Science.gov

Sample records for factor-alpha induced expression

  1. Arsenite enhances tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, T.-C. . E-mail: tctsou@nhri.org.tw; Yeh, Szu Ching; Tsai, E.-M.; Tsai, F.-Y.; Chao, H.-R.; Chang, Louis W.

    2005-11-15

    Epidemiological studies demonstrated a high association of vascular diseases with arsenite exposure. We hypothesize that arsenite potentiates the effect of proinflammatory cytokines on vascular endothelial cells, and hence contributes to atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of arsenite and its induction of glutathione (GSH) on vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) protein expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in response to tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), a typical proinflammatory cytokine. Our study demonstrated that arsenite pretreatment potentiated the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression with up-regulations of both activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). To elucidate the role of GSH in regulation of AP-1, NF-{kappa}B, and VCAM-1 expression, we employed L-buthionine (S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), a specific {gamma}-glutamylcysteine synthetase ({gamma}-GCS) inhibitor, to block intracellular GSH synthesis. Our investigation revealed that, by depleting GSH, arsenite attenuated the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression as well as a potentiation of AP-1 and an attenuation of NF-{kappa}B activations by TNF-{alpha}. Moreover, we found that depletion of GSH would also attenuate the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression with a down-regulation of the TNF-{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activation and without significant effect on AP-1. On the other hand, the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression could be completely abolished by inhibition of AP-1 or NF-{kappa}B activity, suggesting that activation of both AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B was necessary for VCAM-1 expression. In summary, we demonstrate that arsenite enhances the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression in HUVECs via regulation of AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B activities in a GSH-sensitive manner. Our present study suggested a potential mechanism for arsenite in the induction of vascular inflammation and vascular diseases via modulating the actions of proinflammatory cytokines.

  2. Expression of transforming growth factor alpha in plutonium-239-induced lung neoplasms in dogs: investigations of autocrine mechanisms of growth

    SciTech Connect

    Gillett, N.A.; Stegelmeier, B.L.; Chang, I.Y.; Kelly, G. )

    1991-06-01

    We have previously shown that 47% of radiation-induced lung neoplasms in dogs exhibit increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this study, we investigated the expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha), a ligand for EGFR, to determine if an autocrine mechanism for growth stimulation was present in these tumors. As determined by immunohistochemistry, 59% (26/44) of the lung neoplasms examined had increased expression of TGF-alpha. Expression of TGF-alpha was not related to the etiology of the tumor, e.g., spontaneous or plutonium-induced; however, it was related to the phenotype of the tumor. Statistical analysis of the correlation of EGFR and TGF-alpha expression within the same tumor did not show a positive association; however, specific phenotypes did have statistically significant expression of EGFR or TGF-alpha, suggesting that overexpression of either the ligand or its receptor conferred a growth advantage to the neoplasm. Twenty-seven percent (32/117) of radiation-induced proliferative epithelial foci expressed TGF-alpha, and a portion of those foci (8/32) expressed both EGFR and TGF-alpha. This supports the hypothesis that these foci represent preneoplastic lesions, and suggests that those foci exhibiting increased expression of the growth factor or its receptor are at greater risk for progressing to neoplasia.

  3. Expression of transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor in rat lung neoplasms induced by plutonium-239

    SciTech Connect

    Stegelmeier, B.L.; Gillett, N.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Kelly, G.; Rebar, A.H.

    1994-11-01

    Ninety-two rat lung proliferative lesions and neoplasms induced by inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} were evaluated for aberrant expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-{alpha}) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Expression of TGF-{alpha} protein, measured by immunohistochemistry, was higher in 94% of the squamous cell carcinomas and 87% of the foci of alveolar epithelial squamous metaplasia than that exhibited by the normal-appearing, adjacent lung parenchyma. In contrast, only 20% of adenocarcinomas and foci of epithelial hyperplasia expressed elevated levels of TGF-{alpha}. Many neoplasms expressing TGF-{alpha} also expressed excessive levels of EGFR mRNA. Southern and DNA slot blot analyses showed that the elevated EGFR expression was not due to amplification of the EGFR gene. These data suggest that increased amounts of TGF-{alpha} were early alterations in the progression of plutonium-induced squamous cell carcinoma, and these increases may occur in parallel with overexpression of the receptor for this growth factor. Together, these alterations create a potential autocrine loop for sustaining clonal expansion of cells initiated by high-LET radiation. 44 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Transcription factor cyclic adenosine monophosphate responsive element binding protein negatively regulates tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 1 expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Wei, Ke; Xun, Yu; Yang, Xiaoxu; Gan, Shiquan; Xiao, Hui; Xiao, Ye; Yan, Feng; Xie, Guie; Wang, Tingting; Yang, Yinke; Zhang, Jian; Hu, Xiang; Xiang, Shuanglin

    2015-11-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?)-induced protein 1 (TNFAIP1) was originally identified as a protein involved in DNA replication, DNA damage repair, apoptosis and the progression of certain diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, forskolin, a stimulant of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), was found to significantly reduce human TNFAIP1 mRNA levels and TNFAIP1 promoter activity in the SKNSH human neuroblastoma cell line as indicated by polymerase chain reaction analysis and a luciferase reporter assay. The association between transcription factor cAMP response element?binding protein (CREB) and TNFAIP1 was further investigated using loss- and gain of function-studies with western blot analysis and luciferase reporter assays. The CREB-specific inhibitor KG?501 significantly increased TNFAIP1 protein levels, while overexpression of wild?type CREB, but not CREB mutated at ser133a or its DNA-binding site, significantly decreased human TNFAIP1 protein levels and TNFAIP1 promoter activity in SKNSH cells. Furthermore, two CRE sites located at ?285 and ?425 bp of the human TNFAIP1 promoter were identified to be responsible for CREB?induced inhibition of human TNFAIP1 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that CREB bound to the TNFAIP1 promoter region harboring these two CRE sites. A further luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that CREB phosphorylation on ser133 was responsible for forskolin?induced inhibition of TNFAIP1 expression. In conclusion, the present study suggested that CREB is a negative regulator of the TNFAIP1 gene. PMID:26398148

  5. The coffee diterpene kahweol inhibits tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced expression of cell adhesion molecules in human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyung Gyun; Kim, Ji Young; Hwang, Yong Pil; Lee, Kyung Jin; Lee, Kwang Youl; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jeong, Hye Gwang . E-mail: hgjeong@chosun.ac.kr

    2006-12-15

    Endothelial cells produce adhesion molecules after being stimulated with various inflammatory cytokines. These adhesion molecules play an important role in the development of atherogenesis. Recent studies have highlighted the chemoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of kahweol, a coffee-specific diterpene. This study examined the effects of kahweol on the cytokine-induced monocyte/human endothelial cell interaction, which is a crucial early event in atherogenesis. Kahweol inhibited the adhesion of TNF{alpha}-induced monocytes to endothelial cells and suppressed the TNF{alpha}-induced protein and mRNA expression of the cell adhesion molecules, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. Furthermore, kahweol inhibited the TNF{alpha}-induced JAK2-PI3K/Akt-NF-{kappa}B activation pathway in these cells. Overall, kahweol has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activities, which occurs partly by down-regulating the pathway that affects the expression and interaction of the cell adhesion molecules on endothelial cells.

  6. Brucella abortus Invasion of Osteocytes Modulates Connexin 43 and Integrin Expression and Induces Osteoclastogenesis via Receptor Activator of NF-?B Ligand and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Secretion.

    PubMed

    Pesce Viglietti, Ayelén Ivana; Arriola Benitez, Paula Constanza; Gentilini, María Virginia; Velásquez, Lis Noelia; Fossati, Carlos Alberto; Giambartolomei, Guillermo Hernán; Delpino, María Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarticular brucellosis is the most common localization of human active disease. Osteocytes are the most abundant cells of bone. They secrete factors that regulate the differentiation of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts during bone remodeling. The aim of this study is to determine if Brucella abortus infection modifies osteocyte function. Our results indicate that B. abortus infection induced matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), receptor activator for NF-?B ligand (RANKL), proinflammatory cytokines, and keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) secretion by osteocytes. In addition, supernatants from B. abortus-infected osteocytes induced bone marrow-derived monocytes (BMM) to undergo osteoclastogenesis. Using neutralizing antibodies against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) or osteoprotegerin (OPG), RANKL's decoy receptor, we determined that TNF-? and RANKL are involved in osteoclastogenesis induced by supernatants from B. abortus-infected osteocytes. Connexin 43 (Cx43) and the integrins E11/gp38, integrin-?, integrin-?, and CD44 are involved in cell-cell interactions necessary for osteocyte survival. B. abortus infection inhibited the expression of Cx43 but did not modify the expression of integrins. Yet the expression of both Cx43 and integrins was inhibited by supernatants from B. abortus-infected macrophages. B. abortus infection was not capable of inducing osteocyte apoptosis. However, supernatants from B. abortus-infected macrophages induced osteocyte apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, our results indicate that B. abortus infection could alter osteocyte function, contributing to bone damage. PMID:26459511

  7. B94, a primary response gene inducible by tumor necrosis factor-alpha, is expressed in developing hematopoietic tissues and the sperm acrosome.

    PubMed

    Wolf, F W; Sarma, V; Seldin, M; Drake, S; Suchard, S J; Shao, H; O'Shea, K S; Dixit, V M

    1994-02-01

    B94 was originally described as a novel tumor necrosis factor-alpha-inducible primary response gene in endothelial cells which was also induced in an in vitro model of angiogenesis. To further characterize its expression, we cloned the mouse homologue and mapped its developmental and tissue specific expression. The predicted amino acid sequence of mouse B94 was found to be 83% similar to its human homologue. The gene was localized to mouse chromosome 12 just centromeric to the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus, in a region that is often rearranged in T-cell neoplasms. To explore the possibility that B94 is expressed during vasculogenesis and other developmental processes, the expression of its transcript was determined during mouse development by in situ hybridization. In 10-day embryos B94 was expressed prominently in the myocardium and in the aortic arch. By the 15th day of gestation, expression was restricted largely to the liver, the bone forming regions of the jaw, the aortic endothelium, and the nasopharynx: a pattern that was maintained until just prior to birth. Postnatally, expression shifted to the red pulp of the spleen and the thymic medulla. B94 expression was extinguished in most adult tissues but was detectable in lymphopoietic tissues including the spleen, tonsil, and lymphatic aggregates in the gut. Consistent with this was the finding that mononuclear progenitor cells in bone marrow and mature peripheral blood monocytes expressed B94. A truncated testis-specific transcript previously identified by Northern blot analysis was determined to result from the use of an alternate polyadenylation signal which was surprisingly located within the open reading frame. This shorter transcript was expressed at high levels exclusively in late stage spermatids. Immunostaining with an affinity-purified polyclonal antiserum revealed B94 to be localized to the acrosomal compartment of mature sperm. These studies demonstrate that B94 expression is tightly regulated during development and suggests distinct roles for B94 in myelopoiesis and spermatogenesis. PMID:8106408

  8. Apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in rat hepatocyte cell lines expressing hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed Central

    Guilhot, S.; Miller, T.; Cornman, G.; Isom, H. C.

    1996-01-01

    Three well differentiated SV40-immortalized rat hepatocyte cell lines, CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV14, and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-producing cell lines derived from them were examined for sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV14 cells were co-transfected with a DNA construct containing a dimer of the HBV genome and the neo gene and selected in G418 to generate stable cell lines. Characterization of these cell lines indicated that they contain integrated HBV DNA, contain low molecular weight HBV DNA compatible with the presence of HBV replication intermediates, express HBV transcripts, and produce HBV proteins. The viability of CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV2 cells was not significantly altered when they were treated with TNF-alpha at concentrations as high as 20,000 U/ml. The HBV-expressing CWSV1 cell line, SV1di36, and the HBV-expressing CWSV14 cell line, SV14di208, were also not killed when treated with TNF-alpha. However, the HBV-expressing CWSV2 cell line, SV2di366, was extensively killed when treated with TNF-alpha at concentrations ranging from 200 to 20,000 U/ml. Analysis of several different HBV-producing CWSV2 cell lines indicated that TNF-alpha killing depended upon the level of HBV expression. The TNF-alpha-induced cell killing in high HBV-producing CWSV2 cell lines was accompanied by the presence of an oligonucleosomal DNA ladder characteristic of apoptosis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:8774135

  9. Propofol Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Expression and Myocardial Depression through Decreasing the Generation of Superoxide Anion in Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jing; Hu, Ji-Jie; Lu, Chun-Hua; Liang, Jia-Ni; Xiao, Jin-Fang; Liu, You-Tan; Lin, Chun-Shui; Qin, Zai-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    TNF-? has been shown to be a major factor responsible for myocardial depression in sepsis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an anesthetic, propofol, on TNF-? expression in cardiomyocytes treated with LPS both in vivo and in vitro. In cultured cardiomyocytes, compared with control group, propofol significantly reduced protein expression of gp91phox and phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 MAPK, which associates with reduced TNF-? production. In in vivo mice studies, propofol significantly improved myocardial depression and increased survival rate of mice after LPS treatment or during endotoxemia, which associates with reduced myocardial TNF-? production, gp91phox, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK. It is concluded that propofol abrogates LPS-induced TNF-? production and alleviates cardiac depression through gp91phox/ERK1/2 or p38 MAPK signal pathway. These findings have great clinical importance in the application of propofol for patients enduring sepsis. PMID:25180066

  10. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Induced Modifications of the Gene Expression Kinetics of Differentiating Skeletal Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Swanhild U.; Krebs, Stefan; Thirion, Christian; Blum, Helmut; Krause, Sabine; Pfaffl, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction TNF-? levels are increased during muscle wasting and chronic muscle degeneration and regeneration processes, which are characteristic for primary muscle disorders. Pathologically increased TNF-? levels have a negative effect on muscle cell differentiation efficiency, while IGF1 can have a positive effect; therefore, we intended to elucidate the impact of TNF-? and IGF1 on gene expression during the early stages of skeletal muscle cell differentiation. Methodology/Principal Findings This study presents gene expression data of the murine skeletal muscle cells PMI28 during myogenic differentiation or differentiation with TNF-? or IGF1 exposure at 0 h, 4 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 72 h after induction. Our study detected significant coregulation of gene sets involved in myoblast differentiation or in the response to TNF-?. Gene expression data revealed a time- and treatment-dependent regulation of signaling pathways, which are prominent in myogenic differentiation. We identified enrichment of pathways, which have not been specifically linked to myoblast differentiation such as doublecortin-like kinase pathway associations as well as enrichment of specific semaphorin isoforms. Moreover to the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of a specific inverse regulation of the following genes in myoblast differentiation and response to TNF-?: Aknad1, Cmbl, Sepp1, Ndst4, Tecrl, Unc13c, Spats2l, Lix1, Csdc2, Cpa1, Parm1, Serpinb2, Aspn, Fibin, Slc40a1, Nrk, and Mybpc1. We identified a gene subset (Nfkbia, Nfkb2, Mmp9, Mef2c, Gpx, and Pgam2), which is robustly regulated by TNF-? across independent myogenic differentiation studies. Conclusions This is the largest dataset revealing the impact of TNF-? or IGF1 treatment on gene expression kinetics of early in vitro skeletal myoblast differentiation. We identified novel mRNAs, which have not yet been associated with skeletal muscle differentiation or response to TNF-?. Results of this study may facilitate the understanding of transcriptomic networks underlying inhibited muscle differentiation in inflammatory diseases. PMID:26447881

  11. HIV-1 Tat Protein Induces PD-L1 (B7-H1) Expression on Dendritic Cells through Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha- and Toll-Like Receptor 4-Mediated Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Planès, Rémi; BenMohamed, Lbachir; Leghmari, Kaoutar; Delobel, Pierre; Izopet, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is associated with induction of T-cell coinhibitory pathways. However, the mechanisms by which HIV-1 induces upregulation of coinhibitory molecules remain to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to determine whether and how HIV-1 Tat protein, an immunosuppressive viral factor, induces the PD-1/PD-L1 coinhibitory pathway on human dendritic cells (DCs). We found that treatment of DCs with whole HIV-1 Tat protein significantly upregulated the level of expression of PD-L1. This PD-L1 upregulation was observed in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) obtained from either uninfected or HIV-1-infected patients as well as in primary myeloid DCs from HIV-negative donors. In contrast, no effect on the expression of PD-L2 or PD-1 molecules was detected. The induction of PD-L1 on MoDCs by HIV-1 Tat (i) occurred in dose- and time-dependent manners, (ii) was mediated by the N-terminal 1–45 fragment of Tat, (iii) did not require direct cell-cell contact but appeared rather to be mediated by soluble factor(s), (iv) was abrogated following neutralization of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) or blocking of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), (v) was absent in TLR4-knockoout (KO) mice but could be restored following incubation with Tat-conditioned medium from wild-type DCs, (vi) impaired the capacity of MoDCs to functionally stimulate T cells, and (vii) was not reversed functionally following PD-1/PD-L1 pathway blockade, suggesting the implication of other Tat-mediated coinhibitory pathways. Our results demonstrate that HIV-1 Tat protein upregulates PD-L1 expression on MoDCs through TNF-?- and TLR4-mediated mechanisms, functionally compromising the ability of DCs to stimulate T cells. The findings offer a novel potential molecular target for the development of an anti-HIV-1 treatment. IMPORTANCE The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat on the PD-1/PD-L1 coinhibitory pathway on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs). We found that treatment of MoDCs from either healthy or HIV-1-infected patients with HIV-1 Tat protein stimulated the expression of PD-L1. We demonstrate that this stimulation was mediated through an indirect mechanism, involving tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathways, and resulted in compromised ability of Tat-treated MoDCs to functionally stimulate T-cell proliferation. PMID:24696476

  12. Dexamethasone treatment of tumor necrosis factor-alpha challenged organ of Corti explants activates nuclear factor kappa B signaling that induces changes in gene expression that favor hair cell survival.

    PubMed

    Dinh, C T; Bas, E; Chan, S S; Dinh, J N; Vu, L; Van De Water, T R

    2011-08-11

    The objective was to determine the role of nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B) in dexamethasone base (DXMb) protection of auditory hair cells from tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF?)-induced loss on gene expression and cell signaling levels. Organ of Corti (OC) explants from 3-day-old rats were cultured under one of the following conditions: (1) media only--no treatment; (2) media+TNF?; (3) media+TNF?+DXMb; (4) media+TNF?+DXMb+NF?B-Inhibitor (NF?B-I); or (5) media+TNF?+DXMb+NF?BI-Scrambled control (NF?BI-C). A total of 60 organ of Corti explants (OC) were stained with FITC-Phalloidin after 96 h in culture (conditions 1-5) for hair cell counts and imaging of surface characteristics. A total of 108 OC were used for gene expression studies (i.e. B-actin, Bax, Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and TNFR1) after 0, 24, or 48 h in vitro (conditions 1-4). A total of 86 OC were cultured (conditions 1-3) for 48 h, 36 of which were used for phosphorylated NF?B (p-NF?B) ELISA studies and 50 for whole mount anti-p-NF?B immunostain experiments. TNF?+DXMb exposed cultures demonstrated significant upregulation in anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl genes and downregulation in pro-apoptotic Bax gene expression; DXMb treatment of TNF? explants also lowered the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and inhibited TNFR1 upregulation. After inhibiting NF?B activity with NF?B-I, the gene expression profile following TNF?+DXMb treatment now mimics that of TNF?-challenged OC explants. The levels of p-NF?B and the degree of nuclear translocation are significantly greater in TNF?+DXMb exposed OC explants than observed in the TNF? and control groups in the middle+basal turns of OC explants. These findings were supported by the results of the hair cell counts and the imaging results obtained from the whole mount OC specimens. DXMb protects against TNF?-induced apoptosis of auditory hair cells in vitro via activation of NF?B signaling in hair cell nuclei, and regulation of the expression levels of anti- and pro-apoptotic genes and a pro-inflammatory gene. PMID:21571041

  13. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits albumin gene expression in a murine model of cachexia.

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, D A; Buck, M; Feitelberg, S P; Chojkier, M

    1990-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for decreased serum albumin levels in patients with cachexia-associated infection, inflammation, and cancer are unknown. Since tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) is elevated in cachexia-associated diseases, and chronic administration of TNF alpha induces cachexia in animal models, we assessed the regulation of albumin gene expression by TNF alpha in vivo. In this animal model of cachexia, Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with the functional gene for human TNF alpha were inoculated into nude mice (TNF alpha mice). TNF alpha mice became cachectic and manifested decreased serum albumin levels, albumin synthesis, and albumin mRNA levels. However, even before the TNF alpha mice lost weight, their albumin mRNA steady-state levels were decreased approximately 90%, and in situ hybridization revealed a low level of albumin gene expression throughout the hepatic lobule. The mRNA levels of several other genes were unchanged. Hepatic nuclei from TNF alpha mice before the onset of weight loss were markedly less active in transcribing the albumin gene than hepatic nuclei from control mice. Therefore, TNF alpha selectively inhibits the genetic expression of albumin in this model before weight loss. Images PMID:2295699

  14. Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} enhances IL-15-induced natural killer cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jiwon; Lee, Suk Hyung; Korea University of Science and Technology, Yusong, Daejeon 305-333 ; Shin, Nara; Jeong, Mira; Korea University of Science and Technology, Yusong, Daejeon 305-333 ; Kim, Mi Sun; Kim, Mi Jeong; Yoon, Suk Ran; Chung, Jin Woong; Departments of Biological Science, Dong-A University, Busan ; Kim, Tae-Don; Korea University of Science and Technology, Yusong, Daejeon 305-333 ; Choi, Inpyo; Korea University of Science and Technology, Yusong, Daejeon 305-333

    2009-09-04

    The differentiation of natural killer (NK) cells is regulated by various factors including soluble growth factors and transcription factors. Here, we have demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) is a positive regulator of NK cell differentiation. TNF-{alpha} augmented the IL-15-induced expression of NK1.1 and CD122 in mature NK cells, and TNF-{alpha} alone also induced NK cell maturation as well as IL-15. TNF-{alpha} also increased IFN-{gamma} production in NK cells in the presence of IL-15. Meanwhile, mRNA expression of several transcription factors, including T-bet and GATA-3, was increased by the addition of TNF-{alpha} and IL-15. In addition, TNF-{alpha} increased nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activity in NK cells and inhibition of NF-{kappa}B impeded TNF-{alpha}-enhanced NK cell maturation. Overall, these data suggest that TNF-{alpha} significantly increased IL-15-driven NK cell differentiation by increasing the expression of transcription factors that play crucial roles in NK cell maturation and inducing the NF-{kappa}B activity.

  15. Increased Leptin Expression in Mice with Bacterial Peritonitis is Partially Regulated by Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Moshyedi, Armin K.; Josephs, Michael D.; Abdalla, Eddie K.; MacKay, Sally L. D.; Edwards, Carl K.; Copeland, Edward M.; Moldawer, Lyle L.

    1998-01-01

    Plasma leptin and ob gene mRNA levels were increased in mice following bacterial peritonitis, and blocking an endogenous tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) response blunted the increase. However, plasma leptin concentrations did not correlate with the associated anorexia. We conclude that leptin expression is under partial regulatory control of TNF-? in peritonitis, but the anorexia is not dependent on increased leptin production. PMID:9529118

  16. Diesel exhaust particles induce the over expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene in alvelor machrophage and failed to induce apoptosis through activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5-10), including diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been reported to induce lung injury and exacerbation of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Alveolar macrophages play a major role in the lung's response to inhaled particles and...

  17. Route of feeding influences the production and expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha in burned rats.

    PubMed

    Cui, X L; Iwasa, M; Kuge, H; Sasaguri, S; Ogoshi, S

    2001-01-01

    The effect of nutritional route on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production in burned rats was examined. Scald burns covering about 30% of the whole body surface area were inflicted on 43 male Wistar rats weighing about 200g. The animals were divided into three groups: CHOW (n = 10), total parenteral nutrition (TPN) (n = 22), and total enteral nutrition (TEN) (n = 11), continuously given a chow diet, TPN solution, or an enteral diet, respectively, for 7 days after the burn injury. The rate of detection of TNF-alpha in plasma on day 7 was significantly higher in the TPN group than in the CHOW or TEN groups. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of TNF-alpha was significantly increased in the spleen, lungs, liver, and ileum of the rats receiving TPN compared with the CHOW and TEN rats. On the other hand, the expression of TNF-alpha mRNA was markedly decreased in the thymus of the TPN group compared with the CHOW group. The mortality rate in the TPN group (63.6%) was higher than that in the CHOW (0.0%) or TEN (27.3%) groups on day 7 after burn injury. These data suggest that TPN increases the expression of TNF-alpha mRNA in organ tissues and systemic TNF-alpha production, and reduces the survival rate of rats after thermal injury, but TEN does not. PMID:11495157

  18. Phospholipase C-{delta}{sub 1} regulates interleukin-1{beta} and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} mRNA expression

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eric; Jakinovich, Paul; Bae, Aekyung; Rebecchi, Mario

    2012-10-01

    Phospholipase C-{delta}{sub 1} (PLC{delta}{sub 1}) is a widely expressed highly active PLC isoform, modulated by Ca{sup 2+} that appears to operate downstream from receptor signaling and has been linked to regulation of cytokine production. Here we investigated whether PLC{delta}{sub 1} modulated expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in rat C6 glioma cells. Expression of PLC{delta}{sub 1} was specifically suppressed by small interfering RNA (siRNA) and the effects on cytokine mRNA expression, stimulated by the Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), were examined. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed that PLC{delta}{sub 1} knockdown enhanced expression IL-1{beta} and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) mRNA by at least 100 fold after 4 h of LPS stimulation compared to control siRNA treatment. PLC{delta}{sub 1} knock down caused persistently high Nf{kappa}b levels at 4 h of LPS stimulation compared to control siRNA-treated cells. PLC{delta}{sub 1} knockdown was also associated with elevated nuclear levels of c-Jun after 30 min of LPS stimulation, but did not affect LPS-stimulated p38 or p42/44 MAPK phosphorylation, normally associated with TLR activation of cytokine gene expression; rather, enhanced protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation of cellular proteins was observed in the absence of LPS stimulation. An inhibitor of PKC, bisindolylmaleimide II (BIM), reversed phosphorylation, prevented elevation of nuclear c-Jun levels, and inhibited LPS-induced increases of IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha} mRNA's induced by PLC{delta}{sub 1} knockdown. Our results show that loss of PLC{delta}{sub 1} enhances PKC/c-Jun signaling and up-modulates pro-inflammatory cytokine gene transcription in concert with the TLR-stimulated p38MAPK/Nf{kappa}b pathway. Our findings are consistent with the idea that PLC{delta}{sub 1} is a suppressor of PKC activity.

  19. TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF)

    EPA Science Inventory

    TITLE:
    TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF). AUTHORS (ALL): Abbott, Barbara D.1; Best, Deborah S.1; Narotsky, Michael G.1. SPONSOR NAME: None INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1. Repro Tox ...

  20. MicroRNA-29b modulates Japanese encephalitis virus-induced microglia activation by targeting tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3.

    PubMed

    Thounaojam, Menaka Chanu; Kaushik, Deepak Kumar; Kundu, Kiran; Basu, Anirban

    2014-04-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) virus, is the leading cause of encephalitis in Asia. Microglial activation is one of the key events in JEV-induced neuroinflammation. Although the various microRNAs (miRNAs) has been shown to regulate microglia activation during pathological conditions including neuroviral infections, till date, the involvement of miRNAs in JEV infection has not been evaluated. Hence, we sought to evaluate the possible role of miRNAs in mediating JEV-induced microglia activation. Initial screening revealed significant up-regulation of miR-29b in JEV-infected mouse microglial cell line (BV-2) and primary microglial cells. Furthermore, using bioinformatics tools, we identified tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3, a negative regulator of nuclear factor-kappa B signaling as a potential target of miR-29b. Interestingly, in vitro knockdown of miR-29b resulted in significant over-expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3, and subsequent decrease in nuclear translocation of pNF-?B. JEV infection in BV-2 cell line elevated inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression levels, which diminished after miR-29b knockdown. Collectively, our study demonstrates involvement of miR-29b in regulating JEV- induced microglial activation. PMID:24236890

  1. Pentoxifylline prevents indomethacin induced acute gastric mucosal damage in rats: role of tumour necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Santucci, L; Fiorucci, S; Giansanti, M; Brunori, P M; Di Matteo, F M; Morelli, A

    1994-01-01

    Neutrophil adherence within the gastric microcirculation is thought to be a major step in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal damage induced by indomethacin. Pentoxifylline, a methylxanthine derivative, prevents leukocyte adherence to vascular endothelium and protects organs from shock by reducing tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) concentrations. Rats were treated with 20 mg/kg oral indomethacin, pretreated with vehicle or with four different doses of pentoxifylline intraperitoneally, and killed after three hours. The gross gastric mucosal injury, neutrophil margination into the gastric microcirculation, mucosal concentrations of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (PGF1 alpha), and PGE2 and serum TNF alpha values were measured. Whether the pentoxifylline induced protection involved nitric oxide mediated pathways or gastric acid secretion was evaluated. The data indicate that pentoxifylline reduces indomethacin induced mucosal damage and neutrophil margination in a dose dependent manner without exerting any effect on gastric mucosal prostaglandin concentrations. The maximally effective dose (200 mg/kg) of pentoxifylline reduced gastric damage by 90% and slightly stimulated acid secretion. The effect of pentoxifylline was not affected by pretreatment with the nitric oxide inhibitor. Pentoxifylline prevented the indomethacin induced increase in TNF alpha concentrations in a dose dependent fashion. Serum TNF alpha values were 30.5 (7.0) IU/ml (mean (SEM)) in rats treated with indomethacin alone and 5.0 (2.5) IU/ml (p < 0.01) in rats treated with indomethacin plus 200 mg/kg pentoxifylline. Pentoxifylline, therefore, prevents the acute gastric mucosal damage and neutrophil margination induced by indomethacin and reduces indomethacin induced release of TNF alpha. PMID:8063218

  2. Rho/ROCK and MEK/ERK activation by transforming growth factor-alpha induces articular cartilage degradation.

    PubMed

    Appleton, C Thomas G; Usmani, Shirine E; Mort, John S; Beier, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Identification and characterization of therapeutic targets for joint conditions, such as osteoarthritis (OA), is exceedingly important for addressing the increasing burden of disease. Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFalpha) is upregulated by articular chondrocytes in experimentally induced and human OA. To test the potential involvement of TGFalpha, which is an activator of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling, in joint degeneration and to identify signaling mechanisms mediating articular chondrocyte responses to TGFalpha, rat chondrocytes and osteochondral explants were treated with TGFalpha and various inhibitors of intracellular signaling pathways. Stimulation of EGFR signaling in articular chondrocytes by TGFalpha resulted in the activation of RhoA/ROCK (Rho kinase), MEK (MAPK/ERK kinase)/ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase), PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) and p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathways. Modification of the chondrocyte actin cytoskeleton was stimulated by TGFalpha, but inhibition of only Rho or ROCK activation prevented morphological changes. TGFalpha suppressed expression of anabolic genes including Sox9, type II collagen and aggrecan, which were rescued only by inhibiting MEK/ERK activation. Furthermore, catabolic factor upregulation by TGFalpha was prevented by ROCK and p38 MAPK inhibition, including matrix metalloproteinase-13 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which are well known to contribute to cartilage digestion in OA. To assess the ability of TGFalpha to stimulate degradation of mature articular cartilage, type II collagen and aggrecan cleavage fragments were analyzed in rat osteochondral explants exposed to exogenous TGFalpha. Normal articular cartilage contained low levels of both cleavage fragments, but high levels were observed in the cartilage treated with TGFalpha. Selective inhibition of MEK/ERK and Rho/ROCK activation greatly reduced or completely prevented excess type II collagen and aggrecan degradation in response to TGFalpha. These data suggest that TGFalpha is a strong stimulator of cartilage degradation and that Rho/ROCK and MEK/ERK signaling have critical roles in mediating these effects. PMID:19823173

  3. Molecular Mechanisms of Hepatocellular Apoptosis Induced by Trovafloxacin-Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) continues to be a significant human health problem. IDILI is characterized as occurring in a minority of individuals exposed to a drug, yet it accounts for as much as 17% of all cases of acute liver failure. Despite these concerns, the mechanisms underlying IDILI remain unknown. Trovafloxacin (TVX), which causes IDILI in humans, also causes hepatocellular death in vitro when combined with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) treatment. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this toxicity are not fully characterized. The purpose of this study was to identify mechanisms by which TVX and TNF interact to cause hepatocellular death, with a focus on a human hepatocyte cell line. TVX and TNF interacted to cause cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells at drug concentrations similar to those in people undergoing TVX therapy. TVX/TNF treatment caused apoptosis and DNA damage in HepG2 cells that depended on caspase activation. Prolonged activation of JNK occurred in TVX/TNF-induced cytotoxicity, and treatment with the JNK selective inhibitor SP600125 attenuated cytotoxicity. TVX/TNF cotreatment also caused cytotoxicity in isolated primary murine hepatocytes that was dependent on caspase activation. These results increase understanding of molecular signaling pathways involved in hepatocellular death caused by a drug with idiosyncratic liability in the presence of TNF. PMID:24097668

  4. Heparin and enoxaparin enhance endotoxin-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in human monocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Heinzelmann, M; Miller, M; Platz, A; Gordon, L E; Herzig, D O; Polk, H C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether heparin or the low-molecular-weight heparin enoxaparin alter lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced monocyte activation. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Heparin is widely used in clinical practice to inhibit the coagulation cascade. However, heparin also is a naturally occurring glucosaminoglycan and a pleiotropic immunomodulator that binds to a variety of proteins. LPS is a component of gram-negative bacteria and is thought to be responsible for many of the deleterious effects seen in sepsis. The binding of LPS to CD14 induces a signaling cascade that results in the release of many inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). METHODS: Monocytes from healthy volunteers were isolated and cultured in the presence of saline, LPS (10 ng/ml), heparin (0.1 to 1000 microg/ml), or enoxaparin (0.1 to 1000 microg/ml). In blocking experiments, cells were pretreated for 60 minutes with the monoclonal anti-CD14 antibody MY4 (10 microg/ml) or with isotype-matched control IgG2 (10 microg/ml). TNF-alpha values were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Significance was assessed with analysis of variance. RESULTS: Heparin (10 to 1000 microg/ml) and enoxaparin (1000 microg/ml) significantly enhanced LPS-induced TNF-alpha release. Heparin (1000 microg/ml) or enoxaparin (1000 microg/ml) did not produce TNF-alpha in the absence of LPS. Blockade of CD14 abrogated both LPS-induced TNF-alpha release and the effect of heparin or enoxaparin to enhance LPS-induced TNF-alpha release. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of heparin to enhance LPS-induced TNF-alpha release is a biologic phenomenon that reveals a novel and potentially important host defense mechanism during endotoxemia and sepsis. Binding of LPS to CD14 is necessary to induce this phenomenon, suggesting that both heparin and enoxaparin induce signaling mechanisms that are downstream from the initial binding of LPS on CD14. PMID:10203088

  5. The -308 polymorphism in the promoter region of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene and ex vivo lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha expression in patients with aggressive periodontitis and/or type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Claudio; González, Fermín E; Pavez, Violeta; Araya, Aida V; Aguirre, Adam; Cruzat, Andrea; Contreras-Levicoy, Juan; Dotte, Andrés; Aravena, Octavio; Salazar, Lorena; Catalán, Diego; Cuenca, Jimena; Ferreira, Arturo; Schiattino, Irene; Aguillón, Juan C

    2004-01-01

    Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in the TNF-alpha gene promoter. The transition G-->A at position -308 generates the TNF-alpha1 (G/G) and TNF-alpha2 (G/A or A/A) alleles, where the polymorphic TNF-alpha2 allele is associated with a high, in vitro TNF-alpha expression and an increased susceptibility to diverse illnesses. Here we study the association of the -308 TNF-alpha SNP with the susceptibility for developing aggressive periodontitis (AP), AP combined with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) and DM. We also explore the TNF-alpha capability expression and the presence of the -308 polymorphism. For this purpose we recruited 27 individuals with AP (AP+ group), 27 individuals with AP combined with DM (AP+/DM+ group), and 27 individuals with DM without signs of periodontitis upon clinical examination (DM+ group). The control group was comprised of 30 subjects. Genotyping for TNF-alpha promoter was performed by PCR-RFLP analysis. For TNF-alpha expression we used a blood culture system. PMID:15627647

  6. Lon Mutant of Brucella abortus Induces Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Murine J774.A1 Macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sungdo; Choi, Young-Sill; Park, Sang-Hee; Kim, Young-Rok; Chu, Hyuk; Hwang, Kyu-Jam; Park, Mi-Yeoun

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to isolate a Brucella lon mutant and to analyze the cytokine response of B. lon mutant during macrophage infection. Methods A wild-type Brucella abortus strain was mutagenized by Tn5 transposition. From the mouse macrophage J774.A1 cells, total RNA was isolated at 0 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours after infection with Brucella. Using mouse cytokine microarrays, we measured transcriptional levels of the cytokine response, and validated our results with a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay to confirm the induction of cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA). Results In host J774.A1 macrophages, mRNA levels of T helper 1 (Th1)-type cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interferon-gamma (IFN-?), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and IL-3, were significantly higher in the lon mutant compared to wild-type Brucella and the negative control. TNF-? levels in cell culture media were induced as high as 2 ?g/mL after infection with the lon mutant, a greater than sixfold change. Conclusion In order to understand the role of the lon protein in virulence, we identified and characterized a novel B. lon mutant. We compared the immune response it generates to the wild-type Brucella response in a mouse macrophage cell line. We demonstrated that the B. lon mutants induce TNF-? expression from the host J774.A1 macrophage. PMID:24524018

  7. Hamamelitannin from Hamamelis virginiana inhibits the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-induced endothelial cell death in vitro.

    PubMed

    Habtemariam, Solomon

    2002-01-01

    The tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) inhibitory activity of hamamelitannin from Hamamelis virginiana was investigated by assessing the TNF-mediated EAhy926 endothelial cell death and adhesiveness to monocytes. Treatment of the cells by TNF (25 ng/ml) and actinomycin D (0.1ng/ml) resulted in significant DNA fragmentation (34+/-0.6, n=4) and cytotoxicity (97+/-4.5%, n=6) following treatment for 8 and 24h, respectively. One to 100 microM concentrations of hamamelitannin inhibited the TNF-mediated endothelial cell death and DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent manner. One hundred % protection against TNF-induced DNA fragmentation and cytotoxicity was obtained for hamamelitannin concentrations higher than 10 microM. The protective effect of hamamelitannin was comparable with that of a related compound epigallocatechin gallate while gallic acid was a weak protective agent (<40% protection). EAhy926 endothelial cells upregulated (by 4- to 7-fold) the surface expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and adhesiveness to monocytic U937 cells after treatment with TNF (0.5ng/ml) for 6 or 24h. Concentrations (1-100 microM) of hamamelitannin that inhibited the TNF-mediated cell death and DNA fragmentation, however, failed to inhibit the TNF-induced ICAM-1 expression and EAhy926 cell adhesiveness to U937 cells. Thus, hamamelitannin inhibits the TNF-mediated endothelial cell death without altering the TNF-induced upregulation of endothelial adhesiveness. The observed anti-TNF activity of hamamelitannin may explain the antihamorrhaegic use of H. virginiana in traditional medicine and its claimed use as a protective agent for UV radiation. PMID:11602283

  8. Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF{alpha}) regulates CD40 expression through SMAR1 phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Kamini; Sinha, Surajit; Malonia, Sunil Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Samit

    2010-01-08

    CD40 plays an important role in mediating inflammatory response and is mainly induced by JAK/STAT phosphorylation cascade. TNF{alpha} is the key cytokine that activates CD40 during inflammation and tumorigenesis. We have earlier shown that SMAR1 can repress the transcription of Cyclin D1 promoter by forming a HDAC1 dependent repressor complex. In this study, we show that SMAR1 regulates the transcription of NF-{kappa}B target gene CD40. SMAR1 recruits HDAC1 and forms a repressor complex on CD40 promoter and keeps its basal transcription in check. Further, we show that TNF{alpha} stimulation induces SMAR1 phosphorylation at Ser-347 and promotes its cytoplasmic translocation, thus releasing its negative effect. Concomitantly, TNF{alpha} induced phosphorylation of STAT1 at Tyr-701 by JAK1 facilitates its nuclear translocation and activation of CD40 through p300 recruitment and core Histone-3 acetylation. Thus, TNF{alpha} mediated regulation of CD40 expression occurs by dual phosphorylation of SMAR1 and STAT1.

  9. Involvement of Mst1 in tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced apoptosis of endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtsubo, Hideki; Ichiki, Toshihiro Imayama, Ikuyo; Ono, Hiroki; Fukuyama, Kae; Hashiguchi, Yasuko; Sadoshima, Junichi; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2008-03-07

    Mammalian sterile 20-kinase 1 (Mst1), a member of the sterile-20 family protein kinase, plays an important role in the induction of apoptosis. However, little is know about the physiological activator of Mst1 and the role of Mst1 in endothelial cells (ECs). We examined whether Mst1 is involved in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}-induced apoptosis of ECs. Western blot analysis revealed that TNF-{alpha} induced activation of caspase 3 and Mst1 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. TNF-{alpha}-induced Mst1 activation is almost completely prevented by pretreatment with Z-DEVD-FMK, a caspase 3 inhibitor. Nuclear staining with Hoechst 33258 and fluorescence-activated cell sorting of propidium iodide-stained cells showed that TNF-{alpha} induced apoptosis of EC. Diphenyleneiodonium, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, and N-acetylcysteine, a potent antioxidant, also inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced activation of Mst1 and caspase 3, as well as apoptosis. Knockdown of Mst1 expression by short interfering RNA attenuated TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis but not cleavage of caspase 3. These results suggest that Mst1 plays an important role in the induction of TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis of EC. However, positive feedback mechanism between Mst1 and caspase 3, which was shown in the previous studies, was not observed. Inhibition of Mst1 function may be beneficial for maintaining the endothelial integrity and inhibition of atherogenesis.

  10. Curcumin induces apoptosis in tumor necrosis factor-alpha-treated HaCaT cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jun; Han, Jinzhao; Zhao, Yi; Zhu, Quangang; Hu, Jinhong

    2012-06-01

    Psoriasis is a benign, chronic skin disease characterized by keratinocyte hyperproliferation and abnormal differentiation. Curcumin, a selective phosphorylase kinase inhibitor, is a natural phytochemical present in turmeric. Curcumin has been confirmed to have anti-inflammatory properties as well as the ability to inhibit proliferation and decrease the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in psoriatic keratinocytes. However, the pro-apoptotic effect of curcumin in keratinocytes remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of curcumin on apoptosis induction in TNF-?-treated HaCaT cells. These results show that curcumin exhibited a significant pro-apoptotic effect on HaCaT cells only in the presence of TNF-? and/or TRAIL. The pro-apoptotic effect of curcumin resulted from the increased expression of TRAIL-R1/R2 and the decreased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. Our results indicate that both curcumin and TNF-? up-regulated the expression of TRAIL-R1/R2. In addition, the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (IAP1, IAP2, Bcl-X(L)) was up-regulated by TNF-? but suppressed by curcumin in HaCaT cells. Because these proteins are regulated by NF-?B, we examined the role of curcumin in NF-?B activation. As expected, curcumin inhibited TNF-?-induced activation of NF-?B, including NF-?B-P65. Curcumin also inhibited the TNF-?-induced production of IL-6/IL-8 in HaCaT cells. These results imply that curcumin-induced apoptosis of HaCaT cells only occurs when TNF-? or/and TRAIL are present. Therefore, we believe that curcumin is able to reverse the anti-apoptotic function of TNF-? in HaCaT cells and thus expect curcumin to be successful in the treatment of psoriasis. PMID:22498762

  11. Evaluation of Cucurbita maxima extract against scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats: implication of tumour necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed

    Jawaid, Talha; Shakya, Ashok K; Siddiqui, Hefazat Hussain; Kamal, Mehnaz

    2014-01-01

    Cucurbita maxima (CM) seed oil is commonly used in Indian folk medicine to treat various ailments. We have investigated the effect of CM seed oil on memory impairment induced by scopolamine in rats. Male adult Wistar rats were administered scopolamine 1 mg/kg body weight, i.p. or 1.25 mg/kg body weight, s.c. to induce memory impairment. The nootropic agent piracetam 100 mg/kg body weight, i.p. and CM seed oil 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, p.o. were administered daily for five consecutive days. The memory function was evaluated in the Morris water maze (MWM) test, the social recognition test (SRT), the elevated plus maze (EPM) test, and the pole climbing test (PCT). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and oxidative stress parameters were estimated in the cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of the brains after completion of the behavioural studies. The effects of scopolamine on the levels of the tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) transcript were also investigated. Scopolamine caused memory impairment in all the behavioural paradigms along with a significant increase in the AChE activity and oxidative stress in the brain. Scopolamine also caused a significant increase in the expression of TNF-? in the hippocampus. CM seed oil exhibited antiamnesic activity as indicated by a significant reduction in the latency time in the MWM test and decreased social interaction during trial 2 in the SRT. Further, treatment with CM seed oil significantly decreased the AChE activity and malondialdehyde levels and increased the glutathione level in brain regions. CM seed oil also significantly decreased the expression of TNF-? in the hippocampus. The effect of CM seed oil on behavioural and biochemical parameters was comparable to that observed in rats treated with piracetam. These results indicate that CM seed oil may exert antiamnesic activity which may be attributed to the inhibition of AChE and inflammation as well as its antioxidant activity in the brain. PMID:25711042

  12. Regulation of the calcium-sensing receptor expression by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fetahu, Irfete S; Hummel, Doris M; Manhardt, Teresa; Aggarwal, Abhishek; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina; Kállay, Enik?

    2014-10-01

    Anti-proliferative effects of calcium in the colon are mediated, at least in part, via the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a vitamin D target gene. The expression of CaSR decreases during colorectal tumor progression and the mechanisms regulating its expression are poorly understood. The CaSR promoter harbors vitamin D elements responsive to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) and NF-?B, STAT, and SP1 binding sites accounting for responsiveness to proinflammatory cytokines. Therefore, in the current study we investigated the impact of 1,25D3, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?), and interleukin (IL)-6 on CaSR expression in a differentiated (Caco2/AQ) and in a moderately differentiated (Coga1A) colon cancer cell line. 1,25D3 induced CaSR expression in both cell lines. Treatment with TNF? was accompanied by a 134-fold induction of CaSR in Coga1A (p<0.01). In Caco2/AQ cells the expression of CaSR was upregulated also by IL-6 (3.5-fold). Our data demonstrated transcriptional and translational activation of the CaSR by 1,25D3, TNF?, and IL-6 in a time- and cell line-dependent manner. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'. PMID:24176760

  13. Erythropoietin protects myocardin-expressing cardiac stem cells against cytotoxicity of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Madonna, Rosalinda; Institute of Cardiology, and Center of Excellence on Aging, 'G. d'Annunzio' University, Chieti ; Shelat, Harnath; Xue, Qun; Willerson, James T.; The Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Houston, Texas ; De Caterina, Raffaele; Geng, Yong-Jian; The Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Houston, Texas

    2009-10-15

    Cardiac stem cells are vulnerable to inflammation caused by infarction or ischemic injury. The growth factor, erythropoietin (Epo), ameliorates the inflammatory response of the myocardium to ischemic injury. This study was designed to assess the role of Epo in regulation of expression and activation of the cell death-associated intracellular signaling components in cardiac myoblasts stimulated with the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}. Cardiac myoblasts isolated from canine embryonic hearts characterized by expression of myocardin A, a promyogenic transcription factor for cardiovascular muscle development were pretreated with Epo and then exposed to TNF-{alpha}. Compared to untreated cells, the Epo-treated cardiac myoblasts exhibited better morphology and viability. Immunoblotting revealed lower levels of active caspase-3 and reductions in iNOS expression and NO production in Epo-treated cells. Furthermore, Epo pretreatment reduced nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B and inhibited phosphorylation of inhibitor of kappa B (I{kappa}B) in TNF-{alpha}-stimulated cardiac myoblasts. Thus, Epo protects cardiac myocyte progenitors or myoblasts against the cytotoxic effects of TNF-{alpha} by inhibiting NF-{kappa}B-mediated iNOS expression and NO production and by preventing caspase-3 activation.

  14. Thermotherapy-induced reduction in glioma invasiveness is mediated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Qin, L J; Zhang, T; Jia, Y S; Zhang, Y B; Zhang, Y X; Wang, H T

    2015-01-01

    Thermotherapy has been proven to be effective for the treatment of various tumors, including glioma. We determined whether tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) is involved in the regulation of the biological processes of glioma development. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemistry were used to investigate the levels of TNF-? mRNA and heat shock factor-1 (HSF1) protein, respectively, in glioma cells. Radioimmunoassay was used to dynamically monitor the contents of TNF-? in the nutrient fluid of C6 cells after thermotherapy treatment. Crystal violet staining was used to determine glioma invasiveness. The most obvious increases in HSF1 protein and TNF-? mRNA in C6 cells were observed at 30 and 60 min after thermotherapy, respectively. In addition, the radioactivity of TNF-? in the culture fluid of the C6 cells reached a peak after 120 min of thermotherapy. In addition, glioma invasiveness decreased and the concentration of TNF-? reached a maximum after 120 min of thermotherapy. Our results show that the decrease in thermotherapy-mediated glioma invasiveness is due to the accelerated release of TNF-?, which could promote the release of HSF1 from neurospongioma cells. PMID:26436502

  15. Interleukin-1 beta, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Enayati, Samaneh; Seifirad, Soroush; Amiri, Parvin; Abolhalaj, Milad; Mohammad -Amoli, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Several inflammatory mediators have been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quantitative expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in un-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma (IFN-?) gene expression were evaluated in angiography confirmed patients with and without CAD in a case-control study using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS A significant increase (P = 0.030) in IL-1? gene expression was found in patients with CAD [median interquartile range (IQR) = 4.890 (6.084)] compared to patients without CAD [median (IQR) = 1.792 (3.172)]. Despite the increase in IFN-? gene expression in patients with CAD [median (IQR) = 1.298 (3.896)] versus patients without CAD [median (IQR) = 0.841 (2.79)], there was not statistically significant difference (P = 0.990). CONCLUSION Our results provide evidence for possible association between IL-1? and development of atherosclerosis as a crucial cytokine that induce a network of signaling pathways. This finding if proved in future would suggest IL-1? as a potent therapeutic target in CAD. PMID:26715931

  16. Tumor necrosis factor alpha promotes the expression of immunosuppressive proteins and enhances the cell growth in a human bone marrow-derived stem cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Miettinen, Johanna A.; Pietilae, Mika; Salonen, Riikka J.; Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu ; Ohlmeier, Steffen; Ylitalo, Kari; Huikuri, Heikki V.; Lehenkari, Petri

    2011-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in experimental treatments for various conditions that involve normal tissue regeneration via inflammatory repair. It is known that MSCs can secrete multiple soluble factors and suppress inflammation. Even though the effect of MSCs on inflammation has been extensively studied, the effect of inflammation on MSCs is poorly understood. One of the major cytokines released at the site of inflammation is tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-{alpha}) which is known to induce MSC invasion and proliferation. Therefore, we wanted to test the effects of TNF-{alpha} exposure on MSCs derived from human bone marrow. We found, as expected, that cell proliferation was significantly enhanced during TNF-{alpha} exposure. However, according to the cell surface marker analysis, the intensity of several antigens in the minimum criteria panel for MSCs proposed by International Society of Cellular Therapy (ISCT) was decreased dramatically, and in certain cases, the criteria for MSCs were not fulfilled. In addition, TNF-{alpha} exposure resulted in a significant but transient increase in human leukocyte antigen and CD54 expression. Additional proteomic analysis by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry revealed three proteins whose expression levels decreased and 8 proteins whose expression levels increased significantly during TNF-{alpha} exposure. The majority of these proteins could be linked to immunosuppressive and signalling pathways. These results strongly support reactive and immunosuppressive activation of MSCs during TNF-{alpha} exposure, which might influence MSC differentiation stage and capacity.

  17. Tumour necrosis factor alpha-induced neuronal loss is mediated by microglial phagocytosis

    E-print Network

    Neniskyte, Urte; Vilalta, Anna; Brown, Guy C.

    2014-06-06

    and cerebrospinal fluid after meningitis induced by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Neurosci. Lett. 467, 217–219. [5] Beg, A.A., Finco, T.S., Nantermet, P.V. and Baldwin Jr., A.S. (1993) Tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 lead to phosphorylation and loss of I kappa B... ; [32]) or animal models of brain inflammation (0.4 ng ml in rat experimental meningitis [4]). How- ever, it is difficult to extrapolate from these studies to what might be focal/local extracellular concentration of TNF-a in diseased brain. The relevance...

  18. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha mediates acid aspiration-induced systemic organ injury.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, G; Welbourn, R; Kobzik, L; Valeri, C R; Shepro, D; Hechtman, H B

    1990-01-01

    Acid aspiration-induced systemic organ injury is mediated by the sequestration of activated neutrophils (PMN). In other settings cytokines have been shown to increase neutrophil-endothelial adhesion, a requisite for injury. This study tests whether the systemic leukosequestration and permeability following localized aspiration is mediated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced synthesis of an adhesion protein. Anesthetized rats underwent tracheostomy and insertion of a fine-bore cannula into the anterior segment of the left lung. This was followed by the instillation of either 0.1 mL 0.1 N HCI (n = 18) or 0.1 mL saline in control rats (n = 18). Localized aspiration induced generalized pulmonary leukosequestration with 95 PMN/10 high-power fields (HPF) in the aspirated lung and 46 PMN/10 HPF in the nonaspirated lung, higher than control values of 7 PMN/10 HPF and 5 PMN/10 HPF in saline- and nonsaline-aspirated sides, respectively (p less than 0.05). The leukosequestration was associated with permeability edema shown by increased protein concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of 3900 micrograms/mL in the aspirated and 2680 micrograms/mL in the nonaspirated side, higher than saline with 482 micrograms/mL and 411 micrograms/mL, respectively (p less than 0.05). There was generalized pulmonary edema following aspiration measured by increase in wet-to-dry weight ratios (w/d) of 6.6 in the aspirated and 5.1 in the nonaspirated lung, higher than control values of 3.5 and 3.4, respectively (p less than 0.05). Localized aspiration led to systemic leukosequestration documented by increases in myeloperoxidase activity (units/g tissue) of 2.2 and 1.7 in heart and kidney, higher than control values of 0.3 and 0.4, respectively (p less than 0.05). This event was associated with edema of these organs with w/d ratios of 4.6 and 4.3, relative to control values of 3.0 and 3.4 (p less than 0.05). Treatment of animals (n = 18) 20 minutes after aspiration with anti-TNF-alpha antiserum (rabbit anti-murine) but not normal rabbit serum (n = 18) reduced lung leukosequestration in the aspirated and nonaspirated segments (61 and 32 PMN/10HPF), BAL protein concentration (1490 and 840 micrograms/mL), and w/d ratio (4.3 and 3.7) (all p less than 0.05). In the heart and kidney there were reductions in myeloperoxidase activity (0.7 and 0.6) and w/d ratio (3.5 and 3.6) (both p less than 0.05). Treatment of rabbits (n = 18) with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, 0.2 mg/kg/hr was as effective as TNF-alpha antiserum in modifying aspiration injury.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2222016

  19. Mycobacterium marinum SecA2 Promotes Stable Granulomas and Induces Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Brigitte Y.; Joshi, Shilpa A.; Ball, David A.; Leggett, Hadley; Park, Summer; Kim, Janice; Austin, Cary D.; Paler-Martinez, Andres; Xu, Min; Downing, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    SecA2 is an ATPase present in some pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, is required for translocation of a limited set of proteins across the cytosolic membrane, and plays an important role in virulence in several bacteria, including mycobacteria that cause diseases such as tuberculosis and leprosy. However, the mechanisms by which SecA2 affects virulence are incompletely understood. To investigate whether SecA2 modulates host immune responses in vivo, we studied Mycobacterium marinum infection in two different hosts: an established zebrafish model and a recently described mouse model. Here we show that M. marinum ?secA2 was attenuated for virulence in both host species and SecA2 was needed for normal granuloma numbers and for optimal tumor necrosis factor alpha response in both zebrafish and mice. M. marinum ?secA2 was more sensitive to SDS and had unique protrusions from its cell envelope when examined by cryo-electron tomography, suggesting that SecA2 is important for bacterial cell wall integrity. These results provide evidence that SecA2 induces granulomas and is required for bacterial modulation of the host response because it affects the mycobacterial cell envelope. PMID:22851747

  20. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced activation of RhoA in airway smooth muscle cells: role in the Ca2+ sensitization of myosin light chain20 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Irene; Cobban, Hannah J; Vandenabeele, Peter; MacEwan, David J; Nixon, Graeme F

    2003-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), an inflammatory cytokine, has a potentially important role in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma and may contribute to airway hyper-responsiveness. Recent evidence has revealed that TNF can increase the Ca(2+) sensitivity of agonist-stimulated myosin light chain(20) (MLC(20)) phosphorylation and contractility in guinea pig airway smooth muscle (ASM). In the present study, the potential intracellular pathways responsible for this TNF-induced Ca(2+) sensitization were investigated. In permeabilized cultured guinea pig ASM cells, recombinant human TNF stimulated an increase in Ca(2+)-activated MLC(20) phosphorylation under Ca(2+) "clamp" conditions. This increased MLC(20) phosphorylation was inhibited by preincubation with the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y27632. TNF also increased the proportion of GTP-bound RhoA, as measured using rhotekin Rho-binding domain, in a time course compatible with a role in the TNF-induced Ca(2+) sensitization. In cultured human ASM cells, recombinant human TNF also activated RhoA with a similar time course. In addition, TNF stimulated phosphorylation of the regulatory subunit of the myosin phosphatase, which was inhibited by Y27632. Although human ASM cells expressed both receptor subtypes, TNF-R1 and TNF-R2, the activation of RhoA was predominantly via stimulation of the TNF-R1, although RhoA did not immunoprecipitate with the TNF-R1. In conclusion, the TNF-induced increase in the Ca(2+) sensitivity of MLC(20) phosphorylation is through stimulation of the TNF-R1 receptor and via a RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway leading to inhibition of the myosin light chain phosphatase. This intracellular mechanism may contribute to TNF-induced airway hyper-responsiveness. PMID:12606782

  1. Regulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha transcription in macrophages: involvement of four kappa B-like motifs and of constitutive and inducible forms of NF-kappa B.

    PubMed Central

    Collart, M A; Baeuerle, P; Vassalli, P

    1990-01-01

    This study characterizes the interaction of murine macrophage nuclear proteins with the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) promoter. Gel retardation and methylation interference assays showed that stimulation of TNF-alpha gene transcription in peritoneal exudate macrophages was accompanied by induction of DNA-binding proteins that recognized with different affinities four elements related to the kappa B consensus motif and a Y-box motif. We suggest that the basal level of TNF-alpha expression in macrophages is due to the binding of a constitutive form of NF-kappa B, present at low levels in nuclei from resting thioglycolate exudate peritoneal macrophages, to some if not all of the kappa B motifs; we postulate that this constitutive form contains only the 50-kilodalton (kDa) DNA-binding protein subunits of NF-kappa B, not the 65-kDa protein subunits (P. Baeuerle and D. Baltimore, Genes Dev. 3:1689-1698, 1989). Agents such as glucocorticoids, which decrease TNF-alpha transcription, diminished the basal level of nuclear NF-kappa B. Stimulation of Stimulation of TNF-alpha transcription in macrophages by lipopolysaccharide, gamma interferon, or cycloheximide led to an increased content of nuclear NF-kappa B. This induced factor represents a different form of NF-kappa B, since it generated protein-DNA complexes of slower mobility; we propose that this induced form of NF-kappa B contains both the 50- and 65-kDa protein subunits, the latter ones being necessary to bind NF-kappa B to its cytoplasmic inhibitor in uninduced cells (Baeuerle and Baltimore, Genes Dev., 1989). In resting cells, this inducible form of NF-kappa B was indeed detectable in the cytosol after deoxycholate treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:2181276

  2. Cytoprotective effect of ?-tocopherol against tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced cell dysfunction in L929 cells

    PubMed Central

    Oláh, Gabor; Módis, Katalin; Ger?, Domokos; Suzuki, Kunihiro; DeWitt, Douglas; Traber, Daniel L.; Szabó, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant vitamin ?-tocopherol exerts protective and anti-inflammatory effects in various models of critical illness. The combination of actinomycin D and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) in the immortalized fibroblast cell line L929 is a well-established method to model pro-inflammatory cytotoxicity in cultured cells in vitro. The present study had two aims. First, we wished to characterize the contribution of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to the cell dysfunction and this commonly used model system of cell death. Second, we wished to investigate the effects of ?-tocopherol on this response. Cells were exposed to actinomycin D (0.5 ?g/ml) + TNF-? (100 pg/ml) in the absence or presence of 1 hour of ?-tocopherol pretreatment. The earliest change that was detected in our system in response to TNF-? was an increase in mitochondrial oxidant production, already apparent at 45 minutes. Changes in glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation parameters were already apparent at 2h, as detected by the Seahorse Biosciences XF24 Flux Analyzer. By 6 hours, a slight decrease in Cell Index was detected by impedance-based analysis, employing an electronic sensor array system (XCelligence). At the same time, a slight decrease in cell viability detected by the MTT method, a significant of increase in LDH release into the culture medium, and a detectable degree of mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Between 12 hours and 24 hours, the cell viability (already at a low level) further declined, which coincided with a secondary, marked decline in mitochondrial membrane potential. Pretreatment of the cells with ?-tocopherol (10 ?M - 300 ?M) provided a significant protection against all of the functional alterations induced by actinomycin D and TNF-?. The current study provides direct evidence that reactive oxidant formation plays an important role in the current experimental model of cell dysfunction, and demonstrates the protective effects of the potent endogenous antioxidant vitamin, ?-tocopherol. The mechanisms described in the current study may, in part, contribute to the protective effects of ?-tocopherol in various models of critical illness. PMID:21822532

  3. Tumor necrosis factor alpha augments nitric oxide-dependent macrophage cytotoxicity against Entamoeba histolytica by enhanced expression of the nitric oxide synthase gene.

    PubMed

    Lin, J Y; Seguin, R; Keller, K; Chadee, K

    1994-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO measured as nitrite, NO2-) is the major effector molecule produced by activated macrophages for in vitro cytotoxicity against Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites. In this study, we determine whether tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) produced by activated bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) is involved in the induction of the inducible NO synthase gene (mac-NOS) for NO-dependent amebicidal activity. TNF-alpha alone did not directly induce macrophage NO2- production to kill amebae; however, in combination with increasing concentrations of TNF-alpha and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), BMM amebicidal activity and NO2- production progressively increased and showed a significant linear correlation. Antiserum to TNF-alpha and the NO synthase inhibitor NG-monomethyl L-arginine (L-NMMA) inhibited the synergistic effects of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. BMM activated with increasing concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and IFN-gamma showed a significant linear correlation between TNF-alpha release and NO2- production. Antiserum to TNF-alpha suppressed TNF-alpha release, NO2- production, and amebicidal activity by 93, 53, and 86%, respectively. L-NMMA diminished NO2- production by 74% and macrophage amebicidal activity by 83% but had no effect on TNF-alpha release. Quantification by Northern (RNA) blot analyses demonstrated that IFN-gamma in combination with TNF-alpha or LPS increased markedly the accumulation of mac-NOS and TNF-alpha mRNAs in a time-dependent manner with a concomitant increase in NO and TNF-alpha production. Peak induction of mac-NOS occurred after 24 h, whereas TNF-alpha mRNA was rapidly expressed after 4 h and remained stable for 48 h. Taken together, these data argue that TNF-alpha augments NO-dependent macrophage cytotoxicity against E. histolytica via elevated levels of mac-NOS mRNA expression which may be associated with the accumulation of TNF-alpha mRNA. PMID:7513301

  4. Regulation of caveolin-1 expression, nitric oxide production and tissue injury by tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} following ozone inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Fakhrzadeh, Ladan; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2008-03-15

    Alveolar macrophages (AM) and inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide and peroxynitrite contribute to ozone-induced lung injury. The generation of these mediators is regulated, in part, by the transcription factor NF-{kappa}B. We previously demonstrated a critical role for NF-{kappa}B p50 in ozone-induced injury. In the present studies mechanisms regulating NF-{kappa}B activation in the lung after ozone inhalation were analyzed. Treatment of wild type (WT) mice with ozone (0.8 ppm, 3 h) resulted in a rapid increase in NF-{kappa}B binding activity in AM, which persisted for at least 12 h. This was not evident in mice lacking TNF{alpha} which are protected from ozone-induced injury; there was also no evidence of nitric oxide or peroxynitrite production in lungs from these animals. These data demonstrate that TNF{alpha} plays a role in NF-{kappa}B activation and toxicity. TNF{alpha} signaling involves PI-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB), and p44/42 MAP kinase (MAPK) which are important in NF-{kappa}B activation. Ozone Inhalation resulted in rapid and transient increases in p44/42 MAPK and PI3K/PKB in AM from WT mice, which was evident immediately after exposure. Caveolin-1, a transmembrane protein that negatively regulates PI3K/PKB and p44/42 MAPK signaling, was downregulated in AM from WT mice after ozone exposure. In contrast, ozone had no effect on caveolin-1, PI3K/PKB or p44/42 MAPK expression in AM from TNF{alpha} knockout mice. These data, together with our findings that TNF{alpha} suppressed caveolin-1 expression in cultured AM, suggest that TNF{alpha} and downstream signaling mediate activation of NF-{kappa}B and the regulation of inflammatory genes important in ozone toxicity, and that this process is linked to caveolin-1.

  5. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Production by Human Monocytes Involves the Raf-1/MEK1-MEK2/ERK1-ERK2 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    van der Bruggen, Tjomme; Nijenhuis, Suzanne; van Raaij, Estia; Verhoef, Jan; Sweder van Asbeck, B.

    1999-01-01

    During gram-negative sepsis, human monocytes are triggered to produce large quantities of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) in response to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]). Several studies have identified signal transduction pathways that are activated by LPS, including activation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including ERK1 and ERK2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38. In this study, the relevance of ERK1 and ERK2 activation for LPS-induced TNF-? production by primary human monocytes has been addressed with PD-098059, which specifically blocks activation of MAPK kinase (MEK) by Raf-1. TNF-? levels in the monocyte culture supernatant, induced by 10 ng of LPS/ml, were reduced by PD-098059 (50 ?M). In addition, PD-098059 also reduced TNF-? mRNA expression when cells were stimulated for 1 h with LPS. On the other hand, LPS-induced interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels in the monocyte supernatant were only slightly inhibited by PD-098059. Ro 09-2210, a recently identified MEK inhibitor, completely abrogated TNF-? levels at nanomolar concentrations. IL-10 levels also were strongly reduced. To show the efficacy of PD-098059 and Ro 09-2210, ERK1 and -2 activation was monitored by Western blotting with an antiserum that recognizes the phosphorylated (i.e., activated) forms of ERK1 and ERK2. Addition of LPS to human monocytes resulted in activation of both ERK1 and ERK2 in a time- and concentration (50% effective concentration between 1 and 10 ng of LPS/ml)-dependent manner. Activation of ERK2 was blocked by PD-098059 (50 ?M), whereas ERK1 seemed to be less affected. Ro 09-2210 completely prevented LPS-induced ERK1 and ERK2 activation. LPS-induced p38 activation also was prevented by Ro 09-2210. These data further support the view that the ERK signal transduction pathway is causally involved in the synthesis of TNF-? by human monocytes stimulated with LPS. PMID:10417144

  6. Changes in distribution, morphology, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion of alveolar macrophage subpopulations during the development of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Everson, M. P.; Chandler, D. B.

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that heterogeneous alveolar macrophages (AM) play a pivotal role in events associated with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. A critical role has been suggested for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a product of activated macrophages, in this fibrotic process. The present study examined whether the characteristics and function (TNF-alpha secretion) of rat AM subpopulations were altered during the development of bleomycin-induced fibrosis. After intratracheal bleomycin treatment, AM were separated into 18 density-defined subpopulations. Bleomycin treatment altered the distribution and morphology of AM subpopulations of densities 1.017 to 1.061 g/ml at all time points studied (4, 14, and 28 days). Subpopulations of densities 1.090 to 1.141 g/ml were affected only at 4 days after bleomycin treatment. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion increased with time in 14- and 28-day samples of bleomycin-treated rats, particularly in subpopulations of densities 1.075 to 1.097 g/ml. These data indicate that alterations in the distribution, morphology, and function of AM subpopulations accompany the development of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. When coupled with previous studies suggesting that TNF-alpha plays a role in the fibrotic process in this disease model, these data indicate that AM of densities 1.075 to 1.097 g/ml are responsible for the production of TNF-alpha associated with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:1371205

  7. Camptothecin fails to induce apoptosis in tumor necrosis factor-alpha-treated HaCaT cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jun; Han, Jinzhao; Zhu, Quangang; Li, Zhen; Hu, Jinhong

    2012-01-01

    Camptothecin (CPT), a DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor, was originally isolated from the fruits of the Chinese Camptotheca acuminata tree. CPT and its derivatives have been used in the treatment of psoriasis and cancer in China for decades. It is well known that tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) is a key proinflammatory cytokine in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. In this study, we investigated the effect of CPT on TNF-?-treated HaCaT cells. The results indicated that CPT in the concentration range of 0.5-2.0 ?g·ml(-1) failed to show any proapoptotic effect in HaCaT cells. It was found that both CPT and TNF-? up-regulated the expression of TRAIL receptor 1/2 but not TRAIL in HaCaT cells. Furthermore, the expression of antiapoptotic proteins (IAP1, IAP2, and Bcl-X(L)) was up-regulated by TNF-? and suppressed by CPT in HaCaT cells. Because these gene products are known to be regulated by nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B), we examined the role of CPT on NF-?B activation. It was found that CPT not only failed to inhibit TNF-?-induced NF-?B activation but also contributed to NF-?B activation. In addition to these effects, CPT also promoted the production of interleukin-6, similar to TNF-?, in HaCaT cells. In conclusion, despite ample evidence supporting CPT-induced carcinoma cell apoptosis, our study clearly shows that CPT fails to show any proapoptotic effects in HaCaT cells, even though it enhanced TRAIL receptor 1/2 expression and inhibited the expression of TNF-?-induced antiapoptotic proteins. Taken together, this study demonstrates that CPT fails to block the activity of TNF-?. With respect to the NF-?B-activating role of CPT, we suggest that the benefit of CPT in the treatment of psoriasis should be reevaluated. PMID:22301394

  8. Tumor Necrosis Factor - Alpha Is Essential for Angiotensin II-Induced Ventricular Remodeling: Role for Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sriramula, Srinivas; Francis, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The functional crosstalk between angiotensin II (Ang II) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? has been shown to cause adverse left ventricular remodeling and hypertrophy in hypertension. Previous studies from our lab showed that mice lacking TNF-? (TNF-?-/-) have attenuated hypertensive response to Ang II; however, the signaling mechanisms involved are not known. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathways involved in the Ang II and TNF-? interaction. Chronic Ang II infusion (1?g/kg/min, 14 days) significantly increased cardiac collagen I, collagen III, CTGF and TGF-? mRNA and protein expression in wild-type (WT) mice, whereas these changes were decreased in TNF-?-/- mice. TNF-?-/- mice with Ang II infusion showed reduced myocardial perivascular and interstitial fibrosis compared to WT mice with Ang II infusion. In WT mice, Ang II infusion increased reactive oxygen species formation and the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits, indicating increased oxidative stress, but not in TNF-?-/- mice. In addition, treatment with etanercept (8 mg/kg, every 3 days) for two weeks blunted the Ang II-induced hypertension (133±4 vs 154±3 mmHg, p<0.05) and cardiac hypertrophy (heart weight to body weight ratio, 4.8±0.2 vs 5.6±0.3, p<0.05) in WT mice. Furthermore, Ang II-induced activation of NF-?B, p38 MAPK, and JNK were reduced in both TNF-?-/- mice and mice treated with etanercept. Together, these findings indicate that TNF-? contributes to Ang II-induced hypertension and adverse cardiac remodeling, and that these effects are associated with changes in the oxidative stress dependent MAPK/TGF-?/NF-?B pathway. These results may provide new insight into the mechanisms of Ang II and TNF-? interaction. PMID:26378790

  9. Garlic (Allium sativum) stimulates lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from J774A.1 murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jessica; Harfouche, Youssef; De La Cruz, Melissa; Zamora, Martha P; Liu, Yan; Rego, James A; Buckley, Nancy E

    2015-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is known to have many beneficial attributes such as antimicrobial, antiatherosclerotic, antitumorigenetic, and immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effects of an aqueous garlic extract on macrophage cytokine production by challenging the macrophage J774A.1 cell line with the garlic extract in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under different conditions. The effect of allicin, the major component of crushed garlic, was also investigated. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, it was found that garlic and synthetic allicin greatly stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) production in macrophages treated with LPS. The TNF-? secretion levels peaked earlier and were sustained for a longer time in cells treated with garlic and LPS compared with cells treated with LPS alone. Garlic acted in a time-dependent manner. We suggest that garlic, at least partially via its allicin component, acts downstream from LPS to stimulate macrophage TNF-? secretion. PMID:25366263

  10. Role of hypoxia-inducible factor-{alpha} in hepatitis-B-virus X protein-mediated MDR1 activation

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Hyo-Kyung; Han, Chang Yeob; Cheon, Eun-Pa; Lee, Jaewon; Kang, Keon Wook . E-mail: kwkang@chosun.ac.kr

    2007-06-01

    The transition from chemotherapy-responsive cancer cells to chemotherapy-resistant cancer cells is mainly accompanied by the increased expression of multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1). We found that hepatitis-B-virus X protein (HBx) increases the transcriptional activity and protein level of MDR1 in a hepatoma cell line, H4IIE. In addition, HBx overexpression made H4IIE cells more resistant to verapamil-uptake. HBx stabilized hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) and induced the nuclear translocation of C/EBP{beta}. Reporter gene analyses showed that HBx increased the reporter activity in the cells transfected with the reporter containing MDR1 gene promoter. Moreover, the luciferase reporter gene activity was significantly inhibited by HIF-1{alpha} siRNA but not by overexpression of C/EBP dominant negative mutant. These results imply that HBx increases the MDR1 transporter activity through the transcriptional activation of the MDR1 gene with HIF-1{alpha} activation, and suggest HIF-1{alpha} for the therapeutic target of HBV-mediated chemoresistance.

