%. From the results it is suggested that rhIL1 beta and rhTNF alpha prevented glucagon-stimulated PCK gene expression and gluconeogenesis at least in part by inhibition of the glucagon-stimulated increase in cAMP concentrations. PMID:8947481

  18. Genes encoding tumor necrosis factor alpha and granzyme A are expressed during development of autoimmune diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Held, W; MacDonald, H R; Weissman, I L; Hess, M W; Mueller, C

    1990-01-01

    Progressive destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in nonobese diabetic mice is observed after infiltration of the pancreas with lymphocytes [Makino, S., Kunimoto, K., Muraoka, Y., Mizushima, Y., Katagiri, K. & Tochino, Y. (1980) Exp. Anim. (Tokyo) 29, 1-13]. We show that the genes for tumor necrosis factor alpha and granzyme A, a serine protease associated with cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic cells, are expressed during the development of spontaneous diabetes mellitus in the nonobese diabetic mouse. Granzyme A-positive cells are found both in and surrounding the islets, implying induction prior to islet infiltration. Tumor necrosis factor alpha expression is exclusively observed in the intra-islet infiltrate, predominantly in lymphocytes adjacent to insulin-producing beta cells, the targets of the autoimmune destruction, implying that tumor necrosis factor alpha expression is induced locally--i.e., in the islet. A considerable portion of cells expressing tumor necrosis factor alpha appear to be CD4+ T cells. This T-cell subset was previously shown to be necessary for development of the disease. Thus, these findings may be important for understanding the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes mellitus and potentially also for that of other T-cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. Images PMID:2179951

  19. Brucella abortus Invasion of Osteocytes Modulates Connexin 43 and Integrin Expression and Induces Osteoclastogenesis via Receptor Activator of NF-κB Ligand and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Pesce Viglietti, Ayelén Ivana; Arriola Benitez, Paula Constanza; Gentilini, María Virginia; Velásquez, Lis Noelia; Fossati, Carlos Alberto; Giambartolomei, Guillermo Hernán

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarticular brucellosis is the most common localization of human active disease. Osteocytes are the most abundant cells of bone. They secrete factors that regulate the differentiation of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts during bone remodeling. The aim of this study is to determine if Brucella abortus infection modifies osteocyte function. Our results indicate that B. abortus infection induced matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), receptor activator for NF-κB ligand (RANKL), proinflammatory cytokines, and keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) secretion by osteocytes. In addition, supernatants from B. abortus-infected osteocytes induced bone marrow-derived monocytes (BMM) to undergo osteoclastogenesis. Using neutralizing antibodies against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or osteoprotegerin (OPG), RANKL's decoy receptor, we determined that TNF-α and RANKL are involved in osteoclastogenesis induced by supernatants from B. abortus-infected osteocytes. Connexin 43 (Cx43) and the integrins E11/gp38, integrin-α, integrin-β, and CD44 are involved in cell-cell interactions necessary for osteocyte survival. B. abortus infection inhibited the expression of Cx43 but did not modify the expression of integrins. Yet the expression of both Cx43 and integrins was inhibited by supernatants from B. abortus-infected macrophages. B. abortus infection was not capable of inducing osteocyte apoptosis. However, supernatants from B. abortus-infected macrophages induced osteocyte apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, our results indicate that B. abortus infection could alter osteocyte function, contributing to bone damage. PMID:26459511

  20. Propofol Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Expression and Myocardial Depression through Decreasing the Generation of Superoxide Anion in Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jing; Hu, Ji-Jie; Lu, Chun-Hua; Liang, Jia-Ni; Xiao, Jin-Fang; Liu, You-Tan; Lin, Chun-Shui; Qin, Zai-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    TNF-α has been shown to be a major factor responsible for myocardial depression in sepsis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an anesthetic, propofol, on TNF-α expression in cardiomyocytes treated with LPS both in vivo and in vitro. In cultured cardiomyocytes, compared with control group, propofol significantly reduced protein expression of gp91phox and phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 MAPK, which associates with reduced TNF-α production. In in vivo mice studies, propofol significantly improved myocardial depression and increased survival rate of mice after LPS treatment or during endotoxemia, which associates with reduced myocardial TNF-α production, gp91phox, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK. It is concluded that propofol abrogates LPS-induced TNF-α production and alleviates cardiac depression through gp91phox/ERK1/2 or p38 MAPK signal pathway. These findings have great clinical importance in the application of propofol for patients enduring sepsis. PMID:25180066

  1. Tumor necrosis factor alpha negatively regulates hepatitis B virus gene expression in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Gilles, P N; Fey, G; Chisari, F V

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that several inflammatory cytokines can modulate hepatocellular gene expression in a complex physiological process known as the hepatic acute-phase response. Since hepatitis B virus (HBV) characteristically induces a vigorous lymphomononuclear inflammatory response in the liver during acute and chronic hepatitis, it is possible that hepatocellular HBV gene expression may also be modulated by one or more of the cytokines produced by these cells. Using bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a surrogate inducer of inflammatory cytokines in vivo, we have tested this hypothesis in a transgenic mouse model system. In experiments with two independent transgenic mouse lineages that express the HBV envelope region under the control of either HBV or cellular promoters, we observed a 50 to 80% reduction in the hepatic steady-state content of a 2.1-kb HBV mRNA following administration of a single intraperitoneal dose of LPS. The regulatory influence of several inflammatory cytokines known to be induced by LPS was also examined in this system. The negative regulatory effect of LPS was consistently reproduced by the administration of a single nontoxic dose of tumor necrosis factor alpha, and it was occasionally observed following the administration of high doses of alpha interferon and interleukin-6, while no effect was detectable in response to high-dose interleukin-1 alpha or to gamma interferon. These observations suggest that tumor necrosis factor alpha and perhaps other cytokines may activate a heretofore unsuspected intracellular pathway that negatively regulates HBV gene expression. The intracellular mechanism(s) responsible for this effect and its pathophysiologic relevance remain to be elucidated. Images PMID:1583737

  2. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Induced Modifications of the Gene Expression Kinetics of Differentiating Skeletal Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Swanhild U.; Krebs, Stefan; Thirion, Christian; Blum, Helmut; Krause, Sabine; Pfaffl, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction TNF-α levels are increased during muscle wasting and chronic muscle degeneration and regeneration processes, which are characteristic for primary muscle disorders. Pathologically increased TNF-α levels have a negative effect on muscle cell differentiation efficiency, while IGF1 can have a positive effect; therefore, we intended to elucidate the impact of TNF-α and IGF1 on gene expression during the early stages of skeletal muscle cell differentiation. Methodology/Principal Findings This study presents gene expression data of the murine skeletal muscle cells PMI28 during myogenic differentiation or differentiation with TNF-α or IGF1 exposure at 0 h, 4 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 72 h after induction. Our study detected significant coregulation of gene sets involved in myoblast differentiation or in the response to TNF-α. Gene expression data revealed a time- and treatment-dependent regulation of signaling pathways, which are prominent in myogenic differentiation. We identified enrichment of pathways, which have not been specifically linked to myoblast differentiation such as doublecortin-like kinase pathway associations as well as enrichment of specific semaphorin isoforms. Moreover to the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of a specific inverse regulation of the following genes in myoblast differentiation and response to TNF-α: Aknad1, Cmbl, Sepp1, Ndst4, Tecrl, Unc13c, Spats2l, Lix1, Csdc2, Cpa1, Parm1, Serpinb2, Aspn, Fibin, Slc40a1, Nrk, and Mybpc1. We identified a gene subset (Nfkbia, Nfkb2, Mmp9, Mef2c, Gpx, and Pgam2), which is robustly regulated by TNF-α across independent myogenic differentiation studies. Conclusions This is the largest dataset revealing the impact of TNF-α or IGF1 treatment on gene expression kinetics of early in vitro skeletal myoblast differentiation. We identified novel mRNAs, which have not yet been associated with skeletal muscle differentiation or response to TNF-α. Results of this study may facilitate

  3. Tumor necrosis factor alpha regulates in vivo intrapulmonary expression of ICAM-1.

    PubMed Central

    Mulligan, M. S.; Vaporciyan, A. A.; Miyasaka, M.; Tamatani, T.; Ward, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    Lung injury following deposition of IgG immune complexes is neutrophil-dependent and requires both tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and CD18. In the current studies, we have evaluated the relationship between TNF alpha and expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in vitro and in vivo. In both rat pulmonary artery endothelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, TNF alpha induced an early (within 60 minutes) increase in ICAM-1 expression, followed by a peak at 6 to 8 hours, with relatively stable expression at 24 hours. Expression of E-selectin did not show the early phase (within 60 minutes) of up-regulation, peaked at 4 hours, and then declined thereafter. Using a radioimmunochemical assay in vivo, it was demonstrated that intrapulmonary deposition of IgG immune complexes caused a progressive increase in ICAM-1 expression in lung over an 8-hour period. In animals pretreated with antibody to TNF alpha, the intrapulmonary expression of ICAM-1 was significantly reduced. These results were confirmed by immunoperoxidase analysis of lung tissue. It was also shown that airway instillation of TNF alpha caused up-regulation of ICAM-1 in lung. These data support the concept that deposition of IgG immune complexes in lung induces intrapulmonary up-regulation of ICAM-1 in a manner that is TNF alpha-dependent. Images Figure 2 Figure 7 PMID:7685152

  4. HIV-1 Tat Protein Induces PD-L1 (B7-H1) Expression on Dendritic Cells through Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha- and Toll-Like Receptor 4-Mediated Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Planès, Rémi; BenMohamed, Lbachir; Leghmari, Kaoutar; Delobel, Pierre; Izopet, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is associated with induction of T-cell coinhibitory pathways. However, the mechanisms by which HIV-1 induces upregulation of coinhibitory molecules remain to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to determine whether and how HIV-1 Tat protein, an immunosuppressive viral factor, induces the PD-1/PD-L1 coinhibitory pathway on human dendritic cells (DCs). We found that treatment of DCs with whole HIV-1 Tat protein significantly upregulated the level of expression of PD-L1. This PD-L1 upregulation was observed in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) obtained from either uninfected or HIV-1-infected patients as well as in primary myeloid DCs from HIV-negative donors. In contrast, no effect on the expression of PD-L2 or PD-1 molecules was detected. The induction of PD-L1 on MoDCs by HIV-1 Tat (i) occurred in dose- and time-dependent manners, (ii) was mediated by the N-terminal 1–45 fragment of Tat, (iii) did not require direct cell-cell contact but appeared rather to be mediated by soluble factor(s), (iv) was abrogated following neutralization of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or blocking of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), (v) was absent in TLR4-knockoout (KO) mice but could be restored following incubation with Tat-conditioned medium from wild-type DCs, (vi) impaired the capacity of MoDCs to functionally stimulate T cells, and (vii) was not reversed functionally following PD-1/PD-L1 pathway blockade, suggesting the implication of other Tat-mediated coinhibitory pathways. Our results demonstrate that HIV-1 Tat protein upregulates PD-L1 expression on MoDCs through TNF-α- and TLR4-mediated mechanisms, functionally compromising the ability of DCs to stimulate T cells. The findings offer a novel potential molecular target for the development of an anti-HIV-1 treatment. IMPORTANCE The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV

  5. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits albumin gene expression in a murine model of cachexia.

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, D A; Buck, M; Feitelberg, S P; Chojkier, M

    1990-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for decreased serum albumin levels in patients with cachexia-associated infection, inflammation, and cancer are unknown. Since tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) is elevated in cachexia-associated diseases, and chronic administration of TNF alpha induces cachexia in animal models, we assessed the regulation of albumin gene expression by TNF alpha in vivo. In this animal model of cachexia, Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with the functional gene for human TNF alpha were inoculated into nude mice (TNF alpha mice). TNF alpha mice became cachectic and manifested decreased serum albumin levels, albumin synthesis, and albumin mRNA levels. However, even before the TNF alpha mice lost weight, their albumin mRNA steady-state levels were decreased approximately 90%, and in situ hybridization revealed a low level of albumin gene expression throughout the hepatic lobule. The mRNA levels of several other genes were unchanged. Hepatic nuclei from TNF alpha mice before the onset of weight loss were markedly less active in transcribing the albumin gene than hepatic nuclei from control mice. Therefore, TNF alpha selectively inhibits the genetic expression of albumin in this model before weight loss. Images PMID:2295699

  6. Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} enhances IL-15-induced natural killer cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jiwon; Lee, Suk Hyung; Shin, Nara; Jeong, Mira; Kim, Mi Sun; Kim, Mi Jeong; Yoon, Suk Ran; Chung, Jin Woong; Kim, Tae-Don; Choi, Inpyo

    2009-09-04

    The differentiation of natural killer (NK) cells is regulated by various factors including soluble growth factors and transcription factors. Here, we have demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) is a positive regulator of NK cell differentiation. TNF-{alpha} augmented the IL-15-induced expression of NK1.1 and CD122 in mature NK cells, and TNF-{alpha} alone also induced NK cell maturation as well as IL-15. TNF-{alpha} also increased IFN-{gamma} production in NK cells in the presence of IL-15. Meanwhile, mRNA expression of several transcription factors, including T-bet and GATA-3, was increased by the addition of TNF-{alpha} and IL-15. In addition, TNF-{alpha} increased nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activity in NK cells and inhibition of NF-{kappa}B impeded TNF-{alpha}-enhanced NK cell maturation. Overall, these data suggest that TNF-{alpha} significantly increased IL-15-driven NK cell differentiation by increasing the expression of transcription factors that play crucial roles in NK cell maturation and inducing the NF-{kappa}B activity.

  7. African Swine Fever Virus Infection Induces Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Production: Implications in Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gómez del Moral, M.; Ortuño, E.; Fernández-Zapatero, P.; Alonso, F.; Alonso, C.; Ezquerra, A.; Domínguez, J.

    1999-01-01

    We have analyzed the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) induced by in vitro infection with African swine fever (ASF) virus (ASFV) and the systemic and local release of this inflammatory cytokine upon in vivo infection. An early increase in TNF-α mRNA expression was detected in ASFV-infected alveolar macrophages, and high levels of TNF-α protein were detected by ELISA in culture supernatants from these cells. When animals were experimentally infected with a virulent isolate (E-75), enhanced TNF-α expression in mainly affected organs correlated with viral protein expression. Finally, elevated levels of TNF-α were detected in serum, corresponding to the onset of clinical signs. TNF-α has been reported to be critically involved in the pathogenesis of major clinical events in ASF, such as intravascular coagulation, tissue injury, apoptosis, and shock. In the present study, TNF-α containing supernatants from ASFV-infected cultures induced apoptosis in uninfected lymphocytes; this effect was partially abrogated by preincubation with an anti-TNF-α specific antibody. These results suggest a relevant role for TNF-α in the pathogenesis of ASF. PMID:9971800

  8. Claudin 1 mediates tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced cell migration in human gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Shiozaki, Atsushi; Shimizu, Hiroki; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Konishi, Hirotaka; Komatsu, Shuhei; Kubota, Takeshi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Iitaka, Daisuke; Nakashima, Shingo; Nako, Yoshito; Liu, Mingyao; Otsuji, Eigo

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of claudin 1 in the regulation of genes involved in cell migration and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced gene expression in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. METHODS: Knockdown experiments were conducted with claudin 1 small interfering RNA (siRNA), and the effects on the cell cycle, apoptosis, migration and invasion were analyzed in human gastric adenocarcinoma MKN28 cells. The gene expression profiles of cells were analyzed by microarray and bioinformatics. RESULTS: The knockdown of claudin 1 significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and increased apoptosis. Microarray analysis identified 245 genes whose expression levels were altered by the knockdown of claudin 1. Pathway analysis showed that the top-ranked molecular and cellular function was the cellular movement related pathway, which involved MMP7, TNF-SF10, TGFBR1, and CCL2. Furthermore, TNF- and nuclear frctor-κB were the top-ranked upstream regulators related to claudin 1. TNF-α treatment increased claudin 1 expression and cell migration in MKN28 cells. Microarray analysis indicated that the depletion of claudin 1 inhibited 80% of the TNF-α-induced mRNA expression changes. Further, TNF-α did not enhance cell migration in the claudin 1 siRNA transfected cells. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that claudin 1 is an important messenger that regulates TNF-α-induced gene expression and migration in gastric cancer cells. A deeper understanding of these cellular processes may be helpful in establishing new therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer. PMID:25548484

  9. Ultrasound-targeted antisense oligonucleotide attenuates ischemia/reperfusion-induced myocardial tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Erikson, John M; Freeman, Gregory L; Chandrasekar, Bysani

    2003-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents are now emerging as effective vehicles for delivering therapeutic agents to target tissues. In the present study, we used ultrasound-targeted, contrast-bound antisense oligonucleotides to inhibit the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a proinflammatory cytokine with negative inotropic effects. We compared the efficacy of left ventricular vs. intravenous administration and determined the optimal time for delivery. WKY rats were treated with perfluorocarbon-exposed sonicated dextrose albumin (PESDA) microspheres incubated with 100 microg of antisense oligonucleotide directed against TNF-alpha. Contrast was infused into either the superior vena cava or the left ventricular cavity along with simultaneous application of ultrasound. Twenty-four hours later, the animals underwent 15 min of ischemia and 2 h reperfusion. Control animals underwent sham operation only, ischemia/reperfusion only, or received PESDA only. A second group received treatment just prior to, or immediately after the onset of ischemia. At the end of the experimental period, hearts were removed and analyzed for TNF-alpha by northern and western blotting. While no TNF-alpha expression was detected in sham-operated animals, robust expression of TNF-alpha mRNA and protein was seen in controls treated with ultrasound and PESDA alone. In contrast, intravenous or left ventricular administration of antisense oligonucleotides significantly inhibited ischemia/reperfusion-induced TNF-alpha expression. Direct delivery into the left ventricular cavity was more effective than intravenous administration, and delivery just prior to ischemia was most effective in attenuating TNF-alpha expression. Furthermore, attenuation of TNF-alpha expression also significantly inhibited other post-ischemic inflammatory mediators including IL-1beta and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Thus, ultrasound-targeted antisense oligonucleotides can effectively attenuate post

  10. Role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in lipopolysaccharide-induced pathologic alterations.

    PubMed Central

    Remick, D. G.; Strieter, R. M.; Eskandari, M. K.; Nguyen, D. T.; Genord, M. A.; Raiford, C. L.; Kunkel, S. L.

    1990-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) has been implicated strongly as a principal mediator in the pathogenesis of septic shock. The authors investigated the in vivo production of TNF in CBA/J and CD-1 mice that had been primed by an intraperitoneal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant followed 2 weeks later by an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). TNF bioactivity peaked in both the ascites and plasma one hour after challenge, and TNF mRNA expression in the ascites cells peaked 30 minutes after LPS. After the induction of bioactivity, an interstitial pulmonary neutrophilic infiltrate occurred that was quantitated both morphometrically and by a myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay. Peripheral blood neutrophilia and lymphopenia developed after the LPS injection (PMNs: control, 46 +/- 2%; LPS, 65 +/- 3%; Lymphs control, 53 +/- 2%; LPS, 37 +/- 3%). Treatment with dexamethasone (Dex) completely inhibited the pulmonary neutrophilic infiltrate as measured by the (MPO) assay. Because Dex will inhibit the production of several cytokines, anti-TNF antiserum was given to mice at the same time as the LPS challenge to assess specifically the role of TNF in inducing these changes. This antiserum partially blocked the pulmonary neutrophil infiltrate, and completely blocked the peripheral blood changes at one hour after LPS. These data demonstrate that TNF plays an important role in the early pathophysiologic alterations that occur after systemic exposure to LPS. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 11 PMID:2297050

  11. Human dermal mast cells contain and release tumor necrosis factor alpha, which induces endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, L J; Trinchieri, G; Waldorf, H A; Whitaker, D; Murphy, G F

    1991-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a proinflammatory cytokine that mediates endothelial leukocyte interactions by inducing expression of adhesion molecules. In this report, we demonstrate that human dermal mast cells contain sizeable stores of immunoreactive and biologically active TNF-alpha within granules, which can be released rapidly into the extracellular space upon degranulation. Among normal human dermal cells, mast cells are the predominant cell type that expresses both TNF-alpha protein and TNF-alpha mRNA. Moreover, induction of endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 expression is a direct consequence of release of mast cell-derived TNF-alpha. These findings establish a role for human mast cells as "gatekeepers" of the dermal microvasculature and indicate that mast cell products other than vasoactive amines influence endothelium in a proinflammatory fashion. Images PMID:1709737

  12. Hepatic expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha in chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, M J; Lau, J Y; Williams, R; Vergani, D

    1994-01-01

    AIM--To determine the hepatic expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. METHODS--Frozen liver biopsy sections from 19 patients with chronic HBV infection were studied, 12 of whom were HBeAg positive and 10 serum HBV DNA positive. Hepatic expression of TNF alpha was determined using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS--Only infiltrating mononuclear cells showed immunoreactive staining for TNF alpha (median 2, range 0-3; n = 19) which appeared as diffuse positive staining material in the cytoplasm. Patients with active liver disease, assessed histologically and biochemically, had a higher level of expression, both in the number of TNF alpha positive cells and the proportion of TNF alpha positive infiltrating mononuclear cells. There was no correlation between the expression of TNF alpha and serological parameters of viral infection (HBeAg and HBV DNA status and HBV DNA concentrations). CONCLUSION--Hepatic expression of TNF alpha is increased in chronic HBV infection and is related to the activity of liver disease and not to the level of HBV replication. Images PMID:7876386

  13. Diesel exhaust particles induce the over expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene in alvelor machrophage and failed to induce apoptosis through activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5-10), including diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been reported to induce lung injury and exacerbation of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Alveolar macrophages play a major role in the lung's response to inhaled particles and...

  14. Phospholipase C-{delta}{sub 1} regulates interleukin-1{beta} and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} mRNA expression

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eric; Jakinovich, Paul; Bae, Aekyung; Rebecchi, Mario

    2012-10-01

    Phospholipase C-{delta}{sub 1} (PLC{delta}{sub 1}) is a widely expressed highly active PLC isoform, modulated by Ca{sup 2+} that appears to operate downstream from receptor signaling and has been linked to regulation of cytokine production. Here we investigated whether PLC{delta}{sub 1} modulated expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in rat C6 glioma cells. Expression of PLC{delta}{sub 1} was specifically suppressed by small interfering RNA (siRNA) and the effects on cytokine mRNA expression, stimulated by the Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), were examined. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed that PLC{delta}{sub 1} knockdown enhanced expression IL-1{beta} and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) mRNA by at least 100 fold after 4 h of LPS stimulation compared to control siRNA treatment. PLC{delta}{sub 1} knock down caused persistently high Nf{kappa}b levels at 4 h of LPS stimulation compared to control siRNA-treated cells. PLC{delta}{sub 1} knockdown was also associated with elevated nuclear levels of c-Jun after 30 min of LPS stimulation, but did not affect LPS-stimulated p38 or p42/44 MAPK phosphorylation, normally associated with TLR activation of cytokine gene expression; rather, enhanced protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation of cellular proteins was observed in the absence of LPS stimulation. An inhibitor of PKC, bisindolylmaleimide II (BIM), reversed phosphorylation, prevented elevation of nuclear c-Jun levels, and inhibited LPS-induced increases of IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha} mRNA's induced by PLC{delta}{sub 1} knockdown. Our results show that loss of PLC{delta}{sub 1} enhances PKC/c-Jun signaling and up-modulates pro-inflammatory cytokine gene transcription in concert with the TLR-stimulated p38MAPK/Nf{kappa}b pathway. Our findings are consistent with the idea that PLC{delta}{sub 1} is a

  15. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of three hypoxia-inducible factor alpha subunits, HIF-1α/2α/3α of the hypoxia-sensitive freshwater species, Chinese sucker.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nan; Chen, Li Ping; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Cheng; Wei, Xin Lan; Gul, Yasmeen; Wang, Wei Min; Wang, Huan Ling

    2012-04-25

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are transcription factors that respond to changes in oxygen tension in the cellular environment. In this study, we identified full-length cDNAs of HIF-1α, HIF-2α and HIF-3α in an endangered hypoxia-sensitive fish species, Chinese sucker. The HIF-1α/2α/3α cDNAs are 3890, 3230 and 3374 bp in length, encoding 780, 782 and 632 amino acid residues, respectively. The real-time PCR results suggested that HIF-1α and HIF-3α mRNAs were highly expressed in liver and gonads, followed by spleen and muscle. Moreover, HIF-1α and HIF-3α transcription factors revealed similar developmental expression patterns, with the lowest expression at 48h post-fertilization, and reaching the highest expression level at 360 h post-fertilization. Short-term hypoxia exposure (2.2, 2.8 and 3.2mg/L dissolved oxygen for 24h) increased mRNA levels of HIF-1α and HIF-3α. HIF-2α mRNA showed similar expression patterns with that of HIF-1α and HIF-3α, however, its expression was extremely low in the spatio-temporal expression patterns and hypoxia treatment. This is the first report describing the potential to identify hypoxia-sensitive/tolerant fishes according to the number of the serine residues of fish oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain. It was suggested that Cyprinomorpha fishes, with less than 40 serine residues in fish ODD domain were hypoxia-sensitive fishes and more than 40 serine residues in this domain were hypoxia-tolerant fishes. PMID:22342256

  16. TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF)

    EPA Science Inventory

    TITLE:
    TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF). AUTHORS (ALL): Abbott, Barbara D.1; Best, Deborah S.1; Narotsky, Michael G.1. SPONSOR NAME: None INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1. Repro Tox ...

  17. Regulatory roles of tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced proteins (TNFAIPs) 3 and 9 in arthritis.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Isao; Inoue, Asuka; Takai, Chinatsu; Umeda, Naoto; Tanaka, Yuki; Kurashima, Yuko; Sumida, Takayuki

    2014-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) have proved to be important in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) because the outcome of RA has greatly improved with the recent availability of biologics targeting them. It is well accepted that these cytokines are involved in the activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, but our understanding of the dependency of these pro-inflammatory cytokines and the link between them in RA is currently limited. Recently, we and others proved the importance of TNFα-induced protein (TNFAIP), due to the spontaneous development of arthritis in deficient animals that are dependent on IL-6. To date, nine TNFAIPs have been identified, and TNFAIP3 and TNFAIP9 were found to be clearly associated with mouse and human arthritis. In this review, we compare and discuss recent TNFAIP topics, especially focusing on TNFAIP3 and TNFAIP9 in autoimmune arthritis in mice and humans. PMID:24704577

  18. Cinnamaldehyde inhibits the tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced expression of cell adhesion molecules in endothelial cells by suppressing NF-{kappa}B activation: Effects upon I{kappa}B and Nrf2

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, B.-C.; Hsieh, C.-W.; Liu, Y.-C.; Tzeng, T.-T.; Sun, Y.-W.; Wung, B.-S.

    2008-06-01

    The production of adhesion molecules and subsequent attachment of leukocytes to endothelial cells (ECs) are critical early events in atherogenesis. These adhesion molecules thus play an important role in the development of this disease. Recent studies have highlighted the chemoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of cinnamaldehyde, a Cinnamomum cassia Presl-specific diterpene. In our current study, we have examined the effects of both cinnamaldehyde and extracts of C. cassia on cytokine-induced monocyte/human endothelial cell interactions. We find that these compounds inhibit the adhesion of TNF{alpha}-induced monocytes to endothelial cells and suppress the expression of the cell adhesion molecules, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, at the transcriptional level. Moreover, in TNF{alpha}-treated ECs, the principal downstream signal of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, NF-{kappa}B, was also found to be abolished in a time-dependent manner. Interestingly, cinnamaldehyde exerts its anti-inflammatory effects by blocking the degradation of the inhibitory protein I{kappa}B-{alpha}, but only in short term pretreatments, whereas it does so via the induction of Nrf2-related genes, including heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1), over long term pretreatments. Treating ECs with zinc protoporphyrin, a HO-1 inhibitor, partially blocks the anti-inflammatory effects of cinnamaldehyde. Elevated HO-1 protein levels were associated with the inhibition of TNF{alpha}-induced ICAM-1 expression. In addition to HO-1, we also found that cinnamaldehyde can upregulate Nrf2 in nuclear extracts, and can increase ARE-luciferase activity and upregulate thioredoxin reductase-1, another Nrf2-related gene. Moreover, cinnamaldehyde exposure rapidly reduces the cellular GSH levels in ECs over short term treatments but increases these levels after 9 h exposure. Hence, our present findings indicate that cinnamaldehyde suppresses TNF-induced singling pathways via two distinct mechanisms that are activated by different pretreatment periods.

  19. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha is expressed by glomerular visceral epithelial cells in human membranous nephropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Neale, T. J.; Rüger, B. M.; Macaulay, H.; Dunbar, P. R.; Hasan, Q.; Bourke, A.; Murray-McIntosh, R. P.; Kitching, A. R.

    1995-01-01

    The role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) was examined in biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, immunogold electron microscopy, immunoassay in serum and urine, and urinary immunoblot. Striking glomerular capillary wall and visceral glomerular epithelial cell TNF-alpha protein staining was observed in all cases of membranous nephropathy and membranous lupus nephropathy. Staining was less frequently observed in crescentic glomerulonephritis and in isolated cases of other histological subtypes of glomerulonephritis, usually in association with glomerular macrophages. By immunogold electron microscopy TNF-alpha was localized in membranous nephropathy within the visceral glomerular epithelial cells, and also in the glomerular basement membrane, especially in relation to immune deposits. In situ hybridization localized TNF-alpha mRNA exclusively to glomerular epithelial cells in all biopsies with membranous morphology but not in other histological subtypes. Concentrations of TNF-alpha were significantly increased compared with normal controls in the urine of patients with membranous nephropathy and with crescentic glomerulonephritis. The expression of TNF-alpha by glomerular epithelial cells exclusively and universally in biopsies showing a membranous morphology strongly suggests this cytokine has a role in the pathogenesis of membranous nephropathy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:7778683

  20. TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA DECREASES NOS3 EXPRESSION PRIMARILY VIA RHO/RHO KINASE IN THE THICK ASCENDING LIMB

    PubMed Central

    Ramseyer, Vanesa; Hong, Nancy; Garvin, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Inappropriate Na+ reabsorption by thick ascending limbs (THALs) induces hypertension. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by NO synthase type 3 (NOS3 or eNOS) inhibits NaCl reabsorption by THALs. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) decreases NOS3 expression in endothelial cells and contributes to increases in blood pressure. However, the effects of TNF-α on THAL NOS3 and the signaling cascade are unknown. TNF-α activates several signaling pathways including Rho/Rho kinase (ROCK) which is known to reduce NOS3 expression in endothelial cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that TNF-α decreases NOS3 expression via Rho/ROCK in rat THAL primary cultures. THAL cells were incubated with either vehicle or 1 nmol/L TNF-α for 24 hrs and NOS3 expression was measured by Western blot. TNF-α decreased NOS3 expression by 51±6% (p<0.002) and blunted stimulus-induced NO production. A 10-minutes treatment with TNF-α stimulated RhoA activity by 60±23% (p<0.04). Inhibition of Rho GTPase with 0.05 μg/mL C3 exoenzyme blocked TNF-α-induced reductions in NOS3 expression by 30±8% (p<0.02). Inhibition of ROCK with 10 μmol/L H-1152 blocked TNF-α-induced decreases in NOS3 expression by 66±15 % (p<0.001). Simultaneous inhibition of Rho and ROCK had no additive effect. Myosin light chain kinase, NO, protein kinase C, mitogen-activated kinase kinase, c-Jun amino terminal kinases and Rac-1 were also not involved in TNF-α-induced decreases in NOS3 expression. We conclude that TNF-α decreases NOS3 expression primarily via Rho/ROCK in rat THALs. These data suggest that some of the beneficial effects of ROCK inhibitors in hypertension could be due to the mitigation of TNF-α-induced reduction in NOS3 expression. PMID:22566503

  1. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Interleukin 1β Up-Regulate Gastric Mucosal Fas Antigen Expression in Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, JeanMarie; Macera-Bloch, Lisa S.; Harrison, Lawrence; Kim, Kyung H.; Korah, Reju M.

    2000-01-01

    Fas-mediated gastric mucosal apoptosis is gaining attention as a cause of tissue damage due to Helicobacter pylori infection. We explored the effects of H. pylori directly, and the effects of the inflammatory environment established subsequent to H. pylori infection, on Fas-mediated apoptosis in a nontransformed gastric mucosal cell line (RGM-1). Exposure to H. pylori-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), but not H. pylori itself, induced Fas antigen (Fas Ag) expression, indicating a Fas-regulatory role for inflammatory cytokines in this system. Of various inflammatory cytokines tested, only interleukin 1β and tumor necrosis factor alpha induced Fas Ag expression, and removal of either of these from the conditioned medium abrogated the response. When exposed to Fas ligand, RGM-1 cells treated with PBMC-conditioned medium underwent massive and rapid cell death, interestingly, with a minimal effect on total cell numbers early on. Cell cycle analysis revealed a substantial increase in S phase cells among cells exposed to Fas ligand, suggesting an increase in their proliferative response. Taken together, these data indicate that the immune environment secondary to H. pylori infection plays a critical role in priming gastric mucosal cells to undergo apoptosis or to proliferate based upon their Fas Ag status. PMID:10678925

  2. Bacterial evasion of host immune defense: Yersinia enterocolitica encodes a suppressor for tumor necrosis factor alpha expression.

    PubMed Central

    Beuscher, H U; Rödel, F; Forsberg, A; Röllinghoff, M

    1995-01-01

    The ability of the enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica to survive and proliferate in host tissue depends on a 70-kb plasmid known to encode a number of released Yersinia outer proteins that act as virulence factors by inducing cytotoxicity and inhibiting phagocytosis. This study demonstrates that one of the Yersinia outer proteins, the 41-kDa YopB, suppresses the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), a macrophage-derived cytokine with central roles in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses to infection. This conclusion is based on several lines of evidence. First, in macrophage cultures, suppression of TNF-alpha mRNA expression was induced by culture supernatant (CS+) of plasmid-bearing yersiniae, the effect which was blocked by anti-YopB antiserum. Second, suppression of TNF-alpha production, but not of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6, was induced by purified YopB. Third, in Yersinia-infected mice, no increase in TNF-alpha mRNA expression was observed in Peyer's patches, the primary site of bacterial invasion, compared with IL-1 (alpha and beta) mRNA. Finally, administration of anti-YopB antiserum to mice prior to infection with Y. enterocolitica increased TNF activity levels in Peyer's patches and coincided with a reduction in bacterial growth. The results thus provide direct evidence for a secreted eubacterial virulence factor that mediates selective suppression of TNF-alpha production. Although suppression of this single cytokine response is probably not sufficient to facilitate survival of the infecting organisms, the results suggest that suppression of TNF-alpha production by YopB significantly contributes to the evasion of Y. enterocolitica from antibacterial host defense. PMID:7890384

  3. Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Induced Endothelial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiuping; Andresen1, Bradley T.; Hill, Michael; Zhang, Jing; Booth, Frank; Zhang, Cuihua

    2010-01-01

    Endothelial cell injury and dysfunction are the major triggers of pathophysiological processes leading to cardiovascular disease. Endothelial dysfunction (ED) has been implicated in atherosclerosis, hypertension, coronary artery disease, vascular complications of diabetes, chronic renal failure, insulin resistance and hypercholesterolemia. Although now recognized as a class of physiological second messengers, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important mediators in cellular injury, specifically, as a factor in endothelial cell damage. Uncontrolled ROS production and/or decreased antioxidant activity results in a deleterious state referred to as ‘oxidative stress’. A candidate factor in causing ROS production in endothelial cells is tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), a pleiotropic inflammatory cytokine. TNF-α has been shown to both be secreted by endothelial cells and to induce intracellular ROS formation. These observations provide a potential mechanism by which TNF-α may activate and injure endothelial cells resulting in ED. In this review, we focus on the relationship between intracellular ROS formation and ED in endothelial cells or blood vessels exposed to TNF-α to provide insight into the role of this important cytokine in cardiovascular disease. PMID:20559453

  4. Tumor necrosis factor alpha gene expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells exposed to beryllium.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, G M; Pandey, J P; Schmidt, M G; Arnaud, P; Goust, J M

    1996-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease, which results from occupational exposure to particulate beryllium, is characterized by the development of lung granulomas and progressive pulmonary fibrosis. Increased production of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta) by pulmonary alveolar macrophages occurs in many chronic fibrotic lung diseases and is thought to contribute to the disease process. The purpose of the present study was to investigate cytokine production by human monocytic cells exposed to beryllium in vitro. The results indicated that such cells respond to beryllium ions in the presence of fluoride by accumulation of messenger ribonucleic acid for both tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta. These findings suggest that inhaled beryllium may directly stimulate the production of these cytokines by alveolar macrophages in vitro. PMID:8629860

  5. Cobalt inhibits the interaction between hypoxia-inducible factor-alpha and von Hippel-Lindau protein by direct binding to hypoxia-inducible factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yong; Hilliard, George; Ferguson, Tsuneo; Millhorn, David E

    2003-05-01

    The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) activates the expression of genes that contain a hypoxia response element. The alpha-subunits of the HIF transcription factors are degraded by proteasomal pathways during normoxia but are stabilized under hypoxic conditions. The von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL) mediates the ubiquitination and rapid degradation of HIF-alpha (including HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha). Post-translational hydroxylation of a proline residue in the oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain of HIF-alpha is required for the interaction between HIF and VHL. It has previously been established that cobalt mimics hypoxia and causes accumulation of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha. However, little is known about the mechanism by which this occurs. In an earlier study, we demonstrated that cobalt binds directly to the ODD domain of HIF-2alpha. Here we provide the first evidence that cobalt inhibits pVHL binding to HIF-alpha even when HIF-alpha is hydroxylated. Deletion of 17 amino acids within the ODD domain of HIF-2alpha that are required for pVHL binding prevented the binding of cobalt and stabilized HIF-2alpha during normoxia. These findings show that cobalt mimics hypoxia, at least in part, by occupying the VHL-binding domain of HIF-alpha and thereby preventing the degradation of HIF-alpha. PMID:12606543

  6. Lon Mutant of Brucella abortus Induces Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Murine J774.A1 Macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sungdo; Choi, Young-Sill; Park, Sang-Hee; Kim, Young-Rok; Chu, Hyuk; Hwang, Kyu-Jam; Park, Mi-Yeoun

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to isolate a Brucella lon mutant and to analyze the cytokine response of B. lon mutant during macrophage infection. Methods A wild-type Brucella abortus strain was mutagenized by Tn5 transposition. From the mouse macrophage J774.A1 cells, total RNA was isolated at 0 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours after infection with Brucella. Using mouse cytokine microarrays, we measured transcriptional levels of the cytokine response, and validated our results with a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay to confirm the induction of cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA). Results In host J774.A1 macrophages, mRNA levels of T helper 1 (Th1)-type cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and IL-3, were significantly higher in the lon mutant compared to wild-type Brucella and the negative control. TNF-α levels in cell culture media were induced as high as 2 μg/mL after infection with the lon mutant, a greater than sixfold change. Conclusion In order to understand the role of the lon protein in virulence, we identified and characterized a novel B. lon mutant. We compared the immune response it generates to the wild-type Brucella response in a mouse macrophage cell line. We demonstrated that the B. lon mutants induce TNF-α expression from the host J774.A1 macrophage. PMID:24524018

  7. Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF{alpha}) regulates CD40 expression through SMAR1 phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Kamini; Sinha, Surajit; Malonia, Sunil Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Samit

    2010-01-08

    CD40 plays an important role in mediating inflammatory response and is mainly induced by JAK/STAT phosphorylation cascade. TNF{alpha} is the key cytokine that activates CD40 during inflammation and tumorigenesis. We have earlier shown that SMAR1 can repress the transcription of Cyclin D1 promoter by forming a HDAC1 dependent repressor complex. In this study, we show that SMAR1 regulates the transcription of NF-{kappa}B target gene CD40. SMAR1 recruits HDAC1 and forms a repressor complex on CD40 promoter and keeps its basal transcription in check. Further, we show that TNF{alpha} stimulation induces SMAR1 phosphorylation at Ser-347 and promotes its cytoplasmic translocation, thus releasing its negative effect. Concomitantly, TNF{alpha} induced phosphorylation of STAT1 at Tyr-701 by JAK1 facilitates its nuclear translocation and activation of CD40 through p300 recruitment and core Histone-3 acetylation. Thus, TNF{alpha} mediated regulation of CD40 expression occurs by dual phosphorylation of SMAR1 and STAT1.

  8. Evaluation of Cucurbita maxima extract against scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats: implication of tumour necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed

    Jawaid, Talha; Shakya, Ashok K; Siddiqui, Hefazat Hussain; Kamal, Mehnaz

    2014-01-01

    Cucurbita maxima (CM) seed oil is commonly used in Indian folk medicine to treat various ailments. We have investigated the effect of CM seed oil on memory impairment induced by scopolamine in rats. Male adult Wistar rats were administered scopolamine 1 mg/kg body weight, i.p. or 1.25 mg/kg body weight, s.c. to induce memory impairment. The nootropic agent piracetam 100 mg/kg body weight, i.p. and CM seed oil 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, p.o. were administered daily for five consecutive days. The memory function was evaluated in the Morris water maze (MWM) test, the social recognition test (SRT), the elevated plus maze (EPM) test, and the pole climbing test (PCT). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and oxidative stress parameters were estimated in the cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of the brains after completion of the behavioural studies. The effects of scopolamine on the levels of the tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) transcript were also investigated. Scopolamine caused memory impairment in all the behavioural paradigms along with a significant increase in the AChE activity and oxidative stress in the brain. Scopolamine also caused a significant increase in the expression of TNF-α in the hippocampus. CM seed oil exhibited antiamnesic activity as indicated by a significant reduction in the latency time in the MWM test and decreased social interaction during trial 2 in the SRT. Further, treatment with CM seed oil significantly decreased the AChE activity and malondialdehyde levels and increased the glutathione level in brain regions. CM seed oil also significantly decreased the expression of TNF-α in the hippocampus. The effect of CM seed oil on behavioural and biochemical parameters was comparable to that observed in rats treated with piracetam. These results indicate that CM seed oil may exert antiamnesic activity which may be attributed to the inhibition of AChE and inflammation as well as its antioxidant activity in the brain. PMID:25711042

  9. Erythropoietin protects myocardin-expressing cardiac stem cells against cytotoxicity of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Madonna, Rosalinda; Shelat, Harnath; Xue, Qun; Willerson, James T.; De Caterina, Raffaele; Geng, Yong-Jian

    2009-10-15

    Cardiac stem cells are vulnerable to inflammation caused by infarction or ischemic injury. The growth factor, erythropoietin (Epo), ameliorates the inflammatory response of the myocardium to ischemic injury. This study was designed to assess the role of Epo in regulation of expression and activation of the cell death-associated intracellular signaling components in cardiac myoblasts stimulated with the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}. Cardiac myoblasts isolated from canine embryonic hearts characterized by expression of myocardin A, a promyogenic transcription factor for cardiovascular muscle development were pretreated with Epo and then exposed to TNF-{alpha}. Compared to untreated cells, the Epo-treated cardiac myoblasts exhibited better morphology and viability. Immunoblotting revealed lower levels of active caspase-3 and reductions in iNOS expression and NO production in Epo-treated cells. Furthermore, Epo pretreatment reduced nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B and inhibited phosphorylation of inhibitor of kappa B (I{kappa}B) in TNF-{alpha}-stimulated cardiac myoblasts. Thus, Epo protects cardiac myocyte progenitors or myoblasts against the cytotoxic effects of TNF-{alpha} by inhibiting NF-{kappa}B-mediated iNOS expression and NO production and by preventing caspase-3 activation.

  10. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha modulates monocyte/macrophage apoprotein E gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Duan, H; Li, Z; Mazzone, T

    1995-01-01

    apo E has been shown to modulate cholesterol balance in arterial wall cells. Production of apo E by macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques could thereby influence the development of the plaque lesion. Cytokines, including TNF alpha, have been identified in human lesions, therefore, we undertook a series of studies to evaluate the effect of TNF alpha on monocyte/macrophage apo E production. The addition of TNF alpha to freshly isolated human monocytes led to a four- to fivefold increase of apo E mRNA abundance. The addition of TNF alpha to fully differentiated macrophages either had no effect or modestly inhibited apo E mRNA expression. THP1 human monocytic cells also responded to TNF alpha in a phenotype-specific manner. Treatment of these cells with TNF alpha produced a dose- and time-dependent increase in apo E mRNA. This increase was reflected in apo E synthesis and was associated with inhibition of DNA synthesis, and with induction of c-fos and ICAM-1 gene expression. Cell-permanent analogues of ceramide did not reproduce TNF alpha effect on apo E, but antagonists of protein kinase C did inhibit its effect. TNF alpha induction of apo E mRNA abundance was associated with stimulation of apo E promoter-dependent gene transcription. In summary, TNF alpha stimulates apo E gene transcription, mRNA abundance, and protein synthesis in the monocyte/macrophage in a phenotype-specific manner. Such regulation could significantly modify the amount of apo E present in vessel wall lesions. Images PMID:7635986

  11. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene and protein expression in adult feline myocardium after endotoxin administration.

    PubMed Central

    Kapadia, S; Lee, J; Torre-Amione, G; Birdsall, H H; Ma, T S; Mann, D L

    1995-01-01

    TNF alpha mRNA and protein biosynthesis were examined in the adult feline heart after stimulation with endotoxin. When freshly isolated hearts were stimulated with endotoxin in vitro, de novo TNF alpha mRNA expression occurred within 30 min, and TNF alpha protein production was detected within 60-75 min; however, TNF alpha mRNA and protein production were not detected in diluent-treated hearts. Immunohistochemical studies localized TNF alpha to endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and cardiac myocytes in the endotoxin-treated hearts, whereas TNF alpha immunostaining was absent in the diluent-treated hearts. To determine whether the cardiac myocyte was a source for TNF alpha production, two studies were performed. First, in situ hybridization studies, using highly specific biotinylated probes, demonstrated TNF alpha mRNA in cardiac myocytes from endotoxin-stimulated hearts; in contrast, TNF alpha mRNA was not expressed in myocytes from diluent-treated hearts. Second, TNF alpha protein production was observed when cultured cardiac myocytes were stimulated with endotoxin, whereas TNF alpha protein production was not detected in the diluent-treated cells. The functional significance of the intramyocardial production of TNF alpha was determined by examining cell motion in isolated cardiac myocytes treated with superfusates from endotoxin- and diluent-stimulated hearts. These studies showed that cell motion was depressed in myocytes treated with superfusates from the endotoxin-treated hearts, but was normal with the superfusates from the diluent-treated hearts; moreover, the negative inotropic effects of the superfusates from the endotoxin-treated hearts could be abrogated completely by pretreatment with an anti-TNF alpha antibody. Finally, endotoxin stimulation was also shown to result in the intramyocardial production of TNF alpha mRNA and protein in vivo. Thus, this study shows for the first time that the adult mammalian myocardium synthesizes biologically active

  12. Calcitriol inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 during lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhu-Xia; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Xu, Shen; Qin, Hou-Ying; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Cheng; Xu, De-Xiang; Zhao, Hui

    2016-08-01

    Acute lung injury is a common complication of sepsis in intensive care unit patients with an extremely high mortality. The present study investigated the effects of calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) in sepsis-induced acute lung injury. Mice were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1.0mg/kg) to establish the animal model of sepsis-induced acute lung injury. Some mice were i.p. injected with calcitriol (1.0μg/kg) before LPS injection. An obvious infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lungs was observed beginning at 1h after LPS injection. Correspondingly, TNF-α and MIP-2 in sera and lung homogenates were markedly elevated in LPS-treated mice. Interestingly, calcitriol obviously alleviated LPS-induced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lungs. Moreover, calcitriol markedly attenuated LPS-induced elevation of TNF-α and MIP-2 in sera and lung homogenates. Further analysis showed that calcitriol repressed LPS-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation. In addition, calcitriol blocked LPS-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and p50 subunit in the lungs. Taken together, these results suggest that calcitriol inhibits inflammatory cytokines production in LPS-induced acute lung injury. PMID:27216047

  13. Effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma on expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in human bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, K Y; Moon, H S; Park, H Y; Lee, T Y; Woo, Y N; Kim, H J; Lee, S J; Kong, G

    2000-10-31

    We have investigated the effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon (INF-gamma), the potent Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-induced cytokines on the production of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and MT1-MMP in high grade human bladder cancer cell lines, T-24, J-82 and HT-1376 cell lines. MMP-2 expression and activity were decreased in T-24 cells treated with both cytokines in a dose dependent manner. However, J-82 cells treated with TNF-alpha and INF-gamma revealed dose dependent increases of MMP-9 expression and activity with similar baseline expression and activity of MMP-2. HT-1376 cells after exposure to TNF-alpha only enhanced the expression and activity of MMP-9. These results indicate that TNF-alpha and INF-gamma could regulate the production of MMP-2 or MMP-9 on bladder cancer cells and their patterns of regulation are cell specific. Furthermore, this diverse response of bladder cancer cells to TNF-alpha and INF-gamma suggests that BCG immunotherapy may enhance the invasiveness of bladder cancer in certain conditions with induction of MMPs. PMID:10996723

  14. Interleukin-1 beta, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Enayati, Samaneh; Seifirad, Soroush; Amiri, Parvin; Abolhalaj, Milad; Mohammad -Amoli, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Several inflammatory mediators have been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quantitative expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in un-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) gene expression were evaluated in angiography confirmed patients with and without CAD in a case-control study using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS A significant increase (P = 0.030) in IL-1β gene expression was found in patients with CAD [median interquartile range (IQR) = 4.890 (6.084)] compared to patients without CAD [median (IQR) = 1.792 (3.172)]. Despite the increase in IFN-γ gene expression in patients with CAD [median (IQR) = 1.298 (3.896)] versus patients without CAD [median (IQR) = 0.841 (2.79)], there was not statistically significant difference (P = 0.990). CONCLUSION Our results provide evidence for possible association between IL-1β and development of atherosclerosis as a crucial cytokine that induce a network of signaling pathways. This finding if proved in future would suggest IL-1β as a potent therapeutic target in CAD. PMID:26715931

  15. Ferulic acid enhances the vasorelaxant effect of epigallocatechin gallate in tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced inflammatory rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Suyama, Aki; Tanaka, Mitsuru; Matsui, Toshiro

    2014-07-01

    Previously, we demonstrated synergistic enhancement of vasorelaxation by combination treatment with Trp-His and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) in intact rat aorta. The aim of the present study was to determine whether this vasorelaxant synergy could be recapitulated in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced inflammatory rat aorta, and to determine the extent of its modulation by anti-inflammatory phenolic acids. Synergistic enhancement of vasorelaxation in rat aorta by Trp-His and EGCg was significantly attenuated in the presence of TNF-α, an effect that was reversed by the addition of ferulic acid (FA, 250 μM). Moreover, FA markedly enhanced EGCg-induced vasorelaxation, but not Trp-His-induced vasorelaxation, in TNF-α-treated aorta. Structure-activity analysis showed that the unsaturated 2-propenoic moiety and the methoxy group of FA were important for the enhancement of vasorelaxation by EGCg. The stimulation of EGCg-induced vasorelaxation by FA was antagonized by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine acetate, while FA enhanced vasorelaxant properties of the endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase activator acetylcholine in TNF-α-treated inflammatory aorta. Moreover, the EGCg-stimulated NO production was also enhanced by FA in TNF-α-treated aorta. These data indicate that stimulation of NO production by FA enhances the vasorelaxant properties of EGCg in TNF-α-induced inflammatory aorta. PMID:24794014

  16. Tumor necrosis factor alpha promotes the expression of immunosuppressive proteins and enhances the cell growth in a human bone marrow-derived stem cell culture.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, Johanna A; Pietilä, Mika; Salonen, Riikka J; Ohlmeier, Steffen; Ylitalo, Kari; Huikuri, Heikki V; Lehenkari, Petri

    2011-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in experimental treatments for various conditions that involve normal tissue regeneration via inflammatory repair. It is known that MSCs can secrete multiple soluble factors and suppress inflammation. Even though the effect of MSCs on inflammation has been extensively studied, the effect of inflammation on MSCs is poorly understood. One of the major cytokines released at the site of inflammation is tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) which is known to induce MSC invasion and proliferation. Therefore, we wanted to test the effects of TNF-α exposure on MSCs derived from human bone marrow. We found, as expected, that cell proliferation was significantly enhanced during TNF-α exposure. However, according to the cell surface marker analysis, the intensity of several antigens in the minimum criteria panel for MSCs proposed by International Society of Cellular Therapy (ISCT) was decreased dramatically, and in certain cases, the criteria for MSCs were not fulfilled. In addition, TNF-α exposure resulted in a significant but transient increase in human leukocyte antigen and CD54 expression. Additional proteomic analysis by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry revealed three proteins whose expression levels decreased and 8 proteins whose expression levels increased significantly during TNF-α exposure. The majority of these proteins could be linked to immunosuppressive and signalling pathways. These results strongly support reactive and immunosuppressive activation of MSCs during TNF-α exposure, which might influence MSC differentiation stage and capacity. PMID:21182837

  17. Tumor necrosis factor alpha promotes the expression of immunosuppressive proteins and enhances the cell growth in a human bone marrow-derived stem cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Miettinen, Johanna A.; Pietilae, Mika; Salonen, Riikka J.; Ohlmeier, Steffen; Ylitalo, Kari; Huikuri, Heikki V.; Lehenkari, Petri

    2011-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in experimental treatments for various conditions that involve normal tissue regeneration via inflammatory repair. It is known that MSCs can secrete multiple soluble factors and suppress inflammation. Even though the effect of MSCs on inflammation has been extensively studied, the effect of inflammation on MSCs is poorly understood. One of the major cytokines released at the site of inflammation is tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-{alpha}) which is known to induce MSC invasion and proliferation. Therefore, we wanted to test the effects of TNF-{alpha} exposure on MSCs derived from human bone marrow. We found, as expected, that cell proliferation was significantly enhanced during TNF-{alpha} exposure. However, according to the cell surface marker analysis, the intensity of several antigens in the minimum criteria panel for MSCs proposed by International Society of Cellular Therapy (ISCT) was decreased dramatically, and in certain cases, the criteria for MSCs were not fulfilled. In addition, TNF-{alpha} exposure resulted in a significant but transient increase in human leukocyte antigen and CD54 expression. Additional proteomic analysis by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry revealed three proteins whose expression levels decreased and 8 proteins whose expression levels increased significantly during TNF-{alpha} exposure. The majority of these proteins could be linked to immunosuppressive and signalling pathways. These results strongly support reactive and immunosuppressive activation of MSCs during TNF-{alpha} exposure, which might influence MSC differentiation stage and capacity.

  18. Are circulating cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha involved in chlorpyrifos-induced fever?

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J; Rowsey, P J

    1999-05-01

    Oral exposure to chlorpyrifos (CHP) in the rat results in an initial hypothermic response followed by a delayed fever. Fever from infection is mediated by the release of cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha). This study determined if the CHP-induced fever involves cytokine-mediated mechanisms similar to that of infectious fevers. Long-Evans rats were gavaged with the corn oil vehicle or CHP (10-50 mg/kg). The rats were euthanized and blood collected at various times that corresponded with the hypothermic and febrile effects of CHP. Plasma IL-6, TNF alpha, cholinesterase activity (ChE), total iron, unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC), and zinc were measured. ChE activity was reduced by approximately 50% 4 h after CHP. There was no effect of CHP on IL-6 when measured during the period of CHP-induced hypothermia or fever. TNF alpha levels nearly doubled in female rats 48 h after 25 mg/kg CHP. The changes in plasma cytokine levels following CHP were relatively small when compared to > 1000-fold increase in IL-6 and > 10-fold rise in TNF alpha following lipopolysaccharide (E. coli; 50 microg/kg; i.p.)-induced fever. This does not preclude a role of cytokines in CHP-induced fever. Nonetheless, the data suggest that the delayed fever from CHP is unique, involving mechanisms other than TNF alpha and IL-6 release into the circulation characteristic of infectious fevers. PMID:10413184

  19. Infection of human fallopian tube epithelial cells with Neisseria gonorrhoeae protects cells from tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Morales, Priscilla; Reyes, Paz; Vargas, Macarena; Rios, Miguel; Imarai, Mónica; Cardenas, Hugo; Croxatto, Horacio; Orihuela, Pedro; Vargas, Renato; Fuhrer, Juan; Heckels, John E; Christodoulides, Myron; Velasquez, Luis

    2006-06-01

    Following infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, bacteria may ascend into the Fallopian tubes (FT) and induce salpingitis, a major cause of infertility. In the FT, interactions between mucosal epithelial cells and gonococci are pivotal events in the pathogen's infection cycle and the inflammatory response. In the current study, primary FT epithelial cells were infected in vitro with different multiplicities of infection (MOI) of Pil+ Opa+ gonococci. Bacteria showed a dose-dependent association with cells and induced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). A significant finding was that gonococcal infection (MOI = 1) induced apoptosis in approximately 30% of cells, whereas increasing numbers of bacteria (MOI = 10 to 100) did not induce apoptosis. Apoptosis was observed in only 11% of cells with associated bacteria, whereas >84% of cells with no adherent bacteria were apoptotic. TNF-alpha was a key contributor to apoptosis, since (i) culture supernatants from cells infected with gonococci (MOI = 1) induced apoptosis in naïve cultures, suggesting that a soluble factor was responsible; (ii) gonococcal infection-induced apoptosis was inhibited with anti-TNF-alpha antibodies; and (iii) the addition of exogenous TNF-alpha induced apoptosis, which was inhibited by the presence of increasing numbers of bacteria (MOI = 10 to 100). These data suggest that TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis of FT epithelial cells is likely a primary host defense mechanism to prevent pathogen colonization. However, epithelial cell-associated gonococci have evolved a mechanism to protect the cells from undergoing TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis, and this modulation of the host innate response may contribute to establishment of infection. Understanding the antiapoptotic mechanisms used by Neisseria gonorrhoeae will inform the pathogenesis of salpingitis and could suggest new intervention strategies for prevention and treatment of the disease. PMID:16714596

  20. Microcystin-LR induces endoplasmatic reticulum stress and leads to induction of NFκB, interferon-alpha, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Christen, Verena; Meili, Nicole; Fent, Karl

    2013-04-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are hepatotoxins produced by cyanobacteria responsible for toxicity in humans and animals. Here, we investigate unexplored molecular pathways by which microcystin-LR (MC-LR) acts on hepatocytes to elucidate unknown modes of action. We focus on the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress response or unfolded protein response (UPR), and on mechanisms that may contribute to the tumor-promoting effect of MCs in animals, including the activation of NFκB, the expression of interferon alpha (IFN-α) and the induction of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs), as well as the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). To this end, we exposed human hepatoma cells (Huh7) to 0.5 μM (nontoxic concentration), 5 μM (EC50 concentration), 25 μM and 50 μM (cytotoxic concentrations) MC-LR for 6, 24, 48, and 72 h. The expression of phosphatase 2A (PP2A) mRNA and protein was induced at 5 μM MC-LR. Phosphorylated P-CREB, a transcription factor for PP2A, leads to elevated expression of PP2A. Furthermore, all of the three ER stress pathways, the UPR and the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation were activated after exposure to 5, 25, and 50 μM MC-LR. Additionally, the expression of NFκB, IFN-α, and several INF-α-stimulated genes was strongly activated. The proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α was also induced. Our data demonstrate that MC-LR induces all ER stress response pathways. Consequently NFκB is activated, which in turn induces the expression of IFN-α and TNF-α. All of these activated pathways, which are analyzed here for the first time in detail, may contribute to the hepatotoxic, inflammatory, and tumorigenic action of MC-LR. PMID:23431999

  1. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes in long-term culture.

    PubMed Central

    Bour, E. S.; Ward, L. K.; Cornman, G. A.; Isom, H. C.

    1996-01-01

    Apoptosis occurs naturally in the liver and increases in specific pathogenic processes. We previously described the use of a chemically defined medium supplemented with epidermal growth factor and dimethylsulfoxide to maintain rat hepatocytes in a highly differentiated state for more than 30 days (long-term culture). In this study, we showed that hepatocytes in long-term dimethylsulfoxide culture have definite advantages over using cells in short-term culture (cells in culture for 2 to 4 days) to study apoptosis. We demonstrated that treatment with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha induced apoptosis (detected morphologically and by formation of an oligonucleosomal DNA ladder) only in hepatocytes that had been subjected to dimethylsulfoxide removal. Neither treatment with TNF-alpha alone or dimethylsulfoxide removal alone induced apoptosis. Apoptosis could be induced by concentrations as low as 500 U of TNF-alpha/ml. Although a DNA ladder was not detected by 12 hours after TNF-alpha treatment, it was easily identified by 24 hours. We conclude that this system can be used 1) to examine the underlying mechanism by which TNF-alpha causes apoptosis in hepatocytes and 2) to study induction of apoptosis in hepatocytes by other agents. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:8579111

  2. Establishment and evaluation of a transgenic mouse model of arthritis induced by overexpressing human tumor necrosis factor alpha

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ge; Wu, Yu'e; Jia, Huanhuan; Tang, Lu; Huang, Ren; Peng, Yucai; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Blockade of TNFα by monoclonal antibody has been widely used for the therapy of RA since the 1990s; however, its mechanism of efficacy, and potential safety concerns of the treatment are still not fully understood. This study sought to establish a transgenic arthritic mouse model by overexpressing human TNFα (hTNFα) and to apply this model as a means to evaluate therapeutic consequences of TNFα inhibitors. The transgenic mouse line (TgTC) with FVB background was generated by incorporating 3′-modified hTNFα gene sequences. A progressively erosive polyarthritis developed in the TgTC mice, with many characteristics observed in human rheumatoid arthritis, including polyarticular swelling, impairment of movement, synovial hyperplasia, and cartilage and bone erosion. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that hTNFα is not only expressed in hyperplastic synovial membrane, but also in tissues without lesions, including brain, lung and kidney. Treatment of the TgTC mice with anti-hTNFα monoclonal antibodies (mAb) significantly decreased the level of hTNFα in the diseased joint and effectively prevented development of arthritis in a dose-dependent response fashion. Our results indicated that the TgTC mice represent a genetic model which can be used to comprehensively investigate the pathogenesis and therapeutics of TNFα-related diseases. PMID:26977076

  3. Association of tumour necrosis factor alpha and its receptors with thymidine phosphorylase expression in invasive breast carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Leek, R. D.; Landers, R.; Fox, S. B.; Ng, F.; Harris, A. L.; Lewis, C. E.

    1998-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential requirement for tumour growth and metastasis and is regulated by a complex network of factors produced by both stromal cells and neoplastic cells within solid tumours. The cytokine tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and the enzyme thymidine phosphorylase (TP) are two factors known to promote tumour angiogenesis. We have demonstrated recently that high numbers of tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) are significantly associated with increased tumour angiogenesis and poor prognosis in invasive carcinoma of the breast. We have also shown that TAMs are a major source of TNF-alpha in invasive breast carcinomas, and that macrophage-like stromal cells as well as tumour cells synthesize TP in such tumours. However, little is known of the factors that regulate the production or activity of these factors in the tumour microenvironment. As TNF-alpha has been shown to up-regulate TP expression in tumour cells in vitro we performed an immunohistochemical study to investigate the possibility that TNF-alpha may be involved in the regulation of TP expression by malignant breast epithelial cells in vivo. To do this, we used a cocktail of non-neutralizing monoclonal anti-TNF-alpha antibodies to visualize both TNF-alpha-expressing macrophages and TNF-alpha bound to its receptors on tumour cells and endothelial cells in a series of 93 invasive carcinomas of the breast. A semiquantitative grading system was then used to compare these staining patterns with that for TP in the same biopsies. TNF-alpha immunoreactivity was also compared with various important tumour variables known to relate to outcome in this disease (microvessel density, node status, grade, stage, receptor status and macrophage infiltration), as well as relapse-free and overall survival data for these patients. Our data show significant positive correlations between TNF-alpha bound to its receptors on tumour cells and: (1) TP protein production by tumour cells, and (2) axillary lymph

  4. Hypothermia-induced neurite outgrowth is mediated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Katharina R L; Boato, Francesco; Diestel, Antje; Hechler, Daniel; Kruglov, Andrei; Berger, Felix; Hendrix, Sven

    2010-07-01

    Systemic or brain-selective hypothermia is a well-established method for neuroprotection after brain trauma. There is increasing evidence that hypothermia exerts beneficial effects on the brain and may also support regenerative responses after brain damage. Here, we have investigated whether hypothermia influences neurite outgrowth in vitro via modulation of the post-injury cytokine milieu. Organotypic brain slices were incubated: deep hypothermia (2 h at 17 degrees C), rewarming (2 h up to 37 degrees C), normothermia (20 h at 37 degrees C). Neurite density and cytokine release (IL 1beta, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha) were investigated after 24 h. For functional analysis mice deficient in NT-3/NT-4 and TNF-alpha as well as the TNF-alpha inhibitor etanercept were used. Hypothermia led to a significant increase of neurite outgrowth, which was independent of neurotrophin signaling. In contrast to other cytokines investigated, TNF-alpha secretion by organotypic brain slices was significantly increased after deep hypothermia. Moreover, hypothermia-induced neurite extension was abolished after administration of the TNF-alpha inhibitor and in TNF-alpha knockout mice. We demonstrate that TNF-alpha is responsible for inducing neurite outgrowth in the context of deep hypothermia and rewarming. These data suggest that hypothermia not only exerts protective effects in the CNS but may also support neurite outgrowth as a potential mechanism of regeneration. PMID:20070303

  5. Tumor necrosis factor alpha is reparative via TNFR2 [corrected] in the hippocampus and via TNFR1 [corrected] in the striatum after virus-induced encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Moses; Zoecklein, Laurie; Papke, Louisa; Gamez, Jeff; Denic, Aleksandar; Macura, Slobodan; Howe, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Differentiating between injurious and reparative factors facilitates appropriate therapeutic intervention. We evaluated the role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) in parenchymal brain pathology resolution following virus-induced encephalitis from a picornavirus, Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV). We infected the following animals with TMEV for 7 to 270 days: B6/129 TNF(-/-) mice (without TNFalpha expression), B6/129 TNFR1(-/-) mice (without TNFalpha receptor 1 expression), and B6/129 TNFR2(-/-) mice (without TNFalpha receptor 2 expression). Normal TNFalpha-expressing controls were TMEV-infected B6, 129/J, B6/129F1 and B6/129F2 mice. Whereas all strains developed inflammation and neuronal injury in the hippocampus and striatum 7 to 21 days postinfection (dpi), the control mice resolved the pathology by 45 to 90 dpi. However, parenchymal hippocampal and striatal injury persisted in B6/129 TNF(-/-) mice following infection. Treating virus-infected mice with active recombinant mouse TNFalpha resulted in less hippocampal and striatal pathology, whereas TNFalpha-neutralizing treatment worsened pathology. T1 "black holes" appeared on MRI during early infection in the hippocampus and striatum in all mice but persisted only in TNF(-/-) mice. TNFR2 [corrected] mediated hippocampal pathology resolution whereas TNFR1 [corrected] mediated striatal healing. These findings indicate the role of TNFalpha in resolution of sublethal hippocampal and striatal injury. PMID:18422761

  6. Transforming growth factor-alpha induces sex-specific neurochemical imbalance in the stress- and memory-associated brain structures.

    PubMed

    Koshibu, Kyoko; Levitt, Pat

    2006-06-01

    Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFalpha) is a well-known regulator of many developmental processes. However, its role in adult nervous system is yet unclear. Studies have shown that TGFalpha can regulate stress and memory behavior in adult mice. When TGFalpha is reduced in Waved-1 (Wa-1) mutant mice, the stress response and memory are impaired predominantly in males and only after puberty. To determine the neurochemical changes resulting from the reduced TGFalpha levels that could explain the reported behavioral outcomes, biogenic amine and amino acid levels were determined in the brain regions associated with stress and memory. Interestingly, sex-specific alterations in neurochemical levels were detected, including elevated noradrenaline and reduced glutamate levels in striatum of Wa-1 males, increased noradrenaline and reduced serotonin metabolite levels in hippocampus of Wa-1 females, reduced serotonin metabolite levels in cortex and amygdala of Wa-1 females, and reduced noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin, glutamate and glycine levels in hypothalamus of Wa-1 females compared to their respective controls. Increased dopamine turnover in cortex and reduced dopamine and serotonin turnover in amygdala were observed in both male and female Wa-1 mice. The data indicate sex-specific alterations of specific neurochemicals as a result of reduced TGFalpha expression, which may underlie sex-dependent stress response and memory impairment in Wa-1 mice. PMID:16442134

  7. Canarypox Virus-Induced Maturation of Dendritic Cells Is Mediated by Apoptotic Cell Death and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Ignatius, Ralf; Marovich, Mary; Mehlhop, Erin; Villamide, Loreley; Mahnke, Karsten; Cox, William I.; Isdell, Frank; Frankel, Sarah S.; Mascola, John R.; Steinman, Ralph M.; Pope, Melissa

    2000-01-01

    Recombinant avipox viruses are being widely evaluated as vaccines. To address how these viruses, which replicate poorly in mammalian cells, might be immunogenic, we studied how canarypox virus (ALVAC) interacts with primate antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs). When human and rhesus macaque monocyte-derived DCs were exposed to recombinant ALVAC, immature DCs were most susceptible to infection. However, many of the infected cells underwent apoptotic cell death, and dying infected cells were engulfed by uninfected DCs. Furthermore, a subset of DCs matured in the ALVAC-exposed DC cultures. DC maturation coincided with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secretion and was significantly blocked in the presence of anti-TNF-α antibodies. Interestingly, inhibition of apoptosis with a caspase 3 inhibitor also reduced some of the maturation induced by exposure to ALVAC. This indicates that both TNF-α and the presence of primarily apoptotic cells contributed to DC maturation. Therefore, infection of immature primate DCs with ALVAC results in apoptotic death of infected cells, which can be internalized by noninfected DCs driving DC maturation in the presence of the TNF-α secreted concomitantly by exposed cells. This suggests an important mechanism that may influence the immunogenicity of avipox virus vectors. PMID:11070033

  8. Mycobacterium marinum SecA2 Promotes Stable Granulomas and Induces Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Brigitte Y.; Joshi, Shilpa A.; Ball, David A.; Leggett, Hadley; Park, Summer; Kim, Janice; Austin, Cary D.; Paler-Martinez, Andres; Xu, Min; Downing, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    SecA2 is an ATPase present in some pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, is required for translocation of a limited set of proteins across the cytosolic membrane, and plays an important role in virulence in several bacteria, including mycobacteria that cause diseases such as tuberculosis and leprosy. However, the mechanisms by which SecA2 affects virulence are incompletely understood. To investigate whether SecA2 modulates host immune responses in vivo, we studied Mycobacterium marinum infection in two different hosts: an established zebrafish model and a recently described mouse model. Here we show that M. marinum ΔsecA2 was attenuated for virulence in both host species and SecA2 was needed for normal granuloma numbers and for optimal tumor necrosis factor alpha response in both zebrafish and mice. M. marinum ΔsecA2 was more sensitive to SDS and had unique protrusions from its cell envelope when examined by cryo-electron tomography, suggesting that SecA2 is important for bacterial cell wall integrity. These results provide evidence that SecA2 induces granulomas and is required for bacterial modulation of the host response because it affects the mycobacterial cell envelope. PMID:22851747

  9. Interleukin-8 down-regulates the oxidative burst induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha in neutrophils adherent to fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Ottonello, L; Lindley, I J; Pastorino, G; Dapino, P; Dallegri, F

    1994-01-01

    Human neutrophils (5 x 10(4) incubated on fibronectin precoated wells released 2.83 +/- .25 nmoles of superoxide (0(2)-) (x +/- 1 SEM, n = 15) in response to 5.9 nM (100 ng/ml) Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF). On the contrary, the 0(2)- production induced by interleukin-8 (IL-8) (doses ranging from 0.1 nM to 1 microM) was comparable to that of "resting" cells (< .6 nmoles/5 x 10(4) cells). IL-8 (100 nM) did not affect the TNF-dependent 0(2)- production when added with TNF at the beginning of the assay, but reduced it by approximately 80% when added with TNF on neutrophils previously incubated for 1 hour on fibronectin. As compared with IL-8, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP, 100 nM) failed to suppress the TNF-triggering of the oxidative burst in neutrophils plated on fibronectin. The data suggest that the interaction of neutrophils with fibronectin uncovers the capacity of IL-8 to limit the cell response to TNF, without affecting the response to the combination of FMLP and TNF. Thus, although the chemotactic factors IL-8 and FMLP share the capacity of triggering the oxidative burst of neutrophils incubated in suspension, only IL-8 has the potential to down-regulate the responsiveness of fibronectin-adherent cells to TNF. PMID:8049357

  10. The role of nitric oxide in cardiac depression induced by interleukin-1 beta and tumour necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, R; Panas, D L; Catena, R; Moncada, S; Olley, P M; Lopaschuk, G D

    1995-01-01

    1. Myocardial dysfunction during septic shock is associated with enhanced production of cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). These cytokines depress cardiac mechanical function by a mechanism which is not well defined. 2. Bacterial endotoxin or cytokines cause the expression of Ca(2+)-independent nitric oxide (NO) synthase in cardiac myocytes, vascular endothelial cells and endocardial endothelial cells, causing enhanced production of NO. As NO has negative inotropic actions on cardiac muscle, we tested the sum effects of IL-1 beta plus TNF-alpha in the intact heart to determine whether enhanced expression of NO synthase activity in the cells that comprise the heart is involved in cardiac depression associated with cytokine stimulation. 3. Rat isolated working hearts perfused with IL-1 beta plus TNF-alpha showed a markedly greater depression in contractile function, measured as cardiac work, after 2 h of perfusion compared with time-matched control hearts. The depressant action of IL-1 beta plus TNF-alpha was first apparent after 1 h of perfusion; no early (15 min) cardiac depressant actions were seen. 4. The competitive inhibitor of Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent NO synthases, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 3 microM) when given concurrently with IL-1 beta plus TNF-alpha prevented the loss in contractile function such that these hearts after 2 h of perfusion had similar function to time-matched controls. L-NAME did not acutely reverse the loss of contractile function in hearts exposed for 2 h to IL-1 beta plus TNF-alpha.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7536096

  11. Lipopolysaccharide and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Inhibit Interferon Signaling in Hepatocytes by Increasing Ubiquitin-Like Protease 18 (USP18) Expression

    PubMed Central

    MacParland, Sonya A.; Ma, Xue-Zhong; Chen, Limin; Khattar, Ramzi; Cherepanov, Vera; Selzner, Markus; Feld, Jordan J.; Selzner, Nazia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Inflammation may be maladaptive to the control of viral infection when it impairs interferon (IFN) responses, enhancing viral replication and spread. Dysregulated immunity as a result of inappropriate innate inflammatory responses is a hallmark of chronic viral infections such as, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that expression of an IFN-stimulated gene (ISG), ubiquitin-like protease (USP)18 is upregulated in chronic HCV infection, leading to impaired hepatocyte responses to IFN-α. We examined the ability of inflammatory stimuli, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10 to upregulate hepatocyte USP18 expression and blunt the IFN-α response. Human hepatoma cells and primary murine hepatocytes were treated with TNF-α/LPS/IL-6/IL-10 and USP18, phosphorylated (p)-STAT1 and myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 1 (Mx1) expression was determined. Treatment of Huh7.5 cells and primary murine hepatocytes with LPS and TNF-α, but not IL-6 or IL-10, led to upregulated USP18 expression and induced an IFN-α refractory state, which was reversed by USP18 knockdown. Liver inflammation was induced in vivo using a murine model of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury led to an induction of USP18 expression in liver tissue and promotion of lymphocytic choriomeningitis replication. These data demonstrate that certain inflammatory stimuli (TNF-α and LPS) but not others (IL-6 and IL-10) target USP18 expression and thus inhibit IFN signaling. These findings represent a new paradigm for how inflammation alters hepatic innate immune responses, with USP18 representing a potential target for intervention in various inflammatory states. IMPORTANCE Inflammation may prevent the control of viral infection when it impairs the innate immune response, enhancing viral replication and spread. Blunted immunity as a result of

  12. Tumor necrosis factor alpha transcription in macrophages is attenuated by an autocrine factor that preferentially induces NF-kappaB p50.

