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Following past researches, student background, learning strategies, self-related cognitions in mathematics and school climate variables were important for achievement. The purpose of this study was to identify a number of factors that represent the relationship among sets of interrelated variables using principal component factor analysis and…
The relationship between vision and reading achievement is complex. In this paper, a number of terms relating to vision are defined and some of the limitations of specific measures of vision are discussed. In order to relate vision to reading, it is necessary to segment arbitrarily the continuous process of vision into a series of subsystems, or…
This dissertation contains three independently conducted studies on factors that affect the math achievement scores of preschool-aged children. The first study examined the associations between children's executive-functioning (EF) and math achievement scores at 54 months of age. Results suggest that EF is strongly associated with children's…
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of learning strategies on mathematics achievement. The sample was compiled from students who participated in Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in Turkey. The data consisted of 4493 15 years old Turkish students in 158 schools, and analyzed by two levels Bernoulli model as a…
This study investigated how affectivefactors like attitude and motivation contribute to science achievement in PISA 2006 using linear structural modeling. The data set of PISA 2006 collected from 4942 fifteen-year-old Turkish students (2290 females, 2652 males) was used for the statistical analyses. A total of 42 selected items on a four point…
This study examined the influences of secondary school experiences of high-achieving girls in math and science on their postsecondary career pursuits in science fields. Specifically, using the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), the study investigated how science class experiences in high school affect science career persistence of high-achieving girls over and above personal and family factors. Selecting the top 10% on the 8 th grade math and science achievement tests from two panel samples of 1988--1994 and 1988--2000, this study examined which science instructional experiences (i.e., lecture-oriented, experiment-oriented, and student-oriented) best predicted college major choices and postsecondary degree attainments in the fields of science after controlling for personal and family factors. A two-stage test was employed for the analysis of each panel sample. The first test examined the dichotomous career pursuits between science careers and non-science careers and the second test examined the dichotomous pursuits within science careers: "hard" science and "soft" science. Logistic regression procedures were used with consideration of panel weights and design effects. This study identified that experiment-oriented and student-oriented instructional practices seem to positively affect science career pursuits of high-achieving females, while lecture-oriented instruction negatively affected their science career pursuits, and that the longitudinal effects of the two positive instructional contributors to science career pursuits appear to be differential between major choice and degree attainment. This study also found that the influences of instructional practices seem to be slight for general females, while those for high-achieving females were highly considerable, regardless of whether negative or positive. Another result of the study found that only student-oriented instruction seemed to have positive effects for high-achieving males. In addition, this study found that the lecture-oriented and experiment-oriented instructional practices were more likely to contribute to the choice of soft sciences for general and high-achieving females, while student-oriented instructional practices were more likely to contribute to the degree attainment in hard sciences for high-achieving females in science. The results should provide information for educational policies regarding school instruction and curriculum and career development targeted towards improving gender equity in science career pursuits.
This study employed a mixed methods and mixed model research design to explore secondary science teachers' beliefs. Specifically, this study focused on factors that secondary science teachers believe affect student achievement in science, and the extent to which teacher beliefs transfer to teacher practice. This study is significant because the outcomes may inform professional development and policy decisions at the school, district, and provincial level. Results from self-reporting data of 82 secondary science teachers indicate that teacher beliefs in each of the fourteen topics surveyed (Classroom Management, Learning Styles, Inclusion, Equity, Science-Technology-Society (STS), Formative Assessment, Summative Assessment, Constructivism, Thematic Approach, Hands-On/Minds-On Activities, The Nature of Science, Science Subject Matter, Electronic Learning and Cooperative Learning) are positive for most Prince Edward Island (P.E.I.) secondary science teachers. Furthermore, secondary science teachers reported having strong beliefs in their ability to affect student learning (self-efficacy beliefs). However, it is apparent from the survey and interview data that teachers believe there are other influential factors that are preventing some students from learning despite the teachers' best efforts and ability. Regarding implementation, this study indicates that beliefs and the enactment of beliefs in classroom practice are positively correlated. The data also shows that at least seventy percent of teachers reported that they implement practices consistent with all but two topics -- The Nature of Science and Electronic Learning -- at least once a week. The findings of this study are discussed in the context of the P.E.I. secondary science setting. Limitations and implications of this study are also addressed.
This Information Capsule is the third in a series of papers addressing factors contributing to low academic achievement. The two previous papers addressed issues relevant to class size reduction and teacher quality/preparation. The premise of this Information Capsule is that there is no single smoking gun relative to improving school performance.…
The aims of the present study were to investigate (1) the risk factors that influence the achievement of reproductive targets postpartum (pp) and (2) the key factors that influence pregnancy rate following first artificial insemination (AI) in dairy cows. Ninety-eight Holstein-Friesian pp cows were blood sampled from wk 1 to 4 pp for hematology and biochemistry. Reproductive tract health was assessed weekly by ultrasonography and vaginal mucus scoring. Body condition score (BCS), lameness score, and milk yield were assessed every 2 wk. Milk samples for progesterone assay were collected twice weekly and on d 4, 5, and 7 after AI. Risk factors associated with achieving reproductive targets depended on (1) increased metabolic activity of the liver (increased glutamate dehydrogenase at calving and increased ?-glutamyl transpeptidase in wk 4), (2) a competent immune system (increased neutrophils in wk 1; decreased ?1-acid glycoprotein in wk 1, 2, and 3), (3) an endocrine system that was capable of responding by producing sufficient triiodothyronine in wk 2 and increased insulin-like growth factor I in wk 3 and 4, (4) a lower negative energy balance status (decreased nonesterified fatty acid concentration in wk 1; decreased ?-hydroxybutyrate concentration in wk 2; BCS loss between calving and d 28 pp <0.5), (5) good reproductive tract health [normal uterine scan at d 45 pp; clear vaginal mucus discharge at first ovulation and at d 45 pp; resumed ovarian cyclicity by the end of the voluntary waiting period (?d 35 pp)], and (6) adequate diet (to ensure increased glutathione peroxidase in wk 2 and 3 and increased magnesium in wk 4). Risk factors that increased the odds of a successful first AI were previous ovulation(s) (odds ratio=3.17 per ovulation), BCS >2.5 at AI (odds ratio=3.01), and clear vaginal mucus (score=0) compared with purulent mucus (score >0) 4 d after first AI (odds ratio=2.99). In conclusion, this study identified key risk factors in the early pp period that give a higher probability of cows achieving their reproductive targets and of having a first-AI pregnancy. PMID:24679929
Aungier, S P M; Roche, J F; Diskin, M G; Crowe, M A
In this study, we investigated factors related to students' performance on the ACT. We examined how students' background characteristics, academic achievement in high school, education-related accomplishments and activities, and perceptions of self and others affect their ACT scores. Of particular interest were the direct and indirect effects of…
Noble, Julie P.; Roberts, William L.; Sawyer, Richard L.
The purpose of the present study is two-fold. First, the present study examines statistical similarity between the integrative and instrumental orientation and Self-Determination Theory subtypes of motivation using chi-square invariance test. Second, based on the results of the chi-square invariance test, the present study further investigates the structural relationships among factorsaffecting second language achievement. Results of the chi-square invariance
This study was a follow-up of a three year longitudinal study of factorsaffecting learning to read. It examined the efficacy of four different approaches to beginning reading instruction on subsequent reading achievement in grade four. Major purposes were to determine what effect maturation and exposure to a non-experimental typical grade four…
The reliability, validity, and relationships of a Spanish language adaptation of Schaefer's Child's Report of Parental Behavior Inventory (CRPBI) was examined in a sample of 5,300 Puerto Rican adolescents. It was found that the CRPBI had had reliabilities averaging .78 and factor analyses indicated a three factor structure similar to Schaefer's…
Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds.
This article reports on the personal beliefs and attitudes of highly motivated Hong Kong school-age subjects who studied music. A total of 24 participants who demonstrated high achievement and interest in learning music were interviewed. Content analysis of the interview data was performed to elucidate four topics: background information about the…
This study investigated the effects of college students' actual, rather than manipulated, perception of control along with expressive instruction, as they relate to cognitive and emotional aspects of academic achievement. In a simulated college classroom study, 228 male and female introductory psychology students at the University of Manitoba…
Background: The achieve uses 7 variables: ability; clarity; help; incentive; evaluation; validity; and environment, to provide leaders and staffs with the necessary tools to improve performance, and help managers to determine cause of performance problem. And create change strategy for solving those problems. We try to determine factorsaffecting the performance of nurses, base on this model in selected hospital of Isfahan (Iran). Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive-correlation survey. The population of study was 85 nurses of 9 hospitals in Esfahan. Data gathering was done via achieve questionnaire. Reliability was calculated by Cronbach's alpha (r = 0.85). Data analysis was done by using SPSS 16. Result: The ability and help variables were the most important factors in improving performance of nurses and validity and evaluation were less important. Conclution: Today, staff effectiveness is one of the important problems in health care organization. In fact, performance improvement is the most important step for organization improvement.
Data from 2,866 fourth-seventh graders and 631 teachers were used to compare 15 St. Louis schools designated as community education centers (CEC) with 15 others. No significant differences in achievement, cognitive ability, or learning motivation were found. CECs' outreach and social services did not seem to affectachievement. (Technical data on…
Nance, Everette E.; Moore, Debra H.; Lewis, Cornelius F.
Variables expected to be associated with academic achievement were examined in a sample (generally exceeding 2500) from eight secondary schools in Baymon Norte, Puerto Rico. Concern was whether variables associated with academic achievement differed by sex or by socioeconomic status (SES). Multivariate analyses of variance with three factors of…
Empirical analysis of peer effects on student achievement has been open to question because of the difficulties of separating peer effects from other confounding influences. While most econometric attention has been directed at issues of simultaneous determination of peer interactions, this paper argues that issues of omitted and mismeasured…
Hanushek, Eric A.; Kain, John F.; Markman, Jacob M.; Rivkin, Steven G.
This article addresses the factors that affect students' retention at Kuwait University. Five hundred seventy students participated in the study. A survey of 22 retention factors was designed to measure student perceptions. Students presented their agreement on factors which included: achieving personal aspiration, getting jobs, free-of-charge…
The major factors influencing tanker safety are discussed. For the discussion information has been gleaned from maritime labour officials, industry experts and a recent United States Coast Guard study on tanker safety. Results of other tanker safety studies and\\/or accident reports are also utilized. Some of the factors analysed are the size and age of vessel, licence qualifications for mates
This Memorandum describes experiments which sought to identify the factors that contribute to coding errors. The experiments used code-stimulus materials: numeric codes, consisting only of numbers; alpha codes, consisting only of letters; alpha-numeric co...
Reports a study examining the relationship between affect and achievement for grade eight students in Australia (n=390). It was found that affect is related more strongly to previous than subsequent achievement and that much of the common variance can be attributed to students' perceptions of their competence in science. (PR)
The relationship between affect and achievement in science was examined in two stages. First, a model was developed and tested for science-related affect, the complex of students' attitudes toward, interests in, and perceptions about science at school. The LISREL approach to path analysis was used to demonstrate the fit of the model to data collected from grade 8 students in two different schools on two different occasions. In the second stage of the research, multiple linear regression was used to examine the direction of the relationship between science related affect and achievement and to apportion variance common between previous and subsequent achievement and the components of science-related affect. It was found that affect is related more strongly to previous than subsequent achievement and that much of the common variance can be attributed to students' perceptions of their competence in science.
Introduction: This paper reports a preliminary investigation of the individual and situational factorsaffecting goal achievement in a psychology student population. The impact of normative information on goal achievement is considered in relation to goal commitment, optimism, gender and academic setting. Method: Psychology students (n=121) from…
Derrer-Rendall, Nicola; Wesson, Caroline; Anderson, Lindsey; Bould, Emma
Data drawn from the Arizona statewide testing program were used to relate selected factors to third-grade reading achievement in a representative sample of 50 school districts. Analyses of scores on the Metropolitan Achievement Test indicated that reading scores were positively related to the average market value of single residences within the…
The paper presents a survey among 300 employees in Northern Italy to assess the willingness to mentor and identify the factors that affect it. Men and respondents with previous mentoring experience indicate a higher willingness to be a mentor. Willingness is affected by personal characteristics that are perceived as necessary for a mentor and the…
Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Quaglino, Gian Piero
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine what factors contributed to three universities achieving environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A case study methodology was used to determine how each factor contributed to the institutions' sustainability. Site visits, fieldwork, document reviews, and interviews with…
In the semi-arid tropics worldwide, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is cultivated by farmers on a subsistence level and consumed as food by humans. A nutritional limitation to its use is the poor digestibility of sorghum protein when wet cooked. The factorsaffecting wet cooked sorghum protein digestibility may be categorised into two main groups: exogenous factors (grain organisational structure,
K. G Duodu; J. R. N Taylor; P. S Belton; B. R Hamaker
Fluorescein's property of fluorescence is reviewed. Of the many factors which affect its fluorescence, concentration is probably the most important and it best explains why leaking aqueous turns fluorescein bright green during Seidel's test. The intensity and pattern of fluorescein staining of corneal lesions is probably due to the concentration and distribution of fluorescein in the cornea. The concentration of fluorescein achieved in the retinal blood vessels during fluorescein angiography affects its fluorescence. PMID:7046118
The present study investigated the influence of sex, handedness, level in second language (L2) and Faculty choice on the performance of phonological, syntactical and semantic tasks in L2. Level in L2 and sex were the most affectingfactors. Subjects who achieved higher scores on L2 tasks had strong second language aptitude skills since they were…
The present study investigated the influence of sex, handedness, level in second langua ge (L2) and Faculty choice on the performance of phonological, syntactical and semantic tasks in L2. Level in L2 and sex were the most affectingfactors. Subjects who achieved higher scores on L2 tasks had strong second language aptitude skills since they were those who had obtained
This paper identifies individual and institutional factors which have facilitated or inhibited the achievement of successful black farmers. The information derived from the case studies is used to develop a model which can be used in working effectively with black farmers. The thirteen case studies discussed focus on the following: (1) reasons for…
Multiple research studies have been conducted that focus on various uses of collaborative learning in and out of the classroom in higher education institutions. The purpose of this article is to review previously published literature regarding group composition and how it affects student interaction and achievement. Group composition research has…
Lei, Simon A.; Kuestermeyer, Bailey N.; Westmeyer, Kara A.
This paper considers affective interactions to achieve empathic en- gagement with synthetic characters in virtual learning environments, in order to support and induce the expression of empathy in children. The paper presents FearNot!, a school based virtual learning environment, populated by synthetic characters used for personal, social and health education, specifically bullying issues in schools. An empirical study of 345
Lynne E. Hall; Sarah Woods; Ruth Aylett; Lynne Newall; Ana Paiva
Among many challenges to achieving and maintaining glycemic control, the impact of pharmacologic agents on glycemia is a significant,\\u000a but often overlooked factor. Numerous medications have been implicated in the development of drug-induced hyperglycemia and\\u000a type 2 diabetes mellitus. Of these, the atypical antipsychotics (for the management of depression and psychosis), the protease-inhibitor\\u000a anti retroviral agents (for the management of
While many epidemiological studies have associated the consumption of polyphenols within fruits and vegetables with a decreased risk of developing several chronic diseases, intervention studies have generally not confirmed these beneficial effects. The reasons for this discrepancy are not fully understood but include potential differences in dosing, interaction with the food matrix, and differences in polyphenol bioavailability. In addition to endogenous factors such as microbiota and digestive enzymes, the food matrix can also considerably affect bioaccessibility, uptake, and further metabolism of polyphenols. While dietary fiber (such as hemicellulose), divalent minerals, and viscous and protein-rich meals are likely to cause detrimental effects on polyphenol bioaccessibility, digestible carbohydrates, dietary lipids (especially for hydrophobic polyphenols, e.g., curcumin), and additional antioxidants may enhance polyphenol availability. Following epithelial uptake, polyphenols such as flavonoids may reduce phase II metabolism and excretion, enhancing polyphenol bioavailability. Furthermore, polyphenols may act synergistically due to their influence on efflux transporters such as p-glycoprotein. In order to understand polyphenol bioactivity, increased knowledge of the factorsaffecting polyphenol bioavailability, including dietary factors, is paramount. PMID:24828476
For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.
The main aim of this study was to examine twin specific risk factors that influence educational achievement in primary school. We included prenatal factors that are not unique to twins, except for zygosity, but show a higher prevalence in twins than in singletons. In addition, educational achievement was compared between twins and their nontwin siblings in a within-family design. Data were obtained from parents and teachers of approximately 10,000 twins and their nontwin siblings registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. Teachers rated the proficiency of the children on arithmetic, language, reading, and physical education, and reported a national educational achievement test score (CITO). Structural equation modeling showed that gestational age, birth weight, and sex were significant predictors of educational achievement, even after correction for socioeconomic status. Mode of delivery and zygosity did not have an effect, while parental age only influenced arithmetic. Mode of conception, incubator time, and birth complications negatively affectedachievement in physical education. The comparison of educational achievement of twins and singletons showed significantly lower ratings on arithmetic, reading, and language in twins, compared to their older siblings, but not compared to their younger siblings. Low gestational age and low birth weight were the most important risk factors for lower educational achievement of twins in primary school. It seems that the differences observed between twins and their nontwin siblings in educational achievement can largely be explained by birth order within the family. PMID:22784460
de Zeeuw, Eveline L; van Beijsterveldt, Catherina E M; de Geus, Eco J C; Boomsma, Dorret I
This Classroom Connectors lesson plan discusses factorsaffecting the weather on Earth. Students learn about solar radiation, wind circulation, precipitation, and biomes that result from weather patterns. The site provides goals, objectives, an outline, time required, materials, activities, and closure ideas for the lesson. The Classroom Connectors address content with an activity approach while incorporating themes necessary to raise the activity to a higher cognition level. The major motivation is to employ instructional strategies that bring the students physically and mentally into touch with the science they are studying.
? Several studies have noted that increasing age is a significant factor for diminished rotator cuff healing, while biomechanical studies have suggested the reason for this may be an inferior healing environment in older patients.? Larger tears and fatty infiltration or atrophy negatively affect rotator cuff healing.? Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, double-row repairs, performing a concomitant acromioplasty, and the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) do not demonstrate an improvement in structural healing over mini-open rotator cuff repairs, single-row repairs, not performing an acromioplasty, or not using PRP.? There is conflicting evidence to support postoperative rehabilitation protocols using early motion over immobilization following rotator cuff repair. PMID:24806015
Mall, Nathan A; Tanaka, Miho J; Choi, Luke S; Paletta, George A
How do proficiency-based accountability systems affect inequality in academic achievement? This article reconciles mixed findings in the literature by demonstrating that three factors jointly determine accountability's impact. First, by analyzing student-level data from a large urban school district, we find that when educators face…
It is known that there are many factorsaffecting students' problem-solving abilities. In this study, the influence of seventh-grade students' affectivefactors, their academic success, their gender and their families' educational levels on their problem-solving achievement was examined. To achieve this aim, a Problem-Solving Attitude Scale, a…
The factorial validity of the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills was investigated. Hierarchical factor analysis was performed with a subset of the standardization data to explore the presence of second-order group factors. Results supported the construct validity of Language and Mathematics subscales. Verbal and Visual Information group factors were…
Specific demographic attributes that influence salary at institutions of higher education were studied through data from 420 faculty members at 9 institutions. Results suggested that experience, publication rates, time at the institution, and possession of a terminal degree affected salary levels. The presence of salary compression was noted. (SLD)
The simplest model of iron absorption must consider (1) the mucosal uptake of dietary iron and (2) the transfer of iron from intestinal cells into the body. It provides three anatomic locations for studying regulatory factors: (a) intraluminal, (b) duoden...
The most recent Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) (2009) mathematical literacy results provide evidence that in Western English-speaking countries, including Australia, the gender gap in achievement appears to be widening in favour of males. In the study reported in this article, the aim was to explore the effects of gender,…
This study identifies the internal and external factors which differentiate women who enter male-traditional vocational training programs from those who enter female-traditional programs. Data were collected from 470 women enrolled in California vocational training programs. The sample was stratified on both social class and type of vocational…
Historically, the relationship between student academic achievement and use of computers for fun and video gaming has been described from a multitude of perspectives, from positive, to negative, to neutral. However, recent research has indicated that computer use and video gaming may be positively associated with achievement, yet these studies…
Software faults that infrequently affect software's output are dangerous. When a software fault causes frequent software failures, testing is likely to reveal the fault before the software is releases; when the fault remains undetected during testing, it can cause disaster after the software is installed. A technique for predicting whether a particular piece of software is likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is found in [Voas91b]. A piece of software that is likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is said to have high testability. A piece of software that is not likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is said to have low testability. It is preferable to design software with higher testabilities from the outset, i.e., create software with as high of a degree of testability as possible to avoid the problems of having undetected faults that are associated with low testability. Information loss is a phenomenon that occurs during program execution that increases the likelihood that a fault will remain undetected. In this paper, I identify two brad classes of information loss, define them, and suggest ways of predicting the potential for information loss to occur. We do this in order to decrease the likelihood that faults will remain undetected during testing.
Data of the Pakistan Contraceptive Prevalence Survey of 1984-85 were used to determine whether there are any differentials in fertility levels by age at marriage, educational level, work status, region of residence (province), and place of residence (urban or rural) in Pakistan. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses examined the effects of these factors on fertility. The technique of Multiple Classification Analysis (MCA) was used to determine the net effect of each factor. Among the predictors, age at marriage was the most significant variable, followed by the husband's education, woman's education, husband's occupation, woman's work status, region, and place of residence. Among the demographic variables, age and age at marriage were the most important determinants of fertility. Among the socioeconomic variables, the educational level of both husband and wife were important determinants of cumulative fertility. Age at marriage was inversely related to fertility. The mean number of children ever born was 5.1 for those who married below age 16 vs. 4.1 for age at marriage 16-19, and 3.6 for 20-24. In the multivariate analysis the effect of age at marriage was the strongest as a predictor. Education had a negative effect on fertility. The mean number of children ever born to women with no education was 4.5; to women with primary education, 3.6; to women with secondary education, 3.2; and to women with tertiary education, 2.3. Women working as salaried employees had higher fertility (5.0) compared to women working in family business or at home (4.2). Women whose husbands worked as salaried employees had comparatively lower fertility than those whose husbands were working in their own business or in agriculture. The region of residence did not yield wide differentials. Furthermore, place of residence did not reveal any significant difference in fertility. The mean number of children was marginally higher among urban women (4.4) compared to their rural counterparts (4.2), indicating that the fertility transition has not started yet. PMID:12346202
A detectable extraterrestrial civilization can be modeled as a series of successive regimes over time each of which is detectable for a certain proportion of its lifecycle. This methodology can be utilized to produce an estimate for L. Potential components of L include quantity of fossil fuel reserves, solar energy potential, quantity of regimes over time, lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and downtime between regimes. Relationships between these components provide a means of calculating the lifetime of communicative species in a detectable state, L. An example of how these factors interact is provided, utilizing values that are reasonable given known astronomical data for components such as solar energy potential while existing knowledge about the terrestrial case is used as a baseline for other components including fossil fuel reserves, quantity of regimes over time, and lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and gaps of time between regimes due to recovery from catastrophic war or resource exhaustion. A range of values is calculated for L when parameters are established for each component so as to determine the lowest and highest values of L. roadmap for SETI research at the SETI Institute for the next few decades. Three different approaches were identified. 1) Continue the radio search: build an affordable array incorporating consumer market technologies, expand the search frequency, and increase the target list to 100,000 stars. This array will also serve as a technology demonstration and enable the international radio astronomy community to realize an array that is a hundred times larger and capable (among other things) of searching a million stars. 2) Begin searches for very fast optical pulses from a million stars. 3) As Moore's Law delivers increased computational capacity, build an omni-directional sky survey array capable of detecting strong, transient, radio signals from billions of stars. SETI could succeed tomorrow, or it may be an endeavor for multiple generations. We are a very young technology in a very old galaxy. While our own leakage radiation continues to outshine the Sun at many frequencies, we remain detectable to others. When our use of the spectrum becomes more efficient, it will be time to consider deliberate transmissions and the really tough questions: Who will speak for Earth? What will they say?
