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1

Factors Affecting Academic Achievement Of Adult Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Article is an excerpt from Mrs. Beagle's original analysis and includes such considerations as increases in enrollment, university admission policies, counseling, study skills, study facilities, and financial policies and practices affecting adult students. References. (RB)|

Beagle, Peggy; Melnyk, W. T.

1971-01-01

2

Factors Affecting Academic Achievement Of Adult Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Article is an excerpt from Mrs. Beagle's original analysis and includes such considerations as increases in enrollment, university admission policies, counseling, study skills, study facilities, and financial policies and practices affecting adult students. References. (RB)

Beagle, Peggy; Melnyk, W. T.

1971-01-01

3

Visual Factors Which Affect Reading Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The relationship between vision and reading achievement is complex. In this paper, a number of terms relating to vision are defined and some of the limitations of specific measures of vision are discussed. In order to relate vision to reading, it is necessary to segment arbitrarily the continuous process of vision into a series of subsystems, or…

Flax, Nathan

4

Assessing achievement of primary grader students and factors affecting achievement in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to focus on achievement level of primary grade students in different subjects taught at primary level and the factors affecting the student achievement in this regard. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study was carried out on a sample of 1,080 students of grade 3 and 5 drawn from randomly selected 36 primary\\/ elementary schools from nine districts

Muhammad Saeed; Muhammad Bashir Gondal; Bushra

2005-01-01

5

Factors Affecting Academic Achievement in Graduate Management Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of the academic achievement of 71 business administration graduates indicated that scores on the Graduate Management Admissions Test (GMAT) are more significant predictors of graduate performance than undergraduate performance is. The relationship between graduate performance and GMAT score differs for black students and white students.…

Bieker, Richard F.

1996-01-01

6

Are Affective Factors a Good Predictor of Science Achievement? Examining the Role of Affective Factors Based on PISA 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated how affective factors like attitude and motivation contribute to science achievement in PISA 2006 using linear structural modeling. The data set of PISA 2006 collected from 4942 fifteen-year-old Turkish students (2290 females, 2652 males) was used for the statistical analyses. A total of 42 selected items on a four point…

Ozel, Murat; Caglak, Serdar; Erdogan, Mehmet

2013-01-01

7

Some Factors which Affect Science Achievement of High School Seniors in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Israel is one of 26 countries participating in the Second IEA Science Study which was designed to examine the relationships among the intended translated and achieved curriculum and factors which affect student achievement and attitudes related to science. Within this framework a sample of 2277 12th?grade students responded to a 30?item science test. The results which are reported in this

Pinchas Tamir

1987-01-01

8

School factors affecting postsecondary career pursuits of high-achieving girls in mathematics and science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the influences of secondary school experiences of high-achieving girls in math and science on their postsecondary career pursuits in science fields. Specifically, using the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), the study investigated how science class experiences in high school affect science career persistence of high-achieving girls over and above personal and family factors. Selecting the

Hyunsil Yoo

2005-01-01

9

Factors Affecting Literacy Achievement of Eighth Grade Middle School Instrumental Music Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this pretest-posttest comparative efficacy study was to analyze factors affecting literacy achievement of eighth grade middle school instrumental music students (n = 38) including (a) socioeconomic status (SES), (b) gender, (c) grade point average (GPA), (d) music motivation, (e) music involvement, and (f) instrument section. The…

Kurt, Johnny T.

2010-01-01

10

Investigation on Multiple Factors Affecting English-Language Learners' Reading Achievement: Hierarchical Linear Modeling Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the multiple factors affecting English language learners' (ELLs) low reading achievement in standardized tests by exploring the complex, hierarchical relation in student, classroom, and school levels. The data used for this study was from National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES), the reading portion of the…

Woo, Hui-Jeong

2009-01-01

11

Student and School Factors Affecting Mathematics Achievement: International Comparisons between Korea, Japan and the USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to comparatively investigate student- and school-level factors affecting mathematics achievement of Korean, Japanese and American students. For international comparisons, the PISA 2003 data were analysed by using the Hierarchical Linear Modeling method. The variables of competitive-learning preference, instrumental…

Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; Kim, Yongnam

2009-01-01

12

School Factors Explaining Achievement on Cognitive and Affective Outcomes: Establishing a Dynamic Model of Educational Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The dynamic model of educational effectiveness defines school level factors associated with student outcomes. Emphasis is given to the two main aspects of policy, evaluation, and improvement in schools which affect quality of teaching and learning at both the level of teachers and students: a) teaching and b) school learning environment. Five…

Creemers, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

2010-01-01

13

An analysis of factors that affect public and private school science achievement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data on 30,030 sophomores in the High School and Beyond project were analyzed to test the private school superiority hypothesis for science achievement. The supposition that private schools are superior to public schools in producing science achievement is rejected on the basis of the present analysis. Major differences in science achievement between public and private schools appear attributable to relatively fixed characteristics of students and to their experiences beyond the school environment, rather than to factors easily alterable by educators. The authors point out and discuss the value of homework, the problem of excessive television viewing, the influence of parental involvement in education, and the effect of the amount of academic classes taken.Received: 5 September 1985

Staver, John R.; Walberg, Herbert J.

14

Second Language Orientation and Self-Determination TheoryA Structural Analysis of the Factors Affecting Second Language Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study is two-fold. First, the present study examines statistical similarity between the integrative and instrumental orientation and Self-Determination Theory subtypes of motivation using chi-square invariance test. Second, based on the results of the chi-square invariance test, the present study further investigates the structural relationships among factors affecting second language achievement. Results of the chi-square invariance

Tae-Il Pae

2008-01-01

15

New Insights into School and Classroom Factors Affecting Student Achievement. Research Brief. Issue #76  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research brief summarizes a report by Julian R. Betts, Andrew C. Zau, and Lorien A. Rice, "Determinants of Student Achievement: New Evidence from San Diego" (2003) [ED497299]. Surveys by the Public Policy Institute of California have consistently shown that Californians are concerned about the quality of K-12 public schools and that…

Public Policy Institute of California, 2003

2003-01-01

16

Factors Affecting Academic Achievement of Adult Students Enrolled in Ontario University Credit Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Existing programs, policies and practices as they affect the older adult student in Ontario universities were investigated. Interview data were collected from adult students about their experiences in the light of the policies described, and a number of obstacles to successful study encountered by these students were identified. A statistical…

Beagle, Peggy

17

Identifying Factors That Affect Higher Educational Achievements of Jamaican Seventh-Day Adventists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This mixed-method explanatory research examined factors that influenced Jamaican Seventh-day Adventist (SDA) members to pursue higher education. It sought to investigate whether the source of the motivation is tied to the Church's general philosophy on education or to its overall programs as experienced by the membership at large. The question of…

Campbell, Samuel P.

2011-01-01

18

Identifying Factors That Affect Higher Educational Achievements of Jamaican Seventh-Day Adventists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This mixed-method explanatory research examined factors that influenced Jamaican Seventh-day Adventist (SDA) members to pursue higher education. It sought to investigate whether the source of the motivation is tied to the Church's general philosophy on education or to its overall programs as experienced by the membership at large. The question of…

Campbell, Samuel P.

2011-01-01

19

Factors Affecting Reading Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A review of literature indicates that schools with effective reading programs tend to have common characteristics, such as a strong commitment to improved reading; a competent teaching and administrative staff; clearly defined objectives; a structured, intensified program; adequate assessment techniques; a variety of materials; and parental…

Felsenthal, Helen

20

Evaluation of Financial Factors Affecting U.S. Medical Schools' Efforts to Achieve Equal Representation of Minority Students. Volume II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A research design has been developed to explore and analyze the financial factors that affect the recruitment and retention of minority students in medical school, and to determine the amounts and types of financial assistance that minority students requi...

R. Jackson

1977-01-01

21

Evaluation of Financial Factors Affecting U.S. Medical Schools' Efforts to Achieve Equal Representation of Minority Students. Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A research design has been developed to explore and analyze the financial factors that affect the recruitment and retention of minority students in medical school, and to determine the amounts and types of financial assistance that minority students requi...

R. Jackson

1977-01-01

22

Competitive Versus Cooperative Reward Structures: The Influence of Individual and Group Performance Factors on Achievement Attributions and Affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of cooperative and competitive reward structures on children's attributions and affective reactions to success and failure. Eighty sixth-grade children performed at a high or low level at an achievement task under competitive or cooperative reward contingencies. The cooperative structure included both group success and group failure. Results showed that competitive contingencies accentuated the differences in

Carole Ames

1981-01-01

23

An Annotated Bibliography of the Literature Concerning the Factors Affecting Students' Achievement in High School Chemistry Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Previous research concerning the cognitive abilities of high school students has indicated that a substantial number of students enrolled in secondary science courses do not conceptualize at the formal-operational level. Further, results indicate that achievement levels in chemistry coursework are significantly affected by, not only cognitive…

Bednarek, Laurie J.

24

Family Background, Parent-Child Relationships and Academic Achievement Among Puerto Rican Junior and Senior High School Students. Report No. 4: Study of Factors Affecting Student Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reliability, validity, and relationships of a Spanish language adaptation of Schaefer's Child's Report of Parental Behavior Inventory (CRPBI) was examined in a sample of 5,300 Puerto Rican adolescents. It was found that the CRPBI had had reliabilities averaging .78 and factor analyses indicated a three factor structure similar to Schaefer's…

Nuttall, Ronald L.; And Others

25

Case Studies of Factors Affecting the Motivation of Musical High Achievers to Learn Music in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the personal beliefs and attitudes of highly motivated Hong Kong school-age subjects who studied music. A total of 24 participants who demonstrated high achievement and interest in learning music were interviewed. Content analysis of the interview data was performed to elucidate four topics: background information about the…

Leung, Bo Wah; McPherson, Gary E.

2011-01-01

26

Case Studies of Factors Affecting the Motivation of Musical High Achievers to Learn Music in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports on the personal beliefs and attitudes of highly motivated Hong Kong school-age subjects who studied music. A total of 24 participants who demonstrated high achievement and interest in learning music were interviewed. Content analysis of the interview data was performed to elucidate four topics: background information about…

Leung, Bo Wah; McPherson, Gary E.

2011-01-01

27

Case studies of factors affecting the motivation of musical high achievers to learn music in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on the personal beliefs and attitudes of highly motivated Hong Kong school-age subjects who studied music. A total of 24 participants who demonstrated high achievement and interest in learning music were interviewed. Content analysis of the interview data was performed to elucidate four topics: background information about the music learning of participants, their feelings about learning music,

Bo Wah Leung; Gary E. McPherson

2011-01-01

28

Does Community Education Affect Student Achievement?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from 2,866 fourth-seventh graders and 631 teachers were used to compare 15 St. Louis schools designated as community education centers (CEC) with 15 others. No significant differences in achievement, cognitive ability, or learning motivation were found. CECs' outreach and social services did not seem to affect achievement. (Technical data on…

Nance, Everette E.; Moore, Debra H.; Lewis, Cornelius F.

1999-01-01

29

Affective Factors in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of the role of affective factors in reading within the framework of the substrata factor theory is presented. The substrata factor theory and theories of the intellect are briefly discussed, and the absence of affective factors in these theories is pointed out. These affective factors are seen as influential in the individual's…

Athey, Irene

30

Factors Affecting Wound Healing  

PubMed Central

Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds.

Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

2010-01-01

31

Cognitive Factors in Academic Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This review explores the factors of cognitive processing, style, and metacognitive organization as they contribute to academic success. Specific discussions consider aspects of short- and long-term memory, including how these affect learning and academic performance, and the keys to attaining long-term memory capability by involving redundancy,…

Cuasay, Peter

1992-01-01

32

The relationship among mathematics achievement, affective variables and home background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One thousand seven hundred and sixty six secondary school students in Hong Kong participated in the present study, in which the relationship among mathematics achievement, affective variables and home background was investigated. It was found that mathematics achievement was most closely related with self-concept, academic self-concept and attitudes towards mathematics. Self- and parental expectations were the most influential factors to these affective variables. It was also found that Hong Kong students spent, on the average, over 33% of homework time on mathematics homework. The time spend on homework, however, did not exhibit significant correlation with mathematics achievement.

Wong, Ngai-Ying

1993-10-01

33

How Does Television Affect Student Achievement?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research project is to find how television influences student achievement, specifically overall grades. I will be notating how long students watch television and the types of shows they prefer to watch. This study will include a television log and an interview of a child. The television log will be done at home. Each day, the students

Michelle LaRocque

2009-01-01

34

Students' Goal Achievement: Exploring Individual and Situational Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduction: This paper reports a preliminary investigation of the individual and situational factors affecting goal achievement in a psychology student population. The impact of normative information on goal achievement is considered in relation to goal commitment, optimism, gender and academic setting. Method: Psychology students (n=121) from…

Derrer-Rendall, Nicola; Wesson, Caroline; Anderson, Lindsey; Bould, Emma

2009-01-01

35

Student Factors and Mathematics Achievement: Evidence from TIMSS 2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mathematics learning and achievement is one area of research that has gained momentum in recent years because of its importance as a subject in the school curriculum and its usefulness as a prerequisite for developing the quantitative and analytical skills. However, studies on factors affecting mathematics achievement in Malaysia are limited both…

Azina, Ismail Noor; Halimah, Awang

2012-01-01

36

Factors affecting tanker safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major factors influencing tanker safety are discussed. For the discussion information has been gleaned from maritime labour officials, industry experts and a recent United States Coast Guard study on tanker safety. Results of other tanker safety studies and\\/or accident reports are also utilized. Some of the factors analysed are the size and age of vessel, licence qualifications for mates

Craig J. Forsyth

1991-01-01

37

Factors Contributing to Institutions Achieving Environmental Sustainability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine what factors contributed to three universities achieving environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A case study methodology was used to determine how each factor contributed to the institutions' sustainability. Site visits, fieldwork, document reviews, and interviews with…

James, Matthew; Card, Karen

2012-01-01

38

Factors Affecting New Product Developments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fourteen commercial and 13 Department of Defense (DoD) new product developments are reviewed and analyzed to understand the factors responsible for reducing development times. The major groupings of factors affecting new product developments were found to...

J. T. Shields

1994-01-01

39

Factors Affecting Internal Blast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internal blast refers to explosion effects in confined spaces, which are dominated by the heat output of the explosive. Theoretical temperatures and pressures may not be reached due to heat losses and incomplete gas mixing. Gas mixing can have the largest effect, potentially reducing peak quasi-static pressure by a factor of two due to lack of thermal equilibrium between products

R. H. Granholm; H. W. Sandusky; J. E. Felts

2007-01-01

40

FACTORS AFFECTING INTERNAL BLAST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internal blast refers to explosion effects in confined spaces, which are dominated by the heat output of the explosive. Theoretical temperatures and pressures may not be reached due to heat losses and incomplete gas mixing. Gas mixing can have the largest effect, potentially reducing peak quasi-static pressure by a factor of two due to lack of thermal equilibrium between products

R. H. Granholm; H. W. Sandusky; J. E. Felts

2007-01-01

41

Factors Affecting Students' Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determinants of students' performance have been the subject of ongoing debate among educators, academics, and policy makers. There have been many studies that sought to examine this issue and their findings point out to hard work, previous schooling, parents’ education, family income and self motivation as factors that have a significant effect on the students GPA. Most of those studies

Nasri Harb; Ahmed El-Shaarawi

2006-01-01

42

The Relationship among Mathematics Achievement, Affective Variables and Home Background.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigated the relationships among mathematics achievement, affect, and home background for Hong Kong students (n=1766) in grades 7-13. Achievement was most closely related to academic and nonacademic self-concepts and attitudes toward mathematics, and the latter was most influenced by self- and parental expectations. (LDR)|

Wong, Ngai-ying

1992-01-01

43

Factors Affecting Bioscience Students' Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The examination of academic progression has become an essential tool for measuring the effectiveness of educational systems. Research concerning the relationship between student learning and how they progress in their studies, however remains scarce. The aim of this study is two-fold: Firstly, the study aims to analyse first-year bioscience…

Rytkonen, Henna; Parpala, Anna; Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari; Virtanen, Viivi; Postareff, Liisa

2012-01-01

44

Factors Affecting Willingness to Mentor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper presents a survey among 300 employees in Northern Italy to assess the willingness to mentor and identify the factors that affect it. Men and respondents with previous mentoring experience indicate a higher willingness to be a mentor. Willingness is affected by personal characteristics that are perceived as necessary for a mentor and the…

Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Quaglino, Gian Piero

2009-01-01

45

Factors Affecting Willingness to Mentor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents a survey among 300 employees in Northern Italy to assess the willingness to mentor and identify the factors that affect it. Men and respondents with previous mentoring experience indicate a higher willingness to be a mentor. Willingness is affected by personal characteristics that are perceived as necessary for a mentor and the…

Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Quaglino, Gian Piero

2009-01-01

46

Affecting Factors in Second Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study investigated the influence of sex, handedness, level in second language (L2) and Faculty choice on the performance of phonological, syntactical and semantic tasks in L2. Level in L2 and sex were the most affecting factors. Subjects who achieved higher scores on L2 tasks had strong second language aptitude skills since they were…

Andreou, G.; Vlachos, F.; Andreou, E.

2005-01-01

47

Pharmacologic Factors Affecting Glycemic Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among many challenges to achieving and maintaining glycemic control, the impact of pharmacologic agents on glycemia is a significant,\\u000a but often overlooked factor. Numerous medications have been implicated in the development of drug-induced hyperglycemia and\\u000a type 2 diabetes mellitus. Of these, the atypical antipsychotics (for the management of depression and psychosis), the protease-inhibitor\\u000a anti retroviral agents (for the management of

Lillian F. Lien

48

Psychological factors affecting equine performance.  

PubMed

For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective. PMID:23016987

McBride, Sebastian D; Mills, Daniel S

2012-09-27

49

Psychological factors affecting equine performance  

PubMed Central

For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

2012-01-01

50

Factors Affecting the Earth's Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Classroom Connectors lesson plan discusses factors affecting the weather on Earth. Students learn about solar radiation, wind circulation, precipitation, and biomes that result from weather patterns. The site provides goals, objectives, an outline, time required, materials, activities, and closure ideas for the lesson. The Classroom Connectors address content with an activity approach while incorporating themes necessary to raise the activity to a higher cognition level. The major motivation is to employ instructional strategies that bring the students physically and mentally into touch with the science they are studying.

51

Student Achievement: A Factor in Classroom Dynamics?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined differences in interaction patterns between teachers and high and low achieving and high and low expectation students. Records of verbal teacher?student interactions, both public and private, were obtained through videotaping ten grade 3 and grade 6 classes during mathematics and language lessons. Teachers tended to interact most frequently with high achieving and high expectancy students, particularly at

Gilah C. Leder

1987-01-01

52

Perceptions of Educational Barriers Affecting the Academic Achievement of Latino K-12 Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined different factors affecting the perceptions of barriers in academic achievement of Latino K-12 students. The study used data from 1,508 participants who identified themselves as being of Hispanic or Latino heritage in the 2004 National Survey of Latinos: Education, compiled by the Pew Hispanic Center between August 7 and…

Becerra, David

2012-01-01

53

Perceptions of Educational Barriers Affecting the Academic Achievement of Latino K-12 Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined different factors affecting the perceptions of barriers in academic achievement of Latino K-12 students. The study used data from 1,508 participants who identified themselves as being of Hispanic or Latino heritage in the 2004 National Survey of Latinos: Education, compiled by the Pew Hispanic Center between August 7 and…

Becerra, David

2012-01-01

54

Hierarchical Factoring in a Standardized Achievement Battery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The factorial validity of the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills was investigated. Hierarchical factor analysis was performed with a subset of the standardization data to explore the presence of second-order group factors. Results supported the construct validity of Language and Mathematics subscales. Verbal and Visual Information group factors were…

Martin, David J.; Dunbar, Stephen B.

1985-01-01

55

Factors in school achievement and social class  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined perceptions of social environment by 489 elementary school children and their attitudes for their relationship to school performance. Factors derived from the data accounted for more than twice the variance attributable to social class. 1 factor, suggestive of dominance in parents and submissiveness in the child, accounted for 24% of the criterion variance, compared with social class which accounted

Gordon W. Miller

1970-01-01

56

Positive Affect and Negative Affect as Modulators of Cognition and Motivation: The rediscovery of affect in achievement goal theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central hypothesis of classical motivation theory is that affect underlies motivation and its behavioural manifestations. However, this has been largely ignored in the past 30 years because social cognitivism has been the dominant theory. As a result, studies have concentrated on social cognitive processes when analysing those factors that determine and maintain performance?related behaviour. In recent years affect has

Gunnar Bjørnebekk

2008-01-01

57

Factors affecting ostrich egg hatchability.  

PubMed

Ostrich eggs often have low hatchability (HATCH) rates because they do not lose sufficient weight during incubation. Because egg size, eggshell porosity and thickness (THICK), and length of preincubation egg storage are known to affect egg weight loss during incubation (EWL) and HATCH of chicken eggs, these factors were examined using ostrich eggs. The effects of eggshell porosity (number of large pores per cm2 of shell; LP); and THICK on EWL and HATCH were assessed by categorizing the eggs as having either low, intermediate, or high LP or low, intermediate, or high THICK. Mean EWL was higher (P<0.05) in eggs of the high LP group when compared with eggs in either the low or intermediate LP groups that lost similar amounts of weight during incubation. Mean HATCH was also higher (more than 25%; P<0.10) in eggs with high LP when compared with the HATCH found in eggs having low LP. Eggs from the intermediate LP group had an intermediate HATCH response. Moreover, numbers of LP were positively correlated to both EWL (r2 = 0.64; P<0.0001) and HATCH (r2 = 0.25; P<0.03). Inverse relationships existed between THICK and EWL and between THICK and HATCH according to the order (P< 0.05): eggs of low THICK, highest mean EWL and HATCH > eggs of intermediate THICK, intermediate mean EWL and HATCH > eggs of highest THICK, lowest mean EWL and HATCH. Shell thickness was not correlated to either EWL or HATCH. The influence of egg size on mean LP, THICK, EWL, HATCH, and chick weight (CWT) was assessed. Although THICK was unaffected by egg size, higher LP (P<0.10), EWL (P<0.05), and HATCH (P<0.10) were found in medium-sized eggs when compared with either small or large eggs. The CWT was associated with egg size (P<0.05) according to the order: large eggs, highest CWT > medium eggs, intermediate CWT > small eggs, lowest CWT. Neither EWL nor HATCH was affected by length of preincubation egg storage. Collectively, our findings suggest that 1) ostrich eggs that possess low LP and increased THICK hatched poorly, 2) intermediate-sized eggs hatch best, 3) large eggs produced large chicks, and 4) ostrich eggs can be stored under conditions typically used in the poultry industry for a minimum of 10 d without negatively impacting HATCH. PMID:10515354

Gonzalez, A; Satterlee, D G; Moharer, F; Cadd, G G

1999-09-01

58

Does Recreational Computer Use Affect High School Achievement?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Historically, the relationship between student academic achievement and use of computers for fun and video gaming has been described from a multitude of perspectives, from positive, to negative, to neutral. However, recent research has indicated that computer use and video gaming may be positively associated with achievement, yet these studies…

Bowers, Alex J.; Berland, Matthew

2013-01-01

59

Female teachers' math anxiety affects girls' math achievement.  

PubMed

People's fear and anxiety about doing math--over and above actual math ability--can be an impediment to their math achievement. We show that when the math-anxious individuals are female elementary school teachers, their math anxiety carries negative consequences for the math achievement of their female students. Early elementary school teachers in the United States are almost exclusively female (>90%), and we provide evidence that these female teachers' anxieties relate to girls' math achievement via girls' beliefs about who is good at math. First- and second-grade female teachers completed measures of math anxiety. The math achievement of the students in these teachers' classrooms was also assessed. There was no relation between a teacher's math anxiety and her students' math achievement at the beginning of the school year. By the school year's end, however, the more anxious teachers were about math, the more likely girls (but not boys) were to endorse the commonly held stereotype that "boys are good at math, and girls are good at reading" and the lower these girls' math achievement. Indeed, by the end of the school year, girls who endorsed this stereotype had significantly worse math achievement than girls who did not and than boys overall. In early elementary school, where the teachers are almost all female, teachers' math anxiety carries consequences for girls' math achievement by influencing girls' beliefs about who is good at math. PMID:20133834

Beilock, Sian L; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Levine, Susan C

2010-01-25

60

A Longitudinal Analysis of Achievement Goals: From Affective Antecedents to Emotional Effects and Achievement Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affect and emotions are frequently seen as outcomes of mastery and performance goals, but affective experiences may also predict goal adoption. In a predictive study (N = 669 first-year college students), the authors used structural equation modeling to estimate relationships from 2 initial affective experiences to mastery and performance-approach goals, from goals to discrete emotions, and from discrete emotions to

Lia M. Daniels; Robert H. Stupnisky; Reinhard Pekrun; Tara L. Haynes; Raymond P. Perry; Nancy E. Newall

2009-01-01

61

Female teachers' math anxiety affects girls' math achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

People's fear and anxiety about doing math—over and above actual math ability—can be an impediment to their math achieve- ment. We show that when the math-anxious individuals are female elementary school teachers, their math anxiety carries neg- ative consequences for the math achievement of their female stu- dents. Early elementary school teachers in the United States are almost exclusively female

Sian L. Beilock; Elizabeth A. Gunderson; Gerardo Ramirez; Susan C. Levine

2010-01-01

62

Psychosocial Factors Affecting Dissertation Completion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews the psychosocial factors associated with doctoral dissertation completion or delay. Examines the effects of two factors, procrastination and perfectionism, in greater detail and reports on a study of 142 education doctoral students and 97 graduates. Notes that educators should consider the role of these psychosocial factors as they help…

Green, Kathy E.

1997-01-01

63

Praise or Blame? Affective Influences on Attributions for Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments showed that mood influences achievement attributions and that cognitive processes underlie these effects. In Experiment 1, happy Ss made more internal and stable attributions for success than failure in typical ‘life dilemmas’. In Experiment 2, attributions for real-life exam performance were more internal and stable in a happy than in a sad mood. Dysphoric moods resulted in self-critical

Joseph P. Forgas; Gordon H. Bower; Stephanie J. Moylan

1990-01-01

64

Factors affecting information systems’ success  

Microsoft Academic Search

States that there is continuing difficulty in achieving success with information systems, particularly in the sense of meeting users’ expectations and offers a fresh examination of those attributes of information systems by which users perceive success and failure, and through which they establish their expectations. Reviews existing research literature and suggests that, in addition to the process and product viewpoint,

Grafton Whyte; Andy Bytheway

1996-01-01

65

How Does the Wind Affect Road-Running Achievement?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a simple mathematical model in which resultant speed is the sum or difference between wind speed and runner speed and a more complex model that assumes that only a proportion of the wind's speed affects one's running speed to describe the time difference between running with and without wind. (MDH)

de Villiers, Michael D.

1991-01-01

66

Factors affecting leachate quality. Technical note  

SciTech Connect

This technical note describes factors affecting leachate quality for dredged material in confined disposal facilities (CDFs). Factors evaluated include desorption kinetics, sediment concentration, and association of PCBs with soluble and colloidal organic matter.

Brannon, J.M.; Pennington, J.C.; Myers, T.E.; Price, C.B.

1989-12-01

67

Factors Affecting Onset of Puberty  

Microsoft Academic Search

In humans, foetal and early postnatal growth failure may have persistent consequences for growth and pubertal development in later life. During this period, the developing organs are still plastic to change their function, which may have long-lasting effects. At the time of onset of puberty, acute factors may also interfere with pubertal development. Malnutrition, as seen in anorexic patients, and

Henriette A. Delemarre-van de Waal; Silvia C. C. M. van Coeverden; Mia J. T. Engelbregt

2002-01-01

68

Factors affecting ballasted flocculation reactions.  

PubMed

Ballasted flocculation represents a relatively new technology that shows promise of bringing improvements to the field of water and wastewater treatment. Ballasted flocculation involves the addition of a ballasting agent (high-density microsand, sp gr = 2.65) to a chemically stabilized and coagulated suspension of particulate solids. Tests were conducted to determine the effect of eight independent parameters on the settling velocity of the resulting floc. Measurements showed settling velocities ranging from approximately 100 m/h for 0.5-mm diameter particles to as high as 380 m/h for particles having effective diameters up to 7 mm. Settling velocities for discrete microsand particles and discrete ballasted flocs were found to fit conventional settling theory with reasonable accuracy. The most important factors contributing to the benefits of ballasted flocculation are the large floc sizes that can be maintained, the greater roundness of the floc particles, and a lower shape factor for the ballasted floc, which all contribute to higher settling rates. Higher settling rates allow for substantially smaller sedimentation units and decreased capital costs. PMID:12837033

Young, James C; Edwards, Findlay G

69

Factors affecting outcomes in colonoscopy.  

PubMed

There are many factors that influence successful outcomes in colonoscopy. The aims of this study were to evaluate these factors and determine ways to improve outcomes. All participants (N=229) who underwent planned colonoscopy between July and September 2004 were retrospectively included. Participants included 118 men and 111 women with a mean age of 59 years. Completion rate was 92%. Reasons of failure included poor bowel preparation (2.2%, p< .025), bowel looping (2.2%, p< .025), participant discomfort (1.3%), and obstructing lesion (1.3%). Mean midazolam dose was 3.8 mg. Three participants (1.3%) had midazolam alone, and all had complete colonoscopy. One hundred thirty-three participants (60.7%) had additional meperidine, with a completion rate of 94%. Eighty three participants (37.9%) had additional meperidine and Buscopan, with a completion rate reduced to 89.2%. There was no correlation between sedatives used and completion rate. Completion rate of colonoscopy in our unit was acceptable at 92%. A combination of midazolam and meperidine gave the best completion rates (94%). The two main reasons for incompletion were poor bowel preparation and excessive bowel looping. PMID:18300826

Selehi, Seema; Leung, Edmund; Wong, Ling

70

Analysis of Factors Affecting Employee's Occupational Commitment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research mainly examines the factors that affect an employee's occupational commitment. Respondents of the questionnaire were all insurance agents, and a total of 246 valid questionnaires were completed. After going through correlation and regression analysis of the collected data, it is implied that insurance agents' affective occupational commitment, is higher than their affective organizational commitment. Also, their organizational commitment

C. C. Chen; Y. H. Yang; S. T. Hsiung

2009-01-01

71

Affective and Social Issues among High Achieving African American Students: Recommendations for Teachers and Teacher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the author outlines affective and social issues as well as needs among high achieving African American students. In particular, he discusses high achievers in terms of: (a) urban schooling, (b) emotional and psychological experiences, (c) exclusion and isolation, (d) powerlessness, (e) token status, and (f) pigeonholing. The author posits that affective and social issues among high achieving

H. Richard Milner

2002-01-01

72

Factors affecting grip strength testing.  

PubMed

The rodent grip strength test was developed decades ago and is a putative measure of muscular strength. This test has been included in the functional observational battery (FOB) to screen for neurobehavioral toxicity, and changes in grip strength have been interpreted as evidence of motor neurotoxicity. Despite its widespread use, questions remain about what the grip strength test actually measures. In this study, potential confounders of the grip strength test were identified and tested, including operational parameters, disruption of peripheral sensory function and changes in body weight. Operational parameters (sampling rate, system type and trial angle but not trial speed) had dramatic effects on grip strength data. Doxorubicin (DX, 10 mg/kg iv) was used to cause sensory impairment. It decreased forelimb and hindlimb grip strength (by 27% and 32%, respectively, compared with controls), an effect that was correlated with degeneration of peripheral and central sensory components (distal tibial and sural nerves, dorsal funiculus of the spinal cord and dorsal, but not ventral, spinal roots). Feed restriction-induced loss of body weight (26% compared with controls) and muscle mass (20% compared with controls) reversibly decreased both forelimb and hindlimb grip strength (18% and 17%, respectively, compared with controls). Ignoring these confounding factors could potentially lead to increased data variability and inconsistency within single studies, across studies and in historical control data sets. To assist in data interpretation and evaluation of grip strength results, it is suggested that exact conditions of application of the test be reported in greater detail. Furthermore, given that the grip strength test can be influenced by factors other than true muscular strength, use of the term grip performance is proposed to better reflect the apical nature of this test. PMID:12972067

Maurissen, Jacques P J; Marable, Brian R; Andrus, Amanda K; Stebbins, Kenneth E

73

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility Suzanne. E. Fenton US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

74

Factors Affecting the Quality of Health Care.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Quality assurance is discussed as a health planning objective, and structural and process factors affecting the quality of care are examined. Quality assurance and health planning are explored in relation to the rising cost of health care and the evidence...

A. D. Spiegel B. Backhaut

1977-01-01

75

EFL Teachers' Factors and Students' Affect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual learners' affective factors are very important for foreign language learning. In China foreign language learning mainly happens in the classroom. Foreign language teachers are the organizers and carriers of language classes, and thus they inevitably influence the students' affection. This study explores how EFL teachers influence…

Qin, Lei

2007-01-01

76

Factors affecting coastal wetland loss and restoration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Opening paragraph: Tidal and nontidal wetlands in the Chesapeake Bay watershed provide vital hydrologic, water-quality, and ecological functions. Situated at the interface of land and water, these valuable habitats are vulnerable to alteration and loss by human activities including direct conversion to non-wetland habitat by dredge-and-fill activities from land development, and to the effects of excessive nutrients, altered hydrology and runoff, contaminants, prescribed fire management, and invasive species. Processes such as sea-level rise and climate change also impact wetlands. Although local, State, and Federal regulations provide for protection of wetland resources, the conversion and loss of wetland habitats continue in the Bay watershed. Given the critical values of wetlands, the Chesapeake 2000 Agreement has a goal to achieve a net gain in wetlands by restoring 25,000 acres of tidal and nontidal wetlands by 2010. The USGS has synthesized findings on three topics: (1) sea-level rise and wetland loss, (2) wetland restoration, and (3) factors affecting wetland diversity.

Cahoon, D.R.

2007-01-01

77

Cognitive, Affective, Personality, and Demographic Predictors of Foreign-Language Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the ability of cognitive, affective, personality, and demographic variables to predict second language acquisition among college students. Student surveys indicated that all four types of variables correlated with foreign language achievement, with a cognitive variable (academic achievement) and an affective variable (foreign language…

Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Bailey, Phillip; Daley, Christine E.

2000-01-01

78

Cognitive and Affective Processes Related to School Achievement: Implications for Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|During the last two decades of work in predicting and explaining school achievement, much research has emphasized the identification and measurement of student cognitive and affective processes which predict and also promise to help explain and facilitate school achievement. This review focuses on modifiable cognitive and affective processes, as…

Shaha, Steven H.; Wittrock, Merlin C.

79

Economic and cultural factors affecting university excellence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper first identifies the number of universities ranked among the first 300 in

Naceur Jabnoun

2009-01-01

80

Economic and Cultural Factors Affecting University Excellence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…

Jabnoun, Naceur

2009-01-01

81

Exploratory Analysis of the Prevalence of Self-Related Affects in Achievement Situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, several theories of emotion and motivation have focused on the role of self-related affects in human experience and behavior. Such models are grounded in the belief that self-related affects represent a prevalent aspect of the lives of individuals when engaged in achievement endeavors. Some results, however, suggest that affects tied to the outcome (outcome-related affects) might be

Robert J. Vallerand; Marc R. Blais

1989-01-01

82

Socially oriented achievement goals of Chinese university students in Singapore: structure and relationships with achievement motives, goals and affective outcomes.  

