Sample records for factors affecting achievement

  1. Factors Affecting Turkish Students' Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Ibrahim; Kilic, Serpil; Depren, Ozer

    2009-01-01

    Following past researches, student background, learning strategies, self-related cognitions in mathematics and school climate variables were important for achievement. The purpose of this study was to identify a number of factors that represent the relationship among sets of interrelated variables using principal component factor analysis and…

  2. Visual Factors Which Affect Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flax, Nathan

    The relationship between vision and reading achievement is complex. In this paper, a number of terms relating to vision are defined and some of the limitations of specific measures of vision are discussed. In order to relate vision to reading, it is necessary to segment arbitrarily the continuous process of vision into a series of subsystems, or…

  3. Factors Affecting Children's Math Achievement Scores in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilday, Carolyn R.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation contains three independently conducted studies on factors that affect the math achievement scores of preschool-aged children. The first study examined the associations between children's executive-functioning (EF) and math achievement scores at 54 months of age. Results suggest that EF is strongly associated with children's…

  4. Affective factors and student achievement: a quantitative and qualitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leo F. Denton; Dawn McKinney

    2004-01-01

    The affective domain can be used to support the internalization of cognitive content and foster the development of curriculum and industry-related interests, attitudes, values, and practices. During a two-year period, using validated instruments, the authors measured student interest, value, effort, perceived competence, lack of pressure, student-peer belonging, and student-faculty belonging. Initial findings included a positive correlation between each affective factor

  5. Using PISA 2003, Examining the Factors Affecting Students' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Ibrahim; Kilic, Serpil

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of learning strategies on mathematics achievement. The sample was compiled from students who participated in Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in Turkey. The data consisted of 4493 15 years old Turkish students in 158 schools, and analyzed by two levels Bernoulli model as a…

  6. Social–Emotional Factors Affecting Achievement Outcomes Among Disadvantaged Students: Closing the Achievement Gap

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Bronwyn E.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social–emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspectives in a comprehensive and interdisciplinary model that will inform policy makers, administrators, and schools about the social–emotional factors that act as both risk and protective factors for disadvantaged students’ learning and opportunities for academic success. Four critical social–emotional components that influence achievement performance (academic and school attachment, teacher support, peer values, and mental health) are reviewed. PMID:23255834

  7. Student and School Factors Affecting Mathematics Achievement: International Comparisons between Korea, Japan and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; Kim, Yongnam

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to comparatively investigate student- and school-level factors affecting mathematics achievement of Korean, Japanese and American students. For international comparisons, the PISA 2003 data were analysed by using the Hierarchical Linear Modeling method. The variables of competitive-learning preference, instrumental…

  8. School factors affecting postsecondary career pursuits of high-achieving girls in mathematics and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Hyunsil

    This study examined the influences of secondary school experiences of high-achieving girls in math and science on their postsecondary career pursuits in science fields. Specifically, using the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), the study investigated how science class experiences in high school affect science career persistence of high-achieving girls over and above personal and family factors. Selecting the top 10% on the 8 th grade math and science achievement tests from two panel samples of 1988--1994 and 1988--2000, this study examined which science instructional experiences (i.e., lecture-oriented, experiment-oriented, and student-oriented) best predicted college major choices and postsecondary degree attainments in the fields of science after controlling for personal and family factors. A two-stage test was employed for the analysis of each panel sample. The first test examined the dichotomous career pursuits between science careers and non-science careers and the second test examined the dichotomous pursuits within science careers: "hard" science and "soft" science. Logistic regression procedures were used with consideration of panel weights and design effects. This study identified that experiment-oriented and student-oriented instructional practices seem to positively affect science career pursuits of high-achieving females, while lecture-oriented instruction negatively affected their science career pursuits, and that the longitudinal effects of the two positive instructional contributors to science career pursuits appear to be differential between major choice and degree attainment. This study also found that the influences of instructional practices seem to be slight for general females, while those for high-achieving females were highly considerable, regardless of whether negative or positive. Another result of the study found that only student-oriented instruction seemed to have positive effects for high-achieving males. In addition, this study found that the lecture-oriented and experiment-oriented instructional practices were more likely to contribute to the choice of soft sciences for general and high-achieving females, while student-oriented instructional practices were more likely to contribute to the degree attainment in hard sciences for high-achieving females in science. The results should provide information for educational policies regarding school instruction and curriculum and career development targeted towards improving gender equity in science career pursuits.

  9. School Factors Explaining Achievement on Cognitive and Affective Outcomes: Establishing a Dynamic Model of Educational Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creemers, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic model of educational effectiveness defines school level factors associated with student outcomes. Emphasis is given to the two main aspects of policy, evaluation, and improvement in schools which affect quality of teaching and learning at both the level of teachers and students: a) teaching and b) school learning environment. Five…

  10. Risk factors that affect reproductive target achievement in fertile dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Aungier, S P M; Roche, J F; Diskin, M G; Crowe, M A

    2014-06-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate (1) the risk factors that influence the achievement of reproductive targets postpartum (pp) and (2) the key factors that influence pregnancy rate following first artificial insemination (AI) in dairy cows. Ninety-eight Holstein-Friesian pp cows were blood sampled from wk 1 to 4 pp for hematology and biochemistry. Reproductive tract health was assessed weekly by ultrasonography and vaginal mucus scoring. Body condition score (BCS), lameness score, and milk yield were assessed every 2 wk. Milk samples for progesterone assay were collected twice weekly and on d 4, 5, and 7 after AI. Risk factors associated with achieving reproductive targets depended on (1) increased metabolic activity of the liver (increased glutamate dehydrogenase at calving and increased ?-glutamyl transpeptidase in wk 4), (2) a competent immune system (increased neutrophils in wk 1; decreased ?1-acid glycoprotein in wk 1, 2, and 3), (3) an endocrine system that was capable of responding by producing sufficient triiodothyronine in wk 2 and increased insulin-like growth factor I in wk 3 and 4, (4) a lower negative energy balance status (decreased nonesterified fatty acid concentration in wk 1; decreased ?-hydroxybutyrate concentration in wk 2; BCS loss between calving and d 28 pp <0.5), (5) good reproductive tract health [normal uterine scan at d 45 pp; clear vaginal mucus discharge at first ovulation and at d 45 pp; resumed ovarian cyclicity by the end of the voluntary waiting period (? d 35 pp)], and (6) adequate diet (to ensure increased glutathione peroxidase in wk 2 and 3 and increased magnesium in wk 4). Risk factors that increased the odds of a successful first AI were previous ovulation(s) (odds ratio=3.17 per ovulation), BCS >2.5 at AI (odds ratio=3.01), and clear vaginal mucus (score=0) compared with purulent mucus (score >0) 4 d after first AI (odds ratio=2.99). In conclusion, this study identified key risk factors in the early pp period that give a higher probability of cows achieving their reproductive targets and of having a first-AI pregnancy. PMID:24679929

  11. Factors Affecting Academic Achievement in Single Mothers Attending Public Two-Year Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Shakebra L.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative, cross-sectional, correlation research study explored the relationships between self-efficacy, social support, and academic achievement among single mothers aged 18 and older attending Mississippi public two-year institutions. A total of 82 single mothers provided data for this study by completing the following research…

  12. Factors Affecting Academic Achievement of Adult Students Enrolled in Ontario University Credit Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beagle, Peggy

    Existing programs, policies and practices as they affect the older adult student in Ontario universities were investigated. Interview data were collected from adult students about their experiences in the light of the policies described, and a number of obstacles to successful study encountered by these students were identified. A statistical…

  13. Examining Factors Affecting Science Achievement of Hong Kong in PISA 2006 Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Terence Yuk Ping; Lau, Kwok Chi

    2014-01-01

    This study uses hierarchical linear modeling to examine the influence of a range of factors on the science performances of Hong Kong students in PISA 2006. Hong Kong has been consistently ranked highly in international science assessments, such as Programme for International Student Assessment and Trends in International Mathematics and Science…

  14. 2011 and 2012 Early Careers Achievement Awards: farm and pig factors affecting welfare during the marketing process.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A K; Gesing, L M; Ellis, M; McGlone, J J; Berg, E; Lonergan, S M; Fitzgerald, R; Karriker, L A; Ramirez, A; Stalder, K J; Sapkota, A; Kephart, R; Selsby, J T; Sadler, L J; Ritter, M J

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the scientific literature to identify on-farm factors that contribute to market weight pig transportation losses. Transportation of market weight pigs is an essential element to the multisite pork production model used in the United States. In 2011 alone, approximately 111 million market weight pigs were transported from the finishing site to the abattoir. For pigs, the marketing process can present a combination of potentially novel, physical, and/or unfamiliar experiences that can be stressful. If the pig cannot cope with these sequential and additive stressors, then an increased rate of transportation losses could occur with a detrimental effect on pork carcass value. Current yearly estimates for transport losses are 1 million pigs (1%). A variety of market weight pig and farm factors have been reported to detrimentally affect transportation losses. By understanding how pigs interact with their environment during marketing, researchers, producers, and personnel at the abattoir may begin to identify, prioritize, and attempt to minimize or eliminate these stressors. This process will ultimately decrease transportation losses, improve pork quality, and increase profitability. PMID:23478817

  15. A study of determining factors affecting the performance of nurses based on the achieve model in selected hospital of Isfahan (Iran)

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoubi, Maryam; Javadi, Marzieh; Rakhsh, Fariba; Bahadori, Mohamadkarim

    2013-01-01

    Background: The achieve uses 7 variables: ability; clarity; help; incentive; evaluation; validity; and environment, to provide leaders and staffs with the necessary tools to improve performance, and help managers to determine cause of performance problem. And create change strategy for solving those problems. We try to determine factors affecting the performance of nurses, base on this model in selected hospital of Isfahan (Iran). Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive-correlation survey. The population of study was 85 nurses of 9 hospitals in Esfahan. Data gathering was done via achieve questionnaire. Reliability was calculated by Cronbach's alpha (r = 0.85). Data analysis was done by using SPSS 16. Result: The ability and help variables were the most important factors in improving performance of nurses and validity and evaluation were less important. Conclution: Today, staff effectiveness is one of the important problems in health care organization. In fact, performance improvement is the most important step for organization improvement. PMID:24251285

  16. Case studies of factors affecting the motivation of musical high achievers to learn music in Hong Kong

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Wah Leung; Gary E. McPherson

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the personal beliefs and attitudes of highly motivated Hong Kong school-age subjects who studied music. A total of 24 participants who demonstrated high achievement and interest in learning music were interviewed. Content analysis of the interview data was performed to elucidate four topics: background information about the music learning of participants, their feelings about learning music,

  17. Key Factors for College Student Achievement, Cognition, Affects, and Motivation: Student Locus of Control and Quality of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonwetter, Dieter J.; And Others

    This study investigated the effects of college students' actual, rather than manipulated, perception of control along with expressive instruction, as they relate to cognitive and emotional aspects of academic achievement. In a simulated college classroom study, 228 male and female introductory psychology students at the University of Manitoba…

  18. Factors Affecting Photosynthesis!

    E-print Network

    Kudela, Raphael M.

    Factors Affecting Photosynthesis! Temperature Eppley (1972) Light Sverdrup's Critical Depth-493, but the general concept is still valid! ! #12;PB opt & Temperature! #12;Photosynthesis & Temperature! Remember: in the laboratory, we can measure photosynthesis versus irradiance (PvsE) and calculate Ek, Pmax, and alpha

  19. Factors Affecting Photosynthesis!

    E-print Network

    Kudela, Raphael M.

    4/21/13 1 Factors Affecting Photosynthesis! Temperature Eppley (1972) Light Sverdrup Michaelis-Menten versus PE curves! Photosynthesis and nutrient kinetics curves look similar because they are governed by the same process: Initial slope is dependent on amount of pigments (light) or cell

  20. Factors Affecting Gummy Butter.

    E-print Network

    Leighton, R. E. (Rudolph Elmo); Moore, A. V.

    1952-01-01

    LIBRARY A. & M. COLLEGE OF TEXAS Factors Affecting Gummy Butter DIGEST Among the Southcentral States, Texas ranks next to Oklahoma and Kentucky in creamery butter production; in farm butter production Texas is third in the nation... products produce I butter having what is known as a gummy or melt-resistant body. The availability and nutritive qualities of cottonseed products make them highly desirable as dairy feeds, especially in the South. This study shows that the gummy...

  1. The relationship among mathematics achievement, affective variables and home background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ngai-Ying

    1993-10-01

    One thousand seven hundred and sixty six secondary school students in Hong Kong participated in the present study, in which the relationship among mathematics achievement, affective variables and home background was investigated. It was found that mathematics achievement was most closely related with self-concept, academic self-concept and attitudes towards mathematics. Self- and parental expectations were the most influential factors to these affective variables. It was also found that Hong Kong students spent, on the average, over 33% of homework time on mathematics homework. The time spend on homework, however, did not exhibit significant correlation with mathematics achievement.

  2. The relationship among mathematics achievement, affective variables and home background

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ngai-ying Wong

    1993-01-01

    One thousand seven hundred and sixty six secondary school students in Hong Kong participated in the present study, in which\\u000a the relationship among mathematics achievement, affective variables and home background was investigated. It was found that\\u000a mathematics achievement was most closely related with self-concept, academic self-concept and attitudes towards mathematics.\\u000a Self- and parental expectations were the most influential factors to

  3. Factors Affecting Students' Retention at Kuwait University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlKandari, Nabila

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the factors that affect students' retention at Kuwait University. Five hundred seventy students participated in the study. A survey of 22 retention factors was designed to measure student perceptions. Students presented their agreement on factors which included: achieving personal aspiration, getting jobs, free-of-charge…

  4. Factors affecting soil cohesion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erodibility is a measure of a soil’s resistance against erosive forces and is affected by both intrinsic (or inherent) soil property and the extrinsic condition at the time erodibility measurement is made. Since soil erodibility is usually calculated from results obtained from erosion experimen...

  5. Factors affecting neonatal jaundice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Wood; P Culley; C Roginski; J Powell; J Waterhouse

    1979-01-01

    Plasma bilirubin was estimated on 690 term infants on about the 6th day of life. Perinatal factors were recorded and the results analysed. Hyperbilirubinaemia was defined as a level greater than 205 micromol\\/1 (12 mg\\/100 ml) and this was present in 20% of cases. Three factors--epidural analgesia, breast feeding, and poor weight recovery--showed highly significant associations with jaundice. The relative

  6. The Affective Side: Parenting for Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strop, Jean

    2003-01-01

    This article describes key steps parents can take to develop an achievement orientation in gifted children: heal the gifted child within the parent; give consistent messages; develop early independence; utilize encouragement; develop multiple self-definitions; set challenging but realistic goals; and model persistence. (Author/CR)

  7. Factors Affecting Willingness to Mentor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Quaglino, Gian Piero

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a survey among 300 employees in Northern Italy to assess the willingness to mentor and identify the factors that affect it. Men and respondents with previous mentoring experience indicate a higher willingness to be a mentor. Willingness is affected by personal characteristics that are perceived as necessary for a mentor and the…

  8. Student Factors and Mathematics Achievement: Evidence from TIMSS 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azina, Ismail Noor; Halimah, Awang

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics learning and achievement is one area of research that has gained momentum in recent years because of its importance as a subject in the school curriculum and its usefulness as a prerequisite for developing the quantitative and analytical skills. However, studies on factors affecting mathematics achievement in Malaysia are limited both…

  9. Fluorescein. Physiochemical factors affecting its fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Romanchuk, K G

    1982-01-01

    Fluorescein's property of fluorescence is reviewed. Of the many factors which affect its fluorescence, concentration is probably the most important and it best explains why leaking aqueous turns fluorescein bright green during Seidel's test. The intensity and pattern of fluorescein staining of corneal lesions is probably due to the concentration and distribution of fluorescein in the cornea. The concentration of fluorescein achieved in the retinal blood vessels during fluorescein angiography affects its fluorescence. PMID:7046118

  10. Affecting Factors in Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, G.; Vlachos, F.; Andreou, E.

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of sex, handedness, level in second language (L2) and Faculty choice on the performance of phonological, syntactical and semantic tasks in L2. Level in L2 and sex were the most affecting factors. Subjects who achieved higher scores on L2 tasks had strong second language aptitude skills since they were…

  11. Factors affecting sorghum protein digestibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. G Duodu; J. R. N Taylor; P. S Belton; B. R Hamaker

    2003-01-01

    In the semi-arid tropics worldwide, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is cultivated by farmers on a subsistence level and consumed as food by humans. A nutritional limitation to its use is the poor digestibility of sorghum protein when wet cooked. The factors affecting wet cooked sorghum protein digestibility may be categorised into two main groups: exogenous factors (grain organisational structure,

  12. Factors Contributing to Institutions Achieving Environmental Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Matthew; Card, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine what factors contributed to three universities achieving environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A case study methodology was used to determine how each factor contributed to the institutions' sustainability. Site visits, fieldwork, document reviews, and interviews with…

  13. Factors Affecting Illegal Hacking Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randall Young; Lingling Zhang

    2005-01-01

    The damage caused by illegal hacking has become one of the serious problems facing society. Based on general deterrence theory, social bond theory and social learning theory, the paper proposes a model which examines the factors affecting the likelihood an individual will engage in illegal hacking behavior. Data was gathered from a survey of 127 individuals who attended a hacker’s

  14. Factors Affecting Bioscience Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rytkonen, Henna; Parpala, Anna; Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari; Virtanen, Viivi; Postareff, Liisa

    2012-01-01

    The examination of academic progression has become an essential tool for measuring the effectiveness of educational systems. Research concerning the relationship between student learning and how they progress in their studies, however remains scarce. The aim of this study is two-fold: Firstly, the study aims to analyse first-year bioscience…

  15. Exploratory Analysis of the Prevalence of Self-Related Affects in Achievement Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallerand, Robert J.; Blais, Marc R.

    1989-01-01

    Assesses the prevalence of self-related affects in achievement situations by asking basketball players to recall and indicate the importance of critical incidents in their sport careers. Examines the impact of success and failure, and the effects of situational factors on the prevalence of self-related affects. Self-related affects are linked to…

  16. Dietary factors affecting polyphenol bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Torsten

    2014-07-01

    While many epidemiological studies have associated the consumption of polyphenols within fruits and vegetables with a decreased risk of developing several chronic diseases, intervention studies have generally not confirmed these beneficial effects. The reasons for this discrepancy are not fully understood but include potential differences in dosing, interaction with the food matrix, and differences in polyphenol bioavailability. In addition to endogenous factors such as microbiota and digestive enzymes, the food matrix can also considerably affect bioaccessibility, uptake, and further metabolism of polyphenols. While dietary fiber (such as hemicellulose), divalent minerals, and viscous and protein-rich meals are likely to cause detrimental effects on polyphenol bioaccessibility, digestible carbohydrates, dietary lipids (especially for hydrophobic polyphenols, e.g., curcumin), and additional antioxidants may enhance polyphenol availability. Following epithelial uptake, polyphenols such as flavonoids may reduce phase II metabolism and excretion, enhancing polyphenol bioavailability. Furthermore, polyphenols may act synergistically due to their influence on efflux transporters such as p-glycoprotein. In order to understand polyphenol bioactivity, increased knowledge of the factors affecting polyphenol bioavailability, including dietary factors, is paramount. PMID:24828476

  17. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective. PMID:23016987

  18. Factors Affecting the Earth's Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Classroom Connectors lesson plan discusses factors affecting the weather on Earth. Students learn about solar radiation, wind circulation, precipitation, and biomes that result from weather patterns. The site provides goals, objectives, an outline, time required, materials, activities, and closure ideas for the lesson. The Classroom Connectors address content with an activity approach while incorporating themes necessary to raise the activity to a higher cognition level. The major motivation is to employ instructional strategies that bring the students physically and mentally into touch with the science they are studying.

  19. Factors affecting reciprocating compressor performance

    SciTech Connect

    Woollatt, D. (Dresser-Rand Co., Painted Post, NY (United States))

    1993-06-01

    A reciprocating compressor is a positive displacement machine and, in principal, its capacity and horsepower can be calculated very easily. In practice, however, several loss mechanisms act to decrease capacity and increase horsepower from the ideal predicted values. Many of these effects are quite difficult to predict accurately and the only effective way of developing reciprocating compressor performance prediction methods is to run a large number of tests on different compressors under different operating conditions. Combined with an understanding of the physics controlling the losses, experimental results allow good empirical models of losses to be developed. However, without the benefit of a good understanding of the physics of the loss mechanisms, it is impossible to interpret test results. Some factors affecting the magnitude of losses are compressor design, compressor speed, suction and discharge pressure and temperature, gas composition, suction and discharge piping design, and valve design. Losses that are important in some applications may be negligible in others so it is essential that a wide range of compressor designs, valve designs, gas molecular weight and operating conditions be tested when developing a performance prediction model. The paper discusses the effects of clearance and pressure ratio; the primary losses affecting capacity and power, including valve and port pressure loss, valve springing, valve inertia, piston ring leakage, packing leakage, discharge valve leakage, suction valve leakage, pulsations, heat transfer in the suction passage, and heat transfer in the cylinder; heat transfer in compressor cylinders; performance prediction methods; and compressor diagnosis.

  20. Locus of Control and Its Affect on Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Louise M.

    Locus of control is considered a primary factor in the difference between students' high and low achievement. This phenomenon is defined as a polar construct which refers to the degree to which individuals view their successes and failures as either contingent upon their own behaviors (internal locus of control) or independent of them (external…

  1. Cognitive Factors Affecting Subjective Probability Assessment

    E-print Network

    West, Mike

    Cognitive Factors Affecting Subjective Probability Assessment Alyson G. Wilson Institute of Statistics & Decision Sciences, Duke University ISDS Discussion Paper #94--02 February 1, 1994 #12; Cognitive Factors Affecting Subjective Probability Assessment Alyson G. Wilson Institute of Statistics and Decision

  2. Measure for Measure: How Proficiency-Based Accountability Systems Affect Inequality in Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Jennifer; Sohn, Heeju

    2014-01-01

    How do proficiency-based accountability systems affect inequality in academic achievement? This article reconciles mixed findings in the literature by demonstrating that three factors jointly determine accountability's impact. First, by analyzing student-level data from a large urban school district, we find that when educators face…

  3. Perceptions of Educational Barriers Affecting the Academic Achievement of Latino K-12 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becerra, David

    2012-01-01

    This study examined different factors affecting the perceptions of barriers in academic achievement of Latino K-12 students. The study used data from 1,508 participants who identified themselves as being of Hispanic or Latino heritage in the 2004 National Survey of Latinos: Education, compiled by the Pew Hispanic Center between August 7 and…

  4. Factors affecting the lipase activity of milk

    E-print Network

    Tallamy, Paul Thomas

    1969-01-01

    FACTORS AFFECTING THE LIPASE ACTIVITY OF MILK A Thesis By PAUL THOMAS TALLAMY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1969 Major... Subject: Food Technology FACTORS AFFECTING THE LIPASE ACTIVITY OF MILK A Thesis By PAUL THOMAS TALLAMY Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Commi tee fg M ber Head f Depar tmen Mem er Member January 1969 ABSTRACT Factors Affecting...

  5. The 'Religious Factor' and Achievement in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halevy, Zvi; Etzioni Halevy, Eva

    1974-01-01

    In this paper an attempt was made to examine the thesis of Nicholas Hans (a further development of Weber's thesis) on the relationship between religious affiliation and educational achievement using the Soviet Union as an example. (Author)

  6. Age Learning Factors Affecting Pilot Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbert, Brison

    This document, intended for pilot education and flight safety specialists, consists chiefly of a review of the literature on physiological factors that affect pilot education and an examination of environmental factors that should be scrutinized in order to improve the effectiveness of aviation learning facilities. The physiological factors

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility Suzanne. E. Fenton US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  8. Factors affecting water quality in Cherokee Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Iwanski, M.L.; Higgins, J.M.; Kim, B.R.; Young, R.C.

    1980-07-01

    The purpose was to: (1) define reservoir problems related to water quality conditions; (2) identify the probable causes of these problems; and (3) recommend procedures for achieving needed reservoir water quality improvements. This report presents the project findings to date and suggests steps for upgrading the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section II presents background information on the characteristics of the basin, the reservoir, and the beneficial uses of the reservoir. Section III identifies the impacts of existing reservoir water quality on uses of the reservoir for water supply, fishery resources, recreation, and waste assimilation. Section IV presents an assessment of cause-effect relationships. The factors affecting water quality addressed in Section IV are: (1) reservoir thermal stratification and hydrodynamics; (2) dissolved oxygen depletion; (3) eutrophication; (4) toxic substances; and (5) reservoir fisheries. Section V presents a preliminary evaluation of alternatives for improving the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section VI presents preliminary conclusions and recommendations for developing and implementing a reservoir water quality management plan. 7 references, 22 figures, 21 tables.

  9. Factors affecting Internet development: An Asian survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao Xiaoming; Chow Seet Kay

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the Internet development and various social, economic and political factors that are hypothesized to affect the Internet growth. Using secondary data for 28 sampled Asian countries, this study tested seven hypotheses about the impact of various factors on Internet growth. The findings show that the Internet penetration is related to a country's wealth, telecommunication

  10. FACTORS AFFECTING AURAL DETECTIONS OF SONGBIRDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathew W. Alldredge; Theodore R. Simons; Kenneth H. Pollock

    2007-01-01

    Many factors affect the number of birds detected on point count surveys of breeding songbirds. The magnitude and importance of these factors are not well understood. We used a bird song simulation system to quantify the effects of detection distance, singing rate, species differences, and observer differences on detection probabilities of birds detected by ear. We simulated 40 point counts

  11. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  12. Economic and Cultural Factors Affecting University Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabnoun, Naceur

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…

  13. Positive Affect and Negative Affect as Modulators of Cognition and Motivation: The Rediscovery of Affect in Achievement Goal Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornebekk, Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    A central hypothesis of classical motivation theory is that affect underlies motivation and its behavioural manifestations. However, this has been largely ignored in the past 30 years because social cognitivism has been the dominant theory. As a result, studies have concentrated on social cognitive processes when analysing those factors that…

  14. Does Recreational Computer Use Affect High School Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.; Berland, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the relationship between student academic achievement and use of computers for fun and video gaming has been described from a multitude of perspectives, from positive, to negative, to neutral. However, recent research has indicated that computer use and video gaming may be positively associated with achievement, yet these studies…

  15. Internal Accountability and District Achievement: How Superintendents Affect Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hough, Kimberly L.

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative survey study was designed to determine whether superintendent accountability behaviors or agreement about accountability behaviors between superintendents and their subordinate central office administrators predicted district student achievement. Hierarchical multiple regression and analyses of covariance were employed,…

  16. Variables Affecting Medical Faculty Students’ Achievement: A Mersin University Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ogenler, Oya; Selvi, Huseyin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Training provided in medical faculties is mainly composed of two phases: preclinical and clinical. Preclinical period, or the first three years, consists of theoretical classes and practical implementations to develop vocational skills. In the clinical period, students are given applied courses. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the role of demographic characteristics and medical students’ life habits on their academic achievement. Patients and Methods: For this purpose, a 20-item survey form with two sections developed by the researchers was used. Students were also asked to identify the averages of committee exams as the academic achievement indicator. Participating students (n = 287) were from Mersin University Medical Faculty during 2012-2013 session. Results: Totally, 60.3% of the students were males with an average age of 21.16 ± 1.39, and their general grade point average was 63.39 ± 9.08. Students in their second year (P = 0.000), who were females (P = 0.000), graduated from Anatolian Teachers High Schools (P = 0.002), financially well off (P = 0.026), stayed in state hostels (P = 0.032), did not smoke (P = 0.042) and regularly did sports (P = 0.016) were significantly more successful compared to others. Conclusions: Students’ socioeconomic resources and habits play roles on academic achievement. Solutions that incorporate economic support which can eliminate negative situations leading to inequality of opportunity among students would increase students' achievement. PMID:24829774

  17. Effort versus Ability: Preferences and Affective Reactions in Achievement Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jonathon

    Psychological researchers continue to debate the relative contribution of ability and effort to feelings of self-worth. To investigate student preferences for ability or effort and their relationship to self-worth, and to assess the relative contribution of ability and effort to affective experience, two separate studies were undertaken. In the…

  18. Factors Affecting Customers’ Choice of Retail Banking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Venkata Seshaiah; Vunyale Narender

    2007-01-01

    This paper attempts to analyze the factors that affect the choice of customers in choosing the retail banks by the customers. The study involves a survey of 1000 bank customers using questionnaire as the research instrument, augmented with informal interviews of the customers and also makes thorough use of the information available on the internet. In the study, the authors

  19. Factors Affecting Sea Lamprey Egg Survival

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen J. Smith; J. Ellen Marsden

    2009-01-01

    Factors that affect recruitment of sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus are not well understood; for example, the majority (85%) of sea lamprey eggs are washed out of the nest, and the survival rate of these eggs is unknown. We examined the role of predation and substrate on egg survival in the laboratory and egg predation and dispersion of eggs outside the

  20. Factors Affecting the Speed of Free Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrier, Jonathan; Horne, Joanna; Singleton, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Factors affecting the free writing speed of 11-year-old students were investigated using the Group and Individual Assessment of Handwriting Speed. Intelligence, gender, legibility and whether the student has special educational needs or speaks English as an additional language were all found to impact on writing speed to a significant extent. In…

  1. Micropropagation Factors affecting adventitious root formation

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Micropropagation Factors affecting adventitious root formation in microcuttings of Malus GJ De, la vitrification, la durée du cycle final de micropropagation et la concentration en acide indolebuty or by micropropagation. In the vegetative propagation of many crops, rooting of (micro)cuttings is the most crucial step

  2. Factors Affecting Faculty Web Portal Usability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…

  3. Factors affecting potato petiole sap nitrate tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurice L. Vitosh; George H. Silva

    1996-01-01

    Many factors can affect the nitrate?nitrogen concentration of potato petioles. They include but are not limited to the following: N?fertilizer applications, mineralizable soil N, time of sampling, position of the petiole on the plant, age of the plant, potato cultivar, time of the day when plants are sampled, and the environmental conditions prior to sampling. A better understanding of these

  4. FACTORS AFFECTING CARCASS COMPOSITION AND BEEF QUALITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Purchas

    Summary Factors affecting carcass composition and beef quality have been outlined in this chapter by looking at ways in which the true value of two finished cattle- beasts can differ at the same final live weight, and at the same time and place. True value is taken to be determined by the quantity of lean saleable beef produced, the quality

  5. Factors affecting spermatozoa morphology in beef bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate factors affecting sperm morphology of bulls (n=908) collected at 320 days of age. Bulls were a composite breed (50% Red Angus, 25% Charolais, and 25% Tarentaise) born from 2002 to 2008 to dams fed levels of feed during mid and late gestation that were expe...

  6. Factors affecting the Human Sex Ratio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. O. Renkonen; O. Mäkelä; Raimo Lehtovaara

    1962-01-01

    WE present here evidence suggesting the existence of at least two kinds of factors affecting the human sex ratio. As the sex ratio we use the number of male births per 100 female births. The evidence is based on family data collected by Geissler1 in 1889 and by ourselves2,3.

  7. Relevant factors that affect service recovery performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Bao Lin

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the factors that affect employees' service recovery performance from the perspectives of internal management. In addition, this paper combines the techniques of linear multi-variable statistical analysis and nonlinear fuzzy neural network methodology to analyse data and validate hypotheses. This paper selects travel agents who have frequent interactions with customers and provide intangible services. The empirical finding indicates

  8. Factors Affecting Advertising Approach in Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan H. C. Tai

    1998-01-01

    The adoption of a regional advertising strategy in the Asian market is becoming popular due to rising living standards and the growing similarity of consumer tastes in the region. The main objectives of this paper are to: (1) investigate the advertising approach adopted by the multinationals, and (2) identify the factors affecting the extent of advertising standardization in The People's

  9. Factors Affecting Vocational-Technical Program Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Virginia

    The project was developed to identify the factors which affect the vocational-technical program choices of Millcreek Township School District secondary pupils having the options of an academic program with vocational electives or a dual program of academic subjects in the home school and more intensive training in a vocational-technical school on…

  10. Factors Affecting the Stability of Cellulose Peroxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshitaka Ogiwara; Kaoru Torikoshi; Kazuo Takahashi; Hitoshi Kubota

    1982-01-01

    Factors affecting the stability of three kinds of cellulose peroxides prepared by reactions of aldehyde cellulose, carboxy-methyl cellulose, and unmodified cellulose with hydrogen peroxide, Peroxides A, B, and C, respectively, were investigated. The relative stability of the peroxides was in the order Peroxide A > B > C, which was greatly improved by applying ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as the chelating reagent

  11. Personal and family factors as predictors of pupils' mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Alomar, Bader O

    2007-08-01

    This study examined personal and family factors in prediction of mathematics achievement by Kuwaiti fourth graders (395 boys, 501 girls; M age=10.0 yr., SD=8.0 mo.). Personal variables included sex, total achievement, perception of parental involvement, pupil's attitude towards school, and mathematics achievement. Family variables included parental education and parental involvement, views of school, and income. The data had good fit with the suggested model. Analysis showed variables which had significant direct association with mathematics achievement were total achievement and sex. Parental education, pupil's sex, and attitude towards school had significant indirect associations with mathematical achievement. Associations were direct for boys and indirect for girls on mathematics achievement, so sex had minimal total effects on mathematics achievement. PMID:17958133

  12. Factors Affecting Intensive Care Units Nursing Workload

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ravangard, Ramin; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Mosavi, Seyed Masod; Gholami Fesharaki, Mohammad; Mehrabian, Fardin

    2014-01-01

    Background: The nursing workload has a close and strong association with the quality of services provided for the patients. Therefore, paying careful attention to the factors affecting nursing workload, especially those working in the intensive care units (ICUs), is very important. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the factors affecting nursing workload in the ICUs of the hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional and analytical-descriptive study that has done in Iran. All nurses (n = 400) who was working in the ICUs of the hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2014 were selected and studied using census method. The required data were collected using a researcher–made questionnaire which its validity and reliability were confirmed through getting the opinions of experts and using composite reliability and internal consistency (? = 0.89). The collected data were analyzed through exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and using SPSS 18.0 and AMOS 18.0. Results: Twenty-five factors were divided into three major categories through EFA, including structure, process, and activity. The following factors among the structure, process and activity components had the greatest importance: lack of clear responsibilities and authorities and performing unnecessary tasks (by a coefficient of 0.709), mismatch between the capacity of wards and the number of patients (by a coefficient of 0.639), and helping the students and newly employed staff (by a coefficient of 0.589). Conclusions: The nursing workload is influenced by many factors. The clear responsibilities and authorities of nurses, patients' admission according to the capacity of wards, use of the new technologies and equipment, and providing basic training for new nurses can decrease the workload of nurses. PMID:25389493

  13. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  14. Factors affecting the determination of cerebrovascular reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Rosemary E; Fisher, Joseph A; Duffin, James

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), measures the ability of the cerebrovasculature to respond to vasoactive stimuli such as CO2. CVR is often expressed as the ratio of cerebral blood flow change to CO2 change. We examine several factors affecting this measurement: blood pressure, stimulus pattern, response analysis and subject position. Methods Step and ramp increases in CO2 were implemented in nine subjects, seated and supine. Middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were determined breath-by-breath. Cerebrovascular conductance (MCAc) was estimated as MCAv/MAP. CVR was calculated from both the relative and absolute measures of MCAc and MCAv responses. Results MAP increased with CO2 in some subjects so that relative CVR calculated from conductance responses were less than those calculated from CVR calculated from velocity responses. CVR measured from step responses were affected by the response dynamics, and were less than those calculated from CVR measured from ramp responses. Subject position did not affect CVR. Conclusions (1) MAP increases with CO2 and acts as a confounding factor for CVR measurement; (2) CVR depends on the stimulus pattern used; (3) CVR did not differ from the sitting versus supine in these experiments; (4) CVR calculated from absolute changes of MCAv was less than that calculated from relative changes. PMID:25328852

  15. Cognitive and Affective Processes Related to School Achievement: Implications for Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaha, Steven H.; Wittrock, Merlin C.

    During the last two decades of work in predicting and explaining school achievement, much research has emphasized the identification and measurement of student cognitive and affective processes which predict and also promise to help explain and facilitate school achievement. This review focuses on modifiable cognitive and affective processes, as…

  16. Factors Affecting Ice Nucleation in Plant Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Ashworth, Edward N.; Davis, Glen A.; Anderson, Jeffrey A.

    1985-01-01

    Factors affecting the ice nucleation temperature of plants and plant tissues were examined. The mass of a sample had a marked effect on ice nucleation temperature. Small tissue samples supercooled to ?10°C and were not accurate predictors of the nucleation temperature of intact plants in either laboratory or field experiments. This effect was not unique to plant tissues and was observed in autoclaved and control soil samples. Ice nucleation temperatures of bean, corn, cotton, and soybean seedlings were influenced by the length of subzero exposure, presence of ice nucleation active bacteria, and leaf surface wetness. The number of factors influencing ice nucleation temperature suggested that predicting the freezing behavior of plants in the field will be complex. PMID:16664524

  17. Reappraising factors affecting mourning dove perch coos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sayre, M.W.; Atkinson, R.D.; Baskett, T.S.; Haas, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    Results confirmed pairing as the primary factor influencing perch-cooing rates of wild mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). Marked unmated males cooed at substantially higher rates (6.2x) than mated males, had greater probability of cooing (2.3x) during 3-minute periods, and continued cooing longer each morning than mated males. Population density was not a major factor affecting cooing. Unmated males cooed more frequently in the presence of other cooing doves (P < 0.05) than when alone, but the number of additional doves above 1 was unimportant. Cooing rates of both mated and unmated males on areas with dissimilar dove densities were not significantly different. Within limits of standard call-count procedure, weather exerted no detectable influence on cooing.

  18. Factors affecting academic leadership in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Martires, Kathryn J; Aquino, Lisa L; Wu, Jashin J

    2015-02-01

    Although prior studies have examined methods by which to recruit and retain academic dermatologists, few have examined factors that are important for developing academic leaders in dermatology. This study sought to examine characteristics of dermatology residency programs that affect the odds of producing department or division chairs/chiefs and program directors (PDs). Data regarding program size, faculty, grants, alumni residency program attended, lectures, and publications for all accredited US dermatology residency programs were collected. Of the 103 programs examined, 46% had graduated at least 1 chair/chief, and 53% had graduated at least 1 PD. Results emphasize that faculty guidance and research may represent modifiable factors by which a dermatology residency program can increase its graduation of academic leaders. PMID:25750963

  19. Principals and School Factors that Impact Elementary School Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gieselmann, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This study examined principals and school factors associated with elementary school student achievement. Nine predictor variables were analyzed to determine their impact on student state assessment scores: (a) years of principal experience, (b) years of teaching experience by the principal, (c) years of principal experience at present site, (d)…

  20. Factors affecting aural detections of songbirds.

    PubMed

    Alldredge, Mathew W; Simons, Theodore R; Pollock, Kenneth H

    2007-04-01

    Many factors affect the number of birds detected on point count surveys of breeding songbirds. The magnitude and importance of these factors are not well understood. We used a bird song simulation system to quantify the effects of detection distance, singing rate, species differences, and observer differences on detection probabilities of birds detected by ear. We simulated 40 point counts consisting of 10 birds per count for five primary species (Black-and-white Warbler Mniotilta varia, Black-throated Blue Warbler Dendroica caerulescens, Black-throated Green Warbler Dendroica virens, Hooded Warbler Wilsonia citrina, and Ovenbird Seiurus aurocapillus) over a range of 15 distances (34-143 m). Songs were played at low (two songs per count) and high (13-21 songs per count) singing rates. Detection probabilities averaged across observers ranged from 0.60 (Black-and-white Warbler) to 0.83 (Hooded Warbler) at the high singing rate and 0.41 (Black-and-white Warbler) to 0.67 (Hooded Warbler) at the low singing rate. Logistic regression analyses indicated that species, singing rate, distance, and observer were all significant factors affecting detection probabilities. Singing rate x species and singing rate X distance interactions were also significant. Simulations of expected counts, based on the best logistic model, indicated that observers detected between 19% (for the worst observer, lowest singing rate, and least detectable species) and 65% (for the best observer, highest singing rate, and most detectable species) of the true population. Detection probabilities on actual point count surveys are likely to vary even more because many sources of variability were controlled in our experiments. These findings strongly support the importance of adjusting measures of avian diversity or abundance from auditory point counts with direct estimates of detection probability. PMID:17494409

  1. Genetic factors affecting dental caries risk.

    PubMed

    Opal, S; Garg, S; Jain, J; Walia, I

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the literature on genetic aspects of dental caries and provides a framework for the rapidly changing disease model of caries. The scope is genetic aspects of various dental factors affecting dental caries. The PubMed database was searched for articles with keywords 'caries', 'genetics', 'taste', 'diet' and 'twins'. This was followed by extensive handsearching using reference lists from relevant articles. The post-genomic era will present many opportunities for improvement in oral health care but will also present a multitude of challenges. We can conclude from the literature that genes have a role to play in dental caries; however, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the aetiology of caries. Additional studies will have to be conducted to replicate the findings in a different population. Identification of genetic risk factors will help screen and identify susceptible patients to better understand the contribution of genes in caries aetiopathogenesis. Information derived from these diverse studies will provide new tools to target individuals and/or populations for a more efficient and effective implementation of newer preventive measures and diagnostic and novel therapeutic approaches in the management of this disease. PMID:25721273

  2. Factors affecting sporoplasm release in Kudoa septempunctata.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang Phil; Zenke, Kosuke; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Yoshinaga, Tomoyoshi

    2015-02-01

    The myxosporean parasite Kudoa septempunctata has been isolated from cultured olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and was recently identified as a cause of food poisoning in humans. Since the sporoplasm plays an important role in causing diarrhea by invading intestinal cells, the specific factors affecting the release of sporoplasm from spores should be determined. Thus, we investigated the effect of digestive and serum enzymes, fetal bovine serum (FBS), temperature, and the role of glucose in cell culture media on the release of sporoplasm. Sporoplasm release was observed in the groups treated with FBS and media containing glucose. In addition, 1,10-phenanthroline inhibited the release of sporoplasm in the FBS medium. These results indicate that K. septempunctata uses glucose for releasing its sporoplasm and that zinc or metalloprotease is related to the release mechanism. The present study provides important information for the development of agents to prevent sporoplasm release and the consequent food poisoning caused by K. septempunctata. PMID:25563617

  3. Factors affecting the quality of bottled water.

    PubMed

    Diduch, Malwina; Polkowska, ?aneta; Namie?nik, Jacek

    2013-03-01

    The ever-increasing popularity of bottled water means that it is important to analyze not only its mineral content but also, above all, its content of possible contaminants, especially the organic ones. In this respect, bottled waters are a special case, because apart from organic chemical contaminants derived from the well from which they were acquired, their secondary contamination is always possible, during treatment or storage or transport in unsuitable conditions (sunlight and elevated temperature). This paper describes how various factors, from the area around the well, and the method of drawing and treating water, to the manner in which the finished product is stored and transported may affect the quality of bottled waters. It also summarizes literature information on the levels of organic contaminants in various kinds of bottled water samples. PMID:23093103

  4. Various factors affect coiled tubing limits

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.S. [Precision Tube Technology Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-01-15

    Safety and reliability remain the primary concerns in coiled tubing operations. Factors affecting safety and reliability include corrosion, flexural bending, internal (or external) pressure and tension (or compression), and mechanical damage due to improper use. Such limits as coiled tubing fatigue, collapse, and buckling need to be understood to avoid disaster. With increased use of coiled tubing, operators will gain more experience. But at the same time, with further research and development of coiled tubing, the manufacturing quality will be improved and fatigue, collapse, and buckling models will become more mature, and eventually standard specifications will be available. This paper reviews the uses of coiled tubing and current research on mechanical behavior of said tubing. It also discusses several models used to help predict fatigue and failure levels.