    PubMed

    Baer, M; Dillner, A; Schwartz, R C; Sedon, C; Nedospasov, S; Johnson, P F

    1998-10-01

    Macrophages are a major source of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), which are expressed during conditions of inflammation, infection, or injury. We identified an activity secreted by a macrophage tumor cell line that negatively regulates bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of TNF-alpha. This activity, termed TNF-alpha-inhibiting factor (TIF), suppressed the induction of TNF-alpha expression in macrophages, whereas induction of three other proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1beta [IL-1beta], IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1) was accelerated or enhanced. A similar or identical inhibitory activity was secreted by IC-21 macrophages following LPS stimulation. Inhibition of TNF-alpha expression by macrophage conditioned medium was associated with selective induction of the NF-kappaB p50 subunit. Hyperinduction of p50 occurred with delayed kinetics in LPS-stimulated macrophages but not in fibroblasts. Overexpression of p50 blocked LPS-induced transcription from a TNF-alpha promoter reporter construct, showing that this transcription factor is an inhibitor of the TNF-alpha gene. Repression of the TNF-alpha promoter by TIF required a distal region that includes three NF-kappaB binding sites with preferential affinity for p50 homodimers. Thus, the selective repression of the TNF-alpha promoter by TIF may be explained by the specific binding of inhibitory p50 homodimers. We propose that TIF serves as a negative autocrine signal to attenuate TNF-alpha expression in activated macrophages. TIF is distinct from the known TNF-alpha-inhibiting factors IL-4, IL-10, and transforming growth factor beta and may represent a novel cytokine. PMID:9742085

  13. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Transcription in Macrophages Is Attenuated by an Autocrine Factor That Preferentially Induces NF-κB p50

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Mark; Dillner, Allan; Schwartz, Richard C.; Sedon, Constance; Nedospasov, Sergei; Johnson, Peter F.

    1998-01-01

    Macrophages are a major source of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), which are expressed during conditions of inflammation, infection, or injury. We identified an activity secreted by a macrophage tumor cell line that negatively regulates bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of TNF-α. This activity, termed TNF-α-inhibiting factor (TIF), suppressed the induction of TNF-α expression in macrophages, whereas induction of three other proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β [IL-1β], IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1) was accelerated or enhanced. A similar or identical inhibitory activity was secreted by IC-21 macrophages following LPS stimulation. Inhibition of TNF-α expression by macrophage conditioned medium was associated with selective induction of the NF-κB p50 subunit. Hyperinduction of p50 occurred with delayed kinetics in LPS-stimulated macrophages but not in fibroblasts. Overexpression of p50 blocked LPS-induced transcription from a TNF-α promoter reporter construct, showing that this transcription factor is an inhibitor of the TNF-α gene. Repression of the TNF-α promoter by TIF required a distal region that includes three NF-κB binding sites with preferential affinity for p50 homodimers. Thus, the selective repression of the TNF-α promoter by TIF may be explained by the specific binding of inhibitory p50 homodimers. We propose that TIF serves as a negative autocrine signal to attenuate TNF-α expression in activated macrophages. TIF is distinct from the known TNF-α-inhibiting factors IL-4, IL-10, and transforming growth factor β and may represent a novel cytokine. PMID:9742085

  14. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha up-regulates decay-accelerating factor gene expression in human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Andoh, A; Fujiyama, Y; Sumiyoshi, K; Sakumoto, H; Okabe, H; Bamba, T

    1997-01-01

    The increased expression of decay-accelerating factor (DAF) has been detected in intestinal epithelial cells at the inflamed mucosa. In this study, we examined the effects of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha on DAF expression in three intestinal epithelial cell lines. DAF mRNA expression was evaluated by Northern blot analysis, and DAF protein expression was analysed by biotin labelling and immunoprecipitation. TNF-alpha induced a marked increase in DAF mRNA and protein expression in HT-29, T84 and Caco-2 cells. In HT-29 cells, the effects of TNF-a on DAF mRNA accumulation were observed in a dose-dependent manner; DAF mRNA accumulation reached a maximum at 3-6 hr, and then gradually decreased. These effects of TNF-alpha required de novo protein synthesis. Messenger RNA stability studies suggested that TNF-alpha partially regulated DAF gene expression by a posttranscriptional mechanism. Moreover, the combination of TNF-alpha and interleukin (IL)-4 induced an additive increase in DAF mRNA accumulation in HT-29 and T84 cells. In human intestinal epithelial cells, TNF-alpha acts as a potent inducer of DAF mRNA expression, indicating an important role for TNF-alpha in the regulation of DAF expression at the inflamed mucosa. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9155641

  15. Enhancement by tumor necrosis factor alpha of dengue virus-induced endothelial cell production of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species is key to hemorrhage development.

    PubMed

    Yen, Yu-Ting; Chen, Hsuen-Chin; Chen, Hseun-Chin; Lin, Yang-Ding; Shieh, Chi-Chang; Wu-Hsieh, Betty A

    2008-12-01

    Hemorrhage is a severe manifestation of dengue disease. Virus strain and host immune response have been implicated as the risk factors for hemorrhage development. To delineate the complex interplay between the virus and the host, we established a dengue hemorrhage model in immune-competent mice. Mice inoculated intradermally with dengue virus develop hemorrhage within 3 days. In the present study, we showed by the presence of NS1 antigen and viral nuclei acid that dengue virus actively infects the endothelium at 12 h and 24 h after inoculation. Temporal studies showed that beginning at day 2, there was macrophage infiltration into the vicinity of the endothelium, increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production, and endothelial cell apoptosis in the tissues. In the meantime, endothelial cells in the hemorrhage tissues expressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine. In vitro studies showed that primary mouse and human endothelial cells were productively infected by dengue virus. Infection by dengue virus induced endothelial cell production of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species and apoptotic cell death, which was greatly enhanced by TNF-alpha. N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and N-acetyl cysteine reversed the effects of dengue virus and TNF-alpha on endothelial cells. Importantly, hemorrhage development and the severity of hemorrhage were greatly reduced in mice lacking iNOS or p47(phox) or treatment with oxidase inhibitor, pointing to the critical roles of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species in dengue hemorrhage. PMID:18842737

  16. Modulation of adhesion molecule expression on endothelial cells during the late asthmatic reaction: role of macrophage-derived tumour necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Lassalle, P; Gosset, P; Delneste, Y; Tsicopoulos, A; Capron, A; Joseph, M; Tonnel, A B

    1993-01-01

    In a previous work we have demonstrated that in patients exhibiting a late allergic reaction (LAR), alveolar macrophages (AM) collected 18 h after bronchial allergen challenge produced high levels of IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) which is known to up-regulate the endothelial cell expression of adhesion molecules participating in the development of the inflammatory reaction in bronchial asthma. For these reasons, we evaluated the effect of AM supernatants from asthmatic patients developing an LAR on intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and endothelial leucocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1) expression by human endothelial cells. The expression of adhesion molecules was assessed by an ELISA method and compared with the effect of an optimal dose of human recombinant (hr) TNF. Results showed that AM supernatants, from challenged asthmatics developing an LAR, increased significantly the ICAM-1 and ELAM-1 expression on endothelial cells to a level similar to that obtained in the presence of hrTNF (500 U/ml) (P < 0.001 in both cases, respectively 90.4% and 75.2% of the level obtained with hrTNF). In contrast, AM supernatants from asthmatics at baseline or exhibiting, after challenge, a single early reaction had no significant effect on these parameters (P = NS in both cases, respectively 23.5% and 24.7% of the ICAM-1 expression, 22.7% and 15.3% of the ELAM-1 expression obtained with hrTNF). AM-derived TNF present in these supernatants was thought to play a key role in endothelial cell stimulation, since: (i) TNF concentration in AM supernatants correlated with its effect on ICAM-1 (r = 0.80, P < 10(-4)) and ELAM-1 expression (r = 0.88, P < 10(-5)); and (ii) a neutralizing anti-TNF antibody decreased their effect (68% and 80% respectively on ICAM-1 and ELAM-1 expression). Moreover, the role of IL-6 was excluded on the basis both of the hrIL-6 inefficiency to induce ICAM-1 and ELAM-1 synthesis, even in costimulation with hrTNF, and of anti-IL-6 antibody

  17. The phospholipase A2 activity of peroxiredoxin 6 promotes cancer cell death induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao; Lu, Di; Zhuang, Runzhou; Wei, Xuyong; Xie, Haiyang; Wang, Chao; Zhu, Yangbo; Wang, Jianguo; Zhong, Cheng; Zhang, Xuanyu; Wei, Qiang; He, Zenglei; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Shusen

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we used proteomic profiling to compare hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and peri-tumoral tissues to identify potential tumor markers of HCC. We identified eight differentially expressed proteins (>3-fold), including Peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6). PRDX6 is a bifunctional enzyme with both peroxidase and calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) activity. We found that peri-tumoral tissues expressed higher levels of PRDX6 mRNA (n = 59, P = 0.018) and protein (n = 265, P < 0.001) than HCC tissues, and that decreased expression of PRDX6 in HCC tissues was an independent risk factor indicating a poor prognosis (n = 145, P = 0.007). Combining the examination of serum PRDX6 with α-fetoprotein improved the diagnostic sensitivity of tests for HCC compared to α-fetoprotein alone (85.0% vs 50.0%, n = 40). We found that PRDX6 induced S phase arrest in HCC cells and inhibited HCC tumorigenicity in mice injected with cancer cells. When treated with H2 O2 , PRDX6 inhibited apoptosis. When treated with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), PRDX6 promoted apoptosis. Inhibition of iPLA2 activity of PRDX6 decreased the apoptosis induced by TNF-α. In conclusion, PRDX6 inhibited the carcinogenesis of HCC, and the iPLA2 activity of PRDX6 promoted cancer cell death induced by TNF-α. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26293541

  18. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Induced Protein 3 Interacting Protein 1 Gene Polymorphisms and Pustular Psoriasis in Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jian-Wen; Wang, Yong; Alateng, Chulu; Li, Hong-Bin; Bai, Yun-Hua; Lyu, Xin-Xiang; Wu, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Psoriasis is a common immune-mediated inflammatory dermatosis. Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is the severe and rare type of psoriasis. The association between tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced protein 3 interacting protein 1 (TNIP1) gene and psoriasis was confirmed in people with multiple ethnicities. This study was to investigate the association between TNIP1 gene polymorphisms and pustular psoriasis in Chinese Han population. Methods: Seventy-three patients with GPP, 67 patients with palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP), and 476 healthy controls were collected from Chinese Han population. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TNIP1 gene, namely rs3805435, rs3792798, rs3792797, rs869976, rs17728338, and rs999011 were genotyped by using polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction. Statistical analyses were performed using the PLINK 1.07 package. Allele frequencies and genotyping frequencies for six SNPs were compared by using Chi-square test, odd ratio (OR) (including 95% confidence interval) were calculated. The haplotype analysis was conducted by Haploview software. Results: The frequencies of alleles of five SNPs were significantly different between the GPP group and the control group (P ≤ 7.22 × 10−3), especially in the GPP patients without psoriasis vulgaris (PsV). In the haplotype analysis, the most significantly different haplotype was H4: ACGAAC, with 13.1% frequency in the GPP group but only 3.4% in the control group (OR = 4.16, P = 4.459 × 10−7). However, no significant difference in the allele frequencies was found between the PPP group and control group for each of the six SNPs (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Polymorphisms in TNIP1 are associated with GPP in Chinese Han population. However, no association with PPP was found. These findings suggest that TNIP1 might be a susceptibility gene for GPP. PMID:27364786

  19. Tumour necrosis factor alpha-induced oxidative burst in neutrophils adherent to fibronectin: effects of cyclic AMP-elevating agents.

    PubMed

    Ottonello, L; Morone, M P; Dapino, P; Dallegri, F

    1995-11-01

    Human neutrophils, plated on fibronectin-coated polystyrene wells, were found to exhibit a prolonged production of superoxide anion (O2-) in response to tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). The TNF-triggered O2- production was significantly reduced by 10 microM prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which was ineffective at lower doses. Moreover, the O2- production was slightly reduced by the phosphodiesterase type IV (PDE IV) inhibitor RO 20-1724. When PGE2 and RO 20-1724 were added together to TNF-triggered neutrophils they caused a marked synergistic inhibition of O2- production. The action of PGE2 could be mimicked by forskolin (FK), a well-known direct activator of adenylate cyclase. These results suggest that cyclic AMP (cAMP)-elevating agents (PGE2, FK, RO 20-1724) down-regulate the capacity of adherent neutrophils to mount the respiratory burst in response to TNF. Consistent with this interpretation, PGE2 and RO 20-1724 increased the intracellular levels of cAMP displaying synergistic activity. Moreover, the membrane-permeable analogue of cAMP, dibutyryl cAMP, was found to inhibit the TNF-induced O2- production in a dose-dependent manner. As all the aforementioned cAMP-elevating agents did not affect the O2- production in response to phorbol myristate acetate, they appear to act by interfering with the assembly of the O2(-)-generating NADPH oxidase complex rather than by directly inhibiting the activity of already working oxidase complex. In conclusion, taking into account the TNF capacity to promote PGE2 formation at sites of inflammation, our observations suggest the existence of a negative PGE2-dependent feed-back, potentially capable of controlling the neutrophil response to TNF and susceptible to amplification by PDE IV-inhibiting compounds. PMID:8555055

  20. Apical effect of diosmectite on damage to the intestinal barrier induced by basal tumour necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Mahraoui, L; Heyman, M; Plique, O; Droy-Lefaix, M T; Desjeux, J F

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In many digestive diseases the intestinal barrier is weakened by the release of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha). AIM: To investigate the protective effect of apical diosmectite on the intestinal dysfunction induced by the proinflammatory cytokine TNF alpha. METHODS: Filter grown monolayers of the intestinal cell line HT29-19A were incubated for 48 hours in basal medium containing 10 ng/ml TNF alpha and 5 U/ml interferon-gamma (IFN gamma). Next, 1, 10, or 100 mg/ml diosmectite was placed in the apical medium for one hour. Intestinal function was then assessed in Ussing chambers by measuring ionic conductance (G) and apicobasal fluxes of 14C-mannitol (Jman), and intact horseradish peroxidase. In control intestinal monolayers, diosmectite did not significantly modify G, Jman, or intact horseradish peroxidase. RESULTS: After incubation with TNF alpha and IFN gamma, intestinal function altered, as shown by the increases compared with control values for G (22.8 (3.7) v (9.6 (0.5) mS/cm2), Jman (33.8 (7.5) v 7.56 (0.67) micrograms/h x cm2), and intact horseradish peroxidase (1.95 (1.12) v 0.14 (0.04) micrograms/h x cm2). G and Jman were closely correlated, suggesting that the increase in permeability was paracellular. Treatment with diosmectite restored al the variables to control values. CONCLUSIONS: Basal TNF alpha disrupts the intestinal barrier through the tight junctions, and apical diosmectite counteracts this disruption. PMID:9135522

  1. Role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and TRAIL in high-dose radiation-induced bystander signaling in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shareef, Mohammed M; Cui, Nuan; Burikhanov, Ravshan; Gupta, Seema; Satishkumar, Sabapathi; Shajahan, Shahin; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Rangnekar, Vivek M; Ahmed, Mansoor M

    2007-12-15

    In the present study, ionizing radiation (IR)-induced bystander effects were investigated in two lung cancer cell lines. A549 cells were found to be more resistant to radiation-conditioned medium (RCM) obtained from A549 cells when compared with the H460 exposed to RCM procured from H460 cells. Significant release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was observed in A549 cells after IR/RCM exposure, and the survival was reversed with neutralizing antibody against TNF-alpha. In H460 cells, significant release of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), but not TNF-alpha, was observed in response to IR, RCM exposure, or RCM + 2Gy, and neutralizing antibody against TRAIL diminished clonogenic inhibition. Mechanistically, TNF-alpha present in RCM of A549 was found to mediate nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) translocation to nucleus, whereas the soluble TRAIL present in RCM of H460 cells mobilized the nuclear translocation of PAR-4 (a proapoptotic protein). Analysis of IR-inducible early growth response-1 (EGR-1) function showed that EGR-1 was functional in A549 cells but not in H460 cells. A significant decrease in RCM-mediated apoptosis was observed in both A549 cells stably expressing small interfering RNA EGR-1 and EGR-1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. Thus, the high-dose IR-induced bystander responses in A549 may be dependent on the EGR-1 function and its target gene TNF-alpha. These findings show that the reduced bystander response in A549 cells is due to activation of NF-kappaB signaling by TNF-alpha, whereas enhanced response to IR-induced bystander signaling in H460 cells was due to release of TRAIL associated with nuclear translocation of PAR-4. PMID:18089811

  2. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces Cl- and K+ secretion in human distal colon driven by prostaglandin E2.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, H; Fromm, M; Bode, H; Scholz, P; Riecken, E O; Schulzke, J D

    1996-10-01

    Increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) have been found in, for example, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To investigate a possible contribution of TNF-alpha to the pathogenesis of diarrhea in these diseases, ion transport of human distal colon was studied in the Ussing chamber in vitro. Serosal addition of TNF-alpha increased short-circuit current (Isc) of partially stripped tissues in a dose-dependent manner. Maximum Isc increase of 1.8 +/- 0.2 mumol.h-1.cm-2 was reached after 60 +/- 9 min at 200 ng/ml TNF-alpha. Bidirectional tracer flux measurements revealed that TNF-alpha induced an increase in 36 Cl serosal-to-mucosal flux, a decrease in 36Cl- mucosal-to-serosal flux, and a slight increase in K+ secretion indicated by an increased secretory 86Rb net flux. In the highly differentiated colonic epithelial cell line HT-29/B6, TNF-alpha had no effect on Isc, suggesting a mediation step located in the subepithelium. This supposition was supported by measurements on totally stripped human tissues, since removal of subepithelial layers by total stripping reduced the TNF-alpha effect by 40%. Experiments with tetrodotoxin (10(-6)M) indicated that the TNF-alpha effect was not mediated by the enteric nervous system. The specific 5-lipoxygenase blocker ICI-230487 (5 x 10(-8)M) also had no effect on TNF-alpha action. In contrast, inhibition of cyclooxygenase by indomethacin (10(-6)M inhibited the effect of TNF-alpha. Radioimmunoassay of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the serosal bathing solution revealed an increase in PGE2 production/release after addition of TNF-alpha, which paralleled the Isc response. We conclude that TNF-alpha changed Cl- and K+ transport toward secretion in human colon. This effect was mediated by PGE2 produced by subepithelial cells. Thus TNF-alpha could be a mediator of diarrhea during intestinal inflammation, e.g., in IBD and HIV infection. PMID:8897887

  3. Effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha on Erythropoietin- and Erythropoietin Receptor-Induced Erythroid Progenitor Cell Proliferation in β-Thalassemia/Hemoglobin E Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tanyong, Dalina I; Panichob, Prapaporn; Kheansaard, Wasinee; Fucharoen, Suthat

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Thalassemia is one of the genetic diseases that cause anemia and ineffective erythropoiesis. Increased levels of several inflammatory cytokines have been reported in β-thalassemia and might contribute to ineffective erythropoiesis. However, the mechanism by which tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is involved in ineffective erythropoiesis in thalassemic patients remains unclear. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of TNF-α on the erythropoietin (EPO) and erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) expression involved in proliferation of β-thalassemia/hemoglobin (Hb) E erythroid progenitor cells compared with cells from healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: CD34-positive cells were isolated from heparinized blood by using the EasySep® CD34 selection kit. Cells were then cultured with suitable culture medium in various concentrations of EPO for 14 days. The effect of TNF-α on percent cell viability was analyzed by trypan blue staining. In addition, the percentage of apoptosis and levels of EPOR protein were measured by flow cytometry. Results: Upon EPO treatment, a higher cell number was observed for erythroid progenitor cells from both healthy participants and β-thalassemia/Hb E patients. However, a reduction of apoptosis was found in EPO-treated cells especially for β-thalassemia/Hb E patients. Interestingly, TNF-α caused higher levels of cell apoptosis and lower levels of EPOR protein in thalassemic erythroid progenitor cells. Conclusion: TNF-α caused a reduction in the level of EPOR protein and EPO-induced erythroid progenitor cell proliferation. It is possible that TNF-α could be involved in the mechanism of ineffective erythropoiesis in β-thalassemia/Hb E patients. PMID:26376749

  4. Inhibitory effects of somatostatin on tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced interleukin-6 secretion in human pancreatic periacinar myofibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Andoh, Akira; Hata, Kazunori; Shimada, Mitsue; Fujino, Sanae; Tasaki, Kazuhito; Bamba, Shigeki; Araki, Yoshio; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Bamba, Tadao

    2002-07-01

    Pancreatic periacinar myofibroblasts are considered to be therapeutic targets for the suppression of acute pancreatitis. To elucidate the mechanisms mediating the therapeutic actions of somatostatin on acute pancreatitis, we investigated how somatostatin affects the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 secretion from pancreatic myofibroblasts. Cytokine secretion was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Northern blotting. Nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB DNA-binding activity was evaluated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSAs). The expression of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) mRNA was evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Somatostatin dose-dependently inhibited the TNF-alpha-induced IL-6 secretion. In comparison, the effects on IL-8 secretion were modest. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that somatostatin decreased the TNF-alpha-induced IL-6 mRNA expression, and that this effect was completely blocked by the somatostatin antagonist cyclo-somatostatin. Furthermore, somatostatin suppressed TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation. These cells bear SSTR subtypes 1 and 2. Somatostatin down-regulated the TNF-alpha-induced IL-6 secretion in human pancreatic periacinar myofibroblasts. These findings suggest that some of the therapeutic actions of somatostatin on acute pancreatitis might be mediated by reducing local IL-6 secretion in the pancreas. PMID:12060857

  5. Toll-like receptor 9 regulates tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression by different mechanisms. Implications for osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Amcheslavsky, Alla; Zou, Wei; Bar-Shavit, Zvi

    2004-12-24

    CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODNs), mimicking bacterial DNA, stimulate osteoclastogenesis via Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand (RANKL)-primed osteoclast precursors. This activity is mediated via tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha induction by CpG-ODN. To further reveal the role of the cytokine in TLR9-mediated osteoclastogenesis, we compared the ability of CpG-ODN to induce osteoclastogenesis in two murine strains, BALB/c and C57BL/6, expressing different TNF-alpha alleles. The induction of osteoclastogenesis and TNF-alpha release by CpG-ODN was by far more noticeable in BALB/c-derived than in C57BL/6-derived osteoclast precursors. Unexpectedly, as revealed by Northern analysis, CpG-ODN induction of TNF-alpha mRNA increase was more efficient in C57BL/6-derived cells. The cytokine transcript abundance was increased due to both increased message stability and rate of transcription. The difference between the two cell types was the result of a higher transcription rate in CpG-ODN-induced C57BL/6-derived cells caused by a single nucleotide polymorphism in kappa B2a site within the TNF-alpha promoter sequence. CpG-ODN enhanced the rate of the cytokine translation in BALB/c-derived cells. Thus, CpG-ODN modulated both transcription and translation of TNF-alpha. The induction of transcription was more evident in C57BL/6-derived cells, while the induction of translation took place only in BALB/c-derived osteoclast precursors. Altogether the cytokine was induced to a larger extent in BALB/c-derived osteoclast precursors, consistent with the increased CpG-ODN osteoclastogenic effect in these cells. PMID:15485822

  6. Expressions of tumor necrosis factor alpha and microRNA-155 in immature rat model of status epilepticus and children with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ashhab, Muhammad Usman; Omran, Ahmed; Kong, Huimin; Gan, Na; He, Fang; Peng, Jing; Yin, Fei

    2013-11-01

    Recently, the role of inflammation has attracted great attention in the pathogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), and microRNAs start to emerge as promising new players in MTLE pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the dynamic expression patterns of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and microRNA-155 (miR-155) in the hippocampi of an immature rat model of status epilepticus (SE) and children with MTLE. The expressions of TNF-α and miR-155 were significantly upregulated in the seizure-related acute and chronic stages of MTLE in the immature rat model and also in children with MTLE. Modulation of TNF-α expression, either by stimulation using myeloid-related protein (MRP8) or lipopolysaccharide or inhibition using lenalidomide on astrocytes, leads to similar dynamic changes in miR-155 expression. Our study is the first to focus on the dynamic expression pattern of miR-155 in the immature rat of SE lithium-pilocarpine model and children with MTLE and to detect their relationship at the astrocyte level. TNF-α and miR-155, having similar expression patterns in the three stages of MTLE development, and their relationship at the astrocyte level may suggest a direct interactive relationship during MTLE development. Therefore, modulation of the TNF-α/miR-155 axis may be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of MTLE. PMID:23636891

  7. Garlic (Allium sativum) stimulates lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from J774A.1 murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jessica; Harfouche, Youssef; De La Cruz, Melissa; Zamora, Martha P; Liu, Yan; Rego, James A; Buckley, Nancy E

    2015-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is known to have many beneficial attributes such as antimicrobial, antiatherosclerotic, antitumorigenetic, and immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effects of an aqueous garlic extract on macrophage cytokine production by challenging the macrophage J774A.1 cell line with the garlic extract in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under different conditions. The effect of allicin, the major component of crushed garlic, was also investigated. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, it was found that garlic and synthetic allicin greatly stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production in macrophages treated with LPS. The TNF-α secretion levels peaked earlier and were sustained for a longer time in cells treated with garlic and LPS compared with cells treated with LPS alone. Garlic acted in a time-dependent manner. We suggest that garlic, at least partially via its allicin component, acts downstream from LPS to stimulate macrophage TNF-α secretion. PMID:25366263

  8. Isolation and characterisation of Kasumi-1 human myeloid leukaemia cell line resistant to tumour necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ido, M.; Hayashi, K.; Kato, S.; Ogawa, H.; Komada, Y.; Zhau, Y. W.; Zhang, X. L.; Sakurai, M.; Suzuki, K.

    1996-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha induces apoptosis in a human acute myeloid leukaemia cell line, Kasumi-1. To examine the role of protein phosphorylation in signal transduction of TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis, a variant cell line resistant to TNF-alpha was established by an intermittent challenge of Kasumi-1 cells with increasing concentrations of TNF-alpha for 6 months. The mechanism of resistance to TNF-alpha appears to be in the post-receptor pathway because expression of p55 TNF receptor in the variant cells is increased compared with that of the parental Kasumi-1 cells. In renaturation assays, TNF-alpha induced a rapid activation of different protein kinases of different molecular weights, including the 50 kDa protein kinase (PK50) followed by the 35 kDa protein kinase (PK35), in the parental Kasumi-1 cells. The dose-response of TNF-alpha required to activate PK50 and PK35 was closely related to concentrations of TNF-alpha that induced apoptosis. Treatment of Kasumi-1 cells with ceramide also activated PK35. In TNF-resistant variant cells, activation of PK35 in response to TNF-alpha or ceramide was practically nil. These findings suggest that activation of PK35 through the ceramide pathway may play an important role in signal transduction of TNF-alpha in the Kasumi-1 cell line, while the decreased activation of PK35 may explain the insensitivity of the variant cells towards TNF-alpha. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8562342

  9. Relationship between the structure of taxol and other taxanes on induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, C A; Berman, J W; Swindell, C S; Horwitz, S B

    1994-11-15

    Taxol is an antitumor drug with cytotoxic properties that correlate with its microtubule-stabilizing activities. It has been reported that taxol parallels lipopolysaccharide in its effects on the induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene expression in macrophages (C. Bogdan and A. Ding, J. Leukocyte Biol., 52: 119-121, 1992; C. L. Manthey, M. E. Brandes, P. Y. Perera, and S. Vogel, J. Immunol., 149: 2459-2465, 1992; J. M. Carboni, C. Singh, and M. A. Tepper, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr., 15: 95-101, 1993). Structure-activity studies using taxol and related taxanes have been done to determine the relationship between the effects of taxol on TNF-alpha gene expression and its cytotoxic and microtubule-stabilizing activities. Using Northern blot analysis, it was found that changes in the structure of taxol that did not alter cytotoxicity did prevent the induction of TNF-alpha gene expression. The data presented in this paper demonstrate that the effects of taxol on TNF-alpha gene expression are distinct from its known cytotoxic properties. PMID:7954398

  10. Expression of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) single-chain variable fragment (scFv) in Spirodela punctata plants transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Parthasarathy; Satheeshkumar, P K; Venkataraman, Krishnan; Vijayalakshmi, M A

    2016-05-01

    Therapeutic antibodies against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) have been considered effective for some of the autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's diseases, and so on. But associated limitations of the current therapeutics in terms of cost, availability, and immunogenicity have necessitated the need for alternative candidates. Single-chain variable fragment (scFv) can negate the limitations tagged with the anti-TNFα therapeutics to a greater extent. In the present study, Spirodela punctata plants were transformed with anti-TNFα through in planta transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain, EHA105. Instead of cefotaxime, garlic extract (1 mg/mL) was used to remove the agrobacterial cells after cocultivation. To the best of our knowledge, this report shows for the first time the application of plant extracts in transgenic plant development. 95% of the plants survived screening under hygromycin. ScFv cDNA integration in the plant genomic DNA was confirmed at the molecular level by PCR. The transgenic protein expression was followed up to 10 months. Expression of scFv was confirmed by immunodot blot. Protein expression levels of up to 6.3% of total soluble protein were observed. β-Glucuronidase and green fluorescent protein expressions were also detected in the antibiotic resistant plants. The paper shows the generation of transgenic Spirodela punctuata plants through in planta transformation. PMID:25786575

  11. Role of hypoxia-inducible factor-{alpha} in hepatitis-B-virus X protein-mediated MDR1 activation

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Hyo-Kyung; Han, Chang Yeob; Cheon, Eun-Pa; Lee, Jaewon; Kang, Keon Wook . E-mail: kwkang@chosun.ac.kr

    2007-06-01

    The transition from chemotherapy-responsive cancer cells to chemotherapy-resistant cancer cells is mainly accompanied by the increased expression of multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1). We found that hepatitis-B-virus X protein (HBx) increases the transcriptional activity and protein level of MDR1 in a hepatoma cell line, H4IIE. In addition, HBx overexpression made H4IIE cells more resistant to verapamil-uptake. HBx stabilized hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) and induced the nuclear translocation of C/EBP{beta}. Reporter gene analyses showed that HBx increased the reporter activity in the cells transfected with the reporter containing MDR1 gene promoter. Moreover, the luciferase reporter gene activity was significantly inhibited by HIF-1{alpha} siRNA but not by overexpression of C/EBP dominant negative mutant. These results imply that HBx increases the MDR1 transporter activity through the transcriptional activation of the MDR1 gene with HIF-1{alpha} activation, and suggest HIF-1{alpha} for the therapeutic target of HBV-mediated chemoresistance.

  12. Reoxygenation enhances tumour necrosis factor alpha-induced degradation of the extracellular matrix produced by chondrogenic cells.

    PubMed

    Markway, B D; Cho, H; Anderson, D E; Holden, P; Ravi, V; Little, C B; Johnstone, B

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been considered as a potential source for cell-based therapies in arthritic diseases for both their chondrogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Thus, we examined how MSC-based neocartilage responds to tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) compared to articular chondrocyte (AC)-based neocartilage. Since oxygen tension is altered in arthritic joints, we also examined how increased oxygen tension influences this process. Monolayer-expanded healthy human ACs and bone marrow MSCs were cultured in chondrogenic medium in three-dimensional culture under hypoxia. They were then exposed to TNF-α under hypoxic or increased oxygen tension. We found no inherent anti-inflammatory potential of MSC-derived neocartilage as it pertains to the enzymes studied here: more degradative enzymes were upregulated by TNF-α in MSCs than in ACs, regardless of the oxygen tension. MSCs were also more sensitive to reoxygenation during TNF-α exposure, as indicated by increased proteoglycan loss, increased aggrecanase-generated metabolites, and further upregulation of the major aggrecanases, ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5. There was also evidence of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-mediated aggrecan interglobular domain cleavage and type II collagen loss in response to TNF-α in both MSCs and ACs, but more MMPs were further upregulated by reoxygenation in MSCs than in ACs. Our study provides further evidence that consideration of oxygen tension is essential for studying cartilage degradation; for example, neocartilage produced from MSCs may be more sensitive to the negative effects of repeated hypoxia/reoxygenation events than AC-derived neocartilage. Consideration of the differences in responses may be important for cell-based therapies and selection of adjunctive chondroprotective agents. PMID:27341301

  13. Tumour Necrosis Factor Alpha, Interferon Gamma and Substance P Are Novel Modulators of Extrapituitary Prolactin Expression in Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Langan, Ewan A.; Vidali, Silvia; Pigat, Natascha; Funk, Wolfgang; Lisztes, Erika; Bíró, Tamás; Goffin, Vincent; Griffiths, Christopher E. M.; Paus, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Human scalp skin and hair follicles (HFs) are extra-pituitary sources of prolactin (PRL). However, the intracutaneous regulation of PRL remains poorly understood. Therefore we investigated whether well-recognized regulators of pituitary PRL expression, which also impact on human skin physiology and pathology, regulate expression of PRL and its receptor (PRLR) in situ. This was studied in serum-free organ cultures of microdissected human scalp HFs and skin, i.e. excluding pituitary, neural and vascular inputs. Prolactin expression was confirmed at the gene and protein level in human truncal skin, where its expression significantly increased (p = 0.049) during organ culture. There was, however, no evidence of PRL secretion into the culture medium as measured by ELISA. PRL immunoreactivity (IR) in female human epidermis was decreased by substance P (p = 0.009), while neither the classical pituitary PRL inhibitor, dopamine, nor corticotropin-releasing hormone significantly modulated PRL IR in HFs or skin respectively. Interferon (IFN) γ increased PRL IR in the epithelium of human HFs (p = 0.044) while tumour necrosis factor (TNF) α decreased both PRL and PRLR IR. This study identifies substance P, TNFα and IFNγ as novel modulators of PRL and PRLR expression in human skin, and suggests that intracutaneous PRL expression is not under dopaminergic control. Given the importance of PRL in human hair growth regulation and its possible role in the pathogenesis of several common skin diseases, targeting intracutaneous PRL production via these newly identified regulatory pathways may point towards novel therapeutic options for inflammatory dermatoses. PMID:23626671

  14. Tumour necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma and substance P are novel modulators of extrapituitary prolactin expression in human skin.

    PubMed

    Langan, Ewan A; Vidali, Silvia; Pigat, Natascha; Funk, Wolfgang; Lisztes, Erika; Bíró, Tamás; Goffin, Vincent; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Paus, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Human scalp skin and hair follicles (HFs) are extra-pituitary sources of prolactin (PRL). However, the intracutaneous regulation of PRL remains poorly understood. Therefore we investigated whether well-recognized regulators of pituitary PRL expression, which also impact on human skin physiology and pathology, regulate expression of PRL and its receptor (PRLR) in situ. This was studied in serum-free organ cultures of microdissected human scalp HFs and skin, i.e. excluding pituitary, neural and vascular inputs. Prolactin expression was confirmed at the gene and protein level in human truncal skin, where its expression significantly increased (p = 0.049) during organ culture. There was, however, no evidence of PRL secretion into the culture medium as measured by ELISA. PRL immunoreactivity (IR) in female human epidermis was decreased by substance P (p = 0.009), while neither the classical pituitary PRL inhibitor, dopamine, nor corticotropin-releasing hormone significantly modulated PRL IR in HFs or skin respectively. Interferon (IFN) γ increased PRL IR in the epithelium of human HFs (p = 0.044) while tumour necrosis factor (TNF) α decreased both PRL and PRLR IR. This study identifies substance P, TNFα and IFNγ as novel modulators of PRL and PRLR expression in human skin, and suggests that intracutaneous PRL expression is not under dopaminergic control. Given the importance of PRL in human hair growth regulation and its possible role in the pathogenesis of several common skin diseases, targeting intracutaneous PRL production via these newly identified regulatory pathways may point towards novel therapeutic options for inflammatory dermatoses. PMID:23626671

  15. Human eosinophils can express the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Costa, J J; Matossian, K; Resnick, M B; Beil, W J; Wong, D T; Gordon, J R; Dvorak, A M; Weller, P F; Galli, S J

    1993-01-01

    By in situ hybridization, 44-100% of the blood eosinophils from five patients with hypereosinophilia and four normal subjects exhibited intense hybridization signals for TNF-alpha mRNA. TNF-alpha protein was detectable by immunohistochemistry in blood eosinophils of hypereosinophilic subjects, and purified blood eosinophils from three atopic donors exhibited cycloheximide-inhibitable spontaneous release of TNF-alpha in vitro. Many blood eosinophils (39-91%) from hypereosinophilic donors exhibited intense labeling for macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) mRNA, whereas eosinophils of normal donors demonstrated only weak or undetectable hybridization signals for MIP-1 alpha mRNA. Most tissue eosinophils infiltrating nasal polyps were strongly positive for both TNF-alpha and MIP-1 alpha mRNA. By Northern blot analysis, highly enriched blood eosinophils from a patient with the idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome exhibited differential expression of TNF-alpha and MIP-1 alpha mRNA. These findings indicate that human eosinophils represent a potential source of TNF-alpha and MIP-1 alpha, that levels of expression of mRNA for both cytokines are high in the blood eosinophils of hypereosinophilic donors and in eosinophils infiltrating nasal polyps, that the eosinophils of normal subjects express higher levels of TNF-alpha than MIP-1 alpha mRNA, and that eosinophils purified from the blood of atopic donors can release TNF-alpha in vitro. Images PMID:8514874

  16. Expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha-Mediated Genes Predicts Recurrence-Free Survival in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lianya; Zhang, Helin; Duan, Lin; He, Wenshu; Zhu, Yihua; Bai, Yunfei; Zhu, Miao

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis on high-throughput gene expression data to identify TNF-α-mediated genes implicated in lung cancer. We first investigated the gene expression profiles of two independent TNF-α/TNFR KO murine models. The EGF receptor signaling pathway was the top pathway associated with genes mediated by TNF-α. After matching the TNF-α-mediated mouse genes to their human orthologs, we compared the expression patterns of the TNF-α-mediated genes in normal and tumor lung tissues obtained from humans. Based on the TNF-α-mediated genes that were dysregulated in lung tumors, we developed a prognostic gene signature that effectively predicted recurrence-free survival in lung cancer in two validation cohorts. Resampling tests suggested that the prognostic power of the gene signature was not by chance, and multivariate analysis suggested that this gene signature was independent of the traditional clinical factors and enhanced the identification of lung cancer patients at greater risk for recurrence. PMID:25548907

  17. Production of interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha by human T-cell clones expressing different forms of the gamma delta receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Christmas, S E; Meager, A

    1990-01-01

    Panels of human T-cell clones bearing the gamma delta T-cell receptor (TcR) were obtained from peripheral blood and decidual tissue and maintained in the presence of interleukin-2 (IL-2). TcR V gamma and V delta gene expression was determined in 40 TcR delta 1+ clones using the gamma delta T-cell subset markers Ti gamma A and delta TCS1, in conjunction with Southern blot analysis using TcR J gamma and J delta probes. gamma delta T-cell clones, together with control alpha beta T-cell clones derived from the same lymphocyte populations, were stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and their ability to produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) tested using specific ELISA. Many clones representative of the major peripheral V gamma 9/V delta 2J1 subset produced high amounts of both cytokines and mean levels were not significantly different from those produced by alpha beta T-cell clones. Panels of clones expressing V gamma 9 and V delta 2J1 produced significantly higher levels of TNF-alpha than clones not expressing V delta 2J1 and those expressing V delta 1J1. There was no relationship between levels of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha produced by individual gamma delta T-cell clones and also no relationship between their non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted cytotoxic activity and levels of either cytokine. There was a significant tendency for gamma delta T-cell clones to produce more TNF-alpha than IFN-gamma in comparison to alpha beta T-cell clones. The significance of these findings is discussed in the light of the reported differences in distribution in vivo of V delta 1J1+ and V delta 2J1+ cells. Images Figure 1 PMID:2126252

  18. Trovafloxacin-induced Replication Stress Sensitizes HepG2 Cells to Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha-induced Cytotoxicity Mediated by Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase and Ataxia Telangiectasia and Rad3-related

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Kevin M.; Maiuri, Ashley R.; Fullerton, Aaron M.; Poulsen, Kyle L.; Breier, Anna B.; Ganey, Patricia E.; Roth, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Use of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic trovafloxacin (TVX) was restricted due to idiosyncratic, drug-induced liver injury (IDILI). Previous studies demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) and TVX interact to cause death of hepatocytes in vitro that was associated with prolonged activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), activation of caspases 9 and 3, and DNA damage. The purpose of this study was to explore further the mechanism by which TVX interacts with TNF to cause cytotoxicity. Treatment with TVX caused cell cycle arrest, enhanced expression of p21 and impaired proliferation, but cell death only occurred after cotreatment with TVX and TNF. Cell death involved activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), which in turn activated caspase 3 and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR), both of which contributed to cytotoxicity. Cotreatment of HepG2 cells with TVX and TNF caused double-strand breaks in DNA, and ERK contributed to this effect. Inhibition of caspase activity abolished the DNA strand breaks. The data suggest a complex interaction of TVX and TNF in which TVX causes replication stress, and the downstream effects are exacerbated by TNF, leading to hepatocellular death. These results raise the possibility that IDILI from TVX results from MAPK and ATR activation in hepatocytes initiated by interaction of cytokine signaling with drug-induced replication stress. PMID:25748550

  19. Oxidative stress signalling: a potential mediator of tumour necrosis factor alpha-induced genomic instability in primary vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, M; Gibbons, C F; Mohan, S; Moore, S; Kadhim, M A

    2007-09-01

    Studying the potential role of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)alpha in the initiation of genomic instability is necessary to understand whether TNFalpha can serve as a signalling mediator of radiation-induced genomic instability in non-irradiated bystander cells. In this study, we examined whether TNFalpha could initiate processes through oxidative stress signalling that lead to DNA damage and genomic instability in primary vascular endothelium. In these cells, low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation (0.1-2 Gy) induced the secretion of TNFalpha into the culture medium. When added ectopically, TNFalpha at concentrations ranging from 0.1 ng ml(-1) to 10 ng ml(-1) increased (twofold to threefold) intracellular oxidative stress. Next, to examine whether TNFalpha induces genetic damage, cells were treated with TNFalpha for 5 h and analysed immediately using the single cell gel electrophoresis assay or after 3 days, 12 days and 20 days using solid stain chromosomal analysis. Cells exposed to 0.1 Gy, 1 Gy or 2 Gy or treated with 100 microM H2O2 were used as positive controls. The results showed that TNFalpha as low as 0.1 ng ml(-1) could initiate increased DNA damage compared with untreated controls. When examined in the progeny cells after several generations, the chromosomal instability appeared to be carried over even after day 12 and day 20. The increased genetic damage is inhibited in cells that are pre-incubated with the antioxidant enzyme catalase, the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine or the metal chelator pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. These results clearly indicate that TNFalpha at concentrations at which no cytotoxicity is observed could induce genetic damage through free radical generation, which could, in turn, lead to the delayed events associated with genomic instability. PMID:17704321

  20. Smooth muscle cells of the coronary arterial tunica media express tumor necrosis factor-alpha and proliferate during acute rejection of rabbit cardiac allografts.

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, H.; Swanson, S. J.; Sukhova, G.; Schoen, F. J.; Libby, P.

    1995-01-01

    Graft coronary arteriosclerosis (GCA) frequently limits the long-term success of cardiac transplantation. The pathogenic mechanisms of and stimuli that provoke GCA remain uncertain. Whatever the initiating factors, deranged control of smooth muscle cells (SMC) proliferation likely contributes to the intimal hyperplasia that produces obstructive lesions. To identify mediators that may contribute to ongoing modulation of SMC functions during acute rejection and to explore the mechanisms of the pathogenesis of graft coronary arteriosclerosis, we studied the kinetics of proliferation and the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a proinflammatory and SMC growth-promoting cytokine, in coronary arterial SMCs in rabbit hearts transplanted heterotopically without immunosuppression. Hearts were harvested at 2 (n = 5), 5 (n = 5), and 8.2 +/- 0.4 (mean +/- SD, n = 5) days after transplantation, just before graft failure as judged clinically. SMC proliferation was assessed by continuous bromodeoxyuridine labeling (BrdU 10 mg/kg/d. s.q.). Whole heart cross sections were stained immunohistochemically with monoclonal antibodies that recognize TNF-alpha, BrdU, and SMCs (muscle alpha-actin). Major epicardial coronary arteries (five to nine profiles in each animal) were evaluated. Histological rejection grades by the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation scale at 2, 5, and 10 days were 1.6 +/- 0.9, 2.8 +/- 1.1, and 4.0 +/- 0.0, respectively. Medial SMCs in normal hearts and 2 days after transplant expressed little or no TNF-alpha and displayed negligible BrdU incorporation. At 5 days after transplantation, some medial SMCs stained for TNF-alpha and had a low BrdU labeling index (0.5 +/- 0.8%). At 8.2 days after transplant, almost all medial SMCs expressed TNF-alpha intensely and had a high labeling index (29.8 +/- 8.0%). These results demonstrate that acute rejection activates medial SMCs in coronary arteries to express TNF-alpha and that SMC

  1. Interleukin 10 inhibits macrophage microbicidal activity by blocking the endogenous production of tumor necrosis factor alpha required as a costimulatory factor for interferon gamma-induced activation.

    PubMed Central

    Oswald, I P; Wynn, T A; Sher, A; James, S L

    1992-01-01

    Interleukin 10 (IL-10) inhibits interferon gamma-induced macrophage activation for cytotoxicity against larvae of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni by suppressing production of the toxic effector molecule nitric oxide (NO). In this study, the mechanism of IL-10 action was identified as inhibition of endogenous tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production by interferon gamma-activated macrophages. TNF-alpha appears to serve as a cofactor for interferon gamma-mediated activation, since both schistosomulum killing and NO production were inhibited by anti-TNF-alpha antibody, whereas TNF-alpha alone was unable to stimulate these macrophage functions. IL-10 blocked TNF-alpha production by interferon gamma-treated macrophages at the levels of both protein and mRNA synthesis. Addition of exogenous TNF-alpha reversed IL-10-mediated suppression of macrophage cytotoxic activity as well as NO production. Likewise, addition of a macrophage-triggering agent (bacterial lipopolysaccharide or muramyl dipeptide), which induced the production of TNF-alpha, also reversed the suppressive effect of IL-10 on cytotoxic function. In contrast to IL-10, two other cytokines, IL-4 and transforming growth factor beta, which also inhibit macrophage activation for schistosomulum killing and NO production, did not substantially suppress endogenous TNF-alpha production. These results, therefore, describe a separate pathway by which macrophage microbicidal function is inhibited by the down-regulatory cytokine IL-10. Images PMID:1528880

  2. Immunohistochemical study of inducible nitric oxide synthase and tumour necrosis factor alpha response in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) experimentally infected with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Coscelli, Germán; Bermúdez, Roberto; Ronza, Paolo; Losada, Ana Paula; Quiroga, María Isabel

    2016-09-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida represents one of the major threats in aquaculture, especially in salmonid fish and turbot farming. In order to fight bacterial infections, fish have an immune system composed by innate and specific cellular and humoral elements analogous to those present in mammals. However, innate immunity plays a primordial role against bacterial infections in teleost fish. Among these non-specific mechanisms, the production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) pathway and the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) produced by mononuclear phagocytes, are two of the main immune effectors to eliminate bacterial pathogens. In this study, the distribution and kinetic of iNOS and TNFα-producing cells of kidney and spleen of turbot experimentally inoculated with A. salmonicida was assessed by immunohistochemistry. In control and challenged fish, individual iNOS(+) and TNFα(+) cells, showing a similar pattern of distribution, were detected. In challenged fish, the number of immunoreactive cells was significantly increased in the evaluated organs, as well as the melanomacrophage centres showed variable positivity for both antigens. These results indicate that A. salmonicida induced an immune response in challenged turbot, which involved the increase of the activity of iNOS and TNFα in the leukocytic population from kidney and spleen. PMID:27431586

  3. Fever and acute phase response induced in dwarf goats by endotoxin and bovine and human recombinant tumour necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed

    van Miert, A S; van Duin, C T; Wensing, T

    1992-12-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF), a polypeptide produced by mononuclear phagocytes, has been implicated as an important mediator of inflammatory processes and of clinical manifestations in acute infectious diseases. To study further the potential role of TNF in infectious diseases, recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli) derived human (r.HuTNF-alpha) and bovine TNF (r.BoTNF-alpha) were intravenously (i.v.) administered in dwarf goats. Rectal temperature, heart rate, rumen motility, plasma zinc and iron concentrations, and certain other blood biochemical and haematological values were studied and compared with the changes seen after E. coli endotoxin (LPS) was administered (dose: 0.1 microgram/kg i.v.). Following a single injection of 4 micrograms/kg of r.BoTNF-alpha, shivering and biphasic febrile response were observed, accompanied by tachycardia, inhibition of rumen contractions, drop in plasma zinc and iron concentrations, lymphopenia, and neutropenia followed by neutrophilia. The i.v. administration of a single injection of 4 micrograms/kg r.HuTNF-alpha induced shivering and biphasic febrile responses, accompanied by anorexia and a similar drop in plasma trace metal concentrations when compared with r.BoTNF-alpha-treated goats. The TNF-alpha-induced symptoms were essentially the same as those that occurred after LPS administration. However, the time of onset of these changes after the injection of TNF-alpha was significantly shorter than after LPS. Moreover, the r.BoTNF-alpha induced a longer lasting neutrophilic leucopenia, less neutrophilia, and a more persistent lymphopenia than after LPS injection. Neither r.BoTNF-alpha nor LPS caused severe haemo-concentration. Furthermore, no cross-tolerance between r.BoTNF-alpha and LPS could be demonstrated. We conclude that both r.BoTNF-alpha and r.HuTNF-alpha induce many of the physiologic, haematologic and metabolic changes that characterize the acute phase response to LPS. The overlapping biological activities of r

  4. ROLES OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF-A) IN MEDIATION OF DIOXIN (TCDD)-INDUCED DELAYS IN DEVELOPMENT OF THE MOUSE MAMMARY GLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Roles of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) and Transforming Growth Factor-alpha (TGF-a) in Mediation of Dioxin (TCDD)-Induced Delays in Development of the Mouse Mammary Gland.
    Suzanne E. Fenton, Barbara Abbott, Lamont Bryant, and Angela Buckalew. U.S. EPA, NHEERL, Reproductive Tox...

  5. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced reduction of glomerular filtration rate in rats with fulminant hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Bo; Wang, Dong-Lei; Wang, Hai-Tao; Wang, Zhao-Han; Wen, Ying; Sun, Cui-Ming; Zhao, Yi-Tong; Wu, Jian; Liu, Pei

    2014-07-01

    The mechanism of renal failure during fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) or end-stage of liver disease is not fully understood. The present study aims to delineate the mechanisms of decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in acute hepatic failure. A rat model of renal insufficiency in severe liver injury was established by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus D-galactosamine (GalN) exposure. GFR was evaluated by continuous infusion of fluorescein isothiocyanate-inulin with implanted micro-osmotic pumps. GalN/LPS intoxication resulted in severe hepatocyte toxicity as evidenced by liver histology and biochemical tests, whereas renal morphology remained normal. GFR was reduced by 33% of the controls 12 h after GalN/LPS exposure, accompanied with a decreased serum sodium levels, a marked increase in serum TNF-α and ET-1 levels as well as significantly upregulated renal type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R1) expression. The upregulated IP3R1 expression was abrogated by the treatment of anti-TNF-α antibodies, but not by 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborate (2-APB), which blocks the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signaling pathway. Treatments with either TNF-α antibodies or 2-APB also significantly improved the compromised GFR, elevated serum urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, and reversed the decrease in glomerular inulin space and the increase in glomerular calcium content in GalN/LPS-exposed rats. The extent of acute liver injury as reflected by serum ALT levels was much more attenuated by anti-TNF-α antibodies than by 2-APB. Liver histology further confirmed that anti-TNF-α antibodies conferred better protection than 2-APB in GalN/LPS-exposed rats. LPS-elicited TNF-α over-production is responsible for decreased GFR through IP3R1 overexpression, and the compromised GFR resulted in the development of acute renal failure in rats with FHF. PMID:24887412

  6. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate protects against tumor necrosis factor alpha induced inhibition of osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Fan, Jian-Bo; Xu, Da-Wei; Zhang, Jie; Cui, Zhi-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Anabolic bone accruement through osteogenic differentiation is important for the maintenance of physiological bone mass and often disrupted in various inflammatory diseases. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, has been suggested for potential therapeutic use in this context, possibly by the inhibition of bone resorption as well as the enhancement of bone formation through directly activating osteoblast differentiation. However, the reported effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate modulating osteoblast differentiation are mixed, and the underlying molecular mechanism is still elusive. Moreover, there is limited information regarding the effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on osteogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cell in inflammation. Here, we examined the in vitro osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. We found that the cell viability and osteoblast differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells are significantly inhibited by inflammatory cytokine TNFα treatment. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate is able to enhance the cell viability and osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and is capable of reversing the TNFα-induced inhibition. Notably, only low doses of epigallocatechin-3-gallate have such benefits, which potentially act through the inhibition of NF-κB signaling that is stimulated by TNFα. These data altogether clarify the controversy on epigallocatechin-3-gallate promoting osteoblast differentiation and further provide molecular basis for the putative clinical use of epigallocatechin-3-gallate in stem cell-based bone regeneration for inflammatory bone loss diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and prosthetic osteolysis. PMID:26748399

  7. Paradoxical reactions induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists: A literature review based on 46 cases.

    PubMed

    Olteanu, Rodica; Zota, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) agents have acquired a prominent place in the treatment options for inflammatory disorders. Among the side effects of these agents are the so-called paradoxical reactions which have increasingly been reported in recent years. A review of literature was carried out using Medline (PubMed) database from January 2010 to December 2014 to collect all published articles on cases of anti-TNFα-induced psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Published articles were identified, reviewed and the relevant data extracted. A total of 22 studies (46 patients) fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were selected for analysis. Of the 46 patients, 45 (97.8%) developed psoriasis and 1 (2.1%) psoriatic arthritis. The mean age of patients was 47 years; three (6.5%) patients had a past history of psoriasis. Infliximab caused cutaneous reactions in the most number, 26 (56.5%) cases. Thirty seven (80.4%). patients developed primary plaque-type psoriasis. Women accounted for 86.9% of patients. There was complete resolution of psoriasis in 12 (26%) patients despite differences in the therapeutic approach. Cessation of the incriminated drug led to resolution of cutaneous lesions in 5 (10.8%), switching to another TNFα antagonist led to resolution in 6 (13%) and one (2.1%) patient improved despite continuation of the drug. As for the lone case of psoriatic arthritis, drug withdrawal did not result in improvement; only switching to another anti-TNFα agent helped. Since our sample was small, it was not adequately powered to draw any firm conclusions. However, in this analysis, we found that paradoxical reactions occurred predominantly in adult women, there were only isolated cases with a personal history of psoriasis, infliximab was responsible for most cases of these reactions and the most prevalent form was plaque-type psoriasis. The decision whether to continue or discontinue the triggering anti-TNFα agent should be individualized as results are highly variable

  8. Lovastatin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha exhibit potentiated antitumor effects against Ha-ras-transformed murine tumor via inhibition of tumor-induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Feleszko, W; Bałkowiec, E Z; Sieberth, E; Marczak, M; Dabrowska, A; Giermasz, A; Czajka, A; Jakóbisiak, M

    1999-05-17

    Lovastatin, a drug commonly used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, has previously been reported to exert potentiated antitumor activity when combined with either tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), cisplatin or doxorubicin in a melanoma model in mice. Since lovastatin interferes with the function of ras oncogene-encoded (Ras) proteins, we have investigated the antitumor activity of lovastatin and TNF-alpha using a Ha-ras-transformed murine tumor model. In in vitro studies, lovastatin inhibited the growth of cells transformed with Ha-ras oncogene (Ras-3T3 and HBL100-ras cells) more effectively than control NIH-3T3 and HBL100-neo cells. In in vivo experiments, the Ras-3T3 tumor demonstrated significantly increased sensitivity to combined treatment with both lovastatin (50 mg/kg) and TNF-alpha (1 microg/day) compared with either agent alone. Combined treatment with both agents also resulted in greater inhibition of blood-vessel formation. Ras-3T3 tumor cells produced increased amounts of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and lovastatin effectively suppressed VEGF production by these cells. Our results suggest that lovastatin increases antitumor activity of TNF-alpha against tumor cells transformed with v-Ha-ras oncogene via inhibition of tumor-induced blood-vessel formation. PMID:10225445

  9. Francisella tularensis-induced in vitro gamma interferon, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin 2 responses appear within 2 weeks of tularemia vaccination in human beings.

    PubMed Central

    Karttunen, R; Surcel, H M; Andersson, G; Ekre, H P; Herva, E

    1991-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity is essential for protection against the intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis, which causes tularemia. Positive in vitro T-cell responses in the form of lymphocyte proliferation and lymphokine interleukin 2 (IL-2) and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) secretion are found in memory immunity. Studies on the secretion of lymphokines with regard to the developing immunity to F. tularensis have not been published. Therefore, 14 subjects with no clinical history of tularemia were vaccinated with a live F. tularensis vaccine strain. The in vitro responses of five subjects (antigen-induced mononuclear cell and whole blood culture DNA synthesis and cytokine secretion) were measured twice a week throughout the period from 0 to 35 days after vaccination, and the peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations of nine subjects were determined between days 0 and 14. Positive reactions, i.e., responses exceeding those on day 0, were reached on day 10 with regard to the whole blood culture DNA synthesis response and IL-2 and IFN-gamma secretion and on day 14 with regard to the mononuclear cell DNA synthesis response and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion. No measurable IL-4 was found in either the immune or nonimmune supernatants. Since the secretion of TNF-alpha was related to immunization, this points to the specificity of the phenomenon, even though the type of secreting cell is not yet known. If it is shown later that specific T cells produce it, the TNF-alpha response and the negative IL-4 finding may speak for the importance of the Th1-like pattern in immunity to F. tularensis. PMID:1909711

  10. Mechanistic links between oxidative/nitrosative stress and tumor necrosis factor alpha in letrozole-induced murine polycystic ovary: biochemical and pathological evidences for beneficial effect of pioglitazone.

    PubMed

    Rezvanfar, M A; Rezvanfar, M A; Ahmadi, A; Saadi, H A Shojaei; Baeeri, M; Abdollahi, M

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the possible relationship between ovarian functionality and the oxidative response during cystogenesis induced by hyperandrogenization with letrozole and examine protective effect of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonist, pioglitazone (PIO), in polycystic ovary (PCO). Ovarian cysts were induced by oral administration of letrozol (1 mg/kg/day) for 21 consecutive days in the female rats. Effective dose of PIO (20 mg/kg/day) was administrated orally for 21 days. Serum estradiol (E), progesterone (P), testosterone (T), and the ovarian immunomodulator prostaglandin E (PGE) were analyzed as biomarkers of ovarian function. To determine the role of oxidative stress in PCO, the level of cellular lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and peroxynitrite (ONOO), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as a marker of inflammation and apoptosis were measured in serum and the ovaries. Letrozole-induced PCO in rats exhibited a significant increase in LPO and ONOO in serum and ovary while significantly decreased serum and ovarian SOD, CAT, and GPx. Serum T and TNF-α, and ovarian PGE were increased in animals with cysts compared with healthy controls, while E and P diminished. When compared to control group, letrozole-treated group showed irregular sexual cycles, polycystic ovaries characterized by high incidence of sub-capsular ovarian cyst with diminished or scant granulosa cell layer, increased number of atretic pre-antral and antral follicles and absence of corpus luteum. There were almost no primary, secondary, and tertiary follicles observed in PCO rats. All measured parameters were improved by PIO and reached close to normal levels. The present study further supports the role of oxidative/nitrosative stress and infiammatory responses in the pathogenesis of letrozole-induced hyperandrogenic PCO rats. Results indicate that PIO is able to exert direct

  11. Ketamine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} and interleukin-6 gene expressions in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages through suppression of toll-like receptor 4-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation and activator protein-1 activation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, G.-J.; Chen, T.-L.; Ueng, Y.-F.; Chen, R.-M.

    2008-04-01

    Our previous study showed that ketamine, an intravenous anesthetic agent, has anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we further evaluated the effects of ketamine on the regulation of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) gene expressions and its possible signal-transducing mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. Exposure of macrophages to 1, 10, and 100 {mu}M ketamine, 100 ng/ml LPS, or a combination of ketamine and LPS for 1, 6, and 24 h was not cytotoxic to macrophages. A concentration of 1000 {mu}M of ketamine alone or in combined treatment with LPS caused significant cell death. Administration of LPS increased cellular TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 protein levels in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Meanwhile, treatment with ketamine concentration- and time-dependently alleviated the enhanced effects. LPS induced TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 mRNA syntheses. Administration of ketamine at a therapeutic concentration (100 {mu}M) significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 mRNA expressions. Application of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) small interfering (si)RNA into macrophages decreased cellular TLR4 levels. Co-treatment of macrophages with ketamine and TLR4 siRNA decreased the LPS-induced TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 productions more than alone administration of TLR4 siRNA. LPS stimulated phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and translocation of c-Jun and c-Fos from the cytoplasm to nuclei. However, administration of ketamine significantly decreased LPS-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and translocation of c-Jun and c-Fos. LPS increased the binding of nuclear extracts to activator protein-1 consensus DNA oligonucleotides. Administration of ketamine significantly ameliorated LPS-induced DNA binding activity of activator protein-1. Therefore, a clinically relevant concentration of ketamine can inhibit TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 gene expressions in LPS-activated macrophages. The suppressive mechanisms

  12. Lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis of macrophages determines the up-regulation of concentrative nucleoside transporters Cnt1 and Cnt2 through tumor necrosis factor-alpha-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Soler, C; Valdés, R; Garcia-Manteiga, J; Xaus, J; Comalada, M; Casado, F J; Modolell, M; Nicholson, B; MacLeod, C; Felipe, A; Celada, A; Pastor-Anglada, M

    2001-08-10

    In murine bone marrow macrophages, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces apoptosis through the autocrine production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), as demonstrated by the fact that macrophages from TNF-alpha receptor I knock-out mice did not undergo early apoptosis. In these conditions LPS up-regulated the two concentrative high affinity nucleoside transporters here shown to be expressed in murine bone marrow macrophages, concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) 1 and 2, in a rapid manner that is nevertheless consistent with the de novo synthesis of carrier proteins. This effect was not dependent on the presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor, although LPS blocked the macrophage colony-stimulating factor-mediated up-regulation of the equilibrative nucleoside transport system es. TNF-alpha mimicked the regulatory response of nucleoside transporters triggered by LPS, but macrophages isolated from TNF-alpha receptor I knock-out mice similarly up-regulated nucleoside transport after LPS treatment. Although NO is produced by macrophages after LPS treatment, NO is not involved in these regulatory responses because LPS up-regulated CNT1 and CNT2 transport activity and expression in macrophages from inducible nitric oxide synthase and cationic amino acid transporter (CAT) 2 knock-out mice, both of which lack inducible nitric oxide synthesis. These data indicate that the early proapoptotic responses of macrophages, involving the up-regulation of CNT transporters, follow redundant regulatory pathways in which TNF-alpha-dependent- and -independent mechanisms are involved. These observations also support a role for CNT transporters in determining extracellular nucleoside availability and modulating macrophage apoptosis. PMID:11346649

  13. Lactic Acid Bacteria Inducing a Weak Interleukin-12 and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Response in Human Dendritic Cells Inhibit Strongly Stimulating Lactic Acid Bacteria but Act Synergistically with Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Zeuthen, Louise Hjerrild; Christensen, Hanne Risager; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The development and maintenance of immune homeostasis indispensably depend on signals from the gut flora. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are gram-positive (G+) organisms, are plausible significant players and have received much attention. Gram-negative (G−) commensals, such as members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, may, however, be immunomodulators that are as important as G+ organisms but tend to be overlooked. Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial immune regulators, and therefore, the present study aimed at investigating differences among human gut flora-derived LAB and G− bacteria in their patterns of DC polarization. Human monocyte-derived DCs were exposed to UV-killed bacteria, and cytokine secretion and surface marker expression were analyzed. Profound differences in the DC polarization patterns were found among the strains. While strains of LAB varied greatly in their capacity to induce interleukin-12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), G− strains were consistently weak IL-12 and TNF-α inducers. All strains induced significant amounts of IL-10, but G− bacteria were far more potent IL-10 inducers than LAB. Interestingly, we found that when weakly IL-12- and TNF-α-inducing LAB and strong IL-12- and TNF-α-inducing LAB were mixed, the weakly IL-12- and TNF-α-inducing LAB efficiently inhibited otherwise strong IL-12- and TNF-α-inducing LAB, yet when weakly IL-12- and TNF-α-inducing LAB were mixed with G− bacteria, they synergistically induced IL-12 and TNF-α. Furthermore, strong IL-12- and TNF-α-inducing LAB efficiently up-regulated surface markers (CD40, CD83, CD86, and HLA-DR), which were inhibited by weakly IL-12- and TNF-α-inducing LAB. All G− bacteria potently up-regulated surface markers; however, these markers were not inhibited by weakly IL-12- and TNF-α-inducing LAB. These much divergent DC stimulation patterns among intestinal bacteria, which encompass both antagonistic and synergistic relationships, support the

  14. Adalimumab (tumor necrosis factor-blocker) reduces the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity increased by exogenous tumor necrosis factor alpha in an organotypic culture of porcine neuroretina

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Gutierrez, M.T.; Srivastava, G.K.; Gayoso, M.J.; Gonzalo-Orden, J.M.; Pastor, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine if exogenous addition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) exacerbates retinal reactive gliosis in an organotypic culture of porcine neuroretina and to evaluate if concomitant adalimumab, a TNF-blocker, diminishes it. Methods Porcine retinal explants from 20 eyeballs were cultured. Cultures with 100 pg/ml TNFα, 10 µg/ml adalimumab, 100 pg/ml TNFα plus 10 µg/ml adalimumab, or controls without additives were maintained for 9 days. Freshly detached retinas were processed in parallel. TNFα levels in control culture supernatants were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cryostat sections were doubly immunostained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker for reactive gliosis, and cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP), a marker for Müller cells. Sections were also labeled with the isolectin IB4, a label for microglia/macrophages. Results TNFα in control culture supernatants was detected only at day 1. Compared to the fresh neuroretinal samples, upregulation of GFAP and downregulation of CRALBP occurred during the 9 days of culture. Exogenous TNFα stimulated glial cells to upregulate GFAP and downregulate CRALBP immunoreactivity. TNFα-treated cultures also initiated the growth of gliotic membranes and underwent retinal disorganization. Adalimumab inhibited the spontaneous increases in GFAP and maintained CRALBP. In combination with TNFα, adalimumab reduced GFAP expression and conserved CRALBP, with only slight retinal disorganization. No appreciable changes in IB4 labeling were observed under the different culture conditions. Conclusions In cultured porcine neuroretina, spontaneous reactive gliosis and retinal disorganization were exacerbated by exogenous TNFα. Adalimumab reduced spontaneous changes and those induced by TNFα. Therefore, inhibiting TNFα may represent a novel approach to controlling retinal fibrosis observed in some human diseases. PMID:23687426

  15. Treatment of an infected murine macrophage cell line (J774A.1) with interferon-gamma but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha or live Mycobacterium intracellulare alone modulates the expression of adhesion molecules.

    PubMed

    Pourshafie, M R; Sonnenfeld, G

    1997-02-01

    In the present study, we evaluated whether the activation of a murine macrophage cell line (J774.1A) by treatment with recombinant murine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rTNF-alpha) or recombinant murine interferon-gamma (rIFN-gamma) before or simultaneous with infection with Mycobacterium intracellulare would affect their ability to express lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and to restrict growth and kill the ingested M. intracellulare. The data showed that the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in increasing the level of LFA-1 was the same in the presence or absence of M. intracellulare. The inability of M. intracellulare to affect the level of expression of LFA-1 was irrespective of the M. intracellulare to J774A.1 ratio. A significant increase in the expression of LFA-1 was observed when J774A.1 cells were prestimulated with IFN-gamma 1 day before the addition of the bacteria. The addition of IFN-gamma with M. intracellulare simultaneously, however, did not affect the expression of the adhesion molecules as compared with the IFN-gamma alone. Our results indicated no change in the level of LFA-1 on J774A.1 following exposure with TNF-alpha. We observed that preexposure with 10-10(4) IU/ml of TNF-alpha can significantly decrease the number of ingested M. intracellulare. Simultaneous addition of 10(3) and 10(4) IU/ml of TNF-alpha, however, did not have any mycobactericidal effect. This indicates that the TNF-alpha-induced killing by J774A.1 cells was relatively selective, depending on the concentration and the time of presence of TNF-alpha. The data may suggest that the uptake of M. intracellulare is carried out via other adhesion receptors when M. intracellulare and IFN-alpha are present simultaneously and that in the presence of TNF-alpha other surface receptors are involved in the uptake of M. intracellulare. Flow cytometry analysis of the spleen cells removed at various times from M. intracellulare-infected mice also indicated no change in the

  16. Beneficial effect of a sturgeon-based bioactive compound on gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, matrix metalloproteinases and type-10 collagen in human chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Catanzaro, R; Marotta, F; Jain, S; Rastmanesh, R; Allegri, F; Celep, G; Lorenzetti, A; Polimeni, A; Yadav, H

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of a marine bioactive compound containing high-purity caviar-derived DNA, collagen elastin and protein extracts from sturgeon (LD-1227, Caviarlieri, Laboratoires Dom, Switzerland) on IL-1beta-induced activation and production of TNFalpha and MMP-13 in human osteo-arthritis (OA) chondrocytes and intracellular signaling factors. Human chondrocytes were derived from OA cartilage and stimulated with IL-1beta. Gene expression of TNFalpha, MMP-13, MMP-1 and Col10A1 was measured by quantitative RT-PCR. TNFalpha protein in culture medium was determined using cytokine-specific ELISA. Western immunoblotting was used to analyze the MMP-13 production in the culture medium and the activation of NF-kB. DNA binding activity of NF-kB p65 was determined using a highly sensitive and specific ELISA. MMP-13 activity in the culture medium was assayed by gelatine zymography. LD-1227 significantly decreased IL-1beta-stimulated gene expression and production of TNFalpha, MMP-1, MMP-13 and Col10A1 in human chondrocytes. The inhibitory effect of LD-1227 on the IL-1beta-induced expression of these genes was mediated at least in part via suppression of NF-kB p65. These data show that LD-1227 can inhibit IL-1beta-induced proliferation and inflammatory reactions via inhibited activation of the transcription factor NF-kB pathway in human chondrocytes derived from OA patients. These novel pharmacological actions of LD-1227 on IL-1beta-stimulated human OA chondrocytes provide suggestions that this marine biology compound may inhibit cartilage degradation by suppressing IL-1beta-mediated activation and the catabolic response in human chondrocytes. PMID:23034253

  17. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor-induced psoriasis or psoriasiform exanthemata: first 120 cases from the literature including a series of six new patients.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe; Hansel, Gesina; Koch, André; Schönlebe, Jaqueline; Köstler, Erich; Haroske, Gunter

    2008-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) inhibition is effective in the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis. We report on 120 patients from the literature including six new patients (three women and three men) who developed pustular lesions during treatment with TNFalpha inhibitors. We identified 72 women and 36 men (several papers did not specify the gender of patients) with an age range of 13-78 years (mean 42.3 years). The primary diagnoses were rheumatoid arthritis (n = 61), ankylosing spondylitis (n = 21), psoriasis (n = 10), Crohn disease (n = 8), SAPHO (synovitis acne pustulosis hyperostosis osteitis) syndrome (n = 3), psoriatic arthritis (n = 2), and other diagnoses (n = 15). Psoriasis (except palmoplantar pustular type) was the most common adverse effect during anti-TNFalpha treatment (n = 73), followed by palmoplantar pustular psoriasis (n = 37) and psoriasis of the nail (n = 6), sometimes combined in the same patient. Palmoplantar pustulosis and psoriasiform exanthema was the diagnosis in ten patients each. A positive personal history of psoriasis was recorded in 25 patients. A positive family history was noted in eight patients. No data about personal (n = 7) or family history (n = 46) were available in a number of patients. Newly induced psoriasis was diagnosed in 74 patients whereas an exacerbation or aggravation of a pre-existing psoriasis was noted in another 25 patients. All three TNFalpha inhibitors available on the market were involved: infliximab (63 patients), etanercept (37 patients), and adalimumab (26 patients). Several patients were treated with more than a single TFNalpha inhibitor. The timing of cutaneous adverse effects (psoriasis and psoriasiform rash) varied considerably among patients, ranging from after a single application to a delayed response of up to 63 months after initiation of treatment. The mean time to appearance of the cutaneous adverse effect for all TNFalpha inhibitors was 9.5 months. Cessation of the responsible

  18. Internalization, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in rat alveolar macrophages exposed to various dusts occurring in the ceramics industry.