In an era dominated by issues of school finance adequacy, it seems particularly important to provide evidence that, despite a number of claims to the contrary, educational resources are indeed positively related to improved student achievement. One of the hypotheses of this article is that expenditures per pupil must be disaggregated into more…
Background: Training provided in medical faculties is mainly composed of two phases: preclinical and clinical. Preclinical period, or the first three years, consists of theoretical classes and practical implementations to develop vocational skills. In the clinical period, students are given applied courses. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the role of demographic characteristics and medical students’ life habits on their academic achievement. Patients and Methods: For this purpose, a 20-item survey form with two sections developed by the researchers was used. Students were also asked to identify the averages of committee exams as the academic achievement indicator. Participating students (n = 287) were from Mersin University Medical Faculty during 2012-2013 session. Results: Totally, 60.3% of the students were males with an average age of 21.16 ± 1.39, and their general grade point average was 63.39 ± 9.08. Students in their second year (P = 0.000), who were females (P = 0.000), graduated from Anatolian Teachers High Schools (P = 0.002), financially well off (P = 0.026), stayed in state hostels (P = 0.032), did not smoke (P = 0.042) and regularly did sports (P = 0.016) were significantly more successful compared to others. Conclusions: Students’ socioeconomic resources and habits play roles on academic achievement. Solutions that incorporate economic support which can eliminate negative situations leading to inequality of opportunity among students would increase students' achievement.
This document, intended for pilot education and flight safety specialists, consists chiefly of a review of the literature on physiological factors that affect pilot education and an examination of environmental factors that should be scrutinized in order to improve the effectiveness of aviation learning facilities. The physiological factors…
This study was conducted to examine the differences in high school biology achievement and student affect towards teacher and content from the use of individualized correctives as part of mastery learning. An experimental pretest-posttest with control group design was used during the fall 2011 semester. Over a thirteen-week period, 99 students in five general-level biology classes received mastery learning instruction covering several state standards. Of the 99 students, 50 received individualized correctives based on the results of formative assessment. The other 49 students received a non-individualized study guide after the formative assessment. A written summative examination was used to measure achievement. The Instructional Affect Assessment Instrument (IAAI) was used to measure student affect. The written summative evaluation and the IAAI were administered as a pretest to assure the independence of the covariate and treatment effect. Data were analyzed with a multivariate repeated measures test and ANCOVAs. No differences were found between the individualized corrective group and the general study guide group in terms of achievement or student affect toward content or teacher. Results indicate that individualized correctives were not the key factor in mastery learning for this population and type of science content. Further study on the impact of individualized correctives in different subject areas and populations is recommended as well as additional research on the effect of repeated testing.
Individual learners' affectivefactors are very important for foreign language learning. In China foreign language learning mainly happens in the classroom. Foreign language teachers are the organizers and carriers of language classes, and thus they inevitably influence the students' affection. This study explores how EFL teachers influence…
Opening paragraph: Tidal and nontidal wetlands in the Chesapeake Bay watershed provide vital hydrologic, water-quality, and ecological functions. Situated at the interface of land and water, these valuable habitats are vulnerable to alteration and loss by human activities including direct conversion to non-wetland habitat by dredge-and-fill activities from land development, and to the effects of excessive nutrients, altered hydrology and runoff, contaminants, prescribed fire management, and invasive species. Processes such as sea-level rise and climate change also impact wetlands. Although local, State, and Federal regulations provide for protection of wetland resources, the conversion and loss of wetland habitats continue in the Bay watershed. Given the critical values of wetlands, the Chesapeake 2000 Agreement has a goal to achieve a net gain in wetlands by restoring 25,000 acres of tidal and nontidal wetlands by 2010. The USGS has synthesized findings on three topics: (1) sea-level rise and wetland loss, (2) wetland restoration, and (3) factorsaffecting wetland diversity.
The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factorsaffecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…
Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…
Factorsaffecting the synthesis of 48Ca in stellar environments are discussed. These factors include the entropy of the matter which is being processed and the neutron richness of the matter. The production of 48Ca depends highly on the entropy of the expanding matter. High entropy environments produce little 48Ca, while low entropy environments produce abundant 48Ca. This suggests that Type
Purpose - To explore the factors that affect the implementation of Internet technologies and to what extent the size of the company, as an organizational factor, influences that process. Design\\/methodology\\/approach - According to the innovation adoption theory, it was found that Internet adoption in firms is a process with different stages where a company is in one of a number
This paper addresses the performance of force-reflecting interfaces (“haptic displays”). The authors suggest that an important measure of performance is the dynamic range of achievable impedances-“Z-Width”-and that an impedance is achievable if it satisfies a robustness property such as passivity. Several factorsaffecting Z-Width-sample-and-hold, inherent interface dynamics, displacement sensor quantization, and velocity filtering-are discussed. A set of experiments designed to
A study of trainees (n=88) in a competency-based occupational safety and health training program found that environmental factors (opportunities to use skills, peer/supervisor support, and supervisor sanctions) were most influential on motivation to transfer training. Training attitudes may be affected by prior experiences when the use of training…
Seyler, Dian L.; Holton, Elwood F., III; Bates, Reid A.; Burnett, Michael F.; Carvalho, Manuel A.
The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…
Factorsaffecting the free writing speed of 11-year-old students were investigated using the Group and Individual Assessment of Handwriting Speed. Intelligence, gender, legibility and whether the student has special educational needs or speaks English as an additional language were all found to impact on writing speed to a significant extent. In…
Ferrier, Jonathan; Horne, Joanna; Singleton, Chris
This study investigated what and how preschool children view children's television programs, with a focus on cultural and ecological factors which might affect their visual attention and the nature of their immediate recall of content. The secondary task method (in which an individual is required to perform two tasks simultaneously) was applied to…
This study was undertaken in a single school district to determine if variation in reading achievement levels was related to some social factors. The social factors analyzed included student IQ, student socioeconomic status (SES), teacher SES, school SES, and school classroom SES. Data was culled from the personal records of 1,522 students.…
The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research to identify, by satellite imagery, parameters of the environment affecting health on Earth. Thus, we suggest expanding the application of space technology to preventive medicine, as a new field in the peaceful uses of outer space. The scope of the study includes all parts of the environment, natural and man-made, and all kinds of protection of life: human, animal and vegetation health. The general objective is to consider and classify those factors, detectable from space, that affect or are relevant to health and may be found in the air, water, sea, soil, land, vegetation, as well as those linked to climate, industry, energy production, development works, irrigation systems, and human settlements. The special objective is the classification of environmental factors detectable from space, that are linked to communicable or chronic endemic diseases or health problems. The method of identifying the factorsaffecting health was the parallel study of environmental epidemiological and biological parameters. The role of environmental factors common to both human and animal populations is discussed. Conclusive findings are formulated and possible applications, both scientific and practical, in other sectors are also discussed.
In an era of spiraling health care costs and limited resources, policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the cost effectiveness of antibiotics. The aim of this study is to draw on published economic evaluations with a view to identify and illustrate the factorsaffecting the cost effectiveness of antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections. The findings indicate that the cost effectiveness of antibiotics is influenced by factors relating to the characteristics and the use of antibiotics (i.e., diagnosis, comparative costs and comparative effectiveness, resistance, patient compliance with treatment, and treatment failure) and by external factors (i.e., funding source, clinical pharmacy interventions, and guideline implementation interventions). Physicians need to take into account these factors when prescribing an antibiotic and assess whether a specific antibiotic treatment adds sufficient value to justify its costs.
In an era of spiraling health care costs and limited resources, policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the cost effectiveness of antibiotics. The aim of this study is to draw on published economic evaluations with a view to identify and illustrate the factorsaffecting the cost effectiveness of antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections. The findings indicate that the cost effectiveness of antibiotics is influenced by factors relating to the characteristics and the use of antibiotics (i.e., diagnosis, comparative costs and comparative effectiveness, resistance, patient compliance with treatment, and treatment failure) and by external factors (i.e., funding source, clinical pharmacy interventions, and guideline implementation interventions). Physicians need to take into account these factors when prescribing an antibiotic and assess whether a specific antibiotic treatment adds sufficient value to justify its costs. PMID:22312550
The primary goals of this dissertation were to determine the relationships between interpersonal teaching behaviors and student achievement and affective learning outcomes. The instrument used to collect student perceptions of teacher interpersonal teaching behaviors was the Questionnaire on Teacher Interactions (QTI). The instrument used to assess student affective learning outcomes was the Biology Student Affective Instrument (BSAI). The interpersonal teaching
The funds available for the health services at present are not sufficient. When assessing their desirable volume, we must consider a number of factors which influence the needs of financial means. This comprises direct and indirect action, in different spheres and direction and of different intensity. Different factors are not quantifiable to the same extent; some can be expressed only verbally. The resultant of their action which may have the same trend (then the effects add) or have an opposite trend (then the effects cancel out), is then the concrete pressure which in a concrete situation affects the concrete need of financial means. A team of specialists will have to study the identification of factors and assess the assumed forces of their action. PMID:2123749
Understanding student performance in Algebra I is important because this course serves as the gateway to advanced coursework in mathematics and science through the remainder of high school and into post-secondary education. In the current study, we analyzed secondary data to evaluate the relationship between selected indicators of mathematics and the Algebra I performance of academically able and gifted learners
Because of increasing student enrollment, a new school was formed in a small low-income Southern California school district. Teachers could choose to transfer to the new school or remain at the existing school. Over five years, quantitative analyses of demographic data showed little differences between the two schools across the years except for a…
This study investigated factors that affect student attrition for 151 students in a practical nursing program. The academic variables studied were scores on preadmission tests and grades in required prerequisite courses. The demographic variables included age, gender, and race. The analysis of the data obtained from student records revealed a statistically significant difference between the retention and attrition student groups for the variables of race, preadmission test scores, and prerequisite course grades. Recommendations for a retention program to reduce attrition were made based on the findings of this study. PMID:18792710
The aim of this study was to identify factors that interfere with the sleep quality of patients admitted to a university hospital in a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. This was an exploratory, cross sectional study using non-probability sampling. Participants were 117 patients (59% men, mean age 48.0 years, standard deviation 16.9) hospitalized for at least 72 hours in stable clinical condition. The data were collected with an identification questionnaire and the FactorsAffecting Sleep Quality (FASQ) questionnaire. Data processing was performed with descriptive statistics; each item of the FASQ underwent a test and a retest. The factors most often reported were waking up early (55.6%), disrupted sleep (52.1%), excessive lighting (34.2%), receipt of care by nursing staff (33.3%) and organic disorders such as pain and fatigue (26.5%). It is suggested that nurses should plan interventions to modify factors that require intense noise and lighting at night in order to reduce disruption and, consequently, sleep deprivation among patients. PMID:23515802
Although students' affects and behaviors in achievement situations have been shown to be influenced by their previous learning experiences, less is known about how they relate to students' dispositional characteristics, such as temperament. This study examined to what extent children's temperament is related to their affective and behavioral…
The present study sought to explore Weiner's model of attribution-affect linkage using nondichotomized measures of both objective and subjective success, in a real achievement context. Contrary to expectation, attributional internality related more strongly to objective than to perceived success on three course examinations. Affectivity, as expected, related significantly more strongly to subjective success. Attribution-affect linkage accounted for relatively small amounts of variance in both types of outcome. However, Weiner's concept of "outcome-dependent, attribution-independent" affects was supported covarying with more specific self-worth affects. The concept of "hedonic bias" and concomitant positive affect was supported here, but the lack of a uniform group trend towards self-enhancing attributions highlights the necessity of considering individual differences in achievement behavior. PMID:2377718
This research analyzed the factor structure at both the item- and subtest-level of California's norm- and criterion-referenced standardized educational achievement tests (SEAT) used in that state's high-stakes educational accountability assessments. It was shown through full information factor analysis and multidimensional IRT models (e.g., TESTFACT and NOHARM) that, at the item-level, SEATs are invariably highly unidimensional (i.e., they appear to tap a unidimensional theta scale) even when items representing such diverse content areas such as English, science, mathematics, and history are analyzed simultaneously as a single measure. These item-level factors also accounted for a relatively small proportion (1/4 to 1/3) of the variance. It was also shown that, when these tests are analyzed using more reliable indicators such as subtests, a much richer factor structure emerged that accounted for a larger portion (about 2/3) of the total common variance. As expected, these factor structure configurations (and underlying dimensionality) were preserved across the item- and subtest-levels. However, the factors emerging from both the item- and subtest-level analyses were highly correlated and produced strong second-order and general factors. The meaning underlying these results was examined, along with their implications with respect to the assumptions underlying modern approaches to test calibration, scaling, and score interpretation. PMID:21164227
Gaffney, Tim W; Cudeck, Robert; Ferrer, Emilio; Widaman, Keith F
A series of exploratory tests were conducted to investigate the effects of advanced display formats and display media on pilot scanning behavior using Langley's oculometer, a desktop flight simulator, a conventional electro-mechanical meter, and various digital displays. The primary task was for the test subject to maintain level flight, on a specific course heading, during moderate turbulence. A secondary task of manually controlling the readout of a display was used to examine the effects of the display format on a subject's scan behavior. Secondary task scan parameters that were evaluated were average dwell time, dwell time histograms, and number of dwells per meter change. The round dial meter demonstrated shorter dwell times and fewer dwells per meter change than the digital displays. The following factorsaffected digital display scanning behavior: (1) the number of digits; (2) the update rate of the digits; (3) the display media; and (4) the character font. The size of the digits used in these tests (0.28 to 0.50 inches) did not affect scan behavior measures.
Oncological and functional prognostic factors for patients with foot sarcomas have yet to be clarified. This study was undertaken to identify the prognostic factors for oncological and functional outcomes and the significance of adjuvant radiotherapy in achieving local control in patients with foot sarcomas. We reviewed 31 consecutive patients with soft tissue (24), and bone (7) sarcomas arising in the foot and analyzed the impact of patient characteristics on the functional and oncological outcomes. There were seven cases with clear cell or epithelioid sarcomas. Two of the 31 cases experienced local recurrence despite the fact that only two cases received adjuvant radiotherapy. Sixteen out of 18 cases of soft tissue sarcomas with limb salvage surgery underwent reconstructive procedures for soft tissue defects. Amputation required as a surgical treatment (p=0.002) was a poor prognostic factor. Larger size (p=0.029) and bone reconstruction (p=0.018) were poor prognostic factors for local recurrence-free survival, and amputation (p=0.001) and bone reconstruction (p=0.008) for metastasis-free survival in patients with soft tissue sarcomas. No significant factors were derived in patients with bone sarcomas. Larger size (p=0.021), amputation (p=0.016) and bone reconstruction (p=0.03) were poor prognostic factorsaffecting function in patients with soft tissue sarcomas, and hindfoot site (p=0.028) and amputation (p=0.028) were poor prognostic factorsaffecting function in patients with bone sarcomas. Surgery with a negative operative margin and reconstructive procedures achieved good local control and function. Patients that had tumors with larger size, necessitating amputation or bone reconstruction, required novel multimodal treatment in order to improve their outcomes.
The current study examined the association between dimensions of perfectionism and levels of academic achievement and affect in school-aged children. A sample of 223 students (90 boys, 133 girls) from regular, gifted, and arts programs completed measures of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism, perceived academic competence, and measures of affect (i.e., happiness, sadness, and fear). Participants were in Grade 4
Deborah Stornelli; Gordon L. Flett; Paul L. Hewitt
Researchers who examine the link between high school achievement and educational outcomes include measures of achievement that conflate high school effects with achievement effects established prior to high school. Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study, this article disaggregates achievement into achievement prior to high…
Introduction The software industry has had significant progress in recent years. The entire life of software includes two phases: production and maintenance. Software maintenance cost is increasingly growing and estimates showed that about 90% of software life cost is related to its maintenance phase. Extraction and considering the factorsaffecting the software maintenance cost help to estimate the cost and reduce it by controlling the factors. Methods In this study, the factorsaffecting software maintenance cost were determined then were ranked based on their priority and after that effective ways to reduce the maintenance costs were presented. This paper is a research study. 15 software related to health care centers information systems in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and hospitals function were studied in the years 2010 to 2011. Results and discussion Among Medical software maintenance team members, 40 were selected as sample. After interviews with experts in this field, factorsaffecting maintenance cost were determined. In order to prioritize the factors derived by AHP, at first, measurement criteria (factors found) were appointed by members of the maintenance team and eventually were prioritized with the help of EC software. Based on the results of this study, 32 factors were obtained which were classified in six groups. “Project” was ranked the most effective feature in maintenance cost with the highest priority. By taking into account some major elements like careful feasibility of IT projects, full documentation and accompany the designers in the maintenance phase good results can be achieved to reduce maintenance costs and increase longevity of the software.
Some critical comments are made on a paper entitled "FactorsAffecting Fertility in Pakistan." The 60-page paper is considered too long and taxing for the reader with 20 tables and 8 appendix tables. The extensive literature review needs to be updated to refer to the objective of the study. Only conventional sociodemographic variables were considered, omitting information on the supply side and contraceptive use. The results on work status and fertility were ambiguous, indicating that salaried employees with higher education had higher fertility than those with lower education engaged in family business. The statement that perhaps a trend of declining fertility started in Baluchistan based on the mean number of children was contradicted by the figure for children ever born standardized by age, which indicated a slightly higher number. No substantial difference was found in urban and rural fertility, yet the author kept referring to this marginal difference by age in a detailed table. The rationale of running four separate models for four dependent variables when mean desired and ideal number of children do not differ much from each other was questioned. It would be more useful to present the results of only one dependent variable. The variation explained by the independent variables was as low as 8% in the model on children ever born and between 25% and 50% in the other 3 models. This suggests that when there is little variation in fertility, the analysis of factors explaining fertility differentials is not of much value. The conclusion that fertility transition has not started yet in Pakistan is also debatable in view of some recent evidence of fertility decline in the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey of 1990-91 indicating that urban, educated groups of women are in the vanguard. A more precise discussion of the results would have made the study more meaningful. PMID:12346203
The aim of this study was to investigate factorsaffecting the wear and cutting ability of sonic files. A model system was used and the following variables evaluated, file type; Heliosonic, Rispisonic or Shaper, load; 25, 50 or 100 grams and length of time in use; new, 30 or 60 seconds. A 3(3) full factorial analysis with two replications into the effect of the above variables on the cutting ability of the Heliosonic, Rispisonic and Shaper files powered by the MM1500 sonic instrument was performed. A new file size 25 (Heliosonic and Shaper) or No 3 (Rispisonic) was used for each cut together with water irrigation and the substrate used was 1 mm thick sections of bovine bone. All variables had a significant effect on cutting (ANOVA. p < 0.001). However examination of the F values showed that the most significant variable was load, followed by file type, and time. The most significant interaction was between file type and load followed by time and file type. The interaction between time and load was not significant (p > 0.05). The Rispisonic file was most susceptible to wear during use especially at higher loads and the Heliosonic file cut least. It is suggested that the Shaper file is the better design of the three with respect to cutting ability and wear with use. PMID:9028184
Many factors such as outer diameter, hub ratio, blade numbers, shape and stagger angle affect the performance of small cooling fans. A small cooling fan was simulated using CFD software for three blade stagger angles (30.5°, 37.5°, 44.5°)and obtained the internal flow field and the static characteristics. Research indicated that the stagger angle has an obvious effect on the static characteristics of a fan. For flow rates below 0.0104 m3/s, total pressure is the greatest when the stagger angle is 37.5°; flow rates higher than 0.0104 m3/s, the total pressure is greatest when the stagger angle is 44.5° For the same flow rates, the velocity at inlet of pressure surface increases with increasing stagger angle, but the change of velocity on the suction surface is very small. For one model, vortices and the speed of revolution surfaces decrease with tip clearance increasing. But for other three models, increasing the stagger angle, the vortex intensity and speed of revolution surfaces at same height tip clearance increases, simultaneously, the position of vortex offset from the top of the rotor blade to the suction surface.
... Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / Summer ... learn more about the effects of sustained low-calorie diets in humans on factorsaffecting aging. This ...
Background. Studies demonstrate an inverse relationship between institution/surgeon procedural volumes and patient outcomes. Similar studies exist for liver resections, which recommend referral of patients for liver resections to ‘high-volume’ centers. These studies did not elucidate the factors that underlie such outcomes. We believe there exists a complex interaction of patient-related and perioperative factors that determine patient outcomes after liver resection. We sought to delineate these factors. Methods. Retrospective review of 114 liver resections by a single surgeon from 1993–2003: Records were reviewed for demographics; diagnosis; type/year of surgery; American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score; preoperative albumin, creatinine, and bilirubin; operative time; intraoperative blood transfusions; epidural use; and intraoperative hypotension. Main outcome measurements were postoperative morbidities, mortalities and length of stay (LOS). Data were analyzed using a multivariate linear regression model (SPSS v10.1 statistical analysis program). Results. Primary indications for resections were hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (N=57), metastatic colorectal cancer (N=25), and benign disease (N=18). There were no intraoperative mortalities and 4 perioperative (30-day) mortalities (3.5%). Mortality occurred in patients with malignancies who were older than 50 years. Morbidity was higher in malignant (15.6%) versus benign (5.5%) disease. Complications included bile leak/stricture (N=6), liver insufficiency (N=3), postoperative bleeding (N=2), myocardial infarction (N=2), aspiration pneumonia (N=1), renal insufficiency (N=1), and cancer implantation into the wound (N=1). Average LOS for all resections was 8.6 days. Longer operative time (p=0.04), lower albumin (p<0.001), higher ASA score (p<0.001), no epidural use (p=0.04), and higher creatinine (p<0.001) all correlated positively with longer LOS. ASA score and creatinine were the strongest predictors of LOS. LOS was not affected by patient age, sex, diagnosis, presence of malignancy, intraoperative transfusion requirements, intraoperative hypotension, preoperative bilirubin, case volume per year or year of surgery. Conclusions. Liver resections can be performed with low mortality/morbidity and with acceptable LOS by an experienced liver surgeon. Outcome as measured by LOS is most influenced by patient comorbidities entering into surgery. Annual case volume did not influence LOS and had no impact on patient safety. Length of stay may not reflect surgeon/institution performance, as LOS is multifactorial and likely related to patient population, patient selection and increased high-risk cases with a surgeon's experience.
Lorenzo, Cedric S. F.; Limm, Whitney M. L.; Lurie, Fedor
Background: The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) assesses the quality of the teaching and learning of science and mathematics among Grades 4 and 8 students across participating countries. Purpose: This study explored the relationship between positive affect towards science and mathematics and achievement in science and…
Ng, Khar Thoe; Lay, Yoon Fah; Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.
The study develops a model to explain the complex interactions which link the demands for academic achievement in the schools with the personal development of the learner on the premise that students develop a set of affective traits concommitantly with a pattern of academic accomplishments. The theoretical framework upon which the study is based…
The factors influencing safety on construction sites are discussed. The impacts of the historical, economical, psychological, technical, procedural, organizational and the environmental issues are considered in terms of how these factors are linked with the level of site safety. The historical factor is assessed by the background and characteristics of the individual, such as age and experience. The economic factor
Both physical and chemical factors can influence the activity of platelets and coagulation factors responsible for the formation of thrombotic and hemostatic masses in the vicinity of an injured vessel wall. Studies performed in controlled shear devices (viscometers) have indicated that physical factors alone can induce platelet aggregation, even in the absence of exogenous chemical factors. The physical considerations which
The factors discussed in this section are building blocks to understanding arctic weather and climate. Each factor plays an important role alone and in interaction with other factors. The "Arctic Energy Budget" ties all the factors together in a description of the Arctic as a climate system. The different factors are given detailed explanations and examples, and include topics like latitude, land/see distributions, solar radiation, air temperature, Air pressure, winds, humidity, clouds, precipitations, and Arctic energy budgets.
To begin the validation process for the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) in Thailand, research replicating Holton, Bates, and Ruona's study (2000) was conducted in Thailand. The LTSI was administered to 1,029 employees. Exploratory factor analysis and MANOVA were used to identify factors. A factor structure almost identical to that of…
The purpose was to: (1) define reservoir problems related to water quality conditions; (2) identify the probable causes of these problems; and (3) recommend procedures for achieving needed reservoir water quality improvements. This report presents the pro...