  5. Factors affecting dwell times on digital displaying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, A. J.; Harris, R. L., Sr.

    1985-01-01

    A series of exploratory tests were conducted to investigate the effects of advanced display formats and display media on pilot scanning behavior using Langley's oculometer, a desktop flight simulator, a conventional electro-mechanical meter, and various digital displays. The primary task was for the test subject to maintain level flight, on a specific course heading, during moderate turbulence. A secondary task of manually controlling the readout of a display was used to examine the effects of the display format on a subject's scan behavior. Secondary task scan parameters that were evaluated were average dwell time, dwell time histograms, and number of dwells per meter change. The round dial meter demonstrated shorter dwell times and fewer dwells per meter change than the digital displays. The following factors affected digital display scanning behavior: (1) the number of digits; (2) the update rate of the digits; (3) the display media; and (4) the character font. The size of the digits used in these tests (0.28 to 0.50 inches) did not affect scan behavior measures.

  6. Analysis of Two Urban Middle Schools: Factors Affecting Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, V. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Because of increasing student enrollment, a new school was formed in a small low-income Southern California school district. Teachers could choose to transfer to the new school or remain at the existing school. Over five years, quantitative analyses of demographic data showed little differences between the two schools across the years except for a…

  7. An Analysis of Factors That Affect the Educational Performance of Agricultural Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenway, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Many factors contribute to student achievement. This study focuses on three areas: how students learn, how student personality type affects performance, and how course format affects performance outcomes. The analysis sought to improve understanding of the direction and magnitude with which each of these factors impacts student success. Improved…

  8. Factors affecting excretory behavior of pigs.

    PubMed

    Hacker, R R; Ogilvie, J R; Morrison, W D; Kains, F

    1994-06-01

    A 2(4) factorial experiment with six pens per treatment was conducted to examine the factors affecting the excretory behavior of growing-finishing pigs. The factors investigated were partition type (open or closed), pig density (9 or 14 pigs/pen, size: 2 m x 4.5 m), position of nipple drinker in the pen (back wall of the pen or side in front of slatted area), and prior experience of pigs (training or no training). A total of 1,104 pigs at a weight interval of 28.4 +/- .2 to 91.4 +/- .4 kg were used in this study. Pen cleanliness was assessed by a dung scoring system, and growth rate was determined over the growing-finishing period. Partition type, nipple drinker position, or prior training of pigs had no effect on growth rate. Stocking pigs at 14 pigs/pen reduced growth rate (P < .05) compared with 9 pigs/pen (.80 vs .83 kg/d). Significant differences for pen dirtiness were found for partition type. Pens with closed partitions were cleaner than those with open partitions (P = .0001) and pens became significantly dirtier as pigs grew older or heavier (P < .01). There was a significant interaction effect between pen partition and pig density as well as an interaction among pen partition, pig density, and water position (P < .05). PMID:8071169

  9. Investigation of biomechanical factors affecting rowing performance.

    PubMed

    Baudouin, Alexandre; Hawkins, David

    2004-07-01

    It was hypothesized that a crew's rowing performance was predictable based on their total propulsive power, synchrony (a real-time comparison of rower propulsive force magnitudes) and total drag contribution (a measure of the rowers' effect on shell drag forces during the recovery), quantities calculated from individual rower's force-time profiles and recovery kinematics. A rowing pair was equipped with transducers to gather shell velocity, propulsive blade force, oar angular position and seat displacement. Eight subjects (four port, four starboard) participated in two rounds of data collection. The first round pairings were random, while the second round pairings were assigned based on Round 1 results. Regression analysis and ANCOVA were used to test the validity of assumptions inherent in the predictive model and, if applicable, explore a linear model predicting rowing performance based on total propulsive power, synchrony and total drag contribution. Total propulsive power, synchrony and total drag contribution were correlated and further were affected by pairing, violating assumptions inherent in the linear model. The original hypothesis was not supported based on these violations. Important findings include (1) performance cannot be predicted using the simple linear model proposed, (2) rowers' force-time profiles are repeatable between trials, with some but not all rowers adapting their force-time profile dependent on their pair partner, presumably in an effort to increase the level of synchrony between the two, and (3) subtle biomechanical factors may play a critical role in performance. PMID:15165867

  10. Factors affecting newborn care practices in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shahjahan, Md; Ahmed, M Ranzu; Rahman, M Mokhlesur; Afroz, Afsana

    2012-01-01

    Newborn care is of immense importance for the proper development and healthy life of a baby. Although child and infant mortality in South Asia has reduced substantially, the rate of neonatal mortality is still high, although these deaths can be prevented by adopting simple interventions at the community level. The aim of the study was to identify the associated factors which affect newborn care practices. Data for the study were drawn from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2007, in which 6150 mothers were considered. The mean age of the mothers was 18 (±3.2) years. A little over 62% of the pregnant women received at least one antenatal check-up during the entire period of their pregnancy. About 70% of deliveries were conducted at home either by unskilled family members or by relatives. A clean instrument was used for cutting the cord of 87% of the newborn babies, while about 34% of them were reported to have had their first bath immediately after delivery. Initiation of breast feeding immediately after birth was practised in only about 19% of the cases. Compared with mothers with no education, those with secondary or higher levels were associated with clean cord care [odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0, 1.9] and early breast feeding [OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.2, 2.2]. The study revealed an urgent need to educate mothers, and train traditional birth attendants and health workers on clean delivery practices and early neonatal care. Increasing the number of skilled birth attendants can be an effective strategy to increase safe delivery practices, and to reduce delivery complications. PMID:22150703

  11. Factors Affecting Ejection Risk in Rollover Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Funk, James R.; Cormier, Joseph M.; Bain, Charles E.; Wirth, Jeffrey L.; Bonugli, Enrique B.; Watson, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 – 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size. PMID:23169130

  12. Factors Affecting Arctic Weather and Climate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    The factors discussed in this section are building blocks to understanding arctic weather and climate. Each factor plays an important role alone and in interaction with other factors. The "Arctic Energy Budget" ties all the factors together in a description of the Arctic as a climate system. The different factors are given detailed explanations and examples, and include topics like latitude, land/see distributions, solar radiation, air temperature, Air pressure, winds, humidity, clouds, precipitations, and Arctic energy budgets.

  13. Factors Affecting Transfer of Training in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamnill, Siriporn; McLean, Gary N.

    2005-01-01

    To begin the validation process for the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) in Thailand, research replicating Holton, Bates, and Ruona's study (2000) was conducted in Thailand. The LTSI was administered to 1,029 employees. Exploratory factor analysis and MANOVA were used to identify factors. A factor structure almost identical to that of…

  14. An Activity on Factors Affecting Blood Flow

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Glenn Soltes

    2012-06-28

    This lesson is designed to explore the relationship between pressure and vessel diameter and to create a model that represents how high blood pressure may affect weakened vessels. A collaborative work of Melvin Flores, Larie Laudato and Glenn Soltes

  15. How Student Satisfaction Factors Affect Perceived Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Celia C.

    2010-01-01

    Data from students in two sections of a general education course offered at a research university in spring 2009 were used to explore whether student satisfaction factors are associated with perceived learning as rated by students. A list of 22 elements in the learning environment was explored. The 22 were used in creating 3 satisfaction factors

  16. Factors Affecting Psychosocial Adjustment of Deaf Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Filiz

    2003-01-01

    A study involving 1,097 elementary and secondary students who are deaf found that degree of hearing loss, additional disability, and age at onset were negatively related to psychosocial adjustment. However, there was a positive relationship with the use of hearing aids, speech intelligibility, academic achievement, parental hearing status, and…

  17. The Relationship of Freshmen's Physics Achievement and Their Related Affective Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gungor, Almer (Abak); Eryilmaz, Ali; Fakioglu, Turgut

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the best-fitting structural equation model between the freshmen's physics achievement and selected affective characteristics related to physics. These characteristics are students' situational interest in physics, personal interest in physics, aspiring extra activities related to physics, importance of…

  18. Perfectionism, Achievement, and Affect in Children: A Comparison of Students from Gifted, Arts, and Regular Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stornelli, Deborah; Flett, Gordon L.; Hewitt, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the association between dimensions of perfectionism and levels of academic achievement and affect in school-aged children. A sample of 223 students (90 boys, 133 girls) from regular, gifted, and arts programs completed measures of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism, perceived academic competence, and…

  19. The Factors that Affect Science Teachers' Participation in Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, Judi Ann

    Scientific literacy for our students and the possibilities for careers available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas are important topics for economic growth as well as global competitiveness. The achievement of students in science learning is dependent upon the science teachers' effectiveness and experienced science teachers depend upon relevant professional development experiences to support their learning. In order to understand how to improve student learning in science, the learning of science teachers must also be understood. Previous research studies on teacher professional development have been conducted in other states, but Minnesota science teachers comprised a new and different population from those previously studied. The purpose of this two-phase mixed methods study was to identify the current types of professional development in which experienced, Minnesota secondary science teachers participated and the factors that affect their participation in professional development activities. The mixed-methods approach s utilized an initial online survey followed by qualitative interviews with five survey respondents. The results of the quantitative survey and the qualitative interviews indicated the quality of professional development experiences and the factors which affected the science teachers' participation in professional development activities. The supporting and inhibiting factors involved the availability of resources such as time and money, external relationships with school administrators, teacher colleagues, and family members, and personal intrinsic attributes such as desires to learn and help students. This study also describes implications for science teachers, school administrators, policymakers, and professional development providers. Recommendations for future research include the following areas: relationships between and among intrinsic and extrinsic factors, science-related professional development activities within local school districts, the use of formal and informal professional development, and the needs of rural science teachers compared to urban and suburban teachers.

  20. Factors affecting food selection in Canadian population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Ree; N Riediger; M H Moghadasian

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To establish health-related reasons behind Canadian food choices, and how variables such as education, income, gender, ethnicity and age may affect food selection.Subjects:Approximately 98 733 Canadians responded to the 12 questions regarding food choices in the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) cycle 2.1, conducted by the Canadian Government in 2003. These included 13 727 adolescents (12–19 years), 19 089 young

  1. Factors Affecting Thermally Induced Furan Formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Furan, a potential carcinogen, can be induced by heat from sugars and fatty acids. However, factors that contribute to its formation in foods are unclear. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of pH, presence of phosphate, heating time and heating temperature on furan forma...

  2. Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

  3. Political and institutional factors affecting systems engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yardley, John F.

    1993-01-01

    External groups have a significant impact on NASA's programs. Ten groups affecting NASA are identified, and examples are given for some of the them. Methods of dealing with these external inputs are discussed, the most important being good and open two way communications and an objective attitude on the part of the NASA participants. The importance of planning ahead, of developing rapport with these groups, and of effective use of NASA contractors is covered. The need for an overall strategic plan for the U.S. space program is stressed.

  4. Factors affecting customer relationship management practices in Thai academic libraries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piyawan Siriprasoetsin; Kulthida Tuamsuk; Cholabhat Vongprasert

    This study investigates and analyzes the factors affecting customer relationship management (CRM) practices in Thai academic libraries. The research conceptual framework focuses on factors affecting CRM practices was developed using Combe (2004)’s study on assessing CRM strategies. Mixed methods, qualitative, and quantitative approaches were used as a research methodology. Data was collected by using the interview and survey techniques with

  5. FACTORS AFFECTING EXVESSEL PRICES OF SKIPJACK TUNA IN HAWAII

    E-print Network

    FACTORS AFFECTING EXVESSEL PRICES OF SKIPJACK TUNA IN HAWAII Yung C . Shang The skipj ack -tuna to overfishing. On the other hand, the cost-revenue analysis indicates that, given the past input and tuna prices objective of this paper is to exam- ine the factors affecting the prices of skipj ack tuna. Skipjack

  6. Fatherhood across Two Generations: Factors Affecting Early Family Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldscheider, Frances; Hofferth, Sandra; Spearin, Carrie; Curtin, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the determinants of men's early parental roles, distinguishing factors that affect being a father versus being childless, and factors that affect being a resident versus a nonresident father, in the context of having a partner or not. We also consider whether these patterns have changed between 1985 and 2004. The data come…

  7. Factors affecting transfection in Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Streips, U N; Welker, N E

    1971-06-01

    The conditions for the infection of Bacillus stearothermophilus 4S with TP-1C phage deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are described. Cells from log-phase cultures are the most susceptible to phage DNA infection (transfection). A cellular component (competence factor) which enhances transfection is released into the culture medium during the transition period between the log and stationary phase of growth. Transfection is stimulated in the order of decreasing effectiveness, by Fe(3+), Mn(2+), and Mg(2+). The efficiency of transfection is the highest in cells growing at 60.5 C and does not occur in cells growing at 67 C although the cells are growing normally. A cellular component (competence factor) of this organism, which is released into the culture medium, advances by 40 min some step in the uptake of phage DNA. PMID:4934070

  8. Factors affecting quality of informed consent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Lavelle-Jones; D J Byrne; P Rice; A Cuschieri

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the factors influencing quality of informed consent. DESIGN--Prospective study comprising interviews with patients and patients' completing standard questionnaires. SETTING--Academic surgical unit of large teaching hospital. PATIENTS--265 patients undergoing intrathoracic, intraperitoneal, and vascular surgical procedures. Of these patients, 192 have been followed up for six months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Patients' recall of information at various points in the study; this

  9. Factors Affecting Crowded Acuity: Eccentricity and Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Coates, Daniel R.; Chin, Jeremy M.; Chung, Susana T. L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Acuity measurement is a fundamental method to assess visual performance in the clinic. Little is known about how acuity measured in the presence of neighboring letters, as in the case of letter charts, changes with contrast and with non-foveal viewing. This information is crucial for acuity measurement using low-contrast charts and when patients cannot use their fovea. In this study, we evaluated how optotype acuity, with and without flankers, is affected by contrast and eccentricity. Methods Five young adults with normal vision identified the orientation of a Tumbling-E alone or in the presence of four flanking Tumbling-Es. Edge-to-edge letter spacing ranged from 1 to 20 bar widths. Stimuli were presented on a white background for 150 ms with Weber contrast ranging from ?2.5% to ?99%. Flankers had the same size and contrast as the target. Testings were performed at the fovea, 3, 5 and 10 degrees in the inferior visual field. Results When plotted as a function of letter spacing, acuity remains unaffected by the presence of flankers until the flankers are within the critical spacing, which averages an edge-to-edge spacing of 4.4 bar widths at the fovea, and approximately 16 bar widths at all three eccentricities. Critical spacing decreases with a reduction in contrast. When plotted as a function of contrast, acuity only worsens when the contrast falls below approximately 24% at the fovea and 17% in the periphery, for flanked and unflanked conditions alike. Conclusions The letter spacing on conventional letter charts exceeds the critical spacing for acuity measurement at the fovea, at all contrast levels. Thus these charts are appropriate for assessing foveal acuity. In the periphery, the critical spacing is larger than the letter spacing on conventional charts. Consequently, these charts may underestimate the acuity measured in the periphery due to the effects of crowding. PMID:23770657

  10. Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Tutorials: Factors Affecting Students' Preferences and Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyth-Marom, Ruth; Saporta, Kelly; Caspi, Avner

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the factors that affect students' preferences regarding tutorial modes. A learning-habit inclinations questionnaire (LHIQ) was constructed and administered to 288 students. Factor analysis revealed four factors: "time management," "ease of access" to learning materials, "positive aspects of interaction," and "negative…

  11. Factors Affecting the Occurrence of Faculty-Doctoral Student Coauthorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Michelle A.; Timmerman, Briana Crotwell; Feldon, David F.; Strickland, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Using faculty narratives, this study identifies factors affecting the occurrence of faculty-doctoral student coauthorship. Norms of the discipline, resources, faculty goals for students, faculty goals for themselves, and institutional expectations emerged as dominant factors. Each factor is explored separately and as part of an interlocking…

  12. Factors affecting seal life in downhole motors

    SciTech Connect

    Dareing, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    The life expectancy of rotary seals in downhole motors depends on temperature generated by sliding friction as well as ambient temperature. Heat transfer calculations show that sliding friction can produce a significant rise in temperature across seal assemblies, great enough to deteriorate the seal material and cause premature failure. Thermal conductivities of seal materials and thicknesses of shaft, sleeve, and housing are major design factors influencing steady state temperature profiles across seal assemblies. In general, smaller dimensions and higher thermal conductivities allow the friction generated heat to dissipate at a lower temperature. A parameter study led to an improved rotary seal configuration which will significantly lower peak seal temperatures in downhole motors. The design will channel drilling mud near the sliding friction surface for better dissipation of the friction generated heat. Plans are being made to incorporate this improvement into the bearing seal test assembly. It is doubtful that seals made of Buna-N will perform successfully on downhole motors, even when used in the improved design. On the other hand, calculated maximum temperatures are within material limitations of Grafoil.

  13. Factors affecting the survival of Neisseria sicca.

    PubMed

    Fung, C; Glenister, D; Miles, R J; Nafi, B M

    1988-01-01

    Cultures of Neisseria sicca incubated at 37 degrees C died rapidly (within 36 h) after growth ceased. Re-suspending cells in a brain heart infusion broth and storing at 4 degrees C greatly reduced the rate of decline in viability (decimal reduction time 6 days). An important factor in maintaining viability was apparently the presence of external energy source(s). Survival comparable to that in broth was obtained by incubation in Ringer's solution with pyruvate plus glucose (but not with pyruvate or glucose alone). Medium pH had little effect on survival in the range pH 7.0 to 8.5. Energy sources also promoted survival of cells in Ringer's solution or a buffered salts solution at 37 degrees C. Highest levels of survival (up to 30% at 24 h) were obtained with pyruvate, lactate, proline and glutamate. A number of other amino acids and the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, isocitrate, oxoglutarate, succinate, fumarate, malate and oxaloacetate, enhanced survival to a lesser extent. PMID:3374398

  14. Factors Affecting Penetrating Captive Bolt Gun Performance.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Troy J; Mason, Charles W; Spence, Jade Y; Barker, Heather; Gregory, Neville G

    2014-11-21

    Captive bolt stunning is used for rendering livestock insensible at slaughter. The mechanical factors relating to performance of 6 penetrating captive bolt gun (CBG) models were examined. The Matador Super Sécurit 3000 and the .25 Cash Euro Stunner had the highest kinetic energy values (443 J and 412 J, respectively) of the CBGs tested. Ninety percent (27/30) of CBGs held at a government gun repository (United Kingdom) were found to have performed at a normal standard for the model, while 53% (10/19) of commercial contractor CBGs tested were found to underperform for the gun model. When the .22 Cash Special was fired 500 times at 4 shots per min, the gun reached a peak temperature of 88.8°C after 2.05 hr. Repeat firing during extended periods significantly reduced the performance of the CBG. When deciding on the appropriate CBG/cartridge combination, the kinetic energy delivered to the head of the nonhuman animal, bolt penetration depth, and species/animal type must be considered. It is recommended that CBGs are routinely checked for wear to the bolt and barrel if they are repeatedly fired in a session. PMID:25415241

  15. Factors affecting chromatin stability of bovine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, T A A; Rekkas, C A; Lymberopoulos, A G; Sioga, A; Dimitriadis, I; Papanikolaou, Th

    2008-03-01

    The structural stability of transcriptionally inert paternal chromatin is of vital importance for the fertilization process and early embryonic development. Accordingly, a series of eight experiments were conducted during a 7-month period to investigate: (1) effects of bull breed, individuality, successive ejaculations, semen quality characteristics (SQC), semen dilution rates and hypothermic storage of semen in a Tris-egg yolk extender on incidence of sperm nuclear chromatin instability (NCI), and (2) effects of the interaction between variation of NCI within a frozen ejaculate and variation of oocytes quality due to maturation time and/or season on the efficiency of in vitro embryo production (IVEP). Semen samples were collected once a week from six bulls using an AV and only ejaculates (n=220) of >0.30x10(9) sperm/ml and >or=60% motility were used. NCI was measured by: (1) detection of lysine-rich histones in sperm chromatin using aniline blue staining, (2) sperm susceptibility to acid-induced nuclear DNA denaturation in situ using acridine orange test, and (3) sperm susceptibility to nuclear chromatin decondensation (NCD). Bovine oocytes (n=695) were matured in vitro for 18 or 24 h, fertilized after sperm selection through a swim-up procedure and cultured for 72 h. The results showed that the 2nd ejaculates were superior to the 1st ones with respect to chromatin stability. Dilution of semen to 49.67+/-8.56x10(6) sperm/ml (1:19) decreased resistance of sperm to NCD. Cooling of semen had no significant effect on chromatin stability. Cryopreservation of semen augmented sperm vulnerability to DNA denaturation. Improvement of SQC (semen volume, sperm motility, velocity, viability and morphological normalcy) was generally concomitant with increase of sperm resistance to NCI. While Blonde d'Aquitaine bulls had a resistance to NCD higher than Limousine bulls in fresh semen, the former showed a greater susceptibility to DNA denaturation than the latter in cooled semen. Individuality significantly influenced NCI. The variability of NCI within a frozen ejaculate affected efficiency of IVEP. Significant negative correlations were observed between incidence of NCI and both fertilization rate and developmental capacity of embryos after maturation of oocytes for 18 h. The significant variation in IVEP traits due to season was independent of the effect of sperm chromatin instability. PMID:17398042

  16. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected...CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in...63.55 Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for...

  17. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected...CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in...63.55 Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for...

  18. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected...CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in...63.55 Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for...

  19. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected...CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in...63.55 Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for...

  20. The Achievement Gap: Factors That Influenced the Achievement of Successful Black Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Kwame R., Sr.

    2011-01-01

    The academic underperformance of Black students when compared to their White peers has confounded educators nationwide. This discrepancy in academic performance commonly referred to as the achievement gap has become a national crisis which has led to one of the most significant educational reforms undertaken in the United States of America in the…

  1. Newly Diagnosed with High Blood Pressure? 3 Factors Affect Prognosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... please enable JavaScript. Newly Diagnosed With High Blood Pressure? 3 Factors Affect Prognosis Systolic reading of 150 ... 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Stroke THURSDAY, Feb. 5, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Prompt ...

  2. Digestibility as a factor affecting bioavailability of food proteins

    E-print Network

    Padmanabhan, Dhanakoti

    1982-01-01

    DIGESTIBILITY AS A FACTOR AFFECTING BIOAVAILABILITY OF FOOD PROTEINS A Thesis by DHANAKOTI PADMANABHAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1982 Majo~ Subject: Food Science and Technology DIGESTIBILITY AS A FACTOR AFFECTING BIOAVAILABILITY OF FOOD PROTEINS A Thesis by DHANAKOTI PADMANABHAN Approved as to the style and content by: (Chairman of ommittee) ( ad of Dep rtment...

  3. Factors affecting hydrolysis of condensed phosphates in soils

    E-print Network

    Stewart, William M.

    1983-01-01

    FACTORS AFFECTING HYDROLYSIS OF CONDENSED PHOSPHATES IV SOILS A Thesis by WILLIAM MICHEAL STEWART Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1983 Major Subject: Soil Science FACTORS AFFECTING HYDROLYSIS OF CONDENSED PHOSPHATES IN SOILS A Thesis by WILLIAM MICHEAL STEWART Approved as to style and content by: Frank M. Hone (Chairman of Committee) Lloyd R. Hossner (Member...

  4. Identification of factors affecting the palatability of goat meat

    E-print Network

    Pike, Merritt Ivan

    1974-01-01

    Copyright by MERRITT IVAN PIKE 1975 IDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PALATABILITY OF GOAT MEAT A Thesis by MERRITT IVAN PIKE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1974 Major Subject: Animal Science (Meat Science) IDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PALATABILITY OF GOAT MEAT A Thesis by MERRITT IVAN PIKE Approved as to style and content by: Co- an of Committee Co...

  5. Factors affecting embryo donor performance in Brahman cows

    E-print Network

    Bastidas, Pedro Segundo

    1986-01-01

    FACTORS AFFECTING EMBRYO DONOR PERFORMANCE IN BRAHMAN COWS A Thesis by PEDRO SEGUNDO BASTIDAS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1986... Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction FACTORS AFFECTING EMBRYO DONOR PERFORMANCE IN BRAHMAN COWS A Thesis by PEDRO SEGUNDO BASTIDAS Approved as to style and content by: R. D. Randel (Chairman of Committee) P. G. Harms (Committee Member) D...

  6. An economic analysis of factors affecting the Texas potato market

    E-print Network

    Asgill, Oladimagi Winsome

    1989-01-01

    AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE TEXAS POTATO MARKET A Thesis OLADIMAGI WINSOME ASGILL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1989 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OP FACTORS AFFECTING THE TEXAS POTATO MARKET A Thesis OLADIMAGI WINSOME ASGILL Approved as to style and content by: H. L. Goodwin (Chair of Committee) S. W. Fuller (Member...

  7. Factors affecting attitudinal patterns toward education in the Dominican Republic

    E-print Network

    Carpenter, Edwin Hugh

    1968-01-01

    FACTORS AF'FECTING ATTITUDINAL PATTERNS TOWARD EDUCATION IN THE DOHINICAN REPUBLIC A Thesi. s by EDWIN HUGH CARPENTER Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of NASTER OF SCIENCE August 1968 Major Sub)sot: Sociology FACTORS AFFECTING ATTITUDINAL PATTERNS TOWARD EDUCATION IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC A Thesis by EDWIN HUGH CARPENTER Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman gf Commit tee) (Head...

  8. VI.B. A Delphi Study of Factors Affecting the Quality of NORMAN C. DALKEY

    E-print Network

    Bieber, Michael

    of life is a function of the individual's location in a "quality space"; that is, the sense of well- being existence; the other can be living an exciting life, with a high sense of achievement, and lonely, and each383 VI.B. A Delphi Study of Factors Affecting the Quality of Life NORMAN C. DALKEY 1. Earlier

  9. Sociocultural and Motivational Factors Affecting Asian American Females Studying Physics and Engineering in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sha, Saliha L.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated whether and to what extent the motivational and sociocultural factors affect female Asian American high school physics students' achievement, their intended major in college, and their planned career goals at work fields. A survey of 62 questions, extracted from subscales of AAMAS,STPQ and PSE, were…

  10. Factors affecting food decisions made by individual consumers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elaine H. Asp

    1999-01-01

    Food decisions made by individuals affect the healthfulness of their food intakes and influence the success or failure of food products in the consumer-oriented food marketplace of today. Because consumers develop their own systems of deciding what to eat and how to follow the Food Guide Pyramid, it is difficult to know which factors or combinations of factors that influence

  11. Factors affecting librarians' attitudes toward IT application in libraries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Ramzan; Diljit Singh

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting librarians' attitudes toward IT application in libraries. It also aims to identify common underlying factors, which could be used to predict the probable behavior of librarians toward IT innovation in their libraries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Primary data were collected through a questionnaire survey of 288 (sample of 682)

  12. Age as an Affective Factor in Second Language Acquisition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krishna K. Bista

    ABSTRACT This paper examines the relationship of age factor to second language acquisition. Age as an affective factor brings about different performance stages in second as well as first language learning. Traditionally, research in Critical Period Hypothesis and other variables has derived two major aspects of language learning--the younger = the better and the older = the better. However, more

  13. Determining the Factors Affecting the Memorable Nature of Travel Experiences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong-Hyeong Kim

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of travel experiences on the autobiographical memory. A structural equation modeling analysis reveals that the experiential factors of involvement, hedonic activity, and local culture positively affected the autobiographical memory of recollection and vividness of past experiences. Specifically, the experiential factors of involvement and refreshing experiences are found to increase an individual's ability to recollect past

  14. Age as an Affective Factor in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bista, Krishna K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of age factor to second language acquisition. Age as an affective factor brings about different performance stages in second as well as first language learning. Traditionally, research in Critical Period Hypothesis and other variables has derived two major aspects of language learning--the younger = the better…

  15. FACTORS ADVERSELY AFFECTING AMPHIBIAN POPULATIONS IN THE US

    EPA Science Inventory

    Factors known or suspected to be adversely affecting native amphibian populations in the US were identified using information from species accounts written in a standardized format by multiple authors in a forthcoming book. Specific adverse factors were identified for 53 (58%) of...

  16. Exploring Factors that Affect Purchase Intention of Athletic Team Merchandise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…

  17. Methods of Combinatorial Optimization to Reveal Factors Affecting Gene Length

    PubMed Central

    Bolshoy, Alexander; Tatarinova, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel method for genome ranking according to gene lengths. The main outcomes described in this paper are the following: the formulation of the genome ranking problem, presentation of relevant approaches to solve it, and the demonstration of preliminary results from prokaryotic genomes ordering. Using a subset of prokaryotic genomes, we attempted to uncover factors affecting gene length. We have demonstrated that hyperthermophilic species have shorter genes as compared with mesophilic organisms, which probably means that environmental factors affect gene length. Moreover, these preliminary results show that environmental factors group together in ranking evolutionary distant species. PMID:23300345

  18. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  19. Predicting Achievement in Mathematics in Adolescent Students: The Role of Individual and Social Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levpuscek, Melita Puklek; Zupancic, Maja; Socan, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    The study examined individual factors and social factors that influence adolescent students' achievement in mathematics. The predictive model suggested direct positive effects of student intelligence, self-rated openness and parental education on achievement in mathematics, whereas direct effects of extraversion on measures of achievement

  20. Learning science in a cooperative setting: Academic achievement and affective outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Baird, J. Hugh

    A learning unit in earth science was taught to high school students, using a jigsaw-group mastery learning approach. The sample consisted of 73 students in the experimental group and 47 students who learned the topic in an individualized mastery learning approach. The study lasted 5 weeks. Pretests and posttests on academic achievement and affective outcomes were administered. Data were treated with an analysis of covariance. The results show that students of the experimental group achieved significantly higher on academic outcomes, both normative and objective scores. On the creative essay test, the differences in number of ideas and total essay score were not significant between the groups, although the mean scores for number of words were higher for the individualized mastery learning group. On the affective domain, jigsaw-group mastery learning students scored significantly higher on self-esteem, number of friends, and involvement in the classroom. No differences were found in cohesiveness, cooperation, competition, and attitudes toward the subject learned. The results are discussed through the evaluation and comparison of the two methods of instruction used in this study.The cooperative learning movement began in junior high schools as part of the desegregation process, aiming at facilitating positive ethnic relations and increasing academic achievement and social skills among diverse students (Aronson, Stephan, Sikes, Blaney, & Snapp, 1978; Sharan & Hertz-Lazarowitz, 1980; Slavin, 1980). However, elementary teachers quickly recognized the potential of cooperative methods, and such methods were adopted freely in elementary schools before becoming widespread on the junior and senior high level. It has only been during the past few years that application of cooperative learning has been studied extensively with these older students.Cooperative learning methods generally involve heterogeneous groups working together on tasks that are deliberately structured to provide specific assignments and individual contributions from each group member. Cognitive as well as social benefits are expected, as students clarify their own understanding and share their insights and ideas with each other as they interact within the group (Deutsch, 1949).Experiments in the science laboratory have always required students to work in groups of two to four, due to the constraints of experimental processes and limited equipment and sup- plies. Thus, science courses are a natural curriculum area for examining cooperative learning practices. Now that cooperative methods are being refined to develop particular capabilities in the students, science teachers need to examine ways of structuring specific tasks to achieve the academic, affective, and socialization goals for their students. Although most of the studies of cooperative learning in the high school science classroom have centered around the cognitive outcomes of achievement testing and process skills, affective and social outcomes are also significant with students of this age. But few studies in science classes have attempted to assess such aspects of students' progress.As part of a previous revision, the science faculty at the high school where this study was conducted developed an exemplary individualized mastery learning (1ML) program for teaching science. This program seemed to alleviate the severe motivational problems and the extreme individual differences among the students in this rural/bhe-collar community. Students learned to work independently on their science studies. They had almost no lectures and few large group activities. As they worked through their assignments, however, they were free to interdct with other students. Looking in on a typical class, one would see several clusters of two or three students working together, sometimes tutoring each other, sometimes just talking through an assignment. Yet at least half of the class members would be working all alone. The importance of the overall social setting in the classroom as it relates to learning (Bruner, 1986,

  1. Ranking factors affecting emissions of GHG from incubated agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    García-Marco, S; Ravella, S R; Chadwick, D; Vallejo, A; Gregory, A S; Cárdenas, L M

    2014-07-01

    Agriculture significantly contributes to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and there is a need to develop effective mitigation strategies. The efficacy of methods to reduce GHG fluxes from agricultural soils can be affected by a range of interacting management and environmental factors. Uniquely, we used the Taguchi experimental design methodology to rank the relative importance of six factors known to affect the emission of GHG from soil: nitrate (NO3 (-)) addition, carbon quality (labile and non-labile C), soil temperature, water-filled pore space (WFPS) and extent of soil compaction. Grassland soil was incubated in jars where selected factors, considered at two or three amounts within the experimental range, were combined in an orthogonal array to determine the importance and interactions between factors with a L16 design, comprising 16 experimental units. Within this L16 design, 216 combinations of the full factorial experimental design were represented. Headspace nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were measured and used to calculate fluxes. Results found for the relative influence of factors (WFPS and NO3 (-) addition were the main factors affecting N2O fluxes, whilst glucose, NO3 (-) and soil temperature were the main factors affecting CO2 and CH4 fluxes) were consistent with those already well documented. Interactions between factors were also studied and results showed that factors with little individual influence became more influential in combination. The proposed methodology offers new possibilities for GHG researchers to study interactions between influential factors and address the optimized sets of conditions to reduce GHG emissions in agro-ecosystems, while reducing the number of experimental units required compared with conventional experimental procedures that adjust one variable at a time. PMID:25177207

  2. Ranking factors affecting emissions of GHG from incubated agricultural soils

    PubMed Central

    García-Marco, S; Ravella, S R; Chadwick, D; Vallejo, A; Gregory, A S; Cárdenas, L M

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture significantly contributes to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and there is a need to develop effective mitigation strategies. The efficacy of methods to reduce GHG fluxes from agricultural soils can be affected by a range of interacting management and environmental factors. Uniquely, we used the Taguchi experimental design methodology to rank the relative importance of six factors known to affect the emission of GHG from soil: nitrate (NO3?) addition, carbon quality (labile and non-labile C), soil temperature, water-filled pore space (WFPS) and extent of soil compaction. Grassland soil was incubated in jars where selected factors, considered at two or three amounts within the experimental range, were combined in an orthogonal array to determine the importance and interactions between factors with a L16 design, comprising 16 experimental units. Within this L16 design, 216 combinations of the full factorial experimental design were represented. Headspace nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were measured and used to calculate fluxes. Results found for the relative influence of factors (WFPS and NO3? addition were the main factors affecting N2O fluxes, whilst glucose, NO3? and soil temperature were the main factors affecting CO2 and CH4 fluxes) were consistent with those already well documented. Interactions between factors were also studied and results showed that factors with little individual influence became more influential in combination. The proposed methodology offers new possibilities for GHG researchers to study interactions between influential factors and address the optimized sets of conditions to reduce GHG emissions in agro-ecosystems, while reducing the number of experimental units required compared with conventional experimental procedures that adjust one variable at a time. PMID:25177207

  3. The Factors Affecting Pain Pattern after Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang-Wan; Kim, Dong-Gyun

    2014-01-01

    Background We evaluated the factors that affect pain pattern after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Methods From June 2009 to October 2010, 210 patients underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair operations. Of them, 84 patients were enrolled as subjects of the present study. The evaluation of postoperative pain was conducted by visual analog scale (VAS) scores during postoperative outpatient interviews at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. The factors that were thought to affect postoperative pain were evaluated by dividing into three categories: preoperative, operative, and postoperative. Results Pain after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair surgery showed a strictly decreasing pain pattern. In single analysis and multiple regression tests for factors influencing the strictly decreasing pain pattern, initial VAS and pain onset were shown to be statistically significant factors (p = 0.012, 0.012, 0.044 and 0.028, respectively). With regard to the factors influencing lower than average intensity pain pattern for each period, the stiffness of internal rotation at 3 months postoperatively was shown to be a statistically significant factor in single and multiple regression tests (p = 0.017 and p = 0.004, respectively). Conclusions High initial VAS scores and the acute onset of pain affected the strictly decreasing postoperative pain pattern. Additionally, stiffness of internal rotation at postoperative 3 months affected the higher than average intensity pain pattern for each period after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. PMID:25436062

  4. Achievement Motivation as a Factor in Self-Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillemyr, Ole Fredrik

    The Student Motivation for Musical Activities in Elementary School project was conducted between 1982 and 1983 with 3 main purposes: to study problems of motivation in the classroom, to examine factors significant to student motivation for general music program activities, and to obtain empirical foundations for the development of teaching…

  5. Factors affecting egg predation in Black-tailed Gulls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kentaro Kazama

    2007-01-01

    In colonial seabirds, nesting density, egg-laying date and nest microhabitat affect the probability of eggs being taken by\\u000a avian predators. Jungle Crows (Corvus macrorhynchos) are dominant predators of eggs of Black-tailed Gulls (Larus crassirostris). Factors affecting the probability of gulls allowing the crows to attack their nests or depredate their eggs and the probability\\u000a of eggs being taken were studied

  6. An examination of the association between demographic and educational factors and African American achievement in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottledge, Michael Christopher

    Objective of the Study: The objective of this research study was to investigate whether an association exists between teacher demographic factors (years of teaching experience and gender), 2 educational factors (certification type and certification pathway) and the percent passing rate of tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS. Answers to the following questions were sought: 1. Is there an association between teacher demographic factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? 2. Is there an association between teacher educational factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? 3. Is there an association between teacher demographic factors, educational factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? Status of the Question: According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), science and engineering jobs in the U.S. have increased steadily over recent years and by the year 2016 the number of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) jobs will have grown by more than 21 percent. This increase in science and engineering jobs will double the growth rate of all other workforce sectors combined. The BLS also reports that qualified minority applicants needed to fill these positions will be few and far between. African Americans, Latinos, and other minorities constitute 24 percent of the U.S. population but only 13 percent of college graduates and just 10 percent of people with college degrees who work in science and engineering (Education Trust, 2009). Drawing on the above information, I proposed the following hypotheses to the research questions: H01: There will be no significant statistical association between the demographic factors teacher gender and years of teaching experience and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS. H02: There will be no significant statistical association between the educational factors teacher certification type (composite or content specific) and teacher certification pathway and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS. H03: There will be no significant statistical association between a teachers' demographic factors, educational factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS. The researcher employed the assistance of the human resource departments of participating districts to generate a demographic report identifying the sex, years of experience, certification types and pathways of the teachers of record for African American male students who took the 10th grade Science TAKS during the 2009-2010 school year. Data ascertained from the demographic report was entered in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Software (SPSS). A linear regression statistical analysis was used to establish the following: 1). the degree of association between demographic factors and the percent passing rate of their African American male students on the 10th grade science TAKS , 2) the degree of association between educational factors and the percent passing rate of their African American male students on the 10th grade science TAKS, 3) the degree of association between demographic and educational factors and the percent passing rate of their African American male students on the 10th grade science TAKS Conclusion: Constantine et al (2009) concluded that although individual teachers appear to have an effect on student achievement, their study could not identify what about a teacher affects student achievement. Similar to Constatine, the researcher did not find any association between the demographic and educational factors of teachers and the science academic achievement of African American males. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  7. Factors Affecting Thermodynamic Stabilities of RNA 3 3 Internal Loops

    E-print Network

    Chen, Gang

    (Molecular Simulations Inc.). #12;3 Table S1. Thermodynamic Parameters for Single Strand Duplex Formation -H line are the thermodynamics from average of melt curve fits. #12;5 Table S2. Phylogenetic analysis1 Factors Affecting Thermodynamic Stabilities of RNA 3 Ã? 3 Internal Loops Gang Chen, Brent M

  8. Factors Affecting the Acceptability of Microforms as a Reading Medium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Herbert; Reynolds, Linda

    Based on visits to representative microform users and an extensive survey of relevant literature, a study was undertaken to assess the relative importance of factors affecting the acceptability of microforms as reading mediums. The following variables were considered: (1) microform characteristics; (2) equipment design; (3) work station design;…

  9. A study of the factors affecting the range of airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, David

    1937-01-01

    A study was made of the most important factors affecting the range of airplanes. Numerical examples are given showing the effects of different variables on the range of a two-engine airplane. The takeoff problems of long-range airplanes are analyzed.