    PubMed

    Attik, G; Brown, R; Jackson, P; Creutzenberg, O; Aboukhamis, I; Rihn, B H

    2008-09-01

    In 1997 The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified some exposures to crystalline silica as carcinogenic to humans. Such exposures were acknowledged to be very variable, and even in the same monograph it was admitted that coal dust, containing as much as 20% quartz, could not be classified. Clearly there is a need to develop methods for assessing any risks posed by various silica containing dusts in different workplaces. A European collective research project, SILICERAM, was launched with the aim of assessing the toxicity of various dusts in the ceramics industry and improving worker protection. This study examined the effect of particles, namely, DQ12 quartz, China clay, feldspar, and a sample resembling a typical mixture used in the ceramic industry (a "contrived sample" or CS), on NR8383, a rat alveolar macrophage (AM) cell line. Titanium dioxide and aluminum oxide were also used as negative controls. Confocal microscopy observations showed internalization of DQ12 and CS in NR8383. Cell viability decreased dramatically after a 2-h incubation exposure period with DQ12 (-71%). CS was less toxic than DQ12 at 2 h. China clay and feldspar were slightly cytotoxic to NR8383 cells. DQ12 induced apoptosis, with a smaller effect of CS and China clay. TNFalpha gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR. DQ12, at a noncytotoxic dose of 10 microg/cm(2), induced a significant expression of TNFalpha (+2 times increase). In contrast, similar doses of CS and China clay did not produce a significant increase, while TiO2 and Al2O3 displayed no effect. Co-treatment with 10 microM aluminum lactate significantly reduced the effects of silica-containing particles on cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and TNFalpha expression. PMID:18803060

  19. Induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 gene expression in murine liver by lipopolysaccharide. Cellular localization and role of endogenous tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Fearns, C.; Loskutoff, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) gene expression primarily in endothelial cells in most organs of the mouse, with maximal induction by 3 hours. Here we show that induction in the liver occurs in a distinctly different pattern. For example, the increase in PAI-1 mRNA in liver was biphasic with an initial peak at 1 to 2 hours and a second peak at 6 to 8 hours. Moreover, in situ hybridization experiments revealed that PAI-1 mRNA was induced in both endothelial cells and hepatocytes. The endothelial cell response was monophasic and maximal between 1 and 4 hours, whereas the hepatocyte response was biphasic, peaking at 2 hours and again at 6 to 8 hours. To determine possible mechanisms involved in the induction of PAI-1 by LPS, we analyzed the tissues for changes in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha LPS caused a rapid induction of TNF-alpha mRNA in Kupffer cells, detectable within 15 minutes. Pretreatment of mice with anti-TNF antiserum before challenge with LPS reduced the subsequent increase in plasma levels of PAI-1 by 50 to 70% and significantly reduced the level of induction of PAI-1 mRNA in the liver at both early and late times. Pretreatment appeared to inhibit induction primarily within hepatocytes. These results suggest that LPS may induce PAI-1 in endothelial cells and hepatocytes by different mechanisms. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 7 PMID:9033272

  20. Inhibition of Hypoxia Inducible Factor Alpha and Astrocyte-Elevated Gene-1 Mediates Cryptotanshinone Exerted Antitumor Activity in Hypoxic PC-3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Jung, Deok-Beom; Sohn, Eun Jung; Kim, Hanna Hyun; Park, Moon Nyeo; Lew, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Seok Geun; Kim, Bonglee; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Although cryptotanshinone (CT) was known to exert antitumor activity in several cancers, its molecular mechanism under hypoxia still remains unclear. Here, the roles of AEG-1 and HIF-1α in CT-induced antitumor activity were investigated in hypoxic PC-3 cells. CT exerted cytotoxicity against prostate cancer cells and suppressed HIF-1α accumulation and AEG-1 expression in hypoxic PC-3 cells. Also, AEG-1 was overexpressed in prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, HIF-1α siRNA transfection enhanced the cleavages of caspase-9,3, and PAPR and decreased expression of Bcl-2 and AEG1 induced by CT in hypoxic PC-3 cells. Of note, DMOG enhanced the stability of AEG-1 and HIF-1α during hypoxia. Additionally, CT significantly reduced cellular level of VEGF in PC-3 cells and disturbed tube formation of HUVECs. Consistently, ChIP assay revealed that CT inhibited the binding of HIF-1α to VEGF promoter. Furthermore, CT at 10 mg/kg suppressed the growth of PC-3 cells in BALB/c athymic nude mice by 46.4% compared to untreated control. Consistently, immunohistochemistry revealed decreased expression of Ki-67, CD34, VEGF, carbonic anhydrase IX, and AEG-1 indices in CT-treated group compared to untreated control. Overall, our findings suggest that CT exerts antitumor activity via inhibition of HIF-1α, AEG1, and VEGF as a potent chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:23243443

  1. Dietary fiber down-regulates colonic tumor necrosis factor alpha and nitric oxide production in trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitic rats.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cabezas, Maria Elena; Gálvez, Julio; Lorente, Maria Dolores; Concha, Angel; Camuesco, Desirée; Azzouz, Shamira; Osuna, Antonio; Redondo, Luis; Zarzuelo, Antonio

    2002-11-01

    Previous studies have revealed the beneficial effects exerted by dietary fiber in human inflammatory bowel disease, which were associated with an increased production of SCFA in distal colon. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the probable mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of a fiber-supplemented diet (5% Plantago ovata seeds) in the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis, with special attention to its effects on the production of some of the mediators involved in the inflammatory response, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and nitric oxide (NO). Rats were fed the fiber-supplemented diet for 2 wk before TNBS colitis induction and thereafter until colonic evaluation 1 wk later. The results obtained showed that dietary fiber supplementation facilitated recovery from intestinal insult as evidenced both histologically, by a preservation of intestinal cytoarchitecture, and biochemically, by a significant reduction in colonic myeloperoxidase activity and by restoration of colonic glutathione levels. This intestinal anti-inflammatory effect was associated with lower TNFalpha levels and lower NO synthase activity in the inflamed colon, showing significant differences when compared with nontreated colitic rats. Moreover, the intestinal contents from fiber-treated colitic rats showed a significantly higher production of SCFA, mainly butyrate and propionate. We conclude that the increased production of these SCFA may contribute to recovery of damaged colonic mucosa because they constitute substrates for the colonocyte and, additionally, that they can inhibit the production of proinflammatory mediators, such as TNFalpha and NO. PMID:12421838

  2. Cachectin/tumor necrosis factor-alpha formation in human decidua. Potential role of cytokines in infection-induced preterm labor.

    PubMed Central

    Casey, M L; Cox, S M; Beutler, B; Milewich, L; MacDonald, P C

    1989-01-01

    This study was conducted as part of an investigation to evaluate the hypothesis that bacterial toxins (LPS or lipoteichoic acid), acting on macrophage-like uterine decidua to cause increased formation of cytokines, may be involved in the pathogenesis of infection-associated preterm labor. We found that cachectin/tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was synthesized and secreted into the culture medium by human decidual cells and explants in response to treatment with LPS. LPS treatment also caused an increase in PGF2 alpha production by decidual cells and explants. In amnion cells in monolayer culture, TNF-alpha stimulated PGE2 formation, and TNF-alpha was cytostatic (inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA) but not cytolytic in amnion cells. TNF-alpha was not detectable (less than 0.34 ng/ml) in the amniotic fluid of normal pregnancies at midtrimester or at term before or after the onset of labor (n = 44); but TNF-alpha was present at concentrations between 2.8 and 22.3 ng/ml in amniotic fluids of 4 of 20 pregnancies with intact membranes complicated by preterm labor (less than 34 wk gestational age). LPS was present in 10 of the 20 amniotic fluids of preterm labor pregnancies, including all four in which TNF-alpha was present. Bacteria were identified in only one of the four LPS-positive, TNF-alpha-positive fluids. Cytokine formation in macrophage-like decidua may serve a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of preterm labor, including increased prostaglandin formation and premature rupture of the membranes. Images PMID:2913048

  3. Involvement of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Interleukin-1β in Enhancement of Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Seizures Caused by Shigella dysenteriae

    PubMed Central

    Yuhas, Yael; Shulman, Lester; Weizman, Abraham; Kaminsky, Elizabeth; Vanichkin, Alexey; Ashkenazi, Shai

    1999-01-01

    Neurologic manifestations, mainly convulsions, are the most frequent extraintestinal complications of shigellosis. We used an animal model to study the roles of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 β (IL-1β) in Shigella-related seizures. Administration of Shigella dysenteriae 60R sonicate enhanced the sensitivity of mice to the proconvulsant pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) within 7 h. This was indicated by a significantly higher mean convulsion score and an increased number of mice responding with clonic-tonic seizures in the Shigella-pretreated group. Preinjection of mice with anti-murine TNF-α (anti-mTNF-α) or anti-murine IL-1β (anti-mIL-1β) 30 min prior to administration of Shigella sonicate abolished their enhanced response to PTZ at 7 h. Mean convulsion scores were reduced by anti-mTNF-α from 1.2 to 0.8 (P = 0.017) and by anti-mIL-1β from 1.3 to 0.7 (P = 0.008). Preinjection of anti-mTNF-α also reduced the percentage of mice responding with clonic-tonic seizures, from 48 to 29% (P = 0.002), and preinjection of anti-mIL-1β reduced it from 53 to 21% (P = 0.012). Neutralization of TNF-α or IL-1β did not protect the mice from death due to S. dysenteriae 60R. These findings indicate that TNF-α and IL-1β play a role in the very early sensitization of the central nervous system to convulsive activity after S. dysenteriae administration. Similar mechanisms may trigger neurologic disturbances in other infectious diseases. PMID:10024595

  4. Increased activity and expression of histone deacetylase 1 in relation to tumor necrosis factor-alpha in synovial tissue of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to investigate the profile of histone deacetylase (HDAC) expression in the synovial tissue of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with that of normal control and osteoarthritis (OA), and to examine whether there is a link between HDAC activity and synovial inflammation. Methods HDAC activity and histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity were determined in nuclear extracts of total synovial tissue surgically obtained from normal, OA and RA joints. The level of cytoplasmic tumor necrosis factor a (TNFα) fraction was measured by ELISA. Total RNA of synovial tissue was used for RT-PCR of HDAC1-8. In synovial fibroblasts from RA (RASFs), the effects of TNFα on nuclear HDAC activity and class I HDACs (1, 2, 3, 8) mRNA expressions were examined by quantitative real-time PCR. The protein expression and distribution of class I HDACs were examined by Western blotting. Results Nuclear HDAC activity was significantly higher in RA than in OA and normal controls and correlated with the amount of cytoplasmic TNFα. The mRNA expression of HDAC1 in RA synovial tissue was higher than in OA and normal controls, and showed positive correlation with TNFα mRNA expression. The protein level of nuclear HDAC1 was higher in RA synovial tissue compared with OA synovial tissue. Stimulation with TNFα significantly increased the nuclear HDAC activity and HDAC1 mRNA expression at 24 hours and HDAC1 protein expression at 48 hours in RASFs. Conclusions Our results showed nuclear HDAC activity and expression of HDAC1 were significantly higher in RA than in OA synovial tissues, and they were upregulated by TNFα stimulation in RASFs. These data might provide important clues for the development of specific small molecule HDAC inhibitors. PMID:20609223

  5. Effects of the -791(C→T) mutation in the promoter for tumor necrosis factor alpha on gene expression and resistance of Large White pigs to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F18.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Dai, Chaohui; Sun, Li; Zhu, Guoqiang; Wu, Shenglong; Bao, Wenbin

    2016-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) plays an important role in the immune system. In this study, TNF-α expression was analyzed in 11 tissues of 8 piglets resistant to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) F18 and 8 ETEC F18-susceptible piglets from the Large White breed. The expression levels of TNF-α were high in immune organs (spleen, lung, thymus, and lymph nodes). The levels were higher in ETEC F18-resistant piglets than in ETEC F18-susceptible piglets, with significant differences in spleen, kidney, thymus, lymph node, and duodenum (P < 0.05). The mutation TNF-α -791(C→T) and 3 genotypes (CC, CT, and TT) were identified. The TNF-α expression levels in the spleen, kidney, lymph nodes, and duodenum were significantly higher in the TT pigs than in the CC pigs (P < 0.05). Thus, TNF-α -791(C→T) has significant effects on mRNA expression and may regulate ETEC F18 resistance of weaning piglets. Therefore, the -791(C→T) mutation of the TNF-α gene could be considered an important potential genetic marker of ETEC F18 resistance. PMID:27408333

  6. Nodularin induces tumor necrosis factor-alpha and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and leads to induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Meili, Nicole; Christen, Verena; Fent, Karl

    2016-06-01

    Nodularin is produced by the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena. It is of concern due to hepatotoxicity in humans and animals. Here we investigated unexplored molecular mechanisms by transcription analysis in human liver cells, focusing on induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and components of the activator protein-1 complex in human hepatoma cells (Huh7) exposed to non-cytotoxic (0.1 and 1μM) and toxic concentrations (5μM) for 24, 48, and 72h. Transcripts of TNF-α and ER stress marker genes were strongly induced at 1 and 5μM at all time-points. TNF-α led to induction of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), as demonstrated by induction of CJUN and CFOS, which form the AP-1 complex. Human primary liver cells reacted more sensitive than Huh7 cells. They showed higher cytotoxicity and induction of TNF-α and ER stress at 2.5nM, while HepG2 cells were insensitive up to 10μM due to low expression of organic anion transporting polypeptides. Furthermore, nodularin led to induction of TNF-α protein, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous (CHOP) protein. Our data indicate that nodularin induces inflammation and ER stress and leads to activation of MAPK in liver cells. All of these activated pathways, which were analysed here for the first time in detail, may contribute to the hepatotoxic, and tumorigenic action of nodularin. PMID:27061667

  7. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF RETINOIC ACID ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: EGF and TGF regulate cell proliferation and differentiation in the embryo. The induction of cleft palate (CP) by all trans retinoic acid (RA) was associated with altered expression of TGF, EGF receptor and binding of EGF. The present study uses knockout (KO) mice to e...

  8. Elevated Dengue Virus Nonstructural Protein 1 Serum Levels and Altered Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression, Nitric Oxide, and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Production in Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Patients

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Denise Maciel; Garcia, Fernanda Gonçalves; Terra, Ana Paula Sarreta; Lopes Tosta, Ana Cristina; Silva, Luciana de Almeida; Castellano, Lúcio Roberto; Silva Teixeira, David Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Background. During dengue virus (DV) infection, monocytes produce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) which might be critical to immunopathogenesis. Since intensity of DV replication may determine clinical outcomes, it is important to know the effects of viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) on innate immune parameters of infected patients. The present study investigates the relationships between dengue virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) serum levels and innate immune response (TLR4 expression and TNF-α/NO production) of DV infected patients presenting different clinical outcomes. Methodology/Principal Findings. We evaluated NO, NS1 serum levels (ELISA), TNF-α production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and TLR4 expression on CD14+ cells from 37 dengue patients and 20 healthy controls. Early in infection, increased expression of TLR4 in monocytes of patients with dengue fever (DF) was detected compared to patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Moreover, PBMCs of DHF patients showed higher NS1 and lower NO serum levels during the acute febrile phase and a reduced response to TLR4 stimulation by LPS (with a reduced TNF-α production) when compared to DF patients. Conclusions/Significance. During DV infection in humans, some innate immune parameters change, depending on the NS1 serum levels, and phase and severity of the disease which may contribute to development of different clinical outcomes. PMID:25580138

  9. Constitutive stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor alpha selectively promotes the self-renewal of mesenchymal progenitors and maintains mesenchymal stromal cells in an undifferentiated state.

    PubMed

    Park, In-Ho; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Choi, Hyun-Kyung; Shim, Jae-Seung; Whang, Soo-Young; Hahn, Sang June; Kwon, Oh-Joo; Oh, Il-Hoan

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing use of culture-expanded mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for cell therapies, factors that regulate the cellular characteristics of MSCs have been of major interest. Oxygen concentration has been shown to influence the functions of MSCs, as well as other normal and malignant stem cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of hypoxic responses and the precise role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α), the master regulatory protein of hypoxia, in MSCs remain unclear, due to the limited span of Hif-1α stabilization and the complex network of hypoxic responses. In this study, to further define the significance of Hif-1α in MSC function during their self-renewal and terminal differentiation, we established adult bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs that are able to sustain high level expression of ubiquitin-resistant Hif-1α during such long-term biological processes. Using this model, we show that the stabilization of Hif-1α proteins exerts a selective influence on colony-forming mesenchymal progenitors promoting their self-renewal and proliferation, without affecting the proliferation of the MSC mass population. Moreover, Hif-1α stabilization in MSCs led to the induction of pluripotent genes (oct-4 and klf-4) and the inhibition of their terminal differentiation into osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. These results provide insights into the previously unrecognized roles of Hif-1α proteins in maintaining the primitive state of primary MSCs and on the cellular heterogeneities in hypoxic responses among MSC populations. PMID:24071737

  10. Neonatal exposure to estradiol-17β modulates tumour necrosis factor alpha and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in brain and also in ovaries of adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Shridharan, Radhika Nagamangalam; Krishnagiri, Harshini; Govindaraj, Vijayakumar; Sarangi, SitiKantha; Rao, Addicam Jagannadha

    2016-02-01

    The sexually dimorphic organization in perinatal rat brain is influenced by steroid hormones. Exposure to high levels of estrogen or endocrine-disrupting compounds during perinatal period may perturb this process, resulting in compromised reproductive physiology and behavior as observed in adult In our recent observation neonatal exposure of the female rats to estradiol-17β resulted in down-regulation of TNF-α, up-regulation of COX-2 and increase in SDN-POA size in pre-optic area in the adulthood. It is known that the control of reproductive performance in female involves a complex interplay of the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovary. The present study was undertaken to understand the possible molecular mechanism involved in changes observed in the ovarian morphology and expression of selected genes in the ovary. Administration of estradiol-17β (100 μg) on day 2 and 3 after birth revealed up-regulation of ER-α, ER-β, COX-2 and down-regulation of TNF-α expression. Also the decrease in the ovarian weight, altered ovarian morphology and changes in the 2D protein profiles were also seen. This is apparently the first report documenting that neonatal estradiol exposure modulates TNF-α and COX-2 expression in the ovary as seen during adult stage. Our results permit us to suggest that cues originating from the modified brain structure due to neonatal exposure of estradiol-17β remodel the ovary at the molecular level in such a way that there is a disharmony in the reproductive function during adulthood and these changes are perennial and can lead to infertility and changes of reproductive behavior. PMID:26872318

  11. Evolution of neoplastic development in the liver of transgenic mice co-expressing c-myc and transforming growth factor-alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Santoni-Rugiu, E.; Nagy, P.; Jensen, M. R.; Factor, V. M.; Thorgeirsson, S. S.

    1996-01-01

    We have previously shown that co-expression of c-myc and transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha as transgenes in mouse liver results in major enhancement of neoplastic development in this organ as compared with expression of either of these transgenes alone. In this report we describe in detail the progression from liver cell dysplasia to hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) occurring in the liver of c-myc/TGF-alpha and c-myc transgenic mice. Despite morphological similarities in the sequence of events between the two transgenic lines, the dramatic acceleration, extent, and severity of hepatic lesions in c-myc/TGF-alpha mice clearly demonstrated the synergistic effects of this transgenic combination. Although c-myc/TGF-alpha and c-myc females displayed longer latency and lower tumor incidence, the pathological changes were the same as those seen in the male mice, including the formation of HCCs, which are absent in TGF-alpha single-transgenic females. Tumors in single- and double-transgenic mice showed induction of the endogenous c-myc and TGF-alpha and, most frequently, unchanged or decreased epidermal growth factor receptor, further indicating the collaborative role of c-myc and TGF-alpha in providing a selective growth advantage to tumor cells independently of the epidermal growth factor receptor levels. To identify possible tumor precursors, we focused particularly on the dysplastic changes preceding and accompanying the appearance of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the double-transgenic mice. Early on, these changes were characterized by the appearance of large dysplastic hepatocytes, mostly pericentrally, expressing high levels of TGF-alpha and uPA, as well as TGF-beta 1, particularly in apoptotic cells. After a short period of replication and expansion into the liver parenchyma, as well as penetration into the central veins, these cells underwent apoptotic cell death while preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions were forming. The peritumorous tissues also

  12. PLASMA TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA CONCENTRATIONS DURING THE TRANSITION PERIOD OF COWS FED EITHER AD LIBITUM OR RESTRICTED DIETS DURING THE DRY PERIOD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-') is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that upregulates mRNA expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) and induces nitric oxide (NO) production. Both SOCS and NO inhibit intracellular growth hormone (GH) signaling and uncouple the somatotropic axis. Expressio...

  13. The Latency-Associated UL138 Gene Product of Human Cytomegalovirus Sensitizes Cells to Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-α) Signaling by Upregulating TNF-α Receptor 1 Cell Surface Expression

    PubMed Central

    Montag, Christina; Wagner, Jutta Annabella; Gruska, Iris; Vetter, Barbara; Wiebusch, Lüder; Hagemeier, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Many viruses antagonize tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) signaling in order to counteract its antiviral properties. One way viruses achieve this goal is to reduce TNF-α receptor 1 (TNFR1) on the surface of infected cells. Such a mechanism is also employed by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), as recently reported by others and us. On the other hand, TNF-α has also been shown to foster reactivation of HCMV from latency. By characterizing a new variant of HCMV AD169, we show here that TNFR1 downregulation by HCMV only becomes apparent upon infection of cells with HCMV strains lacking the so-called ULb′ region. This region contains genes involved in regulating viral immune escape, cell tropism, or latency and is typically lost from laboratory strains but present in low-passage strains and clinical isolates. We further show that although ULb′-positive viruses also contain the TNFR1-antagonizing function, this activity is masked by a dominant TNFR1 upregulation mediated by the ULb′ gene product UL138. Isolated expression of UL138 in the absence of viral infection upregulates TNFR1 surface expression and can rescue both TNFR1 reexpression and TNF-α responsiveness of cells infected with an HCMV mutant lacking the UL138-containing transcription unit. Given that the UL138 gene product is one of the few genes recognized to be expressed during HCMV latency and the known positive effects of TNF-α on viral reactivation, we suggest that via upregulating TNFR1 surface expression UL138 may sensitize latently infected cells to TNF-α-mediated reactivation of HCMV. PMID:21880774

  14. Silica-induced apoptosis in murine macrophage: involvement of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and nuclear factor-kappaB activation.

    PubMed

    Gozal, Evelyne; Ortiz, Luis A; Zou, Xiaoyan; Burow, Matthew E; Lasky, Joseph A; Friedman, Mitchell

    2002-07-01

    Alveolar macrophages play a critical role in silica-induced lung fibrosis. Silica exposure induces tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha release and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation, and apoptotic mechanisms have been implicated in silica-induced pathogenesis. To characterize potential relationships between these signaling events, we studied their induction in two murine macrophage cell lines. The RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line was more sensitive, and the IC-21 macrophage cell line more tolerant to silica exposure (0.2 or 1 mg/ml for 6 h) as evidenced by significantly higher apoptotic responses in RAW 264.7 (P < 0.05). RAW 264.7 macrophages exhibited enhanced TNF-alpha production and NF-kappaB activation in response to silica, whereas IC-21 macrophages did not produce TNF-alpha in response to silica and did not induce NF-kappaB nuclear binding. Inhibition of NF-kappaB in RAW 264.7 cells with BAY11-7082 significantly increased apoptosis while inhibiting TNF-alpha release. In addition, TNF-alpha and NF-kappaB activation, but not apoptosis, were induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in both cell lines, and NF-kappaB inhibition reduced LPS-induced TNF-alpha release. These data suggest that TNF-alpha induction is dependent on NF-kappaB activation in both cell lines. However, silica can induce apoptosis in murine macrophages, independently of TNF-alpha stimulation, as in IC-21 macrophages. Furthermore, NF-kappaB activation in macrophages may play dual roles, both pro- and antiapoptotic during silica injury. PMID:12091251

  15. Cytosine-Phosphorothionate-Guanine Oligodeoxynucleotides Exacerbates Hemophagocytosis by Inducing Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Production in Mice after Bone Marrow Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiajia; Guo, Yong-Mei; Onai, Nobuyuki; Ohyagi, Hideaki; Hirokawa, Makoto; Takahashi, Naoto; Tagawa, Hiroyuki; Ubukawa, Kumi; Kobayashi, Isuzu; Tezuka, Hiroyuki; Minamiya, Yoshihiro; Ohteki, Toshiaki; Sawada, Kenichi

    2016-04-01

    Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is frequently associated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and is treated with some benefit derived from TNF-α inhibitors. However, the mechanisms of how HPS occurs and how a TNF-α inhibitor exerts some benefit to HPS management have remained unclear. We evaluated the effect of toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, especially focusing on cytosine-phosphorothionate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG), a TLR9 ligand, on HPS in mice that underwent transplantation with syngeneic or allogeneic bone marrow (BM) cells (Syn-BMT, Allo-BMT), or with allogeneic BM cells plus splenocytes to promote graft-versus-host disease (GVHD mice). Hemophagocytosis was a common feature early after all BMT, but it subsided in Syn-BMT and Allo-BMT mice. In GVHD mice, however, hemophagocytosis persisted and was accompanied by upregulated production of IFN-γ but not TNF-α, and it was suppressed by blockade of IFN-γ but not TNF-α. A single injection of the TLR9 ligand CpG promoted HPS in all BMT mice and was lethal in GVHD mice, accompanied by greatly upregulated production of TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ. Blocking of TNF-α, but not IL-6 or IFN-γ, suppressed CpG-induced HPS in all BMT mice and rescued GVHD mice from CpG-induced mortality. Thus, TLR9 signaling mediates TNF-α-driven HPS in BMT mice and is effectively treated through TNF-α inhibition. PMID:26740374

  16. Toll-Like Receptor 2- and 6-Mediated Stimulation by Macrophage-Activating Lipopeptide 2 Induces Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Cross Tolerance in Mice, Which Results in Protection from Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha but in Only Partial Protection from Lethal LPS Doses

    PubMed Central

    Deiters, Ursula; Gumenscheimer, Marina; Galanos, Chris; Mühlradt, Peter F.

    2003-01-01

    Patients or experimental animals previously exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) become tolerant to further LPS challenge. We investigated the potential of the macrophage-activating lipopeptide 2 (MALP-2) to induce in vivo cross tolerance to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and LPS. MALP-2-induced tolerance could be of practical interest, as MALP-2 proved much less pyrogenic in rabbits than LPS. Whereas LPS signals via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), MALP-2 uses TLR2 and TLR6. LPS-mediated cytokine release was studied in mice pretreated with intraperitoneal injections of MALP-2. No biologically active TNF-α could be detected in the serum of MALP-2-treated animals when challenged with LPS 24 or 72 h later, whereas suppression of LPS-dependent interleukin (IL)-6 lasted for only 24 h. Protection from lethal TNF-α shock was studied in galactosamine-treated mice. Dose dependently, MALP-2 prevented death from lethal TNF-α doses in TLR4−/− but not in TLR2−/− mice, with protection lasting from 5 to 24 h. To assay protection from LPS, mice were pretreated with MALP-2 doses of up to 10 μg. Five and 24 h later, the animals were simultaneously sensitized and challenged by intravenous coinjection of galactosamine and a lethal dose of 50 ng of LPS. There was only limited protection (four of seven mice survived) when mice were challenged 5 h after MALP-2 pretreatment, and no protection when mice were challenged at later times. The high effectiveness of MALP-2 in suppressing TNF-α, the known ways of biological inactivation, and low pyrogenicity make MALP-2 a potential candidate for clinical use. PMID:12874325

  17. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase ICP0 Protein Inhibits Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced NF-κB Activation by Interacting with p65/RelA and p50/NF-κB1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Kezhen

    2013-01-01

    NF-κB plays central roles in regulation of diverse biological processes, including innate and adaptive immunity and inflammation. HSV-1 is the archetypal member of the alphaherpesviruses, with a large genome encoding over 80 viral proteins, many of which are involved in virus-host interactions and show immune modulatory capabilities. In this study, we demonstrated that the HSV-1 ICP0 protein, a viral E3 ubiquitin ligase, was shown to significantly suppress tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-mediated NF-κB activation. ICP0 was demonstrated to bind to the NF-κB subunits p65 and p50 by coimmunoprecipitation analysis. ICP0 bound to the Rel homology domain (RHD) of p65. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that ICP0 abolished nuclear translocation of p65 upon TNF-α stimulation. Also, ICP0 degraded p50 via its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. The RING finger (RF) domain mutant ICP0 (ICP0-RF) lost its ability to inhibit TNF-α-mediated NF-κB activation and p65 nuclear translocation and degrade p50. Notably, the RF domain of ICP0 was sufficient to interact with p50 and abolish NF-κB reporter gene activity. Here, it is for the first time shown that HSV-1 ICP0 interacts with p65 and p50, degrades p50 through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, and prevents NF-κB-dependent gene expression, which may contribute to immune evasion and pathogenesis of HSV-1. PMID:24067962

  18. Induction of manganese superoxide dismutase by tumour necrosis factor-alpha in human endometrial stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Karube-Harada, A; Sugino, N; Kashida, S; Takiguchi, S; Takayama, H; Yamagata, Y; Nakamura, Y; Kato, H

    2001-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) on superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression in human endometrial stromal cells (ESC) and to determine whether there is a difference in responsiveness to TNFalpha between ESC and decidualized ESC. TNFalpha increased manganese-SOD (Mn-SOD) mRNA level and Mn-SOD activity in a dose-dependent manner in ESC. The concentration of TNFalpha required for an effect was lower for decidualized ESC than for non-decidualized ESC. TNFalpha had no effect on copper-zinc-SOD (Cu,Zn-SOD) expression in either type of cell. Incubation of ESC with actinomycin D, an RNA synthesis inhibitor, blocked TNFalpha-induced Mn-SOD mRNA expression, but cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, had no effect. H7, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), also inhibited TNFalpha-stimulated Mn-SOD mRNA expression in both types of cells. These findings suggest that TNFalpha-induced Mn-SOD expression is regulated at the transcription level and mediated by PKC-dependent phosphorylation and that de-novo protein synthesis is not required for the TNFalpha effect. In summary, TNFalpha induces Mn-SOD expression in human ESC. This phenomenon may be important for protection of ESC from cytokine-mediated oxidative stress. PMID:11675473

  19. Glucocorticoids Regulate Tristetraprolin Synthesis and Posttranscriptionally Regulate Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Inflammatory Signaling▿

    PubMed Central

    Smoak, Kathleen; Cidlowski, John A.

    2006-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are used to treat various inflammatory disorders, but the mechanisms underlying these actions are incompletely understood. The zinc finger protein tristetraprolin (TTP) destabilizes several proinflammatory cytokine mRNAs by binding to AU-rich elements within their 3′ untranslated regions, targeting them for degradation. Here we report that glucocorticoids induce the synthesis of TTP mRNA and protein in A549 lung epithelial cells and in rat tissues. Dexamethasone treatment leads to a sustained induction of TTP mRNA expression that is abrogated by RU486. Glucocorticoid induction of TTP mRNA is also blocked by actinomycin D but not by cycloheximide, suggesting a transcriptional mechanism which has been confirmed by transcription run-on experiments. The most widely characterized TTP-regulated gene is the AU-rich tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) gene. Dexamethasone represses TNF-α mRNA in A549 cells and decreases luciferase expression of a TNF-α 3′ untranslated region reporter plasmid in an orientation-dependent manner. Small interfering RNAs to TTP significantly prevent this effect, and a cell line stably expressing a short-hairpin RNA to TTP conclusively establishes that TTP is critical for dexamethasone inhibition of TNF-α mRNA expression. These studies provide the molecular evidence for glucocorticoid regulation of human TTP and reflect a novel inductive anti-inflammatory signaling pathway for glucocorticoids that acts via posttranscriptional mechanisms. PMID:16982682

  20. Tumour necrosis factor alpha antibody protects against lethal meningococcaemia.

    PubMed

    Nassif, X; Mathison, J C; Wolfson, E; Koziol, J A; Ulevitch, R J; So, M

    1992-03-01

    Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) has been shown to be the principal mediator of Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin-induced shock. Nevertheless, evidence suggests that TNF-alpha plays a beneficial role in controlling bacterial infections when multiplication of the microorganism is required to kill the host. Using an infant rat model of Neisseria meningitidis infection, we found that blood TNF-alpha concentration reaches a peak three hours after intraperitoneal injection of 3 x 10(6) bacteria. Thereafter, the level of TNF-alpha decreased and was undetectable six to eight hours after infection. A correlation was observed between the magnitude of initial TNF-alpha response and a fatal outcome. Pretreatment of the animals with polyclonal anti-TNF antiserum significantly reduced mortality relative to animals pretreated with control serum. However, pretreatment of animals with anti-TNF antibody did not alter the bacterial invasion of the cerebrospinal fluid. Injection of heat-killed bacteria did not cause death and induced lower TNF-alpha levels than the same number of live bacteria. This excludes the possibility that the role of TNF-alpha is to mediate a shock induced by the endotoxin component of the bacterial inoculum. These results indicate that TNF-alpha has a deleterious effect in this model of bacteraemia. Identification of the critical factors that determine the action of TNF-alpha during lethal bacteraemia will lead to a better understanding of these diseases and the development of appropriate therapeutic intervention. PMID:1552859

  1. Synergistic activation of NF-kappaB by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Jono, Hirofumi; Han, Jiahuai; Lim, David J; Li, Jian-Dong

    2004-03-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an important human pathogen causing otitis media in children and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults. Like most other bacterial infections, NTHi infections are also characterized by inflammation, which is mainly mediated by cytokines and chemokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Among a variety of transcription regulators, NF-kappaB has been shown to play a critical role in regulating the expression of large numbers of genes encoding inflammatory mediators. In review of the current studies on NF-kappaB regulation, most of them have focused on investigating how NF-kappaB is activated by a single inducer at a time. However, in bacteria-induced inflammation in vivo, multiple inducers including both exogenous and endogenous mediators are present simultaneously. A key issue that has yet to be addressed is whether the exogenous inducers such as NTHi and the endogenous factors such as TNF-alpha activate NF-kappaB in a synergistic manner. We show that NTHi and TNF-alpha, when present together, synergistically induce NF-kappaB activation via two distinct signaling pathways: NF-kappaB translocation-dependent and -independent pathways. The NF-kappaB translocation-dependent pathway involves NF-kappaB-inducing kinase-IkappaB kinase beta/gamma-dependent phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaBalpha, whereas the NF-kappaB translocation-independent pathway involves mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase kinase 1-dependent activation of MAPK kinase 3/6-p38 MAPK pathway. In addition, the same signaling pathways are also involved in synergistic induction of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-8. These studies should deepen our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the combinatorial regulation of inflammation and lead to development of therapeutic strategies for NTHi-induced infections. PMID:14993593

  2. In vivo expression of monokine and inducible nitric oxide synthase in experimentally induced pulmonary granulomatous inflammation. Evidence for sequential production of interleukin-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and tumor necrosis factor.

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, M.; Dimov, V. B.; Yoshida, T.

    1995-01-01

    The present study examined the temporal pattern and localization of interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in lung tissue undergoing foreign body granuloma formation. Pulmonary granulomas were induced by the intratracheal injection of dextran beads into genetically high granuloma responder, carrying Bcgs (BALB/c), and low responder, carrying Bcgr (C3H/HeJ and DBA/2), mice. There was a pattern of sequential expression of these molecules in BALB/c mice. Thus, interleukin-1 alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase were induced mostly in the cells accumulated around the beads and also in some bronchiolar epithelial cells during the early phase (1 to 3 days), whereas tumor necrosis factor-alpha was induced in the cells around the beads at the later resolution phase (3 to 7 days). By contrast, in low responder mice, an increase in the expression of interleukin-1 alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase was detected in lung macrophages as well as in alveolar cells and bronchiolar epithelial cells on day 1, but that of tumor necrosis factor-alpha was not detected throughout the period. These results together with our previous findings on cytokine activity in granuloma extract suggest that interleukin-1 and nitric oxide produced by recruited macrophages may take part in the early, macrophage-dependent phase of granuloma formation whereas tumor necrosis factor-alpha may be more crucial as a mediator responsible for the difference in innate resistance or susceptibility to granuloma formation. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:7573346

  3. Targeted Cancer Therapy with Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Weibo; Kerner, Zachary J.; Hong, Hao; Sun, Jiangtao

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), a member of the TNF superfamily, was the first cytokine to be evaluated for cancer biotherapy. However, the clinical use of TNF-α is severely limited by its toxicity. Currently, TNF-α is administered only through locoregional drug delivery systems such as isolated limb perfusion and isolated hepatic perfusion. To reduce the systemic toxicity of TNF-α, various strategies have been explored over the last several decades. This review summarizes current state-of-the-art targeted cancer therapy using TNF-α. Passive targeting, cell-based therapy, gene therapy with inducible or tissue-specific promoters, targeted polymer-DNA complexes, tumor pre-targeting, antibody-TNF-α conjugate, scFv/TNF-α fusion proteins, and peptide/TNF-α fusion proteins have all been investigated to combat cancer. Many of these agents are already in advanced clinical trials. Molecular imaging, which can significantly speed up the drug development process, and nanomedicine, which can integrate both imaging and therapeutic components, has the potential to revolutionize future cancer patient management. Cooperative efforts from scientists within multiple disciplines, as well as close partnerships among many organizations/entities, are needed to quickly translate novel TNF-α-based therapeutics into clinical investigation. PMID:24115841

  4. Production of tumor necrosis factor alpha in human leukocytes stimulated by Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed Central

    Levitz, S M; Tabuni, A; Kornfeld, H; Reardon, C C; Golenbock, D T

    1994-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a key mediator of inflammation and may promote human immunodeficiency virus replication in latently infected cells. Since cryptococcosis often is associated with aberrations in the host inflammatory response and occurs preferentially in persons with AIDS, we defined the conditions under which human leukocytes produce TNF-alpha when stimulated by Cryptococcus neoformans. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) produced comparable amounts of TNF-alpha following stimulation with C. neoformans and lipopolysaccharide. Detectable TNF-alpha release in response to C. neoformans occurred only when fungi with small-sized capsules were used and complement-sufficient serum was added. Fractionation of PBMC established that monocytes were the predominant source of TNF-alpha. TNF-alpha gene expression and release occurred significantly later in PBMC stimulated with C. neoformans than in PBMC stimulated with LPS. C. neoformans was also a potent inducer of TNF-alpha from freshly isolated bronchoalveolar macrophages (BAM). Upon in vitro culture, BAM and monocytes bound greater numbers of fungal cells, yet their capacity to produce TNF-alpha following cryptococcal stimulation declined by 74 to 100%. However, this decline was reversed if the BAM and monocytes were cultured with gamma interferon. These data establish that C. neoformans can potently stimulate TNF-alpha release from human leukocytes. However, several variables profoundly affected the amount of TNF-alpha released, including the type of leukocyte and its state of activation, the size of the cryptococcal capsule, and the availability of opsonins. PMID:8168965

  5. Methyl ester of avenathramide-C inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interlenkin-Ibeta(IL-beta)-induced NF-kappaB activation in endothelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease accompanied by the expression of endothelial proinflammatory molecules. Avenanthramides (Avn) are polyphenols which are present exclusively in oats. We have reported the avenanthramide-enriched mixture extracted from oats significantly suppressed int...

  6. Constitutive and cytokine-induced expression of human leukocyte antigens and cell adhesion molecules by human myotubes.

    PubMed Central

    Michaelis, D.; Goebels, N.; Hohlfeld, R.

    1993-01-01

    Understanding the immunobiology of muscle is relevant to muscular autoimmune diseases and to gene therapies based on myoblast transfer. We have investigated the constitutive and cytokine-induced intra- and extracellular expression of histocompatibility human leukocyte antigens (HLA) and cell adhesion molecules by multinucleated human myotubes using immunofluorescence microscopy. Myotubes constitutively expressed HLA class I but not HLA class II. Exposure to interferon-gamma, but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha, induced HLA-DR in the cytoplasm and on the surface membrane of approximately 40 to 95% of cultured myotubes. Surface expression was strongest in perinuclear membrane areas, and cytoplasmic expression was strongest at branching points and at the tips of myotubes. HLA-DP and HLA-DQ were not expressed in detectable amounts. Both interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (CD54) in the cytoplasm and on the surface of nearly all myotubes. The distribution of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and HLA-DR was similar but not identical in double-positive myotubes. The leukocyte function-associated (LFA) adhesion molecules LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18), LFA-2 (CD2), and LFA-3 (CD58) could not be detected in the cytoplasm or on the surface. Our results indicate that cytokine-induced myotubes can participate in immune interactions with T lymphocytes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8214008

  7. Phenol induced acute cutaneous inflammation (AI) in mice: Diminished response in mast cell-deficient (W/W sup v ) mice and evidence of a role for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)

    SciTech Connect

    Wershil, B.K.; Wang, Z.S.; Gordon, J.R.; Galli, S.J. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA )

    1991-03-11

    AI can be induced by a variety of chemical agents. The authors examined AI in mast cell-deficient (WBB6F{sub 1}-W/W{sup v}) and congenic normal (WBB6F{sub 1}-+/+) mice; AI was induced by the epicutaneous application to the ear of phenol (2 mg), benzalkonium chloride (BC; 1 mg) and ethyl phenylpropiolate (EPP, 2 or 5 mg). Phenol induced significantly greater swelling in +/+ than in W/W{sup v} mice. No difference in swelling was seen in +/+ versus W/W{sup v} mice with BC or EEP. Phenol application induced significantly greater neutrophil infiltration in +/+ than in W/W{sup v} mice. Mast cells represent a rich source of TNF and TNF has been shown to participate in the neutrophil accumulation seen in mast cell-dependent, IgE-mediated cutaneous late phase reactions. The authors injected +/+ mice i.d. with 20 {mu}l of 1:100 dilution of a polyclonal rabbit anti-mouse TNF antiserum or 20 {mu}l of medium and then applied 2 mg phenol at the same sites. At 24 hrs, significantly less neutrophil accumulation was seen in the ear treated with anti-TNF antibodies than in the control ear. The authors conclude that mast cells may participate in phenol-induced AI, and that TNF contributes to this response.

  8. Disturbance of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Mediated Beta Interferon Signaling in Cervical Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Anastasia; Hanke, Brigitte; Zawatzky, Rainer; Soto, Ubaldo; van Riggelen, Jan; zur Hausen, Harald; Rösl, Frank

    2002-01-01

    In the present study we show that malignant human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive cells lost their ability to synthesize endogenous beta interferon (IFN-β) upon tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) treatment. IFN-β transcription, however, was reinducible in nonmalignant HPV-positive cells, which was confirmed in functional protection assays against encephalomyocarditis virus or vesicular stomatitis virus infections. Addition of neutralizing antibodies against IFN-β blocked the antiviral effect, excluding the possibility that other IFN types were involved. Conversely, both malignant and immortalized cells could be protected against viral cytolysis when either IFN-β, IFN-α, or IFN-γ was added exogenously. This indicates that only the cross talk between TNF-α and the IFN-β pathways, and not IFN-α/β and IFN-γ signaling in general, is perturbed in cervical carcinoma cells. Notably, full virus protection was restricted exclusively to nonmalignant cells, indicating that the antiviral effect correlates with the growth-inhibitory and virus-suppressive properties of TNF-α. The IFN-regulatory factors IRF-1 and p48 (ISGF3γ) emerged as key regulatory molecules in the differential IFN-β response, since their transcription was either absent or only inefficiently enhanced in tumorigenic cells upon treatment with TNF-α. Inducibility of both genes, however, became reestablished in cervical carcinoma cells, which were complemented to nontumorigenicity after somatic cell hybridization. Complementation was paralleled by the entire reconstitution of cytokine-mediated IFN-β expression and the ability of TNF-α to exert an antiviral state. In contrast, under conditions where tumor suppression was not accomplished upon somatic cell hybridization, neither expression of IRF-1, p48, and IFN-β nor antiviral activity could be restored. PMID:11739693

  9. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits stem cell factor-induced proliferation of human bone marrow progenitor cells in vitro. Role of p55 and p75 tumor necrosis factor receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Rusten, L S; Smeland, E B; Jacobsen, F W; Lien, E; Lesslauer, W; Loetscher, H; Dubois, C M; Jacobsen, S E

    1994-01-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF), a key regulator of hematopoiesis, potently synergizes with a number of hematopoietic growth factors. However, little is known about growth factors capable of inhibiting the actions of SCF. TNF-alpha has been shown to act as a bidirectional regulator of myeloid cell proliferation and differentiation. This study was designed to examine interactions between TNF-alpha and SCF. Here, we demonstrate that TNF-alpha potently and directly inhibits SCF-stimulated proliferation of CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells. Furthermore, TNF-alpha blocked all colony formation stimulated by SCF in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (CSF) or CSF-1. The synergistic effect of SCF observed in combination with GM-CSF or IL-3 was also inhibited by TNF-alpha, resulting in colony numbers similar to those obtained in the absence of SCF. These effects of TNF-alpha were mediated through the p55 TNF receptor, whereas little or no inhibition was signaled through the p75 TNF receptor. Finally, TNF-alpha downregulated c-kit cell-surface expression on CD34+ bone marrow cells, and this was predominantly a p55 TNF receptor-mediated event as well. Images PMID:7518828

  10. Targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Downregulating Genes for the Development of Antituberculous Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Aaron; Chen, Yong; Ji, Qingzhou; Zhu, Guofeng; De Silva, Aruna Dharshan; Vilchèze, Catherine; Weisbrod, Torin; Li, Weimin; Xu, Jiayong; Larsen, Michelle; Zhang, Jinghang; Porcelli, Steven A.; Jacobs, William R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) plays a critical role in the control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in part by augmenting T cell responses through promoting macrophage phagolysosomal fusion (thereby optimizing CD4+ T cell immunity by enhancing antigen presentation) and apoptosis (a process that can lead to cross-priming of CD8+ T cells). M. tuberculosis can evade antituberculosis (anti-TB) immunity by inhibiting host cell TNF production via expression of specific mycobacterial components. We hypothesized that M. tuberculosis mutants with an increased capacity to induce host cell TNF production (TNF-enhancing mutants) and thus with enhanced immunogenicity can be useful for vaccine development. To identify mycobacterial genes that regulate host cell TNF production, we used a TNF reporter macrophage clone to screen an H37Rv M. tuberculosis cosmid library constructed in M. smegmatis. The screen has identified a set of TNF-downregulating mycobacterial genes that, when deleted in H37Rv, generate TNF-enhancing mutants. Analysis of mutants disrupted for a subset of TNF-downregulating genes, annotated to code for triacylglycerol synthases and fatty acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) synthetase, enzymes that concern lipid biosynthesis and metabolism, has revealed that these strains can promote macrophage phagolysosomal fusion and apoptosis better than wild-type (WT) bacilli. Immunization of mice with the TNF-enhancing M. tuberculosis mutants elicits CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses that are superior to those engendered by WT H37Rv. The results suggest that TNF-upregulating M. tuberculosis genes can be targeted to enhance the immunogenicity of mycobacterial strains that can serve as the substrates for the development of novel anti-TB vaccines. PMID:27247233

  11. Ambient but not incremental oxidant generation effects intercellular adhesion molecule 1 induction by tumour necrosis factor alpha in endothelium.

    PubMed

    Arai, T; Kelly, S A; Brengman, M L; Takano, M; Smith, E H; Goldschmidt-Clermont, P J; Bulkley, G B

    1998-05-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines upregulate endothelial adhesion molecule expression, thereby initiating the microvascular inflammatory response. We re-evaluated the reported role of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) in signalling upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on endothelial cells by tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in vitro. TNF-alpha upregulation of endothelial-cell ICAM-1 expression was inhibited by the cell-permeable antioxidants, or by the adenovirus-mediated intracellular overexpression of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase, but not by the exogenous (extracellular) administration of the cell-impermeable antioxidants, superoxide dismutase and/or catalase. This ICAM-1 upregulation was also inhibited by inhibitors of NADH dehydrogenase, cytochrome bc1 complex and NADPH oxidase. However, a measurable increase in net cellular ROM generation in response to TNF-alpha was not seen using four disparate sensitive ROM assays. Moreover, the stimulation of exogenous or endogenous ROM generation did not upregulate ICAM-1, nor enhance ICAM-1 upregulation by TNF-alpha. These findings suggest that an ambient background flux of ROMs, generated intracellularly, but not their net incremental generation, is necessary for TNF-alpha to induce ICAM-1 expression in endothelium in vitro. PMID:9560314

  12. Transactivation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeats by cell surface tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Tadmori, W; Mondal, D; Tadmori, I; Prakash, O

    1991-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is expressed in secreted and cell surface (csTNF-alpha) forms by activated monocytic and T cells. In this report, we demonstrate that csTNF-alpha may predominantly regulate the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat (LTR) activation in the promonocytic cell line U937 and in the Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B-cell line BH1. Anti-TNF-alpha antibody suppressed both the constitutive expression of the HIV-1 LTR in BH1 cells and the expression induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in U937 cells. This suppression was found to be mediated via csTNF-alpha. No correlation between the HIV-1 LTR activation and the secretion of TNF-alpha was evident in these cell lines. Suppression of TNF-alpha secretion by cyclosporin A or by a serine protease inhibitor did not suppress the HIV-1 LTR activation. These observations suggest a novel biological role for csTNF-alpha in the immunopathogenesis of AIDS. PMID:1942242

  13. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits UV-induced MMP-1 expression in human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon Ho; Shin, Chung Min; Park, Chi-Hyun; Kim, Kyu Han; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Eun, Hee Chul; Chung, Jin Ho

    2005-08-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation regulates UV-responsive genes, including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Moreover, UV-induced MMPs cause connective tissue damage and the skin to become wrinkled and aged. Here, we investigated the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a dietary omega-3 fatty acid, on UV-induced MMP-1 expression in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). We found that UV radiation increases MMP-1 expression and that this is mediated by p44 and p42 MAP kinase (ERK) and Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation but not by p38 activation. Pretreatment of HDFs with EPA inhibited UV-induced MMP-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner and also inhibited the UV-induced activation of ERK and JNK by inhibiting ERK kinase (MEK1) and SAPK/ERK kinase 1 (SEK1) activation, respectively. Moreover, inhibition of ERK and JNK by EPA resulted in the decrease of c-Fos expression and c-Jun phosphorylation/expression induced by UV, respectively, which led to the inhibition of UV-induced activator protein-1 DNA binding activity. This inhibitory effect of EPA on MMP-1 was not mediated by an antioxidant effect. We also found that EPA inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- or tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced MMP-1 expression in HDFs and UV-induced MMP-1 expression in HaCaT cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that EPA can inhibit UV-induced MMP-1 expression by inhibiting the MEK1/ERK/c-Fos and SEK1/JNK/c-Jun pathways. Therefore, EPA is a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of skin aging. PMID:15930517

  14. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced enhancement of cryosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Raghav; Paciotti, Guilio F.; Bischof, John C.

    2008-02-01

    Local recurrence of cancer after cryosurgery is related to the inability to monitor and predict destruction of cancer (temperatures > -40°C) within an iceball. We previously reported that a cytokine adjuvant TNF-α could be used to achieve complete cancer destruction at the periphery of an iceball (0 to -40°C). This study is a further development of that work in which cryosurgery was performed using cryoprobes operating at temperatures > -40°C. LNCaP Pro 5 tumor grown in a dorsal skin fold chamber (DSFC) was frozen at -6°C after TNF-α incubation for 4 or 24 hours. Tumors grown in the hind limb were frozen with a probe tip temperature of -40°C, 4 or 24 hours after systemic injection with TNF-α. Both cryosurgery alone or TNF-α treatment alone caused only a minimal damage to the tumor tissue at the conditions used in the study. The combination of TNF-α and cryosurgery produced a significant damage to the tumor tissue in both the DSFC and the hind limb model system. This augmentation in cryoinjury was found to be time-dependent with 4-hour time period between the two treatments being more effective than 24-hour. These results suggests the possibility of cryotreatment at temperatures > -40°C with the administration of TNF-α.

  15. Melatonin reversed tumor necrosis factor-alpha-inhibited osteogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells by stabilizing SMAD1 protein.

    PubMed

    Lian, Chengjie; Wu, Zizhao; Gao, Bo; Peng, Yan; Liang, Anjing; Xu, Caixia; Liu, Lei; Qiu, Xianjian; Huang, Junjun; Zhou, Hang; Cai, Yifeng; Su, Peiqiang; Huang, Dongsheng

    2016-10-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) plays a pivotal role in inflammation-related osteoporosis through the promotion of bone resorption and suppression of bone formation. Numerous drugs have been produced to treat osteoporosis by inhibiting bone resorption, but they offer few benefits to bone formation, which is what is needed by patients with severe bone loss. Melatonin, which can exert both anti-inflammatory and pro-osteogenic effects, shows promise in overcoming TNFα-inhibited osteogenesis and deserves further research. This study demonstrated that melatonin rescued TNFα-inhibited osteogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells and that the interactions between SMURF1 and SMAD1 mediated the crosstalk between melatonin signaling and TNFα signaling. Additionally, melatonin treatment was found to downregulate TNFα-induced SMURF1 expression and then decrease SMURF1-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of SMAD1 protein, leading to steady bone morphogenetic protein-SMAD1 signaling activity and restoration of TNFα-impaired osteogenesis. Thus, melatonin has prospects for treating osteoporosis caused by inflammatory factors due to its multifaceted functions on regulation of bone formation, bone resorption, and inflammation. Further studies will focus on unveiling the specific mechanisms by which melatonin downregulates SMURF1 expression and confirming the clinical therapeutic value of melatonin in the prevention and therapy of bone loss associated with inflammation. PMID:27265199

  16. The role of tumour necrosis factor alpha and soluble tumour necrosis factor alpha receptors in the symptomatology of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Turhan, Levent; Batmaz, Sedat; Kocbiyik, Sibel; Soygur, Arif Haldun

    2016-07-01

    Background Immunological mechanisms may be responsible for the development and maintenance of schizophrenia symptoms. Aim The aim of this study is to measure tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), soluble tumour necrosis factor-alpha receptor I (sTNF-αRI), and soluble tumour necrosis factor-alpha receptor II (sTNF-αRII) levels in patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals, and to determine their relationship with the symptoms of schizophrenia. Methods Serum TNF-α, sTNF-αRI and sTNF-αRII levels were measured. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was administered for patients with schizophrenia (n = 35), and the results were compared with healthy controls (n = 30). Hierarchical regression analyses were undertaken to predict the levels of TNF-α, sTNF-αRI and sTNF-αRII. Results No significant difference was observed in TNF-α levels, but sTNF-αRI and sTNF-αRII levels were lower in patients with schizophrenia. Serum sTNF-αRI and sTNF-αRII levels were found to be negatively correlated with the negative subscale score of the PANSS, and sTNF-αRI levels were also negatively correlated with the total score of the PANSS. Smoking, gender, body mass index were not correlated with TNF-α and sTNF-α receptor levels. Conclusions These results suggest that there may be a change in anti-inflammatory response in patients with schizophrenia due to sTNF-αRI and sTNF-αRII levels. The study also supports low levels of TNF activity in schizophrenia patients with negative symptoms. PMID:26754110

  17. Interleukin-10 modifies the effects of interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on the activity and expression of prostaglandin H synthase-2 and the NAD+-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase in cultured term human villous trophoblast and chorion trophoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Pomini, F; Caruso, A; Challis, J R

    1999-12-01

    The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), two inflammatory cytokines in amniotic fluid, have been shown to rise during chorioamnionitis. This is probably related to activation of the immune system in order to intensify the inflammatory process and to protect the maternal and fetal organism from infectious agents. These cytokines activate the PG biosynthetic pathway in several tissues, but few studies have examined effects on PG-metabolizing enzymes. When PGs are produced by increased synthesis and/or decreased metabolism at the chorio-decidual interface, labor can be induced. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is known to act as an antiinflammatory cytokine. The goals of this study were to evaluate the interaction of IL-10 with IL-1beta and TNFalpha on PG synthesis and to determine the effects of IL-10, IL-1beta, and TNFalpha on PG metabolism using purified cultures of villous trophoblast and chorion trophoblast cells prepared from placentas of patients at term. Cells were treated with IL-1beta and TNFalpha with or without IL-10 for various times up to 24 h. Levels of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) encoding PGH synthase-2 (PGHS-2) and NAD+-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH) were quantified by Northern blotting, and PGE2 and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2alpha (PGFM) output in the medium was measured by RIA. IL-1beta increased PGHS-2 mRNA and PGE2 output from villous and chorion trophoblasts and decreased PGDH mRNA in villous trophoblasts (all P < 0.05). These effects were reversed by IL-10. We found no change in PGHS-2 mRNA or PGE2 output in either trophoblast type treated with TNFalpha, but TNFalpha reduced PGDH mRNA in villous trophoblast, and this effect was reversed by IL-10 (both P < 0.05). We conclude that proinflammatory cytokines can influence PG output through effects on PG synthesis and metabolism and that these effects may be opposed by an antiinflammatory cytokine. These interactions may be

  18. Endothelial cytosolic proteins bind to the 3' untranslated region of endothelial nitric oxide synthase mRNA: regulation by tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, J; Sánchez de Miguel, L; Montón, M; Casado, S; López-Farré, A

    1997-01-01

    Changes in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression may be involved in the endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation dysfunction associated with several vascular diseases. In the present work, we demonstrate that eNOS mRNA contains a previously undescribed cis element in the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR). A U+C-rich segment in the 3' UTR is critical in complex formation with bovine aortic endothelial cell cytosolic proteins. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), which destabilizes eNOS mRNA, increased the binding activity of the cytosolic proteins in a time-dependent manner. These data suggest that endothelial cytosolic proteins bind to the 3' UTR of eNOS mRNA. These proteins may play a role in TNF-alpha-induced eNOS mRNA destabilization. PMID:9315630

  19. Bacterium-Generated Nitric Oxide Hijacks Host Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Signaling and Modulates the Host Cell Cycle In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Mocca, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In mammalian cells, nitric oxide (NO·) is an important signal molecule with concentration-dependent and often controversial functions of promoting cell survival and inducing cell death. An inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in various mammalian cells produces higher levels of NO· from l-arginine upon infections to eliminate pathogens. In this study, we reveal novel pathogenic roles of NO· generated by bacteria in bacterium-host cell cocultures using Moraxella catarrhalis, a respiratory tract disease-causing bacterium, as a biological producer of NO·. We recently demonstrated that M. catarrhalis cells that express the nitrite reductase (AniA protein) can produce NO· by reducing nitrite. Our study suggests that, in the presence of pathophysiological levels of nitrite, this opportunistic pathogen hijacks host cell signaling and modulates host gene expression through its ability to produce NO· from nitrite. Bacterium-generated NO· significantly increases the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and modulates the expression of apoptotic proteins, therefore triggering host cell programmed death partially through TNF-α signaling. Furthermore, our study reveals that bacterium-generated NO· stalls host cell division and directly results in the death of dividing cells by reducing the levels of an essential regulator of cell division. This study provides unique insight into why NO· may exert more severe cytotoxic effects on fast growing cells, providing an important molecular basis for NO·-mediated pathogenesis in infections and possible therapeutic applications of NO·-releasing molecules in tumorigenesis. This study strongly suggests that bacterium-generated NO· can play important pathogenic roles during infections. PMID:22636782

  20. Release of tumor necrosis factor alpha in response to Vibrio vulnificus capsular polysaccharide in in vivo and in vitro models.

    PubMed Central

    Powell, J L; Wright, A C; Wasserman, S S; Hone, D M; Morris, J G

    1997-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus produces a severe septic shock syndrome in susceptible individuals. Virulence of the bacterium has been closely linked to the presence of a surface-exposed acidic capsular polysaccharide (CPS). To investigate whether CPS plays an additional role in pathogenesis by modulating inflammatory-associated cytokine production, studies were initiated in a mouse model and followed by investigations of cytokine release from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Mouse tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) could be detected in serum up to 12 h postinoculation in animals challenged with the encapsulated parent strain MO6-24/O. The unencapsulated strain CVD752 was quickly eliminated by the animals, thus preventing a direct association between serum TNF-alpha levels and the presence or absence of the CPS. Purified CPS from MO6-24/O when injected into D-galactosamine-sensitized mice was a more immediate inducer of TNF-alpha than an equivalent quantity of MO6-24/O lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Both V. vulnificus CPS and V. vulnificus LPS induced inflammation-associated cytokine responses from primary human PBMCs in vitro. CPS elicited TNF-alpha from PBMCs in a dose-dependent manner, with maximal induction at 6 to 10 h, and was not inhibited by polymyxin B. Expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNAs was also induced in the presence of CPS. Interestingly, while adherent PBMCs secreted high levels of TNF-alpha after stimulation with LPS, they secreted little TNF-alpha in response to CPS. These studies provide evidence that V. vulnificus CPS directly stimulates the expression and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by murine and human cells and suggest that CPS activation of PBMCs operates through a cellular mechanism distinct from that of LPS. PMID:9284142

  1. Activated Human Mast Cells Induce LOX-1-Specific Scavenger Receptor Expression in Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Alanne-Kinnunen, Mervi; Lappalainen, Jani; Öörni, Katariina; Kovanen, Petri T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Activated mast cells in atherosclerotic lesions degranulate and release bioactive compounds capable of regulating atherogenesis. Here we examined the ability of activated human primary mast cells to regulate the expression of the major scavenger receptors in cultured human primary monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs). Results Components released by immunologically activated human primary mast cells induced a transient expression of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor (LOX-1) mRNA in HMDMs, while the expression of two other scavenger receptors, MSR1 and CD36, remained unaffected. The LOX-1-inducing secretory components were identified as histamine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1), which exhibited a synergistic effect on LOX-1 mRNA expression. Histamine induced a transient expression of LOX-1 protein. Mast cell –induced increase in LOX-1 expression was not associated with increased uptake of oxidized LDL by the macrophages. Conclusions Mast cell-derived histamine, TNF-α, and TGF-β1 act in concert to induce a transient increase in LOX-1 expression in human primary monocyte-derived macrophages. The LOX-1-inducing activity potentially endows mast cells a hitherto unrecognized role in the regulation of innate immune reactions in atherogenesis. PMID:25250731

  2. The development of novel inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor-alpha production based on substituted [5,5]-bicyclic pyrozolones

    SciTech Connect

    Laufersweiler, Matthew; Brugel, Todd; Clark, Michael; Golebiowski, Adam; Bookland, Roger; Laughlin, Steven; Sabat, Mark; Townes, Jennifer; VanRens, John; De, Biswanath; Hsieh, Lily; Heitmeyer, Sandra; Juergens, Karen; Brown, Kimberly; Mekel, Marlene; Walter, Richard; Janusz, Michael

    2010-11-16

    Novel substituted [5,5]-bicyclic pyrzazolones are presented as inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) production. Many of these compounds show low nanomolar activity against lipopolysaccaride (LPS)-induced TNF-{alpha} production in THP-1 cells. This class of molecules was co-crystallized with mutated p38, and several analogs showed good oral bioavailability in the rat. Oral activity of these compounds in the rat iodoacetate model for osteoarthritis is discussed.

  3. Potential roles for tumour necrosis factor alpha during embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Wride, M A; Sanders, E J

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the evidence indicating possible roles for tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) in development. It is proposed that TNF alpha may have essentially three major roles during embryonic development, which may be analogous to its roles in the immune system and during inflammation: a role in programmed cell death; a role as a cellular growth and differentiation factor; and also a role in the remodelling of extracellular matrix, and the regulation of cell adhesion molecules and integrins. The concept of the existence of a cytokine array during embryogenesis, analogous to that occurring in inflammation, is discussed, as well as potential roles for TNF alpha in the induction of ubiquitin; protective mechanisms embryonic cells may employ against TNF alpha-mediated cytotoxicity; and a consideration of the role TNF alpha may play in a "free radical theory of development". PMID:7717528

  4. Impact of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma on tetrahydrobiopterin synthesis in murine fibroblasts and macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Werner, E R; Werner-Felmayer, G; Fuchs, D; Hausen, A; Reibnegger, G; Yim, J J; Wachter, H

    1991-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha causes an up to 30-fold induction of GTP cyclohydrolase I (EC 3.5.4.16) activity in murine dermal fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner. Owing to the high constitutive activities of 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase and sepiapterin reductase (EC 1.1.1.153), this potentiates biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin. Murine macrophages already contain high activities of GTP cyclohydrolase I when unstimulated, and this is further augmented up to 4-fold by tumour necrosis factor-alpha/interferon-gamma. In Western blots an antiserum to murine liver GTP cyclohydrolase I does not stain cell extracts with high enzyme activities, suggesting that the cytokine induced peripheral form of GTP cyclohydrolase I might differ from the liver form. Images Fig. 2. PMID:1764035

  5. Flavonoids inhibit cytokine-induced endothelial cell adhesion protein gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Gerritsen, M. E.; Carley, W. W.; Ranges, G. E.; Shen, C. P.; Phan, S. A.; Ligon, G. F.; Perry, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    Treatment of human endothelial cells with cytokines such as interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or interferon-gamma induces the expression of specific leukocyte adhesion molecules on the endothelial cell surface. Interfering with either leukocyte adhesion or adhesion protein upregulation is an important therapeutic target as evidenced by the potent anti-inflammatory actions of neutralizing antibodies to these ligands in various animal models and in patients. In the present study we report that cotreatment of human endothelial cells with certain hydroxyflavones and flavanols blocks cytokine-induced ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin expression on human endothelial cells. One of the most potent flavones, apigenin, exhibited a dose- and time-dependent, reversible effect on adhesion protein expression as well as inhibiting adhesion protein upregulation at the transcriptional level. Apigenin also inhibited IL-1 alpha-induced prostaglandin synthesis and TNF-alpha-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production, suggesting that the hydroxyflavones may act as general inhibitors of cytokine-induced gene expression. Although apigenin did not inhibit TNF-alpha-induced nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B(p50(NFKB1)/p65(RelA)) we found this flavonoid did inhibit TNF-alpha induced beta-galactosidase activity in SW480 cells stably transfected with a beta-galactosidase reporter construct driven by four NF-kappa B elements, suggesting an action on NF-kappa B transcriptional activation. Adhesion of leukocytes to cytokine-treated endothelial cells was blocked in endothelial cells cotreated with apigenin. Finally, apigenin demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw edema and delayed type hypersensitivity in the mouse. We conclude that flavonoids offer important therapeutic potential for the treatment of a variety of inflammatory diseases involving an increase in leukocyte adhesion and trafficking. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 11 PMID:7543732

  6. Collagenase-3 (matrix metalloproteinase-13) expression is induced in oral mucosal epithelium during chronic inflammation.

    PubMed Central

    Uitto, V. J.; Airola, K.; Vaalamo, M.; Johansson, N.; Putnins, E. E.; Firth, J. D.; Salonen, J.; López-Otín, C.; Saarialho-Kere, U.; Kähäri, V. M.

    1998-01-01

    Increased proliferation of mucosal epithelium during inflammation is associated with degradation of subepithelial connective tissue matrix and local invasion of the epithelial cells. Here we have studied, whether collagenase-3 (MMP-13), a collagenolytic matrix metalloproteinase with an exceptionally wide substrate specificity, is expressed in the epithelium of chronically inflamed mucosa. Examination of human gingival tissue sections from subjects with chronic adult periodontitis with in situ hybridization revealed marked expression of MMP-13 in basal cells of some epithelial rete ridges expanding into connective tissue. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that these cells also expressed strongly laminin-5, suggesting that they are actively migrating cells. A strong signal for MMP-13 mRNA was occasionally also noted in the suprabasal epithelial cells facing the gingival pocket, whereas no collagenase-1 (MMP-1) mRNA was detected in any areas of the epithelium. MMP-13 expression was also detected in fibroblast-like cells associated with collagen fibers of the inflamed subepithelial connective tissue. In organ culture of human oral mucosa, MMP-13 mRNA expression was observed in epithelial cells growing into connective tissue of the specimens. Regulation of MMP-13 expression was examined in cultured normal nonkeratinizing epithelial cells isolated from porcine periodontal ligament. In these cells, MMP-13 expression at the mRNA and protein level was potently enhanced (up to sixfold) by tumor necrosis factor-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta(1), and transforming growth factor-alpha and by keratinocyte growth factor in the presence of heparin. In addition, plating periodontal ligament epithelial cells on type I collagen stimulated MMP-13 expression (sevenfold) as compared with cells grown on tissue culture plastic. The results of this study show, that expression of MMP-13 is specifically induced in undifferentiated epithelial cells during chronic inflammation

  7. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha gene polymorphisms and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Culpan, Doris; MacGowan, Sian H; Ford, Julia M; Nicoll, James A R; Griffin, W Sue; Dewar, Deborah; Cairns, Nigel J; Hughes, Anthony; Kehoe, Patrick G; Wilcock, Gordon K

    2003-10-16

    Recent findings suggest that production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), is increased in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We used direct sequencing methods on a section of the enhancer/promoter region and on a smaller fragment located 10.5 kb upstream of the TNF-alpha gene to respectively examine TNF-alpha polymorphisms and TNF-a and -b microsatellite alleles in a cohort of 235 post-mortem confirmed AD and 130 control cases. None of the TNF-alpha point mutations or microsatellite alleles investigated proved to be independent risk factors for AD. However, when -308/A, -238/G and TNF-a2 were examined as a 2-1-2 haplotype, we observed that the absence of that haplotype was significantly associated with AD (P = 0.014, Fisher's exact test) suggesting that the 2-1-2 haplotype may be protective against AD. PMID:12962917

  8. Interferon-inducible protein-10 is highly expressed in rats with experimental nephrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Chiarri, M.; Ortiz, A.; González-Cuadrado, S.; Serón, D.; Emancipator, S. N.; Hamilton, T. A.; Barat, A.; Plaza, J. J.; González, E.; Egido, J.

    1996-01-01

    Interferon-inducible protein (IP)-10 is a small glycoprotein member of a family of chemotactic cytokines structurally related to interleukin-8. We have recently described the induction of IP-10 mRNA in mouse mesangial cells stimulated with lipopolysacharide, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. To further evaluate a possible role for this chemokine in renal injury, we have studied IP-10 in an experimental model of nephrosis induced in rats by adriamycin. High levels of glomerular IP-10 mRNA expression and glomerular and tubulointerstitial IP-10 protein were seen on day 21, coinciding with maximal proteinuria, glomerular tumor necrosis factor mRNA expression, and interstitial cellular infiltrates. Maintenance on a low protein diet not only delayed the appearance of proteinuria and interstitial cellular infiltrate but also decreased glomerular IP-10 mRNA expression. Isolated normal glomeruli and cultured glomerular epithelial and mesangial cells from normal rats expressed IP-10 mRNA upon stimulation with 100 U/ml interferon or 1 microgram/ml lipopolysaccharide for 3 hours. IP-10 mRNA expression was also inducible by lipopolysaccharide and cytokines in NRK 49F renal interstitial fibroblasts and, to a lesser extent, in NRK 52E tubular epithelial cells. Furthermore, IP-10 protein was inducible in murine mesangial cells. We conclude that IP-10 is highly inducible in vitro and in vivo in resident glomerular and tubulointerstitial cells. IP-10 may participate in the modulation of renal damage in experimental nephrosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:8546219

  9. Xylitol Inhibits Inflammatory Cytokine Expression Induced by Lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Su-Ji; Jeong, So-Yeon; Nam, Yun-Ju; Yang, Kyu-Ho; Lim, Hoi-Soon; Chung, Jin

    2005-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is one of the suspected periodontopathic bacteria. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of P. gingivalis is a key factor in the development of periodontitis. Inflammatory cytokines play important roles in the gingival tissue destruction that is a characteristic of periodontitis. Macrophages are prominent at chronic inflammatory sites and are considered to contribute to the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Xylitol stands out and is widely believed to possess anticaries properties. However, to date, little is known about the effect of xylitol on periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to determine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression when RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with P. gingivalis LPS (hereafter, LPS refers to P. gingivalis LPS unless stated otherwise) and the effect of xylitol on the LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-1β expression. The kinetics of TNF-α and IL-1β levels in culture supernatant after LPS treatment showed peak values at 1 h (TNF-α) and 2 to 4 h (IL-1β), respectively. NF-κB, a transcription factor, was also activated by LPS treatment. These cytokine expressions and NF-κB activation were suppressed by pretreatment with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (an inhibitor of NF-κB). Pretreatment with xylitol inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-1β gene expression and protein synthesis. LPS-induced mobilization of NF-κB was also inhibited by pretreatment with xylitol in a dose-dependent manner. Xylitol also showed inhibitory effect on the growth of P. gingivalis. Taken together, these findings suggest that xylitol may have good clinical effect not only for caries but also for periodontitis by its inhibitory effect on the LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine expression. PMID:16275942

  10. Induction of the E-selectin promoter by interleukin 1 and tumour necrosis factor alpha, and inhibition by glucocorticoids.