  11. Tumour necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma and substance P are novel modulators of extrapituitary prolactin expression in human skin.

    PubMed

    Langan, Ewan A; Vidali, Silvia; Pigat, Natascha; Funk, Wolfgang; Lisztes, Erika; Bíró, Tamás; Goffin, Vincent; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Paus, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Human scalp skin and hair follicles (HFs) are extra-pituitary sources of prolactin (PRL). However, the intracutaneous regulation of PRL remains poorly understood. Therefore we investigated whether well-recognized regulators of pituitary PRL expression, which also impact on human skin physiology and pathology, regulate expression of PRL and its receptor (PRLR) in situ. This was studied in serum-free organ cultures of microdissected human scalp HFs and skin, i.e. excluding pituitary, neural and vascular inputs. Prolactin expression was confirmed at the gene and protein level in human truncal skin, where its expression significantly increased (p?=?0.049) during organ culture. There was, however, no evidence of PRL secretion into the culture medium as measured by ELISA. PRL immunoreactivity (IR) in female human epidermis was decreased by substance P (p?=?0.009), while neither the classical pituitary PRL inhibitor, dopamine, nor corticotropin-releasing hormone significantly modulated PRL IR in HFs or skin respectively. Interferon (IFN) ? increased PRL IR in the epithelium of human HFs (p?=?0.044) while tumour necrosis factor (TNF) ? decreased both PRL and PRLR IR. This study identifies substance P, TNF? and IFN? as novel modulators of PRL and PRLR expression in human skin, and suggests that intracutaneous PRL expression is not under dopaminergic control. Given the importance of PRL in human hair growth regulation and its possible role in the pathogenesis of several common skin diseases, targeting intracutaneous PRL production via these newly identified regulatory pathways may point towards novel therapeutic options for inflammatory dermatoses. PMID:23626671

  12. Effects of doxepin on brain-derived neurotrophic factor, tumor necrosis factor alpha, mitogen-activated protein kinase 14, and AKT1 genes expression in rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Eidelkhani, Nastaran; Radahmadi, Maryam; Kazemi, Mohammad; Rafiee, Laleh; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Reisi, Parham

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that doxepin in addition to enhancement of noradrenaline and serotonin levels may have neuroprotective effects. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of doxepin on gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14), and serine-threonine protein kinase AKT1 in rat hippocampus. Materials and Methods: Male rats were divided randomly into three groups: Control, doxepin 1 mg/kg, and doxepin 5 mg/kg. Rats received an i.p injection of doxepin for 21 days. Then the hippocampi were dissected for the measurement of the expression of BDNF, TNF-?, MAPK14, and AKT1 genes. Results: Our results showed no significant effects of doxepin on gene expression of BDNF, TNF-?, MAPK14, and AKT1 genes in the hippocampus. Conclusions: These results did not show significant effects of doxepin on the genes that affect the neuronal survival in intact animals. However, more studies need to be done, especially in models associated with neuronal damage. PMID:26601091

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus 1 envelope proteins induce interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and nitric oxide in glial cultures derived from fetal, neonatal, and adult human brain

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Although microglia are the only cells found to be productively infected in the central nervous system of acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome (AIDS) patients, there is extensive white and gray matter disease nonetheless. This neuropathogenesis is believed to be due to indirect mechanisms other than infection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). Cytokines and toxic small molecules have been implicated in the clinical and histopathological findings in CNS AIDS. Previously, we have demonstrated in rodent glial cultures the presence of biologically active epitopes of gp120 and gp41 that are capable of inducing interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha. In this study, we map the HIV-1 envelope epitopes that induce nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin 1, and tumor necrosis factor alpha in human glial cultures. Epitopes in the carboxy terminus of gp120 and the amino terminus of gp41 induce these proinflammatory entities. In addition, we compare HIV-1 infection and pathology in glial cells derived from human brain taken at different states of maturation (fetal, neonatal, and adult brain) in an effort to address some of the clinical and histological differences seen in vivo. This study demonstrates that, in the absence of virus infection and even in the absence of distinct viral tropism, human glia respond like rodent glia to non-CD4-binding epitopes of gp120/gp41 with cytokine and nitric oxide production. Differences among fetal, neonatal, and adult glial cells' infectivity and cytokine production indicate that, in addition to functional differences of glia at different stages of development, cofactors in vitro and in vivo may also be critical in facilitating the biological responses of these cells to HIV-1. PMID:7561697

  14. Association and expression analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms of partial tumor necrosis factor alpha gene with mastitis in crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Sanjeev; Bhushan, Bharat; Panigrahi, Manjit; Kumar, Amit; Deb, Rajib; Kumar, Pushpendra; Sharma, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    A total of 129 crossbred cows were selected to explore the genotypic and expression profiling of partial TNF-? gene and its association with mastitis susceptibility. Two exon spanning region of TNF-? gene (221 bp and 239 bp) were amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The different genotypic analysis by SSCP revealed that 221 bp fragment was monomorphic, whereas 239 bp was polymorphic. Association studies revealed that AA genotypes of 239 bp were more prevalent in mastitis group and the mRNA expression of TNF-? was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in AA genotypic animals compare to AB and BB. This suggested that genotypes AB and BB may be used as candidate markers for mastitis resistance selection in dairy cattle. PMID:25380461

  15. The Latency-Associated UL138 Gene Product of Human Cytomegalovirus Sensitizes Cells to Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-?) Signaling by Upregulating TNF-? Receptor 1 Cell Surface Expression ?

    PubMed Central

    Montag, Christina; Wagner, Jutta Annabella; Gruska, Iris; Vetter, Barbara; Wiebusch, Lüder; Hagemeier, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Many viruses antagonize tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) signaling in order to counteract its antiviral properties. One way viruses achieve this goal is to reduce TNF-? receptor 1 (TNFR1) on the surface of infected cells. Such a mechanism is also employed by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), as recently reported by others and us. On the other hand, TNF-? has also been shown to foster reactivation of HCMV from latency. By characterizing a new variant of HCMV AD169, we show here that TNFR1 downregulation by HCMV only becomes apparent upon infection of cells with HCMV strains lacking the so-called ULb? region. This region contains genes involved in regulating viral immune escape, cell tropism, or latency and is typically lost from laboratory strains but present in low-passage strains and clinical isolates. We further show that although ULb?-positive viruses also contain the TNFR1-antagonizing function, this activity is masked by a dominant TNFR1 upregulation mediated by the ULb? gene product UL138. Isolated expression of UL138 in the absence of viral infection upregulates TNFR1 surface expression and can rescue both TNFR1 reexpression and TNF-? responsiveness of cells infected with an HCMV mutant lacking the UL138-containing transcription unit. Given that the UL138 gene product is one of the few genes recognized to be expressed during HCMV latency and the known positive effects of TNF-? on viral reactivation, we suggest that via upregulating TNFR1 surface expression UL138 may sensitize latently infected cells to TNF-?-mediated reactivation of HCMV. PMID:21880774

  16. Fatty Acids Isolated from Toxoplasma gondii Reduce Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Induced Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Production through Inhibition of the NF-?B Signaling Pathway?

    PubMed Central

    Debierre-Grockiego, Françoise; Rabi, Khamran; Schmidt, Jörg; Geyer, Hildegard; Geyer, Rudolf; Schwarz, Ralph T.

    2007-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) are involved in the pathogenicity of protozoan parasites and are known to induce inflammatory cytokines. However, we have previously shown that the family of six GPIs of Toxoplasma gondii extracted together from tachyzoites could not induce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) secretion by macrophages, whereas GPIs individually separated from this extract by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) were able to stimulate the cells. In the present study we show that the TLC step makes it possible to eliminate inhibitors extracted together with the T. gondii GPIs. Among the non-GPI molecules we have isolated fatty acids able to inhibit the secretion of TNF-? induced by the T. gondii GPIs. Myristic and palmitic acids reduce the production of TNF-? through the inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation of cytoplasmic proteins and the inhibition of NF-?B activation in a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-independent pathway and after a rapid entry into the cytoplasm of macrophages. GPIs are considered toxins inducing irreversible damage in the host, and fatty acids produced in parallel by the parasite could reduce the immune response, thus favoring the persistence of parasite infection. PMID:17387164

  17. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis in baboons through an exclusive effect on the p55 receptor.

    PubMed

    van der Poll, T; Jansen, P M; Van Zee, K J; Welborn, M B; de Jong, I; Hack, C E; Loetscher, H; Lesslauer, W; Lowry, S F; Moldawer, L L

    1996-08-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) can bind to two distinct transmembrane receptors, the p55 and p75 TNF receptors. We compared the capability of two mutant TNF proteins with exclusive affinity for the p55 or p75 TNF receptor with that of wild type TNF, to activate the hemostatic mechanism in baboons. Both activation of the coagulation system, monitored by the plasma levels of thrombin-antithrombin III complexes, and activation of the fibrinolytic system (plasma levels of tissue-type plasminogen activator, and plasminogen activator inhibitor type I), were of similar magnitude after intravenous injection of wild type TNF or the TNF mutant with affinity only for the p55 receptor. Likewise, wild type TNF and the TNF p55 specific mutant were equally potent in inducing neutrophil degranulation (plasma levels of elastase-alpha 1-antitrypsin complexes). Wild type TNF tended to be a more potent inducer of secretory phospholipase A2 release than the p55 specific TNF mutant. Administration of the TNF mutant binding only to the p75 receptor did not induce any of these responses. We conclude that TNF-Induced stimulation of coagulation, fibrinolysis, neutrophil degranulation, and release of secretory phospholipase A2 are predominantly mediated by the p55 TNF receptor. PMID:8704250

  18. Entamoeba histolytica induces host cell death in amebic liver abscess by a non-Fas-dependent, non-tumor necrosis factor alpha-dependent pathway of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Seydel, K B; Stanley, S L

    1998-06-01

    Amebic liver abscess is characterized by extensive areas of dead hepatocytes that form cavities surrounded by a thin rim of inflammatory cells and few Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites. E. histolytica produces pore-forming proteins and proteinases, but how trophozoites actually kill host cells has been unclear. Here, we report that E. histolytica induces apoptosis in both inflammatory cells and hepatocytes in a severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse model of amebic liver abscess. By studying infection in C57/BL6.lpr and C57/BL6.gld mice, we found that E. histolytica-induced apoptosis does not require the Fas/Fas ligand pathway of apoptosis, and by using mice with a targeted deletion of the tumor necrosis factor receptor I gene, we have shown that E. histolytica-induced apoptosis is not mediated by tumor necrosis factor alpha. Our data indicate that apoptosis plays a prominent role in the host cell death seen in amebic liver abscess in a mouse model of disease and suggest that E. histolytica induces cell death without using two common pathways for apoptosis. PMID:9596776

  19. Signaling mechanisms in tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced death of microvascular endothelial cells of the corpus luteum

    PubMed Central

    Pru, James K; Lynch, Maureen P; Davis, John S; Rueda, Bo R

    2003-01-01

    The microvasculature of the corpus luteum (CL), which comprises greater than 50% of the total number of cells in the CL, is thought to be the first structure to undergo degeneration via apoptosis during luteolysis. These studies compared the apoptotic potential of various cytokines (tumor necrosis factor ?, TNF?; interferon gamma, IFN?; soluble Fas ligand, sFasL), a FAS activating antibody (FasAb), and the luteolytic hormone prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?) on CL-derived endothelial (CLENDO) cells. Neither sFasL, FasAb nor PGF2? had any effect on CLENDO cell viability. Utilizing morphological and biochemical parameters it was evident that TNF? and IFN? initiated apoptosis in long-term cultures. However, TNF? was the most potent stimulus for CLENDO cell apoptosis at early time points. Unlike many other studies described in non-reproductive cell types, TNF? induced apoptosis of CLENDO cells occurs in the absence of inhibitors of protein synthesis. TNF?-induced death is typically associated with acute activation of distinct intracellular signaling pathways (e.g. MAPK and sphingomyelin pathways). Treatment with TNF? for 5–30 min activated MAPKs (ERK, p38, and JNK), and increased ceramide accumulation. Ceramide, a product of sphingomyelin hydrolysis, can serve as an upstream activator of members of the MAPK family independently in numerous cell types, and is a well-established pro-apoptotic second messenger. Like TNF?, treatment of CLENDO cells with exogenous ceramide significantly induced endothelial apoptosis. Ceramide also activated the JNK pathway, but had no effect on ERK and p38 MAPKs. Pretreatment of CLENDO cells with glutathione (GSH), an intracellular reducing agent and known inhibitor of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or TNF?-induced apoptosis, significantly attenuated TNF?-induced apoptosis. It is hypothesized that TNF? kills CLENDO cells through elevation of reactive oxygen species, and intracellular signals that promote apoptosis. PMID:12646059

  20. ROLES OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF-A) IN MEDIATION OF DIOXIN (TCDD)-INDUCED DELAYS IN DEVELOPMENT OF THE MOUSE MAMMARY GLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Roles of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) and Transforming Growth Factor-alpha (TGF-a) in Mediation of Dioxin (TCDD)-Induced Delays in Development of the Mouse Mammary Gland.
    Suzanne E. Fenton, Barbara Abbott, Lamont Bryant, and Angela Buckalew. U.S. EPA, NHEERL, Reproductive Tox...

  1. Vitamin C Mitigates Oxidative Stress and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia and LPS-Induced Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Luo, Guangyan; Yuan, Jiao; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yang, Xiaoqiong; Wang, Xiaoyun; Li, Guoping; Liu, Zhiguang; Zhong, Nanshan

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is an important part of host innate immune response to foreign pathogens. However, the impact of vitamin C on oxidative stress and inflammation remains unclear in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We aimed to determine the effect of vitamin C on oxidative stress and inflammation. CAP patients were enrolled. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage, superoxide dismutases (SOD) activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and IL-6 were analyzed in CAP patients and LPS-stimulated macrophages cells. MH-S cells were transfected with RFP-LC3 plasmids. Autophagy was measured in LPS-stimulated macrophages cells. Severe CAP patients showed significantly increased ROS, DNA damage, TNF-?, and IL-6. SOD was significantly decreased in severe CAP. Vitamin C significantly decreased ROS, DNA damage, TNF-?, and IL-6. Vitamin C inhibited LPS-induced ROS, DNA damage, TNF-?, IL-6, and p38 in macrophages cells. Vitamin C inhibited autophagy in LPS-induced macrophages cells. These findings indicated that severe CAP exhibited significantly increased oxidative stress, DNA damage, and proinflammatory mediator. Vitamin C mitigated oxidative stress and proinflammatory mediator suggesting a possible mechanism for vitamin C in severe CAP. PMID:25253919

  2. Peripheral Administration of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Induces Neuroinflammation and Sickness but Not Depressive-Like Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Biesmans, Steven; Bouwknecht, Jan A.; Ver Donck, Luc; Langlois, Xavier; Acton, Paul D.; De Haes, Patrick; Davoodi, Nima; Meert, Theo F.; Hellings, Niels; Nuydens, Rony

    2015-01-01

    Clinical observations indicate that activation of the TNF-? system may contribute to the development of inflammation-associated depression. Here, we tested the hypothesis that systemic upregulation of TNF-? induces neuroinflammation and behavioral changes relevant to depression. We report that a single intraperitoneal injection of TNF-? in mice increased serum and brain levels of the proinflammatory mediators TNF-?, IL-6, and MCP-1, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but not IL-1?. Protein levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 increased in serum but not in the brain. The transient release of immune molecules was followed by glial cell activation as indicated by increased astrocyte activation in bioluminescent Gfap-luc mice and elevated immunoreactivity against the microglial marker Iba1 in the dentate gyrus of TNF-?-challenged mice. Additionally, TNF-?-injected mice were evaluated in a panel of behavioral tests commonly used to study sickness and depressive-like behavior in rodents. Our behavioral data imply that systemic administration of TNF-? induces a strong sickness response characterized by reduced locomotor activity, decreased fluid intake, and body weight loss. Depressive-like behavior could not be separated from sickness at any of the time points studied. Together, these results demonstrate that peripheral TNF-? affects the central nervous system at a neuroimmune and behavioral level. PMID:26290874

  3. EP4 receptors mediate prostaglandin E2, tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1beta-induced ion secretion in human and mouse colon mucosa.

    PubMed

    Fairbrother, Sian E; Smith, Julia E; Borman, Richard A; Cox, Helen M

    2012-11-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) is an inflammatory mediator implicated in several gastrointestinal pathologies that cause diarrhoea. The aim of this study was to establish the contributions of the four different EP receptors (EP(1-4)) to PGE(2)-induced anion secretion in human and mouse colon mucosa. Electrogenic anion secretion (short-circuit current; I(sc)) was measured across colonic mucosae or T84 monolayers placed in Ussing chambers in response to EP receptor agonists and antagonists. PGE(2) and PGE(1)-alcohol increased I(sc) in human colon mucosa, T84 epithelia and mouse colon mucosa, and these responses were inhibited by the EP(4) receptor antagonist, GW627368X alone. In addition, the EP(2) agonist, butaprost increased I(sc) in all three preparations and these responses were inhibited by the non-selective EP(1,2,3) receptor antagonist, AH6809 but not by GW627368X. Conversely, responses mediated by EP(1) and EP(3) receptors were not observed in human colon or T84 monolayers. However, in mouse colon mucosa the EP(3)-preferring agonist, sulprostone reduced I(sc), indicative of G(i?)-signalling. Taken together these results indicate that PGE(2)-induced ion secretion is mediated predominantly by G(s)-coupled EP(4) receptors and also by EP(2) receptors in human mucosa. Furthermore, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) and interleukin 1beta (IL1?) increased I(sc) and these responses were also inhibited by the EP(4) receptor antagonist in human colon mucosa. This study establishes the EP receptor pharmacology present in human epithelial preparations, and suggests that EP(4) receptors may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of secretory diarrhoea where PGE(2) is implicated in the aetiology. PMID:22732652

  4. Ketamine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} and interleukin-6 gene expressions in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages through suppression of toll-like receptor 4-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation and activator protein-1 activation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, G.-J.; Chen, T.-L.; Ueng, Y.-F.; Chen, R.-M.

    2008-04-01

    Our previous study showed that ketamine, an intravenous anesthetic agent, has anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we further evaluated the effects of ketamine on the regulation of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) gene expressions and its possible signal-transducing mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. Exposure of macrophages to 1, 10, and 100 {mu}M ketamine, 100 ng/ml LPS, or a combination of ketamine and LPS for 1, 6, and 24 h was not cytotoxic to macrophages. A concentration of 1000 {mu}M of ketamine alone or in combined treatment with LPS caused significant cell death. Administration of LPS increased cellular TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 protein levels in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Meanwhile, treatment with ketamine concentration- and time-dependently alleviated the enhanced effects. LPS induced TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 mRNA syntheses. Administration of ketamine at a therapeutic concentration (100 {mu}M) significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 mRNA expressions. Application of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) small interfering (si)RNA into macrophages decreased cellular TLR4 levels. Co-treatment of macrophages with ketamine and TLR4 siRNA decreased the LPS-induced TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 productions more than alone administration of TLR4 siRNA. LPS stimulated phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and translocation of c-Jun and c-Fos from the cytoplasm to nuclei. However, administration of ketamine significantly decreased LPS-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and translocation of c-Jun and c-Fos. LPS increased the binding of nuclear extracts to activator protein-1 consensus DNA oligonucleotides. Administration of ketamine significantly ameliorated LPS-induced DNA binding activity of activator protein-1. Therefore, a clinically relevant concentration of ketamine can inhibit TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 gene expressions in LPS-activated macrophages. The suppressive mechanisms occur through suppression of TLR4-mediated sequential activations of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and activator protein-1.

  5. Francisella tularensis-induced in vitro gamma interferon, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin 2 responses appear within 2 weeks of tularemia vaccination in human beings.

    PubMed Central

    Karttunen, R; Surcel, H M; Andersson, G; Ekre, H P; Herva, E

    1991-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity is essential for protection against the intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis, which causes tularemia. Positive in vitro T-cell responses in the form of lymphocyte proliferation and lymphokine interleukin 2 (IL-2) and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) secretion are found in memory immunity. Studies on the secretion of lymphokines with regard to the developing immunity to F. tularensis have not been published. Therefore, 14 subjects with no clinical history of tularemia were vaccinated with a live F. tularensis vaccine strain. The in vitro responses of five subjects (antigen-induced mononuclear cell and whole blood culture DNA synthesis and cytokine secretion) were measured twice a week throughout the period from 0 to 35 days after vaccination, and the peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations of nine subjects were determined between days 0 and 14. Positive reactions, i.e., responses exceeding those on day 0, were reached on day 10 with regard to the whole blood culture DNA synthesis response and IL-2 and IFN-gamma secretion and on day 14 with regard to the mononuclear cell DNA synthesis response and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion. No measurable IL-4 was found in either the immune or nonimmune supernatants. Since the secretion of TNF-alpha was related to immunization, this points to the specificity of the phenomenon, even though the type of secreting cell is not yet known. If it is shown later that specific T cells produce it, the TNF-alpha response and the negative IL-4 finding may speak for the importance of the Th1-like pattern in immunity to F. tularensis. PMID:1909711

  6. Adalimumab (tumor necrosis factor-blocker) reduces the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity increased by exogenous tumor necrosis factor alpha in an organotypic culture of porcine neuroretina

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Gutierrez, M.T.; Srivastava, G.K.; Gayoso, M.J.; Gonzalo-Orden, J.M.; Pastor, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine if exogenous addition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) exacerbates retinal reactive gliosis in an organotypic culture of porcine neuroretina and to evaluate if concomitant adalimumab, a TNF-blocker, diminishes it. Methods Porcine retinal explants from 20 eyeballs were cultured. Cultures with 100 pg/ml TNF?, 10 µg/ml adalimumab, 100 pg/ml TNF? plus 10 µg/ml adalimumab, or controls without additives were maintained for 9 days. Freshly detached retinas were processed in parallel. TNF? levels in control culture supernatants were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cryostat sections were doubly immunostained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker for reactive gliosis, and cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP), a marker for Müller cells. Sections were also labeled with the isolectin IB4, a label for microglia/macrophages. Results TNF? in control culture supernatants was detected only at day 1. Compared to the fresh neuroretinal samples, upregulation of GFAP and downregulation of CRALBP occurred during the 9 days of culture. Exogenous TNF? stimulated glial cells to upregulate GFAP and downregulate CRALBP immunoreactivity. TNF?-treated cultures also initiated the growth of gliotic membranes and underwent retinal disorganization. Adalimumab inhibited the spontaneous increases in GFAP and maintained CRALBP. In combination with TNF?, adalimumab reduced GFAP expression and conserved CRALBP, with only slight retinal disorganization. No appreciable changes in IB4 labeling were observed under the different culture conditions. Conclusions In cultured porcine neuroretina, spontaneous reactive gliosis and retinal disorganization were exacerbated by exogenous TNF?. Adalimumab reduced spontaneous changes and those induced by TNF?. Therefore, inhibiting TNF? may represent a novel approach to controlling retinal fibrosis observed in some human diseases. PMID:23687426

  7. Synergistic Inhibition of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha-Stimulated Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Expression in HaCaT Cells by a Combination of Rapamycin and Mycophenolic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Young; Lim, Yun Young; Kim, Hyeong Mi; Park, Young Min; Kang, Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Background Keratinocytes release various pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in response to cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interferon (IFN)-?. Rapamycin and mycophenolic acid (MPA) have potent immunosuppressive activity because they inhibit lymphocyte proliferation. Objective We investigated the effects of rapamycin and MPA on the expression of inflammation-related factors such as ICAM-1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and related signaling pathways in TNF-?-stimulated HaCaT cells. Methods The viability of HaCaT cells treated with rapamycin and MPA was confirmed using MTT assay. The expression of various cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and IL-8; inflammation-related factors such as ICAM-1 and iNOS; and the activation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways mediated by extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK), p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) in TNF-?-stimulated HaCaT cells were confirmed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Results Combined treatment of TNF-?-induced HaCaT cells with rapamycin and MPA decreased ICAM-1 and iNOS expression and ERK and p38 activation more than treatment with either drug alone. The most significant decrease was observed with a combination of rapamycin (80 nM) and MPA (20 nM). These results show that co-treatment with these agents has a synergistic anti-inflammatory effect by blocking the activation of the ERK/p38 MAPK signaling pathway and thus suppressing the TNF-?-induced expression of ICAM-1 and iNOS. Conclusion The combination of rapamycin and MPA could potentially be used as a therapeutic approach in inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:25673929

  8. Regulation of drug transporter expression in human hepatocytes exposed to the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha or interleukin-6.

    PubMed

    Le Vee, Marc; Lecureur, Valérie; Stieger, Bruno; Fardel, Olivier

    2009-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 are proinflammatory cytokines known to alter expression of drug transporters in rodent liver. However, their effects toward human hepatic transporters remain poorly characterized. Therefore, this study was designed to analyze the effects of these cytokines on drug transporter expression in primary human hepatocytes. Exposure to 100 ng/ml TNF-alpha or 10 ng/ml IL-6 for 48 h was found to down-regulate mRNA levels of major sinusoidal influx transporters, including sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1, organic cation transporter (OCT) 1, and organic anion transporter 2. TNF-alpha and IL-6 concomitantly reduced NTCP and OATP1B1 protein expression and NTCP, OATP, and OCT1 transport activities. IL-6, but not TNF-alpha, was also found to decrease mRNA expression of the canalicular transporters multidrug resistance 1 gene, multidrug resistance gene-associated protein (MRP) 2, and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP); it concomitantly decreased MRP2 and BCRP protein expression. TNF-alpha, unlike IL-6, markedly reduced bile salt export pump mRNA levels and increased BCRP protein expression. Expression of the sinusoidal MRP3 efflux pump was found to be up-regulated at protein level by both TNF-alpha and IL-6. Taken together, these data show that TNF-alpha and IL-6 similarly altered expression of sinusoidal drug transporters and rather differentially that of canalicular efflux transporters. Such pronounced changes in hepatic transporter expression are likely to contribute to both cholestasis and alterations of pharmacokinetics caused by inflammation in humans. PMID:19074973

  9. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-? agonists protect oligodendrocyte progenitors against tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced damage: Effects on mitochondrial functions and differentiation.

    PubMed

    De Nuccio, C; Bernardo, A; Cruciani, C; De Simone, R; Visentin, S; Minghetti, L

    2015-09-01

    The activation of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) is known to exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects and PPAR-? agonists are considered potential therapeutic agents in brain diseases including those affecting myelin. In demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), inflammation is one of the causes of myelin and axonal damage. Oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation is highly dependent on mitochondria, which are major targets of inflammatory insult. Here we show that PPAR-? agonists protect OL progenitors against the maturational arrest induced by the inflammatory cytokine TNF-? by affecting mitochondrial functions. We demonstrate that the inhibition of OL differentiation by TNF-? is associated with i) increased mitochondrial superoxide production; ii) decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (mMP); and iii) decreased ADP-induced Ca(2+) oscillations, which we previously showed to be dependent on efficient mitochondria. The TNF-? effects were comparable to those of the mitochondrial toxin rotenone, further suggesting that TNF-? damage is mediated by mitochondrial function impairment. PPAR-? agonists protected OL progenitors against the inhibitory activities of both TNF-? and rotenone on mMP, mitochondrial ROS production, Ca(2+) oscillations and OL differentiation. Finally, the PPAR-? agonist pioglitazone increased the expression of PGC-1? (a mitochondrial biogenesis master regulator), UCP2 (a mitochondrial protein known to reduce ROS production), and cytochrome oxidase subunit COX1. These findings confirm the central role of mitochondria in OL differentiation and point to mitochondria as major targets of PPAR-? agonist protection against TNF-? damage. PMID:26210873

  10. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF RETINOIC ACID ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: EGF and TGF regulate cell proliferation and differentiation in the embryo. The induction of cleft palate (CP) by all trans retinoic acid (RA) was associated with altered expression of TGF, EGF receptor and binding of EGF. The present study uses knockout (KO) mice to e...

  11. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits collagen alpha1(I) gene expression and wound healing in a murine model of cachexia.

    PubMed Central

    Buck, M.; Houglum, K.; Chojkier, M.

    1996-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for impaired wound healing in patients with cachexia-associated infection, inflammation, and cancer are unknown. As tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is elevated in these diseases, and TNF-alpha inhibits collagen alpha1(I) gene expression in cultured fibroblasts, we analyzed whether chronically elevated serum TNF-alpha affects collagen metabolism in vivo by inoculating nude mice with Chinese hamster ovary cells secreting TNF-alpha (TNF-alpha mice) or control Chinese hamster ovary cells (control mice). Before the onset of weight loss, TNF-alpha mice had a selective decrease in collagen synthesis and collagen alpha1(I) mRNA in the skin. In addition, TNF-alpha mice displayed impaired healing of incisional and excisional skin wounds, compared with control animals, before the onset of cachexia. The expression of transforming growth factor-beta1, a potent fibrogenic factor, was inhibited by TNF-alpha in the skin. In studies with transgenic mice expressing the human growth hormone under the direction of 5' regulatory regions of the human collagen alpha1(I) gene, TNF-alpha treatment inhibited the expression of the collagen alpha1(I) human growth hormone transgene containing -2.3 kb of the 5' region, whereas transgene expression directed by -0.44 kb of the 5' region was not affected. These experiments suggest that TNF-alpha may play an important role in the impaired wound healing of chronic diseases that are characterized by a high production of this cytokine and provide insights for potential therapeutic approaches. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8686743

  12. Human biliverdin reductase suppresses Goodpasture antigen-binding protein (GPBP) kinase activity: the reductase regulates tumor necrosis factor-alpha-NF-kappaB-dependent GPBP expression.

    PubMed

    Miralem, Tihomir; Gibbs, Peter E M; Revert, Fernando; Saus, Juan; Maines, Mahin D

    2010-04-23

    The Ser/Thr/Tyr kinase activity of human biliverdin reductase (hBVR) and the expression of Goodpasture antigen-binding protein (GPBP), a nonconventional Ser/Thr kinase for the type IV collagen of basement membrane, are regulated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha). The pro-inflammatory cytokine stimulates kinase activity of hBVR and activates NF-kappaB, a transcriptional regulator of GPBP mRNA. Increased GPBP activity is associated with several autoimmune conditions, including Goodpasture syndrome. Here we show that in HEK293A cells hBVR binds to GPBP and down-regulates its TNF-alpha-stimulated kinase activity; this was not due to a decrease in GPBP expression. Findings with small interfering RNA to hBVR and to the p65 regulatory subunit of NF-kappaB show the hBVR role in the initial stimulation of GPBP expression by TNF-alpha-activated NF-kappaB; hBVR was not a factor in mediating GPBP mRNA stability. The interacting domain was mapped to the (281)CX(10)C motif in the C-terminal 24 residues of hBVR. A 7-residue peptide, KKRILHC(281), corresponding to the core of the consensus D(delta)-Box motif in the interacting domain, was as effective as the intact 296-residue hBVR polypeptide in inhibiting GPBP kinase activity. GPBP neither regulated hBVR expression nor TNF-alpha dependent NF-kappaB expression. Collectively, our data reveal that hBVR is a regulator of the TNF-alpha-GPBP-collagen type IV signaling cascade and uncover a novel biological interaction that may be of relevance in autoimmune pathogenesis. PMID:20177069

  13. PLASMA TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA CONCENTRATIONS DURING THE TRANSITION PERIOD OF COWS FED EITHER AD LIBITUM OR RESTRICTED DIETS DURING THE DRY PERIOD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-') is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that upregulates mRNA expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) and induces nitric oxide (NO) production. Both SOCS and NO inhibit intracellular growth hormone (GH) signaling and uncouple the somatotropic axis. Expressio...

  14. Increased Expression of Interleukin-5 (IL-5), IL-13, and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Genes in Intestinal Lymph Cells of Sheep Selected for Enhanced Resistance to Nematodes during Infection with Trichostrongylus colubriformis

    PubMed Central

    Pernthaner, Anton; Cole, Sally-Ann; Morrison, Lilian; Hein, Wayne R.

    2005-01-01

    Cytokine gene expression in cells migrating in afferent and efferent intestinal lymph was monitored for extended time periods in individual sheep experimentally infected with the nematode Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Animals from stable selection lines with increased levels of either genetic resistance (R) or susceptibility (S) to nematode infection were used. Genes for interleukin-5 (IL-5), IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), but not for IL-4, IL-10, or gamma interferon (IFN-?), were consistently expressed at higher levels in both afferent and efferent lymph cells of R sheep than in S sheep. However, only minor differences were observed in the surface phenotypes and antigenic and mitogenic responsiveness of cells in intestinal lymph between animals from the two selection lines. The IL-4 and IL-10 genes were expressed at higher levels in afferent lymph cells than in efferent lymph cells throughout the course of the nematode infection in animals of both genotypes, while the proinflammatory TNF-? gene was relatively highly expressed in both lymph types. These relationships notwithstanding, expression of the IL-10 and TNF-? genes declined significantly in afferent lymph cells but not in efferent lymph cells during infection. Collectively, the results showed that R-line sheep developed a strong polarization toward a Th2-type cytokine profile in immune cells migrating in lymph from sites where the immune response to nematodes was initiated, although the IFN-? gene was also expressed at moderate levels. Genes or alleles that predispose an animal to develop this type of response appear to have segregated with the R selection line and may contribute to the increased resistance of these animals. PMID:15784560

  15. Acetaldehyde-induced interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production is inhibited by berberine through nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathway in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Wu, Shih-Lu; Cheng, Shin-Ei; Ho, Tin-Yun

    2005-10-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is one of the most common liver diseases in the world. Increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), have been correlated with the patients affected by ALD. However, the direct effect of alcohol in the induction of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha has not been clarified. In this study, we demonstrated that acetaldehyde, the metabolic product of ethanol, was able to induce IL-1beta and TNF-alpha production in HepG2 cells. Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), the transcription factor involved in the regulation of cytokine production, was also activated by acetaldehyde through inhibitory kappaB-alpha (IkappaB-alpha) phosphorylation and degradation. However, the NF-kappaB inhibitors, such as aspirin, cyclosporin A and dexamethasone, inhibited both the acetaldehyde-induced NF-kappaB activity and the induced cytokine production. Therefore, these data suggested that acetaldehyde stimulated IL-1beta and TNF-alpha production via the regulation of NF-kappaB signaling pathway. By screening 297 controlled Chinese medicinal herbs supervised by Committee on Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy at Taiwan, we found that Coptis chinensis (Huang-Lien) and Phellodendron amurense (Huang-Po) were capable of inhibiting acetaldehyde-induced NF-kappaB activity. Berberine, the major ingredient of these herbs, abolished acetaldehyde-induced NF-kappaB activity and cytokine production in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, its inhibitory ability was through the inhibition of induced IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation and degradation. In conclusion, we first linked the acetaldehyde-induced NF-kappaB activity to the induced proinflammatory cytokine production in HepG2 cells. Our findings also suggested the potential role of berberine in the treatment of ALD. PMID:16132116

  16. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) Expression in Preeclamptic Decidua and MMP9 Induction by Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Interleukin 1 Beta in Human First Trimester Decidual Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Charles J.; Oner, Ceyda; Uz, Yesim H.; Kayisli, Umit A.; Huang, S. Joseph; Buchwalder, Lynn F.; Murk, William; Funai, Edmund F.; Schatz, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) invade human decidua via sequential integrin-mediated binding and proteolysis of basement membrane proteins in the extracellular matrix (ECM). In preeclampsia, shallow EVT invasion impairs spiral artery and arteriole remodeling to reduce uteroplacental blood flow. Excess decidual cell-expressed matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9, in response to preeclampsia-related interleukin 1 beta (IL1B) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), may inappropriately degrade these basement membrane proteins and impede EVT invasion. This study found significantly higher immunohistochemical MMP9 levels in decidual cells and adjacent interstitial trophoblasts in placental sections of preeclamptic versus gestational age-matched control women. In contrast, immunostaining for MMP2 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2 (TIMP1 and TIMP2) were similar in preeclamptic and control groups. First-trimester decidual cells were incubated with estradiol (E2) or E2 + medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), with or without TNF or IL1B. As measured by ELISA, both cytokines elicited concentration-dependent increases in secreted MMP9 levels that were unaffected by MPA. In contrast, secreted levels of MMP2, TIMP1, and TIMP2 were unchanged in all treatment groups. Substrate gel zymography and Western blotting confirmed that each cytokine increased secreted levels of MMP9 but not MMP2. Similarly, quantitative RT-PCR found that TNF and IL1B enhanced MMP9, but not MMP2, mRNA levels. At the implantation site, inflammatory cytokine-enhanced MMP9 may promote preeclampsia by disrupting the decidual ECM to interfere with normal stepwise EVT invasion. PMID:18276934

  17. Induced autocrine signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor contributes to the response of mammary epithelial cells to tumor necrosis factor alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wan-Nan U.; Woodbury, Ronald L.; Kathmann, Loel E.; Opresko, Lee; Zangar, Richard C.; Wiley, H S.; Thrall, Brian D.

    2004-04-30

    In contrast to the well-known cytotoxic effects of tumor necrosis factor a (TNF) in many mammary cancer cells, we have found that TNF stimulates the proliferation and motility of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC). Since the response of HMEC to TNF is similar to effects mediated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation, we explored the potential role of cross-talk through the EGFR signaling pathways in mediating cellular responses to TNF. Using a microarray enzyme-linked immunoassay, we found that exposure to TNF stimulated the dose-dependent shedding of the EGFR ligand transforming growth factor a (TGFa). Both proliferation and motility of HMEC induced by TNF was prevented either by inhibiting membrane protein shedding with a metalloprotease inhibitor, by blocking EGFR kinase activity, or by limiting ligand-receptor interactions with an antagonistic anti-EGFR antibody. EGFR activity was also necessary for TNF-induced release of MMP-9, a matrix metalloprotease thought to be an essential regulator of mammary cell migration. The cellular response to TNF was associated with a biphasic temporal pattern of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, which was EGFR-dependent and modulated by inhibition of metalloprotease-mediated shedding. Significantly, the late phase of ERK phosphorylation, detectable within 4 hours after exposure, was blocked by the metalloprotease inhibitor batimastat, indicating that autocrine signaling through ligand shedding was responsible for this secondary wave of ERK activity. Our results indicate a novel and important role for metalloprotease activation and EGFR transmodulation in mediating the cellular response to TNF.

  18. Roles of tumor necrosis factor alpha, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, platelet-activating factor, and arachidonic acid metabolites in interleukin-1-induced resistance to infection in neutropenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Vogels, M T; Hermsen, C C; Huys, H L; Eling, W M; van der Meer, J W

    1994-01-01

    Treatment with a single low dose (80 to 800 ng) of interleukin-1 (IL-1) 24 h before a lethal bacterial challenge in granulocytopenic and in normal mice enhances nonspecific resistance. The mechanism behind this protection has only partially been elucidated. Since IL-1 induces production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), platelet-activating factor (PAF), and arachidonic acid metabolites, we investigated the potential role of these substances in IL-1-induced protection. Low doses of murine TNF-alpha but not of human TNF-alpha enhanced survival, suggesting an effect via the type II TNF receptor rather than the type I TNF receptor, which has little species specificity. In line with this TNF-alpha-induced protection from infection, pretreatment with a low dose of a rat anti-murine TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody tended to inhibit IL-1-induced protection, suggesting a role of TNF-alpha as a mediator of IL-1-induced enhanced resistance to infection. Pretreatment with higher doses of anti-TNF-alpha, however, showed a dose-related protective effect per se, which could be further enhanced by a suboptimal dose of IL-1. A combination of optimal doses of anti-TNF-alpha and IL-1 produced an increase in survival similar to that produced by separate pretreatments. This lack of further enhancement of survival by combined optimal pretreatments suggests a similar mechanism of protection, most likely attenuation of deleterious effects of overproduced proinflammatory cytokines like TNF-alpha during lethal infection. Pretreatment with different doses of GM-CSF before a lethal Pseudomonas aeruginosa challenge in neutropenic mice did not enhance survival. Different doses of WEB 2170, a selective PAF receptor antagonist, of MK-886, a selective inhibitor of leukotriene biosynthesis, or of several cyclooxygenase inhibitors did not reduce the protective effect of IL-1 pretreatment. We conclude that IL-1-induced nonspecific resistance is partially mediated by induction of TNF-alpha and not by GM-CSF, PAF, and arachidonic acid metabolites. The mechanism of action of IL-1 seems to be similar to that of anti-TNF-alpha. PMID:8168971

  19. Customized rapid subtraction hybridization (RaSH) gene microarrays identify overlapping expression changes in human fetal astrocytes resulting from human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection or tumor necrosis factor-alpha treatment.

    PubMed

    Su, Zao-zhong; Chen, Yinming; Kang, Dong-chul; Chao, Wei; Simm, Malgorzata; Volsky, David J; Fisher, Paul B

    2003-03-13

    Genes displaying altered expression as a function of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection of cultured primary human fetal astrocytes (PHFA) were previously identified using a rapid subtraction hybridization (RaSH) method. This scheme identified both known and novel genes displaying elevated expression, astrocyte elevated genes (AEG), and decreased expression, astrocyte suppressed genes (ASG), in PHFA as a consequence of infection with HIV-1 or treatment with HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (gp120). RaSH also identified both known and novel genes displaying enhanced (HR) or reduced (HS) expression in HIV-1 resistant versus HIV-1 susceptible human T-cell clones. In the present study, a customized microarray approach employing these RaSH-derived genes was used to distinguish overlapping gene expression changes occurring in PHFA as a function of treatment with HIV-1 and the neurotoxic agent tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. RaSH cDNAs were spotted (microarrayed) on nylon membranes and probed with temporally isolated reverse transcribed cDNAs from HIV-1-infected and TNF-alpha-treated PHFA. This strategy identified genes displaying parallel changes after TNF-alpha treatment as observed following HIV-1 infection. Confirmation of genuine differential expression was achieved by Northern blotting. These studies document that TNF-alpha can induce a set of corresponding changes in specific AEGs and ASGs as does HIV-1 infection in PHFA. Furthermore, this customized microarray approach with RaSH-derived clones represents an efficient and sensitive methodology for elucidating molecular changes in PHFA occurring as a consequence of treatment with pharmacological agents affecting astrocyte physiology. PMID:12657468

  20. Human Cytomegalovirus Blocks Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha- and Interleukin-1?-Mediated NF-?B Signaling?

    PubMed Central

    Montag, Christina; Wagner, Jutta; Gruska, Iris; Hagemeier, Christian

    2006-01-01

    NF-?B plays an important role in the early cellular response to pathogens by activating genes involved in inflammation, immune response, and cell proliferation and survival. NF-?B is also utilized by many viral pathogens, like human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), to activate their own gene expression programs, reflecting intricate roles for NF-?B in both antiviral defense mechanisms and viral physiology. Here we show that the NF-?B signaling pathway stimulated by proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) becomes inhibited in HCMV-infected cells. The block to NF-?B signaling is first noticeable during the early phase of infection but is fully established only at later times. Biochemical and genetic evidence demonstrates that the viral inhibition of proinflammatory signaling by distinct cytokines occurs upstream of the convergence point of NF-?B-activating pathways, i.e., the I?B kinase complex, and that it is mediated via different mechanisms. Consistent with this, we further show that an HCMV variant that has lost the ability to downregulate TNF-?-induced NF-?B signaling also fails to downregulate surface expression of TNF receptor 1, thereby mechanistically linking the inhibition of TNF-?-induced NF-?B signaling by HCMV to TNF receptor targeting. Our data support a model whereby HCMV inhibits cytokine-induced NF-?B signaling at later times during infection, and we suggest that this contributes to the inhibition of the cell's antiviral defense program. PMID:17005669

  1. Fusobacterium nucleatum Infection of Colonic Cells Stimulates MUC2 Mucin and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha?

    PubMed Central

    Dharmani, Poonam; Strauss, Jaclyn; Ambrose, Christian; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Chadee, Kris

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease is not completely known, but it is influenced by the presence of normal gut microflora as well as yet-unrecognized pathogens. The anaerobic, Gram-negative bacterial species Fusobacterium nucleatum is a common resident of the human mouth and gut and varies in its pathogenic potential. In this study, we demonstrate that highly invasive F. nucleatum isolates derived from the inflamed guts of Crohn's disease patients evoked significantly greater MUC2 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) gene expression than minimally invasive strains isolated from the noninflamed gut in human colonic epithelial cells and in a rat ligated colonic loop model of infection. Only live F. nucleatum induced mucin secretion and TNF-? expression in direct contact with and/or during invasion of colonic cells. In rat colons, mucin secretion was augmented in response to a highly invasive F. nucleatum isolate but was unaffected by treatment with a minimally invasive strain. Taken together, these studies reveal that F. nucleatum may represent a challenging pathogen in the etiology of gut inflammatory diseases and highlight the importance of different pathotypes of candidate bacterial species in disease pathogenesis. PMID:21536792

  2. Lichenoid Reactions in Association with Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Amy; Bair, Brooke; Fivenson, David

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, a clinical case of a patient treated with adalimumab for Behcet’s disease develops lichen planopilaris. A variety of mucocutaneous lichenoid eruptions have recently been described in association with tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors. The authors briefly discuss the clinical and pathological presentation of lichen planopilaris as well as a potential pathogenesis of cutaneous adverse effects seen as the result of tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor therapy. They review all case reports of lichen planopilaris occurring on tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors and suggest its classification as a fourth recognized pattern on this therapy. PMID:26155327

  3. The Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Maladaptive Spinal Plasticity 

    E-print Network

    Huie, John Russell

    2012-02-14

    to test the role of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF!) in the induction and expression of the deficit. It is believed that the inflammatory properties of TNF! may mediate the excitatory processes that lead to maladaptive spinal functioning... further detriment to the system. This maladaptive spinal plasticity can lead to sustained pain states, excitotoxicity, and cell death. One of the most common and widely studied instances of maladaptive spinal plasticity is the phenomenon of central...

  4. IgE low affinity receptor (CD23) expression, Plasmodium falciparum specific IgE and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in Thai uncomplicated and severe falciparum malaria patients.

    PubMed

    Kumsiri, Ratchanok; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Krudsood, Srivicha; Maneerat, Yaowapa

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested that Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) specific IgE in the form of immune complexes crosslinking the low-affinity receptor (CD23) on monocyte results in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and nitric oxide (NO) production. However, the roles of these parameters in severity and immune protection are still unclear. This study aimed to determine the association between CD23 expression on monocytes, plasma soluble CD23 (sCD23), total IgE, malaria-specific IgE and IgG, and TNF-? levels in P. falciparum infected patients. We evaluated 64 uncomplicated (UC) and 25 severe patients (S), admitted at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Mahidol University, and 34 healthy controls (C) enrolled in 2001. Flow cytometry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) demonstrated that trends of the CD23 expression, levels of sCD23 and specific IgE were higher in the S group as compared to those in the UC and C groups. Plasma levels of P. falciparum specific IgE in the UC (p=0.011) and S groups (p=0.025) were significantly higher than those in C group. In contrast the TNF-? levels tended to be higher in the UC than those in the S (p=0.343) and significantly higher than those in C (p=0.004) groups. The specific IgG levels in UC were significantly higher than those in S and C (p<0.001) groups. At admission, a strong significant negative correlation was found between specific IgG and sCD23 (r=-0.762, p=0.028), and TNF-? and IgE-IgG complexes (r=-0.715, p=0.002). Significant positive correlations between levels of specific IgE and TNF-? (r=0.575, p=0.010); and sCD23 (r=0.597, p=0.000) were also observed. In conclusion, our data suggest that CD23 expression and malaria-specific IgE levels may be involved in the severity of the disease while TNF-? and the malaria-specific IgG may correlate with protection against falciparum malaria. PMID:26519199

  5. CT-2576, an inhibitor of phospholipid signaling, suppresses constitutive and induced expression of human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Leung, D W; Peterson, P K; Weeks, R; Gekker, G; Chao, C C; Kaplan, A H; Balantac, N; Tompkins, C; Underiner, G E; Bursten, S

    1995-01-01

    Viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) require cellular activation for expression. Cellular activation in lymphoid cells is associated with augmented accumulation of certain phosphatidic acid (PA) species derived from the hydrolysis of glycan phosphatidylinositol (GPI). This suggests that activation of a phospholipid pathway may play a role in initiation of viral replication. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of tat gene expression on the production of cellular PA species, as the Tat protein is essential for HIV expression and has been implicated in activating the expression of multiple host cellular genes. Expression of tat increased the expression of PA. We then tested whether synthetic inhibitors of PA metabolism would inhibit activation of the HIV long terminal repeat by Tat and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). CT-2576 suppressed both PA generation induced by Tat and HIV long terminal repeat-directed gene expression in response to Tat or TNF-alpha at a posttranscriptional step. CT-2576 also inhibited constitutive as well as TNF-alpha- and interleukin 6-induced expression of HIV p24 antigen in chronically infected U1 cells and in peripheral blood lymphocytes acutely infected with a clinical isolate of HIV. Pharmacological inhibition of synthesis of selected PA species may therefore provide a therapeutic approach to suppression of HIV replication. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:7761405

  6. Methyl ester of avenathramide-C inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interlenkin-Ibeta(IL-beta)-induced NF-kappaB activation in endothelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease accompanied by the expression of endothelial proinflammatory molecules. Avenanthramides (Avn) are polyphenols which are present exclusively in oats. We have reported the avenanthramide-enriched mixture extracted from oats significantly suppressed int...

  7. Phenol induced acute cutaneous inflammation (AI) in mice: Diminished response in mast cell-deficient (W/W sup v ) mice and evidence of a role for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)

    SciTech Connect

    Wershil, B.K.; Wang, Z.S.; Gordon, J.R.; Galli, S.J. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA )

    1991-03-11

    AI can be induced by a variety of chemical agents. The authors examined AI in mast cell-deficient (WBB6F{sub 1}-W/W{sup v}) and congenic normal (WBB6F{sub 1}-+/+) mice; AI was induced by the epicutaneous application to the ear of phenol (2 mg), benzalkonium chloride (BC; 1 mg) and ethyl phenylpropiolate (EPP, 2 or 5 mg). Phenol induced significantly greater swelling in +/+ than in W/W{sup v} mice. No difference in swelling was seen in +/+ versus W/W{sup v} mice with BC or EEP. Phenol application induced significantly greater neutrophil infiltration in +/+ than in W/W{sup v} mice. Mast cells represent a rich source of TNF and TNF has been shown to participate in the neutrophil accumulation seen in mast cell-dependent, IgE-mediated cutaneous late phase reactions. The authors injected +/+ mice i.d. with 20 {mu}l of 1:100 dilution of a polyclonal rabbit anti-mouse TNF antiserum or 20 {mu}l of medium and then applied 2 mg phenol at the same sites. At 24 hrs, significantly less neutrophil accumulation was seen in the ear treated with anti-TNF antibodies than in the control ear. The authors conclude that mast cells may participate in phenol-induced AI, and that TNF contributes to this response.

  8. Autocrine regulation of macrophage differentiation and 92-kDa gelatinase production by tumor necrosis factor {alpha} via {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin in HL-60 cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, B.; Laouar, A.; Huberman, E.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology

    1998-05-08

    Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) gene is one of the early response genes induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in human HL-60 myeloid leukemia cells. In the present study, we examined the role of the TNF-{alpha} autocrine loop in PMA-induced macrophage differentiation and gene expression of 92- and 72-kDa gelatinases (MMP-9 and MMP-2). In HL-60 cells, PMA inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell adhesion and spreading, expression of surface maturation marker OKM1 and phagocytic activity, as well as the expression of both gelatinases, which all characterize the macrophage phenotype. In contrast, TNF-{alpha} alone was only effective in inhibiting cell proliferation. Blocking the endogenous TNF-{alpha} activity with neutralizing anti-TNF-{alpha} antibodies abolished all these PMA-induced events with the exception of MMP-2 gene expression. Since fibronectin (FN)-mediated cell adhesion and spreading are prerequisite for both macrophage differentiation and MMP-9 gene expression in HL-60 cells, we hypothesized that TNF-{alpha} might be involved in modulating the expression of either the FN or its integrin receptor genes. Whereas PMA substantially enhanced the steady state mRNA and protein levels of both FN and {alpha}5{beta}1 integrins, TNF-{alpha} alone had little effect on the expression of these genes. However, anti-TNF-{alpha} antibodies blocked PMA-induced augmentation of both alpha 5 and beta 1 integrin gene expression without affecting the expression of the FN gene. Our results suggest that TNF-{alpha} may regulate macrophage differentiation and critical matrix-degrading activities of myeloid progenitor cells in an autocrine manner by augmenting surface levels of the {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin, thus promoting interactions with the extracellular matrix, a key event for maturation and migration of these cells during inflammation.

  9. Transgenic expression of the human amphiregulin gene induces a psoriasis-like phenotype.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, P W; Piepkorn, M; Clegg, C H; Plowman, G D; DeMay, J M; Brown, J R; Pittelkow, M R

    1997-01-01

    Amphiregulin (AR) is a heparin-binding, heparin-inhibited member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family and an autocrine growth factor for human keratinocytes. Previous studies have shown that AR expression is increased in psoriatic epidermis. To test the hypothesis that aberrant AR expression is central to the development of psoriatic lesions, we constructed a transgene (K14-ARGE) encoding a human keratin 14 promoter-driven AR gene. Our results indicate that transgene integration and subsequent expression of AR in basal keratinocytes correlated with a psoriasis-like skin phenotype. Afflicted mice demonstrated shortened life spans, prominent scaling and erythematous skin with alopecia, and occasional papillomatous epidermal growths. Histologic examination revealed extensive areas of marked hyperkeratosis with focal parakeratosis, acanthosis, dermal and epidermal lymphocytic and neutrophilic infiltration, and dilated blood vessels within the papillary dermis. Our results reveal that AR exerts activity in the skin that is distinct from that of transgenic transforming growth factor-alpha or other cytokines, and induces skin pathology with striking similarities to psoriasis. Our observations also link the keratinocyte EGF receptor-ligand system to psoriatic inflammation, and suggest that aberrant expression of AR in the epidermis may represent a critical step in the development or propagation of psoriatic lesions. PMID:9410906

  10. Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of Recombinant Guinea Pig Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Dirisala, Vijaya R.; Jeevan, Amminikutty; Ly, Lan H.; McMurray, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) is a cytokine which plays opposing roles in the context of infectious disease pathogenesis. TNF-? is essential for the development of a protective immune response to some pathogens, for example, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, by synergizing with other cytokines. However, exorbitant or uncontrolled TNF-? activity may also drive pathology and disease symptoms in many infectious diseases. In order to elucidate the beneficial and detrimental roles of TNF-? in tuberculosis (TB) and other diseases for which the guinea pig is the small animal model of choice, recombinant guinea pig (rgp)TNF-? has been produced using prokaryotic expression systems. However, it is unknown whether posttranslational modifications which cannot be made in the prokaryotic expression systems may be important for rgpTNF-? structure and function. Therefore, we carried out a comparative study by expressing rgpTNF-? in prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems and analyzed the eukaryotic-expressed rgpTNF-? for the presence of posttranslational modifications by subjecting it to NanoLC-MS/MS. We conclude that the eukaryotic-expressed rgpTNF-? lacks posttranslational modifications, and we found no significant difference in terms of the biological activity between prokaryotic- and eukaryotic-expressed rgpTNF-?. Taken together, results from our study show that a prokaryotic expression system can be used for generating large amounts of rgpTNF-? without concern for the biological integrity. PMID:25999670

  11. Differential cytokine expression in skin graft healing in inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Most, D; Efron, D T; Shi, H P; Tantry, U S; Barbul, A

    2001-10-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and its product, nitric oxide, have been shown to play important roles in wound biology. The present study was performed to investigate the role of iNOS in modulating the cytokine cascade during the complex process of skin graft wound healing.Fifteen iNOS-knockout mice and 15 wild-type C57BL/6J mice were subjected to autogenous 1-cm2 intrascapular full-thickness skin grafts. Three animals in each group were killed on postoperative days 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14. Specimens were then analyzed using nonisotopic in situ hybridization versus mRNA of tumor growth factor-beta1, vascular endothelial growth factor, iNOS, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and basic fibroblast growth factor, as well as positive and negative control probes. Positive cells in both grafts and wound beds were counted using a Leica microgrid. Scar thickness was measured with a Leica micrometer. Data were analyzed using the unpaired Student's t test. Expression of iNOS was 2- to 4-fold higher in knockout mice than in wild-type mice on postoperative days 5, 7, and 14. Expression of eNOS was 2- to 2.5-fold higher in knockout mice than in wild-type mice on postoperative days 5 and 7. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression was 2- to 7-fold higher in knockout mice than in wild-type mice on all postoperative days. In contrast, expression levels of angiogenic/fibrogenic cytokines (vascular endothelial growth factor, basis fibroblast growth factor, and tumor growth factor-beta1) were 2.5- to 4-fold higher in wild-type mice than in knockout mice. Scars were 1.5- to 2.5-fold thicker in knockout mice than in wild-type mice at all time points. All of the above results represent statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). Significantly different patterns of cytokine expression were seen in knockout and wild-type mice. Although the scar layer was thicker in knockout mice, it showed much greater infiltration with inflammatory cells. These data further delineate the modulatory effect of iNOS and nitric oxide in healing skin grafts. PMID:11604628

  12. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor treatment for sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Callejas-Rubio, José Luis; López-Pérez, Lourdes; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto

    2008-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic multisystem disease of unknown etiology, characterized by noncaseating granulomatous infiltration of virtually any organ system. Treatment is often undertaken in an attempt to resolve symptoms or prevent progression to organ failure. Previous studies have suggested a prominent role for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) in the inflammatory process seen in sarcoidosis. TNF-? and interleukin-1 are released by alveolar macrophages in patients with active lung disease. Corticosteroids have proved to be efficacious in the treatment of sarcoidosis, possibly by suppressing the production of TNF-? and other cytokines. Three agents are currently available as specific TNF antagonists: etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab. Although data from noncomparative trials suggest that all three have comparable therapeutic effects in rheumatoid arthritis, their effects in a granulomatous disease such as sarcoidosis are less consistent. In this review, current data on the effectiveness are summarized. PMID:19337437

  13. Thalidomide selectively inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha production by stimulated human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Thalidomide selectively inhibits the production of human monocyte tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) when these cells are triggered with lipopolysaccharide and other agonists in culture. 40% inhibition occurs at the clinically achievable dose of the drug of 1 micrograms/ml. In contrast, the amount of total protein and individual proteins labeled with [35S]methionine and expressed on SDS-PAGE are not influenced. The amounts of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta), IL-6, and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor produced by monocytes remain unaltered. The selectivity of this drug may be useful in determining the role of TNF-alpha in vivo and modulating its toxic effects in a clinical setting. PMID:1997652

  14. Hypoxia induces apelin expression in human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Geiger, K; Muendlein, A; Stark, N; Saely, C H; Wabitsch, M; Fraunberger, P; Drexel, H

    2011-06-01

    Adipokines play a central role in the development of diseases associated with insulin resistance and obesity. Hypoxia in adipose tissue leads to a dysregulation of the expression of adipokines. The effect of hypoxia on the more recently identified adipokine apelin in human adipocytes is unclear. Therefore, we aimed at investigating the role of hypoxia on the expression of the adipokine apelin. Differentiated human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes were cultured under hypoxic conditions for varying time periods. A modular incubator chamber was used to create a hypoxic tissue culture environment (defined as 1% O(2), 94% N, and 5% CO(2)). In addition, hypoxic conditions were mimicked by using CoCl(2). The effect of hypoxia on the expression of the investigated adipokines was measured by real-time PCR and the secretion of apelin was quantified by ELISA. Induction of hypoxia significantly induced mRNA expression of leptin and apelin in differentiated SGBS adipocytes compared with the normoxic control condition. Expression of adiponectin was significantly decreased by hypoxia. In addition, the amount of secreted apelin protein in response to hypoxia was elevated compared to untreated cells. Furthermore, we could demonstrate that the observed hypoxia-induced induction of apelin mRNA expression is in the first phase dependent on HIF-1?. In our study, we could demonstrate for the first time that apelin expression and secretion by human adipocytes are strongly induced under hypoxic conditions and that the early response on hypoxia with apelin induction is dependent on HIF-1?. PMID:21448846

  15. Serotonin inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha synthesis by human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Arzt, E; Costas, M; Finkielman, S; Nahmod, V E

    1991-01-01

    Serotonin inhibited in a concentration dependent way (10(-3) M to 10(-10) M) the LPS induced Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha synthesis both, when added to the monocyte cultures from the beginning and when added together with the activating stimulus 8 hours before the end of the culture. The inhibitory effect was specifically blocked by the 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 serotonin antagonist methysergide and the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist ketanserin. This indicates that only the 5-HT2 receptor family (5-HT2 or 5-HT1C) may be involved in the inhibitory effect. Serotonin seems to play an important immunomodulatory role in macrophage functions. PMID:2046478

  16. Piperine inhibits LPS induced expression of inflammatory mediators in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Ying, Xiaozhou; Yu, Kehe; Chen, Xiaowei; Chen, Hua; Hong, Jianjun; Cheng, Shaowen; Peng, Lei

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of piperine on the inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in RAW264.7 cells and the signal transduction pathways involved. RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with piperine at 10, 50 or 100 ?g/ml and subsequently stimulated with LPS (1 ?g/ml) for 24 h. We found that piperine inhibited the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) induced by LPS. Piperine significantly decreased LPS-stimulated gene expression and production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and COX-2 in RAW264.7 cells. Piperine inhibited the LPS-mediated activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) by suppressing the degradation of inhibitor-?B proteins (I?B) and the translocations of p65 subunit of NF-kB from the cytosol to the nucleus. Our results demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of piperine in RAW264.7 cells; suggesting that piperine may be a potential agent in the treatment of inflammation. PMID:24071564

  17. Role of BNIP3 in TNF-induced cell death--TNF upregulates BNIP3 expression.

    PubMed

    Ghavami, Saeid; Eshraghi, Mehdi; Kadkhoda, Kamran; Mutawe, Mark M; Maddika, Subbareddy; Bay, Graham H; Wesselborg, Sebastian; Halayko, Andrew J; Klonisch, Thomas; Los, Marek

    2009-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) is a cytokine that induces caspase-dependent (apoptotic) and caspase-independent (necrosis-like) cell death in different cells. We used the murine fibrosarcoma cell line model L929 and a stable L929 transfectant over-expressing a mutated dominant-negative form of BNIP3 lacking the C-terminal transmembrane (TM) domain (L929-DeltaTM-BNIP3) to test if TNF-induced cell death involved pro-apoptotic Bcl2 protein BNIP3. Treatment of cells with TNF in the absence of actinomycin D caused a rapid fall in the mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim) and a prompt increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which was significantly less pronounced in L929-DeltaTM-BNIP3. TNF did not cause the mitochondrial release of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) and Endonuclease G (Endo-G) but provoked the release of cytochrome c, Smac/Diablo, and Omi/HtrA2 at similar levels in both L929 and in L929-DeltaTM-BNIP3 cells. We observed TNF-associated increase in the expression of BNIP3 in L929 that was mediated by nitric oxide and significantly inhibited by nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N5-(methylamidino)-L-ornithine acetate. In L929, lysosomal swelling and activation were markedly increased as compared to L929-DeltaTM-BNIP3 and could be inhibited by treatment with inhibitors to vacuolar H+-ATPase and cathepsins -B/-L. Together, these data indicate that TNF-induced cell death involves BNIP3, ROS production, and activation of the lysosomal death pathway. PMID:19321129

  18. Distribution of endogenous tumour necrosis factor alpha in gliomas.

    PubMed Central

    Maruno, M; Kovach, J S; Kelly, P J; Yanagihara, T

    1997-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the distribution and cellular origin of endogenous tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) in the cellular components of human gliomas. METHODS: Frozen sections of 26 gliomas (four astrocytomas (As); two oligoastrocytomas (OA); one ansplastic astrocytoma (AA); one anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA); 18 glioblastomas (GB)) were examined immunohistochemically using antihuman TNF alpha and anti-Leu-M5 (CD11c) antibodies. Additional studies with double immunohistocchemical procedures were performed with anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein and anti-neurofilament antibodies. RESULTS: Eighty per cent of the AA, AOA, and GB (16 of 20) had a positive reaction for TNF alpha, but only 17% of As and OA (one of six) were positive. Positive cells were seen in both the tumour tissue and adjacent brain tissues. TNF alpha protein was detected not only in the tumour cells but also in the endothelium of tumour vessels as well as reactive astrocytes and neurons. CONCLUSIONS: Endogenous TNF alpha is present in cells of various origins in glial tumours including tumour vessels; however, the role of TNF alpha may be different in different types of cells or altered microenvironment. Images PMID:9306934

  19. Inducible gene expression systems and plant biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Corrado, Giandomenico; Karali, Marianthi

    2009-01-01

    Plant biotechnology relies heavily on the genetic manipulation of crops. Almost invariantly, the gene of interest is expressed in a constitutive fashion, although this may not be strictly necessary for several applications. Currently, there are several regulatable expression systems for the temporal, spatial and quantitative control of transgene activity. These molecular switches are based on components derived from different organisms, which range from viruses to higher eukaryotes. Many inducible systems have been designed for fundamental and applied research and since their initial development, they have become increasingly popular in plant molecular biology. This review covers a broad number of inducible expression systems examining their properties and relevance for plant biotechnology in its various guises, from molecular breeding to pharmaceutical and industrial applications. For each system, we examine some advantages and limitations, also in relation to the strategy on which they rely. Besides being necessary to control useful genes that may negatively affect crop yield and quality, we discuss that inducible systems can be also used to increase public acceptance of GMOs, reducing some of the most common concerns. Finally, we suggest some directions and future developments for their further diffusion in agriculture and biotechnology. PMID:19460424

  20. Loss of ADAM17-Mediated Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Signaling in Intestinal Cells Attenuates Mucosal Atrophy in a Mouse Model of Parenteral Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yongjia; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Xiao, Weidong; Ralls, Matthew W; Stoeck, Alex; Wilson, Carole L; Raines, Elaine W; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Dempsey, Peter J

    2015-11-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is commonly used clinically to sustain patients; however, TPN is associated with profound mucosal atrophy, which may adversely affect clinical outcomes. Using a mouse TPN model, removing enteral nutrition leads to decreased crypt proliferation, increased intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) apoptosis and increased mucosal tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) expression that ultimately produces mucosal atrophy. Upregulation of TNF-? signaling plays a central role in mediating TPN-induced mucosal atrophy without intact epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Currently, the mechanism and the tissue-specific contributions of TNF-? signaling to TPN-induced mucosal atrophy remain unclear. ADAM17 is an ectodomain sheddase that can modulate the signaling activity of several cytokine/growth factor receptor families, including the TNF-?/TNF receptor and ErbB ligand/EGFR pathways. Using TPN-treated IEC-specific ADAM17-deficient mice, the present study demonstrates that a loss of soluble TNF-? signaling from IECs attenuates TPN-induced mucosal atrophy. Importantly, this response remains dependent on the maintenance of functional EGFR signaling in IECs. TNF-? blockade in wild-type mice receiving TPN confirmed that soluble TNF-? signaling is responsible for downregulation of EGFR signaling in IECs. These results demonstrate that ADAM17-mediated TNF-? signaling from IECs has a significant role in the development of the proinflammatory state and mucosal atrophy observed in TPN-treated mice. PMID:26283731

  1. Expression of fibroblast growth factors in ultraviolet radiation-induced corneal tumors and corneal tumor cell lines from Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Sabourin, C L; Kusewitt, D F; Applegate, L A; Budge, C L; Ley, R D

    1993-01-01

    Chronic exposure of the gray, short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica, to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces highly vascularized mesenchymal tumors of the cornea. Cell lines derived from these UVR-induced corneal tumors and the corneal tumors themselves were examined for the presence of mRNA coding for basic and acidic fibroblast growth factors (FGF), transforming growth factors-beta and -alpha (TGF-beta and TGF-alpha), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Basic FGF was expressed in the cell lines derived from corneal tumors and in the corneal tumors. Expression of basic FGF was high in one corneal tumor. Transcripts for acidic FGF were detected only in the corneal tumor cell lines, not in primary tumors. TGF-beta expression was detected in the corneal tumors and tumor-derived cell lines. TGF-alpha, EGF, and TNF-alpha transcripts were not detectable in any opossum material; however, homologous gene sequences for TGF-alpha and EGF were detected on Southern blots of opossum genomic DNA. Southern blot analysis revealed no evidence of amplification or rearrangement of the genes for basic FGF or acidic FGF in the UVR-induced corneal tumor that expressed high levels of basic FGF. Opossum basic FGF, which stimulated the proliferation of fetal bovine heart endothelial cells, was purified by heparin affinity chromatography from a UVR-induced corneal tumor and a corneal tumor cell line. Immunoblotting of opossum basic FGF from a corneal tumor cell line using antiserum to bovine basic FGF showed two prominent immunoreactive bands of 17.5 and 18.5 kDa. Expression of basic FGF and acidic FGF may play a role in the development and progression of UVR-induced corneal tumors in M. domestica. PMID:7683886

  2. Evaluation of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Polymorphism Frequencies in Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Abutorabi, Roshanak; Baradaran, Azar; Sadat Mostafavi, Fatemeh; Zarrin, Yasaman; Mardanian, Farahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background The pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), is a pathogenic element for a number of disorders. Previous studies have reported that the -1031 T/C and -238 G/A polymorphisms in the promoter region of the TNF-? gene are important factors in reproductive-related disorders. One of the most common gynecological diseases of women during the reproductive years is endometriosis. This study aims to assess an association between the -1031 T/C, -238 G/A and -308 G/A polymorphisms of the TNF-? gene promoter region to endometriosis. Materials and Methods In this case-control study, we enrolled 65 endometriosis patients and 65 matched healthy control women by simple sampling. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was used to analyze -1031 T/C, -238 G/A and -308 G/A polymorphisms in the TNF-? gene promoter region. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results We found a strong association between the -1031 T/C polymorphism in the promoter region of the TNF-? gene with endometriosis (P=0.001). There were no significant associations between the -238 G/A (P=0.243) and -308 G/A (P=1) polymorphisms with endometriosis and again endometriosis stages have no association with these polymorphisms. Conclusion The -1031 T/C polymorphism and CC genotype can be used as a relevant marker to identify women at risk of developing endometriosis. PMID:26644856

  3. Thalidomide exerts its inhibitory action on tumor necrosis factor alpha by enhancing mRNA degradation

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    We have examined the mechanism of thalidomide inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- alpha) production and found that the drug enhances the degradation of TNF-alpha mRNA. Thus, the half-life of the molecule was reduced from approximately 30 to approximately 17 min in the presence of 50 micrograms/ml of thalidomide. Inhibition of TNF-alpha production was selective, as other LPS-induced monocyte cytokines were unaffected. Pentoxifylline and dexamethasone, two other inhibitors of TNF-alpha production, are known to exert their effects by means of different mechanisms, suggesting that the three agents inhibit TNF-alpha synthesis at distinct points of the cytokine biosynthetic pathway. These observations provide an explanation for the synergistic effects of these drugs. The selective inhibition of TNF-alpha production makes thalidomide an ideal candidate for the treatment of inflammatory conditions where TNF-alpha-induced toxicities are observed and where immunity must remain intact. PMID:8496685

  4. Alteration of the sphingomyelin/ceramide pathway is associated with resistance of human breast carcinoma MCF7 cells to tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Cai, Z; Bettaieb, A; Mahdani, N E; Legrès, L G; Stancou, R; Masliah, J; Chouaib, S

    1997-03-14

    The interference of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) signaling processes with the acquisition of tumor resistance to TNF was investigated using the TNF-sensitive human breast carcinoma MCF7 cell line and its established TNF-resistant variant (R-A1). The resistance of R-A1 cells to TNF correlated with a low level of p55 TNF receptor expression and an absence of TNF signaling through TNF receptors. Stable transfection of wild-type p55 receptor in R-A1 resulted in enhancement of p55 expression and in partial restoration of TNF signaling, including nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. However, the transfected cells remained resistant to TNF-induced apoptosis. Northern blot analysis revealed a comparable induction of manganous superoxide dismutase and A20 mRNA expression in p55-transfected cells and in sensitive MCF7 cells, making it unlikely that these genes are involved in the resistance to TNF-mediated cytotoxicity. While TNF significantly stimulated both neutral and acidic sphingomyelinase (SMase) activities with concomitant sphingomyelin (SM) hydrolysis and ceramide generation in MCF7, it failed to trigger these events in TNF-resistant p55-transfected cells. In addition, the basal SM content was significantly higher in sensitive MCF7 as compared to the resistant counterparts. Furthermore, the TNF-resistant cells tested could be induced to undergo cell death after exposure to exogenous SMase or cell-permeable C6-ceramide. This study also shows that TNF failed to induce arachidonic acid release in p55-transfected resistant cells, suggesting that an alteration of phospholipase A2 activation may be associated with MCF7 cell resistance to TNF. Our findings strongly suggest a role of ceramide in the mechanism of cell resistance to TNF-mediated cell death and may be relevant in elucidating the biochemical nature of intracellular messengers leading to such resistance. PMID:9054379

  5. The 19-kilodalton adenovirus E1B transforming protein inhibits programmed cell death and prevents cytolysis by tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed Central

    White, E; Sabbatini, P; Debbas, M; Wold, W S; Kusher, D I; Gooding, L R

    1992-01-01

    The adenovirus E1A and E1B proteins are required for transformation of primary rodent cells. When expressed in the absence of the 19,000-dalton (19K) E1B protein, however, the E1A proteins are acutely cytotoxic and induce host cell chromosomal DNA fragmentation and cytolysis, analogous to cells undergoing programmed cell death (apoptosis). E1A alone can efficiently initiate the formation of foci which subsequently undergo abortive transformation whereby stimulation of cell growth is counteracted by continual cell death. Cell lines with an immortalized growth potential eventually arise with low frequency. Coexpression of the E1B 19K protein with E1A is sufficient to overcome abortive transformation to produce high-frequency transformation. Like E1A, the tumoricidal cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) evokes a programmed cell death response in many tumor cell lines by inducing DNA fragmentation and cytolysis. Expression of the E1B 19K protein by viral infection, by transient expression, or in transformed cells completely and specifically blocks this TNF-alpha-induced DNA fragmentation and cell death. Cosegregation of 19K protein transforming activity with protection from TNF-alpha-mediated cytolysis demonstrates that both activities are likely the consequence of the same function of the protein. Therefore, we propose that by suppressing an intrinsic cell death mechanism activated by TNF-alpha or E1A, the E1B 19K protein enhances the transforming activity of E1A and enables adenovirus to evade TNF-alpha-dependent immune surveillance. Images PMID:1317006

  6. LXR antagonists induce ABCD2 expression.

    PubMed

    Gondcaille, Catherine; Genin, Emmanuelle C; Lopez, Tatiana E; Dias, Alexandre M M; Geillon, Flore; Andreoletti, Pierre; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha; Nury, Thomas; Lizard, Gérard; Weinhofer, Isabelle; Berger, Johannes; Kase, Eili T; Trompier, Doriane; Savary, Stéphane

    2014-02-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of very-long-chain fatty acids resulting from a beta-oxidation defect. Oxidative stress and inflammation are also key components of the pathogenesis. X-ALD is caused by mutations in the ABCDI gene, which encodes for a peroxisomal half ABC transporter predicted to participate in the entry of VLCFA-CoA into the peroxisome, the unique site of their beta-oxidation. Two homologous peroxisomal ABC transporters, ABCD2 and ABCD3 have been proven to compensate for ABCD1 deficiency when overexpressed. Pharmacological induction of these target genes could therefore represent an alternative therapy for X-ALD patients. Since LXR activation was shown to repress ABCD2 expression, we investigated the effects of LXR antagonists in different cell lines. Cells were treated with GSK(17) (a LXR antagonist recently discovered from the GlaxoSmithKline compound collection), 22(S)-hydroxycholesterol (22S-HC, another LXR antagonist) and 22R-HC (an endogenous LXR agonist). We observed up-regulation of ABCD2,ABCD3 and CTNNB1 (the gene encoding for beta-catenin, which was recently demonstrated to induce ABCD2 expression) in human HepG2 hepatoma cells and in X-ALD skin fibroblasts treated with LXR antagonists. Interestingly, induction in X-ALD fibroblasts was concomitant with a decrease in oxidative stress. Rats treated with 22S-HC showed hepatic induction of the 3 genes of interest. In human, we show by multiple tissue expression array that expression of ABCD2 appears to be inversely correlated with NR1H3 (LXRalpha) expression. Altogether, antagonists of LXR that are currently developed in the context of dyslipidemia may find another indication with X-ALD. PMID:24239766

  7. Mitochondria mediate tumor necrosis factor-alpha/NF-kappaB signaling in skeletal muscle myotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Y. P.; Atkins, C. M.; Sweatt, J. D.; Reid, M. B.; Hamilton, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is implicated in muscle atrophy and weakness associated with a variety of chronic diseases. Recently, we reported that TNF-alpha directly induces muscle protein degradation in differentiated skeletal muscle myotubes, where it rapidly activates nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). We also have found that protein loss induced by TNF-alpha is NF-kappaB dependent. In the present study, we analyzed the signaling pathway by which TNF-alpha activates NF-kappaB in myotubes differentiated from C2C12 and rat primary myoblasts. We found that activation of NF-kappaB by TNF-alpha was blocked by rotenone or amytal, inhibitors of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. On the other hand, antimycin A, an inhibitor of complex III, enhanced TNF-alpha activation of NK-kappaB. These results suggest a key role of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating NF-kappaB activation in muscle. In addition, we found that TNF-alpha stimulated protein kinase C (PKC) activity. However, other signal transduction mediators including ceramide, Ca2+, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and nitric oxide (NO) do not appear to be involved in the activation of NF-kappaB.