  10. Factors Affecting Use of Environmental Services by the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwigsen, Gail

    The ability to function independently in the later years has been defined as a combination of capability and support. To examine factors affecting older adults' use of services provided in an accommodating environment, 52 physically independent residents of an Arizona apartment complex for the elderly were surveyed. Time spent living in the…

  11. Factors Affecting Role Stress and Burnout among School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willingham, Wendy Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine factors affecting role stress and burnout among practicing school counselors as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES) and the Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scale. The MBI-ES utilizes three subscales to measure burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal…

  12. Multivariate Analysis of Factors Affecting Pulmonary Function in Bronchiectasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Ip; I. J. Lauder; W. Y. Wong; W. K. Lam; S. Y. So

    1993-01-01

    Impaired pulmonary function is of prognostic importance in bronchiectasis. To assess the factors affecting pulmonary function in bronchiectasis, we studied the clinical features, atopic status, bronchial responsiveness, systemic inflammatory indices, and sputum characteristics including volume, purulence, leucocyte count, neutrophil chemotactic activity, elastolytic activity (EA) and bacteriology in 82 Chinese patients. The majority of patients had impaired spirometry with airflow obstruction

  13. Factors Affecting Soil Microbial Community Structure in Tomato Cropping Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil and rhizosphere microbial communities in agroecosystems may be affected by soil, climate, plant species, and management. We identified some of the most important factors controlling microbial biomass and community structure in an agroecosystem utilizing tomato plants with the following nine tre...

  14. ILLINOIS -RAILROAD ENGINEERING A Quantitative Analysis of Factors Affecting

    E-print Network

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    Slide 1 ILLINOIS - RAILROAD ENGINEERING A Quantitative Analysis of Factors Affecting Broken Rails Darwin H. Schafer II & Christopher P.L. Barkan May 9th, 2008 The William W. Hay Railroad Engineering Seminar Series University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign #12;Slide 2 ILLINOIS - RAILROAD ENGINEERING

  15. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  16. An Exploratory Investigation into Factors Affecting Visual Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niekamp, Walter

    1981-01-01

    Describes a study using ocular photography to examine factors which affect the visual weights of significant elements in a picture. Results indicating that the upper half of the visual fields has greatest weight are discussed, as are results showing insufficient support for side preferences. Included are 27 references. (Author/BK)

  17. Factors Affecting Educational Innovation with in Class Electronic Response Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Mark; Bell, Amani; Comerton-Forde, Carole; Pickering, Joanne; Blayney, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the use of Rogers' diffusion of innovation perspective to understand the factors affecting educational innovation decisions, specifically in regard to in class electronic response systems. Despite decreasing costs and four decades of research showing strong student support, academic adoption is limited. Using data collected from…

  18. Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwenda, Maxwell

    2011-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

  19. Factors affecting butterfly use of filter strips in Midwestern USA

    E-print Network

    Debinski, Diane M.

    Factors affecting butterfly use of filter strips in Midwestern USA Kathleen F. Reeder, Diane M between agricultural fields and streams. In 2002 and 2003, the butterfly community in filter strips butterfly abundance and diversity and measured vegetative variables in conjunction with each butterfly

  20. The Synergistic Effect of Affective Factors on Student Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Brady Michael; Lin, Huann-shyang; Yore, Larry D.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how affective and self-related factors impact participation in science learning and environmental awareness and responsibility. Using PISA 2006 datasets from Taiwan and Canada having similar level of science competency, the model for this study verifies and expands an earlier model by examining the relationships among…

  1. Industry Training: The Factors that Affect Demand. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, A.; Roberts, P.; Noble, C.; Hayton, G.; Thorne, E.

    A study was conducted in Australia, to determine the factors that affect demand for job training. The study consisted of 30 detailed industry case studies, an industry analysis, and a literature review. Each case study examined current training practices, training decision making in the business, and the determinants of training for the…

  2. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the effects of sustained low-calorie diets in humans on factors affecting aging. This type of intervention—maintaining a substantial percent reduction in caloric intake—has been shown to ... such an intervention on human aging are not yet known. The study, part ...

  3. Developing Worksheet Based on Science Process Skills: Factors Affecting Solubility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…

  4. Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

  5. Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…

  6. Factors Affecting the Technology Readiness of Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Stephanie E.

    2010-01-01

    Federal government policies are promoting diffusion of technologies into the healthcare system. If health professionals reject the new technologies planned for the healthcare system, it could result in costly failures, delays, and workforce problems. There is a lack of knowledge about factors that affect technology readiness (TR), defined as the…

  7. FACTORS AFFECTING SURVIVAL IN YOUNG ALPACAS (Lama pacos) x,2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Bustinza; P. J. Burfening; R. L. Blackwell

    Factors affecting survival of young from birth to weaning (7 too) in alpacas (Lama pacos) were evaluated in data collected at the Estacion Experimental de Camelidos Sudamericanos La Raya in the Altiplano region of Peru. Age of dam effects on survival rate were curvilinear; survival rate increased from approximately 78% for offspring of 3-yr-old dams to about 91% for those

  8. Factors Affecting Students' Grades in Principles of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Orhan; Bagheri, Fathollah; Tolin, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Factors affecting students' grades in principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics students are analyzed from the data collected in two public universities. Results indicate that gender, number of hours worked, SAT scores, number of missed classes, recommending the course to a friend, instructors, being a junior, number of economics…

  9. Factors affecting the protein quality of pigeonpea ( Cajanus cajan L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. SINGtt; B. O. Eggum

    1984-01-01

    Pigeonpea occupies an important place in human nutrition as a source of dietary proteins in several countries. Some of the important factors that affect the protein quality of pigeonpea have been reviewed and summarised in this paper. Among important food legumes, pigeonpea contained the lowest amount of limiting sulphur amino acids, methionine and cystine implicating the importance of these amino

  10. Factors Affecting Technology Uses in Schools: An Ecological Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Zhao; Kenneth A. Frank

    2003-01-01

    Why is technology not used more in schools? Many researchers have tried to solve this persistent puzzle. The authors of this article report on their study of technology uses in 19 schools. They suggest an ecological metaphor, using the example of the introduction of the zebra mussel into the Great Lakes, to integrate and organize sets of factors that affect

  11. Some factors affecting the formation of furan in heated foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Hasnip; C. Crews; L. Castle

    2006-01-01

    Levels of furan in various foods were measured before and after heating under heating and laboratory conditions. The effect of contact with can coatings, sealing gaskets and the epoxidized oils used in gasket manufacture on furan formation was studied. The objective was to identify factors affecting furan formation. Furan present in heat-processed food samples persisted during cooking. Furan was shown

  12. Factors affecting infection of citrus with Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri (Xac) causes citrus canker and is now considered endemic in Florida. Factors affecting dispersal and infection of the bacteria need to be understood to help optimize disease management strategies. Wind (0-18 m/sec) was simulated outdoors using a fan to study infection...

  13. FACTORS AFFECTING SECONDARY KILL OF THE GERMAN COCKROACH (DICTYOPTERA

    E-print Network

    Wang, Changlu

    153 FACTORS AFFECTING SECONDARY KILL OF THE GERMAN COCKROACH (DICTYOPTERA: BLATTELLIDAE) BY GEL of Forestry, Nanning, Guangxi 530022, China Abstract Secondary kill of the German cockroach, Blattella of four cockroach gel baits against various developmental stages of a laboratory (Jwax) and a field (Dorie

  14. Mothers, Fathers, Families, and Circumstances: Factors Affecting Children's Adjustment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael E. Lamb

    2012-01-01

    The burgeoning empirical literature exploring the factors accounting for individual differences in psychological adjustment is reviewed. Many studies have shown that adjustment is largely affected by differences in the quality of parenting and parent–child relationships, the quality of the relationships between the parents, and the richness of the economic and social resources available to the family; more recent research signals

  15. Organizational and Cultural Factors Affecting International Transfer of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Doo H.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the results of a study of a global company that examined the effect of training design and work environment on the transfer of human resources development training. Presents a model of international transfer of training and discusses organizational factors and cultural differences that affected the transfer of training. (LRW)

  16. FACTORS AFFECTING ATM USAGE IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shariq Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the customers demand for ATM services, by analyzing sample of 450 consumers’ responses who have been interviewed personally through structured survey in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh India. The results indicate that graduated and employed male customers who belong from higher income groups and having a bank account preferably in public sector

  17. Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  18. Factors of a Low-SES Household: What Aids Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Allison; Plourde, Lee A.

    2006-01-01

    The home factors of low-SES primary students, having high academic achievement, were investigated. Six second-grade students were identified as living in low-SES homes and qualifying for free and reduced lunch, while also having high academic achievement. Their primary caretakers were interviewed in order to investigate the factors within their…

  19. Harming the best: How schools affect the black-white achievement gap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric A. Hanushek; Steven G. Rivkin

    2009-01-01

    Sizeable achievement differences by race appear in early grades, but substantial uncertainty exists about the impact of school quality on the black-white achievement gap and particularly about its evolution across different parts of the achievement distribution. Texas administrative data show that the overall growth in the achievement gap between third and eighth grades is larger for students with higher initial

  20. Factors affecting corticosteroid concentrations in yellow-bellied marmots.

    PubMed

    Armitage, K B

    1991-01-01

    1. Bound and total corticosteroid concentrations of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) were lowest in May after emergence from hibernation and peaked in August prior to immergence. 2. Total corticosteroids were affected by age but not by sex or reproductive status. 3. There was no consistent relationship between measures of population density and concentrations of corticosteroids; when a significant relationship occurred, only 22-34% of the variation was explained. 4. Social status and social behavior were the major factors affecting corticosteroid concentrations. PMID:1673377

  1. Factors affecting the development of adverse drug reactions (Review article)

    PubMed Central

    Alomar, Muaed Jamal

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To discuss the effect of certain factors on the occurrence of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs). Data Sources A systematic review of the literature in the period between 1991 and 2012 was made based on PubMed, the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, EMBASE and IDIS. Key words used were: medication error, adverse drug reaction, iatrogenic disease factors, ambulatory care, primary health care, side effects and treatment hazards. Summary Many factors play a crucial role in the occurrence of ADRs, some of these are patient related, drug related or socially related factors. Age for instance has a very critical impact on the occurrence of ADRs, both very young and very old patients are more vulnerable to these reactions than other age groups. Alcohol intake also has a crucial impact on ADRs. Other factors are gender, race, pregnancy, breast feeding, kidney problems, liver function, drug dose and frequency and many other factors. The effect of these factors on ADRs is well documented in the medical literature. Taking these factors into consideration during medical evaluation enables medical practitioners to choose the best drug regimen. Conclusion Many factors affect the occurrence of ADRs. Some of these factors can be changed like smoking or alcohol intake others cannot be changed like age, presence of other diseases or genetic factors. Understanding the different effects of these factors on ADRs enables healthcare professionals to choose the most appropriate medication for that particular patient. It also helps the healthcare professionals to give the best advice to patients. Pharmacogenomics is the most recent science which emphasizes the genetic predisposition of ADRs. This innovative science provides a new perspective in dealing with the decision making process of drug selection. PMID:24648818

  2. Factors Affecting Physician Performance: Implications for Performance Improvement and Governance

    PubMed Central

    Wenghofer, Elizabeth F.; Williams, A. Paul; Klass, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: A physician's personal and professional characteristics constitute only one, and not necessarily the most important, determining factor of clinical performance. Our study assessed how physician, organizational and systemic factors affect family physicians' performance. Method: Our study examined 532 family practitioners who were randomly selected for peer assessment by the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario. A series of multivariate regression analyses examined the impact of physician factors (e.g., demographics, certification) on performance scores in five clinical areas: acute care, chronic conditions, continuity of care and referrals, well care and records. A second series of regressions examined the simultaneous effects of physician, organizational (e.g., practice volume, hours worked, solo practice) and systemic factors (e.g., northern practice location, community size, physician-to-population ratio). Results: Our study had three key findings: (a) physician factors significantly influence performance but do not appear to be nearly as important as previously thought; (b) organizational and systemic factors have significant effects on performance after the effects of physician factors are controlled; and (c) physician, organizational and systemic factors have varying effects across different dimensions of clinical performance. Conclusions: We discuss the implications of our results for performance improvement and physician governance insofar as both need to consider the broader environmental context of medical practice. PMID:21037818

  3. Factors affecting water quality in the releases from hydropower reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Ruane, R.J.; Hauser, G.E. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States))

    1990-01-01

    Typical water quality concerns with releases from hydropower reservoirs include low dissolved oxygen, inappropriate temperature for downstream uses, supersaturation of total dissolved gases, and water quality constituents associated with low dissolved oxygen. Except for supersaturation of total dissolved gases, which is usually caused by by-passing turbines and spilling water, all of these concerns are related to the limnology of the upstream reservoir. Various limnological factors affect water quality, particularly dissolved oxygen (DO) in turbine releases. This paper describes three groups of reservoirs, thermal stratification characteristics for each group, DO effects for each group, the main factors that affect DO in TVA turbine releases, and other water quality constituents that are related to low DO.

  4. The Fibroblast Growth Factor Family: Neuromodulation of Affective Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Cortney A.; Watson, Stanley J.; Akil, Huda

    2012-01-01

    In this review we propose a broader view of the role of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family in modulating brain function. We suggest that some of the FGF ligands together with the FGF receptors are altered in individuals with affective disorder and modulate emotionality in animal models. Thus, we propose that members of the FGF family may be genetic predisposing factors for anxiety, depression or substance abuse; that they play a key organizing role during early development but continue to play a central role in neuroplasticity in adulthood; and that they work not only over extended time frames, but also via rapid signaling mechanisms, allowing them to exert an “on-line” influence on behavior. Therefore, the FGF family appears to be a prototype of “switch genes” that are endowed with organizational and modulatory properties across the lifespan, and that may represent molecular candidates as biomarkers and treatment targets for affective and addictive disorders. PMID:23040813

  5. Factors affecting the noise from small propeller driven aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maglieri, D. J.; Hubbard, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    The factors affecting noise from small propeller driven airplanes are reviewed to quantify their affects where possible, and to indicate the potential for noise reduction. The main sources of external noise are noted to be the propellers and engines; the airframe being of less importance for both aural detection and community annoyance. Propeller noise is a strong function of tip speed and is affected adversely by nonuniform inflows. Reciprocating engine exhausts are noisier than those of comparably rated turboshaft engines, but their noise can be reduced by the use of flight certified exhaust mufflers. Presently, there are no generally accepted engineering methods for development of optimized propellers and exhaust muffler designs from weight and performance penalty standpoints. Flight demonstration results, however, suggest that required noise reductions for future certification should be possible with potentially small penalties.

  6. Analysis of factors affecting the choice of route of pedestrians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. N. Seneviratne; J. F. Morrall

    1985-01-01

    Pedestrians as compared to vehicular traffic enjoy a high degree freedom of movement even in heavily congested areas. Consequently, there are more alternative links available to pedestrians between a given origin?destination (O?D) pair. This paper describes a study done by the University of Calgary to evaluate the factors affecting the choice of route on intra?CBD trips or trips within the

  7. Utility & Regulatory Factors Affecting Cogeneration & Independent Power Plant Design & Operation

    E-print Network

    Felak, R. P.

    UTILITY & REGULATORY FACTORS AFFECTiNG COGENERATION & INDEPENDENT POWER PLANT DESIGN & OPERATION Richard P. Felak General Electric Company Schenectady, New York ABSTRACT In specifying a cogeneration or independent power plant, the owner... should be especially aware of the influences which electric utilities and regulatory bodies will have on key parameters such as size, efficiency, design. reliability/ availabilitY, operating capabilities and modes, etc. This paper will note examples...

  8. An Examination of Factors Affecting Perception of Workplace Discrimination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rupa Banerjee

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates perceptions of workplace discrimination among racial minorities in Canada. Specifically, the study\\u000a examines how objective experiences of disadvantage and expectations for equity influence racial minorities’ perceptions of\\u000a discrimination. The results indicate that while both of these factors affect perceptions of discrimination, expectations for\\u000a equity may be especially important. Although new immigrants are among the most disadvantaged groups

  9. Legal factors affecting the financing of small scale hydroelectric projects

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.H.; Ringo, M.J.; Forgione, N.

    1983-09-01

    An introduction to the major business organizational options open to small-scale hydroelectric (SSH) projects is given. The major federal income tax treatments of these options are compared. Significant general federal income tax factors affecting SSH projects are reintroduced and explained. Some of the special federal income tax problem areas in SSH development are isolated. Tax benefit flow through or transfer mechanisms are discussed. Tax exempt financing opportunities for private SSH projects are reviewed. (MHR)

  10. Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.

    The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and maintenance; existence of fund for operation and maintenance; willingness to contribute money; existence of a user’s committee; participation in the initial planning and design of the water scheme; and coordination between the local leaders and user’s committee. The main factors which made the schemes unsustainable were: long fetching time; non-involvement in decision making; lack of willingness to contribute funds; absence of users committee; and lack of cooperation between local leaders and the users committee. Water service providers should address the technical, social, financial and institutional factors identified affecting sustainability in their planning and implementation of rural water schemes.

  11. Does High School Facility Quality Affect Student Achievement? A Two-Level Hierarchical Linear Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.; Urick, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to isolate the independent effects of high school facility quality on student achievement using a large, nationally representative U.S. database of student achievement and school facility quality. Prior research on linking school facility quality to student achievement has been mixed. Studies that relate overall…

  12. Addendum: Factor Analysis of Explanatory Variables in an Achievement Production Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Combining explanatory variables into factors instead of using individual variables in an achievement production function is advocated in several of the articles in this special issue. This article provides a brief overview of factor analysis explaining and illustrating the reasoning for this technique. There is a linchpin: Factor analysis is an…

  13. Factors Affecting Perceived Stigma in Leprosy Affected Persons in Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Bipin; Kaehler, Nils; Chapman, Robert S.; Raut, Shristi; Roche, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background There are various factors which construct the perception of stigma in both leprosy affected persons and unaffected persons. The main purpose of this study was to determine the level of perceived stigma and the risk factors contributing to it among leprosy affected person attending the Green Pastures Hospital, Pokhara municipality of western Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 135 people affected by leprosy at Green Pastures Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre. Persons above the age of 18 were interviewed using a set of questionnaire form and Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC). In addition, two sets of focused group discussions each containing 10 participants from the ward were conducted with the objectives of answering the frequently affected EMIC items. Results Among 135 leprosy affected persons, the median score of perceived stigma was 10 while it ranged from 0–34. Higher perceived stigma score was found in illiterate persons (p?=?0.008), participants whose incomes were self-described as inadequate (p?=?0.014) and who had changed their occupation due to leprosy (p?=?0.018). Patients who lacked information on leprosy (p?=?0.025), knowledge about the causes (p?=?0.02) and transmission of leprosy (p?=?0.046) and those who had perception that leprosy is a severe disease (p<0.001) and is difficult to treat (p<0.001) had higher perceived stigma score. Participants with disfigurement or deformities (p?=?0.014), ulcers (p?=?0.022) and odorous ulcers (p?=?0.043) had higher perceived stigma score. Conclusion The factors associated with higher stigma were illiteracy, perceived economical inadequacy, change of occupation due to leprosy, lack of knowledge about leprosy, perception of leprosy as a severe disease and difficult to treat. Similarly, visible deformities and ulcers were associated with higher stigma. There is an urgent need of stigma reduction strategies focused on health education and health awareness programs in addition to the necessary rehabilitation support. PMID:24901307

  14. Factors affecting collaboration between general practitioners and community pharmacists: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although general practitioners (GPs) and community pharmacists (CPs) are encouraged to collaborate, a true collaborative relationship does not exist between them. Our objective was to identify and analyze factors affecting GP-CP collaboration. Methods This was a descriptive-exploratory qualitative study carried out in two Spanish regions: Catalonia (Barcelona) and Balearic Islands (Mallorca). Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs and CPs from Barcelona and Mallorca (January 2010-February 2011). Analysis was conducted using Colaizzi’s method. Results Thirty-seven interviews were conducted. The factors affecting the relationship were different depending on timing: 1) Before collaboration had started (prior to collaboration) and 2) Once the collaboration had been initiated (during collaboration). Prior to collaboration, four key factors were found to affect it: the perception of usefulness; the Primary Care Health Center (PCHC) manager’s interest; the professionals’ attitude; and geography and legislation. These factors were affected by economic and organizational aspects (i.e. resources or PCHC management styles) and by professionals’ opinions and beliefs (i.e. perception of the existence of a public-private conflict). During collaboration, the achievement of objectives and the changes in the PCHC management were the key factors influencing continued collaboration. The most relevant differences between regions were due to the existence of privately-managed PCHCs in Barcelona that facilitated the implementation of collaboration. In comparison with the group with experience in collaboration, some professionals without experience reported a skeptical attitude towards it, reporting that it might not be necessary. Conclusions Factors related to economic issues, management and practitioners’ attitudes and perceptions might be crucial for triggering collaboration. Interventions and strategies derived from these identified factors could be applied to achieve multidisciplinary collaboration. PMID:22769570

  15. Achievement motivation level in students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences and its influential factors

    PubMed Central

    KAVOUSIPOUR, SOMAYEH; NOORAFSHAN, ALI; POURAHMAD, SAEEDEH; DEHGHANI-NAZHVANI, ALI

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Many studies have investigated the relationship between motivation and educational outcomes. The present study was conducted to determine whether the students’ motivation in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS) decreases during educational years. Methods: 770 students in SUMS were selected by multi-stage stratified random sampling from each field and entrance year. The first questionnaire contained 57 questions on the effect of economic, social, educational, geographical and personality factors on the students’ motivation. The second one was based on 50 incomplete sentences. The validity and reliability of these questionnaires were approved by the experts and Cronbach's Alpha coefficients (85% and 90%, respectively). In this cross-sectional study, ANOVA, t-test and Chi-square tests were applied for data analysis at the 0.05 significance level. Results: Six factors with the most effect on academic motivation were "family attitudes", "getting good jobs in future", "respect for themselves", " the ability to learn", "believing their role in victory and defeat" and "the tendency toward optimism about themselves". In addition, comparing professional doctorate and basic sciences’ results revealed no significant relationship between academic motivation and educational years (F=0.819, p=0.397). But comparing field by field showed that Dentistry and Hospital Management and Medical Information (HMMI) had a significant decrease in motivation score by increase in educational years (F=3.991, p=0.015). Conclusion: Achievement motivation level in SUMS students was higher than average and did not decrease during educational years. Also, the results showed that personal, social and educational related factors affected motivation level more than economic and environmental factors. PMID:25587552

  16. Factors affecting Thai workers' use of hearing protection.

    PubMed

    Tantranont, Kunlayanee; Srisuphan, Wichit; Kaewthummanukul, Thanee; Suthakorn, Weeraporn; Jormsri, Pantip; Salazar, Mary K

    2009-11-01

    This study used an ecological model to examine Thai workers' beliefs and attitudes toward using occupational hearing protection. Data collection involved focus group sessions with 28 noise-exposed workers at four factories in Chiang Mai Province and an interview with a safety officer at each organization. Detailed content analysis resulted in the identification of three types of factors influencing the use of hearing protection: intrapersonal, including preventing impaired hearing, noise annoyance, personal discomfort, and interference with communication; interpersonal, including coworker modeling, supervisor support, and supervisor modeling; and organizational, including organizational rules and regulations, provision of hearing protection devices, dissemination of knowledge and information, noise monitoring, and hearing testing. Effective hearing protection programs depend on knowledge of all of these factors. Strategies to promote workers' use of hearing protection should include the complete range of factors having the potential to affect workers' hearing. PMID:19873942

  17. Factors affecting 30-month survival in lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, P.A.; Archana, S.; Jayaraj, B.S.; Patil, Shekar; Chaya, S.K.; Shashidhar, H.P.; Sunitha, B.S.; Prabhakar, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Age adjusted incidence rate of lung cancer in India ranges from 7.4 to 13.1 per 100,000 among males and 3.9 to 5.8 per 100,000 among females. The factors affecting survival in lung cancer patients in India are not fully understood. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the factors affecting survival in patients diagnosed with lung cancer attending a tertiary care cancer institute in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Methods: Consecutive patients with primary lung cancer attending Bangalore Institute of Oncology, a tertiary care centre at Bangalore, between 2006 and 2009 were included. Demographic, clinical, radiological data were collected retrospectively from the medical records. Results: A total of 170 consecutive subjects (128 males, 42 females) diagnosed to have lung cancer; 151 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 19 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were included. A higher proportion of never-smokers (54.1%) were observed, mostly presenting below the age of 60 yr. Most subjects were in stage IV and III at the time of diagnosis. More than 50 per cent of patients presented with late stage lung cancer even though the duration of symptoms is less than 2 months. The 30-month overall survival rates for smokers and never-smokers were 32 and 49 per cent, respectively. No significant differences were observed in 30 month survival based on age at presentation, gender and type of lung cancer. Cox proportional hazards model identified never-smokers and duration of symptoms less than 1 month as factors adversely affecting survival. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that lung cancer in Indians involved younger subjects and associated with poorer survival as compared to other ethnic population. Studies on large sample need to be done to evaluate risk factors in lung cancer patients. PMID:23168702

  18. Gender Differences in the Factor Structure of the 2x2 Achievement Goal Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkharusi, Hussain; Aldhafri, Said

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in the factor structure of the 2x2 achievement goal framework using a multi-sample invariance analysis. A total of 117 male and 125 female undergraduate teacher education students completed Elliot and Murayama's (2008) Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised (AGQ-R). Results provided empirical evidence…

  19. An Analysis of Spiritual Factors on Academic Achievement in Seventh-Day Adventist Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Marianne C.

    2013-01-01

    This study asked the question: Do spiritual factors impact academic achievement? The subjects in this study were all students in grades 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 11, in Seventh-day Adventist schools in the United States and Bermuda, from 2006 to 2008. The compilation of the results of 75 questions as correlated to academic achievement, controlled…

  20. Selected Factors Related to the Mathematics Academic Achievement of Eighth Grade English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine selected factors related to the 8th grade mathematics achievement levels of English Language Learner (ELL) students in selected South Texas middle schools. The dependent variable, ELL mathematics achievement, was measured by the ELL student's raw score on the State of Texas Assessment of Academic…

  1. School Readiness Factors for Predicting High and Low Achieving Students in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davion, Edward, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    When analyzed according to race and ethnicity, poverty level, parental education level, as well as other related factors in schools in America, academic achievement disparities negatively impact educational outcomes for poor children and children of color on a consistent basis. At all educational levels, academic achievement and attainments of…

  2. Motivational Factors Contributing to Turkish High School Students' Achievement in Gases and Chemical Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadioglu, Cansel; Uzuntiryaki, Esen

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the contribution of motivational factors to 10th grade students' achievement in gases and chemical reactions in chemistry. Three hundred fifty nine 10th grade students participated in the study. The Gases and Chemical Reactions Achievement Test and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire were…

  3. Multifactorial analysis of factors affecting recurrence of stroke in Japan.

    PubMed

    Omori, Toyonori; Kawagoe, Masahiro; Moriyama, Michiko; Yasuda, Takeshi; Ito, Yasuhiro; Hyakuta, Takeshi; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2015-03-01

    Data on factors affecting stroke recurrence are relatively limited. The authors examined potential factors affecting stroke recurrence, retrospectively. The study participants were 1087 patients who were admitted to stroke centers suffering from first-ever ischemic stroke and returned questionnaires with usable information after discharge. The authors analyzed the association between clinical parameters of the patients and their prognosis. Recurrence rate of during an average of 2 years after discharge was 21.3%, and there were differences among stroke subtypes. It was found that the disability level of the patients after discharge correlated well with the level at discharge (r s = 0.66). Multivariate logistic regression analysis of the data shows that modified Rankin Scale score, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score, gender, age, and family history had statistically significant impacts on stroke recurrence, and the impact was different depending on subtypes. These findings suggest that aggressive and persistent health education for poststroke patients and management of risk factors are essential to reduce stroke recurrence. PMID:22500031

  4. Factors Affecting Survival of Bacteriophage on Tomato Leaf Surfaces?

    PubMed Central

    Iriarte, F. B.; Balogh, B.; Momol, M. T.; Smith, L. M.; Wilson, M.; Jones, J. B.

    2007-01-01

    The ability of bacteriophage to persist in the phyllosphere for extended periods is limited by many factors, including sunlight irradiation, especially in the UV zone, temperature, desiccation, and exposure to copper bactericides. The effects of these factors on persistence of phage and formulated phage (phage mixed with skim milk) were evaluated. In field studies, copper caused significant phage reduction if applied on the day of phage application but not if applied 4 or 7 days in advance. Sunlight UV was evaluated for detrimental effects on phage survival on tomato foliage in the field. Phage was applied in the early morning, midmorning, early afternoon, and late evening, while UVA plus UVB irradiation and phage populations were monitored. The intensity of UV irradiation positively correlated with phage population decline. The protective formulation reduced the UV effect. In order to demonstrate direct effects of UV, phage suspensions were exposed to UV irradiation and assayed for effectiveness against bacterial spot of tomato. UV significantly reduced phage ability to control bacterial spot. Ambient temperature had a pronounced effect on nonformulated phage but not on formulated phages. The effects of desiccation and fluorescent light illumination on phage were investigated. Desiccation caused a significant but only slight reduction in phage populations after 60 days, whereas fluorescent light eliminated phages within 2 weeks. The protective formulation eliminated the reduction caused by both of these factors. Phage persistence was dramatically affected by UV, while the other factors had less pronounced effects. Formulated phage reduced deleterious effects of the studied environmental factors. PMID:17259361

  5. Cognitive-behavioral factors in seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Rohan, Kelly J; Sigmon, Sandra T; Dorhofer, Diana M

    2003-02-01

    To longitudinally examine cognitive-behavioral correlates of seasonal affective disorder (SAD), the authors assessed women with a history of SAD and nondepressed, matched controls across fall, winter, and summer. SAD history participants reported more automatic negative thoughts throughout the year than controls and demonstrated a progression from decreased activity enjoyment during fall to reduced activity frequency during winter. Ruminative response style, measured in fall, predicted symptom severity during the winter. Across assessments, SAD history women endorsed greater depressive affect in response to low light intensity stimuli than to bright or ambiguous intensity stimuli, but less depressed mood to bright light stimuli than controls. These results suggest that the cognitive-behavioral factors related to nonseasonal depression may play a role in SAD. PMID:12602422

  6. Biologics formulation factors affecting metal leachables from stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shuxia; Schöneich, Christian; Singh, Satish K

    2011-03-01

    An area of increasing concern and scientific scrutiny is the potential contamination of drug products by leachables entering the product during manufacturing and storage. These contaminants may either have a direct safety impact on the patients or act indirectly through the alteration of the physicochemical properties of the product. In the case of biotherapeutics, trace amounts of metal contaminants can arise from various sources, but mainly from contact with stainless steel (ss). The effect of the various factors, buffer species, solution fill volume per unit contact surface area, metal chelators, and pH, on metal leachables from contact with ss over time were investigated individually. Three major metal leachables, iron, chromium, and nickel, were monitored by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry because they are the major components of 316L ss. Iron was primarily used to evaluate the effect of each factor since it is the most abundant. It was observed that each studied factor exhibited its own effect on metal leachables from contact with ss. The effect of buffer species and pH exhibited temperature dependence over the studied temperature range. The metal leachables decreased with the increased fill volume (mL) per unit contact ss surface area (cm(2)) but a plateau was achieved at approximately 3 mL/cm(2). Metal chelators produced the strongest effect in facilitating metal leaching. In order to minimize the metal leachables and optimize biological product stability, each formulation factor must be evaluated for its impact, to balance its risk and benefit in achieving the target drug product shelf life. PMID:21360314

  7. Factors affecting clinical reasoning of occupational therapists: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Shafaroodi, Narges; Kamali, Mohammad; Parvizy, Soroor; Mehraban, Afsoon Hassani; O’Toole, Giyn

    2014-01-01

    Background: Clinical reasoning is generally defined as the numerous modes of thinking that guide clinical practice but little is known about the factors affecting how occupational therapists manage the decision-making process. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the factors influencing the clinical reasoning of occupational therapists. Methods: Twelve occupational therapy practitioners working in mental and physical dysfunction fields participated in this study. The sampling method was purposeful and interviews were continued until data saturation. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed. The data were analyzed through a qualitative content analysis method. Results: There were three main themes. The first theme: socio-cultural conditions included three subthemes: 1- client beliefs; 2- therapist values and beliefs; 3- social attitude to disability. The second theme: individual attributions included two subthemes 1- client attributions; 2- therapist attributions. The final theme was the workplace environment with the three subthemes: 1- knowledge of the managers of rehabilitation services, 2- working in an inter-professional team; 3- limited clinical facilities and resources. Conclusion: In this study, the influence of the attitudes and beliefs of client, therapist and society about illness, abilities and disabilities upon reasoning was different to previous studies. Understanding these factors, especially the socio-cultural beliefs basis can play a significant role in the quality of occupational therapy services. Accurate understanding of these influential factors requires more extensive qualitative and quantitative studies. PMID:25250253

  8. Factors Affecting the Extrusion Rate of Ventilation Tubes

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chang Myeon; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Jun Ho

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to determine the various factors that affect the extrusion rate of ventilation tubes (VTs), including the nature of the middle ear effusion. Methods A retrospective chart review of 82 pediatric patients (177 ears) who received VT insertion surgery under general anesthesia was carried out to evaluate the relationship between various factors and the VT extrusion rate. The factors we analyzed included age, gender, the adenoid size, the amount and content of the middle ear effusion after myringotomy, bleeding events, associated adenoidectomy and the findings of the tympanic membrane status, the tympanometry and the audiometry of the air bone gap. Results The mean extrusion time was 254 days (range, 11 to 809 days). The patients with no history of previous VT insertion had a longer extrusion time (mean, 279 days) than did the patients who had undergone previous VT insertion (mean, 203 days). The patients with serous effusion had the shortest extrusion time (mean, 190 days) as compared to those patients with glue (273 days) and pus (295 days) effusions. Other factors had no statistical significant relationship with the extrusion time. Conclusion The mean VT extrusion time was 254 days. The VT extrusion time was significantly related to the characteristics of the middle ear effusion and a history of previous VT insertion. Thus, the nature of middle ear effusion can provide a clinical clue to predict the VT extrusion time. PMID:20607075

  9. A Review of Factors Affecting Vaccine Preventable Disease in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Michael SL

    2014-01-01

    Japan is well known as a country with a strong health record. However its incidence rates of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) such as hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella remain higher than other developed countries. This article reviews the factors that contribute to the high rates of VPD in Japan. These include historical and political factors that delayed the introduction of several important vaccines until recently. Access has also been affected by vaccines being divided into government-funded “routine” (eg, polio, pertussis) and self-pay “voluntary” groups (eg, hepatitis A and B). Routine vaccines have higher rates of administration than voluntary vaccines. Administration factors include differences in well child care schedules, the approach to simultaneous vaccination, vaccination contraindication due to fever, and vaccination spacing. Parental factors include low intention to fully vaccinate their children and misperceptions about side effects and efficacy. There are also provider knowledge gaps regarding indications, adverse effects, interval, and simultaneous vaccination. These multifactorial issues combine to produce lower population immunization rates and a higher incidence of VPD than other developed countries. This article will provide insight into the current situation of Japanese vaccinations, the issues to be addressed and suggestions for public health promotion. PMID:25628969

  10. Factors affecting sequestration and bioavailability of phenanthrene in soils

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C.; Kelsey, J.W.; Hatzinger, P.B.; Alexander, M. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1997-10-01

    A study was conducted to determine factors affecting the sequestration and changes in bioavailability as phenanthrene persists in soils. Phenanthrene became sequestered in seven soils differing appreciably in organic matter and clay content as measured by earthworm uptake, bacterial mineralization, or extractability. Phenanthrene also became sequestered as it aged in soil aggregates of various sizes as measured by decline in availability to a bacterium, a mild extractant, or both. Wetting and drying a soil during aging reduced the amount of phenanthrene recovered by a mild extractant and the rate and extent of bacterial mineralization of the hydrocarbon. After biodegradation of phenanthrene added to the soil, more of the compound remained if it had been aged than if it had not been aged. Wetting and drying the soil during aging further increased the amount of phenanthrene remaining after biodegradation. The rate and extent of bacterial mineralization of phenanthrene were less in leached than in unleached soil. Aging/sequestration is thus markedly affected by soil properties and environmental factors.

  11. Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M; Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for phenotypic and microevolutionary adaptations. PMID:23593131

  12. Capitalizing on the School Library's Potential to Positively Affect Student Achievement: A Sampling of Resources for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartzell, Gary

    2002-01-01

    This bibliography lists materials on school libraries, organized in the following sections: (1) Evidence that Quality School Library Media Programs Positively Affect Student Achievement; (2) Evidence and Arguments that Collaboration Pays Dividends; (3) Evidence and Arguments that Administrative Leadership Is Key in Developing Quality Library Media…

  13. The Influence of Affective Teacher-Student Relationships on Students' School Engagement and Achievement: A Meta-Analytic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roorda, Debora L.; Koomen, Helma M. Y.; Spilt, Jantine L.; Oort, Frans J.

    2011-01-01

    A meta-analytic approach was used to investigate the associations between affective qualities of teacher-student relationships (TSRs) and students' school engagement and achievement. Results were based on 99 studies, including students from preschool to high school. Separate analyses were conducted for positive relationships and engagement (k = 61…

  14. Factors affecting expanded electricity trade in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    The authors explore factors that affect electricity trade between enterprises in the US and Canada and the US and Mexico. They look to those underlying policy and institutional factors that affect the relative costs of producing electricity in the three countries. In particular, they consider six factors that appear to have a significant impact on electricity trade in North America: differences in the types of economic regulation of power leading to differences in cost recovery for wholesale and retail power and wheeling charges; changing regulatory attitudes, placing more emphasis on demand-side management and environmental concerns; differences in energy and economic policies; differences in national and subnational environmental policies; changing organization of electric power industries which may foster uncertainty, change historical relationships, and provide other potentially important sources of power for distribution utilities; and differences in the ability of enterprises to gain access to electric power markets because of restrictions placed on transmission access. In Section 2, the authors discuss the regulation of electricity trade in North America and provide an overview of the recent trading experience for electricity between Canada and the US and between Mexico and the US, including the volume of that trade over the past decade and existing transmission capacity between regions of the three countries. In Section 3, they look at the benefits that accrue to trading counties and what those benefits are likely to be for the three countries. The discussion in Section 4 centers on the relevant provisions of the Canada Free Trade Agreement and the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement. In Section 5, they set the stage for the discussion of policy and institutional differences presented in Section 6 by outlining differences in the organization of the electric power sectors of Canada, the US, and Mexico. The study is synthesized in Section 7.

  15. Study of factors affecting the appearance of colors under microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakizadeh, Roshanak; Martinez-Garcia, Juan; Raja, Kiran B.; Siakidis, Christos

    2013-11-01

    The variation of colors in microscopy systems can be quite critical for some users. To address this problem, a study is conducted to analyze how different factors such as size of the sample, intensity of the microscope's light source and the characteristics of the material like chroma and saturation can affect the color appearance through the eyepiece of the microscope. To study the changes in colors considering these factors, the spectral reflectance of 24 colors of GretagMacbeth Classic ColorChecker® and Mini ColorChecker® which are placed under a Nikon ECLIPSE MA200 microscope®2 using dark filed and bright field illuminations which result in different intensity levels, is measured using a spectroradiometer®3 which was placed in front of the eyepiece of the microscope. The results are compared with the original data from N. Ohta1. The evaluation is done by observing the shift in colors in the CIE 1931 Chromaticity Diagram and the CIELAB space, also by applying a wide set of color-difference formulas, namely: CIELAB, CMC, BFD, CIE94, CIEDE2000, DIN99d and DIN99b. Furthermore, to emphasize on the color regions in which the highest difference is observed, the authors have obtained the results from another microscope; Olympus SZX10®4, which in this case the measurement is done by mounting the spectroradiometer to the camera port of the microscope. The experiment leads to some interesting results, among which is the consistency in the highest difference observed considering different factors or how the change in saturation of the samples of the same hue can affect the results.

  16. Environmental Factors Affecting Indole Production in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Han, Thi Hiep; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Cho, Moo Hwan; Wood, Thomas K.; Lee, Jintae

    2011-01-01

    A variety of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria produce large quantities of indole as an intracellular signal in microbial communities. Biosynthesis of indole is well-studied, and while carbon sources and amino acids are important environmental cues for indole production in Escherichia coli, other environmental factors affecting indole production for this strain are less clear. This study demonstrates that the environmental cue pH is an important factor for indole production that further controls biofilm formation of E. coli. Moreover, E. coli produced a higher level of extracellular indole in the presence of the antibiotics ampicillin and kanamycin, and the increased indole enhanced cell survival during antibiotic stress. Additionally, we found here that temperature is another important factor for indole production; E. coli produces and accumulates a large amount of indole at 50°C, even at low cell densities. Overall, our results suggest that indole is a stable biological compound, and E. coli may utilize indole to protect itself against other microorganisms. PMID:21145393

  17. Factors affecting the measurement of fatigue crack stress intensity factors using photoelastic coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Nurse, A.D. [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Patterson, E.A. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical and Process Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Photoelastic procedures to determine the stress intensity factors at the tip of a fatigue crack during dynamic and cyclic loading are described. To illustrate the techniques, tests were performed on a centered-cracked tensile panel under cyclic load. The measured SIFs were found to agree to within about 5% of an elastic solution. Finally, factors affecting the application of the procedures to more complex structures are considered.