    PubMed Central

    Ray, K P; Farrow, S; Daly, M; Talabot, F; Searle, N

    1997-01-01

    Cytokine-induced expression of the endothelial cell surface adhesion molecule E-selectin is inhibited by glucocorticoids (GCs). To investigate possible mechanisms for steroid inhibition, a reporter gene (ESAP) was constructed, comprising the cytokine responsive region of the E-selectin gene (nt -383 to +81) coupled to alkaline phosphatase (AP). In A549 cells stably transfected with the ESAP gene, AP production was highly responsive to the cytokines interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and tumour necrosis factor alpha, with ED50 values of 3 pM and 1000 pM respectively. Furthermore the cytokine-induced AP responses were inhibited by GCs, indicating that both transcriptional activation and GC suppression of the E-selectin gene were mediated via regulatory elements within the same region of the promoter. The relative potencies of GC drugs as inhibitors of IL-1beta (10 pM)-stimulated ESAP-gene activation were fluticasone> beclomethasone>dexamethasone, with IC50 values of 0.13, 1.1 and 2.7 nM respectively. Inhibition by fluticasone was blocked by the GC receptor (GR) antagonist drug mifepristone (Ru486), which is consistent with the suppressive effects of GCs being mediated via the GR. However, because the E-selectin promoter lacks a consensus glucocorticoid responsive element, mechanisms for inhibition independent of GR-DNA binding were investigated. Evidence that GCs also inhibited cytokine activation of a synthetic nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB)-driven reporter gene transiently transfected into A549 cells suggested that interference with the activation and/or function of this transcription factor was important for GC inhibition of ESAP. However, in A549-ESAP cells, fluticasone (100 nM) did not affect IL-1beta (10 pM)-induced IkBalpha degradation, NFkappaB-p65 nuclear translocation or the DNA-binding capacity of nuclear NFkappaB complexes, over a period during which cytokine-induced ESAP-gene activation was inhibited. Finally, there was no evidence to suggest that GC

  11. Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Xia; Li, Xiaonan; Liu, Fuli; Tan, Hui; Shang, Deya

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin reduces expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha} in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK and NF-{kappa}B activation in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin supreeses TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway. -- Abstract: In the present study, we investigated whether omentin affected the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our data showed that omentin decreased TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in HUVECs. In addition, omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Further, we found that omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-activated signal pathway of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) by preventing NF-{kappa}B inhibitory protein (I{kappa}B{alpha}) degradation and NF-{kappa}B/DNA binding activity. Omentin pretreatment significantly inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK activity and ERK phosphorylation in HUVECs. Pretreatment with PD98059 suppressed TNF-{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activity. Omentin, NF-kB inhibitor (BAY11-7082) and ERK inhibitor (PD98059) reduced the up-regulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha}. These results suggest that omentin may inhibit TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via blocking ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway.

  12. Modulation of transmembrane signalling in HL-60 granulocytes by tumour necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed Central

    McLeish, K R; Klein, J B; Schepers, T; Sonnenfeld, G

    1991-01-01

    Differentiated HL-60 granulocytes were used to study the mechanism by which tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) enhances responses to N-formyl-methionyl-leucylphenylalanine (FMLP). Cultivation of differentiated HL-60 cells with 100 units of TNF/ml for 24 h resulted in a 3-fold increase in superoxide release and 4-fold increase in prostaglandin E2 production on stimulation with 1 microM-FMLP. On the other hand, cultivation with TNF failed to increase phorbol diester stimulation of superoxide release. Formyl-peptide-receptor expression determined on isolated membranes from cells cultivated with TNF (TNF-M) was increased by 50% compared with membranes from control cells (NM). Similarly, FMLP binding to intact HL-60 cells was increased by cultivation with TNF. Guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins (G-protein) levels were not different between TNF-M and NM, as determined by pertussis-toxin-catalysed ADP-ribosylation and by immunoblotting with antisera recognizing alpha i2 subunit. Binding of guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate and GTP hydrolysis stimulated by FMLP were enhanced by about 50% in TNF-M. The efficiency of G-protein activation by formyl-peptide receptors did not differ between TNF-M and NM. TNF regulates expression of formyl-peptide receptors independently of G-protein levels. The regulation of receptor expression is one mechanism by which TNF enhances cell responses to formylated peptides. Images Fig. 4. PMID:1659380

  13. The protective effects of ambroxol on radiation lung injury and influence on production of transforming growth factor beta1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed

    Xia, De-Hong; Xi, Lei; Xv, Chen; Mao, Wei-Dong; Shen, Wei-Sheng; Shu, Zhong-Qin; Yang, Hong-Zhi; Dai, Min

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the effect of ambroxol on radiation lung injury and the expression of transforming growth factor beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)), as well as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in plasma. Totally, 120 patients with locally advanced lung cancer in radiotherapy were randomized into treatment and control groups. Patients in the treatment group took ambroxol orally at a dosage of 90 mg, three times per day for 3 months from the beginning of radiotherapy. The expression of TGF-beta(1) and TNF-alpha in plasma was analyzed. The clinical symptoms and lung diffusing capacity were monitored using high resolving power computed tomography. The level of TGF-beta(1) in the control group was increased (11.8 +/- 5.5 ng/ml), whereas in ambroxol-treated patients, the increase was not significant (5.6 +/- 2.6 ng/ml, P < 0.001). Radiotherapy-induced elevation of TNF-alpha levels, seen in control patients, was also abolished after treatment with ambroxol (5.1 +/- 1.0 vs. 2.4 +/- 0.8 ng/ml, P < 0.001). In the treatment group, carbon monoxide diffusion capacity was not significantly decreased at 6, 12, and 18 months post-radiotherapy, compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Ambroxol decreased the expression of TGF-beta(1) and TNF-alpha, and minimized the diminishment of lung diffusion capacity after radiotherapy. PMID:19636975

  14. Human tumor necrosis factor alpha gene regulation by virus and lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Goldfeld, A E; Doyle, C; Maniatis, T

    1990-01-01

    We have identified a region of the human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene promoter that is necessary for maximal constitutive, virus-induced, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced transcription. This region contains three sites that match an NF-kappa B binding-site consensus sequence. We show that these three sites specifically bind NF-kappa B in vitro, yet each of these sites can be deleted from the TNF-alpha promoter with little effect on the induction of the gene by virus or LPS. Moreover, when multimers of these three sites are placed upstream from a truncated TNF-alpha promoter, or a heterologous promoter, an increase in the basal level of transcription is observed that is influenced by sequence context and cell type. However, these multimers are not sufficient for virus or LPS induction of either promoter. Thus, unlike other virus- and LPS-inducible promoters that contain NF-kappa B binding sites, these sites from the TNF-alpha promoter are neither required nor sufficient for virus or LPS induction. Comparison of the sequence requirements of virus induction of the human TNF-alpha gene in mouse L929 and P388D1 cells reveals significant differences, indicating that the sequence requirements for virus induction of the gene are cell type-specific. However, the sequences required for virus and LPS induction of the gene in a single cell type, P388D1, overlap. Images PMID:2263628

  15. Loss of ADAM17-Mediated Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Signaling in Intestinal Cells Attenuates Mucosal Atrophy in a Mouse Model of Parenteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yongjia; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Xiao, Weidong; Ralls, Matthew W.; Stoeck, Alex; Wilson, Carole L.; Raines, Elaine W.

    2015-01-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is commonly used clinically to sustain patients; however, TPN is associated with profound mucosal atrophy, which may adversely affect clinical outcomes. Using a mouse TPN model, removing enteral nutrition leads to decreased crypt proliferation, increased intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) apoptosis and increased mucosal tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) expression that ultimately produces mucosal atrophy. Upregulation of TNF-α signaling plays a central role in mediating TPN-induced mucosal atrophy without intact epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Currently, the mechanism and the tissue-specific contributions of TNF-α signaling to TPN-induced mucosal atrophy remain unclear. ADAM17 is an ectodomain sheddase that can modulate the signaling activity of several cytokine/growth factor receptor families, including the TNF-α/TNF receptor and ErbB ligand/EGFR pathways. Using TPN-treated IEC-specific ADAM17-deficient mice, the present study demonstrates that a loss of soluble TNF-α signaling from IECs attenuates TPN-induced mucosal atrophy. Importantly, this response remains dependent on the maintenance of functional EGFR signaling in IECs. TNF-α blockade in wild-type mice receiving TPN confirmed that soluble TNF-α signaling is responsible for downregulation of EGFR signaling in IECs. These results demonstrate that ADAM17-mediated TNF-α signaling from IECs has a significant role in the development of the proinflammatory state and mucosal atrophy observed in TPN-treated mice. PMID:26283731

  16. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene is not associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Zai, Gwyneth; Arnold, Paul D; Burroughs, Eliza; Richter, Margaret A; Kennedy, James L

    2006-02-01

    Dysregulation of the immune system has been suggested to play a role in the complex etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. In this context, tumor necrosis factor-alpha is considered an interesting candidate for genetic studies as overproduction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which may be genetically modulated, can exert neurotoxic effects and influence neural cell growth and proliferation. Moreover, the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene is located on chromosome 6p21.3, a region that has been found to be weakly associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder in linkage studies. One functional polymorphism, G-308A, has been found within the gene. PMID:16395130

  17. T lymphocytes induce endothelial cell matrix metalloproteinase expression by a CD40L-dependent mechanism: implications for tubule formation.

    PubMed

    Mach, F; Schönbeck, U; Fabunmi, R P; Murphy, C; Atkinson, E; Bonnefoy, J Y; Graber, P; Libby, P

    1999-01-01

    Neovascularization frequently accompanies chronic immune responses characterized by T cell infiltration and activation. Angiogenesis requires endothelial cells (ECs) to penetrate extracellular matrix, a process that involves matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). We report here that activated human T cells mediate contact-dependent expression of MMPs in ECs through CD40/CD40 ligand signaling. Ligation of CD40 on ECs induced de novo expression of gelatinase B (MMP-9), increased interstitial collagenase (MMP-1) and stromelysin (MMP-3), and activated gelatinase A (MMP-2). Recombinant human CD40L induced expression of MMPs by human vascular ECs to a greater extent than did maximally effective concentrations of interleukin-1beta or tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Moreover, activation of human vascular ECs through CD40 induced tube formation in a three-dimensional fibrin matrix gel assay, an effect antagonized by a MMP inhibitor. These results demonstrated that activation of ECs by interaction with T cells induced synthesis and release of MMPs and promoted an angiogenic function of ECs via CD40L-CD40 signaling. As vascular cells at the sites of chronic inflammation, such as atherosclerotic plaques, express CD40 and its ligand, our findings suggest that ligation of CD40 on ECs can mediate aspects of vascular remodeling and neovessel formation during atherogenesis and other chronic immune reactions. PMID:9916937

  18. Drug-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on lesional keratinocytes in fixed drug eruption.

    PubMed Central

    Teraki, Y.; Moriya, N.; Shiohara, T.

    1994-01-01

    The mechanism(s) and the factor(s) that contribute to preferential localization of fixed drug eruption (FDE) lesions to certain skin sites remain speculative. Previous studies suggested that populations of T cells residing in the lesional epidermis may be involved in selective destruction of the epidermis in FDE. In this study, to define the earliest cellular and molecular events with potential relevance to activation of the epidermal T cells, expression of adhesion molecules on keratinocytes (KC) and vascular endothelium was examined sequentially in the lesional skin of FDE patients after challenge with the causative drug. Rapid and intense intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression was induced on the vascular endothelium and KC as early as 1.5 hours after challenge, at which time E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were not up-regulated. In vitro studies using skin organ culture showed that the lesional KC and endothelium responded more rapidly and intensely to express ICAM-1 to tumor necrosis factor-alpha or interferon-gamma compared with those in the nonlesional skin. Surprisingly, such selective induction of KC ICAM-1 restricted to the lesional skin was also observed after exposure to the causative drug alone in skin organ culture. Pretreatment of the lesional skin with anti-tumor necrosis factor completely abrogated in vitro induction of KC ICAM-1 expression by the drug. Drug-induced, TNF-alpha-dependent KC ICAM-1 expression in the lesional skin suggests that induction of ICAM-1 expression by the lesional KC after ingestion of the drug would probably provide a localized initiating stimulus for activation of the disease-associated epidermal T cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7915886

  19. Mitochondria mediate tumor necrosis factor-alpha/NF-kappaB signaling in skeletal muscle myotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Y. P.; Atkins, C. M.; Sweatt, J. D.; Reid, M. B.; Hamilton, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is implicated in muscle atrophy and weakness associated with a variety of chronic diseases. Recently, we reported that TNF-alpha directly induces muscle protein degradation in differentiated skeletal muscle myotubes, where it rapidly activates nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). We also have found that protein loss induced by TNF-alpha is NF-kappaB dependent. In the present study, we analyzed the signaling pathway by which TNF-alpha activates NF-kappaB in myotubes differentiated from C2C12 and rat primary myoblasts. We found that activation of NF-kappaB by TNF-alpha was blocked by rotenone or amytal, inhibitors of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. On the other hand, antimycin A, an inhibitor of complex III, enhanced TNF-alpha activation of NK-kappaB. These results suggest a key role of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating NF-kappaB activation in muscle. In addition, we found that TNF-alpha stimulated protein kinase C (PKC) activity. However, other signal transduction mediators including ceramide, Ca2+, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and nitric oxide (NO) do not appear to be involved in the activation of NF-kappaB.

  20. LARP4 Is Regulated by Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha in a Tristetraprolin-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Mattijssen, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    LARP4 is a protein with unknown function that independently binds to poly(A) RNA, RACK1, and the poly(A)-binding protein (PABPC1). Here, we report on its regulation. We found a conserved AU-rich element (ARE) in the human LARP4 mRNA 3′ untranslated region (UTR). This ARE, but not its antisense version or a point-mutated version, significantly decreased the stability of β-globin reporter mRNA. We found that overexpression of tristetraprolin (TTP), but not its RNA binding mutant or the other ARE-binding proteins tested, decreased cellular LARP4 levels. RNA coimmunoprecipitation showed that TTP specifically associated with LARP4 mRNA in vivo. Consistent with this, mouse LARP4 accumulated to higher levels in TTP gene knockout (KO) cells than in control cells. Stimulation of WT cells with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), which rapidly induces TTP, robustly decreased LARP4 with a coincident time course but had no such effect on LARP4B or La protein or on LARP4 in the TTP KO cells. The TNF-α-induced TTP pulse was followed by a transient decrease in LARP4 mRNA that was quickly followed by a subsequent transient decrease in LARP4 protein. Involvement of LARP4 as a target of TNF-α–TTP regulation provides a clue as to how its functional activity may be used in a physiologic pathway. PMID:26644407

  1. General Anesthetics Inhibit LPS-Induced IL-1β Expression in Glial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Tomoharu; Kai, Shinichi; Matsuyama, Tomonori; Adachi, Takehiko; Fukuda, Kazuhiko; Hirota, Kiichi

    2013-01-01

    Background Glial cells, including microglia and astrocytes, are considered the primary source of proinflammatory cytokines in the brain. Immune insults stimulate glial cells to secrete proinflammatory cytokines that modulate the acute systemic response, which includes fever, behavioral changes, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation. We investigated the effect of general anesthetics on proinflammatory cytokine expression in the primary cultured glial cells, the microglial cell line BV-2, the astrocytic cell line A-1 and mouse brain. Methodology/Principal Findings Primary cultured glial cells were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in combination with general anesthetics including isoflurane, pentobarbital, midazolam, ketamine, and propofol. Following this treatment, we examined glial cell expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). LPS-induced expression of IL-1β mRNA and protein were significantly reduced by all the anesthetics tested, whereas IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression was unaffected. The anesthetics suppressed LPS-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) phosphorylation, but did not affect nuclear factor-kappaB and activator protein-1 activation. The same effect was observed with BV-2, but not with A-1 cells. In the mouse experiments, LPS was injected intraperitoneally, and isoflurane suppressed IL-1β in the brain and adrenocorticotropic hormone in plasma, but not IL-1β in plasma. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, our results indicate that general anesthetics inhibit LPS-induced IL-1β upregulation in glial cells, particularly microglia, and affects HPA axis participation in the stress response. PMID:24349401

  2. Cryptotanshinone inhibits TNF-α-induced LOX-1 expression by suppressing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ran, Xiaoli; Zhao, Wenwen; Li, Wenping; Shi, Jingshan; Chen, Xiuping

    2016-07-01

    Cryptotanshinone (CPT) is a natural compound isolated from traditional Chinese medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. In the present study, the regulatory effect and potential mechanisms of CPT on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) induced lectin-like receptor for oxidized low density lipoprotein (LOX-1) were investigated. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured and the effect of TNF-α on LOX-1 expression at mRNA and protein levels was determined by Real-time PCR and Western blotting respectively. The formation of intracellular ROS was determined with fluorescence probe CM-DCFH2-DA. The endothelial ox-LDL uptake was evaluated with DiI-ox-LDL. The effect of CPT on LOX-1 expression was also evaluated with SD rats. TNF-α induced LOX-1 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner in endothelial cells. TNF-α induced ROS formation, phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and ERK, and LOX-1 expression, which were suppressed by rotenone, DPI, NAC, and CPT. NF-κB inhibitor BAY11-7082 and ERK inhibitor PD98059 inhibited TNF-α-induced LOX-1 expression. CPT and NAC suppressed TNF-α-induced LOX-1 expression and phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and ERK in rat aorta. These data suggested that TNF-α induced LOX-1 expression via ROS activated NF-κB/ERK pathway, which could be inhibited by CPT. This study provides new insights for the anti-atherosclerotic effect of CPT. PMID:27382351

  3. Cryptotanshinone inhibits TNF-α-induced LOX-1 expression by suppressing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Xiaoli; Zhao, Wenwen; Li, Wenping

    2016-01-01

    Cryptotanshinone (CPT) is a natural compound isolated from traditional Chinese medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. In the present study, the regulatory effect and potential mechanisms of CPT on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) induced lectin-like receptor for oxidized low density lipoprotein (LOX-1) were investigated. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured and the effect of TNF-α on LOX-1 expression at mRNA and protein levels was determined by Real-time PCR and Western blotting respectively. The formation of intracellular ROS was determined with fluorescence probe CM-DCFH2-DA. The endothelial ox-LDL uptake was evaluated with DiI-ox-LDL. The effect of CPT on LOX-1 expression was also evaluated with SD rats. TNF-α induced LOX-1 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner in endothelial cells. TNF-α induced ROS formation, phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and ERK, and LOX-1 expression, which were suppressed by rotenone, DPI, NAC, and CPT. NF-κB inhibitor BAY11-7082 and ERK inhibitor PD98059 inhibited TNF-α-induced LOX-1 expression. CPT and NAC suppressed TNF-α-induced LOX-1 expression and phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and ERK in rat aorta. These data suggested that TNF-α induced LOX-1 expression via ROS activated NF-κB/ERK pathway, which could be inhibited by CPT. This study provides new insights for the anti-atherosclerotic effect of CPT. PMID:27382351

  4. The 19-kilodalton adenovirus E1B transforming protein inhibits programmed cell death and prevents cytolysis by tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed Central

    White, E; Sabbatini, P; Debbas, M; Wold, W S; Kusher, D I; Gooding, L R

    1992-01-01

    The adenovirus E1A and E1B proteins are required for transformation of primary rodent cells. When expressed in the absence of the 19,000-dalton (19K) E1B protein, however, the E1A proteins are acutely cytotoxic and induce host cell chromosomal DNA fragmentation and cytolysis, analogous to cells undergoing programmed cell death (apoptosis). E1A alone can efficiently initiate the formation of foci which subsequently undergo abortive transformation whereby stimulation of cell growth is counteracted by continual cell death. Cell lines with an immortalized growth potential eventually arise with low frequency. Coexpression of the E1B 19K protein with E1A is sufficient to overcome abortive transformation to produce high-frequency transformation. Like E1A, the tumoricidal cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) evokes a programmed cell death response in many tumor cell lines by inducing DNA fragmentation and cytolysis. Expression of the E1B 19K protein by viral infection, by transient expression, or in transformed cells completely and specifically blocks this TNF-alpha-induced DNA fragmentation and cell death. Cosegregation of 19K protein transforming activity with protection from TNF-alpha-mediated cytolysis demonstrates that both activities are likely the consequence of the same function of the protein. Therefore, we propose that by suppressing an intrinsic cell death mechanism activated by TNF-alpha or E1A, the E1B 19K protein enhances the transforming activity of E1A and enables adenovirus to evade TNF-alpha-dependent immune surveillance. Images PMID:1317006

  5. Association of Transforming Growth Factor Alpha Polymorphisms with Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip and Palate in Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Ebadifar, Asghar; Hamedi, Roya; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza; Saliminejad, Kioomars; Kamali, Koorosh; Aghakhani Moghadam, Fatemeh; Esmaeili Anvar, Nazanin; Ameli, Nazilla

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is one of the most common congenital anomalies and the etiology of orofacial clefts is multifactorial. Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFA) is expressed at the medial edge epithelium of fusing palatal shelves during craniofacial development. In this study, the association of two important TGFA gene polymorphisms, BamHI (rs11466297) and RsaI (rs3732248), with CL/P was evaluated in an Iranian population. Methods: The frequencies of BamHI and RsaI variations were determined in 105 unrelated Iranian subjects with nonsyndromic CL/P and 218 control subjects using PCR and RFLP methods, and the results were compared with healthy controls. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The BamHI AC genotype was significantly higher (p=0.016) in the patients (12.4%) than the control group (5.0%). The BamHI C allele was significantly higher (p=0.001; OR=3.4, 95% CI: 1.6–7.4) in the cases (8.0%) compared with the control group (2.5%). Conclusion: Our study showed that there was an association between the TGFA BamHI variation and nonsyndromic CL/P in Iranian population. PMID:26605011

  6. Association of transforming growth-factor alpha gene polymorphisms with nonsyndromic cleft palate only (CPO)

    SciTech Connect

    Shiang, R. ); Lidral, A.C.; Ardinger, H.H.; Murray, J.C.; Romitti, P.A.; Munger, R.G.; Buetow, K.H.

    1993-10-01

    Genetic analysis and tissue-specific expression studies support a role for transforming growth-factor alpha (TGFA) in craniofacial development. Previous studies have confirmed an association of alleles for TGFA with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) in humans. The authors carried out a retrospective association study to determine whether specific allelic variants of the TGFA gene are also associated with cleft palate only (CPO). The PCR products from 12 overlapping sets of primers to the TGFA cDNA were examined by using single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis. Four DNA polymorphic sites for TGFA were identified in the 3[prime] untranslated region of the TGFA gene. These variants, as well as previously identified RFLPs for TGFA, were characterized in case and control populations for CPO by using X[sup 2] analysis. A significant association between alleles of TGFA and CPO was identified which further supports a role for this gene as one of the genetic determinants of craniofacial development. Sequence analysis of the variants disclosed a cluster of three variable sites within 30 bp of each other in the 3[prime] untranslated region previously associated with an antisense transcript. These studies extend the role for TGFA in craniofacial morphogenesis and support an interrelated mechanism underlying nonsyndromic forms of CL/P. 46 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Cloning of a disintegrin metalloproteinase that processes precursor tumour-necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Moss, M L; Jin, S L; Milla, M E; Bickett, D M; Burkhart, W; Carter, H L; Chen, W J; Clay, W C; Didsbury, J R; Hassler, D; Hoffman, C R; Kost, T A; Lambert, M H; Leesnitzer, M A; McCauley, P; McGeehan, G; Mitchell, J; Moyer, M; Pahel, G; Rocque, W; Overton, L K; Schoenen, F; Seaton, T; Su, J L; Becherer, J D

    1997-02-20

    Tumour-necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a cytokine that contributes to a variety of inflammatory disease states. The protein exists as a membrane-bound precursor of relative molecular mass 26K which can be processed by a TNF-alpha-converting enzyme (TACE), to generate secreted 17K mature TNF-alpha. We have purified TACE and cloned its complementary DNA. TACE is a membrane-bound disintegrin metalloproteinase. Structural comparisons with other disintegrin-containing enzymes indicate that TACE is unique, with noteable sequence identity to MADM, an enzyme implicated in myelin degradation, and to KUZ, a Drosophila homologue of MADM important for neuronal development. The expression of recombinant TACE (rTACE) results in the production of functional enzyme that correctly processes precursor TNF-alpha to the mature form. The rTACE provides a readily available source of enzyme to help in the search for new anti-inflammatory agents that target the final processing stage of TNF-alpha production. PMID:9034191

  8. Genetically engineered bacteriophage delivers a tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist coating on neural electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Jun; Jin, Young-Hyun; Salieb-Beugelaar, Georgette B; Nam, Chang-Hoon; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports a novel approach for the formation of anti-inflammatory surface coating on a neural electrode. The surface coating is realized using a recombinant f88 filamentous bacteriophage, which displays a short platinum binding motif and a tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist (TNF-α antagonist) on p3 and p8 proteins, respectively. The recombinant bacteriophages are immobilized on the platinum surface by a simple dip coating process. The selective and stable immobilization of bacteriophages on a platinum electrode is confirmed by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, atomic force microscope and fluorescence microscope. From the in vitro cell viability test, the inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α) induced cell death was prevented by presenting recombinant bacteriophage coating, albeit with no significant cytotoxic effect. It is also observed that the bacteriophage coating does not have critical effects on the electrochemical properties such as impedance and charge storage capacities. Thus, this approach demonstrates a promising anti-apoptotic as well as anti-inflammatory surface coating for neural implant applications. PMID:24448635

  9. Curcumin half analog modulates interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Kondamudi, Phani Krishna; Kovelamudi, Hemalatha; Nayak, Pawan G.; Rao, Mallikarjuna Chamallamudi; Shenoy, Rekha Raghuveer

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study was aimed at examining the effect of dehydrozingerone (DHZ), half analogue of curcumin which is the active constituent of turmeric (Curcuma longa) in the di-nitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) induced model for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (200–220 g) were divided into four groups (n = 6). Chemical induction of IBD was done by sensitizing with 300 µL of 20 g/L of DNCB (in acetone) onto the nape of rats for 14 days followed by intra-colonic instillation of 250 µL of DNCB (0.1% DNCB in 50% alcohol) solution on day 15. Rats in Group 1 (normal control) and Group 2 (DNCB control) were treated with vehicle. Rats in Group 3 were treated with DHZ (100 mg/kg, p.o.; 8 days) and Group 4 animals were treated with sulfasalazine (SS) (100 mg/kg, p.o.; 8 days). On 24th day, the rats were killed, colon removed and the macroscopic, biochemical, and histopathological evaluations were performed. Results: The levels of myeloperoxidase, thiobarbituric acid reactive substrate, and nitrite increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the DNCB group whereas reduced significantly in the DHZ and SS treated groups. Serum nitrite levels were found to be insignificant between the different groups. Interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha level was significantly high in the DNCB group. Conclusion: These findings show that DHZ can be a promising molecule for the treatment of IBD. PMID:26664018

  10. Dengue Virus Induces Novel Changes in Gene Expression of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Warke, Rajas V.; Xhaja, Kris; Martin, Katherine J.; Fournier, Marcia F.; Shaw, Sunil K.; Brizuela, Nathaly; de Bosch, Norma; Lapointe, David; Ennis, Francis A.; Rothman, Alan L.; Bosch, Irene

    2003-01-01

    Endothelial cells are permissive to dengue virus (DV) infection in vitro, although their importance as targets of DV infection in vivo remains a subject of debate. To analyze the virus-host interaction, we studied the effect of DV infection on gene expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by using differential display reverse transcription-PCR (DD-RTPCR), quantitative RT-PCR, and Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays. DD identified eight differentially expressed cDNAs, including inhibitor of apoptosis-1, 2′-5′ oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS), a 2′-5′ OAS-like (OASL) gene, galectin-9, myxovirus protein A (MxA), regulator of G-protein signaling, endothelial and smooth muscle cell-derived neuropilin-like protein, and phospholipid scramblase 1. Microarray analysis of 22,000 human genes confirmed these findings and identified an additional 269 genes that were induced and 126 that were repressed more than fourfold after DV infection. Broad functional responses that were activated included the stress, defense, immune, cell adhesion, wounding, inflammatory, and antiviral pathways. These changes in gene expression were seen after infection of HUVECs with either laboratory-adapted virus or with virus isolated directly from plasma of DV-infected patients. Tumor necrosis factor alpha, OASL, and MxA and h-IAP1 genes were induced within the first 8 to 12 h after infection, suggesting a direct effect of DV infection. These global analyses of DV effects on cellular gene expression identify potentially novel mechanisms involved in dengue disease manifestations such as hemostatic disturbance. PMID:14557666

  11. Calcium-dependent regulation of tumour necrosis factor-alpha receptor signalling by copine.

    PubMed Central

    Tomsig, Jose Luis; Sohma, Hitoshi; Creutz, Carl E

    2004-01-01

    The role of copines in regulating signalling from the TNF-alpha (tumour necrosis factor-alpha) receptor was probed by the expression of a copine dominant-negative construct in HEK293 (human embryonic kidney 293) cells. The construct was found to reduce activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB (nuclear factor-kappaB) by TNF-alpha. The introduction of calcium into HEK293 cells either through the activation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors or through the application of the ionophore A23187 was found to enhance TNF-alpha-dependent activation of NF-kappaB. This effect of calcium was completely blocked by the copine dominant-negative construct. TNF-alpha was found to greatly enhance the expression of endogenous copine I, and the responsiveness of the TNF-alpha signalling pathway to muscarinic stimulation increased in parallel with the increased copine I expression. The copine dominant-negative construct also inhibited the TNF-alpha-dependent degradation of IkappaB, a regulator of NF-kappaB. All of the effects of the dominant-negative construct could be reversed by overexpression of full-length copine I, suggesting that the construct acts specifically through competitive inhibition of copine. One of the identified targets of copine I is the NEDD8-conjugating enzyme UBC12 (ubiquitin C12), that promotes the degradation of IkappaB through the ubiquitin ligase enzyme complex SCF(betaTrCP). Therefore the copine dominant-negative construct might inhibit TNF-alpha signalling by dysregulation or mislocalization of UBC12. Based on these results, a hypothesis is presented for possible roles of copines in regulating other signalling pathways in animals, plants and protozoa. PMID:14674885

  12. Dynamic distributions of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and its receptors in the red nucleus of rats with spared nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Ding, Cui-Ping; Yu, Jing; Zeng, Xiao-Yan; Han, Shui-Ping; Wang, Jun-Yang

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the red nucleus (RN) plays a facilitated role in the development of neuropathic pain, and its effect is transmitted through TNF-α receptor (TNFR) subtypes 1 and 2. Here, the dynamic distributions of TNF-α and TNFRs in the RN of rats with spared nerve injury (SNI) were investigated. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining indicated that TNF-α was hardly expressed in the RN of normal rats but significantly increased at 1 week and peaked at 2 weeks after SNI. Neurons and oligodendrocytes showed TNF-α expression at both 1 week and 2 weeks after SNI, while astrocytes and microglia produced TNF-α later than neurons and oligodendrocytes starting at 2 weeks after SNI. TNFR1 was constitutively expressed in the RN of normal rats and significantly enhanced at 2 weeks but not 1 week after SNI; it was mainly localized in neurons, oligodendrocytes and microglia. Astrocytes were not immunopositive for TNFR1 under normal conditions and at 1 week after injury, but small amounts of astrocytes showed TNFR1 expression at 2 weeks after SNI. A low level of TNFR2 was expressed in the RN of normal rats, but it was significantly increased at 1 week and 2 weeks after SNI and localized in neurons and all three types of glia. These findings suggest that neurons and three types of glia in the RN all contribute to TNF-α production and participate in the initiation and/or maintenance of neuropathic pain induced by SNI. TNF-α exerts its effects in different types of cells maybe through different receptors, TNFR1 and/or TNFR2, in the different stages of neuropathic pain. PMID:26669937

  13. Increased cell death in rat blastocysts exposed to maternal diabetes in utero and to high glucose or tumor necrosis factor-alpha in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pampfer, S; Vanderheyden, I; McCracken, J E; Vesela, J; De Hertogh, R

    1997-12-01

    The morphogenetic function of the transient phase of cell death that occurs during blastocyst maturation is not known but it is thought that its regulation results from a delicate balance between survival and lethal signals in the uterine milieu. In this paper, we show that blastocysts from diabetic rats have a higher incidence of dead cells than control embryos. Differential lineage staining indicated that increased nuclear fragmentation occurred mainly in the inner cell mass. In addition, terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) demonstrated an increase in the incidence of non-fragmented DNA-damaged nuclei in these blastocysts. Analysis of the expression of clusterin, a gene associated with apoptosis, by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction detected an increase in the steady-state level of its transcripts in blastocysts from diabetic rats. In situ hybridization revealed that about half the cells identified as expressing clusterin mRNA exhibited signs of nuclear fragmentation. In vitro experiments demonstrated that high D-glucose increased nuclear fragmentation, TUNEL labeling and clusterin transcription. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a cytokine whose synthesis is up-regulated in the diabetic uterus, did not induce nuclear fragmentation nor clusterin expression but increased the incidence of TUNEL-positive nuclei. The data suggest that excessive cell death in the blastocyst, most probably resulting from the overstimulation of a basal suicidal program by such inducers as glucose and TNF-alpha, may be a contributing factor of the early embryopathy associated with maternal diabetes. PMID:9428419

  14. Role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in zebrafish retinal neurogenesis and myelination

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xu-Dan; Sun, Yan; Cai, Shi-Jiao; Fang, Yang-Wu; Cui, Jian-Lin; Li, Yu-Hao

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in zebrafish retinal development and myelination. METHODS Morpholino oligonucleotides (MO), which are complementary to the translation start site of the wild-type embryonic zebrafish TNF-α mRNA sequence, were synthesized and injected into one- to four-cell embryos. The translation blocking specificity was verified by Western blotting using an anti-TNF-α antibody, whole-mount in situ hybridization using a hepatocyte-specific mRNA probe ceruloplasmin (cp), and co-injection of TNF-α MO and TNF-α mRNA. An atonal homolog 7 (atoh7) mRNA probe was used to detect neurogenesis onset. The retinal neurodifferentiation was analyzed by immunohistochemistry using antibodies Zn12, Zpr1, and Zpr3 to label ganglion cells, cones, and rods, respectively. Myelin basic protein (mbp) was used as a marker to track and observe the myelination using whole-mount in situ hybridization. RESULTS Targeted knockdown of TNF-α resulted in specific suppression of TNF-α expression and a severely underdeveloped liver. The co-injection of TNF-α MO and mRNA rescued the liver development. Retinal neurogenesis in TNF-α morphants was initiated on time. The retina was fully laminated, while ganglion cells, cones, and rods were well differentiated at 72 hours post-fertilization (hpf). mbp was expressed in Schwann cells in the lateral line nerves and cranial nerves from 3 days post-fertilization (dpf) as well as in oligodendrocytes linearly along the hindbrain bundles and the spinal cord from 4 dpf, which closely resembled its endogenous profile. CONCLUSION TNF-α is not an essential regulator for retinal neurogenesis and optic myelination. PMID:27366683

  15. Effect of Tumour Necrosis Factor-Alpha on Estrogen Metabolic Pathways in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Marwa; Shouman, Samia; El-Merzebany, Mahmoud; Kilic, Gokhan; Veenstra, Timothy; Saeed, Muhammad; Wagih, Mohamed; Diaz-Arrastia, Concepcion; Patel, Deepa; Salama, Salama

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine that has been linked to breast cancer development. Estrogen metabolic pathway is also involved in breast carcinogenesis and DNA adducts formation. In this study we investigated the effect of TNF-α on the estrogen metabolic pathway in MCF-7, a breast cancer cell line. Capillary liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used for analysis of estrogen metabolites and estrogen-DNA adducts levels respectively. Reporter gene assay, Real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR) and Western blot were used to assess the expression of estrogen metabolizing genes and enzymes. TNF-α significantly increased the total EM and decreased the estrone (E1) / 17-β estradiol (E2) ratio. Moreover, it altered the expression of genes and enzymes involved in E2 activation and deactivation pathways e.g. Cytochrome P-450 1A1 (CYP1A1), Cytochrome P-450 1B1 (CYP1B1), Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) and Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). In addition, there were increased levels of some catechol estrogens e.g. 4-hydroxy-estrone (4-OHE1) and 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2) with decreased levels of methylated catechols e.g. 2-methoxy estradiol (2-MeOE2). DNA adducts especially 4-OHE1-[2]-1-N3 Adenine was significantly increased. TNF-α directs the estrogen metabolism into more hormonally active and carcinogenic products in MCF-7. This may implicate a new possible explanation for inflammation associated breast cancer. PMID:22866165

  16. Cytokine-induced patterns of gene expression in skeletal muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Alon, Tamar; Friedman, Jeffrey M; Socci, Nicholas D

    2003-08-22

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and other cytokines induce a state of negative energy balance leading to the breakdown of skeletal muscle. Leptin, another member of the cytokine superfamily, also induces a state of negative energy balance but does not alter lean body mass. The transcription profile of skeletal muscle was compared in animals treated with TNF-alpha or leptin or in animals pair-fed over a 7-day time course using 11,000-gene microarrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). Ten clusters of skeletal muscle genes were identified, each of which showed significantly different expression between TNF-alpha treatment and pair feeding. Studies comparing leptin treatment and pair feeding revealed that both activate nearly identical programs of gene expression in skeletal muscle. These data indicate that the effects of leptin on skeletal muscle are markedly different from those of TNF-alpha and that the effects of leptin on skeletal muscle can be largely ascribed to its anorectic effects. Subtle differences between leptin and pair feeding were evident only after 7 days of treatment. In general, pair feeding altered gene expression after the 7-day treatment, whereas leptin did not. The effects of TNF-alpha on skeletal muscle are distinct from those of pair feeding, a result consistent with its known catabolic effects on this tissue. Analyses of the data from food-restricted animals also identified a set of transcriptional changes associated with this state. Further studies of many newly identified leptin-, TNF-alpha-, and starvation-regulated genes and the apparent coordinate regulation of these clusters may reveal important insights into the different effects of cytokines on skeletal muscle. PMID:12750389

  17. Interaction of cord factor (alpha, alpha'-trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate) with phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Crowe, L M; Spargo, B J; Ioneda, T; Beaman, B L; Crowe, J H

    1994-08-24

    We previously reported that cord factor (alpha,alpha'-trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate) isolated from Nocardia asteroides strain GUH-2 strongly inhibits fusion between unilamellar vesicles containing acidic phospholipid. We chose to study the effects of this molecule on liposome fusion since the presence of N. asteroides GUH-2 in the phagosomes of mouse macrophages had been shown to prevent phagosomal acidification and inhibit phagosome-lysosome fusion. A virtually non-virulent strain, N. asteroides 10905, does not prevent acidification or phagosome-lysosome fusion and, further, contains only trace amounts of cord factor. In the present paper, we have investigated the effects of cord factor on phospholipid bilayers that could be responsible for the inhibition of fusion. We show that cord factor increases molecular area, measured by isothermal compression of a monolayer film, in a mixed monolayer more than would be expected based in its individual contribution to molecular area. Cord factor, as well as other glycolipids investigated, increased the overall hydration of bilayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine by 50%, as estimated from the unfrozen water fraction measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The effect of calcium on this increased molecular area and headgroup hydration was measured by fluorescence anisotropy and FTIR spectroscopy of phosphatidylserine liposomes. Both techniques showed that cord factor, incorporated at 10 mol%, increased acyl chain disorder over controls in the presence of Ca2+. However, FTIR showed that cord factor did not prevent headgroup dehydration by the Ca2+. The other glycolipids tested did not prevent either the Ca(2+)-induced chain crystallization or headgroup dehydration of phosphatidylserine bilayers. These data point to a possible role of the bulky mycolic acids of cord factor in preventing Ca(2+)-induced fusion of liposomes containing acidic phospholipids. PMID:8075141

  18. Synergistic effects of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha: central monoamine, corticosterone, and behavioral variations.

    PubMed

    Brebner, K; Hayley, S; Zacharko, R; Merali, Z; Anisman, H

    2000-06-01

    The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) influence neuroendocrine activity, promote central neurotransmitter alterations, and induce a constellation of symptoms collectively referred to as sickness behaviors. These cytokines may also elicit anxiety and anhedonia, and have been associated with psychological disturbances in humans. In the present investigation, systemic IL-1beta and TNF-alpha dose-dependently and synergistically disrupted consumption of a highly palatable food source (chocolate milk), possibly reflecting anorexia or anhedonia engendered by the treatments. As well, these cytokines synergistically increased plasma corticosterone levels. Although IL-1beta and TNF-alpha provoked variations of amine turnover in the hypothalamus, locus coeruleus, and central amygdala, synergistic effects were not evident in this respect. Nevertheless, in view of the central amine variations induced by the cytokines, it is suggested that immune activation may come to influence complex behavioral processes, as well as affective state. PMID:10788757

  19. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Inhibits L-Type Ca2+ Channels in Sensitized Guinea Pig Airway Smooth Muscle through ERK 1/2 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-García, Jorge; Flores-Soto, Edgar; Solís-Chagoyán, Héctor; Sommer, Bettina; Díaz-Hernández, Verónica; García-Hernández, Luz María

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine that plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of asthma by inducing hyperresponsiveness and airway remodeling. TNF-α diminishes the L-type voltage dependent Ca2+ channel (L-VDCC) current in cardiac myocytes, an observation that seems paradoxical. In guinea pig sensitized tracheas KCl responses were lower than in control tissues. Serum from sensitized animals (Ser-S) induced the same phenomenon. In tracheal myocytes from nonsensitized (NS) and sensitized (S) guinea pigs, an L-VDCC current (ICa) was observed and diminished by Ser-S. The same decrease was detected in NS myocytes incubated with TNF-α, pointing out that this cytokine might be present in Ser-S. We observed that a small-molecule inhibitor of TNF-α (SMI-TNF) and a TNF-α receptor 1 (TNFR1) antagonist (WP9QY) reversed ICa decrease induced by Ser-S in NS myocytes, confirming the former hypothesis. U0126 (a blocker of ERK 1/2 kinase) also reverted the decrease in ICa. Neither cycloheximide (a protein synthesis inhibitor) nor actinomycin D (a transcription inhibitor) showed any effect on the TNF-α-induced ICa reduction. We found that CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 mRNA and proteins were expressed in tracheal myocytes and that sensitization did not modify them. In cardiac myocytes, ERK 1/2 phosphorylates two sites of the L-VDCC, augmenting or decreasing ICa; we postulate that, in guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle, TNF-α diminishes ICa probably by phosphorylating the L-VDCC site that reduces its activity through the ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway. PMID:27445440

  20. Involvement of interleukin-8, vascular endothelial growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor in tumor necrosis factor alpha-dependent angiogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, S; Ono, M; Shono, T; Izumi, H; Ishibashi, T; Suzuki, H; Kuwano, M

    1997-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a macrophage/monocyte-derived polypeptide which modulates the expression of various genes in vascular endothelial cells and induces angiogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism by which TNF-alpha mediates angiogenesis is not completely understood. In this study, we assessed whether TNF-alpha-induced angiogenesis is mediated through TNF-alpha itself or indirectly through other TNF-alpha-induced angiogenesis-promoting factors. Cellular mRNA levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and their receptors were increased after the treatment of human microvascular endothelial cells with TNF-alpha (100 U/ml). TNF-alpha-dependent tubular morphogenesis in vascular endothelial cells was inhibited by the administration of anti-IL-8, anti-VEGF, and anti-bFGF antibodies, and coadministration of all three antibodies almost completely abrogated tubular formation. Moreover, treatment with Sp1, NF-kappaB, and c-Jun antisense oligonucleotides inhibited TNF-alpha-dependent tubular morphogenesis by microvascular endothelial cells. Administration of a NF-kappaB antisense oligonucleotide almost completely inhibited TNF-alpha-dependent IL-8 production and partially abrogated TNF-alpha-dependent VEGF production, and an Sp1 antisense sequence partially inhibited TNF-alpha-dependent production of VEGF. A c-Jun antisense oligonucleotide significantly inhibited TNF-alpha-dependent bFGF production but did not affect the production of IL-8 and VEGF. Administration of an anti-IL-8 or anti-VEGF antibody also blocked TNF-alpha-induced neovascularization in the rabbit cornea in vivo. Thus, angiogenesis by TNF-alpha appears to be modulated through various angiogenic factors, both in vitro and in vivo, and this pathway is controlled through paracrine and/or autocrine mechanisms. PMID:9199336

  1. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Inhibits L-Type Ca(2+) Channels in Sensitized Guinea Pig Airway Smooth Muscle through ERK 1/2 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Reyes-García, Jorge; Flores-Soto, Edgar; Solís-Chagoyán, Héctor; Sommer, Bettina; Díaz-Hernández, Verónica; García-Hernández, Luz María; Montaño, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine that plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of asthma by inducing hyperresponsiveness and airway remodeling. TNF-α diminishes the L-type voltage dependent Ca(2+) channel (L-VDCC) current in cardiac myocytes, an observation that seems paradoxical. In guinea pig sensitized tracheas KCl responses were lower than in control tissues. Serum from sensitized animals (Ser-S) induced the same phenomenon. In tracheal myocytes from nonsensitized (NS) and sensitized (S) guinea pigs, an L-VDCC current (ICa) was observed and diminished by Ser-S. The same decrease was detected in NS myocytes incubated with TNF-α, pointing out that this cytokine might be present in Ser-S. We observed that a small-molecule inhibitor of TNF-α (SMI-TNF) and a TNF-α receptor 1 (TNFR1) antagonist (WP9QY) reversed ICa decrease induced by Ser-S in NS myocytes, confirming the former hypothesis. U0126 (a blocker of ERK 1/2 kinase) also reverted the decrease in ICa. Neither cycloheximide (a protein synthesis inhibitor) nor actinomycin D (a transcription inhibitor) showed any effect on the TNF-α-induced ICa reduction. We found that CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 mRNA and proteins were expressed in tracheal myocytes and that sensitization did not modify them. In cardiac myocytes, ERK 1/2 phosphorylates two sites of the L-VDCC, augmenting or decreasing ICa; we postulate that, in guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle, TNF-α diminishes ICa probably by phosphorylating the L-VDCC site that reduces its activity through the ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway. PMID:27445440

  2. Expression of inflammatory mediators in the otitis media induced by Helicobacter pylori antigen in mice.

    PubMed

    Kariya, S; Okano, M; Fukushima, K; Nomiya, S; Kataoka, Y; Nomiya, R; Akagi, H; Nishizaki, K

    2008-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that is recognized as one of the key factors in gastric diseases such as gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. Recent studies have shown relationships between H. pylori and extra-digestive diseases, and the presence of H. pylori in the middle ear and upper respiratory tract has been reported. However, the role of H. pylori in middle ear disease remains unclear. The present study demonstrated that H. pylori whole-cell protein directly induces macrophage migration inhibitory factor, macrophage inflammatory protein 2, interleukin 1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha in middle ear epithelium in mice, and severe proliferation of inflammatory cells was observed in middle ear cavity inoculated with H. pylori whole-cell protein. In addition, trans-tympanic injection of macrophage migration inhibitory factor up-regulated expression of macrophage inflammatory protein 2 in the middle ear. These findings indicate that H. pylori infection causes immunological inflammation in middle ear epithelium, and H. pylori may play a significant role in otitis media. PMID:18727622

  3. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists and neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Stübgen, Joerg-Patrick

    2008-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha plays an important role in many aspects of immune system development, immune-response regulation, and T-cell-mediated tissue injury. The evidence that TNF-alpha, released by autoreactive T cells and macrophages, may contribute to the pathogenesis of immune-mediated demyelinating neuropathies is reviewed. TNF-alpha antagonists (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab) are indicated for the treatment of advanced inflammatory rheumatic and bowel disease, but these drugs can induce a range of autoimmune diseases that also attack the central and peripheral nervous systems. Case histories and series report on the association between anti-TNF-alpha treatment and various disorders of peripheral nerve such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, Miller Fisher syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, multifocal motor neuropathy with conduction block, mononeuropathy multiplex, and axonal sensorimotor polyneuropathies. The proposed pathogeneses of TNF-alpha-associated neuropathies include both a T-cell and humoral immune attack against peripheral nerve myelin, vasculitis-induced nerve ischemia, and inhibition of signaling support for axons. Most neuropathies improve over a period of months by withdrawal of the TNF-alpha antagonist, with or without additional immune-modulating treatment. Preliminary observations suggest that TNF-alpha antagonists may be useful as an antigen-nonspecific treatment approach to immune-mediated neuropathies in patients with a poor response to, or intolerance of, standard therapies, but further studies are required. PMID:18041052

  4. The aporphine alkaloid boldine induces adiponectin expression and regulation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bangning; Cook, Carla; Santanam, Nalini

    2009-10-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by differentiated adipocytes. Clinical studies suggest a negative correlation between oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in patients with metabolic syndrome or cardiovascular disease. Natural compounds that can prevent oxidative stress mediated inhibition of adiponectin may be potentially therapeutic. Boldine, an aporphine alkaloid abundant in the medicinal plant Peumus boldus, is a powerful antioxidant. The current study demonstrates the effects of boldine on the expression of adiponectin and its regulators, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBPalpha) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma, in 3T3-L1 cells. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were exposed to either hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) (100 microM) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) (1 ng/mL) for 24 hours in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of boldine (5-100 microM). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that both the oxidants decreased the mRNA levels of adiponectin, PPARgamma, and C/EBPalpha to half of the control levels. Boldine, at all concentrations, counteracted the inhibitory effect of H(2)O(2) or TNFalpha and increased the expression of adiponectin and its regulators. The effect of boldine on adiponectin expression was biphasic, with the lower concentrations (5-25 microM) having a larger inductive effect compared to higher concentrations (50-100 microM). Boldine treatment alone in the absence of H(2)O(2) or TNFalpha was also able to induce adiponectin at the inductive phase of adipogenesis. Peroxisome proliferator response element-luciferase promoter transactivity analysis showed that boldine interacts with the PPAR response element and could potentially modulate PPAR responsive genes. Our results indicate that boldine is able to modulate the expression of adiponectin and its regulators in 3T3-L1 cells and has the potential to be beneficial in obesity-related cardiovascular disease. PMID:19857072

  5. Tumor necrosis factor alpha polymorphism in heart failure/cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Vadlamani, Lou; Iyengar, Srinivas

    2004-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-alpha) is a proinflammatory cytokine that is produced by activated macrophages. It has been shown to stimulate the release of endothelial cytokines and NO, increase vascular permeability, decrease contractility, and induce a prothrombotic state. The most studied TNF-a gene mutation in heart disease is a gamma to alpha substitution, which occurs when 308 nucleotides move upstream from the transcription initiation site in the TNF promoter and has been associated with elevated levels of TNF-alpha. The TNF1 allele (wild type) contains gamma at this site, while the TNF2 allele has an alpha substitution at the site. The TNF2 allele is a more powerful transcriptional activator, therefore leading to higher TNF-alpha levels. Most of the studies to date have failed to conclusively show any link between the polymorphism and heart disease, both coronary artery disease and cardiomyopathy/heart failure. PMID:15591843

  6. Dissecting Cellulitis of the Scalp Responding to Intravenous Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Antagonist.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe; Gemmeke, Astrid; Koch, André

    2012-04-01

    The authors present the case of a 30-year-old male patient with a severe and long-standing dissecting cellulitis of the scalp. The disease did not respond to conventional treatment, including oral antibiotics, isotretinoin, and prednisolone. Quality of life was significantly impaired. After introduction of anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha treatment (infliximab), the malodorous discharge stopped, inflammation was reduced significantly, nodules became flat, and pain decreased. The treatment was well tolerated although he developed a temporary psoriasiform rash after the second intravenous infusion. In conclusion, anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha treatment is a new therapeutic option in this severe and recalcitrant disorder. PMID:22708007

  7. Chitinase 3-Like 1 (Chil1) Regulates Survival and Macrophage-Mediated Interleukin-1β and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha during Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Marion, Chad R; Wang, Jianmiao; Sharma, Lokesh; Losier, Ashley; Lui, Wei; Andrews, Nathaniel; Elias, Jack A; Kazmierczak, Barbara I; Roy, Craig R; Dela Cruz, Charles S

    2016-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes hospital-acquired pneumonia and is associated with high mortality. An effective response to such an infection includes efficient clearance of pathogenic organisms while limiting collateral damage from the host inflammatory response, known as host resistance and host tolerance, respectively. P. aeruginosa expresses a type III secretion system (T3SS) needle complex that induces NLRC4 (NOD-like receptor C4) activation, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production, and host tissue damage. Chitinase 3-like-1 (Chil1) is expressed during infection and binds to its receptor, IL-13 receptor α2 (IL-13Rα2), to regulate the pathogen-host response during Streptococcus pneumoniae infection, but the role Chil1 plays in balancing the host resistance and host tolerance during P. aeruginosa pneumonia is not known. We conducted experiments using C57BL/6 mice with or without a genetic deficiency of Chil1 and demonstrated that Chil1-deficient mice succumb to P. aeruginosa infection more rapidly than the wild type (WT). The decreased survival time in infected Chil1-deficient mice is associated with more neutrophils recruited to the airways, more lung parenchymal damage, and increased pulmonary consolidation while maintaining equivalent bacterial killing compared to WT mice. Infected Chil1-deficient mice and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from Chil1-deficient mice have increased production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and IL-1β compared to infected WT mice and macrophages. Infection of Chil1-deficient BMDMs with non-NLRC4-triggering P. aeruginosa, which is deficient in the T3SS needle complex, did not alter the excessive IL-1β production compared to BMDMs from WT mice. The addition of recombinant Chil1 decreases the excessive IL-1β production but only partially rescues stimulated BMDMs from IL-13Rα2-deficient mice. Our data provide mechanistic insights into how Chil1 regulates P. aeruginosa-induced host responses. PMID:27141083

  8. Borage oil reduction of rheumatoid arthritis activity may be mediated by increased cAMP that suppresses tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Kast, R E

    2001-11-01

    Recent double blind studies have shown some benefit of borage oil in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha has been shown to be a central mediator of inflammatory and joint destructive processes in rheumatoid arthritis. In this paper, evidence from published research is reviewed that indicates gamma linolenic acid component of borage oil increases prostaglandin E levels that increase cAMP levels that in turn suppress tumor necrosis factor-alpha synthesis. If this biochemical path of borage oil is correct then (1) concomitant non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use would tend to undermine borage oil effects, and (2) borage oil would be contraindicated in pregnancy given the teratogenic and labor inducing effects of prostaglandin E agonists. PMID:11710548

  9. Salt induced gene expression in Prosopis farcta

    SciTech Connect

    Heimer, I.M.; Golan, A.; Lips, H.

    1987-04-01

    The authors hypothesize that in facultative halophytes, the genes which impart salt tolerance are expressed when the plants are exposed to salt. As a first step towards possible identification of these genes, they examined salt induced changes of gene expression in the facultative halophyte Prosopis farcta at the protein level, by SDS-PAGE. Exposure to salt of aseptically grown, two-week old seedlings, was carried out in one of two ways: (1) a one step transfer of seedlings from medium without salt to that with the indicated concentrations followed by 5 hr or 24 hr incubation periods. During the last 2 hrs of each incubation period the seedlings were pulse-labelled with /sup 35/S Sulfate or L-Methionine; (2) a gradual increase of the salt concentration at 50 mM increments at 2-4 day intervals. Two days after reaching the desired salt concentration, the seedlings were pulse-labelled for 2 hrs with /sup 35/S sulfate or L-methionine. Protein from roots were extracted and analyzed. Polypeptides were visualized by staining with coomassie blue or by fluorography. Qualitative as well as quantitative changes of gene expression as induced by salt could be observed. Their significance regarding salt tolerance will be discussed.

  10. Screening Bicyclic Peptide Libraries for Protein-Protein Interaction Inhibitors: Discovery of a Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Curran A.; Liu, Yusen; Pei, Dehua

    2013-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions represent a new class of exciting but challenging drug targets, because their large, flat binding sites lack well defined pockets for small molecules to bind. We report here a methodology for chemical synthesis and screening of large combinatorial libraries of bicyclic peptides displayed on rigid small-molecule scaffolds. With planar trimesic acid as the scaffold, the resulting bicyclic peptides are effective for binding to protein surfaces such as the interfaces of protein-protein interactions. Screening of a bicyclic peptide library against tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) identified a potent antagonist that inhibits the TNFα-TNFα receptor interaction and protects cells from TNFα-induced cell death. Bicyclic peptides of this type may provide a general solution for inhibition of protein-protein interactions. PMID:23865589

  11. Constitutive shedding of the amyloid precursor protein ectodomain is up-regulated by tumour necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Slack, B E; Ma, L K; Seah, C C

    2001-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) of Alzheimer's disease is a transmembrane protein that is cleaved within its extracellular domain, liberating a soluble N-terminal fragment (sAPP alpha). Putative mediators of this process include three members of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family, ADAM9, ADAM10 and ADAM17/TACE (tumour necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme). Tumour necrosis factor-alpha protease inhibitor (TAPI-1), an inhibitor of ADAMs, reduced constitutive and muscarinic receptor-stimulated sAPP alpha release in HEK-293 cells stably expressing M3 muscarinic receptors. However, the former was less sensitive to TAPI-1 (IC(50)=8.09 microM) than the latter (IC(50)=3.61 microM), suggesting that these processes may be mediated by different metalloproteases. Constitutive sAPP alpha release was increased several-fold in cells transiently transfected with TACE, and this increase was proportional to TACE expression. In contrast, muscarinic-receptor-activated sAPP alpha release was not altered in TACE transfectants. TACE-dependent constitutive release of co-transfected APP(695) was inhibited by TAPI-1 with an IC(50) of 0.92 microm, a value significantly lower than the IC(50)s for inhibition of either constitutive or receptor-regulated sAPP alpha shedding mediated by endogenous secretases. The results indicate that TACE is capable of catalysing constitutive alpha-secretory cleavage of APP, but it is likely that additional members of the ADAM family mediate endogenous constitutive and receptor-coupled release of sAPP alpha in HEK-293 cells. PMID:11463349

  12. TNF-{alpha} promotes human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression through activation of Akt/mTORC1 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Cheng-hu; Cao, Guo-Fan; Jiang, Qin; Yao, Jin

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} induces MMP-9 expression and secretion to promote RPE cell migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAPK activation is not critical for TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Akt and mTORC1 signaling mediate TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIN1 knockdown showed no significant effect on MMP-9 expression by TNF-{alpha}. -- Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) promotes in vitro retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration to initiate proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Here we report that TNF-{alpha} promotes human RPE cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression. Inhibition of MMP-9 by its inhibitor or its neutralizing antibody inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced in vitro RPE cell migration. Reversely, exogenously-added active MMP-9 promoted RPE cell migration. Suppression Akt/mTOR complex 1(mTORC1) activation by LY 294002 and rapamycin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-mediated MMP-9 expression. To introduce a constitutively active Akt (CA-Akt) in cultured RPE cells increased MMP-9 expression, and to block mTORC1 activation by rapamycin inhibited its effect. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of SIN1, a key component of mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), had no effect on MMP-9 expression or secretion. In conclusion, this study suggest that TNF-{alpha} promotes RPE cell migration by inducing MMP-9 expression through activation of Akt/ mTORC1, but not mTORC2 signaling.

  13. Suppressive effect of simvastatin on interferon-beta-induced expression of CC chemokine ligand 5 in microglia.

    PubMed

    Nakamichi, Kazuo; Saiki, Megumi; Kitani, Hiroshi; Kuboyama, Yuki; Morimoto, Kinjiro; Takayama-Ito, Mutsuyo; Kurane, Ichiro

    2006-10-30

    Despite the pivotal role of microglia in immune system of the brain, a growing body of evidence suggests that the excessive microglial activation provokes neuronal and glial damages, leading to neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory disorders. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, or statins, have recently received much attention for their suppressive effects on inflammation in the central nervous system. In the current study, we have examined the statin-mediated inhibition of microglial function, especially that of chemokine production. Stimulation of microglial cells with interferon-beta (IFN-beta) resulted in the expression of CC chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), a major chemoattractant of inflammatory cells. Microglial CCL5 response was synergistically potentiated by costimulation with IFN-beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). The simvastatin treatment significantly diminished the microglial CCL5 expression induced by IFN-beta alone or by IFN-beta/TNF-alpha combination. In the presence of simvastatin, the IFN-beta-induced activation of Janus kinase (Jak)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway was attenuated, although this compound had little or no effect on the TNF-alpha-evoked activation of nuclear factor kappaB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathways. In addition, chemical inhibitor of Jak-STAT signaling significantly diminished the IFN-beta-induced expression of CCL5 in microglia. Taken together, these results suggest that simvastatin suppresses the IFN-beta-induced expression of CCL5 via down-regulation of Jak-STAT signaling pathway. PMID:16978784

  14. Oral N-acetylcysteine reduces bleomycin-induced lung damage and mucin Muc5ac expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Mata, M; Ruíz, A; Cerdá, M; Martinez-Losa, M; Cortijo, J; Santangelo, F; Serrano-Mollar, A; Llombart-Bosch, A; Morcillo, E J

    2003-12-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, therefore antioxidants may be of therapeutic value. Clinical work indicates that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may be beneficial in this disease. The activity of this antioxidant was examined on bleomycin-induced lung damage, mucus secretory cells hyperplasia and mucin Muc5ac gene expression in rats. NAC (3 mmol x kg(-1) x day(-1)) or saline was given orally to Sprague-Dawley rats for 1 week prior to a single intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (2.5 U x kg(-1)) and for 14 days postinstillation. NAC decreased collagen deposition in bleomycin-exposed rats (hydroxyproline content was 4,257+/-323 and 3,200+/-192 microg x lung(-1) in vehicle- and NAC-treated rats, respectively) and lessened the fibrotic area assessed by morphometric analysis. The bleomycin-induced increases in lung tumour necrosis factor-alpha and myeloperoxidase activity were reduced by NAC treatment. The numbers of mucus secretory cells in airway epithelium, and the Muc5ac messenger ribonucleic acid and protein expression, were markedly augmented in rats exposed to bleomycin. These changes were significantly reduced in NAC-treated rats. These results indicate that bleomycin increases the number of airway secretory cells and their mucin production, and that oral N-acetylcysteine improved pulmonary lesions and reduced the mucus hypersecretion in the bleomycin rat model. PMID:14680076

  15. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1-infected T lymphocytes impair catabolism and uptake of glutamate by astrocytes via Tax-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed

    Szymocha, R; Akaoka, H; Dutuit, M; Malcus, C; Didier-Bazes, M; Belin, M F; Giraudon, P

    2000-07-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of a chronic progressive myelopathy called tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). In this disease, lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) are associated with perivascular infiltration by lymphocytes. We and others have hypothesized that these T lymphocytes infiltrating the CNS may play a prominent role in TSP/HAM. Here, we show that transient contact of human or rat astrocytes with T lymphocytes chronically infected by HTLV-1 impairs some of the major functions of brain astrocytes. Uptake of extracellular glutamate by astrocytes was significantly decreased after transient contact with infected T cells, while the expression of the glial transporters GLAST and GLT-1 was decreased. In two-compartment cultures avoiding direct cell-to-cell contact, similar results were obtained, suggesting possible involvement of soluble factors, such as cytokines and the viral protein Tax-1. Recombinant Tax-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) decreased glutamate uptake by astrocytes. Tax-1 probably acts by inducing TNF-alpha, as the effect of Tax-1 was abolished by anti-TNF-alpha antibody. The expression of glutamate-catabolizing enzymes in astrocytes was increased for glutamine synthetase and decreased for glutamate dehydrogenase, the magnitudes of these effects being correlated with the level of Tax-1 transcripts. In conclusion, Tax-1 and cytokines produced by HTLV-1-infected T cells impair the ability of astrocytes to manage the steady-state level of glutamate, which in turn may affect neuronal and oligodendrocytic functions and survival. PMID:10864655

  16. Gravity-Induced Gene Expression in Plants.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sederoff, Heike; Heber, Steffen; Howard, Brian; Myburg-Nichols, Henrietta; Hammond, Rebecca; Salinas-Mondragon, Raul; Brown, Christopher S.

    Plants sense changes in their orientation towards the vector of gravity and respond with directional growth. Several metabolites in the signal transduction cascade have been identified. However, very little is known about the interaction between these sensing and signal transduction events and even less is known about their role in the differential growth response. Gravity induced changes in transcript abundance have been identified in Arabidopsis whole seedlings and root apices (Moseyko et al. 2002; Kimbrough et al. 2004). Gravity induced transcript abundance changes can be observed within less than 1 min after stimulation (Salinas-Mondragon et al. 2005). Gene expression however requires not only transcription but also translation of the mRNA. Translation can only occur when mRNA is associated with ribosomes, even though not all mRNA associated with ribosomes is actively translated. To approximate translational capacity we quantified whole genome transcript abundances in corn stem pulvini during the first hour after gravity stimulation in total and poly-ribosomal fractions. As in Arabidopsis root apices, transcript abundances of several clusters of genes responded to gravity stimulation. The vast majority of these transcripts were also found to associate with polyribosomes in the same temporal and quantitative pattern. These genes are transcriptionally regulated by gravity stimulation, but do not exhibit translational regulation. However, a small group of genes showed increased transcriptional regulation after gravity stimulation, but no association with polysomes. These transcripts likely are translationally repressed. The mechanism of translational repression for these transcripts is unknown. Based on the hypothesis that the genes essential for gravitropic responses should be expressed in most or all species, we compared the temporal gravity induced expression pattern of all orthologs identified between maize and Arabidopsis. A small group of genes showed high

  17. Photodynamic therapy-induced cell surface expression and release of heat shock proteins: relevance for tumor response.

    PubMed

    Korbelik, Mladen; Sun, Jinghai; Cecic, Ivana

    2005-02-01

    Almost instantaneously after the treatment of mouse SCCVII tumor cells with Photofrin-based photodynamic therapy (PDT), a fraction (15-25%) of total cellular heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) became exposed at the cell surface. The level of this surface-expressed HSP70 then remained unchanged for the next 6 hours and persisted at lower levels even at 18 hours after PDT. A similar induction of surface HSP70 expression was found with PDT-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The same analysis for several other HSPs revealed the induced surface expression of HSP60 and GRP94, but not GRP78, on PDT-treated SCCVII cells. A fraction of total HSP70 existing in SCCVII cells at the time of PDT treatment was promptly (within 1 hour) released from cells after high treatment doses, whereas even lower PDT doses induced a substantial HSP70 release at later time intervals. Macrophages coincubated with PDT-treated SCCVII cells displayed elevated levels of both HSP70 and GRP94 on their surface and were stimulated to produce tumor necrosis factor alpha, whose production was inhibited by the presence of antibodies against either HSP70, Toll-like receptors 2 and 4, or specific NF-kappaB inhibitor in the coincubation medium. The induction of cell surface expression and release of HSPs by PDT may represent an important event in the response of tumors to this treatment modality with a critical role in the induced inflammatory and immune responses that contribute to the therapeutic outcome. PMID:15705903

  18. Gemella morbillorum Bacteremia after Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha as Acne Inversa Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Vossen, Matthias G.; Gattringer, Klaus B.; Khalifeh, Neda; Koreny, Maria; Spertini, Verena; Mallouhi, Ammar; Willeit, Markus; Volc-Platzer, Beatrix; Asboth, Friederike; Graninger, Wolfgang; Thalhammer, Florian

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of fever, brain abscesses, and Gemella morbillorum bacteremia after anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) therapy in a 21-year-old acne inversa patient currently taking long-term dapsone. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing such a case. During antimicrobial therapy, the patient developed systemic varicella infection with severe thrombocytopenia. PMID:22189120

  19. Effects of Puerariae Radix Extract on Endotoxin Receptors and TNF-α Expression Induced by Gut-Derived Endotoxin in Chronic Alcoholic Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jing-Hua; Cui, Tuan; Sun, Zhao-Lin; Huang, Fu; Chen, Liang; Xu, Lin; Feng, Qin; Hu, Yi-Yang

    2012-01-01

    Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) is one of the earliest medicinal plants used to treat alcohol abuse in traditional Chinese medicine for more than a millennium. However, little is known about its effects on chronic alcoholic liver injury. Therefore, the present study observed the effects of puerariae radix extract (RPE) on chronic alcoholic liver injury as well as Kupffer cells (KCs) activation to release tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) induced by gut-derived endotoxin in rats and macrophage cell line. RPE was observed to alleviate the pathological changes and lipids deposition in liver tissues as well as the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity. Meanwhile, RPE inhibited KCs activation and subsequent hepatic TNF-α expression and downregulated the protein expression of endotoxin receptors, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), CD14, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, and TLR4 in chronic alcohol intake rats. Furthermore, an in vitro study showed that RPE inhibited the expression of TNF-α and endotoxin receptors, CD14 and TLR4, induced by LPS in RAW264.7 cells. In summary, this study demonstrated that RPE mitigated liver damage and lipid deposition induced by chronic alcohol intake in rats, as well as TNF-α release, protein expression of endotoxin receptors in vivo or in vitro. PMID:23133491

  20. Short-term exposure to tumor necrosis factor-alpha enables human osteoblasts to direct adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells into osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lu, ZuFu; Wang, Guocheng; Dunstan, Colin R; Zreiqat, Hala

    2012-09-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is one major inflammatory factor peaking at 24 h after bone fracture in response to injury; its role in bone healing is controversial. The aims of this study were to investigate whether the duration of exposure to TNF-α is crucial for the initiation of bone regeneration and to determine its underlying mechanism(s). We demonstrated that 24 h of TNF-α treatment significantly abrogated osteocalcin gene expression by human primary osteoblasts (HOBs). However, when TNF-α was withdrawn after 24 h, bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin gene expression levels in HOBs at day 7 were significantly up-regulated compared with the HOBs without TNF-α treatment. In contrast, continuous TNF-α treatment down-regulated bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin gene expression. In addition, in an indirect co-culture system, HOBs pretreated with TNF-α for 24 h induced significantly greater osteogenic differentiation of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) than the HOBs without TNF-α treatment. TNF-α treatment also promoted endogenous bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) production in HOBs, while blocking the BMP-2 signaling pathway with Noggin inhibited osteogenic differentiation of ASCs in the co-culture system. Furthermore, activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway after TNF-α treatment occurred earlier than BMP-2 protein expression. BMP-2 production by HOBs and osteogenic differentiation of ASCs in the co-culture system with HOBs was significantly decreased when HOBs were pretreated with TNF-α in combination with the p38 MAPK-specific inhibitor (SB203580). Taken together, we provide evidence that exposure duration is a critical element in determining TNF-α's effects on bone regeneration. We also demonstrate that the p38 MAPK signaling pathway regulates the expression of BMP-2 in osteoblasts, which then acts through a paracrine loop, to direct the osteoblast lineage commitment of mesenchymal

  1. Protective role of 17-β-estradiol towards IL-6 leukocyte expression induced by intense training in young female athletes.