  8. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 induces alpha-smooth muscle actin expression in granulation tissue myofibroblasts and in quiescent and growing cultured fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Granulation tissue fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) develop several ultrastructural and biochemical features of smooth muscle (SM) cells, including the presence of microfilament bundles and the expression of alpha-SM actin, the actin isoform typical of vascular SM cells. Myofibroblasts have been proposed to play a role in wound contraction and in retractile phenomena observed during fibrotic diseases. We show here that the subcutaneous administration of transforming growth factor- beta 1 (TGF beta 1) to rats results in the formation of a granulation tissue in which alpha-SM actin expressing myofibroblasts are particularly abundant. Other cytokines and growth factors, such as platelet-derived growth factor and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, despite their profibrotic activity, do not induce alpha-SM actin in myofibroblasts. In situ hybridization with an alpha-SM actin probe shows a high level of alpha-SM actin mRNA expression in myofibroblasts of TGF beta 1-induced granulation tissue. Moreover, TGF beta 1 induces alpha-SM actin protein and mRNA expression in growing and quiescent cultured fibroblasts and preincubation of culture medium containing whole blood serum with neutralizing antibodies to TGF beta 1 results in a decrease of alpha-SM actin expression by fibroblasts in replicative and non-replicative conditions. These results suggest that TGF beta 1 plays an important role in myofibroblast differentiation during wound healing and fibrocontractive diseases by regulating the expression of alpha-SM actin in these cells. PMID:8314838

  9. TNF-{alpha} promotes human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression through activation of Akt/mTORC1 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Cheng-hu; Cao, Guo-Fan; Jiang, Qin; Yao, Jin

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} induces MMP-9 expression and secretion to promote RPE cell migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAPK activation is not critical for TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Akt and mTORC1 signaling mediate TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIN1 knockdown showed no significant effect on MMP-9 expression by TNF-{alpha}. -- Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) promotes in vitro retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration to initiate proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Here we report that TNF-{alpha} promotes human RPE cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression. Inhibition of MMP-9 by its inhibitor or its neutralizing antibody inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced in vitro RPE cell migration. Reversely, exogenously-added active MMP-9 promoted RPE cell migration. Suppression Akt/mTOR complex 1(mTORC1) activation by LY 294002 and rapamycin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-mediated MMP-9 expression. To introduce a constitutively active Akt (CA-Akt) in cultured RPE cells increased MMP-9 expression, and to block mTORC1 activation by rapamycin inhibited its effect. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of SIN1, a key component of mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), had no effect on MMP-9 expression or secretion. In conclusion, this study suggest that TNF-{alpha} promotes RPE cell migration by inducing MMP-9 expression through activation of Akt/ mTORC1, but not mTORC2 signaling.

  10. Gravity-Induced Gene Expression in Plants.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sederoff, Heike; Heber, Steffen; Howard, Brian; Myburg-Nichols, Henrietta; Hammond, Rebecca; Salinas-Mondragon, Raul; Brown, Christopher S.

    Plants sense changes in their orientation towards the vector of gravity and respond with directional growth. Several metabolites in the signal transduction cascade have been identified. However, very little is known about the interaction between these sensing and signal transduction events and even less is known about their role in the differential growth response. Gravity induced changes in transcript abundance have been identified in Arabidopsis whole seedlings and root apices (Moseyko et al. 2002; Kimbrough et al. 2004). Gravity induced transcript abundance changes can be observed within less than 1 min after stimulation (Salinas-Mondragon et al. 2005). Gene expression however requires not only transcription but also translation of the mRNA. Translation can only occur when mRNA is associated with ribosomes, even though not all mRNA associated with ribosomes is actively translated. To approximate translational capacity we quantified whole genome transcript abundances in corn stem pulvini during the first hour after gravity stimulation in total and poly-ribosomal fractions. As in Arabidopsis root apices, transcript abundances of several clusters of genes responded to gravity stimulation. The vast majority of these transcripts were also found to associate with polyribosomes in the same temporal and quantitative pattern. These genes are transcriptionally regulated by gravity stimulation, but do not exhibit translational regulation. However, a small group of genes showed increased transcriptional regulation after gravity stimulation, but no association with polysomes. These transcripts likely are translationally repressed. The mechanism of translational repression for these transcripts is unknown. Based on the hypothesis that the genes essential for gravitropic responses should be expressed in most or all species, we compared the temporal gravity induced expression pattern of all orthologs identified between maize and Arabidopsis. A small group of genes showed high sequence identity as well as a conserved pattern of transcript abundance changes after gravity stimulation between corn pulvinus tissue and Arabidopsis root apices. The functions of these genes in gravitropic responses are currently being analyzed and should give us important information about evolutionary conserved elements in plant gravity signal transduction. (This research was funded by NASA). Kimbrough, J. M., R. Salinas-Mondragon, et al. (2004). "The Fast and Transient Transcriptional Network of Gravity and Mechanical Stimulation in the Arabidopsis Root Apex." Plant Physiol. 136(1): 2790-2805. Moseyko, N., T. Zhu, et al. (2002). "Transcription profiling of the early gravitropic response in Arabidopsis using high-density oligonucleotide probe microarrays." Plant Physiol 130(2): 720-8. Salinas-Mondragon, R., A. Brogan, et al. (2005). "Gravity and light: integrating transcriptional regulation in roots." Gravit Space Biol Bull 18(2): 121-2.

  11. Oral N-acetylcysteine reduces bleomycin-induced lung damage and mucin Muc5ac expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Mata, M; Ruíz, A; Cerdá, M; Martinez-Losa, M; Cortijo, J; Santangelo, F; Serrano-Mollar, A; Llombart-Bosch, A; Morcillo, E J

    2003-12-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, therefore antioxidants may be of therapeutic value. Clinical work indicates that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may be beneficial in this disease. The activity of this antioxidant was examined on bleomycin-induced lung damage, mucus secretory cells hyperplasia and mucin Muc5ac gene expression in rats. NAC (3 mmol x kg(-1) x day(-1)) or saline was given orally to Sprague-Dawley rats for 1 week prior to a single intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (2.5 U x kg(-1)) and for 14 days postinstillation. NAC decreased collagen deposition in bleomycin-exposed rats (hydroxyproline content was 4,257+/-323 and 3,200+/-192 microg x lung(-1) in vehicle- and NAC-treated rats, respectively) and lessened the fibrotic area assessed by morphometric analysis. The bleomycin-induced increases in lung tumour necrosis factor-alpha and myeloperoxidase activity were reduced by NAC treatment. The numbers of mucus secretory cells in airway epithelium, and the Muc5ac messenger ribonucleic acid and protein expression, were markedly augmented in rats exposed to bleomycin. These changes were significantly reduced in NAC-treated rats. These results indicate that bleomycin increases the number of airway secretory cells and their mucin production, and that oral N-acetylcysteine improved pulmonary lesions and reduced the mucus hypersecretion in the bleomycin rat model. PMID:14680076

  12. Association of Transforming Growth Factor Alpha Polymorphisms with Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip and Palate in Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Ebadifar, Asghar; Hamedi, Roya; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza; Saliminejad, Kioomars; Kamali, Koorosh; Aghakhani Moghadam, Fatemeh; Esmaeili Anvar, Nazanin; Ameli, Nazilla

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is one of the most common congenital anomalies and the etiology of orofacial clefts is multifactorial. Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFA) is expressed at the medial edge epithelium of fusing palatal shelves during craniofacial development. In this study, the association of two important TGFA gene polymorphisms, BamHI (rs11466297) and RsaI (rs3732248), with CL/P was evaluated in an Iranian population. Methods: The frequencies of BamHI and RsaI variations were determined in 105 unrelated Iranian subjects with nonsyndromic CL/P and 218 control subjects using PCR and RFLP methods, and the results were compared with healthy controls. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The BamHI AC genotype was significantly higher (p=0.016) in the patients (12.4%) than the control group (5.0%). The BamHI C allele was significantly higher (p=0.001; OR=3.4, 95% CI: 1.6–7.4) in the cases (8.0%) compared with the control group (2.5%). Conclusion: Our study showed that there was an association between the TGFA BamHI variation and nonsyndromic CL/P in Iranian population.

  13. Protease-activated receptor-2 induces proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine gene expression in canine keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Shingo; Maeda, Sadatoshi; Ohno, Koichi; Kaji, Noriyuki; Hori, Masatoshi; Fujino, Yasuhito; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2013-05-15

    Although the molecular basis of the allergenicity remains to be fully elucidated, the ability of allergens to elicit allergic responses is at least partly attributed to their proteolytic activity. Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is a G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by site-specific proteolysis by serine proteases and is known to mediate inflammatory processes in various tissues. In this study, we investigated the effects of trypsin, a major serine protease, and a human PAR-2 agonist peptide (SLIGKV-NH2) on proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine gene expression in the canine keratinocyte cell line CPEK. The expression of PAR-2 mRNA and protein in CPEK cells was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The localization of PAR-2 in CPEK was examined by immunofluorescence. The mRNA expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were quantified by real-time RT-PCR. The free intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was measured using the Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dye. CPEK cells constitutively expressed PAR-2 mRNA and protein. Stimulation of CPEK cells with trypsin induced significant upregulation of the mRNA expression levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?, P<0.05), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, P<0.01), thymus and activation regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17, P<0.01), and interleukin 8 (IL-8/CXCL8, P<0.01). Similarly, the PAR-2 agonist peptide increased the mRNA expression levels of TNF-? (P<0.05), GM-CSF (P<0.05), TARC/CCL17 (P<0.05), and IL-8/CXCL8 (P<0.05) in CPEK cells. Both trypsin and the PAR-2 agonist peptide increased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and PAR-2 internalization. These results suggest that PAR-2 activation can augment inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression in canine keratinocytes, and it may initiate allergic inflammation through the proteolytic activity of allergens in canine atopic dermatitis. PMID:23465358

  14. Curcumin half analog modulates interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Kondamudi, Phani Krishna; Kovelamudi, Hemalatha; Nayak, Pawan G.; Rao, Mallikarjuna Chamallamudi; Shenoy, Rekha Raghuveer

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study was aimed at examining the effect of dehydrozingerone (DHZ), half analogue of curcumin which is the active constituent of turmeric (Curcuma longa) in the di-nitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) induced model for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (200–220 g) were divided into four groups (n = 6). Chemical induction of IBD was done by sensitizing with 300 µL of 20 g/L of DNCB (in acetone) onto the nape of rats for 14 days followed by intra-colonic instillation of 250 µL of DNCB (0.1% DNCB in 50% alcohol) solution on day 15. Rats in Group 1 (normal control) and Group 2 (DNCB control) were treated with vehicle. Rats in Group 3 were treated with DHZ (100 mg/kg, p.o.; 8 days) and Group 4 animals were treated with sulfasalazine (SS) (100 mg/kg, p.o.; 8 days). On 24th day, the rats were killed, colon removed and the macroscopic, biochemical, and histopathological evaluations were performed. Results: The levels of myeloperoxidase, thiobarbituric acid reactive substrate, and nitrite increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the DNCB group whereas reduced significantly in the DHZ and SS treated groups. Serum nitrite levels were found to be insignificant between the different groups. Interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha level was significantly high in the DNCB group. Conclusion: These findings show that DHZ can be a promising molecule for the treatment of IBD. PMID:26664018

  15. Effects of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Blocker Adalimumab in Experimental Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Çivi, Soner; Öcal, Özgür; Gülbahar, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    Objective Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) have proven effects in pathogenesis of neuroinflammation after spinal cord injury (SCI). Current study is designed to evaluate the effects of an anti-TNF-? agent, adalimumab, on spinal cord clip compression injury in rats. Methods Thirty two male adult Wistar rats were divided into four groups (sham, trauma, infliximab, and adalimumab groups) and SCI was introduced using an aneurysm clip. Animals in treatment groups received 5 mg/kg subcutaneous adalimumab and infliximab right after the trauma. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were studied in traumatized spinal cord tissues 72 hours after the injury as a marker of lipid peroxidation. Results Animals that received anti-TNF-? agents are found to have significantly decreased MDA levels. MDA levels were significantly different between the trauma and infliximab groups (p<0.01) and trauma and adalimumab groups (p=0.022). There was no significant difference in neurological evaluation of the rats using Tarlov scale. Conclusion These results suggest that, like infliximab, adalimumab has favorable effects on lipid peroxidation induced by spinal cord trauma in rats. PMID:25733985

  16. Involvement of interleukin-8, vascular endothelial growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor in tumor necrosis factor alpha-dependent angiogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, S; Ono, M; Shono, T; Izumi, H; Ishibashi, T; Suzuki, H; Kuwano, M

    1997-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a macrophage/monocyte-derived polypeptide which modulates the expression of various genes in vascular endothelial cells and induces angiogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism by which TNF-alpha mediates angiogenesis is not completely understood. In this study, we assessed whether TNF-alpha-induced angiogenesis is mediated through TNF-alpha itself or indirectly through other TNF-alpha-induced angiogenesis-promoting factors. Cellular mRNA levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and their receptors were increased after the treatment of human microvascular endothelial cells with TNF-alpha (100 U/ml). TNF-alpha-dependent tubular morphogenesis in vascular endothelial cells was inhibited by the administration of anti-IL-8, anti-VEGF, and anti-bFGF antibodies, and coadministration of all three antibodies almost completely abrogated tubular formation. Moreover, treatment with Sp1, NF-kappaB, and c-Jun antisense oligonucleotides inhibited TNF-alpha-dependent tubular morphogenesis by microvascular endothelial cells. Administration of a NF-kappaB antisense oligonucleotide almost completely inhibited TNF-alpha-dependent IL-8 production and partially abrogated TNF-alpha-dependent VEGF production, and an Sp1 antisense sequence partially inhibited TNF-alpha-dependent production of VEGF. A c-Jun antisense oligonucleotide significantly inhibited TNF-alpha-dependent bFGF production but did not affect the production of IL-8 and VEGF. Administration of an anti-IL-8 or anti-VEGF antibody also blocked TNF-alpha-induced neovascularization in the rabbit cornea in vivo. Thus, angiogenesis by TNF-alpha appears to be modulated through various angiogenic factors, both in vitro and in vivo, and this pathway is controlled through paracrine and/or autocrine mechanisms. PMID:9199336

  17. Inducible expression based on regulated recombination: a single vector strategy for stable expression in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Angrand, P O; Woodroofe, C P; Buchholz, F; Stewart, A F

    1998-07-01

    When fused to the ligand binding domain (LBD) of steroid hormone nuclear receptors, site-specific recombinases (SSRs) acquire a ligand-dependent activity. Here, we describe the use of SSR-LBD fusion proteins in an inducible expression system, introduced into cells in a single step. A single transgene contains a constitutively active, bi-directional enhancer/promoter, which directs expression, on one side, of an SSR-LBD fusion protein gene and, on the other, a selectable marker/inducible gene cassette. The selectable marker, the puromycin acetyltransferase (pac) gene, is used for stable genomic integration of the transgene and is flanked by recombination target sites. The inducible gene is not expressed because the pac gene lies between it and the promoter. Activation of the SSR-LBD by a ligand induces recombination and the pac gene is excised. The inducible gene is thus positioned next to the promoter and so is expressed. This describes a ligand-inducible expression strategy that relies on regulated recombination rather than regulated transcription. By inducible expression of diptheria toxin, evidence that this system permits inducible expression of very toxic proteins is presented. The combination of the complete regulatory circuit and inducible gene in one transgene relates expression of the selectable marker gene to expression from the bi-directional enhancer/promoter. We exploit this relationship to show that graded increases in selection pressure can be used to select for clones with different induction properties. PMID:9628928

  18. Asiatic Acid Alleviates Hemodynamic and Metabolic Alterations via Restoring eNOS/iNOS Expression, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Bunbupha, Sarawoot; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Prachaney, Parichat; Khrisanapant, Wilaiwan; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol

    2014-01-01

    Asiatic acid is a triterpenoid isolated from Centella asiatica. The present study aimed to investigate whether asiatic acid could lessen the metabolic, cardiovascular complications in rats with metabolic syndrome (MS) induced by a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (HCHF) diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with HCHF diet with 15% fructose in drinking water for 12 weeks to induce MS. MS rats were treated with asiatic acid (10 or 20 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for a further three weeks. MS rats had an impairment of oral glucose tolerance, increases in fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and hindlimb vascular resistance; these were related to the augmentation of vascular superoxide anion production, plasma malondialdehyde and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) levels (p < 0.05). Plasma nitrate and nitrite (NOx) were markedly high with upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, but dowregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression (p < 0.05). Asiatic acid significantly improved insulin sensitivity, lipid profiles, hemodynamic parameters, oxidative stress markers, plasma TNF-?, NOx, and recovered abnormality of eNOS/iNOS expressions in MS rats (p < 0.05). In conclusion, asiatic acid improved metabolic, hemodynamic abnormalities in MS rats that could be associated with its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory effects and recovering regulation of eNOS/iNOS expression. PMID:24441717

  19. A short-term treatment with tumor necrosis factor-alpha enhances stem cell phenotype of human dental pulp cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction During normal pulp tissue healing, inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) or interleukins, act in the initial 48 hours (inflammatory phase) and play important roles not only as chemo-attractants of inflammatory cells and stem/progenitor cells but also in inducing a cascade of reactions toward tissue regeneration or reparative dentin formation or both. Previous reports have shown that inflammatory cytokines regulate the differentiation capacity of dental pulp stem/progenitor cells (DPCs), but none has interrogated the impact of these cytokines on the stem cell phenotype of stem/progenitor cells. This study investigated the effects of a short-term treatment with TNF-? on the stem cell phenotype and differentiation ability of human DPCs. Methods An in vivo mouse model of pulp exposure was performed for analysis of expression of the mesenchymal stem cell marker CD146 in DPCs during the initial stage of inflammatory response. For in vitro studies, human DPCs were isolated and incubated with TNF-? for 2 days and passaged to eliminate TNF-? completely. Analysis of stem cell phenotype was performed by quantification of cells positive for mesenchymal stem cell markers SSEA-4 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 4) and CD146 by flow cytometry as well as by quantitative analysis of telomerase activity and mRNA levels of OCT-4 and NANOG. Cell migration, colony-forming ability, and differentiation toward odontogenesis and adipogenesis were also investigated. Results The pulp exposure model revealed a strong staining for CD146 during the initial inflammatory response, at 2 days after pulp exposure. In vitro experiments demonstrated that a short-term (2-day) treatment of TNF-? increased by twofold the percentage of SSEA-4+ cells. Accordingly, STRO-1, CD146, and SSEA-4 protein levels as well as OCT-4 and NANOG mRNA levels were also significantly upregulated upon TNF-? treatment. A short-term TNF-? treatment also enhanced DPC function, including the ability to form cell colonies, to migrate, and to differentiate into odontogenic and adipogenic lineages. Conclusions A short-term treatment with TNF-? enhanced the stem cell phenotype, migration, and differentiation ability of DPCs. PMID:24580841

  20. Benzoic Acid-Inducible Gene Expression in Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dragset, Marte S.; Barczak, Amy K.; Kannan, Nisha; Mærk, Mali; Flo, Trude H.; Valla, Svein; Rubin, Eric J.; Steigedal, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Conditional expression is a powerful tool to investigate the role of bacterial genes. Here, we adapt the Pseudomonas putida-derived positively regulated XylS/Pm expression system to control inducible gene expression in Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of human tuberculosis. By making simple changes to a Gram-negative broad-host-range XylS/Pm-regulated gene expression vector, we prove that it is possible to adapt this well-studied expression system to non-Gram-negative species. With the benzoic acid-derived inducer m-toluate, we achieve a robust, time- and dose-dependent reversible induction of Pm-mediated expression in mycobacteria, with low background expression levels. XylS/Pm is thus an important addition to existing mycobacterial expression tools, especially when low basal expression is of particular importance. PMID:26348349

  1. Anti-inflammatory bioactivities of honokiol through inhibition of protein kinase C, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and the NF-kappaB pathway to reduce LPS-induced TNFalpha and NO expression.

    PubMed

    Chao, Louis Kuoping; Liao, Pei-Chun; Ho, Chen-Lung; Wang, Eugene I-Chen; Chuang, Chao-Chin; Chiu, Huan-Wen; Hung, Lang-Bang; Hua, Kuo-Feng

    2010-03-24

    Much recent research has demonstrated that honokiol, a phenolic compound originally isolated from Magnolia officinalis, has potent anticancer activities; however, the detailed molecular mechanism of its anti-inflammatory activity has not yet been fully addressed. In this study we demonstrated that honokiol inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion in macrophages, without affecting the activity of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme. At the same time, honokiol not only inhibited nitric oxide expression in LPS-stimulated murine macrophages but also inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38. By means of confocal microscope analysis we demonstrated that phosphorylation and membrane translocation of protein kinase C-alpha, as well as NF-kappaB activation, were inhibited by honokiol in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Furthermore, it was found that honokiol neither antagonizes the binding of LPS to cells nor alters the cell surface expression of toll-like receptor 4 and CD14. Our current results have exhaustively described the anti-inflammatory properties of honokiol, which could lead to the possibility of its future pharmaceutical application in the realm of immunomodulation. PMID:20192217

  2. Inflammatory Cascades Driven by Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Play a Major Role in the Progression of Acute Liver Failure and Its Neurological Complications

    PubMed Central

    Chastre, Anne; Bélanger, Mireille; Beauchesne, Elizabeth; Nguyen, Bich N.; Desjardins, Paul; Butterworth, Roger F.

    2012-01-01

    Background/aims Acute liver failure (ALF) due to ischemic or toxic liver injury is a clinical condition that results from massive loss of hepatocytes and may lead to hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a serious neuropsychiatric complication. Although increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) in liver, plasma and brain has been observed, conflicting results exist concerning its roles in drug-induced liver injury and on the progression of HE. The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic value of etanercept, a TNF-? neutralizing molecule, on the progression of liver injury and HE in mice with ALF resulting from azoxymethane (AOM) hepatotoxicity. Methods/Principal Findings Mice were administered saline or etanercept (10 mg/kg; i.p.) 30 minutes prior to, or up to 6 h after AOM. Etanercept-treated ALF mice were sacrificed in parallel with vehicle-treated comatose ALF mice and controls. AOM induced severe hepatic necrosis, leading to HE, and etanercept administered prior or up to 3 h after AOM significantly delayed the onset of coma stages of HE. Etanercept pretreatment attenuated AOM-induced liver injury, as assessed by histological examination, plasma ammonia and transaminase levels, and by hepatic glutathione content. Peripheral inflammation was significantly reduced by etanercept as shown by decreased plasma IL-6 (4.1-fold; p<0.001) and CD40L levels (3.7-fold; p<0.001) compared to saline-treated ALF mice. Etanercept also decreased IL-6 levels in brain (1.2-fold; p<0.05), attenuated microglial activation (assessed by OX-42 immunoreactivity), and increased brain glutathione concentrations. Conclusions These results indicate that systemic sequestration of TNF-? attenuates both peripheral and cerebral inflammation leading to delayed progression of liver disease and HE in mice with ALF due to toxic liver injury. These results suggest that etanercept may provide a novel therapeutic approach for the management of ALF patients awaiting liver transplantation. PMID:23166746

  3. Network-Induced Classification Kernels for Gene Expression Profile Analysis

    E-print Network

    Shamir, Ron

    additional biological knowledge in addition to the expression data. Several types of prior knowledgeNetwork-Induced Classification Kernels for Gene Expression Profile Analysis OFER LAVI,1,3 GIDEON DROR,2 and RON SHAMIR1 ABSTRACT Computational classification of gene expression profiles into distinct

  4. Transforming Growth Factor Alpha (TGF?) Transforms Astrocytes to a Growth Supportive Phenotype after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    White, Robin E.; Rao, Meghan; Gensel, John C.; McTigue, Dana M.; Kaspar, Brian K.; Jakeman, Lyn B.

    2011-01-01

    Astrocytes are both detrimental and beneficial for repair and recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). These dynamic cells are primary contributors to the growth-inhibitory glial scar, yet they are also neuroprotective and can form growth-supportive bridges upon which axons traverse. We have shown that intrathecal administration of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF?) to the contused mouse spinal cord can enhance astrocyte infiltration and axonal growth within the injury site, but the mechanisms of these effects are not well understood. The present studies demonstrate that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is upregulated primarily by astrocytes and glial progenitors early after SCI. TGF? directly activates the EGFR on these cells in vitro, inducing their proliferation, migration, and transformation to a phenotype that supports robust neurite outgrowth. Overexpression of TGF? in vivo by intraparenchymal adeno-associated virus injection adjacent to the injury site enhances cell proliferation, alters astrocyte distribution and facilitates increased axonal penetration at the rostral lesion border. To determine if endogenous EGFR activation is required after injury, SCI was also performed on Velvet (C57BL/6J-EgfrVel/J) mice, a mutant strain with defective EGFR activity. The affected mice exhibited malformed glial borders, larger lesions, and impaired recovery of function, indicating that intrinsic EGFR activation is necessary for neuroprotection and normal glial scar formation after SCI. By further stimulating precursor proliferation and modifying glial activation to promote a growth permissive environment, controlled stimulation of EGFR at the lesion border may be considered in the context of future strategies to enhance endogenous cellular repair following injury. PMID:22016551

  5. Coexpression of transforming growth factor-alpha and épidermal growth factor receptor in capillary hemangioblastomas of the central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Reifenberger, G.; Reifenberger, J.; Bilzer, T.; Wechsler, W.; Collins, V. P.

    1995-01-01

    The expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the pre-pro form of one of its ligands, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), was studied by Northern blotting in a series of 14 capillary hemangioblastomas of the central nervous system. A constant coexpression of EGFR and pre-pro-TGF-alpha mRNAs was found. Immunocytochemical investigation of an extended series of 51 capillary hemangioblastomas revealed that the stromal cells in these tumors showed immunoreactivity with monoclonal antibodies to EGFR and TGF-alpha. Analysis of gene dosage by Southern blotting in 20 tumors indicated a normal gene copy number of EGFR and TGF alpha in all cases. Our findings suggest that autocrine and/or juxtacrine growth stimulation via the EGFR may contribute to tumor growth in capillary hemangioblastomas. Images Figure 2 Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:7639324

  6. Sleep deprivation attenuates endotoxin-induced cytokine gene expression independent of day length and circulating cortisol in male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Ashley, Noah T; Walton, James C; Haim, Achikam; Zhang, Ning; Prince, Laura A; Fruchey, Allison M; Lieberman, Rebecca A; Weil, Zachary M; Magalang, Ulysses J; Nelson, Randy J

    2013-07-15

    Sleep is restorative, whereas reduced sleep leads to negative health outcomes, such as increased susceptibility to disease. Sleep deprivation tends to attenuate inflammatory responses triggered by infection or exposure to endotoxin, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Previous studies have demonstrated that Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), photoperiodic rodents, attenuate LPS-induced fever, sickness behavior and upstream pro-inflammatory gene expression when adapted to short day lengths. Here, we tested whether manipulation of photoperiod alters the suppressive effects of sleep deprivation upon cytokine gene expression after LPS challenge. Male Siberian hamsters were adapted to long (16 h:8 h light:dark) or short (8 h:16 h light:dark) photoperiods for >10 weeks, and were deprived of sleep for 24 h using the multiple platform method or remained in their home cage. Hamsters received an intraperitoneal injection of LPS or saline (control) 18 h after starting the protocol, and were killed 6 h later. LPS increased liver and hypothalamic interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) gene expression compared with vehicle. Among LPS-challenged hamsters, sleep deprivation reduced IL-1 mRNA levels in liver and hypothalamus, but not TNF. IL-1 attenuation was independent of circulating baseline cortisol, which did not increase after sleep deprivation. Conversely, photoperiod altered baseline cortisol, but not pro-inflammatory gene expression in sleep-deprived hamsters. These results suggest that neither photoperiod nor glucocorticoids influence the suppressive effect of sleep deprivation upon LPS-induced inflammation. PMID:23531821

  7. Expression changes of inflammatory factors in the rat lung of decompression sickness induced by fast buoyancy ascent escape.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Tao; Fang, Yi-Qun; You, Pu; Bao, Xiao-Chen; Yuan, Heng-Rong; Ma, Jun; Wang, Fang-Fang; Li, Kai-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Fast buoyancy ascent escape is one of the major naval submarine escape maneuvers. Decompression sickness (DCS) is the major bottleneck to increase the depth of fast buoyancy ascent escape. Rapid decompression induces the release of inflammatory mediators and results in tissue inflammation cascades and a protective anti-inflammatory response. In our previous study, we found that DCS caused by simulated fast buoyancy ascent escape could induce acute lung injury (ALI) and the expression changes of the proinflammatory cytokines: tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 in rat lung tissue. In order to study the expression change characteristics of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 in the rat lung of DCS caused by simulated fast buoyancy ascent escape, we detected the rat lung mRNA and protein levels of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 at 0.5 hour after DCS caused by simulated fast buoyancy ascent escape (fast escape group), compared with the normal control group (control group) and diving DCS (decompression group). We observed that DCS caused by simulated fast buoyancy ascent escape could increase the mRNA levels of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-10, and the protein levels of TNF-?, IL-10 in rat lung tissue. At the same time, we found that the protein level of IL-13 was also downregulated in rat lung tissue. TNF-?, IL-10 and IL-13 may be involved in the process of the rat lung injury of DCS caused by simulated fast buoyancy ascent escape. In conclusion, the expression changes of inflammatory factors in the rat lung of DCS caused by simulated fast buoyancy ascent escape were probably different from that in the rat lung of diving DCS, which indicated that the pathological mechanism of DCS caused by simulated fast buoyancy ascent escape might be different from that of diving DCS. PMID:26094300

  8. Suppression of glia maturation factor expression prevents 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP?)-induced loss of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Khan, M M; Zaheer, S; Nehman, J; Zaheer, A

    2014-09-26

    Inflammation mediated by glial activation appears to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). Glia maturation factor (GMF), a proinflammatory protein predominantly localized in the central nervous system was isolated, sequenced and cloned in our laboratory. We have previously demonstrated immunomodulatory and proinflammatory functions of GMF, but its involvement in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), active metabolite of classical parkinsonian toxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), inducing loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons has not been studied. Here we show that altered expression of GMF has direct consequences on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B)- mediated production of inflammatory mediators by MPP(+). We examined MPP(+)-induced DA neuronal loss in primary cultures of mouse mesencephalic neurons/glia obtained from GMF-deficient (GMF knockout (GMF-KO)) and GMF-containing wild-type (Wt) mice. We demonstrate that deficiency of GMF in GMF-KO neurons/glia led to decreased production of ROS and downregulation of NF-?B-mediated production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1?) as compared to Wt neurons/glia. Additionally, overexpression of GMF induced DA neurodegeneration, whereas GMF downregulation by GMF-specific shRNA protected DA neurons from MPP-induced toxicity. Subsequently, GMF deficiency ameliorates antioxidant balance, as evidenced by the decreased level of lipid peroxidation, less ROS production along with increased level of glutathione; and attenuated the DA neuronal loss via the downregulation of NF-?B-mediated inflammatory responses. In conclusion, our overall data indicate that GMF modulates oxidative stress and release of deleterious agents by MPP(+) leading to loss of DA neurons. Our study provides new insights into the potential role of GMF and identifies targets for therapeutic interventions in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25016212

  9. Network-Induced Classication Kernels for Gene Expression Prole Analysis

    E-print Network

    Shamir, Ron

    decade, gene expression proles based on DNA microarrays have been widely used to detect disease]). In addition, genes selected in one dataset often do not perform well on other datasets [10]. This lackNetwork-Induced Classication Kernels for Gene Expression Prole Analysis Ofer Lavi 1,3 oferl

  10. Autoantibody-mediated angiotensin receptor activation contributes to preeclampsia through tumor necrosis factor-alpha signaling.

    PubMed

    Irani, Roxanna A; Zhang, Yujin; Zhou, Cissy Chenyi; Blackwell, Sean C; Hicks, M John; Ramin, Susan M; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2010-05-01

    Preeclampsia is a prevalent life-threatening hypertensive disorder of pregnancy for which the pathophysiology remains largely undefined. Recently, a circulating maternal autoantibody, the angiotensin II type I (AT(1)) receptor agonistic autoantibody (AA), has emerged as a contributor to disease features. Increased circulating maternal tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is also associated with the disease; however, it is unknown whether this factor directly contributes to preeclamptic symptoms. Here we report that this autoantibody increases the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha in the circulation of AT(1)-AA-injected pregnant mice but not in nonpregnant mice. Coinjection of AT(1)-AA with a TNF-alpha neutralizing antibody reduced cytokine availability in AT(1)-AA-injected pregnant mice. Moreover, TNF-alpha blockade in AT(1)-AA-injected pregnant mice significantly attenuated the key features of preeclampsia. Autoantibody-induced hypertension was reduced from 131+/-4 to 110+/-4 mm Hg, and proteinuria was reduced from 212+/-25 to 155+/-23 microg of albumin per milligram of creatinine (both P<0.05). Injection of AT(1)-AA increased the serum levels of circulating soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and soluble endoglin (34.1+/-5.1, 2.4+/-0.3 ng/mL, respectively) and coinjection with the TNF-alpha blocker significantly reduced their levels (21.7+/-3.4 and 1.2+/-0.4 ng/mL, respectively). Renal damage and placental abnormalities were also decreased by TNF-alpha blockade. Lastly, the elevated circulating TNF-alpha in preeclamptic patients is significantly correlated with the AT(1)-AA bioactivity in our patient cohort. Similarly, the autoantibody, through AT(1) receptor-mediated TNF-alpha induction, contributed to increased soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1, soluble endoglin secretion, and increased apoptosis in cultured human villous explants. Overall, AT(1)-AA is a novel candidate that induces TNF-alpha, a cytokine that may play an important pathogenic role in preeclampsia. PMID:20351341

  11. Characterization of a tumor necrosis factor. alpha. (TNF-. alpha. ) inhibitor: Evidence of immunological cross-reactivity with the TNF receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Seckinger, P.; Zhang, Jianhua; Hauptmann, B.; Dayer, J.M. )

    1990-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that urine of febrile patients contains a tumor necrosis factor {alpha} inhibiting activity (TNF-{alpha} Inh) when tested in a cytotoxicity assay using the tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF-{alpha})-susceptible cell line L929. In the present study, the authors investigated the relationship between the TNF-{alpha} Inh and a potential soluble form of the receptor, as the former has been shown to block TNF-{alpha} activities by binding to the ligand. They demonstrate that human TNF-{alpha} is affected to a greater extent than is murine TNF-{alpha}. This species specificity of the inhibitor correlates with the binding studies of TNF receptor interactions already reported. They raised a polyclonal antibody to TNF-{alpha} Inh that neutralizes its activity and does not recognize TNF-{alpha}. Solubilized cross-linked {sup 125}I-labeled TNF-{alpha} receptor complex could be immunoprecipitated by using either anti-TNF-{alpha} or anti-TNF-{alpha} Inh antibody, suggesting immunological cross-reactivity between the receptor and the inhibitor. By using fluorescein isothiocyanate-coupled TNF-{alpha}, it was possible to visualize by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis the TNF-{alpha} receptor on phytohemagglutinin/interleukin 2-activated T cells. A similar increase of immunofluorescence intensity of the activated T cells was observed by using anti-TNF-{alpha} Inh antibody revealed with a fluorescein isothiocyanate-coupled goat anti-rabbit IgG1 conjugate, suggesting that the TNF-{alpha} Inh is also expressed as a membrane protein. Taken together, their results suggest that the TNF-{alpha} Inh originally described might be a soluble form of the TNF receptor itself.

  12. An IPTG Inducible Conditional Expression System for Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Ravishankar, Sudha; Ambady, Anisha; Ramu, Haripriya; Mudugal, Naina Vinay; Tunduguru, Ragadeepthi; Anbarasu, Anand; Sharma, Umender K; Sambandamurthy, Vasan K; Ramaiah, Sudha

    2015-01-01

    Conditional expression strains serve as a valuable tool to study the essentiality and to establish the vulnerability of a target under investigation in a drug discovery program. While essentiality implies an absolute requirement of a target function, vulnerability provides valuable information on the extent to which a target function needs to be depleted to achieve bacterial growth inhibition followed by cell death. The critical feature of an ideal conditional expression system is its ability to tightly regulate gene expression to achieve the full spectrum spanning from a high level of expression in order to support growth and near zero level of expression to mimic conditions of gene knockout. A number of bacterial conditional expression systems have been reported for use in mycobacteria. The utility of an isopropylthiogalactoside (IPTG) inducible system in mycobacteria has been reported for protein overexpression and anti-sense gene expression from a replicating multi-copy plasmid. Herein, we report the development of a versatile set of non-replicating IPTG inducible vectors for mycobacteria which can be used for generation of conditional expression strains through homologous recombination. The role of a single lac operator versus a double lac operator to regulate gene expression was evaluated by monitoring the expression levels of ?-galactosidase in Mycobacterium smegmatis. These studies indicated a significant level of leaky expression from the vector with a single lac operator but none from the vector with double lac operator. The significance of the double lac operator vector for target validation was established by monitoring the growth kinetics of an inhA, a rpoB and a ftsZ conditional expression strain grown in the presence of different concentrations of IPTG. The utility of this inducible system in identifying target specific inhibitors was established by screening a focussed library of small molecules using an inhA and a rpoB conditional expression strain. PMID:26247874

  13. An IPTG Inducible Conditional Expression System for Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ravishankar, Sudha; Ambady, Anisha; Ramu, Haripriya; Mudugal, Naina Vinay; Tunduguru, Ragadeepthi; Anbarasu, Anand; Sharma, Umender K.; Sambandamurthy, Vasan K.; Ramaiah, Sudha

    2015-01-01

    Conditional expression strains serve as a valuable tool to study the essentiality and to establish the vulnerability of a target under investigation in a drug discovery program. While essentiality implies an absolute requirement of a target function, vulnerability provides valuable information on the extent to which a target function needs to be depleted to achieve bacterial growth inhibition followed by cell death. The critical feature of an ideal conditional expression system is its ability to tightly regulate gene expression to achieve the full spectrum spanning from a high level of expression in order to support growth and near zero level of expression to mimic conditions of gene knockout. A number of bacterial conditional expression systems have been reported for use in mycobacteria. The utility of an isopropylthiogalactoside (IPTG) inducible system in mycobacteria has been reported for protein overexpression and anti-sense gene expression from a replicating multi-copy plasmid. Herein, we report the development of a versatile set of non-replicating IPTG inducible vectors for mycobacteria which can be used for generation of conditional expression strains through homologous recombination. The role of a single lac operator versus a double lac operator to regulate gene expression was evaluated by monitoring the expression levels of ?-galactosidase in Mycobacterium smegmatis. These studies indicated a significant level of leaky expression from the vector with a single lac operator but none from the vector with double lac operator. The significance of the double lac operator vector for target validation was established by monitoring the growth kinetics of an inhA, a rpoB and a ftsZ conditional expression strain grown in the presence of different concentrations of IPTG. The utility of this inducible system in identifying target specific inhibitors was established by screening a focussed library of small molecules using an inhA and a rpoB conditional expression strain. PMID:26247874

  14. Induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha in murine macrophages with various strains of Coxiella burnetii and their lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Kubes, M; Kuzmová, Z; Gajdosová, E; Ihnatko, R; Mucha, V; Toman, R; Kovácová, E

    2006-01-01

    The ability of various strains of Coxiella burnetii (C.b.) and their phase I and II lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) to induce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in peritoneal Balb/c mouse macrophages in vitro was investigated. Considerable differences in the induction ability were observed in dependence on the strain applied. In a TNF-alpha bioassay, the most effective inducers were both corpuscles and LPSs of the strains Priscilla and Scurry, followed by Nine Mile, Luga, and Henzerling I. In contrast, in ELISA, the most effective inducers were LPSs of the strains Luga and Henzerling, followed by Nine Mile, Priscilla, and Scurry. The role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the induction was confirmed by the use of C3H/HeJ mouse macrophages. Thus, the induction of TNF-alpha was much higher in Balb/c mouse macrophages than that in TLR4-deficient C3H/HeJ mouse macrophages. Differences in the results of the bioassay and those of ELISA suggest a role of another secreted factor(s) induced with C.b. in murine macrophages that could act synergically with TNF-alpha in L929 cells in the bioassay. The observed differences in TNF-alpha induction might play a role in the pathobiology of Q fever. PMID:16808326

  15. Interleukin-12-induced adhesion molecule expression in murine liver.

    PubMed Central

    Myers, K. J.; Eppihimer, M. J.; Hall, L.; Wolitzky, B.

    1998-01-01

    Systemically administered interleukin (IL)-12 causes liver inflammation in mice characterized by Kupffer cell proliferation and hypertrophy, hepatocyte necrosis, and multifocal accumulations of leukocytes in the hepatic parenchyma and around portal tracts and central veins. We have used both immunohistochemical staining and radiolabeled antibody quantitation to examine adhesion molecule expression in the livers of mice dosed daily with murine IL-12. Cells infiltrating livers of IL-12-treated mice were primarily mononuclear leukocytes expressing LFA-1, VLA-4, MAC-1, and CD18 adhesion molecules but little L-selectin. Kupffer cells constitutively expressed LFA-1 and smaller amounts of MAC-1, and high levels of ICAM-1 were constitutively expressed by liver sinusoidal lining cells, portal tract, and central vein endothelia. With IL-12 treatment, existing ICAM-1 expression was up-regulated and de novo expression occurred along bile duct epithelia. VCAM-1 levels were dramatically increased, with induced expression occurring along portal tract and central vein endothelia and scattered bile duct epithelial cells and in aggregations of cells in perivascular areas and the liver parenchyma. Although constitutive expression of E- and P-selectin was negligible, Il-12 induced a moderate rise in E-selectin levels. These increases in adhesion molecule expression may have implications for the therapeutic use of IL-12, especially in patients with liver disease or autoimmune conditions where augmented adhesion molecule expression may be critical to disease pathogenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9466572

  16. Hypoxia-induced paracrine regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor expression.

    PubMed Central

    Brogi, E; Schatteman, G; Wu, T; Kim, E A; Varticovski, L; Keyt, B; Isner, J M

    1996-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/vascular permeability factor (VPF), an endothelial cell (EC)-specific mitogen, stimulates angiogenesis in vivo, particularly in ischemic regions. VEGF/VPF expression by cells of hypoxic tissues coincides with expression of its two receptors, KDR and flt-1, by ECs in the same tissues. We investigated whether hypoxia or hypoxia-dependent conditions operate in coordinating this phenomenon. Human umbilical vein and microvascular ECs were exposed to direct hypoxia or to medium conditioned (CM) by myoblasts maintained in hypoxia for 4 d. Control ECs were maintained in normoxia or normoxia-CM. Binding of 125I-VEGF to ECs was then evaluated. Hypoxic treatment of ECs had no effect on 125I-VEGF binding. However, treatment of ECs with hypoxia-CM produced a threefold increase in 125I-VEGF binding, with peak at 24 h (P < 0.001, ANOVA). Scatchard analysis disclosed that increased binding was due to a 13-fold increase in KDR receptors/cell, with no change in KDR affinity (Kd = 260 +/- 51 pM, normoxia-CM versus Kd = 281 +/- 94 pM, hypoxia-CM) and no change in EC number (35.6 +/- 5.9 x 10(3) ECs/cm2, normoxia-CM versus 33.5 +/- 5.5 x 10(3) ECs/cm2, hypoxia-CM). Similar results were obtained using CM from hypoxic smooth muscle cells. KDR upregulation was not prevented by addition to the hypoxia-CM of neutralizing antibodies against VEGF, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, transforming growth factor beta 1 or basic fibroblast growth factor. Similarly, addition of VEGF or lactic acid to the normoxia-CM had no effect on VEGF binding. We conclude that mechanism(s) initiated by hypoxia can induce KDR receptor upregulation in ECs. Hypoxic cells, normal or neoplastic, not only can produce VEGF/VPF, but can also modulate its effects via paracrine induction of VEGF/VPF receptors in ECs. PMID:8567969

  17. A synthetic chalcone derivative, 2-hydroxy-3',5,5'-trimethoxychalcone (DK-139), suppresses the TNF?-induced invasive capability of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells by inhibiting NF-?B-mediated GRO? expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da Young; Lee, Da Hyun; Jung, Jung You; Koh, Dongsoo; Kim, Geum-Soog; Ahn, Young-Sup; Lee, Young Han; Lim, Yoongho; Shin, Soon Young

    2016-01-01

    2-Hydroxy-3',5,5'-trimenthoxyochalcone (DK-139) is a synthetic chalcone-derived compound. This study evaluated the biological activity of DK-139 on the inhibition of tumor metastasis. Growth-regulated oncogene-alpha (GRO?) plays an important role in the progression of tumor development by stimulating angiogenesis and metastasis. In this study, DK-139 inhibited tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?)-induced GRO? gene promoter activity by inhibiting of I?B kinase (IKK) in MDA-MB231 cells. In addition, DK-139 prevented the TNF?-induced cell migration, F-actin formation, and invasive capability of MDA-MB-231 cells. These findings suggest that DK-139 is a potential drug candidate for the inhibition of tumor cell locomotion and invasion via the suppression of NF-?B-mediated GRO? expression. PMID:26602275

  18. Inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis induces a transient increase in the expression of proinflammatory, Th1-related, and autoregulatory cytokines in mice

    PubMed Central

    Anziliero, D.; Weiblen, R.; Kreutz, L.C.; Spilki, F.; Flores, E.F.

    2014-01-01

    The immunostimulatory properties of inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) have long been investigated in different animal species and experimental settings. In this study, we investigated the effects of iPPVO on cytokine expression in mice after intraperitoneal inoculation. Spleen and sera collected from iPPVO-treated mice at intervals after inoculation were submitted to cytokine mRNA determination by real-time PCR (qPCR), serum protein concentration by ELISA, and interferon (IFN)-?/? activity by bioassay. The spleen of iPPVO-treated animals showed a significant increase in mRNA expression of all cytokines assayed, with different kinetics and magnitude. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1?, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and IL-8 mRNA peaked at 24 hours postinoculation (hpi; 5.4-fold increase) and 48 hpi (3- and 10-fold increases), respectively. A 15-fold increase in IFN-? and 6-fold IL-12 mRNA increase were detected at 48 and 24 hpi, respectively. Increased expression of autoregulatory cytokines (Th2), mainly IL-10 and IL-4, could be detected at later times (72 and 96 hpi) with peaks of 4.7- and 4.9-fold increases, respectively. IFN-I antiviral activity against encephalomyocarditis virus was demonstrated in sera of treated animals between 6 and 12 hpi, with a >90% reduction in the number of plaques. Measurement of serum proteins by ELISA revealed increased levels of IL-1, TNF-?, IL-12, IFN-?, and IL-10, with kinetics similar to those observed by qPCR, especially for IL-12 and IFN-?. These data demonstrate that iPPVO induced a transient and complex cytokine response, initially represented by Th1-related cytokines followed by autoregulatory and Th2 cytokines. PMID:24519126

  19. Expression of eotaxin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and the effects of weight loss in high-fat diet induced obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Lee, Do-Hyun; Han, Min-Woo; Kim, Mi-Young; Ju, Jae-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Eotaxin is an important inflammatory chemokine in eosinophil chemotaxis and activation and, thus, is implicated in asthma. Recently, obesity was associated with an increased prevalence of asthma, but the relationship between obesity and eotaxin expression has only been partially understood in obese mice and human studies. Therefore, we studied the expression patterns of eotaxin in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes/adipocytes to determine whether eotaxin levels are influenced by body weight gain and/or reduction in diet-induced obese mice. First, we investigated eotaxin expression during differentiation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Then, we treated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes/adipocytes with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), eotaxin, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, or leptin. To examine the effects of weight loss in high-fat diet induced obese mice, we fed C57BL/6 mice a high-fat diet or a normal diet for 26 weeks. Then, half of the high-fat diet group were fed a normal diet until 30 weeks to reduce weight. Epididymal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, serum, and bronchoalveolar fluid of mice were examined for eotaxin expression. The results showed that eotaxin expression levels increased with adipocyte differentiation and that more eotaxin was expressed when the cells were stimulated with TNF-?, eotaxin, IL-4, IL-5, or leptin. An in vivo study showed that eotaxin levels were reduced in visceral adipose tissues when high-fat diet fed mice underwent weight loss. Taken together, these results indicate a close relationship between eotaxin expression and obesity as well as weight loss, thus, they indirectly show a relation to asthma. PMID:21487491

  20. Development of a Recombinant Xenogeneic Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Protein Vaccine To Protect Mice from Experimental Colitis.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yang; Li, Meng; Zhang, Hailong; Zheng, Xiuran; Yu, Chaoheng; He, Gu; Luo, Yan; Yang, Li; Wei, Yuquan

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have highlighted the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) inhibitors, including monoclonal antibodies and soluble receptors, in the treatment and management of intestinal bowel disease (IBD). However, because of the immunogenicity of xenogeneic TNF-? inhibitors, antidrug antibodies (ADAs) can be triggered after repeated administration. An alternative way to target TNF-? is active immunization to elicit the production of high titers of neutralizing antibodies. In this study, we prepared a xenogeneic TNF-? protein vaccine and studied the protective effects in experimental colitis models. The xenogeneic TNF-? protein vaccine could overcome self-tolerance and induce TNF-?-specific neutralizing antibody. Moreover, the xenogeneic TNF-? protein vaccine could protect mice from acute and chronic colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). One possible explanation for this protective effect is the production of TNF-?-specific neutralizing antibody, which absorbed the biological activity of mouse TNF-? (mTNF-?) and failed to induce T lymphocyte apoptosis. In summary, use of the xenogeneic TNF-? protein vaccine may be a potent therapeutic strategy for IBD. PMID:26466602

  1. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha activates a calcium sensitization pathway in guinea-pig bronchial smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Parris, J R; Cobban, H J; Littlejohn, A F; MacEwan, D J; Nixon, G F

    1999-07-15

    1. The effects of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) on guinea-pig bronchial smooth muscle contractility were investigated. 2. The Ca2+-activated contractile response of permeabilized bronchial smooth muscle strips was significantly increased after incubation with 1 microgram ml-1 TNF for 45 min. This TNF-induced effect was not due to a further increase in intracellular Ca2+. 3. The TNF-induced Ca2+ sensitization was, at least partly, the result of an increase in myosin light chain20 phosphorylation. 4. The intracellular signalling pathway involved in this effect of TNF was further investigated. Sphingomyelinase, a potential mediator of TNF, had no effect on Ca2+ sensitivity of permeabilized bronchial smooth muscle. Also, p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p42/p44mapk), activated by TNF in some cell types, did not show an increased activation in bronchial smooth muscle after TNF treatment. 5. In conclusion, TNF may activate a novel signalling pathway in guinea-pig bronchial smooth muscle leading to an increase in myosin light chain20 phosphorylation and a subsequent increase in Ca2+ sensitivity of the myofilaments. This pathway does not appear to involve sphingomyelinase-liberated ceramides or activation of p42/p44mapk. Given the importance of TNF in asthma, this TNF-induced Ca2+ sensitization of the myofilaments may represent a mechanism responsible for airway hyper-responsiveness. PMID:10381600

  2. Production of tumor necrosis factors alpha and beta by human mononuclear leukocytes stimulated with mitogens, bacteria, and malarial parasites.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrante, A; Staugas, R E; Rowan-Kelly, B; Bresatz, S; Kumaratilake, L M; Rzepczyk, C M; Adolf, G R

    1990-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factors alpha and beta (TNF-alpha and TNF-beta) are multifaceted polypeptide cytokines which may mediate some of the significant changes in cellular homeostasis which accompany the invasion of the mammalian host by viruses, bacteria, and parasites. Although it is well established that bacterial lipopolysaccharide is a potent inducer of TNF-alpha, there is still very little known of the types of agents which can trigger the production of TNFs in mononuclear leukocytes. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measuring TNF-alpha and TNF-beta, we examined the capacity of various T-lymphocyte and beta-lymphocyte mitogens as well as microbial components to stimulate production of these cytokines in culture. The mitogens phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and pokeweed mitogen induced production of both TNF-alpha and TNF-beta, while whole-killed Staphylococcus aureus and Bordetella pertussis, like lipopolysaccharide, were potent inducers of TNF-alpha but failed to stimulate TNF-beta production. TNF-alpha production was detectable within 1 h after stimulation, while TNF-beta production was not detected until after 8 h of culture. The bacterial products tetanus toxoid, purified protein derivative, pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin, and pertussis toxin were all able to induce TNF-alpha and TNF-beta production. Disrupted (frozen-thawed) Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes were also potent inducers of TNF-alpha and TNF-beta. The results demonstrated that a wide variety of microbial components are inducers of TNF-alpha. Some may not only be more effective than lipopolysaccharide but can also induce TNF-beta production. Furthermore, evidence is presented showing that TNF-beta but not TNF-alpha production correlates with lymphoproliferation. PMID:2254024

  3. AKT mediates actinomycin D-induced p53 expression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chih-Shou; Ho, Dong-Ru; Chen, Fei-Yun; Chen, Chang-Rong; Ke, Yu-De; Su, Jyan-Gwo Joseph

    2014-01-01

    At high cytotoxic concentrations, actinomycin D (ActD) blocks transcription, decreasing levels of MDM2 and thus causing p53 stabilization. At low cytostatic concentrations, ActD causes ribosomal stress, which decreases MDM2 activity, resulting in p53 stabilization and activation. ActD can thus be used for p53-based cyclotherapy. We analyzed pathways mediating ActD-induced p53 expression. Inhibitors (LY294002, wortmannin, and deguelin) of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K) and AKT, but not inhibitors of MEK1/2, JNK, and p38-MAPK abolished the ActD-induced p53 expression in diverse cell types. RNA interference further supported these results. When AKT was downregulated by small hairpin RNA-AKTs, ActD-induced p53 expression was significantly decreased. ActD caused AKT phosphorylation at Ser473, indicating full activation of AKT. The potential for cancer therapy is discussed. PMID:24525337

  4. AKT mediates actinomycin D-induced p53 expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Shou; Ho, Dong-Ru; Chen, Fei-Yun; Chen, Chang-Rong; Ke, Yu-De; Su, Jyan-Gwo Joseph

    2014-02-15

    At high cytotoxic concentrations, actinomycin D (ActD) blocks transcription, decreasing levels of MDM2 and thus causing p53 stabilization. At low cytostatic concentrations, ActD causes ribosomal stress, which decreases MDM2 activity, resulting in p53 stabilization and activation. ActD can thus be used for p53-based cyclotherapy. We analyzed pathways mediating ActD-induced p53 expression. Inhibitors (LY294002, wortmannin, and deguelin) of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K) and AKT, but not inhibitors of MEK1/2, JNK, and p38-MAPK abolished the ActD-induced p53 expression in diverse cell types. RNA interference further supported these results. When AKT was downregulated by small hairpin RNA-AKTs, ActD-induced p53 expression was significantly decreased. ActD caused AKT phosphorylation at Ser473, indicating full activation of AKT. The potential for cancer therapy is discussed. PMID:24525337

  5. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha promotes survival in methotrexate-exposed macrophages by an NF-kappaB-dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Methotrexate (MTX) induces macrophage apoptosis in vitro, but there is not much evidence for increased synovial macrophage apoptosis in MTX-treated patients. Macrophage apoptosis is reported, however, during clinical response to anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) treatments. This implies that TNF-? promotes macrophage survival and suggests that TNF-? may protect against MTX-induced apoptosis. We, therefore, investigated this proposal and the macrophage signaling pathways underlying it. Methods Caspase-3 activity, annexin-V binding/7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD) exclusion and cell-cycle analysis were used to measure steps in apoptosis of primary murine macrophages and cells of the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line that had been exposed to clinically-relevant concentrations of MTX and TNF-?. Results MTX induces apoptosis in primary murine macrophages at concentrations as low as 100 nM in vitro. TNF-?, which has a context-dependent ability to increase or to suppress apoptosis, efficiently suppresses MTX-induced macrophage apoptosis. This depends on NF-?B signaling, initiated through TNF Receptor Type 1 ligation. Macrophage colony stimulating factor, the primary macrophage survival and differentiation factor, does not activate NF-?B or protect macrophages from MTX-induced apoptosis. A weak NF-?B activator, Receptor Activator of NF-?B Ligand (RANKL) is likewise ineffective. Blocking NF-?B in TNF-?-exposed macrophages allowed pro-apoptotic actions of TNF-? to dominate, even in the absence of MTX. MTX itself does not promote apoptosis through interference with NF-?B signaling. Conclusions These findings provide another mechanism by which TNF-? sustains macrophage numbers in inflamed tissue and identify a further point of clinical complementarity between MTX and anti-TNF-? treatments for rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:21324111

  6. Gene expression profiling of replicative and induced senescence

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Maggie; Kruger, Adele; Tainsky, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a cell cycle arrest accompanied by high expression of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors which counteract overactive growth signals, which serves as a tumor suppressive mechanism. Senescence can be a result of telomere shortening (natural or replicative senescence) or DNA damage resulting from exogenous stressors (induced senescence). Here, we performed gene expression profiling through RNA-seq of replicative senescence, adriamycin-induced senescence, H2O2-induced senescence, and 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine-induced senescence in order to profile the pathways controlling various types of senescence. Overall, the pathways common to all 4 types of senescence were related to inflammation and the innate immune system. It was also evident that 5-aza-induced senescence mirrors natural replicative senescence due to telomere shortening. We also examined the prevalence of senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) factors in the RNA-seq data, showing that it is a common characteristic of all 4 types of senescence. In addition, we could discriminate changes in gene expression due to quiescence during cellular senescence from those that were specific to senescence. PMID:25483067

  7. CREB expression mediates amyloid ?-induced basal BDNF downregulation.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Elyse; Fahnestock, Margaret

    2015-08-01

    In Alzheimer's disease, accumulation of amyloid-? (A?) is associated with loss of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), synapses, and memory. Previous work demonstrated that A? decreases activity-induced BDNF transcription by regulating cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. However, the specific mechanism by which A? reduces basal BDNF expression remains unclear. Differentiated, unstimulated human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells treated with oligomeric A? exhibited significantly reduced CREB messenger RNA compared with controls. Phosphorylated and total CREB proteins were decreased in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of A?-treated cells. However, neither pCREB129 nor pCREB133 levels were altered relative to total CREB levels. The protein kinase A activator forskolin increased pCREB133 levels and prevented A?-induced basal BDNF loss when administered before A? but did not rescue BDNF expression when administered later. These data demonstrate a new mechanism for A?-induced BDNF downregulation: in the absence of cell stimulation, A? downregulates basal BDNF levels via A?-induced CREB transcriptional downregulation, not changes in CREB phosphorylation. Thus, A? reduces basal and activity-induced BDNF expression by different mechanisms. PMID:26025137

  8. Oncogenic Myc Induces Expression of Glutamine Synthetase through Promoter Demethylation.

    PubMed

    Bott, Alex J; Peng, I-Chen; Fan, Yongjun; Faubert, Brandon; Zhao, Lu; Li, Jinyu; Neidler, Sarah; Sun, Yu; Jaber, Nadia; Krokowski, Dawid; Lu, Wenyun; Pan, Ji-An; Powers, Scott; Rabinowitz, Joshua; Hatzoglou, Maria; Murphy, Daniel J; Jones, Russell; Wu, Song; Girnun, Geoffrey; Zong, Wei-Xing

    2015-12-01

    c-Myc is known to promote glutamine usage by upregulating glutaminase (GLS), which converts glutamine to glutamate that is catabolized in the TCA cycle. Here we report that in a number of human and murine cells and cancers, Myc induces elevated expression of glutamate-ammonia ligase (GLUL), also termed glutamine synthetase (GS), which catalyzes the de novo synthesis of glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. This is through upregulation of a Myc transcriptional target thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG), which promotes active demethylation of the GS promoter and its increased expression. Elevated expression of GS promotes cell survival under glutamine limitation, while silencing of GS decreases cell proliferation and xenograft tumor growth. Upon GS overexpression, increased glutamine enhances nucleotide synthesis and amino acid transport. These results demonstrate an unexpected role of Myc in inducing glutamine synthesis and suggest a molecular connection between DNA demethylation and glutamine metabolism in Myc-driven cancers. PMID:26603296

  9. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity exacerbates ultraviolet B radiation-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and cell survival signals in ultraviolet B-irradiated mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Som D.; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2010-05-01

    Obesity has been implicated in several inflammatory diseases and in different types of cancer. Chronic inflammation induced by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been implicated in various skin diseases, including melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. As the relationship between obesity and susceptibility to UV radiation-caused inflammation is not clearly understood, we assessed the role of obesity on UVB-induced inflammation, and mediators of this inflammatory response, using the genetically obese (leptin-deficient) mouse model. Leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob) mice and wild-type counterparts (C57/BL6 mice) were exposed to UVB radiation (120 mJ/cm{sup 2}) on alternate days for 1 month. The mice were then euthanized and skin samples collected for analysis of biomarkers of inflammatory responses using immunohistochemistry, western blotting, ELISA and real-time PCR. Here, we report that the levels of inflammatory responses were higher in the UVB-exposed skin of the ob/ob obese mice than those in the UVB-exposed skin of the wild-type non-obese mice. The levels of UVB-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression, prostaglandin-E{sub 2} production, proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cell survival signals (phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and p-Akt-Ser{sup 473}) were higher in the skin of the ob/ob obese mice than the those in skin of their wild-type non-obese counterparts. Compared with the wild-type non-obese mice, the leptin-deficient obese mice also exhibited greater activation of NF-kappaB/p65 and fewer apoptotic cells in the UVB-irradiated skin. Our study suggests for the first time that obesity in mice is associated with greater susceptibility to UVB-induced inflammatory responses and, therefore, obesity may increase susceptibility to UVB-induced inflammation-associated skin diseases, including the risk of skin cancer.

  10. Synergistic cytotoxic effect of human recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha combined with dihydroambazone.

    PubMed

    Baumgart, J; Gase, K; Schulze, W; Suehnel, J; Gutsche, W; Behnke, D

    1990-11-01

    Dihydroambazone (DHA) is a water-soluble derivative of the experimental anticancer drug ambazone. In vitro, a combination of DHA and human recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) exerted a strong synergism of cytotoxicity against both mouse melanoma B16K cells and the TNF-sensitive mouse fibroblast line L-M (S). Furthermore, in a colony-forming assay with B16K cells a combination of TNF and DHA inhibited colony-formation much more severely than either drug alone. An increased antiproliferative efficiency was also confirmed in vivo against established subcutaneous melanoma B16 tumors of C57BL/6 mice. PMID:2224840

  11. Effects of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on macrophage enzyme levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierangeli, Silvia S.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1989-01-01

    Murine peritoneal macrophages were treated with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). Measurements of changes in acid phosphatase and beta-glucuronidase levels were made as an indication of activation by cytokine treatment. IFN-gamma or TNF-gamma treatment resulted in a significant increase in the activities of both enzymes measured in the cell lysates. This increase was observable after 6 h of incubation, but reached its maximum level after 24 h of incubation. The effect of the treatment of the cell with both cytokines together was additive. No synergistic effect of addition of both cytokines on the enzyme levels was observed.

  12. Tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulates cathepsin K and V activity via juxtacrine monocyte-endothelial cell signaling and JNK activation

    PubMed Central

    Keegan, Philip M.; Wilder, Catera L.; Platt, Manu O.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation and damage promote monocyte adhesion to endothelium and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Elevated inflammation and increased monocyte-endothelial cell interactions represent the initial stages of vascular remodeling associated with a multitude of cardiovascular diseases. Cathepsins are proteases produced by both cell types that degrade elastin and collagen in arterial walls, and are upregulated in cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) and monocyte binding would stimulate cathepsins K and V expression and activity in endothelial cells, that may be responsible for initiating local proteolysis during cardiovascular disease. Confluent human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were stimulated with TNF? or THP-1 monocyte co-cultures, and multiplex cathepsin zymography was used to detect changes in levels of active cathepsins K, L, S, and V. Direct monocyte-endothelial cell co-cultures stimulated with TNF? generated maximally observed cathepsin K and V activities compared to either cell type alone (n=3, p<0.05) by a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) dependent manner. Inhibition of JNK with SP6000125 blocked upregulation of cathepsin K activity by 49% and cathepsin V by 81% in endothelial cells. Together, these data show that inflammatory cues and monocyte-endothelial cell interactions upregulate cathepsin activity via JNK signaling axis and identify a new mechanism to target towards slowing the earliest stages of tissue remodeling in cardiovascular disease. PMID:22562303

  13. Increased intestinal protein synthesis during sepsis and following the administration of tumour necrosis factor alpha or interleukin-1 alpha.

    PubMed Central

    von Allmen, D; Hasselgren, P O; Higashiguchi, T; Frederick, J; Zamir, O; Fischer, J E

    1992-01-01

    The influence of sepsis on intestinal protein synthesis was studied in rats. Sepsis was induced by caecal ligation and puncture (CLP); control rats were sham-operated. Protein synthesis was measured in vivo in the jejunum and ileum following a flooding dose of [14C]leucine. At 8 h after CLP the protein synthesis rate was increased by approx. 15% in jejunal mucosa, and at 16 h after CLP, the protein synthesis rate was increased by 50-60% in the mucosa and seromuscular layer of both jejunum and ileum. In a second series of experiments, rats were treated with recombinant tumour necrosis factor alpha (rTNF alpha) or recombinant interleukin-1 alpha (rIL-1 alpha) administered at a total dose of 300 micrograms/kg body weight over 16 h. Control rats received corresponding volumes of solvent. Treatment with rTNF alpha resulted in an approx. 25% increase in mucosal protein synthesis in jejunum. Following treatment with rIL-1 alpha, protein synthesis increased by 25% in jejunal mucosa and almost doubled in ileal mucosa. The results suggest that sepsis stimulates intestinal protein synthesis and that this response may, at least in part, be mediated by TNF and/or IL-1. PMID:1530589

  14. Pregnancy-induced changes in renin gene expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yang; Wen, Hong; Prashner, Heather R; Chen, Rong; Inagami, Tadashi; Catanzaro, Daniel F; Kellems, Rodney E

    2002-01-01

    A puzzling feature of the renin-angiotensin system during pregnancy is the appearance in the maternal circulation of a large increase in the concentration of prorenin and renin. The physiologic role of these changes is not understood. We determined that high levels of renin protein occur in the circulation of pregnant mice, thereby establishing the mouse as a valuable model for understanding gestation-induced changes in the renin-angiotensin system. We used the murine model to show that high levels of renin gene expression occur at the mother-fetus interface, first in maternal decidua and subsequently in placentas. These results were obtained using ICR mice that have 2 related renin genes, Ren1 and Ren2. We also examined renin gene expression in C57Bl/6 mice that have only the Ren1 gene. In these mice, very little renin gene expression was observed in placentas but instead was upregulated in kidneys during pregnancy. In both ICR and C57Bl/6 mice, there is an increase in renin protein in the maternal circulation during pregnancy. However, these mice differ with regard to gestation-induced sites of increased renin gene expression. These studies suggest that mice are a convenient and valuable model for studying renin gene expression during pregnancy. PMID:11751275

  15. Cloning of the DNA-binding subunit of human nuclear factor. kappa. B: The level of its mRNA is strongly regulated by phorbol ester or tumor necrosis factor. alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.; Hatada, E.N.; Bartsch, C.; Scheidereit, C. ); Hohmann, H.P.; Haiker, M.; Roethlisberger, U.; Lahm, H.W.; Schlaeger, E.J.; van Loon, A.P.G.M. )

    1991-02-01

    The DNA binding subunit of nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B), a B-cell protein that interacts with the immunoglobulin {kappa} light-chain gene enhancer, has been purified from nuclei of human HL-60 cells stimulated with tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha}), and internal peptide sequences were obtained. Overlapping cDNA clones were isolated and sequenced. The encoded open reading frame of about 105 kDa contained at its N-terminal half all six tryptic peptide sequences, suggesting that the 51-kDa NF-{kappa}B protein is processed from a 105-kDa precursor. An in vitro synthesized protein containing most of the N-terminal half of the open reading frame bound specifically to an NF-{kappa}B binding site. This region also showed high homology to a domain shared by the Drosophila dorsal gene and the avian and mammalian rel (proto)oncogene products. The level of the 3.8-kilobase mRNA was strongly increased after stimulation with TNF{alpha} or phorbol ester. Thus, both factors not only activate NF-{kappa}B protein, as described previously, but also induce expression of the gene encoding the DNA-binding subunit of NF-{kappa}B.

  16. Xanthine derivatives: comparison between suppression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha production and inhibition of cAMP phosphodiesterase activity.

    PubMed

    Semmler, J; Gebert, U; Eisenhut, T; Moeller, J; Schönharting, M M; Alléra, A; Endres, S

    1993-04-01

    Several in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated suppression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) synthesis by pentoxifylline. In the present study we compared the effect of pentoxifylline with that of five other xanthine derivatives. We addressed two questions. First, what is the relative potency of those chemically related compounds in suppressing the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of TNF-alpha in human mononuclear cells? Second, does suppression of TNF-alpha production by these xanthine derivatives correlate with their capacity to inhibit 3',5'-cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity? The experimental drug A 80 2715 [1-(5-hydroxy-5-methylhexyl)-3-methyl-7-propylxanthine] was identified as the most potent agent with an IC50 (concentration exerting 50% suppression of LPS-induced TNF-alpha production) of 41 microM (mean of 13 individuals). The IC50 values of the other substances ranged between 106 microM for HWA 138 and 419 microM for theophylline. The LPS-induced interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) production was not influenced by all substances tested at comparable concentrations. Inhibition of PDE activity was determined in a cell-free system using PDE isolated from bovine heart. All xanthine derivatives dose-dependently inhibited PDE activity. Furthermore, with the exception of theophylline, there was a high degree of correlation between the potency to suppress TNF-alpha production in the cell culture system and the potency to inhibit PDE activity in the cell-free enzymatic assay. This argues for a crucial role of PDE inhibition in the suppression of TNF-alpha synthesis by xanthine derivatives. PMID:8388363

  17. Synergistic antiproliferative activity of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and lovastatin.

    PubMed

    Sora, M K; Kruszewski, A A; Stok?osa, T; Czyzyk, J; Lasek, W; Malejczyk, J; Jakóbisiak, M

    1994-01-01

    We assessed the antiproliferative effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and lovastatin, an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, alone and in combination, on two murine tumor cell lines. Recombinant TNF-alpha inhibited proliferation of murine MmB16 melanoma cells in a concentration-dependent fashion but stimulated growth of murine L1210 leukemia cells at 0.1 ng/ml concentration. Lovastatin inhibited proliferation both of murine MmB16 melanoma cells and of murine L1210 leukemia cells in a concentration-dependent fashion. In combination with tumor necrosis factor alpha lovastatin inhibited synergistically growth of both cell lines as assessed by isobologram analysis. Our data show that lovastatin, a cholesterol synthesis inhibitor, introduced to the clinic to treat hypercholesterolemia, used either as a single or in combination with TNF-alpha inhibits growth of MmB16 melanoma and L1210 leukemia cells. PMID:7487365

  18. Optical Computer Recognition of Facial Expressions Associated with Stress Induced by Performance

    E-print Network

    Pennsylvania, University of

    vision, workload, performance, stress, human face, cortisol, heart rate, astronauts, Markov modelsOptical Computer Recognition of Facial Expressions Associated with Stress Induced by Performance, METAXAS DN. Optical computer recognition of facial expressions associated with stress induced

  19. Hypoxia inducible factors regulate filaggrin expression and epidermal barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Waihay J.; Richardson, Theresa; Seykora, John T.; Cotsarelis, George; Simon, M. Celeste

    2014-01-01

    A functional epidermal skin barrier requires the formation of a cornified envelope from terminally differentiating keratinocytes. During this process, multiple genetic and environmental signals coordinately regulate protein expression and tissue differentiation. Here we describe a critical role for hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) in the regulation of filaggrin expression and skin barrier formation. Similar to other mammalian tissues, fetal epidermis in mice is normally O2-deprived. Simultaneous deletion of Hif1a and Hif2a in murine epidermis revealed defects in keratinocyte terminal differentiation and epidermal barrier formation. Mice lacking Hif1a and Hif2a in the epidermis exhibited dry flaky skin, impaired permeability barrier, and enhanced sensitivity to cutaneous allergens. These defects were correlated with stratum granulosum attenuation and reduced filaggrin expression. Hypoxic treatment of primary keratinocytes induced filaggrin (Flg) gene expression in a HIF1?- and HIF2?-dependent manner, suggesting that one mechanism by which Hif1a and Hif2a loss causes epidermal barrier defects in mice lies in Flg dysregulation. Therefore, low O2 tension is an essential component of the epidermal environment that contributes to skin development and function. PMID:24999590

  20. Calcium oxalate calculi-induced clusterin expression in kidney.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Yi; Liu, Junjiang; Jiang, Junyi; Pumill, Chris; Elaiho, Cordelia; Zhang, Yunxia; Li, Shoubin; Zhou, Tie

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate clusterin expression in the kidney and evaluate the urine clusterin level in the kidney stone formers. (1) In vitro, we treated the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line with different concentrations of calcium oxalate (CaOx), and then the clusterin protein expression in the cells was evaluated by Western blotting. (2) Kidney stone patients who received percutaneous nephrolithotomy were enrolled in our study. Urine samples were collected before surgery, the kidney punctured to obtain kidney tissue guided by ultrasound intraoperatively. Clusterin expression in the human kidney tissue was evaluated by immunochemistry. The urine clusterin level was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Non-kidney disease subjects were chosen as controls. In vitro, the clusterin expression was up-regulated in the MDCK cells induced by CaOx. The study included 49 patients and 41 non-kidney disease subjects. All calculi were composed of calcium oxalate monohydrate or calcium oxalate dihydrate and a few also contained protein or uric acid. Mean ± SD urine clusterin level was 17.47 ± 18.61 ?g/ml in patients, and 3.31 ± 5.42 ?g/ml in non-kidney disease subjects, respectively (p < 0.001). Immunohistochemistry revealed the clusterin was located in the cytoplasm of the renal distal and collecting tubular epithelial cells. Also the tissue clusterin expression increased significantly in the kidney stone formers compared to the control groups (p = 0.001). CaOx could induce clusterin expression in renal tubular cells, and increase clusterin levels in the kidney and urine from the kidney stone formers. PMID:25993895

  1. Hypergravity-induced changes in gene expression in Arabidopsis hypocotyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, R.; Soga, K.; Wakabayashi, K.; Takeba, G.; Hoson, T.