  18. What Teacher Characteristics Affect Student Achievement? Findings from Los Angeles Public Schools. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giglio, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Teacher effectiveness is typically measured by traditional teacher qualification standards, such as experience, education, and scores on licensure examinations. RAND researchers found no evidence that these standards have a substantial effect on student achievement in Los Angeles public elementary, middle, and high schools. Alternative measures of…

  19. Family Processes Affect Students' Motivation, and Science and Math Achievement in Cypriot High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsoulis, Michalis K.; Campbell, James Reed

    2001-01-01

    Studied the influence of home environment on male and female high school students' motivation and achievement. Results for 737 Cypriot high school students and their parents show the importance of student self-concept and negative effects for parental pressure. Results suggest the need for closer lines of communication between home and school.…

  20. Excused versus Unexcused: How Student Absences in Elementary School Affect Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    The literature on school absences has focused predominantly on the reasons for student truancy, or it has assessed only aggregate student absences in their effect on achievement. However, this study brings forth a new issue: the relationship between types of absences--excused versus unexcused--and school performance. With a quantitative model of…

  1. Gender Peer Effects in School: Does the Gender of School Peers Affect Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabezas, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    This research addresses gender peer effects in education and their impact on student achievement in Chile. We address the topic from three different level of analysis: (a) whether the proportion of girls in a cohort influences students' educational outcomes (b) whether assignment to a classroom with a higher proportion of girls influences…

  2. Preoccupation with Failure Affects Number of Study Hours--Not Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunborg, Geir Scott; Pallesen, Stale; Diseth, Age; Larsen, Svein

    2010-01-01

    It has been claimed that perceived academic control (AC) in combination with preoccupation with failure (PWF) produces a strong motivation for success, and the interaction (AC x PWF) has been shown to predict academic achievement. In a prospective study, 442 first year psychology students completed a questionnaire about their background, study…

  3. Determining Teacher Expectations in an Urban School Environment Its Implications for Affecting Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deskins, Tanya H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed method, Case Study research was to explore the teacher's perceptions, efficacy, and belief systems. The researcher using a primary survey and a collection of secondary extant data endeavored to uncover the teachers' responses for efficacy, beliefs and perceptions of student achievement. The Effective Schools (Edmonds,…

  4. Sport-Related Achievement Motivation and Alcohol Outcomes: An Athlete-Specific Risk Factor among Intercollegiate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Cameron C.; Martens, Matthew P.; Cadigan, Jennifer M.; Takamatsu, Stephanie K.; Treloar, Hayley R.; Pedersen, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    Intercollegiate athletes report greater alcohol consumption and more alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Although college athletes share many of the same problems faced by non-athletes, there are some consequences that are unique to athletes. Studies have demonstrated that alcohol negatively affects athletic performance including increased dehydration, impeded muscle recovery, and increased risk for injury. Beyond risk factors for alcohol misuse that may affect college students in general, research has begun to examine risk factors that are unique to collegiate athletes. For example, research has found that off-season status, the leadership role, and athlete-specific drinking motives are associated with increased alcohol use. Given these findings, it is possible that other athlete-specific variables influence alcohol misuse. One such variable may be sport achievement orientation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between sport achievement orientation and alcohol outcomes. Given previous research regarding seasonal status and gender, these variables were examined as moderators. Varsity athletes (n = 263) completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, which assesses sport-related achievement orientation on three scales (Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation). In addition, participants completed measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation were all significantly associated with alcohol use, but not alcohol-related problems. Moreover, these relationships were moderated by seasonal status and gender. These interactions, clinical implications, and limitations are discussed. PMID:24064192

  5. Multilevel Factors Affecting Quality: Examples From the Cancer Care Continuum

    PubMed Central

    Taplin, Stephen H.; Ganz, Patricia; Grunfeld, Eva; Sterba, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    The complex environmental context must be considered as we move forward to improve cancer care and, ultimately, patient and population outcomes. The cancer care continuum represents several care types, each of which includes multiple technical and communication steps and interfaces among patients, providers, and organizations. We use two case scenarios to 1) illustrate the variability, diversity, and interaction of factors from multiple levels that affect care quality and 2) discuss research implications and provide hypothetical examples of multilevel interventions. Each scenario includes a targeted literature review to illustrate contextual influences upon care and sets the stage for theory-informed interventions. The screening case highlights access issues in older women, and the survivorship case illustrates the multiple transition challenges faced by patients, families, and organizations. Example interventions show the potential gains of implementing intervention strategies that work synergistically at multiple levels. While research examining multilevel intervention is a priority, it presents numerous study design, measurement, and analytic challenges. PMID:22623591

  6. Factors affecting the implementation of clinical pharmacy services in China.

    PubMed

    Penm, Jonathan; Moles, Rebekah; Wang, Holly; Li, Yan; Chaar, Betty

    2014-03-01

    New policies in China have recently led to the implementation of clinical pharmacy services in hospitals. We explored the views of hospital administrators, pharmacy directors, clinical pharmacists, and dispensing pharmacists about the factors affecting clinical pharmacy services in China, using the framework approach and organizational theory. We conducted 30 interviews with 130 participants at 29 hospitals (both secondary and tertiary) in Beijing, Zhengzhou, Luoyang, and Shanghai. We found that the barriers to and facilitators of implementation of clinical pharmacy services slotted into the environment and participant dimensions of Scott's adapted version of Leavitt's organizational model. External support from government was perceived as crucial to promoting pharmacy services. It is proposed that the internationally recognized Basel Statements of the International Pharmaceutical Federation also provide a strong foundation for guiding China in implementing clinical pharmacy services. PMID:24562375

  7. Factors affecting cellulose hydrolysis based on inactivation of adsorbed enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhuoliang; Berson, R Eric

    2014-09-01

    The rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose reaction is known to decrease significantly as the reaction proceeds. Factors such as reaction temperature, time, and surface area of substrate that affect cellulose conversion were analyzed relative to their role in a mechanistic model based on first order inactivation of adsorbed cellulases. The activation energies for the hydrolytic step and inactivation step were very close in magnitude: 16.3 kcal mol(-1) for hydrolysis and 18.0 kcal mol(-1) for inactivation, respectively. Therefore, increasing reaction temperature would cause a significant increase in the inactivation rate in addition to the catalytic reaction rate. Vmax,app was only 20% or less of the value at 72 h compared to at 2h as a result of inactivation of adsorbed cellulases, suggesting prolonged hydrolysis is not an efficient way to improve cellulose hydrolysis. Hydrolysis rate increased with corresponding increases in available substrate surface binding area. PMID:25027809

  8. Factors affecting characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

    1997-11-01

    Three major factors affect the characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors in terms of their levitation properties during interaction with permanent magnets. First, the appropriate parameter for the permanent magnet is internal magnetization, not the value of the magnetic field measured at the magnet`s surface. Second, although levitation force grows with superconductor thickness and surface area, for a given permanent magnet size, comparison of levitation force between samples is meaningful when minimum values are assigned to the superconductor size parameters. Finally, the effect of force creep must be considered when time-averaging the force measurements. In addition to levitational force, the coefficient of friction of a levitated rotating permanent magnet may be used to characterize the superconductor.

  9. Factors Affecting on Serum Lactate After Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Joudi, Marjan; Fathi, Mehdi; Soltani, Ghasem; Izanloo, Azra

    2014-01-01

    Background: The relation between elevated blood lactate level and mortality and morbidity rates after coronary bypass surgery is a proven subject. One of the factors that seems to affect directly the blood lactate level is the storage duration of packed red blood cells. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of storage duration of transfused blood on serum lactate during cardiac surgery and up to 24 hours after that in the ICU. Patients and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 228 patients referred to three hospitals of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences for open cardiac surgery, was enrolled using systematic random sampling method. Immediately after accessing arterial line, the first sample of arterial blood gas (ABG) was obtained. For evaluation of lactate levels, the next samples were obtained at the end of surgery and after 24 hours of staying ICU. Results: Among 5 factors which affected lactate level during surgery, diabetes and higher ejection fraction (EF) reduced changes of the lactate level. On the other hand, the number of infused blood units, duration of on-pump time, and the mean storage duration of blood units were associated with elevated serum lactate during surgery. A significant relationship was found between blood storage duration and serum lactate levels 24 hours after surgery. Conclusions: Comparing the serum lactate level before operation and 24 hours after the operation showed that the number of received blood units had a significant effect on serum lactate. We found no significant effect for blood storage duration; however, the number of given blood units was more significant. PMID:25632379

  10. Factors affecting ventriculoperitoneal shunt survival in adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Farid; Rehman, Abdul; Shamim, Muhammad S.; Bari, Muhammad E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt insertion remains the mainstay of treatment for hydrocephalus despite a high rate of complications. The predictors of shunt malfunction have been studied mostly in pediatric patients. In this study, we report our 11-year experience with VP shunts in adult patients with hydrocephalus. We also assess the various factors affecting shunt survival in a developing country setting. Methods: A retrospective chart analysis was conducted for all adult patients who had undergone shunt placement between the years 2001 and 2011. Kaplan–Meier curves were used to determine the duration from shunt placement to first malfunction and log-rank (Cox–Mantel) tests were used to determine the factors affecting shunt survival. Results: A total of 227 patients aged 18–85 years (mean: 45.8 years) were included in the study. The top four etiologies of hydrocephalus included post-cranial surgery (23.3%), brain tumor or cyst (22.9%), normal pressure hydrocephalus (15%), and intracranial hemorrhage (13.7%). The overall incidence of shunt malfunction was 15.4% with the median time to first shunt failure being 120 days. Etiology of hydrocephalus (P = 0.030) had a significant association with the development of shunt malfunction. Early shunt failure was associated with age (P < 0.001), duration of hospital stay (P < 0.001), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score less than 13 (P = 0.010), excision of brain tumors (P = 0.008), and placement of extra-ventricular drains (P = 0.033). Conclusions: Patients with increased age, prolonged hospital stay, GCS score of less than 13, extra-ventricular drains in situ, or excision of brain tumors were more likely to experience early shunt malfunction. PMID:25722930

  11. Environmental Risk Factors and Children’s Achievement From Middle Childhood to Early Adolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth P. Pungello; Janis B. Kupersmidt; Margaret R. Burchinal; Charlotte J. Patterson

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the long-term effects of low family income and stressful life events on math and reading achievement test percentile scores for 1,253 children. Four birth cohorts were followed for 2–4 years so that achievement across Grades 2 through 7 could be examined. Two types of analytic models, the multiplicative risk factor model and the cumulative risk model, were

  12. Factors affecting the valve movements in freshwater unionids

    SciTech Connect

    Pynnoenen, K.S.; Englund, V.P.M. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)

    1994-12-31

    In order to avoid harmful conditions, freshwater unionids are able to close their valves and to resist extended long periods of complete anoxia. Xenobiotics and diverse abiotic and biotic factors can change the rhythm of valve movements and thus affect the accumulation of heavy metals in these bivalves. When bivalves are used a bioindicators in the field and when the accumulation of toxicants are studied under the laboratory conditions, the effects of valve movements and shell closure have to be involved. In this study, the authors have recorded valve movements of two different unionid species (Anodonta anatina, Unio tumidus) in the field and in the laboratory using a digital monitoring system. Several experimental arrangements were compared (caged mussels vs. sediment dwelling mussels, flow-through vials vs. static aquaria with and without sediment). Some parameters of the mussel hemolymph, such as electrolytes, gases and acid base status, were compared with the results on the valve activity (time with valves open, number of adductions). The natural valve activity of the two unionid species differed clearly. In the field, effects of transfer and caging were found, and in the laboratory, sediment and water flow changed their behavior. The level of the blood oxygen was most affected, whereas, the acid-base status and the concentrations of electrolytes were effectively regulated by the unionids. The correlation between valve movements and the hemolymph parameters was weaker than expected.

  13. Reading enjoyment amongst non-leisure readers can affect achievement in secondary school.

    PubMed

    Mol, Suzanne E; Jolles, Jelle

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate determinants of differences in leisure reading behavior and school achievement. We specifically examined reading enjoyment, mental imagery, and sex as predictors in a large, age-homogeneous sample of Dutch secondary school students (N = 1,071). Results showed that the prevalence of leisure reading was low in both the lower, pre-vocational track (19.5%) and the higher, pre-academic track (32.5%). Boys read even less than girls. Almost all leisure readers enjoyed reading and engaged in mental imagery, i.e., the propensity "to see images" of a written story in the mind's eye. Overall, boys who did not like to read for leisure had the poorest school performance. Non-leisure readers who reported that they enjoyed reading got higher school grades in the higher educational track. In the lower track, this was the case for girls. Our study findings imply that reading promotion programs should take into account individual differences in sex, achievement level, and reading enjoyment when aiming to decrease the academic achievement gap. PMID:25386154

  14. Reading enjoyment amongst non-leisure readers can affect achievement in secondary school

    PubMed Central

    Mol, Suzanne E.; Jolles, Jelle

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate determinants of differences in leisure reading behavior and school achievement. We specifically examined reading enjoyment, mental imagery, and sex as predictors in a large, age-homogeneous sample of Dutch secondary school students (N = 1,071). Results showed that the prevalence of leisure reading was low in both the lower, pre-vocational track (19.5%) and the higher, pre-academic track (32.5%). Boys read even less than girls. Almost all leisure readers enjoyed reading and engaged in mental imagery, i.e., the propensity “to see images” of a written story in the mind’s eye. Overall, boys who did not like to read for leisure had the poorest school performance. Non-leisure readers who reported that they enjoyed reading got higher school grades in the higher educational track. In the lower track, this was the case for girls. Our study findings imply that reading promotion programs should take into account individual differences in sex, achievement level, and reading enjoyment when aiming to decrease the academic achievement gap. PMID:25386154

  15. Factors Affecting Mortality in Elderly Patients Hospitalized for Nonmalignant Reasons

    PubMed Central

    Ayaz, Teslime; Rak?c?, Halil

    2014-01-01

    Elderly population is hospitalized more frequently than young people, and they suffer from more severe diseases that are difficult to diagnose and treat. The present study aimed to investigate the factors affecting mortality in elderly patients hospitalized for nonmalignant reasons. Demographic data, reason for hospitalization, comorbidities, duration of hospital stay, and results of routine blood testing at the time of first hospitalization were obtained from the hospital records of the patients, who were over 65 years of age and hospitalized primarily for nonmalignant reasons. The mean age of 1012 patients included in the study was 77.8 ± 7.6. The most common reason for hospitalization was diabetes mellitus (18.3%). Of the patients, 90.3% had at least a single comorbidity. Whilst 927 (91.6%) of the hospitalized patients were discharged, 85 (8.4%) died. Comparison of the characteristics of the discharged and dead groups revealed that the dead group was older and had higher rates of poor general status and comorbidity. Differences were observed between the discharged and dead groups in most of the laboratory parameters. Hypoalbuminemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypopotassemia, hypernatremia, hyperuricemia, and high TSH level were the predictors of mortality. In order to meet the health necessities of the elderly population, it is necessary to well define the patient profiles and to identify the risk factors. PMID:25147737

  16. Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

    The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period (2005--2009) for a network of permanent sample plots in Pinus radiata plantations in Chile. In 2009, we calculated LAI from ground measurements using LI-COR LAI-2000 and TRAC instruments on each one hectare plot. These values of LAI were regressed against Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Reduced Simple Ratio (RSR), derived from the TM 2009 data. Linear relationships were strong with R2 values of 0.65 for SR, 0.61 for NDVI and 0.67 for RSR. Using the RSR relationship, LAI values were estimated for the network of permanent sample plots of Pinus radiata plantations over the whole period. For project 3, we examined environmental factors affecting growth rates of Pinus radiata in Chile. Water availability (as affected by precipitation, soil water holding capacity, and potential evapotranspiration) appeared to be the factor most limiting to leaf area and growth. Maximum growing season temperature also negatively affected growth. Sites with highest productivities had the lowest annual water deficits and the most productive sites used water and light more efficiently. Good sites produced 1.6 as compared to 0.49 kg of wood per m3 of evapotranspired water for less productive sites. In addition, productive stands produced 0.5 as compared to 0.31 g of wood per MJ for less productive sites.

  17. Factors affecting detection of burrowing owl nests during standardized surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conway, C.J.; Garcia, V.; Smith, M.D.; Hughes, K.

    2008-01-01

    Identifying causes of declines and evaluating effects of management practices on persistence of local populations of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) requires accurate estimates of abundance and population trends. Moreover, regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada typically require surveys to detect nest burrows prior to approving developments or other activities in areas that are potentially suitable for nesting burrowing owls. In general, guidelines on timing of surveys have been lacking and surveys have been conducted at different times of day and in different stages of the nesting cycle. We used logistic regression to evaluate 7 factors that could potentially affect probability of a surveyor detecting a burrowing owl nest. We conducted 1,444 detection trials at 323 burrowing owl nests within 3 study areas in Washington and Wyoming, USA, between February and August 2000-2002. Detection probability was highest during the nestling period and increased with ambient temperature. The other 5 factors that we examined (i.e., study area, time of day, timing within the breeding season, wind speed, % cloud cover) interacted with another factor to influence detection probability. Use of call-broadcast surveys increased detection probability, even during daylight hours when we detected >95% of owls visually. Optimal timing of surveys will vary due to differences in breeding phenology and differences in nesting behavior across populations. Nevertheless, we recommend ???3 surveys per year: one that coincides with the laying and incubation period, another that coincides with the early nestling period, and a third that coincides with the late nestling period. In northern latitudes, surveys can be conducted throughout the day.

  18. Geographical factors affecting variability of precipitation regime in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabziparvar, A. A.; Movahedi, S.; Asakereh, H.; Maryanaji, Z.; Masoodian, S. A.

    2014-05-01

    This study compares the precipitation regimes by using harmonic analysis during the last four decades (1965-2004). We used the measured precipitation data from 428 rain-gauge sites and weather stations distributed across Iran by applying 15 × 15 km spatial grids to generate the interpolated data. Data validations were carried out by statistical tests. In this study, first three harmonics of precipitation variances were evaluated. Variability of precipitation regime was explored by using three harmonic analysis methods. In addition, the effect of geographical factors (GF) (site elevation, latitude, and longitude) affecting the precipitation regime (P) was verified by multivariate regression method. The resulted regression equation between P and GF for spring showed the highest correlation coefficient (r = 0.79). For other seasons, r was lower than for spring and varied between 0.26 (summer) to 0.58 (autumn). Analysis of the first harmonic proved that the main precipitation regime in Iran tends to concentrate in one specific season (winter) as a result of large-scale Mediterranean systems passing over the country. In other words, the first harmonic is able to explain most of the precipitation variations which are caused by large-scale atmospheric circulation. For all the three harmonics, variances of precipitation were mainly a function of the geographical factors. This effect was more evident in the third harmonic; in such a way that increasing the latitudes caused higher precipitation variance. This means that the precipitation regime in northern sites is more sensitive to the local factors than those of southern sites. The results of this research can be used for reliable estimation of precipitation in ungauged sites.

  19. Clinical factors affecting the timing of delivery in twin pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chae Min; Yang, Sun Hye; Lee, Sun Pyo; Hwang, Byung Chul

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical factors affecting the timing of delivery in twin pregnancies in order to minimize perinatal complications. Methods A retrospective study involved 163 twin pregnancies delivered from January 2006 to September 2011 at Gachon University Gil Medical Center. These cases were divided into three groups based on the delivery timing: less than 32 weeks' gestation (group A), between 32 and 35+6 weeks' gestation (group B), and over 36 weeks' gestation (group C). Clinical factors including maternal age, parity, presence of premature uterine contraction, presence of premature rupture of membrane, white blood cell, high sensitive C-reactive protein level, cervical dilatation, maternal complication, chorionicity, twin specific complication, and perinatal complication were analyzed for each group. Results In group B, the timing of delivery was postponed for 14 days or more from the time of admission, and there were fewer numbers of babies with low Apgar score at birth compared with other groups. The frequency of uterine contraction (P<0.001), presence of premature rupture of membranes (P=0.017), dilatation of cervix (P<0.001), increased white blood cell and high sensitive C-reactive protein levels (P=0.002, P<0.001) were important clinical factors during decision making process of delivery timing in twin pregnancies. Twin specific fetal conditions, such as twin-twin transfusion syndrome and discordant growth (over 25% or more) were shown more frequently in group A. However, there were no significant statistical differences among three groups (P=0.06, P=0.14). Conclusion Proper management for preventing premature contraction and inflammation can be essential in twin pregnancies until 32 weeks' gestation, and may decrease maternal and perinatal complications. PMID:25469330

  20. How Do the Different Types of Computer Use Affect Math Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Raymond; Inan, Fethi; Lin, Zhangxi

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the National Educational Longitudinal Study (ELS:2002) dataset was used and a predictive data mining technique, decision tree analysis, was implemented in order to examine which factors, in conjunction to computer use, can be used to predict high or low probability of success in high school mathematics. Specifically, this study…

  1. Exposure to Violence and Achievement Motivation Beliefs: Moderating Roles of Cultural-Ecological Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheretta T. Butler-BarnesTabbye; Tabbye M. Chavous; Marc A. Zimmerman

    2011-01-01

    This study conceptualized individual-level cultural-ecological factors (racial identity and religious coping) as adolescent\\u000a assets that would promote achievement motivation and reduce negative associations between community violence exposure and\\u000a motivation. Our examination of African American adolescents (N = 380) from urban contexts indicated a negative association between community violence exposure and motivation beliefs (academic\\u000a self-efficacy and academic importance). Accounting for socioeconomic factors and

  2. Using the Learning Together Strategy to Affect Student Achievement in Physical Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Manda D.

    Despite efforts mandated by national legislation, the state of Georgia has made little progress in improving Grade 5 students' standardized test scores in science, spurring the need for social change. The purpose of this quantitative causal-comparative study was to determine whether there was a significant difference in the student achievement in the conceptual understanding of science concepts in a classroom where the teacher applied the cooperative learning strategy, Learning Together, as compared to the classroom in which teacher-directed instruction was applied. The theories of positive social interdependence and social development, which posit that social interaction promotes cognitive gains, provided a framework for the study. A convenience sample of 38 students in Grade 5 participated in the 6-week study. Nineteen students received the cooperative learning strategy treatment, while 19 students did not. Pre- and post-tests were administered to students in both groups, and an analysis of variance was performed to examine differences between the 2 sample means. Results indicated that the group receiving the cooperative learning strategy scored significantly higher than did the control group receiving direct instruction. The experimental group also scored higher in vocabulary acquisition. Using the cooperative learning strategy of Learning Together could guide teachers' efforts to help students achieve excellent state-mandated test scores. Learning Together may be employed as a powerful teaching tool across grade levels and content areas, thus promoting positive gains in other state-mandated testing areas such as math, language arts, and social studies.

  3. Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyo, Katrina A.

    2011-07-01

    A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

  4. Factors Affecting Prostate Volume Estimation in Computed Tomography Images

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Cheng-Hsiu [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shyh-Jen [Divisions of Experimental Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Alex Tong-Long [Divisions of Urology, Department of Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chao-An, E-mail: calin@pme.nthu.edu.t [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how apex-localizing methods and the computed tomography (CT) slice thickness affected the CT-based prostate volume estimation. Twenty-eight volunteers underwent evaluations of prostate volume by CT, where the contour segmentations were performed by three observers. The bottom of ischial tuberosities (ITs) and the bulb of the penis were used as reference positions to locate the apex, and the distances to the apex were recorded as 1.3 and 2.0 cm, respectively. Interobserver variations to locate ITs and the bulb of the penis were, on average, 0.10 cm (range 0.03-0.38 cm) and 0.30 cm (range 0.00-0.98 cm), respectively. The range of CT slice thickness varied from 0.08-0.48 cm and was adopted to examine the influence of the variation on volume estimation. The volume deviation from the reference case (0.08 cm), which increases in tandem with the slice thickness, was within {+-} 3 cm{sup 3}, regardless of the adopted apex-locating reference positions. In addition, the maximum error of apex identification was 1.5 times of slice thickness. Finally, based on the precise CT films and the methods of apex identification, there were strong positive correlation coefficients for the estimated prostate volume by CT and the transabdominal ultrasonography, as found in the present study (r > 0.87; p < 0.0001), and this was confirmed by Bland-Altman analysis. These results will help to identify factors that affect prostate volume calculation and to contribute to the improved estimation of the prostate volume based on CT images.

  5. Factors affecting the healing of the perineum following surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jones, M; Bassett, P; Phillips, R

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to establish patient and procedural factors associated with the development of an unhealed perineum in patients undergoing a proctectomy or excision of an ileoanal pouch. Methods A review of 194 case notes for procedures performed between 1997 and 2009 was carried out. All patients had at least 12 months’ follow-up. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed in 16 parameters. For those patients who developed an unhealed perineum, Cox regression analysis was performed to establish healing over a 12-month period. Results Two hundred patients were included in the study, of which six had unknown wound status and were subsequently excluded. This left 194 study patients. Of these, 86 (44%) achieved primary wound healing with a fully healed perineum and 108 (56%) experienced primary wound failure. With reference to the latter, 63 (58%) healed by 12 months. Comparing patients with an initially intact perineum with those with initial wound failure showed pre-existing sepsis was highly relevant (odds ratio: 4.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.16–8.62, p<0.001). In patients who had an unhealed perineum initially, perineal sepsis and surgical treatment were both significantly associated with time to healing (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.31–0.93, p=0.03; and HR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.21–0.84, p=0.01). Conclusions The presence of pre-existing perineal sepsis is associated with an unhealed perineum following proctectomy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and non-IBD surgery. Further studies are indicated to establish perineal sepsis as a causative factor. PMID:23676808

  6. Educational Resilience: The Relationship between School Protective Factors and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banatao, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    Educators are increasingly pressured to raise standardized test scores. Test-focused school leaders, however, may neglect school climate factors associated with positive student development and increased student achievement. The California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS) and its Resilience Youth Development Module (RYDM) represent a research-based,…

  7. Parental Characteristics, Ecological Factors, and the Academic Achievement of African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Erik M.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Parental characteristics, ecological factors, and the academic achievement of African American male high school students were examined. One hundred fifty-three 11th and 12th grade African American males completed the Parenting Style Index (Steinberg, Lamborn, Darling, Mounts, & Dornbusch, 1994) and a demographic questionnaire. Results…

  8. Explaining socioeconomic inequalities in student achievement: The role of home and school factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary N. Marks; John Cresswell; John Ainley

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the extent that material, social, and cultural resources and schools account for the relationship between socioeconomic background and student achievement among 15-year-olds in 30 countries. Generally, cultural factors play a more important role in most countries although in a small minority of countries, material resources have a substantial impact. Most often, social resources have little impact. In

  9. Explaining Socioeconomic Inequalities In Student Achievement: The Role Of Home And School Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Gary; Cresswell, John; Ainley, John

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the extent that material, social, and cultural resources and schools account for the relationship between socioeconomic background and student achievement among 15-year-olds in 30 countries. Generally, cultural factors play a more important role in most countries although in a small minority of countries, material resources…

  10. Factors Distinguishing between Achievers and At Risk Students: A Qualitative and Quantitative Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiselen, R.; Geyser, H.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify factors that distinguish between Achievers and At Risk Students in Accounting 1A, and to explore how qualitative and quantitative research methods complement each other. Differences between the two groups were explored from both a quantitative and a qualitative perspective, focusing on study habits,…

  11. What Is High School Economics? Factors Contributing to Student Achievement and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walstad, William B.; Soper, John C.

    1989-01-01

    Presents study which extends the analysis of economic understanding and attitudes of high school students using a national data set of the Test of Economic Literacy (TEL). Using matched pre- and posttest scores, the study investigated factors that explained level of posttest economic achievement or attitudes and analyzed reasons for gains in…

  12. Factors Influencing Student Achievement at a High-Performing Title I Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neimeier, Charlann K.

    2012-01-01

    Schools in America are required to provide all students with a quality education regardless of race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic background, demonstrated through test scores mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act. Knowledge about factors that influence students' academic performance and serve to reduce the achievement gap between Hispanic…

  13. An Analysis of Factors Influencing the Achievement of Higher Education by Chief Fire Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditch, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    The leadership of the United States Fire Service (FS) believes that higher education increases the professionalism of FS members. The research problem at the research site, which is a multisite fire department located in southeastern United States, was the lack of research-based findings on the factors influencing the achievement of higher…

  14. Relationship Between Psychosocial Factors and Academic Achievement among African American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Cecil L.; Arriola, Kimberly R. Jacob

    2003-01-01

    Surveyed African American high school students to determine psychosocial factors associated with high school achievement (e.g., community support, academic motivation, social support, and students' methods of handling unfair treatment). After controlling for gender and absenteeism, only the method of handling unfair treatment positively related to…

  15. Computer Science Majors: Sex Role Orientation, Academic Achievement, and Social Cognitive Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris; Garavalia, Linda S.; Fritts, Mary Lou Hines; Olson, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the sex role orientations endorsed by 188 male and female students majoring in computer science, a male-dominated college degree program. The relations among sex role orientation and academic achievement and social cognitive factors influential in career decision-making self-efficacy were explored. Findings revealed that…

  16. Factors Associated with Middle-School Mathematics Achievement in Greece: The Case of Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skouras, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a subset of factors and their association with students' achievement in school algebra. The participants were students who had enrolled in 2007 at the ninth year of Greek public education (third year of middle school). A total of 735 students participated (aged 14-15 years) from 37 public secondary schools. The sample…

  17. Negative School Factors and Their Influence on Math and Science Achievement in TIMSS 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perse, Tina Vrsnik; Kozina, Ana; Leban, Tina Rutar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to conduct an analysis of TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) 2003 database and to determine how negative school factors, such as aggression, are associated to the mathematical and science achievement of students. The analyses were conducted separately for national and international data.…

  18. Being Labeled "Nerd": Factors that Influence the Social Acceptance of High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentzsch, Katrin; Schutz, Astrid; Schroder-Abe, Michela

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation addresses the question of whether certain factors can protect high-achieving students at risk for being labeled a nerd against devaluation. In 2 studies, 125 and 317 students from Grade 8 evaluated vignettes describing average students and students who were called "nerds." Results indicate that being modest about good…

  19. Exploring Parental Factors, Adjustment, and Academic Achievement among White and Hispanic College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazedjian, Ani; Toews, Michelle L.; Navarro, Alice

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether college adjustment mediated the relationship between parental factors, such as parental attachment, parental education, and parental expectations, and academic achievement among White and Hispanic first-year college students. We found that adjustment mediated the relationship between parental…

  20. The Effects of Selected CAI Design Strategies on Achievement, and an Exploration of Other Related Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Stephen J.; Seidman, Steven A.

    This study examined the effects of feedback (immediate, delayed, or no feedback) and the type of control (external or internal) on computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and also considered the influence on achievement of such factors as computer anxiety, self-concept, learning style, and gender. Subjects were 336 undergraduates, the majority of…

  1. Exploring the Role of Motivational Factors in the Academic Achievement of EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solak, Ekrem

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the role of motivational factors in the academic achievement of EFL learners. The research was conducted at a State University, Faculty of Education in Turkey. The participants were 230 freshman prospective teachers from four different academic majors taking English class. Attitude/Motivation Test Battery…

  2. Risk and Protective Factors for Educational Achievement among Serious Offending Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Chauhan, Preeti; Reppucci, N. Dickon

    2012-01-01

    Using longitudinal data, this analysis: (1) documented educational outcomes for serious offending girls, and (2) identified risk and protective factors associated with academic achievement in mid-adolescence and degree attainment by early adulthood. In mid-adolescence, girls performed nearly one standard deviation below the population mean on…

  3. The Role of Family Factors and School Achievement in the Progression of Adolescents to Regular Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennanen, M.; Vartiainen, E.; Haukkala, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether parental smoking and single parenting were related to adolescents' school achievement and anti-smoking parental practices as well as how these factors predicted later smoking. The sample comprised 1163 Finnish students in Grades 7 through 9. Results show that at the beginning of the seventh grade, parental smoking and…

  4. Factors Impacting Adult Learner Achievement in a Technology Certificate Program on Computer Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delialioglu, Omer; Cakir, Hasan; Bichelmeyer, Barbara A.; Dennis, Alan R.; Duffy, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the factors impacting the achievement of adult learners in a technology certificate program on computer networks. We studied 2442 participants in 256 institutions. The participants were older than age 18 and were enrolled in the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) technology training program as "non-degree" or…

  5. What Is Most Important: Social Factors, Health Selection, and Adolescent Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roos, Leslie L.; Hiebert, Brett; Manivong, Phongsack; Edgerton, Jason; Walld, Randy; MacWilliam, Leonard; de Rocquigny, Janelle

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the relative importance of social factors and health measures in predicting educational achievement in early and late adolescence using population-based administrative data. The sample was made up of 41,943 children born in Manitoba, Canada between 1982 and 1989 and remaining in the province until age 18. Multilevel modeling…

  6. Variations in Reading Achievement across 14 Southern African School Systems: Which Factors Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungi, Njora; Thuku, Florence W.

    2010-01-01

    In this study the authors employed a multilevel analysis procedure in order to examine the pupil and school levels factors that contributed to variation in reading achievement among Grade 6 primary school pupils in 14 southern African school systems (Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa,…

  7. Do Endometrial Movements Affect The Achievement of Pregnancy during Intrauterine Insemination?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ari; Young Lee, Ji; Il Ji, Yong; Hyeog Lee, Hae; Sil Lee, Eun; Yeol Kim, Heung; Oh, Young Lim

    2015-01-01

    Background This study was aimed to assess the effect of endometrial movements on pregnancy achievement in intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles. Materials and Methods The population of this observational study was composed of unexplained infertility couples undergoing first-time IUI with clomiphene citrate between September 2010 and October 2011. Not only endometrial movements, but also thickness, volume, pattern, and echogenic change of endometrium were analyzed prospectively in prediction of pregnancy. Results The total number of 241 cycles of IUI with 49 intrauterine pregnancies (20.3%) was analyzed. Pregnancy was not related to endometrial thickness and endometrial volume, but significantly related to endometrial movements associated with the number of contraction, strong movement, cervicofundal direction, and hyperechoic change (p<0.05). Pregnant group showed higher cervicofundal movement rate (89.8 vs. 75.5%). Conclusion For IUI cycles stimulated by clomiphene citrate in unexplained infertility women, endometrial movements on the day of IUI could be a predictor of pregnancy. PMID:25780522

  8. Elimination of error factors, affecting EM and seismic inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magomedov, M.; Zuev, M. A.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.

    2013-12-01

    EM or seismic data inversions are affected by many factors, which may conceal the responses from target objects. We address here the contributions from the following effects: 1) Pre-survey spectral sensitivity factor. Preliminary information about a target layer can be used for a pre-survey estimation of the required frequency domain and signal level. A universal approach allows making such estimations in real time, helping the survey crew to optimize an acquisition process. 2) Preliminary velocities' identification and their dispersions for all the seismic waves, arising in a stratified media became a fast working tool, based on the exact analytical solution. 3) Vertical gradients effect. For most layers the log data scatter, requiring an averaging pattern. A linear gradient within each representative layer is a reasonable compromise between required inversion accuracy and forward modeling complexity. 4) An effect from the seismic source's radial component becomes comparable with vertical part for explosive sources. If this effect is not taken into account, a serious modeling error takes place. This problem has an algorithmic solution. 5) Seismic modeling is often based on different representations for a source formulated either for a force or to a potential. The wave amplitudes depend on the formulation, making an inversion result sensitive to it. 6) Asymmetrical seismic waves (modified Rayleigh) in symmetrical geometry around liquid fracture come from S-wave and merge with the modified Krauklis wave at high frequencies. A detail analysis of this feature allows a spectral range optimization for the proper wave's extraction. 7) An ultrasonic experiment was conducted to show different waves appearance for a super-thin water-saturated fracture between two Plexiglas plates, being confirmed by comparison with theoretical computations. 8) A 'sandwich effect' was detected by comparison with averaged layer's effect. This opens an opportunity of the shale gas direct identification from the surface measurements.

  9. Factors affecting anatomical changes after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Park, Keun-Myoung; Kim, Dong-Ik; Kim, Young-Wook; Do, Young-Soo; Park, Hong Suk; Park, Kwang Bo

    2015-03-01

    Background?The primary goal of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is to prevent death from aneurysm rupture. Regression of aortic sac size is believed to be a marker for success after EVAR. This study analyzes the changes in aneurysm sac size and the factors affecting sac regression after EVAR. Patients and Methods?We retrospectively reviewed 121 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) who underwent elective treatment with EVAR at our institution from January 2005 to December 2011. In this study, 17 of the 121 patients were excluded due to loss during follow-up or for not having undergone a postoperative computed tomographic (CT) scan, and 3 patients were excluded due to an isolated iliac artery aneurysm. CT scans were scheduled at months 1, 6, and 12, and annually thereafter. Aneurysm size was defined by the minor axis on the largest axial cut of the aneurysm on a two-dimensional CT scan. Sac regression was defined as a reduction in the diameter of more than 5 mm. Results?Sac regression was observed during follow-up in 39 of the 101 patients. There was 1 regression in 87 patients (1%) at 1?month, 18 in 62 patients at 6 months (29%), 26 regressions in 44 patients (59%) at 12 months, and 18 regressions in 34 patients (53%) at 24 months. After multivariate analysis, the absence of endoleaks was the only factor associated with sac regression (hazard ratio, 3.620; confidence interval, 1.692-7.747; p?=?0.001). Conclusion?Sac regression over 5 mm is associated with current or previous endoleaks after EVAR. Continued surveillance is necessary in all patients after EVAR to prevent late complications. PMID:25191763

  10. Investigation of locally resonant absorption and factors affecting the absorption band of a phononic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Meng; Jiang, Heng; Feng, Yafei; Wang, Yuren

    2014-12-01

    We experimentally and theoretically investigated the mechanisms of acoustic absorption in phononic glass to optimize its properties. First, we experimentally studied its locally resonant absorption mechanism. From these results, we attributed its strong sound attenuation to its locally resonant units and its broadband absorption to its networked structure. These experiments also indicated that the porosity and thickness of the phononic glass must be tuned to achieve the best sound absorption at given frequencies. Then, using lumped-mass methods, we studied how the absorption bandgaps of the phononic glass were affected by various factors, including the porosity and the properties of the coating materials. These calculations gave optimal ranges for selecting the porosity, modulus of the coating material, and ratio of the compliant coating to the stiff matrix to achieve absorption bandgaps in the range of 6-30 kHz. This paper provides guidelines for designing phononic glasses with proper structures and component materials to work in specific frequency ranges.

  11. Hydrologic and geologic factors affecting land subsidence near Eloy, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Epstein, V.J.