    PubMed

    Tringali, Cristina; Scala, Loredana; Silvestri, Ilaria; Vitale, Jacopo; Scurati, Raffaele; Michielon, Giovanni; Alberti, Giampietro; Venerando, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Exercise performed at a competitive level could deeply modify the immune system and the cytokine response of athletes. In this report, we demonstrated that young elite female artistic gymnasts (n = 16; age: 9-15 years) showed an increase of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) mRNA expression in blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), in comparison to girls performing the same sport at a recreational level (n = 16; age: 10-15 years). The increase of IL-6 and TNF-α mRNAs appeared to be directly linked to the intensity and duration of the training. Moreover, in elite athletes engaged in artistic gymnastics or in synchronised swimming (n =34; age: 9-15 years), IL-6 gene expression appeared to be modulated by the levels of circulating oestrogens: pre-pubertal athletes (n = 20; age: 11 ± 1 years) revealed a higher increase in IL-6 than pubertal athletes (n = 14; age: 14 ± 1.6 years). In pre-pubertal athletes, body mass index (BMI) percentile was inversely correlated with the increase of both IL-6 and TNF-α. The consequence of these events was the shift of the cytokine profile towards a pro-inflammatory status. These modifications, induced by training performed at an elite level, might negatively affect the growth of female children athletes. PMID:24016202

  2. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma synergistically activate the RANTES promoter through nuclear factor kappaB and interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Lee, A H; Hong, J H; Seo, Y S

    2000-08-15

    Inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) synergistically activate expression of the RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted) gene, which plays a crucial role in the chemoattraction of leukocytes during the inflammatory response. To understand at the molecular level the mechanism by which the two cytokines activate RANTES gene expression, we determined the requirement of cis-acting elements in the RANTES promoter and trans-acting factors. The murine RANTES promoter contained one putative interferon regulatory factor, IRF, and three putative nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) binding sites. Specific destruction of the IRF binding site and one of the three NF-kappaB binding sites abolished the inducibility of promoter activity by IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, respectively. In contrast, mutation of the other two putative NF-kappaB binding sites did not affect RANTES promoter activity significantly. In addition, the RANTES promoter was stimulated by co-transfection of plasmids that expressed either p65, an NF-kappaB family protein, or the IRF-1 transcription factor. RANTES promoters with mutations in the NF-kappaB or IRF binding sites were not stimulated by p65 or IRF-1 expression, respectively. In electrophoretic mobility-shift and immunologic assays, we showed that IRF-1 was induced after cells were treated with IFN-gamma and that NF-kappaB was activated by TNF-alpha treatment. These results demonstrate that both NF-kappaB and IRF-1 transcription factors mediate the induction of RANTES expression via their cognate cis-acting elements when cells are stimulated by TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. PMID:10926836

  3. Inhibition of the cytokine-mediated inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in rat insulinoma cells by phenyl N-tert-butylnitrone.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaie, T; Graham, K L; Vasquez, A M; Floyd, R A; Kotake, Y

    2000-04-01

    Cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). We have shown that the spin-trapping agent phenyl N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) protects against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced IDDM in mice. In order to gain more insights into the mechanism(s) of the protective action of PBN against IDDM, we have investigated the effect of this compound on the cytokine-induced NO generation (measured as nitrite) in rat insulinoma RIN-5F cells. Our results demonstrate that PBN cotreatment prevents the generation of nitrite by RIN-5F cells induced by treatment with tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 1beta, and interferon-gamma in a dose-dependent fashion. The generation of NO as a result of cytokine treatment and the inhibitory effect of PBN were further confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Aminoguanidine, a selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), abolished the cytokine-induced nitrite generation whereas N-nitro-l-arginine, an inhibitor more selective for other NOS isoforms, was significantly less effective. Western and Northern analyses demonstrated that PBN inhibits the cytokine-mediated expression of iNOS at the transcriptional level. Cytokine-induced nitrite formation was also inhibited by the two antioxidant agents alpha-lipoic acid and N-acetylcysteine. These results indicate that PBN protects against IDDM at least in part by prevention of cytokine-induced NO generation by pancreatic beta-cells. PMID:10835296

  4. The increased gastroprotective effect of pioglitazone in cholestatic rats: role of nitric oxide and tumour necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed

    Moezi, Leila; Janahmadi, Zeinab; Amirghofran, Zahra; Nekooeian, Ali Akbar; Dehpour, Ahmad R

    2014-02-01

    The prevalence of gastric ulcers is high in cholestatic patients, but the exact mechanism of this increased frequency remains uncertain. It has been shown that pioglitazone accelerates the healing of pre-existing gastric ulcers. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of pioglitazone, on the gastric mucosal lesions in cholestatic rats. Cholestasis was induced by surgical ligation of common bile duct and sham-operated rats served as control. Different groups of sham and cholestatic animals received solvent or pioglitazone (5, 15, 30 mg/kg) for 7 days. On the day eight rats were killed after oral ethanol administration and the area of gastric lesions was measured. The serums of rats were also collected to determine serum levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-1β and bilirubin. The ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage was significantly more severe in cholestatic rats than sham-operated ones. Pretreatment with pioglitazone dose-dependently attenuated gastric lesions induced by ethanol in both sham and cholestatic rats, but this effect was more prominent in cholestatic ones. The effect of pioglitazone was associated with a significant fall in serum levels of TNF-α in cholestatic rats. L-NAME, a non-selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, and decreased pioglitazone-induced gastroprotective effect in cholestatic rats, while aminoguanidine, a selective inducible NOS inhibitor, potentiated pioglitazone-induced gastroprotective effect in the cholestatic rats. Chronic treatment with pioglitazone exerts an enhanced gastroprotective effect on the stomach ulcers of cholestatic rats compared to sham rats probably due to constitutive NOS induction and/or inducible NOS inhibition and attenuating release of TNF-α. PMID:24456333

  5. Production of tumor necrosis factors alpha and beta by human mononuclear leukocytes stimulated with mitogens, bacteria, and malarial parasites.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrante, A; Staugas, R E; Rowan-Kelly, B; Bresatz, S; Kumaratilake, L M; Rzepczyk, C M; Adolf, G R

    1990-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factors alpha and beta (TNF-alpha and TNF-beta) are multifaceted polypeptide cytokines which may mediate some of the significant changes in cellular homeostasis which accompany the invasion of the mammalian host by viruses, bacteria, and parasites. Although it is well established that bacterial lipopolysaccharide is a potent inducer of TNF-alpha, there is still very little known of the types of agents which can trigger the production of TNFs in mononuclear leukocytes. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measuring TNF-alpha and TNF-beta, we examined the capacity of various T-lymphocyte and beta-lymphocyte mitogens as well as microbial components to stimulate production of these cytokines in culture. The mitogens phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and pokeweed mitogen induced production of both TNF-alpha and TNF-beta, while whole-killed Staphylococcus aureus and Bordetella pertussis, like lipopolysaccharide, were potent inducers of TNF-alpha but failed to stimulate TNF-beta production. TNF-alpha production was detectable within 1 h after stimulation, while TNF-beta production was not detected until after 8 h of culture. The bacterial products tetanus toxoid, purified protein derivative, pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin, and pertussis toxin were all able to induce TNF-alpha and TNF-beta production. Disrupted (frozen-thawed) Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes were also potent inducers of TNF-alpha and TNF-beta. The results demonstrated that a wide variety of microbial components are inducers of TNF-alpha. Some may not only be more effective than lipopolysaccharide but can also induce TNF-beta production. Furthermore, evidence is presented showing that TNF-beta but not TNF-alpha production correlates with lymphoproliferation. PMID:2254024

  6. Implication of TNF-alpha convertase (TACE/ADAM17) in inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and inflammation in an experimental model of colitis.

    PubMed

    Colón, A L; Menchén, L A; Hurtado, O; De Cristóbal, J; Lizasoain, I; Leza, J C; Lorenzo, P; Moro, M A

    2001-12-21

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine which is shed in its soluble form by a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) called TNF-alpha convertase (TACE; ADAM17). TNF-alpha plays a role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and is involved in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) which has also been implicated in IBD. The study was designed to investigate whether colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) in rats produces an increase in TACE activity and/or expression and whether its pharmacological inhibition reduces TNF-alpha levels, iNOS expression and colonic damage in this model. TNBS (30 mg in 0.4 ml of 50% ethanol) was instilled into the colon of female Wistar rats. Saline or TACE inhibitor BB1101 (10 mg/kg/day) was administered intraperitoneally 5 days after TNBS instillation. On day 10, colons were removed and assessed for pathological score, myeloperoxidase (MPO), NO synthase (NOS), TACE enzymatic activity and protein levels, colonic TNF-alpha and NOx- levels. Instillation of TNBS caused an increase in TACE activity and expression and the release of TNF-alpha. TNBS also resulted in iNOS expression and colonic damage. BB1101 blocked TNBS-induced increase in TACE activity, TNF-alpha release and iNOS expression. Concomitantly, BB1101 ameliorated TNBS-induced colonic damage and inflammation. TNBS causes TNF-alpha release by an increase in TACE activity and expression and this results in the expression of iNOS and subsequent inflammation, suggesting that TACE inhibition may prove useful as a therapeutic means in IBD. PMID:11884025

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Denis, F; Archambault, D

    2001-01-01

    Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are cytokines produced primarily by monocytes and macrophages with regulatory effects in inflammation and multiple aspects of the immune response. As yet, no molecular data have been reported for IL-1beta and TNF-alpha of the beluga whale. In this study, we cloned and determined the entire cDNA sequence encoding beluga whale IL-1beta and TNF-alpha. The genetic relationship of the cytokine sequences was then analyzed with those from several mammalian species, including the human and the pig. The homology of beluga whale IL-1beta nucleic acid and deduced amino acid sequences with those from these mammalian species ranged from 74.6 to 86.0% and 62.7 to 77.1%, respectively, whereas that of TNF-alpha varied from 79.3 to 90.8% and 75.3 to 87.7%, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses based on deduced amino acid sequences showed that the beluga whale IL-1beta and TNF-alpha were most closely related to those of the ruminant species (cattle, sheep, and deer). The beluga whale IL-1beta- and TNF-alpha-encoding sequences were thereafter successfully expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins by using procaryotic expression vectors. The fusion proteins were used to produce beluga whale IL-1beta- and TNF-alpha-specific rabbit antisera. Images Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:11768130

  8. Synthetic riboswitches that induce gene expression in diverse bacterial species.

    PubMed

    Topp, Shana; Reynoso, Colleen M K; Seeliger, Jessica C; Goldlust, Ian S; Desai, Shawn K; Murat, Dorothée; Shen, Aimee; Puri, Aaron W; Komeili, Arash; Bertozzi, Carolyn R; Scott, June R; Gallivan, Justin P

    2010-12-01

    We developed a series of ligand-inducible riboswitches that control gene expression in diverse species of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including human pathogens that have few or no previously reported inducible expression systems. We anticipate that these riboswitches will be useful tools for genetic studies in a wide range of bacteria. PMID:20935124

  9. Alpha-quartz-induced chemokine expression by rat lung epithelial cells: effects of in vivo and in vitro particle exposure.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, K E; Howard, B W; Carter, J M; Asquith, T; Johnston, C; Detilleux, P; Kunkel, S L; Isfort, R J

    1996-11-01

    Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines that can play a key role in leukocyte recruitment to sites of tissue injury or infection. Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to alpha-quartz as well as other noxious particles increases chemokine gene expression in rat lung, although the cells responsible for chemokine expression and the mechanisms underlying this response have remained unclear. The present studies demonstrate that exposure of rats to alpha-quartz induced expression of mRNA for the chemokine macrophage-inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 in epithelial cells lining the terminal bronchioles and alveolar ducts as well as macrophages and alveolar type II cells in the more distal lung. Treatment of rats with an anti-MIP-2 antiserum before alpha-quartz exposure markedly attenuated neutrophilic infiltration of the lungs demonstrating an important role for MIP-2 in alpha-quartz-induced pulmonary inflammation. In vitro exposure of primary cultures of rat alveolar type II cells or the rat alveolar type II cell line RLE-6TN to tumor necrosis factor-alpha, endotoxin, or alpha-quartz increased mRNA for MIP-2 as well as the structurally and functionally similar chemokine cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant but not the chemokine MIP-1 alpha. The alpha-quartz-induced increase in epithelial MIP-2 mRNA resulted, at least in part, from increased gene transcription and was associated with the release of active MIP-2 protein. Induction of RLE-6TN MIP-2 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant mRNA expression was not unique to alpha-quartz, being also increased by crocidolite asbestus fibers but not by titanium dioxide or MMVF-10 glass fibers. These findings indicate that epithelial cells contribute to chemokine expression in rat lung after exposure to alpha-quartz and potentially other noxious particles and suggest that alpha-quartz-activated MIP-2 expression in vivo results, at least in part, from a direct action of the particles on the lung epithelium. PMID

  10. Spontaneous and stimulated release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) from blood monocytes of miners with coal workers' pneumoconiosis.

    PubMed

    Borm, P J; Palmen, N; Engelen, J J; Buurman, W A

    1988-12-01

    It is generally accepted that fibrotic lung diseases are mediated by macrophage-derived cytokines. We investigated the release of the monokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) from blood monocytes in a group of 66 coal miners and 12 non-dust-exposed individuals. Twenty-seven miners had simple Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis (CWP). Control miners (n = 39) were matched with respect to age, years underground, and smoking. Monocytes were assayed for TNF release, spontaneously or in response to soluble (endotoxin) or particulate (coal mine dust, silica) stimulation. TNF was measured with a TNF-specific ELISA. Monocytes of all subjects responded to stimulants by the release of TNF. Dust-exposed controls' monocytes revealed higher TNF release as compared to normal controls. The greatest discriminator between control miners and cases (CWP) was coal mine dust-induced TNF release. Interestingly, the largest difference was observed between controls and those cases with a small number of opacities (0/1, 1/0, 1/1, and 1/2), giving an odds ratio of 6.3 to find an individual with a "high" dust-induced TNF release in the patient group. PMID:2849351

  11. Benzoic Acid-Inducible Gene Expression in Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dragset, Marte S.; Barczak, Amy K.; Kannan, Nisha; Mærk, Mali; Flo, Trude H.; Valla, Svein; Rubin, Eric J.; Steigedal, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Conditional expression is a powerful tool to investigate the role of bacterial genes. Here, we adapt the Pseudomonas putida-derived positively regulated XylS/Pm expression system to control inducible gene expression in Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of human tuberculosis. By making simple changes to a Gram-negative broad-host-range XylS/Pm-regulated gene expression vector, we prove that it is possible to adapt this well-studied expression system to non-Gram-negative species. With the benzoic acid-derived inducer m-toluate, we achieve a robust, time- and dose-dependent reversible induction of Pm-mediated expression in mycobacteria, with low background expression levels. XylS/Pm is thus an important addition to existing mycobacterial expression tools, especially when low basal expression is of particular importance. PMID:26348349

  12. A novel sesquiterpenoid dimer parviflorene F induces apoptosis by up-regulating the expression of TRAIL-R2 and a caspase-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Takashi; Tamaki, Mayu; Toume, Kazuhumi; Ishibashi, Masami

    2008-02-15

    Parviflorene F (1), a novel sesquiterpenoid dimer isolated from Curcuma parviflora Wall, is a cytotoxic compound. In this study, we examined the mechanism of its cytotoxic effect in HeLa cells. Treatment with 1 enhanced the mRNA and protein expression of TRAIL-R2 (tumor necrosis factor alpha-related apoptosis inducing ligand receptor 2). Apoptosis was induced by 1 as revealed by the distribution of DNA and Annexin V/PI staining using flow cytometry. In addition, 1-induced apoptosis was inhibited by human recombinant TRAIL-R2/Fc chimera protein, TRAIL-neutralizing fusion protein. Also, we found that 1 induced the activation of caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3, indicating that the cytotoxic effect of 1 is correlated with apoptosis by a caspase-dependent mechanism through TRAIL-R2. In addition, 1 enhanced TRAIL-induced cell death against HeLa and TRAIL-resistant DLD1 cells. Taken together, up-regulation of TRAIL-R2 by 1 may contribute to sensitization of TRAIL-induced cell death. PMID:18036820

  13. Transgenic cyclooxygenase-2 expression and high salt enhanced susceptibility to chemical-induced gastric cancer development in mice.

    PubMed

    Leung, Wai K; Wu, Kai-chun; Wong, Christine Y P; Cheng, Alfred S L; Ching, Arthur K K; Chan, Anthony W H; Chong, Wilson W S; Go, Minnie Y Y; Yu, Jun; To, Ka-Fai; Wang, Xin; Chui, Y L; Fan, D M; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2008-08-01

    Cyclooxoygenase (COX)-2 overexpression is involved in gastric carcinogenesis. While high-salt intake is a known risk factor for gastric cancer development, we determined the effects of high salt on gastric chemical carcinogenesis in COX-2 transgenic (TG) mice. COX-2 TG mice were developed in C57/BL6 strain using the full-length human cox-2 complementary DNA construct. Six-week-old COX-2 TG and wild-type (WT) littermates were randomly allocated to receive alternate week of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU, 240 p.p.m.) in drinking water or control for 10 weeks. Two groups of mice were further treated with 10% NaCl during the initial 10 weeks. All mice were killed at the end of week 50. Both forced COX-2 overexpression and high-salt intake significantly increased the frequency of gastric cancer development in mice as compared with WT littermates treated with MNU alone. However, no additive effect was observed on the combination of high salt and COX-2 expression. We further showed that MNU and high-salt treatment increased chronic inflammatory infiltrates and induced prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production in the non-cancerous stomach. Whereas high-salt treatment markedly increased the expression of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, interleukin (IL)-1 beta and IL-6) in the gastric mucosa, COX-2 overexpression significantly altered the cell kinetics in the MNU-induced gastric cancer model. In conclusion, both high salt and COX-2 overexpression promote chemical-induced gastric carcinogenesis, possibly related to chronic inflammation, induction of PGE(2), disruption of cell kinetics and induction of inflammatory cytokines. PMID:18611916

  14. A tumour necrosis factor alpha polymorphism is not associated with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, A G; de Vries, N; van de Putte, L B; Duff, G W

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether a polymorphism within the tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) gene is associated with susceptibility to, or severity of, rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS--Consecutive patients with recent onset RA were enrolled in a prospective trial. DNA was collected, disease activity was measured at presentation, and radiographic progression at three years was assessed. Typing of TNF alpha was by polymerase chain reaction and single stranded conformation polymorphism analysis. RESULTS--No association of TNF alpha alleles and susceptibility to, or severity of, RA was demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS--These results indicate that this TNF alpha polymorphism does not play a part in the genetic background of RA. PMID:7668906

  15. Effects of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on macrophage enzyme levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierangeli, Silvia S.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1989-01-01

    Murine peritoneal macrophages were treated with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). Measurements of changes in acid phosphatase and beta-glucuronidase levels were made as an indication of activation by cytokine treatment. IFN-gamma or TNF-gamma treatment resulted in a significant increase in the activities of both enzymes measured in the cell lysates. This increase was observable after 6 h of incubation, but reached its maximum level after 24 h of incubation. The effect of the treatment of the cell with both cytokines together was additive. No synergistic effect of addition of both cytokines on the enzyme levels was observed.

  16. Multiple roles of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in fracture healing.

    PubMed

    Karnes, Jonathan M; Daffner, Scott D; Watkins, Colleen M

    2015-09-01

    This review presents a summary of basic science evidence examining the influence of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) on secondary fracture healing. Multiple studies suggest that TNF-α, in combination with the host reservoir of peri-fracture mesenchymal stem cells, is a main determinant in the success of bone healing. Disease states associated with poor bone healing commonly have inappropriate TNF-α responses, which likely contributes to the higher incidence of delayed and nonunions in these patient populations. Appreciation of TNF-α in fracture healing may lead to new therapies to augment recovery and reduce the incidence of complications. PMID:25959413

  17. Transient exposure of human myoblasts to tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits serum and insulin-like growth factor-I stimulated protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Frost, R A; Lang, C H; Gelato, M C

    1997-10-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) induces cachexia and is postulated to be responsible for muscle wasting in several pathophysiological conditions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether exposure of human myoblasts to TNF-alpha could directly inhibit the ability of serum or insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) to stimulate protein synthesis as assessed by the incorporation of [3H]phenylalanine into protein. Serum and IGF-I stimulated protein synthesis dose dependently. Half-maximal stimulation of protein synthesis occurred at 05% serum and 8 ng/ml of IGF-I, respectively. TNF-alpha inhibited IGF-I-stimulated protein synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, as little as 2 ng/ml of TNF-alpha impaired the ability of IGF-I to stimulate protein synthesis by 33% and, at a dose of 100 ng/ml, TNF-alpha completely prevented the increase in protein synthesis induced by either serum or a maximally stimulating dose of IGF-I. Inhibition of protein synthesis was independent of whether TNF-alpha and growth factors were added to cells simultaneously or if the cells were pretreated with growth factors. Exposure ofmyoblasts to TNF-alpha for 10 min completely inhibited serum-induced stimulation of protein synthesis. TNF-alpha inhibited protein synthesis up to 48 h after addition of the cytokine. TNF-alpha also inhibited serum-stimulated protein synthesis in human myoblasts that were differentiated into myotubes. In contrast, exposure of myoblasts to TNF-alpha had no effect on IGF-I binding and failed to alter the ability of either IGF-I or serum to stimulate [3H]thymidine uptake. These data indicate that transient exposure of myoblasts or myotubes to TNF-alpha inhibits protein synthesis. Thus, the anabolic actions of IGF-I on muscle protein synthesis may be impaired during catabolic conditions in which TNF-alpha is over expressed. PMID:9322924

  18. A cytotoxic nonstructural protein, NS1, of human parvovirus B19 induces activation of interleukin-6 gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Moffatt, S; Tanaka, N; Tada, K; Nose, M; Nakamura, M; Muraoka, O; Hirano, T; Sugamura, K

    1996-01-01

    We examined the biological function of a nonstructural regulatory protein, NS1, of human parvovirus B19. Because of the cytotoxic activity of NS1, human hematopoietic cell lines, K562, Raji, and THP-1, were established as transfectants which produce the viral NS1 protein upon induction by using bacterial lactose repressor/operator system. NS1 was significantly produced in the three transfectant cells in an inducer dose- and time-dependent manner. Surprisingly, these three transfectants secreted an inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), in response to induction. However, no production of other related cytokines, IL-1beta, IL-8, or tumor necrosis factor alpha, was seen. Moreover, NS1-primed IL-6 induction was transiently demonstrated in primary human endothelial cells. Analysis with luciferase reporter plasmids carrying IL-6 promoter mutant fragments demonstrated that NS1 effect is mediated by a NF-kappaB binding site in the IL-6 promoter region, strongly implying that NS1 functions as a trans-acting transcriptional activator on the IL-6 promoter. Our novel finding, IL-6 induction by NS1, supports the possible relationship between parvovirus B19 infection and polyclonal activation of B cells in rheumatoid arthritis and indicates that NS1 protein may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of some B19-associated diseases by modulating the expression of host cellular genes. PMID:8970971

  19. Brain cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression in mice induced by intranasal instillation with ultrafine carbon black.

    PubMed

    Tin-Tin-Win-Shwe; Yamamoto, Shoji; Ahmed, Sohel; Kakeyama, Masaki; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Fujimaki, Hidekazu

    2006-05-25

    Ambient air ultrafine particles (UFPs) have gained enormous attention to many researchers with recent evidence showing them to have more hazardous effects on human health than larger ambient particles. Studies focusing the possibility of effects on brain are quite limited. To examine the effect of ultrafine carbon black (ufCB) on mice brain, we instilled 125 microg of 14 nm or 95 nm CB into the nostrils of 8-week-old male BALB/c mice, once a week for 4 weeks. Four hours after the last instillation, we collected olfactory bulb and hippocampus and detected the expression of cytokine and chemokine mRNA by quantitative real-time PCR method. In this study, we found the induction of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/CCL2, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha/CCL3), and monokine induced interferon-gamma/CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL9) mRNA in brain olfactory bulb, not in the hippocampus of mice instilled with 14 nm ufCB intranasally. We suggest that the intranasal instillation of ufCB may influence the brain immune function depending on their size. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate region-specific brain cytokine and chemokine mRNA-induction in mice triggered by intranasal instillation of specific-sized ufCB, in a physiologically relevant condition. PMID:16293374

  20. Activity of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in cultured rabbit corneal epithelium cells stimulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z-Q; Zhang, Z-L; Nie, S-W; Yuan, J; Yang, Y-N

    2015-01-01

    We studied the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9 generated by cultured rabbit corneal epithelium cells that had been stimulated with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), to investigate the possible regulative mechanisms of MMP-2/9 and their potential effect on corneal inflammatory diseases. The rabbit corneal epithelium cells were cultured in vitro and incubated with different concentrations of TNF-α (0, 1, 10, and 100 ng/mL) for 24 h. The activity of MMP-2/9 was examined using gelatin zymography. The results were analyzed by computer image analysis and statistical tests. TNF-α stimulated the secretion of MMP-2/9 in a dose-dependent manner, and MMP-2 was activated by TNF-α. Inflammatory factors such as TNF-α can stimulate MMP-2/9 activity in corneal epithelium cells. This may be a potential manipulating mechanism of MMP expression in the pathogenesis of corneal diseases, and could play an important role in the prevention and treatment of corneal inflammatory diseases. PMID:26125840

  1. UVB radiation suppresses the TNF-alpha-induced expression of E-selectin and ICAM-1 on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yamawaki, M; Futamura, S; Horio, T

    1996-10-01

    Endothelial cells, which are involved in the development of inflammatory and immune responses, can express various kinds of cell adhesion molecules (CAM) including E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecules-I (ICAM-I). These cell adhesion molecules and their ligands on leukocytes play an essential role in the control of extravasation of inflammatory cells. Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation can reach the upper dermis and modulate CAM expressions on vascular endothelial cells (EC). We examined the direct effect of UVB on E-selectin and ICAM-I expression on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and also examined its effect on these cells induced by tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), which is a potent CAM-inducer and is released by UVB radiation on the skin. Various doses of UVB were exposed to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and these expressions were examined by flow cytometric analysis using FACScan; 5, 10 and 25 mJ/cm2 UVB induced neither E-selectin nor ICAM-I expression. Irradiation of HUVEC with UVB 30 min after treatment with TNF-alpha inhibited these expressions. Although the inhibition of E-selectin was observed until 12 h in a dose-dependent manner, ICAM-I expression was almost completely inhibited, even at 5 mJ/cm2 UVB. UVB irradiation before TNF-alpha stimulation showed similar effects to those obtained post-irradiation. This study has demonstrated that UVB can directly down-regulate EC functions, and the results may have implications in action mechanisms of UVB therapy. PMID:8902648

  2. Risk of open angle glaucoma due to tumor necrosis factor alpha gene polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Mona Abdel; Moemen, Leqaa; Labib, Hany; Helmy, Hazem; Elsergany, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Axonal degeneration and retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in glaucoma is associated with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), which is an important pro-inflammatory cytokine. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the risk of open angle glaucoma (OAG) in the Egyptian population and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) gene polymorphisms. Methods Sixty OAG patients and 26 healthy unrelated controls were used to analyze TNF-α polymorphism G-308A using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results the GG genotype was found at a higher frequency in the controls than in the patients, and the AA and GA genotypes were associated strongly with OAG. Conclusion In this study, we found that the TNF-α polymorphism G-308A was associated significantly with OAG in the Egyptian population. However, there is a need for population-based studies with large numbers of subjects. Also, long-term follow up is required to verify the association between TNF-α polymorphism G-308A and glaucoma susceptibility. PMID:27054008

  3. Interleukin-10 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha serum levels in chronic Chagas disease patients.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, R H T; Azevedo, E de A N; Diniz, G T N; Cavalcanti, M da G A de M; de Oliveira, W; de Morais, C N L; Gomes, Y de M

    2015-07-01

    In Chagas disease, chronically infected individuals may be asymptomatic or may present cardiac or digestive complications, and it is well known that the human immune response is related to different clinical manifestations. Different patterns of cytokine levels have been previously described in different clinical forms of this disease, but contradictory results are reported. Our aim was to evaluate the serum levels of interleukin-10 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in patients with asymptomatic and cardiac Chagas disease. The serum interleukin-10 levels in patients with cardiomyopathy were higher than those in asymptomatic patients, mainly in those without heart enlargement. Although no significant difference was observed in serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels among the patients, we found that cardiac patients also present high levels of this cytokine, largely those with heart dilatation. Therefore, these cytokines play an important role in chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy. Follow-up investigations of these and other cytokines in patients with chronic Chagas disease need to be conducted to improve the understanding of the immunopathology of this disease. PMID:25728555

  4. Transforming growth factor alpha treatment alters intracellular calcium levels in hair cells and protects them from ototoxic damage in vitro.

    PubMed

    Staecker, H; Dazert, S; Malgrange, B; Lefebvre, P P; Ryan, A F; Van de Water, T R

    1997-07-01

    To determine if transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) pretreatment protects hair cells from aminoglycoside induced injury by modifying their intracellular calcium concentration, we assayed hair cell calcium levels in organ of Corti explants both before and after aminoglycoside (i.e. neomycin, 10(-3) M) exposure either with or without growth factor pretreatment. After TGF alpha (500 ng/ml) treatment, the intracellular calcium level of hair cells showed a five-fold increase as compared to the levels observed in the hair cells of control cultures. After ototoxin exposure, calcium levels in hair cells of control explants showed an increase relative to their baseline levels, while in the presence of growth factors pretreatment, hair cells showed a relative reduction in calcium levels. Pretreatment of organ of Corti explants afforded significant protection of hair cell stereocilia bundle morphology from ototoxic damage when compared to explants exposed to ototoxin alone. This study correlates a rise in hair cell calcium levels with the otoprotection of hair cells by TGF alpha in organ of Corti explants. PMID:9263032

  5. Transforming growth factor alpha may be a physiological regulator of liver regeneration by means of an autocrine mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Mead, J E; Fausto, N

    1989-01-01

    We investigated whether transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) is involved in hepatocyte growth responses both in vivo and in culture. During liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in rats, TGF-alpha mRNA increased; it reached a maximum (approximately 9-fold higher than normal) at the peak of DNA synthesis. The message and the peptide were localized in hepatocytes and found in higher amounts in hepatocytes obtained from regenerating liver. TGF-alpha caused a 13-fold elevation of DNA synthesis in hepatocytes in primary culture and was slightly more effective than epidermal growth factor. TGF-beta blocked TGF-alpha stimulation when added either simultaneously with TGF-alpha or a day later. TGF-alpha message increased in hepatocytes stimulated to undergo DNA synthesis by TGF-alpha or epidermal growth factor, and the peptide was detected in the culture medium by RIA. In the regenerating liver, the increase in TGF-alpha mRNA during the first day after partial hepatectomy coincided with an increase in epidermal growth factor/TGF-alpha receptor mRNA and a decrease (already reported) in the number of these receptors. We conclude that TGF-alpha may function as a physiological inducer of hepatocyte DNA synthesis during liver regeneration by means of an autocrine mechanism and that its stimulatory effects in this growth process are balanced by the inhibitory action of TGF-beta 1. Images PMID:2922399

  6. Molecular design of hybrid tumour necrosis factor alpha with polyethylene glycol increases its anti-tumour potency.

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumi, Y.; Kihira, T.; Tsunoda, S.; Kanamori, T.; Nakagawa, S.; Mayumi, T.

    1995-01-01

    This study was conducted to increase the anti-tumour potency and reduce the toxic side-effects of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Natural human TNF-alpha was chemically conjugated with monomethoxy polyethylene glycol (PEG) using succinimidyl coupling of lysine amino groups of TNF-alpha. The number-average molecular weight of PEG-modified TNF-alpha (PEG-TNF-alpha) increased with an increase in the reaction time and the initial molar ratio of PEG relative to TNF-alpha. The resulting modified TNF-alpha was separated into fractions of various molecular weights. The specific activity of separated PEG-TNF-alpha s relative to that of native TNF-alpha gradually decreased with an increase in the degree of PEG modification, but the plasma half-life was drastically increased with the increase in molecular weight of modified TNF-alpha. PEG-TNF-alpha s, in which 29% and 56% of lysine residues were coupled to PEG, had anti-tumour activity approximately 4 and 100 times greater than unmodified TNF-alpha in the murine Meth-A fibrosarcoma model. Extensive PEG modification did not increase its in vivo activity. A high dose of unmodified TNF-alpha induced toxic side-effects, but these were not observed with the modified TNF-alpha s. Optimal PEG modification of TNF-alpha markedly increased its bioavailability and may facilitate its potential anti-tumour therapeutic use. PMID:7734321

  7. Combined effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha and radiation in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma grown as radia spheroids.

    PubMed

    Van Moorselaar, R J; Schwachöfer, J H; Crooijmans, R P; Van Stratum, P; Debruyne, F M; Schalken, J A

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the antiproliferative effects of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF) and radiation on a recently described rat renal cell tumor line grown as multicellular tumor spheroids (MTS). Treatment commenced when the spheroids had reached a diameter of 250 microns. TNF was diluted in the tissue culture medium in different concentrations, ranging from 250-1000 ng/ml. TNF monotherapy had a dose-dependent inhibiting effect on spheroid growth. Single-dose irradiation with 2, 4 or 6 Gy also retarded spheroids significantly in their growth. In the combination treatment the highest dose of TNF (1000 ng/ml) was added 4 hours prior to radiation. TNF could not induce a potentiation of the radiation injury at 2 Gy. The combination with 4 Gy, however, had additive and the combination with 6 Gy synergistic antiproliferative effects; in these treatment regimens respectively 2 and 5 out of 24 spheroids were controlled, i.e. cured. These experiments suggest that TNF in combination with radiotherapy may be beneficial for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma or cancer in general. PMID:2285257

  8. Beta-1,2-linked oligomannosides from Candida albicans act as signals for tumor necrosis factor alpha production.

    PubMed Central

    Jouault, T; Lepage, G; Bernigaud, A; Trinel, P A; Fradin, C; Wieruszeski, J M; Strecker, G; Poulain, D

    1995-01-01

    Different cell wall components from Candida albicans have been shown to stimulate murine macrophages for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion. All of these molecules contain beta-1,2-oligomannosides. In order to examine their role in TNF-alpha production, acid-labile oligosaccharides, released from C. albicans VW32 cell wall phosphopeptidomannan by mild acid hydrolysis, and previously shown to correspond to homopolymers of beta-1,2-linked mannopyranosyl units, were separated by gel filtration chromatography according to their degree of polymerization. Murine macrophages incubated with purified oligomannosides (M2 to M8) released TNF-alpha to an extent which was dependent on, although not directly correlated with, the length of the mannosyl chain. Slight activity was observed with M4 and M5; M6 and M7 had virtually no effect, whereas M8 was associated with strong TNF-alpha release. This effect of M8 was dose dependent and was not altered by polymyxin B, known to interfere with lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha production. These results suggest that stimulation of TNF-alpha release by C. albicans glycoconjugates containing beta-1,2-linked oligomannosides may be due, at least in part, to the presence of these components. PMID:7768626

  9. beta-Lapachone reduces endotoxin-induced macrophage activation and lung edema and mortality.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Huei-Ping; Ho, Feng-Ming; Chao, Kuo-Fang; Kuo, Min-Liang; Lin-Shiau, Shoei-Yn; Liu, Shing-Hwa

    2003-07-01

    beta-Lapachone, a 1,2-naphthoquinone, is a novel chemotherapeutic agent. It has been shown to be capable of suppressing inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and function in rat alveolar macrophages. The authors further performed experiments to examine the molecular mechanism of beta-lapachone on LPS-induced responses in rat alveolar macrophages and to evaluate its in vivo antiinflammatory effect. A significant increase in nitrite production and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression was elicited in macrophages treated with LPS that was inhibited by coincubation with beta-lapachone. beta-Lapachone could also inhibit the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced by LPS. LPS induces protein tyrosine phosphorylation and nuclear factor-kappaB binding activity by gel mobility shift assay in macrophages. These events were significantly inhibited by beta-lapachone. Furthermore, beta-lapachone in vivo protected against the induction of lung edema, lung-inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression and nuclear factor-kappaB activation, lethality, and increased plasma nitrite and serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels induced by LPS. These results indicate that beta-lapachone suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase induction and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production mediated by the inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphorylation and nuclear factor-kappaB activation caused by LPS. This results in a beneficial effect in an animal model of sepsis. PMID:12724123

  10. Induction of neutrophil respiratory burst by tumour necrosis factor-alpha; priming effect of solid-phase fibronectin and intervention of CD11b-CD18 integrins.

    PubMed Central

    Dapino, P; Dallegri, F; Ottonello, L; Sacchetti, C

    1993-01-01

    Human neutrophils, added to fibronectin (FN)-coated polystyrene wells and exposed to tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), were found to exhibit a prolonged production of superoxide anion (O2-) after a lag period of approx 30 min. The O2- production, but not the cell adherence to FN, was completely inhibited by two MoAbs against CD18 and by a MoAb against CD11b, suggesting the involvement of CD11b-CD18 integrins in the neutrophil oxidative response. When neutrophils were induced to adhere to FN by incubation for 30 min on FN-coated surfaces and then washed to remove non-adherent cells, FN-anchored cells exhibited a rapid onset of O2- production in response to TNF-alpha. This suggests that FN primes neutrophils for the TNF-alpha-mediated respiratory burst. The O2- production by adherent neutrophils could be inhibited by anti-CD11b and anti-CD18 MoAbs only when the MoAbs were present both during the induction of adherence and during the subsequent exposure of FN-bound cells to TNF-alpha. The incapacity of MoAbs, added to neutrophils during the induction of adherence, to modify the characteristics of the subsequent neutrophil response to TNF-alpha suggests that the FN-mediated cell priming is independent of the interaction of CD11b-CD18 integrins with the FN substrate. The results are consistent with the intervention of three classes of cell receptors in the TNF-alpha-induced oxidative burst of neutrophils plated on FN: (i) neutrophil FN-binding sites, distinct from CD11b-CD18 and responsible for the cell priming; (ii) CD11b-CD18 integrins, absolutely required for permitting the cell triggering; and (iii) TNF-alpha receptors, responsible for switching on a rapid cell response in primed cells. The requirement of multiple classes of receptors for the full expression of the cell function can be envisaged as a natural precautionary measure to control the neutrophil responsiveness to TNF-alpha and, in turn, the TNF-alpha-dependent neutrophil-mediated oxidative injury

  11. Induction of neutrophil respiratory burst by tumour necrosis factor-alpha; priming effect of solid-phase fibronectin and intervention of CD11b-CD18 integrins.

    PubMed

    Dapino, P; Dallegri, F; Ottonello, L; Sacchetti, C

    1993-12-01

    Human neutrophils, added to fibronectin (FN)-coated polystyrene wells and exposed to tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), were found to exhibit a prolonged production of superoxide anion (O2-) after a lag period of approx 30 min. The O2- production, but not the cell adherence to FN, was completely inhibited by two MoAbs against CD18 and by a MoAb against CD11b, suggesting the involvement of CD11b-CD18 integrins in the neutrophil oxidative response. When neutrophils were induced to adhere to FN by incubation for 30 min on FN-coated surfaces and then washed to remove non-adherent cells, FN-anchored cells exhibited a rapid onset of O2- production in response to TNF-alpha. This suggests that FN primes neutrophils for the TNF-alpha-mediated respiratory burst. The O2- production by adherent neutrophils could be inhibited by anti-CD11b and anti-CD18 MoAbs only when the MoAbs were present both during the induction of adherence and during the subsequent exposure of FN-bound cells to TNF-alpha. The incapacity of MoAbs, added to neutrophils during the induction of adherence, to modify the characteristics of the subsequent neutrophil response to TNF-alpha suggests that the FN-mediated cell priming is independent of the interaction of CD11b-CD18 integrins with the FN substrate. The results are consistent with the intervention of three classes of cell receptors in the TNF-alpha-induced oxidative burst of neutrophils plated on FN: (i) neutrophil FN-binding sites, distinct from CD11b-CD18 and responsible for the cell priming; (ii) CD11b-CD18 integrins, absolutely required for permitting the cell triggering; and (iii) TNF-alpha receptors, responsible for switching on a rapid cell response in primed cells. The requirement of multiple classes of receptors for the full expression of the cell function can be envisaged as a natural precautionary measure to control the neutrophil responsiveness to TNF-alpha and, in turn, the TNF-alpha-dependent neutrophil-mediated oxidative injury

  12. A synthetic chalcone derivative, 2-hydroxy-3',5,5'-trimethoxychalcone (DK-139), suppresses the TNFα-induced invasive capability of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells by inhibiting NF-κB-mediated GROα expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da Young; Lee, Da Hyun; Jung, Jung You; Koh, Dongsoo; Kim, Geum-Soog; Ahn, Young-Sup; Lee, Young Han; Lim, Yoongho; Shin, Soon Young

    2016-01-01

    2-Hydroxy-3',5,5'-trimenthoxyochalcone (DK-139) is a synthetic chalcone-derived compound. This study evaluated the biological activity of DK-139 on the inhibition of tumor metastasis. Growth-regulated oncogene-alpha (GROα) plays an important role in the progression of tumor development by stimulating angiogenesis and metastasis. In this study, DK-139 inhibited tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-induced GROα gene promoter activity by inhibiting of IκB kinase (IKK) in MDA-MB231 cells. In addition, DK-139 prevented the TNFα-induced cell migration, F-actin formation, and invasive capability of MDA-MB-231 cells. These findings suggest that DK-139 is a potential drug candidate for the inhibition of tumor cell locomotion and invasion via the suppression of NF-κB-mediated GROα expression. PMID:26602275

  13. Eugenol reduces acute pain in mice by modulating the glutamatergic and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) pathways.

    PubMed

    Dal Bó, Wladmir; Luiz, Ana Paula; Martins, Daniel F; Mazzardo-Martins, Leidiane; Santos, Adair R S

    2013-10-01

    Eugenol is utilized together with zinc oxide in odontological clinical for the cementation of temporary prostheses and the temporary restoration of teeth and cavities. This work explored the antinociceptive effects of the eugenol in different models of acute pain in mice and investigated its possible modulation of the inhibitory (opioid) and excitatory (glutamatergic and pro-inflammatory cytokines) pathways of nociceptive signaling. The administration of eugenol (3-300 mg/kg, p.o., 60 min or i.p., 30 min) inhibited 82 ± 10% and 90 ± 6% of the acetic acid-induced nociception, with ID₅₀ values of 51.3 and 50.2 mg/kg, respectively. In the glutamate test, eugenol (0.3-100 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced the response behavior by 62 ± 5% with an ID₅₀ of 5.6 mg/kg. In addition, the antinociceptive effect of eugenol (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in the glutamate test was prevented by the i.p. treatment for mice with naloxone. The pretreatment of mice with eugenol (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was able to inhibit the nociception induced by the intrathecal (i.t.) injection of glutamate (37 ± 9%), kainic (acid kainite) (41 ± 12%), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) (55 ± 5%), and substance P (SP) (39 ± 8%). Furthermore, eugenol (10 mg/kg, i.p.) also inhibited biting induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, 65 ± 8%). These results extend our current knowledge of eugenol and confirm that it promotes significant antinociception against different mouse models of acute pain. The mechanism of action appears to involve the modulation of the opioid system and glutamatergic receptors (i.e., kainate and AMPA), and the inhibition of TNF-α. Thus, eugenol could represent an important compound in the treatment for acute pain. PMID:22775297

  14. Isoprenaline Induces Periostin Expression in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guo-Xiao; Xi, Hong-Qing; Sun, Xiao-Yan; Geng, Zhi-Jun; Yang, Shao-Wei; Lu, Yan-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Periostin mediates critical steps in gastric cancer and is involved in various signaling pathways. However, the roles of periostin in promoting gastric cancer metastasis are not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relevance between periostin expression and gastric cancer progression and the role of stress-related hormones in the regulation of cancer development and progression. Materials and Methods Normal, cancerous and metastatic gastric tissues were collected from patients diagnosed with advanced gastric cancer. The in vivo expression of periostin was evaluated by in situ hybridization and immunofluorescent staining. Meanwhile, human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines MKN-45 and BGC-803 were used to detect the in vitro expression of periostin by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting. Results Periostin is expressed in the stroma of the primary gastric tumors and metastases, but not in normal gastric tissue. In addition, we observed that periostin is located mainly in pericryptal fibroblasts, but not in the tumor cells, and strongly correlated to the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (SMA). Furthermore, the distribution patterns of periostin were broader as the clinical staging of tumors progressed. We also identified a role of stress-related signaling in promoting cancer development and progression, and found that isoprenaline upregulated expression levels of periostin in gastric cancer cells. Conclusion These findings suggest that the distribution pattern of periostin was broader as the clinical staging of the tumor progressed and found that isoprenaline upregulated expression levels of periostin in gastric cancer cells. PMID:26996552

  15. Inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis induces a transient increase in the expression of proinflammatory, Th1-related, and autoregulatory cytokines in mice

    PubMed Central

    Anziliero, D.; Weiblen, R.; Kreutz, L.C.; Spilki, F.; Flores, E.F.

    2014-01-01

    The immunostimulatory properties of inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) have long been investigated in different animal species and experimental settings. In this study, we investigated the effects of iPPVO on cytokine expression in mice after intraperitoneal inoculation. Spleen and sera collected from iPPVO-treated mice at intervals after inoculation were submitted to cytokine mRNA determination by real-time PCR (qPCR), serum protein concentration by ELISA, and interferon (IFN)-α/β activity by bioassay. The spleen of iPPVO-treated animals showed a significant increase in mRNA expression of all cytokines assayed, with different kinetics and magnitude. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and IL-8 mRNA peaked at 24 hours postinoculation (hpi; 5.4-fold increase) and 48 hpi (3- and 10-fold increases), respectively. A 15-fold increase in IFN-γ and 6-fold IL-12 mRNA increase were detected at 48 and 24 hpi, respectively. Increased expression of autoregulatory cytokines (Th2), mainly IL-10 and IL-4, could be detected at later times (72 and 96 hpi) with peaks of 4.7- and 4.9-fold increases, respectively. IFN-I antiviral activity against encephalomyocarditis virus was demonstrated in sera of treated animals between 6 and 12 hpi, with a >90% reduction in the number of plaques. Measurement of serum proteins by ELISA revealed increased levels of IL-1, TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-γ, and IL-10, with kinetics similar to those observed by qPCR, especially for IL-12 and IFN-γ. These data demonstrate that iPPVO induced a transient and complex cytokine response, initially represented by Th1-related cytokines followed by autoregulatory and Th2 cytokines. PMID:24519126

  16. Stable Toll-Like Receptor 10 Knockdown in THP-1 Cells Reduces TLR-Ligand-Induced Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression.

    PubMed

    Le, Hai Van; Kim, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 10 (TLR10) is the only orphan receptor whose natural ligand and function are unknown among the 10 human TLRs. In this study, to test whether TLR10 recognizes some known TLR ligands, we established a stable TLR10 knockdown human monocytic cell line THP-1 using TLR10 short hairpin RNA lentiviral particle and puromycin selection. Among 60 TLR10 knockdown clones that were derived from each single transduced cell, six clones were randomly selected, and then one of those clones, named E7, was chosen for the functional study. E7 exhibited approximately 50% inhibition of TLR10 mRNA and protein expression. Of all the TLRs, only the expression of TLR10 changed significantly in this cell line. Additionally, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced macrophage differentiation of TLR10 knockdown cells was not affected in the knockdown cells. When exposed to TLR ligands, such as synthetic diacylated lipoprotein (FSL-1), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and flagellin, significant induction of proinflammatory cytokine gene expression including Interleukin-8 (IL-8), Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 20 (CCL20) expression, was found in the control THP-1 cells, whereas the TLR10 knockdown cells exhibited a significant reduction in the expression of IL-8, IL-1β, and CCL20. TNF-α was the only cytokine for which the expression did not decrease in the TLR10 knockdown cells from that measured in the control cells. Analysis of putative binding sites for transcription factors using a binding-site-prediction program revealed that the TNF-α promoter does not have putative binding sites for AP-1 or c-Jun, comprising a major transcription factor along with NF-κB for TLR signaling. Our results suggest that TLR10 is involved in the recognition of FSL-1, LPS, and flagellin and TLR-ligand-induced expression of TNF-α does not depend on TLR10. PMID:27258267

  17. Stable Toll-Like Receptor 10 Knockdown in THP-1 Cells Reduces TLR-Ligand-Induced Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression

    PubMed Central

    Le, Hai Van; Kim, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 10 (TLR10) is the only orphan receptor whose natural ligand and function are unknown among the 10 human TLRs. In this study, to test whether TLR10 recognizes some known TLR ligands, we established a stable TLR10 knockdown human monocytic cell line THP-1 using TLR10 short hairpin RNA lentiviral particle and puromycin selection. Among 60 TLR10 knockdown clones that were derived from each single transduced cell, six clones were randomly selected, and then one of those clones, named E7, was chosen for the functional study. E7 exhibited approximately 50% inhibition of TLR10 mRNA and protein expression. Of all the TLRs, only the expression of TLR10 changed significantly in this cell line. Additionally, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced macrophage differentiation of TLR10 knockdown cells was not affected in the knockdown cells. When exposed to TLR ligands, such as synthetic diacylated lipoprotein (FSL-1), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and flagellin, significant induction of proinflammatory cytokine gene expression including Interleukin-8 (IL-8), Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Chemokine (C–C Motif) Ligand 20 (CCL20) expression, was found in the control THP-1 cells, whereas the TLR10 knockdown cells exhibited a significant reduction in the expression of IL-8, IL-1β, and CCL20. TNF-α was the only cytokine for which the expression did not decrease in the TLR10 knockdown cells from that measured in the control cells. Analysis of putative binding sites for transcription factors using a binding-site-prediction program revealed that the TNF-α promoter does not have putative binding sites for AP-1 or c-Jun, comprising a major transcription factor along with NF-κB for TLR signaling. Our results suggest that TLR10 is involved in the recognition of FSL-1, LPS, and flagellin and TLR-ligand-induced expression of TNF-α does not depend on TLR10. PMID:27258267

  18. Surface membrane antigen expression changes induced in vitro by exogenous growth factors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Vilpo, J; Hulkkonen, J; Hurme, M; Vilpo, L

    2002-09-01

    The factors determining the growth and survival of cells in B chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have remained poorly understood. We investigated the effects of optimal mitogen combinations (OMCs) on the expression of 26 surface membrane antigens among 33 CLL patients. The seven OMCs used were selected after pre-testing 14 combinations of (1) S. aureus Cowan I (SAC), (2) interleukin-2 (IL-2), (3) tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and (4) 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA; also known as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or PMA). In flow cytometry we revealed that OMCs induced statistically highly significant upregulation of the expression of CD5, CD11c, CD19, CD22, CD23, CD25, CD38, CD40, CD45, CD45RO, CD95, CD126, CD130 and FMC7, and downregulation of CD20 and CD124 expression. Interestingly, the expression of CD27, CD45RA, CD79b, CD80, CD122 and that of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily members CD21, Ig-kappa, Ig-lambda, Ig-delta and Ig-micro were not significantly affected under similar conditions. The expression of several antigens was co-regulated, suggesting common regulatory pathways. These antigens include CD11c/CD5, CD11c/CD22, CD11c/CD126, CD11c/FMC7 as well as CD27/CD45, CD27/CD45RA and CD27/CD79b. Upregulation of surface antigen expression, induced by OMCs, should be applicable in antibody therapy in vitro and in vivo, and in negative stem cell selection for autotransplantation. Furthermore, the current strategy to enhance cell surface antigen expression may be a versatile tool to raise humoral and cell-mediated host defense against CLL cells. Upregulation of proteins mediating positive growth signals (eg CD25, CD40) and negative signals or apoptosis (eg CD95) may be used to sensitize cells to chemotherapy and programmed cell death. PMID:12200683

  19. Vocalization Induced CFos Expression in Marmoset Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cory T.; DiMauro, Audrey; Pistorio, Ashley; Hendry, Stewart; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2010-01-01

    All non-human primates communicate with conspecifics using vocalizations, a system involving both the production and perception of species-specific vocal signals. Much of the work on the neural basis of primate vocal communication in cortex has focused on the sensory processing of vocalizations, while relatively little data are available for vocal production. Earlier physiological studies in squirrel monkeys had shed doubts on the involvement of primate cortex in vocal behaviors. The aim of the present study was to identify areas of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) cortex that are potentially involved in vocal communication. In this study, we quantified cFos expression in three areas of marmoset cortex – frontal, temporal (auditory), and medial temporal – under various vocal conditions. Specifically, we examined cFos expression in these cortical areas during the sensory, motor (vocal production), and sensory–motor components of vocal communication. Our results showed an increase in cFos expression in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex as well as the medial and lateral belt areas of auditory cortex in the vocal perception condition. In contrast, subjects in the vocal production condition resulted in increased cFos expression only in dorsal premotor cortex. During the sensory–motor condition (antiphonal calling), subjects exhibited cFos expression in each of the above areas, as well as increased expression in perirhinal cortex. Overall, these results suggest that various cortical areas outside primary auditory cortex are involved in primate vocal communication. These findings pave the way for further physiological studies of the neural basis of primate vocal communication. PMID:21179582

  20. Role of tumor necrosis factor alpha in disease using a mouse model of Shiga toxin-mediated renal damage.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Erin K; Cherla, Rama P; Jaspers, Valery; Weeks, Bradley R; Tesh, Vernon L

    2010-09-01

    Mice have been extensively employed as an animal model of renal damage caused by Shiga toxins. In this study, we examined the role of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the development of toxin-mediated renal disease in mice. Mice pretreated with TNF-alpha and challenged with Shiga toxin type 1 (Stx1) showed increased survival compared to that of mice treated with Stx1 alone. Conversely, mice treated with Stx1 before TNF-alpha administration succumbed more quickly than mice given Stx1 alone. Increased lethality in mice treated with Stx1 followed by TNF-alpha was associated with evidence of glomerular damage and the loss of renal function. No differences in renal histopathology were noted between animals treated with Stx1 alone and the TNF-alpha pretreatment group, although we noted a sparing of renal function when TNF-alpha was administered before toxin. Compared to that of treatment with Stx1 alone, treatment with TNF-alpha after toxin altered the renal cytokine profile so that the expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) increased, and the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 decreased. Increased lethality in mice treated with Stx1 followed by TNF-alpha was associated with higher numbers of dUTP-biotin nick end labeling-positive renal tubule cells, suggesting that increased lethality involved enhanced apoptosis. These data suggest that the early administration of TNF-alpha is a candidate interventional strategy blocking disease progression, while TNF-alpha production after intoxication exacerbates disease. PMID:20605983

  1. Preliminary Characterisation of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Interleukin-10 Responses to Chlamydia pecorum Infection in the Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus)

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Marina; Beagley, Kenneth W.; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Debilitating infectious diseases caused by Chlamydia are major contributors to the decline of Australia's iconic native marsupial species, the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). An understanding of koala chlamydial disease pathogenesis and the development of effective strategies to control infections continue to be hindered by an almost complete lack of species-specific immunological reagents. The cell-mediated immune response has been shown to play an influential role in the response to chlamydial infection in other hosts. The objective of this study, hence, was to provide preliminary data on the role of two key cytokines, pro-inflammatory tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL10), in the koala Chlamydia pecorum response. Utilising sequence homology between the cytokine sequences obtained from several recently sequenced marsupial genomes, this report describes the first mRNA sequences of any koala cytokine and the development of koala specific TNFα and IL10 real-time PCR assays to measure the expression of these genes from koala samples. In preliminary studies comparing wild koalas with overt chlamydial disease, previous evidence of C. pecorum infection or no signs of C. pecorum infection, we revealed strong but variable expression of TNFα and IL10 in wild koalas with current signs of chlamydiosis. The description of these assays and the preliminary data on the cell-mediated immune response of koalas to chlamydial infection paves the way for future studies characterising the koala immune response to a range of its pathogens while providing reagents to assist with measuring the efficacy of ongoing attempts to develop a koala chlamydial vaccine. PMID:23527290

  2. DNA polymorphisms and mutations of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) promoter in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH).

    PubMed

    Wu, W S; McClain, K L

    1997-10-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a clonal proliferation of dendritic histiocytes expressing elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). The cause of the increased cytokine levels is unknown, but DNA sequence changes in promoters could alter expression. The TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma promoter DNA sequences of 12 LCH patients were studied and compared with normal individuals by dideoxy fingerprinting and DNA sequencing. Functional consequences of polymorphic or mutated sequences were assessed by cloning altered and control promoter sequences into a luciferase reporter gene vector. Electrophoretic mobility shifts (EMSA) after binding of nuclear extracts from a macrophage cell line (U-937) by mutated promoters were compared with controls. Five of 12 LCH patients had alterations in the TNF-alpha promoter DNA sequence. None were found in the IFN-gamma gene promoter. Of the 5 with TNF-alpha DNA alterations, 2 were at position -308, which has been described as a G-A polymorphism associated with upregulation of TNF-alpha in some patients with infections or immune-mediated diseases. The polymorphism at -308 but not the other TNF-alpha promoter mutations caused a 3-fold to 7-fold increased production of the luciferase reporter gene. EMSA showed that the -308 mutant promoters bound fewer nuclear proteins than normals. Polymorphisms of the TNF-alpha promoter in LCH patients could increase the production of that cytokine. PMID:9355965

  3. Bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis associated with the use of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor adalimumab

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Alan William; Rosenblatt, Randall Lee

    2014-01-01

    A 51-year-old woman was referred for evaluation of progressive dyspnea of 3 months— duration. She had received 3 doses of adalimumab for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis prior to the onset of her dyspnea. Her chest examination revealed absent diaphragmatic movement with inspiration. Spirometry showed a severe restrictive defect. Radiologic studies confirmed the diagnosis of bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis. Laboratory and radiologic workup excluded other possible causes of the diagnosis. Adalimumab was discontinued, and she was treated with bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation and intravenous immunoglobulin. Three months later, the diaphragmatic paralysis persisted. This is the second reported case of bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis occurring in a patient who had received adalimumab. Acute neuropathies are rare side effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors. PMID:24688191

  4. Treatment of ulcerative colitis in the cottontop tamarin using antibody to tumour necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, P E; Warren, B F; Stephens, S; Ward, P; Foulkes, R

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aetiology and pathophysiology of ulcerative colitis remains unclear; however, there is increasing recognition of the critical role of inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of this disease. Among these, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) seems to play an important role. AIM: To study the effects of an engineered human monoclonal antibody to TNF alpha (CDP571) in the treatment of idiopathic ulcerative colitis in the cottontop tamarin. METHODS: Six cottontop tamarins with confirmed ulcerative colitis received repeated doses of CDP571. Progression of disease was assessed by measuring both body weight and rectal biopsy pathology. RESULTS: All animals showed a rapid improvement in clinical condition and rectal biopsy pathology that was maintained following completion of the therapy. CONCLUSION: These studies indicate the efficacy of selective antibody therapy to TNF alpha for the treatment of ulcerative colitis in a primate and suggest that similar therapy in human could be of value. Images PMID:9203942

  5. The effect of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha on ovarian function

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Erin J.; Sibley, Kelly; Miller, Aleisha N.; Lane, Elizabeth A.; Fishwick, John; Nash, Deborah M.; Herath, Shan; England, Gary CW; Dobson, Hilary; Sheldon, I. Martin

    2009-01-01

    Problem Pelvic inflammatory disease and metritis are important causes of infertility in humans and domestic animals. Uterine infection with Escherichia coli in cattle is associated with reduced ovarian follicle growth and decreased estradiol secretion. We hypothesized that this effect could be mediated by the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). Method of study In vitro, bovine ovarian theca and granulosa cells were treated with LPS or TNFα and steroid secretion measured. In vivo, the effect of LPS or TNFα intrauterine infusion was determined by ovarian ultrasonography and measurement of hormones in cattle. Results LPS reduced granulosa cell estradiol secretion, whilst TNFα decreased theca and granulosa cell androstenedione and estradiol production, respectively. In vivo, fewer animals ovulated following intrauterine infusion with LPS or TNFα. Conclusion LPS and TNFα suppress ovarian cell function, supporting the concept that pelvic inflammatory disease and metritis are detrimental for bovine ovarian health. PMID:19238751

  6. Phase I study of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha in patients with advanced malignancies.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, H H; Nagel, G A; Mull, R; Flener, R; Pfizenmaier, K

    1988-01-01

    A clinical phase I trial with recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rTNF-alpha) was performed in 30 patients with advanced malignancies. The maximal tolerated dose (MTD) by 3 times weekly intramuscular (i.m.) application was 150 micrograms m-2. Main subjective toxicities including chills, fever, hypotension, fatigue, and anorexia were dose-related. In addition, transient changes in hematologic parameters and lipid metabolism were noted. Two out of 25 evaluated patients showed a minor tumor response after eight weeks of therapy. There was evidence for an improvement of in vivo immuneresponsiveness as revealed from positive delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin tests of 3 out of 6 pretherapeutically anergic patients. We conclude from this phase I trial that rTNF-alpha can be safely administered at doses up to 150 micrograms m-2 i.m., 3 times weekly, without evidence of cumulative toxicity in long-term treatment. PMID:3267369

  7. Medicinal flowers. XXIII. New taraxastane-type triterpene, punicanolic acid, with tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitory activity from the flowers of Punica granatum.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuanyuan; Morikawa, Toshio; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Imura, Katsuya; Muraoka, Osamu; Yuan, Dan; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2008-11-01

    The methanolic extract from the flowers of Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) was found to show inhibitory effect on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, 1 ng/ml)-induced cytotoxicity in L929 cells. By bioassay-guided separation, a new taraxastane-type triterpene, punicanolic acid (1), was isolated from the active fraction (ethyl acetate-soluble fraction) together with four triterpenes (2--5), two galloyl glucoses (6, 7), two flavones (8, 9), and beta-sitosterol. Among the constituents, 1, oleanolic acid (2), maslinic acid (4), 1,2,6-tri-O-galloyl beta-D-glucopyranoside (6), 1,2-di-O-galloyl-4,6-O-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl beta-D-glucopyranoside (7), and luteolin (8) significantly inhibited TNF-alpha-induced cytotoxicity in L929 cells at 30 microM. PMID:18981621

  8. An IPTG Inducible Conditional Expression System for Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ravishankar, Sudha; Ambady, Anisha; Ramu, Haripriya; Mudugal, Naina Vinay; Tunduguru, Ragadeepthi; Anbarasu, Anand; Sharma, Umender K.; Sambandamurthy, Vasan K.; Ramaiah, Sudha

    2015-01-01

    Conditional expression strains serve as a valuable tool to study the essentiality and to establish the vulnerability of a target under investigation in a drug discovery program. While essentiality implies an absolute requirement of a target function, vulnerability provides valuable information on the extent to which a target function needs to be depleted to achieve bacterial growth inhibition followed by cell death. The critical feature of an ideal conditional expression system is its ability to tightly regulate gene expression to achieve the full spectrum spanning from a high level of expression in order to support growth and near zero level of expression to mimic conditions of gene knockout. A number of bacterial conditional expression systems have been reported for use in mycobacteria. The utility of an isopropylthiogalactoside (IPTG) inducible system in mycobacteria has been reported for protein overexpression and anti-sense gene expression from a replicating multi-copy plasmid. Herein, we report the development of a versatile set of non-replicating IPTG inducible vectors for mycobacteria which can be used for generation of conditional expression strains through homologous recombination. The role of a single lac operator versus a double lac operator to regulate gene expression was evaluated by monitoring the expression levels of β-galactosidase in Mycobacterium smegmatis. These studies indicated a significant level of leaky expression from the vector with a single lac operator but none from the vector with double lac operator. The significance of the double lac operator vector for target validation was established by monitoring the growth kinetics of an inhA, a rpoB and a ftsZ conditional expression strain grown in the presence of different concentrations of IPTG. The utility of this inducible system in identifying target specific inhibitors was established by screening a focussed library of small molecules using an inhA and a rpoB conditional expression

  9. An IPTG Inducible Conditional Expression System for Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Ravishankar, Sudha; Ambady, Anisha; Ramu, Haripriya; Mudugal, Naina Vinay; Tunduguru, Ragadeepthi; Anbarasu, Anand; Sharma, Umender K; Sambandamurthy, Vasan K; Ramaiah, Sudha

    2015-01-01

    Conditional expression strains serve as a valuable tool to study the essentiality and to establish the vulnerability of a target under investigation in a drug discovery program. While essentiality implies an absolute requirement of a target function, vulnerability provides valuable information on the extent to which a target function needs to be depleted to achieve bacterial growth inhibition followed by cell death. The critical feature of an ideal conditional expression system is its ability to tightly regulate gene expression to achieve the full spectrum spanning from a high level of expression in order to support growth and near zero level of expression to mimic conditions of gene knockout. A number of bacterial conditional expression systems have been reported for use in mycobacteria. The utility of an isopropylthiogalactoside (IPTG) inducible system in mycobacteria has been reported for protein overexpression and anti-sense gene expression from a replicating multi-copy plasmid. Herein, we report the development of a versatile set of non-replicating IPTG inducible vectors for mycobacteria which can be used for generation of conditional expression strains through homologous recombination. The role of a single lac operator versus a double lac operator to regulate gene expression was evaluated by monitoring the expression levels of β-galactosidase in Mycobacterium smegmatis. These studies indicated a significant level of leaky expression from the vector with a single lac operator but none from the vector with double lac operator. The significance of the double lac operator vector for target validation was established by monitoring the growth kinetics of an inhA, a rpoB and a ftsZ conditional expression strain grown in the presence of different concentrations of IPTG. The utility of this inducible system in identifying target specific inhibitors was established by screening a focussed library of small molecules using an inhA and a rpoB conditional expression

  10. Pulmonary microRNA expression profiling in an immature piglet model of cardiopulmonary bypass-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenlei; Ma, Kai; Zhang, Sen; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jinping; Wang, Xu; Li, Shoujun

    2015-04-01

    After surgery performed under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), severe lung injury often occurs in infants. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potentially involved in diverse pathophysiological processes via regulation of gene expression. The objective of this study was to investigate differentially expressed miRNAs and their potential target genes in immature piglet lungs in response to CPB. Fourteen piglets aged 18.6 ± 0.5 days were equally divided into two groups that underwent sham sternotomy or CPB. The duration of aortic cross-clamping was 2 h, followed by 2 h reperfusion. Lung injury was evaluated by lung function indices, levels of cytokines, and histological changes. We applied miRNA microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis to determine miRNA expression. Meanwhile, qRT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for validation of predicted mRNA targets. The deterioration of lung function and histopathological changes revealed the piglets' lungs were greatly impaired due to CPB. The levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6, and interleukin 10 increased in the lung tissue after CPB. Using miRNA microarray, statistically significant differences were found in the levels of 16 miRNAs in the CPB group. Up-regulation of miR-21 was verified by PCR. We also observed down-regulation in the levels of miR-127, miR-145, and miR-204, which were correlated with increases in the expression of the products of their potential target genes PIK3CG, PTGS2, ACE, and IL6R in the CPB group, suggesting a potential role for miRNA in the regulation of inflammatory response. Our results show that CPB induces severe lung injury and dynamic changes in miRNA expression in piglet lungs. Moreover, the changes in miRNA levels and target gene expression may provide a basis for understanding the pathogenesis of CPB-induced injury to immature lungs. PMID:25347932

  11. Involvement of oxidants and oxidant-generating enzyme(s) in tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha-mediated apoptosis: role for lipoxygenase pathway but not mitochondrial respiratory chain.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, V B; Spycher, S; Azzi, A

    1995-08-15

    Cellular signalling by the inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) has been suggested to involve generation of low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Certain antioxidants and metal chelators can inhibit cytotoxicity and gene expression in response to TNF alpha in numerous cell types. However, neither the source nor function of TNF alpha-induced oxidant generation is known. Using specific inhibitors, we ruled out involvement of several oxidant-generating enzymes [cyclo-oxygenase (indomethacin), cytochrome P-450 (metyrapone), nitric oxide synthase (NG-methyl-L-arginine), NADPH oxidase (iodonium diphenyl), xanthine oxidase (allopurinol), ribonucleotide reductase (hydroxyurea)] in TNF alpha-mediated apoptosis of the murine fibrosarcoma line, L929. We also demonstrated no role for mitochondrial-derived radicals/respiratory chain in the lytic pathway using specific inhibitors/uncouplers (rotenone, KCN, carboxin, fluoroacetate, antimycin, malonate, carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone) and chloramphenicol-derived respiration-deficient cells. Significant ROS (H2O2, O2-.) generation was not observed in response to TNF alpha in L929 cells using four separate assays. Also, prevention of intracellular H2O2 removal by inhibition of catalase did not potentiate TNF alpha-mediated cell death. These data suggest that neither H2O2 nor O2-. plays a direct role in TNF alpha cytotoxicity. Finally, we suggest a central role for lipoxygenase in TNF alpha-mediated lysis. Three inhibitors of this radical-generating signalling pathway, including an arachidonate analogue (5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid), could protect cells against TNF alpha. The inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid is also a radical scavenger, but it could not protect cells from ROS toxicity at concentrations that effectively prevented TNF alpha killing. Therefore protection by nordihydroguaiaretic acid cannot be due to scavenging of cytotoxic H2O or O2-.. The lipoxygenase product

  12. Functional analysis of a human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) promoter polymorphism related to joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Kaijzel, E. L.; van Krugten, M. V.; Brinkman, B. M.; Huizinga, T. W.; van der Straaten, T.; Hazes, J. M.; Ziegler-Heitbrock, H. W.; Nedospasov, S. A.; Breedveld, F. C.; Verweij, C. L.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Functional heterogeneity in the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene may be responsible for the TNF-alpha response in infectious and autoimmune diseases. Recently, the TNF-238 promoter polymorphism was observed as being associated with a more destructive disease in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To determine the relation between TNF-238 and disease progression, the extent of joint destruction in a cohort of 101 RA patients followed for 12 years was analyzed. Furthermore, we have attempted to link this polymorphism to TNF-alpha gene transcription in monocytes and lymphocytes in vitro. PATIENTS, MATERIALS, AND METHODS: The extent of joint destruction determined on X-rays of hands and feet assessed after 0, 3, 6, and 12 years was compared with TNF-238 genotypes. Functional consequences of TNF-alpha gene polymorphisms using reporter gene constructs were analyzed in cells of the monocyte and lymphocyte lineage by means of transient transfection systems. RESULTS: The rate of joint damage in -238GA patients was lower than that in the -238GG patients, independent of HLA-DR4. Damage after 12 years was 76 +/- 30 for the -238GA versus 126 +/- 13 for the -238GG patients as determined by the van der Heijde's modification of Sharp's method. Furthermore, TNF-238A was found to be in linkage disequilibrium with an additional polymorphism at position -376. Functional assays revealed no significant differences in the level of inducible reporter gene expression between the TNF-238/-376 promoter constructs in the cell types tested. CONCLUSION: In a prospective study, we show that the TNF-238GG genotype contributes to progression of joint destruction in RA, independent of the presence of HLA-DR4. However, in vitro transfection assays indicate that TNF-238A by itself or in combination with TNF-376A is not likely to be of direct functional relevance for transcriptional activation. Therefore, these polymorphisms may serve as markers for additional polymorphisms in the TNF

  13. Impact of Residual Inducer on Titratable Expression Systems

    PubMed Central

    Afroz, Taliman; Luo, Michelle L.; Beisel, Chase L.

    2015-01-01

    Inducible expression systems are widely employed for the titratable control of gene expression, yet molecules inadvertently present in the growth medium or synthesized by the host cells can alter the response profile of some of these systems. Here, we explored the quantitative impact of these residual inducers on the apparent response properties of inducible systems. Using a simple mathematical model, we found that the presence of residual inducer shrinks the apparent dynamic range and causes the apparent Hill coefficient to converge to one. We also found that activating systems were more sensitive than repressing systems to the presence of residual inducer and the response parameters were most heavily dependent on the original Hill coefficient. Experimental interrogation of common titratable systems based on an L-arabinose inducible promoter or a thiamine pyrophosphate-repressing riboswitch in Escherichia coli confirmed the predicted trends. We finally found that residual inducer had a distinct effect on “all-or-none” systems, which exhibited increased sensitivity to the added inducer until becoming fully induced. Our findings indicate that residual inducer or repressor alters the quantitative response properties of titratable systems, impacting their utility for scientific discovery and pathway engineering. PMID:26348036

  14. Impact of Residual Inducer on Titratable Expression Systems.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Taliman; Luo, Michelle L; Beisel, Chase L

    2015-01-01

    Inducible expression systems are widely employed for the titratable control of gene expression, yet molecules inadvertently present in the growth medium or synthesized by the host cells can alter the response profile of some of these systems. Here, we explored the quantitative impact of these residual inducers on the apparent response properties of inducible systems. Using a simple mathematical model, we found that the presence of residual inducer shrinks the apparent dynamic range and causes the apparent Hill coefficient to converge to one. We also found that activating systems were more sensitive than repressing systems to the presence of residual inducer and the response parameters were most heavily dependent on the original Hill coefficient. Experimental interrogation of common titratable systems based on an L-arabinose inducible promoter or a thiamine pyrophosphate-repressing riboswitch in Escherichia coli confirmed the predicted trends. We finally found that residual inducer had a distinct effect on "all-or-none" systems, which exhibited increased sensitivity to the added inducer until becoming fully induced. Our findings indicate that residual inducer or repressor alters the quantitative response properties of titratable systems, impacting their utility for scientific discovery and pathway engineering. PMID:26348036

  15. Dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid inhibits tumour necrosis factor-alpha production by human leucocytes independently of cyclooxygenase activity.

    PubMed

    Dooper, Maaike M B W; van Riel, Boet; Graus, Yvo M F; M'Rabet, Laura

    2003-11-01

    Dietary oils (such as borage oil), which are rich in gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), have been shown to be beneficial under inflammatory conditions. Dihomo-GLA (DGLA) is synthesized directly from GLA and forms a substrate for cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, resulting in the synthesis of lipid mediators (eicosanoids). In the present study, the immunomodulatory effects of DGLA were investigated and compared with those of other relevant fatty acids. Freshly isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were cultured in fatty acid (100 microm)-enriched medium for 48 hr. Subsequently, cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 20 hr and the cytokine levels were measured, in supernatants, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Phospholipids were analysed by gas chromatography. Fatty acids were readily taken up, metabolized and incorporated into cellular phospholipids. Compared with the other fatty acids tested, DGLA exerted pronounced modulatory effects on cytokine production. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin (IL)-10 levels were reduced to 60% of control levels, whereas IL-6 levels were not affected by DGLA. Kinetic studies showed that peak levels of TNF-alpha, occurring early after LPS addition, were inhibited strongly, whereas IL-10 levels were not affected until 15 hr after stimulation. Both the reduction of cytokine levels and the decrease in arachidonic acid levels in these cells, induced by DGLA, were dose dependent, suggesting a shift in eicosanoid-subtype synthesis. However, although some DGLA-derived eicosanoids similarly reduced TNF-alpha levels, the effects of DGLA were probably not mediated by COX products, as the addition of indomethacin did not alter the effects of DGLA. In conclusion, these results suggest that DGLA affects cytokine production by human PBMC independently of COX activation. PMID:14632663

  16. Cytokine induced expression of programmed death ligands in human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Bankey, Paul E.; Banerjee, Sanjib; Zucchiatti, Andrea; De, Mita; Sleem, Rami W.; Lin, Chuen-Fu L.; Miller-Graziano, Carol L.; De, Asit K.