    2003-05-01

    Under hypergravity conditions, the cell wall of stem organs becomes mechanically rigid and elongation growth is suppressed, which can be recognized as the mechanism for plants to resist gravitational force. The changes in gene expression by hypergravity treatment were analyzed in Arabidopsis hypocotyls by the differential display method, for identifying genes involved in hypergravity-induced growth suppression. Sixty-two cDNA clones were expressed differentially between the control and 300 g conditions: the expression levels of 39 clones increased, whereas those of 23 clones decreased under hypergravity conditions. Sequence analysis and database searching revealed that 12 clones, 9 up-regulated and 3 down-regulated, have homology to known proteins. The expression of these genes was further analyzed using RT-PCR. Finally, six genes were confirmed to be up-regulated by hypergravity. One of such genes encoded 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase (HMGR), which catalyzes a reaction producing mevalonic acid, a key precursor ofterpenoids such as membrane sterols and several types of hormones. The expression of HMGR gene increased within several hours after hypergravity treatment. Also, compactin, an inhibitor of HMGR, prevented hypergravity-induced growth suppression, suggesting that HMGR is involved in suppression of Arabidopsis hypocotyl growth by hypergravity. In addition, hypergravity increased the expression levels of genes encoding CCR1 and ERD15, which were shown to take part in the signaling pathway of environmental stimuli such as temperature and water, and those of the ?-tubulin gene. These genes may be involved in a series of cellular events leading to growth suppression of stem organs under hypergravity conditions.

  2. Co-expression analysis of differentially expressed genes in hepatitis C virus-induced hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    SONG, QINGFENG; ZHAO, CHANG; OU, SHENGQIU; MENG, ZHIBIN; KANG, PING; FAN, LIWEI; QI, FENG; MA, YILONG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using the expression profiles of HCV-infected Huh7 cells at different time points. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified with the Samr package in R software once the data were normalized. Functional and pathway enrichment analysis of the identified DEGs was also performed. Subsequently, MCODE in Cytoscape software was applied to conduct module analysis of the constructed co-expression networks. A total of 1,100 DEGs were identified between the HCV-infected and control samples at 12, 18, 24 and 48 h post-infection. DEGs at 24 and 48 h were involved in the same signaling pathways and biological processes, including sterol biosynthetic processes and tRNA amino-acylation. There were 22 time series genes which were clustered into 3 expression patterns, and the demarcation point of the 2 expression patterns that 401 overlapping DEGs at 24 and 48 h clustered into was 24 h post-infection. tRNA synthesis-related biological processes emerged at 24 and 48 h. Replication and assembly of HCV in HCV-infected Huh7 cells occurred mainly at 24 h post-infection. In view of this, the screened time series genes have the potential to become candidate target molecules for monitoring, diagnosing and treating HCV-induced HCC. PMID:25339452

  3. Involvement of oxidants and oxidant-generating enzyme(s) in tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha-mediated apoptosis: role for lipoxygenase pathway but not mitochondrial respiratory chain.

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, V B; Spycher, S; Azzi, A

    1995-01-01

    Cellular signalling by the inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) has been suggested to involve generation of low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Certain antioxidants and metal chelators can inhibit cytotoxicity and gene expression in response to TNF alpha in numerous cell types. However, neither the source nor function of TNF alpha-induced oxidant generation is known. Using specific inhibitors, we ruled out involvement of several oxidant-generating enzymes [cyclo-oxygenase (indomethacin), cytochrome P-450 (metyrapone), nitric oxide synthase (NG-methyl-L-arginine), NADPH oxidase (iodonium diphenyl), xanthine oxidase (allopurinol), ribonucleotide reductase (hydroxyurea)] in TNF alpha-mediated apoptosis of the murine fibrosarcoma line, L929. We also demonstrated no role for mitochondrial-derived radicals/respiratory chain in the lytic pathway using specific inhibitors/uncouplers (rotenone, KCN, carboxin, fluoroacetate, antimycin, malonate, carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone) and chloramphenicol-derived respiration-deficient cells. Significant ROS (H2O2, O2-.) generation was not observed in response to TNF alpha in L929 cells using four separate assays. Also, prevention of intracellular H2O2 removal by inhibition of catalase did not potentiate TNF alpha-mediated cell death. These data suggest that neither H2O2 nor O2-. plays a direct role in TNF alpha cytotoxicity. Finally, we suggest a central role for lipoxygenase in TNF alpha-mediated lysis. Three inhibitors of this radical-generating signalling pathway, including an arachidonate analogue (5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid), could protect cells against TNF alpha. The inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid is also a radical scavenger, but it could not protect cells from ROS toxicity at concentrations that effectively prevented TNF alpha killing. Therefore protection by nordihydroguaiaretic acid cannot be due to scavenging of cytotoxic H2O or O2-.. The lipoxygenase product, (12S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, was also significantly protective. As this analogue can act as a substrate for certain lipoxygenases, this effect may be due to prevention of generation of physiological products. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 7 PMID:7646435

  4. Low doses of neutrons induce changes in gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Chang-Liu, C.M. ); Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R. )

    1993-01-01

    Studies were designed to identify genes induced following low-dose neutron but not following [gamma]-ray exposure in fibroblasts. Our past work had shown differences in the expression of [beta]-protein kinase C and c-fos genes, both being induced following [gamma]-ray but not neutron exposure. We have identified two genes that are induced following neutron, but not [gamma]-ray, exposure: Rp-8 (a gene induced by apoptosis) and the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the human immunodeficiency (HIV). Rp-8 mRNA induction was demonstrated in Syrian hamster embryo fibroblasts and was found to be induced in cells exposed to neutrons administered at low (0.5 cGy/min) and at high dose rate (12 cGy/min). The induction of transcription from the LTR of HIV was demonstrated in HeLa cells bearing a transfected construct of the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene driven by the HIV-LTR promoter. Measures of CAT activity and CAT transcripts following irradiation demonstrated an unresponsiveness to [gamma] rays over a broad range of doses. Twofold induction of the HIV-LTR was detected following neutron exposure (48 cGy) administered at low (0.5 cGy/min) but not high (12 cGy/min) dose rates. Ultraviolet-mediated HIV-LTR induction was inhibited by low-dose-rate neutron exposure.

  5. Bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis associated with the use of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor adalimumab.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Mina Mecheal; Martin, Alan William; Rosenblatt, Randall Lee

    2014-04-01

    A 51-year-old woman was referred for evaluation of progressive dyspnea of 3 months- duration. She had received 3 doses of adalimumab for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis prior to the onset of her dyspnea. Her chest examination revealed absent diaphragmatic movement with inspiration. Spirometry showed a severe restrictive defect. Radiologic studies confirmed the diagnosis of bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis. Laboratory and radiologic workup excluded other possible causes of the diagnosis. Adalimumab was discontinued, and she was treated with bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation and intravenous immunoglobulin. Three months later, the diaphragmatic paralysis persisted. This is the second reported case of bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis occurring in a patient who had received adalimumab. Acute neuropathies are rare side effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors. PMID:24688191

  6. Development of an anhydrotetracycline-inducible expression system for expression of a neopullulanase in B. subtilis.

    PubMed

    Heravi, Kambiz Morabbi; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2015-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a widely used bacterium for production of heterologous and homologous proteins. The primary challenge in the production of proteins in B. subtilis is choosing a relevant expression system. In this study, we developed a robust expression system based on optimized PtetR of transposon Tn1721, which is repressible by its specific repressor, TetR. The first step of this work was focused on the optimization of structure and core elements of Tn1721 anhydrotetracycline-inducible promoters, PtetA and PtetR. Both promoters were inserted upstream of eGFP on a pUB110-derivative with high copy number. Reduction of the 18bp spacer region of both PtetA and PtetR to 17bp significantly increased their strength in B. subtilis. Nevertheless, only the optimized PtetR with 17bp spacer region (PtetR2) directed high level of eGFP expression. In the second step, regulation of the system was optimized by testing the expression of tetR using well-known promoters, such as PmtlA, PmtlR, PptsG and PpenP. Expression of tetR by PptsG resulted in a tight regulation of PtetR2-eGFP showing 44-fold induction. By using the final expression plasmid in B. subtilis, neopullulanase was produced up to 15% of the total soluble protein. PMID:26455535

  7. Regulation of gene expression by macrolide-induced ribosomal frameshifting

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pulkit; Kannan, Krishna; Mankin, Alexander S.; Vázquez-Laslop, Nora

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Expression of many genes is controlled by upstream ORFs (uORFs). Typically, the progression of the ribosome through a regulatory uORF, which depends on the physiological state of the cell, influences the expression of the downstream gene. In the classic mechanism of induction of macrolide resistance genes, antibiotics promote translation arrest within the uORF; static ribosome induces a conformational change in mRNA resulting in activation of translation of the resistance cistron. We show that ketolide antibiotics, which do not induce ribosome stalling at the uORF of the ermC resistance gene, trigger its expression via a principally new mechanism. Ketolides promote frameshifting at the uORF allowing the translating ribosome to invade the intergenic spacer. The dynamic unfolding of the mRNA structure leads to activation of resistance. Conceptually similar mechanisms may control other cellular genes. The previously unknown property of ketolides to reduce the fidelity of reading frame maintenance may have medical implications. PMID:24239289

  8. Mechanoactive Scaffold Induces Tendon Remodeling and Expression of Fibrocartilage Markers

    PubMed Central

    Spalazzi, Jeffrey P.; Vyner, Moira C.; Jacobs, Matthew T.; Moffat, Kristen L.

    2008-01-01

    Biological fixation of soft tissue-based grafts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction poses a major clinical challenge. The ACL integrates with subchondral bone through a fibrocartilage enthesis, which serves to minimize stress concentrations and enables load transfer between two distinct tissue types. Functional integration thus requires the reestablishment of this fibrocartilage interface on reconstructed ACL grafts. We designed and characterized a novel mechanoactive scaffold based on a composite of poly-?-hydroxyester nanofibers and sintered microspheres; we then used the scaffold to test the hypothesis that scaffold-induced compression of tendon grafts would result in matrix remodeling and the expression of fibrocartilage interface-related markers. Histology coupled with confocal microscopy and biochemical assays were used to evaluate the effects of scaffold-induced compression on tendon matrix collagen distribution, cellularity, proteoglycan content, and gene expression over a 2-week period. Scaffold contraction resulted in over 15% compression of the patellar tendon graft and upregulated the expression of fibrocartilage-related markers such as Type II collagen, aggrecan, and transforming growth factor-?3 (TGF-?3). Additionally, proteoglycan content was higher in the compressed tendon group after 1 day. The data suggest the potential of a mechanoactive scaffold to promote the formation of an anatomic fibrocartilage enthesis on tendon-based ACL reconstruction grafts. PMID:18512112

  9. EGR-1 regulates Ho-1 expression induced by cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Huaqun; Wang, Lijuan; Gong, Tao; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Chunhua; Li, Fen; Wang, Li; Li, Chaojun; Model Animal Research Center and The School of Medicine, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210095

    2010-05-28

    As an anti-oxidant molecule, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been implicated in the protection of lung injury by cigarette smoke (CS). The mechanisms regulating its expression have not been defined. In this report, the role of early growth response 1 (EGR-1) in the regulation of Ho-1 expression was investigated. In C57BL/6 mice with CS exposure, HO-1 was greatly increased in bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar inflammatory cells. In primary cultured mouse lung fibroblasts and RAW264.7 cells exposed to cigarette smoke water extract (CSE), an increase in HO-1 protein level was detected. In addition, CSE induced HO-1 expression was decreased in Egr-1 deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (Egr-1{sup -/-} MEFs). Nuclear localization of EGR-1 was examined in mouse lung fibroblasts after exposure to CSE. Luciferase reporter activity assays showed that the enhancer region of the Ho-1 gene containing a proposed EGR-1 binding site was responsible for the induction of HO-1. A higher increase of alveolar mean linear intercept (Lm) was observed in lung tissues, and a larger increase in the number of total cells and monocytes/macrophages from bronchial alveolar lavage fluid was found in CS-exposed mice by loss of function of EGR-1 treatment. In summary, the present data demonstrate that EGR-1 plays a critical role in HO-1 production induced by CS.

  10. Costimulator B7-1 confers antigen-presenting-cell function to parenchymal tissue and in conjunction with tumor necrosis factor alpha leads to autoimmunity in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Guerder, S; Picarella, D E; Linsley, P S; Flavell, R A

    1994-01-01

    Tolerance to peripheral antigens is thought to result from the inability of parenchymal tissue to stimulate T cells--an inability that is believed to relate to the lack of expression of the costimulatory signal(s) required for T-cell activation. To test this model, we generated transgenic mice expressing costimulatory molecule B7-1 on the B cells of the pancreas. We find that islets from these transgenic mice are immunogenic for naive T cells in vitro and in vivo. Nonetheless, mice expressing the costimulator B7-1 specifically on beta cells do not develop diabetes, suggesting that expression of the B7-1 costimulator is not sufficient to abrogate the tolerance to peripheral antigens. We have reported that tumor necrosis factor alpha subunit (TNF-alpha) expressed by beta cells leads to a local inflammation but no islet destruction. Strikingly, however, the combination of a local inflammation due to the expression of the cytokine TNF-alpha and the expression of B7-1 results in tissue destruction and diabetes. Images PMID:7515187

  11. Influence of ?S-globin haplotypes and hydroxyurea on tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in sickle cell anemia

    PubMed Central

    Laurentino, Marília Rocha; Maia, Pedro Aurio; Barbosa, Maritza Cavalcante; Bandeira, Izabel Cristina Justino; Rocha, Lilianne Brito da Silva; Gonçalves, Romelia Pinheiro

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sickle cell anemia is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by an increased production of proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Hydroxyurea, by decreasing the polymerization of hemoglobin, reduces inflammatory states. The effect of the genetic polymorphisms of sickle cell patients on tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels remains unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels with ?-globin haplotypes and the use of hydroxyurea. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed of 67 patients with sickle cell anemia diagnosed at steady-state in a referral hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. A group of 26 healthy individuals was used as control. ?S-haplotype analysis was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction. The tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. Laboratory data (complete blood count and fetal hemoglobin) and information regarding the use of hydroxyurea were obtained from medical records. Statistical analysis was performed using R software with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Statistical significance was established for p-values < 0.05 for all analyses. Results: The mean age of the participants was 35.48 years. Patients with sickle cell anemia had significantly higher tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels than controls (p-values < 0.0001). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels were lower in sickle cell anemia patients who were receiving hydroxyurea treatment than those who were not (p-value = 0.1249). Sickle cell anemia patients with Bantu/n genotype had significantly higher levels than patients with the Bantu/Benin genotype (p-value = 0.0021). Conclusion: In summary, ?S-globin haplotypes, but not hydroxyurea therapy, have a role in modulating tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in sickle cell anemia adults at steady-state. Many previous studies have investigated prognosis and inflammatory states in sickle cell anemia patients, but the discovery that tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels vary according to the genetic polymorphism of the patient is a new finding. PMID:24790537

  12. The adipokine apelin-13 induces expression of prothrombotic tissue factor.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Plinio; Ziviello, Francesca; Pellegrino, Grazia; Conte, Stefano; Cimmino, Giovanni; Giaquinto, Alessandro; Pacifico, Francesco; Leonardi, Antonio; Golino, Paolo; Trimarco, Bruno

    2015-02-01

    Adipocytes are cells able to produce and secrete several active substances (adipokines) with direct effects on vascular cells. Apelin, one of the most recently identified adipokines has been studied in cardiovascular system physiology in regard to vessel vasodilation and myocardial contraction, but it has not yet completely characterised for its pathophysiological role in cardiovascular disease and especially in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Several studies have indicated that tissue factor (TF) plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of ACS by triggering the formation of intracoronary thrombi following endothelial injury. This study investigates the effects of apelin 12 and apelin 13 on TF in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) and monocytes. Cells were stimulated with increasing concentrations of apelin 12 or apelin 13 and then processed to evaluate TF-mRNA levels by real-time PCR as well as TF expression/activity by FACS analysis and pro-coagulant activity. Finally, a potential molecular pathway involved in modulating this phenomenon was investigated. We demonstrate that apelin 13 but not apelin 12 induces transcription of mRNA for TF. In addition, we show that this adipokine promotes surface expression of TF that is functionally active. Apelin 13 effects on TF appear modulated by the activation of the G-protein-transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-?B axis since G-protein inhibitors suppressed NF-?B mediated TF expression. Data of the present study, although in vitro, indicate that apelin-13, induces a procoagulant phenotype in HUVECs and monocytes by promoting TF expression. These observations support the hypothesis that this adipokine might play a relevant role as an active partaker in athero-thrombotic disease. PMID:25298206

  13. Strong Magnetic Field Induced Changes of Gene Expression in Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, A.-L.; Ferl, R. J.; Klingenberg, B.; Brooks, J. S.; Morgan, A. N.; Yowtak, J.; Meisel, M. W.

    2005-07-01

    We review our studies of the biological impact of magnetic field strengths of up to 30 T on transgenic arabidopsis plants engineered with a stress response gene consisting of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter driving the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) gene reporter. Field strengths in excess of 15 T induce expression of the Adh/GUS transgene in the roots and leaves. Microarray analyses indicate that such field strengths have a far reaching effect on the genome. Wide spread induction of stress-related genes and transcription factors, and a depression of genes associated with cell wall metabolism are prominent examples.

  14. MicroRNA (miRNA) expression is regulated by butyrate induced epigenetic modulation of gene expression in bovine cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present evidence that butyrate induced histone acetylation regulates miRNA expression. MicroRNA expression microarray profiling revealed that 35 miRNA transcripts are significantly (p <0.05) differentially expressed after cells were treated with 10 mM butyrate. Among them, 11 transcripts are dif...

  15. hTERT mediates norepinephrine-induced Slug expression and ovarian cancer aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Choi, M J; Cho, K H; Lee, S; Bae, Y J; Jeong, K J; Rha, S Y; Choi, E J; Park, J H; Kim, J M; Lee, J-S; Mills, G B; Lee, H Y

    2015-06-01

    Stress hormones have been implicated in both tumor initiation and progression. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is overexpressed in cancer cells and associated with malignant tumor progression and poor outcome. We thus sought to determine whether the stress hormone norepinephrine (NE) could induce hTERT expression and subsequently ovarian cancer progression. Unexpectedly, NE induced hTERT transcript and protein expression, and subsequently ovarian cancer cell invasion. Pharmacologic inhibition of ?2-adrenergic receptor 2 and protein kinase A, as well as silencing of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? and c-Myc expression, profoundly attenuated NE-induced hTERT expression. Strikingly, stimulation of the cells with NE or ectopic expression of hTERT induced expression of Slug, ovarian cancer cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion. Silencing of hTERT expression abrogated NE-induced ovarian cancer cell invasion, EMT and Slug expression. In addition, silencing of Slug expression significantly inhibited NE- and hTERT-induced ovarian cancer cell EMT and invasion. Moreover, continuous exposure to NE was sufficient to enhance in vivo hTERT expression and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells to the lung. Finally, we provide evidence that hTERT links Src to Slug expression in NE-induced ovarian cancer EMT and metastasis. We thus demonstrate a novel role of hTERT in stress hormone-induced ovarian cancer aggressiveness through inducing Slug, providing novel biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for ovarian cancer. PMID:25151968

  16. Snai2 Expression Enhances Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Skin Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Newkirk, Kimberly M.; Parent, Allison E.; Fossey, Stacey L.; Choi, Changsun; Chandler, Heather L.; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi J.; Kusewitt, Donna F.

    2007-01-01

    Snai2, encoded by the SNAI2 gene, has been shown to modulate epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT), the conversion of sessile epithelial cells attached to adjacent cells and to the basement membrane into dissociated and motile fibroblastic cells. EMT occurs during development, wound healing, and carcinoma progression. Using Snai2-null mice (Snai2lacZ), we evaluated the role of Snai2 in UV radiation (UVR)-induced skin carcinogenesis. In chronically UVR-exposed nontumor-bearing skin from Snai2-null mice, inflammation and epidermal proliferation were decreased compared with wild-type (+/+) skin. Snai2-null mice had a consistently lower tumor burden than +/+ mice. In addition, null mice developed fewer aggressive spindle cell tumors, believed to arise from squamous cell carcinomas that have undergone EMT, than +/+ mice; however, the difference in tumor type distribution between the two genotypes was not statistically significant. No metastases were observed in either the +/+ or Snai2-null mice. Using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, we showed that the spindle cell tumors in the Snai2-null mice demonstrated impaired EMT, as shown by decreased vimentin and increased cadherin 1 expression. This study confirms a role for Snai2 in EMT, but demonstrates that Snai2 expression is not required for the development or progression of UVR-induced skin tumors. PMID:17916597

  17. Roles of factorial noise in inducing bimodal gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peijiang; Yuan, Zhanjiang; Huang, Lifang; Zhou, Tianshou

    2015-06-01

    Some gene regulatory systems can exhibit bimodal distributions of mRNA or protein although the deterministic counterparts are monostable. This noise-induced bimodality is an interesting phenomenon and has important biological implications, but it is unclear how different sources of expression noise (each source creates so-called factorial noise that is defined as a component of the total noise) contribute separately to this stochastic bimodality. Here we consider a minimal model of gene regulation, which is monostable in the deterministic case. Although simple, this system contains factorial noise of two main kinds: promoter noise due to switching between gene states and transcriptional (or translational) noise due to synthesis and degradation of mRNA (or protein). To better trace the roles of factorial noise in inducing bimodality, we also analyze two limit models, continuous and adiabatic approximations, apart from the exact model. We show that in the case of slow gene switching, the continuous model where only promoter noise is considered can exhibit bimodality; in the case of fast switching, the adiabatic model where only transcriptional or translational noise is considered can also exhibit bimodality but the exact model cannot; and in other cases, both promoter noise and transcriptional or translational noise can cooperatively induce bimodality. Since slow gene switching and large protein copy numbers are characteristics of eukaryotic cells, whereas fast gene switching and small protein copy numbers are characteristics of prokaryotic cells, we infer that eukaryotic stochastic bimodality is induced mainly by promoter noise, whereas prokaryotic stochastic bimodality is induced primarily by transcriptional or translational noise.

  18. Bitumen fume-induced gene expression profile in rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Gate, Laurent . E-mail: laurent.gate@inrs.fr; Langlais, Cristina; Micillino, Jean-Claude; Nunge, Herve; Bottin, Marie-Claire; Wrobel, Richard; Binet, Stephane

    2006-08-15

    Exposure to bitumen fumes during paving and roofing activities may represent an occupational health risk. To date, most of the studies performed on the biological effect of asphalt fumes have been done with regard to their content in carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In order to gain an additional insight into the mechanisms of action of bitumen fumes, we studied their pulmonary effects in rodents following inhalation using the microarray technology. Fisher 344 rats were exposed for 5 days, 6 h/day to bitumen fumes generated at road paving temperature (170 {sup o}C) using a nose-only exposition device. With the intention of studying the early transcriptional events induced by asphalt fumes, lung tissues were collected immediately following exposure and gene expression profiles in control and exposed rats were determined by using oligonucleotide microarrays. Data analysis revealed that genes involved in lung inflammatory response as well as genes associated with PAH metabolization and detoxification were highly expressed in bitumen-exposed animals. In addition, the expression of genes related to elastase activity and its inhibition which are associated with emphysema was also modulated. More interestingly genes coding for monoamine oxidases A and B involved in the metabolism of neurotransmitters and xenobiotics were downregulated in exposed rats. Altogether, these data give additional information concerning the bitumen fumes biological effects and would allow to better review the health effects of occupational asphalt fumes exposure.

  19. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Stimulates the Overproduction of Intestinal Apolipoprotein B48-containing Very Low Density Lipoproproteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha(a)(TNFa), a proinflammatory cytokine, is involved in obesity-associated pathologies including type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. TNFa enhanced postprandial apoB48-VLDL1 overproduction by about 89% compared with the control after 90 min olive oil loading; TNFa did not si...

  20. Lactobacillus fermentum ZYL0401 Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Hepatic TNF-? Expression and Liver Injury via an IL-10- and PGE2-EP4-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Longxian; Yang, Jianzhuan; Lu, Haifeng; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has essential role in the pathogenesis of D-galactosamine-sensitized animal models and alcoholic liver diseases of humans, by stimulating release of pro-inflammatory mediators that cause hepatic damage and intestinal barrier impairment. Oral pretreatment of probiotics has been shown to attenuate LPS-induced hepatic injury, but it is unclear whether the effect is direct or due to improvement in the intestinal barrier. The present study tested the hypothesis that pretreatment with probiotics enables the liver to withstand directly LPS-induced hepatic injury and inflammation. In a mouse model of LPS-induced hepatic injury, the levels of hepatic tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of mice with depleted intestinal commensal bacteria were not significantly different from that of the control models. Pre-feeding mice for 10 days with Lactobacillus fermentum ZYL0401 (LF41), significantly alleviated LPS-induced hepatic TNF-? expression and liver damage. After LF41 pretreatment, mice had dramatically more L.fermentum-specific DNA in the ileum, significantly higher levels of ileal cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and interleukin 10 (IL-10) and hepatic prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). However, hepatic COX-1, COX-2, and IL-10 protein levels were not changed after the pretreatment. There were also higher hepatic IL-10 protein levels after LPS challenge in LF41-pretreaed mice than in the control mice. Attenuation of hepatic TNF-? was mediated via the PGE2/E prostanoid 4 (EP4) pathway, and serum ALT levels were attenuated in an IL-10-dependent manner. A COX-2 blockade abolished the increase in hepatic PGE2 and IL-10 associated with LF41. In LF41-pretreated mice, a blockade of IL-10 caused COX-2-dependent promotion of hepatic PGE2, without affecting hepatic COX-2levels. In LF41-pretreated mice, COX2 prevented enhancing TNF-? expression in both hepatic mononuclear cells and the ileum, and averted TNF-?-mediated increase in intestinal permeability. Together, we demonstrated that LF41 pre-feeding enabled the liver to alleviate LPS-induced hepatic TNF-? expression and injury via a PGE2-EP4- and IL-10-dependent mechanism. PMID:25978374

  1. Variation in Protein Intake Induces Variation in Spider Silk Expression

    PubMed Central

    Blamires, Sean J.; Wu, Chun-Lin; Tso, I-Min

    2012-01-01

    Background It is energetically expensive to synthesize certain amino acids. The proteins (spidroins) of spider major ampullate (MA) silk, MaSp1 and MaSp2, differ in amino acid composition. Glutamine and proline are prevalent in MaSp2 and are expensive to synthesize. Since most orb web spiders express high proline silk they might preferentially attain the amino acids needed for silk from food and shift toward expressing more MaSp1 in their MA silk when starved. Methodology/Principal Findings We fed three spiders; Argiope aetherea, Cyrtophora moluccensis and Leucauge blanda, high protein, low protein or no protein solutions. A. aetherea and L. blanda MA silks are high in proline, while C. moluccesnsis MA silks are low in proline. After 10 days of feeding we determined the amino acid compositions and mechanical properties of each species' MA silk and compared them between species and treatments with pre-treatment samples, accounting for ancestry. We found that the proline and glutamine of A. aetherea and L. blanda silks were affected by protein intake; significantly decreasing under the low and no protein intake treatments. Glutmaine composition in C. moluccensis silk was likewise affected by protein intake. However, the composition of proline in their MA silk was not significantly affected by protein intake. Conclusions Our results suggest that protein limitation induces a shift toward different silk proteins with lower glutamine and/or proline content. Contradictions to the MaSp model lie in the findings that C. moluccensis MA silks did not experience a significant reduction in proline and A. aetherea did not experience a significant reduction in serine on low/no protein. The mechanical properties of the silks could not be explained by a MaSp1 expressional shift. Factors other than MaSp expression, such as the expression of spidroin-like orthologues, may impact on silk amino acid composition and spinning and glandular processes may impact mechanics. PMID:22363691

  2. Early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) regulates pro-inflammatory gene expression in response to palmitate and TNF alpha in human placenta cells and is induced in obese placenta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal obesity has been hypothesized to induce a pro-inflammatory response in the placenta. However, the specific factors contributing to this pro-infalmmatory response are yet to be determined. Our objective was to examine the effects of palmitic acid (PA), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alph...

  3. Role for Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha in JC Virus Reactivation and Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Wollebo, Hassen S.; Safak, Mahmut; Valle, Luis Del; Khalili, Kamel; White, Martyn K.

    2010-01-01

    JCV causes the CNS demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). After primary infection, JCV persists in a latent state, where viral protein expression and replication are not detectable. NF-?B and C/EBP? regulate the JCV promoter via a control element, ?B, suggesting proinflammatory cytokines may reactivate JCV to cause PML, e.g., in HIV-1/AIDS. Since HIV-1 induces cytokines in brain, including TNF-?, we examined a role for TNF-? in JCV regulation. TNF-? stimulated both early and late JCV transcription. Further, the ?B element conferred TNF-? response to a heterologous promoter. Immunohistochemistry of HIV+/PML revealed robust labeling for TNF-? and TNFR-1. These data suggest TNF-? stimulation of ?B may contribute to JCV reactivation in HIV+/PML. PMID:21185609

  4. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Converting Enzyme: Implications for Ocular Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ramana, Kota V

    2010-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) –converting enzyme (TACE), a member of the family of metalloproteinase disintegrin proteins, is responsible for the conversion of inactive TNF-? precursor from to active mature form. TNF-? is a pleiotropic cytokine that contributes to cellular immunity and inflammatory response in wide range of inflammatory pathologies. Although a large number of studies indicate the use of TACE inhibitors, which prevents processing of TNF-? as potential therapeutic drugs for the treatment of inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease and cancer, very few studies indicate its use in ocular pathologies. It is still not clearly understood how the TACE-mediated shedding of cytokines and growth factors in various ocular tissues plays a critical role in the cytotoxic signals causing tissue dysfunction and damage leading to blindness. Regulation of TACE activity is likely to have wide implications for ocular immunology and inflammatory diseases. Specifically, since anti-TNF-? therapies have been used to prevent ocular inflammatory complications, the use of TACE inhibitors could be a novel therapeutic approach for ocular inflammatory diseases especially uveitis. PMID:20303413

  5. No Association between Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Gene Polymorphisms and Lung Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hee

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The role of genetic polymorphisms of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) for lung cancer development was evaluated. Methods Genotypes of the TNF-? polymorphisms, -1210C>T, -487A>G, -417A>G, IVS1+123G>A, and IVS3+51A>G, were determined in 616 lung cancer cases and 616 lung cancer-free controls. Results After adjusting for body mass index and smoking, each TNF-? genotype or haplotype composed of five TNF-? single nucleotide polymorphisms did not show an association with lung cancer risk (p>0.05). The statistical power was found to be 88.4%, 89.3%, 93.3%, 69.7%, and 93.9% for 1210C>T, -487A>G, -417A>G, IVS1+123G>A, and IVS3+51A>G, respectively. Furthermore, the effects of each SNP or haplotype on lung cancer risk were not found to be different according to the cell type of lung cancer (p>0.05). In the repeated analysis with only subjects without other diseases related to inflammation, there was also no association between polymorphisms or haplotypes of the TNF-? gene and lung cancer risk (p>0.05). Conclusions This study found no association between common variants of the TNF-? gene and lung cancer risk. PMID:24303348

  6. Tumour necrosis factor alpha contributes to protection against Giardia lamblia infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, P; Li, E; Shea-Donohue, T; Singer, S M

    2007-07-01

    Giardia lamblia is a ubiquitous parasite that causes diarrhoea. Effective control of Giardia infections in mice has been shown to involve IgA, T cells, mast cells and IL-6. We now show that Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) also plays an important role in the early control of giardiasis. Mice treated with neutralizing anti-TNFalpha antibodies or genetically deficient in TNFalpha were infected with the G. lamblia clone GS/(M)-H7. In both cases, mice lacking TNFalpha had much higher parasite numbers than controls during the first 2 weeks of infections. However, anti-parasite IgA levels, mast cell responses, and IL-4 and IL-6 mRNA levels do not appear significantly altered in the absence of TNFalpha. In addition, we show that mice infected with G. lamblia exhibit increased intestinal permeability, similar to human Giardia infection, and that this increase occurs in both wild-type and TNFalpha deficient mice. We conclude that TNFalpha is essential for host resistance to G. lamblia infection, and that it does not exert its effects through mechanisms previously implicated in control of this parasite. PMID:17576366

  7. Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha values in elk neonates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber-Meyer, S. M.; Johnson, C.R.; Murtaugh, M.P.; Mech, L.D.; White, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Serological indicators of general condition would be helpful for monitoring or assessing ungulate wildlife. Toward that end, we report the 1st reference values for 2 cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-??), in neonatal elk (Cervus elaphus). We obtained blood samples from 140 calves ??? 6 days old in Yellowstone National Park during summer 2003-2005. TL-6 values ranged from 0 to 1.21 pg/ml with a median of 0.03 pg/ml. TNF-?? values ranged from 0 to 225.43 pg/ml with a median of 1.85 pg/ml. IL-6 and TNF-?? concentrations were not significant predictors of elk calf survival through 21 days. Development of ungulate-based IL-6 and TNF-?? assays that provide greater sensitivity than cross-reacting human-based assays could be helpful in monitoring ungulate condition and health status comparisons among herds. Such information could provide indirect assessments of range quality or environmental influences among herds. ?? 2007 American Society of Mammalogists.

  8. Transforming growth factor-alpha: Characterization of the BamHl, Rsal, and Taql polymorphic regions

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, J.F.; May, E. ); Feingold, J. ); Stoll, C. )

    1993-07-01

    The authors have characterized the nature of structural alleles of the transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF[alpha]) locus by restriction-enzyme digestion with BamHI, RsaI, and TaqI. The BamHl polymorphic site is located within exon Vi, which codes for the 3' untranslated region. The two BamHI alleles differ by a single point mutation at the restriction site. The RsaI and TaqI polymorphic sites are located within intron V. The two alleles differ at the restriction site, either by a point mutation (RsaI) or by a 4-bp deletion (TaqI). This analysis permits the authors to devise a PCR method coupled with restriction digestions to directly identify the TGF[alpha] polymorphisms. Analysis of 99 Caucasian controls has revealed a highly significant (P < .001) association between the RsaI and the BamHI genotype. The frequency of the rare BamHI allele was significantly higher (P < .001) in transformed cell lines (.30) than in controls (.076). 28 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Familial aggregation of high tumor necrosis factor alpha levels in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Mangale, Dorothy; Kariuki, Silvia N; Chrabot, Beverly S; Kumabe, Marissa; Kelly, Jennifer A; Harley, John B; James, Judith A; Sivils, Kathy L; Niewold, Timothy B

    2013-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients frequently have high circulating tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) levels. We explored circulating TNF-? levels in SLE families to determine whether high levels of TNF-? were clustered in a heritable pattern. We measured TNF-? in 242 SLE patients, 361 unaffected family members, 23 unaffected spouses of SLE patients, and 62 unrelated healthy controls. Familial correlations and relative recurrence risk rates for the high TNF-? trait were assessed. SLE-affected individuals had the highest TNF-? levels, and TNF-? was significantly higher in unaffected first degree relatives than healthy unrelated subjects (P = 0.0025). No Mendelian patterns were observed, but 28.4% of unaffected first degree relatives of SLE patients had high TNF-? levels, resulting in a first degree relative recurrence risk of 4.48 (P = 2.9 × 10??). Interestingly, the median TNF-? value in spouses was similar to that of the first degree relatives. Concordance of the TNF-? trait (high versus low) in SLE patients and their spouses was strikingly high at 78.2%. These data support a role for TNF-? in SLE pathogenesis, and TNF-? levels may relate with heritable factors. The high degree of concordance in SLE patients and their spouses suggests that environmental factors may also play a role in the observed familial aggregation. PMID:24187561

  10. Bone morphogenetic protein-6 induces the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Seok J; Lee, Geun T; Lee, Jae-Ho; Kim, Wun J; Kim, Isaac Y

    2009-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) superfamily. In the present study, we investigated the effect of BMPs on the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, and in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Among the BMPs, only BMP-6 induced iNOS expression in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner in both cell types. Induction of iNOS was inhibited by both cycloheximide and actinomycin D, indicating that the induction of iNOS expression by BMP-6 requires new protein synthesis. Mechanistic studies revealed that the BMP-6-induced iNOS expression requires both Smads and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) signalling pathways. Furthermore, induction of interleukin-1? (IL-1?) was necessary for iNOS induction by BMP-6. These observations suggest that BMP-6 stimulates macrophages to produce iNOS through IL-1? via Smad and NF-?B signalling pathways and that BMP-6 may be an important regulator of macrophages. PMID:19740337

  11. A novel inducible expression system for the functional study of toxic gene in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jihua; Jia, Rong

    2014-05-01

    The cloning and expression of toxic proteins in bacteria have posed a great challenge because of the leaky expression in inducible expression systems. Using artificial gene synthesis and clone screening methods, we identified a mutant T5 promoter, which significantly reduced leaky expression of lac operator. The mutant T5 promoter contains two T deletions at -35 region and may reduce promoter activity. A bacterial lethal gene, ?174 lytic gene E, was successfully cloned in this system and expressed in the presence of isopropyl ?-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside. The system is compatible with existing T5 inducible expression systems and can be used for the controlled expression of toxic proteins. PMID:24326910

  12. PACAP Modulates Expression of Hypoxia-Inducible Factors in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat Retina.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Agata Grazia; Maugeri, Grazia; Reitano, Rita; Bucolo, Claudio; Saccone, Salvatore; Drago, Filippo; D'Agata, Velia

    2015-12-01

    Retinal hypoxia has been related to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. This event is mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), including HIF-1?, HIF-2?, and HIF-3?. Previously, we have demonstrated the protective role of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) in the early phase of diabetic retinopathy. In the present work, we investigated whether PACAP effect in hyperglycemic retina is mediated through modulation of HIFs' expression. Diabetes was induced with a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ) in rats. After 1 week, a group of diabetic animals was treated with a single intravitreal injection of 100 ?M PACAP or saline solution. Then, changes in HIFs' expression levels were evaluated in the retina after 3 weeks of hyperglycemia. The expression of HIF-1? and HIF-2? was significantly (p?expression levels were significantly (p?expression of HIF-3? was significantly (p?expression. PMID:26202258

  13. Placental ischemia induces changes in gene expression in chorionic tissue.

    PubMed

    George, Eric M; Garrett, Michael R; Granger, Joey P

    2014-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a serious and common hypertensive complication of pregnancy, affecting ~5 to 8 % of pregnancies. The underlying cause of preeclampsia is believed to be placental ischemia, which causes secretion of pathogenic factors into the maternal circulation. While a number of these factors have been identified, it is likely that others remain to be elucidated. Here, we have utilized a relevant preclinical rodent model of placental ischemia-induced hypertension, the reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) model, to determine the effect of chronic placental ischemia on the underlying chorionic tissue and placental villi. Tissue from control and RUPP rats were isolated on gestational day 19 and mRNA from these tissues was subjected to microarray analysis to determine differential gene expression. At a statistical cutoff of p < 0.05, some 2,557 genes were differentially regulated between the two groups. Interestingly, only a small subset (22) of these genes exhibited changes of greater than 50 % versus control, a large proportion of which were subsequently confirmed using qRT-PCR analysis. Network analysis indicated a strong effect on inflammatory pathways, including those involving NF-?B and inflammatory cytokines. Of the most differentially expressed genes, the predominant gene classes were extracellular remodeling proteins, pro-inflammatory proteins, and a coordinated upregulation of the prolactin genes. The functional implications of these novel factors are discussed. PMID:24668059

  14. Bortezomib induces heme oxygenase-1 expression in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Lawrence N; Rushworth, Stuart A; Bowles, Kristian M; MacEwan, David J

    2012-06-15

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a progressive malignant disorder characterized by accumulation of plasma cells in the bone marrow. MM remains an incurable disease with a 5-y survival rate of approximately 40%. While clinical response rates to first line chemotherapeutics are high, disease relapse is inevitable, and occurs because a small fraction of the original myeloma cells appear to be resistant to treatment. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an Nrf2 transcription factor-regulated gene that is commonly induced following oxidative stress and cellular injury, functioning to decrease oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, protecting against apoptosis and altering the cell cycle. We and others have highlighted the role of HO-1 in providing cellular protection against chemotherapeutic drugs in a number of cancer cells, which we have highlighted here in this Extra View. Furthermore, we explored the expression of HO-1 in multiple myeloma cells in response to the key anti-myeloma drugs bortezomib and lenalidomide. We show here for the first time that bortezomib increases HO-1 expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, we also observe that HO-1 is increased in lenalidomide-resistant MM cell lines. Altogether, we highlight a possible role for HO-1 in basal and acquired chemoresistance in MM. PMID:22617388

  15. Glomerulonephritis-induced changes in kidney gene expression in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pavkovic, Mira; Riefke, Björn; Frisk, Anna-Lena; Gröticke, Ina; Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, Heidrun

    2015-01-01

    We investigated a glomerulonephritis (GN) model in rats induced by nephrotoxic serum (NTS) which contains antibodies against the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). The anti-GBM GN model in rats is widely used since its biochemical and histopathological characteristics are similar to crescentic nephritis and Goodpasture's disease in humans (Pusey, 2003[2]). Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were dosed once with 1, 2.5 and 5 ml/kg nephrotoxic serum (NTS) or 1.5 and 5 ml/kg NTS, respectively. GN and tubular damage were observed histopathologically in all treated rats after 14 days. To obtain insight into molecular processes during GN pathogenesis, mRNA expression was investigated in WKY and SD kidneys using Affymetrix's GeneChip Rat genome 230_2.0 arrays (GSE64265). The immunopathological processes during GN are still not fully understood and likely involve both innate and adaptive immunity. In the present study, several hundred mRNAs were found deregulated, which functionally were mostly associated with inflammation and regeneration. The ?-chain of the major histocompatibility complex class II RT1.B (Rt1-Bb) and complement component 6 (C6) were identified as two mRNAs differentially expressed between WKY and SD rat strains which could be related to known different susceptibilities to NTS of different rat strains; both were increased in WKY and decreased in SD rats (Pavkovic et al., 2015 [1]). Increased Rt1-Bb expression in WKY rats could indicate a stronger and more persistent cellular reaction of the adaptive immune system in this strain, in line with findings indicating adaptive immune reactions during GN. The complement cascade is also known to be essential for GN development, especially terminal cascade products like C6.

  16. Epimorphin expression in intestinal myofibroblasts induces epithelial morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fritsch, Christine; Swietlicki, Elzbieta A.; Lefebvre, Olivier; Kedinger, Michele; Iordanov, Hristo; Levin, Marc S.; Rubin, Deborah C.

    2002-01-01

    The formation of the crypt-villus axis during gut ontogeny requires continued reciprocal interactions between the endoderm and mesenchyme. Epimorphin/syntaxin 2 (epimorphin) is a mesenchymal protein expressed in the fetal gastrointestinal tract during villus morphogenesis. To elucidate its role in gut ontogeny, the epimorphin cDNA was transfected, in sense and antisense orientations, into a rat intestinal myofibroblast cell line, MIC 216. To determine the effects of epimorphin on the epithelium, myofibroblasts were cocultured with the Caco2 cell line. Caco2 cells spread in a simple monolayer over antisense-transfected cells lacking epimorphin. In contrast, sense-transfected myofibroblasts induced Caco2 cells to form compact, round clusters with small lumens. These morphologic differences were preserved in Transwell cocultures in which cell-cell contact was prevented, suggesting that epimorphin’s effects were mediated by secreted factor(s). To determine the effects of epimorphin on crypt-villus axis formation in an in vivo model, rat gut endoderm was combined with epimorphin-transfected myofibroblasts and implanted into the chick intracoelomic cavity. The grafts in which epimorphin was overexpressed revealed multiple well-formed villi with crypt-like units, whereas those in which epimorphin expression was inhibited developed into round cystic structures without crypts or villi. Of several potential secreted morphogens, only the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) was increased in the epimorphin-transfected cells. Incubation with noggin partially blocked the transfected myofibroblasts’ effects on Caco2 colony morphology. These results indicate that mesenchymal epimorphin has profound effects on crypt-villus morphogenesis, mediated in part by secreted factor(s) including the Bmp’s. PMID:12464668

  17. Gene expression and regulation in H2O2-induced premature senescence of human foreskin fibroblasts expressing or not telomerase

    E-print Network

    de Magalhães, João Pedro

    Gene expression and regulation in H2O2-induced premature senescence of human foreskin fibroblasts peroxide (H2O2)-induced SIPS modulated gene expression in both BJ and hTERT-BJ1 cells. Increased p21WAF-1 m displayed a higher DNA-binding activity of p53 and HIF-1 72 h after H2O2 exposure. Our results indicate

  18. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Potentiates the Cytotoxicity of Amiodarone in Hepa1c1c7 Cells: Roles of Caspase Activation and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ganey, Patricia E.

    2013-01-01

    Amiodarone (AMD), a class III antiarrhythmic drug, causes idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity in human patients. We demonstrated previously that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) plays an important role in a rat model of AMD-induced hepatotoxicity under inflammatory stress. In this study, we developed a model in vitro to study the roles of caspase activation and oxidative stress in TNF potentiation of AMD cytotoxicity. AMD caused cell death in Hepa1c1c7 cells, and TNF cotreatment potentiated its toxicity. Activation of caspases 9 and 3/7 was observed in AMD/TNF-cotreated cells, and caspase inhibitors provided minor protection from cytotoxicity. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid peroxidation were observed after treatment with AMD and were further elevated by TNF cotreatment. Adding water-soluble antioxidants (trolox, N-acetylcysteine, glutathione, or ascorbate) produced only minor attenuation of AMD/TNF-induced cytotoxicity and did not influence the effect of AMD alone. On the other hand, ?-tocopherol (TOCO), which reduced lipid peroxidation and ROS generation, prevented AMD toxicity and caused pronounced reduction in cytotoxicity from AMD/TNF cotreatment. ?-TOCO plus a pancaspase inhibitor completely abolished AMD/TNF-induced cytotoxicity. In summary, activation of caspases and oxidative stress were observed after AMD/TNF cotreatment, and caspase inhibitors and a lipid-soluble free-radical scavenger attenuated AMD/TNF-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:23042730

  19. Imaging Pulmonary Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression with PET

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Howard J.; Isakow, Warren; Byers, Derek E.; Engle, Jacquelyn T.; Griffin, Elizabeth A.; Kemp, Debra; Brody, Steven L.; Gropler, Robert J.; Miller, J. Philip; Chu, Wenhua; Zhou, Dong; Pierce, Richard A.; Castro, Mario; Mach, Robert H.; Chen, Delphine L.

    2015-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity increases in acute and chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Imaging iNOS expression may be useful as an inflammation biomarker for monitoring lung disease activity. We developed a novel tracer for PET that binds to iNOS in vivo, 18F-NOS. In this study, we tested whether 18F-NOS could quantify iNOS expression from endotoxin-induced lung inflammation in healthy volunteers. Methods Healthy volunteers were screened to exclude cardiopulmonary disease. Qualifying volunteers underwent a baseline, 1-h dynamic 18F-NOS PET/CT scan. Endotoxin (4 ng/kg) was then instilled bronchoscopically in the right middle lobe. 18F-NOS imaging was performed again approximately 16 h after endotoxin instillation. Radiolabeled metabolites were determined from blood samples. Cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) after imaging were stained immunohistochemically for iNOS. 18F-NOS uptake was quantified as the distribution volume ratio (DVR) determined by Logan plot graphical analysis in volumes of interest placed over the area of endotoxin instillation and in an equivalent lung region on the left. The mean Hounsfield units (HUs) were also computed using the same volumes of interest to measure density changes. Results Seven healthy volunteers with normal pulmonary function completed the study with evaluable data. The DVR increased by approximately 30%, from a baseline mean of 0.42 ± 0.07 to 0.54 ± 0.12, and the mean HUs by 11% after endotoxin in 6 volunteers who had positive iNOS staining in BAL cells. The DVR did not change in the left lung after endotoxin. In 1 volunteer with low-level iNOS staining in BAL cells, the mean HUs increased by 7% without an increase in DVR. Metabolism was rapid, with approximately 50% of the parent compound at 5 min and 17% at 60 min after injection. Conclusion 18F-NOS can be used to image iNOS activity in acute lung inflammation in humans and may be a useful PET tracer for imaging iNOS expression in inflammatory lung disease. PMID:25525182

  20. Verproside inhibits TNF-?-induced MUC5AC expression through suppression of the TNF-?/NF-?B pathway in human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su Ui; Sung, Min Hee; Ryu, Hyung Won; Lee, Jinhyuk; Kim, Hui-Seong; In, Hyun Ju; Ahn, Kyung-Seop; Lee, Hyun-Jun; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Shin, Dae-Hee; Lee, Yongnam; Hong, Sung-Tae; Oh, Sei-Ryang

    2016-01-01

    Airway mucus secretion is an essential innate immune response for host protection. However, overproduction and hypersecretion of mucus, mainly composed of MUC5AC, are significant risk factors in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Previously, we reported that verproside, a catalpol derivative iridoid glycoside isolated from Pseudolysimachion rotundum var. subintegrum, is a potent anti-asthmatic candidate drug in vivo. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pharmacological actions of verproside remain unknown. Here, we found that verproside significantly reduces the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?)-induced MUC5AC mRNA and protein by inhibiting both nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) transcriptional activity and the phosphorylation of its upstream effectors such as I?B kinase (IKK)?, I?B?, and TGF-?-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) in NCI-H292 cells. Moreover, verproside attenuated TNF-?-induced MUC5AC transcription more effectively when combined with an IKK (BAY11-7082) or a TAK1 (5z-7-oxozeaenol) inhibitor than when administered alone. Importantly, we demonstrated that verproside negatively modulates the formation of the TNF-?-receptor (TNFR) 1 signaling complex [TNF-RSC; TNFR1-recruited TNFR1-associated death domain protein (TRADD), TNFR-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1), and TAK1], the most upstream signaling factor of NF-?B signaling. In silico molecular docking studies show that verproside binds between TRADD and TRAF2 subunits. Altogether, these results suggest that verproside could be a good therapeutic candidate for treatment of inflammatory airway diseases such as asthma and COPD by blocking the TNF-?/NF-?B signaling pathway. PMID:26318254

  1. Orofacial clefts, parental cigarette smoking, and transforming growth factor-alpha gene variants

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, G.M.; Wasserman, C.R.; O`Malley, C.D.

    1996-03-01

    Results of studies determine whether women who smoke during early pregnancy are at increased risk of delivering infants with orofacial clefts have been mixed, and recently a gene-environment interaction between maternal smoking, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFa), and clefting has been reported. Using a large population-based case-control study, we investigated whether parental periconceptional cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk for having offspring with orofacial clefts. We also investigated the influence of genetic variation of the TGFa locus on the relation between smoking and clefting. Parental smoking information was obtained from telephone interviews with mothers of 731 (84.7% of eligible) orofacial cleft case infants and with mothers of 734 (78.2%) nonmalformed control infants. DNA was obtained from newborn screening blood spots and genotyped for the allelic variants of TGFa. We found that risks associated with maternal smoking were most elevated for isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate, (odds ratio 2.1 [95% confidence interval 1.3-3.6]) and for isolated cleft palate (odds ratio 2.2 [1.1-4.5]) when mothers smoked {ge} 20 cigarrettes/d. These risks for white infants ranged from 3-fold to 11-fold across phenotypic groups. Paternal smoking was not associated with clefting among the offspring of nonsmoking mothers, and passive smoke exposures were associated with at most slightly increased risks. This study offers evidence that the risk for orofacial clefting in infants may be influenced by maternal smoke exposures alone as well as in combination (gene-environment interaction) with the presence of the uncommon TGFa allele. 56 refs., 5 tabs.

  2. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha release during systemic reaction in cold urticaria.

    PubMed

    Tillie-Leblond, I; Gosset, P; Janin, A; Dalenne, R; Joseph, M; Wallaert, B; Tonnel, A B

    1994-02-01

    Primary cold urticaria (PCU) characterized by the association of urticaria, angioedema, and sometimes a shock-like reaction after cold exposure, is usually considered to be linked with histamine and prostaglandin D2 release by mast cells. To determine the involvement of cytokines, we studied the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the blood of the efferent vein after immersion of the hand in chilled water. Five patients with PCU were compared with a control population (three patients with nonphysical urticaria and three healthy subjects). Among patients with PCU who underwent the cold immersion test, two exhibited a shock-like reaction with a large urticarial plaque (patients 1 and 2), one had only a mild cutaneous reaction, and two had no reaction. Patient 1 was reevaluated after 6 months of treatment with H1 and H2 antihistamines: he did not respond to this challenge. All controls were strictly negative. Histamine was released within the first minute after the challenge in the three patients with PCU, but at a higher level for the two patients who had a systemic reaction. TNF-alpha was undetectable in the blood of the patient with only a mild cutaneous reaction, whereas TNF-alpha release was observed for the two patients with a systemic reaction, 2 and 6 minutes after the end of the cold immersion test. The two other patients and the control subjects released neither histamine nor TNF-alpha. In parallel, pathologic and immunohistochemical (with a rabbit anti-TNF-alpha antibody) studies were performed on skin biopsy specimens collected 10 minutes after ice-cube test.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7509821

  3. Estimation of salivary tumor necrosis factor-alpha in chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Sheeja S.; Thomas, Hima; Jayakumar, N. D.; Sankari, M.; Lakshmanan, Reema

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Periodontitis is a chronic bacterial infection characterized by persistent inflammation, connective tissue breakdown and alveolar bone destruction mediated by pro-inflammatory mediators. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) is an important pro-inflammatory mediator that produced causes destruction of periodontal tissues. Objective: The aim of the study is to estimate the salivary TNF-? in chronic and aggressive periodontitis and control participants and further correlate the levels with clinical parameter such as gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment loss. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 75 subjects age ranging from 25 to 55 years attending the outpatient section of Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital. The study groups included Groups 1, 2, and 3 with participants with healthy periodontium (n = 25), generalized chronic periodontitis (n = 25) and generalized aggressive periodontitis (n = 25), respectively. Salivary samples from the participants were used to assess the TNF-? levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: GI and PI were found to be significantly higher in chronic and aggressive periodontitis compared to the controls. The mean TNF-? value in chronic periodontitis patients (12.92 ± 17.21 pg/ml) was significantly higher than in control subjects (2.15 ± 3.60 pg/ml). Whereas, in aggressive periodontitis patients the mean TNF-? (7.23 ± 7.67) were not significantly different from chronic periodontitis or healthy subjects. Among periodontitis participants, aggressive periodontitis subjects exhibited a significant positive correlation between the salivary TNF-? and PPD. Conclusion: Salivary TNF-? levels are significantly higher in chronic periodontitis than in healthy subjects, but there was no significant correlation with the clinical parameters. PMID:26604566

  4. Gemcitabine-induced CXCL8 expression counteracts its actions by inducing tumor neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Song, Yao; Baba, Tomohisa; Li, Ying-Yi; Furukawa, Kaoru; Tanabe, Yamato; Matsugo, Seiichi; Sasaki, Soichiro; Mukaida, Naofumi

    2015-03-01

    Patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are frequently complicated with metastatic disease or locally advanced tumors, and consequently need chemotherapy. Gemcitabine is commonly used for PDAC treatment, but with limited efficacy. The capacity of gemcitabine to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human pancreatic cancer cells, prompted us to examine its effects on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We observed that gemcitabine enhanced selectively the expression of CXCL8 in human pancreatic cancer cells through ROS generation and NF-?B activation. In vitro blocking of CXCL8 failed to modulate gemcitabine-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation in human pancreatic cancer cells. Gemcitabine also enhanced CXCL8 expression in pancreatic cancer cells in xenografted tumor tissues. Moreover, anti-CXCL8 antibody treatment in vivo attenuated tumor formation as well as intra-tumoral vascularity in nude mice, which were transplanted with Miapaca-2 cells and treated with gemcitabine. Thus, gemcitabine-induced CXCL8 may counteract the drug through inducing neovascularization. PMID:25646691

  5. Cell-cell adhesion mediated by binding of membrane-anchored transforming growth factor. alpha. to epidermal growth factor receptors promotes cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Anklesaria, P.; Greenberger, J.S. ); Teixido, J.; Laiho, M.; Massague, J. ); Pierce, J.H. )

    1990-05-01

    The precursor for transforming growth factor {alpha}, pro-TGF-{alpha}, is a cell surface glycoprotein that can establish contact with epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors on adjacent cells. To examine whether the pro-TGF-{alpha}/EGF receptor pair can simultaneously mediate cell adhesion and promote cell proliferation, the authors have expressed pro-TGF-{alpha} in a bone marrow stromal cell line labeled with ({sup 35}S) cysteine. Expression of pro-TGF-{alpha} allows these cells to support long-term attachment of an EGF/interleukin-3-dependent hematopoietic progenitor cell line that expresses EGF receptors but is unable to adhere to normal stroma. This interaction is inhibited by soluble EGF receptor ligands. Further, the hematopoietic progenitor cells replicate their DNA while they are attached to the stromal cell layer and become foci of sustained cell proliferation. Thus, pro-TGF-{alpha} and the EGF receptor can function as mediators of intercellular adhesion and this interaction may promote a mitogenic response. They propose the term juxtacrine to designate this form of stimulation between adjacent cells.

  6. Dietary Blue Pigments Derived from Genipin, Attenuate Inflammation by Inhibiting LPS-Induced iNOS and COX-2 Expression via the NF-?B Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang-Song; Xiang, Yaozu; Cui, Yuan-Lu; Lin, Ke-Ming; Zhang, Xin-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose The edible blue pigments produced by gardenia fruits have been used as value-added colorants for foods in East Asia for 20 years. However, the biological activity of the blue pigments derived from genipin has not been reported. Methodology/Principal Findings The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments was studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage in vitro. The secretions of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were inhibited in concentration-dependent manner by blue pigments. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (Real-time RT-PCR) analyses demonstrated that the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) was inhibited, moreover, ELISA results showed that the productions of IL-6 and TNF-? were inhibited. Cell-based ELISA revealed the COX-2 protein expression was inhibited. The proteome profiler array showed that 12 cytokines and chemokines involved in the inflammatory process were down-regulated by blue pigments. Blue pigments inhibited the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-?B) activation induced by LPS, and this was associated with decreasing the DNA-binding activity of p65 and p50. Furthermore, blue pigments suppressed the degradation of inhibitor of ?B (I?B) ?, Inhibitor of NF-?B Kinase (IKK) ?, IKK-?, and phosphorylation of I?B-?. The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments in vivo was studied in carrageenan-induced paw edema and LPS-injecting ICR mice. Finally, blue pigments significantly inhibited paw swelling and reduced plasma TNF-? and IL-6 production in vivo. Conclusions and Implications These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of blue pigments might be the results from the inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1?, and TNF-? expression through the down-regulation of NF-?B activation, which will provide strong scientific evidence for the edible blue pigments to be developed as a new health-enhancing nutritional food for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:22479539

  7. Murine Hepatic miRNAs Expression and Regulation of Gene Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Ho; Ahn, Jiyun; Kim, Suna; Kwon, Dae Young; Ha, Tae Youl

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs are short, non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression primarily by translational repression or by messenger RNA degradation. MicroRNAs play crucial roles in various biological processes. However, little is known regarding their role in obesity. We investigated differences of microRNA (miRNA) expression in liver tissue from diet-induced obese mice and potential effects of them on gene and protein expression. We used a miRNA microarray and quantitative RT-PCR to determine miRNA expression in murine liver tissue. Gene and protein expression were determined by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Effects of miRNA by knock-down using RNAi or overexpression on putative target genes and/or proteins in a murine hepatic cell line were also investigated. MicroRNA array and qRT-PCR analsysis revealed that > 50 miRNAs were down- or upregulated more than 2-fold in the liver of diet-induced obese mice. While changes in expression of many genes were observed at the mRNA level, some were only altered at the protein level. Overexpression or knock-down of miR-107 in murine hepatic cells revealed that the expression of its putative target, fatty acid synthase, was dramatically decreased or increased, respectively. In conclusion, more than 50 hepatic miRNAs were dysregulated in diet-induced obese mice. Some of them regulate protein expression at translation level and others regulate mRNA expression at transcriptional level. MiR-107 is downregulated while FASN, a putative target of miR-107, was increased in diet-induced obese mice. These findings provide the evidence of the correlation of miRNAs and their targets in diet-induced obese mice. PMID:21120623

  8. Interferon-induced modulation of human ras oncogene expression.

    PubMed

    Samid, D; Schaff, Z; Chang, E H; Friedman, R M

    1985-01-01

    Treatment of NIH 3T3 cells with interferon (IFN) after transfection with human bladder carcinoma EJ/T24 c-Ha-ras1 oncogene DNA caused inhibition of ras-induced cell transformation. Furthermore, the effect of IFN on oncogene expression in an established tumor line was studied. A tumor line of NIH 3T3 (RS485) was transformed by human c-Ha-ras1 activated by a viral long terminal repeat. Treatment of the tumor cells with IFN was associated with a progressive appearance of reverted, flat colonies which exhibited a normal phenotype with respect to morphology and growth. The revertants were well spread, contact inhibited cells; they did not grow in soft agar and were not tumorigenic in nude mice. Revertants retained their normal phenotype, although they contained transfecting human c-Ha-ras1 DNA; but, they produced significantly decreased levels of the onc-encoded protein p21 and c-Ha-ras1 mRNA as compared to RS485 cells. PMID:2417251

  9. Circulating human peripheral blood granulocytes synthesize and secrete tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Dubravec, D B; Spriggs, D R; Mannick, J A; Rodrick, M L

    1990-01-01

    Circulating peripheral blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) have long been considered terminally differentiated cells that do not synthesize or secrete protein. However, work of others and ourselves has shown that PMNs can secrete the cytokine interleukin 1. In the present study we investigated whether circulating PMNs are capable of synthesizing and secreting another cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Highly purified (greater than 99% granulocytes) PMNs were isolated from normal human volunteer blood and cultured with or without bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for up to 24 hr. Cell culture supernatants were collected and tested for TNF-alpha, and total RNA was isolated from cells at various times after stimulation and assessed for TNF-alpha mRNA by Northern blot techniques. The results showed that message for TNF-alpha was produced after 60 min of in vitro stimulation with LPS and was maximal at about 4 hr. TNF-alpha was secreted into the supernatant of unstimulated PMNs from two different donors during 24 hr of culture (35-50 pg/ml), but significantly more (160-190 pg/ml) was secreted by PMNs when stimulated with LPS. PMNs from six other normal volunteers showed significant LPS-stimulated secretion of TNF at 60-180 min of culture. The secreted product also had biological activity against the TNF-sensitive L-M cell line, confirming that PMNs can make and secrete immunologically and biologically active TNF. Since it is also possible for monocytes to synthesize and secrete TNF, the amount of TNF secreted by a monocyte population equal to 20% of the PMNs cultured was measured. The results showed that monocytes at a concentration 20 times that potentially contaminating the PMN populations cultured could not produce as much TNF (unstimulated, 26-65 pg/ml; stimulated, 32-87 pg/ml). The PMN must now be considered a cell capable of altering the acute inflammatory response and modulating the immune response through the synthesis and release of cytokines. Images PMID:1697688

  10. Association between hepatocellular carcinoma and tumor necrosis factor alpha polymorphisms in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Suk Pyo; Kim, Nam Keun; Kim, Ju Hwan; Lee, Ju Ho; Kim, Jung Oh; Cho, Sung Hwan; Park, Hana; Kim, Mi Na; Rim, Kyu Sung; Hwang, Seong Gyu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate associations between the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) -1031 T>C, -863 C>A, -857 C>T, -308 G>A, and -238 G>A polymorphisms and HCC in Korea. METHODS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases were diagnosed at CHA Bundang Medical Center from June 1996 to August 2008. The association between TNF-? polymorphisms and HCC was analyzed in 157 HCC patients and 201 controls using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. We investigated five TNF-? polymorphisms, which are TNF-? -1031 T>C, -863 C>A, -857 C>T, -308 G>A, and -238 G>A. The TNF-? genotype frequencies, genotype combinations and haplotypes were analyzed to disclose the association with HCC. RESULTS: None of the TNF-? polymorphisms was significantly associated with HCC. However, nine genotype combinations had associations with increased likelihood of HCC. Among them, TNF-? -1031/-857/-238 TT/CC/GA (AOR = 18.849, 95%CI: 2.203-161.246, P = 0.007), TNF-? -1031/-308/-238 TT/GG/GA (AOR = 26.956, 95%CI: 3.071-236.584, P = 0.003), and TNF-? -1031/-238 TT/GA (AOR = 21.576, 95%CI: 2.581-180.394, P = 0.005) showed marked association with HCC. There were five haplotypes of TNF-? polymorphisms which were significantly associated with HCC. They are TNF-? -1031/-863/-857/-308/-238 T-C-C-G-A (OR = 25.824, 95%CI: 1.491-447.223, P = 0.0005), TNF-? -1031/-857/-308/-238 T-C-G-A (OR = 12.059, 95%CI: 2.747-52.950, P < 0.0001), TNF-? -1031/-857/-238 T-C-A (OR = 10.696, 95%CI: 2.428-47.110, P = 0.0001), TNF-? -1031/-308/-238 T-G-A (OR = 7.556, 95%CI: 2.173-26.280, P = 0.0002) and TNF-? -1031/-238 T-A (OR = 10.865, 95%CI: 2.473-47.740, P = 0.0001). Moreover, HCC Okuda stage III cases with the TNF-? -1031 CC genotype had better survival than those with the TT genotype (AOR = 5.795, 95%CI: 1.145-29.323). CONCLUSION: Although no single TNF-? polymorphism is associated with HCC in this study, some TNF-? genotype combinations and haplotypes are associated with HCC. In addition, HCC Okuda stage III cases with the TNF-? -1031 TT genotype may have a better prognosis than those with the CC genotype. PMID:26672513

  11. Orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 mediates fasting-induced hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 expression.

    PubMed

    Min, Ae-Kyung; Bae, Kwi-Hyun; Jung, Yun-A; Choi, Yeon-Kyung; Kim, Mi-Jin; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Jeon, Jae-Han; Kim, Jung-Guk; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Keun-Gyu

    2014-08-01

    The fasting-induced hepatic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), is a potential candidate for the treatment of metabolic syndromes. Although peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)? is known to play a major role in the induction of hepatic FGF21 expression, other fasting-induced transcription factors that induce FGF21 expression have not yet been fully studied. In the present study, we investigated whether the fasting-induced activation of the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 increases hepatic FGF21 expression. We found that fasting induced hepatic Nur77 and FGF21 expression. Glucagon and forskolin increased Nur77 and FGF21 expression in vivo and in vitro, respectively, and adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Nur77 (Ad-Nur77) increased FGF21 expression in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, knockdown of endogenous Nur77 expression by siRNA-Nur77 abolished the effect of forskolin on FGF21 expression. The results of ChIP assays, EMSA, and mutagenesis analysis showed that Nur77 bound to the putative NBRE of the FGF21 promoter in cultured hepatocytes and fasting induced Nur77 binding to the FGF21 promoter in vivo. Knockdown of PPAR? partially inhibited forskolin-induced FGF21 expression, suggesting PPAR? involvement in glucagon-stimulated FGF21 expression. In addition, double knockdown of PPAR? and Nur77 further diminished FGF21 expression in cultured hepatocytes. In conclusion, this study shows that Nur77 mediates fasting-induced hepatic FGF21 expression, and suggests an alternative mechanism via which hepatic FGF21 transcription is mediated under fasting conditions. PMID:24885573

  12. Short communication Targeting of a tetracycline-inducible expression system to the

    E-print Network

    Schnaufer, Achim

    . Introduction Tetracycline-regulated ectopic gene expression [1,2] has come to form the backbone of transgenic of `leaky' (i.e. undesirably high) expression of the regulated genes in the absence of induction. Here weShort communication Targeting of a tetracycline-inducible expression system

  13. Inhibition of p53-induced apoptosis without affecting expression of p53-regulated genes

    E-print Network

    Domany, Eytan

    Inhibition of p53-induced apoptosis without affecting expression of p53-regulated genes Joseph apoptosis without gen- erally inhibiting gene expression regulated by p53 can facilitate tumor development Contributed by Leo Sachs, March 24, 2003 Using DNA microarray and clustering of expressed genes we have

  14. MicroRNAs as modulators of smoking-induced gene expression changes in human airway epithelium

    E-print Network

    Collins, James J.

    mechanisms mediating these gene expression changes are unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small noncoding RNAsMicroRNAs as modulators of smoking-induced gene expression changes in human airway epithelium Frank to determine whether microRNAs (miRNAs) play a role in regulating the airway gene expression response

  15. Expression of L1-CAM and ADAM10 in Human Colon Cancer Cells Induces Metastasis

    E-print Network

    Domany, Eytan

    Expression of L1-CAM and ADAM10 in Human Colon Cancer Cells Induces Metastasis Nancy Gavert, 1, is also expressed in a variety of cancer cells. Recent studies identified L1-CAM as a target gene of B-catenin-T-cell expression in colon cancer cells lacking L1-CAM confers metastatic capacity, and mice injected

  16. A New Generation of T7 RNA Polymerase-Independent Inducible Expression Plasmids for Trypanosoma brucei

    E-print Network

    Schnaufer, Achim

    A New Generation of T7 RNA Polymerase-Independent Inducible Expression Plasmids for Trypanosoma. This study describes a new plasmid pSPR2.1 that drives consistent high-level expression of tetracycline repressor in procyclic form trypanosomes. A complementary expression plasmid, p3227, was constructed

  17. Induced gene expression in human brain after the split from chimpanzee

    E-print Network

    Gu, Xun

    Induced gene expression in human brain after the split from chimpanzee Jianying Gu and Xun Gu Dept alterations in the expression of genes in the human brain since the split from chimpanzees, mainly caused by a set of genes with increased (rather than decreased) expression in the human brain. An unsolved mystery

  18. Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} enhanced fusions between oral squamous cell carcinoma cells and endothelial cells via VCAM-1/VLA-4 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Kai; Zhu, Fei; Zhang, Han-zhong; Shang, Zheng-jun; First Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan

    2012-08-15

    Fusion between cancer cells and host cells, including endothelial cells, may strongly modulate the biological behavior of tumors. However, no one is sure about the driving factors and underlying mechanism involved in such fusion. We hypothesized in this study that inflammation, one of the main characteristics in tumor microenvironment, serves as a prominent catalyst for fusion events. Our results showed that oral cancer cells can fuse spontaneously with endothelial cells in co-culture and inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) increased fusion of human umbilical vein endothelium cells and oral cancer cells by up to 3-fold in vitro. Additionally, human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and 35 out of 50 (70%) oral squamous carcinoma specimens express VLA-4, an integrin, previously implicated in fusions between human peripheral blood CD34-positive cells and murine cardiomyocytes. Expression of VCAM-1, a ligand for VLA-4, was evident on vascular endothelium of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Moreover, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry analysis revealed that expression of VCAM-1 increased obviously in TNF-{alpha}-stimulated endothelial cells. Anti-VLA-4 or anti-VCAM-1 treatment can decrease significantly cancer-endothelial adhesion and block such fusion. Collectively, our results suggested that TNF-{alpha} could enhance cancer-endothelial cell adhesion and fusion through VCAM-1/VLA-4 pathway. This study provides insights into regulatory mechanism of cancer-endothelial cell fusion, and has important implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for prevention of metastasis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spontaneous oral cancer-endothelial cell fusion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} enhanced cell fusions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VCAM-1/VLA-4 expressed in oral cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} increased expression of VCAM-1 on endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VCAM-1/VLA-4 mediated TNF-{alpha}-enhanced cell fusions.