    1987-01-01

    At an extensometer site near Eloy, Arizona, 1.09 m of land subsidence caused by groundwater withdrawal were measured by leveling in 1965-83. The extensometer, which partially penetrates the compressible sediments, recorded 0.82 m of compaction during the same period. By use of a one-dimensional model, cumulative daily compaction values were simulated to within an average of 0.0038 m of the actual values. Land subsidence was simulated to within an average of 0.011 m using the same model in conjunction with geohydrologic data of the sediments below the extensometer. A highly compressible clay layer that is 24.38 m thick was partially penetrated by the extensometer. The simulation indicated that the layer was driving compaction and land subsidence linearly with respect to time, despite the presence of other compacting layers. Because of its thickness and compressibility, this layer can be expected to continue to compact after applied vertical stresses have stopped increasing and other layers have stopped compacting. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the compressibility of fine-grained sediments (expressed as specific storage) is one of the factors to which compact is most sensitive. Preconsolidation stress and hydraulic conductivity also affect land subsidence near Eloy, Arizona. (Author 's abstract)

  12. Factors affecting dental anxiety and beliefs in an Indian population.

    PubMed

    Acharya, S

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the possible factors that may affect dental anxiety and beliefs and to validate and test the psychometric properties of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) and a Modified Dental Beliefs Scale (MDBS) among the patients attending a university dental clinic in India. A cross-sectional study design was used. A total of 482 general dental patients attending a university dental clinic returned completed forms of the Indian translations of the MDAS and MDBS. General information about the age, sex, occupation and educational qualifications of the respondents as well as information about past dental experiences was also collected. All the statistical analysis was carried out by the spss (version 10) statistical software package. The Indian translations of the MDAS and the MDBS were found to be internally reliable with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.78 and 0.85, respectively. Validity was demonstrated by a statistically significant correlation between the MDAS and the MDBS scores with the correlation coefficient of 0.47. Age was also inversely related to dental anxiety. Anxiety scores were higher among the less educated patients. Those who had a prior unpleasant dental experience showed higher dental anxiety and more negative dental beliefs. The data obtained in this study provided strong evidence for the psychometric properties of the Indian version of the MDAS and the MDBS. PMID:18321261

  13. Antimutagenesis by factors affecting DNA repair in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Y; Inoue, T

    1988-12-01

    The term 'antimutagen' was originally used to describe an agent that reduces the apparent yield of spontaneous and/or induced mutations, regardless of the mechanisms involved. The 'antimutagens' include 'desmutagens' and 'bio-antimutagens'. In this article, our attention was focused on the bio-antimutagens affecting DNA repair in bacteria. Cobaltous chloride reduced the frequency of mutations in Escherichia coli induced by MNNG. The possibility that metal compound inhibits the growth of mutagen-treated cells was examined. The results clearly showed that the antimutagen surely reduces the mutation rate. The target of cobaltous chloride was found to be cellular factors including Rec A. Vanillin and cinnamaldehyde had strong antimutagenic activities against UV, 4NQO and AF-2. They stimulated Rec A-dependent recombination repair functions in the mutagen-treated cells. Among plant materials, tannins possess antimutagenic activity against UV-induced mutations in E. coli. It has been found that tannic acid stimulates the excision repair encoded by the uvrA gene thereby reducing the yield of mutants. Substances which are antimutagenic in bacterial systems also had antimutagenic activity in cultured mammalian cell systems. Vanillin reduced the frequency of mutagen-induced chromosomal aberrations. PMID:3057369

  14. Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

    2013-10-01

    This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

  15. Factors affecting the success of influenza laboratory diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kissová, Renáta; Svitok, Marek; Klement, Cyril; Mad'arová, Lucia

    2014-09-01

    Influenza is one of the most common human infectious diseases, and has profound health and economic consequences. The laboratory diag- nosis of influenza virus infections plays an important role in the global surveillance of influenza. Therefore, there is a growing demand for highly sensitive and rapid methods for detecting influenza. The performance of particular diagnostic methods is affected by various factors. In this study, we assess the effects of patients' age and time to diagnosis on the probability of detecting influenza using four diagnostic methods (virus isolation, rapid test, RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR). We examined 3,546 samples from central and eastern Slovakia during the influenza seasons from 2005-2006 to 2010-2011. In general, the probability of influenza detection significantly decreased with the time from onset of illness to sample collection (T1) as well as with patients' age (AGE). On the contrary, time from sample collection to delivery (T2) did not play a role in the prob- ability of influenza detection. As judged by odds ratios, the virus isolation method was most sensitive to T1, followed by the rapid test and RT-PCR methods. For the effect of AGE, the rapid test and virus isolation methods were more sensitive than PCR-based methods. The effects of T1 and AGE were independent of each other. Laboratories which participate in inifluenza surveillance should use several methods to enable rapid and accurate influenza A and B virus detection. PMID:25438393

  16. Factors affecting the erosion resistance of weld overlays

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Research was conducted to study factors affecting the solid particle erosion resistance of weld overlay coatings. Eleven weld overlay alloys were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using the plasma arc welding process and erosion tested at 400 C. Erosion resistance was evaluated by determining the steady state erosion rate. Ultimet, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings showed the best erosion resistance at 30 and 90{degree} impact angles. Microhardness tests were performed on the eroded samples below the erosion surface to determine the size of the plastically deformed zone and it was found that one group of coatings deformed plastically as a result of the particle impact while the others did not. No correlations were found between average microhardness at 400 C and volumetric erosion rates for plastically deformed weld overlays. For this group of overlays erosion resistance was correlated to the area under the curve of microhardness versus distance from the eroded surface. The physical significance of this parameter is discussed. For coatings that did not deform plastically, an increase in average microhardness at 400 C led to an increase in their volumetric erosion rates. The possible erosion mechanisms for these coating groups are discussed.

  17. Factors affecting the survival of frozen-thawed mouse spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    An, T Z; Iwakiri, M; Edashige, K; Sakurai, T; Kasai, M

    2000-05-01

    Mouse epididymal spermatozoa were frozen in solutions containing various compounds with different molecular weights, and the factors affecting the postthawing survival were examined. Monosaccharides (glucose, galactose) had almost no protective effect regardless of the concentration and the temperature of exposure. On the other hand, disaccharides (sucrose, trehalose) and trisaccharides (raffinose, melezitose) resulted in higher survival rates, especially at a concentration of around 0.35 mol/kg H(2)O (0.381-0.412 Osm/kg). Macromolecules, such as PVP10, Ficoll 70, bovine serum albumin, and skim milk had almost no effect, but compounds with a molecular weight of about 800, such as metrizamide and Nycodenz, had some protective effect. When a raffinose solution was supplemented with 10% metrizamide, resulting in an osmolality of approximately 0.400 Osm/kg, a high survival rate was obtained. Solutions at about 0.400 Osm/kg containing trehalose alone, trehalose + metrizamide, raffinose alone, and raffinose + metrizamide, were all effective for sperm freezing; frozen-thawed sperm could fertilize oocytes, and the resultant embryos could develop to live young after transfer. For freezing mouse spermatozoa, aqueous solutions at approximately 0.400 Osm/kg containing a disaccharide or a trisaccharide seem to be effective. PMID:10860623

  18. Factors Affecting the Habitability of Earth-like Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, Victoria; NAI-Virtual Planetary Laboratory Team

    2014-03-01

    Habitability is a measure of an environment's potential to support life. For exoplanets, the concept of habitability can be used broadly - to inform our calculations of the possibility and distribution of life elsewhere - or as a practical tool to inform mission designs and to prioritize specific targets in the search for extrasolar life. Although a planet's habitability does depend critically on the effect of stellar type and planetary semi-major axis on climate balance, work in the interdisciplinary field of astrobiology has identified many additional factors that can affect a planet's environment and its potential ability to support life. Life requires material for metabolism and structures, a liquid medium for chemical transport, and an energy source to drive metabolism and other life processes. Whether a planet's surface or sub-surface can provide these requirements is the result of numerous planetary and astrophysical processes that affect the planet's formation and evolution. Many of these factors are interdependent, and fall into three main categories: stellar effects, planetary effects and planetary system effects. Key abiotic processes affecting the resultant planetary environment include photochemistry (e.g. Segura et al., 2003; 2005), stellar effects on climate balance (e.g. Joshii et al., 2012; Shields et al., 2013), atmospheric loss (e.g. Lopez and Fortney, 2013), and gravitational interactions with the star (e.g. Barnes et al., 2013). In many cases, the effect of these processes is strongly dependent on a specific planet's existing environmental properties. Examples include the resultant UV flux at a planetary surface as a product of stellar activity and the strength of a planet's atmospheric UV shield (Segura et al., 2010); and the amount of tidal energy available to a planet to drive plate tectonics and heat the surface (Barnes et al., 2009), which is in turn due to a combination of stellar mass, planetary mass and composition, planetary orbital parameters and the gravitational influence of other planets in the system. A thorough assessment of a planet's environment and its potential habitability is a necessary first step in the search for biosignatures. Targeted environmental characteristics include surface temperature and pressure (e.g. Misra et al., 2013), a census of bulk and trace atmospheric gases, and whether there are signs of liquid water on the planetary surface (e.g. Robinson et al., 2010). The robustness of a planetary biosignature is dependent on being able to characterize the environment sufficiently well, and to understand likely star-planet interactions, to preclude formation of a biosignature gas via abiotic processes such as photochemistry (e.g. Segura et al., 2007; Domagal-Goldman et al., 2011; Grenfell et al., 2012). Here we also discuss potential false positives for O2 and O3, which, in large quantities, are often considered robust biosignatures for oxygenic photosynthesis. There is clearly significant future work required to better identify and understand the key environmental processes and interactions that allow a planet to support life, and to distinguish life's global impact on an environment from the environment itself.

  19. Chronotype and personality factors of predisposition to seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Oginska, Halszka; Oginska-Bruchal, Katarzyna

    2014-05-01

    The study aimed to recognize the personality factors of a predisposition to seasonal mood fluctuations in a non-clinical sample. A group of 101 subjects (57 women, 44 men; mean age 26.4?±?6.5 years) completed a battery of tests comprising a Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ), Chronotype Questionnaire (ChQ), a NEO-Five Factor Inventory and a Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS). A smaller sample (n?=?44) completed a Winter Blues Scale (WBS). Women scored significantly higher than men in seasonality (p?=?0.014), neuroticism (p?=?0.049), agreeableness (p?=?0.010), and avoidance-oriented coping style (p?=?0.041). Subjects with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) (n?=?41) or sub-SAD (n?=?33), as diagnosed with SPAQ, exhibited higher levels of neuroticism (p?=?0.017) and openness (p?=?0.016) in comparison to non-SAD individuals. The latter declared a less frequent avoidance coping style. Both measures of seasonality, i.e. the SPAQ Global Seasonality Score and WBS, correlated significantly (r?=?0.28 and 0.44, respectively) with the subjective amplitude of the circadian rhythm, as described with the "distinctness" scale of ChQ. Female gender, neuroticism and openness were confirmed as factors linked to seasonal mood variability. Additionally, the study revealed an association between susceptibility to mild winter depression and an avoidance-oriented coping style. The avoidance coping style was correlated positively with all the aspects of seasonality described by SPAQ (correlation coefficients from 0.21 to 0.34). Both sub-types of avoidance-oriented style, i.e. distraction and social diversion, were associated with marked subjective seasonal changes in sleep length, mood and the energy level. While the subjective amplitude of circadian rhythm proved to be connected with seasonality, the subjective acrophase of the rhythm (morningness-eveningness preference) did not. It may be hypothesized that sensitivity to natural environmental conditions/synchronizers is a separate individual trait shaping the subject's proneness to energy and mood changes both in diurnal and year scale, i.e. circadian and seasonal mood variations. PMID:24397301

  20. FACTORS AFFECTING THE COLLECTION EFFICIENCY OF ATMOSPHERIC SULFATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Factors that influence the collection and measurement of atmospheric sulfate were investigated. Special emphasis was given to those factors that cause the formation of extraneous sulfate during the sampling process. The factors considered were filter type and composition, ambient...

  1. Beef customer satisfaction: factors affecting consumer evaluations of clod steaks.

    PubMed

    Goodson, K J; Morgan, W W; Reagan, J O; Gwartney, B L; Courington, S M; Wise, J W; Savell, J W

    2002-02-01

    An in-home beef study evaluated consumer ratings of clod steaks (n = 1,264) as influenced by USDA quality grade (Top Choice, Low Choice, High Select, and Low Select), city (Chicago and Philadelphia), consumer segment (Beef Loyals, who are heavy consumers of beef; Budget Rotators, who are cost-driven and split meat consumption between beef and chicken; and Variety Rotators, who have higher incomes and education and split their meat consumption among beef, poultry, and other foods), degree of doneness, and cooking method. Consumers evaluated each steak for Overall Like, Tenderness, Juiciness, Flavor Like, and Flavor Amount using 10-point scales. Grilling was the predominant cooking method used, and steaks were cooked to medium-well and greater degrees of doneness. Interactions existed involving the consumer-controlled factors of degree of doneness and(or) cooking method for all consumer-evaluated traits for the clod steak (P < 0.05). USDA grade did not affect any consumer evaluation traits or Warner-Bratzler shear force values (P > 0.05). One significant main effect, segment (P = 0.006), and one significant interaction, cooking method x city (P = 0.0407), existed for Overall Like ratings. Consumers in the Beef Loyals segment rated clod steaks higher in Overall Like than the other segments. Consumers in Chicago tended to give more uniform Overall Like ratings to clod steaks cooked by various methods; however, consumers in Philadelphia gave among the highest ratings to clod steaks that were fried and among the lowest to those that were grilled. Additionally, although clod steaks that were fried were given generally high ratings by consumers in Philadelphia, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks cooked in this manner significantly lower than those in Philadelphia. Conversely, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks that were grilled significantly higher than consumers in Philadelphia. Correlation and stepwise regression analyses indicated that Flavor Like was driving customer satisfaction of the clod steak. Flavor Like was the sensory trait most highly correlated to Overall Like, followed by Tenderness, Flavor Amount, and Juiciness. Flavor Like was the first variable to enter into the stepwise regression equation for predicting Overall Like, followed by Tenderness and Flavor Amount. For the clod steak, it is likely that preparation techniques that improve flavor without reducing tenderness positively affect customer satisfaction. PMID:11881929

  2. Demanding Affecting Factors Analysis for Personal Financial Management Business: An Empirical Approach Based on Factor Analysis Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianqiong Peng; Dehong Lu

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the demanding affecting factors for financial management business by using factor analysis model and logistic regression through the data obtained from the survey questionnaires. It is found that the main factors that affecting financial management business are the special life cycle stages the residents are in and the external information environment for residents to purchase financial products.

  3. Urban vs. rural factors that affect adult asthma.

    PubMed

    Jie, Yu; Isa, Zaleha Md; Jie, Xu; Ju, Zhang Long; Ismail, Noor Hassim

    2013-01-01

    In this review, our aim was to examine the influence of geographic variations on asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults, which is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity. Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The disparities in asthma prevalence and morbidity among the world's geographic locations are more likely to be associated with environmental exposures than genetic differences. In writing this article, we found that the indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, and that difference correlated with environmental risk exposures, SES, and healthcare access. Environmental risk factors to which urban adults were more frequently exposed than rural adults were dust mites,high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle.Exposure to indoor biological contaminants in the urban environment is common.The main risk factors for developing asthma in urban areas are atopy and allergy to house dust mites, followed by allergens from animal dander. House dust mite exposure may potentially explain differences in diagnosis of asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults in urban vs. rural areas. In addition, the prevalence of asthma morbidity increases with urbanization. High levels of vehicle emissions,Western lifestyles and degree of urbanization itself, may affect outdoor and thereby indoor air quality. In urban areas, biomass fuels have been widely replaced by cleaner energy sources at home, such as gas and electricity, but in most developing countries, coal is still a major source of fuel for cooking and heating, particularly in winter. Moreover, exposure to ETS is common at home or at work in urban areas.There is evidence that asthma prevalence and morbidity is less common in rural than in urban areas. The possible reasons are that rural residents are exposed early in life to stables and to farm milk production, and such exposures are protective against developing asthma morbidity. Even so, asthma morbidity is disproportionately high among poor inner-city residents and in rural populations. A higher proportion of adult residents of nonmetropolitan areas were characterized as follows:aged 55 years or older, no previous college admission, low household income, no health insurance coverage, and could not see a doctor due to healthcare service availability, etc. In rural areas, biomass fuels meet more than 70% of the rural energy needs. Progress in adopting modern energy sources in rural areas has been slow. The most direct health impact comes from household energy use among the poor, who depend almost entirely on burning biomass fuels in simple cooking devices that are placed in inadequately ventilated spaces. Prospective studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of biomass smoke on lung health among adults in rural areas.Geographic differences in asthma susceptibility exist around the world. The reason for the differences in asthma prevalence in rural and urban areas may be due to the fact that populations have different lifestyles and cultures, as well as different environmental exposures and different genetic backgrounds. Identifying geographic disparities in asthma hospitalizations is critical to implementing prevention strategies,reducing morbidity, and improving healthcare financing for clinical asthma treatment. Although evidence shows that differences in the prevalence of asthma do exist between urban and rural dwellers in many parts of the world, including in developed countries, data are inadequate to evaluate the extent to which different pollutant exposures contribute to asthma morbidity and severity of asthma between urban and rural areas. PMID:23625129

  4. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Powdered Drug Reconstitution in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Grant; Johnston, Smith; Marshburn, Tom

    1999-01-01

    Owing to the high cost of transporting mass into space, and the small volume available for equipment in the Space Shuttle Orbiter and the International Space Station, refrigeration space is extremely limited. For this reason, there exists strong motivation for transporting certain drugs in powdered form so that they do not require refrigeration. When needed, the powdered drug will be mixed with saline to obtain a liquid form that may be injected intravenously. While this is a relatively simple task in a 1-G environment, there are some difficulties that may be encountered in 0-G. In non-accelerated spaceflight, gravitational and inertial forces are eliminated allowing other smaller forces, such as capillary forces and surface tension, to dominate the behavior of fluids. For instance, water slowly ejected from a straw will tend to form a sphere, while fluid in a container will tend to wet the inside surface forming a highly rounded meniscus. Initial attempts at mixing powdered drugs with saline in microgravity have shown a tendency toward forming foamy emulsions instead of the desired homogeneous solution. The predominance of adhesive forces between the drug particles and the interface tensions at the gas/liquid and solid/liquid interfaces drastically reduce the rate of deaggregation of the drug powder and also reduce the rate of absorption of saline by the powder mass. In addition, the capillary forces cause the saline to wet the inside of the container, thus trapping air bubbles within the liquid. The rate of dissolution of a powder drug is directly proportional to the amount of surface area of the solid that is exposed to liquid solvent. The surface area of drug that is in contact with the liquid is greatly reduced in microgravity and, as a result, the dissolution rate is reduced as well. The KC-135 research described here was aimed at evaluating the extent to which it is possible to perform drug reconstitution in the weightlessness of parabolic flight using standard pharmacological supplies. The experiment included a parametric assessment of possible factors affecting the reconstitution process. The specific questions that we wished to answer were: (1) Is it possible to reconstitute powdered drugs in weightlessness using standard pharmacological equipment? (2) What are the differences between drug reconstitution in a 1-G and a 0-G environment? (3) What techniques of mixing the drug powder and diluent are more successful? (4) What physical and chemical factors play a role in determining the success of mixing and dissolution? (5) Is it necessary to employ crewmember and equipment restraints during the reconstitution process?

  5. Factors Affecting Perceptual Threshold in Argus II Retinal Prosthesis Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, A. K.; Yeoh, J.; Dorn, J. D.; Caspi, A.; Wuyyuru, V.; McMahon, M. J.; Humayun, M. S.; Greenberg, R. J.; daCruz, L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis has been developed to provide partial restoration of vision to subjects blinded from outer retinal degenerative disease. Participants were surgically implanted with the system in the United States and Europe in a single arm, prospective, multicenter clinical trial. The purpose of this investigation was to determine which factors affect electrical thresholds in order to inform surgical placement of the device. Methods Electrode–retina and electrode–fovea distances were determined using SD-OCT and fundus photography, respectively. Perceptual threshold to electrical stimulation of electrodes was measured using custom developed software, in which current amplitude was varied until the threshold was found. Full field stimulus light threshold was measured using the Espion D-FST test. Relationships between electrical threshold and these three explanatory variables (electrode–retina distance, electrode–fovea distance, and monocular light threshold) were quantified using regression. Results Regression analysis showed a significant correlation between electrical threshold and electrode–retina distance (R2 = 0.50, P = 0.0002; n = 703 electrodes). 90.3% of electrodes in contact with the macula (n = 207) elicited percepts at charge densities less than 1 mC/cm2/phase. These threshold data also correlated well with ganglion cell density profile (P = 0.03). A weaker, but still significant, inverse correlation was found between light threshold and electrical threshold (R2 < 0.52, P = 0.01). Multivariate modeling indicated that electrode–retina distance and light threshold are highly predictive of electrode threshold (R2 = 0.87; P < 0.0005). Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that while light threshold should be used to inform patient selection, macular contact of the array is paramount. Translational Relevance Reported Argus II clinical study results are in good agreement with prior in vitro and in vivo studies, and support the development of higher-density systems that employ smaller diameter electrodes. (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00407602) PMID:24049718

  6. Factors affecting nutritional status of Malaysian primary school children.

    PubMed

    Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers. PMID:16425649

  7. Factors affecting trace-metal mobility in subsoils

    SciTech Connect

    Kotuby-Amacher, J.

    1989-01-01

    The transport of metals to groundwater below hazardous waste sites is of great environmental concern. The movement of a particular metal is determined by (1) the soil's chemical and physical properties, (2) the amount and form of the metal, and (3) the composition of the soil or waste solution with which the metal is associated. Field and laboratory studies were conducted to examine these factors affecting metal mobility in subsoils. The objectives of the field studies were to determine the distribution and chemical forms of metal contaminants in subsoil at sites with known or suspected potential for groundwater contamination. The objectives of the laboratory studies were to determine the effect of soil properties, solute concentration, solution composition, and redox status on the retention and transport of Cd and Pb in subsoil materials. In the field and laboratory studies, the soil properties controlling Pb retention and mobility were pH, CEC, metal oxides (Mn oxides, amorphous Fe oxides, and free Fe oxides), and soil particle-size distribution. Retention of Cd was controlled by pH, CEC, amorphous Fe oxides, and particle-size distribution. Copper mobility was controlled by the three metal oxides. The Fe oxides (amorphous and crystalline) controlled Ni and Zn retention. Arsenic retention was controlled by pH, CEC, and the metal oxides. Redox potential was also important in Cd and Pb retention, with greater metal retention under oxidizing conditions. In the laboratory studies, higher concentrations of Cd and Pb resulted in lower proportions of metals being retained by the soil. Therefore, the greater the concentration of the metal, the faster it will move through the soil. The retention of Pb was greater than Cd. The retention of Cd and Pb was greater in a dilute salt solution (0.005M Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) and in a simulated oil field waste.

  8. Factors affecting performance of Nili-Ravi buffaloes in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Cady, R A; Shah, S K; Schermerhorn, E C; McDowell, R E

    1983-03-01

    Effects of herd, year, age, season, and lactation length on milk yield and reproductive efficiency for the Nili-Ravi breed of buffalo were determined by analysis of variance of 5,716 lactation records from two herds in Pakistan. Herds differed in all traits. Herd average milk yields were 1,702 and 2,064 kg. Year, season, herd, parity number, days in milk, days open, age, and sire all influenced milk yield. Herd, year, season, and parity number also had significant effects on days open and calving interval. Month of calving was important for time until return to estrus. Percentages of variance in milk yield attributed to herd, year, sire, cow, and residual were 20.3, 11.4, 4.3, 17.0, and 47.0. Classification of lactation length (greater than 60, greater than 250, or at least 305 days) markedly influenced the sire component of variance suggesting some interdependence of milk yield and lactation length. Total variance for milk yield was 466,911 kg2. Within herd heritability for milk yield was .25, and repeatability was low (.31). Predicted breeding values for sires for 250 to 305-day milk ranged from -172 kg to +260. Cows in Herd 1 completed 5.58 lactations with an average herd life of 12.3 yr; Herd 2 cows completed 4.52 lactations with culling at 10.6 yr. Frequency of termination of lactations because of mastitis, reproductive problems, or health was similar to frequencies for cattle. Factors affecting milk yield in buffaloes are similar to those of cattle. PMID:6841754

  9. Factors affecting in vitro maturation of alpaca (Lama paco) oocytes.

    PubMed

    Leisinger, Ca; Coffman, Ea; Coutinho da Silva, Ma; Forshey, Bs; Pinto, Crf

    2014-11-10

    The present study utilized a 2×2×2 factorial design examining age (old vs. young), follicle size (?2mm vs. <2mm) and media supplementation (with or without fetal bovine serum [FBS]) to determine factors that might affect in vitro maturation of alpaca oocytes. We hypothesized that oocytes collected from follicles ?2mm from young alpacas and incubated in maturation media supplemented with FBS would have greater maturation rates than those incubated in any other factorial combination. Oocytes were collected from the ovaries of 11 young alpacas (<10 years old) and 14 old alpacas (>11 years old). Oocytes were classified as morphologically normal oocytes (MNO) and deemed suitable for incubation if ?3 compact layers of cumulus cells and a homogeneous, evenly granulated cytoplasm were observed. Oocytes from each group of follicle sizes were incubated separately and halves of each group were randomly divided and incubated 24h in chemically defined maturation media with or without 10% FBS. Maturation was defined as the visualization of a polar body at the end of the incubation period. Overall, a greater proportion of MNO were collected from follicles ?2mm than that obtained from smaller follicles, 55% (136/247) vs. 29.6% (162/547), respectively (P<0.05). A greater proportion of oocytes reached maturation when collected from ?2mm follicles 36% (49/136) than from <2mm follicles 8% (13/162) (P<0.05). For oocytes obtained from ?2mm follicles of old alpacas, a greater proportion reached maturation when incubated in media supplemented with FBS than when incubated without FBS; 57.6% (19/33) vs. 18.2% (6/33), respectively (P<0.05). PMID:25261077

  10. Factors affecting visibility of a target tissue in histologic sections.

    PubMed

    McGavin, M D

    2014-01-01

    The objective of histologic techniques is to stain the subject with high specificity and high visibility. Visibility depends on the microscope's resolution and contrast and on the microscopist's skill at optimizing the microscope's image. It also depends on histotechnological factors, which include specificity and differentiation of the stain, density of background staining (particularly in silver stains), innate color, and grayscale contrasts of the dyes in the stains and color and density of the counterstain. If contrast is not optimal, the image should be evaluated on the basis of 2 types of contrast-color and grayscale. Complementary colors have maximum color contrast, and the color triangle is useful in the selection of a suitable counterstain. Grayscale contrast is a function of the density of a stain. If dyes capable of staining the target and backgrounds tissue do not have optimal color contrast, the only method of increasing contrast is to change the grayscale value of one of the stains, usually the counterstain. Colors can have a subconscious effect on a viewer. Depending on whether they are aesthetically pleasing, they may influence the rigor of and time spent on the histopathologic examination. Maximizing the specificity of stains such as hematoxylin, eosin, trichrome, and Luxol fast blue (LFB) depends on optimal differentiation. In differentiation of counterstains such as methylene blue in the Ziehl-Neelsen stain, its recommended density is conveniently expressed as a grayscale value. Independent evaluation of color and grayscale contrasts is very helpful in determining the cause of low contrast in an image. This review discusses aspects of the histotechnique affecting the visibility of tissue components. PMID:24395975

  11. A systems theory approach to career development: Exploring factors that affect science as a career choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liskey, Brian K.

    This research project was designed to examine the factors that affect students' choice in a career. Specifically, the factors of (a) achievement, (b) interest, (c) self-efficacy, (d) perceived preparation for a career, and (e) being informed about a career will be under investigation. Of key importance to the study is how these factors can affect a student's perception about choosing a science career. A quantitative analysis of secondary data from the 2006 and 2009 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) international assessment and attitudinal questionnaire provided data on student perceptions and aptitude in science. The sample from PISA included over 400,000 15 year-old students from 57 countries. From the 57 countries, 30 countries, comprised by Organization for Economic and Cooperative Development (OECD), were isolated for analysis. Within this group of 30, 11 were selected for comparison based on their questionnaire response to expectations for a career in science at age 30. The Institute for Educational Science's, International Data Explorer was utilized to acquire and analyze data from the 2006 and 2009 PISA international tests and questionnaires to determine significance between scaled scores and PISA indices. Variables were chosen as factors affecting student's perception on various systems outlined by the Systems Theory of Career Development (Patton & McMahon, 1997) and the Systems Theory of Career Development Framework (Patton & McMahon, 1999). Four country groups were established based on student responses to question 30a from the 2006 PISA attitudinal questionnaire, which asks what career students expected to have at age 30. The results from comparing country groups showed that countries in Group A, which showed the highest values for students expecting a career in science, also had the highest average values for achievement on the PISA science literacy assessment. Likewise, countries that had the lowest values for expecting a career in science (Group B) also had the lowest average values for achievement in science as assessed by science literacy score according to PISA. The United States (Group C) and the International Average (Group D) were both intermediate in each of the two categories. The analysis also showed an identical country group sequence from highest responses to lowest responses for the "systems" or variables of a) self-efficacy, b) preparation for a science career, and c) information about a career in science. The group sequence from high to low values was Group C, Group B, Group D, Group A. When comparing this country group sequence there appears to be a weak negative association between students in countries that expect a career in science and the values for self-efficacy, being prepared for, and informed about a career in science. The findings from this study indicate that the greatest factor affecting students' perception for expecting a career in science is high achievement in science. These results provide key insight on the Systems Theory of Career Development missing from the existing body of literature. Leaders in the fields of education and educational policy can use this information to guide practices and promote programs that will aid in higher achievement in science and engineering. This research can also be used by leaders in career counseling to advise students on appropriate career paths and prepare students for future careers in science and technology. Finally, leadership within state and federal institutions can utilize results from this study to guide future research and funding that encourages students on career pathways in the fields of Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM).

  12. Exploring Parental Factors, Adjustment, and Academic Achievement Among White and Hispanic College Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle L. Toews Ani Yazedjian; Alice Navarro

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether college adjustment mediated the relationship between parental factors, such as parental attachment, parental education, and parental expectations, and academic achievement among White and Hispanic first-year college students. We found that adjustment mediated the relationship between parental factors—quality of the parental relationship and parental education—and GPA for White students. However, none of

  13. FACTORS AFFECTING THE PHOTOCHEMICAL TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The photochemical treatment of hazardous waste can be optimized by taking into account various factors that influence the rates of photochemical reactions. Physical factors that facilitate photochemical treatment include: (1) maximizing the irradiated surface to volume ratio of t...

  14. FACTORS AFFECTING THE PHOTOCHEMICAL TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The photochemical treatment of hazardous waste can be optimized by taking into account several factors that influence the rates of photochemical reactions. Physical factors that facilitate photochemical treatment include: (1) maximizing the irradiated surface to volume ratio of t...

  15. Initial solidification phenomena: Factors affecting heat transfer in strip casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolli, Paolo

    In the last few years a few companies have announced the final stage of the commercial development of strip casting of steels. In strip casting heat extraction and productivity are limited by the thermal resistance at the interface between processed material and moving mold (rolls for twin-roll strip casters). Among many factors influencing interfacial heat transfer, films of various composition, either formed during casting or deposited before casting on the surface of the rolls, melt superheat and gas atmosphere composition can have a significantly positive or negative effect on the achieved heat transfer rate. From an industrial point view, methods to improve interfacial heat transfer rates must be found, in order to increase productivity. The objective of this research project is to assess if it is feasible to improve heat transfer rates during solidification of steel in direct contact with a copper mold: (1) by the application of thin coatings on the mold surface; (2) by adding a reactive gas species containing sulfur in the gas shrouding where casting is performed. To address the former, solidification experiments were performed with the mold surface either kept uncoated or coated with coatings of different compositions. To address the latter, the experiments were performed in gas shrouding atmospheres with or without sulphydric acid. It was observed that the resulting heat extraction rates were improved by the application of certain coatings and by the addition of H2S to the gas atmosphere. These findings prove that the application of coatings and the use of small amounts of reactive gaseous species containing sulfur may be methods to increase productivity in strip casting. The effect of superheat and the effect of naturally deposited oxides (Mn-oxide) were also evaluated experimentally. A numerical study of the effect of the critical undercooling on the productivity of a twin-roll strip caster showed that the maximum allowable casting speed can be increased by increasing the critical undercooling, which in turns can be changed by changing the composition of the coating applied on the roll surface; this increase is significant when casting thicknesses are small (less than 1 mm). Finally, a procedure, based on Scheill's method, vaporization and liquation, to predict the composition of films depositing naturally during solidification, starting from the steel composition, is proposed.

  16. Calcite and Picocyanobacteria in Lakes: Factors Affecting Their Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, M.; Obst, M.; Mavrocordatos, D.

    2003-12-01

    Calcites build large deposits which have been observed in the rock record throughout geological time at various localities around the globe. Carbonate deposits have affected atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. As it has been generally accepted, inorganic precipitation represents a source of carbon dioxide on short geological time scales and a sink of inorganic carbon at long time scales from millions to thousands of millions years. However, recent research indicates that calcite deposits may result from microbial calcification instead of inorganic precipitation. In this case the process may reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide on geologically short time scales. Thus the effect of carbonate sediment deposition on global carbon cycling depends on the origin of carbonate. Thus it is essential to understand the cause and the key parameters affecting calcite precipitation. The role of algae and bacteria in calcite formation in lakes has not been evaluated in detail. Some evidence, however, exists supporting precipitation of calcium carbonate by microbes as the origin of whiting. Several field studies on lakes have also produced puzzling results: The peaks of algal blooms were often not found at the same time as precipitation events of calcite. We suspect that parts of the discrepancies in the interpretation of field observations are due to the activity of autotrophic picoplankton. The unicellular autotrophic picoplankton (APP) is a ubiquitous component of pelagic ecosystems. But it has often been overlooked due to its small cell size of 0.2 - 2 ? m in diameter. Coccoid picocyanobacteria of the Synechococcus-type dominate the picoplankton community in most oligotrophic systems. Recently, laboratory experiments and field observations suggested that APP may play an important role in calcite precipitation. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of environmental factors such as saturation state, concentration of different dissolved ions and characteristics of the surface of cells on interaction between calcite and picocyanobacteria under both laboratory and field conditions. Laboratory experiments were performed with a picocyanobacteria strain Synechococcus-type. Using ion selective electrodes we monitored calcite precipitation induced by bacteria in the solutions of a different composition (calcium 0.7 - 48 mM, inorganic carbonate 6 - 35 ? M). Electron and atomic force microscopy measurements provided insight into the cell-mineral interface. Furthermore, quantitative investigations of the types and densities of proton binding sites on a bacterial surface will be reported from the acid-base titrations on bacteria. Results of these initial experiments are encouraging and demonstrate by direct measurements the potential of picocyanobacteria to precipitate calcite. The amount of the precipitated calcite varied in experiments with a different ratio of dissolved inorganic carbon and calcium. The microscopic observations provide some evidence that the cell walls of cyanobacteria act as a substrate of nucleation of calcite. Temporal and spatial correlations of cyanobacteria and calcite, as well as images of bacterial shape particles indicated that picoplankton plays an important role in calcite precipitation in Lake Lucerne. This class of phytoplankton has to be considered in studying the biogeochemical cycling of oligotrophic hardwater lakes.

  17. Environmental Factors Affecting Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Have We Made Progress?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Laszlo Lakatos

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is only partially understood; various environmental and host (e.g. genetic, epithelial, immune, and nonimmune) factors are involved. The critical role for environmental factors is strongly supported by recent worldwide trends in IBD epidemiology. One important environmental factor is smoking. A meta-analysis partially confirms previous findings that smoking was found to be protective against

  18. The impact of selected educational factors on the academic achievement of secondary students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epps, Bernethia Mechelle

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of related educational factors on the mathematics and science achievement of secondary students. The researcher compared the variables of instructional design, economic status and retention against the exit level scores on the mathematics and science Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) test of 11th grade students. The technique used for this investigation was a Three-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Three hundred thirty five students from an urban school district in a metropolitan area in southeast Texas participated in this study. Ex-post facto data obtained from the district's student information system was utilized. Based on the results, the following conclusions were drawn. (1) Instructional design does impact mathematics and science achievement of students at the secondary level. (2) Retention during a student's ninth grade year does impact mathematics and science achievement. (3) The interaction of instructional design and retention does impact the mathematics and science achievement of students at the secondary level. (4) Economic status as a main effect or as an interaction effect does not impact mathematics and science achievement of students at the secondary level. For those seeking to explore this topic in greater depth, recommendations for further investigations might consider the study of teacher perceptions and attitudes toward students who attend school in the alternative setting. Additionally, future investigations might look into the level of experience and the reasons teachers choose to teach in the alternative setting.

  19. The Development of Gender Differences in Affective Expression and in the Relationship between Mood and Achievement-Related Self-Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reber, Rolf; Flammer, August

    2002-01-01

    In this study, 434 children and adolescents completed the Control-, Agency-, and Means-ends beliefs Interview (CAMI). Moreover, we asked for current mood-state and achievement-related affect after success and failure at school. There was no gender difference in achievement-related affective expression in children (9 and 10 years old), but there…

  20. Insulin-like growth factor- I and factors affecting it in thalassemia major

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf T.; Sanctis, Vincenzo De; Elalaily, Rania; Yassin, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Despite improvement of blood transfusion regimens and iron chelation therapy growth and maturational delay, cardiomyopathy, endocrinopathies and osteoporosis still occur in good number of thalassemic patients. Decreased IGF-1 secretion occurs in the majority of the thalassemic patients particularly those with growth and pubertal delay. Many factors contribute to this decreased synthesis of IGF-I including disturbed growth hormone (GH) - insulin-like growth factor - I (IGF-I) axis. The possible factors contributing to low IGF-I synthesis in thalassemia and the possible interaction between low IGF-I secretion and the occurrence of these complications is discussed in this mini-review. Improvement of IGF-I secretion in thalassemic patients should be intended to improve linear growth and bone mineral accretion in thalassemic patients. This can be attained through adequate correction of anemia and proper chelation, nutritional supplementation (increasing caloric intake), correction of vitamin D and zinc deficiencies, induction of puberty and correction of hypogonadism at the proper time and treating GH deficiency. This review paper provides a summary of the current state of knowledge regarding IGF-I and factors affecting it in patients with thalassaemia major (TM). Search on PubMed and reference lists of articles with the term ‘IGF-I, GH, growth, thalassemia, thyroxine, anemia, vitamin D, and zinc’ was carried out. A hundred and forty-eight articles were found and used in the write up and the data analyzed was included in this report. PMID:25729686

  1. Insulin-like growth factor- I and factors affecting it in thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ashraf T; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania; Yassin, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Despite improvement of blood transfusion regimens and iron chelation therapy growth and maturational delay, cardiomyopathy, endocrinopathies and osteoporosis still occur in good number of thalassemic patients. Decreased IGF-1 secretion occurs in the majority of the thalassemic patients particularly those with growth and pubertal delay. Many factors contribute to this decreased synthesis of IGF-I including disturbed growth hormone (GH) - insulin-like growth factor - I (IGF-I) axis. The possible factors contributing to low IGF-I synthesis in thalassemia and the possible interaction between low IGF-I secretion and the occurrence of these complications is discussed in this mini-review. Improvement of IGF-I secretion in thalassemic patients should be intended to improve linear growth and bone mineral accretion in thalassemic patients. This can be attained through adequate correction of anemia and proper chelation, nutritional supplementation (increasing caloric intake), correction of vitamin D and zinc deficiencies, induction of puberty and correction of hypogonadism at the proper time and treating GH deficiency. This review paper provides a summary of the current state of knowledge regarding IGF-I and factors affecting it in patients with thalassaemia major (TM). Search on PubMed and reference lists of articles with the term 'IGF-I, GH, growth, thalassemia, thyroxine, anemia, vitamin D, and zinc' was carried out. A hundred and forty-eight articles were found and used in the write up and the data analyzed was included in this report. PMID:25729686

  2. Risk Factors for Alcoholism Among Women Religious: Affect Regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth M. Hill

    Risk factors for addiction have received extensive empirical attention. Specific risk factors for women Religious (nuns),\\u000a however, are not well known. This report examines risk factors for alcoholism in a retrospective study of 148 chemically dependent\\u000a women Religious in treatment. Negative emotionality, a personality measure, was the only significant predictor of alcoholism\\u000a severity in a joint multiple regression with childhood

  3. Factors affecting the toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs.

    PubMed

    Heinz, G H; Hoffman, D J; Kondrad, S L; Erwin, C A

    2006-02-01

    We developed a standardized protocol for comparing the sensitivities of the embryos of different bird species to methylmercury when methylmercury was injected into their eggs. During the course of developing this protocol, we investigated the effects of various factors on the toxicity of the injected methylmercury. Most of our experiments were done with chicken (Gallus domesticus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) eggs, all of which were purchased in large numbers from game farms. A smaller amount of work was done with double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs collected from the wild. Several solvents were tested, and corn oil at a rate of 1 microl/g egg contents was selected for the final standardized protocol because it had minimal toxicity to embryos and because methylmercury dissolved in corn oil yielded a dose-response curve in a range of egg concentrations that was similar to the range that causes reproductive impairment when the mother deposits methylmercury into her own eggs. The embryonic stage at which eggs were injected with corn oil altered mercury toxicity; at early stages, the corn oil itself was toxic. Therefore, in the final protocol we standardized the time of injection to occur when each species reached the morphologic equivalent of a 3-day-old chicken embryo. Although solvents can be injected directly into the albumen of an egg, high embryo mortality can occur in the solvent controls because of the formation of air bubbles in the albumen. Our final protocol used corn oil injections into the air cell, which are easier and safer than albumen injections. Most of the methylmercury, when dissolved in corn oil, injected into the air cell passes through the inner shell membrane and into the egg albumen. Most commercial incubators incubate eggs in trays with the air cell end of the egg pointing upward, but we discovered that mercury-induced mortality was too great when eggs were held in this orientation. In addition, some species of bird eggs require incubation on their sides with the eggs being rolled 180 degrees for them to develop normally. Therefore, we adopted a procedure of incubating the eggs of all species on their sides and rolling them 180 degrees every hour. Little has been published about the conditions of temperature, humidity, and the movements to which eggs of wild birds need to be subjected for them to hatch optimally under artificial incubation. Not unexpectedly, hatching success in an artificial incubator is generally less than what natural incubation by the parents can achieve. However, the survival of control embryos of most wild bird species was good (generally > or = 80%) up to within 1 or 2 days of hatching when we incubated the eggs at 37.5 degrees C (or 37.6 degrees C for gallinaceous species) at a relative humidity that resulted in an approximate 15% to 16% loss in egg weight by the end of incubation and by incubating the eggs on their sides and rolling them 180 degrees /h. To improve statistical comparisons, we used survival through 90% of incubation as our measurement to compare survival of controls with survival of eggs injected with graded concentrations of mercury. PMID:16307214

  4. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 1215 - Factors Affecting Standard Charges

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01...Factors Affecting Standard Charges B Appendix B to...1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ...Affecting Standard Charges Charges for...

  5. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 1215 - Factors Affecting Standard Charges

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01...Factors Affecting Standard Charges B Appendix B to...1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ...Affecting Standard Charges Charges for...

  6. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 1215 - Factors Affecting Standard Charges

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01...Factors Affecting Standard Charges B Appendix B to...1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ...Affecting Standard Charges Charges for...

  7. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 1215 - Factors Affecting Standard Charges

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01...Factors Affecting Standard Charges B Appendix B to...1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ...Affecting Standard Charges Charges for...

  8. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 1215 - Factors Affecting Standard Charges

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01...Factors Affecting Standard Charges B Appendix B to...1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ...Affecting Standard Charges Charges for...