PubMed

Contemporary literature on culture, self, and motivations (Markus & Kitayama, 1991) suggests that in collectivistic cultures, individual achievement is interdependent of one's social others. We proposed that this cultural characteristic could be exemplified in the achievement goal orientation and tested the notion with university students in a collectivistic community-Singapore. A socially oriented achievement goal construct was developed by taking into consideration the significant social others in the students' lives. A measuring instrument was established with a sample of Singaporean Chinese university students (N = 196; 144 females and 52 males); its relationships to achievement motives, goals, and consequences were examined. Although the socially oriented achievement goal items were originally constructed from four categories of social others, confirmatory factor analysis suggested a unifactor structure. Results showed that the socially oriented goal was related positively with students' performance goal, mastery goal, and competitive motive; it bore no relationship to mastery motive, work ethic, and interest in learning; and it predicted negatively future engagement. After the effects of mastery and performance goals were controlled for, the socially oriented goal did not predict test anxiety. PMID:22022792

Chang, Weining C; Wong, Kaishi

2008-10-01

83

Factors Affecting Smoking Tendency and Smoking Intensity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to measure the relative effect of relevant explanatory variable on smoking tendency and smoking intensity. Design/methodology/approach: Using survey data collected by the Israeli Bureau of Statistics in 2003-2004, a probit procedure is estimated for analyzing factors that affect the probability of being a…

David, Nissim Ben; Zion, Uri Ben

2009-01-01

84

Factors Affecting Instructional Television Utilization in Alabama.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study was conducted of the factors affecting the utilization of educational television in elementary and secondary schools in the 127 school districts in the state of Alabama. Based upon the results of previous studies, five variables were investigated: (1) percentage of K-12 students in the total student population, (2) ratio of students to…

Turner, Philip M.; Simpson, William

85

Factors Affecting Children's Attention on TV Viewing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated what and how preschool children view children's television programs, with a focus on cultural and ecological factors which might affect their visual attention and the nature of their immediate recall of content. The secondary task method (in which an individual is required to perform two tasks simultaneously) was applied…

Wu, Sophia T.

86

Factors affecting nurses' perceptions of patient safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Nurses heavily influence patient care quality and safety. This paper aims to examine socioeconomic and organizational\\/system factors affecting patient safety and quality perceptions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire was constructed to gather demographic, managerial support, information technology implementation and integration information. Data were collected from nurses in five Riyadh hospitals, Saudi Arabia. Registered nurses working in hospital departments participated

Ari Mwachofi; Stephen L. Walston; Badran A. Al-Omar

2011-01-01

87

Factors Affecting Sea Lamprey Egg Survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors that affect recruitment of sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus are not well understood; for example, the majority (85%) of sea lamprey eggs are washed out of the nest, and the survival rate of these eggs is unknown. We examined the role of predation and substrate on egg survival in the laboratory and egg predation and dispersion of eggs outside the

Stephen J. Smith; J. Ellen Marsden

2009-01-01

88

Factors Affecting Faculty Web Portal Usability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…

Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.

2011-01-01

89

Relevant factors that affect service recovery performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the factors that affect employees' service recovery performance from the perspectives of internal management. In addition, this paper combines the techniques of linear multi-variable statistical analysis and nonlinear fuzzy neural network methodology to analyse data and validate hypotheses. This paper selects travel agents who have frequent interactions with customers and provide intangible services. The empirical finding indicates

Wen-Bao Lin

2010-01-01

90

Factors Affecting Motivation to Transfer Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study of trainees (n=88) in a competency-based occupational safety and health training program found that environmental factors (opportunities to use skills, peer/supervisor support, and supervisor sanctions) were most influential on motivation to transfer training. Training attitudes may be affected by prior experiences when the use of…

Seyler, Dian L.; Holton, Elwood F., III; Bates, Reid A.; Burnett, Michael F.; Carvalho, Manuel A.

1998-01-01

91

FACTORS AFFECTING MITOGENIC RESPONSE OF TURKEY LYMPHOCYTES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loa C. C., T. L. Lin, C. C. W u: Factors Affecting Mitogenic Response of Turkey Lymphocytes. Acta Vet. Brno 2001, 70: 433-442. The objective of the present study was to determine the parameters and conditions for measuring mitogenic response of turkey whole blood and spleen lymphocytes that may be useful in studying cellular immunity of turkeys. Heparinized whole blood

C. C. LOA; T. L. LIN; C. C. WU

2001-01-01

92

Psychological factors affecting a medical condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The criteria for scientific validation of the entities currently subsumed under the DSM-IV category of “Psychological Factors Affecting a Medical Condition” have never been clearly enumerated. Historically, its precursor category (“Psychophysiological Disorder”) was rarely used, and predicated upon clinical observation of personality styles among patients with specific physical illnesses, or clinical observations relating psychosocial events and symptom exacerbation. Because of

Mark W Ketterer; Gregory Mahr; A. David Goldberg

2000-01-01

93

Cognitive, Affective, Personality, and Demographic Predictors of Foreign-Language Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of cognitive, affective, personality, and demographic variables to predict second-language acquisition among college students was investigated. An all possible subsets regression analysis was used to compare the proportion of variance in foreign-language achievement explained by each variable. The analysis revealed that variables from each of the 4 domains were important predictors of foreign-language achievement. Overall, academic achievement, as

Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie; Phillip Bailey; Christine E. Daley

2000-01-01

94

Factors Affecting the Algebra I Achievement of Academically Talented Learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding student performance in Algebra I is important because this course serves as the gateway to advanced coursework in mathematics and science through the remainder of high school and into post-secondary education. In the current study, we analyzed secondary data to evaluate the relationship between selected indicators of mathematics and the Algebra I performance of academically able and gifted learners

Michael S. Matthews; Jennie L. Farmer

2008-01-01

95

Remote sensing of environmental factors affecting health  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research to identify, by satellite imagery, parameters of the environment affecting health on Earth. Thus, we suggest expanding the application of space technology to preventive medicine, as a new field in the peaceful uses of outer space. The scope of the study includes all parts of the environment, natural and man-made, and all kinds of protection of life: human, animal and vegetation health. The general objective is to consider and classify those factors, detectable from space, that affect or are relevant to health and may be found in the air, water, sea, soil, land, vegetation, as well as those linked to climate, industry, energy production, development works, irrigation systems, and human settlements. The special objective is the classification of environmental factors detectable from space, that are linked to communicable or chronic endemic diseases or health problems. The method of identifying the factors affecting health was the parallel study of environmental epidemiological and biological parameters. The role of environmental factors common to both human and animal populations is discussed. Conclusive findings are formulated and possible applications, both scientific and practical, in other sectors are also discussed.

Jovanovic, Petar

96

Attributions and affects related to actual vs perceived success in an actual achievement context.  

PubMed

The present study sought to explore Weiner's model of attribution-affect linkage using nondichotomized measures of both objective and subjective success, in a real achievement context. Contrary to expectation, attributional internality related more strongly to objective than to perceived success on three course examinations. Affectivity, as expected, related significantly more strongly to subjective success. Attribution-affect linkage accounted for relatively small amounts of variance in both types of outcome. However, Weiner's concept of "outcome-dependent, attribution-independent" affects was supported covarying with more specific self-worth affects. The concept of "hedonic bias" and concomitant positive affect was supported here, but the lack of a uniform group trend towards self-enhancing attributions highlights the necessity of considering individual differences in achievement behavior. PMID:2377718

Chandler, T A; Seibel, C A; Spies, C J

1990-06-01

97

Experimental determination of the factors affecting zinc electrowinning efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the factors affecting the efficiency of zinc electrowinning. The experiments were conducted in 10-1 cells using a high purity industrial zinc sulphate solution. The lowest specific energy consumption achieved in the cells was 2637 kWh t-1 Zn under the following conditions:\\u000a$$\\\\begin{gathered} 70 g1^{ - 1} Zn in cell solution \\\\hfill \\\\\\\\

A. C. Scott; R. M. Pitblado; G. W. Barton; A. R. Ault

1988-01-01

98

Factors affecting the outcome in subdural empyema  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case reports of 102 patients with subdural empyema, diagnosed in the years 1935-83, were reviewed to determine the factors affecting the outcome. Statistical analysis (likelihood ratio tests with chi square approximation and logistic regression) showed that year of diagnosis (p less than 0.01) and level of consciousness at the moment of diagnosis (p less than 0.01) had a significant

H W Mauser; H C Van Houwelingen; C A Tulleken

1987-01-01

99

Biomechanics of cycling and factors affecting performance.  

PubMed

Cycling performance in human powered vehicles is affected by the interaction of a number of variables, including environment, mechanical and human factors. Engineers have generally focused on the design and development of faster, more efficient human-powered vehicles based on minimising aerodynamic drag, neglecting the human component. On the other hand, kinesiologists have examined cycling performance from a human perspective, but have been constrained by the structure of a standard bicycle. Therefore, a gap exists between research in the various disciplines. To maximise/optimise cycling performance in human-powered vehicles requires a bridging of this gap through interdisciplinary research. Changes in different variables can affect the energy requirements of cycling. These variables include: (a) changes in body position, configuration, and orientation; (b) changes in seat to pedal distance; and (c) the interaction of workload, power output, and pedalling rate. Changes in these variables alter joint angles, muscle lengths, and muscle moment arm lengths, thus affecting the tension-length, force-velocity-power relationships of multi-joint muscles and the effectiveness of force production. This is ultimately manifested as a change in the energetics of cycling. A large number of factors affect cycling performance in human-powered vehicles and a gap still exists between cycling research in various disciplines. To bridge this gap, if not completely close it, requires cooperation between disciplines and further interdisciplinary research. PMID:2263797

Too, D

1990-11-01

100

Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens  

SciTech Connect

The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

Daniel P. Molloy

2004-02-24

101

Reappraising factors affecting mourning dove perch coos  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Results confirmed pairing as the primary factor influencing perch-cooing rates of wild mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). Marked unmated males cooed at substantially higher rates (6.2x) than mated males, had greater probability of cooing (2.3x) during 3-minute periods, and continued cooing longer each morning than mated males. Population density was not a major factor affecting cooing. Unmated males cooed more frequently in the presence of other cooing doves (P < 0.05) than when alone, but the number of additional doves above 1 was unimportant. Cooing rates of both mated and unmated males on areas with dissimilar dove densities were not significantly different. Within limits of standard call-count procedure, weather exerted no detectable influence on cooing.

Sayre, M.W.; Atkinson, R.D.; Baskett, T.S.; Haas, G.H.

1978-01-01

102

Factors affecting ice nucleation in plant tissues.  

PubMed

Factors affecting the ice nucleation temperature of plants and plant tissues were examined. The mass of a sample had a marked effect on ice nucleation temperature. Small tissue samples supercooled to -10 degrees C and were not accurate predictors of the nucleation temperature of intact plants in either laboratory or field experiments. This effect was not unique to plant tissues and was observed in autoclaved and control soil samples. Ice nucleation temperatures of bean, corn, cotton, and soybean seedlings were influenced by the length of subzero exposure, presence of ice nucleation active bacteria, and leaf surface wetness. The number of factors influencing ice nucleation temperature suggested that predicting the freezing behavior of plants in the field will be complex. PMID:16664524

Ashworth, E N; Davis, G A; Anderson, J A

1985-12-01

103

Prognostic factors in radical cystectomy affecting survival  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic factors in radical cystectomy affecting survival. Material and methods A total of 100 hundred patients were included in the study. Incontinent diversion was applied to 73 of these, and continent diversion to 27. Prospective and retrospective data of the patients were examined. The prognostic value for survival was evaluated for of lymph node involvement, tumor grade (low grade: grade 0-II, high grade: ? III or epidermoid carcinoma), tumor stage (low stage: stage pT0-2, high stage: stage ? 3a pT3a), presence of preoperative unilateral of bilateral hydronephrosis, presence of preoperative uremia (serum urea value: ? 60), and age (> 70 and ? 70 years of age) on survival were investigated. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Log-Rank statistical methods were used in the study. Results Grade, stage, uremia, and lymph node involvement had significant effects on survival (p values 0.0002, 0.03, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively). Presence of preoperative hydronephrosis and age had no statistically significant effects on survival (p values 0.8 and 0.2, respectively). Conclusions Tumor grade, tumor stage, preoperative uremia, and lymph node involvement are prognostic factors affecting survival. Advanced age and presence of preoperative hydronephrosis have no prognostic value for survival. The presence of uremia in the preoperative assessment of the patients is more important than hydronephrosis.

Aglamis, Erdogan; Toktas, Gokhan; Unluer, Erdinc; Ceylan, Cavit

2012-01-01

104

Factors affecting choice of health care plans.  

PubMed Central

The research reported here examined the factors which affected the decision to remain with either Blue Cross of Washington and Alaska or Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, or to change to an independent practice association (IPA) in which the primary care physicians control all care. The natural setting allowed examination of the characteristics of families with experience in structurally different plans; a decision not influenced by premium differentials; the importance of the role of usual provider; and a family-based decision using multivariate techniques. An expected utility model implied that factors affecting preferences included future need for medical care; access to care; financial resources to meet the need for care; and previous level of experience with plan and provider. Analysis of interview and medical record abstract data from 1,497 families revealed the importance of maintaining a satisfactory relationship with the usual sources of care in the decision to change plans. Adverse selection into the new IPA as measured by health status and previous utilization of medical services was not noted.

Grazier, K L; Richardson, W C; Martin, D P; Diehr, P

1986-01-01

105

The Relationship of Freshmen's Physics Achievement and Their Related Affective Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to determine the best-fitting structural equation model between the freshmen's physics achievement and selected affective characteristics related to physics. These characteristics are students' situational interest in physics, personal interest in physics, aspiring extra activities related to physics, importance of…

Gungor, Almer (Abak); Eryilmaz, Ali; Fakioglu, Turgut

2007-01-01

106

Perfectionism, Achievement, and Affect in Children: A Comparison of Students from Gifted, Arts, and Regular Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study examined the association between dimensions of perfectionism and levels of academic achievement and affect in school-aged children. A sample of 223 students (90 boys, 133 girls) from regular, gifted, and arts programs completed measures of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism, perceived academic competence, and…

Stornelli, Deborah; Flett, Gordon L.; Hewitt, Paul L.

2009-01-01

107

Relationship between Affect and Achievement in Science and Mathematics in Malaysia and Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) assesses the quality of the teaching and learning of science and mathematics among Grades 4 and 8 students across participating countries. Purpose: This study explored the relationship between positive affect towards science and mathematics and achievement in science…

Ng, Khar Thoe; Lay, Yoon Fah; Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

2012-01-01

108

The role of classroom context factors for the achievement-impairing effect of test anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation analyzed classroom factors affecting the predictive power of students' test anxiety for mathematics achievement. A context theory was developed, in which two mechanisms are held responsible for variations in the test-anxiety\\/test-performance relationship across classrooms: a compensatory mechanism and a saliency mechanism. The sample comprised 39 sixth-grade elementary classrooms and their mathematics teachers. Results show that marked differences

Andreas Helmke

1988-01-01

109

Factors affecting the outcome in subdural empyema.  

PubMed Central

The case reports of 102 patients with subdural empyema, diagnosed in the years 1935-83, were reviewed to determine the factors affecting the outcome. Statistical analysis (likelihood ratio tests with chi square approximation and logistic regression) showed that year of diagnosis (p less than 0.01) and level of consciousness at the moment of diagnosis (p less than 0.01) had a significant bearing on the chance to survive and that these same two factors (each factor p less than 0.01) and extent of subdural pus accumulation at the moment of diagnosis (p less than 0.05) had a significant bearing on the chance of survival without severe disability. Among others the duration of the disease up to the moment of diagnosis and the mode of the first surgical procedure had no significant bearing on the outcome. These results together with those in the literature are discussed and it is concluded that diagnosis and treatment before the patient lapses into stupor or coma, increases the chance of survival and that with adequate management a mortality rate of 10% or lower is to be expected.

Mauser, H W; Van Houwelingen, H C; Tulleken, C A

1987-01-01

110

Socially oriented achievement goals of Chinese university students in Singapore: Structure and relationships with achievement motives, goals and affective outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary literature on culture, self, and motivations (Markus & Kitayama, 1991) suggests that in collectivistic cultures, individual achievement is interdependent of one's social others. We proposed that this cultural characteristic could be exemplified in the achievement goal orientation and tested the notion with university students in a collectivistic community—Singapore. A socially oriented achievement goal construct was developed by taking into

Weining C. Chang; Kaishi Wong

2008-01-01

111

Factors affecting the outcome of corneal transplantation.  

PubMed Central

Corneal grafting has been attempted for 200 years. Greatly improved results in recent years have been attributed to developments in anaesthesia, asepsis, and immunological and anti-inflammatory therapy. The important factors affecting the outcome of corneal grafting today are the degree of vascularisation of the cornea before surgery, the inflammatory status at the time of surgery, and the number of antigenic determinants shared by donor and host. Allograft rejection is the most common cause of corneal graft failure. Animal experiments suggest that cyclosporin A given at the time of surgery is likely to prove the most effective means available for preventing corneal graft rejection. Although the introduction of more specific immunosuppressive agents is important, the development of techniques to improve the environment of the outer eye demands the highest priority. Corneal disease is the commonest cause of blindness on a world scale, but many patients are unacceptable for grafting with the currently accepted criteria for operability. Images Fig. 1

Coster, D. J.

1981-01-01

112

Factors affecting the quality of bottled water.  

PubMed

The ever-increasing popularity of bottled water means that it is important to analyze not only its mineral content but also, above all, its content of possible contaminants, especially the organic ones. In this respect, bottled waters are a special case, because apart from organic chemical contaminants derived from the well from which they were acquired, their secondary contamination is always possible, during treatment or storage or transport in unsuitable conditions (sunlight and elevated temperature). This paper describes how various factors, from the area around the well, and the method of drawing and treating water, to the manner in which the finished product is stored and transported may affect the quality of bottled waters. It also summarizes literature information on the levels of organic contaminants in various kinds of bottled water samples. PMID:23093103

Diduch, Malwina; Polkowska, ?aneta; Namie?nik, Jacek

2012-10-24

113

Factors Affecting Informal Economy of Rural Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the informal economy in the rural areas of Turkey has been measured and factors affecting the informal economy have been analyzed. The informal economy has been discussed with regards to three main issues, namely unpaid household labor force usage, own consumption of crop and animal products and informal sales. Although the household labor force is mainly used in farms for agricultural and off-farm activities, the rate of idle labor has been found to be highly significant. It has been found that milk has the largest share of animal produce values consumed by the household, while particularly processed milk products are sold informally and that the consumption and sales values of animal produce processed in the households are required to be added to the unrecorded value calculation. Consumption of crops varies depending on the type of product. The own consumption ratio of crops is affected by the size of the enterprise, the number of individuals in the households and particularly the access to the markets of the enterprises in each region. An average informal value of 6,400.04 USD has been calculated per household, which is higher than the farm income, accounting for 4/5 of total household income. This can be attributed to the fact that the farms are generally small family enterprises with limited market-access opportunities.

Gonenc, Sertac; Tanrivermis, Harun

114

[Wilson disease - factors affecting clinical presentation].  

PubMed

Wilson disease (WD) is a genetic disorder with copper metabolism disturbances leading to copper accumulation in many organs with their secondary damage. It is caused by mutation in the ATP7B gene on chromosome 13, which encodes ATP-ase 7B involved in copper transport. The age of neurologic symptom onset in WD is 20-30 years, but there is a wide spectrum of disease including: age at onset, clinical signs and treatment efficacy. More than 500 mutations of ATP7B have been described so far, but the WD genotype does not explain the disease variability. Several other factors are suspected to influence WD presentation, including polymorphisms in the genes encoding: apolipoprotein E, prion-related protein, methyltenetetrahydrofolate reductase, Murr1, antioxidant-1, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis as well as iron metabolism disturbances, gender impact, inflammatory reactions and oxidative stress. The explanation of their significance can change the therapy of WD. The aim of our study was to review and assess the clinical significance of the factors affecting WD presentation. PMID:23650006

Litwin, Tomasz; Cz?onkowska, Anna

115

Environmental factors affecting Burkholderia pseudomallei biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Melioidosis is highly prevalent in Northeast Thailand which is associated with high incidence of Burkholderia pseudomallei present in the soil of this region. B. pseudomallei when present in biofilm becomes resistant to numerous environmental factors and also to certain antibiotics. In this study, we examined the effects of several environmentally relevant factors (salinity, iron, manganese and temperature) on biofilm formation of four clinical ribotypes of B. pseudomallei commonly found in Northeast Thailand. The results showed that biofilm formation increased when B. pseudomallei were grown in modified Vogel and Bonner's medium containing 0.85-1.7 M NaCl or 100-500 microM iron (FeSO4). Low temperature (20 degrees C) also induced more biofilm formation than 30 degrees C or 37 degrees C. On the other hand, protease production and bacterial motility were adversely affected but not in the case of low temperature. Results from this study should be useful in the development of prevention measures or controlling B. pseudomallei biofilm formation in the environment. PMID:23682440

Kamjumphol, Watcharaporn; Chareonsudjai, Sorujsiri; Chareonsudjai, Pisit; Wongratanacheewin, Surasak; Taweechaisupapong, Suwimol

2013-01-01

116

Student perceptions of their biology teacher's interpersonal teaching behaviors and student achievement and affective learning outcomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary goals of this dissertation were to determine the relationships between interpersonal teaching behaviors and student achievement and affective learning outcomes. The instrument used to collect student perceptions of teacher interpersonal teaching behaviors was the Questionnaire on Teacher Interactions (QTI). The instrument used to assess student affective learning outcomes was the Biology Student Affective Instrument (BSAI). The interpersonal teaching behavior data were collected using students as the observers. 111 students in an urban influenced, rural high school answered the QTI and BSAI in September 1997 and again in April 1998. At the same time students were pre and post tested using the Biology End of Course Examination (BECE). The QTI has been used primarily in European and Oceanic areas. The instrument was also primarily used in educational stratified environment. This was the first time the BSAI was used to assess student affective learning outcomes. The BECE is a Texas normed cognitive assessment test and it is used by Texas schools districts as the end of course examination in biology. The interpersonal teaching behaviors model was tested to ascertain if predictive power in the USA and in a non-stratified educational environment. Findings indicate that the QTI is an adequate predictor of student achievement in biology. The results were not congruent with the non-USA data and results, this indicates that the QTI is a society/culturally sensitive instrument and the instrument needs to be normed to a particular society/culture before it is used to affect teachers' and students' educational environments.

Smith, Wade Clay, Jr.

117

Cognitive Development and Cognitive Style as Factors in Mathematics Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between operativity on Piagetian tasks of number, classification, field dependence-independence, and mathematics achievement was investigated. In grades 2-4, field independence was related to high mathematics achievement. High operativity was related to high achievement in mathematics concepts only in the second grade. (Author/GDC)

Chansky, Norman; Vaidya, Sheila

1980-01-01

118

Reliability, Validity, and Factor Structure of the Creative Achievement Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Creative Achievement Questionnaire (CAQ) is a new self-report measure of creative achievement that assesses achievement across 10 do- mains of creativity. It was designed to be objective, em- pirically valid, and easy to administer and score. Study 1 established test-retest reliability (r = .81, p < .0001) and internal consistency reliability (? = .96) in a sam- ple of

Shelley Carson; Jordan Peterson; Daniel Higgins

2005-01-01

119

Affective Factors in Mathematics Learning: Comments on a Paper by Neale and a Plan for Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternate hypotheses are given for Neale's findings that attitudes toward mathematics have little effect on achievement. A schemata of proposed research on affective factors in mathematics learning is presented. (JG)

Aiken, Lewis R., Jr.

1970-01-01

120

Exploring Learner's Variables Affecting Gaming Achievement in Digital Game-Based Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored learnerpsilas variables affecting gaming achievement in digital game-based learning. Gender, self-efficacy toward computers, logical thinking, and attitude toward gaming were selected as learnerpsilas variables for the study. Seventy-two elementary school children participated in game-based learning using Zoombinis: Mountain Rescue. Pearsonpsilas correlations coefficient (r) and regression analysis in SPSS were used for data analysis. The results of this

Jiseon Cha; Youngkyun Baek; Yan Xu

2008-01-01

121

Factors affecting codon usage in Yersinia pestis.  

PubMed

The complete genome of Yersinia pestis which was the causative agent of the systemic invasive infectious disease classically referred as plague, had been recently sequenced. In order to have a further insight into the synonymous codon usage evolution, factors shaping synonymous codon usage pattern of Yersinia pestis were analyzed in this paper. The coding sequences larger than or equal to 300 bp were used in codon usage analysis. Though "G"+"C" content in Y. pestis genome was slightly lower (47.64%), the highly expressed genes tended to use "C" or "G" at synonymous sites compared with lowly expressed genes. Conversely, lowly expressed genes tended to prefer "A" or "T" at synonymous positions. Gene expression level was strongly correlated with the first axis of the correspondence analysis (COA) (R=0.63, P<0.0001). By the analyses of the codon usage pattern of highly and lowly expressed genes, it was confirmed that gene expression level was partially responsible for the codon usage bias. GC-skew analysis showed that codon usage suffered replication-transcriptional selection. Codon adaptation index (CAI), frequency of "C"+"G" at the synonymous third position of codon (GC3s) and the effective number of codons (Nc) values showed some differences among different gene length groups. "G"+"C" content of genes was strongly correlated with the first axis of the COA (R=0.72, P<0.0001). It could be concluded that gene expressivity, replication-transcriptional selection, gene length and gene composition constraints were the main affecting factors of codon usage variation in Y. pestis. PMID:12796821

Hou, Zhuo-Cheng; Yang, Ning

2003-06-01

122

The mediating role of coping strategies on the relationship between achievement motivation and affect in sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined in a sport context theoretical arguments advanced by Folkman (1984) and Lazarus (1991, 1993) regarding the relationships between motivational factors, different types of coping, affective outcomes, and situational perceptions of control. Three hundred and fifty-six athletes from British universities with an established sport record were requested to recall an important recent competition when they had a sport-related

Nikos Ntoumanis; Stuart J. H. Biddle; Geoffrey Haddock

1999-01-01

123

The Achievement Gap: Factors That Influenced the Achievement of Successful Black Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The academic underperformance of Black students when compared to their White peers has confounded educators nationwide. This discrepancy in academic performance commonly referred to as the achievement gap has become a national crisis which has led to one of the most significant educational reforms undertaken in the United States of America in the…

Morton, Kwame R., Sr.

2011-01-01

124

Motivation and Ability as Factors in Mathematics Experience and Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated relationships among interest, motivation, mathematical ability, quality of experience, and mathematics achievement among (n=108) high school freshmen and sophomores. Found that quality of experience was mainly related to interest in mathematics and not to ability. Achievement was most strongly related to ability. (45 references)…

Schiefele, Ulrich; Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

1995-01-01

125

Factors Affecting Transformation of Bacillus licheniformis  

PubMed Central

Thorne, Curtis B. (Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.), and Harold B. Stull. Factors affecting transformation of Bacillus licheniformis. J. Bacteriol. 91:1012–1020. 1966.—Transformation systems involving two types of transformable mutants of Bacillus licheniformis 9945A were compared. Each system required its specific growth medium, but a single transformation medium could be used for both. Cells from a culture of optimal age were not competent, at least to any great extent, but they developed competence during incubation in a transformation medium. With each system, 3 to 5% of the recipient cells were transformed upon exposure to wild-type deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) for 2 to 3 hr. When competent cells were exposed to DNA for 30 min, 1 to 2% of them were transformed. The data are interpreted to mean that cells were heterogeneous with respect to development of competence, and when properly grown cells were incubated in transformation medium some of them gained competence, whereas others lost it. If DNA was present during the entire period, the cells were transformed as they became competent and the transformants accumulated. However, during any short period of exposure to DNA, only those cells that were competent at the time were potential transformants. The high frequencies of transformation obtained in these studies made it feasible to prepare marked strains by transforming markers into recipient cells. These experiments demonstrated that the characteristics of the two transformation systems could not be attributed to specific nutritional markers. Presumably, each of the two series of highly transformable auxotrophic mutants also carried at least one other mutation that resulted in development of competence under the specific conditions.

Thorne, Curtis B.; Stull, Harold B.

1966-01-01

126

Factors Affecting Ejection Risk in Rollover Crashes  

PubMed Central

Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 – 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size.

Funk, James R.; Cormier, Joseph M.; Bain, Charles E.; Wirth, Jeffrey L.; Bonugli, Enrique B.; Watson, Richard A.

2012-01-01

127

Factors affecting ejection risk in rollover crashes.  

PubMed

Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 - 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size. PMID:23169130

Funk, James R; Cormier, Joseph M; Bain, Charles E; Wirth, Jeffrey L; Bonugli, Enrique B; Watson, Richard A

2012-01-01

128

Interdisciplinary mathematics and science: Characteristics, forms, and related effect sizes for student achievement and affective outcomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study provides an analytic description of quasi-experimental studies that may either support or deny the wisdom of educational reform through interdisciplinary mathematics and science. Interdisciplinarity is examined on two dimensions, the philosophic and the pedagogic, and by two methodologies, meta-analytic and qualitative, in a search for greater understanding of the definitions, forms, characteristics, and effects from studies of interdisciplinary mathematics and science. Thirty-four studies were collected from a search of the literature that spanned the century, the grade levels, and included many forms of interdisciplinarity. Several research questions were asked: (1) What forms of interdisciplinarity, philosophically and practically, are represented by the studies? (2) What are their qualitative effects in school settings? (3) What are the characteristics of interdisciplinary quasi-experimental research? (4) What achievement effects typify the interdisciplinary comparative studies? (5) What factors account for variation in these achievement effects? (6) What claims or criticisms regarding interdisciplinarity are supported or refuted by the qualitative analysis of forms and effects and the quantitative meta-analytic study? Results from this study support the concerns that terms of interdisciplinarity are used without regard for context and that there is a trend toward a great diversity of ideas regarding the nature of interdisciplinary education. Student achievement data were provided by the 34 studies for mathematics and/or science. The mean effect sizes for student achievement were computed as: mathematics achievement, .27 (SE = .09); science achievement, .37 (SE = .12). Curricular materials developed by teachers were significantly less related to student achievement than materials developed by researchers or commercially. The methods of integration employed by the 34 studies formed a continuum from sequenced instructional integration to total instructional integration and proved to also be significantly related to student achievement. Qualitative methodologies revealed student improvements in "thinking skills" and "dynamic factors" and the importance of teachers, administrators, and teacher education to the success of the interdisciplinary program. Claims and criticisms of interdisciplinary education in general, and integrated mathematics and science education specifically, were examined through both methodologies. Discussed are the pedagogical considerations necessary for a school district to institute a program of integrated mathematics and science.

Hurley, Marlene M.

1999-12-01

129

40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...an existing affected source must reflect the maximum...environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...achievable by affected sources in the category or...environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines...best controlled similar source which must be...

2013-07-01

130

Factors affecting reproductive performance of Holstein heifers.  

PubMed

The objectives were to evaluate factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy heifers. Holstein heifers (6389) were housed in a feed lot located in Parma, ID. Each week heifers weighing > or =290 kg were initiated in the reproductive program, which consisted of one injection of PGF(2alpha) and AI on detection of estrus. Heifers not inseminated by 11 days after the initiation of the breeding program received a second injection of PGF(2alpha). Pregnancy was diagnosed at 40+/-3 and 90+/-3 days after AI. Average daily minimum temperature (ADMnT), average daily maximum temperature (ADMxT), and average daily rainfall (ARF) were recorded between 15 days prior to and 15 days after the day of AI or the day of initiation of the breeding program. Exposure to air temperature was classified as: cold stress (CS=ADMnT< or =4 degrees C), no stress (NS=ADMnT>4 degrees C and ADMxT<29 degrees C), and heat stress (HS=ADMxT> or =29 degrees C). Exposure to rainfall was classified as above (HRF) or below (LRF) the mean for the period in question. Heifers were classified according to body weight at initiation of the breeding program as thin (TH<340 kg); moderate (MD=340-365 kg); and heavy (HY>365 kg). Service sire was associated with conception rate at 40 and 90 days after first AI. Although exposure to air temperature was not correlated with conception rate at 40 days after first AI, heifers exposed to cold stress had smaller conception rates at 90 days after first AI because they were more likely to lose pregnancy between 40 and 90 days of gestation. The proportion of heifers inseminated after initiation of the breeding program was correlated with body weight and exposure to cold stress. Exposure to cold stress was also correlated with the proportion of heifers conceiving within 11 and 22 days after initiation of the breeding program. From this study a correlation was established between body weight and rate of insemination and between the exposure to cold stress and reproductive efficiency of Holstein heifers. PMID:17045427

Chebel, Ricardo C; Braga, Fernando A; Dalton, Joseph C

2006-09-10

131

Factors Contributing to Achievement in Statewide Physics Competition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to relate personal, cognitive, and school variables to physics achievement. The sample consisted of 435 students participating in the 1985 Mississippi State University Annual Physics Competition. The Student Background Questionnaire was planned and developed to collect information on each variable examined. The predictor…

Harpole, Sandra; Gifford, Vernon

132

A Longitudinal Study of Achievement Trajectories: Factors Associated With Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from a longitudinal study of high-risk children (N = 174), the authors examined deflections from predicted achievement scores on the basis of the discrepancy of observed scores from an established regression line (from first to sixth grade and first grade to age 16 years). Years in special education and socioeconomic status (SES) were related to changes in math

Shane Jimerson; Byron Egeland; Adrian Teo

1999-01-01

133

The role of affective factors on perceived cruise vacation value  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we expanded the perceived value literature by demonstrating the role of selected affective factors (i.e., hedonics, control and novelty) on value in the context of cruise vacation experiences. We also examined the role of customer satisfaction in the affect–value relationship. Our results indicate that affective factors are important determinants of the perceived value of cruise services. In

Teoman Duman; Anna S. Mattila

2005-01-01

134

FACTORS AFFECTING CORROSION RESISTANCE OF RECUPERATOR ALLOYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

As microturbine recuperators are needed to operate at higher temperatures in order to achieve higher engine operating efficiencies, a recurring problem encountered is a severe degradation in environ- mental resistance of type 347 stainless steel. Above 600°C, stainless steels can experience accelerated attack caused by water vapor, which is often present as a combustion product. Nickel-base alloys are less susceptible

Bruce A. Pint; Raphaëlle Peraldi

2003-01-01

135

Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Dispersants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Factors which limit the effectiveness of dispersants applied to oil spilt at sea have been studied in the laboratory using a simple test to measure the ability of added dispersant to form an oil-in-water emulsion with the oil under test. The factors which...

F. N. Martinelli B. W. J. Lynch

1980-01-01

136

Preharvest factors affecting physiological disorders of fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of disorders during postharvest ripening and storage of fruit depends on a range of preharvest factors. The most obvious of these is maturity of fruit at harvest. However, a number of other factors may be just as important in ripening-related disorders and in determining how fruit respond to low temperatures or other imposed postharvest conditions. Fruiting position on the

Ian Ferguson; Richard Volz; Allan Woolf

1999-01-01

137

A Factor Analytic Study of Ability, Achievement, and Personality Characteristics of College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine the relationships among various measures of ability, achievement, and personality, data from 76 volunteer subjects were factor analyzed. The analysis yielded two factors, one representing a general intelligence factor and the other an achievement factor. No evidence was found that certain personality variables are related to…

Eno, Lawrence; And Others

1978-01-01

138

Safe Science Facilities: Reviewing Factors that Affect Classroom Environment, Curriculum, and Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Science teachers often have two different curricula--the ideal framework on paper and the real, day-to-day instructional program that occurs in the classroom. A number of factors can affect how much of that ideal framework is accomplished. For example, how a facility is designed and how space is used can affect student achievement, classroom…

Texley, Juliana

2005-01-01

139

Safe Science Facilities: Reviewing Factors that Affect Classroom Environment, Curriculum, and Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science teachers often have two different curricula--the ideal framework on paper and the real, day-to-day instructional program that occurs in the classroom. A number of factors can affect how much of that ideal framework is accomplished. For example, how a facility is designed and how space is used can affect student achievement, classroom…

Texley, Juliana

2005-01-01

140

Pupilsí Affective Responses in Physical Education Classes: the Association of Implicit Theories of the Nature of Ability and Achievement Goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing evidence that the belief systems people construct have importantimplications for the way they respond emotionally to achievement events. Socialcognitive theories of motivation posit that subjective or implicit theories of the nature ofability (intelligence) interrelate with achievement goals and perceived ability ingenerating differential affective responses in achievement contexts. Specifically, achievementgoals are hypothesized to mediate the effects of implicit

Yngvar Ommundsen

2001-01-01

141

Political and Institutional Factors Affecting Systems Engineering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

External groups have a significant impact on NASA's programs. Ten groups affecting NASA are identified, and examples are given for some of them. Methods of dealing with these external inputs are discussed, the most important being good and open two way co...