  19. Nutrient Induced Type 2 and Chemical Induced Type 1 Experimental Diabetes Differently Modulate Gastric GLP-1 Receptor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Olga; Broide, Efrat; Ben-Yehudah, Gilad; Cantrell, Dror; Shirin, Haim; Rapoport, Micha J.

    2015-01-01

    T2DM patients demonstrate reduced GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) expression in their gastric glands. Whether induced T2DM and T1DM differently affect the gastric GLP-1R expression is not known. This study assessed extrapancreatic GLP-1R system in glandular stomach of rodents with different types of experimental diabetes. T2DM and T1DM were induced in Psammomys obesus (PO) by high-energy (HE) diet and by streptozotocin (STZ) in Sprague Dawly (SD) rats, respectively. GLP-1R expression was determined in glandular stomach by RT PCR and immunohistomorphological analysis. The mRNA expression and cellular association of the GLP-1R in principal glands were similar in control PO and SD rats. However, nutrient and chemical induced diabetes resulted in opposite alterations of glandular GLP-1R expression. Diabetic PO demonstrated increased GLP-1R mRNA expression, intensity of cellular GLP-1R immunostaining, and frequency of GLP-1R positive cells in the neck area of principal glands compared with controls. In contrast, SD diabetic rats demonstrated decreased GLP-1 mRNA, cellular GLP-1R immunoreactivity, and frequency of GLP-1R immunoreactive cells in the neck area compared with controls. In conclusion, nutrient and chemical induced experimental diabetes result in distinct opposite alterations of GLP-1R expression in glandular stomach. These results suggest that induced T1DM and T2DM may differently modulate GLP-1R system in enteropancreatic axis. PMID:25893200

  20. Chicken amyloid arthropathy: serum amyloid A, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide profile in acute phase (12th hour).

    PubMed

    Sevimli, A; Bülbül, T; Bülbül, A; Yagci, A

    2013-01-01

    Acute phase response (APR) is part of the early defense system, which is triggered by different stimuli including, infection, trauma, stres, inflammation and neoplasia. The APR complex is a reaction which induces homeostasis and recovery. In this research, serum amyloid A (SAA), interlaukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured 12 hours following injection. For this purpose, Thirty-two 5 weeks old laying chicken were allocated into four groups and intra-articular injections of Freund's adjuvant were used to induce amylod arthropathy in Groups II, III and IV. Vitamin A in group II, and methylprednisolone in group IV were added to enhance and to reduce the severity of amyloidosis, respectively. At the end of the research, it was observed that TNF-alpha and NO increased significantly (P < 0.05) in vitamin A and methylprednisolone groups whereas SAA decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in all groups. It was also observed that IL-6 increased (P < 0.05) in vitamin A group and decreased in all other gorups however, IL-1beta decreased in vitamin A and methylprednisolone groups, while it was increased in the control group. The results of this study suggest that there is a positive correlation between serum TNF-alpha levels in acute and chronic phase in chickens with amyloid arthropathy. PMID:23971191

  1. NF-?B Protects Human Papillomavirus Type 38 E6/E7-Immortalized Human Keratinocytes against Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and UV-Mediated Apoptosis?

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Ishraq; Fathallah, Ikbal; Accardi, Rosita; Yue, Jiping; Saidj, Djamel; Shukla, Ruchi; Hasan, Uzma; Gheit, Tarik; Niu, Yamei; Tommasino, Massimo; Sylla, Bakary S.

    2011-01-01

    Constitutive activation of NF-?B signaling is a key event in virus- and non-virus-induced carcinogenesis. We have previously reported that cutaneous human papillomavirus type 38 (HPV38) displays transforming properties in in vitro and in vivo experimental models. However, the involvement of NF-?B signaling in HPV38-induced cell growth transformation remains to be determined. In this study, we showed that HPV38 E6 and E7 activate NF-?B and that inhibition of the pathway with the I?B? superrepressor sensitizes HPV38E6E7-immortalized human keratinocytes to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?)- and UVB radiation-mediated apoptosis. Accordingly, inhibition of NF-?B signaling resulted in the downregulation of NF-?B-regulated antiapoptotic genes, including cIAP1, cIAP2, and xIAP genes. These findings demonstrate a critical role of NF-?B activity in the survival of HPV38E6E7-immortalized human keratinocytes exposed to cytokine or UV radiation. Our data provide additional evidence for cooperation between beta HPV infection and UV irradiation in skin carcinogenesis. PMID:21715489

  2. Plasma levels and in vitro production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 in patients with amebic liver abscess.

    PubMed

    González-Amaro, R; Andrade, S; Baranda, L; Abud-Mendoza, C; Portales, D P; Moncada, B; Llorente, L

    1994-01-01

    We studied the plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as the in vitro production of these cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells, in 10 patients with amebic liver abscess (ALA) and seven healthy controls. TNF-alpha was measured using a bioassay with L929 fibroblasts; IL-6 was quantitated by the B9 cell line assay. In both assays, the number of viable cells was estimated by the conversion of MTT to formazan. TNF-alpha plasma levels were nondetectable (< 20 pg/mL) in ALA patients, as well as in the majority of healthy controls. The in vitro production of TNF induced by lipopolysaccharide was significantly decreased in ALA patients. Most ALA patients (8/10) had increased plasma levels of IL-6. Furthermore, the spontaneous production of IL-6 in vitro was significantly increased in ALA patients compared to controls. In the acute stage of the ALA, a negative relationship was found between the raised plasma levels of IL-6 and the in vitro diminished production of TNF-alpha. After recovery, ALA patients showed both normal plasma levels and in vitro production of TNF and IL-6. Our data corroborate previous reports regarding plasma levels of TNF in ALA, and suggest that E. histolytica induces the in vivo production of IL-6 through a TNF-independent pathway. The raised levels of IL-6 might in turn down-regulate the production of TNF in ALA patients. PMID:7973144

  3. Jasmonates induce nonapoptotic death in high-resistance mutant p53-expressing B-lymphoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Fingrut, Orit; Reischer, Dorit; Rotem, Ronit; Goldin, Natalia; Altboum, Irit; Zan-Bar, Israel; Flescher, Eliezer

    2005-01-01

    Mutations in p53, a tumor suppressor gene, occur in more than half of human cancers. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that jasmonates (novel anticancer agents) can induce death in mutated p53-expressing cells. Two clones of B-lymphoma cells were studied, one expressing wild-type (wt) p53 and the other expressing mutated p53. Jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate (0.25–3?mM) were each equally cytotoxic to both clones, whereas mutant p53-expressing cells were resistant to treatment with the radiomimetic agent neocarzinostatin and the chemotherapeutic agent bleomycin. Neocarzinostatin and bleomycin induced an elevation in the p53 levels in wt p53-expressing cells, whereas methyl jasmonate did not. Methyl jasmonate induced mostly apoptotic death in the wt p53-expressing cells, while no signs of early apoptosis were detected in mutant p53-expressing cells. In contrast, neocarzinostatin and bleomycin induced death only in wt p53-expressing cells, in an apoptotic mode. Methyl jasmonate induced a rapid depletion of ATP in both clones. In both clones, oligomycin (a mitochondrial ATP synthase inhibitor) did not increase ATP depletion induced by methyl jasmonate, whereas inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxyglucose did. High glucose levels protected both clones from methyl jasmonate-induced ATP depletion (and reduced methyl jasmonate-induced cytotoxicity), whereas high levels of pyruvate did not. These results suggest that methyl jasmonate induces ATP depletion mostly by compromising oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. In conclusion, jasmonates can circumvent the resistance of mutant p53-expressing cells towards chemotherapy by inducing a nonapoptotic cell death. PMID:16170329

  4. Effect of dexamethasone and ACC on bacteria-induced mucin expression in human airway mucosa.

    PubMed

    Hauber, Hans-Peter; Goldmann, Torsten; Vollmer, Ekkehard; Wollenberg, Barbara; Zabel, Peter

    2007-11-01

    Gram-negative bacteria can stimulate mucin production, but excessive mucus supports bacterial infection and consequently leads to airway obstruction. Therefore, the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) and the antioxidant acetyl-cysteine (ACC) on bacteria-induced mucus expression was investigated. Explanted human airway mucosa and mucoepidermoid cells (Calu-3) were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or PAM3 (a synthetic lipoprotein). DEX or ACC were added to either LPS- or PAM3-stimulated airway mucosa or Calu-3 cells. Mucin mRNA expression (MUC5AC) and total mucus glycoconjugates (mucin protein) were quantified using real-time PCR and periodic acid Schiff staining. LPS and PAM3 significantly increased mucin expression in airway mucosa and Calu-3 cells (P < 0.05). DEX alone had no significant effect on mucin expression in airway mucosa or Calu-3 cells (P > 0.05). In contrast, DEX significantly reduced LPS- and PAM3-induced mucin expression in explanted mucosal tissue and mucin expression in Calu-3 cells (P < 0.05). In explanted human airway mucosa ACC alone significantly increased mucin expression (P < 0.05). In contrast, ACC significantly decreased LPS- and PAM3-induced mucin expression (P < 0.05). In Calu-3 cells ACC alone had no significant effect on mucin expression (P > 0.05). ACC decreased LPS- and PAM3-induced mucin expression, but this effect was not significant (P > 0.05). These data suggest that DEX can effectively reduce bacteria-induced mucin expression in the airways. ACC alone may increase mucin expression in noninfected mucosa, but it decreased bacteria-induced mucin expression. Further studies are warranted to evaluate whether the effect of DEX or ACC is clinically relevant. PMID:17600317

  5. Global gene expression analyses of hematopoietic stem cell-like cell lines with inducible Lhx2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Karin; Wirta, Valtteri; Dahl, Lina; Bruce, Sara; Lundeberg, Joakim; Carlsson, Leif; Williams, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    Background Expression of the LIM-homeobox gene Lhx2 in murine hematopoietic cells allows for the generation of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-like cell lines. To address the molecular basis of Lhx2 function, we generated HSC-like cell lines where Lhx2 expression is regulated by a tet-on system and hence dependent on the presence of doxycyclin (dox). These cell lines efficiently down-regulate Lhx2 expression upon dox withdrawal leading to a rapid differentiation into various myeloid cell types. Results Global gene expression of these cell lines cultured in dox was compared to different time points after dox withdrawal using microarray technology. We identified 267 differentially expressed genes. The majority of the genes overlapping with HSC-specific databases were those down-regulated after turning off Lhx2 expression and a majority of the genes overlapping with those defined as late progenitor-specific genes were the up-regulated genes, suggesting that these cell lines represent a relevant model system for normal HSCs also at the level of global gene expression. Moreover, in situ hybridisations of several genes down-regulated after dox withdrawal showed overlapping expression patterns with Lhx2 in various tissues during embryonic development. Conclusion Global gene expression analysis of HSC-like cell lines with inducible Lhx2 expression has identified genes putatively linked to self-renewal / differentiation of HSCs, and function of Lhx2 in organ development and stem / progenitor cells of non-hematopoietic origin. PMID:16600034

  6. C/EBP? Mediates TNF-?-Induced Cancer Cell Migration by Inducing MMP Expression Dependent on p38 MAPK.

    PubMed

    Xia, Peiyi; Zhang, Rui; Ge, Gaoxiang

    2015-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? is a pleiotropic cytokine that triggers cell proliferation, cell death, or inflammation. Besides its cytotoxic effect on cancer cells, TNF-? exerts tumor promoting activity. Aberrant TNF-? signaling promotes cancer cell motility, invasiveness, and enhances cancer metastasis. Exaggerated tumor cell migration, invasion, and metastasis by TNF-? has been attributed to the activation of NF-?B signaling. It is yet to be elucidated if other signaling pathways and effector molecules are involved in TNF-?-induced cancer cell migration and metastasis. Expression of C/EBP?, a transcription factor involved in metabolism, inflammation, and cancer, is increased upon TNF-? treatment. TNF-? induces C/EBP? expression by enhancing its transcription and protein stability. Activation of p38 MAPK, but not NF-?B or JNK, is responsible for TNF-?-induced stabilization of C/EBP? protein. C/EBP? is involved in TNF-?-induced cancer cell migration. Knockdown of C/EBP? inhibits TNF-?-induced cell migration, while overexpression of C/EBP? increases migration of cancer cells. C/EBP? is translated into transcriptional activator LAP1 and LAP2 and transcriptional repressor LIP utilizing alternative in-frame translation start sites. Despite TNF-? induces expression of all three isoforms, LAP1/2, but not LIP, promote cancer cell migration. TNF-? induced MMP1/3 expression, which was abrogated by C/EBP? knockdown or p38 MAPK inhibition. MMP inhibitor or knockdown of MMP1/3 diminished TNF-?- and C/EBP?-induced cell migration. Thus, C/EBP? mediates TNF-?-induced cancer cell migration by inducing MMP1/3 expression, and may participate in the regulation of inflammation-associated cancer metastasis. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 2766-2777, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25959126

  7. Cryptosporidium parvum-Specific Mucosal Immune Response in C57BL/6 Neonatal and Gamma Interferon-Deficient Mice: Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha in Protection

    PubMed Central

    Lacroix, Sonia; Mancassola, Roselyne; Naciri, Muriel; Laurent, Fabrice

    2001-01-01

    Both neonatal and C57BL/6 gamma interferon (IFN-?) knockout (C57BL/6-GKO) mice are susceptible to Cryptosporidium parvum, but the course of infection is different. Neonatal mice are able to clear the parasite within 3 weeks, whereas C57BL/6-GKO mice, depending on age, die rapidly or remain chronically infected. The mechanism by which IFN-? leads to a protective immunity is yet poorly understood. In order to investigate the effect of IFN-? on other cytokines expressed in the intestinal mucosa during C. parvum infection, we studied cytokine mRNA expression in the neonates and GKO (neonatal and adult) mice by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) at 4 and 9 days after infection. IFN-? mRNA levels were quickly and strongly up-regulated in the mucosa of neonatal mice. In GKO mice, the Th1-type response was dramatically altered during the infection, whereas the mRNA expression levels of the Th2-type cytokines interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-10 were increased in both mouse models. In the absence of IFN-?, the adult knockout mice up-regulated the mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1?, IL-6, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, in the mucosa, but not tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), whereas all these cytokines were up-regulated in the infected neonatal mice. Further experiments indicated that injections of TNF-? into GKO adult mice significantly reduced oocyst shedding. The results of the present study indicate that the resolution of infection is dependent on the expression of Th1-type cytokines in the mucosa of C57BL/6 mice and that TNF-? may participate in the control of parasite development. PMID:11179338

  8. Inducible transgenic expression in the short-lived fish Nothobranchius furzeri.

    PubMed

    Allard, J B; Kamei, H; Duan, C

    2013-05-01

    This study demonstrates inducible transgenic expression in the exceptionally short-lived turquoise killifish Nothobranchius furzeri, which is a useful vertebrate model for ageing research. Transgenic N. furzeri bearing a green fluorescent protein (Gfp) containing construct under the control of a heat shock protein 70 promoter were generated, heat shock-induced and reversible Gfp expression was demonstrated and germline transmission of the transgene to the F1 and F2 generations was achieved. The availability of this inducible transgenic expression system will make the study of ageing-related antagonistically pleiotropic genes possible using this unique vertebrate model organism. PMID:23639168

  9. Glucose Oxidase Induces Cellular Senescence in Immortal Renal Cells through ILK by Downregulating Klotho Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Troyano-Suárez, Nuria; del Nogal-Avila, María; Mora, Inés; Sosa, Patricia; López-Ongil, Susana; Rodriguez-Puyol, Diego; Olmos, Gemma; Ruíz-Torres, María Piedad

    2015-01-01

    Cellular senescence can be prematurely induced by oxidative stress involved in aging. In this work, we were searching for novel intermediaries in oxidative stress-induced senescence, focusing our interest on integrin-linked kinase (ILK), a scaffold protein at cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion sites, and on the Klotho gene. Cultured renal cells were treated with glucose oxidase (GOx) for long time periods. GOx induced senescence, increasing senescence associated ?-galactosidase activity and the expression of p16. In parallel, GOx increased ILK protein expression and activity. Ectopic overexpression of ILK in cells increased p16 expression, even in the absence of GOx, whereas downregulation of ILK inhibited the increase in p16 due to oxidative stress. Additionally, GOx reduced Klotho gene expression and cells overexpressing Klotho protein did not undergo senescence after GOx addition. We demonstrated a direct link between ILK and Klotho since silencing ILK expression in cells and mice increases Klotho expression and reduces p53 and p16 expression in renal cortex. In conclusion, oxidative stress induces cellular senescence in kidney cells by increasing ILK protein expression and activity, which in turn reduces Klotho expression. We hereby present ILK as a novel downregulator of Klotho gene expression. PMID:26583057

  10. Carcinogen-induced trans activation of gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinberger, T.; Flint, Y.B.; Blank, M.; Etkin, S.; Lavi, S.

    1988-03-01

    The authors report a new mechanism of carcinogen action by which the expression of several genes was concomitantly enhanced. This mechanism involved the altered activity of cellular factors which modulate the expression of genes under their control. The increased expression was regulated at least in part on the transcriptional level and did not require amplification of the overexpressed genes. This phenomenon was transient; it was apparent as early as 24 h after carcinogen treatment and declined a few days later.

  11. Thymoquinone inhibits phorbol ester-induced activation of NF-?B and expression of COX-2, and induces expression of cytoprotective enzymes in mouse skin in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Kundu, Joydeb Kumar; Liu, Lijia; Shin, Jun-Wan; Surh, Young-Joon; Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-799

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Thymoquinone inhibits phorbol ester-induced COX-2 expression in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone attenuates phosphorylation of I?B? and DNA binding of NF-?B in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone inhibits phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, JNK and Akt in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone induces the expression of cytoprotective proteins in mouse skin. -- Abstract: Thymoquinone (TQ), the active ingredient of Nigella sativa, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties. The present study was aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities of thymoquinone in mouse skin. Pretreatment of female HR-1 hairless mouse skin with TQ attenuated 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). TQ diminished nuclear translocation and the DNA binding of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) via the blockade of phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of I?B? in TPA-treated mouse skin. Pretreatment with TQ attenuated the phosphorylation of Akt, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, but not that of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2. Moreover, topical application of TQ induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H-quinoneoxidoreductase-1, glutathione-S-transferase and glutamate cysteine ligase in mouse skin. Taken together, the inhibitory effects of TQ on TPA-induced COX-2 expression and NF-?B activation, and its ability to induce the expression of cytoprotective proteins provide a mechanistic basis of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of TQ in hairless mouse skin.

  12. Behavioral experience induces zif268 expression in mature granule cells but suppresses its expression in immature granule cells

    PubMed Central

    Huckleberry, Kylie A.; Kane, Gary A.; Mathis, Rita J.; Cook, Sarah G.; Clutton, Jonathan E.; Drew, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of neurons are born each day in the dentate gyrus (DG), but many of these cells die before reaching maturity. Both death and survival of adult-born neurons are regulated by neuronal activity in the DG. The immediate-early gene (IEG) zif268 appears to be an important mediator of these effects, as its expression can be induced by neural activity and knockout of zif268 impairs survival of adult-born neurons (Richardson et al., 1992; Veyrac et al., 2013). Despite the apparent importance of zif268 for adult neurogenesis, its behavior-induced expression has not been fully characterized in adult-born neurons. Here we characterize behavior-evoked expression of zif268 in mature and newborn dentate granule cells (DGCs). We first quantified zif268 expression in doublecortin-positive (DCX+) immature neurons and in the general granule cell population after brief exposure to a novel environment (NE). In the general granule cell population, zif268 expression peaked 1 h after NE exposure and returned to baseline by 8 h post-exposure. However, in the DCX+ cells, zif268 expression was suppressed relative to home cage for at least 8 h post-exposure. We next asked whether suppression of zif268 in DCX+ immature cells occurs in other behavioral paradigms that recruit the hippocampus. Exposure to Morris water maze (MWM) training, an enriched environment, or a NE caused approximately equal suppression of zif268 expression in DCX+ cells and approximately equal activation of zif268 expression among the general granule cell population. The same behavioral procedures activated zif268 expression in 6-week-old BrdU-labeled adult-born neurons, indicating that zif268 suppression is specific to immature neurons. Finally, we asked whether zif268 suppression varied as a function of age within the DCX+ population, which ranges in age from 0 to approximately 4 weeks. NE exposure had no significant effect on zif268 expression in 2- or 4-week-old BrdU-labeled neurons, but it significantly suppressed zif268 expression in 3-week-old neurons. In summary, behavioral experience transiently activated expression of zif268 in mature granule cells but caused a more long-lasting suppression of zif268 expression in immature, adult-born granule cells. We hypothesize that zif268 suppression inhibits memory-related synaptic plasticity in immature neurons or mediates learning-induced apoptosis of immature adult-born neurons. PMID:26347620

  13. Evolutionary changes in heat-inducible gene expression in lines of Escherichia coli adapted to high temperature

    E-print Network

    Bennett, Albert F.

    Evolutionary changes in heat-inducible gene expression in lines of Escherichia coli adapted to high, Richard E. Lenski, and Anthony D. Long. Evolutionary changes in heat-inducible gene expression in lines to examine changes in expression for 35 heat-inducible genes in three independent lines of Escherichia coli

  14. Inducible and reversible lentiviral and Recombination Mediated Cassette Exchange (RMCE) systems for controlling gene expression.

    PubMed

    Bersten, David C; Sullivan, Adrienne E; Li, Dian; Bhakti, Veronica; Bent, Stephen J; Whitelaw, Murray L

    2015-01-01

    Manipulation of gene expression to invoke loss of function (LoF) or gain of function (GoF) phenotypes is important for interrogating complex biological questions both in vitro and in vivo. Doxycycline (Dox)-inducible gene expression systems are commonly used although success is often limited by high background and insufficient sensitivity to Dox. Here we develop broadly applicable platforms for reliable, tightly controlled and reversible Dox-inducible systems for lentiviral mediated generation of cell lines or FLP Recombination-Mediated Cassette Exchange (RMCE) into the Collagen 1a1 (Col1a1) locus (FLP-In Col1a1) in mouse embryonic stem cells. We significantly improve the flexibility, usefulness and robustness of the Dox-inducible system by using Tetracycline (Tet) activator (Tet-On) variants which are more sensitive to Dox, have no background activity and are expressed from single Gateway-compatible constructs. We demonstrate the usefulness of these platforms in ectopic gene expression or gene knockdown in multiple cell lines, primary neurons and in FLP-In Col1a1 mouse embryonic stem cells. We also improve the flexibility of RMCE Dox-inducible systems by generating constructs that allow for tissue or cell type-specific Dox-inducible expression and generate a shRNA selection algorithm that can effectively predict potent shRNA sequences able to knockdown gene expression from single integrant constructs. These platforms provide flexible, reliable and broadly applicable inducible expression systems for studying gene function. PMID:25768837

  15. Expression of Galectin-7 Is Induced in Breast Cancer Cells by Mutant p53

    PubMed Central

    Campion, Carole G.; Labrie, Marilyne; Lavoie, Geneviève; St-Pierre, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Galectin-7 was initially described as a marker of epithelial differentiation expressed in the stratified epithelium of various tissues. Like other members of the galectin family, its expression level is often significantly altered in cancer cells. In breast cancer, its expression is significantly augmented in aggressive molecular subtypes, most notably in estrogen receptor-negative tumors and in cell lines with a basal-like phenotype. Studies using experimental mouse models have further shown high expression of galectin-7 was sufficient to increase the metastatic behavior of poorly metastatic breast cancer cells, rendering them more resistant to apoptosis. This expression pattern in breast cancer cells is unexpected because galectin-7 was originally identified as a p53-induced gene. To address this paradox, we have examined the molecular mechanisms regulating galectin-7 in breast cancer cells. Our results showed that transfection of breast cancer cells with expression vectors encoding mutant p53 was sufficient to induce galectin-7 at both mRNA and protein levels. Doxorubicin treatment of breast cancer cells harboring a mutant p53 also induced galectin-7. This induction was specific since knockdown of endogenous mutant p53 inhibited doxorubicin-induced galectin-7 expression. The p53-induced galectin-7 expression in breast cancer cells correlated with increased NF-?B activity and was inhibited by NF-?B inhibitors, indicating that the ability of mutant p53 to induce galectin-7 was dependent on NF-?B activity. The implication of NF-?B was further supported by data showing that NF-?B bound to the endogenous galectin-7 promoter and that TNF?-induced galectin-7 expression was abolished by NF-?B inhibitors. Taken together, our data provide an explanation to the observed high galectin-7 expression levels in cancer cells and suggest that galectin-7 could be part of a common pathway used by mutant p53 to promote cancer progression. PMID:23967302

  16. The stress-related hormone norepinephrine induced upregulation of Nix, contributing to ECM protein expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weili; Wang, Xinxing; Gong, Jingbo; Mei, Zhusong; Gao, Xiujie; Zhao, Yun; Ma, Jing; Qian, Lingjia

    2014-11-01

    Organ fibrosis has been viewed as a major medical problem that leads to progressive dysfunction of the organ and eventually the death of patients. Stress-related hormone norepinephrine (NE) has been reported to exert fibrogenic actions in the injured organ. Nix plays a critical role in pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling and heart failure through mediating cardiomyocyte apoptosis. However, cardiac remodeling also includes fibrosis. Whether Nix is involved in stress-induced fibrosis remains unclear. The present study was designed to determine the role of Nix in NE-induced NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. The results showed that Nix was upregulated and closely associated with cell proliferation, collagen and fibronectin expression in NIH/3T3 fibroblasts following NE treatment. Overexpression of Nix promoted collagen and fibronectin expression, whereas the suppression of Nix resulted in a strong reduction in collagen and fibronectin expression. Moreover, the increases in collagen and fibronectin expression induced by NE were successively increased when Nix was overexpressed and reduced when Nix was inhibited. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the PKC activation is responsible for the upregulation of Nix induced by NE. Inhibition of Nix expression with ?-adrenoceptor antagonist, ?-adrenoceptor antagonist or PKC inhibitor attenuated NE-induced collagen and fibronectin expression. Our data revealed that Nix is a novel mediator of NE-induced fibrosis. Thus, it would provide a new insight into the development of effective preventative measures and therapies of tissue fibrosis. PMID:24803315

  17. Chemical synthesis in protein engineering: total synthesis, purification and covalent structural characterization of a mitogenic protein, human transforming growth factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Woo, D D; Clark-Lewis, I; Chait, B T; Kent, S B

    1989-10-01

    Successful approaches to protein engineering required that the desired analogs be easily and rapidly obtained in sufficient quantities and purities for unambiguous structural and functional characterizations. Chemical synthesis is the method of choice for engineering small peptides. We now demonstrate that with improved methodologies and instrumentation, total chemical synthesis can be used to produce a small protein in a form suitable for engineering studies. Active human transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), a 50 amino acid long protein with three disulfide bonds, has been synthesized and purified in multiple tens of mg amounts in less than 7 days. The purified human TGF-alpha migrated as a single band on SDS-polyacrylamide gels, ran as a single sharp major band at pI = 6.2 on isoelectric focusing gels, displayed an MW = 5546.2 (Th.5546.3) by mass spectrometry, contained three disulfide bonds and had EGF receptor binding, mitogenic and soft agar colony formation activities. The locations of disulfide bonds were found to be analogous to those found in epidermal growth factor (EGF) and in human TGF-alpha expressed in bacteria. PMID:2813340

  18. In Vitro Infection of Bovine Monocytes with Mycoplasma bovis Delays Apoptosis and Suppresses Production of Gamma Interferon and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha but Not Interleukin-10

    PubMed Central

    Mulongo, Musa; Prysliak, Tracy; Scruten, Erin; Napper, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is one of the major causative pathogens of bovine respiratory complex disease (BRD), which is characterized by enzootic pneumonia, mastitis, pleuritis, and polyarthritis. M. bovis enters and colonizes bovine respiratory epithelial cells through inhalation of aerosol from contaminated air. The nature of the interaction between M. bovis and the bovine innate immune system is not well understood. We hypothesized that M. bovis invades blood monocytes and regulates cellular function to support its persistence and systemic dissemination. We used bovine-specific peptide kinome arrays to identify cellular signaling pathways that could be relevant to M. bovis-monocyte interactions in vitro. We validated these pathways using functional, protein, and gene expression assays. Here, we show that infection of bovine blood monocytes with M. bovis delays spontaneous or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?)/staurosporine-driven apoptosis, activates the NF-?B p65 subunit, and inhibits caspase-9 activity. We also report that M. bovis-infected bovine monocytes do not produce gamma interferon (IFN-?) and TNF-?, although the level of production of interleukin-10 (IL-10) is elevated. Our findings suggest that M. bovis takes over the cellular machinery of bovine monocytes to prolong bacterial survival and to possibly facilitate subsequent systemic distribution. PMID:24126524

  19. Tumor necrosis factor alpha -238 G/A and -308 G/A polymorphisms and soluble TNF-? levels in chronic kidney disease: correlation with clinical variables

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Huerta, Diana I; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Bertha A; Topete-Reyes, Jorge F; Muñoz-Valle, José F; Parra-Michel, Renato; Fuentes-Ramírez, Francisco; Salazar-López, María A; Valle, Yeminia; Reyes-Castillo, Zyanya; Cruz-González, A; Brennan-Bourdon, Lorena M; Torres-Carrillo, Norma

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by accumulation of proinflammatory cytokines, mainly tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of TNFA gene, including -238 G/A and -308 G/A, have been associated with alteration in the soluble TNF-? (sTNF-?) expression. The aim was to investigate the association of -238 y -308 TNFA gene SNPs with sTNF-? levels in CKD patients. We included 150 CKD patients and 192 control subjects (CS). Both SNPs were genotyped with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique and sTNF-? levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The genotypic distribution of -238 and -308 SNPs was not significantly different between CKD patients and CS (p > 0.001). However, the sTNF-? levels were higher in CKD, compared to CS (p < 0.001). Also, sTNF-? correlated with creatinine (r = 0.279, p = 0.004), urea (r = 0.325, p = 0.001), phosphorus (r = 0.479, p = 0.001), glomerular filtration rate (r = -0.236, p = 0.019) and monocyte count (r = 0.276, p = 0.010). In conclusion, elevated sTNF-? levels are associated with CKD. However, the -238 and -308 TNFA gene SNPs were not associated with susceptibility to CKD and sTNF-? levels in a Mexican population. PMID:25232395

  20. Analysis and Quantitation of NF-[kappa]B Nuclear Translocation in Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-[alpha]) Activated Vascular Endothelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuseler, John W.; Merrill, Dana M.; Rogers, Jennifer A.; Grisham, Matthew B.; Wolf, Robert E.

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-[kappa]B) is a heterodimeric transcription factor typically composed of p50 and p65 subunits and is a pleiotropic regulator of various inflammatory and immune responses. In quiescent cells, p50/p65 dimers are sequestered in the cytoplasm bound to its inhibitors, the I-[kappa]Bs, which prevent entry into the nucleus. Following cellular stimulation, the I-[kappa]Bs are rapidly degraded, activating NF-[kappa]B. The active form of NF-[kappa]B rapidly translocates into the nucleus, binding to consensus sequences in the promoter/enhancer region of various genes, promoting their transcription. In human vascular endothelial cells activated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha, the activation and translocation of NF-[kappa]B is rapid, reaching maximal nuclear localization by 30 min. In this study, the appearance of NF-[kappa]B (p65 subunit, p65-NF-[kappa]B) in the nucleus visualized by immunofluorescence and quantified by morphometric image analysis (integrated optical density, IOD) is compared to the appearance of activated p65-NF-[kappa]B protein in the nucleus determined biochemically. The appearance of p65-NF-[kappa]B in the nucleus measured by fluorescence image analysis and biochemically express a linear correlation (R2 = 0.9477). These data suggest that localization and relative protein concentrations of NF-[kappa]B can be reliably determined from IOD measurements of the immunofluorescent labeled protein.

  1. Detection of tumor necrosis factor-alpha protein and messenger RNA in human glial brain tumors: comparison of immunohistochemistry with in situ hybridization using molecular probes.

    PubMed

    Roessler, K; Suchanek, G; Breitschopf, H; Kitz, K; Matula, C; Lassmann, H; Koos, W T

    1995-08-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) protein and messenger (m)RNA distribution was studied in biopsy samples of glial brain tumors, using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization with molecular probes, to investigate the role of this cytokine in tumor proliferation and immunological host defense. Focal expression of TNF alpha was detected in four of four glioblastomas, one of two anaplastic astrocytomas, and four of five low-grade astrocytomas, regardless of their subtype or grade of malignancy, but in none of the normal peritumoral brain tissues used as controls. The TNF alpha protein and mRNA were present in reactive astrocytes and protoplasmic tumor cells, confined to areas of leukocyte or T-lymphocyte infiltrating, and less pronounced in tumor cells at the edge of necrosis. Additionally, TNF alpha reactivity was found in infiltrating macrophages and perivascular microglia. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization for TNF alpha showed comparable reaction patterns and numbers of TNF alpha-positive cells, even though the sensitivity of in situ hybridization was significantly higher. Quantitative evaluation of TNF alpha protein, TNF alpha mRNA, and leukocyte infiltration revealed a significant positive correlation between the TNF alpha-positive reactive astrocytes and the number of lymphocytes present in corresponding areas. Together, these data lead to the conclusion that TNF alpha in reactive astrocytes and monocytic cells within tumor areas of high leukocyte infiltration and in tumor cells at the border of necrosis may represent one defense pathway of the immune system against tumor proliferation. PMID:7616275

  2. Homocysteine induces cardiac hypertrophy by up-regulating ATP7a expression

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhanwei; Zhang, Yanzhou; Sun, Tongwen; Zhang, Shuguang; Yu, Weiya; Zhu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the study is to investigate the molecular mechanism by which homocysteine (Hcy) induces cardiac hypertrophy. Methods: Primary cardiomyocytes were obtained from baby Sprague-Dawley rats within 3 days after birth. Flow cytometry was used to measure cell sizes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure the expression of ?-myosin heavy chain and atrial natriuretic peptide genes. Western blotting assay was employed to determine ATP7a protein expression. Cytochrome C oxidase (COX) activity test was used to evaluate the activity of COX. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was performed to determine copper content. siRNAs were used to target-silence the expression of ATP7a. Results: Hcy induced cardiac hypertrophy and increased the expression of cardiac hypertrophy-related genes. ATP7a was a key factor in cardiac hypertrophy induced by Hcy. Reduced ATP7a expression inhibited cardiac hypertrophy induced by Hcy. Elevated ATP7a expression induced by Hcy inhibited COX activity. Enhanced ATP7a expression inhibited COX activity by lowering intracellular copper content. Conclusions: Hcy elevates ATP7a protein expression, reduces copper content, and lowers COX activity, finally leading to cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:26722473

  3. Epstein-Barr Virus Infection Induces Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Expression in Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages through p38/Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and NF-?B Pathways: Impairment in T Cell Functions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wan-li; Lin, Yue-hao; Xiao, Han; Xing, Shan; Chen, Hao; Chi, Pei-dong

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been observed in tumor-infiltrated macrophages, but its infection effects on macrophage immune functions are poorly understood. Here, we showed that some macrophages in the tumor stroma of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tissue expressed the immunosuppressive protein indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) more strongly than did tumor cells. EBV infection induced mRNA, protein, and enzymatic activity of IDO in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Infection increased the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), whereas the neutralizing antibodies against TNF-? and IL-6 inhibited IDO induction. EBV infection also activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 and NF-?B, and the inhibition of these two pathways with SB202190 and SN50 almost abrogated TNF-? and IL-6 production and inhibited IDO production. Moreover, the activation of IDO in response to EBV infection of MDMs suppressed the proliferation of T cells and impaired the cytotoxic activity of CD8+ T cells, whereas the inhibition of IDO activity with 1-methyl-l-tryptophan (1-MT) did not affect T cell proliferation and function. These findings indicate that EBV-induced IDO expression in MDMs is substantially mediated by IL-6- and TNF-?-dependent mechanisms via the p38/MAPK and NF-?B pathways, suggesting that a possible role of EBV-mediated IDO expression in tumor stroma of NPC may be to create a microenvironment of suppressed T cell immune responses. IMPORTANCE CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play an important role in the control of viral infections and destroy tumor cells. Activation of the tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in cancer tissues facilitates immune escape by the impairment of CTL functions. IDO expression was observed in some macrophages of the tumor stroma of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tissue, and IDO could be induced in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). NPC cells and macrophages have been found to produce IDO in a gamma interferon (IFN-?)-dependent manner. Instead, EBV-induced IDO expression in MDMs is substantially mediated by IL-6- and TNF-?-dependent mechanisms via the p38/MAPK and NF-?B pathways, which suppressed the proliferation of T cells and impaired the cytotoxic activity of CD8+ T cells. This finding provides a new interpretation of the mechanism of immune escape of EBV and shows the immunosuppressive role of EBV-mediated IDO expression in tumor stroma of NPC. PMID:24696473

  4. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 antagonists alleviate inflammatory skin changes associated with epidermal growth factor receptor antibody therapy in mice.

    PubMed

    Surguladze, David; Deevi, Dhanvanthri; Claros, Nidia; Corcoran, Erik; Wang, Su; Plym, Mary Jane; Wu, Yan; Doody, Jacqueline; Mauro, David J; Witte, Larry; Busam, Klaus J; Pytowski, Bronek; Rodeck, Ulrich; Tonra, James R

    2009-07-15

    Cancer patients receiving epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody therapy often experience an acneiform rash of uncertain etiology in skin regions rich in pilosebaceous units. Currently, this condition is treated symptomatically with very limited, often anecdotal success. Here, we show that a monoclonal antibody targeting murine EGFR, ME1, caused a neutrophil-rich hair follicle inflammation in mice, similar to that reported in patients. This effect was preceded by the appearance of lipid-filled hair follicle distensions adjacent to enlarged sebaceous glands. The cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), localized immunohistochemically to this affected region of the pilosebaceous unit, was specifically up-regulated by ME1 in skin but not in other tissues examined. Moreover, skin inflammation was reduced by cotreatment with the TNFalpha signaling inhibitor, etanercept, indicating the involvement of TNFalpha in this inflammatory process. Interleukin-1, a cytokine that frequently acts in concert with TNFalpha, is also involved in this process given the efficacy of the interleukin-1 antagonist Kineret. Our results provide a mechanistic framework to develop evidence-based trials for EGFR antibody-induced skin rash in patients with cancer. PMID:19584274

  5. Icariin Induces Synoviolin Expression through NFE2L1 to Protect Neurons from ER Stress-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fei; Gao, Beixue; Dong, Hongxin; Shi, Jingshan; Fang, Deyu

    2015-01-01

    By suppressing neuronal apoptosis, Icariin is a potential therapeutic drug for neuronal degenerative diseases. The molecular mechanisms of Icariin anti-apoptotic functions are still largely unclear. In this report, we found that Icariin induces the expression of Synoviolin, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-anchoring E3 ubiquitin ligase that functions as a suppressor of ER stress-induced apoptosis. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 1 (NFE2L1) is responsible for Icariin-mediated Synoviolin gene expression. Mutation of the NFE2L1-binding sites in a distal region of the Synoviolin promoter abolished Icariin-induced Synoviolin promoter activity, and knockdown of NFE2L1 expression prevented Icariin-stimulated Synoviolin expression. More importantly, Icariin protected ER stress-induced apoptosis of PC12 cells in a Synoviolin-dependent manner. Therefore, our study reveals Icariin-induced Synoviolin expression through NFE2L1 as a previously unappreciated molecular mechanism underlying the neuronal protective function of Icariin. PMID:25806530

  6. Shigella dysenteriae Modulates BMP Pathway to Induce Mucin Gene Expression In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Ashidha; Iyer, Soumya Chidambaram; Gopal, Udhayakumar; Devaraj, Niranjali; Halagowder, Devaraj

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal epithelial cells in the intestine act as the first line of host defense against pathogens by increasing mucin production for clearance. Despite this fact, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which Shigella dysenteriae transduce mucin gene expression remain poorly defined. The goal of this study was to determine the role of Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway in mucin gene expression during S. dysenteriae infection. In this study we demonstrate that S. dysenteriae activates BMP signaling to induce MUC2 and MUC5AC gene expression in rat ileal loop model and in vitro. We also observed that BMP pathway regulates CDX2 expression which plays a critical role in induction of MUC2 gene during S. dysenteriae infection. In SMAD4 silenced cells S. dysenteriae infection did not abrogate MUC2 and MUC5AC gene expression whereas in CDX2 silenced cells it induces differential expression of MUC5AC gene. These results suggest that SMAD4-CDX2 induces MUC2 gene expression whereas SMAD4 directly influences differential expression of MUC5AC gene. Altogether, our results show that during S. dysenteriae infection the BMP pathway modulates inflammatory transcription factors CDX2 and SMAD4 to induce MUC2 and MUC5AC gene expression which plays a key role in the regulation of host mucosal defense thereby paving a cue for therapeutic application. PMID:25365201

  7. Entamoeba histolytica stimulates the unstable transcription of c-fos and tumour necrosis factor-alpha mRNA by protein kinase C signal transduction in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Seguin, R; Keller, K; Chadee, K

    1995-09-01

    Macrophages play an important role in the control of and resistance to Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica). However, E. histolytica infections are characterized by suppression of cell-mediated immunity. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms whereby amoebae modulate host defences, we investigated whether the parasite elicits the 'immediate early' gene c-fos and cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-alpha mRNA and determined the signal transduction pathways involved in naive bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM). E. histolytica stimulated a rapid and transient expression of c-fos and low levels of TNF-alpha mRNA, whereas the non-pathogenic Entamoeba moshkovshii (E. moshkovskii) did not. Inhibition of the protein kinase C (PKC) pathway with the pharmacological inhibitor H7 and by PKC depletion with phorbol myristate acetate showed that E. histolytica modulates TNF-alpha and c-fos gene expression through a PKC-dependent stimulus-response coupling event. E. histolytica activated and translocated PKC to the membrane fraction in BMM demonstrating a rapid and direct effect on PKC enzyme activity. Unlike lipopolysaccharide (LPS), BMM stimulated with E. histolytica had reduced stability of both c-fos and TNF-alpha mRNA transcripts (> 50%) and failed to secrete TNF-alpha protein. BMM treated with amoebic proteins and stimulated with LPS, or interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)+LPS, resulted in a 33% and 50% reduction in TNF-alpha mRNA levels, respectively. These data argue that although E. histolytica stimulates c-fos and TNF-alpha gene expression through PKC signal transduction, the rapid degradation of the mRNAs, the lack of secreted TNF-alpha protein and the observed decreased responsiveness to a stimulatory signal may be a novel mechanism whereby the parasite modulates host defence mechanisms. PMID:7590881

  8. Photoperiod and Temperature Interactions Regulate Low-Temperature-Induced Gene Expression in Barley1

    E-print Network

    Sarhan, Fathey

    Photoperiod and Temperature Interactions Regulate Low-Temperature-Induced Gene Expression in Barley is also developmentally regulated by PP response. The LT-tolerant, highly short-day (SD)-sensitive barley

  9. Aire unleashes stalled RNA polymerase to induce ectopic gene expression in thymic epithelial cells

    E-print Network

    Giraud, Matthieu

    Aire is a transcriptional regulator that induces expression of peripheral tissue antigens (PTA) in thymic medullary epithelial cells (MECs), driving immunological self-tolerance in differentiating T cells. To elucidate its ...

  10. AGE-RELATED GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN HUMAN SKIN FIBROBLASTS INDUCED BY MMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Age-Related Gene Expression Changes In Human Skin Fibroblasts Induced By methyl methanesulfonate. Geremy W. Knapp, Alan H. Tennant, and Russell D. Owen. Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U. S. Environmental Prote...

  11. METHYL METHANESULFONATE-INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN HUMAN SKIN FIBROBLASTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    METHYL METHANESULFONATE-INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN HUMAN SKIN FIBROBLASTS. Geremy W. Knapp, Alan Tennant, and Russell D. Owen. Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Re...

  12. Chromatin Structure and Gene Expression Programs of Human Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    E-print Network

    Guenther, Matthew G.

    Knowledge of both the global chromatin structure and the gene expression programs of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) should provide a robust means to assess whether the genomes ...

  13. Induction of vascular leak syndrome by tumor necrosis factor-alpha alone.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Jo; Oh, Euichaul; Heo, Tae-Hwe

    2015-03-01

    Although TNF-? possesses promising anticancer activity, clinical application is limited partly due to cardiovascular toxicities. TNF-? effects on vessels are likely related to vascular toxicity, but much remains poorly understood. Similarly, IL-2 is an attractive treatment option for cancers but its clinical use is limited by the side effect of vascular leak syndrome (VLS). We report here that TNF-? alone can trigger VLS. Administration of recombinant TNF-? induced VLS in normal mice and TNF-? transgenic mice exhibited VLS. Perivascular infiltrates in the lungs and specific cytokines in serum were observed in VLS-induced mice. This study shed a new light on the critical role of the TNF-? in IL-2-induced or non IL-2-induced VLS and provides important points to TNF-? therapy. PMID:25776503

  14. Dexmedetomidine alleviates pulmonary edema by upregulating AQP1 and AQP5 expression in rats with acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuan-Xu; Dai, Zhong-Liang; Zhang, Xue-Ping; Zhao, Wei; Huang, Qiang; Gao, Li-Kun

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to elucidate the mechanisms by which dexmedetomidine alleviates pulmonary edema in rats with acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: normal saline control (NS) group, receiving intravenous 0.9% normal saline (5 mL/kg); LPS group, receiving intravenous LPS (10 mg/kg); small-dose dexmedetomidine (S) group, treated with a small dose of dexmedetomidine (0.5 ?g·kg(-1)·h(-1)); medium-dose dexmedetomidine (M) group, treated with a medium dose of dexmedetomidine (2.5 ?g·kg(-1)·h(-1)); high-dose dexmedetomidine (H) group, treated with a high dose of dexmedetomidine (5 ?g·kg(-1)·h(-1)). The rats were sacrificed 6 h after intravenous injection of LPS or NS, and the lungs were removed for evaluating histological characteristics and determining the lung wet/dry weight ratio (W/D). The levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) in the lung tissues were assessed by enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mRNA and protein expression levels of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and aquaporin-5 (AQP5) were detected by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. The lung tissues from the LPS groups were significantly damaged, which were less pronounced in the H group but not in the small-dose dexmedetomidine group or medium-dose dexmedetomidine group. The W/D and the concentrations of TNF-? and IL-1? in the pulmonary tissues were increased in the LPS group as compared with those in NS group, which were reduced in the H group but not in S group or M group (P<0.01). The expression of AQP1 and AQP5 was lower in the LPS group than in the NS group, and significantly increased in the H group but not in the S group or M group (P<0.01). Our findings suggest that dexmedetomidine may alleviate pulmonary edema by increasing the expression of AQP-1 and AQP-5. PMID:26489622

  15. Development and application of an arabinose-inducible expression system by facilitating inducer uptake in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Shang, Xiuling; Lai, Shujuan; Zhang, Guoqiang; Liang, Yong; Wen, Tingyi

    2012-08-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is currently used for the industrial production of a variety of biological materials. Many available inducible expression systems in this species use lac-derived promoters from Escherichia coli that exhibit much lower levels of inducible expression and leaky basal expression. We developed an arabinose-inducible expression system that contains the L-arabinose regulator AraC, the P(BAD) promoter from the araBAD operon, and the L-arabinose transporter AraE, all of which are derived from E. coli. The level of inducible P(BAD)-based expression could be modulated over a wide concentration range from 0.001 to 0.4% L-arabinose. This system tightly controlled the expression of the uracil phosphoribosyltransferase without leaky expression. When the gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was under the control of P(BAD) promoter, flow cytometry analysis showed that GFP was expressed in a highly homogeneous profile throughout the cell population. In contrast to the case in E. coli, P(BAD) induction was not significantly affected in the presence of different carbon sources in C. glutamicum, which makes it useful in fermentation applications. We used this system to regulate the expression of the odhI gene from C. glutamicum, which encodes an inhibitor of ?-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, resulting in high levels of glutamate production (up to 13.7 mM) under biotin nonlimiting conditions. This system provides an efficient tool available for molecular biology and metabolic engineering of C. glutamicum. PMID:22685153

  16. X-Radiation Induces Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Apoptosis by Upregulation of Axin Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Han Yang; Wang Yan; Xu Hongtao; Yang Lianhe; Wei Qiang; Liu Yang; Zhang Yong; Zhao Yue; Dai Shundong; Miao Yuan; Yu Juanhan; Zhang Junyi; Li, Guang; Yuan Ximing; Wang Enhua

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: Axis inhibition (Axin) is an important negative regulator of the Wnt pathway. This study investigated the relationship between Axin expression and sensitivity to X-rays in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to find a useful indicator of radiosensitivity. Methods and Materials: Tissue from NSCLC patients, A549 cells, and BE1 cells expressing Axin were exposed to 1-Gy of X-radiation. Axin and p53 expression levels were detected by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-PCR. Apoptosis was determined by TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling) assay and FACS (fluorescence-activate cell sorter) analysis. Caspase-3 activity was determined by Western blotting. Phospho-JNK expression was determined by immunofluorescence. Results: The expression of Axin was significantly lower in NSCLC tissues than in normal lung tissues (p < 0.05). Axin expression correlates with differentiation, TNM staging, and lymph node metastasis of NSCLC (p < 0.05). Its expression negatively correlates with the expression of p53(mt) (p=0.000) and positively correlates with apoptosis (p=0.002). The prognosis of patients with high expression of Axin was better than those with low expression. X-radiation increases Axin expression in NSCLC tissue, and caspase-3 is significantly higher in samples in which Axin is increased (p < 0.05). Both X-radiation and Axin induce apoptosis of A549 and BE1 cells; however, the combination of the two enhances the apoptotic effect (p < 0.05). In A549 cells, inhibition of p53 blocks Axin-induced apoptosis, whereas in BE1 cells, the JNK pathway is required. Conclusions: Axin induces the p53 apoptotic pathway in cells where this pathway is intact; however, in cells expressing p53(mt), Axin induces apoptosis via the JNK pathway. Elevated Axin expression following X-ray exposure is a reliable indicator for determining the radiosensitivity of NSCLC.

  17. Mirror-image pain is mediated by nerve growth factor produced from tumor necrosis factor alpha-activated satellite glia after peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chau-Fu; Cheng, Jen-Kun; Chen, Chih-Yang; Lien, Cheng-Chang; Chu, Dachen; Wang, Szu-Yi; Tsaur, Meei-Ling

    2014-05-01

    Mirror-image pain is characterized by mechanical hypersensitivity on the uninjured mirror-image side. Recent reports favor central mechanisms, but whether peripheral mechanisms are involved remains unclear. We used unilateral spinal nerve ligation (SNL) to induce mirror-image pain in rats. On the mirror-image (contralateral) side, we found that satellite glia in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) were activated, whereas macrophages/Schwann cells in the DRG and astrocytes/oligodendrocytes/microglia in the dorsal spinal cord were not. Subsequently, an increase in nerve growth factor (NGF) was detected in the contralateral DRG, and NGF immunoreactivity was concentrated in activated satellite glia. These phenomena were abolished if fluorocitrate (a glial inhibitor) was intrathecally injected before SNL. Electrophysiological recordings in cultured small DRG neurons showed that exogenous NGF enhanced nociceptor excitability. Intrathecal injection of NGF into naive rats induced long-lasting mechanical hypersensitivity, similar to SNL-evoked mirror-image pain. Anti-NGF effectively relieved SNL-evoked mirror-image pain. In the contralateral DRG, the SNL-evoked tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) increase, which started later than in the ipsilateral DRG and cerebrospinal fluid, occurred earlier than satellite glial activation and the NGF increase. Intrathecal injection of TNF-? into naive rats not only activated satellite glia to produce extra NGF in the DRG but also evoked mechanical hypersensitivity, which could be attenuated by anti-NGF injection. These results suggest that after SNL, satellite glia in the contralateral DRG are activated by TNF-? that diffuses from the injured side via cerebrospinal fluid, which then activates satellite glia to produce extra NGF to enhance nociceptor excitability, which induces mirror-image pain. PMID:24447514

  18. Interleukin (IL)-1? Is a Strong Inducer of IL-36? Expression in Human Colonic Myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kenichiro; Nishida, Atsushi; Shioya, Makoto; Imaeda, Hirotsugu; Bamba, Shigeki; Inatomi, Osamu; Shimizu, Tomoharu; Kitoh, Katsuyuki; Andoh, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds and aims Interleukin (IL)-36 cytokines are members of the IL-1 cytokine family. In this study, we investigated the expression of IL-36? in human colonic myofibroblasts to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying IL-36? induction. Materials and methods IL-36 mRNA was analyzed by real-time PCR method. Secretion of IL-36? protein was evaluated by Western blot and ELISA analyses. Molecular mechanism of IL-36? induction was evaluated by siRNA analyses and immunofluorescence experiments. Results IL-36? mRNA expression was scarcely detected in the cells without stimulation. IL-1? induced a marked increase of IL-36? mRNA expression. TNF-? markedly enhanced IL-1?-induced IL-36? mRNA expression. These responses were confirmed at the protein levels. The inhibitors for ERK1/2 (PD98059 and U0216) and a p38 MAPK (SB203580) significantly reduced the IL-1?-induced IL-36? mRNA expression. In addition, the siRNAs specific for NF-?B p65 and AP-1 (c-Jun) significantly reduced the expression of IL-1?-induced IL-36? mRNA. Conclusions Colonic myofibroblasts are cellular source of IL-36? in the intestine. IL-36? expression was induced by the combination of IL-1? and TNF-? via activation of MAPKs and transcription factors, NF-?B and AP-1. PMID:26562662

  19. GPBAR1/TGR5 Mediates Bile Acid-Induced Cytokine Expression in Murine Kupffer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Guiyu; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Fu, Xianghui; Meng, Zhipeng; Zhang, Wenyu; Wang, Yan-Dong; Van Ness, Carl; Yu, Donna; Xu, Rongzhen; Huang, Wendong

    2014-01-01

    GPBAR1/TGR5 is a novel plasma membrane-bound G protein–coupled bile acid (BA) receptor. BAs are known to induce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the liver with unknown mechanism. Here we show that without other external stimuli, TGR5 activation alone induced the expression of interleukin 1? (IL-1?) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 or murine Kupffer cells. The TGR5-mediated increase of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was suppressed by JNK inhibition. Moreover, the induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in mouse liver by 1% cholic acid (CA) diet was blunted in JNK?/? mice. TGR5 activation by its ligands enhanced the phosphorylation levels, DNA-binding and trans-activities of c-Jun and ATF2 transcription factors. Finally, the induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in Kupffer cells by TGR5 activation correlated with the suppression of Cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1) expression in murine hepatocytes. These results suggest that TGR5 mediates the BA-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in murine Kupffer cells through JNK-dependent pathway. This novel role of TGR5 may correlate to the suppression of Cyp7a1 expression in hepatocytes and contribute to the delicate BA feedback regulation. PMID:24755711

  20. Glutathione peroxidase-1 inhibits UVA-induced AP-2{alpha} expression in human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Lei; Venkataraman, Sujatha; Coleman, Mitchell C.; Spitz, Douglas R.; Wertz, Philip W.; Domann, Frederick E. . E-mail: frederick-domann@uiowa.edu

    2006-12-29

    In this study, we found a role for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in UVA-induced AP-2{alpha} expression in the HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. UVA irradiation not only increased AP-2{alpha}, but also caused accumulation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the cell culture media, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by itself could induce the expression of AP-2{alpha}. By catalyzing the removal of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} from cells through over-expression of GPx-1, induction of AP-2{alpha} expression by UVA was abolished. Induction of transcription factor AP-2{alpha} by UVA had been previously shown to be mediated through the second messenger ceramide. We found that not only UVA irradiation, but also H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by itself caused increases of ceramide in HaCaT cells, and C2-ceramide added to cells induced the AP-2{alpha} signaling pathway. Finally, forced expression of GPx-1 eliminated UVA-induced ceramide accumulation as well as AP-2{alpha} expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that GPx-1 inhibits UVA-induced AP-2{alpha} expression by suppressing the accumulation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  1. Inducible protein expression in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells using the lac operator-repressor system.

    PubMed

    Wakiyama, Motoaki; Muramatsu, Reiko; Kaitsu, Yoko; Ikeda, Mariko; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2011-12-01

    Schneider line 2 cells, derived from Drosophila melanogaster, can be used as a highly versatile gene expression system. Two powerful promoters derived from the actin5C (Ac5) and metallothionein (Mtn) genes are available. The Mtn promoter can be used for the inducible expression of heterologous proteins unsuitable for constitutive expression. However, to circumvent using CuSO(4) or CdCl(2) as inducers of the Mtn promoter, we created a modified Ac5 promoter, Ac5LacO, in which two short lac operator sequences are embedded. Expression from the Ac5LacO promoter was regulated with co-expression of the lac repressor and IPTG. More than 25-fold induction of firefly luciferase expression was achieved in transient transfection experiments. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the lac operator-repressor regulatory system functioned in chromosomally integrated cell lines. PMID:21826399

  2. Endotoxin-Induced Endothelial Fibrosis Is Dependent on Expression of Transforming Growth Factors ?1 and ?2

    PubMed Central

    Echeverría, César; Montorfano, Ignacio; Tapia, Pablo; Riedel, Claudia; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    During endotoxemia-induced inflammatory disease, bacterial endotoxins circulate in the bloodstream and interact with endothelial cells (ECs), inducing dysfunction of the ECs. We previously reported that endotoxins induce the conversion of ECs into activated fibroblasts. Through endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis, ECs change their morphology and their protein expression pattern, thereby suppressing endothelial markers and upregulating fibrotic proteins. The most commonly used fibrotic inducers are transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) and TGF-?2. However, whether TGF-?1 and TGF-?2 participate in endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis remains unknown. We have shown that the endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis process is dependent on the TGF-? receptor, ALK5, and the activation of Smad3, a protein that is activated by ALK5 activation, thus suggesting that endotoxin elicits TGF-? production to mediate endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis. Therefore, we investigated the dependence of endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis on the expression of TGF-?1 and TGF-?2. Endotoxin-treated ECs induced the expression and secretion of TGF-?1 and TGF-?2. TGF-?1 and TGF-?2 downregulation inhibited the endotoxin-induced changes in the endothelial marker VE-cadherin and in the fibrotic proteins ?-SMA and fibronectin. Thus, endotoxin induces the production of TGF-?1 and TGF-?2 as a mechanism to promote endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing that endotoxin induces endothelial fibrosis via TGF-? secretion, which represents an emerging source of vascular dysfunction. These findings contribute to understanding the molecular mechanism of endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis, which could be useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:24935972

  3. Endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis is dependent on expression of transforming growth factors ?1 and ?2.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, César; Montorfano, Ignacio; Tapia, Pablo; Riedel, Claudia; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Simon, Felipe

    2014-09-01

    During endotoxemia-induced inflammatory disease, bacterial endotoxins circulate in the bloodstream and interact with endothelial cells (ECs), inducing dysfunction of the ECs. We previously reported that endotoxins induce the conversion of ECs into activated fibroblasts. Through endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis, ECs change their morphology and their protein expression pattern, thereby suppressing endothelial markers and upregulating fibrotic proteins. The most commonly used fibrotic inducers are transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) and TGF-?2. However, whether TGF-?1 and TGF-?2 participate in endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis remains unknown. We have shown that the endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis process is dependent on the TGF-? receptor, ALK5, and the activation of Smad3, a protein that is activated by ALK5 activation, thus suggesting that endotoxin elicits TGF-? production to mediate endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis. Therefore, we investigated the dependence of endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis on the expression of TGF-?1 and TGF-?2. Endotoxin-treated ECs induced the expression and secretion of TGF-?1 and TGF-?2. TGF-?1 and TGF-?2 downregulation inhibited the endotoxin-induced changes in the endothelial marker VE-cadherin and in the fibrotic proteins ?-SMA and fibronectin. Thus, endotoxin induces the production of TGF-?1 and TGF-?2 as a mechanism to promote endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing that endotoxin induces endothelial fibrosis via TGF-? secretion, which represents an emerging source of vascular dysfunction. These findings contribute to understanding the molecular mechanism of endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis, which could be useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:24935972

  4. Effect of Chemically-Induced, Cloned-Gene Expression on Protein Synthesis in Emcoh

    E-print Network

    Wood, Thomas K.

    Effect of Chemically-Induced, Cloned-Gene Expression on Protein Synthesis in Emcoh Thomas K. Wood investigated the metabolic limitations of cloned-gene expression in bacterial cells (for over-production of p cloned-geneexpression p-galactosidase INTRODUCTION As the biotechnology market matures, there is an in

  5. Regulation of Endogenous Human Gene Expression by Ligand-Inducible TALE Transcription Factors

    E-print Network

    Barbas III, Carlos F.

    to recognize any contiguous DNA sequence, the conditional gene regulatory system described herein will enableRegulation of Endogenous Human Gene Expression by Ligand- Inducible TALE Transcription Factors of extensible tools capable of providing specific control of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. Here, we

  6. Defects in the Cytochrome b6/f Complex Prevent Light-Induced Expression of Nuclear Genes

    E-print Network

    Defects in the Cytochrome b6/f Complex Prevent Light-Induced Expression of Nuclear Genes Involved in the cytochrome (cyt) b6/f complex were analyzed for their effect on the expression of a subgroup of nuclear genes. In these seven mutants, light induction of the tetrapyrrole biosynthetic genes was either abolished or strongly

  7. Intracellular insulin-like growth factor-1 induces Bcl-2 expression in airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chand, Hitendra S; Harris, Jennifer Foster; Mebratu, Yohannes; Chen, Yangde; Wright, Paul S; Randell, Scott H; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2012-05-01

    Bcl-2, a prosurvival protein, regulates programmed cell death during development and repair processes, and it can be oncogenic when cell proliferation is deregulated. The present study investigated what factors modulate Bcl-2 expression in airway epithelial cells and identified the pathways involved. Microarray analysis of mRNA from airway epithelial cells captured by laser microdissection showed that increased expression of IL-1? and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) coincided with induced Bcl-2 expression compared with controls. Treatment of cultured airway epithelial cells with IL-1? and IGF-1 induced Bcl-2 expression by increasing Bcl-2 mRNA stability with no discernible changes in promoter activity. Silencing the IGF-1 expression using short hairpin RNA showed that intracellular IGF-1 (IC-IGF-1) was increasing Bcl-2 expression. Blocking epidermal growth factor receptor or IGF-1R activation also suppressed IC-IGF-1 and abolished the Bcl-2 induction. Induced expression and colocalization of IC-IGF-1 and Bcl-2 were observed in airway epithelial cells of mice exposed to LPS or cigarette smoke and of patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchitis but not in the respective controls. These studies demonstrate that IC-IGF-1 induces Bcl-2 expression in epithelial cells via IGF-1R and epidermal growth factor receptor pathways, and targeting IC-IGF-1 could be beneficial to treat chronic airway diseases. PMID:22461702

  8. Characterization of Chemically Induced Liver Injuries Using Gene Co-Expression Modules

    E-print Network

    Characterization of Chemically Induced Liver Injuries Using Gene Co-Expression Modules Gregory J Abstract Liver injuries due to ingestion or exposure to chemicals and industrial toxicants pose a serious (modules) specific to injury endpoints in the liver. We identified 78 such gene co-expression modules

  9. FORMALDEHYDE-INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION IN F344 RAT NASAL RESPIRATORY EPITHELIUM.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Formaldehyde-induced gene expression in F344 rat nasal respiratory epithelium

    ABSTRACT

    Formaldehyde, an occupational and environmental toxicant used extensively in the manufacturing of many household and personal use products, is known to induce squamous cell carci...

  10. Bioinforrnatics of Gene Expression Profiling Data Provide Mechanistic Understanding of Acute Ozone-Induced Lung injury

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute ozone-induced pulmonary injury and inflammation are well characterized. A few studies have used gene expression profiling to determine the types of changes induced by ozone; however the mechanisms or the pathways involved are less well understood. We presumed that robust bi...

  11. Use of the human MDR1 promoter for heat-inducible expression of therapeutic genes.

    PubMed

    Walther, Wolfgang; Stein, Ulrike; Schlag, Peter M

    2002-03-10

    The promoter of the human multidrug resistance gene (mdr1) harbors stress-responsive elements, which can be induced e.g., by heat or cytostatic drugs. In previous studies the drug-responsiveness of the mdr1 promoter was successfully used for the drug-inducible expression of the human TNF-alpha gene in vitro and in vivo. Beside the drug-responsive elements of the mdr1 promoter, heat-shock responsive elements have also been identified, which could be exploited for construction of heat-inducible expression vectors. To analyze the hyperthermia-inducibility of the mdr1 promoter we used the pmdr-p-CAT and pM3mdr-p-hTNF vector constructs. Both constructs carry the mdr1 promoter fragment spanning from -207 to +153 to drive expression of the CAT-reporter or TNF-alpha gene. We tested the heat-induced CAT-reporter and TNF-alpha expression in vitro in transduced HCT15 and HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells. For the studies the transduced tumor cells were treated with hyperthermia at 41.5 degrees C or 43 degrees C for 2 hr to induce CAT or TNF-alpha expression. Cells and supernatants were harvested before hyperthermia and at certain time points (0-120 hr) after heat shock. The heat-induced CAT-reporter expression or TNF-alpha secretion was determined by specific ELISA. The experiments indicate that hyperthermia activates the mdr1 promoter in a temperature and time dependent manner. This induction leads to an 2- to 4-fold increase in CAT-reporter or 2- to 7-fold increase in TNF alpha expression in the tumor cell lines. These experiments reveal that the mdr1 promoter driven expression of therapeutic genes can be employed for combined cancer gene therapy approaches. PMID:11857422

  12. Nuclear respiratory factor 2 induces SIRT3 expression.

    PubMed

    Satterstrom, F Kyle; Swindell, William R; Laurent, Gaëlle; Vyas, Sejal; Bulyk, Martha L; Haigis, Marcia C

    2015-10-01

    The mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 regulates several important metabolic processes. SIRT3 is transcriptionally upregulated in multiple tissues during nutrient stresses such as dietary restriction and fasting, but the molecular mechanism of this induction is unclear. We conducted a bioinformatic study to identify transcription factor(s) involved in SIRT3 induction. Our analysis identified an enrichment of binding sites for nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF-2), a transcription factor known to play a role in the expression of mitochondrial genes, in the DNA sequences of SIRT3 and genes with closely correlated expression patterns. In vitro, knockdown or overexpression of NRF-2 modulated SIRT3 levels, and the NRF-2? subunit directly bound to the SIRT3 promoter. Our results suggest that NRF-2 is a regulator of SIRT3 expression and may shed light on how SIRT3 is upregulated during nutrient stress. PMID:26109058

  13. Nuclear respiratory factor 2 induces SIRT3 expression

    PubMed Central

    Satterstrom, F Kyle; Swindell, William R; Laurent, Gaëlle; Vyas, Sejal; Bulyk, Martha L; Haigis, Marcia C

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 regulates several important metabolic processes. SIRT3 is transcriptionally upregulated in multiple tissues during nutrient stresses such as dietary restriction and fasting, but the molecular mechanism of this induction is unclear. We conducted a bioinformatic study to identify transcription factor(s) involved in SIRT3 induction. Our analysis identified an enrichment of binding sites for nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF-2), a transcription factor known to play a role in the expression of mitochondrial genes, in the DNA sequences of SIRT3 and genes with closely correlated expression patterns. In vitro, knockdown or overexpression of NRF-2 modulated SIRT3 levels, and the NRF-2? subunit directly bound to the SIRT3 promoter. Our results suggest that NRF-2 is a regulator of SIRT3 expression and may shed light on how SIRT3 is upregulated during nutrient stress. PMID:26109058

  14. UV-induced changes in cell cycle and gene expression within rabbit lens epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sidjanin, D.; Grdina, D.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1994-11-01

    Damage to lens epithelial cells is a probable initiation process in cataract formation induced by ultraviolet radiation. These experiments investigated the ability of 254 nm radiation on cell cycle progression and gene expression in rabbit lens epithelial cell line N/N1003A. No changes in expression of c-fos, c-jun, alpha- tubulin, or vimentin was observed following UV exposure. Using flow cytometry, an accumulation of cells in G1/S phase of the cell cycle 1 hr following exposure. The observed changes in gene expression, especially the decreased histone transcripts reported here may play a role in UV induced inhibition of cell cycle progression.

  15. Estradiol-induced gene expression in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowman, C.J.; Kroll, K.J.; Gross, T.G.; Denslow, N.D.