The primary goals of this dissertation were to determine the relationships between interpersonal teaching behaviors and student achievement and affective learning outcomes. The instrument used to collect student perceptions of teacher interpersonal teaching behaviors was the Questionnaire on Teacher Interactions (QTI). The instrument used to assess student affective learning outcomes was the Biology Student Affective Instrument (BSAI). The interpersonal teaching behavior data were collected using students as the observers. 111 students in an urban influenced, rural high school answered the QTI and BSAI in September 1997 and again in April 1998. At the same time students were pre and post tested using the Biology End of Course Examination (BECE). The QTI has been used primarily in European and Oceanic areas. The instrument was also primarily used in educational stratified environment. This was the first time the BSAI was used to assess student affective learning outcomes. The BECE is a Texas normed cognitive assessment test and it is used by Texas schools districts as the end of course examination in biology. The interpersonal teaching behaviors model was tested to ascertain if predictive power in the USA and in a non-stratified educational environment. Findings indicate that the QTI is an adequate predictor of student achievement in biology. The results were not congruent with the non-USA data and results, this indicates that the QTI is a society/culturally sensitive instrument and the instrument needs to be normed to a particular society/culture before it is used to affect teachers' and students' educational environments.
This lesson is designed to explore the relationship between pressure and vessel diameter and to create a model that represents how high blood pressure may affect weakened vessels. A collaborative work of Melvin Flores, Larie Laudato and Glenn Soltes
The purpose of this study was to expand what is known regarding the factors that relate to successful completion of online, undergraduate college courses. It addressed 13 student factors available through archival data at Northern Kentucky University based on 1,493 students enrolled in fully online courses in fall 2008. It included programmatic…
Data from students in two sections of a general education course offered at a research university in spring 2009 were used to explore whether student satisfaction factors are associated with perceived learning as rated by students. A list of 22 elements in the learning environment was explored. The 22 were used in creating 3 satisfaction factors…
The Creative Achievement Questionnaire (CAQ) is a new self-report measure of creative achievement that assesses achievement across 10 do- mains of creativity. It was designed to be objective, em- pirically valid, and easy to administer and score. Study 1 established test-retest reliability (r = .81, p < .0001) and internal consistency reliability (? = .96) in a sam- ple of
Axial load cycling fatigue tests of threaded fasteners are useful in determining fastener fatigue failure or design properties. By using appropriate design factors between the failure and design fatigue strengths, such tests are used to establish fatigue ...
The creation of the West African Library Association, library schools, the national library, the Ibadan University Library, and increase in employment opportunities due to the establishment of more libraries, are discussed as favorable factors in the development of librarianship. (MBR)
This project investigated factors relating to tether use and misuse. Volunteer testing was performed with 37 subjects on 16 different vehicles using 2 forward-facing child restraints (Britax Marathon 70 or the Evenflo Triumph), with each subject performin...
C. A. Flannagan K. D. Klinich L. A. Malik M. A. Manary N. R. Orton P. Narayanaswamy
Many factorsaffect the print quality and ink transfer. These are either machine factors, paper factors, or Ink factors. The aim of this work was to find out to what extent are the amount of ink transferred influenced by the previously mentioned factors. Atomic absorption was used for quantitatively measuring the amount of ink transferred. Copper phthalocyanine pigment was chosen.
Scientific literacy for our students and the possibilities for careers available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas are important topics for economic growth as well as global competitiveness. The achievement of students in science learning is dependent upon the science teachers' effectiveness and experienced science teachers depend upon relevant professional development experiences to support their learning. In order to understand how to improve student learning in science, the learning of science teachers must also be understood. Previous research studies on teacher professional development have been conducted in other states, but Minnesota science teachers comprised a new and different population from those previously studied. The purpose of this two-phase mixed methods study was to identify the current types of professional development in which experienced, Minnesota secondary science teachers participated and the factors that affect their participation in professional development activities. The mixed-methods approach s utilized an initial online survey followed by qualitative interviews with five survey respondents. The results of the quantitative survey and the qualitative interviews indicated the quality of professional development experiences and the factors which affected the science teachers' participation in professional development activities. The supporting and inhibiting factors involved the availability of resources such as time and money, external relationships with school administrators, teacher colleagues, and family members, and personal intrinsic attributes such as desires to learn and help students. This study also describes implications for science teachers, school administrators, policymakers, and professional development providers. Recommendations for future research include the following areas: relationships between and among intrinsic and extrinsic factors, science-related professional development activities within local school districts, the use of formal and informal professional development, and the needs of rural science teachers compared to urban and suburban teachers.
... false Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected...CATEGORIES Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in...63.55 Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for...
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Some influencing factors on vertical drain behavior were investigated by laboratory tests as well as by back-analyses of test embankments on vertical drain improved subsoil at Saga Airport, Saga, Japan. Based on the results from this study, suggestions are made on determining the design parameters for vertical drain improvement. For the discharge capacity test of a prefabricated vertical drain, confining
A study of visiting patterns to an intensive care nursery over a 6-month period was undertaken. Data on visits were obtained from 167 admissions, 99 of which were from infants transferred from other towns. In addition, the parents were interviewed to determine factors precluding visiting. Inborn (Group A) and out-of-town (Group B) data were analyzed. For Group A, the mean
George P. Giacoia; Darnelle Rutledge; Kerstin West
Alum (or aluminum-containing) adjuvants are key components of many vaccines currently on the market. The immuno-potentiation effect of alum adjuvants is presumably due to their interaction with antigens, leading to adsorption on the alum particle surface. Understanding the mechanism of antigen adsorption/desorption and its influencing factors could provide guidance on formulation design and ensure proper in-vivo immuno-potentiation effect. In this paper, surface adsorption of several model proteins on two types of aluminum adjuvants (Alhydrogel(®) and Adjuphos(®)) are investigated to understand the underlying adsorption mechanisms, capacities, and potential influencing factors. It was found that electrostatic interactions are the major driving force for surface adsorption of all the model proteins except ovalbumin. Alhydrogel has a significantly higher adsorption capacity than Adjuphos. Several factors significantly change the adsorption capacity of both Alhydrogel and Adjuphos, including molecular weight of protein antigens, sodium chloride, phosphate buffer, denaturing agents, and size of aluminum particles. These important factors need to be carefully considered in the design of an effective protein antigen-based vaccine. PMID:24607202
This review surveys the chemical and biological factors that are correlated with the mutagenic activity of the aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Particular attention is given to the predicted quantum chemical properties of the parent amines and their metabolites. A number of chemical properties have been found to correlate well with measured mutagenic potency, including log P, the enrgies of the
Michael E. Colvin; Frederick T. Hatch; James S. Felton
This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment amenability were negative. No differences in attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders were found between those who had
Information literacy, defined as, "the set of skills needed to find, retrieve, analyze, and use information" (American Library Association, 2003, paragraph 1), is necessary for success in life. The present study will examine whether the factors of gender, race, and/or socioeconomic status impact information literacy performance and information…
Zinc availabilities can change with different cropping management practices. The objective of this study was to identify some of the caus- ative factors associated with previous crops contributing to Zn uptake differences in a subsequent crop. Field studies over 3 yr evaluated the Zn availability after four precropping treatments: bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), corn (Zea mays L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum
This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…
Science teachers often have two different curricula--the ideal framework on paper and the real, day-to-day instructional program that occurs in the classroom. A number of factors can affect how much of that ideal framework is accomplished. For example, how a facility is designed and how space is used can affect student achievement, classroom…
The academic underperformance of Black students when compared to their White peers has confounded educators nationwide. This discrepancy in academic performance commonly referred to as the achievement gap has become a national crisis which has led to one of the most significant educational reforms undertaken in the United States of America in the…
Organizational research shows how mismatches between organizational design characteristics and contingency factors lead to lower performance. In addition to classic contingency factors, knowledge is a powerful resource that influences performance. This re...
This paper investigates the factorsaffecting the Loyal Use of a Knowledge Management System (KMS). Unlike most other types of information systems, the value from using a KMS is temporally disassociated from the instance of use. We developed a model of the factorsaffecting the Loyal Use of a KMS and used data gathered from 1013 users of a well-established
Vertebrate olfactory and gustatory receptors are necessarily exposed to the fluid which contains their relevant chemosensory environment. In terrestrial mammals, the nasal airways serve as protective accessory tissues for the olfactory receptors, but tastes receptors in all vertebrates and olfactory receptors in fish are directly exposed to the liquids which bring chemosensory stimuli to them. The differentiated epithelial cells which form taste buds and the specialized neurons which are the vertebrate olfactory receptors are constantly replaced in normal adult animals, suggesting that chemosensory function per se is damaging to the receptors. Organic and sulfur-containing air pollutants may be among those which adversely affect olfactory receptors, but adequate data are not available. Surfactants and heavy metals can produce physiological and/or morphological damage in gustatory receptors. Some heavy metals are concentrated in saliva, a liquid which interacts closely with taste receptors. A failure to evaluate human chemosensory function in relation to potential chemosensory toxicants accounts for the present inability to specify the incidence of the problem.
Linear increases in G tolerance with increases in anti-G suit (AGS) bladder inflation pressure occurred when relaxed subjects were exposed to acceleration plateaus while riding a centrifuge and were either seated upright, (15 degrees seat back angle or SBA) or supine (60 degrees SBA). Supine G tolerance with AGS bladder inflation decreased as G onset time was increased by factors of two and four. Changing the mode of operation of a new servo-controlled anti-G valve regulating AGS bladder pressure had no effect on G tolerance nor on AGS comfort scores. Comfort was unaffected by G onset time and reduced with high AGS bladder pressures. Results support the hypotheses that G protection provided by simultaneously applied anti-G techniques is additive and that the simple hydrostatic model of the circulatory system can adequately account for AGS bladder pressure changes required for G protection when body position is changed. PMID:3977799
Objective. This research was guided by a stress and support model to examine the effects of frontline workers' background characteristics, personal stressors, job-related stressors, and workplace support on satisfaction with supervision. Method. Survey data were collected from 644 workers in 49 long-term-care settings that employed them. Regression analysis were used to determine the effects of worker level and then Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) and organizational factors on the outcome. Results. Although all four variable categories made significant contributions to explaining satisfaction with supervision, the most powerful were personal stressors and job-related stressors. Results from HLM analysis showed frontline workers in nursing homes and those employed in for-profit organizations had lower levels of satisfaction with supervision. Discussion. Findings suggest organizational interventions to address workers' financial and health issues and management practices such as better training programs and peer mentoring could enhance workers' satisfaction with supervision. PMID:19144970
Noelker, Linda S; Ejaz, Farida K; Menne, Heather L; Bagaka's, Joshua G
Concludes that a high correlation exists between how well college students meet certain stated responsibilities and how well they achieve in a particular class. Includes a student self-evaluation form. (FL)
Purpose Acuity measurement is a fundamental method to assess visual performance in the clinic. Little is known about how acuity measured in the presence of neighboring letters, as in the case of letter charts, changes with contrast and with non-foveal viewing. This information is crucial for acuity measurement using low-contrast charts and when patients cannot use their fovea. In this study, we evaluated how optotype acuity, with and without flankers, is affected by contrast and eccentricity. Methods Five young adults with normal vision identified the orientation of a Tumbling-E alone or in the presence of four flanking Tumbling-Es. Edge-to-edge letter spacing ranged from 1 to 20 bar widths. Stimuli were presented on a white background for 150 ms with Weber contrast ranging from ?2.5% to ?99%. Flankers had the same size and contrast as the target. Testings were performed at the fovea, 3, 5 and 10 degrees in the inferior visual field. Results When plotted as a function of letter spacing, acuity remains unaffected by the presence of flankers until the flankers are within the critical spacing, which averages an edge-to-edge spacing of 4.4 bar widths at the fovea, and approximately 16 bar widths at all three eccentricities. Critical spacing decreases with a reduction in contrast. When plotted as a function of contrast, acuity only worsens when the contrast falls below approximately 24% at the fovea and 17% in the periphery, for flanked and unflanked conditions alike. Conclusions The letter spacing on conventional letter charts exceeds the critical spacing for acuity measurement at the fovea, at all contrast levels. Thus these charts are appropriate for assessing foveal acuity. In the periphery, the critical spacing is larger than the letter spacing on conventional charts. Consequently, these charts may underestimate the acuity measured in the periphery due to the effects of crowding.
Coates, Daniel R.; Chin, Jeremy M.; Chung, Susana T. L.
High velocity forming methods successfully address problems faced in conventional forming techniques. They can be effectively used for forming metals with low formability like aluminum alloys and high strength steel. They can be instrumental is manufacturing of lighter vehicles with higher fuel efficiency. Electromagnetic forming (EMF) is an HVF method that is gaining wide acceptance due to its advantages and scope for commercialization. A number of experimental studies were carried out with EMF with the main goal of exploring fundamentals about material formability at high velocities, which can be used to establish practical design guidelines and to make models of high velocity formability. Thus the main factors that influence high velocity formability-inertia/size effects; changes in constitutive behavior; impact; and dynamic failure modes, were studied mainly with experiments. The role of changes in constitutive behavior in improving formability was studied from existing studies and new theoretical studies involving High velocity Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) and through solving an inverse problem of ring expansion. Tube free-expansion experiments were carried out to demonstrate enhanced metal formability even in the absence of die impact. To further establish the significance of inertia, electromagnetic ring free-expansion experiments with rings of different aspect ratios were carried out. A higher aspect ratio sample had better formability in terms of uniform and total elongation and also had fewer necks than a low aspect ratio (more slender) ring at the same velocity. The results clearly demonstrated the influence of sample aspect ratio (dimensions) and hence inertia on high velocity formability. Die impact experiments were carried out with tubes and rings to show the beneficial influence of die arrest of a moving sample. It was revealed that die impact in an appropriate range of velocities can significantly suppress failure and reduce the number of tears and fractures in the samples. Further a new mode of failure in die impacted samples, spall-like dynamic rupture was observed, which had characteristics similar to classic spall failure. Thus through all these studies, the important factors influencing high velocity formability was studied and it was shown that it can be more complex than quasi-static formability. Boundary conditions for each forming operation can play a more significant role and hence simple tools like FLDs might not be practical tools for studying high velocity formability.
A program to evaluate heat-flux sensors employed in thermal measurements of passive solar structures has been performed. A guarded hot box was designed and built in accordance with ASTM Standard C236-80 to generate known heat fluxes through a variety of structural materials. These fluxes were compared with those measured by a heat flux transducer calibrated by both by the manufacturer and an independent laboratory. The guarded hot plate method, ASTM C117-76, was used in the latter case. The three sets of values were often in substantial disagreement, the extent of which varied with the substrate to which the transducer was attached. An analysis of the data indicates that the cause of disagreement lies in a local distortion of the heat flux through the substrate caused by the presence of the transducer. Disturbance of the air flow over the transducer and mismatch of surface thermal emissivities of the transducer and substrate are contributing factors. This work has demonstrated a need for a standardized procedure for heat flux sensor calibration, and the ASTM guarded hot plate method is recommended for this purpose. An approximate method for correcting the heat flux indicated by a transducer calibrated in this manner to bring it in agreement with the measured by the guarded hot box is presented.
Human papilloma virus genital infection remains a treatment dilemma; there is still no gold standard therapy, treatment options are limited, expensive and often ineffective, and recurrence rates are relatively high. The primary objective of this study is to establish the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of cryotherapy in the treatment of these lesions. From 1999 to 2003, 100 consecutive patients with at least ten genital warts were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy using a cotton-tipped applicator and two freeze-thaw cycles at the outpatient dermatology clinic of Hazrat-e Rasool University Hospital. Treatment was repeated every 3 weeks until the disappearance of all visible lesions was achieved. Patients were followed up every 4 months for 18 months. Complete clinical cure (CCC) was defined as complete clearance of all lesions and no evidence of disease for a minimum of 18 months. The CCC and relapse rate were evaluated based on different demographic and clinical characteristics. Overall, 86 percent of the patients achieved CCC after an average of 3.31 treatment sessions. All of the failed cases were attributed to recurrence of warts in new sites. The cure rate increased in parallel with increasing treatment sessions until the 6th session, after which it remained constant. The cure rate was lower and the number of treatment sessions higher in older patients. The age of the patient and number of treatment sessions affect the cure rate. The recurrence rate was significantly higher for the married or multi-partner group than for unmarried patients. We concluded that cryotherapy is an effective method for treatment of anogenital warts. The age of the patient and size of the lesions affect the cure rate. However, the most important factor in relapse of the lesions is unprotected sexual contact during and after treatment. PMID:18318999
Research has suggested that low socioeconomic status is a major factor in diminishing academic achievement of African American urban youth; however, there are other factors influencing students' achievement. To examine the other factors that contribute to academic achievement, this study investigated a sample of 60 low-resource middle school…
Fungal pathogens are the most important pathogens of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae), and epizootics, particularly those caused by Entomophthorales (Zygomycota), are frequently observed and often rapidly reduce aphid populations. Fungi in the Hypocreales (Ascomycota) are less commonly found infecting aphids but can be important. The transmission of aphid fungal pathogens is affected by many factors, including: host biology and structure, pathogen characteristics, host-plant characteristics, and environmental factors. This paper is an overview of selected factorsaffecting transmission of aphid pathogens. PMID:16780867
Impacts of offshore wind farms on marine fauna are largely unknown. Therefore, one commonly adheres to the precautionary principle, which states that one shall take action to avoid potentially damaging impacts on marine ecosystems, even when full scientific certainty is lacking. We implement this principle by means of a statistical power analysis including spatial factors. Implementation is based on geostatistical simulations, accommodating for zero-inflation in species data. We investigate scenarios in which an impact assessment still has to be carried out. Our results show that the environmental conditions at the time of the survey is the most influential factor on power. This is followed by survey effort and species abundance in the reference situation. Spatial dependence in species numbers at local scales affects power, but its effect is smaller for the scenarios investigated. Our findings can be used to improve effectiveness of the economical investment for monitoring surveys. In addition, unnecessary extra survey effort, and related costs, can be avoided when spatial dependence in species abundance is present and no improvement on power is achieved. PMID:22073657
Pérez Lapeña, B; Wijnberg, K M; Stein, A; Hulscher, S J M H
This study aimed to determine the factors that affect students' preferences regarding tutorial modes. A learning-habit inclinations questionnaire (LHIQ) was constructed and administered to 288 students. Factor analysis revealed four factors: "time management," "ease of access" to learning materials, "positive aspects of interaction," and "negative…
Image reconstruction for positron emission mammography (PEM) with the breast positioned between two parallel, planar detectors is usually performed by backprojection to image planes. Three important factorsaffecting PEM image reconstruction by backprojec...
M. F. Smith S. Majewski A. G. Weisenberger D. A. Kieper R. R. Raylman
To establish what is currently known about factors that affect foreign language listening comprehension, with a focus on characteristics of the listener, passage, and testing conditions. Research on second language (L2) listening comprehension strongly su...
A. Blodgett A. Bloomfield E. Rhoades J. Linck S. C. Wayland
The factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact are considered. The nature of contaminated surfaces is described and the effect on the erosion rate (on non-active lead coupons) of varying jetting parameters is illustrated. Recommendations ...
The Student Motivation for Musical Activities in Elementary School project was conducted between 1982 and 1983 with 3 main purposes: to study problems of motivation in the classroom, to examine factors significant to student motivation for general music program activities, and to obtain empirical foundations for the development of teaching…
Transradial cardiac catheterization (TRCC) has unique technical challenges such as access difficulty related to anatomical variations and/or radial artery (RA) spasm. We sought to evaluate the incidence of anatomical variations of the RA and whether they would affect RA spasm and procedural achievement of TRCC. A total of 744 consecutive patients who underwent TRCC were analyzed by routine radial arteriography. Anatomical variations were defined as abnormal origin of the RA and/or radioulnar loop and/or tortuous configuration. RA spasm was defined as >75 % stenosis at first radial arteriography. Overall, anatomical variations were noted in 68 patients (9.1 %), including 39 cases of abnormal origin (5.2 %), 11 cases of radioulnar loop (1.5 %), and 42 cases of tortuous configuration (5.6 %). Transradial procedures failed in 26 patients (3.5 %), and more frequently in patients with anatomical variation than in those with normal anatomy (23.5 % vs 1.5 %, P < 0.001). Importantly, on multivariate analysis the presence of anatomical variation was a distinct predictor of transradial procedure failure (odds ratio (OR) 17.80; 95 % CI 7.55-43.73; P < 0.001). RA spasm was observed in 83 patients (11.2 %), and more frequently in patients with anatomical variation than in those with normal anatomy (35.3 % vs 8.7 %, P < 0.001). Anatomical variation (OR 4.74; 95 % CI 2.61-8.47; P < 0.001) and female gender (OR 2.23; 95 % CI 1.01-4.73; P = 0.041) were distinct predictors of RA spasm. Anatomical variations were observed in 9.1 % of the patients, and strongly correlated with RA spasm and procedural achievement of TRCC. PMID:23430268
Laboratory-scale batch experiments (semicontinuously fed) were conducted using a two-level factorial experimental design to investigate principal factors and interactions affecting microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of carbon (C) steel. Factors considered included the C source as chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate (SO[sup 2[minus
Laboratory-scale batch experiments (semicontinuously fed) were conducted using a two-level factorial experimental design to investigate principal factors and interactions affecting microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of carbon (C) steel. Factors considered included the C source as chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate (SO[sup 2[minus
Peng, C.G.; Park, J.K. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering)
The key risk factorsaffecting electrical safety in hazardous locations, with emphasis on human and environmental factors are discussed. The results of a survey that provides a user view of the reliability of area classification, product specification, installation, maintenance, documentation, and practice are presented and discussed
In this paper we present a novel method for genome ranking according to gene lengths. The main outcomes described in this paper are the following: the formulation of the genome ranking problem, presentation of relevant approaches to solve it, and the demonstration of preliminary results from prokaryotic genomes ordering. Using a subset of prokaryotic genomes, we attempted to uncover factorsaffecting gene length. We have demonstrated that hyperthermophilic species have shorter genes as compared with mesophilic organisms, which probably means that environmental factorsaffect gene length. Moreover, these preliminary results show that environmental factors group together in ranking evolutionary distant species.
This study examined the factorsaffecting the four-year academic performance and outcomes of 1,249 underprepared students at Prince George's Community College (Maryland). The fall 1994 freshmen required remediation in reading, writing, or mathematics. Subjects were defined as achievers if, by summer 1998, they had earned a degree or certificate…
The purpose of this study is to identify school factors that affect students' achievements at the secondary and tertiary levels of education. The analysis included data of 9,894 students who studied in Auckland regional secondary schools in 2004. The results indicate that, although student demographic characteristics are associated with students'…
Using the California Achievement Test, Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes, and Tennessee Self Concept Scale, 210 high- and low-achieving migrant Spanish-surnamed students in grades seven, nine, and eleven from 2 Oklahoma and 4 Texas school districts were tested for achievement and grade level differences in study habits, study attitudes, and…
The purpose of this study is to isolate the independent effects of high school facility quality on student achievement using a large, nationally representative U.S. database of student achievement and school facility quality. Prior research on linking school facility quality to student achievement has been mixed. Studies that relate overall…
Objective of the Study: The objective of this research study was to investigate whether an association exists between teacher demographic factors (years of teaching experience and gender), 2 educational factors (certification type and certification pathway) and the percent passing rate of tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS. Answers to the following questions were sought: 1. Is there an association between teacher demographic factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? 2. Is there an association between teacher educational factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? 3. Is there an association between teacher demographic factors, educational factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? Status of the Question: According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), science and engineering jobs in the U.S. have increased steadily over recent years and by the year 2016 the number of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) jobs will have grown by more than 21 percent. This increase in science and engineering jobs will double the growth rate of all other workforce sectors combined. The BLS also reports that qualified minority applicants needed to fill these positions will be few and far between. African Americans, Latinos, and other minorities constitute 24 percent of the U.S. population but only 13 percent of college graduates and just 10 percent of people with college degrees who work in science and engineering (Education Trust, 2009). Drawing on the above information, I proposed the following hypotheses to the research questions: H01: There will be no significant statistical association between the demographic factors teacher gender and years of teaching experience and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS. H02: There will be no significant statistical association between the educational factors teacher certification type (composite or content specific) and teacher certification pathway and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS. H03: There will be no significant statistical association between a teachers' demographic factors, educational factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS. The researcher employed the assistance of the human resource departments of participating districts to generate a demographic report identifying the sex, years of experience, certification types and pathways of the teachers of record for African American male students who took the 10th grade Science TAKS during the 2009-2010 school year. Data ascertained from the demographic report was entered in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Software (SPSS). A linear regression statistical analysis was used to establish the following: 1). the degree of association between demographic factors and the percent passing rate of their African American male students on the 10th grade science TAKS , 2) the degree of association between educational factors and the percent passing rate of their African American male students on the 10th grade science TAKS, 3) the degree of association between demographic and educational factors and the percent passing rate of their African American male students on the 10th grade science TAKS Conclusion: Constantine et al (2009) concluded that although individual teachers appear to have an effect on student achievement, their study could not identify what about a teacher affects student achievement. Similar to Constatine, the researcher did not find any association between the demographic and educational factors of teachers and the science academic achievement of African American males. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Diarrhea is a worldwide problem facing both developing countries and developed countries, especially in pediatric population. Because of shortage of health facilities and lack of good food in developing countries, it is known fact that developing countries are facing this death taking problem more. The main purpose of this study was to examine the various factors which affect the recovery time of diarrhea. A multiple linear regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a model. The response variable for the study was the recovery time of diarrhea. The results of the analysis show that the Zinc is the main factor which affect the recovery time in Peshawar.