  9. ACCURACY OF PESTICIDE REFERENCE STANDARD SOLUTIONS. PART I. FACTORS AFFECTING ORGANIC SOLVENT EVAPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A gravimetric experiment was undertaken to identify the factors affecting solvent evaporation from analytical reference standard solutions and to establish the magnitude of the resultant solvent evaporation. The evaporation of organic solvent from standard solutions is affected b...

  10. Factors affecting the repeatability of gamma camera calibration for quantitative imaging applications using a sealed source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anizan, N.; Wang, H.; Zhou, X. C.; Wahl, R. L.; Frey, E. C.

    2015-02-01

    Several applications in nuclear medicine require absolute activity quantification of single photon emission computed tomography images. Obtaining a repeatable calibration factor that converts voxel values to activity units is essential for these applications. Because source preparation and measurement of the source activity using a radionuclide activity meter are potential sources of variability, this work investigated instrumentation and acquisition factors affecting repeatability using planar acquisition of sealed sources. The calibration factor was calculated for different acquisition and geometry conditions to evaluate the effect of the source size, lateral position of the source in the camera field-of-view (FOV), source-to-camera distance (SCD), and variability over time using sealed Ba-133 sources. A small region of interest (ROI) based on the source dimensions and collimator resolution was investigated to decrease the background effect. A statistical analysis with a mixed-effects model was used to evaluate quantitatively the effect of each variable on the global calibration factor variability. A variation of 1?cm in the measurement of the SCD from the assumed distance of 17?cm led to a variation of 1–2% in the calibration factor measurement using a small disc source (0.4?cm diameter) and less than 1% with a larger rod source (2.9?cm diameter). The lateral position of the source in the FOV and the variability over time had small impacts on calibration factor variability. The residual error component was well estimated by Poisson noise. Repeatability of better than 1% in a calibration factor measurement using a planar acquisition of a sealed source can be reasonably achieved. The best reproducibility was obtained with the largest source with a count rate much higher than the average background in the ROI, and when the SCD was positioned within 5?mm of the desired position. In this case, calibration source variability was limited by the quantum noise.

  11. Factors Affecting EWS-FLI1 Activity in Ewing's Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Herrero-Martin, David; Fourtouna, Argyro; Niedan, Stephan; Riedmann, Lucia T.; Schwentner, Raphaela; Aryee, Dave N. T.

    2011-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT) are characterized by specific chromosomal translocations, which give rise to EWS-ETS chimeric proteins. These aberrant transcription factors are the main pathogenic drivers of ESFT. Elucidation of the factors influencing EWS-ETS expression and/or activity will guide the development of novel therapeutic agents against this fatal disease. PMID:22135504

  12. Factors Affecting Survival of Bacteriophage on Tomato Leaf Surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of bacteriophage to persist in the phyllosphere for extended periods is limited by many factors, including sunlight irradiation, especially in the UV zone, temperature, desiccation, and exposure to copper bactericides. The effects of these factors on persistence of phage and formulated p...

  13. Factors Affecting Teacher Satisfaction in an Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpert, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to distinguish factors that influence the satisfaction levels of teachers in urban school districts. This work also distinguished factors that directly impacted teachers' level of satisfaction towards their work and their attitude towards the administration of their schools. Forty-one teachers from two kindergarten…

  14. Factors affecting the transfer of organochlorine pesticide residues to breastmilk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline A. Harris; Michael W. Woolridge; Alastair W. M. Hay

    2001-01-01

    Existing studies monitoring organochlorine pesticide residues in breastmilk were examined to identify whether common factors determine the extent of transfer of these residues. A structured review of the English language literature was conducted. Papers were reviewed and assessed using a structured protocol. A total of 77 papers were initially identified, 46 of which contained conclusions relating to the factors which

  15. Affect Assessment in Educational System Using OutSite Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvia TZVETANOVA; Ming-Xi TANG

    This research presents an approach to the improvement to the hedonic qualities of user performance in web interfaces based on the principles of emotional design. It addresses the issue of how emotional factors can be integrated into the communication between users and the web systems. The paper describes factors that can be used in emotion recognition for adaptation upon the

  16. Factors Affecting Teachers' Student-Centered Classroom Computer Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Helmut Felix; Hron, Aemilian

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims at investigating which factors are relevant to induce teachers' student-centered classroom computer use. Survey data were collected from 361 teachers at comprehensive schools. Based on a systemic view of technology use in schools, different individual teacher characteristics and school contextual factors were examined.…

  17. Factors Affecting School District Performance Scores in Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Ronnie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between District Performance Scores (DPS) in Louisiana and (a) socio-economic status of students, (b) academic achievement using average ACT scores, (c) percentage of certified teachers, (d) district class size, (e) per pupil expenditure, and (f) percentage of minority students in…

  18. Factors Affecting Talent Development: Differences in Graduate Students across Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartzell, Stephanie Allyssa

    2012-01-01

    There is an abundance of literature on young individuals who show early signs of talent and on older individuals who have demonstrated their abilities throughout the years. This research aims to look at those individuals who are in between, that is, graduate students who have the demonstrated potential to achieve within their fields of study. This…

  19. Urban Youth with Disabilities: Factors Affecting Transition Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabian, Ellen S.

    2007-01-01

    Although postsecondary employment outcomes for transition-age youth with disabilities have improved over the past decade, minority youth with disabilities continue to lag behind their peers in achieving a job. This study of predominantly minority youth participating in the Marriott Foundation's Bridges From School to Work Program from 2000 to 2005…

  20. Factors affecting effectiveness of vaccination against hepatitis B virus in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Pissas, Georgios; Antoniadi, Georgia; Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Stefanidis, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major global health problem. Despite the success of the general measures against blood transmitted infections in hemodialysis (HD) units, the prevalence of HBV infection among the HD patients is still high. Thus vaccination against HBV is indicating in this population. However, compared with the general population the seroprotection achieved in HD patients remains relatively low, at about 70%. In this review patient, HD procedure and vaccine-associated factors that affect the efficacy of HBV vaccination are analyzed. Also alternative routes of HBV vaccine administration as well as new and more immunogenic vaccine formulations are discussed. However, besides scientific progress, vigilance of HD physicians and staff regarding the general measures against the transmission of blood borne infections and the vaccination against HBV is also required for reducing the prevalence of this viral infection. PMID:25232238

  1. Preliminary assessment of factors affecting DOD facility energy management capabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Drezner; B. Lachman; M. Bradley

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Defense has a facility energy conservation goal of reducing energy consumption per square foot of facility floor area by 20 percent by the year 2000, measured from a 1985 baseline. However, shrinking defense budgets, downsizing and restructuring, and various management reforms are affecting the emphasis placed on energy management at DoD installations. At the same time, DoD

  2. Factors Affecting Sea Lamprey Egg Survival STEPHEN J. SMITH

    E-print Network

    Marsden, Ellen

    is a nuisance parasitic fish in Lake Champlain that negatively affects important sport fish populations lamprey abundance (Marsden et al. 2003). Lake Champlain is 193 km long, has a maximum width of 19 km nontarget mortality in regularly treated tributaries. A population model of sea lampreys in Lake Champlain

  3. ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING METHANE GAS RECOVERY FROM SIX LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a pilot study of six U.S. landfills that have methane (CH4) gas recovery systems. NOTE: The study was a first step in developing a field testing program to gather data to identify key variables that affect CH4 generation and to develop an empirical mod...

  4. Light and Temperature: Key Factors Affecting Walleye Abundance and Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nigel P. Lester; Alan J. Dextrase; Robert S. Kushneriuk; Michael R. Rawson; Phil A. Ryan

    2004-01-01

    We used published information to determine optimum light and temperature conditions for walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) and then applied this simple niche definition to predict how water clarity, temperature, and bathymetry affect walleye habitat availability. Our model calculated thermal–optical habitat area (TOHA), the benthic area of a lake that supplies optimum light, and temperature conditions for walleye during

  5. Factors Affecting Willingness to Communicate in a Spanish University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahuerta, Ana Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the relationships among the variables believed to affect Spanish undergraduates' willingness to communicate in English. The participants were 195 students majoring in several degrees at the University of Oviedo. A questionnaire and a standardized English Test were administered to the students in February-March 2013.…

  6. Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... it causes the Rh-negative mother to make antibodies against the Rh factor. These antibodies attack the ... that causes Rh sensitization? • Can I still develop antibodies if my pregnancy is not carried to term? • ...

  7. Factors affecting minority population proximity to hazardous facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nieves, A.L. [Wheaton Coll., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range of facility types and explores the effects of urban and income factors. A statistically significant inverse relationship is found between the percentage of non-Hispanic Whites and virtually all facility categories in all regions. Except for Hispanics in the South, all such associations for minority groups show a direct relationship, though some are nonsignificant. The geographic concentration of facilities is more closely tied to urbanization than to economic factors. Controlling for both urban and economic factors, minority population concentration is still a significant explanatory variable for some facility types in some regions. This finding is most consistent for African-Americans.

  8. Early career development in the sport industry: factors affecting employment

    E-print Network

    Hutchinson, Michael Daniel

    2009-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to identify the processes and factors contributing to employment in the sport industry. In order to completely address the sport industry as a whole, sport management has been pragmatically divided into five sub...

  9. Psychological factors affecting alcohol use after spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L L Saunders; J S Krause

    2011-01-01

    Study design:Cross-sectional.Objective:The purpose of this study is to assess risk factors, including personality and socioeconomic indicators, with alcohol use among persons with spinal cord injury (SCI).Setting:A large rehabilitation hospital in the Southeastern United States.Methods:A total of 1549 participants responded to a survey on outcomes after SCI. We used polychotomous logistic regression to assess the relationships of personality and socioeconomic factors

  10. Identifying factors affecting software development cost and productivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert LagerstromLiv; Liv Marcks von Würtemberg; Hannes Holm; Oscar Luczak

    Software systems of today are often complex, making development costs difficult to estimate. This paper uses data from 50\\u000a projects performed at one of the largest banks in Sweden to identify factors that have an impact on software development cost.\\u000a Correlation analysis of the relationship between factor states and project costs was assessed using ANOVA and regression analysis.\\u000a Ten out

  11. Factors affecting the strength of alkali-activated slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Wang; K. L. Scrivener; P. L. Pratt

    1994-01-01

    The effect of several factors on the strength of alkali activated slags has been investigated. The most important factors were found to be: the type of alkaline activator, the means of adding activator, the dosage of alkali, the type and fineness of slag, SiO[sub 2]\\/Na[sub 2]O ratio (modulus, Ms) when using waterglass solution, curing temperature, liquid\\/slag or water\\/slag ratio and

  12. Factors that affect the fatigue strength of power transmission shafting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.

  13. Factors affecting quality of life in postmenopausal women, Isfahan, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Norozi, Ensiyeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hasanzadeh, Akbar; Moodi, Mitra; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    Context: Various studies have shown that quality of life in women after menopause undergoes radical changes. Several factors such as psycho-social factors are associated with the quality of life during menopausal period. Aims: The present study surveyed the factors associated with quality of life of postmenopausal women in Isfahan, based on Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted through stratified random sampling among 200 healthy postmenopausal women in Isfahan in 2011. Subjects and Methods: Data were collected by two valid and reliable questionnaires (one to assess the quality of life and the other to survey the factors associated with the Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model). Data analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 18) and analytical and descriptive statistics. Results: Pearson correlation indicated a positive and significant correlation between the quality of life and attitude toward menopause, perceived self-efficacy, and enabling and reinforcing factors, but there was no significant relationship between the quality of life and knowledge about menopause. Also, the quality of life in postmenopausal women had significant correlation with their age, education level, marital status, and employment status. Conclusion: Based on the present study, attitude, perceived self-efficacy, perceived social support, and enabling factors are associated with the quality of life in postmenopausal women. So, attention to these issues is essential for better health planning of women. PMID:24520556

  14. Gene Risk Factors for Age-Related Brain Disorders May Affect Immune System Function

    MedlinePLUS

    ... factors for age-related brain disorders may affect immune system function June 17, 2014 Scientists have discovered gene ... risk factors for age-related neurological disorders to immune system functions, such as inflammation, offers new insights into ...

  15. Factors affecting engorgement behavior in the salt marsh horse fly, Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart (Diptera: Tabanidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Female Tabanus nigrovittatus were field collected and used in laboratory experimentation to further elucidate the physiological and behavioral factors that affect engorgement. Previous studies have shown that sulfakinins are feeding satiety factors in invertebrates. This study demonstrates that sulf...

  16. Factors affecting the surface shape and removal rate of workpiece in CMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Quantang; Zhu, Jianqiang; Zhang, Baoan; Shen, Weixing

    2006-02-01

    The factors affecting the removal rate and surface shape in CMP is introduced. The edge effect is a critical problem in CMP process, which behaves on the global planarization of workpiece-pad interface and change on local planarization and results in collapse or rise in workpiece edges. One of the main factors of edge effect is Von Mises stress, which is a composition stress. The main affecting factor of Von Mises is the axial stress component. The factors affecting the material removal rate (MRR) of workpiece surface and surface nonuniformity include shape, material properties and thickness of pad and polishing media. Factors of load and relative velocity in CMP are also discussed.

  17. Metallurgical factors affecting fracture toughness of aluminum alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. T. Hahn; A. R. Rosenfield

    1975-01-01

    Crack extension in commercial aluminum alloys proceeds by the “ductile” or fibrous mode. The process involves the large, ~1\\u000a ?m to ~10?m, Fe-, Si-, and Cu-bearing inclusions which break easily, and the growth of voids at the cracked particles. The\\u000a linking-up of the voids is accomplished by the rupture of the intervening ligaments, and this is affected by the fine,

  18. Factors affecting airborne monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon uptake by plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keymeulen, Regine; Schamp, Niceas; Van Langenhove, Herman

    Three factors influencing foliar uptake of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes) in situ were investigated. The first factor, the plant species, was found to determine absorption pattern and concentrations. Secondly, time variation studies showed that response of leaf concentrations to small changes in air concentrations only occurs after several days or weeks, whereas adaptation to a much higher level of air pollution takes several months. Thirdly, MAH leaf concentrations were observed to be dependent on mean air pollution at the sampling site. Bioconcentration factors BCF vs (g m -3 of wet leaf/g m -3 of air) for MAHs in Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco leaves were determined to range from 2.7 × 10 4 to 4.7 × 10 5.

  19. Discrimination, Affect, and Cancer Risk Factors among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Adolfo G.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Adams, Claire E.; Cao, Yumei; Nguyen, Nga; Wetter, David W.; Watkins, Kellie L.; Regan, Seann D.; McNeill, Lorna H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether stress or depressive symptoms mediated associations between perceived discrimination and multiple modifiable behavioral risk factors for cancer among 1363 African American adults. Methods Nonparametric bootstrapping procedures, adjusted for sociodemographics, were used to assess mediation. Results Stress and depressive symptoms each mediated associations between discrimination and current smoking, and discrimination and the total number of behavioral risk factors for cancer. Depressive symptoms also mediated the association between discrimination and overweight/obesity (p values < .05). Conclusions Discrimination may influence certain behavioral risk factors for cancer through heightened levels of stress and depressive symptoms. Interventions to reduce cancer risk may need to address experiences of discrimination, as well as the stress and depression they engender. PMID:24034678

  20. Multiscale factors affecting human attitudes toward snow leopards and wolves.

    PubMed

    Suryawanshi, Kulbhushansingh R; Bhatia, Saloni; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Redpath, Stephen; Mishra, Charudutt

    2014-12-01

    The threat posed by large carnivores to livestock and humans makes peaceful coexistence between them difficult. Effective implementation of conservation laws and policies depends on the attitudes of local residents toward the target species. There are many known correlates of human attitudes toward carnivores, but they have only been assessed at the scale of the individual. Because human societies are organized hierarchically, attitudes are presumably influenced by different factors at different scales of social organization, but this scale dependence has not been examined. We used structured interview surveys to quantitatively assess the attitudes of a Buddhist pastoral community toward snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis lupus). We interviewed 381 individuals from 24 villages within 6 study sites across the high-elevation Spiti Valley in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. We gathered information on key explanatory variables that together captured variation in individual and village-level socioeconomic factors. We used hierarchical linear models to examine how the effect of these factors on human attitudes changed with the scale of analysis from the individual to the community. Factors significant at the individual level were gender, education, and age of the respondent (for wolves and snow leopards), number of income sources in the family (wolves), agricultural production, and large-bodied livestock holdings (snow leopards). At the community level, the significant factors included the number of smaller-bodied herded livestock killed by wolves and mean agricultural production (wolves) and village size and large livestock holdings (snow leopards). Our results show that scaling up from the individual to higher levels of social organization can highlight important factors that influence attitudes of people toward wildlife and toward formal conservation efforts in general. Such scale-specific information can help managers apply conservation measures at appropriate scales. Our results reiterate the need for conflict management programs to be multipronged. PMID:25039397

  1. The factors affecting effectiveness of treatment in phages therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ly-Chatain, Mai Huong

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the use of lytic bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents controlling pathogenic bacteria has appeared as a promising new alternative strategy in the face of growing antibiotic resistance which has caused problems in many fields including medicine, veterinary medicine, and aquaculture. The use of bacteriophages has numerous advantages over traditional antimicrobials. The effectiveness of phage applications in fighting against pathogenic bacteria depends on several factors such as the bacteriophages/target bacteria ratio, the mode and moment of treatment, environmental conditions (pH, temperature...), the neutralization of phage and accessibility to target bacteria, amongst others. This report presents these factors and the challenges involved in developing phage therapy applications. PMID:24600439

  2. Factors affecting weaning weights of Santa Gertrudis calves

    E-print Network

    Farris, James Willis

    1972-01-01

    , Texas were analyzed by least-squares techniques to examine the effect of year of birth, month of birth and age of dam on weaning weight. The main effects in the model were year, sire, month of birth and age of dam. Age of calf at weaning was included... that of the uncorrected data. These results from an inde- pendent set of data indicate that the correction factors were not effective in reducing environmental variation due to age of dam. These results confirm the concept that age of dam correction factors are most...

  3. Study of Factors Affecting the Surface Quality in Ultra-Precision Diamond Turning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. F. Cheung; W. B. Lee

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with an investigation of the process factors and the material factors affecting the surface roughness in ultra-precision diamond turning. The process factors involve cutting conditions, tool geometry, and relative tool-work vibration which are related to the cutting geometry and the dynamic characteristics of the cutting process. The material factors considered are material anisotropy, swelling, and crystallographic orientation

  4. Factors Affecting Social Workers' Inclusion of Animals in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E.; Kawam, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors

  5. Investigating Factors that Affect Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantzen, Paul G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes activities that demonstrate the effects of factors such as wind velocity, water temperature, convection currents, intensity of light, rate of photosynthesis, atmospheric pressure, humidity, numbers of decomposers, presence of oxidizable ions, and respiration by plants and animals on the dissolved oxygen concentration in water. (MA)

  6. Factors Affecting Bromus Tectorum Seed Bank Carryover in Western Utah

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duane C. Smith; Susan E. Meyer; V. J. Anderson

    2008-01-01

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is a winter annual weed that presents a serious obstacle to rangeland restoration in the Intermountain West. The objective of this study was to evaluate factors regulating the size and persistence of cheatgrass carryover seed banks on semiarid sites in western Utah. We prevented current-year seed production in each of four habitats, then tallied emerging seedlings

  7. Factors Affecting Technology Uses in Schools: An Ecological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yong; Frank, Kenneth A.

    2003-01-01

    Why is technology not used more in schools? Many researchers have tried to solve this persistent puzzle. The authors of this article report on their study of technology uses in 19 schools. They suggest an ecological metaphor, using the example of the introduction of the zebra mussel into the Great Lakes, to integrate and organize sets of factors

  8. Factors That Affect Initial Enrollment of Working Adult, Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrignola, Matt Nolan

    2010-01-01

    What factors lead working adults to initially enroll in graduate programs? Is the undergraduate degree no longer enough to sustain a rewarding career? Little is known as to why this segment of graduate students are building careers and pursuing advanced degrees simultaneously. Traditional institutions of higher learning have primarily focused on…

  9. Factors Affecting Employment Following Spinal Cord Injury: A Qualitative Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha H. Chapin; Donald G. Kewman

    2001-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Objective: To examine factors that differentiated persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) who returned to work from those who did not. Participants: Six employed persons with SCI matched with 6 unemployed persons with SCI on the basis of education, race, age, gender, time since injury, and level of function. Study Design: Semi-structured interviews 1 to 2 hr in length

  10. Factors affecting success in an embryo cryopreservation programme.

    PubMed

    Loh, S K; Leong, N K

    1999-03-01

    Embryo cryopreservation is a vital part of any assisted conception programme. We analysed our experience with respect to various clinical factors which may influence success and help modify our own practice. Factors studied were endometrial preparation, number of embryos transferred, woman's age at embryo freezing and endometrial thickness. The 212 cycles analysed represented all our frozen embryo-transfers from 1994 to 1996. Four cycles were excluded because of incomplete data. Statistical analysis was done with Student's t-test, Fisher's exact test and chi-square test for trend. The clinical pregnancy rate rose yearly and it was 12.3% per transfer in 1996. The most important clinical factor appeared to be the type of endometrial preparation. Natural cycles resulted in a pregnancy rate of 17.7%, almost twice hormone-replacement cycles. When transfer was on days 14 to 16 of the natural cycle, the pregnancy rate reached 33%. Other factors that were suggestive of success were younger age at embryo freezing, transferring at least 2 embryos and endometrium thickness > or = 11 mm. The natural cycle gave the best pregnancy rate in our hands and is our method of choice for ovulatory women with normal cycle lengths. For all other women, hormonal preparation is needed but our protocols need refinement. Our initial performance is encouraging and embryo cryopreservation has certainly enhanced our overall success rate. PMID:10497679

  11. Anxiety prevalence and affecting factors among university students.

    PubMed

    Ozen, Nurdan Sakin; Ercan, Ilker; Irgil, Emel; Sigirli, Deniz

    2010-01-01

    This study provides insight into the prevalence and correlates of anxiety among university students in Bursa, Turkey. A total of 4850 students participated in the study. Students completed Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, as well as a questionnaire designed to determine risk factors of anxiety. About 29.6% and 36.7% of the students in the study reported state and trait anxiety scores of more than 45 points, respectively. Controlling for gender and family socioeconomic status, the following characteristics predict both state and trait anxiety: the status of family relationships, difficulty understanding lectures, difficulty adapting to university life, having to solve problems independently, a vision of self-sufficiency in problem solving, negative life experience, and satisfaction with their department of study. The following factors are predictive of only state anxiety: boarding conditions, having a chronic disease, and exam periods. The risk factors for trait anxiety scores include the following: anxiety about the future, preparation for work life, class of study, private relationships, and attitude of the family toward their child. Families, secondary education institutions, and universities should cooperate to eliminate risk factors for anxiety among university students. PMID:20032042

  12. Factors affecting the level of success of community information systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Crispin Coombs; Neil Doherty; John Loan-clarke

    1999-01-01

    The factors that influence the ultimate level of success or failure of systems development projects have received considerable attention in the academic literature. However, previous research has rarely targeted different instances of a common type of system within a homogeneous organisational sector. This paper presents the results of a survey of IM&T managers within Community Trusts to gain insights into

  13. REVIEW PAPER Factors and processes affecting plant biodiversity

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    that influence plant diversity of permanent grasslands, and we describe underlying processes. These factors must indeed be identified to focus policies meant to preserve and restore plant diversity and to advise, and persistence--that are con- sidered to act as filters on plant diversity, and a graphical representation

  14. Factors Affecting Habitat Use by Appalachian Ruffed Grouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DARROCH M. WHITAKER; DEAN F. STAUFFER; GARY W. NORMAN; PATRICK K. DEVERS; THOMAS J. ALLEN; STEVE BITTNER; DAVID BUEHLER; JOHN EDWARDS; SCOTT FRIEDHOFF; WILLIAM M. GIULIANO; CRAIG A. HARPER; BRIAN TEFFT

    2006-01-01

    A goal of many resource selection studies is to identify those habitats selected by a species. However, favorability of a particular habitat feature is likely contingent on such factors as landscape composition, predation risk, and an individual's resource needs. Thus, habitat selection may vary depending on context, and identifying causes of variability in habitat use could increase our understanding of

  15. Factors affecting the sexual arousal value of pictures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vera Dunwoody; Kathy Pezdek

    1979-01-01

    This study examines factors that contribute to the sexual arousal value of pictures of a nude model. One male and one female model were photographed separately in an indoor setting. The following dimensions were factorially manipulated across pictures: male or female model, front or back view, standing or reclining position, semi?nude or nude. Male and female subjects viewed slides of

  16. Students' Perceptions of Factors that Affect College Funding Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Julia Y.; Fossey, W. Richard; Davis, William E.; Burnett, Michael F.; Stuhlmann, Janice; Suchy, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the factors that college students perceive are important in helping them make good financial decisions about paying for a college education. The study categorizes and summarizes students' self-reported responses to an open-ended survey question about recommendations for changes in financial aid counseling practices.…

  17. Factors Affecting Recreation Preferences and Expectations of Disabled Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Sibel

    2014-01-01

    Generalizing recreation services, one of the essential well-being sources of disabled persons who experience deprivation in many dimensions of life and which fulfill their learning needs, is a social responsibility. The present study aims to determine factors effective on recreation preferences and expectations of the disabled individuals who…

  18. FACTORS AFFECTING THE ADOPTION OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerard E. DSouza; Douglas Cyphers; Tim T. Phipps

    1993-01-01

    The extent to which individual factors influence the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices is estimated using a logit model and data from a 1990 survey of West Virginia producers. The results are, as expected, different than those for conventional agricultural technologies. For example, the effects of human capital characteristics are significant, while those for structural and institutional characteristics are not.

  19. School-Related Factors Affecting High School Seniors' Methamphetamine Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Jarrod M.; Lo, Celia C.

    2009-01-01

    Data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future survey were used to examine relationships between school-related factors and high school seniors' lifetime methamphetamine use. The study applied logistic regression techniques to evaluate effects of social bonding variables and social learning variables on likelihood of lifetime methamphetamine use. The…

  20. Historic Factors Affecting Educational Administration in Korean Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    1999-01-01

    An official of the Korean Education Department Institute analyzes the effect of historic factors on current educational administration in Korea. He suggests that Confucianism, Shinto-Confucianism, Christianity, and Western ideas mainly dominate current Korean educational administration's organizational structure, culture, and leadership, while…

  1. Factors Affecting Women's Perceptions of Folate-Containing Foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Russell; S. P. Parker; G. E. Gates

    1999-01-01

    Many women of childbearing age are not consuming the recommended intake of folate to prevent neural tube defects. To promote healthy dietary change, it is important to understand factors that influence food choices Seven focus group discussions were conducted with 57 women of childbearing age to determine their attitudes about foods containing folate and their perceptions of influences on their

  2. Factors that Affect Nontraditional Vocational Enrollment among Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houser, Betsy Bosak; Garvey, Chris

    1985-01-01

    Vocational training program females (N=470) completed a questionnaire assessing the role of personality and social support factors in nontraditional training enrollment. Results revealed differences in the amount of support and encouragement received from others, with nontraditional students receiving more support from female friends, family…

  3. Initial solidification phenomena: Factors affecting heat transfer in strip casting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Nolli

    2007-01-01

    In the last few years a few companies have announced the final stage of the commercial development of strip casting of steels. In strip casting heat extraction and productivity are limited by the thermal resistance at the interface between processed material and moving mold (rolls for twin-roll strip casters). Among many factors influencing interfacial heat transfer, films of various composition,

  4. Factors Affecting the Success of Hmong College Students in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiong, Soua; Lam, Sarah K. Y.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores barriers and success factors of Hmong students in American colleges by interviewing five Hmong graduate students from refugee families in the US. Emerging themes revolve around academic, cultural and financial barriers. Professors, advisors, classmates, academic support programmes, family, financial aid and their own…

  5. Factors Affecting Income Smoothing Among Listed Companies in Singapore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nasuhiyah Ashari; Hian Chye Koh; Soh Leng Tan; Wei Har Wong

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the factors associated with the incidence of income smoothing. The sample comprises 153 companies listed in the Singapore stock exchange during the period 1980 to 1990. Descriptive statistics indicate that income smoothing is practised and that operational income is the most common income smoothing objective. Four hypotheses relating income smoothing to company

  6. FACTORS AFFECTING DISINFECTION AND STABILIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective disinfection and stabilization of sewage sludge prior to land application is essential to not only protect human health, but also to convince the public of its benefits and safety. A basic understanding of the key factors involved in producing a stable biosolid product ...

  7. A Quantitative Assessment of Factors Affecting College Sports' Team Unity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghazadeh, Seyed-Mahmoud; Kyei, Kwasi

    2009-01-01

    The competitiveness of National Collegiate Association (NCAA) schools increases in intensity each year. With the increased pressure on college sport staffs to be undefeated season after season, coaches have to find ways to keep players happy; to do this, they have to find factors that contribute to unify the players. It is nearly impossible to…

  8. FACTORS AFFECTING PREDATION AT SONGBIRD NESTS IN OLD FIELDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DIRK E. BURHANS; DONALD DEARBORN; FRANK R. THOMPSON; JOHN FAABORG

    We determined the effects of microhabitat, year, weather, time of season, stage of the nesting cycle, and brood parasitism on nest predation from a 7-year dataset on field sparrows (Spizella pusilla) and indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea) in-central Missouri, USA. Year, site, and the interaction of species and 2-week interval of the sea- son were important factors explaining nest predation. The

  9. Sociological Factors Affecting Agricultural Price Risk Management in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Elizabeth; Quaddus, Mohammed; Islam, Nazrul; Stanton, John

    2009-01-01

    The highly volatile auction system in Australia accounts for 85 percent of ex-farm wool sales, with the remainder sold by forward contract, futures, and other hedging methods. In this article, against the background of an extensive literature on price risk strategies, we investigate the behavioral factors associated with producers' adoption of…

  10. Some factors in liquid supplements affecting urea toxicity

    E-print Network

    McClain, William Ray

    1979-01-01

    -U solution died. Two out of four (50/) cattle receiving their origi- nal dose of a M-U solution (24 and 25 g level) exhibited toxicity com- pared to four out of five (80X) that received the same dose of urea in W-U solutions. Mean rumen pH, rumen and blood... phosphoric acid was added to a sub-toxic dose of urea, rumen pH and ammonia concentrations were lowered. Blood ammonia concentra- tions were not affected by phosphoric acid. Urea was found in consid- erable quantities in the rumen fluid as much as three...

  11. Factors Influencing Persistence/Achievement in the Sciences and Health Professions by Black High School and College Women. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Henrie M.; And Others

    This paper reports on a study which investigated socioeconomic, academic, and psychosocial factors that might affect enrollment and persistence rates of black women in science and health careers. An overview is presented of women in science, black women's status in science, role models and support groups, other factors affecting persistence, and…

  12. FACTORS AFFECTING MACROPHYTE AND FISH DISTRIBUTION IN COASTAL WETLANDS OF GEORGIAN BAY

    E-print Network

    McMaster University

    FACTORS AFFECTING MACROPHYTE AND FISH DISTRIBUTION IN COASTAL WETLANDS OF GEORGIAN BAY #12;FACTORS AFFECTING MACROPHYTE AND FISH DISTRIBUTION IN COASTAL WETLANDS OF GEORGIAN BAY By MAJA CVETKOVIC, B and fish distribution in coastal wetlands of Georgian Bay AUTHOR: Maja Cvetkovic, B.Sc. (Mc

  13. Factors affecting the sensitivity of the lingual trigeminal nerve to acids

    E-print Network

    Moore, Paul A.

    Factors affecting the sensitivity of the lingual trigeminal nerve to acids BRUCE P. BRYANT AND PAUL A. Moore. Factors affecting the sensitivity of the lingual trigeminal nerve to acids. Am. J. Physiol. 268 (Regulatory Integrative Comp. Physiol. 37): R58- R65, 1995.-Oral sensitivity to acids mediates

  14. A Study of the Technological, Instructional, and Motivational Factors Affecting PHR Certification Exam Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Although previous studies have considered the factors affecting other certification exam outcomes, they have not examined those that are related to performance on the Professional in Human Resources (PHR) exam. In response to that need, this study specifically investigates technology and training factors that affect self-efficacy and self-set…

  15. Factors Affecting the Production of Vietnamese Tones: A Study of American Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Hanh thi; Macken, Marlys A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates factors that affect the accuracy of tone production by American students of Vietnamese as a second language (L2). Nine hypotheses are examined, each of which isolates a factor expected to affect production accuracy: (a) task type, (b) the position of a tone in a clause, (c) discourse distance between a model provided by a…

  16. Factors affecting colony attendance by Ancient Murrelets (Synthliboramphus antiquus) IANL. JONES'

    E-print Network

    Jones, Ian L.

    Factors affecting colony attendance by Ancient Murrelets (Synthliboramphus antiquus) IANL. JONES., and FALLS,J. B. 1990. Factors affecting colony attendance by Ancient Murrelets (Synthliboram- phus antiquus- phus antiquus). Can. J. Zool. 68 : 433-441. Nous avons CtudiC les facteurs de variation de I

  17. Factors Affecting Diurnal Activity of Fishers in North-Central British Columbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard D. Weir; Fraser B. Corbould

    2007-01-01

    Mustelids, with their long, thin bodies and poor fat storage capabilities, perform an energetic balancing act when making decisions about energy expenditure. Activity rates provide vital insights into the factors that may affect these energy balances. Using radiotelemetry, we examined factors that affected the likelihood of diurnal activity of fishers (Martes pennanti) in north-central British Columbia, Canada. We assessed the

  18. Factors affecting physician visits in Chinese and Chinese immigrant samples.

    PubMed

    Miltiades, Helen B; Wu, Bei

    2008-02-01

    This study examines predictors of Western physician utilization using the Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use for Chinese elders who reside in Shanghai and immigrant Chinese elders who reside in the US Chinese elders are under-studied relative to their population size and in the US are known to underutilize the healthcare system. Underutilization is highly correlated with poor health and well-being. A unique dataset allowed us to examine predictors of physician utilization for Chinese elders who resided in different countries, in an effort to determine how being an immigrant affects utilization. One hundred and seventy-seven Chinese elders in Boston and 420 Chinese elders in Shanghai participated in the survey. Multiple regression analyses were conducted separately for each sample. Predictors of physician visits for the Boston sample are insurance status, health, and social network, and for the Shanghai sample, use of Chinese medicine, health, and marital status predicted physician visits. We found that access to care variables significantly affects physician utilization for immigrant elders, and that Chinese elders in Shanghai utilize a bicultural system of care. The results indicate that in order to create effective healthcare practices for elder Chinese, alternative healthcare beliefs should be understood by Western physicians. PMID:17996348

  19. Host Factors That Affect Ty3 Retrotransposition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Aye, Michael; Irwin, Becky; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Chen, Eric; Garrus, Jennifer; Sandmeyer, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    The retrovirus-like element Ty3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae integrates at the transcription initiation region of RNA polymerase III. To identify host genes that affect transposition, a collection of insertion mutants was screened using a genetic assay in which insertion of Ty3 activates expression of a tRNA suppressor. Fifty-three loci were identified in this screen. Corresponding knockout mutants were tested for the ability to mobilize a galactose-inducible Ty3, marked with the HIS3 gene. Of 42 mutants tested, 22 had phenotypes similar to those displayed in the original assay. The proteins encoded by the defective genes are involved in chromatin dynamics, transcription, RNA processing, protein modification, cell cycle regulation, nuclear import, and unknown functions. These mutants were induced for Ty3 expression and assayed for Gag3p protein, integrase, cDNA, and Ty3 integration upstream of chromosomal tDNAVal(AAC) genes. Most mutants displayed differences from the wild type in one or more intermediates, although these were typically not as severe as the genetic defect. Because a relatively large number of genes affecting retrotransposition can be identified in yeast and because the majority of these genes have mammalian homologs, this approach provides an avenue for the identification of potential antiviral targets. PMID:15579677

  20. Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs

    SciTech Connect

    Pelham, J.

    1991-12-31

    A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students ``dropouts`` whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

  1. Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs

    SciTech Connect

    Pelham, J.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students dropouts'' whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

  2. Animal factors affecting the meat quality of Australian lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Jacob, R H; Pethick, D W

    2014-02-01

    This paper integrates the key industry findings from the twelve preceding papers in this special edition of Meat science. In so doing, various animal factors important for the quality of Australian lamb meat are highlighted for sensory, visual appeal and human health attributes. Intramuscular fat concentration (IMF) was found to be a key element of eating quality that interacts both positively and negatively with a range of other factors. Shear force, IMF, colour stability and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) will likely respond to genetic selection whilst other omega-3 fatty acids require nutritional intervention. Australian lamb meat can generally be regarded as a good source of the minerals iron and zinc; and a source of omega 3 fatty acids when finished on green pasture. Breeding priorities for meat quality will likely depend on breed type with improvement of meat colour stability more important for the wool focused Merino breed and improvement of sensory quality for the terminal sire breeds. PMID:24268675

  3. Factors that affect adolescents' adherence to diabetes treatment.

    PubMed

    Cox, Laura; Hunt, Jane

    2015-02-01

    There is strong evidence suggesting young people with type 1 diabetes experience difficulties adhering to their treatment regimens. The purpose of this literature review is to identify reasons for a lack of compliance in adolescents to allow nurses to develop knowledge to help improve treatment adherence. A literature search was undertaken by searching databases using key terms and inclusion criteria identified. The three themes are: parental influence, peer influence and depression. Findings indicate parental influence may be the main contributing factor towards non-compliance; however, associations between themes imply non-compliance is a result of a combination of factors. Limitations have been highlighted from the articles reviewed and provide opportunity for future research. PMID:25671752

  4. Overview of the Factors Affecting the Power Consumption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Chinnery; Kurt Keutzer

    \\u000a We investigate differences in power between application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and custom integrated circuits,\\u000a with examples from 0.6um to 0.13um CMOS. A variety of factors cause synthesizable designs to consume 3 to 7× more power. We\\u000a discuss the shortcomings of typical synthesis flows, and changes to tools and standard cell libraries needed to reduce power.\\u000a Using these methods, we believe

  5. Faculty self-actualization: Factors affecting career success

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Cares; Robert T. Blackburn

    1978-01-01

    This study determined the degree of relationship between four personal factors related to faculty growth and development, two environmental indices, and career success and satisfaction. Maslow's notion of self-actualization guided the construction of the personal indices of self-democraticness, support, tolerance, and trust; McGregor and Likert provided the theoretical bases for the environmental indices. The data came from the American Council

  6. Israeli women entrepreneurs: An examination of factors affecting performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Hisrich; Candida Brush

    1997-01-01

    This article examines individual factors influencing performance of 200 Israeli women-owned businesses. Whereas research on women entrepreneurs is extensive in developed countries, especially in the United States and Europe, there are comparatively few studies of performance of women-owned businesses in non-OECD countries. There is evidence that social structures (work, family, and organized social life) vary among developed and developing countries

  7. Socioeconomic, Cultural and Religious Factors Affecting Suicide Prevention in Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lakshmi Vijayakumar; Jane Pirkis; Tran Thanh Huong; Paul Yip; A. Seneviratne; Herbert Hendin

    A range of socio-economic, cultural, and religious factors influence patterns of and responses to suicide in the Asian countries involved in the Strategies to Prevent Suicide (STOPS) project. As a general rule, suicide rates are highest among relatively more prosperous countries, particularly those which have developed rapidly. Within these countries, suicide rates are highest for sub-groups that have remained socio-economically

  8. Factors affecting Irish potato pollen germination in an artificial environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. King; Titus M. Johnston

    1958-01-01

    Summary  The purpose of these studies has been to stress that certain factors of an artificial environment (such as, the ingredients\\u000a and pH of the culture medium, temperature, humidity,etc.) definitely influence the behavior of pollens; and, furthermore, that in an understanding of the reactions of pollens to handling\\u000a (in terms of viability), it must not be overlooked that proper handling methods

  9. What Are Some Factors That Affect Seasonal Patterns?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this resource is to have students use GLOBE data and graphing tools to compare the influence of latitude, elevation, and geography on seasonal patterns. Students analyze the graph of the past year's maximum and minimum temperatures at their site. They compare this graph to similar graphs for two other sites and list which factors that might cause the patterns to be different and investigate one in depth.

  10. Factors affecting hexavalent chromium reduction in pure cultures of bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Tin Wang; Changsong Xiao

    1995-01-01

    Batch studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on the rate of Cr(VI) reduction by two organisms, Bacillus sp. (a new isolate), and Pseudomonas fluorescens LB 300. Both organisms utilized glucose for Cr(VI) reduction under aerobic conditions. Higher Cr(VI) reduction rates were obtained with higher initial cell concentrations, but the specific rate (normalized against initial cell concentration),

  11. Important Factors Affecting Biosolid Nitrogen Mineralization in Soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Er; M. Ogut; F. D. Mikayilov; A. R. Mermut

    2005-01-01

    Biosolid nitrogen (N) ammonification, followed by nitrification in soil, produces nitrate (), which is not only a plant nutrient, but also a contaminant for ground water. Determining the most relevant factors influencing mineralization will help to manage N in biosolid-treated soils. Biosolid application rate, biosolid carbon (C):N ratio, biosolid organic N content, biosolid type, soil organic N content, soil pH,

  12. Factors Affecting Dynamic Populations (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan teaches students that populations are dynamic with identifiable characteristics and measurable growth patterns. Factors of population survival that are taught include immigration and emigration, environmental resistance, carrying capacity, and homeostasis. The lesson plan provides objectives, skills, time needed, a content outline, materials, and significant terms. The overarching goal is for students to develop an understanding of the interdependence of all organisms and the need for conserving natural resources.