    2002-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vtg) and estrogen receptor (ER) gene expression levels were measured in largemouth bass to evaluate the activation of the ER-mediated pathway by estradiol (E2). Single injections of E2 ranging from 0.0005 to 5 mg/kg up-regulated plasma Vtg in a dose-dependent manner. Vtg and ER mRNAs were measured using partial cDNA sequences corresponding to the C-terminal domain for Vtg and the ligand-binding domain of ER?? sequences. After acute E2-exposures (2 mg/kg), Vtg and ER mRNAs and plasma Vtg levels peaked after 2 days. The rate of ER mRNA accumulation peaked 36-42 h earlier than Vtg mRNA. The expression window for ER defines the primary response to E2 in largemouth bass and that for Vtg a delayed primary response. The specific effect of E2 on other estrogen-regulated genes was tested during these same time windows using differential display RT-PCR. Specific up-regulated genes that are expressed in the same time window as Vtg were ERp72 (a membrane-bound disulfide isomerase) and a gene with homology to an expressed gene identified in zebrafish. Genes that were expressed in a pattern that mimics the ER include the gene for zona radiata protein ZP2, and a gene with homology to an expressed gene found in winter flounder. One gene for fibrinogen ?? was down-regulated and an unidentified gene was transiently up-regulated after 12 h of exposure and returned to basal levels by 48 h. Taken together these studies indicate that the acute molecular response to E2 involves a complex network of responses over time. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Trypanosoma cruzi: Oxidative stress induces arginine kinase expression.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Mariana R; Canepa, Gaspar E; Bouvier, Leon A; Pereira, Claudio A

    2006-12-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi arginine kinase is a key enzyme in cell energy management and is also involved in pH and nutritional stress response mechanisms. T. cruzi epimastigotes treated with hydrogen peroxide presented a time-dependent increase in arginine kinase expression, up to 10-fold, when compared with untreated parasites. Among other oxidative stress-generating compounds tested, only nifurtimox produced more than 2-fold increase in arginine kinase expression. Moreover, parasites overexpressing arginine kinase showed significantly increased survival capability during hydrogen peroxide exposure. These findings suggest the participation of arginine kinase in oxidative stress response systems. PMID:16725140

  17. Tert-butylhydroquinone ameliorates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by activating Nrf2 and inducing the expression of its target genes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin-Feng; Su, Su-Wen; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Rong; Niu, Yu-Jie; Guo, Yan-Su; Li, Chun-Yan; Jiang, Wen-Bo; Liu, Yi; Guo, Hui-Cai

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity. Nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that orchestrates the antioxidant and cytoprotective responses to oxidative stress. In the present study, we tested whether tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) could protect against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in vivo and, if so, whether the protection was associated with the up-regulation of the Nrf2 pathway. The results showed that treatment with tBHQ significantly decreased the DOX-induced cardiac injury in wild-type mice. Moreover, tBHQ ameliorated the DOX-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Further studies suggested that tBHQ increased the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and the Nrf2-regulated gene expression, including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxido-reductase-1 (NQO-1) expression. Knocking out Nrf2 in mice abolished the protective effect of tBHQ on the DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. These results indicate that tBHQ has a beneficial effect on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, and this effect was associated with the enhanced expression of Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidant genes, HO-1 and NQO-1. PMID:26692920

  18. Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) and epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGF-R) immunoreactivity in normal and pathologic brain.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, I; Alcántara, S; Ballabriga, J; Olivé, M; Blanco, R; Rivera, R; Carmona, M; Berruezo, M; Pitarch, S; Planas, A M

    1996-06-01

    Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGF-R) immunoreactivity is observed in the majority of neurons, and in maturing astrocytes, in the developing and adult brain of humans and different species of animals. TGF-alpha and EGF-R co-localize in most neurons and maturing astrocytes, suggesting that most TGF-alpha-producing cells are EGF-R-expressing cells. TGF-alpha and EGF-R immunoreactivity decrease in damaged areas following different insults. However, EGF-R appears in reactive glia, mostly reactive astrocytes, within and surrounding the damaged areas. TGF-alpha and EGF-R immunoreactivity is found in neurons of patients affected by Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia, and in neurons of patients suffering from epilepsy owing to different causes, thus pointing to the conclusion that TGF-alpha does not play a significant role in these pathologies. However, EGF-R immunoreactivity occurs in reactive astrocytes and microglia in subacute but not chronic lesions in human cases. Since TGF-alpha is a membrane-anchored growth factor, which may be cleaved leading to the formation of soluble forms, and both the membrane-anchored and soluble forms have the capacity to activate the EGF-R, it is feasible that TGF-alpha in the nervous system may act upon EGF-R-containing neurons through different mechanisms. In addition to distant effects resulting from the release of soluble TGF-alpha, local effects may be produced by establishing direct cell-to-cell contacts (juxtacrine stimulation), or in cells expressing both TGF-alpha and EGF-R (autocrine stimulation). PMID:8844822

  19. Identification of the galactose-adherence lectin epitopes of Entamoeba histolytica that stimulate tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Séguin, R; Mann, B J; Keller, K; Chadee, K

    1995-12-19

    The 170-kDa subunit of the galactose-adherence lectin (Gal-lectin) of Entamoeba histolytica mediates adherence to human colonic mucins and intestinal epithelium as a prerequisite to amebic invasion. The Gal-lectin is an immunodominant molecule and a protective antigen in the gerbil model of amebiasis. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) produced by activated macrophages enhances nitric oxide-dependent cytotoxicity in host defense against E. histolytica. The purpose of this study was to identify the Gal-lectin epitopes which stimulate TNF-alpha production by macrophages. Murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) exposed to Gal-lectin (100-500 ng/ml) stimulated stable expression of TNF-alpha mRNA (8-fold increase) and TNF-alpha production similar to that of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cells (100 ng/ml). Polyclonal anti-lectin serum specifically inhibited TNF-alpha mRNA induction in response to the Gal-lectin but not to lipopolysaccharide. Anti-lectin monoclonal antibodies 8C12, H85 and 1G7, which recognize nonoverlapping epitopes of the cysteine-rich region of the 170-kDa heavy subunit, inhibited both amebic adherence to mammalian cells and Gal-lectin-stimulated TNF-alpha mRNA expression by BMMs,but monoclonal antibody 7F4 did neither. As these inhibitory antibodies map to amino acids 596-1082 of the 170-kDa Gal-lectin, our results have identified the functional region that mediates amebic adherence and TNF-alpha mRNA induction in BMMMs; thus, this region of the Gal-lectin is a subunit vaccine candidate. PMID:8618866

  20. Hyperglycemia induced down-regulation of renal P-glycoprotein expression.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Szu-Yu; Pan, Huei-Ju; Lin, Chung-Cheng; Kao, Yu-Han; Chen, Yen-Hui; Lin, Chun-Jung

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the regulation of P-glycoprotein expression in the kidney under diabetic condition. Renal P-glycoprotein expression was examined in inbred mice with type 1 or type 2 diabetes by Western blotting. The underlying mechanisms of P-glycoprotein regulation were examined in Madin-Darby canine kidney type II (MDCK-II) cells by Western blotting or qRT-PCR. (3)H-digoxin uptake was measured for P-glycoprotein activity in cells under various treatments. The results showed that P-glycoprotein expression was lower in kidneys of diabetic mice than in controls. In MDCK-II cells, treatments with insulin or IL-6 did not cause any change in P-glycoprotein expression, whereas TNF-? tended to increase P-glycoprotein expression at a concentration of 1 ng/ml. On the other hand, P-glycoprotein expression was reduced under high glucose conditions (450 mg/dl), while superoxide production was increased, and the reduction in P-glycoprotein expression was abolished by N-acetylcysteine (an antioxidant) and staurosporine (a nonselective PKC inhibitor). Treatment with oxidizing agents (H(2)O(2), BSO) or PMA (a PKC activator) reduced P-glycoprotein expression. Antioxidant (N-acetylcysteine or glutathione) co-treatment abolished the H(2)O(2)-induced and BSO-induced reduction in P-glycoprotein expression, whereas it did not prevent the effect of PMA. The PMA-induced P-glycoprotein down-regulation was prevented by co-treatment of LY333531 (a PKC-? inhibitor). (3)H-digoxin levels were higher in MDCK-II cells with high glucose, PMA or H(2)O(2) treatments. In conclusion, P-glycoprotein expression is lower in kidneys of diabetic mice and in MDCK-II cells under high glucose conditions. Hyperglycemia induced reactive oxygen species and activated PKC in MDCK-II cells, leading to the decrease in P-glycoprotein expression. PMID:22721613

  1. Induced myelomonocytic differentiation in leukemia cells is accompanied by noncanonical transcription factor expression

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Holly A.; Yourish, Harmony B.; Bunaciu, Rodica P.; Varner, Jeffrey D.; Yen, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors that drive non-neoplastic myelomonocytic differentiation are well characterized but have not been systematically analyzed in the leukemic context. We investigated widely used, patient-derived myeloid leukemia cell lines with proclivity for differentiation into granulocytes by retinoic acid (RA) and/or monocytes by 1,25-dihyrdroxyvitamin D3 (D3). Using K562 (FAB M1), HL60 (FAB M2), RA-resistant HL60 sublines, NB4 (FAB M3), and U937 (FAB M5), we correlated nuclear transcription factor expression to immunophenotype, G1/G0 cell cycle arrest and functional inducible oxidative metabolism. We found that myelomonocytic transcription factors are aberrantly expressed in these cell lines. Monocytic-lineage factor EGR1 was not induced by D3 (the monocytic inducer) but instead by RA (the granulocytic inducer) in lineage bipotent myeloblastic HL60. In promyelocytic NB4 cells, EGR1 levels were increased by D3, while Gfi-1 expression (which promotes the granulocytic lineage) was upregulated during D3-induced monocytic differentiation in HL60, and by RA treatment in monocytic U937 cells. Furthermore, RAR? and VDR expression were not strongly correlated to differentiation. In response to different differentiation inducers, U937 exhibited the most distinct transcription factor expression profile, while similarly mature NB4 and HL60 were better coupled. Overall, the differentiation induction agents RA and D3 elicited cell-specific responses across these common FAB M1-M5 cell lines. PMID:26566473

  2. Dexmedetomidine Modulates Histamine-induced Ca2+ Signaling and Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Expression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dongki

    2015-01-01

    Dexmedetomidine is a sedative and analgesic agent that exerts its effects by selectively agonizing ?2 adrenoceptor. Histamine is a pathophysiological amine that activates G protein-coupled receptors, to induce Ca2+ release and subsequent mediate or progress inflammation. Dexmedetomidine has been reported to exert inhibitory effect on inflammation both in vitro and in vivo studies. However, it is unclear that dexmedetomidine modulates histamine-induced signaling and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. This study was carried out to assess how dexmedetomidine modulates histamine-induced Ca2+ signaling and regulates the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes encoding interleukin (IL)-6 and -8. To elucidate the regulatory role of dexmedetomidine on histamine signaling, HeLa cells and human salivary gland cells which are endogenously expressed histamine 1 receptor were used. Dexmedetomidine itself did not trigger Ca2+ peak or increase in the presence or absence of external Ca2+. When cells were stimulated with histamine after pretreatment with various concentrations of dexmedetomidine, we observed inhibited histamine-induced [Ca2+]i signal in both cell types. Histamine stimulated IL-6 mRNA expression not IL-8 mRNA within 2 hrs, however this effect was attenuated by dexmedetomidine. Collectively, these findings suggest that dexmedetomidine modulates histamine-induced Ca2+ signaling and IL-6 expression and will be useful for understanding the antagonistic properties of dexmedetomidine on histamine-induced signaling beyond its sedative effect. PMID:26330753

  3. Effect of wine phenolics on cytokine-induced C-reactive protein expression

    PubMed Central

    KAUR, G.; RAO, L. V. M.; AGRAWAL, A.; PENDURTHI, U. R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Elevation of C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in blood was recognized as one of the cardiac disease risk factors. Consumption of wine is shown to reduce the risk from heart disease and improve longevity. Objectives In the present study, we evaluated the effect of various wine polyphenolic compounds and several active synthetic derivatives of resveratrol on the inflammatory cytokines (IL-1? + IL-6)-induced CRP expression in Hep3B cells. Results Among the wine phenolics tested, quercetin and resveratrol, in a dose-dependent manner, suppressed cytokine-induced CRP expression. Two of the synthetic derivatives of resveratrol, R3 and 7b, elicited a fiftyfold higher suppressive effect compared with resveratrol. The inhibitory effects of resveratrol and its derivatives on CRP expression were at the level of mRNA production. Investigation of signaling pathways showed that the cytokines induced the phosphorylation of p38 and p44/42MAP kinases. Inhibitors of p38 and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation inhibited CRP expression, implicating the involvement of both pathways in cytokine-induced CRP expression. These data revealed a previously unrecognized role of the p44/42 MAPK signaling pathway in CRP expression. Wine polyphenolics or the synthetic compounds of resveratrol did not affect cytokine-activated phosphorylation of these MAPKs. Conclusions Wine phenolics inhibit CRP expression; however, to do so, they do not utilize the MAPK pathways. PMID:17388968

  4. Role of NADPH oxidase in interleukin-4-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in vascular endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Hee; Kim, Paul H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective and design The pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory pathways in vascular endothelium have been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated effect of interleukin-4 (IL-4) on monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in vascular endothelium and examined the role of distinct sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this process. Methods and results Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that IL-4 significantly up-regulated mRNA and protein expression of MCP-1 in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) and C57BL/6 mice. A significant and dose-dependent inhibition of IL-4-induced MCP-1 expression was observed in HAEC pre-treated with antioxidants, such as pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and epigallocatechin gallate, indicating that IL-4-induced MCP-1 expression is mediated via a ROS-dependent mechanism. Additionally, pharmacological inhibitors of NADPH oxidase (NOX) significantly attenuated IL-4-induced MCP-1 expression in HAEC. Furthermore, the disruption of the NOX gene dramatically reduced IL-4-induced MCP-1 expression in NOX knockout mice (B6.129S6-Cybbtm1Din/J). In contrast, overexpression of MCP-1 in IL-4-stimulated HAEC was not affected by inhibiting other ROS generating pathways, such as xanthine oxidase and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Conclusions These results demonstrate that IL-4 up-regulates MCP-1 expression in vascular endothelium through NOX-mediated ROS generation. PMID:20349326

  5. Transposon-induced nuclear mutations that alter chloroplast gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Barkan, A.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this project is to use mutant phenotypes as a guide to nuclear genes that determine the timing and localization of chloroplast development The immediate goals are to identify nuclear mutants with defects in chloroplast gene expression from maize lines harboring active Mu transposons; characterize their phenotypes to determine the precise defect in gene expression; clone several of the most interesting mutations by exploiting the transposon tag; and use the clones to further define the roles of these genes in modulating chloroplast gene expression. Three mutants were described earlier that had global defects in chloroplast gene expression. We have found that two of these mutations are allelic. Both alleles have global defects in chloroplast translation initiation, as revealed by the failure to assemble chloroplast mRNAs into polysomes. We have isolated and characterized three new mutants from Mu lines that have novel defects in chloroplast RNA metabolism. We are now ready to begin the task of cloning several of these genes, by using the Mu transposon tag.

  6. Effect of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol supplementations on serum leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and serum amyloid A levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Jamalan, Mostafa; Rezazadeh, Mahin; Zeinali, Majid; Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Diabetes mellitus Type 2 is one of the most widespread chronic metabolic diseases. In most cases, this type of diabetes is associated with alterations in levels of some inflammatory cytokines and hormones. Considering anti-inflammatory properties of plant extracts rich in ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), anti-diabetic properties of these two well-known antioxidant vitamins were investigated through measurement of serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), insulin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), and serum amyloid A (SAA) in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Materials and Methods: Male patients (n=80) were randomly divided into two groups each consisted of 40 subjects. Test groups were supplemented with ascorbic acid (1000 mg/day) or alpha-tocopherol (300 mg/day) orally during four weeks. Before and after treatment, serum biochemical factors of subjects were measured and compared. Results: Our results showed that both ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol could induce significant anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing the level of inflammatory factors such as TNF-?, SAA, and hs-CRP in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients. Effects of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid in decreasing serum leptin level were similar. Ascorbic acid in contrast to alpha-tocopherol diminished fasting insulin and HOMA index but had no effect on LDL serum level. Conclusion: Concerning the obtained results, it is concluded that consumption of supplementary vitamins C and E could decrease induced inflammatory response in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. It is also possible that vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation can attenuate incidence of some proposed pathological effects of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26693410

  7. The tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulating region of galactose-inhibitable lectin of Entamoeba histolytica activates gamma interferon-primed macrophages for amebicidal activity mediated by nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Séguin, R; Mann, B J; Keller, K; Chadee, K

    1997-07-01

    Entamoeba histolytica adheres via galactose-lectin (Gal-lectin) to human colonic mucins and intestinal epithelial cells as a prerequisite to amebic invasion. Native Gal-lectin is a protective antigen in the gerbil model of amebiasis. Amino acids 596 to 1082 of Gal-lectin mediate E. histolytica adherence to target cells and stimulate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production by naive murine bone marrow macrophages (BMM). Resistance to amebiasis requires an effective cell-mediated immune response against E. histolytica trophozoites mediated by nitric oxide (NO) released from activated macrophages. Herein, we determine whether the TNF-alpha-stimulating region of Gal-lectin can activate gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-primed BMM for NO production and amebicidal activity. Native Gal-lectin (100 to 500 ng/ml) stimulated TNF-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression in IFN-gamma-primed BMM as did lipopolysaccharide (100 ng/ml). Primed BMM produced TNF-alpha and NO in response to Gal-lectin in a dose-dependent manner. Antilectin monoclonal antibody IG7, which recognizes a domain (amino acids 596 to 818) of the TNF-alpha mRNA-stimulating region of Gal-lectin, specifically inhibited TNF-alpha and iNOS mRNA induction and TNF-alpha and NO production by primed BMM in response to Gal-lectin (100 ng/ml). Simultaneous treatment of BMM with IFN-gamma and Gal-lectin (100 ng/ml) activated the cells to kill E. histolytica trophozoites, whereas IFN-gamma treatment alone had no effect. In the presence of monoclonal antibody 1G7 or aminoguanidine (an iNOS inhibitor), NO production and amebicidal activity were inhibited >80%. These results suggest that the TNF-alpha-stimulating region of native Gal-lectin is a potent stimulus of IFN-gamma-primed BMM for NO production, which is essential for host defense against amebiasis. PMID:9199414

  8. Construction of an inducible cell-communication system that amplifies Salmonella gene expression in tumor tissue.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yumei; Toley, Bhushan J; Swofford, Charles A; Forbes, Neil S

    2013-06-01

    Bacterial therapies have the potential to overcome resistances that cause chemotherapies to fail. When using bacteria to produce anticancer agents in tumors, triggering gene expression is necessary to prevent systemic toxicity. The use of chemical triggers, however, is hampered by poor delivery of inducing molecules, which reduces the number of activated bacteria. To solve this problem, we created a cell-communication system that enables activated bacteria to induce inactive neighbors. We hypothesized that introducing cell communication into Salmonella would improve direct triggering strategies by increasing protein production, increasing sensitivity to inducer molecules, and enabling expression in tumor tissue. To test these hypotheses we integrated the PBAD promoter into the quorum-sensing machinery from Vibrio fischeri. The expression of a fluorescent reporter gene was compared to expression from non-communicating controls. Function in three-dimensional tissue was tested in a tumor-on-a-chip device. Bacterial communication increased fluorescence 40-fold and increased sensitivity to inducer molecules more than 10,000-fold. The system enabled bacteria to activate neighbors and increased the time-scale of protein production. Gene expression was controllable and tightly regulated. At the optimal inducing signal, communicating bacteria produced 350 times more protein than non-communicating bacteria. The cell-communication system created in this study has uses beyond cancer therapy, including protein manufacturing, bioremediation and biosensing. It would enable amplified induction of gene expression in any environment that limits availability of inducer molecules. Ultimately, because inducible cellular communication enables gene expression in tissue, it will be a critical component of bacterial anticancer therapies. PMID:23280328

  9. Interleukin-13 Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced BPIFA1 Expression in Nasal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui-Chen; Hsu, Hui-Ying; Wu, Lii-Tzu; Chiang-Ni, Chuan; Chen, Chih-Jung; Wu, Tsu-Fang; Kao, Min-Chuan; Chen, Yu-An; Peng, Ming-Te; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chen, Chuan-Mu; Lai, Chih-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1) protein is expressed in human nasopharyngeal and respiratory epithelium and has demonstrated antimicrobial activity. SPLUNC1 is now referred to as bactericidal/permeability-increasing fold containing family A, member 1 (BPIFA1). Reduced BPIFA1 expression is associated with bacterial colonization in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Interleukin 13 (IL-13), predominately secreted by T helper 2 (TH2) cells, has been found to contribute to airway allergies and suppress BPIFA1 expression in nasal epithelial cells. However, the molecular mechanism of IL-13 perturbation of bacterial infection and BPIFA1 expression in host airways remains unclear. In this study, we found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BPIFA1 expression in nasal epithelial cells was mediated through the JNK/c-Jun signaling pathway and AP-1 activation. We further demonstrated that IL-13 downregulated the LPS-induced activation of phosphorylated JNK and c-Jun, followed by attenuation of BPIFA1 expression. Moreover, the immunohistochemical analysis showed that IL-13 prominently suppressed BPIFA1 expression in eosinophilic CRSwNP patients with bacterial infection. Taken together, these results suggest that IL-13 plays a critical role in attenuation of bacteria-induced BPIFA1 expression that may result in eosinophilic CRSwNP. PMID:26646664

  10. Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) in Microglia of the Developing Quail Retina

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, Ana; Navascués, Julio; Cuadros, Miguel A.; Calvente, Ruth; Martín-Oliva, David; Ferrer-Martín, Rosa M.; Martín-Estebané, María; Carrasco, María-Carmen; Marín-Teva, José L.

    2014-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which produce large amounts of nitric oxide (NO), is induced in macrophages and microglia in response to inflammatory mediators such as LPS and cytokines. Although iNOS is mainly expressed by microglia that become activated in different pathological and experimental situations, it was recently reported that undifferentiated amoeboid microglia can also express iNOS during normal development. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of iNOS expression in microglial cells during normal development and after their activation with LPS by using the quail retina as model. iNOS expression was analyzed by iNOS immunolabeling, western-blot, and RT-PCR. NO production was determined by using DAR-4M AM, a reliable fluorescent indicator of subcellular NO production by iNOS. Embryonic, postnatal, and adult in situ quail retinas were used to analyze the pattern of iNOS expression in microglial cells during normal development. iNOS expression and NO production in LPS-treated microglial cells were investigated by an in vitro approach based on organotypic cultures of E8 retinas, in which microglial cell behavior is similar to that of the in situ retina, as previously demonstrated in our laboratory. We show here that amoeboid microglia in the quail retina express iNOS during normal development. This expression is stronger in microglial cells migrating tangentially in the vitreal part of the retina and is downregulated, albeit maintained, when microglia differentiate and become ramified. LPS treatment of retina explants also induces changes in the morphology of amoeboid microglia compatible with their activation, increasing their lysosomal compartment and upregulating iNOS expression with a concomitant production of NO. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that immature microglial cells express iNOS during normal development, suggesting a certain degree of activation. Furthermore, LPS treatment induces overactivation of amoeboid microglia, resulting in a significant iNOS upregulation. PMID:25170849

  11. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in microglia of the developing quail retina.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Ana; Navascués, Julio; Cuadros, Miguel A; Calvente, Ruth; Martín-Oliva, David; Ferrer-Martín, Rosa M; Martín-Estebané, María; Carrasco, María-Carmen; Marín-Teva, José L

    2014-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which produce large amounts of nitric oxide (NO), is induced in macrophages and microglia in response to inflammatory mediators such as LPS and cytokines. Although iNOS is mainly expressed by microglia that become activated in different pathological and experimental situations, it was recently reported that undifferentiated amoeboid microglia can also express iNOS during normal development. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of iNOS expression in microglial cells during normal development and after their activation with LPS by using the quail retina as model. iNOS expression was analyzed by iNOS immunolabeling, western-blot, and RT-PCR. NO production was determined by using DAR-4M AM, a reliable fluorescent indicator of subcellular NO production by iNOS. Embryonic, postnatal, and adult in situ quail retinas were used to analyze the pattern of iNOS expression in microglial cells during normal development. iNOS expression and NO production in LPS-treated microglial cells were investigated by an in vitro approach based on organotypic cultures of E8 retinas, in which microglial cell behavior is similar to that of the in situ retina, as previously demonstrated in our laboratory. We show here that amoeboid microglia in the quail retina express iNOS during normal development. This expression is stronger in microglial cells migrating tangentially in the vitreal part of the retina and is downregulated, albeit maintained, when microglia differentiate and become ramified. LPS treatment of retina explants also induces changes in the morphology of amoeboid microglia compatible with their activation, increasing their lysosomal compartment and upregulating iNOS expression with a concomitant production of NO. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that immature microglial cells express iNOS during normal development, suggesting a certain degree of activation. Furthermore, LPS treatment induces overactivation of amoeboid microglia, resulting in a significant iNOS upregulation. PMID:25170849

  12. Nanog expression in heart tissues induced by acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huanhuan; Li, Qiong; Pramanik, Jogen; Luo, Jiankai; Guo, Zhikun

    2014-10-01

    Nanog is a potential stem cell marker and is considered a regeneration factor during tissue repair. In the present study, we investigated expression patterns of nanog in the rat heart after acute myocardial infarction by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses. Our results show that nanog at both mRNA and protein levels is positively expressed in myocardial cells, fibroblasts and small round cells in different myocardial zones at different stages after myocardial infarction, showing a spatio-temporal and dynamic change. After myocardial infarction, the nanog expression in fibroblasts and small round cells in the infarcted zone (IZ) is much stronger than that in the margin zone (MZ) and remote infarcted zone (RIZ). From day 7 after myocardial infarction, the fibroblasts and small cells strongly expressed nanog protein in the IZ, and a few myocardial cells in the MZ and the RIZ and the numbers of nanog-positive fibroblasts and small cells reached the highest peak at 21 days after myocardial infarction, but in this period the number of nanog-positive myocardial cells decreased gradually. At 28 days after myocardial infarction, the numbers of all nanog-positive cells decreased into a low level. Therefore, our data suggest that all myocardial cells, fibroblasts and small round cells are involved in myocardial reconstruction after cardiac infarction. The nanog-positive myocardial cells may respond to early myocardial repair, and the nanog-positive fibroblasts and small round cells are the main source for myocardial reconstruction after cardiac infarction. PMID:24515304

  13. Biological therapy induces expression changes in Notch pathway in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Skarmoutsou, Evangelia; Trovato, Chiara; Granata, Mariagrazia; Rossi, Giulio A; Mosca, Ambra; Longo, Valentina; Gangemi, Pietro; Pettinato, Maurizio; D'Amico, Fabio; Mazzarino, Maria Clorinda

    2015-12-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, characterized by hyperproliferation of keratinocytes and by skin infiltration of activated T cells. To date, the pathophysiology of psoriasis has not yet been fully elucidated. The Notch pathway plays a determinant role in cell fate determination, proliferation, differentiation, immune cell development and function. Many biological agents, used in the treatment of psoriasis, include TFN-? inhibitors, such as etanercept, adalimumab, and anti IL-12/IL-23 p40 antibody, such as ustekinumab. This study aimed to determine mRNA expression levels by real-time RT-PCR, and protein expression levels, analysed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry, of some components of the Notch pathway, such as NOTCH1, NOTCH2, JAGGED1, and HES1 after biological treatments in psoriatic patients. mRNA and protein levels of NOTCH1, NOTCH2, JAGGED1 and HES1 were upregulated in skin samples from untreated psoriatic patients compared with normal controls. Biological therapy showed to downregulate differently the protein expression levels of the molecules under study. Our study suggests that Notch pathway components might be a potential therapeutic target against psoriasis. PMID:26319047

  14. Characterization of a Canine Tetranucleotide Microsatellite Marker Located in the First Intron of the Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Gene

    PubMed Central

    WATANABE, Masashi; TANAKA, Kazuaki; TAKIZAWA, Tatsuya; SEGAWA, Kazuhito; NEO, Sakurako; TSUCHIYA, Ryo; MURATA, Michiko; MURAKAMI, Masaru; HISASUE, Masaharu

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT A polymorphic tetranucleotide (GAAT)n microsatellite in the first intron of the canine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA) gene was characterized in this study; 139 dogs were analyzed: 22 Beagles, 26 Chihuahuas, 20 Miniature Dachshunds, 24 Miniature Poodles, 22 Pembroke Welsh Corgis and 25 Shiba Inus. We detected the presence of the 4 alleles (GAAT)5, (GAAT)6, (GAAT)7 and (GAAT)8, including 9 of the 10 expected genotypes. The expected heterozygosity (He) and the polymorphic information content (PIC) value of this microsatellite locus varied from 0.389 to 0.749 and from 0.333 to 0.682, respectively, among the 6 breeds. The allelic frequency differed greatly among breeds, but this microsatellite marker was highly polymorphic and could be a useful marker for the canine TNFA gene. PMID:24042337

  15. Characterization of a canine tetranucleotide microsatellite marker located in the first intron of the tumor necrosis factor alpha gene.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masashi; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Takizawa, Tatsuya; Segawa, Kazuhito; Neo, Sakurako; Tsuchiya, Ryo; Murata, Michiko; Murakami, Masaru; Hisasue, Masaharu

    2014-01-01

    A polymorphic tetranucleotide (GAAT)n microsatellite in the first intron of the canine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA) gene was characterized in this study; 139 dogs were analyzed: 22 Beagles, 26 Chihuahuas, 20 Miniature Dachshunds, 24 Miniature Poodles, 22 Pembroke Welsh Corgis and 25 Shiba Inus. We detected the presence of the 4 alleles (GAAT)5, (GAAT)6, (GAAT)7 and (GAAT)8, including 9 of the 10 expected genotypes. The expected heterozygosity (He) and the polymorphic information content (PIC) value of this microsatellite locus varied from 0.389 to 0.749 and from 0.333 to 0.682, respectively, among the 6 breeds. The allelic frequency differed greatly among breeds, but this microsatellite marker was highly polymorphic and could be a useful marker for the canine TNFA gene. PMID:24042337

  16. Protective effects of L-selenomethionine on space radiation induced changes in gene expression.

    PubMed

    Stewart, J; Ko, Y-H; Kennedy, A R

    2007-06-01

    Ionizing radiation can produce adverse biological effects in astronauts during space travel. Of particular concern are the types of radiation from highly energetic, heavy, charged particles known as HZE particles. The aims of our studies are to characterize HZE particle radiation induced biological effects and evaluate the effects of L-selenomethionine (SeM) on these adverse biological effects. In this study, microarray technology was used to measure HZE radiation induced changes in gene expression, as well as to evaluate modulation of these changes by SeM. Human thyroid epithelial cells (HTori-3) were irradiated (1 GeV/n iron ions) in the presence or in the absence of 5 microM SeM. At 6 h post-irradiation, all cells were harvested for RNA isolation. Gene Chip U133Av2 from Affymetrix was used for the analysis of gene expression, and ANOVA and EASE were used for a determination of the genes and biological processes whose differential expression is statistically significant. Results of this microarray study indicate that exposure to small doses of radiation from HZE particles, 10 and 20 cGy from iron ions, induces statistically significant differential expression of 196 and 610 genes, respectively. In the presence of SeM, differential expression of 77 out of 196 genes (exposure to 10 cGy) and 336 out of 610 genes (exposure to 20 cGy) is abolished. In the presence or in the absence of SeM, radiation from HZE particles induces differential expression of genes whose products have roles in the induction of G1/S arrest during the mitotic cell cycle, as well as heat shock proteins. Some of the genes, whose expressions were affected by radiation from HZE particles and were unchanged in irradiated cells treated with SeM, have been shown to have altered expression levels in cancer cells. The conclusions of this report are that radiation from HZE particles can induce differential expression of many genes, some of which are known to play roles in the same processes that have been shown to be activated in cells exposed to radiation from photons (like cell cycle arrest in G1/S), and that supplementation with SeM abolishes HZE particle-induced differential expression of many genes. Understanding the roles that these genes play in the radiation-induced transformation of cells may help to decipher the origins of radiation-induced cancer. PMID:17265150

  17. RESTRAINT-INDUCED fra-2 AND c-fos EXPRESSION IN THE RAT FOREBRAIN: RELATIONSHIP TO STRESS DURATION

    E-print Network

    Spencer, Robert L.

    RESTRAINT-INDUCED fra-2 AND c-fos EXPRESSION IN THE RAT FOREBRAIN: RELATIONSHIP TO STRESS DURATION forebrain. We examined basal and restraint-in- duced mRNA expression (in situ hybridization) of fra-2). Restraint-induced fra-2 expression was quanti- fied in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), lateral septum (LS

  18. Cardamonin Suppresses TGF-?1-Induced Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition via Restoring Protein Phosphatase 2A Expression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Ji; Kim, Hyun Ji; Park, Mi Kyung; Kang, Gyeung Jin; Byun, Hyun Jung; Lee, Ho; Lee, Chang Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the first step in metastasis and implicated in the phenotype of cancer stem cells. Therefore, understanding and controlling EMT, are essential to the prevention and cure of metastasis. In the present study, we examined, by Western blot, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and confocal microscopy, the effects of cardamonin (CDN) on transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1)-induced EMT of A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. TGF-?1 induced expression of N-cadherin and decreased expression of E-cadherin. CDN suppressed N-cadherin expression and restored E-cadherin expression. Further, TGF-?1 induced migration and invasion of A549 cancer cells, which was suppressed by CDN. TGF-?1 induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation during EMT, but CDN blocked it. Protein serine/threonine phosphatase 2A (PP2A) expression in A549 cancer cells was reduced by TGF-?1 but CDN restored it. The overall data suggested that CDN suppresses TGF-?1-induced EMT via PP2A restoration, making it a potential new drug candidate that controls metastasis. PMID:25767682

  19. TGF-? induces fascin expression in gastric cancer via phosphorylation of smad3 linker area

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liling; Cao, Fang; Liu, Baoan; Luo, Xiaojuan; Ma, Xin; Hu, Zhongliang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fascin is an actin-bundling protein critical for tumor invasion. TGF-? could induce fascin expression in gastric cancer cells. In this study, we attempted to explore the role of p-smad3L in the expression of fascin induced by TGF-? in gastric cancer cells. Methods: Pseudopodia were evaluated by immunofluorescence. Fascin expression was detected by RT-PCR and western blot. Smad3 siRNA was used to repress the endogenous smad3. The phosphorylations of smad3 linker region at sites s204, s208 and s213 were detected by western blot. The fascin promoter reporter activity was measured by dual luciferase assay. Results: TGF-? could increase the formation of pseudopodia and the expression of fascin in gastric cancer cells. Smad3 depletion abrogated the expression of fascin induced by TGF-?. The phosphorylation of smad3 linker region at serine 204, 208 and 213 was enhanced in gastric cancer cells after TGF-? treatment. The fascin promoter reporter activity was significantly enhanced with TGF-? treatment in both wild-type Smad3 group and Smad3EPSM group (P<0.05). Furthermore, the fascin promoter reporter activity in the wild-type Smad3 transfectant cells was significantly higher than that in Smad3EPSM cells (P<0.05). Conclusions: fascin expression induced by TGF-? depends on smad3, at least in part, depends on smad3 linker phosphorylation. PMID:26269751

  20. Serum amyloid A induces interleukin-33 expression through an IRF7-dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lei; Zhu, Ziyan; Cheng, Ni; Yan, Qian; Ye, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33), an IL-1 family cytokine and nuclear alarmin, is constitutively expressed in epithelial barrier tissues and human blood vessels. However, little is known about the induced expression of IL-33 in monocytes and macrophages, which are major cytokine-producing cells of the innate immune system. Here we report the induction of IL-33 expression in both human monocytes and mouse macrophages from C57BL/6 mice by the acute-phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA). SAA induced transcriptional activation of the IL-33 gene, resulting in nuclear accumulation of the IL-33 protein. TLR2, one of the SAA receptors, was primarily responsible for the induction of IL-33. Progressive deletion of the human IL-33 promoter led to the identification of two potential binding sites for interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7), one of which (?277/?257) was found to be important for SAA-stimulated IL-33 promoter activity. IRF7 was recruited to the IL-33 promoter upon SAA stimulation, and silencing IRF7 expression in THP-1 cells abrogated SAA-induced IL-33 expression. SAA also promoted an interaction between TRAF6 and IRF7. Taken together, these results identify IRF7 as a critical transcription factor for SAA-induced IL-33 expression in monocytes and macrophages. PMID:24777946

  1. Induced over-expression of AtDREB2A CA improves drought tolerance in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Reis, Rafaela Ribeiro; da Cunha, Bárbara Andrade Dias Brito; Martins, Polyana Kelly; Martins, Maria Thereza Bazzo; Alekcevetch, Jean Carlos; Chalfun, Antônio; Andrade, Alan Carvalho; Ribeiro, Ana Paula; Qin, Feng; Mizoi, Junya; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Nakashima, Kazuo; Carvalho, Josirley de Fátima Corrêa; de Sousa, Carlos Antônio Ferreira; Nepomuceno, Alexandre Lima; Kobayashi, Adilson Kenji; Molinari, Hugo Bruno Correa

    2014-05-01

    Drought is one of the most challenging agricultural issues limiting sustainable sugarcane production and, in some cases, yield losses caused by drought are nearly 50%. DREB proteins play vital regulatory roles in abiotic stress responses in plants. The transcription factor DREB2A interacts with a cis-acting DRE sequence to activate the expression of downstream genes that are involved in drought-, salt- and heat-stress response in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of stress-inducible over-expression of AtDREB2A CA on gene expression, leaf water potential (?L), relative water content (RWC), sucrose content and gas exchanges of sugarcane plants submitted to a four-days water deficit treatment in a rhizotron-grown root system. The plants were also phenotyped by scanning the roots and measuring morphological parameters of the shoot. The stress-inducible expression of AtDREB2A CA in transgenic sugarcane led to the up-regulation of genes involved in plant response to drought stress. The transgenic plants maintained higher RWC and ?L over 4 days after withholding water and had higher photosynthetic rates until the 3rd day of water-deficit. Induced expression of AtDREB2A CA in sugarcane increased sucrose levels and improved bud sprouting of the transgenic plants. Our results indicate that induced expression of AtDREB2A CA in sugarcane enhanced its drought tolerance without biomass penalty. PMID:24656336

  2. Ectopic ERK Expression Induces Phenotypic Conversion of C10 Cells and Alters DNA Methyltransferase Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Sontag, Ryan L.; Weber, Thomas J.

    2012-05-04

    In some model systems constitutive extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) activation is sufficient to promote an oncogenic phenotype. Here we investigate whether constitutive ERK expression influences phenotypic conversion in murine C10 type II alveolar epithelial cells. C10 cells were stably transduced with an ERK1-green fluorescent protein (ERK1-GFP) chimera or empty vector and ectopic ERK expression was associated with the acquisition of soft agar focus-forming potential in late passage, but not early passage cells. Late passage ERK1-GFP cells exhibited a significant increase in the expression of DNA methyl transferases (DNMT1 and 3b) and a marked increase in sensitivity to 5-azacytidine (5-azaC)-mediated toxicity, relative to early passage ERK1-GFP cells and vector controls. The expression of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XPA) and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) were significantly increased in late passage cells, suggesting enhanced DNA damage recognition and repair activity which we interpret as a reflection of genomic instability. Phospho-ERK levels were dramatically decreased in late passage ERK1-GFP cells, relative to early passage and vector controls, and phospho-ERK levels were restored by treatment with sodium orthovanadate, indicating a role for phosphatase activity in this response. Collectively these observations suggest that ectopic ERK expression promotes phenotypic conversion of C10 cells that is associated with latent effects on epigenetic programming and phosphatase activities.

  3. Shikonin suppresses IL-17-induced VEGF expression via blockage of JAK2/STAT3 pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Xu, Xuegang; Gao, Xinghua; Chen, Hongduo; Geng, Long

    2014-04-01

    IL-17 signaling in keratinocytes plays an important role in psoriasis, which is a benign, chronic skin disease characterized by keratinocytes hyperproliferation and increased dermal vascularity. Shikonin, isolated from the traditional medical herbs Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has long been found to possess different medicinal properties such as antibacterial, improving wound healing, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects. However, the effects and mechanisms of shikonin on VEGF expression in keratinocytes mediated by IL-17 signaling, are still not fully clarified. In the present study, we investigated the effects and regulatory mechanisms of shikonin on VEGF expression in keratinocytes induced by IL-17 by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Our results showed that shikonin significantly inhibited IL-17-induced VEGF mRNA and protein expression in HaCaT cells and the secretion of VEGF by HaCaT cells, inhibited IL-17-induced IL-17R, pJAK2 and pSTAT3 expression, while up-regulated the expression of SOCS1 in HaCaT cells. Additionally, shikonin effectively suppressed VEGF expression in the skin of IL-17 stimulated mice. Furthermore, shikonin suppressed VEGF-induced tube formation of HUVECs and CD34 expression in the skin of IL-17 stimulated mice. These results imply that shikonin suppresses IL-17-induced VEGF expression in vitro and in vivo and the mechanisms may be related to its effect in blockage of JAK2/STAT3 pathway. These data deepen our understanding of shikonin in the inhibition of angiogenesis in inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis. PMID:24521871

  4. Histone Deacetylases Inhibit IFN-?-Inducible Gene Expression in Mouse Trophoblast Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jason C.; Holtz, Renae; Murphy, Shawn P.

    2015-01-01

    Trophoblast cells are the first cells to differentiate from the developing mammalian embryo, and they subsequently form the blastocyst-derived component of the placenta. IFN-? plays critical roles in activating innate and adaptive immunity, as well as apoptosis. In mice, IFN-? is produced in the pregnant uterus, and is essential for formation of the decidual layer of the placenta and remodeling of the uterine vasculature. Responses of mouse trophoblast cells to IFN-? appear to be selective, for IFN-? activates MHC class I expression and enhances phagocytosis, but fails to activate either MHC class II expression or apoptosis in these cells. To investigate the molecular basis for the selective IFN-? responsiveness of mouse trophoblast cells, IFN-?-inducible gene expression was examined in the trophoblast cell lines SM9 and M-11, trophoblast stem cells, and trophoblast stem cell-derived giant cells. IFN-?-inducible expression of multiple genes, including IFN regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1), was significantly reduced in trophoblast cells compared with fibroblast cells. Decreased IRF-1 mRNA expression in trophoblast cells was due to a reduced rate of IRF-1 transcription relative to fibroblast cells. However, no impairment of STAT-1 tyrosine phosphorylation or DNA-binding capacity was observed in IFN-?-treated mouse trophoblast cells. Importantly, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors significantly enhanced IFN-?-inducible gene expression in trophoblast cells, but not fibroblasts. Our collective studies demonstrate that IFN-?-inducible gene expression is repressed in mouse trophoblast cells by HDACs. We propose that HDAC-mediated inhibition of IFN-?-inducible gene expression in mouse trophoblast cells may contribute to successful pregnancy by preventing activation of IFN-? responses that might otherwise facilitate the destruction of the placenta. PMID:19414784

  5. Bee venom protects hepatocytes from tumor necrosis factor-alpha and actinomycin D.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Kim, Soo-Jung; Lee, Woo-Ram; Lee, Kwang-Gill; Park, Kwan-Kyu

    2010-02-01

    Honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom (BV) has a broad array of therapeutic applications in traditional medicine to treat variety of diseases. It is also known that BV possesses anti-inflammatory and anticancer effect and that it can inhibit proliferation and induces apoptosis in cancer cells, but there is no evidence of information regarding anti-apoptosis of BV on hepatocytes. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of BV on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha with actinomycin (Act) D induces apoptosis in hepatocytes. TNF-alpha/Act D-treated hepatocytes were exposed to different low concentration (1, 10 and 100 ng/mL) of BV. Our results showed statistically significant inhibition in DNA damage caused by BV treatment compared to corresponding TNF-alpha/Act D-treated hepatocytes. BV suppressed TNF-alpha/Act Dtreated activation of bcl-2 family and caspase family, which resulted in inhibition of cytochrome c release and PARP cleavage. These results demonstrate that low concentration BV possess a potent suppressive effect on anti-apoptotic responses of TNF-alpha/Act D-treated hepatocytes and suggest that these compounds may contribute substantial therapeutic potential for the treatment of liver diseases. PMID:20195821

  6. Impaired expression of HIF-2? induces compensatory expression of HIF-1? for the recovery from anemia.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Ikki; Yamashita, Toshiharu; Nagano, Masumi; Kimura, Kenichi; To'a Salazar, Georgina; Ohneda, Osamu

    2015-07-01

    Erythropoiesis is strongly influenced by the interactions between stromal cells and erythroid progenitors, as well as by a key regulatory factor, erythropoietin (EPO). We previously generated mice with a knockdown mutation of Hif-2? (referred to as kd/kd) and found that these kd/kd mice exhibited normocytic anemia, even though the EPO expression was not severely affected. However, the VCAM-1 expression in spleen endothelial cells (EC), which is regulated by HIF-2?, was impaired, resulting in defective erythroid maturation. A deficiency of HIF-2? clearly led to pancytopenia. However, the critical level of HIF-2? required for erythropoiesis has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we generated HIF-2? knockdown/knockout heterozygous mice (kd/null). Strikingly, anemia was observed in the kd/null mice, but the red blood cell indices were significantly improved compared to those of kd/kd mice. In the spleens of kd/null mice, higher HIF-1? activity and expansion of the red pulp area were observed compared to those of kd/kd mice. Importantly, EC isolated from kd/null spleens showed high expression of VEGF receptors, FLK-1 and FLT-1, which are regulated by HIF-1? instead of HIF-2? under hypoxic conditions. We also found higher expression of phosphorylated ERK and higher proliferative activity in the EC isolated from kd/null mice compared to those from kd/kd mice. While the HIF-2? expression was diminished, HIF-1? bound to the HRE region in the promoters of genes that are normally regulated by HIF-2?. These results suggest that there is a compensatory pathway involving HIF-1? that regulates the expression of some HIF-2? target genes. PMID:25557133

  7. Hypoxia-induced Bcl-2 expression in endothelial cells via p38 MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Cui-Li; Song, Fei; Zhang, Jing; Song, Q.H.

    2010-04-16

    Angiogenesis and apoptosis are reciprocal processes in endothelial cells. Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein, has been found to have angiogenic activities. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of Bcl-2 in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis in endothelial cells and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were exposed to hypoxia followed by reoxygenation. Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion mouse model was used and Bcl-2 expression was assessed. Bcl-2 expression increased in a time-dependent manner in response to hypoxia from 2 to 72 h. Peak expression occurred at 12 h (3- to 4-fold, p < 0.05). p38 inhibitor (SB203580) blocked hypoxia-induced Bcl-2 expression, whereas PKC, ERK1/2 and PI3K inhibitors did not. Knockdown of Bcl-2 resulted in decreased HAECs' proliferation and migration. Over-expression of Bcl-2 increased HAECs' tubule formation, whereas knockdown of Bcl-2 inhibited this process. In this model of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, Bcl-2 expression was increased and was associated with increased p38 MAPK activation. Our results showed that hypoxia induces Bcl-2 expression in HAECs via p38 MAPK pathway.

  8. SPARC expression induces cell cycle arrest via STAT3 signaling pathway in medulloblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chetty, Chandramu; Dontula, Ranadheer; Gujrati, Meena; Lakka, Sajani S.

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectopic expression of SPARC impaired cell proliferation in medulloblastoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SPARC expression induces STAT3 mediated cell cycle arrest in medulloblastoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SPARC expression significantly inhibited pre-established tumor growth in nude-mice. -- Abstract: Dynamic cell interaction with ECM components has profound influence in cancer progression. SPARC is a component of the ECM, impairs the proliferation of different cell types and modulates tumor cell aggressive features. We previously reported that SPARC expression significantly impairs medulloblastoma tumor growth in vivo. In this study, we demonstrate that expression of SPARC inhibits medulloblastoma cell proliferation. MTT assay indicated a dose-dependent reduction in tumor cell proliferation in adenoviral mediated expression of SPARC full length cDNA (Ad-DsRed-SP) in D425 and UW228 cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that Ad-DsRed-SP-infected cells accumulate in the G2/M phase of cell cycle. Further, immunoblot and immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that SPARC induced G2/M cell cycle arrest was mediated through inhibition of the Cyclin-B-regulated signaling pathway involving p21 and Cdc2 expression. Additionally, expression of SPARC decreased STAT3 phosphorylation at Tyr-705; constitutively active STAT3 expression reversed SPARC induced G2/M arrest. Ad-DsRed-SP significantly inhibited the pre-established orthotopic tumor growth and tumor volume in nude-mice. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor sections from mice treated with Ad-DsRed-SP showed decreased immunoreactivity for pSTAT3 and increased immunoreactivity for p21 compared to tumor section from mice treated with mock and Ad-DsRed. Taken together our studies further reveal that STAT3 plays a key role in SPARC induced G2/M arrest in medulloblastoma cells. These new findings provide a molecular basis for the mechanistic understanding of the effects of SPARC on medulloblastoma tumor cell proliferation.

  9. Tissue-specific expression of a soybean hypersensitive-induced response (HIR) protein gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Koellhoffer, Jessica P; Xing, Aiqiu; Moon, Bryan P; Li, Zhongsen

    2015-02-01

    A Glycine max gene encoding a putative protein similar to hypersensitive-induced response proteins (HIR) was identified as a gene with preferred expressions in flowers and developing seeds by whole transcriptome gene expression profiling. Its promoter gm-hir1 was cloned and revealed to strongly express a fluorescence reporter gene primarily in integuments, anther tapetum, and seed coat with unique tissue-specificity. Expression in the inner integument was apparent prior to pollination, while expression in the outer integument started to develop from the micropylar end outward as the embryo matured. A 5'-deletion study showed that the promoter can be truncated to 600 bp long relative to the translation start site without affecting expression. A positive regulatory element was identified between 600 and 481 bp that controls expression in the inner integument, with no noticeable effect on expression in the outer integument or tapetum. Additionally, removal of the 5'UTR intron had no effect on levels or location of gm-hir1 expression while truncation to 370 bp resulted in a complete loss of expression suggesting that elements controlling both the outer integument and tapetum expression are located within the 481-370 bp region. PMID:25501569

  10. Alpha-Tocopherol alters transcription activities that modulate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-¿)-induced inflammatory response in bovine cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To further investigate the potential role of '-tocopherol in maintaining immuno-homeostasis in bovine cells (Madin-Darby bovine kidney epithelial cell line), we undertook in vitro experiments using recombinant TNF-a as an immuno-stimulant to simulate inflammation response in cells with and without '...

  11. Regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced apoptosis via posttranslational modifications in a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line

    E-print Network

    Kim, Ji-Eun, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    (cont.) phosphoproteomics technology, IMAC/LC/MS/MS, [approximately] 200 phosphosites were identified from HT-29 cells, some of which were detected only from insulin-treated cells. Our phosphoproteomics approach also enabled ...

  12. Glucocorticoids and Stress-Induced Changes in the Expression of PERIOD1 in the Rat Forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Al-Safadi, Sherin; Branchaud, Marie; Rutherford, Spencer; Amir, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    The secretion of glucocorticoids in mammals is under circadian control, but glucocorticoids themselves are also implicated in modulating circadian clock gene expression. We have shown that the expression of the circadian clock protein PER1 in the forebrain is modulated by stress, and that this effect is associated with changes in plasma corticosterone levels, suggesting a possible role for glucocorticoids in the mediation of stress-induced changes in the expression of PER1 in the brain. To study this, we assessed the effects of adrenalectomy and of pretreatment with the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, mifepristone, on the expression of PER1 in select limbic and hypothalamic regions following acute exposure to a neurogenic stressor, restraint, or a systemic stressor, 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) in rats. Acute restraint suppressed PER1 expression in the oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTov) and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEAl), whereas 2DG increased PER1 in both regions. Both stressors increased PER1 expression in the paraventricular (PVN) and dorsomedial (DMH) nuclei of the hypothalamus, and the piriform cortex (Pi). Adrenalectomy and pretreatment with mifepristone reversed the effects of both stressors on PER1 expression in the BNSTov and CEAl, and blocked their effects in the DMH. In contrast, both treatments enhanced the effects of restraint and 2DG on PER1 levels in the PVN. Stress-induced PER1 expression in the Pi was unaffected by either treatment. PER1 expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the master circadian clock, was not altered by either exposure to stress or by the glucocorticoid manipulations. Together, the results demonstrate a key role for glucocorticoid signaling in stress-induced changes in PER1 expression in the brain. PMID:26075608

  13. Expanding the molecular toolbox for Lactococcus lactis: construction of an inducible thioredoxin gene fusion expression system

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The development of the Nisin Inducible Controlled Expression (NICE) system in the food-grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris represents a cornerstone in the use of Gram-positive bacterial expression systems for biotechnological purposes. However, proteins that are subjected to such over-expression in L. lactis may suffer from improper folding, inclusion body formation and/or protein degradation, thereby significantly reducing the yield of soluble target protein. Although such drawbacks are not specific to L. lactis, no molecular tools have been developed to prevent or circumvent these recurrent problems of protein expression in L. lactis. Results Mimicking thioredoxin gene fusion systems available for E. coli, two nisin-inducible expression vectors were constructed to over-produce various proteins in L. lactis as thioredoxin fusion proteins. In this study, we demonstrate that our novel L. lactis fusion partner expression vectors allow high-level expression of soluble heterologous proteins Tuc2009 ORF40, Bbr_0140 and Tuc2009 BppU/BppL that were previously insoluble or not expressed using existing L. lactis expression vectors. Over-expressed proteins were subsequently purified by Ni-TED affinity chromatography. Intact heterologous proteins were detected by immunoblotting analyses. We also show that the thioredoxin moiety of the purified fusion protein was specifically and efficiently cleaved off by enterokinase treatment. Conclusions This study is the first description of a thioredoxin gene fusion expression system, purposely developed to circumvent problems associated with protein over-expression in L. lactis. It was shown to prevent protein insolubility and degradation, allowing sufficient production of soluble proteins for further structural and functional characterization. PMID:21827702

  14. Inhibition of sup 125 I organification and thyroid hormone release by interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma in human thyrocytes in suspension culture

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, K.; Satoh, T.; Shizume, K.; Ozawa, M.; Han, D.C.; Imamura, H.; Tsushima, T.; Demura, H.; Kanaji, Y.; Ito, Y. )

    1990-06-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of decreased 131I uptake by the thyroid gland in patients with subacute thyroiditis and painless thyroiditis, human thyroid follicles were cultured with interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), and/or interferon-gamma (IFN gamma), and the effects of these cytokines on thyroid function were studied in vitro. When human thyrocytes were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium containing 0.5% fetal calf serum and TSH for 5-8 days, the cells incorporated 125I, synthesized de novo (125I)iodotyrosines and (125I)iodothyronines, and secreted (125I)T4 and (125I)T3 into the medium. IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta inhibited 125I incorporation and (125I)iodothyronine release in a concentration-dependent manner. The minimal inhibitory effect was detected at 10 pg/ml. Electron microscopic examination revealed a marked decrease in lysosome formation in IL-1-treated thyrocytes. TNF alpha and IFN gamma also inhibited thyroid function in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, when thyrocytes were cultured with IL-1, TNF alpha and IFN gamma, these cytokines more than additively inhibited thyroid function. Although the main mechanism of 131I uptake suppression in the thyroid gland in subacute thyroiditis is due to cellular damage and suppression of TSH release, our present findings suggest that IL-1, TNF alpha, and IFN gamma produced in the inflammatory process within the thyroid gland further inhibit iodine incorporation and at least partly account for the decreased 131I uptake by the thyroid gland in destruction-induced hyperthyroidism.

  15. Regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression between gingival fibroblast cells from old and young rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Su-Jung; Chung, Yong-Koo; Chung, Tae-Wook; Kim, Jeong-Ran; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Kim, Cheorl-Ho Park, Young-Guk

    2009-01-09

    Gingival fibroblast cells (rGF) from aged rats have an age-related decline in proliferative capacity compared with young rats. We investigated G1 phase cell cycle regulation and MMP-9 expression in both young and aged rGF. G1 cell cycle protein levels and activity were significantly reduced in response to interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}) stimulation with increasing in vitro age. Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha})-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression was also decreased in aged rGF in comparison with young rGF. Mutational analysis and gel shift assays demonstrated that the lower MMP-9 expression in aged rGF is associated with lower activities of transcription factors NF-{kappa}B and AP-1. These results suggest that cell cycle dysregulation and down-regulation of MMP-9 expression in rGF may play a role in gingival remodeling during in vitro aging.

  16. Over-expression of LPTS-L in hepatocellular carcinoma cell line SMMC-7721 induces crisis

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Cheng; Zhao, Mu-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Jia, Di; Song, Hai; Li, Zai-Ping

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the function of the longer transcripts LPTS-L in hepatocellular carcinoma cell line SMMC-7721. METHODS: SMMC-7721 cells were transfected with LPTS-L expression construct and stably transfected cells were selected by G418. Multiple single clones formed and were checked for their phenotype. In the study of the effect on telomerase activity of LPTS-L in vitro, GST-LPTS-L fusion protein was expressed in E.coli and purified by glutathione-agarose column. Telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assays were performed to study the influence of telomerase activity in SMMC-7721 cells. RESULTS: Over-expression of LPTS-L induced SMMC-7721 cells into crisis. LPTS-L could inhibit the telomerase activity in SMMC-7721 cells in vitro. CONCLUSION: LPTS-L is a potent telomerase inhibitor. Over-expression of LPTS-L can induce hepatoma cells into crisis due to the reduction of telomerase activity. PMID:12439923

  17. Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) Attenuates TNF-Induced Pathologic Bone Resorption and Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis by Inducing A20 Expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Joon; Lim, Elisha; Mun, Se-Hwan; Bae, Seyeon; Murata, Koichi; Ivashkiv, Lionel B; Park-Min, Kyung-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    Investigations on the therapeutic effects of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) have focused on the suppression of autoantibody and immune complex-mediated inflammatory pathogenesis. Inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis are often accompanied by excessive bone erosion but the effect of IVIG on osteoclasts, bone-resorbing cells, has not been studied. Here, we investigate whether IVIG directly regulates osteoclast differentiation and has therapeutic potential for suppressing osteoclast-mediated pathologic bone resorption. IVIG or cross-linking of Fc? receptors with plate-bound IgG suppressed receptor activator of nuclear factor-? B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis and expression of osteoclast-related genes such as integrin ?3 and cathepsin K in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistically, IVIG or plate-bound IgG suppressed osteoclastogenesis by downregulating RANKL-induced expression of NFATC1, the master regulator of osteoclastogenesis. IVIG suppressed NFATC1 expression by attenuating RANKL-induced NF-?B signaling, explained in part by induction of the inflammatory signaling inhibitor A20. IVIG administration attenuated in vivo osteoclastogenesis and suppressed bone resorption in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced calvarial osteolysis model. Our findings show that, in addition to suppressing inflammation, IVIG directly inhibits osteoclastogenesis through a mechanism involving suppression of RANK signaling. Direct suppression of osteoclast differentiation may provide beneficial effects on preserving bone mass when IVIG is used to treat rheumatic disorders. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 449-458, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26189496

  18. Radiation-induced gene expression in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Jones, Tamako A.; Chesnut, Aaron; Smith, Anna L.

    2002-01-01

    We used the nematode C. elegans to characterize the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation in a simple animal model emphasizing the unique effects of charged particle radiation. Here we demonstrate by RT-PCR differential display and whole genome microarray hybridization experiments that gamma rays, accelerated protons and iron ions at the same physical dose lead to unique transcription profiles. 599 of 17871 genes analyzed (3.4%) showed differential expression 3 hrs after exposure to 3 Gy of radiation. 193 were up-regulated, 406 were down-regulated and 90% were affected only by a single species of radiation. A novel statistical clustering technique identified the regulatory relationships between the radiation-modulated genes and showed that genes affected by each radiation species were associated with unique regulatory clusters. This suggests that independent homeostatic mechanisms are activated in response to radiation exposure as a function of track structure or ionization density.

  19. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Levels in HIV-1 Seropositive Injecting Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Ownby, Raymond L.; Kumar, Adarsh M.; Fernandez, J. Benny; Moleon-Borodowsky, Irina; Gonzalez, Louis; Eisdorfer, Seth; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; Kumar, Mahendra

    2013-01-01

    TNF-? is a highly pleiotropic cytokine and plays an important role in regulating HIV-1 replication. It may compromise the integrity of the blood-brain-barrier and, thus, may contribute to the neurotoxicity of HIV-1-infection. Both intravenous drug abuse (IDU) and HIV infection can increase TNF-? activity, but little information is available on the effects of a combination of these factors on TNF-?. We investigated plasma TNF-? levels and mRNA in the peripheral monocytes of 166 men and women in three groups: HIV-1-positive IDUs, HIV-1-negative IDUs, and HIV-negative non-IDU control participants. HIV-1-positive IDUs had higher TNF-? levels than HIV-1-negative IDUs who, in turn, had higher levels than controls. TNF-? mRNA expression in peripheral monocytes was significantly increased in both HIV-1-positive and negative IDUs compared to controls. These findings show that the effects of HIV infection and intravenous drug use may be additive in increasing TNF-? levels. Given the multiple effects of TNF-? in HIV infection, additional investigation of its role is needed. PMID:19347588

  20. N-Acetylcysteine attenuates tumor necrosis factor alpha levels in autoimmune inner ear disease patients.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Shresh; Stern, Corey; Vambutas, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    Autoimmune inner ear disease (AIED) is a poorly understood disease marked by bilateral, rapidly progressive hearing loss triggered by unknown stimuli, which is corticosteroid responsive in 60 % of patients. Although the mechanism of the disease is not precisely understood, a complex interaction of cytokines is believed to contribute toward the inflammatory disease process and hearing loss. Previously, we showed the role of TNF-? in steroid-sensitive and IL-1? in steroid-resistant immune-mediated hearing loss. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), a broad spectrum antioxidant, has been effective in other autoimmune disorders. Other studies have shown NAC to have a protective adjunct role in human idiopathic sudden hearing loss, where the addition of NAC resulted in better hearing recovery than with steroids alone, although the mechanism of this protection was not elucidated. In the present study, we observed PBMCs from AIED patients exhibited higher baseline TNF-? and MPO levels compared with normal healthy controls. NAC effectively abrogates LPS-mediated TNF-? release from PBMC of both AIED patients and controls. We demonstrated that in AIED patients, the TNF-? downstream signaling pathway appears aberrantly regulated, influencing both MPO and IL-8 expression. Given that NAC effectively abrogated LPS-mediated TNF-? release and exerted minimal effects on the downstream targets of this pathway, we feel NAC may be a rational adjunct therapy for this enigmatic disease, worthy of clinical exploration. PMID:26392121

  1. Inducible expression of photoacoustic reporter gene tyrosinase in cells using a single plasmid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paproski, Robert J.; Zemp, Roger J.

    2012-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that tyrosinase is a reporter gene for photoacoustic imaging since tyrosinase is the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of melanin, a pigment capable of producing strong photoacoustic signals. We previously created a cell line capable of inducible tyrosinase expression (important due to toxicity of melanin) by stably transfecting tyrosinase in MCF-7 Tet-OnR cell line (Clontech) which expresses a doxycycline-controlled transactivator. Unfortunately, Clontech provides few Tet-On Advanced cell lines making it difficult to have inducible tyrosinase expression in cell lines not provided by Clontech. In order to simplify the creation of cell lines with inducible expression of tyrosinase, we created a single plasmid that encodes both the transactivator as well as tyrosinase. PCR was used to amplify both the transactivator and tyrosinase from the Tet-OnR Advanced and pTRE-Tight-TYR plasmids, respectively. Both PCR products were cloned into the pEGFP-N1 plasmid and the newly created plasmid was transfected into ZR-75-1, MCF-7, and MIA PaCa-1 cells using lipofectamine. After several days, brown melanin was only observed in cells incubated with doxycycline, suggesting that the newly created single plasmid allowed inducible tyrosinase expression in many different cells lines.

  2. Islet Endothelial Cells Induce Glycosylation and Increase Cell-surface Expression of Integrin ?1 in ? Cells.

    PubMed

    Spelios, Michael G; Olsen, John A; Kenna, Lauren A; Akirav, Eitan M

    2015-06-12

    The co-culturing of insulinoma and islet-derived endothelial cell (iEC) lines results in the spontaneous formation of free-floating pseudoislets (PIs). We previously showed that iEC-induced PIs display improved insulin expression and secretion in response to glucose stimulation. This improvement was associated with a de novo deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins by iECs in and around the PIs. Here, iEC-induced PIs were used to study the expression and posttranslational modification of the ECM receptor integrin ?1. A wide array of integrin ? subunits was detected in ?TC3 and NIT-1 insulinomas as well as in primary islets, with integrin ?1 mRNA and protein detected in all three cell types. Interestingly, the formation of iEC-induced PIs altered the glycosylation patterns of integrin ?1, resulting in a higher molecular weight form of the receptor. This form was found in native pancreas but was completely absent in monolayer ?-cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of monolayers and PIs revealed a higher expression of integrin ?1 in PIs. Antibody-mediated blocking of integrin ?1 led to alterations in ?-cell morphology, reduced insulin gene expression, and enhanced glucose secretion under baseline conditions. These results suggest that iEC-induced PI formation may alter integrin ?1 expression and posttranslational modification by enhancing glycosylation, thereby providing a more physiological culture system for studying integrin-ECM interactions in ? cells. PMID:25911095

  3. Particle irradiation induces FGF2 expression in normal human lens cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, P. Y.; Bjornstad K, A.; Chang, E.; McNamara, M.; Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Lin, S. P.; Aragon, G.; Polansky, J. R.; Lui, G. M.; Blakely, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    Particle Irradiation Induces FGF2 Expression in Normal Human Lens Cells. Particle radiations, including both proton and helium-ion beams, have been used to successfully treat choroidal melanoma, but with the complication of radiation-induced cataract. We have investigated a role for radiation-induced changes in the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) gene expression as part of the mechanism(s) underlying lens cell injury associated with cataract. Normal human lens epithelial (HLE) cells were cultured in vitro on extracellular matrix (ECM) originated from bovine corneal endothelial cells. This study reports evidence for rapid but transient induction of FGF2 transcripts, an increase of between 5- and 8-fold, within 0.5 h after exposure to particle radiation, followed by another wave of increased transcription at 2-3 h postirradiation. Immunofluorescence results confirm the enhanced levels of FGF2 protein rapidly after exposure to protons or helium ions, followed by another wave of increased activity unique to helium at 6 h postirradiation. This second wave of increased immunoreactivity was not observed in the proton-irradiated samples. Total FGF2 protein analysis after helium-ion exposures shows induced expression of three FGF2 isoforms, with an increase of up to 2-fold in the 18-kDa low-molecular-weight species. Studies of the effects of protons on individual FGF2 protein isoforms are in progress. Several mechanisms involving a role for FGF2 in radiation-induced cataract are discussed.

  4. EWS/ATF1 expression induces sarcomas from neural crest–derived cells in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Kazunari; Ohno, Takatoshi; Aoki, Hitomi; Semi, Katsunori; Watanabe, Akira; Moritake, Hiroshi; Shiozawa, Shunichi; Kunisada, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Toguchida, Junya; Shimizu, Katsuji; Hara, Akira; Yamada, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is an aggressive soft tissue malignant tumor characterized by a unique t(12;22) translocation that leads to the expression of a chimeric EWS/ATF1 fusion gene. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the involvement of EWS/ATF1 in CCS development. In addition, the cellular origins of CCS have not been determined. Here, we generated EWS/ATF1-inducible mice and examined the effects of EWS/ATF1 expression in adult somatic cells. We found that forced expression of EWS/ATF1 resulted in the development of EWS/ATF1-dependent sarcomas in mice. The histology of EWS/ATF1-induced sarcomas resembled that of CCS, and EWS/ATF1-induced tumor cells expressed CCS markers, including S100, SOX10, and MITF. Lineage-tracing experiments indicated that neural crest–derived cells were subject to EWS/ATF1-driven transformation. EWS/ATF1 directly induced Fos in an ERK-independent manner. Treatment of human and EWS/ATF1-induced CCS tumor cells with FOS-targeted siRNA attenuated proliferation. These findings demonstrated that FOS mediates the growth of EWS/ATF1-associated sarcomas and suggest that FOS is a potential therapeutic target in human CCS. PMID:23281395

  5. Honokiol Inhibits Constitutive and Inducible STAT3 Signaling via PU.1-Induced SHP1 Expression in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    Bi, Laixi; Yu, Zhijie; Wu, Jianbo; Yu, Kang; Hong, Guangliang; Lu, Zhongqiu; Gao, Shenmeng

    2015-01-01

    Constitutive and inducible activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling facilitates the carcinogenesis in most human cancers including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Negative regulators, such as protein tyrosine phosphatases SHP1, inhibit the activated STAT3 signaling. In this study, we investigated the effect of honokiol (HNK), a constituent of Magnolia officinalis, on the STAT3 signaling. STAT3 signaling and SHP1 expression were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting in leukemic cell lines and primary AML blasts treated with HNK. HNK decreased the phosphorylated STAT3 but not the total STAT3 through increasing the expression of SHP1. In addition, HNK inhibited transcription activity of STAT3, reduced nuclear translocation of STAT3, and decreased the expression of STAT3 target genes. Knockdown of SHP1 by small hairpin RNA (shRNA) or treatment with vanadate, a protein tyrosine phosphatases inhibitor, abolished HNK-induced STAT3 inhibition, suggesting that SHP1 plays an important role in the inhibition of STAT3 signaling by HNK. Further, HNK increased the expression of transcript factor PU.1, which had been reported to activate the expression of SHP1 via binding SHP1 promoter region. Knockdown of PU.1 reversed HNK-induced upregulation of SHP1 and inactivation of STAT3 signaling. Finally, HNK increased the expression of PU.1 and SHP1 in hematopoietic progenitors isolated from patients with AML. In conclusion, our data have shown a regulatory mechanism underlying the inhibition of STAT3 signaling by HNK. Therefore, as a relative non-toxic compound, HNK may offer a therapeutic advantage in the clinical treatment for AML. PMID:26466521

  6. The platelet-derived growth factor alpha-receptor is encoded by a growth-arrest-specific (gas) gene.

    PubMed Central

    Lih, C J; Cohen, S N; Wang, C; Lin-Chao, S

    1996-01-01

    Using the Escherichia coli lacZ gene to identify chromosomal loci that are transcriptionally active during growth arrest of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, we found that an mRNA expressed preferentially in serum-deprived cells specifies the previously characterized alpha-receptor (alphaR) for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), which mediates mitogenic responsiveness to all PDGF isoforms. Both PDGFalphaR mRNA, which was shown to include a 111-nt segment encoded by a DNA region thought to contain only intron sequences, and PDGFalphaR protein accumulated in serum-starved cells and decreased as cells resumed cycling. Elevated PDGFalphaR gene expression during serum starvation was not observed in cells that had been transformed with oncogenes erbB2, src, or raf, which prevent starvation-induced growth arrest. Our results support the view that products of certain genes expressed during growth arrest function to promote, rather than restrict, cell cycling. We suggest that accumulation of the PDGFalphaR gene product may facilitate the exiting of cells from growth arrest upon mitogenic stimulation by PDGF, leading to the state of "competence" required for cell cycling. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8643452

  7. Parthenolide prevents the expression of cocaine-induced withdrawal behavior in planarians.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, Amanda L; Pagán, Oné R

    2008-03-31

    We recently reported that parthenolide and related sesquiterpene lactones are able to prevent and reverse behavioral responses in planarian worms induced by acute cocaine exposure. Previous reports indicate that when planarians are chronically exposed to microM concentrations of cocaine, they display stereotypical withdrawal-like behaviors when the cocaine is removed. Here we report that parthenolide prevents this cocaine-induced expression of planarian withdrawal-like behaviors. PMID:18275955

  8. Individual expression of influenza virus PA protein induces degradation of coexpressed proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-Ezquerro, J J; de la Luna, S; Ortín, J; Nieto, A

    1995-01-01

    In the process of in vivo reconstitution of influenza virus transcriptase-replicase complex, an inhibitory effect was observed when the level of PA protein expression was increased. This inhibition was paralleled by a decrease in the accumulation of the other influenza virus core proteins. The sole expression of PA protein was sufficient to reduce the accumulation level of the proteins encoded by the coexpressed genes. The PA effect was observed upon influenza virus and non-influenza virus proteins and independently of the expression system chosen and the origin of cell line used. The expression of PA protein did not induce variations in the translation of the target proteins but did induce variations on their half-lives, which were clearly reduced. A functional PA subunit seems to be necessary to induce this negative effect, because an inactive point mutant was unable to decrease the steady-state levels or the half-lives of the reporter proteins. The PA effect was observed as early as 5 h after its expression, and continuous synthesis of proteins was not required for performance of its biological activity. The results presented represent the first biological activity of individually expressed PA polymerase subunit. PMID:7884889

  9. Fos expression induced by cocaine-conditioned cues in male and female rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Luyi; Pruitt, Carla; Shin, Christina B.; Garcia, Arturo D.; Zavala, Arturo R.; See, Ronald E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that female rats exhibit different patterns of drug seeking during multiple phases of cocaine addiction when compared with males. However, the underlying mechanisms for these sex differences remain largely unknown. Here, we used a cocaine self-administration/reinstatement model to examine neuronal activation, as determined by Fos expression, following cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking in male and female rats. Fos expression revealed both similarities between sexes in some brain regions, as well as selective sexually dimorphic patterns. As compared to no cue control subjects, conditioned cues induced higher Fos expression in the Cg1 region of the anterior cingulate cortex, but lower expression in the nucleus accumbens in both males and females. Females exhibited higher Fos expression than males in multiple brain regions, including the agranular insular cortex, dorsal medial caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens shell, ventral tegmental area, dorsal subiculum, and ventral CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. Notably, only Fos expression in the prelimbic cortex, nucleus accumbens shell, basolateral amygdala, and ventral subiculum correlated positively with lever responding in response to conditioned cues across males and females. These findings indicate that while sexually dimorphic Fos activation does occur, the relationship between cue-induced cocaine seeking and neuronal activation may be similar for males and females in key brain regions of the relapse circuit. PMID:23832598

  10. Myogenin, MyoD, and myosin expression after pharmacologically and surgically induced hypertrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozdziak, P. E.; Greaser, M. L.; Schultz, E.

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between myogenin or MyoD expression and hypertrophy of the rat soleus produced either by clenbuterol and 3,3', 5-triiodo-L-thyronine (CT) treatment or by surgical overload was examined. Mature female rats were subjected to surgical overload of the right soleus with the left soleus serving as a control. Another group received the same surgical treatment but were administered CT. Soleus muscles were harvested 4 wk after surgical overload and weighed. Myosin heavy chain isoforms were separated by using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis while myogenin and MyoD expression were evaluated by Northern analysis. CT and functional overload increased soleus muscle weight. CT treatment induced the appearance of the fast type IIX myosin heavy chain isoform, depressed myogenin expression, and induced MyoD expression. However, functional overload did not alter myogenin or MyoD expression in CT-treated or non-CT-treated rats. Thus pharmacologically and surgically induced hypertrophy have differing effects on myogenin and MyoD expression, because their levels were associated with changes in myosin heavy chain composition (especially type IIX) rather than changes in muscle mass.

  11. Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling changes C2C12 myoblast proliferation and differentiation by inducing Id3 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Long; Shi, Songting; Zhang, Juan; Zhou, Fangfang; Dijke, Peter ten

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of Id3 but not Id1 is induced by Wnt3a stimulation in C2C12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt3a induces Id3 expression via canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt3a-induced Id3 expression does not depend on BMP signaling activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Induction of Id3 expression is critical determinant in Wnt3a-induced cell proliferation and differentiation. -- Abstract: Canonical Wnt signaling plays important roles in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we report that inhibitor of differentiation (Id)3 is a Wnt-inducible gene in mouse C2C12 myoblasts. Wnt3a induced Id3 expression in a {beta}-catenin-dependent manner. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) also potently induced Id3 expression. However, Wnt-induced Id3 expression occurred independent of the BMP/Smad pathway. Functional studies showed that Id3 depletion in C2C12 cells impaired Wnt3a-induced cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity, an early marker of osteoblast cells. Id3 depletion elevated myogenin induction during myogenic differentiation and partially impaired Wnt3a suppressed myogenin expression in C2C12 cells. These results suggest that Id3 is an important Wnt/{beta}-catenin induced gene in myoblast cell fate determination.

  12. Blockade of stimulant-induced preprodynorphin mRNA expression in the striatal matrix by serotonin depletion.

    PubMed

    Horner, K A; Adams, D H; Hanson, G R; Keefe, K A

    2005-01-01

    Cocaine and methamphetamine (METH) induce preprodynorphin (PPD) mRNA expression in the striatum. Cocaine induces PPD expression in both the patch and matrix compartments of the rostral striatum, whereas METH induces PPD expression in the patch compartment of the rostral striatum. In middle striatum, both stimulants increase PPD expression in the patch and matrix compartments. METH and cocaine treatment also increase extracellular serotonin (5-HT). Several studies have shown that 5-HT receptors are present on striatonigral neurons that express PPD mRNA, and that 5-HT is a positive regulator of striatal neuropeptide expression. The current study examined whether 5-HT plays a role in the patch/matrix expression of PPD mRNA induced by cocaine and METH in striatum. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with p-chloroamphetamine (PCA; 8 mg/kg, i.p), a serotonin neurotoxin, 1 week prior to cocaine (30 mg/kg, i.p) and METH (15 mg/kg, s.c.) treatment. The 80% loss of 5-HT induced by PCA-pretreatment blocked cocaine-induced PPD expression in the rostral matrix compartment. Cocaine- and METH-induced PPD expression in the rostral patch compartment was unaffected by PCA-pretreatment. PCA-pretreatment also decreased both cocaine- and METH-induced PPD expression in the matrix, but not patch of middle striatum. PCA-induced 5-HT depletion did not affect stimulant-induced increases in PPT mRNA expression in the striatum. These data suggest that 5-HT plays a role in stimulant-induced PPD expression in the matrix compartment of rostral and middle striatum. Thus, 5-HT innervation may play a critical role in basal ganglia function. PMID:15680692

  13. ?-Cryptoxanthin Alleviates Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis by Suppressing Inflammatory Gene Expression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kobori, Masuko; Ni, Yinhua; Takahashi, Yumiko; Watanabe, Natsumi; Sugiura, Minoru; Ogawa, Kazunori; Nagashimada, Mayumi; Kaneko, Shuichi; Naito, Shigehiro; Ota, Tsuguhito

    2014-01-01

    Recent nutritional epidemiological surveys showed that serum ?-cryptoxanthin inversely associates with the risks for insulin resistance and liver dysfunction. Consumption of ?-cryptoxanthin possibly prevents nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is suggested to be caused by insulin resistance and oxidative stress from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. To evaluate the effect of ?-cryptoxanthin on diet-induced NASH, we fed a high-cholesterol and high-fat diet (CL diet) with or without 0.003% ?-cryptoxanthin to C56BL/6J mice for 12 weeks. After feeding, ?-cryptoxanthin attenuated fat accumulation, increases in Kupffer and activated stellate cells, and fibrosis in CL diet-induced NASH in the mice. Comprehensive gene expression analysis showed that although ?-cryptoxanthin histochemically reduced steatosis, it was more effective in inhibiting inflammatory gene expression change in NASH. ?-Cryptoxanthin reduced the alteration of expression of genes associated with cell death, inflammatory responses, infiltration and activation of macrophages and other leukocytes, quantity of T cells, and free radical scavenging. However, it showed little effect on the expression of genes related to cholesterol and other lipid metabolism. The expression of markers of M1 and M2 macrophages, T helper cells, and cytotoxic T cells was significantly induced in NASH and reduced by ?-cryptoxanthin. ?-Cryptoxanthin suppressed the expression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-inducible and/or TNF?-inducible genes in NASH. Increased levels of the oxidative stress marker thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were reduced by ?-cryptoxanthin in NASH. Thus, ?-cryptoxanthin suppresses inflammation and the resulting fibrosis probably by primarily suppressing the increase and activation of macrophages and other immune cells. Reducing oxidative stress is likely to be a major mechanism of inflammation and injury suppression in the livers of mice with NASH. PMID:24858832

  14. Neurochemical characterization of pERK-expressing spinal neurons in histamine-induced itch

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Guan-Yu; Dai, Meng-Han; Huang, Kun; Chai, Guo-Dong; Chen, Jia-Yin; Chen, Ling; Lang, Bing; Wang, Qing-Xiu; St Clair, David; McCaig, Colin; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Zhang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Acute itch is divided into histamine- and non-histamine-dependent subtypes, and our previous study has shown that activation of ERK signaling in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) is required selectively for histamine-induced itch sensation. Morphological characteristics of pERK-expressing neurons are required for exploring the mechanism underlying spinal itch sensation. To investigate whether pERK-expressing neurons are supraspinally-projecting neurons, we injected Fluorogold (FG) into the ventrobasal thalamic complex (VB) and parabrachial region, the two major spinal ascending sites in rodents. A small number (1%) of pERK-positive neurons were labeled by FG, suggesting that histamine-induced activation of ERK is primarily located in local SDH neurons. We then examined the co-localization of pERK with Calbindin and Lmx1b, which are expressed by excitatory neurons, and found that more than half (58%) of pERK-positive neurons expressed Lmx1b, but no co-expression with Calbindin was observed. On the other hand, approximately 7% of pERK-positive neurons expressed GAD67, and 27% of them contained Pax2. These results support the idea that pERK-expressing neurons serve as a component of local neuronal circuits for processing itch sensation in the spinal cord. PMID:26248539

  15. MicroRNA-203 induces apoptosis by upregulating Puma expression in colon and lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Funamizu, Naotake; Lacy, Curtis R; Kamada, Minori; Yanaga, Katsuhiko; Manome, Yoshinobu

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between microRNA-203 (miR-203) and the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (Puma) in colon (HCT116) and lung cancer (A549) cells. Colon and lung cancer cell lines were selected for this study since a relationship between p53/miR-203 and p53/Puma has been established in both cancers. In the present study, adriamycin and nutlin-3 were used to activate p53, which induced both miR-203 and Puma expression in HCT116 cells. In contrast, HCT 116 cells with downregulated p53 showed decreased miR-203 and Puma expression. Importantly, we found that overexpressed miR-203 in HCT116 cells resulted in significantly increased Puma expression (P<0.05). Based on these findings, we hypothesized that another limb of the p53/Puma axis depends on miR-203 expression. To further validate this relationship, we used lung cancer cells (A549) and found that activated p53 increased both miR-203 and Puma expression. In addition, we found that Puma expression remained elevated in cells with overexpressed miR-203 in the presence of p53 downregulation. Cumulatively, our data purport that p53 not only increased Puma expression directly, but that it may also do so through miR-203. Additionally, functional studies revealed that miR-203 overexpression induced apoptosis and inhibited cell invasiveness. PMID:26397233

  16. Inhibitory PAS domain protein is a negative regulator of hypoxia-inducible gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Yuichi; Cao, Renhai; Svensson, Kristian; Bertilsson, Göran; Asman, Mikael; Tanaka, Hirotoshi; Cao, Yihai; Berkenstam, Anders; Poellinger, Lorenz

    2001-11-01

    Alteration of gene expression is a crucial component of adaptive responses to hypoxia. These responses are mediated by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs). Here we describe an inhibitory PAS (Per/Arnt/Sim) domain protein, IPAS, which is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)/PAS protein structurally related to HIFs. IPAS contains no endogenous transactivation function but demonstrates dominant negative regulation of HIF-mediated control of gene expression. Ectopic expression of IPAS in hepatoma cells selectively impairs induction of genes involved in adaptation to a hypoxic environment, notably the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene, and results in retarded tumour growth and tumour vascular density in vivo. In mice, IPAS was predominantly expressed in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum and in corneal epithelium of the eye. Expression of IPAS in the cornea correlates with low levels of expression of the VEGF gene under hypoxic conditions. Application of an IPAS antisense oligonucleotide to the mouse cornea induced angiogenesis under normal oxygen conditions, and demonstrated hypoxia-dependent induction of VEGF gene expression in hypoxic corneal cells. These results indicate a previously unknown mechanism for negative regulation of angiogenesis and maintenance of an avascular phenotype.