J. F. Yardley

1993-01-01

142

Situational factors affecting Preschoolers' responses to advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of advertising directed at preschool children was investigated. An experimental design, crossing program\\u000a type, social condition of viewing, and frequency of exposure to commercials was utilized. Results indicate the possibility\\u000a that young children's preferences are only affected under special circumstances.

T. K. Clarke

1984-01-01

143

Factors Affecting Nitrification in Iowa Rivers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project investigated the effects of physical and chemical factors, other than temperature, on the nitrification process. A series of laboratory studies using pure cultures of nitrifying bacteria were conducted. The effects of changes in the carbonate...

D. B. McDonald J. Huey

1982-01-01

144

Factors affecting the retrieval of famous names.  

PubMed

Tests of famous faces are used to study language and memory. Yet, the effect of stimulus properties on performance has not been fully investigated. To identify factors influencing proper name retrieval and to probe stimulus-specific parameters within proper name lexicon, we analysed the results obtained by 300 healthy participants on a test of famous faces that includes 74 personalities. A factor analysis yielded five main factors that were characterized by language (national or foreign names), epoch of peak popularity (current, recent or past) and occupation (politicians, entertainment and sports) of the personalities. Multiple regression analysis showed that participants' education, age and gender accounted for 10-32% of the variance in factor scores. These results indicate that there are variables of the stimulus and participants' that must be taken into account in proper name testing and in designing tests aimed to differentiate age-associated difficulties from cognitive decline. PMID:19904486

Martins, Isabel Pavão; Loureiro, Clara; Rodrigues, Susana; Dias, Beatriz; Slade, Peter

2009-11-11

145

Factors affecting the tightening characteristics of bolts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on the tightening characteristics of bolt-nut-washer assemblies was undertaken after a preliminary literature survey showed different opinions to exist on the effect of several commonly encountered factors on the torque-tension relationship.The test program included tightening bolts up to the yield point under a planned series of combination of factors, and recording nut-tightening torque, bolt torque and tension.The main

A. Bray; R. Levi

1966-01-01

146

Interaction Between Optical and Neural Factors Affecting Visual Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human eye suffers from higher order aberrations, in addition to conventional spherical and cylindrical refractive errors. Advanced optical techniques have been devised to correct them in order to achieve superior retinal image quality. However, vision is not completely defined by the optical quality of the eye, but also depends on how the image quality is processed by the neural system. In particular, how neural processing is affected by the past visual experience with optical blur has remained largely unexplored. The objective of this thesis was to investigate the interaction of optical and neural factors affecting vision. To achieve this goal, pathological keratoconic eyes were chosen as the ideal population to study since they are severely afflicted by degraded retinal image quality due to higher order aberrations and their neural system has been exposed to that habitually for a long period of time. Firstly, we have developed advanced customized ophthalmic lenses for correcting the higher order aberration of keratoconic eyes and demonstrated their feasibility in providing substantial visual benefit over conventional corrective methodologies. However, the achieved visual benefit was significantly smaller than that predicted optically. To better understand this, the second goal of the thesis was set to investigate if the neural system optimizes its underlying mechanisms in response to the long-term visual experience with large magnitudes of higher order aberrations. This study was facilitated by a large-stroke adaptive optics vision simulator, enabling us to access the neural factors in the visual system by manipulating the limit imposed by the optics of the eye. Using this instrument, we have performed a series of experiments to establish that habitual exposure to optical blur leads to an alteration in neural processing thereby alleviating the visual impact of degraded retinal image quality, referred to as neural compensation. However, it was also found that chronic exposure to poor optics caused neural insensitivity to fine spatial detail thus adversely limiting the achievable visual benefit when improving the eye's optical quality. Finally, we demonstrated that the altered, but plastic visual system could be re-adapted to improved optics such that it partially recovers its normal mechanism. These findings not only provide vast clinical implications for advanced customized vision correction methodologies for normal, pathologic and presbyopic eyes but also vital scientific insight into the neural processing of the visual system in response to the aberrated optics of the eye.

Sabesan, Ramkumar

147

Factors Affecting Student Choices of Instructional Methodologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To identify factors that caused the majority of students at Los Angeles City College to prefer the traditional lecture-discussion approach to the media approach, questionnaires were administered to students in three courses--three media and two traditional. Over 200 usable questionnaires were returned. Because of scheduling variations and other…

Gold, Ben K.

148

Factors Affecting the Design of DC Magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines some of the factors which should be considered in the design of d-c magnets. The usual types of steel used are briefly discussed, including their influence on ``sticking'' or residual forces. Calculated curves are presented which show the influence of pole-face area on the force developed by the magnet. Flux measurements on a number of magnets show

L. T. Rader

1943-01-01

149

Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

2008-01-01

150

How ageing and social factors affect memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Objectives: to explore the relationships between lifestyle and memory, and determine whether social factors influence memory. Methods: the relationship between memory and lifestyle was examined in 497 adults aged 25-80 years, using the Metamemory in Adulthood questionnaire. We asked about sports activity and perceived activity, participation in voluntary organizations and social contacts. Results: activity and frequent contact with friends

Fred C. J. Stevens; C Harles D. Kaplan; J Oseph P. M. Diederiks; Jellemer Jolles

151

Factors Affecting Student Choices of Instructional Methodologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To identify factors that caused the majority of students at Los Angeles City College to prefer the traditional lecture-discussion approach to the media approach, questionnaires were administered to students in three courses--three media and two traditional. Over 200 usable questionnaires were returned. Because of scheduling variations and other…

Gold, Ben K.

152

Factors Affecting Hits in Japanese Popular Music  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the hit chart period of Japanese popular music between January and March in 1990 and in 2004, using the survival model, and examines the factors involved in producing a hit. First, the results showed that fame of the artist, ties with other media, and compilation albums featuring several artists prolonged the hits chart period. Second, the music's

Sumiko Asai

2008-01-01

153

Factors Affecting Students' Medicine-Taking Habits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines college students' beliefs about health, prescriptions, doctors, and the influence those beliefs have on adherence to prescribed medication regimens. After a brief review of attitudinal factors that influence adherence to prescription medicine directions, the authors discuss measurement issues and explain the reasons for their…

Labig, Chalmer E., Jr.; Zantow, Kenneth; Peterson, Tim O.

2005-01-01

154

Factors affecting property tax reliance: Additional evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contributes to the understanding of the variation in property tax reliance. Factors thought to underlie the relative use of property taxes in financing local public services are examined. Because of the importance of external debt and tax limits in determining both tax policies and local government organization, particular attention is paid to local government structure and the impact

David L. Chicoine; Norman Walzer

1986-01-01

155

Continuing education: factors which affect cognitive benefits.  

PubMed

A 16-week continuing education course in clinical chemistry provided for a group of laboratory professionals was evaluated in terms of those factors in the participants' backgrounds which influenced their performance on precourse and postcourse examinations. Work setting, facility size, educational background, and sex influenced precourse scores. Educational background and occupational function influenced postcourse test scores. PMID:425980

Parker, S L; Davis, S H

1979-01-01

156

Controlling external factors affecting accounts receivable.  

PubMed

External factors such as complex billing arrangements, decreasing healthcare benefits, and increasing numbers of uninsured workers contribute to a hospital's outstanding accounts receivable. Instituting measures for getting payment in full and as soon as possible can help control for outside influences and reduce outstanding receivables. PMID:10113048

Ramey, N; Bradley, L

1991-08-01

157

Factors affecting calcium balance in Chinese adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese dietary reference intakes (DRIs) for calcium were developed mainly from studies conducted amongst Caucasians, yet a recent review showed that reference calcium intakes for Asians are likely to be different from those of Caucasians (Lee and Jiang, 2008). In order to develop calcium DRIs for Chinese adolescents, it is necessary to explore the characteristics and potential influencing factors of

Jing Yin; Qian Zhang; Ailing Liu; Weijing Du; Xiaoyan Wang; Xiaoqi Hu; Guansheng Ma

2010-01-01

158

Factors Affecting Blue Oak Sapling Recruitment1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used logistic regression to identify environmental and management history factors associated with blue oak (Quercus douglasii) sapling recruitment. Recent canopy gaps caused by natural mortality or clearing were positively associated with sapling recruitment. Plots with very high or low levels of tree canopy cover were less likely to have saplings than those with intermediate canopy cover levels. Across all

Tedmund J. Swiecki; Elizabeth A. Bernhardt; Christiana Drake

159

Environmental factors affecting immune responses in Crustacea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to review and evaluate existing information about the effects of environmental changes on the immune response in Crustacea. Emphasis has been placed on natural environment variations, chemical contaminants and physico-chemical changes, especially with regard to reared shrimp. Studies on the effects of environmental factors on immune function in marine Crustacea have concentrated, predominantly, on total and differential

Gilles Le Moullac; Philippe Haffner

2000-01-01

160

Factors Affecting Thermally Induced Furan Formation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Furan, a potential carcinogen, can be induced by heat from sugars and fatty acids. However, factors that contribute to its formation in foods are unclear. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of pH, presence of phosphate, heating time and heating temperature on furan forma...

161

Factors affecting body temperatures of toads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors influencing levels and rates of variation of body temperature (Tb) in montane Bufo boreas boreas and in lowland Bufo boreas halophilus were investigated as an initial step toward understanding the role of natural thermal variation in the physiology and energetics of these ectothermic animals. Body temperatures of boreas can vary 25–30° C over 24-h periods. Such variation is primarily

Cynthia Carey

1978-01-01

162

Factors Affecting Patients' Compliance With Doctors' Advice  

PubMed Central

To what extent, and with what success, are family physicians advising patients to diet, exercise and reduce smoking? A study of 24 family physicians in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick and 66 patients with cardiovascular problems showed that two-thirds of the patients received some such advice during the audiotaped visit. Of those who did receive such advice, 29% reported at a home interview ten days later that they remembered the advice. The doctor's behavior in the interaction was found to influence the patient's memory of the advice. However, the patient's attitudes and problems were the only variables shown to affect whether or not he followed the advice.

Stewart, Moira

1982-01-01

163

Factors affecting triadimefon degradation in soils.  

PubMed

The degradation of triadimefon [1-(4-chlorophenoxy)-3,3-dimethyl-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butan-2-one] was studied in two soils, mollisol and inseptisol, under varying conditions of moisture and temperature, and the role of cow manure amendment and soil sterilization on fungicide degradation was ascertained. The soil moisture content affected the pathway followed for triadimefon degradation. In nonflooded soils (60% water-holding capacity), triadimefon was reduced to triadimenol, and in flooded soils, it was metabolized to the diol derivative [1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-3,3-dimethylbutan-2-one-1,4-diol]. In nonflooded soils, triadimefon was more persistent in soil having more organic carbon content (mollisol), and the amendment of cow manure (5%) further enhanced its persistence. On the contrary, in flooded soil systems, the higher the soil organic carbon content was, the less persistent was the fungicide, and amendment of cow manure further enhanced its degradation. Triadimefon degradation was faster at 35 degrees C than at 27 degrees C. Triadimefon degradation in soils was mediated by the microorganisms, and no triadimefon degradation was observed in sterile soils. Triadimefon (1 mg/kg) did not affect soil phosphatase activity in either of the soils; however, soil dehydrogenase activity was significantly reduced, especially in mollisol soil. PMID:15631511

Singh, Neera

2005-01-12

164

Factors which affect fatigue strength of fasteners  

SciTech Connect

Axial load cycling fatigue tests of threaded fasteners are useful in determining fastener fatigue failure or design properties. By using appropriate design factors between the failure and design fatigue strengths, such tests are used to establish fatigue failure and design parameters of fasteners for axial and bending cyclic load conditions. This paper reviews the factors which influence the fatigue strength of low Alloy steel threaded fasteners, identifies those most significant to fatigue strength, and provides design guidelines based on the direct evaluation of fatigue tests of threaded fasteners. Influences on fatigue strength of thread manufacturing process (machining and rolling of threads), effect of fastener membrane and bending stresses, thread root radii, fastener sizes, fastener tensile strength, stress relaxation, mean stress, and test temperature are discussed.

Skochko, G.W.; Herrmann, T.P.

1992-11-01

165

Factors that affect the young female athlete.  

PubMed

The past 35 years have seen a tremendous increase in the number of female athletes at all ages and abilities. Recent research has shown a myriad of benefits for girls and women who participate in sports. Physical activity positively influences almost every aspect of a young woman's health, from her physiology to her social interactions and mental health. As the level of girls' participation in sports increases, it is important to examine their risk factors for sports-related injuries. PMID:17678757

Lal, Sophia; Hoch, Anne Z

2007-08-01

166

Environmental factors affecting elite young athletes.  

PubMed

To date, much of the research concerning the performance of elite young athletes has focused on physical and physiological factors and how these relate to age and maturation. Little attention has been paid to other factors which might limit performance such as nutrition or environmental stressors. The paucity of research on the environmental effects on performance in young athletes is unsurprising given the need for experimental studies, the ethics of which would generally be untenable. As an outcome, there is a reliance on observational and case study data, e.g. observing the stressors which occur during jet lag and effects on sleep patterns, altitude and pollution. The effects of environmental factors have been predominantly researched from a health context in youngsters rather than a performance context. However, the evidence of those few empirical studies combined with coach and/or sports science support teams' experience have provided professionals with some guidelines. These applied guidelines include sleep patterns, jet lag, pollution and altitude research, to aid those preparing young athletes for training and competition in environments that present potential challenges to performance. The limitations of data extrapolated from adults are acknowledged and in all cases it is emphasised that recommendations and implementing practice should be based on data collected from young people. PMID:21178372

Williams, Craig

2010-12-21

167

Factors affecting residents' sleep in care homes.  

PubMed

Aim The aim of this study was to undertake a detailed exploration of sleep in the context of 24 hours in a care home environment, exploring the subjective experience of residents and the perceptions of staff. Method Qualitative research in four care homes for older people consisting of semi-structured interviews and ethnographic observations. Interviews were conducted with 38 residents and 39 staff, and were analysed using a grounded theory approach. Findings The findings have highlighted some challenges and opportunities for developing practice in care homes to improve residents' sleep. In addition to pain and physical disabilities, the physical environment and practices in care homes can affect residents' sleep and night-time experience. Conclusion Improving our understanding of residents' and staff's experiences at night in care homes can inform the development of good practice in night-time care and contribute to a positive culture of person-centred care. PMID:24067045

Ellmers, Theresa; Arber, Sara; Luff, Rebekah; Eyers, Ingrid; Young, Emma

2013-10-01

168

Factors affecting bony impingement in hip arthroplasty.  

PubMed

Computer modeling of 10 patients' computed tomographic scans was used to study the variables affecting hip arthroplasty range of motion before bony impingement (ROMBI) including acetabular offset and height, femoral offset, height and anteversion, and osteophyte removal. The ROMBI was compared with the ROM before component impingement and the native hip ROM. The ROMBI decreased with decreased total offset and limb shortening. Acetabular offset and height had a greater effect on ROMBI than femoral offset and height. The ROMBI lost with decreased acetabular offset was not fully recoverable with an increase in femoral offset or osteophyte removal. Bony impingement increased and component impingement decreased with decreased acetabular offset and increased head diameter. PMID:19559561

Kurtz, William B; Ecker, Timo M; Reichmann, William M; Murphy, Stephen B

2009-06-25

169

Factors Affecting Growth Factor Activity in Goat Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth factors that are present in goat milk may be responsible for its beneficial effects on the digestive system as described in ancient Chinese medical texts. To develop a nutraceutical product rich in growth fac- tors for promoting gastrointestinal health, it is essen- tial to collect milk with consistently high growth factor activity.Therefore,weinvestigatedthefactorsaffecting growth factor activity in goat milk. Among

F. Y. Wu; P. H. Tsao; D. C. Wang; S. Lin; J. S. Wu; Y. K. Cheng

2006-01-01

170

Factors Affecting Learners' Discourse Participation in a Computer Conferencing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research examined what factors affect learners' discourse participation in a Web-conferencing environment operated in a graduate course. Subjects were nine master's degree students, majoring in Educational Technology at a women's university in Seoul, Korea. Results suggest seven factors that affect students' discourse in the following ways:…

Lee, In-Sook

171

Fatherhood Across Two GenerationsFactors Affecting Early Family Roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the determinants of men's early parental roles, distinguishing factors that affect being a father versus being childless, and factors that affect being a resident versus a nonresident father, in the context of having a partner or not. We also consider whether these patterns have changed between 1985 and 2004. The data come from the linked Child-Mother and

Frances Goldscheider; Sandra Hofferth; Carrie Spearin; Sally Curtin

2009-01-01

172

Application of fuzzy cognitive maps to factors affecting slurry rheology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose fuzzy cognitive maps, a branch of fuzzy logic, to study interaction of factors affecting processes and details of the approach are discussed. Application of the technique to discriminate between factors affecting slurry rheology is demonstrated. It has been shown that hydrodynamic interaction, effective particle concentration, shape and size, temperature and shear rate have a significant influence on the

G. A. Banini; R. A. Bearman

1998-01-01

173

Fatherhood across Two Generations: Factors Affecting Early Family Roles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines the determinants of men's early parental roles, distinguishing factors that affect being a father versus being childless, and factors that affect being a resident versus a nonresident father, in the context of having a partner or not. We also consider whether these patterns have changed between 1985 and 2004. The data come…

Goldscheider, Frances; Hofferth, Sandra; Spearin, Carrie; Curtin, Sally

2009-01-01

174

Factors affecting customer relationship management practices in Thai academic libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates and analyzes the factors affecting customer relationship management (CRM) practices in Thai academic libraries. The research conceptual framework focuses on factors affecting CRM practices was developed using Combe (2004)’s study on assessing CRM strategies. Mixed methods, qualitative, and quantitative approaches were used as a research methodology. Data was collected by using the interview and survey techniques with

Piyawan Siriprasoetsin; Kulthida Tuamsuk; Cholabhat Vongprasert

175

Factors affecting family size in rural Bangladesh.  

PubMed

This was a cross sectional study which was conducted to estimate the family size and to identify the factors influencing family size in rural areas of Bangladesh. Respondents of 150 households were interviewed through interview schedule and in-depth questionnaires. The size of the family was observed as 4.59 persons where nearly half of the respondents (48%) having less than five members. Age of the respondent, number of children, age of the first and last child, average monthly income, number of rooms in the house, persons living in the main dwelling houses, number of earning persons having audio-visual assets had statistically significant association with the size of the family and all were with higher percentage in big family. Middle-income group was more in the small and big family category (75% and 65.40% respectively). The higher income group was more common in big family than small one (23.10% and 8.30% respectively). There was significant association between family size & average monthly income (p < 0.05). Number of earning persons, housing type, number of rooms in the house and persons living in the main dwelling houses were also interdependent with average monthly income and proved to be a factor for family size determination. The study emphasises that family planning activities should be intensified with modification of educational programs in mass media to attract the rural population regarding family size. PMID:16240982

Begum, M

2004-12-01

176

Factors affecting the severity of necrotizing enterocolitis.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: The severity of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) ranges from mild to rapidly fatal. However, the factors determining the severity are not known. Our objective was to identify statistical associations with NEC severity using a large database. Method: We conducted a retrospective, multi-institutional, multiyear, study of neonates with confirmed NEC. Results: Two-hundred-twenty neonates with Bell's stage???II NEC had 225 NEC episodes (157 stage II and 68 stage III). In the 3?d before NEC was diagnosed, those who went on to stage III disease were more likely to have elevations in C - reactive protein (p?factors best predicting death from NEC were; (1) a low pH (p?=?0.0005) and (2) lack of early colostrum (p?=?0.003). Conclusions: Strategies that reduce the severity of NEC would lower costs and improve outcomes. This study suggests that testable theories to accomplish this include means of; (1) reducing transfusions and (2) assuring early colostrum feedings. PMID:23611502

Miner, Cheryl A; Fullmer, Susan; Eggett, Dennis L; Christensen, Robert D

2013-05-15

177

Factors affecting seal life in downhole motors  

SciTech Connect

The life expectancy of rotary seals in downhole motors depends on temperature generated by sliding friction as well as ambient temperature. Heat transfer calculations show that sliding friction can produce a significant rise in temperature across seal assemblies, great enough to deteriorate the seal material and cause premature failure. Thermal conductivities of seal materials and thicknesses of shaft, sleeve, and housing are major design factors influencing steady state temperature profiles across seal assemblies. In general, smaller dimensions and higher thermal conductivities allow the friction generated heat to dissipate at a lower temperature. A parameter study led to an improved rotary seal configuration which will significantly lower peak seal temperatures in downhole motors. The design will channel drilling mud near the sliding friction surface for better dissipation of the friction generated heat. Plans are being made to incorporate this improvement into the bearing seal test assembly. It is doubtful that seals made of Buna-N will perform successfully on downhole motors, even when used in the improved design. On the other hand, calculated maximum temperatures are within material limitations of Grafoil.

Dareing, D.W.

1980-01-01

178

Factors affecting the survival of Neisseria sicca.  

PubMed

Cultures of Neisseria sicca incubated at 37 degrees C died rapidly (within 36 h) after growth ceased. Re-suspending cells in a brain heart infusion broth and storing at 4 degrees C greatly reduced the rate of decline in viability (decimal reduction time 6 days). An important factor in maintaining viability was apparently the presence of external energy source(s). Survival comparable to that in broth was obtained by incubation in Ringer's solution with pyruvate plus glucose (but not with pyruvate or glucose alone). Medium pH had little effect on survival in the range pH 7.0 to 8.5. Energy sources also promoted survival of cells in Ringer's solution or a buffered salts solution at 37 degrees C. Highest levels of survival (up to 30% at 24 h) were obtained with pyruvate, lactate, proline and glutamate. A number of other amino acids and the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, isocitrate, oxoglutarate, succinate, fumarate, malate and oxaloacetate, enhanced survival to a lesser extent. PMID:3374398

Fung, C; Glenister, D; Miles, R J; Nafi, B M

1988-01-01

179

Spatial factors affecting statistical power in testing marine fauna displacement.  

PubMed

Impacts of offshore wind farms on marine fauna are largely unknown. Therefore, one commonly adheres to the precautionary principle, which states that one shall take action to avoid potentially damaging impacts on marine ecosystems, even when full scientific certainty is lacking. We implement this principle by means of a statistical power analysis including spatial factors. Implementation is based on geostatistical simulations, accommodating for zero-inflation in species data. We investigate scenarios in which an impact assessment still has to be carried out. Our results show that the environmental conditions at the time of the survey is the most influential factor on power. This is followed by survey effort and species abundance in the reference situation. Spatial dependence in species numbers at local scales affects power, but its effect is smaller for the scenarios investigated. Our findings can be used to improve effectiveness of the economical investment for monitoring surveys. In addition, unnecessary extra survey effort, and related costs, can be avoided when spatial dependence in species abundance is present and no improvement on power is achieved. PMID:22073657

Pérez Lapeña, B; Wijnberg, K M; Stein, A; Hulscher, S J M H

2011-10-01

180

The science of cycling: factors affecting performance - part 2.  

PubMed

This review presents information that is useful to athletes, coaches and exercise scientists in the adoption of exercise protocols, prescription of training regimens and creation of research designs. Part 2 focuses on the factors that affect cycling performance. Among those factors, aerodynamic resistance is the major resistance force the racing cyclist must overcome. This challenge can be dealt with through equipment technological modifications and body position configuration adjustments. To successfully achieve efficient transfer of power from the body to the drive train of the bicycle the major concern is bicycle configuration and cycling body position. Peak power output appears to be highly correlated with cycling success. Likewise, gear ratio and pedalling cadence directly influence cycling economy/efficiency. Knowledge of muscle recruitment throughout the crank cycle has important implications for training and body position adjustments while climbing. A review of pacing models suggests that while there appears to be some evidence in favour of one technique over another, there remains the need for further field research to validate the findings. Nevertheless, performance modelling has important implications for the establishment of performance standards and consequent recommendations for training. PMID:15831060

Faria, Erik W; Parker, Daryl L; Faria, Irvin E

2005-01-01

181

Frequent moving has a negative affect on the school achievement of foster children makes the case for reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study will investigate how the frequent school and home mobility of foster children affects their overall academic achievement in school. It will attempt to answer the following questions:1.How is School Achievement affected by the Mobility of Foster Children?2.What can society, as well as state and federal governments do to establish long-term consistent care that will ensure long-term success and

Barton Allen; James S. Vacca

2010-01-01

182

Factors affecting mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the stability and repeatability of measures of mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets and to examine potentially confounding factors when using a hand held algometer. Study design Descriptive, prospective cohort. Animals Forty-four piglets from four litters, weighing 4.6 ± 1.0 kg (mean ± SD) at 2 weeks of age. Methods Mechanical thresholds were measured twice on each of 2 days during the first and second week of life. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures design to test the effects of behavior prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, and repetition within day. The effect of body weight and the interaction between piglet weight and behaviour were also tested. Piglet was entered into the model as a random effect as an additional test of repeatability. The effect of repeated testing was used to test the stability of measures. Pearson correlations between repeated measures were used to test the repeatability of measures. Variance component analysis was used to describe the variability in the data. Results Variance component analysis indicated that piglet explained only 17% of the variance in the data. All variables in the model (behaviour prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, repetition within day, body weight, the interaction between body weight and behaviour, piglet identity) except sex had a significant effect (p < 0.04 for all). Correlations between repeated measures increased from the first to the second week. Conclusions and Clinical relevance Repeatability was acceptable only during the second week of testing and measures changed with repeated testing and increased with increasing piglet weight, indicating that time (age) and animal body weight should be taken into account when measuring mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets. Mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds can be used both for testing the efficacy of anaesthetics and analgesics, and for assessing hyperalgesia in chronic pain states in research and clinical settings.

Janczak, Andrew M; Ranheim, Birgit; Fosse, Torunn K; Hild, Sophie; Nordgreen, Janicke; Moe, Randi O; Zanella, Adroaldo J

2012-01-01

183

Interparental conflict and academic achievement: an examination of mediating and moderating factors.  

PubMed

Using a risk and resiliency theoretical framework, the association between interparental conflict and academic achievement was examined. The sample consisted of 2,297 6th grade youth with a mean age of 11.92. Participants were mostly European American (81.8%) and 52% were girls. Results demonstrated that interparental conflict is a risk factor for lower academic achievement, suggesting that family interactions play a significant role in how youth perform in the academic setting. Youth self-blame acted as a significant mediator, providing some explanation for how interparental conflict affects academic achievement. Maternal acceptance and monitoring knowledge partially buffered the association between interparental conflict and youth self-blame. Additionally, the positive association between interparental conflict and perceived threat was stronger for youth who perceived relationships with mothers as more supportive, connected, and involved. Results from this study underscore the need for continued focus on the link between family and school environments with respect to youth developmental outcomes. PMID:20091214

Ghazarian, Sharon R; Buehler, Cheryl

2008-11-06

184

Gender context of the school and study culture, or how the presence of girls affects the achievement of boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper builds on my previous research, explaining the differential achievement of boys and girls in secondary education by the fact that boys' culture is less study orientated than girls' culture. The central question of the present paper is whether the presence of girls at school affects the boys' study culture and, by consequence, boys' achievement. The research is based

Mieke Van Houtte

2004-01-01

185

Macro-micro factors affecting real estate demand analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real estate demand is an important factor to affect the real estate balanced and healthy development, an accurate analysis of the macro factors and the real estate demand relationship could give the government, land agents and house purchasers more effective services. In this paper, it uses factor analysis, system dynamics feedback diagram and multiple regression methods of econometrics. By use

Wan Li-jun; Zhang Yan; Wang Guang-xue

2009-01-01

186

Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Tutorials: Factors Affecting Students' Preferences and Choices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to determine the factors that affect students' preferences regarding tutorial modes. A learning-habit inclinations questionnaire (LHIQ) was constructed and administered to 288 students. Factor analysis revealed four factors: "time management," "ease of access" to learning materials, "positive aspects of interaction," and "negative…

Beyth-Marom, Ruth; Saporta, Kelly; Caspi, Avner

2005-01-01

187

Does High School Facility Quality Affect Student Achievement? A Two-Level Hierarchical Linear Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study is to isolate the independent effects of high school facility quality on student achievement using a large, nationally representative U.S. database of student achievement and school facility quality. Prior research on linking school facility quality to student achievement has been mixed. Studies that relate overall…

Bowers, Alex J.; Urick, Angela

2011-01-01

188

Factors Affecting the Retention Decisions of Female Surface Warfare Officers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis delineates factors affecting the retention decisions of female Surface Warfare Officers. The data were obtained from in-depth interviews conducted with 12 female senior officers and 15 female junior officers. The transcripts from the interview...

E. A. Clifton

2003-01-01

189

Initial Investigation of Factors Affecting Multi-Task Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of the first in a series of investigations designed to increase fundamental knowledge and understanding of the factors affecting multi-task performance in a military environment. The primary objective of this laboratory ex...

J. C. Swoboda L. T. Fatkin T. A. Branscome

2007-01-01

190

Analysis of Factors Affecting Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) Image Formation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Image reconstruction for positron emission mammography (PEM) with the breast positioned between two parallel, planar detectors is usually performed by backprojection to image planes. Three important factors affecting PEM image reconstruction by backprojec...

M. F. Smith S. Majewski A. G. Weisenberger D. A. Kieper R. R. Raylman

2001-01-01

191

Determining the Representative Factors Affecting Warning Message Dissemination in VANETs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a statistical analysis based on the 2k factorial methodology to determine the representative factors\\u000a affecting traffic safety applications in Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). Our purpose is to determine what are the key factors affecting Warning Message Dissemination (WMD) in order to concentrate on such parameters, thus reducing the amount of required simulation time when

Francisco J. Martinez; Chai Keong Toh; Juan-Carlos Cano; Carlos T. Calafate; Pietro Manzoni

192

Factors in Validating Affective Scales: An Applied Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of claims to the contrary, affective factors related to teaching and learning can be measured. Recent development of affective scales in reading attest to this, yet caution must be observed that as new-scales are developed, they are adequately validated so that the research emanating from their use can be regarded with a high degree of credibility. In that

Joseph Vaughan; Darrell Sabers

1977-01-01

193

Factors affecting the pharmacokinetics of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  There is significant inter-patient variability in the pharmacokinetics of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD). Identification\\u000a of factors affecting the pharmacokinetics of PLD would enable personalization of therapy. We previously reported that age,\\u000a gender, body composition, and monocytes affect the clearance of other liposomal agents. Therefore, we evaluated how these\\u000a factors affect the pharmacokinetics of PLD.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Pharmacokinetic studies of PLD were performed

Ninh M. La-Beck; Beth A. Zamboni; Alberto Gabizon; Hilary Schmeeda; Michael Amantea; Paola A. Gehrig; William C. Zamboni

194

Age as an Affective Factor in Second Language Acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This paper examines the relationship of age factor to second language acquisition. Age as an affective factor brings about different performance stages in second as well as first language learning. Traditionally, research in Critical Period Hypothesis and other variables has derived two major aspects of language learning--the younger = the better and the older = the better. However, more

Krishna K. Bista

195

Age as an Affective Factor in Second Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the relationship of age factor to second language acquisition. Age as an affective factor brings about different performance stages in second as well as first language learning. Traditionally, research in Critical Period Hypothesis and other variables has derived two major aspects of language learning--the younger = the better…

Bista, Krishna K.

2008-01-01

196

Factors Affecting Vacation Destination Choices of College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting destination choice decisions of college students. The study reports the results of a factor analysis and discusses some marketing implications. Results suggest that college students are mostly concerned with the cost of the vacation and convenience, local hospitality and services, entertainment and drinking opportunities, recreation and sporting activities available, and

ERCAN SIRAKAYA; ROBERT W. MCLELLAN

1997-01-01

197

Study of Factors Affecting Acrylamide Levels in Model Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

CIESAROVÁ Z., KISS E., KOLEK E. (2006): Study of factors affecting acrylamide levels in model systems. Czech J. Food Sci., 24: 133-137. The factors important for the acrylamide formation in model systems were studied. The effects of two starch matrices (potato, wheat), the share of two monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) on the formation of acrylamide, and the im- pact of

ZUZANA CIESAROVÁ; EUGEN KISS; EMIL KOLEK

198

FACTORS AFFECTING CONSUMER NEGATIVE PERCEPTIONS ABOUT BEEF IRRADIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has identified several important factors affecting consumer negative perceptions about beef irradiation. The effects of these factors boil down to two main points: lack of trust in the adequacy and enforcement effectiveness of food safety regulations and consumer ignorance about the irradiation process. This implies dissemination of information about food irradiation and enhancement of consumer trust in the

Senhui He; Stanley M. Fletcher; Arbindra Rimal

2004-01-01

199

Factors affecting the productivity of loaders in surface mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheel loaders are deployed as primary loading machines in surface mines due to their mobility and low operating cost. The productivity of wheel loaders or any other loading machine is affected by several factors. One of the most significant factors is the characteristic of the muck being loaded. A study was conducted to examine the effects of the looseness, angle

S. P. Singh; R. Narendrula

2006-01-01

200

Psychosocial Factors That Affect the Survival of Adult Cancer Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors reviewed articles published from 1960 to 1996 that focused on research on psychosocial interventions and factors that affect survival from cancer. In general, they concluded that psychosocial interventions are most effective in the early stages of disease, the strongest predictors of survival are biological, the effects of psychological factors on survival are inconsistent in early stage disease and

Julie G. Cwikel; Lynn C. Behar; James R. Zabora

1998-01-01

201

Factors affecting the reading habits of secondary school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys factors affecting the reading habits of secondary school students in Ogbomoso State in Nigeria and discusses the results. Highlights the following inhibiting factors: the family background of students where few homes are conducive to reading owing to noise and lack of reading materials; the lack of functional libraries in most of the schools surveyed and a similar lack of

S. A. Ogunrombi; Gboyega Adio

1995-01-01

202

Factors affecting librarians' attitudes toward IT application in libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting librarians' attitudes toward IT application in libraries. It also aims to identify common underlying factors, which could be used to predict the probable behavior of librarians toward IT innovation in their libraries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Primary data were collected through a questionnaire survey of 288 (sample of 682)

Muhammad Ramzan; Diljit Singh

2010-01-01

203

Addendum: Factor Analysis of Explanatory Variables in an Achievement Production Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Combining explanatory variables into factors instead of using individual variables in an achievement production function is advocated in several of the articles in this special issue. This article provides a brief overview of factor analysis explaining and illustrating the reasoning for this technique. There is a linchpin: Factor analysis is an…

Phelps, James L.

2011-01-01

204

Factors affecting breastfeeding practices: applying a conceptual framework.  

PubMed

Knowledge about factors affecting breastfeeding can be developed by further research on underlying factors and by drawing out the implications and lessons from intervention research. The use of a conceptual framework to guide this research and the interpretation of results can help us to understand the relative importance of different factors, and how they interact, in turn, helping us to design effective interventions. PMID:16106273

Hector, Debra; King, Lesley; Webb, Karen; Heywood, Peter

205

Longer term improvement in neurocognitive functioning and affective distress among methamphetamine users who achieve stable abstinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic use of methamphetamine (MA) is associated with neuropsychological dysfunction and affective distress. Some normalization of function has been reported after abstinence, but little in the way of data is available on the possible added benefits of long-term sobriety. To address this, we performed detailed neuropsychological and affective evaluations in 83 MA-dependent individuals at a baseline visit and following an

Jennifer E. Iudicello; Steven P. Woods; Ofilio Vigil; J. Cobb Scott; Mariana Cherner; Robert K. Heaton; J. Hampton Atkinson; Igor Grant

2010-01-01

206

Beyond positive and negative affect: Achievement goals and discrete emotions in the elementary physical education classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesBased on the Achievement Goal perspective [Dweck, C. S., Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95, 256–273; Nicholls, J. G. (1984). Achievement motivation: conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological Review, 91, 328–346] and on Pekrun et al.'s [(2004). Beyond test anxiety: development and validation of the test emotions questionnaire (TEQ).