Screws placed into cancellous bone in orthopedic surgical applications, such as fixation of fractures of the femoral neck or the lumbar spine, can be subjected to high loads. Screw pullout is a possibility, especially if low density osteoporotic bone is encountered. The overall goal of this study was to determine how screw thread geometry, tapping, and cannulation affect the holding power of screws in cancellous bone and determine whether current designs achieve maximum purchase strength. Twelve types of commercially available cannulated and noncannulated cancellous bone screws were tested for pullout strength in rigid unicellular polyurethane foams of apparent densities and shear strengths within the range reported for human cancellous bone. The experimentally derived pullout strength was compared to a predicted shear failure force of the internal threads formed in the polyurethane foam. Screws embedded in porous materials pullout by shearing the internal threads in the porous material. Experimental pullout force was highly correlated to the predicted shear failure force (slope = 1.05, R2 = 0.947) demonstrating that it is controlled by the major diameter of the screw, the length of engagement of the thread, the shear strength of the material into which the screw is embedded, and a thread shape factor (TSF) which accounts for screw thread depth and pitch. The average TSF for cannulated screws was 17 percent lower than that of noncannulated cancellous screws, and the pullout force was correspondingly less. Increasing the TSF, a result of decreasing thread pitch or increasing thread depth, increases screw purchase strength in porous materials. Tapping was found to reduce pullout force by an average of 8 percent compared with nontapped holes (p = 0.0001). Tapping in porous materials decreases screw pullout strength because the removal of material by the tap enlarges hole volume by an average of 27 percent, in effect decreasing the depth and shear area of the internal threads in the porous material. PMID:8872262
Chapman, J R; Harrington, R M; Lee, K M; Anderson, P A; Tencer, A F; Kowalski, D
The effect of different factorsaffecting the slip melting point of palm oil has been evaluated. The most important factor\\u000a appears to be the difference in tempering temperatures. The influence of different tempering temperatures on slip point values\\u000a is, however, dependent on the nature of the sample. For hydrogenated oils and for some high-melting palm stearins, tempering\\u000a has no effect.
The biological and non-biological factors that affect the degradation of amoxicillin in the composting process of feces have been investigated. The effect of living bacteria and the enzyme (beta-lactamase) on amoxicillin decay was examined, and our results indicated that the biological effects are likely to be negligible. Consequently, the effect of phosphate, ammonia and pH level as non-biological factors was
The predictive validity of WISC-R factor scores was examined with samples from the four sociocultural groups of Anglo, Black, Chicano, and native American Papago. The full scale IQ and verbal comprehension (VC) factor scores were significantly better predictors of achievement as measured by teacher ratings and the Metropolitan Achievement Test.…
We ask whether a social contrast mechanism depresses the educational aspirations of students with high-achieving peers. We study two entire cohorts of students in the final grade of the Swedish comprehensive school with matched information on social origin and achievements (160,417 students, 829 schools). Controlling for school fixed effects and…
The aim of this study was to investigate some of the learner variables that may have an influence on university academic achievement in a distance versus a conventional education setting. Descriptive and analytical statistics were used to analyze data by using "Pearson r," and "F-test." Results revealed that the university academic achievement for…
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors (farm, operator and household characteristics, along with farm type and regional location of the farm) affecting financial performance of new and beginning farmers and ranchers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Returns on assets (ROA), a measure of financial performance widely used in the farm management literature, is the ratio of net
The influence of various factors that may affect the outcome of root canal therapy was evaluated in 356 patients 8 to 10 yr after the treatment. The results of treatment were directly dependent on the preop- erative status of the pulp and periapical tissues. The rate of success for cases with vital or nonvital pulps but having no periapical radiolucency
Ulf Sjögren; Björn Hägglund; Göran Sundqvist; Kenneth Wing
Factorsaffecting a lower-bound estimate of internal consistency reliability, Cronbach's coefficient alpha, are explored. Theoretically, coefficient alpha is an estimate of the correlation between two tests drawn at random from a pool of items like the items in the test under consideration. As a practical matter, coefficient alpha can be an index…
Applies a variety of factor analytic approaches to data obtained from the Structured Pediatric Psychosocial Interview (SPPI), an instrument designed to gain information about children's social background and the process by which they relate affective distress. Subjects were independent samples of 500, 400, 519 and 1,000 pediatric patients and…
This study examines factorsaffecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…
The ability to function independently in the later years has been defined as a combination of capability and support. To examine factorsaffecting older adults' use of services provided in an accommodating environment, 52 physically independent residents of an Arizona apartment complex for the elderly were surveyed. Time spent living in the…
Federal government policies are promoting diffusion of technologies into the healthcare system. If health professionals reject the new technologies planned for the healthcare system, it could result in costly failures, delays, and workforce problems. There is a lack of knowledge about factors that affect technology readiness (TR), defined as the…
This study examines the factorsaffecting Iran`s future by focusing on the demographic, economic, and military trends in Iran and their impact on the country`s national security objectives in the next decade. The paper also assesses the implications of an economic embargo on Iran and potential Iranian threats to regional and United States national interests.
Examined factorsaffecting attendance by elderly persons at 660 congregate meal sites. Results showed that measures of the quality of services provided (method of food preparation, type of building used, presence of other nutrition programs in the community) predicted attendance more than conventional demographic measures of need. (WAS)
This study investigated the perception of principals on how the factors of subject mastery, teaching methodology, personal characteristics, and attitude toward students affect the performance of teachers at higher secondary level in the Punjab. All principals of higher secondary level in the Punjab were part of the population of the study. From…
The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factorsaffecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…
Fission foils are commonly used as dosimetry sensors. They play a very important role in neutron spectrum determinations. This paper provides a combination of experimental measurements and calculations to quantify the importance and synergy of several factors that affect the fission response of a dosimeter. Only when these effects are properly treated can fission dosimeters be used with sufficient fidelity.
The purpose of this study is to determine factorsaffecting role stress and burnout among practicing school counselors as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES) and the Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scale. The MBI-ES utilizes three subscales to measure burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal…
Fungal pathogens are the most important pathogens of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae), and epizootics, particularly those caused by Entomophthorales (Zygomycota), are frequently observed and often rapidly reduce aphid populations. Fungi in the Hypocreales (Ascomycota) are less commonly found infecting aphids but can be important. The transmission of aphid fungal pathogens is affected by many factors, including: host biology and structure, pathogen
Soil and rhizosphere microbial communities in agroecosystems may be affected by soil, climate, plant species, and management. The management and environmental factors controlling microbial biomass and community structure were identified in a three-year field experiment. The experiment consisted of a tomato production agroecosystem with the following nine treatments: bare soil, black polyethylene mulch, white polyethylene mulch, vetch cover crop, vetch
Jeffrey S. Buyer; John R. Teasdale; Daniel P. Roberts; Inga A. Zasada; Jude E. Maul
This study investigated factors that would affect a reader's understanding of the main idea at the global level and explicit and implicit main ideas at the local level. Fifty-seven first-year university students taking a college reading course took a comprehension test on an expository text. Statistical analyses revealed that text structure had a…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate international student recruitment from an institutional perspective and to consider institutional factors that may affect recruitment. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative study is undertaken in which education marketing practitioners are interviewed regarding aspects of international…
As the fit between job values and job rewards becomes more important to American workers, it is important to understand factors which may affect these values. Data from the combined General Social Surveys of 1974, 1976, 1977 and 1980 were used to investigate the influence of education, job prestige, earnings, age, sex, race, and family…
The authors describe and illustrate 6 factors that affect the size of a Pearson correlation: (a) the amount of variability in the data, (b) differences in the shapes of the 2 distributions, (c) lack of linearity, (d) the presence of 1 or more "outliers," (e) characteristics of the sample, and (f) measurement error. Also discussed are ways to…
A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factorsaffecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.
As far as academic reading comprehension is concerned, a network of linguistic skills and strategies operate in a complex and integrated matter. Since it is impossible to examine all the factorsaffecting reading comprehension all at once, it is more reasonable to compare and contrast the predictive effects of specific variables against each other…
The purpose of this cross-sectional, correlational study was to describe the quality of life (QOL) in persons with end stage renal disease and explore factors that may affect QOL. Biological function, symptoms, function, general health perception, and characteristics of the individual and environment explained 61% of the variability in overall QOL. Only anxiety, depression, and general health perception significantly contributed
Objective: The authors studied the factorsaffecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…
There is a large body of literature that focuses on technology and innovation adoption. Much of that deals with the factors that affect adoption at different stages. Some research deals with early adoption, such as that by Rogers (1995). Other research looks at innovations as they begin to penetrate the general population, such as Lin’s (1998) study of personal computer
Rick Busselle; Joey Reagan; Bruce Pinkleton; Kim Jackson
The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…
Presents conceptual framework for organization of factors (independent variables) affecting online bibliographic retrieval. Roles that variables play in research studies are described and examples considering various elements--setting, user, request, database, search system, searcher, search process, search outcome--are provided. Twenty-one…
Objective: Empathy is a prominent goal of medical education that is too often underachieved. Using concept mapping, the authors constructed a student-generated conceptual model of factors viewed as affecting empathy during medical education. Methods: During the 2005-2006 academic year, 293 medical students and interns answered a brainstorming…
Winseman, Jeffrey; Malik, Abid; Morison, Julie; Balkoski, Victoria
Potential factorsaffecting retention of pregnancy during weeks 5–9 of gestation were studied in dairy cows and heifers (N=211) on two farms. Cows were examined by ultrasonography for presence of a viable embryo, and sizes of the corpus luteum (CL) and of follicles ?5mm were recorded. Blood samples were taken at each examination and assayed for progesterone and estradiol. Overall
Melanie J Starbuck; Robert A Dailey; E. Keith Inskeep
The literature on affectivefactors in the learning of mathematics is difficult to interpret because of differences and inconsistencies in terminology and measurement. To advance research in this field of affect, I compare and clarify terminology, and reconcile scales for measurement by examining the factors and research instruments targeted by four research teams. The findings reveal two distinct broad primary
The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factorsaffecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health.
Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.
The factorsaffecting indoor radon properties in Hong Kong have been studied, including the radon concentration, the total potential alpha energy concentration of radon progeny, the equilibrium factor, and the fraction of unattached radon progeny. These factors fall into three categories, namely, (1) the building characteristics, including cooling method, age of the buildings, wall coverings and floor coverings; (2) the location of sites, including nearby environments, geological materials of the area, and the elevation of the sites; and (3) the meteorological parameters, including rainfall, relative humidity, pressure, temperature, and wind speeds. For category (1), only the ventilation is found to affect the indoor radon properties. For category (2), only the nearby environments have effects. For category (3), the rainfall and temperature are found to have significant effects. 15 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.
Yu, K.N.; Young, E.C.M.; Li, K.C. [City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong)
This research addresses gender peer effects in education and their impact on student achievement in Chile. We address the topic from three different level of analysis: (a) whether the proportion of girls in a cohort influences students' educational outcomes (b) whether assignment to a classroom with a higher proportion of girls influences…
This article provides new estimates of the causal effect of cultural capital on academic achievement. The author analyzes data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth--Children and Young Adults and uses a fixed effect design to address the problem of omitted variable bias, which has resulted in too optimistic results in previous research.…
Studied the influence of home environment on male and female high school students' motivation and achievement. Results for 737 Cypriot high school students and their parents show the importance of student self-concept and negative effects for parental pressure. Results suggest the need for closer lines of communication between home and school.…
Gifted, average, and learning-disabled children (total n=660) in grades four and seven were assessed on measures of achievement, ability, perceived competence in cognitive ability, self-concept, and locus of control over a two-year period. In general, perceived competence and self-concept were higher for gifted students and were stable for all…
It was assumed that the effect of motivational regulation strategies on achievement is mediated by effort management and moderated by intelligence. A sample of 231 11th and 12th grade German high-school students provided self-reports on their use of motivational regulation strategies and effort management and completed an intelligence test.…
It has been claimed that perceived academic control (AC) in combination with preoccupation with failure (PWF) produces a strong motivation for success, and the interaction (AC x PWF) has been shown to predict academic achievement. In a prospective study, 442 first year psychology students completed a questionnaire about their background, study…
Introduction: For decades birth order and gender differences have attracted research attention. Method: Birth order, family size and gender, and the relationship with arithmetic achievement is studied among 1152 elementary school children (540 girls, 612 boys) in Flanders. Children were matched on socioeconomic status of the parents and…
This paper builds on my previous research, explaining the differential achievement of boys and girls in secondary education by the fact that boys' culture is less study orientated than girls' culture. The central question of the present paper is whether the presence of girls at school affects the boys' study culture and, by consequence, boys'…
This article examines the determinants of men's early parental roles, distinguishing factors that affect being a father versus being childless, and factors that affect being a resident versus a nonresident father, in the context of having a partner or not. We also consider whether these patterns have changed between 1985 and 2004. The data come from the linked Child-Mother and Young Adult Samples of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), which provide information on the children of the NLSY79 from birth until they enter young adulthood, and from the original youth sample of parallel ages. The results support previous research showing the importance of economic and educational disadvantages and nontraditional family structure on being a non-resident father. The effects of family structure appear to have attenuated between generations as determinants of men's early parental roles.
Typical water quality concerns with releases from hydropower reservoirs include low dissolved oxygen, inappropriate temperature for downstream uses, supersaturation of total dissolved gases, and water quality constituents associated with low dissolved oxygen. Except for supersaturation of total dissolved gases, which is usually caused by by-passing turbines and spilling water, all of these concerns are related to the limnology of the upstream reservoir. Various limnological factorsaffect water quality, particularly dissolved oxygen (DO) in turbine releases. This paper describes three groups of reservoirs, thermal stratification characteristics for each group, DO effects for each group, the main factors that affect DO in TVA turbine releases, and other water quality constituents that are related to low DO.
One hundred and twenty-nine children, 2 to 8 years old, with idiopathic autistic spectrum disorder diagnosed by standard instruments (Childhood Austim Ratings Scale and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule) were treated with fluoxetine (0.15 to 0.5mg/kg) for 5 to 76 months (mean 32 to 36 months), with discontinuation trials. Response criteria are described. Family histories were obtained using the family history method in repeated interviews. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder, and unusual intellectual achievement, pretreatment language, and hyperlexia were used to define a coherent subgroup of autistic spectrum disorder. Statistical analyses were post hoc. Of the children, 22 (17%) had an excellent response, 67 (52%) good, and 40 (31%) fair/poor. Treatment age did not correlate with response. Fluoxetine response correlated robustly with familial major affective disorder and unusual intellectual achievement, and with hyperlexia in the child. Family history of bipolar disorder and of unusual intellectual achievement correlated strongly. Five children developed bipolar disorder during follow-up. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder (especially bipolar), unusual achievement, and hyperlexia in the children appear to define a homogeneous autistic subgroup. Bipolar disorder, unusual intellectual achievement, and autistic spectrum disorders cluster strongly in families and may share genetic determinants. PMID:12418789
Background There are various factors which construct the perception of stigma in both leprosy affected persons and unaffected persons. The main purpose of this study was to determine the level of perceived stigma and the risk factors contributing to it among leprosy affected person attending the Green Pastures Hospital, Pokhara municipality of western Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 135 people affected by leprosy at Green Pastures Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre. Persons above the age of 18 were interviewed using a set of questionnaire form and Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC). In addition, two sets of focused group discussions each containing 10 participants from the ward were conducted with the objectives of answering the frequently affected EMIC items. Results Among 135 leprosy affected persons, the median score of perceived stigma was 10 while it ranged from 0–34. Higher perceived stigma score was found in illiterate persons (p?=?0.008), participants whose incomes were self-described as inadequate (p?=?0.014) and who had changed their occupation due to leprosy (p?=?0.018). Patients who lacked information on leprosy (p?=?0.025), knowledge about the causes (p?=?0.02) and transmission of leprosy (p?=?0.046) and those who had perception that leprosy is a severe disease (p<0.001) and is difficult to treat (p<0.001) had higher perceived stigma score. Participants with disfigurement or deformities (p?=?0.014), ulcers (p?=?0.022) and odorous ulcers (p?=?0.043) had higher perceived stigma score. Conclusion The factors associated with higher stigma were illiteracy, perceived economical inadequacy, change of occupation due to leprosy, lack of knowledge about leprosy, perception of leprosy as a severe disease and difficult to treat. Similarly, visible deformities and ulcers were associated with higher stigma. There is an urgent need of stigma reduction strategies focused on health education and health awareness programs in addition to the necessary rehabilitation support.
Adhikari, Bipin; Kaehler, Nils; Chapman, Robert S.; Raut, Shristi; Roche, Paul
Non-specialist teachers in Canada are increasingly required to teach sexual health topics. However, research suggests that they do not always do so willingly. This study examined the associations between the characteristics of non-specialist elementary and middle school teachers (n = 294) in Canadian schools and their willingness to provide sexual health education (SHE) and their perceptions of factorsaffecting their willingness to
Jacqueline N. Cohen; E. Sandra Byers; Heather A. Sears
Non-specialist teachers in Canada are increasingly required to teach sexual health topics. However, research suggests that they do not always do so willingly. This study examined the associations between the characteristics of non-specialist elementary and middle school teachers (n = 294) in Canadian schools and their willingness to provide sexual health education (SHE) and their perceptions of factorsaffecting their willingness to
Jacqueline N. Cohen; E. Sandra Byers; Heather A. Sears
Factorsaffecting chromate reduction by cultures of Enterobacter cloacae HO1 were investigated. The reduction was sensitive to oxygen stress and E. cloacae strain HO1 could reduce chromate only under anaerobic conditions. Rates of reduction of chromate were proportional to cell number. The optimal pH was between 7.0 and 7.8, and the optimal temperature was 30°–37°C. High rates of reduction were
Measurements of radon exhalation from a gravely sandy loam have been made in a semi-arid climate by using a combination of closed accumulation, flow-through accumulation, and 222Rn and 2Xøpb soil profiles. The meteorological factors that most affected the instantaneous value of exhalation of 222Rn were atmospheric pressure and rain. Effects due to other parameters such as wind or temperature were
Background Multiple studies have reported that allografts are acceptable alternatives to autografts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions. Our clinical practice allows patient involvement in graft decision-making. This study examined the patients' preference for graft selection and the factorsaffecting their decision. Methods Patients scheduled to undergo an ACL reconstruction surgery (n = 129) at a university medical center in Korea were enrolled in this study. Information leaflets with graft descriptions were provided prior to hospital admission, and the patients were allowed to choose one of two surgical graft types. The patients were asked to complete a questionnaire that reflected their decision-making processes, and the patients' trends and factorsaffecting their choice of graft were analyzed based on their responses. Results Most patients (54.3%) selected autografts for the ACL reconstruction. The surgeon's explanation was the most important factoraffecting the final patient decision followed by the information derived from Internet searches. Patients who derived the majority of their understanding of the graft types from the Internet chose allografts at significantly higher rates. Conclusions Patient graft selection is a reasonable way of designating the type of surgical procedure. Most patients selected autografts for their ACL reconstruction. However, patients who performed significant Internet-based research tended to prefer allografts.
Koh, Hae Seok; Kong, Chae-Gwan; Won, Ho-Yeon; Kim, Kun-Hyung; Lee, Jung-Han
The susceptibility or Alloy 22 (N06022) to crevice corrosion may depend on environmental or external factors and metallurgical or internal factors. Some of the most important environmental factors are chloride concentration, inhibitors, temperature and potential. The presence of a weld seam or second phase precipitation in the alloy are classified as internal factors. The localized corrosion resistance of Alloy 22 has been extensively investigated in the last five years, however not all affectingfactors were considered in the studies. This paper discusses the current findings regarding the effect of many of these variables on the susceptibility (or resistance) of Alloy 22 to crevice corrosion. The effect of variables such as temperature, chloride concentration and nitrate are rather well understood. However there are only limited or no data regarding effect of other factors such as pH, other inhibitive or deleterious species and type of crevicing material and crevice geometry. There are contradictory results regarding the effect of metallurgical factors such as solution heat treatment.
The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factorsaffecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factorsaffecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and maintenance; existence of fund for operation and maintenance; willingness to contribute money; existence of a user’s committee; participation in the initial planning and design of the water scheme; and coordination between the local leaders and user’s committee. The main factors which made the schemes unsustainable were: long fetching time; non-involvement in decision making; lack of willingness to contribute funds; absence of users committee; and lack of cooperation between local leaders and the users committee. Water service providers should address the technical, social, financial and institutional factors identified affecting sustainability in their planning and implementation of rural water schemes.
Chronic use of methamphetamine (MA) is associated with neuropsychological dysfunction and affective distress. Some normalization of function has been reported after abstinence, but little data is available on the possible added benefits of long-term sobriety. To address this, we performed detailed neuropsychological and affective evaluations in 83 MA-dependent individuals at a baseline visit and following an average one-year interval period. Among the 83 MA-dependent participants, 25 remained abstinent and 58 used MA at least once during the interval period. Thirty-eight non-MA-addicted, demographically matched healthy comparison (i.e., HC) participants were also examined. At baseline, both MA-dependent participants who were able to maintain abstinence and those who were not performed significantly worse than the healthy comparison subjects on global neuropsychological functioning and were significantly more distressed. At the one-year follow-up, both the long term abstainers and healthy comparison groups showed comparable global neuropsychological performance and affective distress levels, whereas the MA-dependent group who continued to use were worse than the comparison participants in terms of global neuropsychological functioning and affective distress. An interaction was observed between neuropsychological impairment at baseline, MA abstinence, and cognitive improvement, with abstinent MA-dependent participants who were neuropsychologically impaired at baseline demonstrating significantly and disproportionately greater improvement in processing speed and slightly greater improvement in motor abilities relative to the other participants. These results suggest partial recovery of neuropsychological functioning and improvement in affective distress upon sustained abstinence from MA that may extend beyond a year or more.