    2010-01-01

    1. Summary Recent evidence indicates that human neutrophils can serve as non-professional antigen presenting cells (APC). Although expression of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules on human neutrophils is limited, these molecules can be significantly induced following in vitro exposure to the cytokines IFNγ and GM-CSF. Since professional APCs such as dendritic cells express both co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules for activation and regulation of adaptive immunity, we determined whether cytokines induce increased expression of specific co-signaling molecules on human neutrophils. We report here that circulating human neutrophils express co-inhibitory molecules such as immunoglobulin–like transcript (ILT) 4 and 5, and also comparatively low and highly variable levels of ILT2 and 3, but the expression of these ILTs was not significantly changed by cytokine treatment. In contrast, we demonstrate for the first time that human peripheral blood neutrophils, although do not express the co-inhibitory molecule, programmed death ligand (PD-L) 1 on their surface, can express this molecule at moderate levels following cytokine exposure. Although moderate PD-L1 levels on healthy volunteers’ neutrophils were not inhibitory to T cells, our findings do not exclude a possible robust increase in neutrophil PD-L1 expression in pathological conditions with immunosuppressive functions. These results suggest a possible immunoregulatory role for human neutrophils in adaptive immunity. PMID:20123111

  17. Downhill exercise-induced changes in gene expression related with macrophage polarization and myogenic cells in the triceps long head of rats.

    PubMed

    Minari, André Luis Araujo; Oyama, Lila Missae; Dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Thomatieli

    2015-02-01

    Macrophages are one of the most heterogenic immune cells involved in skeletal muscle regeneration. After skeletal muscle damage, M1 phenotypes exhibit pro-inflammatory reaction. In a later stage, they are converted to M2 phenotypes with anti-inflammatory properties. To study when gene expressions of macrophage polarization are changed after damage induced by downhill exercise to exhaustion is the objective of this paper. Before (CTRL) and 0 h (G0), 24 h (G24), 48 h (G48) and 72 h (G72) after 18 bouts of downhill exercise, the animals were euthanised, and the triceps were dissected. We measured gene expression of macrophages (CD68 and CD163), myogenic cells (MyoD and myogenin) and quantified cytokine secretion (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)). The CD68 expression was lower in G72 compared with G24 (P = 0.005) while CD163 was higher in G48 compared with G24 (P = 0.04). The MyoD expression was higher in G72 compared with G0 (P = 0.04). The myogenin expression was lower in G24 compared with CTRL (P = 0.01) and restored in G72 compared with G24 (P = 0.007). The TNF-α was significantly higher at all times after 24 h (all compared with CTRL, with P = 0.03). The CD68 and CD163 expressions behaved distinctly after exercise, which indicates macrophage polarization between 24 and 48 h. The distinct expression of myogenin, concomitantly with MyoD elevation in G72, indicates that myogenic cell differentiation and the significant change of TNF-α level show an important role of this cytokine in these processes. PMID:25249340

  18. Assessment of Anti-TNF-α Activities in Keratinocytes Expressing Inducible TNF- α: A Novel Tool for Anti-TNF-α Drug Screening

    PubMed Central

    Udommethaporn, Sutthirat; Tencomnao, Tewin; McGowan, Eileen M.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine important in normal and pathological biological processes. Newly synthesized pro-TNF-α is expressed on the plasma membrane and cleaved to release soluble TNF-α protein: both are biologically active. Secreted TNF-α signals through TNF receptors and the membrane-bound TNF-α acts by cell contact-dependent signaling. Anti-TNF-α antibodies have been used effectively for treatment of chronic inflammation, however with adverse side effects. Thus, there is a need for new anti-TNF-α small molecule compounds. Anti-TNF-α activity assays involve treatment of keratinocytes with exogenous TNF-α before or after anti-TNF-α incubation. However, this model fails to address the dual signaling of TNF-α. Here we describe a Doxycycline (Dox)-inducible TNF-α (HaCaT-TNF-α) expression system in keratinocytes. Using this in-vitro model, we show cell inhibition and induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and markers, including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, NF-κB1, and KRT-16, similar to cells treated with exogenous TNF-α. Sufficient secreted TNF-α produced also activated IL-1β and IL-8 expression in wt HaCaT cells. Importantly, stimulated expression of IL-1β and IL-8 in HaCaT-TNF-α were blocked by Quercetin, a flavanol shown to possess anti-TNF-α activities. This novel in vitro cell model provides an efficient tool to investigate the dual signaling of TNF-α. Importantly, this model provides an effective, fast, and simple screening for compounds with anti-TNF-α activities for chronic inflammatory disease therapies. PMID:27415000

  19. Early activation of splenic macrophages by tumor necrosis factor alpha is important in determining the outcome of experimental histoplasmosis in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wu-Hsieh, B A; Lee, G S; Franco, M; Hofman, F M

    1992-01-01

    Experimental infection of animals with Histoplasma capsulatum caused a massive macrophage infiltration into the spleen and induced the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) locally. The cytokine was also produced in vitro by peritoneal exudate macrophages exposed to a large inoculum of yeast cells. Depletion of the cytokine by injection of polyclonal sheep anti-TNF-alpha antibody was detrimental to sublethally infected mice. Fungous burdens in the spleens of TNF-alpha-depleted mice were higher than they were in the infected control mice at days 2, 7, and 9 after infection, and the antibody-treated animals succumbed to the infection. Histopathological study of spleen sections revealed that splenic macrophages were not able to control proliferation of intracellular yeasts as a result of TNF-alpha depletion. It seems that TNF-alpha plays a role in early activation of splenic macrophages which is important in controlling the outcome of an infection. Images PMID:1398934

  20. From wavy hair to naked proteins: the role of transforming growth factor alpha in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhuminder; Coffey, Robert J

    2014-04-01

    Since its discovery in 1978 and cloning in 1984, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α, TGFA) has been one of the most extensively studied EGF receptor (EGFR) ligands. In this review, we provide a historical perspective on TGFA-related studies, highlighting what we consider important advances related to its function in normal and disease states. PMID:24631356

  1. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Stimulates the Overproduction of Intestinal Apolipoprotein B48-containing Very Low Density Lipoproproteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha(a)(TNFa), a proinflammatory cytokine, is involved in obesity-associated pathologies including type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. TNFa enhanced postprandial apoB48-VLDL1 overproduction by about 89% compared with the control after 90 min olive oil loading; TNFa did not si...

  2. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity exacerbates ultraviolet B radiation-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and cell survival signals in ultraviolet B-irradiated mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Som D.; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2010-05-01

    Obesity has been implicated in several inflammatory diseases and in different types of cancer. Chronic inflammation induced by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been implicated in various skin diseases, including melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. As the relationship between obesity and susceptibility to UV radiation-caused inflammation is not clearly understood, we assessed the role of obesity on UVB-induced inflammation, and mediators of this inflammatory response, using the genetically obese (leptin-deficient) mouse model. Leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob) mice and wild-type counterparts (C57/BL6 mice) were exposed to UVB radiation (120 mJ/cm{sup 2}) on alternate days for 1 month. The mice were then euthanized and skin samples collected for analysis of biomarkers of inflammatory responses using immunohistochemistry, western blotting, ELISA and real-time PCR. Here, we report that the levels of inflammatory responses were higher in the UVB-exposed skin of the ob/ob obese mice than those in the UVB-exposed skin of the wild-type non-obese mice. The levels of UVB-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression, prostaglandin-E{sub 2} production, proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cell survival signals (phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and p-Akt-Ser{sup 473}) were higher in the skin of the ob/ob obese mice than the those in skin of their wild-type non-obese counterparts. Compared with the wild-type non-obese mice, the leptin-deficient obese mice also exhibited greater activation of NF-kappaB/p65 and fewer apoptotic cells in the UVB-irradiated skin. Our study suggests for the first time that obesity in mice is associated with greater susceptibility to UVB-induced inflammatory responses and, therefore, obesity may increase susceptibility to UVB-induced inflammation-associated skin diseases, including the risk of skin cancer.

  3. Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha values in elk neonates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber-Meyer, S. M.; Johnson, C.R.; Murtaugh, M.P.; Mech, L.D.; White, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Serological indicators of general condition would be helpful for monitoring or assessing ungulate wildlife. Toward that end, we report the 1st reference values for 2 cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-??), in neonatal elk (Cervus elaphus). We obtained blood samples from 140 calves ??? 6 days old in Yellowstone National Park during summer 2003-2005. TL-6 values ranged from 0 to 1.21 pg/ml with a median of 0.03 pg/ml. TNF-?? values ranged from 0 to 225.43 pg/ml with a median of 1.85 pg/ml. IL-6 and TNF-?? concentrations were not significant predictors of elk calf survival through 21 days. Development of ungulate-based IL-6 and TNF-?? assays that provide greater sensitivity than cross-reacting human-based assays could be helpful in monitoring ungulate condition and health status comparisons among herds. Such information could provide indirect assessments of range quality or environmental influences among herds. ?? 2007 American Society of Mammalogists.

  4. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Peripical Tissue Exudates of Teeth with Apical Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Pezelj-Ribarić, Sonja; Magašić, Karolina; Prpić, Jelena; Miletić, Ivana; Karlović, Zoran

    2007-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to determine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels in periapical exudates and to evaluate their relationship with radiological findings. Methodology. Periapical exudates were collected from root canals of 60 single-rooted teeth using absorbent paper points. TNF-α levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The samples were divided into three groups according to the periapical radiolucent area. Results. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant differences between TNF-α concentrations in control group (40, 57±28, 15 pg/mL) and group with larger radiolucent areas (2365, 79±582, 95 pg/mL), as well as between control and canals with small radiolucent areas (507, 66±278, 97) (P<.05). Conclusions. The levels of TNF-α increase significantly in teeth with periapical pathosis, from smaller to bigger lesions. This research and its results have shown that objective analysis of the TNF-α levels enables establishment of a relationship between different concentrations of TNF-α and different radiological changes. PMID:18320014

  5. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Converting Enzyme: Implications for Ocular Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ramana, Kota V

    2010-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) –converting enzyme (TACE), a member of the family of metalloproteinase disintegrin proteins, is responsible for the conversion of inactive TNF-α precursor from to active mature form. TNF-α is a pleiotropic cytokine that contributes to cellular immunity and inflammatory response in wide range of inflammatory pathologies. Although a large number of studies indicate the use of TACE inhibitors, which prevents processing of TNF-α as potential therapeutic drugs for the treatment of inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease and cancer, very few studies indicate its use in ocular pathologies. It is still not clearly understood how the TACE-mediated shedding of cytokines and growth factors in various ocular tissues plays a critical role in the cytotoxic signals causing tissue dysfunction and damage leading to blindness. Regulation of TACE activity is likely to have wide implications for ocular immunology and inflammatory diseases. Specifically, since anti-TNF-α therapies have been used to prevent ocular inflammatory complications, the use of TACE inhibitors could be a novel therapeutic approach for ocular inflammatory diseases especially uveitis. PMID:20303413

  6. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha deficiency impairs host defense against Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Dong-Gu; Seo, Jin-Hee; Heo, Seung-Ho; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen that is involved in community-acquired pneumonia. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that activates immune responses against infection, invasion, injury, or inflammation. To study the role of TNF-α during S. pneumoniae infection, a murine pneumococcal pneumonia model was used. We intranasally infected C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) and TNF-α knockout (KO) mice with S. pneumoniae D39 serotype 2. In TNF-α KO mice, continuous and distinct loss of body weight, and low survival rates were observed. Bacterial counts in the lungs and blood of TNF-α KO mice were significantly higher than those in WT mice. Histopathological lesions in the spleen of TNF-α KO mice were more severe than those in WT mice. In TNF-α KO mice, severe depletion of white pulp was observed and the number of apoptotic cells was significantly increased. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), IL-12p70 and IL-10 levels in serum were significantly increased in TNF-α KO mice. TNF-α is clearly involved in the regulation of S. pneumoniae infections. Early death and low survival rates of TNF-α KO mice were likely caused by a combination of impaired bacterial clearance and damage to the spleen. Our findings suggest that TNF-α plays a critical role in protecting the host from systemic S. pneumoniae infection. PMID:26155202

  7. Orthodontic forces increase tumor necrosis factor alpha in the human gingival sulcus.

    PubMed

    Lowney, J J; Norton, L A; Shafer, D M; Rossomando, E F

    1995-11-01

    The production of cytokines has been associated with the biology of tooth movement in animal populations. The purpose of this study was to measure tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) directly in the human gingival sulcus before and after the application of an orthodontic force. To recover TNF from the sulcus, paramagnetic beads, coated with monoclonal antibodies for TNF, were introduced into the gingival sulcus of 50 teeth undergoing orthodontic tooth movement (by two force systems) in 20 patients. Retrieval was performed by a permanent magnetic device designed to fit the periodontal sulcus. The samples were taken before force application (controls), and at a fixed time after force application. The amount of immunoabsorbed TNF was quantified with an immunochemical assay. There was a greater than twofold increase in TNF recoverable from the gingival sulcus after application of orthodontic forces (mean of 12.9 ng vs 30.5 ng). A Student's t test for paired samples demonstrated statistical significance at p < 0.01. We conclude that the quantity of paradental TNF, found in human gingival sulcus, is elevated during tooth movement. The source may be from the adjacent gingiva, but more likely the compressed periodontal ligament and the resorbing bone adjacent to the root surface. PMID:7484971

  8. Location of tumour necrosis factor alpha by immunohistochemistry in chronic inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Murch, S H; Braegger, C P; Walker-Smith, J A; MacDonald, T T

    1993-01-01

    This study determined the location and tissue density of cells immunoreactive for tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) in intestinal specimens from 24 patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (15 with Crohn's disease, nine with ulcerative colitis) and 11 controls. There was significantly increased density of TNF alpha immunoreactive cells in the lamina propria of both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease specimens, although the distribution of these cells differed in the two conditions. In ulcerative colitis most of the TNF alpha immunoreactivity was seen in the subepithelial macrophages, with comparatively less in the deep lamina propria, while in Crohn's disease immunoreactive cells were distributed evenly throughout the lamina propria. Increased submucosal immunoreactivity was found only in Crohn's disease, in which TNF alpha positive macrophages tended to cluster around arterioles and venules, often infiltrating and disrupting vascular endothelium. It is suggested that this degree of TNF alpha production probably contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, by impairing the integrity of epithelial and endothelial membranes, increasing inflammatory cell recruitment, and by prothrombotic effects on the vascular endothelium. Images Figure 2 PMID:8031350

  9. A stonemason with accelerated silicosis in the setting of tumour necrosis factor alpha inhibitor therapy.

    PubMed

    Baird, Timothy; Putt, Michael; Dettrick, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    We present the case of a 26-year-old stonemason with accelerated silicosis in the setting of treatment for psoriasis with the tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) inhibitor adalimumab. Accelerated silicosis is an important occupational lung disease with a poor prognosis and limited treatment options [1]. Although the exact pathogenesis remains unknown, it is suggested that secretion of cytokines, including TNF-alpha, plays a central role in disease progression [1,2]. Importantly, however, TNF-alpha inhibitors, in addition to resulting in an increased risk of infection, are also now being seen to cause interstitial lung disease [3,4]. To our knowledge, this is the first documented patient to develop silicosis whilst on TNF-alpha inhibitor therapy. This case challenges the theory behind TNF-alpha's exact role in the pathogenesis of silicosis and lung fibrosis, highlights the importance of monitoring individuals with both occupational and drug exposures, and illustrates the increasing difficulties physicians face in investigating patients with pulmonary infiltrates and multiple possible aetiologies. PMID:27516887

  10. Thymidine phosphorylase and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α expression in clinical stage II/III rectal cancer: association with response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuhan; Lai, Hao; Qin, Yuzhou; Chen, Jiansi; Lin, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether pretreatment status of thymidine phosphorylase (TP), and hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF-1α) could predict pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy with oxaliplatin and capecitabine (XELOXART) and outcomes for clinical stage II/III rectal cancer patients. A total of 180 patients diagnosed with clinical stage II/III rectal cancer received XELOXART. The status of TP, and HIF-1α were determined in pretreatment biopsies by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Tumor response was assessed in resected regimens using the tumor regression grade system and TNM staging system. 5-year disease free survival (DFS) and 5-year overall survival (OS) were evaluated with the Kaplan-Meier method and were compared by the log-rank test. Over expression of TP and low expression of HIF-1α were associated with pathologic response to XELOXART and better outcomes (DFS and OS) in clinical stage II/III rectal cancer patients (P < 0.05). Our result suggested that pretreatment status of TP and HIF-1α were found to predict pathologic response and outcomes in clinical stage II/III rectal cancer received XELOXART. Additional well-designed, large sample, multicenter, prospective studies are needed to confirm the result of this study. PMID:26617778

  11. Effects of prostaglandin E2, cholera toxin and 8-bromo-cyclic AMP on lipopolysaccharide-induced gene expression of cytokines in human macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, W W; Burke, P A; Drotar, M E; Chavali, S R; Forse, R A

    1995-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) appears to regulate macrophage cytokine production through the stimulatory GTP-binding protein (Gs protein)-mediated cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent transmembrane signal transduction pathway. In this study, we used PGE2, cholera toxin (CT; a direct G alpha s protein stimulator) and 8-bromo-cAMP (a membrane permeable cAMP analogue) to stimulate this pathway, and investigated their influence on cytokine gene expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated human macrophages. The mRNA expression for interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), IL-1 beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-6 and IL-8 were determined employing reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific primers. We demonstrated that PGE2, CT and 8-bromo-cAMP inhibited the LPS-induced gene activation of TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha, and had no effect on the gene activation of IL-1 beta and IL-8. Further, our data indicate that PGE2 suppressed the gene activation of IL-6 following LPS stimulation, but neither CT nor 8-bromo-cAMP had an effect. These data suggest that PGE2 alters LPS-stimulated gene activation of only some of the early macrophage cytokines, and does so either by a Gs transmembrane cAMP-dependent or an independent system. Images Figure 1 PMID:7751029

  12. Overexpression of transforming growth factor-alpha causes liver enlargement and increased hepatocyte proliferation in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Webber, E. M.; Wu, J. C.; Wang, L.; Merlino, G.; Fausto, N.

    1994-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) expression is associated with hepatocyte DNA replication both in vivo and in culture. Our previous work using TGF-alpha transgenic mice showed that constitutive overexpression of this growth factor in the liver causes hepatic tumors in 75 to 80% of the animals at 12 to 15 months of age. To understand the cellular events by which TGF-alpha overexpression leads to abnormal liver growth, we examined hepatocyte proliferative activity in young and old TGF-alpha transgenic mice and hepatocyte ploidy in normal, dysplastic, and neoplastic livers of these animals. At 4 weeks of age, transgenic mice had higher liver weights and liver weight/body weight ratios than non-transgenic mice of the same age and hepatocyte proliferative activity, measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation after 3- and 7-day infusion, proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining, and mitotic index determination, was 2 to 3 times higher than in controls. In both transgenic and non-transgenic mice hepatocyte proliferation declined with age but the decrease was much more pronounced in control animals, so that at 8 months of age, hepatocyte replication was 8 to 10 times higher in transgenic animals. Surprisingly, however, transgenic and non-transgenic mice at this age had similar liver weight/body weight ratios. Labeling studies done in 3-month-old animals revealed that hepatocyte turnover was much faster in transgenic than in control animals, suggesting that a homeostatic compensatory mechanism involving cell death tended to restore normal liver weight/body weight ratios in older transgenic mice. Ploidy analyses showed that at 4 weeks of age transgenic mice had a higher proportion of diploid and tetraploid hepatocytes and that the hepatocellular tumors which developed in TGF-alpha transgenic mice at 13 months of age contained a higher fraction of diploid hepatocytes than that present in adjacent tissue or in dysplastic livers. The results demonstrate that

  13. Radiocurability by Targeting Tumor Necrosis Factor-{alpha} Using a Bispecific Antibody in Carcinoembryonic Antigen Transgenic Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Larbouret, Christel; Robert, Bruno; Linard, Christine; Teulon, Isabelle; Gourgou, Sophie M.Sc.; Bibeau, Frederic; Martineau, Pierre; Santoro, Lore; Pouget, Jean-Pierre; Pelegrin, Andre; Azria, David

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) enhances radiotherapy (RT) killing of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. To overcome systemic side effects, we used a bispecific antibody (BsAb) directed against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and TNF-{alpha} to target this cytokine in a CEA-expressing colon carcinoma. We report the evaluation of this strategy in immunocompetent CEA-transgenic mice. Methods and Materials: The murine CEA-transfected colon carcinoma MC-38 was used for all experiments. In vitro, clonogenic assays were performed after RT alone, TNF-{alpha} alone, and RT plus TNF-{alpha}. In vivo, the mice were randomly assigned to treatment groups: control, TNF-{alpha}, BsAb, BsAb plus TNF-{alpha}, RT, RT plus TNF-{alpha}, and RT plus BsAb plus TNF-{alpha}. Measurements of endogenous TNF-{alpha} mRNA levels and evaluation of necrosis (histologic evaluation) were assessed per treatment group. Results: In vitro, combined RT plus TNF-{alpha} resulted in a significant decrease in the survival fraction at 2 Gy compared with RT alone (p < 0.00001). In vivo, we observed a complete response in 5 (50%) of 10, 2 (20%) of 10, 2 (18.2%) of 11, and 0 (0%) of 12 treated mice in the RT plus BsAb plus TNF-{alpha}, RT plus TNF-{alpha}, RT alone, and control groups, respectively. This difference was statistically significant when TNF-{alpha} was targeted with the BsAb (p = 0.03). The addition of exogenous TNF-{alpha} to RT significantly increased the endogenous TNF-{alpha} mRNA level, particularly when TNF-{alpha} was targeted with BsAb (p < 0.01). The percentages of necrotic area were significantly augmented in the RT plus BsAb plus TNF-{alpha} group. Conclusion: These results suggest that targeting TNF-{alpha} with the BsAb provokes RT curability in a CEA-expressing digestive tumor syngenic model and could be considered as a solid rationale for clinical trials.

  14. The effect of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha on human joint capsule myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have shown that the number of myoblastically differentiated fibroblasts known as myofibroblasts (MFs) is significantly increased in stiff joint capsules, indicating their crucial role in the pathogenesis of post-traumatic joint stiffness. Although the mode of MFs' function has been well defined for different diseases associated with tissue fibrosis, the underlying mechanisms of their regulation in the pathogenesis of post-traumatic joint capsule contracture are largely unknown. Methods In this study, we examined the impact of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) on cellular functions of human joint capsule MFs. MFs were challenged with different concentrations of TNF-α with or without both its specifically inactivating antibody infliximab (IFX) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) inhibitor diclofenac. Cell proliferation, gene expression of both alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen type I, the synthesis of prostaglandin derivates E2, F1A, and F2A, as well as the ability to contract the extracellular matrix were assayed in monolayers and in a three-dimensional collagen gel contraction model. The α-SMA and COX2 protein expressions were evaluated by immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis. Results The results indicate that TNF-α promotes cell viability and proliferation of MFs, but significantly inhibits the contraction of the extracellular matrix in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was associated with downregulation of α-SMA and collagen type I by TNF-α application. Furthermore, we found a significant time-dependent upregulation of prostaglandin E2 synthesis upon TNF-α treatment. The effect of TNF-α on COX2-positive MFs could be specifically prevented by IFX and partially reduced by the COX2 inhibitor diclofenac. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that TNF-α specifically modulates the function of MFs through regulation of prostaglandin E2 synthesis and therefore may play a

  15. Gene expression profiling of replicative and induced senescence.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Maggie; Kruger, Adele; Tainsky, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a cell cycle arrest accompanied by high expression of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors which counteract overactive growth signals, which serves as a tumor suppressive mechanism. Senescence can be a result of telomere shortening (natural or replicative senescence) or DNA damage resulting from exogenous stressors (induced senescence). Here, we performed gene expression profiling through RNA-seq of replicative senescence, adriamycin-induced senescence, H2O2-induced senescence, and 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine-induced senescence in order to profile the pathways controlling various types of senescence. Overall, the pathways common to all 4 types of senescence were related to inflammation and the innate immune system. It was also evident that 5-aza-induced senescence mirrors natural replicative senescence due to telomere shortening. We also examined the prevalence of senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) factors in the RNA-seq data, showing that it is a common characteristic of all 4 types of senescence. In addition, we could discriminate changes in gene expression due to quiescence during cellular senescence from those that were specific to senescence. PMID:25483067

  16. Salmonella induces prominent gene expression in the rat colon

    PubMed Central

    Rodenburg, Wendy; Keijer, Jaap; Kramer, Evelien; Roosing, Susanne; Vink, Carolien; Katan, Martijn B; van der Meer, Roelof; Bovee-Oudenhoven, Ingeborg MJ

    2007-01-01

    Background Salmonella enteritidis is suggested to translocate in the small intestine. In vivo it induces gene expression changes in the ileal mucosa and Peyer's patches. Stimulation of Salmonella translocation by dietary prebiotics fermented in colon suggests involvement of the colon as well. However, effects of Salmonella on colonic gene expression in vivo are largely unknown. We aimed to characterize time dependent Salmonella-induced changes of colonic mucosal gene expression in rats using whole genome microarrays. For this, rats were orally infected with Salmonella enteritidis to mimic a foodborne infection and colonic gene expression was determined at days 1, 3 and 6 post-infection (n = 8 rats per time-point). As fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) affect colonic physiology, we analyzed colonic mucosal gene expression of FOS-fed versus cellulose-fed rats infected with Salmonella in a separate experiment. Colonic mucosal samples were isolated at day 2 post-infection. Results Salmonella affected transport (e.g. Chloride channel calcium activated 6, H+/K+ transporting Atp-ase), antimicrobial defense (e.g. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein, Defensin 5 and phospholipase A2), inflammation (e.g. calprotectin), oxidative stress related genes (e.g. Dual oxidase 2 and Glutathione peroxidase 2) and Proteolysis (e.g. Ubiquitin D and Proteosome subunit beta type 9). Furthermore, Salmonella translocation increased serum IFNγ and many interferon-related genes in colonic mucosa. The gene most strongly induced by Salmonella infection was Pancreatitis Associated Protein (Pap), showing >100-fold induction at day 6 after oral infection. Results were confirmed by Q-PCR in individual rats. Stimulation of Salmonella translocation by dietary FOS was accompanied by enhancement of the Salmonella-induced mucosal processes, not by induction of other processes. Conclusion We conclude that the colon is a target tissue for Salmonella, considering the abundant changes in mucosal gene expression

  17. Inducible regulation of GDNF expression in human neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, ShuYan; Ren, Ping; Guan, YunQian; Zou, ChunLin; Fu, LinLin; Zhang, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) holds promises for treating neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. Human neural stem cells (hNSCs) have proved to be a suitable cell delivery vehicle for the safe and efficient introduction of GDNF into the brain. In this study, we used hNSCs-infected with a lentivirus encoding GDNF and the hygromycin resistance gene as such vehicles. A modified tetracycline operator 7 (tetO7) was inserted into a region upstream of the EF1-α promoter to drive GDNF expression. After hygromycin selection, hNSCs were infected with a lentivirus encoding a KRAB-tetracycline repressor fusion protein (TTS). TTS bound to tetO7 and suppressed the expression of GDNF in hNSCs. Upon administration of doxycycline (Dox) the TTS-tetO7 complex separated and the expression of GDNF resumed. The hNSCs infected with GDNF expressed the neural stem cell specific markers, nestin and sox2, and exhibited no significant change in proliferation rate. However, the rate of apoptosis in hNSCs expressing GDNF was lower compared with normal NSCs in response to actinomycin treatment. Furthermore, a higher percentage of Tuj-1 positive cells were obtained from GDNF-producing NSCs under conditions that induced differentiation compared to control NSCs. The inducible expression of GDNF in hNSCs may provide a system for the controllable delivery of GDNF in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23269553

  18. Effect of Selenium Against Lead-Induced Damage on the Gene Expression of Heat Shock Proteins and Inflammatory Cytokines in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes of Chickens.

    PubMed

    Sun, G X; Chen, Y; Liu, C P; Li, S; Fu, J

    2016-08-01

    The possible beneficial role of selenium (Se) in heat shock proteins (HSPs) and inflammation damage induced by lead (Pb) in chickens is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Se against Pb on the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of HSPs (HSP 27, 40, 60, 70, and 90); heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1); and the inflammatory cytokines nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of chickens. A total of 360 1-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated into four groups (n = 90/group). The control group was fed a basic diet containing 0.2 mg/kg Se and 0.5 mg/kg Pb; the Se supplementation group (+Se group) was fed a Se-adequate (sodium selenite) diet containing 1 mg/kg Se and 0.5 mg/kg Pb; the Pb-supplemented group (+Pb group) was fed a Pb acetate diet containing 0.2 mg/kg Se and 350 mg/kg Pb; and the Se and Pb compound group (Se + Pb group) was fed a diet containing 1 mg/kg Se and 350 mg/kg Pb. The blood was collected and examined for the mRNA levels of HSP and inflammatory cytokine genes at 30 and 60 days old. The results showed that Pb poisoning induced the mRNA expression of HSPs and inflammatory cytokines in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of chickens. In addition, Se alleviated the Pb-induced increase in HSP and inflammatory cytokine mRNA levels in chicken peripheral blood lymphocytes. In conclusion, Se can antagonize the toxic effects of Pb on chickens and protect the chickens' peripheral blood lymphocytes in normal physiological function. PMID:26728796

  19. Filamin A Expression Negatively Regulates Sphingosine-1-Phosphate-Induced NF-κB Activation in Melanoma Cells by Inhibition of Akt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Ludmila S.; Rodriguez, Yamila I.; Leopoldino, Andreia M.; Hait, Nitai C.; Lopez Bergami, Pablo; Castro, Melina G.; Sanchez, Emilse S.; Maceyka, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid mediator that regulates many processes in inflammation and cancer. S1P is a ligand for five G-protein-coupled receptors, S1PR1 to -5, and also has important intracellular actions. Previously, we showed that intracellular S1P is involved in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF)-induced NF-κB activation in melanoma cell lines that express filamin A (FLNA). Here, we show that extracellular S1P activates NF-κB only in melanoma cells that lack FLNA. In these cells, S1P, but not TNF, promotes IκB kinase (IKK) and p65 phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 nuclear translocation, and NF-κB reporter activity. NF-κB activation induced by S1P was mediated via S1PR1 and S1PR2. Exogenous S1P enhanced the phosphorylation of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ), and its downregulation reduced S1P-induced the phosphorylation of IKK and p65. In addition, silencing of Bcl10 also inhibited S1P-induced IKK phosphorylation. Surprisingly, S1P reduced Akt activation in melanoma cells that express FLNA, whereas in the absence of FLNA, high phosphorylation levels of Akt were maintained, enabling S1P-mediated NF-κB signaling. In accord, inhibition of Akt suppressed S1P-mediated IKK and p65 phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Hence, these results support a negative role of FLNA in S1P-mediated NF-κB activation in melanoma cells through modulation of Akt. PMID:26552704

  20. Filamin A Expression Negatively Regulates Sphingosine-1-Phosphate-Induced NF-κB Activation in Melanoma Cells by Inhibition of Akt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Campos, Ludmila S; Rodriguez, Yamila I; Leopoldino, Andreia M; Hait, Nitai C; Lopez Bergami, Pablo; Castro, Melina G; Sanchez, Emilse S; Maceyka, Michael; Spiegel, Sarah; Alvarez, Sergio E

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid mediator that regulates many processes in inflammation and cancer. S1P is a ligand for five G-protein-coupled receptors, S1PR1 to -5, and also has important intracellular actions. Previously, we showed that intracellular S1P is involved in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF)-induced NF-κB activation in melanoma cell lines that express filamin A (FLNA). Here, we show that extracellular S1P activates NF-κB only in melanoma cells that lack FLNA. In these cells, S1P, but not TNF, promotes IκB kinase (IKK) and p65 phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 nuclear translocation, and NF-κB reporter activity. NF-κB activation induced by S1P was mediated via S1PR1 and S1PR2. Exogenous S1P enhanced the phosphorylation of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ), and its downregulation reduced S1P-induced the phosphorylation of IKK and p65. In addition, silencing of Bcl10 also inhibited S1P-induced IKK phosphorylation. Surprisingly, S1P reduced Akt activation in melanoma cells that express FLNA, whereas in the absence of FLNA, high phosphorylation levels of Akt were maintained, enabling S1P-mediated NF-κB signaling. In accord, inhibition of Akt suppressed S1P-mediated IKK and p65 phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Hence, these results support a negative role of FLNA in S1P-mediated NF-κB activation in melanoma cells through modulation of Akt. PMID:26552704

  1. Expression changes of inflammatory factors in the rat lung of decompression sickness induced by fast buoyancy ascent escape.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Tao; Fang, Yi-Qun; You, Pu; Bao, Xiao-Chen; Yuan, Heng-Rong; Ma, Jun; Wang, Fang-Fang; Li, Kai-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Fast buoyancy ascent escape is one of the major naval submarine escape maneuvers. Decompression sickness (DCS) is the major bottleneck to increase the depth of fast buoyancy ascent escape. Rapid decompression induces the release of inflammatory mediators and results in tissue inflammation cascades and a protective anti-inflammatory response. In our previous study, we found that DCS caused by simulated fast buoyancy ascent escape could induce acute lung injury (ALI) and the expression changes of the proinflammatory cytokines: tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in rat lung tissue. In order to study the expression change characteristics of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 in the rat lung of DCS caused by simulated fast buoyancy ascent escape, we detected the rat lung mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 at 0.5 hour after DCS caused by simulated fast buoyancy ascent escape (fast escape group), compared with the normal control group (control group) and diving DCS (decompression group). We observed that DCS caused by simulated fast buoyancy ascent escape could increase the mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and the protein levels of TNF-α, IL-10 in rat lung tissue. At the same time, we found that the protein level of IL-13 was also downregulated in rat lung tissue. TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-13 may be involved in the process of the rat lung injury of DCS caused by simulated fast buoyancy ascent escape. In conclusion, the expression changes of inflammatory factors in the rat lung of DCS caused by simulated fast buoyancy ascent escape were probably different from that in the rat lung of diving DCS, which indicated that the pathological mechanism of DCS caused by simulated fast buoyancy ascent escape might be different from that of diving DCS. PMID:26094300

  2. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha concentrations and clinical abnormalities in colostrum-fed and colostrum-deprived neonatal foals given endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Allen, G K; Green, E M; Robinson, J A; Garner, H E; Loch, W E; Walsh, D M

    1993-09-01

    We examined the effect of infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) concentration and clinical attitude in 2- 3-day-old colostrum-fed (CF) and colostrum-deprived (CD) foals. Eleven CF and 8 CD neonatal foals were given a bolus i.v. infusion of Escherichia coli O55:B5 lipopolysaccharide (0.5 microgram/kg of body weight) in sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Four CF and 2 CD foals were given saline solution alone. Serum IgG concentration and serum anti-LPS IgG(T) antibody titer were determined for each foal prior to infusion. A depression index was used to score clinical abnormalities. Serum TNF alpha concentration was estimated by use of an in vitro cytotoxicity bioassay that used WEHI 164 clone 13 cells as targets. The cytotoxic serum factor was identified as TNF alpha by immunoprecipitation with caprine antisera raised against the 15 NH2-terminal amino acids of human TNF alpha. Tumor necrosis factor alpha was not detected in any preinfusion serum samples nor in any samples from foals given saline solution alone. Serum TNF alpha concentration increased in all LPS-infused foals and peaked between 60 and 90 minutes after infusion. Serum TNF alpha concentrations, expressed as mean percentage of peak serum TNF alpha concentration, persisted longer in CD foals given LPS than in CF foals given LPS. All LPS-infused foals displayed clinical signs of endotoxemia, but mean depression index scores of the CF and CD foals given LPS were not significantly different at any time. Serum TNF alpha concentrations were correlated with depression index scores in both LPS-infused groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8239125

  3. Tanshinone IIA Induces Heme Oxygenase 1 Expression and Inhibits Cyclic Strain-Induced Interleukin 8 Expression in Vascular Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Shaowei; Cheng, Tzu-Hurng; Shih, Nang-Lang; Liu, Ju-Chi; Chen, Jin-Jer; Hong, Hong-Jye; Chan, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Tanshinone IIA is the main effective component of Salvia miltiorrhiza, known as "Danshen," which has been used in many therapeutic remedies in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the direct effects of tanshinone IIA on vascular endothelial cells have not yet been fully described. In the present study, we demonstrated that tanshinone IIA increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Western blot analyses and experiments with specific inhibitors indicated tanshinone IIA enhanced HO-1 expression through the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and the subsequent induction of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation. In addition, tanshinone IIA inhibited cyclic strain induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression. HO-1 silencing significantly abrogated the repressive effects of tanshinone IIA on strain-induced IL-8 expression, which suggests HO-1 has a role in mediating the effects of tanshinone IIA. This study reports for the first time that tanshinone IIA inhibits cyclic strain-induced IL-8 expression via the induction of HO-1 in endothelial cells, providing valuable new insight into the molecular pathways that may contribute to the effects of tanshinone IIA. PMID:27080946

  4. Regulated in Development and DNA Damage 1 Is Necessary for Hyperglycemia-induced Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in the Retina of Diabetic Rodents*

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Michael D.; Kimball, Scot R.; Fort, Patrice E.; Jefferson, Leonard S.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is considered a major role player in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, yet the mechanisms regulating its expression are not fully understood. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that diabetes-induced VEGF expression in the retina was dependent on the repressor of mRNA translation 4E-BP1. Interaction of 4E-BP1 with the cap-binding protein eIF4E regulates protein expression by controlling the selection of mRNAs for translation. The process is regulated by the master kinase mTOR in complex 1 (mTORC1), which phosphorylates 4E-BP1, thus promoting its disassociation from eIF4E. In the present study, we investigated the role of the Akt/mTORC1 repressor REDD1 (regulated in development and DNA damage) in diabetes-induced VEGF expression. REDD1 expression was induced by hyperglycemia in the retina of diabetic rodents and by hyperglycemic conditions in Müller cells concomitant with increased VEGF expression. In Müller cells, hyperglycemic conditions attenuated global rates of protein synthesis and cap-dependent mRNA translation concomitant with up-regulated cap-independent VEGF mRNA translation, as assessed by a bicistronic luciferase reporter assay. Hyperglycemic conditions also attenuated mTORC1 signaling and enhanced 4E-BP1 binding to eIF4E. Furthermore, ectopic expression of REDD1 in Müller cells was sufficient to promote both increased 4E-BP1 binding to eIF4E and VEGF expression. Whereas the retina of wild-type mice exhibited increased expression of VEGF and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) 4 weeks after streptozotocin administration, the retina of REDD1 knock-out mice failed to do so. Overall, the results demonstrate that REDD1 contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetes in the retina by mediating the pathogenic effects of hyperglycemia. PMID:25548280

  5. Estimation of salivary tumor necrosis factor-alpha in chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Sheeja S.; Thomas, Hima; Jayakumar, N. D.; Sankari, M.; Lakshmanan, Reema

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Periodontitis is a chronic bacterial infection characterized by persistent inflammation, connective tissue breakdown and alveolar bone destruction mediated by pro-inflammatory mediators. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is an important pro-inflammatory mediator that produced causes destruction of periodontal tissues. Objective: The aim of the study is to estimate the salivary TNF-α in chronic and aggressive periodontitis and control participants and further correlate the levels with clinical parameter such as gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment loss. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 75 subjects age ranging from 25 to 55 years attending the outpatient section of Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital. The study groups included Groups 1, 2, and 3 with participants with healthy periodontium (n = 25), generalized chronic periodontitis (n = 25) and generalized aggressive periodontitis (n = 25), respectively. Salivary samples from the participants were used to assess the TNF-α levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: GI and PI were found to be significantly higher in chronic and aggressive periodontitis compared to the controls. The mean TNF-α value in chronic periodontitis patients (12.92 ± 17.21 pg/ml) was significantly higher than in control subjects (2.15 ± 3.60 pg/ml). Whereas, in aggressive periodontitis patients the mean TNF-α (7.23 ± 7.67) were not significantly different from chronic periodontitis or healthy subjects. Among periodontitis participants, aggressive periodontitis subjects exhibited a significant positive correlation between the salivary TNF-α and PPD. Conclusion: Salivary TNF-α levels are significantly higher in chronic periodontitis than in healthy subjects, but there was no significant correlation with the clinical parameters. PMID:26604566

  6. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Promoter Polymorphism and Severity of Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Susantitaphong, Paweena; Perianayagam, Mary C.; Tighiouart, Hocine; Liangos, Orfeas; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Jaber, Bertrand L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tumor necrosis factor-alpha is a proinflammatory cytokine that has been implicated in the pathobiology of acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods We explored the association of a functional polymorphism in the promoter region (rs1800629) of the TNFA gene with severity of AKI, as defined by level of glomerular filtration (serum cystatin C and creatinine) and tubular injury (urinary NAG, KIM-1, α-GST, and π-GST) markers, in 262 hospitalized adults. Results In unadjusted analyses, compared with the GG genotype, the TNFA GA and AA genotype groups tended to have higher enrollment (p = 0.08), peak (p = 0.004), and discharge (p = 0.004) serum creatinine levels, and the AA genotype tended to have a higher enrollment serum cystatin C level (p = 0.04). Compared with the GG genotype, the TNFA GA and AA genotype groups tended to have a higher urinary KIM-1 level (p = 0.03), and the AA genotype group tended to have a higher urinary π-GST level (p = 0.03). After adjustment for sex, race, age, baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate, sepsis, and dialysis requirement, compared with the GG genotype, the TNFA minor A-allele group had a higher peak serum creatinine of 1.03 mg/dl (0.43, 1.63; p = 0.001) and a higher urinary KIM-1 (relative ratio: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.16, 2.59; p = 0.008). The TNFA minor A-allele group also had a higher Multiple Organ Failure score of 0.26 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.49; p = 0.024) after adjustment for sex, race, age, and sepsis. Conclusions The TNFA rs1800629 gene polymorphism is associated with markers of kidney disease severity and distant organ dysfunction among patients with AKI. Larger studies are needed to confirm these relationships. PMID:23796916

  7. Orofacial clefts, parental cigarette smoking, and transforming growth factor-alpha gene variants

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, G.M.; Wasserman, C.R.; O`Malley, C.D.

    1996-03-01

    Results of studies determine whether women who smoke during early pregnancy are at increased risk of delivering infants with orofacial clefts have been mixed, and recently a gene-environment interaction between maternal smoking, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFa), and clefting has been reported. Using a large population-based case-control study, we investigated whether parental periconceptional cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk for having offspring with orofacial clefts. We also investigated the influence of genetic variation of the TGFa locus on the relation between smoking and clefting. Parental smoking information was obtained from telephone interviews with mothers of 731 (84.7% of eligible) orofacial cleft case infants and with mothers of 734 (78.2%) nonmalformed control infants. DNA was obtained from newborn screening blood spots and genotyped for the allelic variants of TGFa. We found that risks associated with maternal smoking were most elevated for isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate, (odds ratio 2.1 [95% confidence interval 1.3-3.6]) and for isolated cleft palate (odds ratio 2.2 [1.1-4.5]) when mothers smoked {ge} 20 cigarrettes/d. These risks for white infants ranged from 3-fold to 11-fold across phenotypic groups. Paternal smoking was not associated with clefting among the offspring of nonsmoking mothers, and passive smoke exposures were associated with at most slightly increased risks. This study offers evidence that the risk for orofacial clefting in infants may be influenced by maternal smoke exposures alone as well as in combination (gene-environment interaction) with the presence of the uncommon TGFa allele. 56 refs., 5 tabs.

  8. Mechanical stretch induces lung α-epithelial Na(+) channel expression.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Shamimunisa B; Isaac, John; Seidner, Steven R; Dixon, Patricia S; Henson, Barbara M; DiGeronimo, Robert J

    2014-10-01

    ABSTRACT During fetal development physiological stretching helps drive lung growth and maturation. At birth, the α-subunit of the alveolar epithelial sodium channel (α-ENaC) is a critical factor in helping to facilitate clearance of lung fluid during the perinatal period. The effects of stretch, however, on α-ENaC expression in the fetal lung have yet to be elucidated. In an effort to explore this question, we used both an in vitro cell culture model that exposes cells to repetitive cyclic stretch (CS) as well as an in vivo preterm animal model of mechanical ventilation (MV). We found that murine lung epithelial (MLE-12) cells exposed to repetitive CS showed a significant rise in α-ENaC mRNA expression. Total and cell-surface protein abundance of α-ENaC were also elevated after 24 h of CS. Stretch-induced increases in α-ENaC expression were suppressed in the presence of either actinomycin D or cycloheximide. Pharmacological inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) did not attenuate stretch-induced increases in α-ENaC protein, whereas inhibition of p38 MAPK or c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) did. In 29-day preterm rabbits, alveolar stretching secondary to postnatal MV markedly elevated fetal lung α-ENaC expression compared to spontaneously breathing counterparts. In summary, our findings indicate that mechanical stretch promotes α-ENaC expression. PMID:25058750

  9. Gas-inducible product gene expression in bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Weber, Wilfried; Rimann, Markus; de Glutz, François-Nicolas; Weber, Eric; Memmert, Klaus; Fussenegger, Martin

    2005-05-01

    Inducible transgene expression technologies are of unmatched potential for biopharmaceutical manufacturing of unstable, growth-impairing and cytotoxic proteins as well as conditional metabolic engineering to improve desired cell phenotypes. Currently available transgene dosing modalities which rely on physical parameters or small-molecule drugs for transgene fine-tuning compromise downstream processing and/or are difficult to implement technologically. The recently designed gas-inducible acetaldehyde-inducible regulation (AIR) technology takes advantage of gaseous acetaldehyde to modulate product gene expression levels. At regulation effective concentrations gaseous acetaldehyde is physiologically inert and approved as food additive by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA). During standard bioreactor operation, gaseous acetaldehyde could simply be administered using standard/existing gas supply tubing and eventually eliminated by stripping with inducer-free air. We have determined key parameters controlling acetaldehyde transfer in three types of bioreactors and designed a mass balance-based model for optimal product gene expression fine-tuning using gaseous acetaldehyde. Operating a standard stirred-tank bioreactor set-up at 10 L scale we have validated AIR technology using CHO-K1-derived serum-free suspension cultures transgenic for gas-inducible production of human interferon-beta (IFN-beta). Gaseous acetaldehyde-inducible IFN-beta production management was fully reversible while maintaining cell viability at over 95% during the entire process. Compatible with standard bioreactor design and downstream processing procedures AIR-based technology will foster novel opportunities for pilot and large-scale manufacturing of difficult-to-produce protein pharmaceuticals. PMID:15885616

  10. Interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha exert their antirickettsial effect via induction of synthesis of nitric oxide.

    PubMed Central

    Feng, H. M.; Walker, D. H.

    1993-01-01

    How the host defenses control rickettsiae in the cytosol of nonphagocytic host cells, where they are not exposed to antibodies or phagocytes, has posed a difficult question. Rickettsia conorii infection of a mouse fibroblast cell line was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by nitrogen oxide synthesized by eukaryotic host cells stimulated by interferon-gamma or tumor necrosis factor-alpha. L-arginine was the source of the nitric oxide as demonstrated by competitive inhibition by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine. Nitric oxide synthesis required host cell protein synthesis and had an approximately 48-hour lag phase following cytokine stimulation. At low doses of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which had no detectable response as single agents, dramatic synergistic nitric oxide synthesis and antirickettsial effects were observed. PMID:8213997

  11. Microarray studies of psychostimulant-induced changes in gene expression.

    PubMed

    Yuferov, Vadim; Nielsen, David; Butelman, Eduardo; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2005-03-01

    Alterations in the expression of multiple genes in many brain regions are likely to contribute to psychostimulant-induced behaviours. Microarray technology provides a powerful tool for the simultaneous interrogation of gene expression levels of a large number of genes. Several recent experimental studies, reviewed here, demonstrate the power, limitations and progress of microarray technology in the field of psychostimulant addiction. These studies vary in the paradigms of cocaine or amphetamine administration, drug doses, route and also mode of administration, duration of treatment, animal species, brain regions studied and time of tissue collection after final drug administration. The studies also utilize different microarray platforms and statistical techniques for analysis of differentially expressed genes. These variables influence substantially the results of these studies. It is clear that current microarray techniques cannot detect small changes reliably in gene expression of genes with low expression levels, including functionally significant changes in components of major neurotransmission systems such as glutamate, dopamine, opioid and GABA receptors, especially those that may occur after chronic drug administration or drug withdrawal. However, the microarray studies reviewed here showed cocaine- or amphetamine-induced alterations in the expression of numerous genes involved in the modulation of neuronal growth, cytoskeletal structures, synaptogenesis, signal transduction, apoptosis and cell metabolism. Application of laser capture microdissection and single-cell cDNA amplification may greatly enhance microarray studies of gene expression profiling. The combination of rapidly evolving microarray technology with established methods of neuroscience, molecular biology and genetics, as well as appropriate behavioural models of drug reinforcement, may provide a productive approach for delineating the neurobiological underpinnings of drug responses that lead to

  12. Controlled expression of functional miR-122 with a ligand inducible expression system

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To study the biological function of miRNAs, and to achieve sustained or conditional gene silencing with siRNAs, systems that allow controlled expression of these small RNAs are desirable. Methods for cell delivery of siRNAs include transient transfection of synthetic siRNAs and expression of siRNAs in the form of short hairpins using constitutive RNA polymerase III promoters. Systems employing constitutive RNA polymerase II promoters have been used to express miRNAs. However, for many experimental systems these methods do not offer sufficient control over expression. Results We present an inducible mammalian expression system that allows for the conditional expression of short hairpin RNAs that are processed in vivo to generate miRNAs or siRNAs. Using modified nuclear receptors in a two hybrid format and a synthetic ligand, the Rheoswitch system allows rapid and reversible induction of mRNA expression. We evaluated the system's properties using miR-122 as a model miRNA. A short hairpin encoding miR-122 cloned into the expression vector was correctly processed to yield mature miRNA upon induction with ligand and the amount of miRNA produced was commensurate with the concentration of ligand. miR-122 produced in this way was capable of silencing both endogenous target genes and appropriately designed reporter genes. Stable cell lines were obtained, resulting in heritable, consistent and reversible expression of miR-122, a significant advantage over transient transfection. Based on these results, obtained with a microRNA we adapted the method to produce a desired siRNA by designing short hairpins that can be accurately and efficiently processed. Conclusion We established an Inducible expression system with a miR-122 backbone that can be used for functional studies of miRNAs and their targets, in heterologous cells that do not normally express the miRNA. Additionally we demonstrate the feasibility of using the miR-122 backbone to express shRNA with a desired

  13. Tetrandrine, a plant alkaloid, inhibits the production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (cachectin) hy human monocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrante, A; Seow, W K; Rowan-Kelly, B; Thong, Y H

    1990-01-01

    Human mononuclear leucocytes (MNL) or the adherent fraction (monocytes) produced tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) (by ELISA) in culture when stimulated with killed Staphylococcus aureus. The bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid, tetrandrine inhibited the capacity of MNL and monocytes to produce TNF-alpha at a concentration range of 0.1 to 5 micrograms/ml. Tetrandrine may be potentially useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases in which TNF-alpha plays a major role. PMID:2357850

  14. Salmonella enterica induces joint inflammation and expression of interleukin-17 in draining lymph nodes early after onset of enterocolitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Noto Llana, Mariángeles; Sarnacki, Sebastián Hernán; Vázquez, María Victoria; Gartner, Alejandra Sonia; Giacomodonato, Mónica Nancy; Cerquetti, María Cristina

    2012-06-01

    In developing countries, one-third of reactive arthritis (ReA) cases are associated with Salmonella enterocolitis; nevertheless, there is no animal model for studying this pathology. Here we induced a self-limiting Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis enterocolitis in mice to analyze the onset of ReA. BALB/c mice received orally 20 μg of streptomycin 24 h before intragastric inoculation of a low dose (3 × 10(3) to 4 × 10(3) CFU) of S. Enteritidis. In response to Salmonella infection, a 30-fold increase in the expression of interleukin-17 (IL-17), measured by quantitative PCR, was observed in mesenteric lymph nodes 5 days postinfection. At this time synovitis was already evident, and concomitantly, a significant increase in joint tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The early development of joint lesions was accompanied by an increased expression of IL-17 in inguinal and popliteal lymph nodes. Infection with 10(7) CFU of an isogenic ΔinvG mutant bearing a defective type III secretion system of Salmonella encoded in the pathogenicity island 1 apparatus (TTSS-1) induced enterocolitis histologically similar to that triggered by the wild-type strain. Interestingly, despite the higher infective dose used, the mutant did not trigger intestinal IL-17. Moreover, no synovitis was observed in mice suffering ΔinvG enterocolitis. Neutralization of IL-17 in mice infected with S. Enteritidis prevented both synovitis and the increment of TNF-α in the joints, suggesting that IL-17 participates in the generation of Salmonella-induced ReA through the induction of TNF-α in the joints. PMID:22493084

  15. Expression of β-Defensin Genes in Bovine Alveolar Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Lisa K.; Rhodes, Janice; Bhat, Meenakshi; Diamond, Gill

    1998-01-01

    Bovine alveolar macrophages (BAM) were examined for the expression of β-defensins and to determine whether their expression could be upregulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as observed with β-defensins expressed in bovine tracheal epithelial cells. Four β-defensins were expressed constitutively in BAM, with bovine neutrophil β-defensin (BNBD)-4 and BNBD-5 being the most predominant. This is the first evidence of β-defensin gene expression in a mature myeloid cell. LPS had no effect on β-defensin expression in BAM, even though tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production was induced. Nonbacterial inflammatory particles had little effect on β-defensin gene expression or TNF-α production in BAM. We hypothesize that constitutively expressed β-defensins of alveolar macrophages may have a role in lung host defense. PMID:9453661

  16. Effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha on sexual activity of male patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xin; Zheng, Yi; Shi, Tian-Yan; Liu, Hong-Yan

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of a tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) antagonist on the sexual quality of life of male patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). In this open-label study, 42 AS patients were grouped into the TNF-α antagonist treatment group and the non-TNF-α antagonist treatment group for 3 months. Clinical and laboratory indices and changes in the sexual quality of life were compared to assess the efficacy of TNF-α antagonists on sexual activity. The relationship between sexual quality and disease activity was analyzed. There were no significant differences in baseline data between the two groups. After treatment, disease activity and quality of life were improved in these two groups. The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) score (1.9 ± 1.6 vs. 3.0 ± 1.3, p = 0.020), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (9 ± 7 mm/1 h vs. 18 ± 17 mm/1 h, p = 0.031), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (1.8 ± 2.1 mg/dl vs. 6.2 ± 8.5 mg/dl, p = 0.035) were significantly lower in the TNF-α antagonist treatment group than in the non-TNF-α antagonist treatment group. The extent of improvement in the quality of life was more evident in the TNF-α antagonist treatment group. The average degree of improvement in the quality of life was negatively related to the BASDAI score and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index score in the TNF-α antagonist treatment group (r = -0.497, p = 0.018; r = -0.558, p = 0.007, respectively). Sexual quality of life and disease activity are improved after treatment with TNF-α antagonists in male patients with AS. The extent of improvement in sexual quality and disease activity are positively related. PMID:25064131

  17. Single nucleotide polymorphism in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene affects inflammatory bowel diseases risk

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Lynnette R; Huebner, Claudia; Petermann, Ivonne; Gearry, Richard B; Barclay, Murray L; Demmers, Pieter; McCulloch, Alan; Han, Dug Yeo

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter of the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) gene play in the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) in a New Zealand population, in the context of international studies. METHODS: DNA samples from 388 patients with Crohn’s disease (CD), 405 ulcerative colitis (UC), 27 indeterminate colitis (IC) and 201 randomly selected controls, from Canterbury, New Zealand were screened for 3 common polymorphisms in the TNF-α receptor: -238 G→A, -308 G→A and -857C→T, using a TaqmanR assay. A meta-analysis was performed on the data obtained on these polymorphisms combined with that from other published studies. RESULTS: Individuals carrying the -308 G/A allele had a significantly (OR = 1.91, χ2 = 17.36, P < 0.0001) increased risk of pancolitis, and a 1.57-fold increased risk (OR = 1.57, χ2 = 4.34, P = 0.037) of requiring a bowel resection in UC. Carrying the -857 C/T variant decreased the risk of ileocolonic CD (OR = 0.56, χ2 = 4.32, P = 0.037), and the need for a bowel resection (OR = 0.59, χ2 = 4.85, P = 0.028). The risk of UC was reduced in individuals who were smokers at diagnosis, (OR = 0.48, χ2 = 4.86, P = 0.028). CONCLUSION: TNF-α is a key cytokine known to play a role in inflammatory response, and the locus for the gene is found in the IBD3 region on chromosome 6p21, known to be associated with an increased risk for IBD. The -308 G/A SNP in the TNF-α promoter is functional, and may account in part for the increased UC risk associated with the IBD3 genomic region. The -857 C/T SNP may decrease IBD risk in certain groups. Pharmaco- or nutrigenomic approaches may be desirable for individuals with such affected genotypes. PMID:18698679

  18. Binding of tumor necrosis factor alpha to activated forms of human plasma alpha 2 macroglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Wollenberg, G. K.; LaMarre, J.; Rosendal, S.; Gonias, S. L.; Hayes, M. A.

    1991-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that human plasma alpha 2 macroglobulin (alpha 2M) is a latent binding glycoprotein for human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Human recombinant 125I-TNF-alpha was incubated for 2 hours (37 degrees C) with purified native alpha 2M and with alpha 2M that was modified by reaction with methylamine or various proteinases. 125I-TNF-alpha/alpha 2M complexes were detected by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after autoradiography or by liquid chromatography on Superose-6. 125I-TNF-alpha bound strongly but noncovalently to alpha 2M-plasmin and alpha 2M-methylamine. There was minimal binding of 125I-TNF-alpha to native alpha 2M, alpha 2M-trypsin, or alpha 2M-thrombin. A 10(6) molar excess of porcine heparin did not reduce the binding of 125I-TNF-alpha to alpha 2M-methylamine or alpha 2M-plasmin. alpha 2M-plasmin or alpha 2M-methylamine added to human plasma or serum preferentially bound 125I-TNF-alpha in the presence of native alpha 2M. 125I-TNF-alpha also bound to 'fast' alpha-macroglobulins in methylamine-reacted human, rat, mouse, swine, equine, and bovine plasma. However, TNF-alpha, preincubated with either alpha 2M-plasmin or alpha 2M-methylamine, remained a potent necrogen for cultured L929 cells. Purified 125I-TNF-alpha/alpha 2M-plasmin complex injected intravenously in CD-1 mice rapidly cleared from the circulation, unless the alpha 2M-receptor pathway was blocked by coinjection of excess alpha 2M-trypsin. These findings demonstrate that alpha 2M is a latent plasmin-activated binding glycoprotein for TNF-alpha and that TNF-alpha/alpha 2M-plasmin complexes can be removed from the circulation by the alpha 2M-receptor pathway. This suggests that alpha 2M may be an important regulator of the activity and distribution of TNF-alpha in vivo. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:1704186

  19. Insulin decreases atherosclerosis by inducing endothelin receptor B expression

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyoungmin; Mima, Akira; Li, Qian; Rask-Madsen, Christian; He, Pingnian; Mizutani, Koji; Katagiri, Sayaka; Maeda, Yasutaka; Wu, I-Hsien; Khamaisi, Mogher; Preil, Simone Rordam; Maddaloni, Ernesto; Sørensen, Ditte; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt; Huang, Paul L.; King, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) insulin resistance and dysfunction, caused by diabetes, accelerates atherosclerosis. It is unknown whether specifically enhancing EC-targeted insulin action can decrease atherosclerosis in diabetes. Accordingly, overexpressing insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) in the endothelia of Apoe−/− mice (Irs1/Apoe−/−) increased insulin signaling and function in the aorta. Atherosclerosis was significantly reduced in Irs1/ApoE−/− mice on diet-induced hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. The mechanism of insulin’s enhanced antiatherogenic actions in EC was related to remarkable induction of NO action, which increases endothelin receptor B (EDNRB) expression and intracellular [Ca2+]. Using the mice with knockin mutation of eNOS, which had Ser1176 mutated to alanine (AKI), deleting the only known mechanism for insulin to activate eNOS/NO pathway, we observed that IRS1 overexpression in the endothelia of Aki/ApoE−/− mice significantly decreased atherosclerosis. Interestingly, endothelial EDNRB expression was selectively reduced in intima of arteries from diabetic patients and rodents. However, endothelial EDNRB expression was upregulated by insulin via P13K/Akt pathway. Finally EDNRB deletion in EC of Ldlr−/− and Irs1/Ldlr−/− mice decreased NO production and accelerated atherosclerosis, compared with Ldlr−/− mice. Accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetes may be reduced by improving insulin signaling selectively via IRS1/Akt in the EC by inducing EDNRB expression and NO production. PMID:27200419

  20. Hypergravity-induced changes in gene expression in Arabidopsis hypocotyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, R.; Soga, K.; Wakabayashi, K.; Takeba, G.; Hoson, T.

    2003-05-01

    Under hypergravity conditions, the cell wall of stem organs becomes mechanically rigid and elongation growth is suppressed, which can be recognized as the mechanism for plants to resist gravitational force. The changes in gene expression by hypergravity treatment were analyzed in Arabidopsis hypocotyls by the differential display method, for identifying genes involved in hypergravity-induced growth suppression. Sixty-two cDNA clones were expressed differentially between the control and 300 g conditions: the expression levels of 39 clones increased, whereas those of 23 clones decreased under hypergravity conditions. Sequence analysis and database searching revealed that 12 clones, 9 up-regulated and 3 down-regulated, have homology to known proteins. The expression of these genes was further analyzed using RT-PCR. Finally, six genes were confirmed to be up-regulated by hypergravity. One of such genes encoded 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase (HMGR), which catalyzes a reaction producing mevalonic acid, a key precursor ofterpenoids such as membrane sterols and several types of hormones. The expression of HMGR gene increased within several hours after hypergravity treatment. Also, compactin, an inhibitor of HMGR, prevented hypergravity-induced growth suppression, suggesting that HMGR is involved in suppression of Arabidopsis hypocotyl growth by hypergravity. In addition, hypergravity increased the expression levels of genes encoding CCR1 and ERD15, which were shown to take part in the signaling pathway of environmental stimuli such as temperature and water, and those of the α-tubulin gene. These genes may be involved in a series of cellular events leading to growth suppression of stem organs under hypergravity conditions.

  1. Direct exposure to nitrogen dioxide fails to induce the expression of some inflammatory cytokines in an IC-21 murine macrophage cell model.

    PubMed

    Tu, B; Wallin, A; Moldéus, P; Cotgreave, I A

    1995-12-15

    Biologically-active molecules secreted from alveolar macrophages, such as cytokines, have been proposed to be involved in the induction of pulmonary toxicity and inflammation in response to the inhalation of oxidant gas pollutants such as NO2 and O3. Despite this, mechanistic studies are hampered by the difficulty in obtaining control macrophages from human subjects, and the intrinsic variability of such primary cells. It is, thus, of importance to develop alternative models for such studies. Here, we have characterised expression kinetics of the mRNAs for tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1 beta) in confluent cultures of the murine IC-21 macrophage line in response to LPS. The secretion of TNF-alpha protein into the medium, assayed by L-929 cell bioassay, closely followed the expression of its mRNA in response to the LPS stimulus. In contrast to LPS, the exposure of IC-21 cells to either air or various concentrations of NO2 in air between 2 and 20 ppm, in an inverted plate exposure model, failed to induce the expression of any of the cytokine mRNAs probed. We conclude that the IC-21 cell line may represent a suitable model for studying the role of stimulated cytokine gene expression in inflammation and that the early events in the pulmonary inflammatory response to the inhalation of NO2 do not involve stimulated release of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta or MIP-1 alpha/MIP-1 beta from macrophages. PMID:8560494

  2. Expression of Hyaluronidase by Tumor Cells Induces Angiogenesis in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dacai; Pearlman, Eric; Diaconu, Eugenia; Guo, Kun; Mori, Hiroshi; Haqqi, Tariq; Markowitz, Sanford; Willson, James; Sy, Man-Sun

    1996-07-01

    Hyaluronic acid is a proteoglycan present in the extracellular matrix and is important for the maintenance of tissue architecture. Depolymerization of hyaluronic acid may facilitate tumor invasion. In addition, oligosaccharides of hyaluronic acid have been reported to induce angiogenesis. We report here that a hyaluronidase similar to the one on human sperm is expressed by metastatic human melanoma, colon carcinoma, and glioblastoma cell lines and by tumor biopsies from patients with colorectal carcinomas, but not by tissues from normal colon. Moreover, angiogenesis is induced by hyaluronidase+ tumor cells but not hyaluronidase- tumor cells and can be blocked by an inhibitor of hyaluronidase. Tumor cells thus use hyaluronidase as one of the ``molecular saboteurs'' to depolymerize hyaluronic acid to facilitate invasion. As a consequence, breakdown products of hyaluronic acid can further promote tumor establishment by inducing angiogenesis. Hyaluronidase on tumor cells may provide a target for anti-neoplastic drugs.

  3. Gemcitabine-induced CXCL8 expression counteracts its actions by inducing tumor neovascularization

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Yao; Baba, Tomohisa; Li, Ying-Yi; Furukawa, Kaoru; Tanabe, Yamato; Matsugo, Seiichi; Sasaki, Soichiro; Mukaida, Naofumi

    2015-03-06

    Patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are frequently complicated with metastatic disease or locally advanced tumors, and consequently need chemotherapy. Gemcitabine is commonly used for PDAC treatment, but with limited efficacy. The capacity of gemcitabine to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human pancreatic cancer cells, prompted us to examine its effects on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We observed that gemcitabine enhanced selectively the expression of CXCL8 in human pancreatic cancer cells through ROS generation and NF-κB activation. In vitro blocking of CXCL8 failed to modulate gemcitabine-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation in human pancreatic cancer cells. Gemcitabine also enhanced CXCL8 expression in pancreatic cancer cells in xenografted tumor tissues. Moreover, anti-CXCL8 antibody treatment in vivo attenuated tumor formation as well as intra-tumoral vascularity in nude mice, which were transplanted with Miapaca-2 cells and treated with gemcitabine. Thus, gemcitabine-induced CXCL8 may counteract the drug through inducing neovascularization. - Highlights: • Gemcitabine induced CXCL8 expression in human pancreatic cancer cells. • CXCL8 expression required ROS generation and NF-κB activation. • CXCL8 did not affect in vitro proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells. • CXCL8 in vivo counteracted gemcitabine by inducing neovascularization.

  4. Co-expression analysis of differentially expressed genes in hepatitis C virus-induced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Song, Qingfeng; Zhao, Chang; Ou, Shengqiu; Meng, Zhibin; Kang, Ping; Fan, Liwei; Qi, Feng; Ma, Yilong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using the expression profiles of HCV-infected Huh7 cells at different time points. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified with the Samr package in R software once the data were normalized. Functional and pathway enrichment analysis of the identified DEGs was also performed. Subsequently, MCODE in Cytoscape software was applied to conduct module analysis of the constructed co-expression networks. A total of 1,100 DEGs were identified between the HCV-infected and control samples at 12, 18, 24 and 48 h post-infection. DEGs at 24 and 48 h were involved in the same signaling pathways and biological processes, including sterol biosynthetic processes and tRNA amino-acylation. There were 22 time series genes which were clustered into 3 expression patterns, and the demarcation point of the 2 expression patterns that 401 overlapping DEGs at 24 and 48 h clustered into was 24 h post-infection. tRNA synthesis-related biological processes emerged at 24 and 48 h. Replication and assembly of HCV in HCV-infected Huh7 cells occurred mainly at 24 h post-infection. In view of this, the screened time series genes have the potential to become candidate target molecules for monitoring, diagnosing and treating HCV-induced HCC. PMID:25339452

  5. Co-expression analysis of differentially expressed genes in hepatitis C virus-induced hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    SONG, QINGFENG; ZHAO, CHANG; OU, SHENGQIU; MENG, ZHIBIN; KANG, PING; FAN, LIWEI; QI, FENG; MA, YILONG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using the expression profiles of HCV-infected Huh7 cells at different time points. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified with the Samr package in R software once the data were normalized. Functional and pathway enrichment analysis of the identified DEGs was also performed. Subsequently, MCODE in Cytoscape software was applied to conduct module analysis of the constructed co-expression networks. A total of 1,100 DEGs were identified between the HCV-infected and control samples at 12, 18, 24 and 48 h post-infection. DEGs at 24 and 48 h were involved in the same signaling pathways and biological processes, including sterol biosynthetic processes and tRNA amino-acylation. There were 22 time series genes which were clustered into 3 expression patterns, and the demarcation point of the 2 expression patterns that 401 overlapping DEGs at 24 and 48 h clustered into was 24 h post-infection. tRNA synthesis-related biological processes emerged at 24 and 48 h. Replication and assembly of HCV in HCV-infected Huh7 cells occurred mainly at 24 h post-infection. In view of this, the screened time series genes have the potential to become candidate target molecules for monitoring, diagnosing and treating HCV-induced HCC. PMID:25339452

  6. Expression of GADS enhances FLT3-induced mitogenic signaling.

    PubMed

    Chougule, Rohit A; Cordero, Eugenia; Moharram, Sausan A; Pietras, Kristian; Rönnstrand, Lars; Kazi, Julhash U

    2016-03-22

    GADS is a member of a family of SH2 and SH3 domain-containing adaptors that functions in tyrosine kinase-mediated signaling cascades. Its expression is largely restricted to hematopoietic tissues and cell lines. Therefore, GADS is mainly involved in leukocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase signaling. GADS is known to interact with tyrosine-phosphorylated SHC, BCR-ABL and KIT. The SH2 domain of GADS has a similar binding specificity to that of GRB2 but its SH3 domain displays a different binding specificity, and thus it is involved in other downstream signaling pathways than GRB2. In the present study, we examined the role of GADS in FLT3 signaling. FLT3 is a type III receptor tyrosine kinase, which is mutated in more than 30% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and the most common mutations is the internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations. We observed that expression of GADS enhanced oncogenic FLT3-ITD-induced cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro. In a mouse xenograft model, GADS accelerated FLT3-ITD-dependent tumor formation. Furthermore, expression of GADS induced a transcriptional program leading to upregulation of MYC and mTORC1 target genes. GADS localizes to the cell membrane and strongly binds to ligand-stimulated wild-type FLT3 or is constitutively associated with the oncogenic mutant FLT3-ITD. We mapped the binding sites in FLT3 to pY955 and pY969 which overlaps with the GRB2 binding sites. Expression of GADS enhanced FLT3-mediated phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2, p38 and STAT5. Taken together, our data suggests that GADS is an important downstream component of FLT3 signaling and expression of GADS potentiates FLT3-mediated mitogenic signaling. PMID:26895103

  7. Expression of GADS enhances FLT3-induced mitogenic signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chougule, Rohit A.; Cordero, Eugenia; Moharram, Sausan A.; Pietras, Kristian; Rönnstrand, Lars; Kazi, Julhash U.

    2016-01-01

    GADS is a member of a family of SH2 and SH3 domain-containing adaptors that functions in tyrosine kinase-mediated signaling cascades. Its expression is largely restricted to hematopoietic tissues and cell lines. Therefore, GADS is mainly involved in leukocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase signaling. GADS is known to interact with tyrosine-phosphorylated SHC, BCR-ABL and KIT. The SH2 domain of GADS has a similar binding specificity to that of GRB2 but its SH3 domain displays a different binding specificity, and thus it is involved in other downstream signaling pathways than GRB2. In the present study, we examined the role of GADS in FLT3 signaling. FLT3 is a type III receptor tyrosine kinase, which is mutated in more than 30% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and the most common mutations is the internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations. We observed that expression of GADS enhanced oncogenic FLT3-ITD-induced cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro. In a mouse xenograft model, GADS accelerated FLT3-ITD-dependent tumor formation. Furthermore, expression of GADS induced a transcriptional program leading to upregulation of MYC and mTORC1 target genes. GADS localizes to the cell membrane and strongly binds to ligand-stimulated wild-type FLT3 or is constitutively associated with the oncogenic mutant FLT3-ITD. We mapped the binding sites in FLT3 to pY955 and pY969 which overlaps with the GRB2 binding sites. Expression of GADS enhanced FLT3-mediated phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2, p38 and STAT5. Taken together, our data suggests that GADS is an important downstream component of FLT3 signaling and expression of GADS potentiates FLT3-mediated mitogenic signaling. PMID:26895103

  8. Low doses of neutrons induce changes in gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Chang-Liu, C.M. ); Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R. )

    1993-01-01

    Studies were designed to identify genes induced following low-dose neutron but not following [gamma]-ray exposure in fibroblasts. Our past work had shown differences in the expression of [beta]-protein kinase C and c-fos genes, both being induced following [gamma]-ray but not neutron exposure. We have identified two genes that are induced following neutron, but not [gamma]-ray, exposure: Rp-8 (a gene induced by apoptosis) and the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the human immunodeficiency (HIV). Rp-8 mRNA induction was demonstrated in Syrian hamster embryo fibroblasts and was found to be induced in cells exposed to neutrons administered at low (0.5 cGy/min) and at high dose rate (12 cGy/min). The induction of transcription from the LTR of HIV was demonstrated in HeLa cells bearing a transfected construct of the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene driven by the HIV-LTR promoter. Measures of CAT activity and CAT transcripts following irradiation demonstrated an unresponsiveness to [gamma] rays over a broad range of doses. Twofold induction of the HIV-LTR was detected following neutron exposure (48 cGy) administered at low (0.5 cGy/min) but not high (12 cGy/min) dose rates. Ultraviolet-mediated HIV-LTR induction was inhibited by low-dose-rate neutron exposure.