Athanasios Mouratidis; Maarten Vansteenkiste; Willy Lens; Yves Vanden Auweele

2009-01-01

207

Factors affecting therapeutic compliance: A review from the patient's perspective  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore and evaluate the most common factors causing therapeutic non-compliance. Methods A qualitative review was undertaken by a literature search of the Medline database from 1970 to 2005 to identify studies evaluating the factors contributing to therapeutic non-compliance. Results A total of 102 articles was retrieved and used in the review from the 2095 articles identified by the literature review process. From the literature review, it would appear that the definition of therapeutic compliance is adequately resolved. The preliminary evaluation revealed a number of factors that contributed to therapeutic non-compliance. These factors could be categorized to patient-centered factors, therapy-related factors, social and economic factors, healthcare system factors, and disease factors. For some of these factors, the impact on compliance was not unequivocal, but for other factors, the impact was inconsistent and contradictory. Conclusion There are numerous studies on therapeutic noncompliance over the years. The factors related to compliance may be better categorized as “soft” and “hard” factors as the approach in countering their effects may differ. The review also highlights that the interaction of the various factors has not been studied systematically. Future studies need to address this interaction issue, as this may be crucial to reducing the level of non-compliance in general, and to enhancing the possibility of achieving the desired healthcare outcomes.

Jin, Jing; Sklar, Grant Edward; Min Sen Oh, Vernon; Chuen Li, Shu

2008-01-01

208

Gender Differences in the Factor Structure of the 2x2 Achievement Goal Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study examined gender differences in the factor structure of the 2x2 achievement goal framework using a multi-sample invariance analysis. A total of 117 male and 125 female undergraduate teacher education students completed Elliot and Murayama's (2008) Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised (AGQ-R). Results provided empirical evidence…

Alkharusi, Hussain; Aldhafri, Said

2010-01-01

209

An Analysis of Factors Contributing to Achievement in Physics of Secondary Students in Mississippi Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to examine the factors that contribute to student achievement, this study focused specifically on the relationship between physics achievement and selected teacher characteristics, student characteristics, and school and district characteristics. Questionnaires and attitude surveys were completed by 39 randomly selected Mississippi…

Harpole, Sandra H.; And Others

210

Factors Associated with Low Achievement among Students from Nairobi's Urban Informal Neighborhoods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article contributes new evidence on factors associated with low achievement among pupils in urban informal neighborhoods in Nairobi, Kenya. The authors use three different data sets to examine the effect of residence in particular neighborhoods, pupil gender, primary school type, and household socioeconomic status on pupil achievement in the…

Ejakait, Epari; Mutisya, Maurice; Ezeh, Alex; Oketch, Moses; Ngware, Moses

2011-01-01

211

Factors Influencing Successful Achievement in Contrasting Design and Technology Activities in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between such factors as learning style, gender, prior experience, and successful achievement in contrasting modules taken by a cohort of thirty design and technology trainee teachers during their degree programme at a University in the North East of England. Achievement data were collected…

Atkinson, Stephanie

2006-01-01

212

Motivational Factors Contributing to Turkish High School Students' Achievement in Gases and Chemical Reactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study aimed to investigate the contribution of motivational factors to 10th grade students' achievement in gases and chemical reactions in chemistry. Three hundred fifty nine 10th grade students participated in the study. The Gases and Chemical Reactions Achievement Test and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire were…

Kadioglu, Cansel; Uzuntiryaki, Esen

2008-01-01

213

Gender Differences in the Factor Structure of the 2x2 Achievement Goal Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined gender differences in the factor structure of the 2x2 achievement goal framework using a multi-sample invariance analysis. A total of 117 male and 125 female undergraduate teacher education students completed Elliot and Murayama's (2008) Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised (AGQ-R). Results provided empirical evidence…

Alkharusi, Hussain; Aldhafri, Said

2010-01-01

214

Beyond Academic Reputation: Factors that Influence the College of First Choice for High Achieving Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies that have investigated college choice factors for high-achieving students repeatedly cite academic reputation as one of the top indicators of choice but have not indicated why some high-achieving students choose to attend universities with a less prestigious reputation than the more highly prestigious options available to them. The purpose…

Schoenherr, Holly J.

2009-01-01

215

Pieces of the Puzzle: Factors in Improving Achievement of Urban School Districts. Education Outlook. No. 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In one of the first large-scale analyses of urban trends on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), the Council of the Great City Schools and the American Institutes for Research identified urban school systems that demonstrated high achievement or significant achievement gains on the NAEP, and examined possible factors behind…

Casserly, Michael

2012-01-01

216

A Comparison of Remediation Systems Affecting Achievement and Retention in Mastery Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Data from experiments with high school chemistry students revealed (1) that remediation positively influences cognitive achievement and retention, and (2) recycling, which introduces alternate materials and activities under teacher direction, provides more optimum learning conditions than repeating the learning activities and reviewing the…

Swanson, David H.; Denton, Jon J.

217

Measuring How Benchmark Assessments Affect Student Achievement. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 039  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines a Massachusetts pilot program for quarterly benchmark exams in middle-school mathematics, finding that program schools do not show greater gains in student achievement after a year. But that finding might reflect limited data rather than ineffective benchmark assessments. Benchmark assessments are used in many districts…

Henderson, Susan; Petrosino, Anthony; Guckenburg, Sarah; Hamilton, Stephen

2007-01-01

218

How Do Motivational Regulation Strategies Affect Achievement: Mediated by Effort Management and Moderated by Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It was assumed that the effect of motivational regulation strategies on achievement is mediated by effort management and moderated by intelligence. A sample of 231 11th and 12th grade German high-school students provided self-reports on their use of motivational regulation strategies and effort management and completed an intelligence test.…

Schwinger, Malte; Steinmayr, Ricarda; Spinath, Birgit

2009-01-01

219

Proof of the Power: Quality Library Media Programs Affect Academic Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the results of four statewide studies on the impact of school library media programs on the academic achievement of public school students. Topics include roles of media specialists; teaching; information access and delivery; program administration; staff activities; media center use; and the availability of technology. (LRW)|

Lance, Keith Curry

2001-01-01

220

What Teacher Characteristics Affect Student Achievement? Findings from Los Angeles Public Schools. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teacher effectiveness is typically measured by traditional teacher qualification standards, such as experience, education, and scores on licensure examinations. RAND researchers found no evidence that these standards have a substantial effect on student achievement in Los Angeles public elementary, middle, and high schools. Alternative measures…

Giglio, Kate

2010-01-01

221

Gender Peer Effects in School: Does the Gender of School Peers Affect Student Achievement?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research addresses gender peer effects in education and their impact on student achievement in Chile. We address the topic from three different level of analysis: (a) whether the proportion of girls in a cohort influences students' educational outcomes (b) whether assignment to a classroom with a higher proportion of girls influences…

Cabezas, Veronica

2010-01-01

222

Gender Peer Effects in School: Does the Gender of School Peers Affect Student Achievement?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research addresses gender peer effects in education and their impact on student achievement in Chile. We address the topic from three different level of analysis: (a) whether the proportion of girls in a cohort influences students' educational outcomes (b) whether assignment to a classroom with a higher proportion of girls influences…

Cabezas, Veronica

2010-01-01

223

Preoccupation with Failure Affects Number of Study Hours—Not Academic Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been claimed that perceived academic control (AC) in combination with preoccupation with failure (PWF) produces a strong motivation for success, and the interaction (AC × PWF) has been shown to predict academic achievement. In a prospective study, 442 first year psychology students completed a questionnaire about their background, study habits, AC, and PWF. The results showed a positive

Geir Scott Brunborg; Ståle Pallesen; Åge Diseth; Svein Larsen

2010-01-01

224

Preoccupation with Failure Affects Number of Study Hours--Not Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It has been claimed that perceived academic control (AC) in combination with preoccupation with failure (PWF) produces a strong motivation for success, and the interaction (AC x PWF) has been shown to predict academic achievement. In a prospective study, 442 first year psychology students completed a questionnaire about their background, study…

Brunborg, Geir Scott; Pallesen, Stale; Diseth, Age; Larsen, Svein

2010-01-01

225

Intellectual Ability and Achievement in Psychiatrically Hospitalized Children with Conduct, Anxiety, and Affective Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined intelligence quotient and academic achievement of 76 psychiatrically hospitalized children (mean age 10 years). Found relative deficit in verbal abilities for conduct-disordered children. Depressed children were characterized by underachievement. Children with anxiety disorder had lower intelligence quotient than children without anxiety…

Hodges, Kay; Plow, Jean

1990-01-01

226

A Comparison of Remediation Systems Affecting Achievement and Retention in Mastery Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from experiments with high school chemistry students revealed (1) that remediation positively influences cognitive achievement and retention, and (2) recycling, which introduces alternate materials and activities under teacher direction, provides more optimum learning conditions than repeating the learning activities and reviewing the reading…

Swanson, David H.; Denton, Jon J.

227

Does Cultural Capital Really Affect Academic Achievement? New Evidence from Combined Sibling and Panel Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article provides new estimates of the causal effect of cultural capital on academic achievement. The author analyzes data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth--Children and Young Adults and uses a fixed effect design to address the problem of omitted variable bias, which has resulted in too optimistic results in previous research.…

Jaeger, Mads Meier

2011-01-01

228

Fluoxetine response in children with autistic spectrum disorders: correlation with familial major affective disorder and intellectual achievement.  

PubMed

One hundred and twenty-nine children, 2 to 8 years old, with idiopathic autistic spectrum disorder diagnosed by standard instruments (Childhood Austim Ratings Scale and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule) were treated with fluoxetine (0.15 to 0.5mg/kg) for 5 to 76 months (mean 32 to 36 months), with discontinuation trials. Response criteria are described. Family histories were obtained using the family history method in repeated interviews. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder, and unusual intellectual achievement, pretreatment language, and hyperlexia were used to define a coherent subgroup of autistic spectrum disorder. Statistical analyses were post hoc. Of the children, 22 (17%) had an excellent response, 67 (52%) good, and 40 (31%) fair/poor. Treatment age did not correlate with response. Fluoxetine response correlated robustly with familial major affective disorder and unusual intellectual achievement, and with hyperlexia in the child. Family history of bipolar disorder and of unusual intellectual achievement correlated strongly. Five children developed bipolar disorder during follow-up. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder (especially bipolar), unusual achievement, and hyperlexia in the children appear to define a homogeneous autistic subgroup. Bipolar disorder, unusual intellectual achievement, and autistic spectrum disorders cluster strongly in families and may share genetic determinants. PMID:12418789

DeLong, G Robert; Ritch, Chad R; Burch, Sherri

2002-10-01

229

Factors Affecting Mathematically Talented Females' Enrollment in High School Calculus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study involving 1,244 eighth-grade females who were high achievers in algebra, investigated characteristics of those who ended up taking calculus (n=474). Results showed differences between the two groups in mother's education, socioeconomic status, and educational aspirations. However, when applying all factors together, they did not predict…

Reynolds, Nancy G.; Conaway, Betty J.

2003-01-01

230

Scale Development: Factors Affecting Diet, Exercise, and Stress Management (FADESM)  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to develop scales measuring personal and environmental factors that affect dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income mothers. Methods FADESM (factors affecting diet, exercise, and stress management) scales were developed using the Social Cognitive Theory to measure personal (outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, emotional coping response) and environmental (physical environment, social environment, situation) factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management. Low-income African American and white mothers were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in three counties in Michigan. In Phase one, 45 mothers completed individual cognitive interviews. Content analyses were performed. In Phase two, items modified from the cognitive interviews were administered to 216 mothers. Factor analysis and multiple indicators/multiple causes were performed. Results Results of cognitive interviews were used to revise items for the instrument that was tested in Phase two. The factor solution revealed 19 dimensions to measure personal and environmental factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior (three dimensions), physical activity (eight dimensions), and stress management (eight dimensions). Results of multiple indicators/multiple causes model showed scale invariance. Of 19 dimensions, 15 had Cronbach alpha between 0.76 and 0.94 and four were between 0.66 and 0.69. All dimensions had composite construct reliability scores between 0.74 to 0.97 and satisfactory construct and discriminant validities. Conclusion The theory-based FADESM scales have documented good validity and reliability for measuring factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income women. Results of this study support the use of these scales with low-income African American and white mothers in community settings.

Chang, Mei-Wei; Brown, Roger; Nitzke, Susan

2008-01-01

231

How Immigrant Children Affect the Academic Achievement of Native Dutch Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we analyze how the share of immigrant children in the classroom affects the educational attainment of native Dutch children. Our analysis uses data from various sources, which allow us to characterize educational attainment in terms of reading literacy, mathematical skills and science skills. We do not find strong evidence of negative spill-over effects from immigrant children to

Asako Ohinata; Jan C van Ours

2012-01-01

232

How immigrant children affect the academic achievement of native Dutch children  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we analyze how the share of immigrant children in the classroom affects the educational attainment of native Dutch children. Our analysis uses data from various sources, which allow us to characterize educational attainment in terms of reading literacy, mathematical skills and science skills. We do not find strong evidence of negative spill-over effects from immigrant children to

Asako Ohinata

2011-01-01

233

How do motivational regulation strategies affect achievement: Mediated by effort management and moderated by intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was assumed that the effect of motivational regulation strategies on achievement is mediated by effort management and moderated by intelligence. A sample of 231 11th and 12th grade German high-school students provided self-reports on their use of motivational regulation strategies and effort management and completed an intelligence test. Students' half-year grades (GPA) were assessed six months later. As expected,

Malte Schwinger; Ricarda Steinmayr; Birgit Spinath

2009-01-01

234

Factors affecting recurrence after surgery for Crohn's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Although in Crohn's disease post-operative recurrence is common, the determinants of disease recurrence remain speculative. The aim of this study was to examine factors affecting post-operative recurrence of Crohn's disease. A Medline-based literature review was carried out. The following factors were investigated: age at onset of disease, sex, family history of Crohn's disease, smoking, duration of

Takayuki Yamamoto

235

Longer Term Improvement in Neurocognitive Functioning and Affective Distress Among Methamphetamine Users Who Achieve Stable Abstinence  

PubMed Central

Chronic use of methamphetamine (MA) is associated with neuropsychological dysfunction and affective distress. Some normalization of function has been reported after abstinence, but little data is available on the possible added benefits of long-term sobriety. To address this, we performed detailed neuropsychological and affective evaluations in 83 MA-dependent individuals at a baseline visit and following an average one-year interval period. Among the 83 MA-dependent participants, 25 remained abstinent and 58 used MA at least once during the interval period. Thirty-eight non-MA-addicted, demographically matched healthy comparison (i.e., HC) participants were also examined. At baseline, both MA-dependent participants who were able to maintain abstinence and those who were not performed significantly worse than the healthy comparison subjects on global neuropsychological functioning and were significantly more distressed. At the one-year follow-up, both the long term abstainers and healthy comparison groups showed comparable global neuropsychological performance and affective distress levels, whereas the MA-dependent group who continued to use were worse than the comparison participants in terms of global neuropsychological functioning and affective distress. An interaction was observed between neuropsychological impairment at baseline, MA abstinence, and cognitive improvement, with abstinent MA-dependent participants who were neuropsychologically impaired at baseline demonstrating significantly and disproportionately greater improvement in processing speed and slightly greater improvement in motor abilities relative to the other participants. These results suggest partial recovery of neuropsychological functioning and improvement in affective distress upon sustained abstinence from MA that may extend beyond a year or more.

IUDICELLO, JENNIFER E.; WOODS, STEVEN PAUL; VIGIL, OFILIO; SCOTT, J. COBB; CHERNER, MARIANA; HEATON, ROBERT K.; ATKINSON, J. HAMPTON; GRANT, IGOR

2010-01-01

236

Longer term improvement in neurocognitive functioning and affective distress among methamphetamine users who achieve stable abstinence.  

PubMed

Chronic use of methamphetamine (MA) is associated with neuropsychological dysfunction and affective distress. Some normalization of function has been reported after abstinence, but little in the way of data is available on the possible added benefits of long-term sobriety. To address this, we performed detailed neuropsychological and affective evaluations in 83 MA-dependent individuals at a baseline visit and following an average one-year interval period. Among the 83 MA-dependent participants, 25 remained abstinent, and 58 used MA at least once during the interval period. A total of 38 non-MA-addicted, demographically matched healthy comparison (i.e., HC) participants were also examined. At baseline, both MA-dependent participants who were able to maintain abstinence and those who were not performed significantly worse than the healthy comparison subjects on global neuropsychological functioning and were significantly more distressed. At the one-year follow-up, both the long-term abstainers and healthy comparison groups showed comparable global neuropsychological performance and affective distress levels, whereas the MA-dependent group who continued to use MA were worse than the comparison participants in terms of global neuropsychological functioning and affective distress. An interaction was observed between neuropsychological impairment at baseline, MA abstinence, and cognitive improvement, with abstinent MA-dependent participants who were neuropsychologically impaired at baseline demonstrating significantly and disproportionately greater improvement in processing speed and slightly greater improvement in motor abilities than the other participants. These results suggest partial recovery of neuropsychological functioning and improvement in affective distress upon sustained abstinence from MA that may extend beyond a year or more. PMID:20198527

Iudicello, Jennifer E; Woods, Steven P; Vigil, Ofilio; Scott, J Cobb; Cherner, Mariana; Heaton, Robert K; Atkinson, J Hampton; Grant, Igor

2010-03-02

237

Achievement assessment for enterprise resource planning (ERP) system implementations based on critical success factors (CSFs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses a framework to critical success factor (CSF) assessment of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation, and proposes a structured approach to help a small manufacturing enterprise (SME) identify the key requirements and measurements that determine its achievement of ERP implementation. Based on realistic data, critical success factors are converted into quantitative information to reflect measurements including cost,

Albert Y. T. Sun; Abe Yazdani; John D. Overend

2005-01-01

238

Factors Related to the Achievement and Adjustment of Young African American Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were used to examine factors related to the achievement and adjustment of 378 African American children in the early elementary grades. Consistent with past research, there was a positive relationship between the number of risk factors children were exposed to and the probability that they were…

Luster, Tom; McAdoo, Harriette Pipes

1994-01-01

239

Factors affecting characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three major factors affect the characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors in terms of their levitation properties during interaction with permanent magnets. First, the appropriate parameter for the permanent magnet is internal magnetization, not the value of the magnetic field measured at the magnet`s surface. Second, although levitation force grows with superconductor thickness and surface area, for a given permanent magnet

1997-01-01

240

Investigation of factors affecting crosstalk in a rotary transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the main cause of crosstalk in a cylindrical type rotary transformer by using the electromagnetic field analysis taking account of both the eddy current and the displacement current. Factors affecting the crosstalk of the rotary transformer are also discussed, namely, the permeability and permittivity of core, the conductivity of short-circuited ring and the number of windings per

Hiroto Inoue; Hirotsugu Fusayasu; N. Takahashi

1997-01-01

241

Factors affecting the kinetics of disulfide bond reduction in hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis The kinetics of hair disulfide bond reduction by dihydrolipoic acid (DHL), dithiothreitol (DTT), and 1,3 dithiopropanol (DTP) and their analogs have been investigated using a single-fiber technique. Structure- activity relationships are described, and it is shown that the overall rate of reduction may be altered by factors that affect the equilibrium constant of the reaction between the reducing agent

R. RANDALL WICKETT; BRUCE G. BARMAN

242

Mothers, Fathers, Families, and Circumstances: Factors Affecting Children's Adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burgeoning empirical literature exploring the factors accounting for individual differences in psychological adjustment is reviewed. Many studies have shown that adjustment is largely affected by differences in the quality of parenting and parent–child relationships, the quality of the relationships between the parents, and the richness of the economic and social resources available to the family; more recent research signals

Michael E. Lamb

2012-01-01

243

Factors affecting retention of early pregnancy in dairy cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential factors affecting retention of pregnancy during weeks 5–9 of gestation were studied in dairy cows and heifers (N=211) on two farms. Cows were examined by ultrasonography for presence of a viable embryo, and sizes of the corpus luteum (CL) and of follicles ?5mm were recorded. Blood samples were taken at each examination and assayed for progesterone and estradiol. Overall

Melanie J Starbuck; Robert A Dailey; E. Keith Inskeep

2004-01-01

244

Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini

2010-01-01

245

Factors affecting biology lesseon motivation of high school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research is to evaluate the factors affecting biology lesson motivation of high school students. The data of this research are collected by using “Biology Lesson Motivation Questionnaire” and “Personal Information Form”. At the end of the research, there is a significant difference between the level of students’ biology lesson motivation and students’ sex. On the other

Gülay Ekici

2010-01-01

246

Organizational and Cultural Factors Affecting International Transfer of Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the results of a study of a global company that examined the effect of training design and work environment on the transfer of human resources development training. Presents a model of international transfer of training and discusses organizational factors and cultural differences that affected the transfer of training. (LRW)|

Lim, Doo H.

1999-01-01

247

Factors Affecting the Relative Efficiency of General Acid Catalysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factors affecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.|

Kwan, Eugene E.

2005-01-01

248

Factors affecting DNA damage caused by lipid hydroperoxides and aldehydes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single (SSB) and double strand breaks (DSB) in supercoiled plasmid DNA pBR322 reacted with linoleic acid hydroperoxides (LOOH) were followed by agarose gel electrophoresis to obtain definitive information about factors affecting LOOH interaction with DNA. In water, LOOH induced extensive DSB, which were metal mediated and increased with incubation time. Adventitious metal bound to DNA was sufficient to decompose LOOH

Ming-Hua Yang; Karen M. Schaich

1996-01-01

249

Factors Affecting Use of Environmental Services by the Elderly.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The ability to function independently in the later years has been defined as a combination of capability and support. To examine factors affecting older adults' use of services provided in an accommodating environment, 52 physically independent residents of an Arizona apartment complex for the elderly were surveyed. Time spent living in the…

Hartwigsen, Gail

250

Exploring the Factors that Affect Reading Comprehension of EAP Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As far as academic reading comprehension is concerned, a network of linguistic skills and strategies operate in a complex and integrated matter. Since it is impossible to examine all the factors affecting reading comprehension all at once, it is more reasonable to compare and contrast the predictive effects of specific variables against each…

Nergis, Aysegul

2013-01-01

251

Factors Affecting the Service of Large-Diameter Wire Rope.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Service life of large-diameter wire rope is a major concern in the surface coal mining industry. Differences in rope construction may play an important role in service life and performance. Many of the factors affecting large rope service life could be ec...

G. H. Beeman

1978-01-01

252

Factors affecting Iran`s future. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the factors affecting Iran`s future by focusing on the demographic, economic, and military trends in Iran and their impact on the country`s national security objectives in the next decade. The paper also assesses the implications of an economic embargo on Iran and potential Iranian threats to regional and United States national interests.

Sinai, J.

1993-05-28

253

Understanding Correlation: Factors that Affect the Size of r  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors describe and illustrate 6 factors that affect the size of a Pearson correlation: (a) the amount of variability in the data, (b) differences in the shapes of the 2 distributions, (c) lack of linearity, (d) the presence of 1 or more "outliers," (e) characteristics of the sample, and (f) measurement error. Also discussed are ways to…

Goodwin, Laura D.; Leech, Nancy L.

2006-01-01

254

Factors Affecting the Technology Readiness of Health Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Federal government policies are promoting diffusion of technologies into the healthcare system. If health professionals reject the new technologies planned for the healthcare system, it could result in costly failures, delays, and workforce problems. There is a lack of knowledge about factors that affect technology readiness (TR), defined as the…

Myers, Stephanie E.

2010-01-01

255

AFFECTIVE FACTORS FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the affective factors from the point of view of clinical psychology. Our scheme of personality description places sense feelings and instinct feelings at the first level of complexity. An attempt should be made, in regard to sense feelings, to show what the person does because his feeling of pleasure or displeasure is unusually strong in connection with

Edward M. Westburgh

1936-01-01

256

Principals' Perception regarding Factors Affecting the Performance of Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the perception of principals on how the factors of subject mastery, teaching methodology, personal characteristics, and attitude toward students affect the performance of teachers at higher secondary level in the Punjab. All principals of higher secondary level in the Punjab were part of the population of the study. From…

Akram, Muhammad Javaid; Raza, Syed Ahmad; Khaleeq, Abdur Rehman; Atika, Samrana

2011-01-01

257

Factors Affecting the Outcomes of School Bond Elections in Iowa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In spite of a nationwide concern for the crumbling infrastructure of school buildings, the prospects of passing bond issues to repair or replace buildings are elusive. This study examined positive and negative factors that affected the outcomes of school bond elections in four purposefully-selected school districts in Iowa. Variables that…

Lode, Marlin D.

258

Factors affecting internship satisfaction: Based on organizational socialization theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internship is not only the learning tools but also a good chance for college students to understand the workplace culture and his or her future working role within the organization. Based on organizational socialization theory, this empirical study analyzes the factors affecting college students' internship satisfaction. The major finding is that: the organizational socialization tactics adopted by the organizations and

He Huang; Jia Jia

2010-01-01

259

Rheometric Measurement of Dough Rheological Characteristics and Factors Affecting It  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bread is one of the most important foods consumed all over the world. This review focuses on the use of rheometer for the measurement of dough rheological properties and factors affecting them. Rheological properties of dough are very important in bread baking quality. Knowledge of the rheological behavior of bread dough is very important to understand mechanical properties of the

HOSSEIN MIRSAEEDGHAZI; ZAHRA EMAM-DJOMEH; SAYED MOHAMMAD ALI MOUSAVI

260

Factors Affecting Consumers' Fluid Milk Purchasing Patterns in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates product attributes, advertising, and demographic factors that influence purchasing patterns of fresh milk, flavored milk, and yogurt drinks in Taiwan. Results indicate that freshness is the most important product attribute when consumers purchase fluid milk products. Product prices and brands affect purchasing quantities of flavored milk products but have no effects on fresh milk or yogurt drinks.

Jane Lu Hsu; Jui-Sheng Kao

2001-01-01

261

Factors Affecting the Development and Use of Learning Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explored barriers and facilitating factors affecting the development and use of learning objects in developing instructional materials and their use in supporting individualized learning. Over a two-month period, students in a graduate-level instructional design course developed instructional materials incorporating learning objects or…

Moisey, Susan D.; Ally, Mohamed; Spencer, Bob

2006-01-01

262

Factors affecting secondary sex ratio in Iranian Holsteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors affecting secondary sex ratio (SSR) in Iranian Holsteins. Data of 942,941 Holstein calving events from the Animal Breeding Center of Iran, recorded between January 1996 and December 2007, were used in the analysis. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to model the logit of the probability of a male

Navid Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh

263

Reproductive Factors Affecting the Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OZDEMIR, F., DEMIRBAG, D. and RODOPLU, M. Reproductive Factors Affecting the Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 2005, 205 (3), 277-285 ?? Osteoporosis has been defined as a metabolic bone disease characterized by a loss of bone mineral density (BMD) greater than 2.5 standard deviations below young adult peak bone mass or the presence of fracture.

Ferda Ozdemir; Derya Demirbag; Meliha Rodoplu

2005-01-01

264

Factors affecting Internet use in a saturated-access population  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a large body of literature that focuses on technology and innovation adoption. Much of that deals with the factors that affect adoption at different stages. Some research deals with early adoption, such as that by Rogers (1995). Other research looks at innovations as they begin to penetrate the general population, such as Lin’s (1998) study of personal computer

Rick Busselle; Joey Reagan; Bruce Pinkleton; Kim Jackson

1999-01-01

265

Communication and Related Factors Affecting Academic Success Among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzed varying factors affecting college student’s graduation intentions. To predict intention, an Elaborated Theory of Planned Behavior model was used to study the effects of attitude, normative, normative communication, and perceived control beliefs while accounting for past classroom experiences with university faculty and administrators. While further analysis must be conducted to test the elaborated model, regression analysis revealed

Disraelly Cruz

2005-01-01

266

Industry Training: The Factors that Affect Demand. Discussion Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted in Australia, to determine the factors that affect demand for job training. The study consisted of 30 detailed industry case studies, an industry analysis, and a literature review. Each case study examined current training practices, training decision making in the business, and the determinants of training for the…

Smith, A.; Roberts, P.; Noble, C.; Hayton, G.; Thorne, E.

267

Factors Affecting Environmental Knowledge and Attitudes among Lebanese College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study aimed at assessing the variables that would positively affect the knowledge and attitude of a group of Lebanese college students regarding the environment, namely such factors as gender, age, previous hiking experience and living abroad. A purposeful sample of students attending the Lebanese American University, was asked to fill out a questionnaire that assesses four major domains

Ahmad Oweini; Ahmad Houri

2006-01-01

268

Factors affecting infection of citrus with Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri (Xac) causes citrus canker and is now considered endemic in Florida. Factors affecting dispersal and infection of the bacteria need to be understood to help optimize disease management strategies. Wind (0-18 m/sec) was simulated outdoors using a fan to study infection...

269

Principals' Perception regarding Factors Affecting the Performance of Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the perception of principals on how the factors of subject mastery, teaching methodology, personal characteristics, and attitude toward students affect the performance of teachers at higher secondary level in the Punjab. All principals of higher secondary level in the Punjab were part of the population of the study. From…

Akram, Muhammad Javaid; Raza, Syed Ahmad; Khaleeq, Abdur Rehman; Atika, Samrana

2011-01-01

270

Factors Affecting Environmental Knowledge and Attitudes among Lebanese College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This exploratory study aimed at assessing the variables that would positively affect the knowledge and attitude of a group of Lebanese college students regarding the environment, namely such factors as gender, age, previous hiking experience and living abroad. A purposeful sample of students attending the Lebanese American University, was asked…

Oweini, Ahmad; Houri, Ahmad

2006-01-01

271

FACTORS AFFECTING THERMAL SHOCK RESISTANCE OF POLYPHASE CERAMIC BODIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of the factors which affect the thermal shock ; resistance of polyphase ceramic systems was conducted using the model system ; zirconium carbide-graphite. The effect of graphite on the physical properties of ; the zirconium carbide is to increase the strain at fracture, thermal ; conductivity, and thermal diffusivity thereby increasing thermal shock resistance. ; Of significance is

D. P. H. Hasselman; P. T. B. Shaffer

1962-01-01

272

Factors affecting compliance with depot injection treatment in the community  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated aspects of the community psychiatric care of psychotic patients living in inner city areas, and especially those of Afro-Caribbean ethnicity. Ethnicity was not found to be a major factor affecting complicance with depot injections. More important were variables such as time since first treatment and sex. Defaulters from treatment were more likely to be subsequently admitted to

S. Tunnicliffe; G. Harrison; P. J. Standen

1992-01-01

273

Factors Affecting Technology Uses in Schools: An Ecological Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why is technology not used more in schools? Many researchers have tried to solve this persistent puzzle. The authors of this article report on their study of technology uses in 19 schools. They suggest an ecological metaphor, using the example of the introduction of the zebra mussel into the Great Lakes, to integrate and organize sets of factors that affect

Yong Zhao; Kenneth A. Frank

2003-01-01

274

Factors affecting coliform bacteria growth in distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory studies were carried out to determine which factors influence the survival and growth of coliforms, particularly Klebsiella pneumoniae, in drinking water distribution systems. Tubercle material scraped from the lumen of distribution pipes adversely affected the maintenance of a free available chlorine residual and supported K. pneumoniae growth. The pH of the water markedly influenced the survival of bacteria; 50

R. S. Martin; W. H. Gates; R. S. Tobin; D. Grantham; R. Sumarah; P. Wolfe; P. Forestall

1982-01-01

275

Factors Affecting Latent Infection of Prune Fruit by Monilinia fructicola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Luo, Y., and Michailides, T. J. 2001. Factors affecting latent infection of prune fruit by Monilinia fructicola. Phytopathology 91:864-872. Experiments were conducted in three prune orchards in California. In each orchard, inoculations with Monilinia fructicola, the causal agent of brown rot of stone fruits, were performed on branches of trees at bloom and fruit developmental stages. Five inoculum concentrations were

Yong Luo; Themis J. Michailides

2001-01-01

276

Factors Affecting Educational Innovation with in Class Electronic Response Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports the use of Rogers' diffusion of innovation perspective to understand the factors affecting educational innovation decisions, specifically in regard to in class electronic response systems. Despite decreasing costs and four decades of research showing strong student support, academic adoption is limited. Using data collected…

Freeman, Mark; Bell, Amani; Comerton-Forde, Carole; Pickering, Joanne; Blayney, Paul

2007-01-01

277

Factors Affecting Coefficient Alpha: A Mini Monte Carlo Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factors affecting a lower-bound estimate of internal consistency reliability, Cronbach's coefficient alpha, are explored. Theoretically, coefficient alpha is an estimate of the correlation between two tests drawn at random from a pool of items like the items in the test under consideration. As a practical matter, coefficient alpha can be an index…

Reinhardt, Brian M.

278

Factors affecting fluid milk purchasing sources in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated main factors affecting fluid milk purchasing sources of households in Turkey. From the collected household survey data, a multinomial logit model was estimated to analyze households’ choices among unpacked, processed and processed-unpacked fluid milk alternatives within the utility maximization framework. The results indicated that number of children, household size, educational level and income were among the important

Selim Adem Hatirli; Burhan Ozkan; Ali Riza Aktas

2004-01-01

279

Factors Affecting the Relative Efficiency of General Acid Catalysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factors affecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.

Kwan, Eugene E.

2005-01-01

280

Factors affecting the division of labor in households  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on the division of household labor in 108 Australian married-couple households and the factors which affect it. The data confirm the persistence of a very segregated division of household labor within Australian families and thus support L. Bryson's (“Thirty Years of Research on the Division of Labor in Australian Families,” Australian Journal of Sex, Marriage & Family,

John K. Antill; Sandra Cotton

1988-01-01

281

How Do the Different Types of Computer Use Affect Math Achievement?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, the National Educational Longitudinal Study (ELS:2002) dataset was used and a predictive data mining technique, decision tree analysis, was implemented in order to examine which factors, in conjunction to computer use, can be used to predict high or low probability of success in high school mathematics. Specifically, this study…

Flores, Raymond; Inan, Fethi; Lin, Zhangxi

2013-01-01

282

Teaching-Learning Process Factors Related to Pupil Achievement on a Psychomotor Task.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to identify teaching-learning process behaviors that affect pupil achievement on a psychomotor task. Forty preservice physical education teachers each taught a twenty-minute cartwheel lesson to three elementary school pupils. Students' cartwheels were filmed before and after the instructional sessions, and analyzed for body…

Yerg, Beverly J.

283

Interparental Conflict and Academic Achievement: An Examination of Mediating and Moderating Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a risk and resiliency theoretical framework, the association between interparental conflict and academic achievement\\u000a was examined. The sample consisted of 2,297 6th grade youth with a mean age of 11.92. Participants were mostly European American\\u000a (81.8%) and 52% were girls. Results demonstrated that interparental conflict is a risk factor for lower academic achievement,\\u000a suggesting that family interactions play a

Sharon R. Ghazarian; Cheryl Buehler

2010-01-01

284

Distraction by a monotube fixator to achieve limb lengthening: predictive factors for tibia trauma  

PubMed Central

Background Management of post trauma tibia bone gap varied with orthopedic surgeons’ experience and tools available. Study aims to determine predictive factors for distraction by a monotube fixator (DMF) outcome in post tibia trauma limb length discrepancy. Methods A prospective descriptive cross sectional study of post traumatized tibia bone gap and limb length discrepancy patients at tertiary hospitals. Patient’s informed consent and institutional ethical committee approval were obtained. Bio-data, clinical and healing indexes were documented. DMF was applied for patient that met inclusion criteria. The Statistic tests used included the Chi-square, the Student’s two-tailed t test, and the Wilcox on rank-sum test when appropriate. Mantel-Haenszel Common Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for poor outcome potential risk factors were recorded. Bivariate correlation and logistic regression were evaluated. Significance level was set at a p value <0.05. Results Thirty-six patients with mean age, 37.2?±?10.3 year and male/female ratio of 1:1.25 had DMF applied. Motorcycle accident accounted for 50.0% of patients and diaphyseal segment was most commonly affected 25 (69.4%). The mean bone lengthened was 10.1?±?4.0 cm (range: 5-21 cm) and mean duration of bone transport was 105.6?±?38.2 days. The means of rate of distraction, healing index and percentage of lengthening were 0.99?±?0.14 mm/day, 15.6?±?4.3 days/cm and 38.0?±?14.3 respectively. The mean follow up was 9.7 ±4.9 months (range: 2–17.0). Per operative complications varied and outcome was satisfactory in 30 (83.3%). Obesity (p <0.0001), multiple surgery (p?=?0.012) and transfusion (p?=?0.001) correlated to poor outcome. Percentage lengthening???50%, bone gap >10 cm, anemia, blood transfusion, general anesthesia administration, distraction rate >1 mm/day, osteomyelitis and prolong partial weight bearing were significant predictive factors for poor outcome in post traumatic tibia distraction. Conclusion Distraction by a monotube fixator appears effective in achieving correction >38.0% original tibia lengthening following traumatic bone gap. Predictive factors for poor outcome were useful for prognostication.