  13. Factors affecting media agenda-setting: An exploratory study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne Wanta; Mahmoud Mahmoud

    1991-01-01

    Factors which might serve as obstacles to the agenda-setting process of the news media are examined. Data were examined from an investigation in which seven of 60 tests involving two media (the New York Times and CBS Evening News) did not produce agenda-setting effects. Post hoc examinations of die conditions under which these non-significant tests occurred suggest five categories for

  14. Detection of key factors affecting lycopene in vitro accessibility.

    PubMed

    Periago, M J; Bravo, S; García-Alonso, F J; Rincón, F

    2013-04-24

    On the basis of a Plackett-Burman experimental design for a resolution IV level obtained via a foldover strategy, the effect of 11 factors on lycopene in vitro accessibility was investigated. The selected factors were thermal treatment (X1), olive oil addition (X2), gastric pH (X3), gastric digestion time (X4), pepsin concentration (X5), intestinal pH (X6), pancreatin concentration (X7), bile salts concentration (X8), colipase addition (X9), intestinal digestion time (X10), and intestinal digestion speed (X11). Tomato passata was used as a natural source of lycopene. Samples were collected after gastric and intestinal digestion, and from the micellar phase, to quantify the (all-E)-lycopene and its (Z)-isomers by HPLC. Except for X3, X6, X7, and X11, the other factors studied explained lycopene in vitro accessibility, mainly regarding intestinal digestion, with R(2) values ? 0.60. Our results showed that the accessibility of lycopene is influenced by the conditions applied during in vitro intestinal digestion. PMID:23547942

  15. Factors affecting the sticking of insects on modified aircraft wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, O.; Chitsaz-Z, M. R.; Eiss, N. S.; Wightman, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    Past studies have shown that the surface energy of a polymer coating has an important effect on the sticking of insects to the surface. However, mechanical properties of polymer coatings such as elasticity may also be important. A further study is suggested using polymer coatings of known surface energy and modulus so that a better understanding of the mechanism of the sticking of insects to surfaces can be achieved. As the first step for the study, surface analysis and road tests were performed using elastomers having different energies and different moduli. The number of insects sticking to each elastomer was counted and compared from sample to sample and with a control (aluminum). An average height moment was also calculated and comparisons made between samples.

  16. Factors affecting Archaeal Lipid Compositions of the Sulfolobus Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, L.; Han, J.; Wei, Y.; Lin, L.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, C.

    2010-12-01

    Temperature is the best known variable affecting the distribution of the archaeal glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in marine and freshwater systems. Other variables such as pH, ionic strength, or bicarbonate concentration may also affect archaeal GDGTs in terrestrial systems. Studies of pure cultures can help us pinpoint the specific effects these variables may have on archaeal lipid distribution in natural environments. In this study, three Sulfolobus species (HG4, HB5-2, HB9-6) isolated from Tengchong hot springs (pH 2-3, temperature 73-90°C) in China were used to investigate the effects of temperature, pH, substrate, and type of strain on the composition of GDGTs. Results showed that increase in temperature had negative effects on the relative contents of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), GDGT-1 (one cyclopentyl ring), GDGT-2 and GDGT-3 but positive effects on GDGT-4, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5'. Increase in pH, on the other hand, had negative effects on GDGT-0, GDGT-1, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5', and positive effects on GDGT-3 and GDGT-4. GDGT-2 remained relatively constant with changing pH. When the HG4 was grown on different substrates, GDGT-5 was five time more abundant in sucrose-grown cultures than in yeast extract- or sulfur- grown cultures, suggesting that carbohydrates may stimulate the production of GDGT-5. For all three species, the ring index (average number of rings) of GDGTs correlated positively with incubation temperature. In HG4, ring index was much lower at optimal pH (3.5) than at other pH values. Ring index of HB5-2 or HB9-6 is higher than that of HG4, suggesting that speciation may affect the degree of cyclization of GDGT of the Sulfolobus. These results indicate that individual archaeal lipids respond differently to changes in environmental variables, which may be also species specific.

  17. Hydrostatic factors affect the gravity responses of algae and roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staves, Mark P.; Wayne, Randy; Leopold, A. C.

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis of Wayne et al. (1990) that plant cells perceive gravity by sensing a pressure differential between the top and the bottom of the cell was tested by subjecting rice roots and cells of Caracean algae to external solutions of various densities. It was found that increasing the density of the external medium had a profound effect on the polar ratio (PR, the ratio between velocities of the downwardly and upwardly streaming cytoplasm) of the Caracean algae cells. When these cells were placed in solutions of denser compound, the PR decreased to less than 1, as the density of the external medium became higher than that of the cell; thus, the normal gravity-induced polarity was reversed, indicating that the osmotic pressure of the medium affects the cell's ability to respond to gravity. In rice roots, an increase of the density of the solution inhibited the rate of gravitropism. These results agree with predictions of a hydrostatic model for graviperception.

  18. Environmental factors affecting pregnancy: endocrine disrupters, nutrients and metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Bazer, Fuller W; Wu, Guoyao; Johnson, Gregory A; Wang, Xiaoqiu

    2014-12-01

    Uterine adenogenesis, a unique post-natal event in mammals, is vulnerable to endocrine disruption by estrogens and progestins resulting in infertility or reduced prolificacy. The absence of uterine glands results in insufficient transport of nutrients into the uterine lumen to support conceptus development. Arginine, a component of histotroph, is substrate for production of nitric oxide, polyamines and agmatine and, with secreted phosphoprotein 1, it affects cytoskeletal organization of trophectoderm. Arginine is critical for development of the conceptus, pregnancy recognition signaling, implantation and placentation. Conceptuses of ungulates and cetaceans convert glucose to fructose which is metabolized via multiple pathways to support growth and development. However, high fructose corn syrup in soft drinks and foods may increase risks for metabolic disorders and increase insulin resistance in adults. Understanding endocrine disrupters and dietary substances, and novel pathways for nutrient metabolism during pregnancy can improve survival and growth, and prevent chronic metabolic diseases in offspring. PMID:25224489

  19. Factors affecting accuracy and precision in PET volume imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Karp, J.S.; Daube-Witherspoon, M.E.; Muehllehner, G. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Volume imaging positron emission tomographic (PET) scanners with no septa and a large axial acceptance angle offer several advantages over multiring PET scanners. A volume imaging scanner combines high sensitivity with fine axial sampling and spatial resolution. The fine axial sampling minimizes the partial volume effect, which affects the measured concentration of an object. Even if the size of an object is large compared to the slice spacing in a multiring scanner, significant variation in the concentration is measured as a function of the axial position of the object. With a volume imaging scanner, it is necessary to use a three-dimensional reconstruction algorithm in order to avoid variations in the axial resolution as a function of the distance from the center of the scanner. In addition, good energy resolution is needed in order to use a high energy threshold to reduce the coincident scattered radiation.

  20. Factors Affecting Price Differences of Cattle in the Southwest.

    E-print Network

    James, J. B.; Farris, D. E.

    1971-01-01

    -1300 pounds) Figure 1. Trends in price : 4 - ferences between grada Equation 4-4 3 - . slaughter steers at Omaha. 8 0- b (1100-1300 ~ounds) . . . . . - . ing approximately 800 to 1,100 pounds averaged $1.18 during the 14-year period. This price..., lot size and season of the yea Estimates of price differences for these factors T~ n developed from two data sources: (a) the 1968 in~c*, c from purchases at auctions of a large order buying h and 1966-68 quotations from the firm and (b) average...

  1. Factors affecting the retirement of commercial transport jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    The historical background of the technology and economics of aircraft replacement and retirement in the prejet era is reviewed in order to determine whether useful insights can be obtained applicable to the jet era. Significant differences between the two periods are noted. New factors are identified and examined. Topics discussed include concern over current policies regarding deregulation, regulatory reform, and retroactive noise regulations; financing and compliance legislation; aging; economic environment and inflation; technological progress; fuel efficiency and cost; and a financial perspective of replacement decisions.

  2. Factors affecting the electrical characteristics of cadmium mercury telluride crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, B. E.; Capper, P.; Harris, J. E.; Quelch, M. J. T.

    1980-08-01

    The electrical properties of cadmium mercury telluride crystals grown by both a cast-recrystallise and a normal freeze melt growth process have been investigated. Material equilibrated at high temperatures is found to be p-type and the carrier concentration is believed to be determined by native defects. Two models have been considered to explain the carrier concentrations found after low temperature heat treatment of slices in the presence of mercury vapour. These are based on native defects and on residual impurities respectively. It is concluded that for material grown by both growth processes the level of residual impurities is the dominant factor controlling carrier concentration.

  3. Review of factors affecting aircraft wet runway performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from investigations conducted at the Langley Aircraft Landing Loads and Traction Facility and from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  4. Factors Affecting Long-term Abstinence from Substances Use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salah Elgaily Elsheikh

    2008-01-01

    Objective  The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes of abstainers from drug use that relate to the factors leading to long-term\\u000a abstinence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods  Cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Amal Hospital to examine, which attitudes of abstainers related to long-term abstinence.\\u000a A random survey was conducted on 62 subjects from extended care units. All participants were male

  5. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms: factors affecting mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Harris, L M; Faggioli, G L; Fiedler, R; Curl, G R; Ricotta, J J

    1991-12-01

    Outcome of 113 operations for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms were reviewed to determine the contribution of perioperative events to mortality rates. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors were examined with regard to their influence on early and late deaths. A mortality rate of 64% (72/113) was unrelated to age, gender, and preexistent medical conditions. Death within 48 hours occurred in 42 of 72 patients (58%). Preoperative status, including cardiac arrest, loss of consciousness, and acidosis influenced early deaths (less than 48 hours) but not late deaths. Early deaths were also influenced by severe operative hypotension and excessive transfusion requirements. Late deaths (greater than 48 hours) occurred in 30/72 cases (42%) at a mean of 24.6 +/- 22.9 days. Late death was related to postoperative organ system failure, specifically renal and respiratory failure, and the need for reoperation. The overall mortality rate was influenced by preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors. Postoperative renal failure was the strongest predictor of overall deaths. Survival after ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm depends on intraoperative and postoperative complications as well as preoperative conditions. Late death, the greatest strain on resources, is independent of preoperative status. The thesis that some patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm should be denied operation to conserve resources is not supported by these data. Efforts to improve survival should focus on reducing intraoperative complications and improving management of postoperative organ failure. PMID:1960812

  6. Factors affecting the relative age effect in NHL athletes

    PubMed Central

    Parent-Harvey, Caroline I.; Desjardins, Christophe; Harvey, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The relative age effect (RAE) has been reported for a number of different activities. The RAE is the phenomena whereby players born in the first few months of a competition year are advantaged for selection to elite sports. Much of the literature has identified elite male athletics, such as the National Hockey League (NHL), as having consistently large RAEs. We propose that RAE may be lessened in the NHL since the last examination. Methods We examined demographic and selection factors to understand current NHL selection biases. Results We found that RAE was weak and was only evident when birth dates were broken into year halves. Players born in the first half of the year were relatively advantaged for entry into the NHL. We found that the RAE is smaller than reported in previous studies. Intraplayer comparisons for multiple factors, including place of birth, country of play, type of hockey played, height and weight, revealed no differences. Players who were not drafted (e.g., free agents) or who played university hockey in North America had no apparent RAE. Conclusion We found little evidence of an RAE in the current NHL player rosters. A larger study of all Canadian minor hockey intercity teams could help determine the existence of an RAE. PMID:24869606

  7. Factors affecting formation and rupture of intracranial saccular aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Bacigaluppi, S; Piccinelli, M; Antiga, L; Veneziani, A; Passerini, T; Rampini, P; Zavanone, M; Severi, P; Tredici, G; Zona, G; Krings, T; Boccardi, E; Penco, S; Fontanella, M

    2014-01-01

    Unruptured intracranial aneurysms represent a decisional challenge. Treatment risks have to be balanced against an unknown probability of rupture. A better understanding of the physiopathology is the basis for a better prediction of the natural history of an individual patient. Knowledge about the possible determining factors arises from a careful comparison between ruptured versus unruptured aneurysms and from the prospective observation and analysis of unbiased series with untreated, unruptured aneurysms. The key point is the correct identification of the determining variables for the fate of a specific aneurysm in a given individual. Thus, the increased knowledge of mechanisms of formation and eventual rupture of aneurysms should provide significant clues to the identification of rupture-prone aneurysms. Factors like structural vessel wall defects, local hemodynamic stress determined also by peculiar geometric configurations, and inflammation as trigger of a wall remodeling are crucial. In this sense the study of genetic modifiers of inflammatory responses together with the computational study of the vessel tree might contribute to identify aneurysms prone to rupture. The aim of this article is to underline the value of a unifying hypothesis that merges the role of geometry, with that of hemodynamics and of genetics as concerns vessel wall structure and inflammatory pathways. PMID:24306170

  8. Factors Affecting Crack Initiation in Low Porosity Crystalline Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicksiar, Mohsen; Martin, C. D.

    2014-07-01

    Crack initiation in uniaxial compressive loading of rocks occurs well before the peak strength is reached. The factors that may influence the onset of cracking and possible initiating mechanisms were explored using a discrete element numerical approach. The numerical approach was based on grain-based model that utilized the Voronoi tessellation scheme to represent low porosity crystalline rocks such as granite. The effect of grain size distribution (sorting coefficient ranging from 1.5 to 1.03), grain size (average grain size ranging from 0.75 to 2.25 mm), and the heterogeneities of different mineral grains (quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase) on the onset of cracking were examined. The modelling revealed that crack initiation appears to be a tensile mechanism in low porosity rocks, and that shear cracking along grain boundaries is only a prominent mechanism near the peak strength. It was also shown that the heterogeneity introduced by the grain size distribution had the most significant effect on peak strength and crack initiation stress. The peak strength ranges from 140 to 208 MPa as the grain size distribution varies from heterogeneous to uniform, respectively. However, the ratio of crack initiation to peak stress showed only minor variation, as the heterogeneity decreases. The other factors investigated had only minor effects on crack initiation and peak strength, and crack initiation ratio.

  9. Factors affecting healing after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair

    PubMed Central

    Abtahi, Amir M; Granger, Erin K; Tashjian, Robert Z

    2015-01-01

    Rotator cuff repair has been shown to have good long-term results. Unfortunately, a significant proportion of repairs still fail to heal. Many factors, both patient and surgeon related, can influence healing after repair. Older age, larger tear size, worse muscle quality, greater muscle-tendon unit retraction, smoking, osteoporosis, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia have all shown to negatively influence tendon healing. Surgeon related factors that can influence healing include repair construct-single vs double row, rehabilitation, and biologics including platelet rich plasma and mesenchymal stem cells. Double-row repairs are biomechanically stronger and have better healing rates compared with single-row repairs although clinical outcomes are equivalent between both constructs. Slower, less aggressive rehabilitation programs have demonstrated improved healing with no negative effect on final range of motion and are therefore recommended after repair of most full thickness tears. Additionally no definitive evidence supports the use of platelet rich plasma or mesenchymal stem cells regarding improvement of healing rates and clinical outcomes. Further research is needed to identify effective biologically directed augmentations that will improve healing rates and clinical outcomes after rotator cuff repair.

  10. Factors affecting healing after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Abtahi, Amir M; Granger, Erin K; Tashjian, Robert Z

    2015-03-18

    Rotator cuff repair has been shown to have good long-term results. Unfortunately, a significant proportion of repairs still fail to heal. Many factors, both patient and surgeon related, can influence healing after repair. Older age, larger tear size, worse muscle quality, greater muscle-tendon unit retraction, smoking, osteoporosis, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia have all shown to negatively influence tendon healing. Surgeon related factors that can influence healing include repair construct-single vs double row, rehabilitation, and biologics including platelet rich plasma and mesenchymal stem cells. Double-row repairs are biomechanically stronger and have better healing rates compared with single-row repairs although clinical outcomes are equivalent between both constructs. Slower, less aggressive rehabilitation programs have demonstrated improved healing with no negative effect on final range of motion and are therefore recommended after repair of most full thickness tears. Additionally no definitive evidence supports the use of platelet rich plasma or mesenchymal stem cells regarding improvement of healing rates and clinical outcomes. Further research is needed to identify effective biologically directed augmentations that will improve healing rates and clinical outcomes after rotator cuff repair. PMID:25793161

  11. Factors affecting the in vitro dissolution of cobalt oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Collier, C.G. (AEA Environment and Energy, Oxon (United Kingdom)); Pearce, M.J.; Hodgson, A.; Ball, A. (National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom))

    1992-07-01

    In a recent interspecies comparison of the lung clearance of cobalt oxide ([sup 57]Co[sub 3]O[sub 4]), differences of up to 4-fold were found in the translocation rates of [sup 57]Co to blood between seven different animal species, including man. This study investigated some factors that could influence the dissolution of this material in vitro. The effect of bicarbonate and citrate concentrations (over physiological ranges) and medium pH on in vitro dissolution of [sup 57]Co from [sup 57]Co[sub 3]O[sub 4] particles was measured in a simple noncellular system. pH levels of 4.5, 6.1, and 7.2 were used to correspond to those in the alveolar macrophage lysosome, its cytoplasm, and the extracellular lung fluid. Measurements of the fractional dissolution rate were made weekly for 3 months. pH had the greatest effect on dissolution rates, with particles suspended in the lowest pH medium (4.5) dissolving at a significantly faster rate than at higher pH values. Increasing citrate concentrations resulted in slightly higher dissolution rates, but there was no effect of bicarbonate concentration. There was no evidence of synergism between the factors studied. 18 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Traffic environment and demographic factors affecting impaired driving and crashes

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Eduardo O.; Peck, Raymond C.; Voas, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Data availability has forced researchers to examine separately the role of alcohol among drivers who crashed and drivers who did not crash. Such a separation fails to account fully for the transition from impaired driving to an alcohol-related crash. Method In this study, we analyzed recent data to investigate how traffic-related environments, conditions, and drivers’ demographics shape the likelihood of a driver being either involved in a crash (alcohol impaired or not) or not involved in a crash (alcohol impaired or not). Our data, from a recent case–control study, included a comprehensive sampling of the drivers in nonfatal crashes and a matched set of comparison drivers in two U.S. locations. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to investigate the likelihood that a driver would crash or would not crash, either with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC)=.00 or with a BAC?.05. Conclusions To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine how different driver characteristics and environmental factors simultaneously contribute to alcohol use by crash-involved and non-crash-involved drivers. This effort calls attention to the need for research on the simultaneous roles played by all the factors that may contribute to motor vehicle crashes. PMID:22385743

  13. Factors that affect Pickering emulsions stabilized by graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    He, Yongqiang; Wu, Fei; Sun, Xiying; Li, Ruqiang; Guo, Yongqin; Li, Chuanbao; Zhang, Lu; Xing, Fubao; Wang, Wei; Gao, Jianping

    2013-06-12

    Stable Pickering emulsions were prepared using only graphene oxide (GO) as a stabilizer, and the effects of the type of oil, the sonication time, the GO concentration, the oil/water ratio, and the pH value on the stability, type, and morphology of these emulsions were investigated. In addition, the effects of salt and the extent of GO reduction on emulsion formation and stability were studied and discussed. The average droplet size decreased with sonication time and with GO concentration, and the emulsions tended to achieve good stability at intermediate oil/water ratios and at low pH values. In all solvents, the emulsions were of the oil-in-water type, but interestingly, some water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) multiple emulsion droplets were also observed with low GO concentrations, low pH values, high oil/water ratios, high salt concentrations, or moderately reduced GO in the benzyl chloride-water system. A Pickering emulsion stabilized by Ag/GO was also prepared, and its catalytic performance for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol was investigated. This research paves the way for the fabrication of graphene-based functional materials with novel nanostructures and microstructures. PMID:23647467

  14. Factors affecting mechanical properties of biomass pellet from compost.

    PubMed

    Zafari, A; Kianmehr, M H

    2014-01-01

    Effectiveness of a densification process to create strong and durable bonding in pellets can be determined by testing the mechanical properties such as compressive strength (CS) and durability. Mechanical properties of pellet from composted municipal solid waste were determined at different raw material and densification conditions. Ground compost samples were compressed with three levels of moisture content (35%, 40% and 45% (wb)), piston compaction speed (2, 6 and 10 mm/s), die length (8, 10 and 12mm) and raw material particle size (0.3, 0.9 and 1.5mm) into cylindrical pellets utilizing opened-end dies under axial stress from a vertical piston applied by a hydraulic press. The effects of independent variables on mechanical properties were determined using response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design (BBD). All independent variables affected the durability significantly. However, different piston speed and die length not produce any significant difference on CS of pellets. Also in this research the electron photography method was used to identify the binding mechanism of compost particles. PMID:24600888

  15. Factors affecting areas contributing recharge to wells in shallow aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Pollock, David W.

    1993-01-01

    The source of water to wells is ultimately the location where the water flowing to a well enters the boundary surface of the ground-water system. In ground-water systems that receive most of their water from areal recharge, the location of the water entering the ground-water system is at the water table. The area contributing recharge to a discharging well is the surface area that defines the location of the water entering the ground-water system at the water table that flows to the well and is eventually discharged from the well. The calculation of areas contributing recharge to wells is complex because flow paths in ground-water systems change in response to development, and the aquifer material in ground-water systems is heterogeneous and is hidden from direct observation . Hypothetical experiments were undertaken to show the complexities in the delineation of areas contributing recharge to wells. Four different 'cases' are examined to demonstrate the effect of different conceptualized aquifer frameworks on deterministically calculated areas contributing recharge. The main conclusion drawn from the experiments is that, in order to understand the cause and effect relations that affect the quality of water derived from wells, the importance and nature of the variability in the ground-waterflow system must be considered and accounted for in any efforts to 'protect' the water supply.

  16. Factors affecting successful endoscopic sclerotherapy for oesophageal varices.

    PubMed Central

    Rose, J D; Crane, M D; Smith, P M

    1983-01-01

    Forty patients with bleeding oesophageal varices were studied during treatment by endoscopic sclerotherapy to discover what factors determine successful outcome. Large varices required more injections than small varices for obliteration, and rebleeding during treatment occurred only in patients with large varices. Radiological studies with sclerosant contrast mixture showed that in two groups of varices of comparable size, intravenous sclerosant was significantly more effective, leading to thrombosis in 8/10 as opposed to only 3/10 after paravasal injection (p less than 0.05). Intravenous contrast was rapidly cleared upwards, whereas paravasal contrast formed a rounded opacity alongside the vein that persisted for approximately 90 minutes, responsible for the complications of oesophageal ulceration and stenosis. PMID:6352422

  17. Factors that affect voluntary vaccination of children in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shono, Aiko; Kondo, Masahide

    2015-03-10

    Some important vaccinations are not included in the routine childhood immunization schedule in Japan. Voluntary vaccinations are usually paid as an out-of-pocket expense. Low voluntary vaccination coverage rates and high target disease incidence are assumed to be a consequence of voluntary vaccination. Therefore, this study aimed to explore factors associated with voluntary vaccination patterns in children. We conducted an online survey of 1243 mothers from a registered survey panel who had at least one child 2 months to <3 years of age. The voluntary vaccination mainly correlated positively with annual household income and mothers' positive opinions about voluntary vaccinations, but negatively with number of children. Financial support, especially for low income households and households with more than one child, may motivate parents to vaccinate their children. Communication is also an important issue. More opportunities for education and information about voluntary vaccinations should be provided to mothers without distinguishing between voluntary and routine vaccination. PMID:25529291

  18. Hyperplastic forming: Process potential and factors affecting formability

    SciTech Connect

    Daehn, G.S.; Vohnout, V.J.; Datta, S.

    2000-07-01

    Aluminum has an outstanding potential for reducing the mass of automobiles. One of the key problems is that it is very difficult to form without tearing. This paper has two distinct goals. First, the authors argue in an extended introduction that high velocity forming, as can be implemented through electromagnetic forming, is a technology that should be developed. As a process used in conjunction with traditional stamping, it may offer dramatically improved formability, reduced wrinkling and active control of springback among other advantages. In the body of the paper they describe the important factors that lead to improved formability at high velocity. In particular, high sample velocity can inhibit neck growth. There is a sample size dependence where larger samples have better ductility than those of smaller dimensions. These aspects are at least partially described by the recent model of Freund and Shenoy. In addition to this, boundary conditions imposed by sample launch and die impact can have important effects on formability.

  19. Factors affecting isotherm shape during Bridgman crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. L.; Capper, P.; Gosney, J. J.; Kenworthy, I.

    1984-11-01

    Isotherm shape is an important factor controlling the quality of Bridgman grown crystals. A convex (relative to the solid) isotherm will often lead to the best crystallinity but if segregation is important a flat isotherm is desirable. A thermal model is used to establish the effects of temperature dependent conductivity, ampoule transparency and furnace temperature profile on heat flows and temperature distributions in the growing crystal. The shape of the first-to-freeze isotherm is found to depend on the furnace profile and the way heat is lost from the base of the melt. A convex isotherm requires a shallow profile and high end losses. As growth progresses end losses are less important and the growth isotherm shape is determined by the crystal-melt conductivity and the furnace profile.

  20. Factors affecting sperm fertilizing capacity in men infected with HIV.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dian; Li, Lianbing; Xie, Qingdong; Hou, Zhiwei; Yu, Xiaojun; Ma, Mingfu; Huang, Tianhua

    2014-09-01

    Studies on the sperm-fertilizing capacity of HIV-seropositive men show conflicting results for reasons that are not yet clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and relationships of some factors such as patient age, CD4(+) cells count, fathering offspring, concomitant sexually transmitted diseases (STD), and receipt of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) on sperm fertilizing capacity. Semen samples were collected from 33 HIV-seropositive men. Data on the above factors were acquired from a self-designed questionnaire. Computer-assisted sperm analysis, a hypo-osmotic swelling, and zona-free hamster oocyte penetration tests were performed according to criteria of the World Health Organization. CD4(+) cells in peripheral blood were examined using a flow cytometric (FCM) analyzer. Sperm vitality, sperm motility (grades a?+?b), total sperm motility, and sperm penetration rates were significantly higher in patients whose CD4(+) counts were ?350/µl than in those whose CD4(+) counts were <350/µl (P?

  1. Temperature can interact with landscape factors to affect songbird productivity.

    PubMed

    Cox, W Andrew; Thompson, Frank R; Reidy, Jennifer L; Faaborg, John

    2013-04-01

    Increased temperatures and more extreme weather patterns associated with global climate change can interact with other factors that regulate animal populations, but many climate change studies do not incorporate other threats to wildlife in their analyses. We used 20 years of nest-monitoring data from study sites across a gradient of habitat fragmentation in Missouri, USA, to investigate the relative influence of weather variables (temperature and precipitation) and landscape factors (forest cover and edge density) on the number of young produced per nest attempt (i.e., productivity) for three species of songbirds. We detected a strong forest cover × temperature interaction for the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) on productivity. Greater forest cover resulted in greater productivity because of reduced brood parasitism and increased nest survival, whereas greater temperatures reduced productivity in highly forested landscapes because of increased nest predation but had no effect in less forested landscapes. The Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) exhibited a similar pattern, albeit with a marginal forest cover × temperature interaction. By contrast, productivity of the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) was not influenced by landscape effects or temperature. Our results highlight a potential difficulty of managing wildlife in response to global change such as habitat fragmentation and climate warming, as the habitat associated with the greatest productivity for flycatchers was also that most negatively influenced by high temperatures. The influence of high temperatures on nest predation (and therefore, nest predators) underscores the need to acknowledge the potential complexity of species' responses to climate change by incorporating a more thorough consideration of community ecology in the development of models of climate impacts on wildlife. PMID:23504884

  2. Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the groundwater quality in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Devic, Gordana; Djordjevic, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja

    2014-01-15

    Various chemometric techniques were used to analyze the quality of groundwater data sets. Seventeen water quality parameters: the cations Na, K, Ca, Mg, the anions Cl, SO4, NO3, HCO3 and nine trace elements Pb, As, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn and Cr were measured at 66 different key sampling sites in ten representative areas (low land-Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina and central Serbia) for the summer period of 2009. HCA grouped the sample sites into four clusters based on the similarities of the characteristics of the groundwater quality. DA showed two parameters, HCO3 and Zn, affording more than 90% correct assignments in the spatial analysis of four/three different regions in Serbia. Factor analysis was applied on the log-transformed data sets and allowed the identification of a reduced number of factors with hydrochemical meaning. The results showed severe pollution with Mn, As, NO3, Ni, Pb whereby anthropogenic origin of these contaminants was indicated. The pollution comes from both scattered point sources (industrial and urban effluent) and diffuse source agricultural activity. These samples may not be suitable for human consumption; the water quality belongs to class III/IV (contaminated). The Fe anomalies (7.1mg/L) in the water from the Vetrnica site can be attributed to natural sources, such as the dissolution of rock masses and rock fragments. The serious groundwater contamination with As (25.7-137.8 ?g/L) in the area of Banat (Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina) and a sample No. 9 at the Great Morava River requires urgent attention. PMID:24080418

  3. Factors affecting the Nd3+ (REE3+) luminescence of minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Christoph; Talla, Dominik; Ruschel, Katja; Škoda, Radek; Götze, Jens; Nasdala, Lutz

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, possibilities and limits of the application of REE3+ luminescence (especially the Nd3+ 4F3/2 ? 4I9/2 emission) as structural probe are evaluated. Important factors controlling the Nd3+ luminescence signal are discussed, including effects of the crystal-field, crystal orientation, structural state, and temperature. Particular attention was paid to the study of the accessory minerals zircon (ZrSiO4), xenotime-(Y) (YPO4), monazite-(Ce) (CePO4) and their synthetic analogues. Based on these examples we review in short that (1) REE3+ luminescence can be used as non-destructive phase identification method, (2) the intensities of certain luminescence bands are strongly influenced by crystal orientation effects, and (3) increased widths of REE3+-related emission bands are a strong indicator for structural disorder. We discuss the potential of luminescence spectroscopy, complementary to Raman spectroscopy, for the quantitative estimation of chemical (and potentially also radiation-induced) disorder. For the latter, emissions of Nd3+-related centres are found to be promising candidates.

  4. Oxytocin and Psychological Factors Affecting Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kontoangelos, K.; Raptis, A. E.; Papageorgiou, C. C.; Tsiotra, P. C.; Papadimitriou, G. N.; Rabavilas, A. D.; Dimitriadis, G.; Raptis, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of oxytocin with trait and state psychological factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods. OXT and psychological variables were analyzed from 86 controlled diabetic patients (glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) < 7%) from 45 uncontrolled diabetic patients (HbA1c ? 7). Psychological characteristics were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), while state psychological characteristics were measured with the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL 90-R). Blood samples were taken for measuring oxytocin in both subgroups during the initial phase of the study. One year later, the uncontrolled diabetic patients were reevaluated with the use of the same psychometric instruments. Results. During the first evaluation of the uncontrolled diabetic patients, a statistically significant positive relationship between the levels of OXT and psychoticism in EPQ rating scale (P < 0.013) was observed. For controlled diabetic patients, a statistically significant negative relationship between oxytocin and somatization (P < 0.030), as well as obsessive-compulsive scores (P < 0.047) in SCL-90 rating scale, was observed. During the second assessment, the values of OXT decreased when the patients managed to control their metabolic profile. Conclusions. The OXT is in association with psychoticism, somatization, and obsessionality may be implicated in T2DM. PMID:22997507

  5. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Local Support for Black Bear Recovery Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morzillo, Anita T.; Mertig, Angela G.; Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Garner, Nathan; Liu, Jianguo

    2010-06-01

    There is global interest in recovering locally extirpated carnivore species. Successful efforts to recover Louisiana black bear in Louisiana have prompted interest in recovery throughout the species’ historical range. We evaluated support for three potential black bear recovery strategies prior to public release of a black bear conservation and management plan for eastern Texas, United States. Data were collected from 1,006 residents living in proximity to potential recovery locations, particularly Big Thicket National Preserve. In addition to traditional logistic regression analysis, we used conditional probability analysis to statistically and visually evaluate probabilities of public support for potential black bear recovery strategies based on socioeconomic characteristics. Allowing black bears to repopulate the region on their own (i.e., without active reintroduction) was the recovery strategy with the greatest probability of acceptance. Recovery strategy acceptance was influenced by many socioeconomic factors. Older and long-time local residents were most likely to want to exclude black bears from the area. Concern about the problems that black bears may cause was the only variable significantly related to support or non-support across all strategies. Lack of personal knowledge about black bears was the most frequent reason for uncertainty about preferred strategy. In order to reduce local uncertainty about possible recovery strategies, we suggest that wildlife managers focus outreach efforts on providing local residents with general information about black bears, as well as information pertinent to minimizing the potential for human-black bear conflict.

  6. Factors affecting optical dispersion in borate glass systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Baki, Manal; Abdel-Wahab, F. A.; Radi, Amr; El-Diasty, Fouad

    2007-08-01

    Series of ternary glass systems namely, Na2O, B2O3, and RO (R=Ba or Mg) doped with TiO2 are synthesized. The present glasses are dictated by requirement for a small refractive index and a small nonlinear coefficient needed for waveguide and laser fabrication requirements. The effect of MgO and BaO as alkaline earth metals on the optical properties of the glass systems is investigated. The dependence of the refractive index and extinction coefficient dispersion curves on composition is carried out over a wavelength range of 0.3 2.5?m. Applying a genetic algorithm technique, the parameters of Sellmeier dispersion formula that fit index data to accuracy consistent well with the measurements are given. The zero material dispersion-wavelength (ZMDW) and group velocity are also determined using the refractive index data. The Fermi level is calculated exploiting the extinction coefficient dispersion curves. The absorption coefficient, both direct and indirect optical energy gaps, and Urbach energy are evaluated using the absorption edge calculations. The different factors that play a role for controlling the refractive indices such as coordination number, electronic polarizability, field strength of cations, bridging and nonbridging oxygen, and optical basicity are discussed in accordance with the obtained index data. IR spectroscopy is used as a structural probe of the nearest-neighbor environment in the glass network.

  7. Factors Affecting the Musculoskeletal Symptoms of Korean Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Taek-Sang; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Lee, Jin-Gu; Seok, Jong-Min; Cho, Jae-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    ] This study was conducted to investigate efficient, systematic management of the Korean police and to examine the status and prevention of musculoskeletal disorders in Korean police officers. [Subjects and Methods] A survey of police officers (353 subjects) who visited the National Police Hospital from March 2013 to May 2013 was conducted using a structured questionnaire. [Results] The incidence of pain was 44.2% in the shoulder, 41.4% in the waist, 31.2% in the neck, 26.1% in the legs/foot, 16.7% in the hand/wrist/finger, and 14.7% in the arm/elbow. The comparative risk of the relevant part factors was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. The shoulder had a 4.87 times higher risk in police lieutenants compared with those under the rank of corporal and a 1.78 times higher risk in people with chronic diseases than those without chronic diseases. The arm/elbow had a 2.37 times higher risk in people who exercised than those who did not exercise and a 1.78 times higher risk in people with a chronic disease than those without chronic diseases. Generally, people with a chronic disease showed a higher risk than those without chronic diseases. [Conclusion] The results of this study could be useful as basic data for improvement of police welfare, specialized treatment for the health safety of the police, and efficient management of police resources. PMID:25013298

  8. Experimental replacement of the inferior vena cava: factors affecting patency.

    PubMed

    Gloviczki, P; Hollier, L H; Dewanjee, M K; Trastek, V F; Hoffman, E A; Kaye, M P

    1984-06-01

    To evaluate factors influencing graft patency in the venous system, we replaced the inferior vena cava (IVC) in 50 dogs. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene ( ePTFE ) grafts with external support were implanted into 32 animals while autogenous, spiral jugular vein grafts were used to replace the IVC in 18 dogs. 111In-labeled autologous platelets and 125I-labeled canine fibrinogen were utilized to evaluate early thrombus formation. A distal arteriovenous (AV) fistula significantly (P less than 0.05) decreased both platelet and fibrin deposition on ePTFE grafts 3 hours following implantation. Patency rate of 12 ePTFE grafts with a temporary AV fistula was higher (75%) than that of grafts without fistula (25%) at 3 months (P less than 0.05). Spiral vein grafts with fistula showed 91% patency at 3 months; without fistula patency was only 67%. Venograms confirmed patency in five grafts followed up to 6 months. Antiplatelet therapy resulted in 100% patency in ePTFE and vein grafts during its administration, and vein grafts maintained patency after discontinuation of antiplatelet treatment. Spiral vein grafts showed no decrease in cross-sectional area at 3 months, while the cross-sectional area of ePTFE grafts decreased significantly (59%). Distal AV fistula decreases platelet and fibrin deposition leading to early occlusion in ePTFE grafts and produces excellent patency in spiral vein grafts. Antiplatelet therapy appears to further improve patency. PMID:6729703

  9. Defense Acquisitions: Factors Affecting Outcomes of Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Since the ACTD (Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations) program was started in 1994, a wide range of products have been tested by technology experts and military operators in realistic settings-from unmanned aerial vehicles, to friend-or-foe detection systems, to biological agent detection systems, to advanced simulation technology designed to enhance joint training. Many of these have successfully delivered new technologies to users. Though the majority of the projects that were examined, transitioned technologies to users, there are factors that hamper the ACTD process. For example: Technology has been too immature to be tested in a realistic setting, leading to cancellation of the demonstration. Military services and defense agencies have been reluctant to fund acquisition of ACTD-proven technologies, especially those focusing on joint requirements, because of competing priorities. ACTD's military utility may not have been assessed consistently. Some of the barriers identified can be addressed through efforts DOD (Department of Defense) now has underway, including an evaluation of how the ACTD process can be improved; adoption of criteria to be used to ensure technology is sufficiently mature; and placing of more attention on the end phase of the ACTD process. Other barriers, however, will be much more difficult to address in view of cultural resistance to joint initiatives and the requirements of DOD's planning and funding process.