  9. Low doses of neutrons induce changes in gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Chang-Liu, C.M.; Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R.

    1993-06-01

    Studies were designed to identify genes induced following low-dose neutron but not following {gamma}-ray exposure in fibroblasts. Our past work had shown differences in the expression of {beta}-protein kinase C and c-fos genes, both being induced following {gamma}-ray but not neutron exposure. We have identified two genes that are induced following neutron, but not {gamma}-ray, exposure: Rp-8 (a gene induced by apoptosis) and the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the human immunodeficiency (HIV). Rp-8 mRNA induction was demonstrated in Syrian hamster embryo fibroblasts and was found to be induced in cells exposed to neutrons administered at low (0.5 cGy/min) and at high dose rate (12 cGy/min). The induction of transcription from the LTR of HIV was demonstrated in HeLa cells bearing a transfected construct of the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene driven by the HIV-LTR promoter. Measures of CAT activity and CAT transcripts following irradiation demonstrated an unresponsiveness to {gamma} rays over a broad range of doses. Twofold induction of the HIV-LTR was detected following neutron exposure (48 cGy) administered at low (0.5 cGy/min) but not high (12 cGy/min) dose rates. Ultraviolet-mediated HIV-LTR induction was inhibited by low-dose-rate neutron exposure.

  10. EGR-1 regulates Ho-1 expression induced by cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Huaqun; Wang, Lijuan; Gong, Tao; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Chunhua; Li, Fen; Wang, Li; Li, Chaojun

    2010-05-28

    As an anti-oxidant molecule, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been implicated in the protection of lung injury by cigarette smoke (CS). The mechanisms regulating its expression have not been defined. In this report, the role of early growth response 1 (EGR-1) in the regulation of Ho-1 expression was investigated. In C57BL/6 mice with CS exposure, HO-1 was greatly increased in bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar inflammatory cells. In primary cultured mouse lung fibroblasts and RAW264.7 cells exposed to cigarette smoke water extract (CSE), an increase in HO-1 protein level was detected. In addition, CSE induced HO-1 expression was decreased in Egr-1 deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (Egr-1{sup -/-} MEFs). Nuclear localization of EGR-1 was examined in mouse lung fibroblasts after exposure to CSE. Luciferase reporter activity assays showed that the enhancer region of the Ho-1 gene containing a proposed EGR-1 binding site was responsible for the induction of HO-1. A higher increase of alveolar mean linear intercept (Lm) was observed in lung tissues, and a larger increase in the number of total cells and monocytes/macrophages from bronchial alveolar lavage fluid was found in CS-exposed mice by loss of function of EGR-1 treatment. In summary, the present data demonstrate that EGR-1 plays a critical role in HO-1 production induced by CS.

  11. Early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) regulates pro-inflammatory gene expression in response to palmitate and TNF alpha in human placenta cells and is induced in obese placenta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal obesity has been hypothesized to induce a pro-inflammatory response in the placenta. However, the specific factors contributing to this pro-infalmmatory response are yet to be determined. Our objective was to examine the effects of palmitic acid (PA), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alph...

  12. Lipopolysaccharide induces autotaxin expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li Song; Zhang Junjie

    2009-01-09

    Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted enzyme with lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD) activity, which converts lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) into lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive phospholipid involved in numerous biological activities, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. In the present study, we found that bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a well-known initiator of the inflammatory response, induced ATX expression in monocytic THP-1 cells. The activation of PKR, JNK, and p38 MAPK was required for the ATX induction. The LPS-induced ATX in THP-1 cells was characterized as the {beta} isoform. In the presence of LPC, ATX could promote the migrations of THP-1 and Jurkat cells, which was inhibited by pertussis toxin (PTX), an inhibitor of Gi-mediated LPA receptor signaling. In summary, LPS induces ATX expression in THP-1 cells via a PKR, JNK and p38 MAPK-mediated mechanism, and the ATX induction is likely to enhance immune cell migration in proinflammatory response by regulating LPA levels in the microenvironment.

  13. Regulation of somatic cell reprogramming through inducible mir-302 expression.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shi-Lung; Chang, Donald C; Lin, Chun-Hung; Ying, Shao-Yao; Leu, Davey; Wu, David T S

    2011-02-01

    Global demethylation is required for early zygote development to establish stem cell pluripotency, yet our findings reiterate this epigenetic reprogramming event in somatic cells through ectopic introduction of mir-302 function. Here, we report that induced mir-302 expression beyond 1.3-fold of the concentration in human embryonic stem (hES) H1 and H9 cells led to reprogramming of human hair follicle cells (hHFCs) to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. This reprogramming mechanism functioned through mir-302-targeted co-suppression of four epigenetic regulators, AOF2 (also known as KDM1 or LSD1), AOF1, MECP1-p66 and MECP2. Silencing AOF2 also caused DNMT1 deficiency and further enhanced global demethylation during somatic cell reprogramming (SCR) of hHFCs. Re-supplementing AOF2 in iPS cells disrupted such global demethylation and induced cell differentiation. Given that both hES and iPS cells highly express mir-302, our findings suggest a novel link between zygotic reprogramming and SCR, providing a regulatory mechanism responsible for global demethylation in both events. As the mechanism of conventional iPS cell induction methods remains largely unknown, understanding this microRNA (miRNA)-mediated SCR mechanism may shed light on the improvements of iPS cell generation. PMID:20870751

  14. Chicken amyloid arthropathy: serum amyloid A, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide profile in acute phase (12th hour).

    PubMed

    Sevimli, A; Bülbül, T; Bülbül, A; Yagci, A

    2013-01-01

    Acute phase response (APR) is part of the early defense system, which is triggered by different stimuli including, infection, trauma, stres, inflammation and neoplasia. The APR complex is a reaction which induces homeostasis and recovery. In this research, serum amyloid A (SAA), interlaukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured 12 hours following injection. For this purpose, Thirty-two 5 weeks old laying chicken were allocated into four groups and intra-articular injections of Freund's adjuvant were used to induce amylod arthropathy in Groups II, III and IV. Vitamin A in group II, and methylprednisolone in group IV were added to enhance and to reduce the severity of amyloidosis, respectively. At the end of the research, it was observed that TNF-alpha and NO increased significantly (P < 0.05) in vitamin A and methylprednisolone groups whereas SAA decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in all groups. It was also observed that IL-6 increased (P < 0.05) in vitamin A group and decreased in all other gorups however, IL-1beta decreased in vitamin A and methylprednisolone groups, while it was increased in the control group. The results of this study suggest that there is a positive correlation between serum TNF-alpha levels in acute and chronic phase in chickens with amyloid arthropathy. PMID:23971191

  15. Regulation of LPS-induced mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines via alteration of NF-κB activity in mouse peritoneal macrophages exposed to fluoride.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuhu; Huo, Meijun; Li, Guangsheng; Li, Yanyan; Wang, Jundong

    2016-10-01

    F toxicity to immune system, especially to macrophage, has been studied a lot recently. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), as a transcription factor, plays a central role in immune and inflammatory responses via the regulation of downstream gene expression. Recent studies indicated that fluoride effect on inflammatory cytokine secretion, however, the molecular mechanism was less understood. In our study, peritoneal macrophages (PMs) were divided several groups and were administrated sodium fluoride (NaF, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 μM) and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 30 ng/mg). The mRNA expression of p65, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) in macrophages exposed to fluoride was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR respectively. The translocation of NF-κB from cytoplasm to nucleus, which in a way reflects NF-κB activity, was demonstrated by Immunofluorescence and ELISA. Our results showed that fluoride had a dose-dependent effect on NF-κB activity, which coincided with LPS-induced mRNA expression of its downstream genes, iNOS and IL-1β. Fluoride alone causes no effect on gene expression. However, the mRNA expression of TNF-α showed non-NF-κB-dependent manner. Therefore, we come to the conclusion that fluoride can regulate LPS-induced mRNA expression of iNOS and IL-1β via NF-κB pathway in mouse peritoneal macrophages. PMID:27421105

  16. Inducible nitric oxide synthase is expressed in synovial fluid granulocytes

    PubMed Central

    CEDERGREN, J; FORSLUND 2, T; SUNDQVIST 2, T; SKOGH 1, T

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the NO-producing potential of synovial fluid (SF) cells. SF from 15 patients with arthritis was compared with blood from the same individuals and with blood from 10 healthy controls. Cellular expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was analysed by flow cytometry. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure l-arginine and l-citrulline. Nitrite and nitrate were measured colourimetrically utilizing the Griess’ reaction. Compared to whole blood granulocytes in patients with chronic arthritis, a prominent iNOS expression was observed in SF granulocytes (P < 0·001). A slight, but statistically significant, increase in iNOS expression was also recorded in lymphocytes and monocytes from SF. l-arginine was elevated in SF compared to serum (257 ± 78 versus 176 ± 65 µmol/l, P = 0·008), whereas a slight increase in l-citrulline (33 ± 11 versus 26 ± 9 µmol/l), did not reach statistical significance. Great variations but no significant differences were observed comparing serum and SF levels of nitrite and nitrate, respectively, although the sum of nitrite and nitrate tended to be elevated in SF (19·2 ± 20·7 versus 8·6 ± 6·5 µmol/l, P = 0·054). Synovial fluid leucocytes, in particular granulocytes, express iNOS and may thus contribute to intra-articular NO production in arthritis. PMID:12296866

  17. Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} enhanced fusions between oral squamous cell carcinoma cells and endothelial cells via VCAM-1/VLA-4 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Kai; Zhu, Fei; Zhang, Han-zhong; Shang, Zheng-jun

    2012-08-15

    Fusion between cancer cells and host cells, including endothelial cells, may strongly modulate the biological behavior of tumors. However, no one is sure about the driving factors and underlying mechanism involved in such fusion. We hypothesized in this study that inflammation, one of the main characteristics in tumor microenvironment, serves as a prominent catalyst for fusion events. Our results showed that oral cancer cells can fuse spontaneously with endothelial cells in co-culture and inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) increased fusion of human umbilical vein endothelium cells and oral cancer cells by up to 3-fold in vitro. Additionally, human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and 35 out of 50 (70%) oral squamous carcinoma specimens express VLA-4, an integrin, previously implicated in fusions between human peripheral blood CD34-positive cells and murine cardiomyocytes. Expression of VCAM-1, a ligand for VLA-4, was evident on vascular endothelium of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Moreover, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry analysis revealed that expression of VCAM-1 increased obviously in TNF-{alpha}-stimulated endothelial cells. Anti-VLA-4 or anti-VCAM-1 treatment can decrease significantly cancer-endothelial adhesion and block such fusion. Collectively, our results suggested that TNF-{alpha} could enhance cancer-endothelial cell adhesion and fusion through VCAM-1/VLA-4 pathway. This study provides insights into regulatory mechanism of cancer-endothelial cell fusion, and has important implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for prevention of metastasis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spontaneous oral cancer-endothelial cell fusion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} enhanced cell fusions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VCAM-1/VLA-4 expressed in oral cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} increased expression of VCAM-1 on endothelial cells. Black

  18. High magnetic field induced changes of gene expression in arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Ferl, Robert J; Meisel, Mark W

    2006-01-01

    Background High magnetic fields are becoming increasingly prevalent components of non-invasive, biomedical imaging tools (such as MRI), thus, an understanding of the molecular impacts associated with these field strengths in biological systems is of central importance. The biological impact of magnetic field strengths up to 30 Tesla were investigated in this study through the use of transgenic Arabidopsis plants engineered with a stress response gene consisting of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter driving the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene reporter. Methods Magnetic field induced Adh/GUS activity was evaluated with histochemical staining to assess tissue specific expression and distribution, and with quantitative, spectrofluometric assays to measure degree of activation. The evaluation of global changes in the Arabidopsis genome in response to exposure to high magnetic fields was facilitated with Affymetrix Gene Chip microarrays. Quantitative analyses of gene expression were performed with quantitative real-time polymerase-chain-reaction (qRT-PCR). Results Field strengths in excess of about 15 Tesla induce expression of the Adh/GUS transgene in the roots and leaves. From the microarray analyses that surveyed 8000 genes, 114 genes were differentially expressed to a degree greater than 2.5 fold over the control. These results were quantitatively corroborated by qRT-PCR examination of 4 of the 114 genes. Conclusion The data suggest that magnetic fields in excess of 15 Tesla have far-reaching effect on the genome. The wide-spread induction of stress-related genes and transcription factors, and a depression of genes associated with cell wall metabolism, are prominent examples. The roles of magnetic field orientation of macromolecules and magnetophoretic effects are discussed as possible factors that contribute to the mounting of this response. PMID:17187667

  19. Strong Magnetic Field Induced Changes of Gene Expression in Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, A.-L.; Ferl, R. J.; Klingenberg, B.; Brooks, J. S.; Morgan, A. N.; Yowtak, J.; Meisel, M. W.

    2005-07-01

    We review our studies of the biological impact of magnetic field strengths of up to 30 T on transgenic arabidopsis plants engineered with a stress response gene consisting of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter driving the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene reporter. Field strengths in excess of 15 T induce expression of the Adh/GUS transgene in the roots and leaves. Microarray analyses indicate that such field strengths have a far reaching effect on the genome. Wide spread induction of stress-related genes and transcription factors, and a depression of genes associated with cell wall metabolism are prominent examples.

  20. Silver nanoparticles induce pro-inflammatory gene expression and inflammasome activation in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Murphy, A; Casey, A; Byrne, G; Chambers, G; Howe, O

    2016-10-01

    A complete cytotoxic profile of exposure to silver (AgNP) nanoparticles investigating their biological effects on the innate immune response of circulating white blood cells is required to form a complete understanding of the risk posed. This was explored by measuring AgNP-stimulated gene expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in THP-1 monocytes. A further study, on human monocytes extracted from a cohort of blood samples, was carried out to compare with the AgNP immune response in THP-1 cells along with the detection of pro-IL-1β which is a key mediator of the inflammasome complex. The aims of the study were to clearly demonstrate that AgNP can significantly up-regulate pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α in both THP-1 cells and primary blood monocytes thus indicating a rapid response to AgNP in circulation. Furthermore, a role for the inflammasome in AgNP response was indicated by pro-IL-1β cleavage and release. These results highlight the potential inflammatory effects of AgNP exposure and the responses evoked should be considered with respect to the potential harm that exposure may cause. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26968431

  1. Lactobacillus fermentum ZYL0401 Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Hepatic TNF-α Expression and Liver Injury via an IL-10- and PGE2-EP4-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Longxian; Yang, Jianzhuan; Lu, Haifeng; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has essential role in the pathogenesis of D-galactosamine-sensitized animal models and alcoholic liver diseases of humans, by stimulating release of pro-inflammatory mediators that cause hepatic damage and intestinal barrier impairment. Oral pretreatment of probiotics has been shown to attenuate LPS-induced hepatic injury, but it is unclear whether the effect is direct or due to improvement in the intestinal barrier. The present study tested the hypothesis that pretreatment with probiotics enables the liver to withstand directly LPS-induced hepatic injury and inflammation. In a mouse model of LPS-induced hepatic injury, the levels of hepatic tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of mice with depleted intestinal commensal bacteria were not significantly different from that of the control models. Pre-feeding mice for 10 days with Lactobacillus fermentum ZYL0401 (LF41), significantly alleviated LPS-induced hepatic TNF-α expression and liver damage. After LF41 pretreatment, mice had dramatically more L.fermentum-specific DNA in the ileum, significantly higher levels of ileal cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and interleukin 10 (IL-10) and hepatic prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). However, hepatic COX-1, COX-2, and IL-10 protein levels were not changed after the pretreatment. There were also higher hepatic IL-10 protein levels after LPS challenge in LF41-pretreaed mice than in the control mice. Attenuation of hepatic TNF-α was mediated via the PGE2/E prostanoid 4 (EP4) pathway, and serum ALT levels were attenuated in an IL-10-dependent manner. A COX-2 blockade abolished the increase in hepatic PGE2 and IL-10 associated with LF41. In LF41-pretreated mice, a blockade of IL-10 caused COX-2-dependent promotion of hepatic PGE2, without affecting hepatic COX-2levels. In LF41-pretreated mice, COX2 prevented enhancing TNF-α expression in both hepatic mononuclear cells and the ileum, and averted TNF-α-mediated increase in

  2. MicroRNA (miRNA) expression is regulated by butyrate induced epigenetic modulation of gene expression in bovine cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present evidence that butyrate induced histone acetylation regulates miRNA expression. MicroRNA expression microarray profiling revealed that 35 miRNA transcripts are significantly (p <0.05) differentially expressed after cells were treated with 10 mM butyrate. Among them, 11 transcripts are dif...

  3. Roles of factorial noise in inducing bimodal gene expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peijiang; Yuan, Zhanjiang; Huang, Lifang; Zhou, Tianshou

    2015-06-01

    Some gene regulatory systems can exhibit bimodal distributions of mRNA or protein although the deterministic counterparts are monostable. This noise-induced bimodality is an interesting phenomenon and has important biological implications, but it is unclear how different sources of expression noise (each source creates so-called factorial noise that is defined as a component of the total noise) contribute separately to this stochastic bimodality. Here we consider a minimal model of gene regulation, which is monostable in the deterministic case. Although simple, this system contains factorial noise of two main kinds: promoter noise due to switching between gene states and transcriptional (or translational) noise due to synthesis and degradation of mRNA (or protein). To better trace the roles of factorial noise in inducing bimodality, we also analyze two limit models, continuous and adiabatic approximations, apart from the exact model. We show that in the case of slow gene switching, the continuous model where only promoter noise is considered can exhibit bimodality; in the case of fast switching, the adiabatic model where only transcriptional or translational noise is considered can also exhibit bimodality but the exact model cannot; and in other cases, both promoter noise and transcriptional or translational noise can cooperatively induce bimodality. Since slow gene switching and large protein copy numbers are characteristics of eukaryotic cells, whereas fast gene switching and small protein copy numbers are characteristics of prokaryotic cells, we infer that eukaryotic stochastic bimodality is induced mainly by promoter noise, whereas prokaryotic stochastic bimodality is induced primarily by transcriptional or translational noise. PMID:26172735

  4. Roles of factorial noise in inducing bimodal gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peijiang; Yuan, Zhanjiang; Huang, Lifang; Zhou, Tianshou

    2015-06-01

    Some gene regulatory systems can exhibit bimodal distributions of mRNA or protein although the deterministic counterparts are monostable. This noise-induced bimodality is an interesting phenomenon and has important biological implications, but it is unclear how different sources of expression noise (each source creates so-called factorial noise that is defined as a component of the total noise) contribute separately to this stochastic bimodality. Here we consider a minimal model of gene regulation, which is monostable in the deterministic case. Although simple, this system contains factorial noise of two main kinds: promoter noise due to switching between gene states and transcriptional (or translational) noise due to synthesis and degradation of mRNA (or protein). To better trace the roles of factorial noise in inducing bimodality, we also analyze two limit models, continuous and adiabatic approximations, apart from the exact model. We show that in the case of slow gene switching, the continuous model where only promoter noise is considered can exhibit bimodality; in the case of fast switching, the adiabatic model where only transcriptional or translational noise is considered can also exhibit bimodality but the exact model cannot; and in other cases, both promoter noise and transcriptional or translational noise can cooperatively induce bimodality. Since slow gene switching and large protein copy numbers are characteristics of eukaryotic cells, whereas fast gene switching and small protein copy numbers are characteristics of prokaryotic cells, we infer that eukaryotic stochastic bimodality is induced mainly by promoter noise, whereas prokaryotic stochastic bimodality is induced primarily by transcriptional or translational noise.

  5. Benzo(a)pyrene induces oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines, expression of nuclear factor-kappa B and deregulation of wnt/beta-catenin signaling in colons of BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Babajide O; Adedara, Isaac A; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2016-09-01

    The incidence of colonic toxicity has been epidemiologically linked to the consumption of foods contaminated with benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P). The present study investigated the effects of B[a]P on biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation and wnt-signaling in colon of BALB/c mice following exposure to 62.5, 125 and 250 mg/kg of B[a]P for 7 days by oral gavage. Exposure to B[a]P significantly decreased the colonic antioxidant enzymes activities and glutathione level with concomitant significant increase in myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation levels. Colon histopathology results showed treatment-related lesions characterized by atrophy, mucosal ulceration and gland erosion in the B[a]P-treated mice. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that B[a]P treatment increased the protein expression of nuclear factor kappa B, pro-inflammatory cytokines namely tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1β, as well as cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the mice colon. Altered canonical wnt-signaling was confirmed by strong diaminobenzidine staining for p38 mitogen activated protein kinase, β-catenin expression and absence of adenomatous polyposis coli following B[a]P administration. The present data highlight that exposure to B[a]P induces colon injury via induction of oxidative and nitrosative stress, inflammatory biomarkers and dsyregulation wnt/β-catenin signaling, thus confirming the role of B[a]P in the pathogenesis of colonic toxicity. PMID:27338711

  6. Induction of the hyaluronic acid-binding protein, tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-6, in cervical smooth muscle cells by tumor necrosis factor-alpha and prostaglandin E(2).

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Toshio; Savani, Rashmin C; Watari, Michiko; Day, Anthony J; Strauss, Jerome F

    2002-04-01

    Immediately before parturition the cervix undergoes striking changes in structure (ripening) that facilitate dilatation and effacement. Cervical ripening shares many features in common with inflammation-associated tissue remodeling, making it a valuable process to explore with respect to the biochemical events in extracellular matrix restructuring. Cervical ripening can be pharmacologically induced with prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). Among the biochemical changes in the cervix at parturition is a marked increase in the hyaluronic acid (HA) content. HA and HA-binding proteins have been implicated in tissue hydration, release of collagenase, and leukocyte migration, but their roles in cervical ripening have not been explored. In the present study we examined the ability of PGE(2) to induce expression of the HA-binding protein, tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene (TSG)-6, in human cervical smooth muscle cells (hCSMCs) and compared the PGE(2) response to that of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), an established inducer of TSG-6. TNF-alpha stimulated TSG-6 mRNA accumulation in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with the maximal response observed at 10 ng/ml after 6 hours of incubation. PGE(2) stimulated TSG-6 mRNA expression, but the magnitude of response was substantially less than that produced by TNF-alpha, and it was maximal only after 24 hours of incubation. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to assess the induction of TSG-6 mRNA and nascent transcripts at 24 hours of treatment. Induction of TSG-6 mRNA and nascent transcripts in response to 10 micromol/L of PGE(2) was 5.7-fold and 6.3-fold greater than control values, respectively, whereas TNF-alpha (10 ng/ml) induced TSG-6 mRNA and nascent transcripts by 80-fold and 134-fold, respectively. TNF-alpha and PGE(2) stimulated secretion of TSG-6 into the culture medium as detected by Western blotting. The effects of PGE(2) on secretion of TSG-6 were delayed compared to TNF-alpha. A 1

  7. Bitumen fume-induced gene expression profile in rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Gate, Laurent . E-mail: laurent.gate@inrs.fr; Langlais, Cristina; Micillino, Jean-Claude; Nunge, Herve; Bottin, Marie-Claire; Wrobel, Richard; Binet, Stephane

    2006-08-15

    Exposure to bitumen fumes during paving and roofing activities may represent an occupational health risk. To date, most of the studies performed on the biological effect of asphalt fumes have been done with regard to their content in carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In order to gain an additional insight into the mechanisms of action of bitumen fumes, we studied their pulmonary effects in rodents following inhalation using the microarray technology. Fisher 344 rats were exposed for 5 days, 6 h/day to bitumen fumes generated at road paving temperature (170 {sup o}C) using a nose-only exposition device. With the intention of studying the early transcriptional events induced by asphalt fumes, lung tissues were collected immediately following exposure and gene expression profiles in control and exposed rats were determined by using oligonucleotide microarrays. Data analysis revealed that genes involved in lung inflammatory response as well as genes associated with PAH metabolization and detoxification were highly expressed in bitumen-exposed animals. In addition, the expression of genes related to elastase activity and its inhibition which are associated with emphysema was also modulated. More interestingly genes coding for monoamine oxidases A and B involved in the metabolism of neurotransmitters and xenobiotics were downregulated in exposed rats. Altogether, these data give additional information concerning the bitumen fumes biological effects and would allow to better review the health effects of occupational asphalt fumes exposure.

  8. UV radiation induces CXCL5 expression in human skin.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Olga; Kolbe, Ludger; Terstegen, Lara; Staeb, Franz; Wenck, Horst; Schmelz, Martin; Genth, Harald; Kaever, Volkhard; Roggenkamp, Dennis; Neufang, Gitta

    2015-04-01

    CXCL5 has recently been identified as a mediator of UVB-induced pain in rodents. To compare and to extend previous knowledge of cutaneous CXCL5 regulation, we performed a comprehensive study on the effects of UV radiation on CXCL5 regulation in human skin. Our results show a dose-dependent increase in CXCL5 protein in human skin after UV radiation. CXCL5 can be released by different cell types in the skin. We presumed that, in addition to immune cells, non-immune skin cells also contribute to UV-induced increase in CXCL5 protein. Analysis of monocultured dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes revealed that only fibroblasts but not keratinocytes displayed up regulated CXCL5 levels after UV stimulation. Whereas UV treatment of human skin equivalents, induced epidermal CXCL5 mRNA and protein expression. Up regulation of epidermal CXCL5 was independent of keratinocyte differentiation and keratinocyte-keratinocyte interactions in epidermal layers. Our findings provide first evidence on the release of CXCL5 in UV-radiated human skin and the essential role of fibroblast-keratinocyte interaction in the regulation of epidermal CXCL5. PMID:25690483

  9. Association of tumor necrosis factor-alpha -308G>A polymorphism with IgE-mediated allergy to betalactams in an Italian population.

    PubMed

    Guéant-Rodriguez, R-M; Guéant, J-L; Viola, M; Tramoy, D; Gaeta, F; Romano, A

    2008-04-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is released from mast cells via an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-dependent mechanism. The variant G>A at -308 of TNFA is part of an extended haplotype HLA-A1-B8-DR3-DQ2 and influences the gene expression. We evaluated this variant in relation to IgE-mediated reactions to betalactams, in 427 subjects, including 167 cases and 260 age- and gender-paired controls. TNFA GG genotype was a significant independent predictor of the primary risk of betalactam allergy, concurrently with total IgE level, with an age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio estimated at 2.45 (95% confidence interval: 1.18-5.08, P=0.0163). Cases with -308AA genotype had a higher serum level of specific IgE than those with -308GA/GG genotype, with median levels (relative units) of 4.6 (inter-quartiles: 3.9-10.6) and 2.2 (1.4-4.3), respectively (P=0.0046). In conclusion, our results suggest an ambivalent influence of a genetic determinant of pro-inflammatory pathways on IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to betalactams. PMID:17471286

  10. Release of tumor necrosis factor alpha by human peritoneal macrophages in response to toxic shock syndrome toxin-1.

    PubMed

    Buyalos, R P; Rutanen, E M; Tsui, E; Halme, J

    1991-08-01

    We examined the release in vitro of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) by peritoneal macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes following incubation with toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). We obtained peritoneal macrophages from 22 women at laparoscopy and peripheral blood monocytes from four healthy women during both the midfollicular and midluteal phases of the menstrual cycle. The samples were incubated for 24 hours at 37 C with 10(-2)-10(4) ng/mL of TSST-1 or 10(4) ng/mL of bacterial endotoxin. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha activity was determined with a bioassay using an actinomycin D-sensitized WEHI-164 murine fibrosarcoma cell line. Twenty-four-hour incubation with TSST-1 resulted in a dose-dependent release of TNF-alpha by both peritoneal macrophages (maximal response 554 +/- 97 U of activity) and peripheral blood monocytes (maximal response 478 +/- 81 U of activity). We observed enhanced TNF-alpha release by peritoneal macrophages from women with endometriosis, compared with those without endometriosis, at a concentration of 10(4) ng/mL of TSST-1 (704 +/- 134 versus 354 +/- 103 U of activity; P less than .05). These data support the theory that the metabolic and physiologic derangements of perimenstrual toxic shock syndrome may be partially mediated by TNF-alpha released by peritoneal macrophages as a result of exposure to TSST-1. PMID:2067760

  11. In vitro protective effects of two extracts from bergamot peels on human endothelial cells exposed to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha).

    PubMed

    Trombetta, Domenico; Cimino, Francesco; Cristani, Mariateresa; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Saija, Antonella; Ginestra, Giovanna; Speciale, Antonio; Chirafisi, Joselita; Bisignano, Giuseppe; Waldron, Keith; Narbad, Arjan; Faulds, Craig B

    2010-07-28

    Bergamot ( Citrus bergamia Risso) is a less commercialized Citrus fruit, mainly used for its essential oil extracted from the peel. Bergamot peel (BP) represents about 60% of the processed fruits and is regarded as primary waste. However, it contains good amounts of useful compounds, such as pectins and flavonoids. Many of the bioactivities of Citrus flavonoids appear to impact vascular endothelial cells. Herein, we report the protective effect of two flavonoid-rich extracts from BP (endowed with radical-scavenging properties and lacking genotoxic activity) against alterations in cell modifications induced by the pleiotropic inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), as demonstrated by monitoring intracellular levels of malondialdehyde/4-hydroxynonenal, reduced and oxidized glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity, and the activation status of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). Thus, BP appears to be a potential source of natural antioxidant/anti-inflammatory phytocomplexes to be employed as ingredients of nutraceutical products or functional foods. PMID:20578719

  12. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha stimulates invasiveness of T-cell hybridomas and cytotoxic T-cell clones by a pertussis toxin-insensitive mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    La Rivière, G; Klein Gebbinck, J W; Schipper, C A; Roos, E

    1992-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) stimulated invasion by mouse T-cell hybridomas and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte clones into rat embryo fibroblast monolayers. The effect on these highly invasive cells was limited: invasion was stimulated maximally to 130% of controls. However, when cells were pretreated with pertussis toxin (PT), which inhibits invasion to +/- 20% of controls, a clearcut effect was observed: 400 U TNF-alpha per ml stimulated invasion usually two- to threefold, and sometimes even up to 10-fold. Therefore, experiments were done with PT-pretreated cells. Stimulation was dose dependent and maximal at 200-400 U TNF-alpha per ml. An anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody completely abolished TNF-alpha-induced invasion. The effect was maximal 30 min after addition of cells and TNF-alpha to the monolayer and then declined. TNF-alpha preincubation of T-cell hybridoma cells, but not of fibroblasts, had a similar stimulatory effect, which was also maximal after 30 min. This shows that TNF-alpha acts directly on the T-cell hybridoma cells. Invasive T-cell hybridomas colonize many tissues from the blood similarly as normal T cells. Our data thus suggest that TNF-alpha can stimulate migration of normal T lymphocytes into inflamed tissues and can promote metastasis of malignant T lymphomas. The signals involved are transmitted via a pertussis toxin-insensitive pathway. PMID:1551690

  13. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 antagonists alleviate inflammatory skin changes associated with epidermal growth factor receptor antibody therapy in mice.

    PubMed

    Surguladze, David; Deevi, Dhanvanthri; Claros, Nidia; Corcoran, Erik; Wang, Su; Plym, Mary Jane; Wu, Yan; Doody, Jacqueline; Mauro, David J; Witte, Larry; Busam, Klaus J; Pytowski, Bronek; Rodeck, Ulrich; Tonra, James R

    2009-07-15

    Cancer patients receiving epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody therapy often experience an acneiform rash of uncertain etiology in skin regions rich in pilosebaceous units. Currently, this condition is treated symptomatically with very limited, often anecdotal success. Here, we show that a monoclonal antibody targeting murine EGFR, ME1, caused a neutrophil-rich hair follicle inflammation in mice, similar to that reported in patients. This effect was preceded by the appearance of lipid-filled hair follicle distensions adjacent to enlarged sebaceous glands. The cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), localized immunohistochemically to this affected region of the pilosebaceous unit, was specifically up-regulated by ME1 in skin but not in other tissues examined. Moreover, skin inflammation was reduced by cotreatment with the TNFalpha signaling inhibitor, etanercept, indicating the involvement of TNFalpha in this inflammatory process. Interleukin-1, a cytokine that frequently acts in concert with TNFalpha, is also involved in this process given the efficacy of the interleukin-1 antagonist Kineret. Our results provide a mechanistic framework to develop evidence-based trials for EGFR antibody-induced skin rash in patients with cancer. PMID:19584274

  14. Role of ascorbate in the activation of NF-kappaB by tumour necrosis factor-alpha in T-cells.

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, E; Blázquez, M V; Ortiz, C; Gomez-Díaz, C; Navas, P

    1997-01-01

    The first product of ascorbate oxidation, the ascorbate free radical (AFR), acts in biological systems mainly as an oxidant, and through its role in the plasma membrane redox system exerts different effects on the cell. We have investigated the role of ascorbate, AFR and dehydroascorbate (DHA) in the activation of the NF-kappaB transcription factor in Jurkat T-cells stimulated by tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Here we show, by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, that ascorbate increases the binding of NF-kappaB to DNA in TNF-alpha-stimulated Jurkat cells. The ability of ascorbate to enhance cytoplasmic inhibitory IkBalpha protein degradation correlates completely with its capacity to induce NF-kappaB binding to DNA and to potentiate NF-kappaB-mediated transactivation of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat promoter in TNF-alpha-stimulated Jurkat cells but not in cells stimulated with PMA plus ionomycin. AFR behaves like ascorbate, while DHA and ascorbate phosphate do not affect TNF-alpha-mediated NF-kappaB activation. These results provide new evidence for a possible relationship between the activation of the electron-transport system at the plasma membrane by ascorbate or its free radical and redox-dependent gene transcription in T-cells. PMID:9224625

  15. Effects of anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha and anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 antibodies on ischemia/reperfusion lung injury.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chi-Huei

    2006-10-31

    Inhibition of neutrophil activation and adherence to endothelium by antibodies to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1), respectively, might attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R). I/R was conducted in an isolated rat lung model. Anti-TNF-alpha antibody and/or anti-ICAM-1 antibody were added before ischemia or after reperfusion. Hemodynamic changes, lung weight gain (LWG), capillary filtration coefficients (Kfc), and pathologic changes were assessed to evaluate the severity of I/R. The LWG, Kfc, pathological changes and lung injury score of treatment groups with anti-TNF-alpha antibody treatment, either pre-ischemia or during reperfusion, were less than those observed in control groups. Similar findings were found in group treated with anti-ICAM-1 antibody or combination therapy during reperfusion. In contrast, pre-I/R treatment with anti-ICAM-1 antibody induced severe lung edema and failure to complete the experimental procedure. No additional therapeutic effect was found in combination therapy. We conclude that TNF-alpha and ICAM-1 play important roles in I/R. Anti-TNF-alpha antibody has therapeutic and preventive effects on I/R. However, combined therapy with anti-TNF-alpha antibody and anti-ICAM-1 antibody may have no additive effect and need further investigation. PMID:17294835

  16. Slow rise of Ca2+ and slow release of reactive oxygen species are two cross-talked events important in tumour necrosis factor-alpha-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ko, S; Kwok, T T; Fung, K P; Choy, Y M; Lee, C Y; Kong, S K

    2000-09-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was found to be a cell cycle-independent apoptogenic cytokine in cultured fibroblast L929 cells. This assertion is based on the observations (1) TNF-alpha increased the number of cells with hypo-diploid DNA in a time dependent manner as revealed by flow cytometry, and (2) TNF-alpha induced DNA fragmentation as resolved by agarose gel electrophoresis. When cells were exposed to TNF-alpha (50 ng/ml), a slow rise in intracellular free Ca2+ level and a delayed increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (both observed 3 h after the addition of TNF-alpha) were observed in fluo-3 and fura-red or dichlorofluorescein loaded cells, respectively. Interestingly, challenge of cells with TNF-alpha in the presence of BAPTA/AM, an intracellular Ca2+ chelator, decreased the release of ROS. Removal of ROS by 4-hydroxy 2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piperidinooxy (4OH-TEMPO) blocked the TNF-alpha-mediated Ca2+ rise. Moreover, when cells were exposed to TNF-alpha with both 4OH-TEMPO and BAPTA/AM, more viable cells were found than from treatment with either BAPTA/AM or 4OH-TEMPO. These results suggest that ROS and cellular Ca2+ are two cross-talk messengers important in TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis. PMID:10993483

  17. Reduced hippocampal volume and verbal memory performance associated with interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in chemotherapy-treated breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Kesler, Shelli; Janelsins, Michelle; Koovakkattu, Della; Palesh, Oxana; Mustian, Karen; Morrow, Gary; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.

    2013-01-01

    Many survivors of breast cancer show significant cognitive impairments, including memory deficits. Inflammation induced by chemotherapy may contribute to hippocampal changes that underlie these deficits. In this cross-sectional study, we measured bilateral hippocampal volumes from high-resolution magnetic resonance images in 42 chemotherapy-treated breast cancer survivors and 35 healthy female controls. Patients with breast cancer were, on average, 4.8 ± 3.4 years off-therapy. In a subset of these participants (20 breast cancer, 23 controls), we quantified serum cytokine levels. Left hippocampal volumes and memory performance were significantly reduced and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) concentrations were significantly elevated in the breast cancer group compared to controls. In the breast cancer group, lower left hippocampal volume was associated with higher levels of TNFα and lower levels of IL-6 with a significant interaction between these two cytokines suggesting a potential modulatory effect of IL-6 on TNFα. Verbal memory performance was associated with cytokine levels and left hippocampal volume in both groups. These findings provide evidence of altered hippocampal volume and verbal memory difficulties following breast cancer chemotherapy that may be mediated by TNFα and IL-6. PMID:22698992

  18. Verproside inhibits TNF-α-induced MUC5AC expression through suppression of the TNF-α/NF-κB pathway in human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su Ui; Sung, Min Hee; Ryu, Hyung Won; Lee, Jinhyuk; Kim, Hui-Seong; In, Hyun Ju; Ahn, Kyung-Seop; Lee, Hyun-Jun; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Shin, Dae-Hee; Lee, Yongnam; Hong, Sung-Tae; Oh, Sei-Ryang

    2016-01-01

    Airway mucus secretion is an essential innate immune response for host protection. However, overproduction and hypersecretion of mucus, mainly composed of MUC5AC, are significant risk factors in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Previously, we reported that verproside, a catalpol derivative iridoid glycoside isolated from Pseudolysimachion rotundum var. subintegrum, is a potent anti-asthmatic candidate drug in vivo. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pharmacological actions of verproside remain unknown. Here, we found that verproside significantly reduces the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced MUC5AC mRNA and protein by inhibiting both nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcriptional activity and the phosphorylation of its upstream effectors such as IκB kinase (IKK)β, IκBα, and TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) in NCI-H292 cells. Moreover, verproside attenuated TNF-α-induced MUC5AC transcription more effectively when combined with an IKK (BAY11-7082) or a TAK1 (5z-7-oxozeaenol) inhibitor than when administered alone. Importantly, we demonstrated that verproside negatively modulates the formation of the TNF-α-receptor (TNFR) 1 signaling complex [TNF-RSC; TNFR1-recruited TNFR1-associated death domain protein (TRADD), TNFR-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1), and TAK1], the most upstream signaling factor of NF-κB signaling. In silico molecular docking studies show that verproside binds between TRADD and TRAF2 subunits. Altogether, these results suggest that verproside could be a good therapeutic candidate for treatment of inflammatory airway diseases such as asthma and COPD by blocking the TNF-α/NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:26318254

  19. Increased P-selectin gene expression in the liver vasculature and its role in the pathophysiology of neutrophil-induced liver injury in murine endotoxin shock.

    PubMed

    Essani, N A; Fisher, M A; Simmons, C A; Hoover, J L; Farhood, A; Jaeschke, H

    1998-03-01

    We studied the role of P-selectin, an adhesion molecule known to be important for neutrophil localization to sites of inflammation, in a model of inflammatory liver injury. Male C3Heb/FeJ (ET-sensitive) mice treated with 700 mg/kg galactosamine and 100 microg/kg Salmonella abortus equi endotoxin (Gal/ET), murine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha, 15 microg/kg), or interleukin-1 (IL-1, 13-23 microg/kg), showed increased P-selectin mRNA levels in the liver. In contrast, C3H/HeJ (ET-resistant) mice responded only to cytokines with P-selectin mRNA formation. Whereas no P-selectin expression was detectable in control livers, there was temporary staining of endothelium in large blood vessels but not in sinusoids between 3 and 5 h after ET, TNF-alpha, or IL-1 treatment. Severe liver injury induced by Gal/ET at 7 h was not inhibited by an anti-P-selectin antibody in C3Heb/FeJ mice or in P-selectin-deficient animals. Sequestration of neutrophils in sinusoids, i.e. those neutrophils that have been identified as critical for the injury, was not affected by the antibody or in P-selectin-deficient mice. However, the temporary margination in portal and post-sinusoidal venules was reduced by 75% in anti-P-selectin antibody-treated animals and by 51% in P-selectin-deficient mice. We conclude that hepatic P-selectin gene transcription in vivo involves cytokines. However, blocking P-selectin neither attenuated sinusoidal neutrophil sequestration nor prevented neutrophil-induced liver injury during endotoxin shock but attenuated neutrophil margination in larger vessels. Thus, our data demonstrate similarities and fundamental differences in the requirement for adhesion molecules to localize neutrophils in the liver vasculature compared to other organs during an inflammatory response. PMID:9500515

  20. Decreased calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in the dorsal root ganglia of TNF-deficient mice in a monoiodoacetate-induced knee osteoarthritis model

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Aya; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Miyagi, Masayuki; Kamoda, Hiroto; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Kubota, Go; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Nakamura, Junichi; Aoki, Yasuchika; Toyone, Tomoaki; Inoue, Gen; Suzuki, Miyako; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Takane; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Ohtori, Seiji; Orita, Sumihisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: The detailed mechanisms of knee osteoarthritis (OA) pain have not been clarified, but involvement of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) has been suggested. The present study aimed to investigate the more detailed neurological involvement of TNF in joint pain using a TNF-knockout mouse OA model. Methods: The right knees of twelve-week-old C57BL/6J wild and TNF-deficient knockout (TNF-ko) mice (n=15, each group) were given a single intra-articular injection of 10 µg monoiodoacetate in 10 mL sterile saline. The left knees were only punctured as the control. Evaluations were performed immediately after the injection (baseline) and at 7, 14, and 28 days after the injection with a subsequent intra-articular injection of neurotracer into both knees. The animals were evaluated for immunofluorescence of the lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) innervating the knee joints. The injected knees were observed macroscopically and mouse pain-related behaviors were scored. Results: Macroscopic observation showed similar knee OA development in both wild and TNF-ko mice. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, a neuropeptide identified as a inflammatory pain-related biomarker) was significantly increased in DRG neurons innervating OA-induced knee joints with significantly less CGRP expression in TNF-ko animals. Pain-related behavior scoring showed a significant increase in pain in OA-induced joints, but there was no significant difference in pain observed between the wild and TNF-ko mice. Conclusions: The result of the present study indicates the possible association of TNF-alpha in OA pain but not OA development. PMID:26722492

  1. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha mediates activation of NF-κB and JNK signaling cascades in retinal ganglion cells and astrocytes in opposite ways

    PubMed Central

    Dvoriantchikova, Galina; Ivanov, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is an important mediator of the innate immune response in the retina. TNF can activate various signaling cascades, including NF-κB, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways. The harmful role of these pathways, as well as of TNF, has previously been shown in several retinal neurodegenerative conditions including glaucoma and retinal ischemia. However, TNF and TNF-regulated signaling cascades are capable not only of mediating neurotoxicity, but of being protective. We performed this study to delineate the beneficial and detrimental effects of TNF signaling in the retina. To this end, we used TNF-treated primary retinal ganglion cell (RGC) and astrocyte cultures. Levels of expression of NF-κB subunits in RGCs and astrocytes were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot (WB) analysis. NF-κB and JNK activity in TNF-treated cells was determined in a time-dependent manner using ELISA and WB. Gene expression in TNF-treated astrocytes was measured by qRT-PCR. We found that NF-κB family members were present in RGCs and astrocytes at the mRNA and protein levels. RGCs failed to activate NF-κB in the presence of TNF, a phenomenon that was associated with sustained JNK activation and RGC death. However, TNF initiated the activation of NF-κB and mediated transient JNK activation in astrocytes. These events were associated with glial survival and increased expression of neurotoxic pro-inflammatory factors. Our findings suggest that, in the presence of TNF, NF-κB and JNK signaling cascades are activated in opposite ways in RGCs and astrocytes. These events can directly and indirectly facilitate RGC death. PMID:25160799

  2. Excessive Ovarian Production of Nerve Growth Factor Elicits Granulosa Cell Apoptosis by Setting in Motion a Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha/Stathmin$Mediated Death Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rudaz, Cecilia; Dorfman, Mauricio; Nagalla, Srinivasa; Svechnikov, Konstantin; Söder, Olle; Ojeda, Sergio R.; Dissen, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    Excessive nerve growth factor (NGF) production by the ovary, achieved via a transgenic approach, results in arrested antral follicle growth, reduced ovulatory capacity, and a predisposition to cyst formation in response to mildly elevated LH levels. Two salient features in these mutant mice (termed 17NF) are an elevated production of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP4), testosterone (T4) and estradiol (E2) in response to gonadotropins, and an increased frequency of granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis. Here we show that the increase in steroidal response is associated with enhanced expression of Cyp17a1, Hsd17b, and Cyp19a1, which encode the enzymes catalyzing the synthesis of 17-OHP4, T4 and E2, respectively. Using a proteomic approach, we identified stathmin (STMN1), as a protein that is overproduced in 17NF ovaries. In its phosphorylated state, STMN1 mediates a cell death signal initiated by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF). STMN1 is expressed in GCs and excessive NGF increases its abundance as well as that of its forms phosphorylated at serine (Ser) 16, 25 and 38. TNF synthesis is also increased in 17NF ovaries, and this change is abolished by blocking neurotrophic tyrosine kinase (NTRK) receptors. Inhibiting TNF actions in vivo by administering a soluble TNF receptor prevented the increase in total and phosphorylated STMN1 production, as well as GC apoptosis in NGF-overproducing ovaries. These results indicate that an excess of NGF in the ovary promotes steroidogenesis by enhancing the expression of enzyme genes involved in 17-OHP4, T4 and E2 synthesis, and causes GC apoptosis by activating a TNF/STMN1-mediated cell death pathway. PMID:21646391

  3. Inducible Expression of CXCL1 within the Central Nervous System Amplifies Viral-Induced Demyelination

    PubMed Central

    Marro, Brett S.; Grist, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    The functional role of the ELR+ chemokine CXCL1 in host defense and disease following infection of the CNS with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) was examined. Mice in which expression of CXCL1 is under the control of a tetracycline-inducible promoter active within glial fibrillary acidic protein–positive cells were generated and this allowed for selectively increasing CNS expression of CXCL1 in response to JHMV infection and evaluating the effects on neuroinflammation, control of viral replication, and demyelination. Inducible expression of CNS-derived CXCL1 resulted in increased levels of CXCL1 protein within the serum, brain, and spinal cord that correlated with increased frequency of Ly6G+CD11b+ neutrophils present within the CNS. Elevated levels of CXCL1 did not influence the generation of virus-specific T cells, and there was no difference in control of JHMV replication compared with control mice, indicating that T cell infiltration into the CNS is CXCL1-independent. Sustained CXCL1 expression within the CNS resulted in increased mortality that correlated with elevated neutrophil infiltration, diminished numbers of mature oligodendrocytes, and an increase in the severity of demyelination. Neutrophil ablation in CXCL1-transgenic mice reduced the severity of demyelination in mice, arguing for a role for these cells in white matter damage. Collectively, these findings illustrate that sustained CXCL1 expression amplifies the severity of white matter damage and that neutrophils can contribute to this process in a model of viral-induced neurologic disease. PMID:26773148

  4. Inducible Expression of CXCL1 within the Central Nervous System Amplifies Viral-Induced Demyelination.

    PubMed

    Marro, Brett S; Grist, Jonathan J; Lane, Thomas E

    2016-02-15

    The functional role of the ELR(+) chemokine CXCL1 in host defense and disease following infection of the CNS with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) was examined. Mice in which expression of CXCL1 is under the control of a tetracycline-inducible promoter active within glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells were generated and this allowed for selectively increasing CNS expression of CXCL1 in response to JHMV infection and evaluating the effects on neuroinflammation, control of viral replication, and demyelination. Inducible expression of CNS-derived CXCL1 resulted in increased levels of CXCL1 protein within the serum, brain, and spinal cord that correlated with increased frequency of Ly6G(+)CD11b(+) neutrophils present within the CNS. Elevated levels of CXCL1 did not influence the generation of virus-specific T cells, and there was no difference in control of JHMV replication compared with control mice, indicating that T cell infiltration into the CNS is CXCL1-independent. Sustained CXCL1 expression within the CNS resulted in increased mortality that correlated with elevated neutrophil infiltration, diminished numbers of mature oligodendrocytes, and an increase in the severity of demyelination. Neutrophil ablation in CXCL1-transgenic mice reduced the severity of demyelination in mice, arguing for a role for these cells in white matter damage. Collectively, these findings illustrate that sustained CXCL1 expression amplifies the severity of white matter damage and that neutrophils can contribute to this process in a model of viral-induced neurologic disease. PMID:26773148

  5. Expression of Inflammatory and Cell Death Program Genes and Comet DNA Damage Assay Induced by Escherichia coli in Layer Hens

    PubMed Central

    Mehaisen, Gamal M. K.; Eshak, Mariam G.; El Sabry, M. I.; Abass, Ahmed O.

    2016-01-01

    Modern methods of industrial poultry and egg production systems involve stressful practices that stimulate Escherichia coli (E. coli) activity causing endotoxic shock. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cell death program genes and DNA damage induced by E. coli in the brain and liver tissues of laying hens. A total of two hundred and ten H&N brown layer hens with 20 week age, were used in this research. First, preliminary experiments were designed (60 hens in total) to establish the optimal exposure dose of E. coli and to determine the nearest time of notable response to be used in the remainder studies of this research. At 35-wk of age, 150 hens were randomly assigned into 2 groups with 3 replicates of 25 birds each; the first group was injected in the brachial wing vein with 107 E. coli colony/hen, while the second group was injected with saline and served as a control. The body temperature and plasma corticosterone concentration were measured 3 hr after injection. Specimens of liver and brain were obtained from each group and the gene expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, interlukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), Bax, and caspase-3 genes were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. DNA damage in the brain and liver tissues were also measured by comet assay. Hens treated with E. coli showed significant (P<0.05) increase of body temperature and plasma corticosterone (42.6°C and 14.5 ng/ml, respectively) compared to the control group (41.1°C and 5.5 ng/ml, respectively). Additional remarkable over-inflammation gene expression of p38, IL-1β and TNF-α.genes were also detected in the brain (2.2-fold, 2.0-fold and 3.3-fold, respectively) and the liver (2.1-fold, 1.9-fold and 3.0-fold, respectively) tissues of the infected chickens. It is also important to note that hens injected with E. coli showed an increase in DNA damage in the brain and liver cells (P<0.05). These

  6. Measles virus infection enhances IL-1 beta but reduces tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Leopardi, R; Vainionpää, R; Hurme, M; Siljander, P; Salmi, A A

    1992-10-01

    Monocytes may play a role in the immunologic abnormalities caused by measles. The effect of measles virus (MV) infection on peripheral blood monocyte functions is poorly known. We report that MV-infected PBM have an altered pattern of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha production in response to stimulation with LPS and PMA in vitro. MV-infected peripheral blood monocytes produced higher amounts of IL-1 beta, whereas the production of TNF-alpha was reduced. The same effect was observed in the human monocytic cell line THP-1, which was used for RNA analysis. An increased steady-state level of IL-1 beta mRNA was observed in MV-infected cells, and the level of TNF-alpha mRNA was reduced. However, both IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha had about 50% increased transcription rate. Analysis of the mRNA stability after transcriptional block by actinomycin D showed that the TNF-alpha mRNA had a reduced half-life in MV-infected cells (about 30 vs 80 min in uninfected cells), whereas IL-1 beta mRNA stability was similar in uninfected and MV-infected cells. These results indicate that MV infection disturbs the immunoregulatory network by interfering with the monocyte functions. PMID:1527385

  7. Assessing the likelihood of new-onset inflammatory bowel disease following tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor therapy for rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Asha; Stobaugh, Derrick J; Deepak, Parakkal

    2015-04-01

    The association between inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and the onset of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unclear. We sought to evaluate this association by analyzing adverse events (AEs) reported to the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) with a standardized scoring tool for drug-induced AEs. A search of the FAERS for RA or JRA (January 2003-December 2011) reported with adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, golimumab, or infliximab was performed. This dataset was then queried for cases indicating IBD. Full-length reports were accessed using the Freedom of Information Act and organized by age, sex, concomitant medications, co-morbidities, type of TNF-α inhibitor used, and diagnosis/treatment details. The Naranjo score was used to determine whether the drug-induced AEs were definite, probable, possible, or doubtful. There were 158 cases of IBD after TNF-α inhibitor exposure in RA or JRA patients. Use of the Naranjo score revealed that, in a majority of the cases (71.5 %), TNF-α inhibitor exposure was considered a 'possible' cause. A majority of the 'probable cases' in JRA were reported with etanercept (40 patients, 90.91 %). There were no 'definite' cases of anti-TNF-induced IBD. After applying the Naranjo scale, a weak association between new-onset IBD and TNF-α inhibitor therapy in RA patients and a moderately strong association especially with etanercept exposure in JRA patients was observed. However, causality cannot be determined due to limitations of the FAERS and the Naranjo score. PMID:25228459

  8. Light-induced currents in Xenopus oocytes expressing bovine rhodopsin.

    PubMed Central

    Knox, B E; Khorana, H G; Nasi, E

    1993-01-01

    1. We have investigated the functioning of bovine rod opsin, which is efficiently synthesized from RNA made by in vitro transcription, following injection into Xenopus oocytes. We found that oocytes expressing the gene for opsin exhibit light-dependent ionic currents only after pigment generation by incubation with 11-cis-retinal. These currents are similar to the endogenous muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) response of oocytes, but their amplitude is substantially smaller. 2. In order to optimize the conditions for obtaining light-induced currents in RNA-injected oocytes, the native ACh response was examined under several conditions. It was found that elevated external calcium markedly enhances the muscarinic response and that these currents have a non-linear dependence on membrane voltage, increasing substantially with depolarization. 3. Using the optimal conditions for evoking the largest ACh responses, (28 mM [Ca2+]o, 0 mV, omission of serum and Hepes from the media), the light-evoked currents obtained in RNA-injected oocytes were remarkably enhanced, and responses to multiple light stimuli could be obtained. 4. The light response appeared to desensitize, even after long periods of recovery and pigment regeneration. By contrast, the ACh responses continued to appear normal. These results suggest that desensitization of photoresponses expressed in Xenopus oocytes involve changes at early stages of the pathway, resulting in a reduced ability of rhodopsin to couple to the endogenous signalling system. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7692039

  9. Decreased RARβ expression induces abundant inflammation and cervical precancerous lesions.

    PubMed

    Albino-Sanchez, M E; Vazquez-Hernandez, J; Ocadiz-Delgado, R; Serafin-Higuera, N; León-Galicia, I; Garcia-Villa, E; Hernandez-Pando, R; Gariglio, P

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that vitamin A and its receptors protect against cancer development and that Retinoid Acid Receptor β (RARβ) is epigenetically silenced during tumoral progression. Cervical Cancer (CC) has been causally linked to high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection. However, host factors are important in determining the outcome of persistent HR-HPV infection as most cervical precancerous lesions containing HR-HPVs do not progress to invasive carcinomas. Increasing evidence suggests that low diet in vitamin A and their receptors participate in the development of CC. The aim of this study has been to investigate the effects of abated RARβ expression in the development of cervical premalignant lesions in 4 month-old conditional mice (RARβ(L-/L-)). Results demonstrated the development of spontaneous squamous metaplasia, inflammatory infiltrate, enhanced mitotic activity, loss of cell differentiation, as well as decreased apoptosis and p16(INK4a) protein levels in RARβ(L-/L-) mice cervix. All these changes are hallmarks of moderate dysplasia. Importantly, our results suggest that the low expression of RARβ, may induce the down regulation of p16(INK4a), chronic inflammation and decreased apoptosis and may be involved in vulnerability to HR-HPV and early stage cervical carcinogenesis. PMID:27207583

  10. Glomerulonephritis-induced changes in kidney gene expression in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pavkovic, Mira; Riefke, Björn; Frisk, Anna-Lena; Gröticke, Ina; Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, Heidrun

    2015-01-01

    We investigated a glomerulonephritis (GN) model in rats induced by nephrotoxic serum (NTS) which contains antibodies against the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). The anti-GBM GN model in rats is widely used since its biochemical and histopathological characteristics are similar to crescentic nephritis and Goodpasture's disease in humans (Pusey, 2003[2]). Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were dosed once with 1, 2.5 and 5 ml/kg nephrotoxic serum (NTS) or 1.5 and 5 ml/kg NTS, respectively. GN and tubular damage were observed histopathologically in all treated rats after 14 days. To obtain insight into molecular processes during GN pathogenesis, mRNA expression was investigated in WKY and SD kidneys using Affymetrix's GeneChip Rat genome 230_2.0 arrays (GSE64265). The immunopathological processes during GN are still not fully understood and likely involve both innate and adaptive immunity. In the present study, several hundred mRNAs were found deregulated, which functionally were mostly associated with inflammation and regeneration. The β-chain of the major histocompatibility complex class II RT1.B (Rt1-Bb) and complement component 6 (C6) were identified as two mRNAs differentially expressed between WKY and SD rat strains which could be related to known different susceptibilities to NTS of different rat strains; both were increased in WKY and decreased in SD rats (Pavkovic et al., 2015 [1]). Increased Rt1-Bb expression in WKY rats could indicate a stronger and more persistent cellular reaction of the adaptive immune system in this strain, in line with findings indicating adaptive immune reactions during GN. The complement cascade is also known to be essential for GN development, especially terminal cascade products like C6. PMID:26697341

  11. Eugenolol and glyceryl-isoeugenol suppress LPS-induced iNOS expression by down-regulating NF-kappaB AND AP-1 through inhibition of MAPKS and AKT/IkappaBalpha signaling pathways in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Yeh, J L; Hsu, J H; Hong, Y S; Wu, J R; Liang, J C; Wu, B N; Chen, I J; Liou, S F

    2011-01-01

    Eugenol and isoeugenol, two components of clover oil, have been reported to possess several biomedical properties, such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects. This study aims to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of eugenol, isoeugenol and four of their derivatives on expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7), and to investigate molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. We found that two derivatives, eugenolol and glyceryl-isoeugenol, had potent inhibitory effects on LPS-induced upregulation of nitrite levels, iNOS protein and iNOS mRNA. In addition, they both suppressed the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) induced by LPS. Moreover, they both attenuated the DNA binding of NF-kB and AP-1, phosphorylation of inhibitory kB-alpha (IkB-alpha), and nuclear translocation of p65 protein induced by LPS. Finally, we demonstrated that glyceryl-isoeugenol suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK and p38 MAPK, whereas eugenolol suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Taken together, these results suggest that that eugenolol and glyceryl-isoeugenol suppress LPS-induced iNOS expression by down-regulating NF-kB and AP-1 through inhibition of MAPKs and Akt/IkB-alpha signaling pathways. Thus, this study implies that eugenolol and glyceryl-isoeugenol may provide therapeutic benefits for inflammatory diseases. PMID:21658309

  12. Identification of the galactose-adherence lectin epitopes of Entamoeba histolytica that stimulate tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Séguin, R; Mann, B J; Keller, K; Chadee, K

    1995-01-01

    The 170-kDa subunit of the galactose-adherence lectin (Gal-lectin) of Entamoeba histolytica mediates adherence to human colonic mucins and intestinal epithelium as a prerequisite to amebic invasion. The Gal-lectin is an immunodominant molecule and a protective antigen in the gerbil model of amebiasis. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) produced by activated macrophages enhances nitric oxide-dependent cytotoxicity in host defense against E. histolytica. The purpose of this study was to identify the Gal-lectin epitopes which stimulate TNF-alpha production by macrophages. Murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) exposed to Gal-lectin (100-500 ng/ml) stimulated stable expression of TNF-alpha mRNA (8-fold increase) and TNF-alpha production similar to that of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cells (100 ng/ml). Polyclonal anti-lectin serum specifically inhibited TNF-alpha mRNA induction in response to the Gal-lectin but not to lipopolysaccharide. Anti-lectin monoclonal antibodies 8C12, H85 and 1G7, which recognize nonoverlapping epitopes of the cysteine-rich region of the 170-kDa heavy subunit, inhibited both amebic adherence to mammalian cells and Gal-lectin-stimulated TNF-alpha mRNA expression by BMMs,but monoclonal antibody 7F4 did neither. As these inhibitory antibodies map to amino acids 596-1082 of the 170-kDa Gal-lectin, our results have identified the functional region that mediates amebic adherence and TNF-alpha mRNA induction in BMMMs; thus, this region of the Gal-lectin is a subunit vaccine candidate. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 PMID:8618866

  13. Calcitonin Induces Expression of the Inducible cAMP Early Repressor in Osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Maobin; Kream, Barbara E.

    2010-01-01

    The cAMP response element modulator gene (Crem) encodes a variety of transcriptional regulators including the inducible cAMP early repressor, ICER. We previously showed that Crem knockout mice, which are deficient in CREM and ICER factors, display slightly increased long bone mass and decreased osteoclast number. These data are consistent with the notion that Crem regulates bone mass in part through an effect on osteoclast formation and/or function. Since ICER is strongly induced by cAMP, we asked whether the calcium-regulating hormone calcitonin, which stimulates cAMP production and inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption, could induce ICER in osteoclasts. The monocytic cell line RAW264.7 was treated with receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) to induce osteoclast formation. Calcitonin caused a time- and dose-dependent induction of ICER mRNA and an increase in ICER protein abundance in RANKL-treated RAW264.7 cells. Calcitonin also induced ICER mRNA and protein in osteoclasts derived from primary mouse bone marrow cell cultures. Calcitonin-treated osteoclasts showed immunoreactivity with an anti-CREM antibody. Calcitonin decreased the activity of wild type and Crem knockout osteoclasts in vitro, and this inhibitory effect was greater in Crem knockout osteoclasts. Furthermore, calcitonin decreased calcitonin receptor mRNA expression in wild type osteoclasts but not in Crem knockout osteoclasts. These data suggest that calcitonin induction of ICER in osteoclasts might regulate osteoclast activity. PMID:19016003

  14. Characterization of a Canine Tetranucleotide Microsatellite Marker Located in the First Intron of the Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Gene

    PubMed Central

    WATANABE, Masashi; TANAKA, Kazuaki; TAKIZAWA, Tatsuya; SEGAWA, Kazuhito; NEO, Sakurako; TSUCHIYA, Ryo; MURATA, Michiko; MURAKAMI, Masaru; HISASUE, Masaharu

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT A polymorphic tetranucleotide (GAAT)n microsatellite in the first intron of the canine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA) gene was characterized in this study; 139 dogs were analyzed: 22 Beagles, 26 Chihuahuas, 20 Miniature Dachshunds, 24 Miniature Poodles, 22 Pembroke Welsh Corgis and 25 Shiba Inus. We detected the presence of the 4 alleles (GAAT)5, (GAAT)6, (GAAT)7 and (GAAT)8, including 9 of the 10 expected genotypes. The expected heterozygosity (He) and the polymorphic information content (PIC) value of this microsatellite locus varied from 0.389 to 0.749 and from 0.333 to 0.682, respectively, among the 6 breeds. The allelic frequency differed greatly among breeds, but this microsatellite marker was highly polymorphic and could be a useful marker for the canine TNFA gene. PMID:24042337

  15. Transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor levels in bladder cancer and their relationship to epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Mellon, J. K.; Cook, S.; Chambers, P.; Neal, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    We have examined levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) in neoplastic and non-neoplastic bladder tissue using a standard radioimmunoassay technique. Tumour samples had much higher TGF-alpha levels compared with EGF and TGF-alpha levels in malignant tissue were significantly higher than in benign bladder samples. There was, in addition, a difference in mean EGF levels from 'normal' bladder samples from non-tumour bearing areas of bladder in patients with bladder cancer compared with 'normal' bladder tissue obtained at the time of organ retrieval surgery. Levels of EGF and TGF-alpha did not correlate with levels of EGF receptor (EGFR) as determined by a radioligand binding method but levels of TGF-alpha > 10 ng gm-1 of tumour tissue did correlate with EGFR positivity defined using immunohistochemistry. These data suggest that TGF-alpha is the likely ligand for EGFR in bladder tumours. PMID:8605103

  16. Infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells by herpes simplex and Epstein-Barr viruses. Differential induction of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Gosselin, J; Flamand, L; D'Addario, M; Hiscott, J; Menezes, J

    1992-01-01

    Infection by herpesviruses can result in profound immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory effects. However, no significant information is available on the effect of such infections on the production of immunoregulatory cytokines. We studied the kinetics of production of two monocyte-derived cytokines, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), induced by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures and in fractionated cell populations. We observed that, when compared to HSV-1, EBV is a stronger inducer of IL-6. In EBV-infected cultures, IL-6 protein was detected at day 1 postinfection and gradually increased with time. In contrast, lower amounts of IL-6 were detected 5 d postinfection in HSV-1-infected cultures. HSV-1-infected cultures secreted significant amounts of TNF alpha protein after 5 d of culture and reached a maximal level of production at day 7, whereas EBV inhibited TNF alpha production. In fractionated cell populations, monocytic cells were found to be the main source of IL-6 synthesis after EBV or HSV-1 infection. However, TNF alpha synthesis in HSV-1-infected cultures was from both B and monocytic cells. By using the polymerase chain reaction technique we show that, after infection by these two herpesviruses, differences in cytokine gene products are also observed at the transcriptional level. These observations demonstrate that EBV and HSV-1 exert differential effects on IL-6 and TNF alpha gene transcription and on the resulting protein secretion in human mononuclear blood cells. Images PMID:1318324

  17. Effect of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol supplementations on serum leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and serum amyloid A levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Jamalan, Mostafa; Rezazadeh, Mahin; Zeinali, Majid; Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Diabetes mellitus Type 2 is one of the most widespread chronic metabolic diseases. In most cases, this type of diabetes is associated with alterations in levels of some inflammatory cytokines and hormones. Considering anti-inflammatory properties of plant extracts rich in ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), anti-diabetic properties of these two well-known antioxidant vitamins were investigated through measurement of serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), insulin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and serum amyloid A (SAA) in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Materials and Methods: Male patients (n=80) were randomly divided into two groups each consisted of 40 subjects. Test groups were supplemented with ascorbic acid (1000 mg/day) or alpha-tocopherol (300 mg/day) orally during four weeks. Before and after treatment, serum biochemical factors of subjects were measured and compared. Results: Our results showed that both ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol could induce significant anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing the level of inflammatory factors such as TNF-α, SAA, and hs-CRP in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients. Effects of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid in decreasing serum leptin level were similar. Ascorbic acid in contrast to alpha-tocopherol diminished fasting insulin and HOMA index but had no effect on LDL serum level. Conclusion: Concerning the obtained results, it is concluded that consumption of supplementary vitamins C and E could decrease induced inflammatory response in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. It is also possible that vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation can attenuate incidence of some proposed pathological effects of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26693410

  18. Effects of compounds from Kaempferia parviflora on nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha productions in RAW264.7 macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Tewtrakul, Supinya; Subhadhirasakul, Sanan

    2008-10-30

    Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex Baker, is one of the plants in the Zingiberaceae family, locally known in Thai as kra-chai-dam. The rhizome of this plant has been used for treatment of gout, apthous ulcer and abscesses. Since K. parviflora rhizomes have long been used for treatment of inflammation and possessed marked nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity (IC(50)=7.8microg/ml), we thus investigated the inhibitory activity of compounds isolated from this plant against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO release in RAW264.7 cells. From bioassay-guided fractionation of K. parviflora, seven methoxyflavones were isolated from the hexane fraction and were tested for their anti-inflammatory effects. Among the isolated compounds, compound 5 (5-hydroxy-3,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone) exhibited the highest activity against NO release with an IC(50) value of 16.1microM, followed by 4 (IC(50)=24.5microM) and 3 (IC(50)=30.6microM). Compound 5 was also tested on LPS-induced prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) releases from RAW264.7 cells. It was revealed that 5 showed appreciable inhibitory effect on PGE(2) release (IC(50)=16.3microM), but inactive on TNF-alpha (IC(50)>100microM). These findings may support the use in Thai traditional medicine of K. parviflora for treatment of inflammatory-related diseases through the inhibition of NO and PGE(2) releases but partly due to that of TNF-alpha. PMID:18725283

  19. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha during neonatal brain development affects anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Babri, Shirin; Doosti, Mohammad-Hossein; Salari, Ali-Akbar

    2014-03-15

    A nascent literature suggests that neonatal infection is a risk factor for the development of brain, behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which can affect anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in later life. It has been documented that neonatal infection raises the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in neonate rodents and such infections may result in neonatal brain injury, at least in part, through pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, previous studies have shown that TNF-α is involved in cellular differentiation, neurogenesis and programmed cell death during the development of the central nervous system. We investigated for the first time whether neonatal exposure to TNF-α can affect body weight, stress-induced corticosterone (COR), anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult mice. In the present study, neonatal mice were treated to recombinant mouse TNF-α (0.2, 0.4, 0.7 and 1 μg/kg) or saline on postnatal days 3 and 5, then adult male and female mice were exposed to different behavioral tests. The results indicated that neonatal TNF-α treatment reduced body weight in neonatal period in both sexes. In addition, this study presents findings indicating that high doses of TNF- increase stress-induced COR levels, anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult males, but increase levels of anxiety without significantly influencing depression in adult female mice [corrected]. Our findings suggest that TNF-α exposure during neonatal period can alter brain and behavior development in a dose and sex-dependent manner in mice. PMID:24398264

  20. Structural studies of cord factors from Mycobacterium simiae related to the capacity for tumour necrosis factor alpha (α-TNF) induction.