IUDICELLO, JENNIFER E.; WOODS, STEVEN PAUL; VIGIL, OFILIO; SCOTT, J. COBB; CHERNER, MARIANA; HEATON, ROBERT K.; ATKINSON, J. HAMPTON; GRANT, IGOR
This study examined the effects of individual student factors and classroom factors on elementary science achievement within and across five countries. The student?level factors included gender, self?confidence in science and home resources. The classroom?level factors included teacher characteristics, instructional variables and classroom composition. Results for the USA and four other countries, Singapore, Japan, Australia and Scotland, were reported. Multilevel effects
The present study examined gender differences in the factor structure of the 2x2 achievement goal framework using a multi-sample invariance analysis. A total of 117 male and 125 female undergraduate teacher education students completed Elliot and Murayama's (2008) Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised (AGQ-R). Results provided empirical evidence…
Studies that have investigated college choice factors for high-achieving students repeatedly cite academic reputation as one of the top indicators of choice but have not indicated why some high-achieving students choose to attend universities with a less prestigious reputation than the more highly prestigious options available to them. The purpose…
:Introduction: The aims of this analysis were to: (1) determine the value of ictal SPECT in the localization of neocortical epileptogenic foci, (2) evaluate the relationships between the results of ictal SPECT and other potential affectingfactors, and (3) compare traditional visual analysis and the subtraction method.Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 81 consecutive patients with neocortical epilepsy who underwent epilepsy surgery and achieved
Sang Kun Lee; Seo-Young Lee; Chang-Ho Yun; Ho-Young Lee; Jae-Sung Lee; Dong-Soo Lee
Background & objectives: Age adjusted incidence rate of lung cancer in India ranges from 7.4 to 13.1 per 100,000 among males and 3.9 to 5.8 per 100,000 among females. The factorsaffecting survival in lung cancer patients in India are not fully understood. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the factorsaffecting survival in patients diagnosed with lung cancer attending a tertiary care cancer institute in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Methods: Consecutive patients with primary lung cancer attending Bangalore Institute of Oncology, a tertiary care centre at Bangalore, between 2006 and 2009 were included. Demographic, clinical, radiological data were collected retrospectively from the medical records. Results: A total of 170 consecutive subjects (128 males, 42 females) diagnosed to have lung cancer; 151 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 19 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were included. A higher proportion of never-smokers (54.1%) were observed, mostly presenting below the age of 60 yr. Most subjects were in stage IV and III at the time of diagnosis. More than 50 per cent of patients presented with late stage lung cancer even though the duration of symptoms is less than 2 months. The 30-month overall survival rates for smokers and never-smokers were 32 and 49 per cent, respectively. No significant differences were observed in 30 month survival based on age at presentation, gender and type of lung cancer. Cox proportional hazards model identified never-smokers and duration of symptoms less than 1 month as factors adversely affecting survival. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that lung cancer in Indians involved younger subjects and associated with poorer survival as compared to other ethnic population. Studies on large sample need to be done to evaluate risk factors in lung cancer patients.
In this study, the National Educational Longitudinal Study (ELS:2002) dataset was used and a predictive data mining technique, decision tree analysis, was implemented in order to examine which factors, in conjunction to computer use, can be used to predict high or low probability of success in high school mathematics. Specifically, this study…
Despite efforts mandated by national legislation, the state of Georgia has made little progress in improving Grade 5 students' standardized test scores in science, spurring the need for social change. The purpose of this quantitative causal-comparative study was to determine whether there was a significant difference in the student achievement in the conceptual understanding of science concepts in a classroom where the teacher applied the cooperative learning strategy, Learning Together, as compared to the classroom in which teacher-directed instruction was applied. The theories of positive social interdependence and social development, which posit that social interaction promotes cognitive gains, provided a framework for the study. A convenience sample of 38 students in Grade 5 participated in the 6-week study. Nineteen students received the cooperative learning strategy treatment, while 19 students did not. Pre- and post-tests were administered to students in both groups, and an analysis of variance was performed to examine differences between the 2 sample means. Results indicated that the group receiving the cooperative learning strategy scored significantly higher than did the control group receiving direct instruction. The experimental group also scored higher in vocabulary acquisition. Using the cooperative learning strategy of Learning Together could guide teachers' efforts to help students achieve excellent state-mandated test scores. Learning Together may be employed as a powerful teaching tool across grade levels and content areas, thus promoting positive gains in other state-mandated testing areas such as math, language arts, and social studies.
Background Although general practitioners (GPs) and community pharmacists (CPs) are encouraged to collaborate, a true collaborative relationship does not exist between them. Our objective was to identify and analyze factorsaffecting GP-CP collaboration. Methods This was a descriptive-exploratory qualitative study carried out in two Spanish regions: Catalonia (Barcelona) and Balearic Islands (Mallorca). Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs and CPs from Barcelona and Mallorca (January 2010-February 2011). Analysis was conducted using Colaizzi’s method. Results Thirty-seven interviews were conducted. The factorsaffecting the relationship were different depending on timing: 1) Before collaboration had started (prior to collaboration) and 2) Once the collaboration had been initiated (during collaboration). Prior to collaboration, four key factors were found to affect it: the perception of usefulness; the Primary Care Health Center (PCHC) manager’s interest; the professionals’ attitude; and geography and legislation. These factors were affected by economic and organizational aspects (i.e. resources or PCHC management styles) and by professionals’ opinions and beliefs (i.e. perception of the existence of a public-private conflict). During collaboration, the achievement of objectives and the changes in the PCHC management were the key factors influencing continued collaboration. The most relevant differences between regions were due to the existence of privately-managed PCHCs in Barcelona that facilitated the implementation of collaboration. In comparison with the group with experience in collaboration, some professionals without experience reported a skeptical attitude towards it, reporting that it might not be necessary. Conclusions Factors related to economic issues, management and practitioners’ attitudes and perceptions might be crucial for triggering collaboration. Interventions and strategies derived from these identified factors could be applied to achieve multidisciplinary collaboration.
This paper addresses a framework to critical success factor (CSF) assessment of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation, and proposes a structured approach to help a small manufacturing enterprise (SME) identify the key requirements and measurements that determine its achievement of ERP implementation. Based on realistic data, critical success factors are converted into quantitative information to reflect measurements including cost,
The impact of school factors on academic achievement has become an important focus for identifying, preventing, and intervening with youth at-risk for academic failure. This study was designed to develop and test a more comprehensive school factor risk index. Specifically, the relationship between cumulative grade point average (GPA) and an additive risk index (ARI) were tested and an analysis of
Pericytes are critical for vascular morphogenesis and contribute to several pathologies, including cancer development and progression. The mechanisms governing pericyte migration and differentiation are complex and have not been fully established. Current literature suggests that platelet-derived growth factor/platelet-derived growth factor receptor-?, sphingosine 1-phosphate/endothelial differentiation gene-1, angiopoietin-1/tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 2, angiopoietin-2/tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 2, transforming growth factor ?/activin receptor-like kinase 1, transforming growth factor ?/activin receptor-like kinase 5, Semaphorin-3A/Neuropilin, and matrix metalloproteinase activity regulate the recruitment of pericytes to nascent vessels. Interestingly, many of these pathways are directly affected by secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC). Here, we summarize the function of these factors in pericyte migration and discuss if and how SPARC might influence these activities and thus provide an additional layer of control for the recruitment of vascular support cells. Additionally, the consequences of targeted inhibition of pericytes in tumors and the current understanding of pericyte recruitment in pathological environments are discussed. PMID:23912898
An area of increasing concern and scientific scrutiny is the potential contamination of drug products by leachables entering the product during manufacturing and storage. These contaminants may either have a direct safety impact on the patients or act indirectly through the alteration of the physicochemical properties of the product. In the case of biotherapeutics, trace amounts of metal contaminants can arise from various sources, but mainly from contact with stainless steel (ss). The effect of the various factors, buffer species, solution fill volume per unit contact surface area, metal chelators, and pH, on metal leachables from contact with ss over time were investigated individually. Three major metal leachables, iron, chromium, and nickel, were monitored by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry because they are the major components of 316L ss. Iron was primarily used to evaluate the effect of each factor since it is the most abundant. It was observed that each studied factor exhibited its own effect on metal leachables from contact with ss. The effect of buffer species and pH exhibited temperature dependence over the studied temperature range. The metal leachables decreased with the increased fill volume (mL) per unit contact ss surface area (cm(2)) but a plateau was achieved at approximately 3 mL/cm(2). Metal chelators produced the strongest effect in facilitating metal leaching. In order to minimize the metal leachables and optimize biological product stability, each formulation factor must be evaluated for its impact, to balance its risk and benefit in achieving the target drug product shelf life. PMID:21360314
Zhou, Shuxia; Schöneich, Christian; Singh, Satish K
Various factorsaffecting precision of trim and resistor stability were considered. The influence of machine operating parameters on resistor performance was examined and quantified through statistically designed experiments for a Q switched YAG laser system. Laser kerf quality was studied by scanning electron microscopy and related to kerf isolation resistance measurements. A relatively simple production oriented, quality control test is proposed for rapid determination of kerf electrical stability. In addition, the effect of cut design and extent of trim on precision and stability were discussed.
In monitoring arrhythmia, the quality of medical data from the ECG sensors may be enhanced by being based on everyday life situations. Hence, the development of wireless biomedical sensors is of growing interest, both to diagnose the heart patient, as well as to adjust the regimen. However, human factors such as emotional barriers and stigmatization, may affect the patient's behavior while wearing the equipment, which in turn may influence quality of data. The study of human factors and patient acceptance is important both in relation to the development of such equipment, as well as in evaluating the quality of data gathered from the individual patient. In this paper, we highlight some important aspects in patient acceptance by comparing results from a preliminary clinical trial with patients using a wireless ECG sensor for three days out-of-hospital service, to available published results from telehomecare projects, and discuss important aspects to be taken into account in future investigations.
The factors that influence the ultimate level of success or failure of systems development projects have received considerable attention in the academic literature. However, previous research has rarely targeted different instances of a common type of system within a homogeneous organisational sector. This paper presents the results of a survey of IM&T managers within Community Trusts to gain insights into the factorsaffecting the success of Community Information Systems. The results demonstrate that the most successful operational systems were thoroughly tested prior to implementation and enjoyed high levels of user and senior management commitment. Furthermore, it has been shown that there is a relationship between the level of organisational impact and systems success, with the most successful systems engendering changes to the host organisation's culture, level of empowerment and clinical working practices. In addition to being of academic interest, this research provides many important insights for practising IM&T managers. PMID:10747445
The biological and non-biological factors that affect the degradation of amoxicillin in the composting process of feces have been investigated. The effect of living bacteria and the enzyme (beta-lactamase) on amoxicillin decay was examined, and our results indicated that the biological effects are likely to be negligible. Consequently, the effect of phosphate, ammonia and pH level as non-biological factors was investigated by monitoring the reduction rate of amoxicillin in phosphate and ammonia buffer solutions with several pH levels. Each reduction rate constant was integrated by a simulation model, and the each calculated amoxicillin reduction profile was compared to the reduction profiles of amoxicillin in the composting process of feces. The calculated results corresponded almost exactly to the experimental profiles. We therefore concluded that the degradation of amoxicillin in a toilet matrix was dependent on the concentration of ammonia, phosphate and hydroxyl ion. PMID:17109929
AIMS: To examine factors influencing the density and contact inhibition of bovine corneal endothelial cells cultured in vitro. METHODS: Cell counts were performed on bovine corneal endothelial cells cultured for various times in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum, with or without varying concentrations of growth factors, 5% dextran T-500, or 2% chondroitin sulphate, at 32 degrees C or 37 degrees C, and after treatment with beta galactosidase. RESULTS: Both basic fibroblast growth factor (FGFb) and retinal crude extract (RCE), but neither epidermal growth factor (EGF) nor acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGFa), increased endothelial cell density in vitro (p < 0.05). Continuous exposure to RCE resulted in a higher cell density than did a 24 hour pulse (p < 0.01), and higher cell densities were achieved at 37 degrees C than at 32 degrees C (p < 0.0001). In the absence of RCE, dextran T-500 increased cell density modestly (p < 0.05); in the presence of RCE, the addition of dextran T-500 had no effect on final cell density, whereas chondroitin sulphate significantly decreased final cell density (p < 0.01). In the absence of exogenous growth factors, beta galactosidase treatment resulted in a 50% increase in final cell density compared with controls (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Bovine corneal endothelial cell growth can be augmented under conditions different from those used in corneal preservation systems. The final cell density in a confluent monolayer can be increased by treatment with beta galactosidase, suggesting that corneal endothelial cells may be contact inhibited through a beta galactosidase sensitive receptor system. Images
Johnstone, E W; Wong, H C; Coster, D J; Williams, K A
The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factorsaffecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factorsaffecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail. PMID:22530712
Francis, G A; Gallone, A; Nychas, G J; Sofos, J N; Colelli, G; Amodio, M L; Spano, G
This study examines factorsaffecting the productive efficiency of primary care clinics. The empirical analysis uses a single-stage stochastic frontier regression model, in which factorsaffecting productive efficiency are specified as part of the inefficiency error component and estimated simultaneously with the production function. The study population includes primary care clinics in the US Military Health System from 1999 through 2003; the analytical data set is an unbalanced panel of 442 observations. The study's main results were that primary care clinics not associated with medical centres had significantly higher levels of productive efficiency than those associated with medical centres and that having proportionately more civilian staff (and thus less turnover) had a positive impact on productive efficiency. Due to their nature, these findings would be expected to also be applicable to the production of primary care in other settings. A key implication of the results is that improvements in productive efficiency should be a top priority, given the possibility for providing more primary care visits without increases in cost. PMID:18275665
Background Management of post trauma tibia bone gap varied with orthopedic surgeons’ experience and tools available. Study aims to determine predictive factors for distraction by a monotube fixator (DMF) outcome in post tibia trauma limb length discrepancy. Methods A prospective descriptive cross sectional study of post traumatized tibia bone gap and limb length discrepancy patients at tertiary hospitals. Patient’s informed consent and institutional ethical committee approval were obtained. Bio-data, clinical and healing indexes were documented. DMF was applied for patient that met inclusion criteria. The Statistic tests used included the Chi-square, the Student’s two-tailed t test, and the Wilcox on rank-sum test when appropriate. Mantel-Haenszel Common Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for poor outcome potential risk factors were recorded. Bivariate correlation and logistic regression were evaluated. Significance level was set at a p value <0.05. Results Thirty-six patients with mean age, 37.2?±?10.3 year and male/female ratio of 1:1.25 had DMF applied. Motorcycle accident accounted for 50.0% of patients and diaphyseal segment was most commonly affected 25 (69.4%). The mean bone lengthened was 10.1?±?4.0 cm (range: 5-21 cm) and mean duration of bone transport was 105.6?±?38.2 days. The means of rate of distraction, healing index and percentage of lengthening were 0.99?±?0.14 mm/day, 15.6?±?4.3 days/cm and 38.0?±?14.3 respectively. The mean follow up was 9.7 ±4.9 months (range: 2–17.0). Per operative complications varied and outcome was satisfactory in 30 (83.3%). Obesity (p <0.0001), multiple surgery (p?=?0.012) and transfusion (p?=?0.001) correlated to poor outcome. Percentage lengthening???50%, bone gap >10 cm, anemia, blood transfusion, general anesthesia administration, distraction rate >1 mm/day, osteomyelitis and prolong partial weight bearing were significant predictive factors for poor outcome in post traumatic tibia distraction. Conclusion Distraction by a monotube fixator appears effective in achieving correction >38.0% original tibia lengthening following traumatic bone gap. Predictive factors for poor outcome were useful for prognostication.
This review analyses rowing by linking the biological and mechanical systems that comprise the rowing system. Blade force was found to be the only propulsive force to counter the drag forces, consisting of both air drag and hydrodynamic drag, acting on the system. Vertical oscillations of the shell are shown to have minimal impact on system dynamics. The oar acts as the link between the force generated by the rower and the blade force and transmits this force to the rowing shell through the oarlock. Blade dynamics consist of both lift and drag mechanisms. The force on the oar handle is the result of a phased muscular activation of the rower. Oar handle force and movement are affected by the joint strength and torque-velocity characteristics of the rower. Maximising sustainable power requires a matching of the rigging setup and blade design to the rower's joint torque-velocity characteristics. Coordination and synchrony between rowers in a multiple rower shell affects overall system velocity. Force-time profiles should be better understood to identify specific components of a rower's biomechanics that can be modified to achieve greater force generation. PMID:12453833
Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for phenotypic and microevolutionary adaptations.
Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fiedler, Wolfgang
The study investigated the association and relative influence of cognitive\\/motivational and demographic factors on final degree grade point average (GPA) in a single undergraduate cohort. Although academic self-efficacy, approaches to learning, prior achievement and age all produced significant correlations with GPA, regression analysis identified prior achievement (Rchange?=?.288), age (Rchange?=?.201) and academic self-efficacy (Rchange?=?.062) as the only significant predictors of GPA.
Identification of factorsaffecting platelet reactivity (PR) and high PR (HPR) or high platelet inhibition (HPI) rates while on prasugrel maintenance dose (MD) might be helpful in avoiding ischemic or bleeding complications. We retrospectively analyzed all patients (n=233) treated in our institution between April 2010 and November 2012 who had platelet function assessment pre-prasugrel and following prasugrel 10 mg MD for at least 5 days, using the Verify Now P2Y12 platelet function assay. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression models were applied to identify independent factorsaffecting post-prasugrel PR level, HPR and HPI status. The amount of variance in PR under prasugrel MD that could be explained by the model was 25.9% (adjusted R²), p<0.001. Pre-prasugrel treatment PR, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), prasugrel loading and smoking uniquely accounted for 10.8%, 1.3%, 3.5% and 1.2% of the observed variance, respectively. HPR and HPI were observed in 7.7% and 13.7% of the cases, respectively. On multivariate analysis, pre-prasugrel PR in the upper quartile (>313 PRU) was the only independent factor associated with HPR under prasugrel MD. In contrast, pre-prasugrel PR in the lower quartile (<242 PRU) and prasugrel loading emerged as the only independent predictors of HPI. In patients under different clinical settings receiving prasugrel 10 mg MD a significant amount of the PR variability in response to prasugrel may be explained by pre- treatment PR level, ACS, prasugrel loading and smoking status. A high pre- treatment PR is associated with HPR, while a low pre-treatment PR and prasugrel loading predict HPI. PMID:23651444
The authors explore factors that affect electricity trade between enterprises in the US and Canada and the US and Mexico. They look to those underlying policy and institutional factors that affect the relative costs of producing electricity in the three countries. In particular, they consider six factors that appear to have a significant impact on electricity trade in North America: differences in the types of economic regulation of power leading to differences in cost recovery for wholesale and retail power and wheeling charges; changing regulatory attitudes, placing more emphasis on demand-side management and environmental concerns; differences in energy and economic policies; differences in national and subnational environmental policies; changing organization of electric power industries which may foster uncertainty, change historical relationships, and provide other potentially important sources of power for distribution utilities; and differences in the ability of enterprises to gain access to electric power markets because of restrictions placed on transmission access. In Section 2, the authors discuss the regulation of electricity trade in North America and provide an overview of the recent trading experience for electricity between Canada and the US and between Mexico and the US, including the volume of that trade over the past decade and existing transmission capacity between regions of the three countries. In Section 3, they look at the benefits that accrue to trading counties and what those benefits are likely to be for the three countries. The discussion in Section 4 centers on the relevant provisions of the Canada Free Trade Agreement and the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement. In Section 5, they set the stage for the discussion of policy and institutional differences presented in Section 6 by outlining differences in the organization of the electric power sectors of Canada, the US, and Mexico. The study is synthesized in Section 7.
The variation of colors in microscopy systems can be quite critical for some users. To address this problem, a study is conducted to analyze how different factors such as size of the sample, intensity of the microscope's light source and the characteristics of the material like chroma and saturation can affect the color appearance through the eyepiece of the microscope. To study the changes in colors considering these factors, the spectral reflectance of 24 colors of GretagMacbeth Classic ColorChecker® and Mini ColorChecker® which are placed under a Nikon ECLIPSE MA200 microscope®2 using dark filed and bright field illuminations which result in different intensity levels, is measured using a spectroradiometer®3 which was placed in front of the eyepiece of the microscope. The results are compared with the original data from N. Ohta1. The evaluation is done by observing the shift in colors in the CIE 1931 Chromaticity Diagram and the CIELAB space, also by applying a wide set of color-difference formulas, namely: CIELAB, CMC, BFD, CIE94, CIEDE2000, DIN99d and DIN99b. Furthermore, to emphasize on the color regions in which the highest difference is observed, the authors have obtained the results from another microscope; Olympus SZX10®4, which in this case the measurement is done by mounting the spectroradiometer to the camera port of the microscope. The experiment leads to some interesting results, among which is the consistency in the highest difference observed considering different factors or how the change in saturation of the samples of the same hue can affect the results.
Intercollegiate athletes report greater alcohol consumption and more alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Although college athletes share many of the same problems faced by non-athletes, there are some consequences that are unique to athletes. Studies have demonstrated that alcohol negatively affects athletic performance including increased dehydration, impeded muscle recovery, and increased risk for injury. Beyond risk factors for alcohol misuse that may affect college students in general, research has begun to examine risk factors that are unique to collegiate athletes. For example, research has found that off-season status, the leadership role, and athlete-specific drinking motives are associated with increased alcohol use. Given these findings, it is possible that other athlete-specific variables influence alcohol misuse. One such variable may be sport achievement orientation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between sport achievement orientation and alcohol outcomes. Given previous research regarding seasonal status and gender, these variables were examined as moderators. Varsity athletes (n=263) completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, which assesses sport-related achievement orientation on three scales (Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation). In addition, participants completed measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation were all significantly associated with alcohol use, but not alcohol-related problems. Moreover, these relationships were moderated by seasonal status and gender. These interactions, clinical implications, and limitations are discussed. PMID:24064192
Weaver, Cameron C; Martens, Matthew P; Cadigan, Jennifer M; Takamatsu, Stephanie K; Treloar, Hayley R; Pedersen, Eric R
A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factorsaffecting the cost structure for water infrastructures. PMID:20595751
Used hierarchical linear modeling and longitudinal data from the first three waves of the National Education Longitudinal Study to examine achievement and growth rates in precollege science by racial, ethnic, and gender subgroups. Findings show socioeconomic status and previous grades to be strongly related to eighth-grade achievement across all…
Inhabitants of the Croatian islands of Brac, Hvar, Korcula, and the Peljesac Peninsula have been the subject of extensive previous studies of local population differentiation. Most of these studies used biological and ecological variables, but some also considered historical and sociological factors. In this study we use genetic, morphological, kinship, and language distance data, collected for individuals from 26 rural communities on the islands of Brac, Hvar, Korcula, and the Peljesac Peninsula in the Adriatic, to further explore the interaction of historical, sociological, and biological factors in small populations and to test the significance of some of these proposed causes. First, we use matrix correlation methods to evaluate the relationships among different types of distance measures. The specific measures of genetic distance used here do not correlate well with other measures of population distance, and it appears that for the studied genetic systems the populations are not strongly differentiated. As expected, kinship and language distances have a high degree of association. Morphological differences among populations seem to be more closely tied to kinship distances than to genetic distances. This may result from modification of some morphological features by environmental rather than genetic factors, or it may be attributed to extensive, selective, nonrandom emigration of the population during the first decade of the twentieth century. In the second part of our analysis we use matrix correlation methods to evaluate and possibly identify the external factors that have contributed to the population differences. Specifically, we use design matrices to test hypotheses that population differences can be explained by one of the following factors: geographic isolation on the islands and peninsula, distance from the mainland, geographic barriers within the islands and peninsula, and the historical factors that differentially affected the three islands and the peninsula. Most of these design matrices reflect geographic distances; although correlations between morphological variables and simple geographic distance between localities were not significant, correlations between these localities and a design matrix incorporating geographic distance along with geographic barriers, such as bodies of water and mountain ranges, are particularly important for explaining distances among kin. Design matrices provide an important tool for quantifying the relationship between historical and geographic factors, and measures of population distance. PMID:9780515
Background Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factorsaffecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to test the association between deciding a future specialty and students’ sociodemographic and academic factors. Results Of the 422 students approached, 387 (91.7%) decided to participate. A total of 144 (37.2%) students made a decision regarding their choice of future medical specialty. Pediatrics, general surgery, and cardiology were the most desired specialties – 18 (12.5%), 17 (11.8%), and 16 (11.1%) students requested these specialties, respectively. Only 61 (42.4%) of those who selected a future specialty received advice regarding their choice. Looking for a good treatment outcome for patients (66; 45.8%) and a challenging specialty (58; 40.3%) were the most influencing incentives when selecting a future specialty. Students in the clinical phase of their study were 3.014 (95% CI: 1.498–6.065) more likely to report on their decision regarding a future specialty compared to students in the basic medical sciences phase (p=0.002). Conclusion A variety of factors appeared to inspire medical students in Kuwait to choose a future medical specialty. When identified, these factors can be used by mentors of medical students and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are limited in Kuwait.