2013-01-01

285

Factors affecting receipt of chemotherapy in women with breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Aims: To review literature describing factors associated with receipt of chemotherapy for breast cancer, to better understand what factors are most relevant to women’s health and whether health disparities are apparent, and to assess how these factors might affect observational studies and outcomes research. Patterns of care for metastatic breast cancer, for which no standard-of-care exists, were of particular interest. Methods: Relevant studies written in English, Italian, French, or Spanish, published in 2000 or later, were identified through MEDLINE and reviewed. Review articles and clinical trials were excluded; all observational studies and surveys were considered. Articles were reviewed for any discussion of patient characteristics, hospital/physician/insurance characteristics, psychosocial characteristics, and clinical characteristics affecting receipt of chemotherapy by breast cancer patients. Results: In general, factors associated with increased likelihood of receiving chemotherapy included younger age, being Caucasian, having good general health and few co-morbidities, having more severe clinical disease, having responded well to previous treatment, and having breast cancer that is estrogen- or progesterone-receptor-negative. Many of the clinical factors found to increase the likelihood of receiving chemotherapy were consistent with current oncology guidelines. Of the relevant 19 studies identified, only six (32%) reported data specific to metastatic cancer; most studies aggregated women with stage I–IV for purposes of analysis. Conclusion: Studies of patterns of care in breast cancer treatment can help identify challenges in health care provided to particular subgroups of women and can aid researchers in designing studies that account for such factors in clinical and outcomes research. Although scarce, studies evaluating only women with metastatic breast cancer indicate that factors affecting decisions related to receipt of chemotherapy are similar across stage for this disease.

Morimoto, Libby; Coalson, Jenna; Mowat, Fionna; O'Malley, Cynthia

2010-01-01

286

Physician-Related Factors Affecting Cardiac Rehabilitation Referral  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite the positive impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on quality of life and mortality, the majority of people who could benefit from this program fail to participate in it. The lack of referral from the physician is a common reason that patients give for not seeking CR. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral by cardiologists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 122 cardiologists, including 89 general cardiac specialists and 33 fellows in cardiology from 11 major cardiology training centers in Iran, was done in 2010. They responded to the 14- item investigator-generated survey, examining the physician’s attitudinal and knowledge factors affecting CR referral. Results: 47.9% of the subjects reported having available CR centers but only 6.6% reported continuous medical education on the topic. 90.7% of the physicians reported that less than 15% of patients are referred to CR centers. The main factor affecting the low referral rate was limited general knowledge about CR programs (79.5%) such as program attributes and benefits, methods of reimbursement. Lack of insurance coverage, unavailability of CR centers in the community and low physicians’ fee were other factors reported by the physicians. Conclusion: Cardiologists’ inadequate general knowledge of and attitude toward CR programs seem to be a potential threat for cardiac prevention and rehabilitation in some societies.

Moradi, Bahieh; Maleki, Majid; Esmaeilzadeh, Maryam; Abkenar, Hooman Bakhshandeh

2011-01-01

287

Gender Differences in Cognitive and Noncognitive Factors Related to Achievement in Organic Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For many college students in the sciences, organic chemistry poses a difficult challenge. Indeed, success in organic chemistry has proven pivotal in the careers of a vast number of students in a variety of science disciplines. A better understanding of the factors that contribute to achievement in this course should contribute to efforts to increase the number of students in the science disciplines. Further, an awareness of gender differences in factors associated with achievement should aid efforts to bolster the participation of women in chemistry and related disciplines. Using a correlation research design, the individual relationships between organic chemistry achievement and each of several cognitive variables and noncognitive variables were assessed. In addition, the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and combinations of these independent variables were explored. Finally, gender- and instructor-related differences in the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and the independent variables were investigated. Cognitive variables included the second-semester general chemistry grade, the ACT English, math, reading, and science-reasoning scores, and scores from a spatial visualization test. Noncognitive variables included anxiety, confidence, effectance motivation, and usefulness. The second-semester general chemistry grade was found to be the best indicator of performance in organic chemistry, while the effectiveness of other predictors varied between instructors. In addition, gender differences were found in the explanations of organic chemistry achievement variance provided by this study. In general, males exhibited stronger correlations between predictor variables and organic chemistry achievement than females.

Turner, Ronna C.; Lindsay, Harriet A.

2003-05-01

288

Single-tooth replacement: factors affecting different prosthetic treatment modalities  

PubMed Central

Background The choice between several treatment options for replacing a single missing tooth is influenced by clinical, dentist- and patient-immanent factors. This study aimed to determine the patient factors that would affect the treatment decision to replace a single missing tooth and to assess the satisfaction with several options. Method 200 volunteers involved (121 females and 79 males) divided into four groups, Group A: consisted of patients with conventional fixed partial dentures or patients with resin bonded fixed partial dentures. Group B: consisted of patients who received removable partial dentures while Group C: consisted of patients who received a single implant supported crown, and a control group D: consisted of patients who received no treatment. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Results The highest percentage of males within groups (58%) was within the removable prostheses category. The majority of the subjects in the study reported that the main reason for replacing a missing tooth was for esthetic and function. Most important factor affecting the choice between treatment modalities was damaging the neighboring teeth. Pain, post operative sensitivity and dental phobia were important factors in choosing the prosthesis type and affected the control group patients not to have any treatment. The highest satisfaction percentage among groups studied was recorded for dental implants then FPD groups, while the least percentage were in both the control and RPD groups, for all aspects of function, esthetic and speech efficiency. Conclusions The final choice between FPD, RPD and implant depended on several factors which affected the decision making; among these is cost and patients' awareness of the different treatment options.

2011-01-01

289

76 FR 35912 - Business Jet Aircraft Industry: Structure and Factors Affecting Competitiveness; Institution of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...332-526] Business Jet Aircraft Industry: Structure and Factors Affecting Competitiveness...332-526, Business Jet Aircraft Industry: Structure and Factors Affecting Competitiveness...investigation and prepare a report on the structure and factors affecting the...

2011-06-20

290

Sport-related achievement motivation and alcohol outcomes: An athlete-specific risk factor among intercollegiate athletes.  

PubMed

Intercollegiate athletes report greater alcohol consumption and more alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Although college athletes share many of the same problems faced by non-athletes, there are some consequences that are unique to athletes. Studies have demonstrated that alcohol negatively affects athletic performance including increased dehydration, impeded muscle recovery, and increased risk for injury. Beyond risk factors for alcohol misuse that may affect college students in general, research has begun to examine risk factors that are unique to collegiate athletes. For example, research has found that off-season status, the leadership role, and athlete-specific drinking motives are associated with increased alcohol use. Given these findings, it is possible that other athlete-specific variables influence alcohol misuse. One such variable may be sport achievement orientation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between sport achievement orientation and alcohol outcomes. Given previous research regarding seasonal status and gender, these variables were examined as moderators. Varsity athletes (n=263) completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, which assesses sport-related achievement orientation on three scales (Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation). In addition, participants completed measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation were all significantly associated with alcohol use, but not alcohol-related problems. Moreover, these relationships were moderated by seasonal status and gender. These interactions, clinical implications, and limitations are discussed. PMID:24064192

Weaver, Cameron C; Martens, Matthew P; Cadigan, Jennifer M; Takamatsu, Stephanie K; Treloar, Hayley R; Pedersen, Eric R

2013-08-29

291

Factors affecting the adsorption of trichloroethylene onto activated carbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, an experimental study aimed at the assessment of the factors affecting the adsorption of trichloroethylene (TCE) from water solutions onto activated carbons is presented. The influence of sorbent properties, such as B.E.T. surface area, micropore volume, chemical composition and acid\\/basic surface functional groups on TCE adsorption capacity is experimentally assessed by testing a set of 12 sorbents.

A. Erto; R. Andreozzi; A. Lancia; D. Musmarra

2010-01-01

292

Factors Affecting Cataloging Time: An In-House Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a survey sheet devised in-house in the spring of 2001, cataloging staff at Carnegie Mellon University Libraries monitored the amount of time required to catalog materials from receipt in the Acquisitions Department to shelf-ready status and the factors affecting cataloging time. Monographs, music scores, videos, and theses were among the materials cataloged by a combined total of 7 1\\/2

Terry Hurlbert; Linda L. Dujmic

2004-01-01

293

Legal factors affecting the financing of small scale hydroelectric projects  

SciTech Connect

An introduction to the major business organizational options open to small-scale hydroelectric (SSH) projects is given. The major federal income tax treatments of these options are compared. Significant general federal income tax factors affecting SSH projects are reintroduced and explained. Some of the special federal income tax problem areas in SSH development are isolated. Tax benefit flow through or transfer mechanisms are discussed. Tax exempt financing opportunities for private SSH projects are reviewed. (MHR)

Wilson, W.H.; Ringo, M.J.; Forgione, N.

1983-09-01

294

Factors affecting the nutritional quality of soya products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional quality of soya products is determined not only by the quantity and availability of the amino acids which\\u000a make up the protein of such products, but is also markedly affected by the processing conditions which are employed in their\\u000a manufacture. The most important factor in this regard is the application of some form of heat treatment which serves

I. E. Liener; M. Swaminathan; V. Subrahmanyan

1981-01-01

295

Factors affecting mechanical properties of silicon oxynitride ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of additives and impurities on the mechanical properties of silicon oxynitride ceramics was investigated. The toughening of the ceramics was affected by three factors: (1) the thermal tensile stress in the intergranular glassy phase and the compressive stress in Si2N2O grains, developed by a thermal expansion mismatch between Si2N2O grains and the intergranular glassy phase; (2) the large

Masayoshi Ohashi; Kazuo Nakamura; Kiyoshi Hirao; Motohiro Toriyama; Shuzo Kanzaki

1997-01-01

296

Factors Affecting Exhalation of Radon From a Gravelly Sandy Loam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of radon exhalation from a gravely sandy loam have been made in a semi-arid climate by using a combination of closed accumulation, flow-through accumulation, and 222Rn and 2Xøpb soil profiles. The meteorological factors that most affected the instantaneous value of exhalation of 222Rn were atmospheric pressure and rain. Effects due to other parameters such as wind or temperature were

S. D. Schery; D. H. Gaeddert; M. H. Wilkening

1984-01-01

297

Environmental factors affecting indole production in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria produce large quantities of indole as an intercellular signal in microbial communities. Biosynthesis of indole is well-studied, and while carbon sources and amino acids are important environmental cues for indole production in Escherichia coli, other environmental factors affecting indole production for this strain are less clear. This study demonstrates that the environmental

Thi Hiep Han; Jin-Hyung Lee; Moo Hwan Cho; Thomas K. Wood; Jintae Lee

2011-01-01

298

Factors affecting chromate reduction in Enterobacter cloacae strain HO1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors affecting chromate reduction by cultures of Enterobacter cloacae HO1 were investigated. The reduction was sensitive to oxygen stress and E. cloacae strain HO1 could reduce chromate only under anaerobic conditions. Rates of reduction of chromate were proportional to cell number. The optimal pH was between 7.0 and 7.8, and the optimal temperature was 30°–37°C. High rates of reduction were

Kohya Komori; Pi-chao Wang; Kiyoshi Toda; Hisao Ohtake

1989-01-01

299

Factors Affecting the Crevice Corrosion Susceptibility of Alloy 22  

SciTech Connect

The susceptibility or Alloy 22 (N06022) to crevice corrosion may depend on environmental or external factors and metallurgical or internal factors. Some of the most important environmental factors are chloride concentration, inhibitors, temperature and potential. The presence of a weld seam or second phase precipitation in the alloy are classified as internal factors. The localized corrosion resistance of Alloy 22 has been extensively investigated in the last five years, however not all affecting factors were considered in the studies. This paper discusses the current findings regarding the effect of many of these variables on the susceptibility (or resistance) of Alloy 22 to crevice corrosion. The effect of variables such as temperature, chloride concentration and nitrate are rather well understood. However there are only limited or no data regarding effect of other factors such as pH, other inhibitive or deleterious species and type of crevicing material and crevice geometry. There are contradictory results regarding the effect of metallurgical factors such as solution heat treatment.

Rebak, R B

2004-11-24

300

Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and maintenance; existence of fund for operation and maintenance; willingness to contribute money; existence of a user's committee; participation in the initial planning and design of the water scheme; and coordination between the local leaders and user's committee. The main factors which made the schemes unsustainable were: long fetching time; non-involvement in decision making; lack of willingness to contribute funds; absence of users committee; and lack of cooperation between local leaders and the users committee. Water service providers should address the technical, social, financial and institutional factors identified affecting sustainability in their planning and implementation of rural water schemes.

Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.

301

The Role of Family Factors and School Achievement in the Progression of Adolescents to Regular Smoking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines whether parental smoking and single parenting were related to adolescents' school achievement and anti-smoking parental practices as well as how these factors predicted later smoking. The sample comprised 1163 Finnish students in Grades 7 through 9. Results show that at the beginning of the seventh grade, parental smoking and…

Pennanen, M.; Vartiainen, E.; Haukkala, A.

2012-01-01

302

INFLUENCE OF THE GENDER FACTOR ON A STUDENT'S LEARNING STYLE AND ACHIEVEMENTS IN LANGUAGE LEARNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper includes the investigations of the different aspects of the theory of learning styles connected with the Gender factor. A number of definitions of learning styles, gender differences in patterns of knowledge in various aspects of language learning and its influence on students' learning styles and their achievements are analysed in this paper. The distinction between the words sex

Anna Tatarinceva; Riga LV

303

Interparental Conflict and Academic Achievement: An Examination of Mediating and Moderating Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using a risk and resiliency theoretical framework, the association between interparental conflict and academic achievement was examined. The sample consisted of 2,297 6th grade youth with a mean age of 11.92. Participants were mostly European American (81.8%) and 52% were girls. Results demonstrated that interparental conflict is a risk factor

Ghazarian, Sharon R.; Buehler, Cheryl

2010-01-01

304

Explaining socioeconomic inequalities in student achievement: The role of home and school factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the extent that material, social, and cultural resources and schools account for the relationship between socioeconomic background and student achievement among 15-year-olds in 30 countries. Generally, cultural factors play a more important role in most countries although in a small minority of countries, material resources have a substantial impact. Most often, social resources have little impact. In

Gary N. Marks; John Cresswell; John Ainley

2006-01-01

305

Being Labeled "Nerd": Factors that Influence the Social Acceptance of High-Achieving Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present investigation addresses the question of whether certain factors can protect high-achieving students at risk for being labeled a nerd against devaluation. In 2 studies, 125 and 317 students from Grade 8 evaluated vignettes describing average students and students who were called "nerds." Results indicate that being modest about good…

Rentzsch, Katrin; Schutz, Astrid; Schroder-Abe, Michela

2011-01-01

306

What Is Most Important: Social Factors, Health Selection, and Adolescent Educational Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the relative importance of social factors and health measures in predicting educational achievement in early and late adolescence using population-based administrative data. The sample was made up of 41,943 children born in Manitoba, Canada between 1982 and 1989 and remaining in the province until age 18. Multilevel modeling…

Roos, Leslie L.; Hiebert, Brett; Manivong, Phongsack; Edgerton, Jason; Walld, Randy; MacWilliam, Leonard; de Rocquigny, Janelle

2013-01-01

307

Teacher perceptions of factors impacting on student achievement in effective and less effective urban elementary schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated teacher perceptions of factors impacting on student achievement in 18 effective and less effective elementary schools by surveying staff in randomly selected schools located in a large, urban district. Nine schools each were assigned to the effective or less effective groups based on a comparison of their average state assessment scores for a three-year period. A total

Cynthia Mitchell-Lee

2001-01-01

308

Factors Distinguishing between Achievers and At Risk Students: A Qualitative and Quantitative Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this article is to identify factors that distinguish between Achievers and At Risk Students in Accounting 1A, and to explore how qualitative and quantitative research methods complement each other. Differences between the two groups were explored from both a quantitative and a qualitative perspective, focusing on study habits,…

Eiselen, R.; Geyser, H.

2003-01-01

309

Risk and Protective Factors for Educational Achievement among Serious Offending Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using longitudinal data, this analysis: (1) documented educational outcomes for serious offending girls, and (2) identified risk and protective factors associated with academic achievement in mid-adolescence and degree attainment by early adulthood. In mid-adolescence, girls performed nearly one standard deviation below the population mean on…

Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Chauhan, Preeti; Reppucci, N. Dickon

2012-01-01

310

Factors Affecting Sleep Quality of Patients in Intensive Care Unit  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Sleep disturbance is a frequently overlooked complication of intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Aim: To evaluate sleep quality among patients admitted to ICU and investigate environmental and non-environmental factors that affect sleep quality in ICU. Methods: Over a 22-month period, we consecutively recruited patients who spent ? 2 nights post-endotracheal extubation in ICU and who were orientated to time, place, and person on the day of discharge. Self-reported sleep quality, according to a modified Freedman questionnaire, which provided data on self-reported ICU sleep quality in ICU and environmental factors affecting sleep quality in the ICU, were collected. We also investigated non-environmental factors, such as severity of illness, ICU interventions, and medications that can affect sleep quality. Results: Fifty males and 50 females were recruited with a mean (± SD) age of 65.1 ± 15.2 years. APACHE II score at admission to ICU was 18.1 ± 7.5 with duration of stay 6.7 ± 6.5days. Self-reported sleep quality score at home (1 = worst; 10 = best) was 7.0 ± 2.2; this decreased to 4.0 ± 1.7 during their stay in ICU (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis with APACHE III as severity of illness (R2 = 0.25), factors [exp(b)(95% CI), p value] which significantly affected sleep in ICU were sex [0.37(0.19-0.72), p < 0.01], age and sex interaction [1.02(1.01-1.03), p < 0.01], bedside phone [0.92(0.87-0.97), p < 0.01], prior quality of sleep at home [1.30(1.05-1.62), p = 0.02], and use of steroids [0.82(0.69-0.98), p = 0.03] during the stay in ICU. Conclusion: Reduced sleep quality is a common problem in ICU with a multifactorial etiology. Citation: Bihari S; McEvoy RD; Kim S; Woodman RJ; Bersten AD. Factors affecting sleep quality of patients in intensive care unit. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(3):301-307.

Bihari, Shailesh; Doug McEvoy, R.; Matheson, Elisha; Kim, Susan; Woodman, Richard J.; Bersten, Andrew D.

2012-01-01

311

75 FR 62634 - Proposed Information Collection (Obligation to Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection (Obligation to Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity: Comment...technology. Title: Obligation to Report Factors Affecting Entitlement (38 CFR 3.204...must report changes in their entitlement factors. Individual factors such as...

2010-10-12

312

78 FR 46418 - Proposed Information Collection (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity; Comment...technology. Title: Obligation to Report Factors Affecting Entitlement (38 CFR 3.204...must report changes in their entitlement factors. Individual factors such as...

2013-07-31

313

75 FR 80114 - Agency Information Collection (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity Under...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity Under...INFORMATION: Title: Obligation to Report Factors Affecting Entitlement (38 CFR 3.204...must report changes in their entitlement factors. Individual factors such as...

2010-12-21

314

An Investigation of Factors Affecting Gender Differences in Standardized Math Performance: Results from U.S. and Hong Kong 15 Year Olds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning strategies and affective factors could have a profound impact on student standardized mathematics performance. This study investigated gender differences in affective factors, learning strategies, and preferred learning situations, and how these variables affect math achievement of 15 year olds in the United States and Hong Kong on the PISA 2003 assessment. Math self-efficacy was found to be the best

Ou Lydia Liu

2009-01-01

315

An Investigation of Factors Affecting Gender Differences in Standardized Math Performance: Results from U.S. and Hong Kong 15 Year Olds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Learning strategies and affective factors could have a profound impact on student standardized mathematics performance. This study investigated gender differences in affective factors, learning strategies, and preferred learning situations, and how these variables affect math achievement of 15 year olds in the United States and Hong Kong on the…

Liu, Ou Lydia

2009-01-01

316

High Enrollment Course Success Factors in Virtual School: Factors Influencing Student Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes a study of success factors in high enrollment courses in a K-12 virtual school learning environment. The influence of variables: time student spent in the learning management system (LMS), number of times logged into the LMS, teacher comment, participation in free or reduced lunch programs, student status in the virtual…

Liu, Feng; Cavanaugh, Cathy

2011-01-01

317

Family, school, and community factors and relationships to racial-ethnic attitudes and academic achievement.  

PubMed

This study examined family, school, and community factors and the relationships to racial-ethnic attitudes and academic achievement among 98 African American fourth-grade children. It has been posited that young people who feel better about their racial-ethnic background have better behavioral and academic outcomes, yet there is a need for more empirical tests of this premise. Psychometric information is reported on measures of parent, teacher, and child racial-ethnic attitudes. Path analysis was used to investigate ecological variables potentially related to children's racial-ethnic attitudes and achievement. Parental education and level of racial-ethnic pride were correlated and both were related to children's achievement though in the final path model, only the path from parental education level was statistically significant. Children whose teachers exhibited higher levels of racial-ethnic trust and perceived fewer barriers due to race and ethnicity evidenced more trust and optimism as well. Children living in communities with higher proportions of college-educated residents also exhibited more positive racial-ethnic attitudes. For children, higher racial-ethnic pride was related to higher achievement measured by grades and standardized test scores, while racial distrust and perception of barriers due to race were related to reduced performance. This study suggests that family, school, and community are all important factors related to children's racial-ethnic attitudes and also to their academic achievement. PMID:14570444

Smith, Emilie Phillips; Atkins, Jacqueline; Connell, Christian M

2003-09-01

318

Biologics formulation factors affecting metal leachables from stainless steel.  

PubMed

An area of increasing concern and scientific scrutiny is the potential contamination of drug products by leachables entering the product during manufacturing and storage. These contaminants may either have a direct safety impact on the patients or act indirectly through the alteration of the physicochemical properties of the product. In the case of biotherapeutics, trace amounts of metal contaminants can arise from various sources, but mainly from contact with stainless steel (ss). The effect of the various factors, buffer species, solution fill volume per unit contact surface area, metal chelators, and pH, on metal leachables from contact with ss over time were investigated individually. Three major metal leachables, iron, chromium, and nickel, were monitored by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry because they are the major components of 316L ss. Iron was primarily used to evaluate the effect of each factor since it is the most abundant. It was observed that each studied factor exhibited its own effect on metal leachables from contact with ss. The effect of buffer species and pH exhibited temperature dependence over the studied temperature range. The metal leachables decreased with the increased fill volume (mL) per unit contact ss surface area (cm(2)) but a plateau was achieved at approximately 3 mL/cm(2). Metal chelators produced the strongest effect in facilitating metal leaching. In order to minimize the metal leachables and optimize biological product stability, each formulation factor must be evaluated for its impact, to balance its risk and benefit in achieving the target drug product shelf life. PMID:21360314

Zhou, Shuxia; Schöneich, Christian; Singh, Satish K

2011-03-01

319

Factors affecting the prescribing patterns of antibiotics and injections.  

PubMed

There are serious problems concerning the inadequate prescription of antibiotics and overuse of injections in primary care. However, the determinants of prescription patterns in Korea are not well-documented. To examine the area characteristics affecting the prescription of antibiotics and injections in primary care practices in the treatment of respiratory tract infections (RTIs), a nationwide cross-sectional study was performed in all 250 administrative districts of Korea. The outcome was modeled as a binary variable: over-prescription or not compared with the nation-wide average. Over-prescription of antibiotics was associated with the ratio of specialists to general physicians and over-prescription in previous years in the area (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-14.8; and aOR, 12.0; 95% CI 5.5-25.9, respectively). Over-use of injections was associated with younger population, urban living and the number of hospital beds in the area (aOR, 0.2; 95% CI 0.1-0.4; aOR, 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.8; and aOR, 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.9; respectively). There were differences in the prescribing patterns in different districts; prescription patterns were affected more by supply factors than by demand factors. Highly competitive medical environment associated with supply factors is a significant determinant of prescription patterns in Korea. PMID:22323857

Choi, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Sang-Min; Lee, Ju-Hyun; Kwon, Soonman

2012-01-27

320

Factors Affecting the Prescribing Patterns of Antibiotics and Injections  

PubMed Central

There are serious problems concerning the inadequate prescription of antibiotics and overuse of injections in primary care. However, the determinants of prescription patterns in Korea are not well-documented. To examine the area characteristics affecting the prescription of antibiotics and injections in primary care practices in the treatment of respiratory tract infections (RTIs), a nationwide cross-sectional study was performed in all 250 administrative districts of Korea. The outcome was modeled as a binary variable: over-prescription or not compared with the nation-wide average. Over-prescription of antibiotics was associated with the ratio of specialists to general physicians and over-prescription in previous years in the area (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-14.8; and aOR, 12.0; 95% CI 5.5-25.9, respectively). Over-use of injections was associated with younger population, urban living and the number of hospital beds in the area (aOR, 0.2; 95% CI 0.1-0.4; aOR, 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.8; and aOR, 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.9; respectively). There were differences in the prescribing patterns in different districts; prescription patterns were affected more by supply factors than by demand factors. Highly competitive medical environment associated with supply factors is a significant determinant of prescription patterns in Korea.

Choi, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Sang-Min; Lee, Ju-Hyun

2012-01-01

321

Factors Affecting Survival of Bacteriophage on Tomato Leaf Surfaces?  

PubMed Central

The ability of bacteriophage to persist in the phyllosphere for extended periods is limited by many factors, including sunlight irradiation, especially in the UV zone, temperature, desiccation, and exposure to copper bactericides. The effects of these factors on persistence of phage and formulated phage (phage mixed with skim milk) were evaluated. In field studies, copper caused significant phage reduction if applied on the day of phage application but not if applied 4 or 7 days in advance. Sunlight UV was evaluated for detrimental effects on phage survival on tomato foliage in the field. Phage was applied in the early morning, midmorning, early afternoon, and late evening, while UVA plus UVB irradiation and phage populations were monitored. The intensity of UV irradiation positively correlated with phage population decline. The protective formulation reduced the UV effect. In order to demonstrate direct effects of UV, phage suspensions were exposed to UV irradiation and assayed for effectiveness against bacterial spot of tomato. UV significantly reduced phage ability to control bacterial spot. Ambient temperature had a pronounced effect on nonformulated phage but not on formulated phages. The effects of desiccation and fluorescent light illumination on phage were investigated. Desiccation caused a significant but only slight reduction in phage populations after 60 days, whereas fluorescent light eliminated phages within 2 weeks. The protective formulation eliminated the reduction caused by both of these factors. Phage persistence was dramatically affected by UV, while the other factors had less pronounced effects. Formulated phage reduced deleterious effects of the studied environmental factors.

Iriarte, F. B.; Balogh, B.; Momol, M. T.; Smith, L. M.; Wilson, M.; Jones, J. B.

2007-01-01

322

Factors affecting quality of dried low-rank coals  

SciTech Connect

The chemical and physical properties of coal are strongly affected by the upgrading process employed. For high-moisture coals, upgrading involves thermal dehydration to improve the calorific value of the coal on mass basis. This study evaluates the feasibility of upgrading a low-rank/grade coal using the oven drying method. The objective of this research work is to study the drying characteristics of low-rank coals and to understand the factors affecting the quality of dried low-rank coals. This article describes laboratory experiments conducted on the characterization of the low-rank coals before and after the drying process. The results on drying kinetics, re-absorption of coal samples, and proximate analysis of coal samples before and after drying are discussed. It was found that the upgrading process produced coal with better heating value and combustion characteristics than those of the raw coal samples.

Karthikeyan, M.; Kuma, J.V.M.; Hoe, C.S.; Ngo, D.L.Y. [National University of Singapore, (Singapore)

2007-07-01

323

Factors Affecting Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells Performance and Reproducibility  

SciTech Connect

Development of fuel cells is often based on small-scale laboratory studies. Due to limited time and budgets, a minimum number of cells are usually prepared and tested, thus, conclusions about improved performance are often drawn from studies of a few cells. Generally, statistics showing the significance of an effect are seldom reported. In this work a simple PEM fuel cell electrode optimization experiment is used as an example to illustrate the importance of statistical evaluation of factors affecting cell performance. The use of fractional factorial design of experiments to reduce the number of cells that have to be studied is also addressed.

Moller-Holst S.

1998-11-01

324

Tumour lysis as a factor affecting blood levels of CEA.  

PubMed Central

A hypothesis is proposed that tumour lysis may be an important factor affecting blood levels of CEA. This has been explored in an experimental study with a model tumour system, consisting of immune-deprived mice bearing human CEA-producing tumours. Using agents such as irradiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, diphtheria toxin and techniques such as cryosurgery, it has been shown that tumour lysis is important when it is both rapid and extensive. The extent to which this may occur in patients remains uncertain, except in rare instances of dramatic response of malignant disease to treatment.

Quayle, J. B.

1982-01-01

325

Factors affecting clinical assessment of insulin sensitivity in horses.  

PubMed

Insulin resistance is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of many equine conditions such as pars intermedia dysfunction, equine metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipaemia, laminitis, endotoxaemia and osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD); whereas polysaccharide storage myopathy in Quarter Horses and equine motor neuron disease (EMD) have been associated with increased insulin sensitivity. However, it is clear that there is not one ideal test, in terms of both practicality and accuracy, for evaluating insulin sensitivity in horses and improved diagnostic techniques are required. This review sets out the background to the subject and identifies current knowledge regarding the measurement of insulin sensitivity by tolerance testing and clamping techniques. Factors affecting insulin sensitivity, such as breed, pregnancy, lactation, obesity and nutritional factors are discussed. In addition, the relationship with training, nutritional supplementation and drug administration are considered. PMID:18065318

Firshman, A M; Valberg, S J

2007-11-01

326

Factors affecting pulsatile ocular blood flow in normal subjects  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—The factors that influence pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) were evaluated in normal subjects.?METHODS—POBF was measured in 80 normal subjects using Langham OBF computerised tonometry. The effect of age, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, refractive error, intraocular pressure, and axial length on POBF was evaluated using multiple regression analysis.?RESULTS—The mean (SD) POBF value was 593.3 (203.6) µl/min (range 290.7-1201.6). Of all the independent variables in the model, only the axial length was statistically significant (p=0.008). The regression coefficient was negative, indicating that the axial length decreased with increasing POBF.?CONCLUSIONS—These data suggest that, in normal subjects, the POBF decreases as axial length increases. Choroidal blood flow may decrease as the axial length increases. The axial length may therefore be a major factor affecting POBF.??

Mori, F; Konno, S; Hikichi, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Ishiko, S; Yoshida, A

2001-01-01

327

Factors that affect electric-utility stranded commitments  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of stranded commitments for U.S. investor-owned utilities range widely, with many falling in the range of $100 to $200 billion. These potential losses exist because some utility-owned power plants, long-term power-purchase contracts and fuel-supply contracts, regulatory assets, and expenses for public-policy programs have book values that exceed their expected market values under full competition. This report quantifies the sensitivity of stranded- commitment estimates to the various factors that lead to these above- market-value estimates. The purpose of these sensitivity analyses is to improve understanding on the part of state and federal regulators, utilities, customers, and other electric-industry participants about the relative importance of the factors that affect stranded- commitment amounts.

Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.; Baxter, L.

1996-07-01

328

Factors Affecting the Sensitivity of Permafrost to Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permafrost aggradation and degradation are affected by numerous geomorphological and ecological properties of the landscape that confound our ability to accurately predict the response of permafrost to climate change. Permafrost can persist at mean annual air temperatures (MAAT) of +2 °C and can degrade at MAAT of -15 °C with the help of surface water. Permafrost is decoupled from the atmosphere by the active layer, thus, its thermal regime is mediated by numerous factors such as topography, soil texture, organic-matter accumulation, vegetation, snow, surface water, groundwater movement, and disturbance. Topography affects the amount of solar radiation to the soil surface, causing permafrost in the discontinuous zone to occur generally on north-facing slopes that receive less direct radiation and on flat, low- lying areas where vegetation and organic soils have a greater insulating effect and where air temperatures tend to be colder during winter inversions. Soil texture affects soil moisture and thermal properties. For instance, gravelly soils tend to be well-drained with little difference between thermal conductivities when frozen or thawed. In contrast, surface organic soils, as well as clayey and silty soils, in lowland areas tend to be poorly drained and have much higher thermal conductivities when frozen in winter than unfrozen in summer. In well- drained upland sites, however, organic soils typically are well below saturation. Differences in frozen and unfrozen thermal conductivities lead to more rapid heat loss in winter, depending on snow, and slower heat penetration in summer. Vegetation has important effects through interception of solar radiation, growth of mosses, accumulation of organic matter, and interception of snow by trees and shrubs. Snow protects soil from cooling in winter. Thus, the seasonality (e.g., timing of snowfall in early winter) and depth of snow are very important. Surface water provides an important positive feedback that enhances degradation when water is impounded in sinking depressions. Thus, the amount of ground ice and potential thaw settlement greatly affects permafrost sensitivity. Water bodies (lakes, ponds, rivers) have a warming effect on permafrost and often create thawing zones for which their geometry is defined by water depth, sediment texture, and climate. Convective heat transfer associated with groundwater movement can create an unfrozen zone on top or within permafrost. Surface and groundwater flow, and surface impoundment, in turn are affected by topography and soil texture. Because permafrost is greatly affected by these ecological components, permafrost properties evolve along with the successional patterns of ecosystem development, which in turn affects the sensitivity of permafrost to degradation. We explore the relative effects of these factors through modeling and comparison of field measurements. Because there is no single model available that can include all these disparate factors, we evaluate factors separately and use differences in mean annual ground temperatures at the surface and at 2-m depth to compare the magnitude of each effect.

Jorgenson, T.; Romanovsky, V.; Harden, J.; Shur, Y.; Hinzman, L.; Marchenko, S.; Bolton, R.; O'Donnell, J.

2009-05-01

329

Competition and Cooperation in the Five-Factor Model: Individual Differences in Achievement Orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the relationship between basic achievement orientations of competition and cooperation and the five-factor model of personality as measured by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R; P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992). They examined 2 types of competition: hypercompetition (R. M. Ryckman, B. Thornton, & J. C. Butler, 1994) and personal development competition (R. M. Ryckman,

Scott R. Ross; M. Karega Rausch

2003-01-01

330

Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce.  