    PubMed

    Mederos, Lilian M; Montoro, Ernesto H; Bernabéu, Antonia; Linares, Carlos; Valero-Guillén, Pedro L

    2010-12-01

    The structure of cord factor was studied in several strains of Mycobacterium simiae, including 'habana' TMC 5135, considered as highly immunogenic in experimental tuberculosis and leprosy. The mycolic acids liberated from cord factor were identified in all cases as α'-, α- and keto-mycolates. According to the general NMR and MS data, α'-mycolates were mono-unsaturated and contained from 64 to 68 carbon atoms, whereas α-mycolates mainly presented two 2,3-disubstituted cyclopropane rings and a chain length of 80-91 carbon atoms; keto-mycolates mostly contained one cyclopropane ring and 85-91 carbon atoms. Taking into account the (1)H-NMR results, strains varied in the ratio of the different mycolates, and the high levels of keto-mycolates found in the cord factors of TMC 5135 and ATCC 25275(T) stood out. Notably, MS revealed that the odd carbon number series of α-mycolates (C87-C89) predominated in the cord factor of TMC 5135, in contrast to the remaining studied strains, in which the even (C84-C86) and odd carbon number series appeared more equal. The fine structural differences detected among the cord factors studied did not seem to be relevant to the general capacity of these molecules to induce the secretion of tumour necrosis factor alpha, as the cord factors from several strains of M. simiae (TMC 5135, IPK-342 and ATCC 25275(T)) induced similar amounts of this cytokine in RAW 264.7 cells. PMID:20688816

  1. Immunomodulatory parasites and toll-like receptor-mediated tumour necrosis factor alpha responsiveness in wild mammals

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Joseph A; Friberg, Ida M; Bolch, Luke; Lowe, Ann; Ralli, Catriona; Harris, Philip D; Behnke, Jerzy M; Bradley, Janette E

    2009-01-01

    Background Immunological analyses of wild populations can increase our understanding of how vertebrate immune systems respond to 'natural' levels of exposure to diverse infections. A major recent advance in immunology has been the recognition of the central role of phylogenetically conserved toll-like receptors in triggering innate immunity and the subsequent recruitment of adaptive response programmes. We studied the cross-sectional associations between individual levels of systemic toll-like receptor-mediated tumour necrosis factor alpha responsiveness and macro- and microparasite infections in a natural wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) population. Results Amongst a diverse group of macroparasites, only levels of the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus and the louse Polyplax serrata were correlated (negatively) with innate immune responsiveness (measured by splenocyte tumour necrosis factor alpha responses to a panel of toll-like receptor agonists). Polyplax serrata infection explained a strikingly high proportion of the total variation in innate responses. Contrastingly, faecal oocyst count in microparasitic Eimeria spp. was positively associated with innate immune responsiveness, most significantly for the endosomal receptors TLR7 and TLR9. Conclusion Analogy with relevant laboratory models suggests the underlying causality for the observed patterns may be parasite-driven immunomodulatory effects on the host. A subset of immunomodulatory parasite species could thus have a key role in structuring other infections in natural vertebrate populations by affecting the 'upstream' innate mediators, like toll-like receptors, that are important in initiating immunity. Furthermore, the magnitude of the present result suggests that populations free from immunosuppressive parasites may exist at 'unnaturally' elevated levels of innate immune activation, perhaps leading to an increased risk of immunopathology. PMID:19386086

  2. Morbillivirus Infection of the Mouse Central Nervous System Induces Region-Specific Upregulation of MMPs and TIMPs Correlated to Inflammatory Cytokine Expression

    PubMed Central

    Khuth, Seng-Thuon; Akaoka, Hideo; Pagenstecher, Axel; Verlaeten, Olivier; Belin, Marie-Françoise; Giraudon, Pascale; Bernard, Arlette

    2001-01-01

    Viral infection of the central nervous system (CNS) can result in perturbation of cell-to-cell communication involving the extracellular matrix (ECM). ECM integrity is maintained by a dynamic balance between the synthesis and proteolysis of its components, mainly as a result of the action of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). An MMP/TIMP imbalance may be critical in triggering neurological disorders, in particular in virally induced neural disorders. In the present study, a mouse model of brain infection using a neurotropic strain of canine distemper virus (CDV) was used to study the effect of CNS infection on the MMP/TIMP balance and cytokine expression. CDV replicates almost exclusively in neurons and has a unique pattern of expression (cortex, hypothalamus, monoaminergic nuclei, hippocampus, and spinal cord). Here we show that although several mouse brain structures were infected, they exhibited a differential pattern in terms of MMP, TIMP, and cytokine expression, exemplified by (i) a large increase in pro-MMP9 levels, in particular in the hippocampus, which occurred mainly in neurons and was associated with in situ gelatinolytic activity, (ii) specific and significant upregulation of MT1-MMP mRNA expression in the cortex and hypothalamus, (iii) an MMP/TIMP imbalance, suggested by the upregulation of TIMP-1 mRNA in the cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus and of TIMP-3 mRNA in the cortex, and (iv) a concomitant region-specific large increase in expression of Th1-like cytokines, such as gamma interferon, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin 6 (IL-6), contrasting with weaker induction of Th2-like cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-10. These data indicate that an MMP/TIMP imbalance in specific brain structures, which is tightly associated with a local inflammatory process as shown by the presence of immune infiltrating cells, differentially impairs CNS integrity and may contribute to the multiplicity of

  3. Oncogenic potential of guanine nucleotide stimulatory factor alpha subunit in thyroid glands of transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Michiels, F M; Caillou, B; Talbot, M; Dessarps-Freichey, F; Maunoury, M T; Schlumberger, M; Mercken, L; Monier, R; Feunteun, J

    1994-01-01

    Transgenic mice have been used to address the issue of the oncogenic potential of mutant guanine nucleotide stimulatory factor (Gs) alpha subunit in the thyroid gland. The expression of the mutant Arg-201-->His Gs alpha subunit transgene has been directed to murine thyroid epithelial cells by bovine thyroglobulin promoter. The transgenic animals develop hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas with increased intracellular cAMP levels and high uptake of [125I]iodine and produced elevated levels of circulating triiodothyronine and thyroxine. These animals demonstrate that the mutant form of Gs alpha subunit carries an oncogenic activity, thus supporting the model that deregulation of cAMP level alters growth control in thyroid epithelium. These animals represent models for humans with autonomously functioning thyroid nodules. Images PMID:7937980

  4. Putting the diet back into diet-induced obesity: diet-induced hypothalamic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Julian G; Archer, Zoë A

    2008-05-01

    A wealth of detailed mechanistic information relating to obesity and body weight regulation has emerged from study of single gene mutation models, and continues to be generated by engineered rodent models targeting specific genes. However, as an early step in translational research, many researchers are turning to models of diet-induced obesity. Interpretation of data generated from such models is not aided by the variety of diets and rodent strains employed in these studies and a strong case could be made for rationalisation. Differences in experimental protocol, which may deploy a single obligatory solid diet, a choice of solid diets, or liquid/solid combinations, and which may or may not allow a preferred macronutrient composition to be selected, mean that different models of diet-induced obesity achieve that obesity by different routes. The priority should be to mimic the palatability- and choice-driven over-consumption that probably underlies the majority of human obesity. Some of the hypothalamic energy balance genes apparently 'recognise' developing diet-induced obesity as indicated by counter-regulatory changes in expression levels. However, substantial changes in gene expression on long-term exposure to obesogenic diets are not able to prevent weight gain. Forebrain reward systems are widely assumed to be overriding hypothalamic homeostatic energy balance systems under these circumstances. More mechanism-based research at the homeostatic/reward/diet interface may enable diets to be manipulated with therapeutic benefit, or define the contribution of these interactions to susceptibility to diet-induced obesity. PMID:18342851

  5. Octylphenol induced gene expression in testes of Frog, Rana chensinensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinyi; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Yuhui

    2016-06-01

    Octylphenol (OP) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC), which can disrupt the reproductive system. To understand the effect of OP, a subtractive cDNA library was constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to identify alterations of gene transcription in the testes of the frog Rana chensinensis after OP exposure. Two hundred positive clones were selected and 134 sequences of gene fragments were produced from the subtractive library randomly. These genes were identified to be involved in metabolic process, cellular process, biological regulation, stimulus, immune system and female pregnancy process. In order to verify the efficiency of the subtractive cDNA library, PSG9 and PAPP-A were analyzed further as two representatives of differentially expressed transcription genes using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Our result was the first successful construction of the subtractive cDNA library in frog testes after OP treatment. Based on this cDNA library, OP was shown to affect multiple physiological processes including inducing immune response, disrupting the steroid hormone synthesis and influencing spermatogenesis in the testis by up-regulation of specific genes. PMID:26896894

  6. Anti-Ehrlichia chaffeensis antibody complexed with E. chaffeensis induces potent proinflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in human monocytes through sustained reduction of IkappaB-alpha and activation of NF-kappaB.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, E H; Rikihisa, Y

    1997-01-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligatory intracellular bacterium that infects monocytes and macrophages and is the etiologic agent of human ehrlichiosis in the United States. Our previous studies showed that the exposure of human monocytes to E. chaffeensis induces the expression of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-8, and IL-10 genes in vitro but not the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and IL-6 mRNAs. In this study, the effect of anti-E. chaffeensis antibody complexed with E. chaffeensis on the expression of major proinflammatory cytokines in human monocytes was examined. Human monocytic cell line THP-1 was treated with E. chaffeensis which had been preincubated with human anti-E. chaffeensis serum for 2 h, and the levels of cytokine mRNAs were evaluated by competitive reverse transcription-PCR. Anti-E. chaffeensis antibody complexed with E. chaffeensis significantly enhanced mRNA expression of IL-1beta in THP-1 cells. The expression of TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNAs was also induced. The levels of secreted IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 during 24 h of stimulation were comparable to those induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide at 1 microg/ml. Fab fragment of anti-E. chaffeensis immunoglobulin G complexed with E. chaffeensis did not induce any of these three cytokines, indicating that ehrlichial binding is required for IL-1beta mRNA expression and that binding of the immune complex to the Fc gamma receptor is required for TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNA expression and enhanced IL-1beta mRNA expression. Furthermore, prolonged degradation of IkappaB-alpha and activation of NF-kappaB were demonstrated in THP-1 cells exposed to anti-E. chaffeensis serum and E. chaffeensis. This result implies that development of anti-E. chaffeensis antibody in patients can result in the production of major proinflammatory cytokines, which may play an important role in the pathophysiology of ehrlichiosis and immune responses to it. PMID:9199464

  7. Interindividual concordance of methylation profiles in human genes for tumor necrosis factors alpha and beta.

    PubMed Central

    Kochanek, S; Toth, M; Dehmel, A; Renz, D; Doerfler, W

    1990-01-01

    The DNA in mammalian genomes is characterized by complex patterns of DNA methylation that reflect the states of all genetic activities of that genome. The modified nucleotide 5-methyldeoxycytidine (5mdC) can affect the interactions of specific proteins with DNA sequence motifs. The most extensively studied effect of sequence-specific methylations is that of the long-term silencing of eukaryotic (mammalian) promoters. We have initiated studies on the methylation status of parts of the human genome to view patterns of DNA methylation as indicators for genetic activities. In this report, analyses using both restriction enzyme--Southern blotting and the very precise genomic sequencing technique have been done. The genes for tumor necrosis factors (TNF) alpha and beta--in particular, their 5'-upstream and promoter regions--have been investigated in DNA isolated from human lymphocytes, granulocytes, and sperm. The results are characterized by a remarkable interindividual concordance of DNA methylation in specific human cell types. The patterns are identical in the DNA from one cell type for different individuals even of different genetic origins but different in the DNA from different cell types. As an example, in the DNA from human granulocytes of 15 different individuals (ages 20-48 yr, both sexes), 5mdC residues have been localized by the genomic sequencing technique in three identical sequence positions in the 5'-upstream region and in one downstream position of the gene encoding TNF-alpha. The promoter of this gene is free of 5mdC, and TNF-alpha is expressed in human granulocytes. The TNF-beta promoter is methylated in granulocytes from 9 different individuals, and TNF-beta is not expressed. In human lymphocytes, the main source of TNF-beta, the TNF-beta promoter is free of 5mdC residues. All 5'-CG-3' sites studied in the TNF-alpha and -beta genes are methylated in DNA from human sperm. In human cell lines HL-60, Jurkat, and RPMI 1788, the extent of DNA methylation

  8. Inverse regulation of human ERBB2 and epidermal growth factor receptors by tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Kalthoff, H; Roeder, C; Gieseking, J; Humburg, I; Schmiegel, W

    1993-01-01

    Recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha decreased the expression of ERBB2 mRNA by stimulating p55 TNF receptors of pancreatic tumor cells. This decrease contrasts with an increase in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mRNA. Both effects were selectively achieved by TNF-alpha or -beta, whereas interferon alpha or gamma or transforming growth factor beta showed no such effects. The inverse regulatory effects of TNF on ERBB2 and EGFR mRNA levels were evoked by different signaling pathways of p55 TNF receptors. The TNF-mediated ERBB2 mRNA decrease was followed by a reduction in protein. Four of five pancreatic tumor cell lines exhibited this down-regulation. This decrease of ERBB2 is a singular example of a modulation of this growth factor receptor by TNF. Overexpression of ERBB2 has been reported to cause resistance to TNF and other cytotoxic cytokines. In our study we show that the TNF-mediated down-regulation of ERBB2 in pancreatic tumor cells is accompanied by an increase in growth inhibition at low doses of TNF. The simultaneous alteration of the ERBB2/EGFR balance by TNF represents a striking model of cytokine receptor transregulation in the growth control of malignant pancreatic epithelial cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8105469

  9. Recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha suppresses autoimmune diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, J; Seino, H; Abo, T; Tanaka, S; Shintani, S; Ohta, S; Tamura, K; Sawai, T; Nobunaga, T; Oteki, T

    1989-01-01

    We previously reported that administration of a streptococcal preparation (OK-432) inhibited insulitis and development of autoimmune diabetes in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice and BB rats as animals models of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. In this study, we screened various cytokines that could be induced by OK-432 in vivo, for their preventive effect against diabetes in NOD mice. Among recombinant mouse IFN gamma, human IL1 alpha, human IL2, mouse granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and human TNF alpha, only human TNF alpha suppressed insulitis and significantly (P less than 0.001) inhibited development of diabetes. NOD mice were the lowest producers of the mRNA of TNF and serum TNF on stimulation with OK-432 or with IFN gamma plus LPS, compared with C57BL/6, C3H/He, and Balb/c mice. The results imply a role for low productivity of TNF in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. Images PMID:2794065

  10. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha genetic predisposing factors can influence clinical severity in nephropathia epidemica.

    PubMed

    Maes, Piet; Clement, Jan; Groeneveld, Paul H P; Colson, Paul; Huizinga, Tom W J; Van Ranst, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Severe human infection with Hantavirus is characterized by high fever, cold chills, thrombocytopenia, arterial hypotension, acute renal failure, and/or adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)-like pulmonary involvement, but the clinical course varies greatly between individuals. We investigated whether genetically determined differences in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production can influence the severity of Hantavirus disease. We studied a TNF-alpha single-nucleotide promoter polymorphism (SNP) at position -238 (a guanine [G]-to-adenine [A] transition) and ex vivo TNF-alpha production in a recall study of 36 Belgian patients who had a serologically proven form of Puumala virus-induced Hantavirus infection with the kidney as main target organ. In our study, the highest creatinine levels were found in patients with the lowest ex vivo TNF-alpha production. Creatinine levels correlated inversely with TNF-alpha production (R = -0.35, p < 0.05). The number of thrombocytes was significantly lower in patients with the GA-238 genotype (low TNF-alpha producers) compared with patients with the GG-238 genotype. In our study, genetically determined low production of TNF-alpha was associated with some parameters indicating a more severe clinical course of Puumala Hantavirus infection in humans, possibly by impaired activation of TNF-alpha-dependent antiviral mechanisms, which could in turn result in decreased clearance of Hantavirus. PMID:16987073

  11. Genetic polymorphisms of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) promoter gene and response to TNF-α inhibitors in Spanish patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    López-Hernández, R; Valdés, M; Campillo, J A; Martínez-Garcia, P; Salama, H; Salgado, G; Boix, F; Moya-Quiles, M R; Minguela, A; Sánchez-Torres, A; Miras, M; Garcia, A; Carballo, F; Álvarez-López, M R; Muro, M

    2014-02-01

    Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) has an important role in inflammatory response. Alterations in the regulation of TNF-α have been implicated in a variety of inflammatory disorders, including Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Indeed, a common treatment for IBD is the use of TNF-α inhibitors. Polymorphisms in the TNF-α promoter region are known to affect the level of gene expression. Our aim was to investigate the influence of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TNF-α promoter gene play in the risk of IBD in a Spanish population and their individual response to anti-TNF-α treatment. DNA samples from patients with IBD and controls were screened for TNF-α -238G/A (rs361525) and -308G/A (rs1800629) SNPs by PCR-SSOP using a microbeads luminex assay and compared with response to TNF-α inhibitors. There were not statistical differences in -238G/A and -308G/A allele and genotype frequencies between patients. However, we found an increased frequency of -308A allele and -308GA genotype in these nonresponders patients to TNF-α inhibitors with respect to responders patients (Pc < 0.05). This -308GA genotype has been classified as high producer of this cytokine. This fact could actually be interesting to explain the different response of patients with IBD with respect to TNF-α inhibitors. TNF-α promoter gene polymorphism does not seem to play a role in IBD susceptibility, but particular TNF-α genotypes may be involved in the different responses to TNF-α inhibitor treatment in Spanish patients with IBD. PMID:23590430

  12. Interaction with extracellular matrix proteins influences Lsh/Ity/Bcg (candidate Nramp) gene regulation of macrophage priming/activation for tumour necrosis factor-alpha and nitrite release.

    PubMed

    Formica, S; Roach, T I; Blackwell, J M

    1994-05-01

    The murine resistance gene Lsh/Ity/Bcg regulates activation of macrophages for tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-dependent production of nitric oxide mediating antimicrobial activity against Leishmania, Salmonella and Mycobacterium. As Lsh is differentially expressed in macrophages from different tissue sites, experiments were performed to determine whether interaction with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins would influence the macrophage TNF-alpha response. Plating of bone marrow-derived macrophages onto purified fibrinogen or fibronectin-rich L929 cell-derived matrices, but not onto mannan, was itself sufficient to stimulate TNF-alpha release, with significantly higher levels released from congenic B10.L-Lshr compared to C57BL/10ScSn (Lshs) macrophages. Only macrophages plated onto fibrinogen also released measurable levels of nitrites, again higher in Lshr compared to Lshs macrophages. Addition of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), but not bacterial lipopolysaccharide or mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan, as a second signal enhanced the TNF-alpha and nitrite responses of macrophages plated onto fibrinogen, particularly in the Lshr macrophages. Interaction with fibrinogen and fibronectin also primed macrophages for an enhanced TNF-alpha response to leishmanial parasites, but this was only translated into enhanced nitrite responses in the presence of IFN-gamma. In these experiments, Lshr macrophages remained superior in their TNF-alpha responses throughout, but to a degree which reflected the magnitude of the difference observed on ECM alone. Hence, the specificity for the enhanced TNF-alpha responses of Lshr macrophages lay in their interaction with fibrinogen and fibronectin ECM, while a differential nitrite response was only observed with fibrinogen and/or IFN-gamma. The results are discussed in relation to the possible function of the recently cloned candidate gene Nramp, which has structural identity to eukaryote transporters and an N-terminal cytoplasmic

  13. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha expression in experimental cirrhosis: correlation with vascular endothelial growth factor expression and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bozova, Sevgi; Elpek, Gülsüm Ozlem

    2007-07-01

    Angiogenesis progresses together with fibrogenesis during chronic liver injury. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), a master regulator of homeostasis, plays a pivotal role in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis through its regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The association between hypoxia, angiogenesis and VEGF expression has been demonstrated in experimental cirrhosis. However, expression of HIF-1alpha has yet to be reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of HIF-1alpha expression during experimental liver fibrosis and the relationships between HIF-1alpha expression, VEGF expression and angiogenesis. Cirrhosis was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal administration of diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) (100 mg/kg, once a week). The serial sections from liver tissues were stained with anti-HIF-1alpha, anti-VEGF and anti-CD34 antibodies before being measured by light microscopy. Our results showed that HIF-1alpha expression gradually increases according to the severity of fibrosis (p<0.01). Moreover, its expression was found to be correlated with angiogenesis (r=0.916) and VEGF expression (r=0.969). The present study demonstrates that HIF-1alpha might have a role in the development of angiogenesis via regulation of VEGF during experimental liver fibrogenesis and suggests that this factor could be a potential target in the manipulation of angiogenesis in chronic inflammatory diseases of the liver. PMID:17614845

  14. Tumor necrosis factor alpha/cachectin stimulates eosinophil oxidant production and toxicity towards human endothelium.

    PubMed

    Slungaard, A; Vercellotti, G M; Walker, G; Nelson, R D; Jacob, H S

    1990-06-01

    Eosinophils (EOs) participate in a variety of inflammatory states characterized by endothelial cell damage, such as vasculitis, pneumonitis, and endocarditis. We find that 100 U/ml TNF-alpha/cachectin (TNF), a concentration attainable in the blood of humans with parasitic infestations, stimulates highly purified populations of EOs to damage human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), a model of human endothelium. This TNF-dependent EO cytotoxicity is strongly inhibited by heparin and methyprednisolone but unaffected by the platelet-activating factor antagonist BN52012 or scavengers of superoxide anion and H2O2, superoxide dismutase and catalase. However, addition of a physiologically relevant concentration of Br- (100 microM) enhances EO/TNF damage to HUVEC, implicating the possible participation of EO peroxidase (EPO) in the killing mechanism. EOs adherent to FCS-coated plastic wells more than double their production of superoxide anion and the cytotoxic EPO-derived oxidant HOBr when exposed to TNF, showing that TNF activates the respiratory burst of EOs attached to a "physiologic" surface. Unlike PMNs, EOs were not irreversibly activated to kill unopsonized endothelium by previous exposure to TNF, and did not degranulate or upregulate CR3 expression as detected by Mo1 in the presence of 100 U/ml TNF. HUVEC exposed 18 h to TNF were considerably more susceptible to lysis by PMA-activated EOs and reagent H2O2, demonstrating a direct effect of TNF upon endothelium, perhaps through inhibition of antioxidant defenses. These findings suggest that abnormally elevated serum levels of TNF may provoke EOs to damage endothelial cells and thereby play a role in the pathogenesis of tissue damage in hypereosinophilic states. PMID:1972179

  15. Regulation of Adipose Tissue Stem Cells Angiogenic Potential by Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha.

    PubMed

    Zubkova, Ekaterina S; Beloglazova, Irina B; Makarevich, Pavel I; Boldyreva, Maria A; Sukhareva, Olga Yu; Shestakova, Marina V; Dergilev, Konstantin V; Parfyonova, Yelena V; Menshikov, Mikhail Yu

    2016-01-01

    Tissue regeneration requires coordinated "teamwork" of growth factors, proteases, progenitor and immune cells producing inflammatory cytokines. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) might play a pivotal role by substituting cells or by secretion of growth factors or cytokines, and attraction of progenitor and inflammatory cells, which participate in initial stages of tissue repair. Due to obvious impact of inflammation on regeneration it seems promising to explore whether inflammatory factors could influence proangiogenic abilities of MSC. In this study we investigated effects of TNF-α on activity of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC). We found that treatment with TNF-α enhances ADSC proliferation, F-actin microfilament assembly, increases cell motility and migration through extracellular matrix. Exposure of ADSC to TNF-α led to increased mRNA expression of proangiogenic factors (FGF-2, VEGF, IL-8, and MCP-1), inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6), proteases (MMPs, uPA) and adhesion molecule ICAM-1. At the protein level, VEGF, IL-8, MCP-1, and ICAM-1 production was also up-regulated. Pre-incubation of ADSC with TNF-α-enhanced adhesion of monocytes to ADSC but suppressed adherence of ADSC to endothelial cells (HUVEC). Stimulation with TNF-α triggers ROS generation and activates a number of key intracellular signaling mediators known to positively regulate angiogenesis (Akt, small GTPase Rac1, ERK1/2, and p38 MAP-kinases). Pre-treatment with TNF-α-enhanced ADSC ability to promote growth of microvessels in a fibrin gel assay and accelerate blood flow recovery, which was accompanied by increased arteriole density and reduction of necrosis in mouse hind limb ischemia model. These findings indicate that TNF-α plays a role in activation of ADSC angiogenic and regenerative potential. PMID:26096299

  16. Opposing effects of Arkadia and Smurf on TGFbeta1-induced IgA isotype expression.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seo-Hyun; Seo, Goo-Young; Nam, Eun-Hee; Jeon, Seong-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-A; Park, Jae-Bong; Kim, Pyeung-Hyeun

    2007-10-31

    TGF-beta1 induces Ig germ-line alpha (GLalpha) transcription and subsequent class switching recombination (CSR) to IgA. In the present study, we investigated the roles of two E3-ubiquitin ligases, Smurfs (HECT type) and Arkadia (RING finger type) on TGFbeta1-induced IgA CSR. We found that over-expression of Smurf1 and Smurf2 decreased TGFbeta1-induced GLalpha promoter activity and strengthened the inhibitory effect of Smad7 on the promoter activity. Further, over-expression of Smurf1 and Smurf2 decreased both Smad3/4-mediated and Runx3-mediated GLalpha promoter activities, suggesting that the Smurfs can down-regulate the major TGF-beta1 signaling pathway and decrease GLalpha gene expression. In parallel, the over-expressed Smurf1 decreased the expression of endogenous IgA CSR-predictive transcripts (GLT(alpha), PST(alpha), and CT(alpha)) and also TGFbeta1-induced IgA secretion. Conversely over-expression of Arkadia abolished the inhibitory effect of Smad7 on TGFbeta1-induced GLT(alpha) expression and IgA secretion. Similar results were obtained in the presence of over-expressed Smad7 and Smurf1. These results indicate that Arkadia can amplify TGFbeta1-induced IgA CSR by degrading Smad7, which interacts with Smurf1. We conclude that Smurf and Arkadia have opposite roles in the regulation of TGFbeta1-induced IgA isotype expression. PMID:17978583

  17. Propanil inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by reducing nuclear levels of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappab in the macrophage cell line ic-21.

    PubMed

    Frost, L L; Neeley, Y X; Schafer, R; Gibson, L F; Barnett, J B

    2001-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is an essential proinflammatory cytokine whose production is normally stimulated by bacterial cell wall components, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), during an infection. Macrophages stimulated with LPS in vitro produce several cytokines, including TNF-alpha. LPS-stimulated primary mouse macrophages produced less TNF-alpha protein and message after treatment with the herbicide propanil (Xie et al., Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 145, 184-191, 1997). Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) tightly regulates TNF-alpha transcription. Therefore, as a step toward understanding the mechanism of the effect of propanil on TNF-alpha transcription, IC-21 cells were transfected with a TNF-alpha promoter-luciferase construct, and the effect of propanil on luciferase activity was measured. Cells transfected with promoter constructs containing a kappaB site showed decreased luciferase activity relative to controls after propanil treatment. These observations implicated NF-kappaB binding as an intracellular target of propanil. Further studies demonstrated a marked reduction in the nuclear levels of the stimulatory p65 subunit of NF-kappaB after propanil treatment, as measured by fluorescence confocal microscopy and Western blot analysis. The p50 subunit of NF-kappaB was not found to be reduced after propanil exposure by Western blot. Electrophoretic mobility gel shift assays showed decreased DNA binding of both p65/p50 heterodimers and p50/p50 homodimers to the kappaB3 site of the TNF-alpha promoter of propanil-treated cells. The marked reduction in nuclear p65/p50 NF-kappaB levels and diminished binding to the TNF-alpha promoter in propanil-treated cells are consistent with reduced TNF-alpha levels induced by LPS. PMID:11312646

  18. Porphyromonas gingivalis Infection during Pregnancy Increases Maternal Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha, Suppresses Maternal Interleukin-10, and Enhances Fetal Growth Restriction and Resorption in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Dongming; Smith, Mary Alice; Champagne, Catherine; Elter, John; Beck, James; Offenbacher, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a potential association between maternal periodontitis and pregnancy complications. We used a pregnant murine model to study the effect of infection with the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis on pregnancy outcomes. Female BALB/c mice were inoculated with heat-killed P. gingivalis (109 CFU) in a subcutaneous chamber and mated 2 weeks later. At gestation day (GD) 7.5, mice were challenged with live P. gingivalis (107 CFU) (n = 20) or broth (control; n = 8) and sacrificed at GD 16.5. Fetal growth restriction (FGR, <0.46 g) was defined as fetuses with weights 2 standard deviations (SD) smaller than controls (0.56 ± 0.05 g [mean ± SD]). Among the 20 challenged mice, 8 had both normal-weight (0.51 ± 0.11 g) and FGR (0.34 ± 0.1 g) fetuses within the same litter. All other challenged dams had normal-weight fetuses (0.57 ± 0.04 g). Maternal liver, uterus, and spleen samples were examined for P. gingivalis DNA using a PCR technique. Of the eight challenged mice with FGR fetuses, three had PCR signals for P. gingivalis in liver and uterus, but not in the spleen. Liver, uterus, and spleen were negative for P. gingivalis DNA among all other challenged and control mice. In serum of dams with FGR fetuses, tumor necrosis factor alpha levels were elevated significantly, while interluekin-10 levels were significantly reduced compared to levels in dams with normal fetuses. P. gingivalis-specific serum immunoglobulin G levels were significantly elevated in dams with FGR fetuses compared to dams without any FGR fetuses. These data demonstrate that P. gingivalis-induced murine FGR is associated with systemic dissemination of the organism and activated maternal immune and inflammatory responses. PMID:12933859

  19. Combined Intraperitoneal and Intrathecal Etanercept Reduce Increased Brain Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Levels and Rescues Spatial Deficits in Young Rats after Bile Duct Ligation

    PubMed Central

    Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Hsu, Mei-Hsin; Tain, You-Lin; Yu, Hong-Ren; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rats subjected to bile duct ligation (BDL) exhibit increased systemic oxidative stress and brain dysfunction characteristic of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), including fatigue, neurotransmitter alterations, cognitive and motor impairment, and brain inflammation. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are both increased in plasma and brain in encephalopathy induced by chronic liver failure. This study first determined the temporal profiles of TNF-α and ADMA in the plasma, brain cortex, and hippocampus in young BDL rats. Next, we examined whether etanercept was beneficial in preventing brain damage. Methods: Young rats underwent sham ligation or BDL at day 17 ± 1 for 4 weeks. Treatment group rats were administered etanercept (10 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (IP) three times per week with or without etanercept (100 μg) intrathecally (IT) three times in total. Results: We found increased plasma TNF-α, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNFR1), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNFR2), and ADMA levels, increased cortical TNF-α mRNA and protein and ADMA, and hippocampal TNF-α mRNA and protein, and spatial defects in young BDL rats. The increase in cortex TNF-α mRNA and ADMA were reduced by IP etanercept or combined IP and IT etanercept. Dually IP/IT etanercept administration reduced the increased cortical and hippocampal TNF-α mRNA and protein level as well as spatial deficits. Conclusions: We conclude that combined intraperitoneal and intrathecal etanercept reduce increased brain TNF-α and ADMA levels and rescues spatial deficits in young rats after BDL. PMID:27445694

  20. Dose effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha on in vitro osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells on biodegradable polymeric microfiber scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Mountziaris, Paschalia M; Tzouanas, Stephanie N; Mikos, Antonios G

    2010-03-01

    This study presents a first step in the development of a bone tissue engineering strategy to trigger enhanced osteogenesis by modulating inflammation. This work focused on characterizing the effects of the concentration of a pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) grown in a 3D culture system. MSC osteogenic differentiation is typically achieved in vitro through a combination of osteogenic supplements that include the anti-inflammatory corticosteroid dexamethasone. Although simple, the use of dexamethasone is not clinically realistic, and also hampers in vitro studies of the role of inflammatory mediators in wound healing. In this study, MSCs were pre-treated with dexamethasone to induce osteogenic differentiation, and then cultured in biodegradable electrospun poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds, which supported continued MSC osteogenic differentiation in the absence of dexamethasone. Continuous delivery of 0.1 ng/mL of recombinant rat TNF-alpha suppressed osteogenic differentiation of rat MSCs over 16 days, which was likely the result of residual dexamethasone antagonizing TNF-alpha signaling. Continuous delivery of a higher dose, 5 ng/mL TNF-alpha, stimulated osteogenic differentiation for a few days, and 50 ng/mL TNF-alpha resulted in significant mineralized matrix deposition over the course of the study. These findings suggest that the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha stimulates osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, an effect that can be blocked by the presence of anti-inflammatory agents like dexamethasone, with significant implications on the interplay between inflammation and tissue regeneration. PMID:19963268

  1. Inhibition of sup 125 I organification and thyroid hormone release by interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma in human thyrocytes in suspension culture

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, K.; Satoh, T.; Shizume, K.; Ozawa, M.; Han, D.C.; Imamura, H.; Tsushima, T.; Demura, H.; Kanaji, Y.; Ito, Y. )

    1990-06-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of decreased 131I uptake by the thyroid gland in patients with subacute thyroiditis and painless thyroiditis, human thyroid follicles were cultured with interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), and/or interferon-gamma (IFN gamma), and the effects of these cytokines on thyroid function were studied in vitro. When human thyrocytes were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium containing 0.5% fetal calf serum and TSH for 5-8 days, the cells incorporated 125I, synthesized de novo (125I)iodotyrosines and (125I)iodothyronines, and secreted (125I)T4 and (125I)T3 into the medium. IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta inhibited 125I incorporation and (125I)iodothyronine release in a concentration-dependent manner. The minimal inhibitory effect was detected at 10 pg/ml. Electron microscopic examination revealed a marked decrease in lysosome formation in IL-1-treated thyrocytes. TNF alpha and IFN gamma also inhibited thyroid function in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, when thyrocytes were cultured with IL-1, TNF alpha and IFN gamma, these cytokines more than additively inhibited thyroid function. Although the main mechanism of 131I uptake suppression in the thyroid gland in subacute thyroiditis is due to cellular damage and suppression of TSH release, our present findings suggest that IL-1, TNF alpha, and IFN gamma produced in the inflammatory process within the thyroid gland further inhibit iodine incorporation and at least partly account for the decreased 131I uptake by the thyroid gland in destruction-induced hyperthyroidism.

  2. Human recombinant interleukin-1 beta- and tumor necrosis factor alpha-mediated suppression of heparin-like compounds on cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, M.; Shimada, K.; Ozawa, T. )

    1990-09-01

    Cytokines are known to tip the balance of the coagulant-anticoagulant molecules on the endothelial cell surface toward intravascular coagulation. Their effects on endothelial cell surface-associated heparin-like compounds have not been examined yet. Incorporation of (35S)sulfate into heparan sulfate on cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells was suppressed by human recombinant interleukin-1 beta (rIL-1 beta) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (rTNF alpha) in a dose- and time-dependent manner with little effect on cell number, protein content, and (3H)leucine incorporation of cells. Maximal inhibition was achieved by incubation of cells with 100 ng/ml of rIL-1 beta or 5 ng/ml of rTNF alpha for 12-24 hours, resulting in a reduction of the synthesis of heparan sulfate on the cell surface by approximately 50%. The dose dependency was consistent with that seen in the stimulation of endothelial cell procoagulant activity by each cytokine. The suppression of heparan sulfate synthesis was sustained for at least 48 hours after pretreatment of cells with cytokines and was unchanged after the addition of indomethacin or polymyxin B. The rate of degradation of prelabeled 35S-heparan sulfate on the cell surface was not altered by cytokine treatments. Neither the size, the net negative charge, nor the proportion of the molecule with high affinity for antithrombin III of endothelial cell heparan sulfate was changed by cytokines. Furthermore, specific binding of 125I-labeled antithrombin III to the endothelial cell surface was reduced to 40-60% of control by cytokines. In parallel with reduction in binding, antithrombin III cofactor activity was partially diminished in cytokine-treated endothelial cells. Thus, cytokine-mediated suppression of heparin-like substance on endothelial cells appears to be another cytokine-inducible endothelial effects affecting coagulation.

  3. Nitric oxide and tumour necrosis factor alpha in the process of pseudoexfoliation glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Sarenac Vulovic, Tatjana S.; Pavlovic, Sladjana M.; Jakovljevic, Vladimir LJ.; Janicijevic, Katarina B.; Zdravkovic, Nemanja S.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To establish the role of nitric oxide (NO), ascorbic acid and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the pathogenesis of pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (XFG). METHODS Our study included 120 patients who were referred for cataract surgery. All patients were divided into four groups according to clinical findings: XFG, early and late pseudoexfoliation syndrome (XFS), and cataract (without pseudoexfoliation). Serum and aqueous humour levels of the ascorbic acid, NO and TNF-α were measured. The concentrations of the ascorbic acid and NO were measured by an appropriate spectrophotometric method. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine TNF-α level. RESULTS Aqueous humour concentration of ascorbic acid was significantly lower in patients with late XFS (0.61±0.11 mmol/L) and XFG (0.48±0.15 mmol/L) compared to patients with early XFS (0.9±0.15 mmol/L) and cataract (1.16±0.22 mmol/L), while there was no difference in serum concentration in all examined groups. Aqueous humour concentration of NO was significantly higher in patients with XFG (77.7±11.4 µmol/L) compared to patients with early XFS (50.27±9.34 µmol/L) and cataract (49.77±7.1 µmol/L), while serum concentration was increased in the early stage of XFS (73.26±8.29 µmol/L). Aqueous humour level of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α was increased in patients with XFS (early 460.04±18.32 pg/mL; late 502.42±53.23 pg/mL) and XFG (510.34±43.07 pg/mL), while there was no difference in serum level in all examined groups of patients. CONCLUSION Reduced ascorbic acid and elevated NO and inflammation related cytokine TNF-α level in aqueous humour of the patients with developed XFG suggest that oxidative stress induces local inflammation. PMID:27588268

  4. Co-administration of plasmid expressing IL-12 with 14-kDa Schistosoma mansoni fatty acid-binding protein cDNA alters immune response profiles and fails to enhance protection induced by Sm14 DNA vaccine alone.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Cristina T; Pacífico, Lucila G G; Barsante, Michele M; Rassi, Tatiana; Cassali, Geovanni D; Oliveira, Sérgio C

    2006-08-01

    Schistosomiasis is an endemic disease that affects 200 million people worldwide. DNA-based vaccine is a promising strategy to induce protective immunity against schistosomiasis, since both humoral and cellular immune responses are involved in parasite elimination. In this study, we evaluated the ability of Sm14 cDNA alone or in association with a plasmid expressing murine interleukin (IL)-12 to induce protection against challenge infection. Mice were immunized with four doses of the DNA vaccine and the levels of protection were determined by worm burden recovery after challenge infection. Specific antibody production to rSm14 was determined by ELISA, and cytokine production was measured in splenocyte culture supernatants stimulated with rSm14 and in bronchoalveolar lavage of vaccinated mice after challenge infection. DNA immunization with pCI/Sm14 alone induced 40.5% of worm reduction. However, the use of pCI/IL-12 as adjuvant to pCI/Sm14 immunization failed to enhance protection against challenge infection. Protection induced by pCI/Sm14 immunization correlates with specific IgG antibody production against Sm14, Th1 type of immune response with high levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma and low levels of IL-4 in splenocyte culture supernatants and in bronchoalveolar lavage after challenge infection. IL-12 co-administration with pCI/Sm14 induced a significant production of nitric oxide in splenocyte culture supernatants and also lymphocyte suppression, with reduced percentage of T cells producing IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. PMID:16914349

  5. Highly inducible expression from vectors containing multiple GRE's in CHO cells overexpressing the glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Israel, D I; Kaufman, R J

    1989-01-01

    A conditional glucocorticoid-responsive expression vector system is described for highly inducible expression of heterologous genes in mammalian cells. This host-vector system requires high level expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein in the host cell and multiple copies of the receptor binding site within the expression vector. Transfection and selection of Chinese hamster ovary cells with expression vectors encoding the rat GR yielded cell lines which express functional receptor at high levels. Insertion of multiple copies of the MMTV enhancer (glucocorticoid responsive element, GRE) into an Adenovirus major late promoter (AdMLP) based expression vector yielded greater than 1000-fold inducible expression by dexamethasone (dex) in transient DNA transfection assays. The induced expression level was 7-fold greater than that obtained with an AdMLP based vector containing an SV40 enhancer, but lacking GRE's. Vectors containing the SV40 enhancer in combination with multiple GRE's exhibited elevated basal expression in the absence of dex, but retained inducibility in both transient assays and after integration and amplification in the CHO genome. This expression system should be of general utility for studying gene regulation and for expressing heterologous genes in a regulatable fashion. Images PMID:2546123

  6. Nutrient induced type 2 and chemical induced type 1 experimental diabetes differently modulate gastric GLP-1 receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Olga; Broide, Efrat; Ben-Yehudah, Gilad; Cantrell, Dror; Shirin, Haim; Rapoport, Micha J

    2015-01-01

    T2DM patients demonstrate reduced GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) expression in their gastric glands. Whether induced T2DM and T1DM differently affect the gastric GLP-1R expression is not known. This study assessed extrapancreatic GLP-1R system in glandular stomach of rodents with different types of experimental diabetes. T2DM and T1DM were induced in Psammomys obesus (PO) by high-energy (HE) diet and by streptozotocin (STZ) in Sprague Dawly (SD) rats, respectively. GLP-1R expression was determined in glandular stomach by RT PCR and immunohistomorphological analysis. The mRNA expression and cellular association of the GLP-1R in principal glands were similar in control PO and SD rats. However, nutrient and chemical induced diabetes resulted in opposite alterations of glandular GLP-1R expression. Diabetic PO demonstrated increased GLP-1R mRNA expression, intensity of cellular GLP-1R immunostaining, and frequency of GLP-1R positive cells in the neck area of principal glands compared with controls. In contrast, SD diabetic rats demonstrated decreased GLP-1 mRNA, cellular GLP-1R immunoreactivity, and frequency of GLP-1R immunoreactive cells in the neck area compared with controls. In conclusion, nutrient and chemical induced experimental diabetes result in distinct opposite alterations of GLP-1R expression in glandular stomach. These results suggest that induced T1DM and T2DM may differently modulate GLP-1R system in enteropancreatic axis. PMID:25893200

  7. Spatial Control of Gene Expression within a Scaffold by Localized Inducer Release

    PubMed Central

    Baraniak, Priya R.; Nelson, Devin M.; Leeson, Cory E.; Katakam, Anand K.; Friz, Jennifer L.; Cress, Dean E.; Hong, Yi; Guan, Jianjun; Wagner, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Gene expression can be controlled in genetically modified cells by employing an inducer/promoter system where presence of the inducer molecule regulates the timing and level of gene expression. By applying the principles of controlled release, it should be possible to control gene expression on a biomaterial surface by the presence or absence of inducer release from the underlying material matrix, thus avoiding alternative techniques that rely upon uptake of relatively labile DNA from material surfaces. To evaluate this concept, a modified ecdysone-responsive gene expression system was transfected into B16 murine cells and the ability of an inducer ligand, which was released from elastomeric poly(ester urethane) urea (PEUU), to initiate gene expression was studied. The synthetic inducer ligand was first loaded into PEUU to demonstrate extended release of the bioactive molecule at various loading densities over a one year period in vitro. Patterning films of PEUU variably-loaded with inducer resulted in spatially controlled cell expression of the gene product (green fluorescent protein, GFP). In porous scaffolds made from PEUU by salt leaching, where the central region was exclusively loaded with inducer, cells expressed GFP predominately in the loaded central regions whereas expression was minimal in outer regions where ligand was omitted. This scaffold system may ultimately provide a means to precisely control progenitor cell commitment in a spatially-defined manner in vivo for soft tissue repair and regeneration. PMID:21269687

  8. Azithromycin differentially affects the IL-13-induced expression profile in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Tinne C J; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Taube, Christian

    2016-08-01

    The T helper 2 (Th2) cytokine interleukin(IL)-13 is a central regulator in goblet cell metaplasia and induces the recently described Th2 gene signature consisting of periostin (POSTN), chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1) and serpin B2 (SERPINB2) in airway epithelial cells. This Th2 gene signature has been proposed as a biomarker to classify asthma into Th2-high and Th2-low phenotypes. Clinical studies have shown that the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin reduced clinical symptoms in neutrophilic asthma, but not in the classical Th2-mediated asthma despite the ability of azithromycin to reduce IL-13-induced mucus production. We therefore hypothesize that azithromycin differentially affects the IL-13-induced expression profile. To investigate this, we focus on IL-13-induced mucin and Th2-signature expression in human bronchial epithelial cells and how this combined expression profile is affected by azithromycin treatment. Primary bronchial epithelial cells were differentiated at air liquid interface in presence of IL-13 with or without azithromycin. Azithromycin inhibited IL-13-induced MUC5AC, which was accompanied by inhibition of IL-13-induced CLCA1 and SERPINB2 expression. In contrast, IL-13-induced expression of POSTN was further increased in cells treated with azithromycin. This indicates that azithromycin has a differential effect on the IL-13-induced Th2 gene signature. Furthermore, the ability of azithromycin to decrease IL-13-induced MUC5AC expression may be mediated by a reduction in CLCA1. PMID:27246785

  9. Transforming growth factor-alpha in vivo stimulates epithelial cell proliferation in digestive tissues of suckling rats.

    PubMed Central

    Hormi, K; Lehy, T

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role that exogenous transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) may exert on cell proliferation in vivo is poorly understood. AIM: To investigate the effect of rat TGF-alpha on epithelial cell proliferation in all suckling rat digestive tissues and to compare it with that of rat epidermal growth factor (EGF). ANIMAL AND METHODS: TGF-alpha and EGF were given three times daily either subcutaneously (10 or 20 micrograms/kg) or intraperitoneally (100 micrograms/kg) to rats from the ninth postnatal day. Cell proliferation was assessed through 5-bromo- 2-deoxyuridine incorporation and estimation of labelling indices. RESULTS: For both growth factors, the highest dose given for only two days significantly increased stomach and intestinal weights compared with controls (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). The proliferative responded depended on the dose given, colonic mucosa being the most sensitive whereas oxyntic mucosa remained unresponsive. TGF-alpha was as potent as EGF in stimulating epithelial cell proliferation in antral, duodenal, and colonic mucosae. However, EGF was more active on oesophageal and jejunal cell proliferation whereas TGF-alpha was more active on pancreatic exocrine cell proliferation and the differences between the two growth factor treated groups were significant. CONCLUSIONS: These results prove for the first time the stimulating effect in vivo of exogenous rat TGF-alpha on epithelial cell proliferation in rat digestive tissues during the developmental period and support a functional role for TGF-alpha at that time. PMID:8944561

  10. Two bi-allelic single nucleotide polymorphisms within the promoter region of the horse tumour necrosis factor alpha gene.

    PubMed

    Matiasovic, J; Lukeszová, L; Horín, P

    2002-08-01

    Primers based on GenBank sequences within the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the human and horse tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) genes were designed and used to amplify a 522-bp product. Sequencing of five clones derived from five independent PCRs obtained from three different animals of three different breeds (Old Kladruber, Akhal-Teke and Shetland Pony) revealed a high level of sequence identity to the TNF-alpha promoter regions of other species. The existing GenBank horse sequences were confirmed and extended upstream by 230 nucleotides. Based on the sequence obtained, a new horse-specific forward primer was designed to amplify a 213-bp PCR product, which was screened for polymorphism using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). Three allelic variants of the horse TNF-alpha gene were identified and sequenced (GenBank accession numbers ADF 349558-60). Two single nucleotide polymorphisms explained the existence of the three SSCP alleles detected: C/T and T/C single base pair substitutions at positions 137 and 147, respectively. Differences in allelic frequencies between Old Kladruber and Akhal-Teke breeds were observed. PMID:12121271

  11. Pathophysiological roles of microvascular alterations in pulmonary inflammatory diseases: possible implications of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and CXC chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Orihara, Kanami; Matsuda, Akio

    2008-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchial asthma are common respiratory diseases that are caused by chronic inflammation of the airways. Although these diseases are mediated by substantially distinct immunological reactions, especially in mild cases, they both show increased numbers of neutrophils, increased production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and poor responses to corticosteroids, particularly in patients with severe diseases. These immunological alterations may contribute strongly to airway structural changes, commonly referred to as airway remodeling. Microvascular alterations, a component of airway remodeling and caused by chronic inflammation, are observed and appear to be clinically involved in both diseases. It has been well established that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays important roles in the airway microvascular alterations in mild and moderate cases of both diseases, but any role that VEGF might play in severe cases of these diseases remains unclear. Here, we review recent research findings, including our own data, and discuss the possibility that TNF-α and its associated CXC chemokines play roles in microvascular alterations that are even more crucial than those of VEGF in patients with severe COPD or asthma. PMID:19281078

  12. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on body fat, tumor necrosis factor alpha and resistin secretion in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Díaz, Guillermo; Alexander-Aguilera, Alfonso; Arzaba-Villalba, Agustin; Soto-Rodríguez, Ida; García, Hugo S

    2010-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a naturally occurring group of dienoic derivaties of linoleic acid found mainly in beef and dairy products. CLA has been reported to reduce body fat, as well as to possess anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic and procatabolic activities in animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of CLA supplementation to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) on body fat, biochemical parameters of serum related tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and resistin secretion. Thirty rats were divided in three groups, the first group of spontaneously hypertensive rats received a standard diet (V-SHR group, n=10), a second group of SHR was fed 1.5% of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-SHR group, n=10) and the third was the control, non-hypertensive group (KW, n=10) also on a standard diet including 7.5% of sunflower oil during eight weeks. After CLA diet administration, spontaneously hypertensive rats showed a significant reduction in blood pressure, serum glucose, cholesterol and triacylglycerols, together with reduction of index of body fat, pericardic, abdominal and epididymal adipose tissue. These effects were accompanied by a decrease in the secretion of TNF-alpha and resistin. PMID:20074923

  13. Levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha/cachectin (TNF alpha) in sera from patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Malavé, I; Perdomo, Y; Escalona, E; Rodriguez, E; Anchustegui, M; Malavé, H; Arends, T

    1993-01-01

    Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha/cachectin (TNF alpha) were studied in a group of adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), which include 31 patients with homozygous SS hemoglobinopathy and 10 patients bearing double heterozygous SC hemoglobinopathy and in their matched normal controls. All patients tested did not show any form of crisis for at least 4 weeks prior to the extraction of the sample. The amount of TNF alpha in serum was quantitated by means of an immunoenzymatic assay with a lower limit of detection of 25 pg/ml. The percentage of sera with detectable levels of TNF alpha was significantly increased in SCD patients as compared with the normal controls. Mean TNF alpha values in individuals with detectable levels of the cytokine were also significantly higher in the whole group of SCD patients and in patients bearing either SS or SC hemoglobinopathies than in the control group. An inverse correlation was observed between the percentages of Hb F and the levels of TNF alpha found in the sera from the patients. PMID:8140855

  14. Relationship of endotoxin to tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta in children with otitis media with effusion.

    PubMed

    Willett, D N; Rezaee, R P; Billy, J M; Tighe, M B; DeMaria, T F

    1998-01-01

    Sixty-five middle ear effusions and paired sera from 41 children with chronic otitis media with effusion were assayed for endotoxin and for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) in order to establish whether a correlation exists between the concentrations of endotoxin and of these cytokines. Endotoxin concentration was determined by means of a chromogenic limulus amebocyte lysate assay, and the cytokine concentration by means of a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Forty percent of the effusions had detectable levels of endotoxin, with a mean concentration of 2.9 +/- 7.8 endotoxin units per milligram of total protein. The mean concentration of TNF-alpha was 1.24 +/- 3.1 pg/mg total protein, and that of IL-1 beta was 18.79 pg/mg total protein. A strong, statistically significant correlation exists between the concentrations of endotoxin and TNF-alpha (r = .89) and IL-1 beta (r = .72). The data indicate that endotoxin may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic otitis media with effusion by stimulating the sustained production of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta in the middle ear. PMID:9439385

  15. Tumor necrosis factor alpha -308 gene locus promoter polymorphism: an analysis of association with health and disease.

    PubMed

    Elahi, Maqsood M; Asotra, Kamlesh; Matata, Bashir M; Mastana, Sarabjit S

    2009-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a potent immunomediator and proinflammatory cytokine that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a large number of human diseases. The location of its gene within major histocompatibility complex and biological activities has raised the possibility that polymorphisms within this locus may contribute to the pathogenesis of wide range of autoimmune and infectious diseases. For example, a bi-allelic single nucleotide substitution of G (TNFA1 allele) with A (TNFA2 allele) polymorphism at -308 nucleotides upstream from the transcription initiation site in the TNF-alpha promoter is associated with elevated TNF-alpha levels and disease susceptibilities. However, it is still unclear whether TNF-alpha -308 polymorphism plays a part in the disease process, in particular whether it could affect transcription factor binding and in turn influence TNF-alpha transcription and synthesis. Several studies have suggested that TNFA2 allele is significantly linked with the high TNF-alpha-producing autoimmune MHC haplotype HLA-A1, B8, DR3, with elevated serum TNF-alpha levels and a more severe outcome in diseases. This review discusses the genetics of the TNF-alpha -308 polymorphism in selected major diseases and evaluates its common role in health and disease. PMID:19708125

  16. A disaccharide that inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha is formed from the extracellular matrix by the enzyme heparanase.

    PubMed Central

    Lider, O; Cahalon, L; Gilat, D; Hershkoviz, R; Siegel, D; Margalit, R; Shoseyov, O; Cohen, I R

    1995-01-01

    The activation of T cells by antigens or mitogens leads to the secretion of cytokines and enzymes that shape the inflammatory response. Among these molecular mediators of inflammation is a heparanase enzyme that degrades the heparan sulfate scaffold of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Activated T cells use heparanase to penetrate the ECM and gain access to the tissues. We now report that among the breakdown products of the ECM generated by heparanase is a trisulfated disaccharide that can inhibit delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) in mice. This inhibition of T-cell mediated inflammation in vivo was associated with an inhibitory effect of the disaccharide on the production of biologically active tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) by activated T cells in vitro; the trisulfated disaccharide did not affect T-cell viability or responsiveness generally. Both the in vivo and in vitro effects of the disaccharide manifested a bell-shaped dose-response curve. The inhibitory effects of the trisulfated disaccharide were lost if the sulfate groups were removed. Thus, the disaccharide, which may be a natural product of inflammation, can regulate the functional nature of the response by the T cell to activation. Such a feedback control mechanism could enable the T cell to assess the extent of tissue degradation and adjust its behavior accordingly. PMID:7761444

  17. Stress and body mass index each contributes independently to tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in prepubescent Latino children.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Denise; Meng, Hongdao; Goldberg, Ronald; Schneiderman, Neil; Delamater, Alan

    2009-10-01

    This investigation extended prior work by determining if stress and body mass index (BMI) contributed independently to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels among prepubescent Latino children and if sex and family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) modified these relationships. Data were collected in South Florida from 112 nondiabetic school-aged Hispanic children, of whom 43.8% were obese (BMI >/= 95th percentile) and 51.8% presented with a family history of T2DM. Stressful life events were assessed via parental report using a life events scale. Plasma TNF-alpha levels were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The relative contributions of stress and BMI with TNF-alpha levels and the potential interaction effects of sex and family history of T2DM were analyzed with multiple linear regression analyses. Stress and BMI each accounted for a significant proportion of the unique variance associated with TNF-alpha. The association between stress and TNF-alpha was not modified by sex or family history of T2DM. These findings implicate BMI and stress as independent determinants of TNF-alpha (an inflammatory cytokine and adipocytokine) among Latino children. Future investigations should examine the potential roles of exercise, nutritional status, age, and growth hormone in explicating the relationship between TNF-alpha production and psychosocial distress and risk for infection among obese children. PMID:19782896

  18. [Systemic versus local therapy with recombinant tumor necrosis factor-alpha (r-TNF-alpha) in patients with advanced tumors].

    PubMed

    Bartsch, H H; Pfizenmaier, K; Schröder, M; Nagel, G A

    1989-06-01

    44 patients with different advanced malignant tumors were treated with recombinant Tumor-necrosis factor alpha (rTNF-alpha) in two Phase-I trials. 30 patients received rTNF-alpha 3 x/week intramuscular in doses between 25-300 mcg. 14 patients were treated intra/peritumoral with rTNF-alpha in the same dose range. The maximal tolerated dose (MTD) was 150 mcg/m2 for both ways of application. The duration of therapy was 1-26 weeks for systemic application and 2-20 weeks for local treatment. 25 patients treated systemically were evaluable for response. In 2 patients a minor response (MR) and in 9 patients stable disease was observed. 5/14 patients receiving rTNF-alpha locally showed a significant tumor regression (3 PR, 2 MR). Main side effects were dose dependent fever, chills, anorexia and nausea. In doses greater than 50mcg/m2 a decrease of blood pressure according to WHO III was noted. Hematologic toxicity included a transient decrease of leucocytes and platelets without indicating a cumulative hematologic toxicity. There were no further organ toxicities. The experience from both phase-I trials indicate a definite antitumoral activity of rTNF-alpha suggesting that locoregional treatment might be superior to systemic application. The side effects observed might be a limitation for larger clinical trials. PMID:2668836

  19. Inhibitory effects of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids on induction of proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Onai, N; Tsunokawa, Y; Suda, M; Watanabe, N; Nakamura, K; Sugimoto, Y; Kobayashi, Y

    1995-12-01

    Bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids are known to affect immune responses as well as inflammatory responses, and have been used for the treatment of inflammatory symptoms in China. This study is aimed at elucidating the inhibitory effects of two alkaloids, fangchinoline and isotetrandrine, on the induction of the proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1 (IL-1), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), by Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1 (SAC)-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These two alkaloids inhibited cytokine production in a dose-dependent manner, and they inhibited it by more than 90% at 10 micrograms/ml at every time point examined. Of note was that these two alkaloids appeared to inhibit IL-1 beta production more effectively than IL-1 alpha production. When the levels of cytokine mRNA were measured by semiquantitative RT-PCR, these alkaloids reduced the levels of the mRNAs of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha, but not that of beta 2-microglobulin, suggesting that these alkaloids may suppress cytokine transcription selectively. PMID:8824940

  20. Effect of dexamethasone and ACC on bacteria-induced mucin expression in human airway mucosa.

    PubMed

    Hauber, Hans-Peter; Goldmann, Torsten; Vollmer, Ekkehard; Wollenberg, Barbara; Zabel, Peter

    2007-11-01

    Gram-negative bacteria can stimulate mucin production, but excessive mucus supports bacterial infection and consequently leads to airway obstruction. Therefore, the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) and the antioxidant acetyl-cysteine (ACC) on bacteria-induced mucus expression was investigated. Explanted human airway mucosa and mucoepidermoid cells (Calu-3) were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or PAM3 (a synthetic lipoprotein). DEX or ACC were added to either LPS- or PAM3-stimulated airway mucosa or Calu-3 cells. Mucin mRNA expression (MUC5AC) and total mucus glycoconjugates (mucin protein) were quantified using real-time PCR and periodic acid Schiff staining. LPS and PAM3 significantly increased mucin expression in airway mucosa and Calu-3 cells (P < 0.05). DEX alone had no significant effect on mucin expression in airway mucosa or Calu-3 cells (P > 0.05). In contrast, DEX significantly reduced LPS- and PAM3-induced mucin expression in explanted mucosal tissue and mucin expression in Calu-3 cells (P < 0.05). In explanted human airway mucosa ACC alone significantly increased mucin expression (P < 0.05). In contrast, ACC significantly decreased LPS- and PAM3-induced mucin expression (P < 0.05). In Calu-3 cells ACC alone had no significant effect on mucin expression (P > 0.05). ACC decreased LPS- and PAM3-induced mucin expression, but this effect was not significant (P > 0.05). These data suggest that DEX can effectively reduce bacteria-induced mucin expression in the airways. ACC alone may increase mucin expression in noninfected mucosa, but it decreased bacteria-induced mucin expression. Further studies are warranted to evaluate whether the effect of DEX or ACC is clinically relevant. PMID:17600317

  1. Global gene expression analyses of hematopoietic stem cell-like cell lines with inducible Lhx2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Karin; Wirta, Valtteri; Dahl, Lina; Bruce, Sara; Lundeberg, Joakim; Carlsson, Leif; Williams, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    Background Expression of the LIM-homeobox gene Lhx2 in murine hematopoietic cells allows for the generation of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-like cell lines. To address the molecular basis of Lhx2 function, we generated HSC-like cell lines where Lhx2 expression is regulated by a tet-on system and hence dependent on the presence of doxycyclin (dox). These cell lines efficiently down-regulate Lhx2 expression upon dox withdrawal leading to a rapid differentiation into various myeloid cell types. Results Global gene expression of these cell lines cultured in dox was compared to different time points after dox withdrawal using microarray technology. We identified 267 differentially expressed genes. The majority of the genes overlapping with HSC-specific databases were those down-regulated after turning off Lhx2 expression and a majority of the genes overlapping with those defined as late progenitor-specific genes were the up-regulated genes, suggesting that these cell lines represent a relevant model system for normal HSCs also at the level of global gene expression. Moreover, in situ hybridisations of several genes down-regulated after dox withdrawal showed overlapping expression patterns with Lhx2 in various tissues during embryonic development. Conclusion Global gene expression analysis of HSC-like cell lines with inducible Lhx2 expression has identified genes putatively linked to self-renewal / differentiation of HSCs, and function of Lhx2 in organ development and stem / progenitor cells of non-hematopoietic origin. PMID:16600034

  2. Preferential effects of the chemotherapeutic DNA crosslinking agent mitomycin C on inducible gene expression in vivo.

    PubMed

    Caron, R M; Hamilton, J W

    1995-01-01

    The immediate effects of a single dose of the chemotherapeutic DNA crosslinking agent, mitomycin C (MMC), on the expression of several constitutive and drug-inducible genes were examined in a simple in vivo system, the 14 day chick embryo. We observed no effect of MMC on the steady-state mRNA expression of the constitutively expressed beta-actin, transferrin, or albumin genes. In contrast, MMC treatment significantly altered both the basal and drug-inducible mRNA expression of two glutethimide-inducible genes, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthase and cytochrome P450 CYP2H1. The basal expression of these genes was transiently but significantly increased over a 24 hr period following a single dose of MMC. Conversely, MMC significantly suppressed the glutethimide-inducible expression of these genes when administered 1 to 24 hr prior to the inducing drug. The effects of MMC on both basal and drug-inducible ALA synthase and CYP2H1 mRNA expression were principally a result of changes in the transcription rates of these genes. In contrast, MMC treatment had little or no effect on glutethimide-induced expression of ALA synthase or CYP2H1 when administered 1 hr after the inducing drug, suggesting that a very early event in the induction process represents the target for these MMC effects. Covalent binding studies demonstrated that the effects of MMC on gene expression were closely correlated temporally with formation of [3H]-porfiromycin-DNA adducts. These results support the hypothesis that genotoxic chemicals specifically target their effects to inducible genes in vivo. PMID:7875125

  3. Thymoquinone inhibits phorbol ester-induced activation of NF-κB and expression of COX-2, and induces expression of cytoprotective enzymes in mouse skin in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Kundu, Joydeb Kumar; Liu, Lijia; Shin, Jun-Wan; Surh, Young-Joon

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Thymoquinone inhibits phorbol ester-induced COX-2 expression in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone attenuates phosphorylation of IκBα and DNA binding of NF-κB in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone inhibits phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, JNK and Akt in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone induces the expression of cytoprotective proteins in mouse skin. -- Abstract: Thymoquinone (TQ), the active ingredient of Nigella sativa, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties. The present study was aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities of thymoquinone in mouse skin. Pretreatment of female HR-1 hairless mouse skin with TQ attenuated 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). TQ diminished nuclear translocation and the DNA binding of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) via the blockade of phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of IκBα in TPA-treated mouse skin. Pretreatment with TQ attenuated the phosphorylation of Akt, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, but not that of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2. Moreover, topical application of TQ induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H-quinoneoxidoreductase-1, glutathione-S-transferase and glutamate cysteine ligase in mouse skin. Taken together, the inhibitory effects of TQ on TPA-induced COX-2 expression and NF-κB activation, and its ability to induce the expression of cytoprotective proteins provide a mechanistic basis of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of TQ in hairless mouse skin.

  4. Inducible transgenic expression in the short-lived fish Nothobranchius furzeri.

    PubMed

    Allard, J B; Kamei, H; Duan, C

    2013-05-01

    This study demonstrates inducible transgenic expression in the exceptionally short-lived turquoise killifish Nothobranchius furzeri, which is a useful vertebrate model for ageing research. Transgenic N. furzeri bearing a green fluorescent protein (Gfp) containing construct under the control of a heat shock protein 70 promoter were generated, heat shock-induced and reversible Gfp expression was demonstrated and germline transmission of the transgene to the F1 and F2 generations was achieved. The availability of this inducible transgenic expression system will make the study of ageing-related antagonistically pleiotropic genes possible using this unique vertebrate model organism. PMID:23639168

  5. Glucose Oxidase Induces Cellular Senescence in Immortal Renal Cells through ILK by Downregulating Klotho Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Troyano-Suárez, Nuria; del Nogal-Avila, María; Mora, Inés; Sosa, Patricia; López-Ongil, Susana; Rodriguez-Puyol, Diego; Olmos, Gemma; Ruíz-Torres, María Piedad

    2015-01-01

    Cellular senescence can be prematurely induced by oxidative stress involved in aging. In this work, we were searching for novel intermediaries in oxidative stress-induced senescence, focusing our interest on integrin-linked kinase (ILK), a scaffold protein at cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion sites, and on the Klotho gene. Cultured renal cells were treated with glucose oxidase (GOx) for long time periods. GOx induced senescence, increasing senescence associated β-galactosidase activity and the expression of p16. In parallel, GOx increased ILK protein expression and activity. Ectopic overexpression of ILK in cells increased p16 expression, even in the absence of GOx, whereas downregulation of ILK inhibited the increase in p16 due to oxidative stress. Additionally, GOx reduced Klotho gene expression and cells overexpressing Klotho protein did not undergo senescence after GOx addition. We demonstrated a direct link between ILK and Klotho since silencing ILK expression in cells and mice increases Klotho expression and reduces p53 and p16 expression in renal cortex. In conclusion, oxidative stress induces cellular senescence in kidney cells by increasing ILK protein expression and activity, which in turn reduces Klotho expression. We hereby present ILK as a novel downregulator of Klotho gene expression. PMID:26583057

  6. Glucose Oxidase Induces Cellular Senescence in Immortal Renal Cells through ILK by Downregulating Klotho Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Troyano-Suárez, Nuria; del Nogal-Avila, María; Mora, Inés; Sosa, Patricia; López-Ongil, Susana; Rodriguez-Puyol, Diego; Olmos, Gemma; Ruíz-Torres, María Piedad

    2015-01-01

    Cellular senescence can be prematurely induced by oxidative stress involved in aging. In this work, we were searching for novel intermediaries in oxidative stress-induced senescence, focusing our interest on integrin-linked kinase (ILK), a scaffold protein at cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion sites, and on the Klotho gene. Cultured renal cells were treated with glucose oxidase (GOx) for long time periods. GOx induced senescence, increasing senescence associated β-galactosidase activity and the expression of p16. In parallel, GOx increased ILK protein expression and activity. Ectopic overexpression of ILK in cells increased p16 expression, even in the absence of GOx, whereas downregulation of ILK inhibited the increase in p16 due to oxidative stress. Additionally, GOx reduced Klotho gene expression and cells overexpressing Klotho protein did not undergo senescence after GOx addition. We demonstrated a direct link between ILK and Klotho since silencing ILK expression in cells and mice increases Klotho expression and reduces p53 and p16 expression in renal cortex. In conclusion, oxidative stress induces cellular senescence in kidney cells by increasing ILK protein expression and activity, which in turn reduces Klotho expression. We hereby present ILK as a novel downregulator of Klotho gene expression. PMID:26583057

  7. Hypoxia-induced expression of phosducin-like 3 regulates expression of VEGFR-2 and promotes angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Srimathi; Chitalia, Vipul; Meyer, Rosana D.; Hartsough, Edward; Mehta, Manisha; Harrold, Itrat; Anderson, Nicole; Feng, Hui; Smith, Lois E. H.; Jiang, Yan; Costello, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Expression and activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) by VEGF ligands are the main events in the stimulation of pathological angiogenesis. VEGFR-2 expression is generally low in the healthy adult blood vessels, but its expression is markedly increased in the pathological angiogenesis. In this report, we demonstrate that phosducin-like 3 (PDCL3), a recently identified chaperone protein involved in the regulation of VEGFR-2 expression, is required for angiogenesis in zebrafish and mouse. PDCL3 undergoes N-terminal methionine acetylation, and this modification affects PDCL3 expression and its interaction with VEGFR-2. Expression of PDCL3 is regulated by hypoxia, the known stimulator of angiogenesis. The mutant PDCL3 that is unable to undergo N-terminal methionine acetylation was refractory to the effect of hypoxia. The siRNA-mediated silencing of PDCL3 decreased VEGFR-2 expression resulting in a decrease in VEGF-induced VEGFR-2 phosphorylation, whereas PDCL3 over-expression increased VEGFR-2 protein. Furthermore, we show that PDCL3 protects VEGFR-2 from misfolding and aggregation. The data provide new insights for the chaperone function of PDCL3 in angiogenesis and the roles of hypoxia and N-terminal methionine acetylation in PDCL3 expression and its effect on VEGFR-2. PMID:26059764

  8. Behavioral experience induces zif268 expression in mature granule cells but suppresses its expression in immature granule cells

    PubMed Central

    Huckleberry, Kylie A.; Kane, Gary A.; Mathis, Rita J.; Cook, Sarah G.; Clutton, Jonathan E.; Drew, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of neurons are born each day in the dentate gyrus (DG), but many of these cells die before reaching maturity. Both death and survival of adult-born neurons are regulated by neuronal activity in the DG. The immediate-early gene (IEG) zif268 appears to be an important mediator of these effects, as its expression can be induced by neural activity and knockout of zif268 impairs survival of adult-born neurons (Richardson et al., 1992; Veyrac et al., 2013). Despite the apparent importance of zif268 for adult neurogenesis, its behavior-induced expression has not been fully characterized in adult-born neurons. Here we characterize behavior-evoked expression of zif268 in mature and newborn dentate granule cells (DGCs). We first quantified zif268 expression in doublecortin-positive (DCX+) immature neurons and in the general granule cell population after brief exposure to a novel environment (NE). In the general granule cell population, zif268 expression peaked 1 h after NE exposure and returned to baseline by 8 h post-exposure. However, in the DCX+ cells, zif268 expression was suppressed relative to home cage for at least 8 h post-exposure. We next asked whether suppression of zif268 in DCX+ immature cells occurs in other behavioral paradigms that recruit the hippocampus. Exposure to Morris water maze (MWM) training, an enriched environment, or a NE caused approximately equal suppression of zif268 expression in DCX+ cells and approximately equal activation of zif268 expression among the general granule cell population. The same behavioral procedures activated zif268 expression in 6-week-old BrdU-labeled adult-born neurons, indicating that zif268 suppression is specific to immature neurons. Finally, we asked whether zif268 suppression varied as a function of age within the DCX+ population, which ranges in age from 0 to approximately 4 weeks. NE exposure had no significant effect on zif268 expression in 2- or 4-week-old BrdU-labeled neurons, but it significantly

  9. Mifepristone-inducible transgene expression in neural progenitor cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hjelm, BE; Grunseich, C; Gowing, G; Avalos, P; Tian, J; Shelley, BC; Mooney, M; Narwani, K; Shi, Y; Svendsen, CN; Wolfe, JH; Fischbeck, KH; Pierson, TM

    2016-01-01

    Numerous gene and cell therapy strategies are being developed for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Many of these strategies use constitutive expression of therapeutic transgenic proteins, and although functional in animal models of disease, this method is less likely to provide adequate flexibility for delivering therapy to humans. Ligand-inducible gene expression systems may be more appropriate for these conditions, especially within the central nervous system (CNS). Mifepristone’s ability to cross the blood–brain barrier makes it an especially attractive ligand for this purpose. We describe the production of a mifepristone-inducible vector system for regulated expression of transgenes within the CNS. Our inducible system used a lentivirus-based vector platform for the ex vivo production of mifepristone-inducible murine neural progenitor cells that express our transgenes of interest. These cells were processed through a series of selection steps to ensure that the cells exhibited appropriate transgene expression in a dose-dependent and temporally controlled manner with minimal background activity. Inducible cells were then transplanted into the brains of rodents, where they exhibited appropriate mifepristone-inducible expression. These studies detail a strategy for regulated expression in the CNS for use in the development of safe and efficient gene therapy for neurological disorders. PMID:26863047

  10. Mifepristone-inducible transgene expression in neural progenitor cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hjelm, B E; Grunseich, C; Gowing, G; Avalos, P; Tian, J; Shelley, B C; Mooney, M; Narwani, K; Shi, Y; Svendsen, C N; Wolfe, J H; Fischbeck, K H; Pierson, T M

    2016-05-01

    Numerous gene and cell therapy strategies are being developed for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Many of these strategies use constitutive expression of therapeutic transgenic proteins, and although functional in animal models of disease, this method is less likely to provide adequate flexibility for delivering therapy to humans. Ligand-inducible gene expression systems may be more appropriate for these conditions, especially within the central nervous system (CNS). Mifepristone's ability to cross the blood-brain barrier makes it an especially attractive ligand for this purpose. We describe the production of a mifepristone-inducible vector system for regulated expression of transgenes within the CNS. Our inducible system used a lentivirus-based vector platform for the ex vivo production of mifepristone-inducible murine neural progenitor cells that express our transgenes of interest. These cells were processed through a series of selection steps to ensure that the cells exhibited appropriate transgene expression in a dose-dependent and temporally controlled manner with minimal background activity. Inducible cells were then transplanted into the brains of rodents, where they exhibited appropriate mifepristone-inducible expression. These studies detail a strategy for regulated expression in the CNS for use in the development of safe and efficient gene therapy for neurological disorders. PMID:26863047

  11. Inducible and Reversible Lentiviral and Recombination Mediated Cassette Exchange (RMCE) Systems for Controlling Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Bersten, David C.; Sullivan, Adrienne E.; Li, Dian; Bhakti, Veronica; Bent, Stephen J.; Whitelaw, Murray L.

    2015-01-01

    Manipulation of gene expression to invoke loss of function (LoF) or gain of function (GoF) phenotypes is important for interrogating complex biological questions both in vitro and in vivo. Doxycycline (Dox)-inducible gene expression systems are commonly used although success is often limited by high background and insufficient sensitivity to Dox. Here we develop broadly applicable platforms for reliable, tightly controlled and reversible Dox-inducible systems for lentiviral mediated generation of cell lines or FLP Recombination-Mediated Cassette Exchange (RMCE) into the Collagen 1a1 (Col1a1) locus (FLP-In Col1a1) in mouse embryonic stem cells. We significantly improve the flexibility, usefulness and robustness of the Dox-inducible system by using Tetracycline (Tet) activator (Tet-On) variants which are more sensitive to Dox, have no background activity and are expressed from single Gateway-compatible constructs. We demonstrate the usefulness of these platforms in ectopic gene expression or gene knockdown in multiple cell lines, primary neurons and in FLP-In Col1a1 mouse embryonic stem cells. We also improve the flexibility of RMCE Dox-inducible systems by generating constructs that allow for tissue or cell type-specific Dox-inducible expression and generate a shRNA selection algorithm that can effectively predict potent shRNA sequences able to knockdown gene expression from single integrant constructs. These platforms provide flexible, reliable and broadly applicable inducible expression systems for studying gene function. PMID:25768837

  12. Repeatable, Inducible Micro-RNA-Based Technology Tightly Controls Liver Transgene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Oprea, Iulian I; Viola, Joana R; Moreno, Pedro M D; Simonson, Oscar E; Rodin, Sergey; Teller, Nathalie; Tryggvason, Karl; Lundin, Karin E; Girnita, Leonard; Smith, Carl Inge Edvard

    2014-01-01

    Inducible systems for gene expression emerge as a new