The complex environmental context must be considered as we move forward to improve cancer care and, ultimately, patient and population outcomes. The cancer care continuum represents several care types, each of which includes multiple technical and communication steps and interfaces among patients, providers, and organizations. We use two case scenarios to 1) illustrate the variability, diversity, and interaction of factors from multiple levels that affect care quality and 2) discuss research implications and provide hypothetical examples of multilevel interventions. Each scenario includes a targeted literature review to illustrate contextual influences upon care and sets the stage for theory-informed interventions. The screening case highlights access issues in older women, and the survivorship case illustrates the multiple transition challenges faced by patients, families, and organizations. Example interventions show the potential gains of implementing intervention strategies that work synergistically at multiple levels. While research examining multilevel intervention is a priority, it presents numerous study design, measurement, and analytic challenges.
Taplin, Stephen H.; Ganz, Patricia; Grunfeld, Eva; Sterba, Katherine
Though adoption in China is known to have increased as more girls were abandoned and became available for adoption following the introduction of the country's one-child policy in the 1980s, little is known about Chinese adoption practices. This paper investigates the factorsaffecting adoption in China in the period 1950-87 using data from the National Two-Per-Thousand Sample Survey on Fertility and Contraception of 1988. The results show that the national adoption rate was 2.3 per cent. Childless women were more likely than women with children to adopt and did not show a sex preference. Women with children by birth used adoption to secure a child of the 'missing' sex. Women who had experienced the death of a child were more likely to adopt than those who had not. Women with children may have used adoption as a strategy to circumvent the strict family planning policies. PMID:15204260
Airborne 210Pb, daughter of 222Rn, is frequently used as a tracer in different studies concerning atmospheric transport, sedimentation, soil erosion, dating, etc. Concentration of 210Pb was measured in 40 soil samples collected in urban and industrial areas in order to get evidence of possible influence of some factors on accumulation of airborne 210Pb in soil. Different soil properties such as the content of organic matter, free CaCO3, and available phosphorus (P2O5) were measured to explore their possible correlation with the amount of 210Pb. Special attention was given to the correlation between 210Pb and stable lead accumulated in the soil. Several samples were taken near a battery manufacturer to check if extremely high concentrations of lead can affect the uptake of the airborne 210Pb in soil. Soil samples were also taken at different depths to investigate the penetration of lead through the soil.
The rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose reaction is known to decrease significantly as the reaction proceeds. Factors such as reaction temperature, time, and surface area of substrate that affect cellulose conversion were analyzed relative to their role in a mechanistic model based on first order inactivation of adsorbed cellulases. The activation energies for the hydrolytic step and inactivation step were very close in magnitude: 16.3kcalmol(-1) for hydrolysis and 18.0kcalmol(-1) for inactivation, respectively. Therefore, increasing reaction temperature would cause a significant increase in the inactivation rate in addition to the catalytic reaction rate. Vmax,app was only 20% or less of the value at 72h compared to at 2h as a result of inactivation of adsorbed cellulases, suggesting prolonged hydrolysis is not an efficient way to improve cellulose hydrolysis. Hydrolysis rate increased with corresponding increases in available substrate surface binding area. PMID:25027809
Potential factorsaffecting retention of pregnancy during weeks 5-9 of gestation were studied in dairy cows and heifers (N = 211) on two farms. Cows were examined by ultrasonography for presence of a viable embryo, and sizes of the corpus luteum (CL) and of follicles > or = 5mm were recorded. Blood samples were taken at each examination and assayed for progesterone and estradiol. Overall pregnancy loss was 11.4%. Cows with two CL did not have greater concentrations of progesterone than cows with one CL and they retained fewer pregnancies (P < 0.01; 73% versus 91%). Pregnancy retention was associated positively with concentrations of progesterone and estradiol during week 5 (P < 0.05). Embryos that were lost apparently died before CL regression. Retention of pregnancy declined in cows with high body condition and as age of the cow increased. Pregnancy retention was lower in cows bred to one of four frequently-used service sires (P < 0.05). Days postpartum, milk production, parity, service number, inseminator, synchronization of estrus, diameter of follicles and size of CL did not affect pregnancy retention. In conclusion, retention of pregnancy during placentation varied with concentrations of progesterone and estradiol, age of cow, body condition and service sire. PMID:15302385
Starbuck, Melanie J; Dailey, Robert A; Inskeep, E Keith
Recently a furfural nematicide Multiguard Protect EC was launched for use on turfgrasses in the United States. A series of greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the concentration and exposure time required for this formulation to irreversibly affect Belonolaimus longicaudatus, and to study factors that might affect the practicality of furfural use in turfgrass systems. One experiment exposed B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural (0 to 990 ppm) in vitro for either 24 or 48 hr, followed by inoculation onto bermudagrass. A second experiment evaluated effects of exposure of B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural in soil solution on bermudagrass with or without an organic thatch layer. A third experiment evaluated effects on B. longicaudatus of increasing concentrations of furfural applied as a spray treatment to creeping bentgrass. Results from the in vitro exposure experiment found decreasing numbers of B. longicaudatus with increasing furfural concentration beginning with the lowest concentration tested (270 ppm). Belonolaimus longicaudatus were virtually eliminated with furfural concentrations ? 720 ppm. Similarly, exposure to increasing concentration of furfural in soil solution resulted in increasing reduction in numbers of B. longicaudatus. Presence of thatch slightly reduced the population density of B. longicaudatus. Spray application of furfural only reduced numbers of B. longicaudatus at the two highest rates (3,600 and 4,950 ppm). PMID:24379484
According to our current understanding, galaxy shapes and morphologies should depend on various factors such as the local environment. Realistic image simulations for calibration of weak lensing analysis methods that use training samples from the Hubble Space Telescope can therefore be affected by these trends, due to the limited volume of the universe that has been surveyed by Hubble. I will show how redshift slices in a volume-limited subsample of COSMOS can be classified as overdense or underdense (or neither), and how the statistical properties of various morphological parameters such as ellipticity, Sersic n, bulge-to-total ratio and color differ in these bins. This study requires a careful distinction between environment effects from large-scale structure, which we do not wish to include in simulations, and general trends in the galaxy population with redshift. We conclude with some guidance for how upcoming surveys can use COSMOS data as the basis for weak lensing simulations without having their conclusions overly affected by cosmic variance.
This paper describes a study of success factors in high enrollment courses in a K-12 virtual school learning environment. The influence of variables: time student spent in the learning management system (LMS), number of times logged into the LMS, teacher comment, participation in free or reduced lunch programs, student status in the virtual school…
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of related educational factors on the mathematics and science achievement of secondary students. The researcher compared the variables of instructional design, economic status and retention against the exit level scores on the mathematics and science Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills…
Presents study which extends the analysis of economic understanding and attitudes of high school students using a national data set of the Test of Economic Literacy (TEL). Using matched pre- and posttest scores, the study investigated factors that explained level of posttest economic achievement or attitudes and analyzed reasons for gains in…
This paper examines the extent that material, social, and cultural resources and schools account for the relationship between socioeconomic background and student achievement among 15-year-olds in 30 countries. Generally, cultural factors play a more important role in most countries although in a small minority of countries, material resources…
For many college students in the sciences, organic chemistry poses a difficult challenge. Indeed, success in organic chemistry has proven pivotal in the careers of a vast number of students in a variety of science disciplines. A better understanding of the factors that contribute to achievement in this course should contribute to efforts to increase the number of students in
The study investigated the association and relative influence of cognitive/motivational and demographic factors on final degree grade point average (GPA) in a single undergraduate cohort. Although academic self-efficacy, approaches to learning, prior achievement and age all produced significant correlations with GPA, regression analysis identified…
In this study the authors employed a multilevel analysis procedure in order to examine the pupil and school levels factors that contributed to variation in reading achievement among Grade 6 primary school pupils in 14 southern African school systems (Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa,…
Using longitudinal data, this analysis: (1) documented educational outcomes for serious offending girls, and (2) identified risk and protective factors associated with academic achievement in mid-adolescence and degree attainment by early adulthood. In mid-adolescence, girls performed nearly one standard deviation below the population mean on…
Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Chauhan, Preeti; Reppucci, N. Dickon
Parental characteristics, ecological factors, and the academic achievement of African American male high school students were examined. One hundred fifty-three 11th and 12th grade African American males completed the Parenting Style Index (Steinberg, Lamborn, Darling, Mounts, & Dornbusch, 1994) and a demographic questionnaire. Results…
The aim of the present study was to conduct an analysis of TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) 2003 database and to determine how negative school factors, such as aggression, are associated to the mathematical and science achievement of students. The analyses were conducted separately for national and international data.…
Perse, Tina Vrsnik; Kozina, Ana; Leban, Tina Rutar
This study presents a subset of factors and their association with students' achievement in school algebra. The participants were students who had enrolled in 2007 at the ninth year of Greek public education (third year of middle school). A total of 735 students participated (aged 14-15 years) from 37 public secondary schools. The sample…
This paper explores the relative importance of social factors and health measures in predicting educational achievement in early and late adolescence using population-based administrative data. The sample was made up of 41,943 children born in Manitoba, Canada between 1982 and 1989 and remaining in the province until age 18. Multilevel modeling…
Objective To use observational methods to objectively evaluate the organisation of triage and what issues may affect the effectiveness of the process. Design A two?phase study comprising observation of 16?h of triage in a London hospital emergency department and interviews with the triage staff to build a qualitative task analysis and study protocol for phase 2; observation and timing in triage for 1870?min including 257 patients and for 16 different members of the triage staff. Results No significant difference was found between grades of staff for the average triage time or the fraction of time absent from triage. In all, 67% of the time spent absent from triage was due to escorting patients into the department. The average time a patient waited in the reception before triage was 13?min 34?s; the average length of time to triage for a patient was 4?min 17?s. A significant increase in triage time was found when patients were triaged to a specialty, expected by a specialty, or were actively “seen and treated” in triage. Protocols to prioritise patients with potentially serious conditions to the front of the queue had a significantly positive effect on their waiting time. Supplementary tasks and distractions had varying effects on the timely assessment and triage of patients. Conclusions The human factors method is applicable to the triage process and can identify key factors that affect the throughput at triage. Referring a patient to a specialty at triage affects significantly the triage workload; hence, alternative methods or management should be suggested. The decision to offer active treatment at triage increases the time taken, and should be based on clinical criteria and the workload determined by staffing levels. The proportion of time absent from triage could be markedly improved by support from porters or other non?qualified staff, as well as by proceduralised handovers from triage to the main clinical area. Triage productivity could be improved by all staff by becoming aware of the effect of the number of interruptions on the throughput of patients.
This review and orientation to strain gage technology presents the historical development of the bonded foil resistance strain gage as well as modern design and selection criteria for the successful use of strain gages in smart structure technology. Discovered in 1865 by Lord Kelvin, the principle of using resistance change in conductors to measure strain has existed in its present form of the foil strain gage since the late 1950s. Since then, advances in manufacturing and applications techniques have made the bonded foil resistance strain gage one of the most economical and easy to use sensors available for direct measurement and transducer applications alike. Millions are produced and use each year throughout the world. The factorsaffecting strain gage design and construction include of foil alloy, backing, pattern, and temperature characteristics. Over 250,000 unique strain gage constructions are possible, each particularly suited to a specific set of application conditions. The effect of each of these factors on smart structure performance is considered.
This study aimed to determine the factors that may affect the development of mortality in patients with stage 3b necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Between January 2005 and December 2012, patients with the diagnosis of stage 3b NEC who were surgically treated were enrolled in the study. Gestational age, birth weight, presence of hypoxemia history, major congenital heart diseases, enteral feeding, age at perforation, drainage type, operation, and laboratory findings were considered regarding their possible relationship with mortality. Thirty-one patients were enrolled in this study. Following treatment, 15 patients died, while 16 patients recovered and were discharged. Feeding type, high levels of prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), creatinine, and low platelet count, as well as need of inotropic support were associated with mortality. When the cut-off point of platelet level for mortality development in stage 3b NEC was calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the cut-off point for thrombocyte level was found to be 110,000/µL, with 93.3% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity. Despite the innovations in newborn intensive care, the mortality rate of stage 3b NEC remains very high. Breastfeeding has a significantly positive impact on the survival of patients with NEC. Thrombocytopenia is the most important risk factor of mortality in stage 3b NEC. PMID:24911845
Peripheral neuropathy in burn patients may be frequently missed in clinical settings. Although its incidence has been reported, little is known regarding the factors that cause burn-related peripheral neuropathy. A retrospective chart review of the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients admitted to a university hospital based burn center was conducted to explore the characteristics of burn-related neuropathy and factorsaffecting its types or extent. The variables collected were gender, age, length of hospital stay, site and surface area of burn, type of burn, and electrodiagnostic findings. We found that flame injuries, and third degree injuries were the most common in patients with peripheral neuropathy. Axonotmesis was more common than demyelinating injury and polyneuropathy was more common than mononeuropathy. Higher degree and larger area burns were more frequently associated with axonotmesis than with demyelination. Length of hospital stay was significantly longer in patients with axonotmesis. Overall, more severe burns showed a significant association with axonotmesis and a tendency to be related to polyneuropathy. PMID:18951702
The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factorsaffecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period (2005--2009) for a network of permanent sample plots in Pinus radiata plantations in Chile. In 2009, we calculated LAI from ground measurements using LI-COR LAI-2000 and TRAC instruments on each one hectare plot. These values of LAI were regressed against Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Reduced Simple Ratio (RSR), derived from the TM 2009 data. Linear relationships were strong with R2 values of 0.65 for SR, 0.61 for NDVI and 0.67 for RSR. Using the RSR relationship, LAI values were estimated for the network of permanent sample plots of Pinus radiata plantations over the whole period. For project 3, we examined environmental factorsaffecting growth rates of Pinus radiata in Chile. Water availability (as affected by precipitation, soil water holding capacity, and potential evapotranspiration) appeared to be the factor most limiting to leaf area and growth. Maximum growing season temperature also negatively affected growth. Sites with highest productivities had the lowest annual water deficits and the most productive sites used water and light more efficiently. Good sites produced 1.6 as compared to 0.49 kg of wood per m3 of evapotranspired water for less productive sites. In addition, productive stands produced 0.5 as compared to 0.31 g of wood per MJ for less productive sites.
This study compares the precipitation regimes by using harmonic analysis during the last four decades (1965-2004). We used the measured precipitation data from 428 rain-gauge sites and weather stations distributed across Iran by applying 15 × 15 km spatial grids to generate the interpolated data. Data validations were carried out by statistical tests. In this study, first three harmonics of precipitation variances were evaluated. Variability of precipitation regime was explored by using three harmonic analysis methods. In addition, the effect of geographical factors (GF) (site elevation, latitude, and longitude) affecting the precipitation regime (P) was verified by multivariate regression method. The resulted regression equation between P and GF for spring showed the highest correlation coefficient (r = 0.79). For other seasons, r was lower than for spring and varied between 0.26 (summer) to 0.58 (autumn). Analysis of the first harmonic proved that the main precipitation regime in Iran tends to concentrate in one specific season (winter) as a result of large-scale Mediterranean systems passing over the country. In other words, the first harmonic is able to explain most of the precipitation variations which are caused by large-scale atmospheric circulation. For all the three harmonics, variances of precipitation were mainly a function of the geographical factors. This effect was more evident in the third harmonic; in such a way that increasing the latitudes caused higher precipitation variance. This means that the precipitation regime in northern sites is more sensitive to the local factors than those of southern sites. The results of this research can be used for reliable estimation of precipitation in ungauged sites.
Sabziparvar, A. A.; Movahedi, S.; Asakereh, H.; Maryanaji, Z.; Masoodian, S. A.
Identifying causes of declines and evaluating effects of management practices on persistence of local populations of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) requires accurate estimates of abundance and population trends. Moreover, regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada typically require surveys to detect nest burrows prior to approving developments or other activities in areas that are potentially suitable for nesting burrowing owls. In general, guidelines on timing of surveys have been lacking and surveys have been conducted at different times of day and in different stages of the nesting cycle. We used logistic regression to evaluate 7 factors that could potentially affect probability of a surveyor detecting a burrowing owl nest. We conducted 1,444 detection trials at 323 burrowing owl nests within 3 study areas in Washington and Wyoming, USA, between February and August 2000-2002. Detection probability was highest during the nestling period and increased with ambient temperature. The other 5 factors that we examined (i.e., study area, time of day, timing within the breeding season, wind speed, % cloud cover) interacted with another factor to influence detection probability. Use of call-broadcast surveys increased detection probability, even during daylight hours when we detected >95% of owls visually. Optimal timing of surveys will vary due to differences in breeding phenology and differences in nesting behavior across populations. Nevertheless, we recommend ???3 surveys per year: one that coincides with the laying and incubation period, another that coincides with the early nestling period, and a third that coincides with the late nestling period. In northern latitudes, surveys can be conducted throughout the day.
Conway, C. J.; Garcia, V.; Smith, M. D.; Hughes, K.
A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.
Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factorsaffecting bone mineral density (BMD). Methods 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years) participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The patient's quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29). Results Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI) of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs) pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001), but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL), disease duration and BMD of both site. Conclusion As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients’ treatment protocols.
EM or seismic data inversions are affected by many factors, which may conceal the responses from target objects. We address here the contributions from the following effects: 1) Pre-survey spectral sensitivity factor. Preliminary information about a target layer can be used for a pre-survey estimation of the required frequency domain and signal level. A universal approach allows making such estimations in real time, helping the survey crew to optimize an acquisition process. 2) Preliminary velocities' identification and their dispersions for all the seismic waves, arising in a stratified media became a fast working tool, based on the exact analytical solution. 3) Vertical gradients effect. For most layers the log data scatter, requiring an averaging pattern. A linear gradient within each representative layer is a reasonable compromise between required inversion accuracy and forward modeling complexity. 4) An effect from the seismic source's radial component becomes comparable with vertical part for explosive sources. If this effect is not taken into account, a serious modeling error takes place. This problem has an algorithmic solution. 5) Seismic modeling is often based on different representations for a source formulated either for a force or to a potential. The wave amplitudes depend on the formulation, making an inversion result sensitive to it. 6) Asymmetrical seismic waves (modified Rayleigh) in symmetrical geometry around liquid fracture come from S-wave and merge with the modified Krauklis wave at high frequencies. A detail analysis of this feature allows a spectral range optimization for the proper wave's extraction. 7) An ultrasonic experiment was conducted to show different waves appearance for a super-thin water-saturated fracture between two Plexiglas plates, being confirmed by comparison with theoretical computations. 8) A 'sandwich effect' was detected by comparison with averaged layer's effect. This opens an opportunity of the shale gas direct identification from the surface measurements.
Magomedov, M.; Zuev, M. A.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.
In this study, the major factorsaffecting sonolytic degradation of sulfamethazine (SMT), a typical pharmaceutically active compound, in water were evaluated. The factors tested included two operational parameters (i.e. initial SMT concentration and ultrasonic power), three dissolved gases (i.e. Ar, O2 and N2), five most frequently found anions in water (NO3(-),Cl(-),SO4(2-),HCO3(-)andBr(-)), ferrous ion (Fe(2+)), and four alcohols (methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, tert-butyl alcohol). Typically, the degradation rate was increased with the increasing initial SMT concentration and power. The degradation rate was accelerated in the presence of argon or oxygen, but inhibited by nitrogen. Effects of anions on the ultrasonic treatment were species-dependent. The SMT degradation rate was slightly inhibited by NO3(-),Cl(-),and,SO4(2-) but significantly improved by HCO3(-)andBr(-). The negative effects of alcohols acted as hydroxyl radicals scavengers with the following order: tert-butyl alcohol>isopropyl alcohol>ethanol>methanol. The synergetic effect of ferrous ion was mainly due to production of additional hydroxyl radicals (·OH) through Fenton chemistry. LC/MS/MS analysis indicated that the degradation of SMT by ultrasonic irradiation is mainly ascribed to ·OH oxidation. Of interest, although the SMT could be rapidly degraded by ultrasonic irradiation, the degradation products were rarely mineralized. For example, ~100% of 180 ?M SMT was decomposed, but only 8.31% TOC was reduced, within 2h at an irradiation frequency of 800 kHz and a power of 100 W. However, the products became much biodegradable (BOD5/COD was increased from 0.04 to 0.45). Therefore, an aerobic biological treatment may be an appropriate post-treatment to further decompose the SMT degradation products. PMID:23711347
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify factors that affect diffusion of usage of online end user literature searching. Fifteen factors clustered into three attribute sets (innovation attributes, organizational attributes, and marketing attributes) were measured to study their effect on the diffusion of online searching within institutions. METHODS: A random sample of sixty-seven academic health sciences centers was selected and then 1,335 library and informatics staff members at those institutions were surveyed by mail with electronic mail follow-up. Multiple regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: The survey yielded a 41% response rate with electronic mail follow-up being particularly effective. Two dependent variables, internal diffusion (spread of diffusion) and infusion (depth of diffusion), were measured. There was little correlation between them, indicating they measured different things. Fifteen independent variables clustered into three attribute sets were measured. The innovation attributes set was significant for both internal diffusion and infusion. Significant individual variables were visibility for internal diffusion and image enhancement effects (negative relation) as well as visibility for infusion (depth of diffusion). Organizational attributes were also significant predictors for both dependent variables. No individual variables were significant for internal diffusion. Communication, management support (negative relation), rewards, and existence of champions were significant for infusion. Marketing attributes were not significant predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Successful diffusion of online end user literature searching is dependent on the visibility of the systems, communication among, rewards to, and peers of possible users who promote use (champions). Personal image enhancement effects have a negative relation to infusion, possibly because the use of intermediaries is still seen as the more luxurious way to have searches done. Management support also has a negative relation to infusion, perhaps indicating that depth of diffusion can increase despite top-level management actions.
Remote sensing of primary production in the euphotic zone has been based mostly on visible-band and water-leaving radiance measured with the coastal zone color scanner. There are some robust, simple relationships for calculating integral production based on surface measurements, but they also require knowledge for photoadaptive parameters such as maximum photosynthesis which currently cannot be obtained from spave. A 17,000-station data set is used to show that space-based estimates of maximum photosynthesis could improve predictions of psi, the water column light utiliztion index, which is an important term in many primary productivity models. Temperature is also examined as a factor for predicting hydrographic structure and primary production. A simple model is used to relate temperature and maximum photosynthesis; the model incorporates (1) the positive relationship between maximum photosynthesis and temperature and (2) the strongly negative relationship between temperature and nitrate in the ocean (which directly affects maximum growth rates via nitrogen limitation). Since these two factors relate to carbon and nitrogen, 'balanced carbon/nitrogen assimilation' was calculated using the Redfield ratio, It is expected that the relationship between maximum balanced carbon assimilation versus temperature is concave-down, with the peak dependent on nitrate uptake kinetics, temperature-nitrate relationships,a nd the carbon chlorophyll ration. These predictions were compared with the sea truth data. The minimum turnover time for nitrate was also calculated using this approach. Lastly, sea surface temperature gradients were used to predict the slope of isotherms (a proxy for the slope of isopycnals in many waters). Sea truth data show that at size scales of several hundred kilometers, surface temperature gradients can provide information on the slope of isotherms in the top 200 m of the water column. This is directly relevant to the supply of nutrients into the surface mixed layer, which is useful for predicting integral biomass and primary production.