PubMed

The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail. PMID:22530712

Francis, G A; Gallone, A; Nychas, G J; Sofos, J N; Colelli, G; Amodio, M L; Spano, G

2012-01-01

331

Factors Affecting the Weaning from Nasal CPAP in Preterm Neonates  

PubMed Central

Objective. Identification of the weight and postmenstrual age (PMA) at successful weaning of NCPAP in preterm neonates and the factors influencing the successful wean. Study Design. Retrospective review of 454 neonates ?32 weeks of gestational age (GA) who were placed on NCPAP and successfully weaned to room air was performed. Results. Neonates had a mean birth weight (BW) of 1357 ± 392 grams with a mean GA of 29.3 ± 2.2 weeks. Neonates were weaned off NCPAP at mean weight of 1611 ± 432 grams and mean PMA of 32.9 ± 2.4 weeks. Univariate analysis showed that chorioamnionitis, intubation, surfactant use, PDA, sepsis/NEC, anemia, apnea, GER and IVH were significantly associated with the time to NCPAP wean. On multivariate analysis, among neonates that were intubated, BW was the only significant factor (P < 0.001) that was inversely related to time to successful NCPAP wean. Amongst non-intubated neonates, along with BW (P < 0.01), chorioamnionitis (P < 0.01), anemia (P < 0.0001), and GER (P < 0.02) played a significant role in weaning from NCPAP. Conclusion. Neonates were weaned off NCPAP at mean weight of 1611 ± 432 grams and mean PMA of 32.9 ± 2.4 weeks. BW significantly affects weaning among intubated and non-intubated neonates, though in neonates who were never intubated chorioamnionitis, anemia and GER also significantly affected the duration on NCPAP.

Rastogi, Shantanu; Rajasekhar, Hariprem; Gupta, Anju; Bhutada, Alok; Rastogi, Deepa; Wung, Jen-Tien

2012-01-01

332

A Closer Look at Gender in NAEP Mathematics Achievement and Affect Data: Intersections with Achievement, Race/Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article we describe gender gaps in mathematics achievement and attitude as measured by the U.S. National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) from 1990 to 2003. Analyzing relationships among achievement and mathematical content, student proficiency and percentile levels, race, and socioeconomic status (SES), we found that gender gaps…

McGraw, Rebecca; Lubienski, Sarah Theule; Strutchens, Marilyn E.

2006-01-01

333

A Closer Look at Gender in NAEP Mathematics Achievement and Affect Data: Intersections with Achievement, Race/Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we describe gender gaps in mathematics achievement and attitude as measured by the U.S. National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) from 1990 to 2003. Analyzing relationships among achievement and mathematical content, student proficiency and percentile levels, race, and socioeconomic status (SES), we found that gender gaps…

McGraw, Rebecca; Lubienski, Sarah Theule; Strutchens, Marilyn E.

2006-01-01

334

Multiple Weather Factors Affect Apparent Survival of European Passerine Birds  

PubMed Central

Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for phenotypic and microevolutionary adaptations.

Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fiedler, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

335

Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.  

PubMed

Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for phenotypic and microevolutionary adaptations. PMID:23593131

Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M; Fiedler, Wolfgang

2013-04-08

336

Factors affecting the academic progression of associate degree graduates.  

PubMed

The Oregon Consortium for Nursing Education (OCNE) is a coalition of community colleges and the campuses of the Oregon Health & Sciences University (OHSU), created to share a competency-based curriculum by which associate degree graduates from an OCNE campus are eligible to complete requirements for the bachelor's degree after 1 year of additional full-time study. Since 2006, three graduating classes from consortium community college programs have graduated 760 students eligible for direct transfer to OHSU; however, only 228 (30%) have actually transferred. This study aimed to explore the factors that influenced the 208 graduates in the class of 2010 not to transfer. The primary reasons for discontinuing their nursing education, in ranked order, were financial concerns, conflict with time and energy for work, and conflict with time and energy for family. This study has implications for achieving the academic progression goals recommended in the Institute of Medicine's The Future of Nursing report. PMID:22356360

Munkvold, Julia; Tanner, Christine A; Herinckx, Heidi

2012-02-24

337

Factors affecting intraocular light scattering from different color straylight sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Important optical parameter of the eye is intraocular light scattering. Straylight can reduce visual acuity, contrast sensitivity. It is one of the main factors for glare, especially for drivers at night, when there is light source some distance away from the fixation point. There are many factors, which can affect amount of light scattering in the eye. To assess the effect of the color of the straylight source on retinal image quality at different light scattering levels, retinal straylight was measured with and without light scattering occluder. Red, green and blue colors were choosed for straylight source. Psychophysical and electrophysiological methods were used to evaluate light scattering effect on perception on different color stimuli. Results show that straylight values are the greatest for blue color with and without light scattering occluder. In measurements without light scattering occluder ratio of straylight values for red and green color are different between subjects. Using light scattering occluder straylight values for green color are greater than for red color. Optical and anatomical factors which can induce these spectral variations are discussed. Psychophysical and electrophysiological methods showed the similar changes in results with straylight values when light scattering were increased.

Ikaunieks, Gatis; Ozolinsh, Maris

2008-11-01

338

Factors affecting economies of scale in combined sewer systems.  

PubMed

A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factors affecting the cost structure for water infrastructures. PMID:20595751

Maurer, Max; Wolfram, Martin; Anja, Herlyn

2010-01-01

339

Environmental factors affecting indole production in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

A variety of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria produce large quantities of indole as an intercellular signal in microbial communities. Biosynthesis of indole is well-studied, and while carbon sources and amino acids are important environmental cues for indole production in Escherichia coli, other environmental factors affecting indole production for this strain are less clear. This study demonstrates that the environmental cue pH is an important factor for indole production that further controls biofilm formation of E. coli. Moreover, E. coli produced a higher level of extracellular indole in the presence of the antibiotics ampicillin and kanamycin, and the increased indole enhanced cell survival during antibiotic stress. Additionally, we found here that temperature is another important factor for indole production; E. coli produces and accumulates a large amount of indole at 50 °C, even at low cell densities. Overall, our results suggest that indole is a stable biological compound, and E. coli may utilize indole to protect itself against other microorganisms. PMID:21145393

Han, Thi Hiep; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Cho, Moo Hwan; Wood, Thomas K; Lee, Jintae

2010-12-08

340

Environmental Factors Affecting Indole Production in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

A variety of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria produce large quantities of indole as an intracellular signal in microbial communities. Biosynthesis of indole is well-studied, and while carbon sources and amino acids are important environmental cues for indole production in Escherichia coli, other environmental factors affecting indole production for this strain are less clear. This study demonstrates that the environmental cue pH is an important factor for indole production that further controls biofilm formation of E. coli. Moreover, E. coli produced a higher level of extracellular indole in the presence of the antibiotics ampicillin and kanamycin, and the increased indole enhanced cell survival during antibiotic stress. Additionally, we found here that temperature is another important factor for indole production; E. coli produces and accumulates a large amount of indole at 50°C, even at low cell densities. Overall, our results suggest that indole is a stable biological compound, and E. coli may utilize indole to protect itself against other microorganisms.

Han, Thi Hiep; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Cho, Moo Hwan; Wood, Thomas K.; Lee, Jintae

2011-01-01

341

Factors affecting calf mortality in Iranian Holstein dairy herds.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to document mortality reasons and risk factors for mortality in dairy calves in the northeast of Iran. This was a prospective cohort study of calves born on ten commercial dairy herds from 21 March 2009 to 20 March 2010. A total of 4097 live calves were followed for 90 days after birth. For each calf details of sex, parity of the dam, type of parturition and season of birth were recorded. The interval (in days) from the date of birth to the date of death and the reason for death was recorded for those calves that died before 90 days of age. A Cox proportional hazards model, including a frailty term to account for unmeasured herd-level effects was developed to quantify the effect of factors associated with time to death. Two hundred and sixty-six (6.5%, 95% CI: 5.8-7.3%) of the 4097 live-born calves died or were euthanised before 90 days of age. The most important reasons for death were digestive tract disorders (58% of all deaths, 95% CI: 52-64%) followed by respiratory diseases (13% of all deaths, 95% CI: 9-17%). Calves exposed to dystocia at birth had 2.09 (95% CI: 1.49-2.92) times the daily hazard of death compared with calves born from a normal calving. The daily hazard of death for calves born in the summer was 1.93 (95% CI: 1.41-2.64) times greater than the hazard for those calves born in the autumn. Inclusion of the herd-level frailty term had a significant effect on hazard estimates indicating that the study herds were heterogeneous in the distribution of unmeasured herd-level factors influencing calf survival. Our results show that diarrhoea is the most important cause of calf mortality in dairy herds in this area of Iran and that environmental and management factors affect calf mortality rate. PMID:22230657

Azizzadeh, Mohammad; Shooroki, Hadi Fazeli; Kamalabadi, Ali Shafiee; Stevenson, Mark A

2012-01-09

342

Factors affecting characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors  

SciTech Connect

Three major factors affect the characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors in terms of their levitation properties during interaction with permanent magnets. First, the appropriate parameter for the permanent magnet is internal magnetization, not the value of the magnetic field measured at the magnet`s surface. Second, although levitation force grows with superconductor thickness and surface area, for a given permanent magnet size, comparison of levitation force between samples is meaningful when minimum values are assigned to the superconductor size parameters. Finally, the effect of force creep must be considered when time-averaging the force measurements. In addition to levitational force, the coefficient of friction of a levitated rotating permanent magnet may be used to characterize the superconductor.

Hull, J.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

1997-11-01

343

FACTORS AFFECTING THE UPTAKE OF LISSAMINE GREEN BY SERUM PROTEINS  

PubMed Central

Eight physicochemical factors which affect the uptake of lissamine green on filter paper impregnated with serum proteins have been examined, and their relevance to the staining of electrophoretically separated protein fractions is discussed. It is shown that grade of paper, weight of protein applied, separate and combined denaturation and staining time, temperature and concentration of staining solution, concentration of denaturant, and type of protein all influence the weight of dye absorbed per unit weight of applied protein, and must be rigidly standardized if valid quantitative results are to be obtained. Five sets of conditions are obtained for optimal staining and it is found that separation of denaturant from dye yields the best procedure. It is concluded that lissamine green is an excellent dye for the staining and quantitative estimation of separated protein fractions in paper electrophoresis, and that conditions can usually be arranged to produce a linear relation between dye uptake and protein concentration in an experimentally efficient manner.

Brackenridge, C. J.

1960-01-01

344

Multilevel factors affecting quality: examples from the cancer care continuum.  

PubMed

The complex environmental context must be considered as we move forward to improve cancer care and, ultimately, patient and population outcomes. The cancer care continuum represents several care types, each of which includes multiple technical and communication steps and interfaces among patients, providers, and organizations. We use two case scenarios to 1) illustrate the variability, diversity, and interaction of factors from multiple levels that affect care quality and 2) discuss research implications and provide hypothetical examples of multilevel interventions. Each scenario includes a targeted literature review to illustrate contextual influences upon care and sets the stage for theory-informed interventions. The screening case highlights access issues in older women, and the survivorship case illustrates the multiple transition challenges faced by patients, families, and organizations. Example interventions show the potential gains of implementing intervention strategies that work synergistically at multiple levels. While research examining multilevel intervention is a priority, it presents numerous study design, measurement, and analytic challenges. PMID:22623591

Zapka, Jane; Taplin, Stephen H; Ganz, Patricia; Grunfeld, Eva; Sterba, Katherine

2012-05-01

345

Ecological Factors Affecting Efficiency and Health in Warships*  

PubMed Central

The environment of those who live and work in warships is closely related to the way the ships are built and employed. In stating the requirements for the atmosphere between decks the emphasis has swung during the past 50 years from the need for controlling the chemical constituents to the control of the factors which comprise the thermal environment, and now, with the advent of the nuclear-powered submarine, to the need for achieving, as nearly as possible, complete physical, chemical, and microbiological control. Between 1944 and 1953 the thermal factors between decks were investigated in a series of studies carried out in H.M. Ships. The average effective temperatures on the mess decks and in the work places of 11 ships in the Eastern Fleet in 1944 exceeded 84°F. (28·9°C.). In compartments where radiant heat was an added factor the average corrected effective temperature levels were 1° or 2°F. (0·55-1·1°C.) higher than the corresponding effective temperatures. The effects of climatic conditions on naval personnel were investigated by psychological studies to determine the levels of warmth at which performance deteriorated; by physiological experiments to show the levels of warmth at which the collapse of men working at different work rates might be expected; by comfort surveys in ships and on shore to determine the levels of warmth at which the majority enjoyed optimum comfort; and by relating the monthly incidence of the common causes of ill-health to the average monthly upper-deck temperature as recorded at noon each day in order to determine the temperature level above which sickness increased. It was concluded that the upper desirable level of warmth to consider when designing ships for hot climates was an effective temperature of 78°F. (25·5°C.). As it is usually impracticable in many compartments to achieve temperatures below 78°F. (25·5°C.) in the tropics without the generous application of air cooling, attention was then directed to the associated effects on the chemical and bacterial constituents of restricting air supplies, an unavoidable feature of most air conditioning systems, and to defining the permissible lower limits for fresh air requirements. The nuclear submarine with its capacity for remaining submerged for very long periods raises new problems relating to life in a confined space and involving very prolonged exposure to the submarine environment. These problems have still to be investigated.

Ellis, F. P.

1960-01-01

346

Institutional factors affecting DOE waste management and environmental restoration planning  

SciTech Connect

The magnitude and impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) waste management and environmental restoration program requires a drastic change in DOE's culture to include the participation of all levels of government, public forum representatives, and the public. Early in the process of developing a new, comprehensive five-year plan for environmental restoration and waste management, Secretary Watkins invited affected States, Indian Nations, and organizations of elected officials to form the State and Tribal Government Working Group to comment on two formulative drafts of the plan. Management Systems Laboratories of Virginia Tech was asked to help plan and facilitate two review sessions in the spring and summer of 1989, based on perception of impartiality, experience with similar groups, and active affiliations with State governments. A third session in the fall was devoted to reviewing the draft applied R D plan and guiding institutional factors affecting DOE's future: the need for ongoing, pervasive culture change; the need to display this change through truly cooperative planning; and the need to involve the regulatory community in the process of technology development so innovative solutions can be applied with the least possible delay.

Walker, J. A.; Middleman, L. I.

1990-01-01

347

Factors affecting jail detention of defendants adjudicated incompetent to proceed.  

PubMed

The movement of defendants through the legal process who have been adjudicated incompetent to proceed is little studied, yet it is important. The purpose of this study was to provide empirical data regarding factors that affected the amount of time defendants adjudicated incompetent to proceed and ordered to undergo hospitalization remained in jail while awaiting transfer to a state hospital. Statewide data collected in Florida between July 2005 and June 2008 were used to determine the lengths of time incompetent defendants spent at certain stages in the legal process. The addition of forensic bed capacity following media attention and litigation resulted in a significant decrease in the amount of time defendants adjudicated incompetent to proceed waited in jail for transfer to a state hospital for treatment. The amount of time it took for completed commitment orders to be submitted to the state mental health authority by the Clerks of Court of each county accounted for a meaningful portion of days defendants spent in jail awaiting transfer to a state hospital, with considerable variation across counties with respect to waiting times. These findings reflect how various stakeholders can affect the amount of time defendants spend in jail while awaiting hospitalization. These issues are discussed in the context of controversy related to Florida's forensic mental health system, as well as issues related to the political process and funding of the state's mental health authority. PMID:20957691

Christy, Annette; Otto, Randy; Finch, Jacquelyn; Ringhoff, Daniel; Kimonis, Eva R

348

Factors affecting results of treatment of Hypopharyngeal Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Objective: A retrospective review of patients with malignant neoplasms of the hypopharynx treated with combined surgery and radiotherapy is presented to highlight the results of treatment and the factors of treatment success for this malignant disease. Patients and Methods: Between 1995 and 2004 at the University ORL Clinic Nis 89 patients with malignant neoplasms of hypopharynx (85 males, 4 females, and age ranging from 44 to 77 years) were treated. In the 89 patients (stage I, n = 4; stage II, n = 3; stage III, n = 34; stage IV, n = 48), the sites of origin were pyriform sinus (n = 75), postcrycoid (n = 8), posterior pharyngeal wall (n = 3) and superior hypopharynx (n = 3). Results: Laryngeal preservation surgery was achieved in 11.2% of patients, while 88.8% had laryngectomy with partial or total pharyngectomy. Pyriform sinus was the most common site of origin of hypopharyngeal carcinoma in 84.3%. Totally 93% of patients had neck metastases, and tumors extended beyond the hypopharynx in 41.6% of patients. TNM stage was highly significant parameter of outcome. Five year survival was 100% for stage I, 66.6% for stage II, 53.9% for stage III, and 33.3% for stage IV. Residual disease (5.6%) and recurrent disease (2.2%) were low. Postoperative fistula developed in 16.8% of patients, and in 60% it was closed successfully using local flaps, while in 40% pectoralis flap was needed. Localization of disease was also an important factor of survival. Retrocrycoid carcinoma resulted in very poor survival rate (12.5%), high residual disease, lymph node metastasis, and pharyngocutaneous fistula formation. Conclusion: Localization and TNM stage are highly significant factors for clinical course, treatment, and outcome of hypopharyngeal carcinoma.

Milisavljevic, D; Stankovic, M; Zivic, M; Popovic, M; Radovanovic, Z

2009-01-01

349

Factors affecting the absorption of vitamin K-1 in vitro.  

PubMed Central

Factors which might affect the absorption of vitamin K of dietary origin were investigated using everted small bowel sacs. Increasing the bile salt concentration to 20 mM or the addition of long chain fatty acids, monoolein, or lecithin all resulted in significant (P less than 0-05) decrease in the absorption rate of the vitamin. The addition of 2-5 mM short and medium chain fatty acids did not change the absorption rate of vitamin K-1 (P greater than 0-05). The absorption rate of vitamin K-1 appears to be modified by the presence of compounds in the incubation medium which either alter the partition of the vitamin between the micelle and the cell membrane or which change the permeation characteristics of the compound through the unstirred water layer or modify the physical characteristics of the cell membrane itself. It is possible that some of the above factors modify the absorption of lipid soluble compounds in general.

Hollander, D; Rim, E

1976-01-01

350

Factors affecting decision making in Hispanics experiencing myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

It was estimated that 785,000 new myocardial infarctions (MIs), 470,000 recurrent MIs, and 195,000 silent MIs will occur during 2010 in the United States. Cardiovascular disease, including heart disease and stroke, is the cause of death for 27% of Hispanic males and 31.5% of Hispanic females. There has been an increasing discrepancy between Hispanic knowledge in recognition of MI symptoms compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Only 5.6 % to 27.4 % of Hispanics know all MI symptoms and the need to immediately activate emergency medical services, compared with 11.9% to 45.8% of non-Hispanic Whites. The health belief model is used to explore the factors affecting decision making in Hispanics experiencing MI. Modifying factors explored include acculturation, language spoken, education, socioeconomic status, and access to health care. The results include recommendations for future research and clinical practice to assist in planning targeted interventions in Hispanic populations nationwide. PMID:23341409

Sanderson, Jennifer D M

2013-01-22

351

Intrinsic factors that affect amino acid geochronology: protein diagenesis  

SciTech Connect

Use of alloisoleucine/isoleucine ratios as a geochronological tool has been the basis of many stratigraphic studies of the Quaternary. In a number of these studies, the amino acid dates have been remarkably good, allowing chronologies to be established and sequences checked, at least in limited geographic locations. However, in other studies the variability and scatter of dates have obscured or confounded interpretation of the geochronology. A number of extrinsic and intrinsic factors may contribute to this variability. One intrinsic factor may be the varying rates of epimerization and breakdown of the many proteins within the shell matrix of the organism that is being analyzed; the shell matrix of planktonic foraminifera contains at least two classes, or types, of proteins and up to 40 protein components. Individual proteins differ in stability based on differences of structure. This stability will have direct ramifications on racemization rates. Traditionally, amino acid ratios have been analyzed from the remnants of the total organic material of shells, such as mollusk or planktonic foraminifera. To examine how the diagenetic breakdown of specific proteins may affect allisoleucine/isoleucine ratios of the total organic matrix, different classes of proteins from fossil planktonic foraminifera were analyzed and compared. Although planktonic foraminifera were used as a model system, the molluscan shell is analogous.

Robbins, L.L.

1989-03-01

352

Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period (2005--2009) for a network of permanent sample plots in Pinus radiata plantations in Chile. In 2009, we calculated LAI from ground measurements using LI-COR LAI-2000 and TRAC instruments on each one hectare plot. These values of LAI were regressed against Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Reduced Simple Ratio (RSR), derived from the TM 2009 data. Linear relationships were strong with R2 values of 0.65 for SR, 0.61 for NDVI and 0.67 for RSR. Using the RSR relationship, LAI values were estimated for the network of permanent sample plots of Pinus radiata plantations over the whole period. For project 3, we examined environmental factors affecting growth rates of Pinus radiata in Chile. Water availability (as affected by precipitation, soil water holding capacity, and potential evapotranspiration) appeared to be the factor most limiting to leaf area and growth. Maximum growing season temperature also negatively affected growth. Sites with highest productivities had the lowest annual water deficits and the most productive sites used water and light more efficiently. Good sites produced 1.6 as compared to 0.49 kg of wood per m3 of evapotranspired water for less productive sites. In addition, productive stands produced 0.5 as compared to 0.31 g of wood per MJ for less productive sites.

Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

353

Factors affecting outdoor exposure in winter: population-based study.  

PubMed

The extent of outdoor exposure during winter and factors affecting it were examined in a cross-sectional population study in Finland. Men and women aged 25-74 years from the National FINRISK 2002 sub-study (n=6,591) were queried about their average weekly occupational, leisure-time and total cold exposure during the past winter. The effects of gender, age, area of residence, occupation, ambient temperature, self-rated health, physical activity and education on cold exposure were analysed. The self-reported median total cold exposure time was 7 h/week (8 h men, 6 h women),<1 h/week (2 h men, 0 h women) at work, 4 h/week (5 h men, 4 h women) during leisure time and 1 h/week (1 h men, 1.5 h women) while commuting to work. Factors associated with increased occupational cold exposure among men were: being employed in agriculture, forestry and industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being less educated and being aged 55-64 years. Factors associated with increased leisure-time cold exposure among men were: employment in industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being a pensioner or unemployed, reporting at least average health, being physically active and having college or vocational education. Among women, being a housewife, pensioner or unemployed and engaged in physical activity increased leisure-time cold exposure, and young women were more exposed than older ones. Self-rated health was positively associated with leisure time cold exposure in men and only to a minor extent in women. In conclusion, the subjects reported spending 4% of their total time under cold exposure, most of it (71%) during leisure time. Both occupational and leisure-time cold exposure is greater among men than women. PMID:16788837

Mäkinen, Tiina M; Raatikka, Veli-Pekka; Rytkönen, Mika; Jokelainen, Jari; Rintamäki, Hannu; Ruuhela, Reija; Näyhä, Simo; Hassi, Juhani

2006-06-21

354

Factors affecting detection of burrowing owl nests during standardized surveys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Identifying causes of declines and evaluating effects of management practices on persistence of local populations of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) requires accurate estimates of abundance and population trends. Moreover, regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada typically require surveys to detect nest burrows prior to approving developments or other activities in areas that are potentially suitable for nesting burrowing owls. In general, guidelines on timing of surveys have been lacking and surveys have been conducted at different times of day and in different stages of the nesting cycle. We used logistic regression to evaluate 7 factors that could potentially affect probability of a surveyor detecting a burrowing owl nest. We conducted 1,444 detection trials at 323 burrowing owl nests within 3 study areas in Washington and Wyoming, USA, between February and August 2000-2002. Detection probability was highest during the nestling period and increased with ambient temperature. The other 5 factors that we examined (i.e., study area, time of day, timing within the breeding season, wind speed, % cloud cover) interacted with another factor to influence detection probability. Use of call-broadcast surveys increased detection probability, even during daylight hours when we detected >95% of owls visually. Optimal timing of surveys will vary due to differences in breeding phenology and differences in nesting behavior across populations. Nevertheless, we recommend ???3 surveys per year: one that coincides with the laying and incubation period, another that coincides with the early nestling period, and a third that coincides with the late nestling period. In northern latitudes, surveys can be conducted throughout the day.

Conway, C. J.; Garcia, V.; Smith, M. D.; Hughes, K.

2008-01-01

355

A panel analysis of student mathematics achievement in the US in the 1990s: does increasing the amount of time in learning activities affect math achievement?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Panel estimation techniques are utilized to estimate econometric models of the determinants of mathematics achievement for a nationally representative sample of US high school students from the National Education Longitudinal Studies program (NELS88).Among the results, several relate to variables discussed as potentially important policy variables. Extra time spent on mathematics homework increases student test scores while extra hours per day

Tevfik Aksoy; Charles R. Link

2000-01-01

356

Factors related to the achievement and adjustment of young African American children.  

PubMed

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Yough (NLSY) were used to examine factors related to the achievement and adjustment of African American children in the early elementary grades. All African American children between the ages of 6 and 9 years for whom data were available in the NLSY were included in this study (N = 378). Consistent with past research, there was a positive relation between the number of risk factors children were exposed to and the probability that they were experiencing academic or behavioral problems. Favorable outcomes in the cognitive and social-emotional domains (i.e., scoring in the top quartile for this sample) were associated with high scores on an "advantage index." The need for more research on successful African American children is discussed. PMID:7956466

Luster, T; McAdoo, H P

1994-08-01

357

The role of family factors and school achievement in the progression of adolescents to regular smoking.  

PubMed

This study examines whether parental smoking and single parenting were related to adolescents' school achievement and anti-smoking parental practices as well as how these factors predicted later smoking. The sample comprised 1163 Finnish students in Grades 7 through 9. Results show that at the beginning of the seventh grade, parental smoking and single parenting were related to adolescents' lower levels of school achievement. Moreover, parental smoking had moderate association with lack of house smoking rules. At the beginning of the ninth grade, these associations were strengthened and lack of house smoking rules as well as loosened perceived parental punishment for smoking was related to both parental smoking and single parenting. The likelihood of ninth grade regular smoking was greater among adolescents whose parents smoked, who had no smoking rules in their homes and had substandard school achievement. These results suggest that smoking parents and single parents had similar anti-smoking regulations for their children at the baseline but once children became older smoking parents were not able to maintain these rules as successfully as non-smoking parents and families with two parents. Motivating parents to uphold these anti-smoking regulations offers a prospective intervention opportunity. PMID:22052215

Pennanen, M; Vartiainen, E; Haukkala, A

2011-11-02

358

Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

Pyo, Katrina A.

359

Factors Affecting Prostate Volume Estimation in Computed Tomography Images  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to investigate how apex-localizing methods and the computed tomography (CT) slice thickness affected the CT-based prostate volume estimation. Twenty-eight volunteers underwent evaluations of prostate volume by CT, where the contour segmentations were performed by three observers. The bottom of ischial tuberosities (ITs) and the bulb of the penis were used as reference positions to locate the apex, and the distances to the apex were recorded as 1.3 and 2.0 cm, respectively. Interobserver variations to locate ITs and the bulb of the penis were, on average, 0.10 cm (range 0.03-0.38 cm) and 0.30 cm (range 0.00-0.98 cm), respectively. The range of CT slice thickness varied from 0.08-0.48 cm and was adopted to examine the influence of the variation on volume estimation. The volume deviation from the reference case (0.08 cm), which increases in tandem with the slice thickness, was within {+-} 3 cm{sup 3}, regardless of the adopted apex-locating reference positions. In addition, the maximum error of apex identification was 1.5 times of slice thickness. Finally, based on the precise CT films and the methods of apex identification, there were strong positive correlation coefficients for the estimated prostate volume by CT and the transabdominal ultrasonography, as found in the present study (r > 0.87; p < 0.0001), and this was confirmed by Bland-Altman analysis. These results will help to identify factors that affect prostate volume calculation and to contribute to the improved estimation of the prostate volume based on CT images.

Yang, Cheng-Hsiu [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shyh-Jen [Divisions of Experimental Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Alex Tong-Long [Divisions of Urology, Department of Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chao-An, E-mail: calin@pme.nthu.edu.t [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

2011-04-01

360

Control Method for Achieving High Power Factor in Single-Phase to Three-Phase Converters without Electrolytic Capacitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a method for the digital control of IPM motors in order to achieve a high power factor in single-phase to three-phase power converters without reactors or electrolytic capacitors. For achieving the unity power factor under any load condition and any speed condition, we propose a new digital control method that involves the use of a

Takahiro Yokoyama; Kiyoshi Ohishi; Hitoshi Haga; Junji Shibata

2009-01-01

361

Factors associated with academic achievement in children with recent-onset seizures.  

PubMed

Children with chronic epilepsy are more at risk for achievement problems than either children without seizures or children with other chronic disorders. Factors that lead to such problems in children with epilepsy, however, are not well understood. Exploring these factors is important because academic underachievement can lead to poor social outcomes and contribute to underemployment or unemployment in adulthood. This descriptive, cross-sectional study investigated a group of children who had been diagnosed with seizures approximately 12 months previously, providing the opportunity to describe relationships among family and child characteristics; parent, child, and teacher responses; and child academic achievement at the same point in time across the sample. Seventy-two children had standardized test total battery scores, 101 had a teacher's rating of performance, and 67 had scores for both. Data were analyzed using multivariable regression. Child adaptive competency and seizure severity were associated with higher teacher ratings of academic performance (beta=0.73, p<0.0001 and beta=2.38, p=0.0182, respectively). Child adaptive competency was associated with higher total battery scores (beta=0.73, p<0.0001). Contrary to findings in studies of children with chronic epilepsy, mean academic achievement in this sample of children with recent-onset seizures was in the average range; however, 25% of the children were at or below one standard deviation below the mean on the teacher's rating of performance and 10% on the total battery. It is therefore important for health professionals and educators to regularly assess the child's academic functioning and school performance to identify those at risk for problems. Health professionals and educators need to collaborate on assessment and interventions to help maximize child academic success. PMID:15886027

McNelis, Angela M; Johnson, Cynthia S; Huberty, Thomas J; Austin, Joan K

2005-07-01

362

Factors affecting the estimate of primary production from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing of primary production in the euphotic zone has been based mostly on visible-band water-leaving radiance measured with the coastal zone color scanner. There are some robust, simple relationships for calculating integral production based on surface measurements, but they also require knowledge of photoadaptive parameters such as maximum photosynthesis which currently cannot be obtained from space. A 17,000-station data set is used to show that space-based estimates of maximum photosynthesis could improve predictions of ?, the water column light utilization index, which is an important term in many primary productivity models. Temperature is also examined as a factor for predicting hydrographic structure and primary production. A simple model is used to relate temperature and maximum photosynthesis; the model incorporates (1) the positive relationship between maximum photosynthesis and temperature and (2) the strongly negative relationship between temperature and nitrate in the ocean (which directly affects maximum growth rates via nitrogen limitation). Since these two factors relate to carbon and nitrogen, "balanced carbon/nitrogen assimilation" was calculated assuming the Redfield ratio. It is expected that the relationship between maximum balanced carbon assimilation versus temperature is concave-down, with the peak dependent on nitrate uptake kinetics, temperature-nitrate relationships, and the carbon/chlorophyll ratio. These predictions were compared with sea truth data. The minimum turnover time for nitrate was also calculated using this approach. Lastly, sea surface temperature gradients were used to predict the slope of isotherms (a proxy for the slope of isopycnals in many waters). Sea truth data show that at size scales of several hundred kilometers, surface temperature gradients can provide information on the slope of isotherms in the top 200 m of the water column. This is directly relevant to the supply of nutrients into the surface mixed layer, which is useful for predicting integral biomass and primary production.

Balch, W. M.; Byrne, C. F.

1994-04-01

363

Factors affecting survival in young alpacas (Lama pacos).  

PubMed

Factors affecting survival of young from birth to weaning (7 mo) in alpacas (Lama pacos) were evaluated in data collected at the Estacion Experimental de Camelidos Sudamericanos La Raya in the Altiplano region of Peru. Age of dam effects on survival rate were curvilinear; survival rate increased from approximately 78% for offspring of 3-yr-old dams to about 91% for those from 9- to 11-yr-old dams, then declined to about 85% for 15-yr-old dams. Weight of dam measured 2 mo prior to parturition was associated negatively with survival of the young (b = -.7%/kg). Alpaca born early in the season of birth had a higher survival rate than those born late; the regression of survival on birth date was -.2%/d. Survival rates were curvilinearly related with birth weight and were highest at weights of 9 to 11 kg (90%) and lowest at weights of 4 to 5 kg (20% to 40%). The estimated heritabilities of survival and birth weight were .10 +/- .17 and .34 +/- .23, weight was -.18 +/- .82; the corresponding environmental and phenotypic correlations were positive (.37 and .26, respectively). PMID:3397341

Bustinza, A V; Burfening, P J; Blackwell, R L

1988-05-01

364

[Factors that affect adult men's decisions to hire a prostitute].  

PubMed

The present study analyzed demographic and psychological factors that affect adult men's decisions to solicit a prostitute. We administered a questionnaire to 1400 randomly sampled men aged 20 to 59, who live in the Tokyo metropolitan area (obtaining 664 valid responses). The results revealed that 14.6 percent of respondents have had the experience of being a client in prostitution at some point over the past four to five years. Men in their 50s, who spent their adolescence before the enforcement of anti-prostitution laws, had high prostitution acceptability. Those in their 20s and 30s, who spent their adolescence in the 1990s when "Enjyo-Kousai" (Japanese amateur prostitution) gained topicality, also showed high rates. These findings are considered to be birth cohort effects. In addition, those men who reported greater sexual drive and desire for intimate contact with others, as well as those who reported fewer attitudes of gender egalitarianism, had higher rates of prostitution solicitation. Finally, those men who reported less emotional family bonds also showed higher rates. PMID:18939442

Ui, Miyoko; Matsui, Yutaka; Fukutomi, Mamoru; Narita, Ken'ichi; Kamise, Yumiko; Yashiro, Kaoru

2008-08-01

365

Factors affecting recruitment to an observational multicentre palliative care study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify those factors which adversely affected recruitment to a large multicentre palliative care study. Methods Patient accrual to a multicentre, observational, palliative care study was monitored at three critical junctures in the research process. (1) Eligibility—did the patient fulfil the study entry criteria? (2) Accessibility—was it possible to access the patient to be able to inform them about the study? (3) Consent—did the patient agree to participate in the study? The reasons why patients were ineligible, inaccessible or refused consent were recorded. Results 12?412 consecutive referrals to participating clinical services were screened for study inclusion of whom 5394 (43%) were deemed to be ineligible. Of the remaining patients 4617/7018 (66%) were inaccessible to the research team. The most common reasons being precipitous death, ‘gatekeeping’ by clinical staff or rapid discharge. Of the 2410 patients who were visited by the research team and asked to participate in the study 1378 (57%) declined. Overall 8.2% (1018/12?412) of patients screened participated in the study. There were significant differences in recruitment patterns between hospice inpatient units, hospital support and community palliative care teams. Conclusions Systematic monitoring and analysis of patient flows through the clinical trial accrual process provided valuable insights about the reasons for failure to recruit patients to a clinical trial and may help to improve recruitment in future studies.

Stone, Patrick C; Gwilliam, Bridget; Keeley, Vaughan; Todd, Chris; Kelly, Laura C; Barclay, Stephen

2013-01-01

366

Factors affecting medication adherence in patients with hypertension.  

PubMed

The aim of this study descriptive study was to evaluate concordance with medication and those factors that affect the use of medicine in patients with hypertension. Data were collected using a questionnaire completed by 750 patients with hypertension between December 25, 2003, and April 30, 2004, in an outpatient hypertension clinic in Erzincan, Turkey. It was found that 57.9% of the patients did not use their medicines as prescribed. Forgetfulness, aloneness, and negligence were ranked as the top three reasons for this non-concordance, accounting for almost half (49.3%) of all patients with hypertension studied; price (expensive medicines) accounted for another quarter (26.5%). A statistically significant relationship with non-concordance was found for age, education level and profession. Patients' lack of knowledge related to the complications of hypertension was also found to have a statistically significant relationship with not taking medicines as prescribed. Gender, location of residence and salary were not found to be statistically related to concordance. These results indicate the need to educate patients with hypertension on how to use their medicine regularly and indicate also the target populations for this. PMID:23127428

Karakurt, Papatya; Ka?ikçi, Ma?firet

2012-12-01

367

Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

2013-10-01

368

Factors affecting the whiteness of optically brightened material.  