  17. Selecting antagonistic antibodies that control differentiation through inducible expression in embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Melidoni, Anna N.; Dyson, Michael R.; Wormald, Sam; McCafferty, John

    2013-01-01

    Antibodies that modulate receptor function have great untapped potential in the control of stem cell differentiation. In contrast to many natural ligands, antibodies are stable, exquisitely specific, and are unaffected by the regulatory mechanisms that act on natural ligands. Here we describe an innovative system for identifying such antibodies by introducing and expressing antibody gene populations in ES cells. Following induced antibody expression and secretion, changes in differentiation outcomes of individual antibody-expressing ES clones are monitored using lineage-specific gene expression to identify clones that encode and express signal-modifying antibodies. This in-cell expression and reporting system was exemplified by generating blocking antibodies to FGF4 and its receptor FGFR1?, identified through delayed onset of ES cell differentiation. Functionality of the selected antibodies was confirmed by addition of exogenous antibodies to three different ES reporter cell lines, where retained expression of pluripotency markers Oct4, Nanog, and Rex1 was observed. This work demonstrates the potential for discovery and utility of functional antibodies in stem cell differentiation. This work is also unique in constituting an example of ES cells carrying an inducible antibody that causes a functional protein “knock-down” and allows temporal control of stable signaling components at the protein level. PMID:24082130

  18. Compressive forces induce osteogenic gene expression in calvarial osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Bjoern; Nam, Jin; Knobloch, Thomas J; Lannutti, John J; Agarwal, Sudha

    2008-01-01

    Bone cells and their precursors are sensitive to changes in their biomechanical environment. The importance of mechanical stimuli has been observed in bone homeostasis and osteogenesis, but the mechanisms responsible for osteogenic induction in response to mechanical signals are poorly understood. We hypothesized that compressive forces could exert an osteogenic effect on osteoblasts and act in a dose-dependent manner. To test our hypothesis, electrospun poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds were used as a 3-D microenvironment for osteoblast culture. The scaffolds provided a substrate allowing cell exposure to levels of externally-applied compressive force. Pre-osteoblasts adhered, proliferated and differentiated in the scaffolds and showed extensive matrix synthesis by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and increased Young’s modulus (136.45 ±9.15 kPa) compared to acellular scaffolds (24.55 ±8.5 kPa). Exposure of cells to 10% compressive strain (11.81 ±0.42 kPa) resulted in a rapid induction of bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2), runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and MAD homolog 5 (Smad5). These effects further enhanced the expression of genes and proteins required for extracellular matrix (ECM) production, such as alkaline phosphatase (Akp2), collagen type I (Col1a1), osteocalcin/bone gamma carboxyglutamate protein (OC/Bglap), osteonectin/secreted acidic cysteine rich glycoprotein (ON/Sparc) and osteopontin/secreted phosphoprotein 1 (OPN/Spp1). Exposure of cell-scaffold constructs to 20% compressive strain (30.96 ±2.82 kPa) demonstrated that these signals are not osteogenic. These findings provide the molecular basis for the experimental and clinical observations that appropriate physical activities or microscale compressive loading can enhance fracture healing due in part to the anabolic osteogenic effects. PMID:18191137

  19. Hypoglycemia induced changes in cholinergic receptor expression in the cerebellum of diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Glucose homeostasis in humans is an important factor for the functioning of nervous system. Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia is found to be associated with central and peripheral nerve system dysfunction. Changes in acetylcholine receptors have been implicated in the pathophysiology of many major diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). In the present study we showed the effects of insulin induced hypoglycemia and streptozotocin induced diabetes on the cerebellar cholinergic receptors, GLUT3 and muscle cholinergic activity. Results showed enhanced binding parameters and gene expression of Muscarinic M1, M3 receptor subtypes in cerebellum of diabetic (D) and hypoglycemic group (D + IIH and C + IIH). ?7nAchR gene expression showed a significant upregulation in diabetic group and showed further upregulated expression in both D + IIH and C + IIH group. AchE expression significantly upregulated in hypoglycemic and diabetic group. ChAT showed downregulation and GLUT3 expression showed a significant upregulation in D + IIH and C + IIH and diabetic group. AchE activity enhanced in the muscle of hypoglycemic and diabetic rats. Our studies demonstrated a functional disturbance in the neuronal glucose transporter GLUT3 in the cerebellum during insulin induced hypoglycemia in diabetic rats. Altered expression of muscarinic M1, M3 and ?7nAchR and increased muscle AchE activity in hypoglycemic rats in cerebellum is suggested to cause cognitive and motor dysfunction. Hypoglycemia induced changes in ChAT and AchE gene expression is suggested to cause impaired acetycholine metabolism in the cerebellum. Cerebellar dysfunction is associated with seizure generation, motor deficits and memory impairment. The results shows that cerebellar cholinergic neurotransmission is impaired during hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia and the hypoglycemia is causing more prominent imbalance in cholinergic neurotransmission which is suggested to be a cause of cerebellar dysfunction associated with hypoglycemia. PMID:20137086

  20. Oxidative mechanisms of IL-4-induced IL-6 expression in vascular endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Woo; Lee, Won Hee; Kim, Paul H.

    2009-01-01

    The present study is designed to investigate the effects of interleukin-4 (IL-4) on expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), as well as to examine the role of distinct sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this process. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that IL-4 significantly up-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of IL-6 in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) and C57BL/6 mice. Dihydroethidium (DHE) and dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence staining demonstrated that IL-4 significantly increased ROS generation in HAEC. A significant and dose-dependent inhibition of IL-4-induced IL-6 expression was observed in HAEC pre-treated with antioxidants, such as pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), indicating that IL-4-induced IL-6 expression is mediated via an ROS-dependent mechanism. Additionally, pharmacological inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (NOX) significantly attenuated IL-4-induced ROS generation and IL-6 expression in HAEC. Furthermore, the disruption of NOX gene dramatically and significantly reduced IL-4-induced IL-6 expression in NOX knockout mice (B6.129S6-Cybbtm1Din/J). In contrast, overexpression of IL-6 in IL-4-activated HAEC was not affected by inhibiting other ROS generating pathways, such as xanthine oxidase, arachidonic acid metabolism, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. These results demonstrate that IL-4 up-regulates IL-6 expression in vascular endothelium through NOX-mediated ROS generation. PMID:19822443

  1. Cohort of estrogen-induced microRNAs regulate adrenomedullin expression.

    PubMed

    Wetzel-Strong, Sarah E; Li, Manyu; Espenschied, Scott T; Caron, Kathleen M

    2016-01-15

    Estrogen regulates the expression of many genes and has been correlated with differences in cardiac contraction; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Adrenomedullin (Adm = gene; AM = protein) is a multifunctional peptide with inotropic actions. Previous studies have demonstrated that estrogen enhances the expression of Adm, suggesting a relationship between AM and estrogen in cardiac contraction during physiological and pathological states. In this study, female mice in a mouse model of genetic Adm overexpression, abbreviated as Adm(hi/hi), were found to express 60 times more Adm in the heart than wild-type littermates, compared with the three-fold elevation of Adm previously reported in Adm(hi/hi) male hearts. Thus, this study sought to further investigate any functional consequences of increased cardiac Adm expression and begin exploring the mechanisms that regulate Adm expression in an estrogen-dependent fashion. This study revealed that heart function is enhanced in Adm(hi/hi) females, which along with Adm expression levels, was reversed following ovariectomization. Since the Adm(hi/hi) line was generated by the displacement of the 3' untranslated region (UTR), the native 3'UTR was examined for estrogen-induced microRNAs target sites to potentially explain the aberrant overexpression observed in Adm(hi/hi) female hearts. Using a bioinformatic approach, it was determined that the mouse Adm 3'UTR contains many target sites for previously characterized estrogen-induced microRNAs. This study also determined that the novel microRNA, miR-879, is another estrogen-induced microRNA that interacts with the 3'UTR of Adm to destabilize the mRNA. Together, these studies revealed that estrogen-induced microRNAs are important for balancing cardiac Adm expression in females. PMID:26582637

  2. Transcriptome analysis of a CHO cell line expressing a recombinant therapeutic protein treated with inducers of protein expression.

    PubMed

    Fomina-Yadlin, Dina; Mujacic, Mirna; Maggiora, Kathy; Quesnell, Garrett; Saleem, Ramsey; McGrew, Jeffrey T

    2015-10-20

    The search for specific productivity (qP) determinants in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells has been the focus of the biopharmaceutical cell line engineering efforts aimed at creating "super-producer" cell lines. In this study, we evaluated the impact of small-molecule inducers and temperature shift on recombinant protein production, and used transcriptomic analysis to define gene-phenotype correlations for qP in our biological system. Next-generation RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis revealed that each individual inducer (caffeine, hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA) and sodium butyrate (NaBu)) or a combination treatment had a distinct impact on the gene expression program of the RANK-Fc cell line. Temperature shift to 31°C impacted inducer action with respect to transcriptional changes and phenotypic cell line parameters. We showed that inducer treatment was able to increase expression level of the Fc- fusion mRNA and the selectable marker mRNA from 16% up to 45% of total mRNA in the cell. We further demonstrated that qP exhibited a strong positive linear correlation to transcript levels of both the RANK-Fc fusion protein and the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) selectable marker. In fact, these were 2 out of 7 transcripts with significant positive correlation to qP at both temperatures. Many more transcripts were anti- correlated to qP, and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that those were involved in cell cycle progression, transcription, mRNA processing, translation and protein folding. Therefore, we postulate that the transcript level of the recombinant protein is a major qP determinant in our biological system, while downregulation of routine activity within the cell is necessary to divert cellular resources towards recombinant protein production. PMID:26325199

  3. AG490 inhibits NFATc1 expression and STAT3 activation during RANKL induced osteoclastogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chang-hong; Zhao, Jin-xia; Sun, Lin; Yao, Zhong-qiang; Deng, Xiao-li; Liu, Rui; Liu, Xiang-yuan

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •AG490 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells. •AG490 affects cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution. •AG490 reduces NFATc1 expression during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. •AG490 disrupts the activation of RANKL-mediated JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. •STAT3 depletion partly mimics the effect of AG490 on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. -- Abstract: Commonly, JAK/STAT relays cytokine signals for cell activation and proliferation, and recent studies have shown that the elevated expression of JAK/STAT is associated with the immune rejection of allografts and the inflammatory processes of autoimmune disease. However, the role which JAK2/STAT3 signaling plays in the receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclastogenesis is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of AG490, specific JAK2 inhibitor, on osteoclast differentiation in vitro. AG490 significantly inhibited osteoclastogenesis in murine osteoclast precursor cell line RAW264.7 induced by RANKL. AG490 suppressed cell proliferation and delayed the G1 to S cell cycle transition. Furthermore, AG490 also suppressed the expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) c1 but not c-Fos in RAW264.7. Subsequently, we investigated various intracellular signaling components associated with osteoclastogenesis. AG490 had no effects on RANKL-induced activation of Akt, ERK1/2. Interestingly, AG490 partly inhibited RANKL-induced phosphorylation of Ser{sup 727} in STAT3. Additionally, down-regulation of STAT3 using siRNA resulted in suppression of TRAP, RANK and NFATc1 expression. In conclusion, we demonstrated that AG490 inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by suppressing NFATc1 production and cell proliferation via the STAT3 pathway. These results suggest that inhibition of JAK2 may be useful for the treatment of bone diseases characterized by excessive osteoclastogenesis.

  4. miR-92a regulates TGF-?1-induced WISP1 expression in pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Berschneider, Barbara; Ellwanger, Daniel C; Baarsma, Hoeke A; Thiel, Cedric; Shimbori, Chiko; White, Eric S; Kolb, Martin; Neth, Peter; Königshoff, Melanie

    2014-08-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common and fatal form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), short, single-stranded RNAs that regulate protein expression in a post-transcriptional manner, have recently been demonstrated to contribute to IPF pathogenesis. We have previously identified WNT1-inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP1) as a highly expressed pro-fibrotic mediator in IPF, but the underlying mechanisms resulting in increased WISP1 expression, remain elusive. Here, we investigated whether WISP1 is a target of miRNA regulation. We applied a novel supervised machine learning approach, which predicted miR-30a/d and miR-92a target sites in regions of the human WISP1 3'UTR preferentially bound by the miRNA ribonucleoprotein complex. Both miRNAs were decreased in IPF samples, whereas WISP1 protein was increased. We demonstrated further that transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1-induced WISP1 expression in primary lung fibroblasts in vitro and lung homogenates in vivo. Notably, miR-30a and miR-92a reversed TGF-?1-induced WISP1 mRNA expression in lung fibroblasts. Moreover, miR-92a inhibition increased WISP1 protein expression in lung fibroblasts. An inverse relationship for WISP1 and miR-92a was found in a TGF-?1 dependent lung fibrosis model in vivo. Finally, we found significantly increased WISP1 expression in primary IPF fibroblasts, which negatively correlated with miR-92a level ex vivo. Altogether, our findings indicate a regulatory role of miR-92a for WISP1 expression in pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:24953558

  5. ZN2+ INDUCES COX-2 EXPRESSION THROUGH DOWNREGULATION OF LIPID PHOSPHATASE PTEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zn2+ Induces COX-2 Expression through Downregulation of Lipid Phosphatase PTEN
    Weidong Wu*, James M. Samet, Philip A. Bromberg*?, Young E. Whang?, and Lee M. Graves* ?
    *CEMALB, ?Department of Medicine, and ?Department of Pharmacology, UNC-Chapel Hill, NC27599; Human Studie...

  6. EXPRESSION OF THE RECA GENE OF 'PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA' PAO IS INDUCIBLE BY DNA-DAMAGING AGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Western analysis using Escherichia coli anti-RecA antiserum revealed that expression of the RecA protein of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO is induced upon exposure of the bacterium to UV irradiation or norfloxacin, a quinolone related to nalidixic acid. (Copyright (c) 1988, American ...

  7. Author's personal copy Defense gene expression induced by a coffee-leaf extract formulation in tomato

    E-print Network

    Paré, Paul W.

    Author's personal copy Defense gene expression induced by a coffee-leaf extract formulation the mechanism of action. A coffee-leaf extract formulation (NEFID) is shown to be effective in controlling sequence for PR accumulation is postulated. These results demonstrate the ability of the coffee

  8. DNA Methyltransferase Inhibitors Coordinately Induce Expression of the Human Reelin and Glutamic Acid

    E-print Network

    Champagne, Frances A.

    DNA Methyltransferase Inhibitors Coordinately Induce Expression of the Human Reelin and Glutamic activity and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) pro- tein levels. Time course Western blot analysis showed., 2005). These findings, together with studies using condi- tional DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) mutant

  9. MICROARRAY ANALYSIS OF DICHLOROACETIC ACID-INDUCED CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory


    MICROARRAY ANALYSIS OF DICHLOROACETIC ACID-INDUCED CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION

    Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is a major by-product of water disinfection by chlorination. Several studies have demonstrated the hepatocarcinogenicity of DCA in rodents when administered in dri...

  10. MosSCI and Gateway Compatible Plasmid Toolkit for Constitutive and Inducible Expression of Transgenes in

    E-print Network

    Ahringe, Julie

    MosSCI and Gateway Compatible Plasmid Toolkit for Constitutive and Inducible Expression Ahringer1 * 1 The Gurdon Institute and Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United using Mos1-mediated single copy insertion (MosSCI) transformation. We have generated promoter and 39UTR

  11. Mechanisms of crystalline silica-induced pulmonary toxicity revealed by global gene expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    Sellamuthu, Rajendran; Umbright, Christina; Li, Shengqiao; Kashon, Michael; Joseph, Pius

    2015-01-01

    A proper understanding of the mechanisms underlying crystalline silica-induced pulmonary toxicity has implications in the management and potential prevention of the adverse health effects associated with silica exposure including silicosis, cancer and several auto-immune diseases. Human lung type II epithelial cells and rat lungs exposed to crystalline silica were employed as experimental models to determine global gene expression changes in order to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying silica-induced pulmonary toxicity. The differential gene expression profile induced by silica correlated with its toxicity in the A549 cells. The biological processes perturbed by silica exposure in the A549 cells and rat lungs, as identified by the bioinformatics analysis of the differentially expressed genes, demonstrated significant similarity. Functional categorization of the differentially expressed genes identified cancer, cellular movement, cellular growth and proliferation, cell death, inflammatory response, cell cycle, cellular development, and genetic disorder as top ranking biological functions perturbed by silica exposure in A549 cells and rat lungs. Results of our study, in addition to confirming several previously identified molecular targets and mechanisms involved in silica toxicity, identified novel molecular targets and mechanisms potentially involved in silica-induced pulmonary toxicity. Further investigations, including those focused on the novel molecular targets and mechanisms identified in the current study may result in better management and, possibly, reduction and/or prevention of the potential adverse health effects associated with crystalline silica exposure. PMID:22087542

  12. Sleep deprivation increase the expression of inducible heat shock protein 70 in rat gastric mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xi-Zhong; Koo, Marcel W.L.; Cho, Chi-Hin

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To investigate if sleep deprivation is able to increase the expression of inducible heat shock protein 70 in gastric mucosa and its possible role in mucosal defense. METHODS: Rats for sleep disruption were placed inside a computerized rotating drum, gastric mucosa was taken from rats with 1, 3 and 7 d sleep deprivation. RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to determine the expression of heat shock protein 70. Ethanol (500 mL·L-1, i.g.) was used to induce gastric mucosa damage. RESULTS: RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunostaining confirmed that the sleep deprivation as a stress resulted in significantly greater expression of inducible heat shock protein 70 in gastric mucosa of rats. After the 500 mL·L-1 ethanol challenge, the ulcer area found in the rats with 7 d sleep deprivation (19.15 ± 4.2) mm2 was significantly lower (P < 0.01) than the corresponding control (53.7 ± 8.1) mm2. CONCLUSION: Sleep deprivation as a stress, in addition to lowering the gastric mucosal barrier, is able to stimulate the expression of inducible heat shock protein 70 in gastric mucosa of rats, the heat shock protein 70 may play an important role in gastric mucosal protection. PMID:11819816

  13. EFFECTS OF DIETARY FOLATE ON ARSENIC-INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Dietary Folate on Arsenic-induced Gene Expression in Mice

    Arsenic, a drinking water contaminant, is a known carcinogen. Human exposure to inorganic arsenic has been linked to tumors of skin, bladder, lung, and to a lesser extent, kidney and liver. Dietary fola...

  14. Calcineurin mediates acetylcholinesterase expression during calcium ionophore A23187-induced HeLa cell apoptosis

    E-print Network

    Tian, Weidong

    and promoter activity, in HeLa cells during apoptosis triggered by the calcium ionophore A23187 [9]. HoweverCalcineurin mediates acetylcholinesterase expression during calcium ionophore A23187-induced HeLa cell apoptosis Hui Zhu a , Wei Gao a , Hua Jiang a , Jun Wu a , Yu-fang Shi b , Xue-Jun Zhang a

  15. Microarray analysis of acaricide inducible gene expression in the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acaricide-inducible differential gene expression was studied in larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus using a microarray-based approach. The acaricides used were: coumaphos, permethrin, ivermectin, and amitraz. The microarrays contained over 13,000 probes, having been derived from a previous...

  16. Increased hepatic CD36 expression contributes to dyslipidemia associated with diet-induced obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The etiology of type 2 diabetes often involves diet-induced obesity (DIO), which is associated with elevated plasma fatty acids and lipoprotein associated triglycerides. Since aberrant hepatic fatty acid uptake may contribute to this, we investigated whether increased expression of a fatty acid tran...

  17. High cholesterol diet induces IL-1? expression in adult but not larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yina; Yoon, Jihye; Jang, Man-Young; Na, Yirang; Ko, Youngho; Choi, Jae-Hoon; Seok, Seung Hyeok

    2013-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that high cholesterol diet induced hypercholesterolemia and vascular lipid oxidation and accumulation in zebrafish larvae, suggesting that zebrafish is a new promising atherosclerosis model in addition to mouse models. However, up to date, there was no report regarding inflammatory cytokine expression during the lipid accumulation in zebrafish larva and adult fish. In this study, we first demonstrated the expression levels of IL-1? and TNF-? in high cholesterol diet (HCD)-fed zebrafish larvae, and found that although HCD induced vascular lipid accumulation, the cytokine expressions in the larvae were not changed by HCD. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in leukocyte accumulation in vessels between control and HCD fed group. But prolonged HCD induced IL-1? expression in spleen and liver compared to those of control zebrafish, and produced very early stage of fatty streak lesion in dorsal aorta of 19 week HCD-fed zebrafish. These results indicate that HCD induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerotic changes in zebrafish are very early stage, and suggest the necessity of the generation of mutant zebrafish having a disruption in a lipid metabolism-related gene leading to severe hypercholesterolemia and advanced atherosclerosis. PMID:23825600

  18. Insect and wound induced GUS gene expression from a Beta vulgaris proteinase inhibitor gene promoter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inducible gene promoters that are specifically activated by pathogen invasion or insect pest attack are needed for effective expression of resistance genes to control plant diseases. In the present study, a promoter from a serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI) shown to be up-regulated in resist...

  19. HIGH GLUCOSE INDUCES TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN HUMAN MONOCYTES: MECHANISM OF ACTIVATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Hyperglycemia induced inflammation is central in diabetes complications and monocytes are important in orchestrating these effects. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in innate immune responses as well as inflammation. However, there is a paucity of data examining the expression a...

  20. A correlation between dexamethasone inducibility and basal expression levels of retroviral vector proviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Duch, M; Paludan, K; Lovmand, J; Pedersen, L; Jørgensen, P; Pedersen, F S

    1993-01-01

    Identical transcription units inserted at different positions of mammalian chromosomes may vary widely in transcriptional activity. We have used a set of ten cell clones with random unselected single integrations of retroviral vectors to study such position effects. The vector used carries a neo gene driven by the Akv murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat that has only a weak promoter-enhancer activity in the target cell, the lymphoid cell line L691. Under transient expression conditions, the strength of the Akv promoter-enhancer in the L691 cells is increased by dexamethasone. In cell clones with single vector integrations, a correlation is observed between the non-induced expression levels and the degree of dexamethasone induction. The strongest relative induction is found for the integrated vectors with the lowest non-induced expression levels and approaches the inducibility under transient expression. These results indicate that expression levels are composed of distinct contributions from the integrated vector and from the site of integration and are best explained in terms of a model in which the sites of chromosomal integration exert variable positive enhancer effects upon vector transcription. Images PMID:8233826

  1. Multi-wavelength photoacoustic imaging of inducible tyrosinase reporter gene expression in xenograft tumors

    PubMed Central

    Paproski, Robert J.; Heinmiller, Andrew; Wachowicz, Keith; Zemp, Roger J.

    2014-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is an emerging hybrid imaging technology capable of breaking through resolution limits of pure optical imaging technologies imposed by optical-scattering to provide fine-resolution optical contrast information in deep tissues. We demonstrate the ability of multi-wavelength photoacoustic imaging to estimate relative gene expression distributions using an inducible expression system and co-register images with hemoglobin oxygen saturation estimates and micro-ultrasound data. Tyrosinase, the rate-limiting enzyme in melanin production, is used as a reporter gene owing to its strong optical absorption and enzymatic amplification mechanism. Tetracycline-inducible melanin expression is turned on via doxycycline treatment in vivo. Serial multi-wavelength imaging reveals very low estimated melanin expression in tumors prior to doxycycline treatment or in tumors with no tyrosinase gene present, but strong signals after melanin induction in tumors tagged with the tyrosinase reporter. The combination of new inducible reporters and high-resolution photoacoustic and micro-ultrasound technology is poised to bring a new dimension to the study of gene expression in vivo. PMID:24936769

  2. Amplification of small molecule-inducible gene expression via tuning of intracellular receptor densities

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baojun; Barahona, Mauricio; Buck, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Ligand-responsive transcription factors in prokaryotes found simple small molecule-inducible gene expression systems. These have been extensively used for regulated protein production and associated biosynthesis of fine chemicals. However, the promoter and protein engineering approaches traditionally used often pose significant restrictions to predictably and rapidly tune the expression profiles of inducible expression systems. Here, we present a new unified and rational tuning method to amplify the sensitivity and dynamic ranges of versatile small molecule-inducible expression systems. We employ a systematic variation of the concentration of intracellular receptors for transcriptional control. We show that a low density of the repressor receptor (e.g. TetR and ArsR) in the cell can significantly increase the sensitivity and dynamic range, whereas a high activator receptor (e.g. LuxR) density achieves the same outcome. The intracellular concentration of receptors can be tuned in both discrete and continuous modes by adjusting the strength of their cognate driving promoters. We exemplified this approach in several synthetic receptor-mediated sensing circuits, including a tunable cell-based arsenic sensor. The approach offers a new paradigm to predictably tune and amplify ligand-responsive gene expression with potential applications in synthetic biology and industrial biotechnology. PMID:25589545

  3. RNA Protein Granules Modulate tau Isoform Expression and Induce Neuronal Sprouting*

    PubMed Central

    Moschner, Katharina; Sündermann, Frederik; Meyer, Heiko; da Graca, Abel Pereira; Appel, Neele; Paululat, Achim; Bakota, Lidia; Brandt, Roland

    2014-01-01

    The neuronal microtubule-associated protein Tau is expressed in different variants, and changes in Tau isoform composition occur during development and disease. Here, we investigate a potential role of the multivalent tau mRNA-binding proteins G3BP1 and IMP1 in regulating neuronal tau expression. We demonstrate that G3BP1 and IMP1 expression induces the formation of structures, which qualify as neuronal ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules and concentrate multivalent proteins and mRNA. We show that RNP granule formation leads to a >30-fold increase in the ratio of high molecular weight to low molecular weight tau mRNA and an ?12-fold increase in high molecular weight to low molecular weight Tau protein. We report that RNP granule formation is associated with increased neurite formation and enhanced process growth. G3BP1 deletion constructs that do not induce granule formation are also deficient in inducing neuronal sprouting or changing the expression pattern of tau. The data indicate that granule formation driven by multivalent proteins modulates tau isoform expression and suggest a morphoregulatory function of RNP granules during health and disease. PMID:24755223

  4. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in radiation-induced dog lung tumors by immunocytochemical localization

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, F.L.; Park, J.F.; Dagle, G.E.

    1993-06-01

    In studies to determine the role of growth factors in radiation-induced lung cancer, epidermal growth factor (EGFR) expression was examined by immunocytochemistry in 51 lung tumors from beagle dogs exposed to inhaled plutonium; 21 of 51 (41%) tumors were positive for EGFR. The traction of tumors positive for EGFR and the histological type of EGFR-positive tumors in the plutonium-exposed dogs were not different from spontaneous dog lung tumors, In which 36% were positive for EGFR. EGFR involvement in Pu-induced lung tumors appeared to be similar to that in spontaneous lung tumors. However, EGFR-positive staining was observed in only 1 of 16 tumors at the three lowest Pu exposure levels, compared to 20 of 35 tumors staining positive at the two highest Pu exposure levels. The results in dogs were in good agreement with the expression of EGFR reported in human non-small cell carcinoma of the lung, suggesting that Pu-induced lung tumors in the dog may be a suitable animal model to investigate the role of EGFR expression in lung carcinogenesis. In humans, EGFR expression in lung tumors has been primarily related to histological tumor types. In individual dogs with multiple primary lung tumors, the tumors were either all EGFR positive or EGFR negative, suggesting that EGFR expression may be related to the response of the individual dog as well as to the histological type of tumor.

  5. Drug-loaded nanoparticles induce gene expression in human pluripotent stem cell derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajbhiye, Virendra; Escalante, Leah; Chen, Guojun; Laperle, Alex; Zheng, Qifeng; Steyer, Benjamin; Gong, Shaoqin; Saha, Krishanu

    2013-12-01

    Tissue engineering and advanced manufacturing of human stem cells requires a suite of tools to control gene expression spatiotemporally in culture. Inducible gene expression systems offer cell-extrinsic control, typically through addition of small molecules, but small molecule inducers typically contain few functional groups for further chemical modification. Doxycycline (DXC), a potent small molecule inducer of tetracycline (Tet) transgene systems, was conjugated to a hyperbranched dendritic polymer (Boltorn H40) and subsequently reacted with polyethylene glycol (PEG). The resulting PEG-H40-DXC nanoparticle exhibited pH-sensitive drug release behavior and successfully controlled gene expression in stem-cell-derived fibroblasts with a Tet-On system. While free DXC inhibited fibroblast proliferation and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, PEG-H40-DXC nanoparticles maintained higher fibroblast proliferation levels and MMP activity. The results demonstrate that the PEG-H40-DXC nanoparticle system provides an effective tool to controlling gene expression in human stem cell derivatives.Tissue engineering and advanced manufacturing of human stem cells requires a suite of tools to control gene expression spatiotemporally in culture. Inducible gene expression systems offer cell-extrinsic control, typically through addition of small molecules, but small molecule inducers typically contain few functional groups for further chemical modification. Doxycycline (DXC), a potent small molecule inducer of tetracycline (Tet) transgene systems, was conjugated to a hyperbranched dendritic polymer (Boltorn H40) and subsequently reacted with polyethylene glycol (PEG). The resulting PEG-H40-DXC nanoparticle exhibited pH-sensitive drug release behavior and successfully controlled gene expression in stem-cell-derived fibroblasts with a Tet-On system. While free DXC inhibited fibroblast proliferation and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, PEG-H40-DXC nanoparticles maintained higher fibroblast proliferation levels and MMP activity. The results demonstrate that the PEG-H40-DXC nanoparticle system provides an effective tool to controlling gene expression in human stem cell derivatives. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: ESI containing 1H NMR spectra and additional fibroblast characterization data. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04794f

  6. Expression of FSHD-related DUX4-FL alters proteostasis and induces TDP-43 aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Sachiko; Beermann, Mary Lou; Boyce, Frederick M; Miller, Jeffrey Boone

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pathogenesis in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) appears to be due to aberrant expression, particularly in skeletal muscle nuclei, of the full-length isoform of DUX4 (DUX4-FL). Expression of DUX4-FL is known to alter gene expression and to be cytotoxic, but cell responses to DUX4-FL are not fully understood. Our study was designed to identify cellular mechanisms of pathogenesis caused by DUX4-FL expression. Methods We used human myogenic cell cultures to analyze the effects of DUX4-FL when it was expressed either from its endogenous promoter in FSHD cells or by exogenous expression using BacMam vectors. We focused on determining the effects of DUX4-FL on protein ubiquitination and turnover and on aggregation of TDP-43. Results Human FSHD myotubes with endogenous DUX4-FL expression showed both altered nuclear and cytoplasmic distributions of ubiquitinated proteins and aggregation of TDP-43 in DUX4-FL-expressing nuclei. Similar changes were found upon exogenous expression of DUX4-FL, but were not seen upon expression of the non-toxic short isoform DUX4-S. DUX4-FL expression also inhibited protein turnover in a model system and increased the amounts of insoluble ubiquitinated proteins and insoluble TDP-43. Finally, inhibition of the ubiquitin–proteasome system with MG132 produced TDP-43 aggregation similar to DUX4-FL expression. Interpretations Our results identify DUX4-FL-induced inhibition of protein turnover and aggregation of TDP-43, which are pathological changes also found in diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and inclusion body myopathy, as potential pathological mechanisms in FSHD. PMID:25750920

  7. Specific inhibition of gene expression using a stably integrated, inducible small-interfering-RNA vector

    PubMed Central

    van de Wetering, Marc; Oving, Irma; Muncan, Vanesa; Pon Fong, Menno Tjon; Brantjes, Helen; van Leenen, Dik; Holstege, Frank C.P.; Brummelkamp, Thijn R.; Agami, Reuven; Clevers, Hans

    2003-01-01

    We have designed a doxycycline-regulated form of the H1 promoter of RNA polymerase III that allows the inducible knockdown of gene expression by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). As a proof-of-principle, we have targeted ?-catenin in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. T-cell factor (TCF) target-gene expression is induced by accumulated ?-catenin, and is the main transforming event in these cells. We have shown previously that the disruption of ?-catenin/TCF4 activity in CRC cells by the overexpression of dominant-negative TCF induces rapid G1 arrest and differentiation. Stable integration of our inducible siRNA vector allowed the rapid production of siRNAs on doxycycline induction, followed by specific downregulation of ?-catenin. In these CRC cells, TCF reporter-gene activity was inhibited, and G1 arrest and differentiation occurred. The inhibition of two other genes using this vector system shows that it should be useful for the inducible knockdown of gene expression. PMID:12776180

  8. Expression of IL 1? converting enzyme in 5-FU induced apoptosis in esophageal carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Li-Ying; Zhang, Yun-Han; Xu, Ping; Yang, Su-Min; Yuan, Xue-Bin

    1999-01-01

    AIM To study the role of interleukin 1?-converting enzyme (ICE) in antitumor drug-induced apoptosis in tumor cells. METHODS Morphological changes in human esophageal carcinoma Eca-109 cells after treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) were observed under light and electron microscope. Expression of ICE in the tumor cells exposed to 5-FU was examined by the immunocytochemical method. RESULTS The cells treated with 5-FU displayed disappearance of nucleoli, chromatin gathering under nuclear envelope, karyorrhexis, budding and the formation of apoptotic bodies. The expression of ICE was negative in control cells, and 5-FU could induce the ICE expression in Eca-109 cells undergoing apoptosis. The number and the staining intensity of positive cells increased with the extension of action time. CONCLUSION 5-FU may induce apoptosis in hu-man esophageal carcinoma Eca-109 cells; ICE gene may be involved in the regulation of 5-FU-induced apoptosis; and ICE protein may mediate apoptosis induced by 5-FU. PMID:11819386

  9. Hyperglycemia induces abnormal gene expression in hematopoietic stem cells and their progeny in diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Katagi, Miwako; Terashima, Tomoya; Okano, Junko; Urabe, Hiroshi; Nakae, Yuki; Ogawa, Nobuhiro; Udagawa, Jun; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Kazuhiro; Chan, Lawrence; Kojima, Hideto

    2014-03-18

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a major chronic diabetic complication. We have previously shown that in type 1 diabetic streptozotocin-treated mice, insulin- and TNF-? co-expressing bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) induced by hyperglycemia travel to nerve tissues where they fuse with nerve cells, causing premature apoptosis and nerve dysfunction. Here we show that similar BMDCs also occur in type 2 diabetic high-fat diet (HFD) mice. Furthermore, we found that hyperglycemia induces the co-expression of insulin and TNF-? in c-kit(+)Sca-1(+)lineage(-) (KSL) progenitor cells, which maintain the same expression pattern in the progeny, which in turn participates in the fusion with neurons when transferred to normoglycemic animals. PMID:24583009

  10. Reactive oxygen species induce Cox-2 expression via TAK1 activation in synovial fibroblast cells

    PubMed Central

    Onodera, Yuta; Teramura, Takeshi; Takehara, Toshiyuki; Shigi, Kanae; Fukuda, Kanji

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress within the arthritis joint has been indicated to be involved in generating mediators for tissue degeneration and inflammation. COX-2 is a mediator in inflammatory action, pain and some catabolic reactions in inflamed tissues. Here, we demonstrated a direct relationship between oxidative stress and Cox-2 expression in the bovine synovial fibroblasts. Furthermore, we elucidated a novel mechanism, in which oxidative stress induced phosphorylation of MAPKs and NF-?B through TAK1 activation and resulted in increased Cox-2 and prostaglandin E2 expression. Finally, we demonstrated that ROS-induced Cox-2 expression was inhibited by supplementation of an antioxidant such as N-acetyl cysteamine and hyaluronic acid in vitro and in vivo. From these results, we conclude that oxidative stress is an important factor for generation of Cox-2 in synovial fibroblasts and thus its neutralization may be an effective strategy in palliative therapy for chronic joint diseases. PMID:26110105

  11. HGF, EGF and Dexamethasone induced gene expression patterns during formation of tissue in hepatic organoid cultures

    PubMed Central

    Michalopoulos, George K.; Bowen, William C.; Mulé, Karen; Luo, Jianhua

    2007-01-01

    Corticosteroids, HGF and EGF play important roles in hepatic biology. We have previously shown that these molecules are required for formation of tissue with specific histology in complex organoid cultures. Dexamethasone suppresses growth and induces hepatocyte maturation; HGF and EGF are needed for formation of the non-epithelial elements. All three are needed for formation of the biliary epithelium. The gene expression patterns by which corticosteroids, HGF and EGF mediate their effects in hepatic tissue formation are distinct. These patterns affect many gene families and are described in detail. In terms of main findings, Dexamethasone induces expression of both HNF4 and C/EBP-alpha, essential transcription factors for hepatocyte differentiation. It suppresses hepatocyte growth by suppressing many molecules associated with growth in liver and other tissues, including IL6, CXC-Chemokine receptor, Amphiregulin, COX-2, HIF, etc. HGF and EGF induce all members of the TGF-beta family. They also induced multiple CNS-related genes, probably associated with stellate cells. Dexamethasone, as well as HGF and EGF, induce expression of HNF6-beta, associated with biliary epithelium formation. Combined addition of all three molecules is associated with mature histology in which hepatocyte and biliary lineages are separate and HNF4 is expressed only in hepatocyte nuclei. In conclusion, the results provide new and often surprising information on the gene expression alterations by which corticosteroids, HGF and EGF exert their effects on formation of hepatic tissue. The results underscore the usefulness of the organoid cultures for generating information on histogenesis which cannot be obtained by other culture or whole animal models. PMID:12837037

  12. TNF-? Suppressed FSH-Induced LH Receptor Expression Through Transcriptional Regulation in Rat Granulosa Cells.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Kohshiro; Kishi, Hiroshi; Imai, Fumiharu; Suwa, Hiroto; Hirakawa, Takashi; Minegishi, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    Several inflammatory cytokines regulate ovarian function. TNF-? is produced in granulosa cells under physiological conditions and has a reciprocal action on follicle development. In contrast, in pelvic inflammatory diseases, TNF-? is excessively produced in the pelvic cavity and has an adverse effect on reproductive functions. The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of action of TNF-? on the expression of LH receptor (LHR) in immature rat granulosa cells. TNF-? suppressed FSH-induced LHR mRNA and protein expression and was not associated with cAMP accumulation. By using a luciferase assay, the construct containing base pairs -1389 to -1 of the rat Lhcgr promoter revealed that TNF-? decreased FSH-induced promoter activity. In response to TNF-?, nuclear factor (NF)-?B p65 was translocated to the nucleus, and the suppressive effect of TNF-? on LHR mRNA expression was abrogated by an NF-?B inhibitor. In a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, TNF-? induced the association of NF-?B p65 with the rat Lhcgr transcriptional promoter region. NF-?B p65 and histone deacetylase (HDAC) interact to mediate expression of several genes at a transcriptional level. HDAC activity is thought to induce tight connections within local chromatin structures and repress gene transcription. Furthermore, the TNF-?-induced suppression of LHR mRNA expression was blocked by an HDAC inhibitor. Taken together, these results suggest that the interaction of NF-?B p65 with HDAC in the promoter region of rat Lhcgr might be responsible for TNF-? action on the regulation of LHR. PMID:26125466

  13. The Molecular Mechanism of Leptin Secretion and Expression Induced by Aristolochic Acid in Kidney Fibroblast

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tsung-Chieh; Lee, Tien-Chiang

    2011-01-01

    Background Leptin is a peptide hormone playing pivotal role in regulating food intake and energy expenditure. Growing evidence has suggested the pro-inflammatory and fibrogenic properties of leptin. In addition, patients with renal fibrosis have higher level of plasma leptin, which was due to the increased leptin production. Aristolochic acid (AA) is a botanical toxin characterized to associate with the development of renal fibrosis including tubulointerstitial fibrosis. However, whether leptin is upregulated to participate in AA-induced kidney fibrosis remain completely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, leptin expression was increased by sublethal dose of AA in kidney fibroblast NRK49f determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot. Data from real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed that leptin was upregulated by AA at transcriptional level. DNA binding activity of CCAAT enhancer binding protein ? (C/EBP ?), one of the transcription factors for leptin gene, was enhanced in DNA affinity precipitation assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments. Knockdown of C/EBP ? expression by small interfering RNA markedly reduced AA-induced leptin expression. Moreover, AA promoted Akt interaction with p-PDK1, and increased phosphorylated activation of Akt. Akt knockdown, and inhibition of Akt signaling by LY294002 and mTOR inhibitor rapamycin reduced leptin expression. Furthermore, treatment of LY294002 or rapamycin significantly suppressed AA-induced C/EBP ? DNA-binding activity. These results suggest that Akt and C/EBP ? activation were involved in AA-regulated leptin expression. Conclusions/Significance Our findings demonstrate the first that AA could induce secretion and expression of fibrogenic leptin in kidney fibroblasts, which reveal potential involvement of leptin in the progression of kidney fibrosis in aristolochic acid nephropathy. PMID:21304902

  14. Alcohol extracts of Echinacea inhibit production of nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-alpha by macrophages in vitro

    PubMed Central

    ZHAI, ZILI; HANEY, DEVON; WU, LANKUN; SOLCO, AVERY; MURPHY, PATRICIA A.; WURTELE, EVE S.; KOHUT, MARIAN L.; CUNNICK, JOAN E.

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that Echinacea has anti-inflammatory activity in vivo. Nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and interleukin-1beta are important mediators in the inflammatory response. The effect of alcohol extracts of E. angustifolia (EA), E. pallida (EPA) and E. purpurea (EP) on the production of these inflammatory mediators in both LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro and murine peritoneal exudate cells (PECs) in vivo were investigated. As macrophages produce these inflammatory mediators in response to pathogenic infection, parallel cultures of macrophages were studied for phagocytosis and intracellular killing of Salmonella enterica. EPA and EP in vitro inhibited NO production and TNF-? release in a dose-dependent manner. RAW 264.7 cells treated with EA or EP showed decreased killing over 24 h, although EA enhanced bacterial phagocytosis. Upon bacterial infection, RAW 264.7 cells produce high levels of NO; however, an Echinacea-mediated decrease in NO production was observed. Echinacea alcohol extracts administered orally at 130 mg/kg per day for seven days had a weak effect on NO production and phagocytosis by LPS-stimulated PECs. The results indicated that all Echinacea species significantly decreased inflammatory mediators in vitro, however, only EA and EP reduced bacterial killing. Oral administration of Echinacea alcohol extracts did not adversely affect the development and anti-bacterial function of inflammatory PECs in vivo, however, NO production was decreased during bacterial infection of PECs. PMID:18458735

  15. Global gene expression profiling of chemically induced rat mammary gland carcinomas and adenomas.

    PubMed

    Shan, Liang; Yu, Minshu; Snyderwine, Elizabeth G

    2005-01-01

    Chemical carcinogens induce both benign and malignant mammary gland tumors in female Sprague-Dawley rats. To identify gene expression profiles associated with malignancy, cDNA microarray analysis was used to compare gene expression profiles in rat mammary gland carcinomas, adenomas, and normal mammary gland. Tumors were induced with various chemical carcinogens including 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 7-12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), N-nitrosomethylurea (NMU), and 4-aminobiphenyl. The global gene expression profiles in carcinomas and adenomas were distinguishable by hierarchical clustering and multi-dimensional scaling analyses. Permutation analysis revealed 110 clones statistically differentially expressed between benign and malignant tumors (p < 0.0005). Carcinomas showed relatively high expression of several genes associated with mammary epithelial cell growth and proliferation (e.g., cyclin D1, PDGFalpha) and relatively low expression of differentiation marker genes (e.g., beta -casein, whey acidic protein, transferrin). Other categories of genes showing differential expression between carcinomas and adenomas were associated with protein homeostasis, cytoskeleton, extracellular matrix, and cell metabolism (fatty acid metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and glycolysis). Major gene families implicated in malignancy by over-expression in carcinomas included the annexins (annexin A1 and A4) and Stat family of transcription factors (Stat3 and Stat5a). The elevated expression of the prolactin receptor in carcinomas concomitant with several components of the mitogenic prolactin signaling pathway implicated prolactin/prolactin receptor/Stat5a/cyclin D1 in rat mammary gland malignancy. PMID:16316942

  16. Long-term inducible expression in striatal neurons from helper virus-free HSV-1 vectors that contain the tetracycline-inducible promoter system

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qingshen; Sun, Mei; Wang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Guo-rong; Geller, Alfred I.

    2006-01-01

    Direct gene transfer into neurons in the brain via a virus vector system has potential for both examining neuronal physiology and for developing gene therapy treatments for neurological diseases. Many of these applications require precise control of the levels of recombinant gene expression. The preferred method for controlling the levels of expression is by use of an inducible promoter system, and the tetracycline (tet)-inducible promoter system is the preferred system. Helper virus-free Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1) vectors have a number of the advantages, including their large size and efficient gene transfer. Also, we have reported long-term (14 months) expression from HSV-1 vectors that contain a modified neurofilament heavy gene promoter. A number of studies have reported short-term, inducible expression from helper virus-containing HSV-1 vector systems. However, long-term, inducible expression has not been reported using HSV-1 vectors. The goal of this study was to obtain long-term, inducible expression from helper virus-free HSV-1 vectors. We examined two different vector designs for adapting the tet promoter system to HSV-1 vectors. One design was an autoregulatory design; one transcription unit used a tet-regulated promoter to express the tet-regulated transcription factor tet-off, and another transcription unit used a tet-regulated promoter to express the Lac Z gene. In the other vector design, one transcription unit used the modified neurofilament heavy gene promoter to express tet-off, and another transcription unit used a tet-regulated promoter to express the Lac Z gene. The results showed that both vector designs supported inducible expression in cultured fibroblast or neuronal cell lines and for a short time (4 days) in the rat striatum. Of note, only the vector design that used the modified neurofilament promoter to express tet-off supported long-term (2 months) inducible expression in striatal neurons. PMID:16545782

  17. Gardiquimod inhibits the expression of calcium-induced differentiation markers in HaCaT cells.

    PubMed

    Jia, Bo; Luo, Xin; Cheng, Feng-Wei; Li, Lei; Hu, Dao-Jun; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Sheng-Quan

    2013-11-01

    Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is an important member in pattern recognition receptors families. TLR7 signal pathway is involved in the physiological process in many type cells, but the impact of TRL7 on differentiation in the human keratinocytes is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the expression of TLR7 in keratinocytes, and the effect of TLR7 agonist gardiquimod on the expression of calcium (Ca(2+))-induced keratinocytes differentiation markers in HaCaT cells. Immunohistochemistry and western-blotting analysis showed that TLR7 is expressed in basal keratinocytes of normal skin and in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT, but not expressed in the keratinocytes of psoriasis lesions. Pretreatment with gardiquimod could down-regulate Ca(2+)-induced differentiation marker expression and activate Raf-MEK-ERK and PI3K-AKT signal pathways in HaCaT cells. However, specific inhibitors studies showed that the down-regulation of the differentiation markers expression by gardiquimod was not dependent on the activation of these two pathways. TLR7 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis through regulating the differentiation of the keratinocytes, and will give a new insight into the psoriasis. PMID:24057248

  18. Among-lake reciprocal transplants induce convergent expression of immune genes in threespine stickleback.

    PubMed

    Stutz, William E; Schmerer, Matthew; Coates, Jessica L; Bolnick, Daniel I

    2015-09-01

    Geographic variation in parasite communities can drive evolutionary divergence in host immune genes. However, biotic and abiotic environmental variation can also induce plastic differences in immune function among populations. At present, there is little information concerning the relative magnitudes of heritable vs. induced immune divergence in natural populations. We examined immune gene expression profiles of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from six lakes on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Parasite community composition differs between lake types (large or small, containing limnetic- or benthic-like stickleback) and between watersheds. We observed corresponding differences in immune gene expression profiles among wild-caught stickleback, using a set of seven immune genes representing distinct branches of the immune system. To evaluate the role of environmental effects on this differentiation, we experimentally transplanted wild-caught fish into cages in their native lake, or into a nearby foreign lake. Transplanted individuals' immune gene expression converged on patterns typical of their destination lake, deviating from their native expression profile. Transplant individuals' source population had a much smaller effect, suggesting relatively weak genetic underpinning of population differences in immunity, as viewed through gene expression. This strong environmental regulation of immune gene expression provides a counterpoint to the large emerging literature documenting microevolution and genetic diversification of immune function. Our findings illustrate the value of studying immunity in natural environmental settings where the immune system has evolved and actively functions. PMID:26118468

  19. Endogenous PGE(2) induces MCP-1 expression via EP4/p38 MAPK signaling in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mingrui; Wang, Yuxin; Han, Sihuan; Guo, Shu; Xu, Nan; Guo, Jiayan

    2013-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is expressed in melanoma tissues and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) is produced by melanoma cells in vitro. However, the roles of COX-2/PGE(2) in melanoma are largely unknown. In the present study, we set out to analyze the correlation of endogenous PGE(2) with the expression of macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and to identify the signaling pathway involved. It was found that MCP-1 mRNA was heterogeneously expressed in 18 melanoma tissue specimens, and the levels of MCP-1 mRNA were positively correlated with those of COX-2 mRNA. Inhibition of endogenous PGE(2) production by a COX-2 inhibitor, COX-2 siRNA or an NF?B inhibitor suppressed MCP-1 expression, whereas treatment with TNF-? (to stimulate endogenous PGE(2) production) or exogenous PGE(2) enhanced MCP-1 expression in melanoma cells. Both the EP4 antagonist and the p38 MAPK inhibitor reduced MCP-1 production in melanoma cells, and abrogated the increased MCP-1 secretion induced by TNF-? or exogenous PGE(2). Conditioned medium from melanoma cells promoted macrophage migration, which was blocked by inhibitors of the PGE(2)/EP4/p38 MAPK signaling pathway. These results indicate that endogenous PGE(2) induces MCP-1 expression via EP4/p38 MAPK signaling in an autocrinal manner in melanoma, and melanoma cell-derived PGE(2) may be involved in macrophage recruitment in the melanoma microenvironment. PMID:23420676

  20. Intermedilysin induces EGR-1 expression through calcineurin/NFAT pathway in human cholangiocellular carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Susilowati, Heni; Okamura, Hirohiko; Hirota, Katsuhiko; Shono, Masayuki; Yoshida, Kaya; Murakami, Keiji; Tabata, Atsushi; Nagamune, Hideaki; Haneji, Tatsuji; Miyake, Yoichiro

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} ILY leads to the accumulation of [Ca{sup 2+}]i in the nucleus in HuCCT1 cells. {yields} ILY induced activation of NFAT1 through a calcineurin-dependent pathway. {yields} Calcineuri/NFAT pathway is involved in EGR-1 expression in response to ILY treatment. -- Abstract: Intermedilysin (ILY) is a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin produced by Streptococcus intermedius, which is associated with human brain and liver abscesses. Although intrahepatic bile duct cells play a valuable role in the pathogenesis of liver abscess, the molecular mechanism of ILY-treated intrahepatic bile duct cells remains unknown. In this study, we report that ILY induced a nuclear accumulation of intracellular calcium ([Ca{sup 2+}]i) in human cholangiocellular cells HuCCT1. We also demonstrate that 10 ng/ml ILY induced NFAT1 dephosphorylation and its nuclear translocation in HuCCT1 cells. In contrast to the result that ILY induced NF-{kappa}B translocation in human hepatic HepG2 cells, ILY did not affect NF-{kappa}B localization in HuCCT1 cells. Dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NFAT1 caused by ILY were prevented by [Ca{sup 2+}]i calcium chelator, BAPTA/AM, and calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporine A and tacrolimus. ILY induced early growth response-1 (EGR-1) expression and it was inhibited by the pre-treatment with cyclosporine A, indicating that the calcineurin/NFAT pathway was involved in EGR-1 expression in response to ILY. ILY-induced calcineurin/NFAT1 activation and sequential EGR-1 expression might be related to the pathogenesis of S. intermedius in human bile duct cells.

  1. Novel and tightly regulated resorcinol and cumate-inducible expression systems for Streptomyces and other actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Horbal, Liliya; Fedorenko, Victor; Luzhetskyy, Andriy

    2014-10-01

    Inducible expression is a versatile genetic tool for controlling gene transcription, determining gene functions and other uses. Herein, we describe our attempts to create several inducible systems based on a cumate or a resorcinol switch, a hammerhead ribozyme, the LacI repressor, and isopropyl ?-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). We successfully developed a new cumate (p-isopropylbenzoic acid)-inducible gene switch in actinobacteria that is based on the CymR regulator, the operator sequence (cmt) from the Pseudomonas putida cumate degradation operon and P21 synthetic promoter. Resorcinol-inducible expression system is also functional and is composed of the RolR regulator and the PA3 promoter fused with the operator (rolO) from the Corynebacterium glutamicum resorcinol catabolic operon. Using the gusA (?-glucuronidase) gene as a reporter, we showed that the newly generated expression systems are tightly regulated and hyper-inducible. The activity of the uninduced promoters is negligible in both cases. Whereas the induction factor reaches 45 for Streptomyces albus in the case of cumate switch and 33 in the case of resorcinol toggle. The systems are also dose-dependent, which allows the modulation of gene expression even from a single promoter. In addition, the cumate system is versatile, given that it is functional in different actinomycetes. Finally, these systems are nontoxic and inexpensive, as these are characteristics of cumate and resorcinol, and they are easy to use because inducers are water-soluble and easily penetrate cells. Therefore, the P21-cmt-CymR and PA3-rolO-RolR systems are powerful tools for engineering actinobacteria. PMID:25012786

  2. P-Selectin Induces the Expression of Tissue Factor on Monocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celi, Alessandro; Pellegrini, Giuliana; Lorenzet, Roberto; de Blasi, Antonio; Ready, Neal; Ready, Neal; Furie, Barbara C.; Furie, Bruce

    1994-09-01

    P-selectin on activated platelets and stimulated endothelial cells mediates cell adhesion with monocytes and neutrophils. Since activated platelets induce tissue factor on mononuclear leukocytes, we examined the effect of P-selectin on the expression of tissue factor activity in monocytes. Purified P-selectin stimulated tissue factor expression on mononuclear leukocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing P-selectin stimulated tissue factor procoagulant activity in purified monocytes, whereas untransfected CHO cells and CHO cells expressing E-selectin did not. Anti-P-selectin antibodies inhibited the effects of purified P-selectin and CHO cells expressing P-selectin on monocytes. Incubation of CHO cells expressing P-selectin with monocytes leads to the development of tissue factor mRNA in monocytes and to the expression of tissue factor antigen on the monocyte surface. These results indicate that P-selectin upregulates the expression of tissue factor on monocytes as well as mediates the binding of platelets and endothelial cells with monocytes and neutrophils. The binding of P-selectin to monocytes in the area of vascular injury may be a component of a mechanism that initiates thrombosis.

  3. Heavy metal-induced metallothionein expression is regulated by specific protein phosphatase 2A complexes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liping; Ma, Lu; Bai, Qing; Zhu, Xiaonian; Zhang, Jinmiao; Wei, Qing; Li, Daochuan; Gao, Chen; Li, Jie; Zhang, Zhengbao; Liu, Caixia; He, Zhini; Zeng, Xiaowen; Zhang, Aihua; Qu, Weidong; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Chen, Wen; Xiao, Yongmei

    2014-08-01

    Induction of metallothionein (MT) expression is involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification. To identify the key pathways that regulate metal-induced cytotoxicity, we investigate how phosphorylated metal-responsive transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) contributed to induction of MT expression. Immortal human embryonic kidney cells (HEK cells) were treated with seven kinds of metals including cadmium chloride (CdCl2), zinc sulfate (ZnSO4), copper sulfate(CuSO4), lead acetate (PbAc), nickel sulfate (NiSO4), sodium arsenite (NaAsO2), and potassium bichromate (K2Cr2O7). The MT expression was induced in a dose-response and time-dependent manner upon various metal treatments. A cycle of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation was required for translocation of MTF-1 from cytoplasm to nucleus, leading to the up-regulation of MTs expression. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) participated in regulating MT expression through dephosphorylation of MTF-1. A loss-of-function screen revealed that the specific PP2A complexes containing PR110 were involved in metal-induced MT expression. Suppression of PP2A PR110 in HEK cells resulted in the persistent MTF-1 phosphorylation and the disturbance of MTF-1 nuclear translocation, which was concomitant with a significant decrease of MT expression and enhanced cytotoxicity in HEK cells. Notably, MTF-1 was found in complex with specific PP2A complexes containing the PR110 subunit upon metal exposure. Furthermore, we identify that the dephosphorylation of MTF-1 at residue Thr-254 is directly regulated by PP2A PR110 complexes and responsible for MTF-1 activation. Taken together, these findings delineate a novel pathway that determines cytotoxicity in response to metal treatments and provide new insight into the role of PP2A in cellular stress response. PMID:24962574

  4. Genetic inactivation of acrAB or inhibition of efflux induces expression of ramA

    PubMed Central

    Lawler, A. J.; Ricci, V.; Busby, S. J. W.; Piddock, L. J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The transcriptional activator RamA regulates production of the multidrug resistance efflux AcrAB–TolC system in several Enterobacteriaceae. This study investigated factors that lead to increased expression of ramA. Methods In order to monitor changes in ramA expression, the promoter region of ramA was fused to a gfp gene encoding an unstable green fluorescence protein (GFP) on the reporter plasmid, pMW82. The ramA reporter plasmid was transformed into Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 and a ?acrB mutant. The response of the reporter to subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics, dyes, biocides, psychotropic agents and efflux inhibitors was measured during growth over a 5 h time period. Results Our data revealed that the expression of ramA was increased in a ?acrB mutant and also in the presence of the efflux inhibitors phenylalanine-arginine-?-naphthylamide, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-piperazine. The phenothiazines chlorpromazine and thioridazine also increased ramA expression, triggering the greatest increase in GFP expression. However, inducers of Escherichia coli marA and soxS and 12 of 17 tested antibiotic substrates of AcrAB–TolC did not induce ramA expression. Conclusions This study shows that expression of ramA is not induced by most substrates of the AcrAB–TolC efflux system, but is increased by mutational inactivation of acrB or when efflux is inhibited. PMID:23493314

  5. Heavy Metal-induced Metallothionein Expression Is Regulated by Specific Protein Phosphatase 2A Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liping; Ma, Lu; Bai, Qing; Zhu, Xiaonian; Zhang, Jinmiao; Wei, Qing; Li, Daochuan; Gao, Chen; Li, Jie; Zhang, Zhengbao; Liu, Caixia; He, Zhini; Zeng, Xiaowen; Zhang, Aihua; Qu, Weidong; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Chen, Wen; Xiao, Yongmei

    2014-01-01

    Induction of metallothionein (MT) expression is involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification. To identify the key pathways that regulate metal-induced cytotoxicity, we investigate how phosphorylated metal-responsive transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) contributed to induction of MT expression. Immortal human embryonic kidney cells (HEK cells) were treated with seven kinds of metals including cadmium chloride (CdCl2), zinc sulfate (ZnSO4), copper sulfate(CuSO4), lead acetate (PbAc), nickel sulfate (NiSO4), sodium arsenite (NaAsO2), and potassium bichromate (K2Cr2O7). The MT expression was induced in a dose-response and time-dependent manner upon various metal treatments. A cycle of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation was required for translocation of MTF-1 from cytoplasm to nucleus, leading to the up-regulation of MTs expression. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) participated in regulating MT expression through dephosphorylation of MTF-1. A loss-of-function screen revealed that the specific PP2A complexes containing PR110 were involved in metal-induced MT expression. Suppression of PP2A PR110 in HEK cells resulted in the persistent MTF-1 phosphorylation and the disturbance of MTF-1 nuclear translocation, which was concomitant with a significant decrease of MT expression and enhanced cytotoxicity in HEK cells. Notably, MTF-1 was found in complex with specific PP2A complexes containing the PR110 subunit upon metal exposure. Furthermore, we identify that the dephosphorylation of MTF-1 at residue Thr-254 is directly regulated by PP2A PR110 complexes and responsible for MTF-1 activation. Taken together, these findings delineate a novel pathway that determines cytotoxicity in response to metal treatments and provide new insight into the role of PP2A in cellular stress response. PMID:24962574

  6. Expression of survivin and p53 modulates honokiol-induced apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ying-Jiun; Lin, Chien-I; Wang, Chia-Lin; Chao, Jui-I

    2014-11-01

    Honokiol is a small biphenolic compound, which exerts antitumor activities; however, the precise mechanism of honokiol-induced apoptosis in the human colorectal cancer cells remains unclear. Here, we show that survivin and p53 display the opposite role on the regulation of honokiol-induced apoptosis in the human colorectal cancer cells. Honokiol induced the cell death and apoptosis in various colorectal cancer cell lines. Moreover, honokiol elicited the extrinsic death receptor pathway of DR5 and caspase 8 and the intrinsic pathway of caspase 9. The common intrinsic and extrinsic downstream targets of activated caspase 3 and PARP protein cleavage were induced by honokiol. Interestingly, honokiol reduced anti-apoptotic survivin protein and gene expression. Transfection with a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-survivin-expressed vector increased the colorectal cancer cell viability and resisted the honokiol-induced apoptosis. Meantime, honokiol increased total p53 and the phosphorylated p53 proteins at Ser15 and Ser46. The p53-wild type colorectal cancer cells were exhibited greater cytotoxicity, apoptosis and survivin reduction than the p53-null cancer cells after treatment with honokiol. Together, these findings demonstrate that the existence of survivin and p53 can modulate the honokiol-induced apoptosis in the human colorectal cancer cells. PMID:24905183

  7. Influence factors and gene expression patterns during MeJa-induced gummosis in peach.

    PubMed

    Li, Minji; Liu, Meiyan; Peng, Futian; Fang, Long

    2015-06-15

    Jasmonates (JAs) play important roles in gummosis in peach. Mechanical damage, methyl jasmonate (MeJa), and ethylene can induce gummosis on peach shoots in the field. In this study, we used MeJa (2%, w/w) to induce gummosis on current-year shoots in peach on high temperature (35°C). Based on the experimental model, we studied the influence of factors on the development of peach gummosis. Our experimental results showed that high temperature could promote gummosis development induced by MeJa. Exogenous CaCl2 treatment reduced the degree of gummosis by increasing the calcium content in shoots, which is conducive to the synthesis and maintenance of the cell wall. Using digital gene expression (DGE), 3831 differentially expressed genes were identified in the MeJa treatment versus the control. By analyzing changes in gene expression associated with cell wall degradation, genes encoding pectin methylesterase (PME) and endo-polygalacturonase (PG) were found to be significantly induced, suggesting that they are key enzymes in cell wall degradation that occurs during MeJa-induced gummosis. Genes for glycosyltransferase (GT) and cellulose synthase (CS) were also significantly upregulated by MeJa. This result suggests that MeJa treatment not only promotes the degradation of polysaccharides to destroy the cell wall, but also promotes the synthesis of new polysaccharides. We also analyzed changes in gene expression associated with sugar metabolism, senescence, and defense. MeJa treatment affected the expression of genes related to sugar metabolism and promoted plant senescence. Among the defense genes, the expression pattern of phenylalanine ammonium lyase (PAL) suggested that PAL may play an important role in protecting against the effects of MeJa treatment. Our experimental results showed that MeJa treatment can promote the biosynthesis and signal transduction of ethylene in peach shoots; they can induce gummosis on peach shoots respectively, and there are overlaps between the molecular mechanisms of gummosis induced by them, the intersection point between them remains unclear. PMID:26056992

  8. Gene expression changes induced by space flight in single-cells of the fern Ceratopteris richardii.

    PubMed

    Salmi, Mari L; Roux, Stanley J

    2008-12-01

    This work describes a rare high-throughput evaluation of gene expression changes induced by space flight in a single plant cell. The cell evaluated is the spore of the fern Ceratopteris richardii, which exhibits both perception and response to gravity. cDNA microarray and Q RT-PCR analysis of spores germinating in microgravity onboard NASA space shuttle flight STS-93 revealed changes in the mRNA expression of roughly 5% of genes analyzed. These gene expression changes were compared with gene expression changes that occur during gravity perception and response in animal cells and multicellular plants. Our data contribute to a better understanding of the impact of space flight conditions, including microgravity, on cellular growth and development, and provide insights into the adaptive strategies of individual cells in response to these conditions. PMID:18807069

  9. Expression of PGK1 By Prostate Cancer Cells Induces Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Younghun; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Jingcheng; Wang, Zhuo; Pedersen, Elisabeth A.; Lee, Clara H.; Hall, Christopher L.; Hogg, Phillip J.; Krebsbach, Paul H.; Keller, Evan T.; Taichman, Russell S.

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the solid tumors that metastasize to the bone. Once there, the phenotype of the bone lesions becomes depends upon the balance between osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. We previously reported that over-expression of phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) in PCa cell lines enhanced bone formation at the metastatic site in vivo. Here, the role of PGK1 in the bone formation was further explored. We demonstrate that PCa-derived PGK1 induces osteoblastic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells. We also found that PGK1 secreted by PCa inhibits osteoclastogenesis. Finally, the expression levels of the bone specific markers in PCa cell themselves were higher in cells over expressing PGK1 than controls. Together, these data suggest that PGK1 secreted by PCa regulates bone formation at the metastatic site by increasing osteoblastic activity, decreasing osteoclastic function, and expressing an osteoblastic phenotype by PCa themselves. PMID:19825988

  10. Signal transduction through the fibronectin receptor induces collagenase and stromelysin gene expression

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of ligation of the fibronectin receptor (FnR) on gene expression in rabbit synovial fibroblasts. Monoclonal antibodies to the FnR that block initial adhesion of fibroblasts to fibronectin induced the expression of genes encoding the secreted extracellular matrix-degrading metalloproteinases collagenase and stromelysin. That induction was a direct consequence of interaction with the FnR was shown by the accumulation of mRNA for stromelysin and collagenase. Monoclonal antibodies to several other membrane glycoprotein receptors had no effect on metalloproteinase gene expression. Less than 2 h of treatment of the fibroblasts with anti-FnR in solution was sufficient to trigger the change in gene expression, and induction was blocked by dexamethasone. Unlike other inducers of metalloproteinase expression, including phorbol diesters and growth factors, addition of the anti-FnR in solution to cells adherent to serum-derived adhesion proteins or collagen produced no detectable change in cell shape or actin microfilament organization. Inductive effects were potentiated by cross-linking of the ligand. Fab fragments of anti-FnR were ineffective unless cross-linked or immobilized on the substrate. Adhesion of fibroblasts to native fibronectin did not induce metallo-proteinases. However, adhesion to covalently immobilized peptides containing the arg-gly-asp sequence that were derived from fibronectin, varying in size from hexapeptides up to 120 kD, induced collagenase and stromelysin gene expression. This suggests that degradation products of fibronectin are the natural inductive ligands for the FnR. These data demonstrate that signals leading to changes in gene expression are transduced by the FnR, a member of the integrin family of extracellular matrix receptors. The signaling of changes in gene expression by the FnR is distinct from signaling involving cell shape and actin cytoarchitecture. At least two distinct signals are generated: the binding of fibronectin-derived fragments and adhesion- blocking antibodies to the FnR triggers events different from those triggered by binding of the native fibronectin ligand. Because the genes regulated by this integrin are for enzymes that degrade the extracellular matrix, these results suggest that information transduced by the binding of various ligands to integrins may orchestrate the expression of genes regulating cell behavior in the extracellular environment. PMID:2547805

  11. Anatomic site and immune function correlate with relative cytokine mRNA expression levels in lymphoid tissues of normal rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Abel, K; Alegria-Hartman, M J; Zanotto, K; McChesney, M B; Marthas, M L; Miller, C J

    2001-12-01

    Reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine pro-inflammatory, anti-viral and immunoregulatory cytokine mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of healthy juvenile, adolescent and adult rhesus macaques. Few age-related changes in cytokine mRNA expression levels were observed. Expression of interleukin 2 and Mx, a type I interferon-inducible gene, decreased with age, whereas interleukin 4 and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 (MIP-1) alpha and beta mRNA levels increased in older monkeys. Independent of age, the pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and chemokines] were expressed at higher mRNA levels in PBMC than the immunoregulatory cytokines (interleukins 2, 4, 12). Pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression levels were highest in lymphoid tissues draining mucosal surfaces. Thus, a correlation exists between cytokine mRNA levels in lymphoid tissues and the anatomical site. PMID:11814315

  12. Differential expression analysis of genes involved in high-temperature induced sex differentiation in Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun Ge; Wang, Hui; Chen, Hong Ju; Zhao, Yan; Fu, Pei Sheng; Ji, Xiang Shan

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, high temperature effects on the molecular pathways during sex differentiation in teleosts need to be deciphered. In this study, a systematic differential expression analysis of genes involved in high temperature-induced sex differentiation was done in the Nile tilapia gonad and brain. Our results showed that high temperature caused significant down-regulation of CYP19A1A in the gonad of both sexes in induction group, and FOXL2 in the ovary of the induction group. The expressions of GTH?, LH? and ER? were also significantly down-regulated in the brain of both sexes in the induction and recovery groups. On the contrary, the expression of CYP11B2 was significantly up-regulated in the ovary, but not in the testis in both groups. Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that there are significant correlations between the expressions of CYP19A1A, FOXL2, or DMRT1 in the gonads and the expression of some genes in the brain. Another result in this study showed that high temperature up-regulated the expression level of DNMT1 in the testis of the induction group, and DNMT1 and DNMT3A in the female brain of both groups. The expression and correlation analysis of HSPs showed that high temperature action on tilapia HSPs might indirectly induce the expression changes of sex differentiation genes in the gonads. These findings provide new insights on TSD and suggest that sex differentiation related genes, heat shock proteins, and DNA methylation genes are new candidates for studying TSD in fish species. PMID:25199961

  13. Claudin-7 expression induces mesenchymal to epithelial transformation (MET) to inhibit colon tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Bhat, A A; Pope, J L; Smith, J J; Ahmad, R; Chen, X; Washington, M K; Beauchamp, R D; Singh, A B; Dhawan, P

    2015-08-27

    In normal colon, claudin-7 is one of the highly expressed claudin proteins and its knockdown in mice results in altered epithelial cell homeostasis and neonatal death. Notably, dysregulation of the epithelial homeostasis potentiates oncogenic transformation and growth. However, the role of claudin-7 in the regulation of colon tumorigenesis remains poorly understood. Using a large colorectal cancer (CRC) patient database and mouse models of colon cancer, we found claudin-7 expression to be significantly downregulated in cancer samples. Most notably, forced claudin-7 expression in poorly differentiated and highly metastatic SW620 colon cancer cells induced epithelial characteristics and inhibited their growth in soft agar and tumor growth in vivo. By contrast, knockdown of claudin-7 in HT-29 or DLD-1 cells induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), colony formation, xenograft-tumor growth in athymic mice and invasion. Importantly, a claudin-7 signature gene profile generated by overlapping the DEGs (differentially expressed genes in a high-throughput transcriptome analysis using claudin-7-manipulated cells) with human claudin-7 signature genes identified high-risk CRC patients. Furthermore, Rab25, a colon cancer suppressor and regulator of the polarized cell trafficking constituted one of the highly upregulated DEGs in claudin-7 overexpressing cells. Notably, silencing of Rab25 expression counteracted the effects of claudin-7 expression and not only increased proliferation and cell invasion but also increased the expression of p-Src and mitogen-activated protein kinase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 that were suppressed upon claudin-7 overexpression. Of interest, CRC cell lines, which exhibited decreased claudin-7 expression, also exhibited promoter DNA hypermethylation, a modification associated with transcriptional silencing. Taken together, our data demonstrate a previously undescribed role of claudin-7 as a colon cancer suppressor and suggest that loss of claudin-7 potentiates EMT to promote colon cancer, in a manner dependent on Rab25. PMID:25500541

  14. In-vivo extravasation induces the expression of interleukin 1 receptor type 1 in human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Paulsson, J M; Moshfegh, A; Dadfar, E; Held, C; Jacobson, S H; Lundahl, J

    2012-01-01

    In order to address neutrophil activation during inflammation we assessed the expression of interleukin 1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1) following in-vivo extravasation. Extravasated neutrophils were collected from 11 healthy study subjects by a skin chamber technique and compared to neutrophils in peripheral blood. Expression of IL-1R1 was assessed by microarray, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), Western blot, flow cytometry, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoelectron microscopy (iEM). IL-1R1 was induced following extravasation, demonstrated by both gene array and qPCR. Western blot demonstrated an increased expression of IL-1R1 in extravasated leucocytes. This was confirmed further in neutrophils by flow cytometry and iEM that also demonstrated an increased intracellular pool of IL-1R1 that could be mobilized by N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLP). Stimulation of peripheral neutrophils with IL-1 resulted in transcription of NF?B and a number of downstream chemokines and the corresponding chemokines were also induced following in-vivo extravasation. The present results demonstrate that IL-1R1 is induced following extravasation and exists on the neutrophil surface, as well as in a mobile intracellular pool. Furthermore, neutrophils express functional IL-1R1 as demonstrated by the induction of chemokines following IL-1 stimulation. The results indicate a potential role for IL-1 in the activation of neutrophils at inflammatory sites. PMID:22385245

  15. Cells change their sensitivity to an EGF morphogen gradient to control EGF-induced gene expression

    PubMed Central

    van Zon, Jeroen Sebastiaan; Kienle, Simone; Huelsz-Prince, Guizela; Barkoulas, Michalis; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    How cells in developing organisms interpret the quantitative information contained in morphogen gradients is an open question. Here, we address this question using a novel integrative approach that combines quantitative measurements of morphogen-induced gene expression at single-mRNA resolution with mathematical modeling of the induction process. We focus on the induction of Notch ligands by the LIN-3/EGF morphogen gradient during vulva induction in Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that LIN-3/EGF-induced Notch ligand expression is highly dynamic, exhibiting an abrupt transition from low to high expression. Similar transitions in Notch ligand expression are observed in two highly divergent wild C. elegans isolates. Mathematical modeling and experiments show that this transition is driven by a dynamic increase in the sensitivity of the induced cells to external LIN-3/EGF. Furthermore, this increase in sensitivity is independent of the presence of LIN-3/EGF. Our integrative approach might be useful to study induction by morphogen gradients in other systems. PMID:25958991

  16. Effects of Intra-Articular Lipopolysaccharide Injection on Systemic Cytokine Gene Expression and Leukocyte Population in Young Horses 

    E-print Network

    Mueller, Carrie

    2012-02-14

    gene expression of the cytokines; interleukin (IL)-1beta (beta), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Determination of total leukocyte subpopulations and differentials was performed by Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic...