The purposes of this research were to first examine the evidence regarding the factor structure of educational achievement tests in the context of two theoretical models of cognitive ability (psychometric g and mutualism) that have been proposed to explain this structure as well as the underlying processes that may be responsible for its emergence in dimensionality studies. Then, the factor structure underlying a sample of the standardized educational achievement tests used by California in its statewide school accountability program was compared to those emerging from a selection of behavioral and personality assessments. As expected, the educational achievement tests exhibited a strong and uniformly positive manifold resulting in greater unidimensionality as evidenced by a dominant general factor in bi-factor analysis then either the personality or behavioral assessments. The implications of these structural differences are discussed with respect to the two theoretical perspective as well as in the context of formative and summative educational inferences in particular, and the school accountability and reform movement in general. PMID:22805361
Examines the relative role of selected risk and protective factors on students' achievement and affective investment in schooling with middle and high school students (N=582) involved in Communities in Schools. Teacher support was found to have a greater impact than home status and home academic culture risk on educational investment and the only…
The phenotype of E-beta-thalassemia is affected by several genetic factors. The aim of this study was to analyze severity of E-beta-thalassemia and correlate with HbE, HbF, E/F ratios, beta-mutation and Xmn I polymorphism. Thirty cases of E-beta-thalassemia (23 with childhood onset) were studied. HbE levels were quantitated by HPLC. Xmn1 polymorphism and beta-mutations were studied by PCR-RFLP and ARMS respectively. Commonest features were pallor (100%), splenomegaly (74%), and hepatomegaly (65%), 43% (10/23) were on regular transfusions at diagnosis. One case presented with paraplegia. Patients heterozygous for Xmn I polymorphism (+/-) had later onset (>3 yrs) compared to homozygous (-/-) absence (0.5-2.8 yrs). Most (69.6%) showed beta-mutation IVS 1-5 (G-->C). Negative correlation was found between age of onset and HbE. Thus, presentation is similar to previously reported Thai cases. Heterozygosity of Xmn I polymorphism also delays disease onset. Early diagnosis facilitates appropriate management and prenatal diagnosis. PMID:15876597
Panigrahi, I; Agarwal, S; Gupta, T; Singhal, P; Pradhan, M
A pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading bacterium was isolated from PCP-contaminated soils and identified as Pseudomonas mendocina NSYSU (P. mendocina NSYSU). The main objectives of this study were to (1) clarify the factorsaffecting the ability and efficiency of PCP biodegradation by P. mendocina NSYSU, and (2) optimize the use of this bacterium in bioremediation of PCP. Microcosm experiments were conducted to fulfill the objectives. In batch cultures, P. mendocina NSYSU used PCP as its sole source of carbon and energy and was capable of completely degrading this compound. This was confirmed by the stoichiometric release of chloride ion. Moreover, P. mendocina NSYSU was able to mineralize a high concentration of PCP (150 mg/L). Results from the oxygen concentration experiment reveal that the growth of P. mendocina NSYSU was inhibited under low oxygen and anaerobic conditions. Results indicate that the optimal growth conditions for P. mendocina NSYSU include the following: slightly acidic (6
Kao, C M; Liu, J K; Chen, Y L; Chai, C T; Chen, S C
Factorsaffecting somatic embryogenesis from root explants of Prunus incisa Thunb. cv. February Pink were investigated. Using a medium containing Murashige and Skoog salts and vitamins supplemented with 10 microM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic (2,4-D), we evaluated the effects of light, growth regulators, amino acids, carbohydrate source, and root induction medium. Explants cultured under light or dark conditions both resulted in the formation of embryos. Embryogenesis was inhibited by the addition of 6-benzyladenine, thidiazuron, or gibberellic acid to the medium. Amino acids were not effective in promoting embryogenesis, with high levels of amino acids actually inhibiting it. Sucrose and glucose effectively induced embryogenesis, while sorbitol and mannitol completely inhibited it. Sucrose and glucose also promoted secondary embryogenesis. Embryos that formed in medium containing 4% or 5% sucrose were abnormally shaped and did not fully develop, while those that formed in medium with sucrose concentrations of 2% or 3% were much more vigorous. Root explants that were induced on medium containing 1.0 micro M indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) produced more somatic embryos than explants induced on medium without IBA. Approximately 50% of the roots induced on medium containing 1.0 microM IBA produced somatic embryos on medium containing 10 microM 2,4-D and 3% sucrose. PMID:15022015
Structural Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) have the potential for application in the hot sections of a variety of advanced propulsion and power systems. It is therefore necessary to have a general understanding of the key properties of CMC and Reinforcing Fibers. This need is complicated by the wide variety of application conditions and structural requirements for which CMC's will be used, and the proprietary concerns of the design engineers. CMC's, to be successful, must display properties which are competitive with the currently used high temperature structural materials: (i.e., Iron and Nickel based superalloys, tough monolithic ceramics, and carbon/carbon composites.) Structural CMC offers several areas of competition: (1) performance, (i.e., strength and strength retention, creep resistance, and thermal conductivity), (2) reliability (i.e., environmental durability, and damage tolerance) and (3) processing (i.e., capability for varying sizes and shapes, and cost effective fabrication). The presentation further discusses, and illustrates with fiber and CMC data the key fiber properties and processes which strongly affect each CMC area of competition. The presentation further discusses the current knowledge of the important factors which control the key fiber properties. A design guidelines for the optimum fiber characteristics is developed, and the currently available fibers are compared against those guidelines.
Mouse epididymal spermatozoa were frozen in solutions containing various compounds with different molecular weights, and the factorsaffecting the postthawing survival were examined. Monosaccharides (glucose, galactose) had almost no protective effect regardless of the concentration and the temperature of exposure. On the other hand, disaccharides (sucrose, trehalose) and trisaccharides (raffinose, melezitose) resulted in higher survival rates, especially at a concentration of around 0.35 mol/kg H(2)O (0.381-0.412 Osm/kg). Macromolecules, such as PVP10, Ficoll 70, bovine serum albumin, and skim milk had almost no effect, but compounds with a molecular weight of about 800, such as metrizamide and Nycodenz, had some protective effect. When a raffinose solution was supplemented with 10% metrizamide, resulting in an osmolality of approximately 0.400 Osm/kg, a high survival rate was obtained. Solutions at about 0.400 Osm/kg containing trehalose alone, trehalose + metrizamide, raffinose alone, and raffinose + metrizamide, were all effective for sperm freezing; frozen-thawed sperm could fertilize oocytes, and the resultant embryos could develop to live young after transfer. For freezing mouse spermatozoa, aqueous solutions at approximately 0.400 Osm/kg containing a disaccharide or a trisaccharide seem to be effective. PMID:10860623
An, T Z; Iwakiri, M; Edashige, K; Sakurai, T; Kasai, M
Based on the observation data from eddy covariance tower and meteorological gradient tower in Panjin reed wetland observation plot, and by the method combined eddy covariance with microclimate gradient observation, two fundamental aerodynamic parameters, i. e., zero-plane displacement (d) and roughness length (z0), were evaluated, with their affectingfactors analyzed. The results showed that the method adopted was suitable for estimating the aerodynamic parameters. There existed obvious seasonal variations in d and z0, with the maximum (1.85 and 0.24 m) in September and the minimum (0.02 and 0.03 m) in December, respectively. The seasonal variations were closely related to vegetation characteristics, plant height (h) and leaf area index (LAI). There was a close linear relationship between d and h, and a conic relationship between z0 and h. Both d/h and d/z0 had power relationships with LAI, and the R2 values were 0.99 and 0.78, respectively. PMID:18533513
Background/Aims High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) utilizes a targeted extracorporeal focused ultrasound beam to ablate neoplastic pancreatic tissue. We used an in vitro model to examine the effects of bone, metallic stents, plastic stents, metal plates, and cyst-like lesions on HIFU treatment. Methods HIFU was delivered to the phantom models implanted with foreign bodies, and the location, shape, and size of the ablated zones were evaluated. Results Bone and metallic plates reflected the ultrasound beam, shifting the ablation zone from the focal zone to the prefocal area. In the phantoms containing metal stent, plastic stent, and cyst, most of the ablative energy was reflected to the prefocal area by the surface, with the remainder penetrating through the phantom. The area of the ablated margins was significantly larger in size and volume than the intended focal ablation zone. Conclusions During HIFU therapy, artificial or anatomical barriers could affect the direction of the ultrasound beams, shifting the ablation zone from the focal area to a prefocal site with a larger than expected ablation zone. These factors should be considered prior to HIFU treatment for pancreatic tumors because they could limit ablation success, in addition to causing complications.
Hassanuddin, Aizan; Choi, Jun-Ho; Seo, Dong-Wan; Ryu, Choong Heon; Kim, Su-Hui; Park, Do Hyun; Lee, Sang Soo; Lee, Sung Koo; Kim, Myung-Hwan
The factorsaffecting patterns of benthic [seabed] biology and chemistry around 50 Scottish fish farms were investigated using linear mixed-effects models that account for inherent correlations between observations from the same farm. The abundance of benthic macrofauna and sediment concentrations of organic carbon were both influenced by a significant, albeit weak, interaction between farm size, defined as the maximum weight of fish permitted on site at any one time, and current speed. Above a farm size threshold of between 800 and 1000 t, the magnitude of effects at farms located in areas of elevated current speeds were greater than at equivalent farms located in more quiescent waters. Sediment concentrations of total organic matter were influenced by an interaction between distance and depth, indicating that wind-driven resuspension events may help reduce the accumulation of organic waste at farms located in shallow waters. The analyses presented here demonstrate that the production and subsequent fate of organic waste at fish farms is more complex than is often assumed; in isolation, current speed, water depth, and farr size are not necessarily good predictors of benthic impact. PMID:20178333
Mayor, Daniel J; Zuur, Alain F; Solan, Martin; Paton, Graeme I; Killham, Ken
This review evaluates three current theories--Standard Consolidation (Squire & Wixted, 2011), Overshadowing (Sutherland, Sparks, & Lehmann, 2010), and Multiple Trace-Transformation (Winocur, Moscovitch, & Bontempi, 2010)--in terms of their ability to account for the role of the hippocampus in recent and remote memory in animals. Evidence, based on consistent findings from tests of spatial memory and memory for acquired food preferences, favours the transformation account, but this conclusion is undermined by inconsistent results from studies that measured contextual fear memory, probably the most commonly used test of hippocampal involvement in anterograde and retrograde memory. Resolution of this issue may depend on exercising greater control over critical factors (e.g., contextual environment, amount of pre-exposure to the conditioning chamber, the number and distribution of foot-shocks) that can affect the representation of the memory shortly after learning and over the long-term. Research strategies aimed at characterizing the neural basis of long-term consolidation/transformation, as well as other outstanding issues are discussed. PMID:24120426
The aim of this study is to characterize urban spaces, which combine landscape, acoustics, and lighting, and to investigate people's perceptions of urban soundscapes through quantitative and qualitative analyses. A general questionnaire survey and soundwalk were performed to investigate soundscape perception in urban spaces. Non-auditory factors (visual image, day lighting, and olfactory perceptions), as well as acoustic comfort, were selected as the main contexts that affect soundscape perception, and context preferences and overall impressions were evaluated using an 11-point numerical scale. For qualitative analysis, a semantic differential test was performed in the form of a social survey, and subjects were also asked to describe their impressions during a soundwalk. The results showed that urban soundscapes can be characterized by soundmarks, and soundscape perceptions are dominated by acoustic comfort, visual images, and day lighting, whereas reverberance in urban spaces does not yield consistent preference judgments. It is posited that the subjective evaluation of reverberance can be replaced by physical measurements. The categories extracted from the qualitative analysis revealed that spatial impressions such as openness and density emerged as some of the contexts of soundscape perception. PMID:22225033
Objectives To identify those factors which adversely affected recruitment to a large multicentre palliative care study. Methods Patient accrual to a multicentre, observational, palliative care study was monitored at three critical junctures in the research process. (1) Eligibility—did the patient fulfil the study entry criteria? (2) Accessibility—was it possible to access the patient to be able to inform them about the study? (3) Consent—did the patient agree to participate in the study? The reasons why patients were ineligible, inaccessible or refused consent were recorded. Results 12?412 consecutive referrals to participating clinical services were screened for study inclusion of whom 5394 (43%) were deemed to be ineligible. Of the remaining patients 4617/7018 (66%) were inaccessible to the research team. The most common reasons being precipitous death, ‘gatekeeping’ by clinical staff or rapid discharge. Of the 2410 patients who were visited by the research team and asked to participate in the study 1378 (57%) declined. Overall 8.2% (1018/12?412) of patients screened participated in the study. There were significant differences in recruitment patterns between hospice inpatient units, hospital support and community palliative care teams. Conclusions Systematic monitoring and analysis of patient flows through the clinical trial accrual process provided valuable insights about the reasons for failure to recruit patients to a clinical trial and may help to improve recruitment in future studies.
Stone, Patrick C; Gwilliam, Bridget; Keeley, Vaughan; Todd, Chris; Kelly, Laura C; Barclay, Stephen
The motion imagery community would benefit from the availability of standard measures for assessing image interpretability. The National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS) has served as a community standard for still imagery, but no comparable scale exists for motion imagery. Several considerations unique to motion imagery indicate that the standard methodology employed in the past for NIIRS development may not be applicable or, at a minimum, require modifications. Traditional methods for NIIRS development rely on a close linkage between perceived image quality, as captured by specific image interpretation tasks, and the sensor parameters associated with image acquisition. The dynamic nature of motion imagery suggests that this type of linkage may not exist or may be modulated by other factors. An initial study was conducted to understand the effects target motion, camera motion, and scene complexity have on perceived image interpretability for motion imagery. This paper summarizes the findings from this evaluation. In addition, several issues emerged that require further investigation: - The effect of frame rate on the perceived interpretability of motion imagery - Interactions between color and target motion which could affect perceived interpretability - The relationships among resolution, viewing geometry, and image interpretability - The ability of an analyst to satisfy specific image exploitation tasks relative to different types of motion imagery clips Plans are being developed to address each of these issues through direct evaluations. This paper discusses each of these concerns, presents the plans for evaluations, and explores the implications for development of a motion imagery quality metric.
Irvine, John M.; Fenimore, Charles; Cannon, David; Roberts, John; Israel, Steven A.; Simon, Larry; Watts, Charles; Miller, James D.; Aviles, Ana I.; Tighe, Paul F.; Behrens, Richard J.; Haverkamp, Donna
The objective of this study was to identify factors that influence the decision whether or not to get the influenza (flu) vaccine among nurses in Israel by using the health belief model (HBM). A questionnaire distributed among 299 nurses in Israel in winter 2005/2006 included (1) socio-demographic information; (2) variables based on the HBM, including susceptibility, seriousness, benefits, barriers and cues to action; and (3) knowledge about influenza and the vaccine, and health motivation. A probit model was used to analyze the data. In Israel, the significant HBM categories affecting nurses' decision to get a flu shot are the perceived benefits from vaccination and cues to action. In addition, nurses who are vaccinated have higher levels of (1) knowledge regarding the vaccine and influenza, (2) perceived seriousness of the illness, (3) perceived susceptibility, and (4) health motivation than do those who do not get the vaccine. Immunization of healthcare workers may reduce the risk of flu outbreaks in all types of healthcare facilities and reduce morbidity and mortality among high-risk patients. In order to increase vaccination rates among nurses, efforts should be made to educate them regarding the benefits of vaccination and the potential health consequences of influenza for their patients, and themselves. PMID:18781347
The study aimed to recognize the personality factors of a predisposition to seasonal mood fluctuations in a non-clinical sample. A group of 101 subjects (57 women, 44 men; mean age 26.4?±?6.5 years) completed a battery of tests comprising a Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ), Chronotype Questionnaire (ChQ), a NEO-Five Factor Inventory and a Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS). A smaller sample (n?=?44) completed a Winter Blues Scale (WBS). Women scored significantly higher than men in seasonality (p?=?0.014), neuroticism (p?=?0.049), agreeableness (p?=?0.010), and avoidance-oriented coping style (p?=?0.041). Subjects with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) (n?=?41) or sub-SAD (n?=?33), as diagnosed with SPAQ, exhibited higher levels of neuroticism (p?=?0.017) and openness (p?=?0.016) in comparison to non-SAD individuals. The latter declared a less frequent avoidance coping style. Both measures of seasonality, i.e. the SPAQ Global Seasonality Score and WBS, correlated significantly (r?=?0.28 and 0.44, respectively) with the subjective amplitude of the circadian rhythm, as described with the "distinctness" scale of ChQ. Female gender, neuroticism and openness were confirmed as factors linked to seasonal mood variability. Additionally, the study revealed an association between susceptibility to mild winter depression and an avoidance-oriented coping style. The avoidance coping style was correlated positively with all the aspects of seasonality described by SPAQ (correlation coefficients from 0.21 to 0.34). Both sub-types of avoidance-oriented style, i.e. distraction and social diversion, were associated with marked subjective seasonal changes in sleep length, mood and the energy level. While the subjective amplitude of circadian rhythm proved to be connected with seasonality, the subjective acrophase of the rhythm (morningness-eveningness preference) did not. It may be hypothesized that sensitivity to natural environmental conditions/synchronizers is a separate individual trait shaping the subject's proneness to energy and mood changes both in diurnal and year scale, i.e. circadian and seasonal mood variations. PMID:24397301
Factors that influence the collection and measurement of atmospheric sulfate were investigated. Special emphasis was given to those factors that cause the formation of extraneous sulfate during the sampling process. The factors considered were filter type and composition, ambient...
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of related educational factors on the mathematics and science achievement of secondary students. The researcher compared the variables of instructional design, economic status and retention against the exit level scores on the mathematics and science Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) test of 11th grade students. The technique used for this investigation was a Three-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Three hundred thirty five students from an urban school district in a metropolitan area in southeast Texas participated in this study. Ex-post facto data obtained from the district's student information system was utilized. Based on the results, the following conclusions were drawn. (1) Instructional design does impact mathematics and science achievement of students at the secondary level. (2) Retention during a student's ninth grade year does impact mathematics and science achievement. (3) The interaction of instructional design and retention does impact the mathematics and science achievement of students at the secondary level. (4) Economic status as a main effect or as an interaction effect does not impact mathematics and science achievement of students at the secondary level. For those seeking to explore this topic in greater depth, recommendations for further investigations might consider the study of teacher perceptions and attitudes toward students who attend school in the alternative setting. Additionally, future investigations might look into the level of experience and the reasons teachers choose to teach in the alternative setting.
In this review, our aim was to examine the influence of geographic variations on asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults, which is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity. Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The disparities in asthma prevalence and morbidity among the world's geographic locations are more likely to be associated with environmental exposures than genetic differences. In writing this article, we found that the indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, and that difference correlated with environmental risk exposures, SES, and healthcare access. Environmental risk factors to which urban adults were more frequently exposed than rural adults were dust mites,high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle.Exposure to indoor biological contaminants in the urban environment is common.The main risk factors for developing asthma in urban areas are atopy and allergy to house dust mites, followed by allergens from animal dander. House dust mite exposure may potentially explain differences in diagnosis of asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults in urban vs. rural areas. In addition, the prevalence of asthma morbidity increases with urbanization. High levels of vehicle emissions,Western lifestyles and degree of urbanization itself, may affect outdoor and thereby indoor air quality. In urban areas, biomass fuels have been widely replaced by cleaner energy sources at home, such as gas and electricity, but in most developing countries, coal is still a major source of fuel for cooking and heating, particularly in winter. Moreover, exposure to ETS is common at home or at work in urban areas.There is evidence that asthma prevalence and morbidity is less common in rural than in urban areas. The possible reasons are that rural residents are exposed early in life to stables and to farm milk production, and such exposures are protective against developing asthma morbidity. Even so, asthma morbidity is disproportionately high among poor inner-city residents and in rural populations. A higher proportion of adult residents of nonmetropolitan areas were characterized as follows:aged 55 years or older, no previous college admission, low household income, no health insurance coverage, and could not see a doctor due to healthcare service availability, etc. In rural areas, biomass fuels meet more than 70% of the rural energy needs. Progress in adopting modern energy sources in rural areas has been slow. The most direct health impact comes from household energy use among the poor, who depend almost entirely on burning biomass fuels in simple cooking devices that are placed in inadequately ventilated spaces. Prospective studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of biomass smoke on lung health among adults in rural areas.Geographic differences in asthma susceptibility exist around the world. The reason for the differences in asthma prevalence in rural and urban areas may be due to the fact that populations have different lifestyles and cultures, as well as different environmental exposures and different genetic backgrounds. Identifying geographic disparities in asthma hospitalizations is critical to implementing prevention strategies,reducing morbidity, and improving healthcare financing for clinical asthma treatment. Although evidence shows that differences in the prevalence of asthma do exist between urban and rural dwellers in many parts of the world, including in developed countries, data are inadequate to evaluate the extent to which different pollutant exposures contribute to asthma morbidity and severity of asthma between urban and rural areas. PMID:23625129
Jie, Yu; Isa, Zaleha Md; Jie, Xu; Ju, Zhang Long; Ismail, Noor Hassim
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most devastating intestinal disease affecting preterm infants. In addition to being associated with short term mortality and morbidity, survivors are left with significant long term sequelae. The cost of caring for these infants is high. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that use of antibiotics and type of feeding may cause an intestinal dysbiosis important in the pathogenesis of NEC, but the contribution of specific infectious agents is poorly understood. Fecal samples from preterm infants ?32 weeks gestation were analyzed using 16S rRNA based methods at 2, 1, and 0 weeks, prior to diagnosis of NEC in 18 NEC cases and 35 controls. Environmental factors such as antibiotic usage, feeding type (human milk versus formula) and location of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were also evaluated. Microbiota composition differed between the three neonatal units where we observed differences in antibiotic usage. In NEC cases we observed a higher proportion of Proteobacteria (61%) two weeks and of Actinobacteria (3%) 1 week before diagnosis of NEC compared to controls (19% and 0.4%, respectively) and lower numbers of Bifidobacteria counts and Bacteroidetes proportions in the weeks before NEC diagnosis. In the first fecal samples obtained during week one of life we detected a novel signature sequence, distinct from but matching closest to Klebsiella pneumoniae, that was strongly associated with NEC development later in life. Infants who develop NEC exhibit a different pattern of microbial colonization compared to controls. Antibiotic usage correlated with these differences and combined with type of feeding likely plays a critical role in the development of NEC.
Torrazza, Roberto Murgas; Ukhanova, Maria; Wang, Xiaoyu; Sharma, Renu; Hudak, Mark Lawrence; Neu, Josef; Mai, Volker
This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factorsaffecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers. PMID:16425649
Pharmaceuticals may be released to the soil environment through the application of biosolids to land. To understand those factorsaffecting the persistence of pharmaceuticals in the soil environment, the present study was performed to assess the effects of soil type, the presence of biosolids, and the impact of chemical mixture interactions on the degradation of three pharmaceuticals: naproxen, carbamazepine, and fluoxetine. Single-compound studies showed that naproxen degraded in a range of soils with half-lives ranging from 3.1 to 6.9 d and in biosolids with a half-life of 10.2 d. No relationships were observed between degradation rate and soil physicochemical properties and soil bioactivity. For naproxen, addition of biosolids to soils reduced the degradation rate observed in the soil-only studies, with half-lives in the soil-biosolid systems ranging from 3.9 to 15.1 d. Carbamazepine and fluoxetine were found to be persistent in soils, biosolids, and soil-biosolid mixtures. When degradation was assessed using a mixture of the three study compounds and the sulfonamide antibiotic sulfamethazine, the degradation behavior of fluoxetine and carbamazepine was similar to that observed in the single compound studies (i.e., no degradation). However, the degradation rate of naproxen in soils, biosolids, and soil-biosolid systems spiked with the mixture was significantly slower than in the single-compound studies. As degradation studies for risk assessment purposes are performed using single substances in soil-only studies, it is possible that current risk assessment procedures will underestimate environmental impacts. Further work is therefore warranted on a larger range of substances, soils, biosolid types, and chemical mixtures to better understand the fate of pharmaceuticals in terrestrial systems. PMID:19580336
Accurate characterization of particle concentrations indoors is critical to exposure assessments. It is estimated that indoor particle concentrations depend strongly on outdoor concentrations. For health scientists, knowledge of the factors that control the relationship of indoor particle concentrations to outdoor levels is particularly important. In this paper, we identify and evaluate sources of data for those factors that affect the transport to and concentration of outdoor particles indoors. To achieve this goal, we (i) identify and assemble relevant information on how particle behavior during air leakage, HVAC operation, and particle filtration effects indoor particle concentration; (ii) review and evaluate the assembled information to distinguish data that are directly relevant to specific estimates of particle transport from those that are only indirectly useful; and (iii) provide a synthesis of the currently available information on building air-leakage parameters and their effect on indoor particle matter concentrations.