PubMed

The whiteness of fluorescent white materials is in part due to the absorption of ultraviolet (UV) light and subsequent emission of visible blue light. The UV content of light sources in viewing booths and in spectrophotometers can thus significantly affect the perceived whiteness (PW) and measured sum of reflected and emitted light of fluorescent materials. The effect of UV content on the spectral radiance factor of fluorescent white materials containing different amounts of a fluorescent brightening agent and the subsequent assessment of their PW were evaluated. The UV content of sources in two calibrated viewing booths that simulated D65 and D75 illuminants, separately, was changed by selectively blocking UV emission of the source by approximately 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. The radiance spectra of a series of white fabrics were also obtained using a reflectance spectrophotometer at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% UV transmittance. The CIE and Uchida whiteness indices (WIs) were calculated for white samples and compared to perceptual results under varying illumination and UV conditions. Results indicate relatively modest agreement between perceptual assessments of fluorescent samples and whiteness metrics examined. Results also show that when the UV content of sources used in the viewing booths is adjusted to be similar to that used in measurements, improved correlations between perceptual and calculated results are obtained. The CIE WI was found to outperform the Uchida index under both sources. PMID:23201789

Lin, Juan; Shamey, Renzo; Hinks, David

2012-11-01

369

Study on some factors affecting survivability of airborne fungi.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of some air pollutants and meteorological parameters on the survivability of airborne fungi. Fungi were collected by using a slit impactor sampler calibrated to draw 20 L/min, for 3 min. Nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), particulate matter (PM), relative humidity (RH %), temperature (T °C) and wind speed (WS) were also measured. Air samples were taken during the period from March 2006 to February 2007. Fungal concentrations ranged between 45 and 451 CFU/m(3) with an annual mean concentration of 216 CFU/m(3). The lowest fungal concentration was found in the summer, however the highest one was found in the autumn. NO(2,) SO(2) and PM averaged 83.66 ?g/m(3), 67.01 ?g/m(3), and 237.69 ?g/m(3), respectively. T °C was positively and negatively correlated with Aspergillus (P = 0.000) and Penicillium (P = 0.007), respectively. RH% was positively correlated with total fungi (P = 0.001), Aspergillus (P = 0.002) and Cladosporium (P = 0.047). Multiple regression analysis showed that T °C and RH% were the most predicted variants. Non-significant correlations were found between fungal concentrations and air pollutants. Meteorological parameters were the critical factors affecting fungal survivability. PMID:22137479

Abdel Hameed, A A; Khoder, M I; Ibrahim, Y H; Saeed, Y; Osman, M E; Ghanem, S

2011-12-01

370

Relationships among affective factors and preferred engagement in science-related activities.  

PubMed

This study investigated how affective factors impact participation in science learning using structural equation modeling. Using a dataset from Taiwan, a model was obtained that showed the relationships among science-related interest, enjoyment, self-efficacy, self-concept, competency, leisure time engagement, and future interest in science. The paths relating to engagement and future interest were much stronger for interest and enjoyment than for self-efficacy and self-concept. There was no significant path between science competency and future science interest or engagement. The results suggest that the affective and cognitive pathways to scientific competency are divergent and that they might be differentially activated by different contexts and activities. This indicates that school science educators might wish to reconsider the merit of overemphasizing achievement in comparison to interest. Finally, the results suggest that the development of science competency per se may not be the best way to ensure public engagement and understanding of science. PMID:24151085

Lin, Huann-Shyang; Lawrenz, Frances; Lin, Shu-Fen; Hong, Zuway-R

2012-01-09

371

FACTORS AFFECTING THE COLLECTION EFFICIENCY OF ATMOSPHERIC SULFATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Factors that influence the collection and measurement of atmospheric sulfate were investigated. Special emphasis was given to those factors that cause the formation of extraneous sulfate during the sampling process. The factors considered were filter type and composition, ambient...

372

Factors Affecting Organic Acid Production by Sourdough (San Francisco) Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Previous workers from this laboratory observed considerable variation in the proportions of acetic and lactic acids produced in pure broth culture as compared to consistently high proportions of acetic acid produced in the sourdough and flour suspension systems. In the latter the proportion of acetic acid was always in the range of 20 to 35% of the total, whereas in pure broth culture frequently less than 5% acetic acid was produced. In the natural environment, the sourdough bacteria, tentatively identified as lactobacilli, coexist with a yeast, Saccharomyces exiguus, and this study was undertaken to determine whether this yeast or flour ingredients including glucose or other factors were involved in this variable production of acetic acid. The proportion of acetic acid produced in broth culture on maltose, the preferred carbohydrate source, was found to depend almost entirely on the degree of aeration. Essentially anaerobic conditions, as obtained by thorough evacuation and flushing with CO2 or N2, resulted in very low (5% or less) proportions of acetic acid. Aerobic conditions, achieved by continuous shaking in cotton-plugged flasks, yielded high levels (23 to 39% of the total) of acetic acid. Similar effects of aeration were observed with glucose as the substrate, although growth was considerably slower, or in nonsterile flour suspension systems. It is theorized that, under aerobic conditions, the reduced pyridine nucleotides generated in the dissimilation of carbohydrate are oxidized directly by molecular oxygen, thereby becoming unavailable for the reduction of the acetyl phosphate intermediate to ethyl alcohol, the usual product of anaerobic dissimilation of glucose by heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria. Comparative studies with known strains of homo- and heterofermentative lactobacilli showed similar effects of aeration only on the heterofermentative strains, lending additional support to the tentative grouping by previous workers from this laboratory of the sourdough bacteria with the heterofermentative lactobacilli.

Ng, Henry

1972-01-01

373

Urban vs. rural factors that affect adult asthma.  

PubMed

In this review, our aim was to examine the influence of geographic variations on asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults, which is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity. Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The disparities in asthma prevalence and morbidity among the world's geographic locations are more likely to be associated with environmental exposures than genetic differences. In writing this article, we found that the indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, and that difference correlated with environmental risk exposures, SES, and healthcare access. Environmental risk factors to which urban adults were more frequently exposed than rural adults were dust mites,high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle.Exposure to indoor biological contaminants in the urban environment is common.The main risk factors for developing asthma in urban areas are atopy and allergy to house dust mites, followed by allergens from animal dander. House dust mite exposure may potentially explain differences in diagnosis of asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults in urban vs. rural areas. In addition, the prevalence of asthma morbidity increases with urbanization. High levels of vehicle emissions,Western lifestyles and degree of urbanization itself, may affect outdoor and thereby indoor air quality. In urban areas, biomass fuels have been widely replaced by cleaner energy sources at home, such as gas and electricity, but in most developing countries, coal is still a major source of fuel for cooking and heating, particularly in winter. Moreover, exposure to ETS is common at home or at work in urban areas.There is evidence that asthma prevalence and morbidity is less common in rural than in urban areas. The possible reasons are that rural residents are exposed early in life to stables and to farm milk production, and such exposures are protective against developing asthma morbidity. Even so, asthma morbidity is disproportionately high among poor inner-city residents and in rural populations. A higher proportion of adult residents of nonmetropolitan areas were characterized as follows:aged 55 years or older, no previous college admission, low household income, no health insurance coverage, and could not see a doctor due to healthcare service availability, etc. In rural areas, biomass fuels meet more than 70% of the rural energy needs. Progress in adopting modern energy sources in rural areas has been slow. The most direct health impact comes from household energy use among the poor, who depend almost entirely on burning biomass fuels in simple cooking devices that are placed in inadequately ventilated spaces. Prospective studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of biomass smoke on lung health among adults in rural areas.Geographic differences in asthma susceptibility exist around the world. The reason for the differences in asthma prevalence in rural and urban areas may be due to the fact that populations have different lifestyles and cultures, as well as different environmental exposures and different genetic backgrounds. Identifying geographic disparities in asthma hospitalizations is critical to implementing prevention strategies,reducing morbidity, and improving healthcare financing for clinical asthma treatment. Although evidence shows that differences in the prevalence of asthma do exist between urban and rural dwellers in many parts of the world, including in developed countries, data are inadequate to evaluate the extent to which different pollutant exposures contribute to asthma morbidity and severity of asthma between urban and rural areas. PMID:23625129

Jie, Yu; Isa, Zaleha Md; Jie, Xu; Ju, Zhang Long; Ismail, Noor Hassim

2013-01-01

374

Factors Affecting Online Advertising Recall: A Study of Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we examine factors that might impact on web advertising recall and recognition. These factors include the viewing mode, duration of page viewing, and web page context factors, including text and page background complexity and the style of the banner advertisement. Via an experimental design conducted on a student sample, we manipulate these factors over several levels. The

PETER J. DANAHER; GUY W. MULLARKEY

2003-01-01

375

Factors affecting secondary sex ratio in Iranian Holsteins.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors affecting secondary sex ratio (SSR) in Iranian Holsteins. Data of 942,941 Holstein calving events from the Animal Breeding Center of Iran, recorded between January 1996 and December 2007, were used in the analysis. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to model the logit of the probability of a male calf being born. Male births accounted for 49.6% of the total observations. The ratio of males to females varied from 52.5:47.5 in calving year 1996-1999 (odds ratio (OR)=1.18; P<0.0001), to 48.5:51.5 in calving year 2004-2007. The greatest occurrence of male births was observed in spring (OR=1.02; P<0.0001), and the lowest incidence of male births was for summer or fall calvings. Also, the frequency of male births decreased from parity 1 to parity 4 and beyond (P<0.0001; OR=1.11). The greatest number of sires had the SSR equal to 0.5 with a minimum SSR of 32% while the maximum was 97%. Among cows that had a male birth, the chance of delivering a male calf again was 25.5% when cows had delivered a male once (OR=1.14; P<0.0001), and 12.7% if a male calf was delivered twice by a cow. This indicated that characteristics peculiar to the dam influence the sex of her offspring and suggests some degree of repeatability of calf sex within cows. PMID:21924467

Hossein-Zadeh, Navid Ghavi

2011-09-14

376

Factors Affecting Perceptual Threshold in Argus II Retinal Prosthesis Subjects  

PubMed Central

Purpose The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis has been developed to provide partial restoration of vision to subjects blinded from outer retinal degenerative disease. Participants were surgically implanted with the system in the United States and Europe in a single arm, prospective, multicenter clinical trial. The purpose of this investigation was to determine which factors affect electrical thresholds in order to inform surgical placement of the device. Methods Electrode–retina and electrode–fovea distances were determined using SD-OCT and fundus photography, respectively. Perceptual threshold to electrical stimulation of electrodes was measured using custom developed software, in which current amplitude was varied until the threshold was found. Full field stimulus light threshold was measured using the Espion D-FST test. Relationships between electrical threshold and these three explanatory variables (electrode–retina distance, electrode–fovea distance, and monocular light threshold) were quantified using regression. Results Regression analysis showed a significant correlation between electrical threshold and electrode–retina distance (R2 = 0.50, P = 0.0002; n = 703 electrodes). 90.3% of electrodes in contact with the macula (n = 207) elicited percepts at charge densities less than 1 mC/cm2/phase. These threshold data also correlated well with ganglion cell density profile (P = 0.03). A weaker, but still significant, inverse correlation was found between light threshold and electrical threshold (R2 < 0.52, P = 0.01). Multivariate modeling indicated that electrode–retina distance and light threshold are highly predictive of electrode threshold (R2 = 0.87; P < 0.0005). Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that while light threshold should be used to inform patient selection, macular contact of the array is paramount. Translational Relevance Reported Argus II clinical study results are in good agreement with prior in vitro and in vivo studies, and support the development of higher-density systems that employ smaller diameter electrodes. (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00407602)

Ahuja, A. K.; Yeoh, J.; Dorn, J. D.; Caspi, A.; Wuyyuru, V.; McMahon, M. J.; Humayun, M. S.; Greenberg, R. J.; daCruz, L.

2013-01-01

377

Factors Affecting the Sustainability of Groundwater-Source Cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of groundwater in thermal applications has grown in popularity due to increases in environmental awareness and rising energy costs. While this source of energy is generally seen as beneficial to the environment, changes in subsurface temperatures resulting from thermal development and other factors may make this practice unsustainable. An example of such changes in subsurface temperatures has been observed in Winnipeg, Manitoba, where groundwater is extensively used for cooling applications. Temperatures in a regional aquifer beneath the city were found to be as much as ten degrees Celsius greater than those measured in surrounding rural areas. Numerical modeling indicates increases in temperature of up to 5 degrees Celsius can be attributed to downward heat flow originating in buildings in many cases. Areas where increases in temperature were found to be greater corresponded to areas where water is being injected into the aquifer. This water is being produced in the process of using groundwater for cooling applications, such as air conditioning and industrial cooling, and is being injected back into the aquifer to maintain hydraulic head and reduce the demand on Winnipeg's sewer system. In most cases, the heat introduced by injecting this water is significantly affecting temperatures at the production well of the same system and numerical modeling indicates that this is inevitable with the current method of development. The combination of heat loss from buildings and injection of heated water is largely responsible for a reduction in the efficiency of groundwater as a coolant and may eventually make the use of groundwater in cooling applications unsustainable.

Ferguson, G. A.; Woodbury, A. D.

2004-12-01

378

Analysis of factors that affect DQE in digital mammography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The international standard IEC 62220-1 about DQE measurement of digital X-ray equipment was published in 2003, but mammography systems aren"t applied to this IEC standard because the factor affect measurement is complicated. Especially, the influence to the pre-sampling MTF by edge method when X-ray beam is oblique to detector. The influence of nonuniformity of x-ray intensity by the heel effect on digital Wiener spectrum (WS) doesn"t become clear. A 0.1mm-thick tungsten edge was imaged in the position where X-ray beam was perpendicular to detector plane and in 6cm from chest wall, respectively. And the pre-sampling MTFs were obtained from these edge images. The calculation area of the digital WS within irradiation area was moved in parallel direction to X-ray tube axis, and the digital WS were calculated. The pre-sampling MTFs and the digital WS are calculated by the method based on the IEC proposal. We used MAMMOMAT3000(SIEMENS), MGU-100B(TOSHIBA), M-IV(LORAD) and Senographe DMR+(GE) as X-ray generator. Images were obtained by FCR PROFECT CS (Fujifilm medical). In all equipments and both arrangement directions of the edge test device, pre-sampling MTFs are almost the same, even if the arrangement places of the edge test device varied. In all equipments, when the calculation area was moved about 10cm, the digital WS of the anode side was higher 7.2-17.9% than those of the cathode side. It was found that the dose of anode side was lower about 20% than cathode side from the profile of an exposure image. We think that digital WS modified the nonuniformity of the dose by the heel effect is obtained by multiplying the digital WS by the compensation coefficient obtained by the dose profile, in low spatial frequency.

Takamura, Miho; Higaki, Akiko; Kodera, Yoshie

2005-04-01

379

Factors affecting the catalytic oligomerization of methane via microwave heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catalytic microwave heating has been used as a method for the oligomerization of methane to higher hydrocarbons. Many catalysts were tested in this reaction. Nickel powder, raney nickel, iron powder and activated carbon were the most active and efficient catalysts for the production of higher hydrocarbons. When helium was used as a diluent gas and the applied power was optimized, the selectivities were controlled to the most desired products. In general, the most abundant products for all the experiments were C2s. Iron powder was active only at high power (1130 W). At these conditions acetylene was avoided and ethylene and ethane were produced in the same proportion. Activated carbon catalysts with helium as diluent led to a selectivity towards benzene up to 33%. Some manganese oxides such as OMS-1, OMS-2 and MnO2 (dielectric constant, epsilon ? 104) were not active in these reactions. These data suggest that the dielectric constant is not the most important factor in the oligomerization of methane via microwave heating. Conversion and activities of these materials are not proportionally related to the surface area of the catalysts. Higher catalytic activity was observed for Raney nickel than for regular nickel powder. The maximum conversion obtained was 24% at 400 W and 10 min of irradiation time. For regular nickel powder that conversion can be achieved only after 700 W of power and more than 20 min of reaction. BET surface area, Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Temperature-Programmed Desorption and Reduction analysis were performed to characterize the catalyst before and after reaction. Deactivation of Raney nickel by fouling and sintering was observed after 500 W and/or 15 min of reaction. The effect of microwave radiation frequency on activity and product distribution for methane oligomerization has been studied. Nickel, iron, and activated carbon catalysts were used in these studies. Experiments were done with pure methane and using He as diluent. Changes in product distribution due to changes in frequency have been observed, and might be related to different transverse magnetic modes at different frequencies. Different transient heating may occur at different values of frequency.

Conde, Luis Daniel

380

Factors affecting science-related attitudes in academically talented youth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study was designed to examine the relationship between the criterion variables of science-related attitudes and the predictor variables of gender, self-concept, ethnic origin, mother's occupation, father's occupation, socioeconomic status, and achievement in academically talented students. One hundred and sixty-seven students in grades 11 and 12 from a residential math and science high school in Alabama were administered the Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA; Fraser, 1981), the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (Piers & Harris, 1969), and a general information questionnaire. Multiple linear regression consisting of canonical correlation, semi-partial correlation, and Manova were used to test the hypotheses of this study. Results indicate that students had favorable attitudes towards science. Significant interactions were found between gender and achievement for the Adoption of Scientific Attitude subtest with high achieving females having more favorable attitudes on this variable followed by low achieving males. Additionally, significant interactions were found between self-concept and achievement and between mother's occupation and father's occupation on the Attitude Toward Normality of Scientists subtest. High achievers with high self-concept obtained the highest scores while low achievers with low self-concept obtained the lowest scores on the Attitude Toward Normality of Scientist subtest. Subjects with fathers and mothers in science occupations obtained the highest scores on the Attitude Toward Normality of Scientist subtest while subjects with a father in a nonscience occupation and a mother in a science occupation obtained the lowest scores. The lowest scores were found in Leisure Interest in Science regardless of gender, self-concept, ethnic origin, mother's occupation, father's occupation, socioeconomic status, or achievement.

Stephens, Kristen Renee

381

FACTORS AFFECTING THE PHOTOCHEMICAL TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The photochemical treatment of hazardous waste can be optimized by taking into account various factors that influence the rates of photochemical reactions. Physical factors that facilitate photochemical treatment include: (1) maximizing the irradiated surface to volume ratio of t...

382

FACTORS AFFECTING THE PHOTOCHEMICAL TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The photochemical treatment of hazardous waste can be optimized by taking into account several factors that influence the rates of photochemical reactions. Physical factors that facilitate photochemical treatment include: (1) maximizing the irradiated surface to volume ratio of t...

383

Factors Affecting Nurse Supply and Demand: An Exploration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article addresses the nursing shortage from an economic standpoint by exploring supply and demand factors that influence the availability of nurses. Demand factors include payment mechanisms, cost containment, and availability of substitutes. Supply factors include the women's movement, labor force participation, and entry-level preparation.…

Rose, Mary Ann

1982-01-01

384

FACTORS AFFECTING TEACHERS' USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research studies in the past decade have shown that computer technology is an effective means for widening educational opportunities, but most teachers neither use technology as an instructional delivery system nor integrate technology into their curriculum. Studies reveal a number of factors influencing teachers' decisions to use ICT in the classroom: non-manipulative and manipulative school and teacher factors. These factors

Mojgan Afshari; Kamariah Abu Bakar; Wong Su Luan; Bahaman Abu Samah; Foo Say Fooi

2009-01-01

385

Factors Affecting Students' Choice of Science and Engineering in Portugal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents the results of a study undertaken in Portugal to determine the influence of different factors on students' (n=499) decisions to study or refuse to study in one of the physical sciences or engineering. Some influencing factors are related to what goes on in school and during science lessons, and other factors are related to the…

de Almeida, Maria Jose B. M.; Leite, Maria Salete S. C. P.; Woolnough, Brian E.

386

Elementary Math Achievement for Rural Development: Effects of Contextual Factors Intrinsic to the Modern World. Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural development is often presumed to rest on educational improvement, and high levels of mathematics achievement might seem essential to improving the quality of rural life and the viability of rural communities. Efforts to promote math achievement growth are usually limited to curricular and instructional innovations, while contextual factors

Bickel, Robert; Howley, Caitlin

387

Factor Structure and Predictive Utility of the 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Model in a Sample of Taiwan Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined structure and predictive utility of the 2 x 2 achievement goal model among Taiwan pre-university school students (ages 10 to 16) who learned Chinese language arts. The confirmatory factor analyses of Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Chinese version provided good fitting between the factorial and dimensional structures with the…

Chiang, Yu-Tzu; Yeh, Yu-Chen; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Hwang, Fang-Ming

2011-01-01

388

Social Risk and Protective Factors for African American Children's Academic Achievement and Adjustment During the Transition to Middle School  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transition to middle school is often marked by decreased academic achievement and increased emotional stress, and African American children exposed to social risk may be especially vulnerable during this transition. To identify mediators and protective factors, the authors related severity and timing of risk exposure to academic achievement and adjustment between 4th and 6th grade in 74 African American

Margaret R. Burchinal; Joanne E. Roberts; Susan A. Zeisel; Stephanie J. Rowley

2008-01-01

389

Social Risk and Protective Factors for African American Children's Academic Achievement and Adjustment during the Transition to Middle School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The transition to middle school is often marked by decreased academic achievement and increased emotional stress, and African American children exposed to social risk may be especially vulnerable during this transition. To identify mediators and protective factors, the authors related severity and timing of risk exposure to academic achievement

Burchinal, Margaret R.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Zeisel, Susan A.; Rowley, Stephanie J.

2008-01-01

390

Teachers' Implementation of Instructional Strategies: Frequencies, Views on Importance, Inhibiting Factors, and Relationship to Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The achievement gap among students in the United States is widespread, as attested to by state-mandated test scores. In New York State school districts, achievement has been mixed. In 2007, in a high-achieving district, 94.9% of fourth-grade students met or surpassed the minimum standards in the fourth-grade English Language Arts test, compared…

Williams, Alice

2011-01-01

391

Why Try? Factors that Differentiate Underachieving Gifted Students from High Achieving Gifted Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses the outcomes of a study that investigated the relationship between student scores on the five sub-scales of the School Attitude Assessment Survey-Revised (SAAS-R) and the academic achievement of known groups of gifted achievers and gifted underachievers. The study examined whether gifted achievers and gifted underachievers…

McCoach, D. Betsy; Siegle, Del

392

Linguistic Factors Affecting Correct Responses to Word Problems in Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Student underachievement on standardized math achievement tests is a major concern in American public schools. One of the speculated reasons for student underachievement is the inability to solve math word problems. Word problems are the most challenging problems in math because word problem solving requires the use of skills in language,…

Vincent, Juliet

2009-01-01

393

Factors Affecting High School Students' Academic Motivation in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to investigate predictive relationships among student characteristics that influence motivation for learning and achievement. A non-Western sample was chosen to test the generalisability of findings outside the Western cultural and social models. The participants were 6,539 students from 14 public high schools distributed across the western half of Taiwan. They were from three grade

Patricia L. Hardré; Ching-Huei Chen; Su-Hua Huang; Chen-Ting Chiang; Fen-Lan Jen; Leslie Warden

2006-01-01

394

Urban Youth with Disabilities: Factors Affecting Transition Employment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although postsecondary employment outcomes for transition-age youth with disabilities have improved over the past decade, minority youth with disabilities continue to lag behind their peers in achieving a job. This study of predominantly minority youth participating in the Marriott Foundation's Bridges From School to Work Program from 2000 to 2005…

Fabian, Ellen S.

2007-01-01

395

Review of Factors Affecting Learning of Mexican-Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A review of more than 500 empirical studies conducted since 1970 on the achievement of Mexican Americans identified prior claims supported and/or refuted by data, isolated promising hypotheses for further investigation or educational implementation, and made recommendations for improvement of schooling, school-home relations, and teacher…

Hernandez, Norma G.; Descamps, Jorge A.

396

Urban Youth with Disabilities: Factors Affecting Transition Employment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although postsecondary employment outcomes for transition-age youth with disabilities have improved over the past decade, minority youth with disabilities continue to lag behind their peers in achieving a job. This study of predominantly minority youth participating in the Marriott Foundation's Bridges From School to Work Program from 2000 to…

Fabian, Ellen S.

2007-01-01

397

Review of Factors Affecting Learning of Mexican-Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of more than 500 empirical studies conducted since 1970 on the achievement of Mexican Americans identified prior claims supported and/or refuted by data, isolated promising hypotheses for further investigation or educational implementation, and made recommendations for improvement of schooling, school-home relations, and teacher…

Hernandez, Norma G.; Descamps, Jorge A.

398

Factors affecting the radii of close-in transiting exoplanets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The radius of an exoplanet may be affected by various factors, including irradiation received from the host star, the mass of the planet and its heavy element content. A significant number of transiting exoplanets have now been discovered for which the mass, radius, semi-major axis, host star metallicity and stellar effective temperature are known. Aims: We use multivariate regression models to determine the power-law dependence of planetary radius on planetary equilibrium temperature Teq, planetary mass Mp, stellar metallicity [Fe/H], orbital semi-major axis a, and tidal heating rate Htidal, for 119 transiting planets in three distinct mass regimes. Methods: We fit models initially to all 119 planets, resulting in fairly high scatter between fitted and observed radii, and subsequently to three subsets of these planets: Saturn-mass planets, Jupiter-mass planets, and high-mass planets. Results: We find models for each subset that fit the observed planetary radii well and show the importance of the various environmental parameters on each subset. Conclusions: We determine that heating leads to larger planet radii, as expected, increasing mass leads to increased or decreased radii of low-mass (<0.5 RJ) and high-mass (>2.0 RJ) planets, respectively (with no mass effect on Jupiter-mass planets), and increased host-star metallicity leads to smaller planetary radii, indicating a relationship between host-star metallicity and planet heavy element content. For Saturn-mass planets, a good fit to the radii may be obtained from log(Rp/RJ) = -0.077 + 0.450 log(Mp/MJ) - 0.314 [Fe/H] + 0.671 log(a/AU) + 0.398 log(Teq/K). The radii of Jupiter-mass planets may be fit by log(Rp/RJ) = - 2.217 + 0.856 log(Teq/K) + 0.291 log(a/AU). High-mass planets' radii are best fit by log(Rp/RJ) = -1.067 + 0.380 log(Teq/K) - 0.093 log(Mp/MJ) - 0.057 [Fe/H] + 0.019 log(Htidal/1 × 1020). These equations produce a very good fit to the observed radii, with a mean absolute difference between fitted and observed radius of 0.11 RJ, compared to the mean reported uncertainty in observed radius of 0.07 RJ. A clear distinction is seen between the core-dominated Saturn-mass (0.1-0.5 MJ) planets, whose radii are determined almost exclusively by their mass and heavy element content, and the gaseous envelope-dominated Jupiter-mass (0.5-2.0 MJ) planets, whose radii increase strongly with irradiating flux, partially offset by a power-law dependence on orbital separation.

Enoch, B.; Collier Cameron, A.; Horne, K.

2012-04-01

399

Factors Affecting Teachers' Student-Centered Classroom Computer Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study aims at investigating which factors are relevant to induce teachers' student-centered classroom computer use. Survey data were collected from 361 teachers at comprehensive schools. Based on a systemic view of technology use in schools, different individual teacher characteristics and school contextual factors were examined.…

Friedrich, Helmut Felix; Hron, Aemilian

2011-01-01

400

Factors affecting infiltration rate in steep hillslope conifer plantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infiltration rate is greatly related to vegetation cover in various areas because it can prevent large raindrop impact from producing surface sealing and crusting. In forested area, the infiltration rate has been shown to vary with understory vegetation. Spatial variabilities of litter layer or surface soil properties on forest floor can be also major factors determining the infiltration rate, however, the relationship between the infiltration rate and these factors has not been documented sufficiently. The objective of this study is to elucidate the factors controlling infiltration capacity on forest floor in steep (>35°) Japanese cypress plantation. We conducted the field experiment of artificial rainfall simulation and statistic analysis for controlling factors. Maximum final infiltration rate (FIRmax) at thirty four sites ranged from 5 to 322 mm h-1. From multiple regression analysis, only dry weight of understory vegetation was found to be significant to the FIRmax. This result indicates understory vegetation is the most important factors to increase the infiltration capacity in the steep hillslope. However, under the 50 g m-2 in the dry weight of understory vegetation, the FIRmax varied significantly and bulk density of A-horizon was found to be significant as the controlling factor. This suggests that the FIRmax may decrease with bulk density of A-horizon on forest floor without understory vegetation. These results suggested that the most effective factor is the understory vegetation preventing raindrop impact, and on the bare surface, the bulk density, which may enhance the infiltration, can be a controlling factor in steep forested hillslope.

Hiraoka, M.; Onda, Y.

2010-12-01

401

Factors Affecting the Use of Instructional Television in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study of 36 factors which could possibly limit the use of instructional television (ITV) in elementary schools consisted of an analysis of the responses to a questionnaire administered to 318 teachers who taught in kindergarten through grade six. Chi-square tests were computed for each factor in relationship to the average frequency of…

Broussard, E. Joseph

402

Cognitive Factors Affecting Student Understanding of Geologic Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a model that describes how students reconstruct geological transformations over time. Defines the critical factors influencing reconstructive thinking: (1) the transformation scheme, which influences the other diachronic schemes; (2) knowledge of geological processes; and (3) extracognitive factors. (Author/KHR)|

Dodick, Jeff; Orion, Nir

2003-01-01

403

Factors Affecting Teacher Satisfaction in an Urban School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to distinguish factors that influence the satisfaction levels of teachers in urban school districts. This work also distinguished factors that directly impacted teachers' level of satisfaction towards their work and their attitude towards the administration of their schools. Forty-one teachers from two kindergarten…

Halpert, Michael A.

2011-01-01

404

Factors affecting the implementation and success of TQM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of tailoring TQM to the specific needs of organizations is well known. Shows the findings of a research programme that investigated which organizational factors are important to consider when implementing TQM. Questionnaires and structured interviews, involving the participation of over 200 companies, were used as the main tools for the investigation. Identifies as a result, seven prime factors

Robin Mann; Dennis Kehoe

1995-01-01

405

Factors that Affect Perceived Susceptibility to Cardiovascular Disease in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To identify CVD risk factors that are related to perceived susceptibility for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in West Virginia women.Although risk factors for CVD in women have been identified, it is not clear to what extent that information has reached women in West Virginia, or whether women's beliefs about susceptibility to CVD are in accordance with that knowledge. As

D. Humphries; D. Krummel; S. Rye; K. Simon

1997-01-01

406

Factors Affecting Survival of Bacteriophage on Tomato Leaf Surfaces  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ability of bacteriophage to persist in the phyllosphere for extended periods is limited by many factors, including sunlight irradiation, especially in the UV zone, temperature, desiccation, and exposure to copper bactericides. The effects of these factors on persistence of phage and formulated p...

407

A discussion of the factors affecting surge in centrifugal compressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of surge in a centrifugal compressor has been studied and found to be dependent on a number of complex and often interrelated factors. A major factor defining surge in high-speed, vaned diffuser designs appears to be the flow in the semivaneless space. By developing work initiated by others it has been possible to propose some explanation of previously

R. L. Elder; M. E. Gill

1984-01-01

408

Supplementary report: Further factors affecting the probability of changing responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study the effects of response-contingent probabilities upon response change were studied. 2 factors were identified: changes are conditioned upon (a) repetition not being reinforced and (b) the probability that a change results in reinforcement. The present study indicates that factors influencing changing responses need to be considered in predicting rate of learning.

1960-01-01

409

Factors Affecting Affiliate Station Loyalty towards Broadcast Television Networks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines factors that may influence future ties between television networks and their affiliate stations. Surveys by mail affiliate general managers for the three commercial networks, asking programming questions and questions about level of loyalty to the networks. Finds that organization factors appear to be more essential in network-affiliate…

Lin, Carolyn A.

1996-01-01

410

Factors affecting the success of Hmong college students in America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores barriers and success factors of Hmong students in American colleges by interviewing five Hmong graduate students from refugee families in the US. Emerging themes revolve around academic, cultural and financial barriers. Professors, advisors, classmates, academic support programmes, family, financial aid and their own psychological resources were identified as supportive factors in addressing their academic, cultural and financial

Soua Xiong; Sarah K. Y. Lam

2012-01-01

411

Factors Affecting Survival of Bacteriophage on Tomato Leaf Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of bacteriophage to persist in the phyllosphere for extended periods is limited by many factors, including sunlight irradiation, especially in the UV zone, temperature, desiccation, and exposure to copper bactericides. The effects of these factors on persistence of phage and formulated phage (phage mixed with skim milk) were evaluated. In field studies, copper caused significant phage reduction if

F. B. Iriarte; B. Balogh; M. T. Momol; L. M. Smith; M. Wilson; J. B. Jones

2007-01-01

412

Factors affecting investment bank initial public offering market share  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effect of several factors on the market share of investment banks that act as book managers in initial public offerings (IPOs) between 1984 and 1995. For established banks, IPO first-day returns, one-year abnormal performance, abnormal compensation, industry specialization, analyst reputation, and association with withdrawn offers have a significant impact on changes in market share. These factors

Craig G. Dunbar

2000-01-01

413

Factors Affecting the Real Estate Prices in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examines the effect of factors influencing the prices of real estate in Quetta city. Hypothetically, this study is based upon five observed factors(urbanization, refugees’ influx, monetary, lack of investment alternatives and inflow of foreign remittances) in relation to the prices of real estate. Questionnaire developed on the basis of above variables were administered to a heterogeneous sample

Mehmood khan kakar; M. Ali kakar

2011-01-01

414

Factors Affecting Postoperative Morbidity and Mortality in Destroyed Lung  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The presence of specific risk factors can increase the postoperative complication rate of pneumonectomy for destroyed lung.Methods. Our experience in 118 consecutive patients who underwent pneumonectomy for destroyed lung over a 10-year period was retrospectively analyzed to evaluate the effect of specific risk factors on postoperative complications. The significance of tuberculosis, right pneumonectomy, preoperative empyema, and duration of illness

Semih Halezeroglu; Murat Keles; Aziz Uysal; Muharrem Celik; Canan Senol; Gokhan Haciibrahimoglu; Bulent Arman

1997-01-01

415

Factors affecting the photochemical treatment of hazardous waste (journal version)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photochemical treatment of hazardous waste can be optimized by taking into account various factors that influence the rates of photochemical reactions. Physical factors that facilitate photochemical treatment include: (1) maximizing the irradiated surface to volume ratio of the system; (2) selecting a light source with a spectrum that strongly overlaps the absorption spectrum of the chromophore; and (3) vigorously

Zepp

1988-01-01

416

Factors affecting the photochemical treatment of hazardous waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photochemical treatment of hazardous waste can be optimized by taking into account several factors that influence the rates of photochemical reactions. Physical factors that facilitate photochemical treatment include: (1) maximizing the irradiated surface-to-volume ratio of the system, (2) selecting a light source with a spectrum that strongly overlaps the absorption spectrum of the chromophore, (3) vigorously mixing the reactants.