  10. Optimization of factors affecting hexavalent chromium removal from simulated electroplating wastewater by synthesized magnetite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ataabadi, Mitra; Hoodaji, Mehran; Tahmourespour, Arezoo; Kalbasi, Mahmoud; Abdouss, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium is a mutagen and carcinogen that is of significant concern in water and wastewater. In the present study, magnetite nanoparticles (n-Mag) were investigated as a potential remediation technology for the decontamination of Cr (VI)-contaminated wastewater. Synthesized n-Mag was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and BET-N2 technology. To screen and optimize the factors affecting Cr (VI) removal efficiency by synthesized nanoparticles, Plackett-Burman (PB) and Taguchi experimental designs were used respectively. The crystalline produced n-Mag was in the size range of 60-70 nm and had a specific surface area (SSA) of 31.55 m(2) g(-1). Results of PB design showed that the most significant factors affecting Cr (VI) removal efficiency were initial Cr (VI) concentration, pH, n-Mag dosage, and temperature. In a pH of 2, 20 mg L(-1) of Cr (VI) concentration, 4 g L(-1)of n-Mag, temperature of 40 °C, 220 rpm of shaking speed, and 60 min of contact time, the complete removal efficiency of Cr (VI) was achieved. Batch experiments revealed that the removal of Cr (VI) by n-Mag was consistent with pseudo-second order reaction kinetics. The competition from common coexisting ions such as NO?(-), SO?(2-), and Cl(-) were not considerable, unless in the higher concentration of SO?(2-). These results indicated that the readily synthesized magnetite nanoparticles have promising applications for the removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous solution. PMID:25471623

  11. Factors affecting intradiscal pressure measurement during in vitro biomechanical tests

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the reliability of intradiscal pressure measurement during in vitro biomechanical testing. In particular, the variability of measurements will be assessed for repeated measures by considering the effect of specimens and of freezing/thawing cycles. Methods Thirty-six functional units from 8 porcine spines (S1: T7-T8, S2: T9-T10, S3: T12-T11, S4: T14-T13, S5: L1-L2 and S6: L3-L4) have been used. The intervertebral discs were measured to obtain the frontal and sagittal dimensions. These measurements helped locate the center of the disc where a modified catheter was positioned. A fiber optic pressure sensor (measuring range: -0.1 to 17 bar) (360HP, SAMBA Sensors, Sweden) was then inserted into the catheter. The specimens were divided into 3 groups: 1) fresh (F), 2) after one freeze/thaw cycle (C1) and 3) after 2 freeze/thaw cycles (C2). These groups were divided in two, depending on whether specimens were subjected to 400 N axial loading or not. Ten measurements (insertion of the sensor for a period of one minute, then removal) were taken for each case. Statistical analyses evaluated the influence of porcine specimen and the vertebral level using a MANOVA. The effect of repeated measurements was evaluated with ANOVA. The difference between freeze/thaw cycles were analysed with U Mann-Whitney test (P?0.05). Results Without axial loading, the F group showed 365 mbar intradiscal pressure, 473 mbar for the C1 group, and 391 mbar for the C2 group. With 400N axial load, the F group showed intradiscal pressure of 10610 mbar, the C1 group 10132 mbar, the C2 group 12074 mbar. The statistical analysis shows a significant influence of the porcine specimen (p<0.001), with or without axial loading and of the vertebral level with (p=0.048) and without load (p<0.001). The results were also significantly different between the freeze/thaw cycles, with (p<0.001) and without load (p=0.033). Repeated measurement (without load p = 0.82 and with p = 0.56) did not show significant influence. Conclusions The results tend to support that freezing/thawing cycles can affect intradiscal pressure measurement with significant inter-specimen variability. The use of the same specimen as its own control during in vitro biomechanical testing could be recommended. PMID:25810751

  12. The Caribbean Amblyomma Program: some ecologic factors affecting its success.

    PubMed

    Pegram, Rupert; Indar, Lisa; Eddi, Carlos; George, John

    2004-10-01

    The Caribbean Amblyomma Program has been operational for 8 years. However, owing to funding availability, some islands did not commence eradication activities until late 1997. During the past 2 years, 6 of the 9 islands (St. Kitts, St. Lucia, Anguilla, Montserrat, Barbados, and Dominica) under the program have attained the status of provisional freedom from the tropical bont tick (TBT). There are several administrative and technical reasons why the attainment of the program goals took longer than originally anticipated. This paper examines some of the ecologic factors that necessitated the prolongation of the treatment period and the recrudescence of TBT infestation in some islands. The introduction and subsequent spread of the cattle egret, Bulbucus ibis, in the 1960s and 1970s was most likely closely associated with the dissemination of the TBT in the region. At the national or island level, variations in land use are believed to have had a major impact on the eradication efforts in the different islands. Two islands, Antigua and Nevis, both opted out of sugar production several decades ago for economic reasons. Unfortunately, however, land from former sugar estates was not developed for other agricultural purposes and it became "unimproved free-grazing" areas for livestock. Thus, in both Antigua and Nevis, large numbers of livestock tend to become feral or free-ranging, making compliance with the mandatory treatment schedules impossible. In contrast, St. Lucia has large tracts of land allocated to banana plantations and St. Kitts to sugar plantations. Thus, feral or free-ranging livestock were rarely a problem in these islands. These differences in land use management are compared and discussed in relation to their perceived profound impact on TBT eradication efforts in the region. PMID:15604510

  13. Factors affecting levels of genetic diversity in natural populations.

    PubMed

    Amos, W; Harwood, J

    1998-02-28

    Genetic variability is the clay of evolution, providing the base material on which adaptation and speciation depend. It is often assumed that most interspecific differences in variability are due primarily to population size effects, with bottlenecked populations carrying less variability than those of stable size. However, we show that population bottlenecks are unlikely to be the only factor, even in classic case studies such as the northern elephant seal and the cheetah, where genetic polymorphism is virtually absent. Instead, we suggest that the low levels of variability observed in endangered populations are more likely to result from a combination of publication biases, which tend to inflate the level of variability which is considered 'normal', and inbreeding effects, which may hasten loss of variability due to drift. To account for species with large population sizes but low variability we advance three hypotheses. First, it is known that certain metapopulation structures can result in effective population sizes far below the census size. Second, there is increasing evidence that heterozygous sites mutate more frequently than equivalent homozygous sites, plausibly because mismatch repair between homologous chromosomes during meiosis provides extra opportunities to mutate. Such a mechanism would undermine the simple relationship between heterozygosity and effective population size. Third, the fact that related species that differ greatly in variability implies that large amounts of variability can be gained or lost rapidly. We argue that such cases are best explained by rapid loss through a genome-wide selective sweep, and suggest a mechanism by which this could come about, based on forced changes to a control gene inducing coevolution in the genes it controls. Our model, based on meiotic drive in mammals, but easily extended to other systems, would tend to facilitate population isolation by generating molecular incompatabilities. Circumstances can even be envisioned in which the process could provide intrinsic impetus to speciation. PMID:9533122

  14. Linguistic, social, and cultural factors influencing literacy development and academic achievement of Puerto Rican students in elementary school

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aramina Vega Ferrer

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the United States and in New York City specifically, public school students of Puerto Rican origin\\/descent have exhibited an historical and consistent problem in English language literacy development and high academic achievement. The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction of linguistic, cultural, and social factors on the literacy development and academic achievement of Puerto Rican elementary

  15. An Analysis of the Impact of Demographic, Structural, Student, and Financial Factors on Texas High School Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Alisa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of demographic (indicators describing student characteristics), structural (indicators describing school characteristics), student (indicators of student academic achievement), and financial (indicators of instructional expenditures) factors to student mathematics achievement. A sample (n…

  16. Factor Structure and Predictive Utility of the 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Model in a Sample of Taiwan Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Yu-Tzu; Yeh, Yu-Chen; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Hwang, Fang-Ming

    2011-01-01

    This study examined structure and predictive utility of the 2 x 2 achievement goal model among Taiwan pre-university school students (ages 10 to 16) who learned Chinese language arts. The confirmatory factor analyses of Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Chinese version provided good fitting between the factorial and dimensional structures with the…

  17. Elementary Math Achievement for Rural Development: Effects of Contextual Factors Intrinsic to the Modern World. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Robert; Howley, Caitlin

    Rural development is often presumed to rest on educational improvement, and high levels of mathematics achievement might seem essential to improving the quality of rural life and the viability of rural communities. Efforts to promote math achievement growth are usually limited to curricular and instructional innovations, while contextual factors

  18. 40 CFR 63.55 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for...achievable control technology (MACT) determinations...quality health and environmental impacts and...

  19. Factors Affecting the Reactvity of Granular Iron in contact with Chlorinated Solvents

    E-print Network

    Firdous, Rubina

    2013-12-31

    This study investigates, at various scales, the factors that affect the reactivity of granular iron (GI) toward chlorinated solvents and link these scale-specific processes with each other. The Kinetic Iron Model (KIM), ...

  20. Factors Affecting the Fragmentation of Peptide Ions: Metal Cationization and Fragmentation Timescale

    E-print Network

    Kmiec, Kevin

    2012-10-19

    The factors affecting peptide fragmentation have been extensively studied in the literature in order to better predict the fragment ion spectra of peptides and proteins. While there are countless influences to consider, metal cation binding...

  1. Factors Affecting Carbohydrate Production and the Formation of Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP) by Diatoms

    E-print Network

    Chen, Jie

    2014-03-25

    , the efficiency of the biological carbon pump. The objective of this research was to determine how different factors affect carbohydrate production and the formation of TEP by diatoms, and their role in aggregation. Diatoms were grown in laboratory cultures...

  2. Factors affecting total alkaloid and nitrate levels in pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke)

    E-print Network

    Krejsa, Beverly Blohowiak

    1981-01-01

    for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1981 Major Subject: Agronomy FACTORS AFFECTING TOTAL ALKALOID AND NITRATE LEVELS IN PEARL MILLET (PENNISETUM AMERICANUM (L. ) LEEKE) A Thesis by BEVERLY BLOHOWIAK KREJSA Approved as to style and content by...

  3. Factors affecting the permanence of livestock projects undertaken by Heifer International-Mexico

    E-print Network

    Arispe, Sergio Adrian

    2003-01-01

    FACTORS AFFECTING THE PERMANENCE OF LIVESTOCK PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN BY HEIFER INTERNATIONAL-MEXICO A Thesis by SERGIO ADRIAN ARISPE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2003 Major Subject: Agricultural Education FACTORS AFFECTING THE PERMANENCE OF LIVESTOCK PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN BY HEIFER INTERNATIONAL-MEXICO A Thesis by SERGIO ADRIAN ARISPE Submitted to Texas A&M University...

  4. Early environmental and social factors affecting adult aggressiveness in inbred mice

    E-print Network

    Allender, Michael Lynn

    1971-01-01

    EARLY ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL FACTORS AFFECTING ADULT AGGRESSIVENESS IN INBRED MICE A Thesis by MICHAEL LYNN ALLENDER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1971 Major Subject: Psychology EARLY ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL FACTORS AFFECTING ADULT AGGRESSIVENESS IN INBRED MICE A Thesis by MICHAEL LYNN ALLENDER Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Commi ee) (Member...

  5. Factors affecting the production of terpenes in seedlings of Pinus elliottii

    E-print Network

    Ishihara, Hiroichi

    1987-01-01

    FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRODUCTION OF TERPENES IN SEEDLINGS OF PINUS FLLIOITII A Thesis HIROICHI ISHIHARA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... ( ember) J. Charles Lee (Department Head) May 1987 ABSTRACT Factors Affecting the Prcduction of Terpenes in Seedlings of Pinus elliottii. (May 1987) Hiroichi Ishihara, B. S. , Kyoto University, Japan Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Ed J. Soltes...

  6. Factors affecting calf and dam weights and their effects on breeding programs

    E-print Network

    Maddox, Lawrence Allen

    1964-01-01

    FACTORS AFFECTING CALF AND DAM WEIGHTS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON BREEDING PROGRAMS A Thesis By LAMRENCE ALLEN MADDOX, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulf illment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May, 1964 Major Subject: Animal Breeding FACTORS AFFECTING CALF AND DAM WEIGHTS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON BREEDING PROGRAMS A Thesis By IAWRENCE ALLEN MADDOX, JR Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Commit ee) (Head...

  7. Factors affecting weaning weights of calves produced in Hereford and rotational crossbred herds

    E-print Network

    Tovar-Rodriguez, Jorge

    1965-01-01

    FACTORS AFFECTING WEANING WEIGHTS OF CALVES PRODUCED IN HEREFORD AND ROTATIONAL CROSSBRED HERDS A Thesis By jORGE TOVAR R. Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1965 Major Subject: Animal Production FACTORS AFFECTING WEANING WEIGHTS OF CALVES PRODUCED IN HEREFORD AND ROTATIONAL CROSSBRED HERDS A Thesis By JORGE TOVAR R. Approved as to style an content by: ( ' an of Committee...

  8. Genetic and environmental factors affecting growth and reproduction characters of Morada Nova sheep in Northeastern Brazil

    E-print Network

    Fernandes, Antonio Amaury Oria

    1985-01-01

    GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION CHARACTERS OF MORADA NOVA SHEEP IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL A Thesis by ANTONIO AMAURV ORIA FERNANDES Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1985 Major Subject: Animal Breeding GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION CHARACTERS OF MORADA NOVA SHEEP IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL A Thesis by ANTONIO...

  9. Factors affecting the adoption of recommended agricultural practices by three different types of farmers in Mexico

    E-print Network

    Garza-Falcon, Gilberto Severino

    1968-01-01

    FACTORS AFFECTING THE ADOPTION OF RECOMMENDED AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES BY THREE DIFFERENT TYPES OF FARMERS IN MEXICO A Thesis by GILBERTO S ~ GARZA-FALCON Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&K University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May, 1968 Major Subject: Agricultural Education FACTORS AFFECTING THE ADOPTION OF RECO?NENDED AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES BY THREE DIFFERENT TYPES OF FARNERS IN HEXICO A Thesis by GILBERTO S. GARZA...

  10. Distinct predictive factors influence on achievement of early molecular response by frontline imatinib in chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Eun; Choi, Soo Young; Oh, Yun Jeong; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Song, Hye-Young; Yoo, Hea-Lyun; Lee, Mi-Young; Chae, Moon-Jung; Kang, Ki-Hoon; Hwang, Hee-Jeong; Jang, Eun-Jung; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2015-04-01

    To explore the factors for achieving early molecular responses (EMR; BCR-ABL1 ?10% at 3 months, ?1% at 6 months) by imatinib (IM), baseline characteristics including individual BCR-ABL1 transcript level, dose intensity, and IM trough level on day 29 were analyzed in 286 chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients. Distinct predictive factors for achieving EMR at 3 months and 6 months were noted. Blast count at diagnosis and IM trough level on day 29 were significantly associated with an achievement of 3-month EMR. Early decline of BCR-ABL1 transcript, low Sokal risk, and mean daily dose (?350mg/day) by 6 months were associated with an achievement of 6-month EMR. Understanding the predictive factors for EMR may provide additional information to guide clinical decisions on the changing therapies at each landmark. PMID:25680524

  11. Factors Associated with Mathematics Achievement and Participation in Advanced Mathematics Courses: An Examination of Gender Differences from an International Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercikan, Kadriye; McCreith, Tanya; Lapointe, Vanessa

    2005-01-01

    This article reports results of an exploratory study examining factors that might be associated with achievement in mathematics and participation in advanced mathematics courses in Canada, Norway, and the United States of America (USA). These factors, which were not directly related to schooling accounted for large degrees of variability, 24% to…

  12. Social Integration as a Factor in Academic Achievements of Children: A Case Study of African Immigrants in Louisville, Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odetunde, Florence Olayinka

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how social integration of African immigrants in the Louisville metropolitan area of Kentucky could be a factor in the academic achievements of their children. It involved critically investigating how the process of their adjustments as immigrants might have been shaped by various personal and environmental factors such as…

  13. FACTORS AFFECTING COOKED TEXTURE QUALIlY OF PACIFIC WHITING, MERLUCCIUS PRODUCTUS, FILLETS WITH

    E-print Network

    , not to be affected, Le., soft-textured, while lightly infected fish had very poor textures. The discovery by KabataFACTORS AFFECTING COOKED TEXTURE QUALIlY OF PACIFIC WHITING, MERLUCCIUS PRODUCTUS, FILLETS infections correlated poorly; 3) Pacific whiting from southern fishing areas had higher white pseudocyst

  14. Factors other than glomerular filtration rate affect serum cystatin C levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lesley A Stevens; Christopher H Schmid; Tom Greene; Liang Li; Gerald J Beck; Marshall M Joffe; Marc Froissart; John W Kusek; Josef Coresh; Andrew S Levey

    2009-01-01

    Cystatin C is an endogenous glomerular filtration marker hence its serum level is affected by the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). To study what other factors might affect it blood level we performed a cross-sectional analysis of 3418 patients which included a pooled dataset of clinical trial participants and a clinical population with chronic kidney disease. The serum cystatin C and

  15. Some Factors Affecting Weight Gains of Dairy Heifers Fed All-Roughage Rations1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. McCullough; W. E. Neville Jr.

    1959-01-01

    SUMMARY Factors affecting weight gains by dairy heifers were studied with 28 heifers on pasture and ten individually fed heifers on either an all hay or grass silage ration. The heifers averaged about 450 lb. in weight. The only factor significantly correlated with gains on pasture was forage dry matter digestibility (r=.797). On pasture, the multiple correlation between average daily

  16. Environmental and genetic factors affecting udder characters and milk production in Chios sheep

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Environmental and genetic factors affecting udder characters and milk production in Chios sheep A environmental and genetic factors influencing udder characteristics and milk production in Chios sheep. All. Seasonal effects were significant for udder circumference, test-day milk and total milk production

  17. Motivating Factors that Affect Enrolment and Student Performance in an ODL Engineering Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadigamuwa, P. R.; Senanayake, Samans

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the motivating factors for enrolling in an engineering study programme in open and distance learning (ODL) and the factors that affect the students' performance. The study was conducted with two convenient samples of students following distance learning courses in engineering technology, conducted by…

  18. An examination of factors affecting the efficiency of Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of tomato

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Frary; Elizabeth D. Earle

    1996-01-01

    An improved protocol forAgrobacterium-mediated transformation of the tomato cultivar Moneymaker was developed by examining the effects of six different factors on the efficiency of transformation. Explant size, explant orientation, gelling agent and plate sealant were found to affect transformation efficiency. Two other factors, type of explant (hypocotyl or cotyledon) and frequency of transfer to fresh selective regeneration medium, did not

  19. Mortality factors affecting Bemisia tabaci populations on cotton in the Cukurova plain, Turkey.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cohort-based partial life tables were constructed to determine the source and rates of mortality factors affecting Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on cotton in the Çukurova plain of Adana, located in eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey. Mortality factors were recorded as due t...

  20. FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE FATIGUE LIFE OF RUBBER: A LITERATURE SURVEY

    E-print Network

    Fatemi, Ali

    FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE FATIGUE LIFE OF RUBBER: A LITERATURE SURVEY W. V. MARS* ADVANCED RESEARCH, TOLEDO, OHIO, 43606 ABSTRACT Many factors are known to influence the mechanical fatigue life of rubber and reviewed. Rubber's fatigue behavior is extremely sensitive to both the maximum and minimum cyclic load

  1. Factors affecting knowledge management adoption of Taiwan small and medium-sized enterprises

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ru-Ching Hsu; Diana Lawson; Ting-Peng Liang

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge Management (KM) has become a critical component for maintaining competitive advantages. Most existing research looks at individual industries or general concepts; few studies have investigated KM use in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs). This research empirically investigates factors affecting the adoption of KM. Results indicate that important factors maturing of Information Technology (IT) applications, the complexity of management and

  2. Factors affecting the full use of library and information management systems by library personnel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgios Skretas

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – To provide a general list of factors that affects and determines the full use of library information management systems (LIMS) by library staff. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The factors, which were identified mainly during participation in the implementation of automation projects in Greece, are listed and briefly analysed in categories relevant to the system aspect and to the library aspect.

  3. Factors Affecting the Full Use of Library and Information Management Systems by Library Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skretas, Georgios

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a general list of factors that affects and determines the full use of library information management systems (LIMS) by library staff. Design/methodology/approach: The factors, which were identified mainly during participation in the implementation of automation projects in Greece, are listed and briefly analysed in categories…

  4. Factors Affecting the Supply of Recent College Graduates in New England. Policy Brief 09-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasser, Alicia

    2009-01-01

    This policy brief investigates factors affecting New England's supply of recent college graduates and how those factors have changed over time, and suggests steps that states might take to expand this source of skilled labor. (Contains 3 figures.) [This brief summarizes analysis in NEPPC research report 08-1: "The Future of the Skilled Labor Force…

  5. An Empirically Derived Taxonomy of Factors Affecting Physicians' Willingness to Disclose Medical Errors

    PubMed Central

    Kaldjian, Lauris C; Jones, Elizabeth W; Rosenthal, Gary E; Tripp-Reimer, Toni; Hillis, Stephen L

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Physician disclosure of medical errors to institutions, patients, and colleagues is important for patient safety, patient care, and professional education. However, the variables that may facilitate or impede disclosure are diverse and lack conceptual organization. OBJECTIVE To develop an empirically derived, comprehensive taxonomy of factors that affects voluntary disclosure of errors by physicians. DESIGN A mixed-methods study using qualitative data collection (structured literature search and exploratory focus groups), quantitative data transformation (sorting and hierarchical cluster analysis), and validation procedures (confirmatory focus groups and expert review). RESULTS Full-text review of 316 articles identified 91 impeding or facilitating factors affecting physicians' willingness to disclose errors. Exploratory focus groups identified an additional 27 factors. Sorting and hierarchical cluster analysis organized factors into 8 domains. Confirmatory focus groups and expert review relocated 6 factors, removed 2 factors, and modified 4 domain names. The final taxonomy contained 4 domains of facilitating factors (responsibility to patient, responsibility to self, responsibility to profession, responsibility to community), and 4 domains of impeding factors (attitudinal barriers, uncertainties, helplessness, fears and anxieties). CONCLUSIONS A taxonomy of facilitating and impeding factors provides a conceptual framework for a complex field of variables that affects physicians' willingness to disclose errors to institutions, patients, and colleagues. This taxonomy can be used to guide the design of studies to measure the impact of different factors on disclosure, to assist in the design of error-reporting systems, and to inform educational interventions to promote the disclosure of errors to patients. PMID:16918739

  6. 76 FR 30195 - Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ...TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-524] Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales...Commission) instituted investigation No. 332-524, Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting...

  7. 77 FR 18862 - Brazil: Competitive Factors Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected Third...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ...TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-524] Brazil: Competitive Factors Affecting U.S. and Brazilian...the Committee in investigation No. 332-524, Brazil: Competitive Factors In Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural...

  8. Adolescent readers' self-perceptions of affective factors related to performance on standardized tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn Yribarren

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate which affective factors of adolescent high school readers were related to high-level readers, middle-level readers and low-level readers. The research problem was to determine the relationship between adolescent high school students' self-perceived reading self-efficacy factors and the students' reading performance on a standardized reading assessment considering demographic factors of age, gender and

  9. Factors That Affect Suicidal Attempt Risk Among Korean Elderly Adults: A Path Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Junsoo; Park, Jongheon; Lee, Jinsuk; Jung, Hyemin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Among the Korean elderly (those 65 years of age and older), the suicide rate is 80.3/100 000 people, which is ten times higher than the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development average. Because South Korea is rapidly becoming an aging population, this high elderly suicidal rate will only get worse. Although the size of the elderly suicide problem is quite large, previous research in South Korea has surveyed restricted areas and not the entire country. Even though the factors that affect elderly suicide are complicated, there has been little research into these influencing factors. Thus, this research uses the national survey data (Community Health Survey) that was obtained in 2009. Additionally, we analyze factors affecting elderly suicidal ideation and attempts as well as the paths of these effects. Methods: Community Health Survey data obtained by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2009 was used for this study. We additionally examined the factors that affect suicide with chi-squared tests, t-tests, Pearson’s correlation test, and path analysis. Results: Depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation are the only factors that directly affect suicidal attempts. Demographic, behavioral, and physical activity factors have indirect effects on suicidal attempts. Conclusions: Depression has the strongest influence on suicidal ideation and attempts. Demographic, behavioral, and physical activity factors affect suicidal attempts mostly through depressive symptoms. In addition, there is a path that suggests that demographic, behavioral, and physical activity factors affect suicidal attempts not through depression symptoms but only through suicidal ideation. This means that the elderly who do not have depression symptoms attempt suicide according to their own situations and characteristics. PMID:25652708

  10. Analysis of Factors Affecting Containment with Extracted Partial Enclosures Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Batt, Rachel L.; Kelsey, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The Health and Safety Executive’s (HSE’s) COSHH Essentials (HSE, 2002, COSHH Essentials: easy steps to control chemicals HSG193. 2nd edn. ISBN 0 71762737 3. Available at http://www.coshh-essentials.org.uk. Accessed 30 October 2013) provides guidance on identifying the approaches required to control exposure to chemicals in the workplace. The control strategies proposed in COSHH Essentials are grouped into four control approaches: general ventilation, engineering control, containment, or to seek specialist advice. We report the use of experimental measurements and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling to examine the performance of an engineering control approach and a containment control approach. The engineering control approach simulated was an extracted partial enclosure, based on the COSHH Essentials G200, for which simulations were compared with data from experiments. The containment approach simulated was of drum filling (in an extracted partial enclosure), based on the COSHH Essentials G305. The influence of the following factors on containment was examined: face velocity, size and location of face opening, and movement and ventilation flows. CFD predictions of the engineering control approach agreed well with the majority of the experimental measurements demonstrating confidence in the modelling approach used. The results show that the velocity distribution at the face of the enclosure is not uniform and the location and size of the opening are significant factors affecting the flow field and hence the containment performance. The simulations of drum filling show the effect on containment of the movement of a drum through the face of an enclosure. Analysis of containment performance, using a tracer, showed that containment was affected by the interaction between the ventilation flow direction and drum movement and spacing. Validated CFD simulations are shown to be a useful tool for gaining insight into the flows in control strategies for exposure control and to aid the interpretation of experimental measurements. The results support the assumption in COSHH Essentials that the use of ‘containment’ as a control approach is capable of achieving a 100-fold reduction in potential exposure. Novel CFD modelling techniques have been used to create controlled containment scenarios, improve understanding of the flow behaviour in the scenarios, and provide information that may aid future containment design. PMID:24232543

  11. Analysis of factors affecting containment with extracted partial enclosures using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Batt, Rachel L; Kelsey, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    The Health and Safety Executive's (HSE's) COSHH Essentials (HSE, 2002, COSHH Essentials: easy steps to control chemicals HSG193. 2nd edn. ISBN 0 71762737 3. Available at http://www.coshh-essentials.org.uk. Accessed 30 October 2013) provides guidance on identifying the approaches required to control exposure to chemicals in the workplace. The control strategies proposed in COSHH Essentials are grouped into four control approaches: general ventilation, engineering control, containment, or to seek specialist advice. We report the use of experimental measurements and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling to examine the performance of an engineering control approach and a containment control approach. The engineering control approach simulated was an extracted partial enclosure, based on the COSHH Essentials G200, for which simulations were compared with data from experiments. The containment approach simulated was of drum filling (in an extracted partial enclosure), based on the COSHH Essentials G305. The influence of the following factors on containment was examined: face velocity, size and location of face opening, and movement and ventilation flows. CFD predictions of the engineering control approach agreed well with the majority of the experimental measurements demonstrating confidence in the modelling approach used. The results show that the velocity distribution at the face of the enclosure is not uniform and the location and size of the opening are significant factors affecting the flow field and hence the containment performance. The simulations of drum filling show the effect on containment of the movement of a drum through the face of an enclosure. Analysis of containment performance, using a tracer, showed that containment was affected by the interaction between the ventilation flow direction and drum movement and spacing. Validated CFD simulations are shown to be a useful tool for gaining insight into the flows in control strategies for exposure control and to aid the interpretation of experimental measurements. The results support the assumption in COSHH Essentials that the use of 'containment' as a control approach is capable of achieving a 100-fold reduction in potential exposure. Novel CFD modelling techniques have been used to create controlled containment scenarios, improve understanding of the flow behaviour in the scenarios, and provide information that may aid future containment design. PMID:24232543

  12. Factors affecting therapeutic compliance: A review from the patient’s perspective

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jing; Sklar, Grant Edward; Min Sen Oh, Vernon; Chuen Li, Shu

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore and evaluate the most common factors causing therapeutic non-compliance. Methods A qualitative review was undertaken by a literature search of the Medline database from 1970 to 2005 to identify studies evaluating the factors contributing to therapeutic non-compliance. Results A total of 102 articles was retrieved and used in the review from the 2095 articles identified by the literature review process. From the literature review, it would appear that the definition of therapeutic compliance is adequately resolved. The preliminary evaluation revealed a number of factors that contributed to therapeutic non-compliance. These factors could be categorized to patient-centered factors, therapy-related factors, social and economic factors, healthcare system factors, and disease factors. For some of these factors, the impact on compliance was not unequivocal, but for other factors, the impact was inconsistent and contradictory. Conclusion There are numerous studies on therapeutic noncompliance over the years. The factors related to compliance may be better categorized as “soft” and “hard” factors as the approach in countering their effects may differ. The review also highlights that the interaction of the various factors has not been studied systematically. Future studies need to address this interaction issue, as this may be crucial to reducing the level of non-compliance in general, and to enhancing the possibility of achieving the desired healthcare outcomes. PMID:18728716

  13. Explanatory Factors of the Black Achievement Gap in Montreal's Public and Private Schools: A Multivariate Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldas, Stephen J.; Bernier, Sylvain; Marceau, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory analysis uses multiple regression modeling to help shed light on the correlates of the Black achievement gap in Montreal's public and private secondary schools. Using school-level testing data from Quebec's Ministry of Education, the authors show that there is a Black achievement gap, and that this gap is highly associated with…

  14. Achieving the Dream in Ohio: State Policies Affecting Access to, and Success in, Community Colleges for Students of Color and Low-Income Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Kevin J.; Marshall, James; Soonachan, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    This report provides an audit of state policies in Ohio affecting access to, and success in, community colleges for students of color and low-income students. It was commissioned by Lumina Foundation for Education as part of a series of policy audits of the states involved in Achieving the Dream. Lumina Foundation is the primary funder of the…

  15. Achieving the Dream in Connecticut: State Policies Affecting Access to, and Success in, Community Colleges for Students of Color and Low-Income Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Kevin J.; Reid, Monica

    2006-01-01

    This report provides an audit of state policies in Connecticut affecting access to, and success in, community colleges for students of color and low-income students. It was commissioned by Lumina Foundation for Education as part of a series of policy audits of the states involved in Achieving the Dream. Lumina Foundation is the primary funder of…

  16. [Greenhouse tomato transpiration and its affecting factors: correlation analysis and model simulation].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yong-Zhe; Li, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Rong; Sun, San-Jie; Chen, Kai-Li

    2012-07-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the correlations between the daily transpiration of greenhouse tomato and the related affecting factors such as total leaf area per plant, soil relative moisture content, air temperature, relative humidity, and solar radiation under different treatments of supplementary irrigation. A regression model for the daily transpiration of greenhouse tomato was established. There existed significant linear correlations between the daily transpiration and the test affecting factors, and the affecting factors had complicated mutual effects. Soil relative moisture content was the main decision factor of the transpiration, with the decision coefficient being 27.4%, and daily minimum relative humidity was the main limiting factor, with the decision coefficient being -119.7%. The square value of the regression coefficient (R2) between the predicted and measured tomato daily transpiration was 0.81, root mean squared error (RMSE) was 68.52 g, and relative prediction error (RE) was 19.4%, suggesting that the regression model established by using the main affecting factors selected through path analysis could better simulate the daily transpiration of greenhouse tomato. PMID:23173461

  17. Nurses' Experiences of Nonpatient Factors That Affect Nursing Workload: A Study of the PAONCIL Instrument's Nonpatient Factors

    PubMed Central

    Fagerström, Lisbeth; Vainikainen, Paula

    2014-01-01

    In the RAFAELA patient classification system, the professional assessment of optimal nursing care intensity level (PAONCIL) instrument is used to assess the optimal nursing intensity level per unit. The PAONCIL instrument contains an overall assessment of the actual nursing intensity level and an additional list of central nonpatient factors that may increase or decrease the total nursing workload (NWL). The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess and determine which nonpatient factors affect nurses' experiences of their total NWL in both outpatient settings and hospitals, as captured through the PAONCIL instrument. The data material consisted of PAONCIL questionnaires from 38 units and 37 outpatient clinics at 11 strategically selected hospitals in Finland, and included nurses' answers (n = 1307) to the question of which factors, other than nursing intensity, affect total NWL. The methods for data analyses were qualitative content analyses. The nonpatient factors that affected nurses' experiences of total NWL are “organization of work,” “working conditions,” “self-control,” and “cooperation.” The actual list of nonpatient factors in the PAONCIL instrument is to a reasonable extent relevant, but the list should be improved to include nurses' actual working conditions and self-control. PMID:25050179

  18. Factors that affect reliability of nondestructive detection of flaws in structural ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, S. J.; Baaklini, G. Y.; Roth, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    The factors that affect reliability of nondestructive detection of flaws in structural ceramics by microfocus radiography and scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM) were investigated. Reliability of void detection in silicon nitride and silicon carbide by microfocus X-rays was affected by photon energy level, material chemistry in the immediate vicinity of the void, and the presence of loose powder aggregates inside the void cavity. The sensitivity of SLAM to voids was affected by material microstructure, the level of porosity, and the condition of the specimen surfaces. Statistical results are presented in the form of probability of detection as a function of void diameter for green compacts and sintered materials.

  19. Public, Catholic Single-Sex, and Catholic Coeducational High Schools: Their Effects on Achievement, Affect, and Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.

    1991-01-01

    Using data from the High School and Beyond survey, compares junior and senior year performance and other variables in Catholic single sex, Catholic coed, and public schools. Finds Catholic school students are urged to take more academically demanding courses; this accounts for public/Catholic differences in achievement and university attendance.…

  20. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (1999), 10, 278-291 Achieving Affective Impact: Visual Emotive Communication

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (1999), 10, 278-291 278 Achieving,version1-14Dec2007 Author manuscript, published in "International Journal of Artificial Intelligence-solving activities. INTRODUCTION Recent years have witnessed significant advances in intelligent multimedia

  1. Reviewing the Evidence on How Teacher Professional Development Affects Student Achievement. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 033

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Kwang Suk; Duncan, Teresa; Lee, Silvia Wen-Yu; Scarloss, Beth; Shapley, Kathy L.

    2007-01-01

    The Regional Educational Laboratory - Southwest (REL Southwest) conducted a systematic and comprehensive review of the research-based evidence on the effects of professional development (PD) on growth in student achievement in three core academic subjects (reading/ELA, mathematics, and science). The primary goal of this study was to address the…

  2. Practice Brief: Assessing Compensatory Strategies and Motivational Factors in High-Achieving Postsecondary Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Research speculates that high-achieving college students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may demonstrate a set of compensatory strategies and experience areas of difficulty and motivational factors that differ from the general ADHD populace. This Practice Brief used informal surveys with seven undergraduates with ADHD who had…

  3. Factors affecting the matriculation of African American undergraduate students in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Alfred L., II

    Previous research studies indicated that African Americans remain severely underrepresented in the field of science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SMET), making up only 3% of that workforce, while representing 11.1% of all professional and related workers and 12.6% of the general population. As this country moves towards a more culturally diverse population, then representation of African Americans in SMET-related fields must be addressed in order to ensure our nation's competitiveness in a global market. This research study analyzed characteristics of African American undergraduate SMET majors participating in the Alliance for Minority Participation (AMP) program in six different states located in the Southeast region of the United States. These states consisted of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina. AMP program participants completed a survey questionnaire, which collected information about potential factors that could affect their matriculation in SMET programs of studies at their respective institutions. Follow-up interviews and focus group sessions were also conducted with AMP participants to provide supplemental information to the survey data. The results of student responses were analyzed according to the type of institution the students attended (Historically Black College or University and Majority White Institution) as well as by the statewide Alliance program in which the students were involved. The students responded to survey questions that asked for their reasons for majoring in their field of study, their level of satisfaction with their institution, their impressions of student support programs and persons, their impressions of faculty and advisors, their reasons for thinking of switching majors, and their level of high school preparation. Statistical analyses of the student responses found that African American AMP students attending Historically Black Colleges and Universities differed from those attending Majority White Institutions in terms of their means for achieving future goals, their reasons for thinking of switching majors, their impressions of faculty and advisors, their beliefs that there was too much effort/stress involved in their major field, and their level of high school preparation and achievement. Further analyses determined that the five participating Alliances only differed in student opinions about the support provided by the AMP program/director.

  4. Analyzing the Factors Affecting the Success in University Entrance Examination through the use of Artificial Neural Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agdelen, Zafer; Haydar, Ali; Kanani, Andisheh

    2007-01-01

    There are many factors that affect the success of students in university entrance examination. These factors can be mainly categorized as follows; social factors, environmental factors, economical factors etc. The main aim of this study is to find whether there is a relation between these factors and the success in the university entrance…

  5. Factors affecting frequency and orbit utilization by high power transmission satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhns, P. W.; Miller, E. F.; Malley, T. A.

    1972-01-01

    The factors affecting the sharing of the geostationary orbit by high power (primarily television) satellite systems having the same or adjacent coverage areas and by satellites occupying the same orbit segment are examined and examples using the results of computer computations are given. The factors considered include: required protection ratio, receiver antenna patterns, relative transmitter power, transmitter antenna patterns, satellite grouping, and coverage pattern overlap. The results presented indicated the limits of system characteristics and orbit deployment which can result from mixing systems.

  6. Factors affecting frequency and orbit utilization by high power transmission satellite systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhns, P. W.; Miller, E. F.; O'Malley, T. A.

    1972-01-01

    The factors affecting the sharing of the geostationary orbit by high power (primarily television) satellite systems having the same or adjacent coverage areas and by satellites occupying the same orbit segment are examined and examples using the results of computer computations are given. The factors considered include: required protection ratio, receiver antenna patterns, relative transmitter power, transmitter antenna patterns, satellite grouping, and coverage pattern overlap. The results presented indicate the limits of system characteristics and orbit deployment which can result from mixing systems.

  7. Factors affecting frequency and orbit utilization by high power transmission satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhns, P. W.; Miller, E.; Malley, T. A.

    1972-01-01

    The factors affecting the sharing of the geostationary orbit by high power (primarily television) satellite systems having the same or adjacent coverage areas and by satellites occupying the same orbit segment are examined and examples using the results of computer computations are given. The factors considered include: required protection ratio, receiver antenna patterns, relative transmitter power, transmitter antenna patterns, satellite grouping, and coverage pattern overlap. The results presented indicate the limits of system characteristics and orbit deployment which can result from mixing systems.

  8. Human factors with nonhumans - Factors that affect computer-task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.

    1992-01-01

    There are two general strategies that may be employed for 'doing human factors research with nonhuman animals'. First, one may use the methods of traditional human factors investigations to examine the nonhuman animal-to-machine interface. Alternatively, one might use performance by nonhuman animals as a surrogate for or model of performance by a human operator. Each of these approaches is illustrated with data in the present review. Chronic ambient noise was found to have a significant but inconsequential effect on computer-task performance by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Additional data supported the generality of findings such as these to humans, showing that rhesus monkeys are appropriate models of human psychomotor performance. It is argued that ultimately the interface between comparative psychology and technology will depend on the coordinated use of both strategies of investigation.

  9. An analysis of the factors that influence achievement among Arican-American students

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Tiffany Oliphant

    2009-05-15

    not necessarily harmful to black children; great African- Americans such as Frederick Douglass, Booker T. Washington, and George Washington Carver had overcome more than just segregated schools to achieve what they achieved.? The judges agreed with the expert.... Frederick Douglass puts his thoughts in words: From that moment, I understood the pathway from slavery to freedom. It was just what I wanted, and I got it at a time when I least expected. Whilst I was saddened by the thought of losing the aid of my kind...

  10. Learning in basic electricity: how do motivation, cognitive and classroom climate factors influence achievement in physics?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph von Rhöneck; Karl Grob; Gerhard W. Schnaitmann; Bruno Völker

    1998-01-01

    The study of school learning cannot be reduced to cognitive aspects alone, because motivational factors, teaching methodology and other classroom?contextual factors exercise a significant influence. In this study we describe a school experiment in which the learning history of students is followed by the use of tests, and, at the same time, the psychological context of their learning is monitored

  11. Making the Grade in Undergraduate Biology Courses: Factors that Distinguish High and Low Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, Sherrie L.; And Others

    The factors that influence the performance of undergraduate students in introductory biology courses were studied, considering cognitive, metacognitive, and behavioral factors. From 612 participants volunteering, 52 consistent high performers and 57 consistent low performers were selected. Information was collected on their study habits,…

  12. Factors that Discriminate Best between Students Identified as Motivated or Not-Motivated to Achieve Academically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ahmad M.; Kanan, Hana M.; Al-Misnad, Sheikha A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined a host of variables the literature or focus groups showed to influence student motivation to achieve academically. Secondary school teachers in Doha, Qatar were asked to identify the five most and five least motivated students in their classrooms. They also were asked to estimate the degree of involvement the parents had in the…

  13. Computers and Traditional Teaching Practices: Factors Influencing Middle Level Students' Science Achievement and Attitudes about Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Arthur Louis; Marszalek, Jacob M.; Stoddard, Elizabeth R.; Wrobel, Jerzy M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of middle school student science achievement and attitudes toward science with student-reported frequency of using computers to learn science and other classroom practices. Baseline comparison data were collected on the frequency of student-centred teaching practices (e.g. the use of group…

  14. An Ecological Perspective on Cumulative School and Neighborhood Risk Factors Related to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whipple, Sara Sepanski; Evans, Gary W.; Barry, Rachel L.; Maxwell, Lorraine E.

    2010-01-01

    Most educational reform programs, including No Child Left Behind, operate from the perspective that gaps in academic achievement can be reduced by improvements in the educational process directed by school administrators and teachers. This perspective ignores the ecological context in which underachieving schools are typically embedded. Using a…

  15. Multiple metal accumulation as a factor in learning achievement within various New Orleans elementary school communities.

    PubMed

    Mielke, Howard W; Berry, Kenneth J; Mielke, Paul W; Powell, Eric T; Gonzales, Christopher R

    2005-01-01

    In New Orleans, the elementary school system is divided into attendance districts with established boundaries that define student enrollment among schools. This study concerns environmental quality as defined by amount of soil metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Mn, Cu, Co, Cr, and V) in attendance district elementary school communities (n = 111) paired with learning achievement as measured by individual test scores (n = 32,741) of students enrolled at each school. The Louisiana Educational Assessment Program (LEAP) 4th grade scores measure learning achievement for English language arts, social studies, mathematics, and science. The best fit between environmental quality and higher learning achievement is found to be inversely associated with the sum of the metals or multiple metal accumulations (MMA) in New Orleans communities. The P values for MMA partitions for ELA, SOC, MAT, and SCI are 0.57 x 10(-7), 0.29 x 10(-8), 0.41 x 10(-6), and 0.17 x 10(-8), respectively. Efforts to prevent childhood metal exposure should improve New Orleanians' learning achievement as measured by the LEAP scores and thereby enhance the socioeconomic situation in contaminated communities. This study establishes global relationships between LEAP scores in schools and soil metal concentrations in school neighborhoods. However, these data do not allow relating of the LEAP scores with metal levels for individual students. PMID:15476735

  16. Interpersonal Competence Configurations in Rural Appalachian Fifth Graders: Academic Achievement and Associated Adjustment Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Sgammato, Adrienne N.; Dadisman, Kimberly; Thompson, Jana H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined interpersonal competence configurations in a sample of 315 fifth-grade students (170 girls and 145 boys) from 8 elementary schools in the Appalachian region. Teachers completed the Interpersonal Competence Scale-Teacher (ICS-T) for each student. The ICS-T consists of 18 7-point Likert scales to assess academic achievement,…

  17. Factors that Influence Student Teacher's Interest to Achieve Educational Technology Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadijevich, Dj.; Haapasalo, Lenni

    2008-01-01

    Bearing in mind the importance of a transition from teacher-centred, lecture-based teaching to student-centred, technology-based learning, this study examined teachers' interest to achieve educational technology standards ("Interest") in terms of their computer attitude ("Attitude"), computer experience ("Experience") and the professional support…

  18. Classroom and School Factors Related to Student Achievement: What Works for Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teodorovic, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the classroom and school characteristics that are associated with student achievement in mathematics and Serbian language in primary schools in Serbia. The study sample consisted of 119 public primary schools, 253 classrooms, and 4,857 third-grade students. Variables from 3 past research paradigms--input-output,…

  19. The Contribution of TIMSS to the Link between School and Classroom Factors and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drent, Marjolein; Meelissen, Martina R. M.; van der Kleij, Fabienne M.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, the interest of policy-makers in participating in studies from the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), such as Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) has been growing rapidly over the past two decades. These studies offer the opportunity to relate the teaching and…

  20. Factors Distinguishing Most and Least Effective Schools in Terms of Reading Achievement: A Residual Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanastasiou, Constantinos

    2008-01-01

    This study was based on the Cyprus data from both the student questionnaire and the tests of the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), undertaken in 2001 under the auspices of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). The sample included 3,001 fourth-grade students from Cyprus, whose…