  17. Altered integrity and decreased expression of hepatocyte tight junctions in rifampicin-induced cholestasis in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xi; Zhang Cheng; Wang Hua; Xu Juan; Duan Zihao; Zhang Ying; Yu Tao; Wei Wei; Xu Dexiang Xu Jianming

    2009-10-01

    Rifampicin is a well-known hepatotoxicant, but little is known about the mechanism of rifampicin-induced hepatotoxicity. The aim of this study was to characterize the expression and localization of hepatocyte tight junctions in rifampicin-induced cholestasis in mice. Cholestasis was induced by administration of rifampicin (200 mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days or treatment with a single dose of rifampicin (200 mg/kg) by gastric intubation. The expression of mRNA for hepatic zonula occludens (ZO)-1, ZO-2, ZO-3, occludin and claudin-1 was determined using RT-PCR. Localization of ZO-1 and occludin was detected using immunofluorescence. Results showed that there was an 82-fold increase in the conjugated bilirubin in serum in rifampicin-treated mice. In addition, an 8-fold increase in total bile acid in serum was observed after a seven-day administration of rifampicin. The integrity of hepatocyte ZO-1 and occludin was altered by a seven-day administration of rifampicin. Importantly, the integrity and intensity of hepatocyte tight junctions were altered as early as 30 min after a single dose of rifampicin. The expression of hepatic ZO-1 and ZO-2 mRNA was significantly decreased, beginning as early as 30 min and remaining a lower level 12 h after a single dose of rifampicin. Taken together, these results suggest that the altered integrity and internalization of hepatocyte tight junctions are associated with rifampicin-induced cholestasis.

  18. Single Cell Gene Expression Analysis in Injury-Induced Collective Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Riahi, Reza; Long, Min; Yang, Yongliang; Dean, Zachary; Zhang, Donna D.; Slepian, Marvin J.; Wong, Pak Kin

    2014-01-01

    Collective cell behavior in response to mechanical injury is central to various regenerative and pathological processes. Using a double-stranded locked nucleic acid probe for monitoring real-time intracellular gene expression, we examined the spatiotemporal response of epithelial cells during injury-induced collective migration and compared to the blocker assay with minimal injury as control. We showed that cells ~150 µm from the wound edge exhibit a gradient in response to mechanical injury, expressing different genes depending on the wounding process. While release of contact inhibition is sufficient to trigger the migratory behavior, cell injury additionally induces reactive oxygen species, Nrf2 protein, and stress response genes, including heat shock protein 70 and heme oxygenase-1, in a spatiotemporal manner. Furthermore, we show that Nrf2 has an inhibitory role in injury-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition, suggesting a potential autoregulatory mechanism in injury-induced response. Taken together, our single-cell gene expression analyses reveal modular cell responses to mechanical injury, manipulation of which may afford novel strategies for tissue repair and prevention of tumor invasion in the future. PMID:24336811

  19. Differential gene expression and lipid metabolism in fatty liver induced by acute ethanol treatment in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Yin Huquan; Kim, Mingoo; Kim, Ju-Han; Kong, Gu; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Yoon, Byung-IL; Lee, Mi-Ock; Lee, Byung-Hoon

    2007-09-15

    Ethanol induces cumulative liver damage including steatosis, steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. The aim of this study is to investigate the global intrahepatic gene expression profile in the mouse liver treated with ethanol. A single oral dose of 0.5 or 5 g/kg ethanol was administered to male ICR mice, and liver samples were obtained after 6, 24 and 72 h. Histopathological evaluation showed typical fatty livers in the high-dose group at 24 h. Microarray analysis identified 28 genes as being ethanol responsive (two-way ANOVA; p < 0.05), after adjustment by the Benjamini-Hochberg multiple testing correction; these genes displayed {>=} 2-fold induction or repression. The expression of genes that are known to be involved in fatty acid synthesis was examined. The transcript for lipogenic transcription factor, sterol regulatory element (SRE)-binding factor 1 (Srebf1), was upregulated by acute ethanol exposure. Of the genes known to contain SRE or SRE-like sequences and to be regulated by SRE-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), those encoding malic enzyme (Mod1), ATP-citrate lyase (Acly), fatty acid synthase (Fasn) and stearyl-CoA desaturase (Scd1) were induced by ethanol. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed the changes in the expression levels of the selected genes. The change in the Srebf1 mRNA level correlates well with that of the SREBP1 protein expression as well as its binding to the promoters of the target genes. The present study identifies differentially expressed genes that can be applied to the biomarkers for alcohol-binge-induced fatty liver. These results support the hypothesis by which ethanol-induced steatosis in mice is mediated by the fatty acid synthetic pathway regulated by SREBP1.

  20. Shear stress-induced changes of membrane transporter localization and expression in mouse proximal tubule cells

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Yi; Weinstein, Alan M.; Weinbaum, Sheldon; Wang, Tong

    2010-01-01

    Our previous studies of microperfused single proximal tubule showed that flow-dependent Na+ and HCO3? reabsorption is due to a modulation of both NHE3 and vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) activity. An intact actin cytoskeleton was indicated to provide a structural framework for proximal tubule cells to transmit mechanical forces and subsequently modulate cellular functions. In this study, we have used mouse proximal tubule (MPT) cells as a model to study the role of fluid shear stress (FSS) on apical NHE3 and V-ATPase and basolateral Na/K-ATPase trafficking and expression. Our hypothesis is that FSS stimulates both apical and basolateral transporter expression and trafficking, which subsequently mediates salt and volume reabsorption. We exposed MPT cells to 0.2 dynes/cm2 FSS for 3 h and performed confocal microscopy and Western blot analysis to compare the localization and expression of both apical and basolateral transporters in control cells and cells subjected to FSS. Our findings show that FSS leads to an increment in the amount of protein expression, and a translocation of apical NHE3 and V-ATPase from the intracellular compartment to the apical plasma membrane and Na/K-ATPase to the basolateral membrane. Disrupting actin by cytochalasin D blocks the FSS-induced changes in NHE3 and Na/K-ATPase, but not V-ATPase. In contrast, FSS-induced V-ATPase redistribution and expression are largely inhibited by colchicine, an agent that blocks microtubule polymerization. Our findings suggest that the actin cytoskeleton plays an important role in FSS-induced NHE3 and Na/K-ATPase trafficking, and an intact microtubule network is critical in FSS-induced modulation of V-ATPase in proximal tubule cells. PMID:21106755

  1. PI3K and ERK-Induced Rac1 Activation Mediates Hypoxia-Induced HIF-1? Expression in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jun; Xu, Rui; Hu, Zhenzhen; Tian, Yinhui; Zhu, Yichao; Gu, Luo; Zhou, Lei

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1?) expression induced by hypoxia plays a critical role in promoting tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of HIF-1? in tumor cells remain unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we reported that hypoxia could induce HIF-1? and VEGF expression accompanied by Rac1 activation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Blockade of Rac1 activation with ectopic expression of an inactive mutant form of Rac1 (T17N) or Rac1 siRNA downregulated hypoxia-induced HIF-1? and VEGF expression. Furthermore, Hypoxia increased PI3K and ERK signaling activity. Both PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and ERK inhibitor U0126 suppressed hypoxia-induced Rac1 activation as well as HIF-1? expression. Moreover, hypoxia treatment resulted in a remarkable production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). N-acetyl-L-cysteine, a scavenger of ROS, inhibited hypoxia-induced ROS generation, PI3K, ERK and Rac1 activation as well as HIF-1? expression. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, our study demonstrated that hypoxia-induced HIF-1? expression involves a cascade of signaling events including ROS generation, activation of PI3K and ERK signaling, and subsequent activation of Rac1. PMID:21980400

  2. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-induced gene expression in vitro: concordance with in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Snyder-Talkington, Brandi N; Dong, Chunlin; Zhao, Xiangyi; Dymacek, Julian; Porter, Dale W; Wolfarth, Michael G; Castranova, Vincent; Qian, Yong; Guo, Nancy L

    2015-02-01

    There is a current interest in reducing the in vivo toxicity testing of nanomaterials in animals by increasing toxicity testing using in vitro cellular assays; however, toxicological results are seldom concordant between in vivo and in vitro models. This study compared global multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-induced gene expression from human lung epithelial and microvascular endothelial cells in monoculture and coculture with gene expression from mouse lungs exposed to MWCNT. Using a cutoff of 10% false discovery rate and 1.5 fold change, we determined that there were more concordant genes (gene expression both up- or downregulated in vivo and in vitro) expressed in both cell types in coculture than in monoculture. When reduced to only those genes involved in inflammation and fibrosis, known outcomes of in vivo MWCNT exposure, there were more disease-related concordant genes expressed in coculture than monoculture. Additionally, different cellular signaling pathways are activated in response to MWCNT dependent upon culturing conditions. As coculture gene expression better correlated with in vivo gene expression, we suggest that cellular cocultures may offer enhanced in vitro models for nanoparticle risk assessment and the reduction of in vivo toxicological testing. PMID:25511174

  3. Applying an Inducible Expression System to Study Interference of Bacterial Virulence Factors with Intracellular Signaling.

    PubMed

    Berens, Christian; Bisle, Stephanie; Klingenbeck, Leonie; Lührmann, Anja

    2015-01-01

    The technique presented here allows one to analyze at which step a target protein, or alternatively a small molecule, interacts with the components of a signaling pathway. The method is based, on the one hand, on the inducible expression of a specific protein to initiate a signaling event at a defined and predetermined step in the selected signaling cascade. Concomitant expression, on the other hand, of the gene of interest then allows the investigator to evaluate if the activity of the expressed target protein is located upstream or downstream of the initiated signaling event, depending on the readout of the signaling pathway that is obtained. Here, the apoptotic cascade was selected as a defined signaling pathway to demonstrate protocol functionality. Pathogenic bacteria, such as Coxiella burnetii, translocate effector proteins that interfere with host cell death induction in the host cell to ensure bacterial survival in the cell and to promote their dissemination in the organism. The C. burnetii effector protein CaeB effectively inhibits host cell death after induction of apoptosis with UV-light or with staurosporine. To narrow down at which step CaeB interferes with the propagation of the apoptotic signal, selected proteins with well-characterized pro-apoptotic activity were expressed transiently in a doxycycline-inducible manner. If CaeB acts upstream of these proteins, apoptosis will proceed unhindered. If CaeB acts downstream, cell death will be inhibited. The test proteins selected were Bax, which acts at the level of the mitochondria, and caspase 3, which is the major executioner protease. CaeB interferes with cell death induced by Bax expression, but not by caspase 3 expression. CaeB, thus, interacts with the apoptotic cascade between these two proteins. PMID:26168006

  4. Defects in cytochrome c oxidase expression induce a metabolic shift to glycolysis and carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Dawei W.; Srinivasan, Satish; Guha, Manti; Avadhani, Narayan G.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial metabolic dysfunction is often seen in cancers. This paper shows that the defect in a mitochondrial electron transport component, the cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), leads to increased glycolysis and carcinogenesis. Using whole genome microarray expression analysis we show that genetic silencing of the CcO subunit Cox4i1 in mouse C2C12 myoblasts resulted in metabolic shift to glycolysis, activated a retrograde stress signaling, and induced carcinogenesis. In the knockdown cells, the expression of Cox4i1 was less than 5% of the control and the expression of the irreversible glycolytic enzymes (Hk1, Pfkm and Pkm) increased two folds, facilitating metabolic shift to glycolysis. The expression of Ca2+ sensitive Calcineurin (Ppp3ca) and the expression of PI3-kinase (Pik3r4 and Pik3cb) increased by two folds. This Ca2+/Calcineurin/PI3K retrograde stress signaling induced the up-regulation of many nuclear genes involved in tumor progression. Overall, we found 1047 genes with 2-folds expression change (with p-value less than 0.01) between the knockdown and the control, among which were 35 up-regulated genes in pathways in cancer (enrichment p-value less than 10? 5). Functional analysis revealed that the up-regulated genes in pathways in cancer were dominated by genes in signal transduction, regulation of transcription and PI3K signaling pathway. These results suggest that a defect in CcO complex initiates a retrograde signaling which can induce tumor progression. Physiological studies of these cells and esophageal tumors from human patients support these results. GEO accession number = GSE68525.

  5. Synergistic effects of gamma interferon on inflammatory mediators that induce interleukin-6 gene expression and secretion by human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nagineni, C N; Detrick, B; Hooks, J J

    1994-09-01

    The retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell is a potent regulatory cell within the retina. It helps to maintain normal retinal activity, and following gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) exposure, it may express major histocompatibility complex class II molecules and function as an antigen-presenting cell. Since interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6 are potent cytokines observed in ocular inflammatory processes, we initiated studies to evaluate conditions which enable RPE cells to produce these cytokines. Cultures of human RPE cells from two eye donors were established and characterized, and enzyme immunoassays were employed to screen for IL-1 and IL-6 production. Treatment of RPE cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-1, or IFN-gamma resulted in a significant level of secretion of IL-6. In contrast, treatment with recombinant epidermal growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, or transforming growth factor alpha, or LPS can dramatically augment the secretion of IL-6 by RPE cells. Thus, these inflammatory mediators can act alone or synergistically with IFN-gamma to activate RPE cells and dramatically increase the expression and secretion of IL-6. In contrast, IL-1 was not detected following stimulation with any of the above-mentioned cytokines or LPS. Characterization of IL-6 protein production by RPE cells revealed that 98% of the protein is promptly secreted by the cell, its induction is dependent upon the time and concentration of the stimulant, and the continuous presence of the stimulant is required for IL-6 production. Moreover, Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of secreted proteins revealed that IL-6 was produced in multiple molecular forms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8556503

  6. UVB-induced gene expression in the skin of Xiphophorus maculatus Jp 163 B.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kuan; Boswell, Mikki; Walter, Dylan J; Downs, Kevin P; Gaston-Pravia, Kimberly; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Shen, Yingjia; Mitchell, David L; Walter, Ronald B

    2014-06-01

    Xiphophorus fish and interspecies hybrids represent long-standing models to study the genetics underlying spontaneous and induced tumorigenesis. The recent release of the Xiphophorus maculatus genome sequence will allow global genetic regulation studies of genes involved in the inherited susceptibility to UVB-induced melanoma within select backcross hybrids. As a first step toward this goal, we report results of an RNA-Seq approach to identify genes and pathways showing modulated transcription within the skin of X. maculatus Jp 163 B upon UVB exposure. X. maculatus Jp 163 B were exposed to various doses of UVB followed by RNA-Seq analysis at each dose to investigate overall gene expression in each sample. A total of 357 genes with a minimum expression change of 4-fold (p-adj<0.05) were identified as responsive to UVB. The molecular genetic response of Xiphophorus skin to UVB exposure permitted assessment of; (1) the basal expression level of each transcript for each skin sample, (2) the changes in expression levels for each gene in the transcriptome upon exposure to increasing doses of UVB, and (3) clusters of genes that exhibit similar patterns of change in expression upon UVB exposure. These data provide a foundation for understanding the molecular genetic response of fish skin to UVB exposure. PMID:24556253

  7. Hexane Extract of Orthosiphon stamineus Induces Insulin Expression and Prevents Glucotoxicity in INS-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hae-Jung; Choi, Yoon-Jung; Park, So-Young; Kim, Jong-Yeon; Won, Kyu-Chang; Son, Jong-Keun

    2015-01-01

    Background Hyperglycemia, a characteristic feature of diabetes, induces glucotoxicity in pancreatic ?-cells, resulting in further impairment of insulin secretion and worsening glycemic control. Thus, preservation of insulin secretory capacity is essential for the management of type 2 diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the ability of an Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) extract to prevent glucotoxicity in insulin-producing cells. Methods We measured insulin mRNA expression and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in OS-treated INS-1 cells after exposure to a high glucose (HG; 30 mM) concentration. Results The hexane extract of OS elevated mRNA expression of insulin as well as pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1 of INS-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The hexane OS extract also increased the levels of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, Akt phosphorylation was elevated by treatment with 100 and 200 µmol of the hexane OS extract. Three days of HG exposure suppressed insulin mRNA expression and GSIS; these expressions were restored by treatment with the hexane OS extract. HG elevated peroxide levels in the INS-1 cells. These levels were unaffected by OS treatment under both normal and hyperglycemic conditions. Conclusion Our results suggested that the hexane extract of OS elevates insulin mRNA expression and prevents glucotoxicity induced by a 3-day treatment with HG. This was associated with the activation of PI-3K and Akt. PMID:25729713

  8. Gene Expression During Imidacloprid-Induced Hormesis in Green Peach Aphid

    PubMed Central

    Ayyanath, Murali-Mohan; Cutler, G. Christopher; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia D.; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan; Kandasamy, Saveetha; Prithiviraj, Kalyani

    2014-01-01

    Imidacloprid-induced hormesis in the form of stimulated reproduction has previously been reported in green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. Changes in gene expression accompanying this hormetic response have not been previously investigated. In this study, expression of stress response (Hsp60), dispersal (OSD, TOL and ANT), and developmental (FPPS I) genes were examined for two generations during imidacloprid-induced reproductive stimulation in M. persicae. Global DNA methylation was also measured to test the hypothesis that changes in gene expression are heritable. At hormetic concentrations, down-regulation of Hsp60 was followed by up-regulation of this gene in the subsequent generation. Likewise, expression of dispersal-related genes and FPPS I varied with concentration, life stage, and generation. These results indicate that reproductive hormesis in M. persicae is accompanied by a complex transgenerational pattern of up- and down-regulation of genes that likely reflects trade-offs in gene expression and related physiological processes during the phenotypic dose-response. Moreover, DNA methylation in second generation M. persicae occurred at higher doses than in first-generation aphids, suggesting that heritable adaptability to low doses of the stressor might have occurred. PMID:25249837

  9. Gene expression profiling identifies the novel role of immunoproteasome in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Jie; Wei, Sheng-Nan; Zeng, Xiang-Jun; Xia, Yun-Long; Du, Jie; Li, Hui-Hua

    2015-07-01

    The most well-known cause of chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity is doxorubicin (DOX). The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is the main cellular machinery for protein degradation in eukaryotic cells. However, the expression pattern of the UPS in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity remains unclear. C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of DOX (15mg/kg). After 1, 3 and 5 days, cardiac function and apoptosis were detected with echocardiography and TUNEL assay. Microarray assay and qPCR analysis were also performed at day 5. We found that DOX caused a significant decrease in cardiac function at day 5 and increase in cardiomyocyte apoptosis at days 3 and 5. Microarray data revealed that totally 1185 genes were significantly regulated in DOX-treated heart, and genes involved in apoptosis and the UPS were mostly altered. Among them, the expression of 3 immunoproteasome catalytic subunits (?1i, ?2i and ?5i) was markedly down-regulated. Moreover, DOX significantly decreased proteasome activities and enhanced polyubiquitinated proteins in the heart. Importantly, overexpression of immunoproteasome catalytic subunits (?1i, ?2i or ?5i) significantly attenuated DOX-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and other UPS gene expression while knockdown of them significantly increased DOX-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. These effects were partially associated with increased degradation of multiple pro-apoptotic proteins. In conclusion, our studies suggest that immunoproteasome plays an important role in DOX-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and may be a novel therapeutic target for prevention of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:25896364

  10. Anti-inflammatory effect of resveratrol on TNF-{alpha}-induced MCP-1 expression in adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Jian; Yong Wei; Wu Xiaohong; Yu Ying; Lv Jinghuan; Liu Cuiping; Mao Xiaodong; Zhu Yunxia; Xu Kuanfeng; Han Xiao Liu Chao

    2008-05-02

    Chronic low-grade inflammation characterized by adipose tissue macrophage accumulation and abnormal cytokine production is a key feature of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Adipose-tissue-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, induced by cytokines, has been shown to play an essential role in the early events during macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue. In this study we investigated the effects of resveratrol upon both tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}-induced MCP-1 gene expression and its underlying signaling pathways in 3T3-L1 adipoctyes. Resveratrol was found to inhibit TNF-{alpha}-induced MCP-1 secretion and gene transcription, as well as promoter activity, which based on down-regulation of TNF-{alpha}-induced MCP-1 transcription. Nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B was determined to play a major role in the TNF-{alpha}-induced MCP-1 expression. Further analysis showed that resveratrol inhibited DNA binding activity of the NF-{kappa}B complex and subsequently suppressed NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity in TNF-{alpha}-stimulated cells. Finally, the inhibition of MCP-1 may represent a novel mechanism of resveratrol in preventing obesity-related pathologies.

  11. The 55-kD tumor necrosis factor receptor on human keratinocytes is regulated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha and by ultraviolet B radiation.

    PubMed Central

    Trefzer, U; Brockhaus, M; Lötscher, H; Parlow, F; Budnik, A; Grewe, M; Christoph, H; Kapp, A; Schöpf, E; Luger, T A

    1993-01-01

    In previous studies we showed that cultured human keratinocytes expressed the 55-kD TNF receptor (TNFR) and that its expression the important for TNF alpha-mediated upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression on keratinocytes. Because factors that either reduce or enhance TNFR expression are likely to have a major impact on the biological effects of TNF alpha on keratinocytes, these studies were conducted to determine the factors that regulate its expression on keratinocytes. Using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, human keratinocytes were shown to lack 75-kD TNFR expression, indicating that TNF responsiveness of human keratinocytes critically depended on regulation of 55-kD TNFR expression. Human keratinocyte 55-kD TNFR surface and mRNA expression was found to be regulated in vitro by recombinant human (rh) TNF alpha. Stimulation of keratinocytes with rhTNF alpha initially decreased, but later increased, 55-kD TNFR surface expression. This biphasic modulation of 55-kD TNFR surface expression was associated with concomitant changes in 55-kD TNFR mRNA expression. Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, a well-known inducer of synthesis and secretion of TNF alpha by human keratinocytes, was found to mimic TNF alpha-induced modulation of 55-kD TNFR surface and mRNA expression via a TNF alpha-mediated autocrine regulatory mechanism. Production of soluble 55-kD TNFR by human keratinocytes remained unaffected by TNF alpha stimulation or UVB irradiation. These studies provide clear evidence that membrane expression of the human 55-kD TNFR may be regulated in human keratinocytes by the ligand itself: TNF alpha. Since in previous studies UVB irradiation transiently inhibited TNF alpha-induced human keratinocyte ICAM-1 expression, it is proposed that UVB radiation-induced biphasic modulation of human keratinocyte 55-kD TNFR expression may affect the capacity of these cells to respond to TNF alpha. Images PMID:8392091

  12. Analysis of expression pathways alterations of Arabidopsis thaliana induced by a Necrosis- and Ethylene-inducing protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinigaglia, Marialva; Castro, Mauro A. A.; Echeverrigaray, Sérgio; Pereira, Gonçalo A. G.; Mombach, José C. M.

    2009-10-01

    A major goal in post-genomic biology is the description of physiological functions in terms of gene pathway behavior. In this work, we present the first investigation of expression alterations in ninety-three pathways representing physiological functions of the plant A. thaliana induced by a P. parasitica elicitor (NLPpp) using microarray data publicly available at the AtGenExpress database. Using a novel statistical analysis developed to detect pathway alterations, we identified the gene pathways, hereby called groups of functionally associated genes (defined according to the TAIR/Gene Ontology and other databases), that are significantly altered in response to the elicitor. Instead of looking at individual gene responses, our analysis allowed a detailed characterization of the time ordering of pathways alterations in response to the NLPpp, their physiological implications and specificity. We also observed the activation of genes associated with vesicle trafficking and ROS production implying the initiation of the senescence of the wounded plant tissue.

  13. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in chronic viral hepatitis. Evidence for a virus-induced gene upregulation.

    PubMed Central

    Majano, P L; García-Monzón, C; López-Cabrera, M; Lara-Pezzi, E; Fernández-Ruiz, E; García-Iglesias, C; Borque, M J; Moreno-Otero, R

    1998-01-01

    Increased nitric oxide (NO) production may contribute to the pathological changes featuring in some inflammatory diseases, but the role of NO in chronic viral hepatitis is still unknown. We compared the inducible NO synthase (NOS2) expression in the liver of patients with chronic viral hepatitis with that of both nonviral liver disease and histologically normal liver. NOS2 expression was assessed by immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization studies of liver biopsy sections. An intense hepatocellular NOS2 reactivity was detected in chronic viral hepatitis, whereas it was weakly or not observed in nonviral liver disease or normal liver, respectively. In addition, we determined whether the hepatitis B virus (HBV) might regulate the synthesis of this enzyme. NOS2 mRNA and protein levels as well as enzyme activity were assessed in cytokine-stimulated HBV-transfected and untransfected hepatoma cells. Transfection with either HBV genome or HBV X gene resulted in induction of NOS2 mRNA expression, and the maximal induction of this transcript and NO production was observed in cytokine-stimulated HBV-transfected cells. These results indicate that hepatotropic viral infections are able to upregulate the NOS2 gene expression in human hepatocytes, suggesting that NO may mediate important pathogenic events in the course of chronic viral hepatitis. PMID:9525976

  14. Hyperosmotic stress induces cisplatin sensitivity in ovarian cancer cells by stimulating aquaporin-5 expression

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, XUEJUN; ZHOU, CHUNXIA; YAN, CHUNXIAO; MA, JIONG; ZHENG, WEI

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are important mediators of water permeability and are closely associated with tumor cell proliferation, migration, angiogenesis and chemoresistance. Moreover, the chemosensitivity of tumor cells to cisplatin (CDDP) is potentially affected by osmotic pressure. The present study was undertaken to determine whether hyperosmosis regulates ovarian cancer cell sensitivity to CDDP in vitro and to explore whether this is associated with AQP expression. The hyperosmotic stress was induced by D-sorbitol. 3AO ovarian cancer cells were treated with different concentrations of hypertonic medium and/or CDDP for various times, followed by measuring the inhibition rate of cell proliferation using an MTT assay. In addition, AQP expression in response to osmotic pressure and/or CDDP was measured by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Cell proliferation in response to hypertonic stress was also measured when AQP5 was knocked down by small interfering (si)RNA. 3AO cell proliferation was inhibited by hyperosmotic stress, while the expression of AQP5, but not that of AQP1, AQP3 or AQP9, was increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner in hypertonic sorbitol-containing medium. When AQP5 was silenced by siRNA, cells were susceptible to hypertonic stress. MTT analyses showed that the inhibition of cell proliferation by a low dose of CDDP increased significantly with exposure to a hyperosmotic stimulus, and this effect was reduced when a high dose of CDDP was used. AQP5 expression was induced by a low dose of CDDP, but was reduced by a high dose of CDDP. However, hyperosmosis enhanced AQP5 mRNA expression at every dose of CDDP tested, compared with isotonic medium. With prolonged treatment time, AQP5 expression was reduced by CDDP in hypertonic and isotonic culture medium. Thus, the effects of hyperosmosis on cell sensitivity to CDDP were associated with AQP5 expression. These results suggest that AQP5 expression in ovarian cancer cells is induced by hypertonic medium, and that the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to CDDP can be regulated by hyperosmosis associated with AQP5 expression. PMID:26668595

  15. In vivo Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Experimentally Induced Neurologic Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprowski, Hilary; Zheng, Yong Mu; Heber-Katz, Ellen; Fraser, Nigel; Rorke, Lucy; Fu, Zhen Fang; Hanlon, Cathleen; Dietzschold, Bernhard

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA in the brain tissue of rats and mice under the following experimental conditions: in rats infected with borna disease virus and rabies virus, in mice infected with herpes simplex virus, and in rats after the induction of experimental allergic encephalitis. The results showed that iNOS mRNA, normally nondetectable in the brain, was present in animals after viral infection or after induction of experimental allergic encephalitis. The induction of iNOS mRNA coincided with the severity of clinical signs and in some cases with the presence of inflammatory cells in the brain. The results indicate that nitric oxide produced by cells induced by iNOS may be the toxic factor accounting for cell damage and this may open the door to approaches to the study of the pathogenesis of neurological diseases.

  16. Targeting receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) expression induces apoptosis and inhibits prostate tumor growth

    SciTech Connect

    Elangovan, Indira; Thirugnanam, Sivasakthivel; Chen, Aoshuang; Zheng, Guoxing; Bosland, Maarten C.; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Gnanasekar, Munirathinam

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Targeting RAGE by RNAi induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silencing RAGE expression abrogates rHMGB1 mediated cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Down regulation of RAGE by RNAi inhibits PSA secretion of prostate cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knock down of RAGE abrogates prostate tumor growth in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Disruption of RAGE expression in prostate tumor activates death receptors. -- Abstract: Expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) plays a key role in the progression of prostate cancer. However, the therapeutic potential of targeting RAGE expression in prostate cancer is not yet evaluated. Therefore in this study, we have investigated the effects of silencing the expression of RAGE by RNAi approach both in vitro and in vivo. The results of this study showed that down regulation of RAGE expression by RNAi inhibited the cell proliferation of androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and androgen-independent (DU-145) prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, targeting RAGE expression resulted in apoptotic elimination of these prostate cancer cells by activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 death signaling. Of note, the levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA) were also reduced in LNCaP cells transfected with RAGE RNAi constructs. Importantly, the RAGE RNAi constructs when administered in nude mice bearing prostate tumors, inhibited the tumor growth by targeting the expression of RAGE, and its physiological ligand, HMGB1 and by up regulating death receptors DR4 and DR5 expression. Collectively, the results of this study for the first time show that targeting RAGE by RNAi may be a promising alternative therapeutic strategy for treating prostate cancer.

  17. Young adults with head and neck cancer express increased susceptibility to mutagen-induced chromosome damage

    SciTech Connect

    Schantz, S.P.; Hsu, T.C.; Ainslie, N.; Moser, R.P. )

    1989-12-15

    Factors that contribute to an increased prevalence of squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract among young adults in the United States remain unknown. A potential etiologic factor may relate to a genetically controlled sensitivity to environmental carcinogens. This study, therefore, examined 20 young adult patients who had squamous cell carcinoma for mutagen-induced chromosome sensitivity. Lymphocytes from respective patients were cultured, exposed to the clastogen bleomycin, arrested during metaphase, and examined quantitatively for chromosome breakage. The young adult population with squamous cell carcinoma expressed a significantly increased number of bleomycin-induced chromosome breaks per cell. Furthermore, among the study patients, chromosome sensitivity was most apparent in the non-tobacco users and in patients less than 30 years of age. The expression of such chromosome fragility following mutagen exposure should be considered in epidemiologic studies that intend to define risk factors for development of head and neck cancer.

  18. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha is correlated with monocyte infiltration in mouse lipid lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Reckless, Jill; Rubin, Edward M.; Verstuyft, Judy B.; Metcalfe, James C.; Grainger, David J.

    1999-01-11

    The infiltration of monocytes into the vascular wall and their transformation into lipid-laden foam cells characterize early atherogenesis. This focal accumulation of lipids, together with smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, and the synthesis of extracellular matrix in the intima of large arteries result in the formation of an atherosclerotic plaque. The extent to which the plaque is infiltrated with monocytes appears to be an important determinant of plaque stability. It has been proposed that macrophages secrete an excess of matrix-degrading enzymes over their inhibitors, resulting in conversion of a stable plaque into anunstable plaque that is likely to rupture, resulting in acutemyocardial infarction. Macrophages and T cells constitute {approx}40 percent of the total population of cells in the lipid core region of atherosclerotic plaques. Their recruitment to the lesion may depend on alterations in the adhesive properties of the endothelial surface. Increased endothelial cell permeability and endothelial cell activation are among the earliest changes associated with developing lesions of atherosclerosis. Many of the cell adhesion molecules involved in monocyte recruitment are expressed at low or undetectable levels on normal endothelium but are substantially elevated on the endothelium overlaying atherosclerotic lesions In addition to endothelial cell activation, numerous chemotactic cytokines have also been postulated to be involved in monocyte recruitment. For example, interleukin (IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) are direct chemoattractants for human monocytes but additionally induce cytoskeletal changes in the endothelium that result in increased permeability. This increased permeability, together with stimulated expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, plays an important part in the local inflammation mediated by TNF-a and IL-1. In addition, a large number of other proinflammatory cytokines, including macrophage inflammatory protein-1 a (MIP-1 a) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), are direct chemoattractants for monocytes. Thus alteration in the expression of a wide variety of adhesion molecules and/or cytokines during atherogenesish as been proposed to affect monocyte recruitment and hence modulates both plaque development and stability.

  19. Molecular basis for effects of carcinogenic heavy metals on inducible gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, J W; Kaltreider, R C; Bajenova, O V; Ihnat, M A; McCaffrey, J; Turpie, B W; Rowell, E E; Oh, J; Nemeth, M J; Pesce, C A; Lariviere, J P

    1998-01-01

    Certain forms of the heavy metals arsenic and chromium are considered human carcinogens, although they are believed to act through very different mechanisms. Chromium(VI) is believed to act as a classic and mutagenic agent, and DNA/chromatin appears to be the principal target for its effects. In contrast, arsenic(III) is considered nongenotoxic, but is able to target specific cellular proteins, principally through sulfhydryl interactions. We had previously shown that various genotoxic chemical carcinogens, including chromium (VI), preferentially altered expression of several inducible genes but had little or no effect on constitutive gene expression. We were therefore interested in whether these carcinogenic heavy metals might target specific but distinct sites within cells, leading to alterations in gene expression that might contribute to the carcinogenic process. Arsenic(III) and chromium(VI) each significantly altered both basal and hormone-inducible expression of a model inducible gene, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), at nonovertly toxic doses in the chick embryo in vivo and rat hepatoma H411E cells in culture. We have recently developed two parallel cell culture approaches for examining the molecular basis for these effects. First, we are examining the effects of heavy metals on expression and activation of specific transcription factors known to be involved in regulation of susceptible inducible genes, and have recently observed significant but different effects of arsenic(III) and chromium(VI) on nuclear transcription factor binding. Second, we have developed cell lines with stably integrated PEPCK promoter-luciferase reporter gene constructs to examine effects of heavy metals on promoter function, and have also recently seen profound effects induced by both chromium(VI) and arsenic(III) in this system. These model systems should enable us to be able to identify the critical cis (DNA) and trans (protein) cellular targets of heavy metal exposure leading to alterations in expression of specific susceptible genes. It is anticipated that such information will provide valuable insight into the mechanistic basis for these effects as well as provide sensitive molecular biomarkers for evaluating human exposure. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9703486

  20. Structure and Functional Analysis of Wheat ICE (Inducer of CBF Expression) Genes

    E-print Network

    Sarhan, Fathey

    Structure and Functional Analysis of Wheat ICE (Inducer of CBF Expression) Genes Mohamed Badawi 1 and TaICE87, were isolated from a cDNA library prepared from cold-treated wheat aerial tissues. TaICE41 that TaICE41 and TaICE87 bind to different MYC elements in the wheat TaCBFIVd-B9 promoter. Transient

  1. Identification and analysis of the mechanism underlying heat-inducible expression of rice aconitase 1.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Qin, Rui-Ying; Li, Hao; Xu, Rong-Fang; Qiu, Chun-Hong; Sun, Yi-Chen; Ma, Hui; Yang, Ya-Chun; Ni, Da-Hu; Li, Li; Wei, Peng-Cheng; Yang, Jian-Bo

    2015-04-01

    Respiratory metabolism is an important though poorly understood facet of plant adaptation to stress. Posttranslational modification of aconitase, a component of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), may be involved in stress tolerance. However, such stress-related transcriptional regulation and its mechanism remain unknown. In this study, we found that expression of the rice Aconitase gene OsACO1 is induced in a time-dependent manner by heat but not other typical abiotic stresses. To analyze the transcriptional regulation mechanism underlying the response to heat, the OsACO1 promoter (POsACO1) was isolated and characterized in transgenic rice. Using qualitative and quantitative analyses, we found that the expression of the GUS reporter gene responded to heat in different tissues and at different stages of development when driven by POsACO1. A series of 5' distal deletions of POsACO1 was generated to delineate the region responsible for heat-induced gene expression. Transient expression analyses in tobacco leaves identified a 322-bp minimal region between -1386 and -1065 as being essential and sufficient for heat-induced expression by POsACO1. We screened for known heat response-related cis-elements in this 322-bp region; however, sequences correlating with heat-induced gene expression were not identified in POsACO1. Therefore, truncations and successive mutagenesis analyses were performed in this 322-bp region. By comparing the activities of promoter fragments and their derivatives, our results indicated that the heat response element resided in a 9-bp region between -1132 and -1124, a sequence that contains a W-box motif. Additional site-directed mutagenesis analyses eliminated the heat response activity of POsACO1 via the W-box element, and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) indicated the binding of POsACO1 by factors in the nuclear extracts of heat-stressed rice seedlings in a W-box-dependent manner. Our results illustrate the expression pattern of a key component of the TCA response to abiotic stress and establish a putative regulatory pathway in the transcriptional modulation of rice respiratory metabolism genes in response to heat. PMID:25711810

  2. Expression of hepatic fat-specific protein 27 depends on the specific etiology of fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Aibara, Daisuke; Matsusue, Kimihiko; Matsuo, Kohei; Takiguchi, Soichi; Gonzalez, Frank J; Yamano, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Fat-specific protein 27 gene (FSP27), isolated by screening for genes specifically expressed in fully differentiated mouse adipocytes, belongs to the cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor, alpha subunit-like effector family. FSP27 is induced in not only adipose tissue but also the liver of ob/ob mice, and it promotes the development of fatty liver. The FSP27 gene is expressed in a fatty liver-specific manner and is not detected in the normal mouse liver. FSP27 expression is directly regulated by the induction of the hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) in ob/ob fatty liver. In the present study, expression of hepatic FSP27 mRNA was determined in non-genetic fatty liver models. The FSP27 gene was markedly induced in the high-fat- or methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet-induced fatty liver, but it was not elevated in alcohol-induced fatty liver. Interestingly, the induction of FSP27 mRNA due to the MCD diet was independent of PPAR? levels and completely absent in the liver from PPAR?-null mice. These results suggest that FSP27 mRNA expression in the liver depends on the etiology of fatty liver. PMID:24189421

  3. Lead Poisoning Disturbs Oligodendrocytes Differentiation Involved in Decreased Expression of NCX3 Inducing Intracellular Calcium Overload.

    PubMed

    Ma, Teng; Wu, Xiyan; Cai, Qiyan; Wang, Yun; Xiao, Lan; Tian, Yanping; Li, Hongli

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb) poisoning has always been a serious health concern, as it permanently damages the central nervous system. Chronic Pb accumulation in the human body disturbs oligodendrocytes (OLs) differentiation, resulting in dysmyelination, but the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this study, Pb at 1 ?M inhibits OLs precursor cells (OPCs) differentiation via decreasing the expression of Olig 2, CNPase proteins in vitro. Moreover, Pb treatment inhibits the sodium/calcium exchanger 3 (NCX3) mRNA expression, one of the major means of calcium (Ca(2+)) extrusion at the plasma membrane during OPCs differentiation. Also addition of KB-R7943, NCX3 inhibitor, to simulate Pb toxicity, resulted in decreased myelin basic protein (MBP) expression and cell branching. Ca(2+) response trace with Pb and KB-R7943 treatment did not drop down in the same recovery time as the control, which elevated intracellular Ca(2+) concentration reducing MBP expression. In contrast, over-expression of NCX3 in Pb exposed OPCs displayed significant increase MBP fluorescence signal in positive regions and CNPase expression, which recovered OPCs differentiation to counterbalance Pb toxicity. In conclusion, Pb exposure disturbs OLs differentiation via affecting the function of NCX3 by inducing intracellular calcium overload. PMID:26287169

  4. Inducible and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression during development of transplant arteriosclerosis in rat aortic grafts.

    PubMed Central

    Akyürek, L. M.; Fellström, B. C.; Yan, Z. Q.; Hansson, G. K.; Funa, K.; Larsson, E.

    1996-01-01

    In the vascular system, distinct isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) generate nitric oxide (NO), which acts as a biological messenger. Its role in the development of transplant arteriosclerosis (TA) is still unclear. To investigate whether NO is involved in TA, we studied the expression of NOS isoforms, inducible NOS (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS), by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization during the first two post-transplantation months and their relation with cold ischemia (1 to 24 hours) and reperfusion injury using an aortic transplantation model in the rat. We found an increased iNOS expression in the intima and adventitia and a decreased expression in the media, whereas eNOS expression was not significantly altered during the development of TA. Co-localization studies suggested that iNOS-positive cells were vascular smooth muscle cells, monocyte-derived macrophages, and endothelial cells. Prolonged ischemic storage time resulted in an increase in eNOS expression in the neointima. In situ hybridization showed iNOS mRNA expression by vascular cells in the neointima and media. NO produced by iNOS and eNOS may be involved, at least in part, in the pathogenesis of TA in aortic grafts. Additional studies are needed to confirm the modulatory mechanism of NO during the development of TA. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:8952533

  5. Lead Poisoning Disturbs Oligodendrocytes Differentiation Involved in Decreased Expression of NCX3 Inducing Intracellular Calcium Overload

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Teng; Wu, Xiyan; Cai, Qiyan; Wang, Yun; Xiao, Lan; Tian, Yanping; Li, Hongli

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb) poisoning has always been a serious health concern, as it permanently damages the central nervous system. Chronic Pb accumulation in the human body disturbs oligodendrocytes (OLs) differentiation, resulting in dysmyelination, but the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this study, Pb at 1 ?M inhibits OLs precursor cells (OPCs) differentiation via decreasing the expression of Olig 2, CNPase proteins in vitro. Moreover, Pb treatment inhibits the sodium/calcium exchanger 3 (NCX3) mRNA expression, one of the major means of calcium (Ca2+) extrusion at the plasma membrane during OPCs differentiation. Also addition of KB-R7943, NCX3 inhibitor, to simulate Pb toxicity, resulted in decreased myelin basic protein (MBP) expression and cell branching. Ca2+ response trace with Pb and KB-R7943 treatment did not drop down in the same recovery time as the control, which elevated intracellular Ca2+ concentration reducing MBP expression. In contrast, over-expression of NCX3 in Pb exposed OPCs displayed significant increase MBP fluorescence signal in positive regions and CNPase expression, which recovered OPCs differentiation to counterbalance Pb toxicity. In conclusion, Pb exposure disturbs OLs differentiation via affecting the function of NCX3 by inducing intracellular calcium overload. PMID:26287169

  6. Cloning and Expression of TNF Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand in Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Hamid Reza; Bandehpour, Mojgan; Vahidi, Hossein; Barar, Jaleh; Kazemi, Bahram; Naderi-Manesh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Molecular farming has been considered as a secure and economical approach for production of biopharmaceuticals. Human TNF Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) as a promising biopharmaceutical candidate has been produced in different expression hosts. However, little attention has been paid to molecular farming of the TRAIL in spite of numerous advantages of plant expression systems. Therefore, in this study the cytoplasmic production of the TRAIL was tackled in Nicotiana tabacum using Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA 4404. Initially, the desired coding sequence was obtained using PCR technique on the constructed human cDNA library. Afterward, the necessary requirements for expression of the TRAIL in plant cell system were provided through sub-cloning into 35S-CaMV (Cauliflower Mosaic Virus) helper and final 0179-pGreen expression vectors. Then, the final TRAIL-pGreen expression vector was cloned into A. tumefaciens LBA 4404. Subsequently, the N. tabacum cells were transformed through co-culture method and expression of the TRAIL was confirmed by western blot analysis. Finally, the recombinant TRAIL was extracted through chromatographic technique and biological activity was evaluated through MTT assay (Methylthiazol Tetrazolium Assay). The result of western blot analysis indicated that only monomer and oxidized dimer forms of the TRAIL can be extracted from the N. tabacum cells. Moreover, the lack of trimeric assembly of the extracted TRAIL diminished its biological activity in sensitive A549 cell line. In conclusion, although N. tabacum cells can successfully produce the TRAIL, proper assembly and functionality of the TRAIL were unfavorable. PMID:25561925

  7. Self-Adjuvanting Bacterial Vectors Expressing Pre-Erythrocytic Antigens Induce Sterile Protection Against Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann-Leitner, Elke S.; Hosie, Heather; Trichilo, Jessica; DeRiso, Elizabeth; Ranallo, Ryan T.; Alefantis, Timothy; Savranskaya, Tatyana; Grewal, Paul; Ockenhouse, Christian F.; Venkatesan, Malabi M.; DelVecchio, Vito G.; Angov, Evelina

    2013-01-01

    Genetically inactivated, Gram-negative bacteria that express malaria vaccine candidates represent a promising novel self-adjuvanting vaccine approach. Antigens expressed on particulate bacterial carriers not only target directly to antigen-presenting cells but also provide a strong danger signal thus circumventing the requirement for potent extraneous adjuvants. E. coli expressing malarial antigens resulted in the induction of either Th1 or Th2 biased responses that were dependent on both antigen and sub-cellular localization. Some of these constructs induced higher quality humoral responses compared to recombinant protein and most importantly they were able to induce sterile protection against sporozoite challenge in a murine model of malaria. In light of these encouraging results, two major Plasmodium falciparum pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccine targets, the Cell-Traversal protein for Ookinetes and Sporozoites (CelTOS) fused to the Maltose-binding protein in the periplasmic space and the Circumsporozoite Protein (CSP) fused to the Outer membrane (OM) protein A in the OM were expressed in a clinically relevant, attenuated Shigella strain (Shigella flexneri 2a). This type of live-attenuated vector has previously undergone clinical investigations as a vaccine against shigellosis. Using this novel delivery platform for malaria, we find that vaccination with the whole-organism represents an effective vaccination alternative that induces protective efficacy against sporozoite challenge. Shigella GeMI-Vax expressing malaria targets warrant further evaluation to determine their full potential as a dual disease, multivalent, self-adjuvanting vaccine system, against both shigellosis, and malaria. PMID:23847617

  8. Cyclic strain is a weak inducer of prostacyclin synthase expression in bovine aortic endothelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segurola, R. J. Jr; Oluwole, B.; Mills, I.; Yokoyama, C.; Tanabe, T.; Kito, H.; Nakajima, N.; Sumpio, B. E.

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that hemodynamic forces such as cyclic strain and shear stress can increase prostacyclin (PGI2) secretion by endothelial cells (EC) but the effect of these forces on prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) gene expression remains unclear and is the focus of this study. Bovine aortic EC were seeded onto type I collagen coated flexible membranes and grown to confluence. The membranes and attached EC were subjected to 10% average strain at 60 cpm (0.5 sec deformation alternating with 0.5 sec relaxation) for up to 5 days. PGIS gene expression was determined by Northern blot analysis and protein level by Western blot analysis. The effect of cyclic strain on the PGIS promoter was determined by the transfection of a 1-kb human PGIS gene promoter construct coupled to a luciferase reporter gene into EC, followed by determination of luciferase activity. PGIS gene expression increased 1.7-fold in EC subjected to cyclic strain for 24 hr. Likewise, EC transfected with a pGL3B-PGIS (-1070/-10) construct showed an approximate 1.3-fold elevation in luciferase activity in EC subjected to cyclic strain for 3, 4, 8, and 12 hr. The weak stimulation of PGIS gene expression by cyclic strain was reflected in an inability to detect alterations in PGIS protein levels in EC subjected to cyclic strain for as long as 5 days. These data suggest that strain-induced stimulation of PGIS gene expression plays only a minor role in the ability of cyclic strain to stimulate PGI2 release in EC. These findings coupled with our earlier demonstration of a requisite addition of exogenous arachidonate in order to observe strain-induced PGI2 release, implicates a mechanism that more likely involves strain-induced stimulation of PGIS activity.

  9. HIF-1 regulates hypoxia- and insulin-induced expression of apelin in adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Glassford, Alexander J.; Sheikh, Ahmad Y.; Chun, Hyung J.; Zarafshar, Shirin; Chan, Denise A.; Reaven, Gerald M.; Quertermous, Thomas; Tsao, Philip S.

    2008-01-01

    Apelin, a novel peptide with significant cardioactive properties, is upregulated by insulin in adipocytes. However, the mechanism by which insulin promotes apelin production is unknown. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a heterodimeric transcription factor involved in the angiogenic and metabolic responses to tissue hypoxia, has been shown to be activated by insulin in various settings. We therefore hypothesized that HIF-1 regulates insulin-mediated apelin expression in adipocytes. 3T3L1 cells were differentiated into adipocytes in culture. For experiments, serum starved 3T3L1 cells were exposed to insulin and/or a 1% O2 environment. Apelin expression was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA. To directly assess the role of HIF-1 in apelin production, we differentiated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) containing a targeted deletion of the HIF-1? gene into adipocytes and measured their response to insulin and hypoxia. Apelin expression in mature 3T3L1 adipocytes was increased significantly by insulin, and was attenuated by pharmacologic inhibition of insulin signaling. Exposure of cells to either hypoxia or the chemical HIF activators cobalt chloride (CoCl2) and dimethyloxaloylglycine (DMOG), resulted in significant upregulation of apelin, consistent with a role for HIF in apelin induction. Moreover, hypoxia-, CoCl2-, DMOG-, and insulin-induced apelin expression were all attenuated in differentiated HIF-1?-deficient MEFs. In summary, in cultured 3T3L1 adipocytes and differentiated MEFs, HIF-1 appears to be involved in hypoxia- and insulin-induced apelin expression. PMID:17878221

  10. Nitric oxide modulates lipopolysaccharide-induced endothelial platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression via interleukin-10

    PubMed Central

    Hebeda, C B; Teixeira, S A; Tamura, E K; Muscará, M N; de Mello, S B V; Markus, R P; Farsky, S H P

    2011-01-01

    We have shown previously that nitric oxide (NO) controls platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1) expression on both neutrophils and endothelial cells under physiological conditions. Here, the molecular mechanism by which NO regulates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endothelial PECAM-1 expression and the role of interleukin (IL)-10 on this control was investigated. For this purpose, N-(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; 20 mg/kg/day for 14 days dissolved in drinking water) was used to inhibit both constitutive (cNOS) and inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) synthase activities in LPS-stimulated Wistar rats (5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). This treatment resulted in reduced levels of serum NO. Under this condition, circulating levels of IL-10 was enhanced, secreted mainly by circulating lymphocytes, dependent on transcriptional activation, and endothelial PECAM-1 expression was reduced independently on reduced gene synthesis. The connection between NO, IL-10 and PECAM-1 expression was examined by incubating LPS-stimulated (1 µg/ml) cultured endothelial cells obtained from naive rats with supernatant of LPS-stimulated lymphocytes, which were obtained from blood of control or l-NAME-treated rats. Supernatant of LPS-stimulated lymphocytes obtained from l-NAME-treated rats, which contained higher levels of IL-10, reduced LPS-induced PECAM-1 expression by endothelial cells, and this reduction was reversed by adding the anti-IL-10 monoclonal antibody. Therefore, an association between NO, IL-10 and PECAM-1 was found and may represent a novel mechanism by which NO controls endothelial cell functions. PMID:21564091

  11. Smad, but not MAPK, pathway mediates the expression of type I collagen in radiation induced fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Yano, Hiroyuki; Division of Radioisotope Research, Department of Research Support, Research Promotion Project, Oita University, 1-1 Idaigaoka Hasama-machi, Yufu, Oita 879-5593 ; Hamanaka, Ryoji; Nakamura, Miki; Sumiyoshi, Hideaki; Matsuo, Noritaka; Yoshioka, Hidekatsu

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine how radiation affects the expression level and signal pathway of collagen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta}1 mRNA is elevated earlier than those of collagen genes after irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smad pathway mediates the expression of collagen in radiation induced fibrosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAPK pathways are not affected in the expression of collagen after irradiation. -- Abstract: Radiation induced fibrosis occurs following a therapeutic or accidental radiation exposure in normal tissues. Tissue fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of collagen and other extracellular matrix components. This study investigated how ionizing radiation affects the expression level and signal pathway of type I collagen. Real time RT-RCR showed that both {alpha}1and {alpha}2 chain of type I collagen mRNA were elevated from 48 h after irradiation with 10 Gy in NIH3T3 cells. The relative luciferase activities of both genes and type I collagen marker were elevated at 72 h. TGF-{beta}1 mRNA was elevated earlier than those of type I collagen genes. A Western blot analysis showed the elevation of Smad phosphorylation at 72 h. Conversely, treatment with TGF-{beta} receptor inhibitor inhibited the mRNA and relative luciferase activity of type I collagen. The phosphorylation of Smad was repressed with the inhibitor, and the luciferase activity was cancelled using a mutant construct of Smad binding site of {alpha}2(I) collagen gene. However, the MAPK pathways, p38, ERK1/2 and JNK, were not affected with specific inhibitors or siRNA. The data showed that the Smad pathway mediated the expression of type I collagen in radiation induced fibrosis.

  12. Hypotonic stress upregulates ?- and ?-ENaC expression through suppression of ERK by inducing MKP-1.

    PubMed

    Niisato, Naomi; Ohta, Mariko; Eaton, Douglas C; Marunaka, Yoshinori

    2012-07-15

    We investigated a physiological role for ERK, a member of the MAPK family, in the hypotonic stimulation of epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC)-mediated Na(+) reabsorption in renal epithelial A6 cells. We show that hypotonic stress causes a major dephosphorylation of ERK following a rapid transient phosphorylation. PD98059 (a MEK inhibitor) increases dephosphorylated ERK and enhances the hypotonic-stress-stimulated Na(+) reabsorption. ERK dephosphorylation is mediated by MAPK phosphatase (MKP). Hypotonic stress activates p38, which in turn induces MKP-1 and to a lesser extent MKP-3 mRNA expression. Inhibition of p38 suppresses MKP-1 induction, preventing hypotonic stress from dephosphorylating ERK. Inhibition of MKP-1 and -3 by the inhibitor NSC95397 also suppresses the hypotonicity-induced dephosphorylation of ERK. NSC95397 reduces both ?- and ?-ENaC mRNA expression and ENaC-mediated Na(+) reabsorption stimulated by hypotonic stress. In contrast, pretreatment with PD98059 significantly enhances mRNA and protein expression of ?- and ?-ENaC even under isotonic conditions. However, PD98059 only stimulates Na(+) reabsorption in response to hypotonic stress, suggesting that ERK inactivation by itself (i.e., under isotonic conditions) is not sufficient to stimulate Na(+) reabsorption, even though ERK inactivation enhances ?- and ?-ENaC expression. Based on these results, we conclude that hypotonic stress stimulates Na(+) reabsorption through at least two signaling pathways: 1) induction of MKP-1 that suppresses ERK activity and induces ?- and ?-ENaC expression, and 2) promotion of translocation of the newly synthesized ENaC to the apical membrane. PMID:22573375

  13. Extracellular synaptic factors induce clustering of acetylcholine receptors stably expressed in fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The clustering of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) is one of the first events observed during formation of the neuromuscular junction. To determine the mechanism involved in AChR clustering, we established a nonmuscle cell line (mouse fibroblast L cells) that stably expresses just one muscle-specific gene product, the AChR. We have shown that when Torpedo californica AChRs are expressed in fibroblasts, their immunological, biochemical, and electrophysiological properties all indicate that fully functional cell surface AChRs are produced. In the present study, the cell surface distribution and stability of Torpedo AChRs expressed in fibroblasts (AChR-fibroblasts) were analyzed and shown to be similar to nonclustered AChRs expressed in muscle cells. AChR-fibroblasts incubated with antibodies directed against the AChR induced the formation of small AChR microclusters (less than 0.5 micron 2) and caused an increase in the internalization rate and degradation of surface AChRs (antigenic modulation) in a manner similar to that observed in muscle cells. Two disparate sources of AChR clustering factors, extracellular matrix isolated from Torpedo electric organ and conditioned media from a rodent neuroblastoma-glioma hybrid cell line, each induced large (1-3 microns 2), stable AChR clusters with no change in the level of surface AChR expression. By exploiting the temperature-sensitive nature of Torpedo AChR assembly, we were able to demonstrate that factor-induced clusters were produced by mobilization of preexisting surface AChRs, not by directed insertion of newly synthesized AChRs. AChR clusters were never observed in the absence of extracellular synaptic factors. Our results suggest that these factors can interact directly with the AChR. PMID:1918134

  14. Lymphocytes from wasted mice express enhanced spontaneous and {gamma}-ray-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E. |; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei; Chung, Jen; Libertin, C.R.

    1993-09-01

    Mice bearing the autosomal recessive mutation wasted (wst/wst) display a disease pattern including faulty repair of DNA damage in lymphocytes after radiation exposure, neurologic abnormalities, and immunodeficiency. Many of the features of this mouse model have suggested a premature or increased spontaneous frequency of apoptosis in thymocytes; past work has shown an inability to establish cultured T cell lines, an abnormally high death rate of stimulated T cells in culture, and an increased sensitivity of T cells to the killing effects of ionizing radiations in wst/wst mice relative to controls. The experiments reported here were designed to examine splenic and thymic lymphocytes from wasted and control mice for signs of early apoptosis. Our results revealed enhanced expression of Rp-8 mRNA (associated with apoptosis) in thymic lymphocytes and reduced expression in splenic lymphocytes of wst/wst mice relative to controls; expression of Rp-2 and Td-30 mRNA (induced during apoptosis) were not detectable in spleen or thymus. Higher spontaneous DNA fragmentation was observed in wasted mice than in controls; however, {gamma}-ray-induced DNA fragmentation peaked at a lower dose and occurred to a greater extent in wasted mice relative to controls. These results provide evidence for high spontaneous and {gamma}-ray-induced apoptosis in T cells of wasted mice as a mechanism underlying the observed lymphocyte and DNA repair abnormalities.

  15. Cord blood administration induces oligodendrocyte survival through alterations in gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, D.D.; Leonardo, C.C.; Hall, A.A.; Shahaduzzaman, M.D.; Collier, L.A.; Willing, A.E.; Pennypacker, K.R.

    2010-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes (OLs), the predominant cell type found in cerebral white matter, are essential for structural integrity and proper neural signaling. Very little is known concerning stroke-induced OL dysfunction. Our laboratory has shown that infusion of human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) cells protects striatal white matter tracts in vivo and directly protects mature primary OL cultures from oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD). Microarray studies of RNA prepared from OL cultures subjected to OGD and treated with HUCB cells showed an increase in the expression of 33 genes associated with OL proliferation, survival, and repair functions, such as myelination. The microarray results were verified using quantitative RT-PCR for the following eight genes: U2AF homology motif kinase 1 (Uhmk1), insulin induce gene 1 (Insig1), metallothionein ( Mt3), tetraspanin 2 (Tspan2), peroxiredoxin 4 (Prdx4), stathmin-like 2 (Stmn2), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), and versican (Vcan). Immunohistochemistry showed that MOG, Prdx4, Uhmk1, Insig1 and Mt3 protein expression were upregluated in the ipsilateral white matter tracts of rats infused with HUCB cells 48 hrs after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Furthermore, promoter region analysis of these genes revealed common transcription factor binding sites, providing insight into the shared signal transduction pathways activated by HUCB cells to enhance transcription of these genes. These results show expression of genes induced by HUCB cell therapy that could confer oligoprotection from ischemia. PMID:20883670

  16. Afadin requirement for cytokine expressions in keratinocytes during chemically induced inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Toshiyuki; Iwata, Takanori; Takai, Yoshimi; Birchmeier, Walter; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

    2014-11-01

    Afadin is a filamentous actin-binding protein and a mediator of nectin signaling. Nectins are Ig-like cell adhesion molecules, and the nectin family is composed of four members, nectin-1 to nectin-4. Nectins show homophilic and heterophilic interactions with other nectins or proteins on adjacent cells. Nectin signaling induces formation of cell-cell junctions and is required for the development of epithelial tissues, including skin. This study investigated the role of afadin in epithelial tissue development and established epithelium-specific afadin-deficient (CKO) mice. Although showing no obvious abnormality in the skin development and homeostasis, the mice showed the reduced neutrophil infiltration into the epidermis during chemical-induced inflammation with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). Immunohistochemical and quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that the expression levels of cytokines including Cxcl2, Il-1? and Tnf-? were reduced in CKO keratinocytes compared with control keratinocytes during TPA-induced inflammation. Primary-cultured skin keratinocytes from CKO mice also showed reduced expression of these cytokines and weak activation of Rap1 compared with those from control mice after the TPA treatment. These results suggested a remarkable function of afadin, which was able to enhance cytokine expression through Rap1 activation in keratinocytes during inflammation. PMID:25297509

  17. Testicular hypofunction caused by activating p53 expression induced by reactive oxygen species in varicocele rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, M; Wen, J; Dong, Q; Zhao, L-G; Shi, B-K

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the mechanism of the testicular hypofunction induced by hypoxia in varicocele rats. Varicocele was induced by partial ligation of the left renal vein. Seven weeks later, left testis mass index was measured. The sperm counts and motility were tested by CASA. The change of seminiferous tubule tissue was observed by HE staining. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in left testicular tissue was measured by ELISA, and the expressions of HIF-1? and p53 were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The left testis mass index and the sperm motility were significantly lower in surgery group. By HE staining, the left seminiferous epithelial cell arrangement was incompact, disordered and vacuolated in surgery group. The ROS level in surgery group was significantly higher than the other groups. The results of immunohistochemistry and Western blot indicated that the expressions of HIF-1? and p53 increased significantly in surgery group. Our study demonstrated that varicocele caused hypoxia that could cause the rise of ROS level to induce the increase of p53 expression, leading to the decrease of testis mass index and changes of seminiferous tubules, which would reduce sperm motility and result in male infertility eventually. PMID:25611575

  18. Resveratrol Inhibits Hypoxia-Induced Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression and Pathological Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Christopher Seungkyu; Choi, Eun Young; Lee, Sung Chul; Koh, Hyoung Jun; Lee, Joon Haeng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of resveratrol on the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human adult retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells, and on experimental choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in mice. Materials and Methods ARPE-19 cells were treated with different concentrations of resveratrol and then incubated under hypoxic conditions with subsequent evaluation of cell viability, expression of HIF-1?, and expression of VEGF. The effects of resveratrol on the synthesis and degradation of hypoxia-induced HIF-1? were evaluated using inhibitors of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and the ubiquitin proteasome pathways. In animal studies, CNV lesions were induced in C57BL/6 mice by laser photocoagulation. After 7 days of oral administration of resveratrol or vehicle, which began one day after CNV induction, image analysis was used to measure CNV areas on choroidal flat mounts stained with isolectin IB4. Results In ARPE-19 cells, resveratrol significantly inhibited HIF-1? and VEGF in a dose-dependent manner, by blocking the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and by promoting proteasomal HIF-1? degradation. In mice experiments, orally administered resveratrol significantly inhibited CNV growth in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion Resveratrol may have therapeutic value in the management of diseases involving pathological neovascularization. PMID:26446654

  19. Characterization of cell lines that inducibly express the adeno-associated virus Rep proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Q; Chen, F; Trempe, J P

    1994-01-01

    The replication (rep) gene of adeno-associated virus (AAV) is involved in AAV DNA replication, gene regulation, and inhibition of cellular transformation induced by various oncogenes. To study the rep gene's antiproliferative effects, we have developed cell lines which express the replication proteins under the control of an inducible mouse metallothionein transcription promoter. The Rep78 protein produced in these cell lines binds to the AAV terminal repeat sequences in vitro and supports AAV DNA replication and trans activation of the AAV p40 transcription promoter in vivo. These cell lines are capable of assembling infectious viruses containing a mutant rep gene or a vector bearing a heterologous gene. Growth rate and colony formation efficiency assays indicated that rep gene expression substantially altered cellular proliferation. Long-term induction of the cell lines followed by removal of the inducing agent suggested that constitutive expression of the Rep proteins does not necessarily result in cell death and that the cells can recover from the cytostatic effects. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that the presence of the Rep proteins increased the population of cells in the S phase of the cell cycle. Thus the rep gene's antiproliferative effects may be realized by interference with cellular DNA replication. Images PMID:8035483

  20. Dihydrotanshinone I inhibits the translational expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1?.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Mi, Chunliu; Ma, Juan; Wang, Ke Si; Lee, Jung Joon; Jin, Xuejun

    2015-10-01

    The hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) has been known to be correlated to the adaptation and proliferation of tumor cells; therefore HIF-1 has become an important target in the development of anticancer drugs. Dihydrotanshinone I (DHTS) is a phenanthrenequinone compound from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which has been used in oriental medicine for its antitumor activities. However, the mechanisms by which DHTS inhibits tumor growth are not fully understood. We here demonstrated the effect of DHTS on hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) activation. DHTS dose-dependently decreased the hypoxia-induced accumulation and activation of HIF-1? protein. Further analysis revealed that DHTS inhibited HIF-1? protein synthesis, without affecting the expression level of HIF-1? mRNA or degradation of HIF-1? protein. Moreover, the phosphorylation levels of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2), ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), eIF4E binding protein-1 (4E-BP1), and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) were dose-dependently suppressed by DHTS, but no significant effect on total protein levels was observed. Furthermore, DHTS prevented hypoxia-induced expression of HIF-1 target genes and flow cytometric analysis indicated that DHTS induced G1 phase arrest in HeLa cell. In vivo studies further confirmed the inhibitory effect of DHTS on the expression of HIF-1? proteins, leading to a decrease in growth of HeLa cells in a xenograft tumor model. These results show that DHTS inhibited HIF-1? protein synthesis by downregulating the mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 and MEK/ERK pathways. These conclusions suggest that DHTS is an effective inhibitor of HIF-1 and provide new perspectives into the mechanism of its anticancer activity. PMID:26282490

  1. Celastrol inhibits TGF-?1-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition by inhibiting Snail and regulating E-cadherin expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Hyereen; Lee, Minjae; Jang, Sung-Wuk; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •We investigated the effects of celastrol on TGF-?1-induced EMT in epithelial cells. •Celastrol regulates TGF-?1-induced morphological changes and E-cadherin expression. •Celastrol inhibits TGF-?1-induced Snail expression. •Celastrol strongly suppresses TGF-?1-induced invasion in MDCK and A549 cells. -- Abstract: The epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a pivotal event in the invasive and metastatic potentials of cancer progression. Celastrol inhibits the proliferation of a variety of tumor cells including leukemia, glioma, prostate, and breast cancer; however, the possible role of celastrol in the EMT is unclear. We investigated the effect of celastrol on the EMT. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-?1) induced EMT-like morphologic changes and upregulation of Snail expression. The downregulation of E-cadherin expression and upregulation of Snail in Madin–Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) and A549 cell lines show that TGF-?1-mediated the EMT in epithelial cells; however, celastrol markedly inhibited TGF-?1-induced morphologic changes, Snail upregulation, and E-cadherin expression. Migration and invasion assays revealed that celastrol completely inhibited TGF-?1-mediated cellular migration in both cell lines. These findings indicate that celastrol downregulates Snail expression, thereby inhibiting TGF-?1-induced EMT in MDCK and A549 cells. Thus, our findings provide new evidence that celastrol suppresses lung cancer invasion and migration by inhibiting TGF-?1-induced EMT.

  2. Human Cementum Protein 1 induces expression of bone and cementum proteins by human gingival fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Carmona-Rodriguez, Bruno; Alvarez-Perez, Marco Antonio; Narayanan, A. Sampath; Zeichner-David, Margarita; Reyes-Gasga, Jose; Molina-Guarneros, Juan; Garcia-Hernandez, Ana Lilia; Suarez-Franco, Jose Luis; Chavarria, Ivet Gil; Villarreal-Ramirez, Eduardo; Arzate, Higinio . E-mail: harzate@servidor.unam.mx

    2007-07-06

    We recently presented evidence showing that a human cementoblastoma-derived protein, named Cementum Protein 1 (CEMP1) may play a role as a local regulator of cementoblast differentiation and cementum-matrix mineralization. This protein was shown to be expressed by cementoblasts and progenitor cells localized in the periodontal ligament. In this study we demonstrate that transfection of CEMP1 into human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) induces mineralization and expression of bone and cementum-matrix proteins. The transfected HGF cells had higher alkaline phosphatase activity and proliferation rate and they expressed genes for alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, osteopontin, the transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1, and cementum attachment protein (CAP). They also produced biological-type hydroxyapatite. These findings indicate that the CEMP1 might participate in differentiation and mineralization of nonosteogenic cells, and that it might have a potential function in cementum and bone formation.

  3. Hypoxia-inducible factors regulate human and rat cystathionine ?-synthase gene expression.

    PubMed

    Takano, Naoharu; Peng, Ying-Jie; Kumar, Ganesh K; Luo, Weibo; Hu, Hongxia; Shimoda, Larissa A; Suematsu, Makoto; Prabhakar, Nanduri R; Semenza, Gregg L

    2014-03-01

    Increased catalytic activity of CBS (cystathionine ?-synthase) was recently shown to mediate vasodilation of the cerebral microcirculation, which is initiated within minutes of the onset of acute hypoxia. To test whether chronic hypoxia was a stimulus for increased CBS expression, U87-MG human glioblastoma and PC12 rat phaeochromocytoma cells were exposed to 1% or 20% O2 for 24-72 h. CBS mRNA and protein expression were increased in hypoxic cells. Hypoxic induction of CBS expression was abrogated in cells transfected with vector encoding shRNA targeting HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor) 1? or 2?. Exposure of rats to hypobaric hypoxia (0.35 atm; 1 atm=101.325 kPa) for 3 days induced increased CBS mRNA, protein and catalytic activity in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum, which was blocked by administration of the HIF inhibitor digoxin. HIF-binding sites, located 0.8 and 1.2 kb 5' to the transcription start site of the human CBS and rat Cbs genes respectively, were identified by ChIP assays. A 49-bp human sequence, which encompassed an inverted repeat of the core HIF-binding site, functioned as a hypoxia-response element in luciferase reporter transcription assays. Thus HIFs mediate tissue-specific CBS expression, which may augment cerebral vasodilation as an adaptive response to chronic hypoxia. PMID:24328859

  4. Hypoxia-inducible factor 3-alpha expression is associated with the stable chondrocyte phenotype.

    PubMed

    Markway, Brandon D; Cho, Holly; Zilberman-Rudenko, Jevgenia; Holden, Paul; McAlinden, Audrey; Johnstone, Brian

    2015-11-01

    The hypoxia-inducible factors HIF-1? and HIF-2? are important regulators of the chondrocyte phenotype but little is known about HIF-3? in cartilage. The objective of this study was to characterize HIF-3? (HIF3A) expression during chondrocyte differentiation in vitro and in native cartilage tissues. HIF3A, COL10A1, and MMP13 were quantified in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and articular chondrocytes from healthy and osteoarthritic (OA) tissue in three-dimensional cultures and in human embryonic epiphyses and adult articular cartilage. HIF3A was found to have an inverse association with hypertrophic markers COL10A1 and MMP13 in chondrogenic cells and tissues. In healthy chondrocytes, HIF3A was induced by dexamethasone and increased during redifferentiation. By comparison, HIF3A expression was extremely low in chondrogenically differentiated MSCs expressing high levels of COL10A1 and MMP13. HIF3A was also lower in redifferentiated OA chondrocytes than in healthy chondrocytes. In human embryonic epiphyseal tissue, HIF3A expression was lowest in the hypertrophic zone. Distinct splice patterns were also found in embryonic cartilage when compared with adult articular cartilage and redifferentiated chondrocytes. These in vitro and in vivo findings suggest that HIF3A levels are indicative of the hypertrophic state of chondrogenic cells and one or more splice variants may be important regulators of the chondrocyte phenotype. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:1561-1570, 2015. PMID:26174816

  5. Sublethal Photothermal Stimulation with a Micropulse Laser Induces Heat Shock Protein