Richard G. Zepp

1988-01-01

417

Factors affecting sample preparation in the gas chromatographic determination of plant sterols in whole wheat flour  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fractional factorial experimental design was applied to study factors affecting sample preparation prior to a gas chromatographic determination of total plant sterols in cereal samples. Whole wheat flour was chosen for the representative matrix. Altogether six factors were studied at two levels. The most affecting factors were a type of hydrolysis (combined acid hydrolysis and alkaline hydrolysis over alkaline

Jari Toivo; Anna-Maija Lampi; Satu Aalto; Vieno Piironen

2000-01-01

418

Factors affecting the success of non-majors in learning to program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introductory programming course is difficult for many university students, especially students who have little prior exposure to programming. Many factors affecting student success have been identified, but there is still a dearth of knowledge about how key factors combine to affect course outcomes. In this study we develop and empirically test a model integrating three factors of importance in

Susan Wiedenbeck

2005-01-01

419

Factors associated with the wastage and achievements in competition of event horses registered in the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to estimate the wastage of horses registered for eventing in Britain, to investigate the reasons for this wastage and to evaluate factors affecting the horses' achievement of grade I status (at least 61 points) while registered. An analysis of the database of the British Eventing register found that 33.7 per cent of horses registered for the first time in 1999 were not re-registered for eventing in subsequent years. By using multivariable logistic regression analysis, it was shown that horses that were kept at an event yard were more likely to be re-registered than those kept on other premises (odds ratio [or] 2.0, 95 per cent confidence interval [ci] 1.2 to 3.2), and those that took part in showjumping while registered were also more likely to be re-registered (or 1.5, 95 per cent ci 1.1 to 2.2). Horses that took part in unaffiliated eventing while registered were less likely to be re-registered the following year (or 0.7, 95 per cent ci 0.5 to 0.9), as were those that were not insured (or 0.7, 95 per cent ci 0.5 to 1.0) and those from outside the British Isles (or 0.6, 95 per cent ci 0.3 to 1.0). Veterinary problems were the most commonly cited explanation (35.1 per cent) why horses that remained in their original ownership were not re-registered with British Eventing the following year. Horses from Australia were more likely to achieve grade I status than horses from the British Isles (or 9.7, 95 per cent ci 7.1 to 13.2), as were horses from New Zealand (or 6.4, 95 per cent ci 5.0 to 8.2), the usa (or 5.2, 95 per cent ci 3.8 to 7.2) and France (or 2.8, 95 per cent ci 2.1 to 3.7), but horses from the Netherlands (or 0.5, 95 per cent ci 0.3 to 0.9) and Belgium (or 0.3, 95 per cent ci 0.1 to 0.9) were less likely to achieve grade I status. Mares were less likely to achieve grade I status than geldings (or 0.4, 95 per cent ci 0.4 to 0.5). PMID:15995236

O'Brien, E; Stevens, K B; Pfeiffer, D U; Hall, J; Marr, C M

2005-07-01

420

Factors Affecting Quality Enhancement Procedures for E-Learning Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This paper reports on an empirical study exploring the way in which campus-based higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK apply their internal quality assurance and enhancement (QA/QE) procedures to their e-learning courses. The purpose of this paper is to identify those characteristics of e-learning courses which affected the…

Jara, Magdalena; Mellar, Harvey

2009-01-01

421

Factors affecting employee knowledge acquisition and application capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to analyze the influences of organizational context and information technology (IT) applications on employees' perceptions of knowledge acquisition and application capabilities in five public and five private sector organizations in South Korea. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper analyzes how employees' perceptions of organizational context and IT affect employee knowledge acquisition and application capabilities in five public

Soonhee Kim; Hyangsoo Lee

2010-01-01

422

Factors affecting the magnetic properties of consolidated amorphous powder cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that it is possible to produce high density amorphous metal compacts on a routine basis, that have interesting soft magnetic properties. A study of some of the parameters determining their magnetic properties has been made. As expected, interparticle insulation and compact thickness affect the a.c. properties. Surprisingly, the magnetic properties were found to be relatively independent

D. Raybould; K. S. Tan

1985-01-01

423

FACTORS AFFECTING ACCUMULATION OF DEICING SALTS IN SOILS AROUND TREES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkways, street tree planter boxes, and high- way medians and roadsides are locations where soil accu- mulation of deicing salts is highest. Sodium chloride is the most common deicer applied in the United States. Sodium chloride and other salts accumulating in the root zone may instigate and exacerbate street tree decline. Salts affect soil aggregate stability, porosity, and water and

R. G. Hootman; P. D. Kelsey; R. Reid

424

Cognitive and Affective Factors of TV Advertising's Influence on Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews the research on children's understanding of the intent of advertising, the persuasive impact of television commercials, and children's cognitive defenses and resistance to such persuasion. Concludes that any model which tries to account for advertising's influence on children must incorporate affective as well as cognitive components.…

Wartella, Ellen

1984-01-01

425

Dimensional factors affecting magnetic properties of wound cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic properties of wound cores constructed from electrical steel strips have been found to be affected by their geometry, in particular the inner and outer diameters, the strip width and the build-up thickness of the toroids. Assessment of the effect of aspect ratio and winding ratio have been carried out in various sizes of toroid. An increase in aspect

A J Moses; P C Y Ling

1989-01-01

426

Calcite and Picocyanobacteria in Lakes: Factors Affecting Their Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcites build large deposits which have been observed in the rock record throughout geological time at various localities around the globe. Carbonate deposits have affected atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. As it has been generally accepted, inorganic precipitation represents a source of carbon dioxide on short geological time scales and a sink of inorganic carbon at long time scales from millions

M. Dittrich; M. Obst; D. Mavrocordatos

2003-01-01

427

Institutional factors affecting DOE waste management and environmental restoration planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitude and impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) waste management and environmental restoration program requires a drastic change in DOE's culture to include the participation of all levels of government, public forum representatives, and the public. Early in the process of developing a new, comprehensive five-year plan for environmental restoration and waste management, Secretary Watkins invited affected

J. A. Walker; L. I. Middleman

1990-01-01

428

Cognitive and Affective Factors of TV Advertising's Influence on Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the research on children's understanding of the intent of advertising, the persuasive impact of television commercials, and children's cognitive defenses and resistance to such persuasion. Concludes that any model which tries to account for advertising's influence on children must incorporate affective as well as cognitive components. (PD)

Wartella, Ellen

1984-01-01

429

Institutional Factors Affecting Biophysical Outcomes in Forest Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although there is considerable interest in the impact of diverse policies affecting the biophysical outcomes in forests, gaining a substantial sample over time of forests under different institutional arrangements has been difficult. This article analyzes data from 46 forests located in six countries over time. In forests where policies have been…

Coleman, Eric A.

2009-01-01

430

Factors Affecting Students' Self-Efficacy in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Researchers working in educational settings are increasingly paying attention to the role students' thoughts and beliefs play in the learning process. Self-efficacy, a key element of social cognitive theory, appears to be an important variable because it affects students' motivation and learning. This article investigates empirical literature…

van Dinther, Mart; Dochy, Filip; Segers, Mien

2011-01-01

431

Factors that affect the flow of patients through triage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To use observational methods to objectively evaluate the organisation of triage and what issues may affect the effectiveness of the process.Design: A two-phase study comprising observation of 16 h of triage in a London hospital emergency department and interviews with the triage staff to build a qualitative task analysis and study protocol for phase 2; observation and timing in

Melinda Lyons; Ruth Brown; Robert Wears

2007-01-01

432

The influence of affective factors on conceptualization in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 groups of schizophrenics, distinguished as to their capacity for abstract thinking (see ^W15:^n 3039), and normals were presented with stimuli composed of groupings of words constructed so that affect-laden words could be placed in the figure or ground of a gestalt. Schizophrenics characterized as demonstrating \\

M. H. Feffer

1961-01-01

433

FACTORS AFFECTING THE EFFICIENT FLOCCULATION OF TAILINGS BY POLYACRYLAMIDES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flocculation of coal preparation plant tailings is an established technology, and the scientific basis of flocculation is well understood, Nevertheless, conditions specific to the preparation plant affect the efficiency of the process. The sedimentation rate obtained with flocculated tailings depends on the molecular size of the polyacrylamide. Modern flocculants are very high molecular weight polymers and the size of

J. M. HENDERSON; A. D. WHEATLEY

1987-01-01

434

Factors Affecting Quality Enhancement Procedures for E-Learning Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper reports on an empirical study exploring the way in which campus-based higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK apply their internal quality assurance and enhancement (QA/QE) procedures to their e-learning courses. The purpose of this paper is to identify those characteristics of e-learning courses which affected the…

Jara, Magdalena; Mellar, Harvey

2009-01-01

435

ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING METHANE GAS RECOVERY FROM SIX LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a pilot study of six U.S. landfills that have methane (CH4) gas recovery systems. NOTE: The study was a first step in developing a field testing program to gather data to identify key variables that affect CH4 generation and to develop an empirical mod...

436

Factors affecting lignin degradation in lignocellulose by Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural conditions affecting lignin degradation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in various lignocellulosic materials were studied in comparison to an isolated lignin preparation. With shallow mycelial cultures, the degradation of lignin in wood proceeded more slowly in a 100% O2-atmosphere than in an air atmosphere, indicating that pure oxygen was toxic to the fungus. The organism was able to degrade lignin efficiently

Matti S. A. Leisola; Duane C. Ulmer; Armin Fiechter

1984-01-01

437

Factors affecting Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation of peppermint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial improvement in peppermint (Mentha x piperita L. var. Black Mitcham) genetic transformation has been achieved so that the frequency of transgenic plants regenerated (percent\\u000a of leaf explants that produced transformed plants) was 20-fold greater than with the original protocol. Essential modifications\\u000a were made to conditions for Agrobacterium tumefaciens co-cultivation that enhanced infection, and for selection of transformed cells and

X. Niu; X. Li; P. Veronese; R. A. Bressan; S. C. Weller; P. M. Hasegawa

2000-01-01

438

Factors affecting minority population proximity to hazardous facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ''environmental racism'' by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differenc...

L. A. Nieves A. L. Nieves

1995-01-01

439

Factors affecting minority population proximity to hazardous facilities  

SciTech Connect

Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range of facility types and explores the effects of urban and income factors. A statistically significant inverse relationship is found between the percentage of non-Hispanic Whites and virtually all facility categories in all regions. Except for Hispanics in the South, all such associations for minority groups show a direct relationship, though some are nonsignificant. The geographic concentration of facilities is more closely tied to urbanization than to economic factors. Controlling for both urban and economic factors, minority population concentration is still a significant explanatory variable for some facility types in some regions. This finding is most consistent for African-Americans.

Nieves, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nieves, A.L. [Wheaton Coll., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-04-01

440

[The Factors which Affect the Neurological Condition in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage].  

PubMed

The factors which were related to the neurological condition were analyzed in 233 cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Bivariate analysis and multiple(binomial)logistic regression analysis were performed as for Hunt & Kosnik grade, modified Rankin Scale at discharge and modified Rankin Scale in the out-patient department to detect the factors which were related to the neurological condition. Hematoma-filled intraventricular hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage with midline shift, acute subdural hematoma and aneurysm of the vertebrobasilar system were the representative factors which caused poor neurological condition. Hunt & Kosnik grade was poor when rebleeding occurred or hematoma was formed in the sylvian fissure. Hunt & Kosnik grade and modified Rankin Scale at discharge tended to be poor in the cases with acute hydrocephalus. The elevation of intracranial pressure was the major factor in neurological deterioration. PMID:24091459

Oyama, Hirofumi; Wada, Kentaro; Kito, Akira; Maki, Hideki; Noda, Tomoyuki

2013-10-01

441

Factors Affecting Animal Protein Adequacy among the Rural Egypt Population.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Soliman's study documented the extent of the protein gap among Egypt's rural poor and found the inadequacy particularly pronounced in animal protein. To learn more about the relationship between animal protein deficiency and other factors, a multiple regr...

S. Lane

1982-01-01

442

Factors Affecting the Reporting of Sexual Harassment in the Navy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Only a small fraction of Navy members who experience sexual harassment use the Navy's formal grievance channels to report it. This study was conducted to identify factors associated with reporting of sexual harassment and with the filing of formal sexual ...

S. Booth-Kewley

1995-01-01

443

A Multilevel Modelling Approach to Investigating Factors Impacting Science Achievement for Secondary School Students: PISA Hong Kong Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study utilized data from the 2006 Programme for International Student Assessment Hong Kong sample to investigate the factors that impact the science achievement of 15-year-old students. A multilevel model was used to examine the factors from both student and school perspectives. At the student level, the results indicated that male students,…

Sun, Letao; Bradley, Kelly D.; Akers, Kathryn

2012-01-01

444

Examining Familial-Based Academic Success Factors in Urban High School Students: The Case of Puerto Rican Female High Achievers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article works to dispel the myth that Puerto Rican female urban high school students living in poverty are not capable of performing at high academic levels. This article attempts to counteract these beliefs by describing the four success factors that seven Puerto Rican female high school students attribute to their high academic achievement. These success factors are: (1) religiosity

René Antrop-González; William Vélez; Tomás Garrett

2008-01-01

445

Factors affecting teachers’ student-centered classroom computer use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims at investigating which factors are relevant to induce teachers’ student-centered classroom computer use. Survey data were collected from 361 teachers at comprehensive schools. Based on a systemic view of technology use in schools, different individual teacher characteristics and school contextual factors were examined. Results from a four-step hierarchical regression reveal that student-centered classroom computer use could

Helmut Felix Friedrich; Aemilian Hron

2011-01-01

446

Transcription factor HNF1? and novel partners affect nephrogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterozygous mutations of the tissue-specific transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)1?, cause maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY5) and kidney anomalies including agenesis, hypoplasia, dysplasia and cysts. Because of these renal anomalies, HNF1? is classified as a CAKUT (congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract) gene. We searched for human fetal kidney proteins interacting with the N-terminal region

Karin Dudziak; Nima Mottalebi; Sabine Senkel; Emma L Edghill; Stefan Rosengarten; Magdalena Roose; Coralie Bingham; Sian Ellard; Gerhart U Ryffel

2008-01-01

447

Factors affecting the strength of alkali-activated slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of several factors on the strength of alkali activated slags has been investigated. The most important factors were found to be: the type of alkaline activator, the means of adding activator, the dosage of alkali, the type and fineness of slag, SiO[sub 2]\\/Na[sub 2]O ratio (modulus, Ms) when using waterglass solution, curing temperature, liquid\\/slag or water\\/slag ratio and

S. D. Wang; K. L. Scrivener; P. L. Pratt

1994-01-01

448

Synopsis of discussion session on physicochemical factors affecting toxicity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The paper documents the workshop discussion regarding the role of these factors in altering toxicity. For each factor, the nature, magnitude, and uncertainty of its empirical relation to the toxicity of various chemicals or chemical classes is discussed. Limitations in the empirical database regarding the variety of species and endpoints tested were addressed. Possible mechanisms underlying the empirical relations are identified. Finally, research needed to better understand these effects is identified.

Erickson, R. J.; Bills, T. D.; Clark, J. R.; Hansen, D. J.; Knezovich, J.

1994-01-01

449

Factors affecting placement of a child with intellectual disability.  

PubMed

Parents of disabled children often face the question whether or not to keep the child at home or to place them. The choice between the two alternatives resides with the parents and various factors influence their decision. Several researchers have identified these factors, which include child-related parameters, family and parental attitudes, the influence of the social environment, and the external assistance provided to the family. In a pilot study, we attempted to isolate the main factors involved in the parental decision either to keep the child at home or place the child by examining a sample comprised of 50 parents of children suffering severe intellectual disability studying in a special education school and 48 parents of adults with intellectual disability working in sheltered workshops. Each parent filled out a questionnaire used in a study in the United States and results of the research indicated parental-related factors as the dominant factors that delayed the placement of their child in residential care; guilt feelings were the main factor. PMID:15915290

Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav

2005-05-01

450

[Factors affecting the response to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents].  

PubMed

Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) has transformed the management chronic renal failure (CKD) and considerably improved the outcome of patients on regular chronic dialysis. However, a significant number of patients fail to respond to high of Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and several causes of inadequate response to epoetin therapy have been identified. Some factors, such as gender, age, length of time on dialysis, type of dialysis and co-morbidities such as hemoglobinopathy, are not susceptible to clinical intervention. However, many other factors can be adjusted. Iron deficiency, whether functional or absolute, is the most common factor that limits the response to rHuEPO. Monitoring of iron parameters and a large use of iron supplementation result in an efficient epoetin response. Infection and inflammation have been shown to reduce responsiveness to ESAs by disrupting iron metabolism and increasing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that inhibit erythropoiesis. Increase dialysis dose is associated with improvements in anemia correction and reduced requirements for ESAs. Severe hyperparathyroidism and aluminum overload lead to a reduced number of responsive erythroid progenitor cells. Finally, a number of nutritional factors, such as deficiencies of carnitine, vitamin B12, folic acid, and vitamin C, are susceptible to alter erythropoiesis. Optimizing patient response to ESAs therefore requires consideration of many of well-established factors and is important for both patient outcomes and cost of treatment. PMID:17373270

Jauréguy, Maïté; Choukroun, Gabriel

2006-09-01

451

Factors affecting perceived tumor volumes in magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irregularly structured brain tumors, such as glioblastomas, challenge attempts to visualize and quantify their three-dimensional\\u000a structure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents one tool for attempting to noninvasively track tumor size. MR images\\u000a demonstrate widely varying perceived tumor margins. In addition, adjunct therapies, such as the administration of steroids,\\u000a greatly affect the volumes perceived in images formed by certain pulse sequences.

Robert L. Galloway; Robert J. Maciunas; Ann L. Failinger

1993-01-01

452

Metallurgical factors affecting the crack growth resistance of a superalloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

During creep loading of IN-792, grain boundary morphology in conjunction with grain size strongly affected crack propagation.\\u000a Compositional variations and fabrication techniques showed no significant effect. A primary requirement for materials to be\\u000a used in gas turbine engine discs is satisfactory resistance to crack growth resistance in the 650 to 760?C range. Both conventional\\u000a smooth and machine notched stress-rupture samples

J. M. Larson; S. Floreen

1977-01-01

453

Rotating biological contactors: a review on main factors affecting performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotating biological contactors (RBCs) constitute a very unique and superior alternative for biodegradable matter and nitrogen\\u000a removal on account of their feasibility, simplicity of design and operation, short start-up, low land area requirement, low\\u000a energy consumption, low operating and maintenance cost and treatment efficiency. The present review of RBCs focus on parameters\\u000a that affect performance like rotational speed, organic and

S. Cortez; P. Teixeira; R. Oliveira; M. Mota

2008-01-01

454

Factors affecting intention to quit among IT professionals in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of stressors (role ambiguity, role conflict, work-overload, work-family conflict), job stress, job satisfaction and organizational commitment on the information technology (IT) professionals' intention to quit their jobs in Turkey. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A structural equation modeling approach was employed to identify the variables that significantly affect the decision to

Fethi Calisir; Cigdem A. Gumussoy; Ibrahim Iskin

2011-01-01

455

Factors affecting slab surface roughness of siliceous dimension stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sawing of granite blocks using multi-blade gangsaws and an abrasive mixture is one of the most complex operations in the\\u000a rock transformation industry. The surface quality of the finished slabs is the main determinant of the volume of material\\u000a to be removed in subsequent polishing operations, thus affecting the product’s final cost. Measurements carried out on five\\u000a types of

Rogério Pinto Ribeiro; Antenor Braga Paraguassú; Sérgio Trajano Franco Moreiras

456

Metallurgical factors affecting fracture toughness of aluminum alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crack extension in commercial aluminum alloys proceeds by the “ductile” or fibrous mode. The process involves the large, ~1\\u000a ?m to ~10?m, Fe-, Si-, and Cu-bearing inclusions which break easily, and the growth of voids at the cracked particles. The\\u000a linking-up of the voids is accomplished by the rupture of the intervening ligaments, and this is affected by the fine,

G. T. Hahn; A. R. Rosenfield

1975-01-01

457

Mechanstic Factors Affecting Fenton Oxidations in Natural Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of Fenton’s reagent (Fe(II) + H2O2 yields hydroxyl radical) has been applied to remediation of contaminated soil sites and treatment of industrial waste streams. However, degradation of dissolved organic pollutants by Fenton’s reagent is strongly affected by thepresence of other dissolved\\u000a species. Natural organic matter (NOM) exerts three main influences on hydroxyl radical mediated oxidation of pollutants: 1)

Matthew A. Tarr; Michele E. Lindsey

458

Neighborhood Factors Affecting Rates of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Chicago  

Microsoft Academic Search

High rates of gonorrhea have been shown to be associated with high rates of incarceration in the prior year. One hypothesized\\u000a chain of events is that there is a negative effect of incarceration on neighborhood social characteristics, which in turn\\u000a affect behaviors facilitating transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). This study examined whether neighborhood\\u000a characteristics were associated with the incidence

James C. Thomas; Elizabeth A. Torrone; Christopher R. Browning

2010-01-01

459

Factors affecting parenting stress among biologically vulnerable toddlers.  

PubMed

Parenting a child with, or at risk for, a developmental delay or disability can be stressful. Abidin's parenting stress model was used as a framework to examine how several maternal, child, and family factors predict parent stress outcomes. Stepwise regression models revealed that maternal and child factors were significant contributors to parenting stress. However, family factors (income and family functioning) were not retained. Parenting stress was lower when child (cognitive and adaptive ability) and maternal (depression and child care competence) characteristics were more positive. Child cognitive ability was a strong contributor to total parenting stress and two parenting stress subscales. Findings suggest that these parents need stress lowering interventions such as supportive child care, respite relief, and a child behaviour-focused program. PMID:16923678

Loretta Secco, M; Askin, D; Yu, C T; Garinger, Jennifer; Mulaire-Cloutier, Carole; Scharf, Lisa; Schwartzman, Lisa; Konyk, Debra; Feldman, Maurice A

460

A discussion of the factors affecting surge in centrifugal compressors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of surge in a centrifugal compressor has been studied and found to be dependent on a number of complex and often interrelated factors. A major factor defining surge in high-speed, vaned diffuser designs appears to be the flow in the semivaneless space. By developing work initiated by others it has been possible to propose some explanation of previously presented apparently conflicting data. In addition, a more complex mathematical model capable of assessing additional factors is proposed. Using this model good agreement with experimental surge has been obtained. This model takes into consideration pressure losses in the impeller, diffuser, and collector, and by using this model it was possible to identify the stalling elements that are responsible for overall compressor instability.

Elder, R. L.; Gill, M. E.

1984-06-01

461

Factors affecting university women's basketball coaches' timeout decisions.  

PubMed

This study investigated the criteria that coaches of university women's basketball teams used when calling a timeout. Thirty-five of Canada's university coaches of women's basketball responded to Likert scale questions rating the importance of six factors in calling a timeout. Differences due to sex, coaching experience, and team success indicated that some factors were perceived to influence timeout decisions more than others. Specifically, responses from female coaches, coaches with less than 5 years of experience, and coaches whose teams were ranked in the CIAU's top 10 within the last 3 years indicated that they used offensive game events more frequently than their counterparts did. Interactions were also found for Experience x Gender and Experience x Gender x Success in the way that offensive game events were perceived, and for gender and success for the factor attentional state of players. PMID:1330273

Duke, A; Corlett, J

1992-12-01

462

Factors affecting engorgement behavior in the salt marsh horse fly, Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart (Diptera: Tabanidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Female Tabanus nigrovittatus were field collected and used in laboratory experimentation to further elucidate the physiological and behavioral factors that affect engorgement. Previous studies have shown that sulfakinins are feeding satiety factors in invertebrates. This study demonstrates that sulf...

463

FACTORS AFFECTING SENSITIVITY OF CHEMICAL AND ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF MARINE EMBAYMEMTS TO NITROGEN LOADING  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper summarizes an ongoing examination of the primary factors that affect sensitivity of marine embayment responses to nitrogen loading. Included is a discussion of two methods for using these factors: classification of embayments into discrete sensitivity classes and norma...

464

An Investigation of the Factors Affecting Moral Judgment of Marital Status and Family Size.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research was conducted to determine (a) how various factors influence the moral judgments of marital status and family size and (b) how these factors affect social pressures and interpersonal perceptions. Stories were prepared describing single or married...

E. H. Drucker

1975-01-01

465

Factors affecting magnetic properties of evaporated iron films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors determining the magnetic properties of iron films evaporated from an evaporation source positioned around a novel rotating cryostat (RC) system have been discussed. Results show all films exhibit isotropic behaviour when the RC system is stationary irrespective of the types of substrates used. However, when the RC is rotated, the films produced on kapton™ generally show a slight

Hakan Kockar; Turgut Meydan

2002-01-01

466

Factors affecting instant properties of powdered cocoa beverages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing number of small and medium scale manufacturers of powder cocoa beverages (PCBs) in Nigeria requires relevant technical data useful in designing new and value added products from cocoa powder. This paper reports a preliminary study carried out to determine how some physical and chemical factors relate to the instant properties of some commercial samples of PCBs produced in

T. A. Shittu; M. O. Lawal

2007-01-01

467

Factors Affecting the Fate of Ciprofloxacin in Aquatic Field Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ciprofloxacin (cipro) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used in human and veterinary medicine that is readily transported into the environment via domestic wastewaters and through direct runoff. Although factors governing cipro fate are becoming understood, an integrated evaluation of disappearance mechanisms in aquatic systems has not been performed. Here we examined cipro disappearance rate in surface waters using both laboratory and

L. A. Cardoza; C. W. Knapp; C. K. Larive; J. B. Belden; M. Lydy; D. W. Graham

2005-01-01

468

Factors affecting money laundering: lesson for developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The primary objective of this paper is to examine the factors that underpin the pervasiveness of money laundering. An empirical method was used to study the relationship between technology (information and communication technology infrastructure), quality of human capital, efficiency of the legal framework, ethical behavior of firms (corporate governance) and capacity for innovation on the pervasiveness of money

Santha Vaithilingam; Mahendhiran Nair

2007-01-01

469

A Quantitative Assessment of Factors Affecting College Sports' Team Unity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The competitiveness of National Collegiate Association (NCAA) schools increases in intensity each year. With the increased pressure on college sport staffs to be undefeated season after season, coaches have to find ways to keep players happy; to do this, they have to find factors that contribute to unify the players. It is nearly impossible to…

Aghazadeh, Seyed-Mahmoud; Kyei, Kwasi

2009-01-01

470

FACTORS AFFECTING THE ADOPTION OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which individual factors influence the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices is estimated using a logit model and data from a 1990 survey of West Virginia producers. The results are, as expected, different than those for conventional agricultural technologies. For example, the effects of human capital characteristics are significant, while those for structural and institutional characteristics are not.

Gerard E. DSouza; Douglas Cyphers; Tim T. Phipps

1993-01-01

471

Factors Affecting Principal Turnover: A Study of Three Midwestern Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose. This dissertation addresses the problem of principal turnover. Using state and city level administrative data, a study of principals and their schools in greater Kansas City, Missouri, St. Louis, Missouri, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, was conducted with the goal of discovering themes that emerge regarding the factors associated with…

Belt, Charles M.

2009-01-01

472

Factors Affecting Long-Term Abstinence from Substances Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes of abstainers from drug use that relate to the factors leading to long-term abstinence. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Amal Hospital to examine, which attitudes of abstainers related to long-term abstinence. A random survey was conducted on 62…

Elsheikh, Salah Elgaily

2008-01-01

473

FACTORS AFFECTING ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN BENGHAZI, LIBYA  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the factors responsible for road traffic accidents in Benghazi. Material and Methods: Retrospective and descriptive studies were done in the years 2006-2007. The data was collected from Traffic and License Department, Benghazi. The data were analyzed, based on fatalities, the severely handicapped, hit and run victims and were correlated with age, sex, time, environmental factors, type of roads, etc. Results: One-Thousand-Two-Hundred-Sixty-Five accidents occurred between the years 2006-2007 within the Benghazi city limits; 11.14% of the injuries were fatal; 67.35% of the victims had severe injuries and 21.51% escaped with minor injuries. Table 1 shows that 73.04% lost their lives within the city limits, 13.47% on the fly-over, and 2.12% on minor roads connected to main roads within the city limits. The mean of the accidents and its standard deviation were 16.66± 25.67 with a variance of fatality of 1.54. Conclusion: It is concluded from the studies that major road traffic accidents occur because of environmental stress factors. In addition, fatalities and the seriousness of the accidents depend on a number of factors such as the age of the vehicle, safety measures, human error and time and place of accident.

Al-Ghaweel, Ibrahim; Mursi, Saleh A.; Jack, Joel P.; Joel, Irene

2009-01-01

474

Factors Affecting Drug Abuse in Adolescent Females in Rural Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores factors influencing adolescent female substance use in rural communities. Self-reported data gathered from females 12 to 15 years of age in two northwestern communities in the United States showed an association among gender identity, peer and parental relationships, and substance use. Aggressive masculinity had the…

Renes, Susan L.; Strange, Anthony T.

2009-01-01

475

Sociological Factors Affecting Agricultural Price Risk Management in Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The highly volatile auction system in Australia accounts for 85 percent of ex-farm wool sales, with the remainder sold by forward contract, futures, and other hedging methods. In this article, against the background of an extensive literature on price risk strategies, we investigate the behavioral factors associated with producers' adoption of…

Jackson, Elizabeth; Quaddus, Mohammed; Islam, Nazrul; Stanton, John

2009-01-01

476

Factors affecting the performance of entrepreneurial service firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current climate, the importance of the role played by entrepreneurship as a palpable reality that enables economic growth at a macroeconomic level, and as a factor that favours the progress of companies at a microeconomic level, has made it the subject of continual analyses from many different perspectives and in a variety of contexts by researchers from around

SeongBae Lim; Domingo Ribeiro; Sang M. Lee

2008-01-01

477

Caregiver Support Groups: Factors Affecting Use of Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined effects of factors on support group attendance among family caregivers to frail elderly relatives. Found that attendance by primary caregivers was greater for those who were older, who had secondary informal caregiver involved in providing care, or who had significant health problems. Attendance was greater for those caring for…

Monahan, Deborah J.; And Others

1992-01-01

478

Factors Affecting Technology Uses in Schools: An Ecological Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Why is technology not used more in schools? Many researchers have tried to solve this persistent puzzle. The authors of this article report on their study of technology uses in 19 schools. They suggest an ecological metaphor, using the example of the introduction of the zebra mussel into the Great Lakes, to integrate and organize sets of factors

Zhao, Yong; Frank, Kenneth A.

2003-01-01

479

Factors affecting performance in first-year computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performances are analysed over successive semesters for a cohort of first-year students doing computer programming. Attainment is related to performance in other studies. However, many factors have roles. Learning style and problem-solving skills are important in information technology in Semester I. Gender and secondary school outcomes matter in introductory programming, also in Semester I. Dislike of programming influences outcomes in

Annagret Goold; Russell Rimmer

2000-01-01

480

Analysis of Factors Affecting Least-Cost Size of Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general model used to analyze the effects of assembly and distribution factors and economies of scale in processing on least-cost size of plant and on cost components is described. This model is applied to empirical data from fluid milk plants and country elevators. In both cases, it appears that total per unit cost (combined assembly, processing and distribution cost)

E. M. Babb; T. H. Yu

1970-01-01

481

Factors affecting the interpretation of figurative language uses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relations among three general language competency factors ? word knowledge, comprehension, and paradigmatic\\/syntagmatic reasoning ? and college developmental readers’ ability to interpret two text formats designed to elicit either a literal or figurative interpretation. The two formats were: a) an embedded format where different target expressions were included as the last statement in a context that

David G. OBrien; Bonnie Higginson; G. Michael Miller

1986-01-01

482

Factors Affecting the Misperception of Friendliness Cues in Initial Interactions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some researchers have found men to attribute more sexual meaning to heterosexual interactions than do women. This study was conducted to examine factors which may enhance or diminish this gender difference on perceptions of sexual intent by considering the three variables of physical attractiveness of target, similarity of target's personality to…

Harnish, Richard J.; And Others

483

Factors affecting webpage's visual interface design and style  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, many researches of web interface were focused on usability and technical aspects. Instead, this research takes the visual communication-oriented approach to see how much the visual interface style adds to its rating. The main purpose of this study is to understand the design criteria and major factors that influenced different web visual interface styles. First of all,

Chun-Cheng Hsu

2011-01-01

484

Environmental and Management Factors Affecting Estrous Activity in Dairy Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

One thousand periods of estrus of Hol- stein and Jersey cows and heifers of breeding age during 27 mo were used to evaluate environmental and management factors related to estrous behavior during twice-daily heat checks. Mounting activ- ity at the first observation of estrus was influenced by sire within genetic selection group fog milk yield, lactation number, primary housing location,

F. C. Gwazdauskas; J. A. Lineweaver; M. L. McGilliard

1983-01-01

485

Children in Research: Informed Consent and Critical Factors Affecting Mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-three mothers whose ill children had been enrolled in clinical trials were interviewed about their experiences giving informed consent. The qualitative data from mothers of children with cancer and mothers of children with diabetes were compared and contrasted using narrative analysis techniques. Results suggest four critical factors that differentiated and defined their informed consent experiences: immediacy of the threat to

Pamela K. Pletsch; Patricia E. Stevens

2001-01-01

486

Caregiver Support Groups: Factors Affecting Use of Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined effects of factors on support group attendance among family caregivers to frail elderly relatives. Found that attendance by primary caregivers was greater for those who were older, who had secondary informal caregiver involved in providing care, or who had significant health problems. Attendance was greater for those caring for…

Monahan, Deborah J.; And Others

1992-01-01

487

Factors Affecting Epilepsy Development and Epilepsy Prognosis in Cerebral Palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted between November 2006 and October 2009 to determine the factors predicting the presence and prognosis of epilepsy in patients with cerebral palsy. We enrolled 2 groups of patients: 42 with cerebral palsy in group 1 and 56 patients with cerebral palsy and epilepsy in group 2. The subjects in group 2 were considered to have good

Gulen Gul Mert; Faruk Incecik; Sakir Altunbasak; Ozlem Herguner; Mustafa Kurthan Mert; Nurcihan Kiris; Ilker Unal

2011-01-01

488

Factors Affecting Social Workers' Inclusion of Animals in Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors

Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E.; Kawam, Elisa

2013-01-01

489

Individual Differences: Factors Affecting Employee Utilization of Flexible Work Arrangements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated individual and organizational factors that predict an individual's choice to use flexible work arrangements (FWAs). Survey data was collected from 144 employees in two different organizations. The results revealed several significant predictors of FWAs: tenure, hours worked per week, supervisory responsibilities,…

Lambert, Alysa D.; Marler, Janet H.; Gueutal, Hal G.

2008-01-01

490

Upper Extremity Physical Factors Affecting Tennis Serve Velocity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty1 tournament-level tennis players with expert serve technique volunteered to have their serve evaluated to determine relationships between anthropometric data, extremity strength, and functional serve velocity. All players underwent a complete physical examination, a video taped serve analysis, a radar measurement of serve velocity, and a series of upper extremity strength measurements. Statistical analysis was performed to determine which factors

David B. Cohen; Michael A. Mont; Kevin R. Campbell; Barry N. Vogelstein; John W. Loewy

1994-01-01

491

Factors affecting children's enjoyment of a frightening film sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment examined the factors that contribute to children's enjoyment of frightening mass media, in an effort to extend recent research with adults. The study focused on suspense (indexed by worry and fear) and character liking as mediators of enjoyment. Children at two age levels viewed a scary program that concluded with either a successful resolution of a threat or

Cynthia Hoffner; Joanne Cantor

1991-01-01

492

Social Life Factors Affecting Suicide in Japanese Men and Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined relationship between social and demographic indicators and age-adjusted suicide mortality in 46 prefectures in Japan. Rural residence was the major factor for male mortality in 1970 and 1975. In 1970, home help for the elderly, depopulation by social mobility, and urban residence were positively associated with male mortality. In women,…

Araki, Shunichi; Murata, Katsuyuki

1986-01-01

493

Factors Affecting Individual Persistence Rates in Undergraduate College Programs1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses a sample drawn from the National Longitudinal Surveys of young men attending college in the 1960's. Some of the principal conclusions of the multivariate analyses are: (1) Factors determining persistence vary widely with the stage of the undergraduate career; (2) race and parental SES bear no net relation to dropping out; (3) the impact of ability declines

Andrew I. Kohen; Gilbert Nestel; Constantine Karmas

1978-01-01

494

FACTORS AFFECTING DISINFECTION AND STABILIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Effective disinfection and stabilization of sewage sludge prior to land application is essential to not only protect human health, but also to convince the public of its benefits and safety. A basic understanding of the key factors involved in producing a stable biosolid product ...

495

Factors affecting the concentration of testosterone in poultry litter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poultry litter used as cattle feed can contain high levels of testosterone (>400 ng\\/g) and estrogen (>300 ng\\/g) which can interfere with reproduction. However such high levels of testosterone are not usually found in broiler chicken litter (< 6% of samples). We tested the following parameters to determine what factors could be responsible for highly elevated concentrations of testosterone: sex,

Laurence S. Shore; Michael Gurevich; Mordechai Shemesh

1993-01-01

496