An Iowa study examined whether increased medical knowledge affects medical students' interviewing skills in each or any year of medical school. Results suggest interviewing skills are not affected by increased knowledge about medical conditions but can be improved with technique training. (MSE)
This report contains the results of a literary review of cultural factors which could influence the validity of polygraph examinations. Five general cultural factors were selected for study. For the purpose of this review, culture is defined by geographic...
Asthma is a variable disease, and various factors can lead to an increase (or decrease) in asthma symptoms and the level of asthma control. Pub Med was searched for recent articles dealing with asthma variability, environmental factors and co-morbid conditions that affect asthma control, and for publications which identified tools to facilitate patients' response to asthma variability. Variability in asthma symptoms may be a response to the individual's environment (e.g. seasonal variation, cigarette smoke, and air pollutants) or personal factors (e.g. inhaler technique, pregnancy, exercise). Co-morbid diseases such as allergic rhinitis may also impact significantly on asthma variability and control. Documenting asthma variability and assessing both adherence and possible triggers over time may allow patients and physicians to develop treatment programmes that anticipate, rather than follow, changes in the level of asthma symptoms. Personalised asthma control plans which take into account factorsaffecting symptom variability may enable patients to modify medication and their environment prophylactically in anticipation of a known trigger or at the first sign of an asthma exacerbation. PMID:18264646
This paper analyzes the demanding affectingfactors for financial management business by using factor analysis model and logistic regression through the data obtained from the survey questionnaires. It is found that the main factors that affecting financial management business are the special life cycle stages the residents are in and the external information environment for residents to purchase financial products.
First-year student dropout in the university sector can reach 20% or higher. Over a two-year period, a simple instrument was developed to identify potential student low performance and withdrawal. It was based on a measure of students' early expectation of higher education, matched subsequently with their actual experience. The instrument design…
This literature review demonstrates that dropouts follow a similar though inverse path compared to students who have attained academic excellence. Descriptions of at-risk students' characteristics lead to a discussion of the "loser's circle" of dropping out and strategies for attaining a "winner's circle" of academic excellence. (71 references)…
The goal of this research was to characterize the mist formation process. The salient machining and metalworking fluid parameters affecting the mist generation rate and size distribution of each mist formation mechanism were identified. Empirical equation...
The aim of this study was to identify factors that are associated with patients achieving goal A1c after 6 months in a pharmacist-managed diabetes clinic. This study is a descriptive, retrospective chart review of patients with type 2 diabetes enrolled in a pharmacist-managed diabetes clinic. The primary endpoint was the odds of each identified factor being associated with achievement of goal A1c after 6 months of enrollment. The factors were also evaluated within 2 subgroups: those with a baseline A1c >7% and those with a baseline A1c >9%. Of 112 patients enrolled, 58 were included in the analysis. There was a positive association with reaching goal for patients who had <1 failure to show (FTS) to office visits in 6 months [odds ratio (OR) 8.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47-58.65], had canceled or FTS to <50% of office visits (OR 10.0, 95% CI 1.8-72.79), and brought >75% of blood glucose logs to their office visits (OR 7.36, 95% CI 1.87-30.88). There was a negative association with reaching the goal for patients with documented social worker involvement (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.04-0.99) and noninsulin or insulin dose increases at >50% of office visits (OR 0.10, 95% CI 0.01-0.55). Overall, this analysis found that patients who had <1 FTS, had canceled or FTS to <50% of office visits, or who brought >75% logs to office visits were more likely to achieve goal A1c, whereas patients with social work assistance or dose increases at >50% of office visits were less likely to reach goal A1c. PMID:23344108
Kostoff, Matthew D; Boros, Melanie L; Moorman, John M; Frazee, Lawrence A
Sizeable achievement differences by race appear in early grades, but substantial uncertainty exists about the impact of school quality on the black-white achievement gap and particularly about its evolution across different parts of the achievement distribution. Texas administrative data show that the overall growth in the achievement gap between…
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with early child- hood caries (ECC) and to develop a profile of risk factors for Hispanic families affected by this condition. Methods: Sixty Hispanic families with at least 1 child affected by ECC and 60 Hispanic families without any affected children were included in the study. Data was collected
Noelle L. Huntington; Joon Kim; Christopher V. Hughes
While the existing models explain factors determining approaches to international staffing of multinational enterprises (MNEs) from developed countries, there is little known about MNEs of developing and transforming economies. This qualitative empirical research explores the factors determining international staffing in Chinese MNEs and argues that Western models are generally applicable to the Chinese context. However, the same categories of determining
Presents a model that describes how students reconstruct geological transformations over time. Defines the critical factors influencing reconstructive thinking: (1) the transformation scheme, which influences the other diachronic schemes; (2) knowledge of geological processes; and (3) extracognitive factors. (Author/KHR)
The present study aims at investigating which factors are relevant to induce teachers' student-centered classroom computer use. Survey data were collected from 361 teachers at comprehensive schools. Based on a systemic view of technology use in schools, different individual teacher characteristics and school contextual factors were examined.…
Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT) are characterized by specific chromosomal translocations, which give rise to EWS-ETS chimeric proteins. These aberrant transcription factors are the main pathogenic drivers of ESFT. Elucidation of the factors influencing EWS-ETS expression and/or activity will guide the development of novel therapeutic agents against this fatal disease.
Herrero-Martin, David; Fourtouna, Argyro; Niedan, Stephan; Riedmann, Lucia T.; Schwentner, Raphaela; Aryee, Dave N. T.
The process of surge in a centrifugal compressor has been studied and found to be dependent on a number of complex and often interrelated factors. A major factor defining surge in high-speed, vaned diffuser designs appears to be the flow in the semivaneless space. By developing work initiated by others it has been possible to propose some explanation of previously
Student underachievement on standardized math achievement tests is a major concern in American public schools. One of the speculated reasons for student underachievement is the inability to solve math word problems. Word problems are the most challenging problems in math because word problem solving requires the use of skills in language,…
Multiple pregnancy minimization by single embryo transfer is becoming more prevalent, but is less common in the case of cryopreserved embryos. This study defines embryonic characteristics in single cryopreserved embryo transfers associated with success rates equivalent to those achieved when transferring two cryopreserved embryos. In a retrospective analysis of 6916 cryopreserved day-2 embryo transfer procedures, transfer of two cryopreserved embryos
David H Edgar; Janell Archer; John McBain; Harold Bourne
The purpose of this research is to investigate predictive relationships among student characteristics that influence motivation for learning and achievement. A non-Western sample was chosen to test the generalisability of findings outside the Western cultural and social models. The participants were 6,539 students from 14 public high schools distributed across the western half of Taiwan. They were from three grade
The purpose of this study is to outline the theme of saving energy resources and its relationship with the preservation of the environment, as well as the importance of green marketing in achieving sustainability. The model of data collection was a survey conducted by self-administered questionnaire. After collection, the data were statistically analysed and interpreted. Most individuals claim to be
Reports on a study of participation, achievement, and attitude in cookbook and inquiry-based introductory biology laboratories through observations, interviews, and attitude/knowledge surveys. Participation differences between men and women disappeared in the inquiry-based laboratory. (Author/MM)
Daily variations in Cupressaceae pollen counts were analysed, together with climatic variables in the southwest of Spain, in order to understand the bioclimatic variables affecting Cupressaceae flowering in a Mediterranean climate. The study was carried out using the Spanish Aerobiology Network recommendations, using a Burkard Hirst-type spore trap. Regression analyses were applied to the pollen counts of the winter months of 13 consecutive years. The regression analysis applied to each year indicated that temperature is the most important variable to include in the model. Temperature affected the pollen counts differently according to the yearly climatic trend. During the coldest years, pollen counts depended on the minimum temperature, while in the warmest ones they were affected by higher temperatures. However, during the driest years, pollen counts depended more on the humidity level, while in the wettest years they depended more on the hours of sunshine.
Galán, C.; Fuillerat, M. Jose; Comtois, Paul; Dominguez-Vilches, Eugenio
This study examines whether parental smoking and single parenting were related to adolescents' school achievement and anti-smoking parental practices as well as how these factors predicted later smoking. The sample comprised 1163 Finnish students in Grades 7 through 9. Results show that at the beginning of the seventh grade, parental smoking and single parenting were related to adolescents' lower levels of school achievement. Moreover, parental smoking had moderate association with lack of house smoking rules. At the beginning of the ninth grade, these associations were strengthened and lack of house smoking rules as well as loosened perceived parental punishment for smoking was related to both parental smoking and single parenting. The likelihood of ninth grade regular smoking was greater among adolescents whose parents smoked, who had no smoking rules in their homes and had substandard school achievement. These results suggest that smoking parents and single parents had similar anti-smoking regulations for their children at the baseline but once children became older smoking parents were not able to maintain these rules as successfully as non-smoking parents and families with two parents. Motivating parents to uphold these anti-smoking regulations offers a prospective intervention opportunity. PMID:22052215
Reports data on the predictive utility of the WISC-R factor scores for Native American Navajos and examines the diagnostic utility of the FD scores as a correlate of academic achievement. Results indicate limited utility of the WISC-R factor scores in predicting academic achievement for Native American Navajos. (Author/RC)
Three experiments were conducted to investigate several of the variables that affect information processing in short-term memory as reflected by the strategies used by Ss in a visual search task. The first study investigated differences in strategy as a f...
Purpose: This paper reports on an empirical study exploring the way in which campus-based higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK apply their internal quality assurance and enhancement (QA/QE) procedures to their e-learning courses. The purpose of this paper is to identify those characteristics of e-learning courses which affected the…
A study examined features of camps and camp staff that might affect the personal and social benefits of organized camping for children. Questionnaires were completed by 29 camp directors and 270 campers aged 8-14 from 33 residential camps across the United States. Results indicate that higher personal and social outcomes were associated with…
Polydimethylsiloxane composite membrane was employed for the separation of phenol and sodium chloride in synthetic wastewater. The major operational parameters affecting phenol transfer through this composite membrane were screened by the orthogonal array and range analysis. The results showed that the significance of parameters on the permeate flux followed the order of phenol concentration, membrane skin layer thickness, recirculation rate,
Purpose – The paper aims to analyze the influences of organizational context and information technology (IT) applications on employees' perceptions of knowledge acquisition and application capabilities in five public and five private sector organizations in South Korea. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper analyzes how employees' perceptions of organizational context and IT affect employee knowledge acquisition and application capabilities in five public
Ski skating technique choice can potentially influence economy of motion which in turn affects racing performance. Comparisons of skating techniques have demonstrated that uphill slope can influence the relative advantage of one technique versus another. On slopes greater than about 4 to 5 degrees, V1 technique may have physiological advantages over V2 technique. Mechanically this can be explained by positioning
Although there is considerable interest in the impact of diverse policies affecting the biophysical outcomes in forests, gaining a substantial sample over time of forests under different institutional arrangements has been difficult. This article analyzes data from 46 forests located in six countries over time. In forests where policies have been…
The magnetic properties of wound cores constructed from electrical steel strips have been found to be affected by their geometry, in particular the inner and outer diameters, the strip width and the build-up thickness of the toroids. Assessment of the effect of aspect ratio and winding ratio have been carried out in various sizes of toroid. An increase in aspect
The flocculation of coal preparation plant tailings is an established technology, and the scientific basis of flocculation is well understood, Nevertheless, conditions specific to the preparation plant affect the efficiency of the process. The sedimentation rate obtained with flocculated tailings depends on the molecular size of the polyacrylamide. Modern flocculants are very high molecular weight polymers and the size of
Reviews of the research literature have generally concluded that personality factors contribute little to pilot performance. One possible explanation for the failure to find stronger relationships may be due to the lack of appropriate taxonomies for both ...
It was concluded from the survey that safety officers and workers agreed on the top six factors, the first three being maintaining safe working conditions, establishing safety training and educating workers and supervisors.
This article presents a theoretical simulation and analysis of all possible factors due to transient overvoltages (TOVs) that could contribute to electrical failures of electric submersible pump (ESP) motors used in oil fields. A transient calculations software package PSCAD is used to simulate a single cable-fed, 3.3-kV induction motor including the mains of the 33-kV distribution system. The factors studied
A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.
The paper documents the workshop discussion regarding the role of these factors in altering toxicity. For each factor, the nature, magnitude, and uncertainty of its empirical relation to the toxicity of various chemicals or chemical classes is discussed. Limitations in the empirical database regarding the variety of species and endpoints tested were addressed. Possible mechanisms underlying the empirical relations are identified. Finally, research needed to better understand these effects is identified.
Erickson, R. J.; Bills, T. D.; Clark, J. R.; Hansen, D. J.; Knezovich, J.
Context: Various studies have shown that quality of life in women after menopause undergoes radical changes. Several factors such as psycho-social factors are associated with the quality of life during menopausal period. Aims: The present study surveyed the factors associated with quality of life of postmenopausal women in Isfahan, based on Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted through stratified random sampling among 200 healthy postmenopausal women in Isfahan in 2011. Subjects and Methods: Data were collected by two valid and reliable questionnaires (one to assess the quality of life and the other to survey the factors associated with the Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model). Data analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 18) and analytical and descriptive statistics. Results: Pearson correlation indicated a positive and significant correlation between the quality of life and attitude toward menopause, perceived self-efficacy, and enabling and reinforcing factors, but there was no significant relationship between the quality of life and knowledge about menopause. Also, the quality of life in postmenopausal women had significant correlation with their age, education level, marital status, and employment status. Conclusion: Based on the present study, attitude, perceived self-efficacy, perceived social support, and enabling factors are associated with the quality of life in postmenopausal women. So, attention to these issues is essential for better health planning of women.
Substantial improvement in peppermint (Mentha x piperita L. var. Black Mitcham) genetic transformation has been achieved so that the frequency of transgenic plants regenerated (percent\\u000a of leaf explants that produced transformed plants) was 20-fold greater than with the original protocol. Essential modifications\\u000a were made to conditions for Agrobacterium tumefaciens co-cultivation that enhanced infection, and for selection of transformed cells and
X. Niu; X. Li; P. Veronese; R. A. Bressan; S. C. Weller; P. M. Hasegawa
Crack extension in commercial aluminum alloys proceeds by the “ductile” or fibrous mode. The process involves the large, ~1\\u000a ?m to ~10?m, Fe-, Si-, and Cu-bearing inclusions which break easily, and the growth of voids at the cracked particles. The\\u000a linking-up of the voids is accomplished by the rupture of the intervening ligaments, and this is affected by the fine,
This study determined which variables affected endotracheal tube“leak”pressures in 80 surgical patients, two weeks to 11 years\\u000a of age, intubated with uncuffed tracheal tubes. We defined “leak” pressure as the inspiratory pressure needed to cause an\\u000a audible escape of gas around the endotracheal tube.“Leak”pressure was measured after varying either head position, tracheal\\u000a tube depth within the trachea, fresh gas flow
David A. Finholt; Desmond B. Henry; Russell C. Raphaely
Crack extension in commercial aluminum alloys proceeds by the ``ductile'' or fibrous mode. The process involves the large, ~1 mum to ~10mum, Fe-, Si-, and Cu-bearing inclusions which break easily, and the growth of voids at the cracked particles. The linking-up of the voids is accomplished by the rupture of the intervening ligaments, and this is affected by the fine,
Water leakages are the general cause of moisture stress exceeding the moisture tolerances of constructions. Moisture stress\\u000a causes biodeterioration (mould, rot and insect damage) in wooden constructions. The degree of damage is affected by the severity\\u000a and duration of moisture exposure and temperature, together with the sensitivity of the wooden construction to environmental\\u000a stress. The growth of mould fungi on
During creep loading of IN-792, grain boundary morphology in conjunction with grain size strongly affected crack propagation.\\u000a Compositional variations and fabrication techniques showed no significant effect. A primary requirement for materials to be\\u000a used in gas turbine engine discs is satisfactory resistance to crack growth resistance in the 650 to 760?C range. Both conventional\\u000a smooth and machine notched stress-rupture samples
The process of surge in a centrifugal compressor has been studied and found to be dependent on a number of complex and often interrelated factors. A major factor defining surge in high-speed, vaned diffuser designs appears to be the flow in the semivaneless space. By developing work initiated by others it has been possible to propose some explanation of previously presented apparently conflicting data. In addition, a more complex mathematical model capable of assessing additional factors is proposed. Using this model good agreement with experimental surge has been obtained. This model takes into consideration pressure losses in the impeller, diffuser, and collector, and by using this model it was possible to identify the stalling elements that are responsible for overall compressor instability.
Sulfide and vanadium (V) are pollutants commonly found in wastewaters. A novel approach has been investigated using microbial fuel cell (MFC) technologies by employing sulfide and V(V) as electron donor and acceptor, respectively. This results in oxidizing sulfide and deoxidizing V(V) simultaneously. A series of operating parameters as initial concentration, conductivity, pH, external resistance were carefully examined. The results showed that these factors greatly affected the performance of the MFCs. The average removal rates of about 82.2 and 26.1% were achieved within 72 h operation for sulfide and V(V), respectively, which were accompanied by the maximum power density of about 614.1 mW m(-2) under all tested conditions. The products generated during MFC operation could be deposited, resulting in removing sulfide and V(V) from wastewaters thoroughly. PMID:19330358
In recent years, the use of lytic bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents controlling pathogenic bacteria has appeared as a promising new alternative strategy in the face of growing antibiotic resistance which has caused problems in many fields including medicine, veterinary medicine, and aquaculture. The use of bacteriophages has numerous advantages over traditional antimicrobials. The effectiveness of phage applications in fighting against pathogenic bacteria depends on several factors such as the bacteriophages/target bacteria ratio, the mode and moment of treatment, environmental conditions (pH, temperature...), the neutralization of phage and accessibility to target bacteria, amongst others. This report presents these factors and the challenges involved in developing phage therapy applications.
This paper presents the outcomes of a study of the factors that contribute to teaching team effectiveness in situations where team members rarely meet face to face. Academic faculty within a university Business School were asked to report the degrees to which they believed that the module teaching teams to which they belonged contained members who…
Green specifications constitute one of the important elements in green construction. New sustainability requirements and changing priorities in construction management have spurred the emerging green specifications to a faster pace of development. A cross-sectional survey has been conducted in Hong Kong in 2007 to identify principal factors leading to the success of preparing green specifications. Based on extensive construction management literature, 20 variables concerning sustainable construction were summarized. Using the Mann-Whitney U-test, the subtle differences between stakeholders in specifying construction work have been detected even with the high consistency of the responses among the groups. Moreover, five independent factors for successful specification of green construction have been categorized by factor analysis. They are related to (1) green technology and techniques, (2) reliability and quality of specification, (3) leadership and responsibility, (4) stakeholder involvement, and (5) guide and benchmarking systems. Whilst the first and fourth factors are generally more important, different stakeholder groups have different emphases. The results of the survey have been validated against established principles. PMID:19853367
Lam, Patrick T I; Chan, Edwin H W; Poon, C S; Chau, C K; Chun, K P
Agriculture has been recognized as one of the most hazardous occupations in the United States. In an industry where according to the 1997 Agricultural Census, an estimated 500,000 farm workers, 1\\/4 of all farm operators are 65 years of age or older, age becomes a serious factor when considering potential risk for injuries among this population. Because no mandatory retirement
Vitrification of bovine oocytes performed using the traditional, in straw system has not given satisfactory results. Although an alternative approach based on minimizing the volume of the vitrified sample has recently resulted in a much more promising survival rate of vitrified oocytes, we attempted to examine some additional factors influencing the survival and subsequent fertilization and development rates of bovine
Data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future survey were used to examine relationships between school-related factors and high school seniors' lifetime methamphetamine use. The study applied logistic regression techniques to evaluate effects of social bonding variables and social learning variables on likelihood of lifetime methamphetamine use. The…
Why is technology not used more in schools? Many researchers have tried to solve this persistent puzzle. The authors of this article report on their study of technology uses in 19 schools. They suggest an ecological metaphor, using the example of the introduction of the zebra mussel into the Great Lakes, to integrate and organize sets of factors…
The purpose of building predictive financial models is that find latent crisis advance the data. The researcher before study the predictive financial models usually use the statistics method, as factors analysis, cluster analysis, etc. They use those methods to reduce variable. Then the researcher building predictive financial model by university regression model, multivariate regression model, and neural networks. Will reducing
Describes activities that demonstrate the effects of factors such as wind velocity, water temperature, convection currents, intensity of light, rate of photosynthesis, atmospheric pressure, humidity, numbers of decomposers, presence of oxidizable ions, and respiration by plants and animals on the dissolved oxygen concentration in water. (MA)
A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and con...
What factors lead working adults to initially enroll in graduate programs? Is the undergraduate degree no longer enough to sustain a rewarding career? Little is known as to why this segment of graduate students are building careers and pursuing advanced degrees simultaneously. Traditional institutions of higher learning have primarily focused on…
Effective disinfection and stabilization of sewage sludge prior to land application is essential to not only protect human health, but also to convince the public of its benefits and safety. A basic understanding of the key factors involved in producing a stable biosolid product ...
Cereal Chem. 67(l):81-84 Viscometry of wheat flour extracts was used to study factors con- acid, and cysteine inhibited increases in viscosity. The mechanism of this tributing to oxidative gelation. Addition of hydrogen peroxide did not oxidative gelation appears to be complicated and influenced greatly by increase viscosity of dilute aqueous extracts of wheat flour but did increase the concentrations of
Judgments about people with pain are influenced by contextual factors that can lead to stigmatization of patients who present in certain ways. Misplaced staff perceptions of addiction may contribute to this, because certain pain behaviors superficially resemble symptoms of analgesic addiction. We used a vignette study to examine hospital staff judgments about patients with genuine symptoms of analgesic addiction and
James Elander; Malgorzata Marczewska; Roger Amos; Aldine Thomas; Sekayi Tangayi
One thousand periods of estrus of Hol- stein and Jersey cows and heifers of breeding age during 27 mo were used to evaluate environmental and management factors related to estrous behavior during twice-daily heat checks. Mounting activ- ity at the first observation of estrus was influenced by sire within genetic selection group fog milk yield, lactation number, primary housing location,
F. C. Gwazdauskas; J. A. Lineweaver; M. L. McGilliard
In the past, many researches of web interface were focused on usability and technical aspects. Instead, this research takes the visual communication-oriented approach to see how much the visual interface style adds to its rating. The main purpose of this study is to understand the design criteria and major factors that influenced different web visual interface styles. First of all,
Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes of abstainers from drug use that relate to the factors leading to long-term abstinence. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Amal Hospital to examine, which attitudes of abstainers related to long-term abstinence. A random survey was conducted on 62…
This study of 36 K-12 teachers focused on computer use for noninstructional activities and their perspectives on facilitating and impeding factors. Study revealed that computers were used 94% for preparing instructional materials and 58% for finding subject area information. Most common obstacle to computer use was not enough time to learn new…
Based on a statistical analysis of the database of the US National Transportation Safety Board, we show that space weather factors have no effect on aviation occurrences. We consider typical logical and methodological errors arising in this type of studies and bring facts to show the futility of further research regarding this problem.
This exploratory study examines the factors that college students perceive are important in helping them make good financial decisions about paying for a college education. The study categorizes and summarizes students' self-reported responses to an open-ended survey question about recommendations for changes in financial aid counseling practices.…
Porter, Julia Y.; Fossey, W. Richard; Davis, William E.; Burnett, Michael F.; Stuhlmann, Janice; Suchy, Patricia A.
This study explores barriers and success factors of Hmong students in American colleges by interviewing five Hmong graduate students from refugee families in the US. Emerging themes revolve around academic, cultural and financial barriers. Professors, advisors, classmates, academic support programmes, family, financial aid and their own…
Vocational training program females (N=470) completed a questionnaire assessing the role of personality and social support factors in nontraditional training enrollment. Results revealed differences in the amount of support and encouragement received from others, with nontraditional students receiving more support from female friends, family…
Examined relationship between social and demographic indicators and age-adjusted suicide mortality in 46 prefectures in Japan. Rural residence was the major factor for male mortality in 1970 and 1975. In 1970, home help for the elderly, depopulation by social mobility, and urban residence were positively associated with male mortality. In women,…
Research studies in the past decade have shown that computer technology is an effective means for widening educational opportunities, but most teachers neither use technology as an instructional delivery system nor integrate technology into their curriculum. Studies reveal a number of factors influencing teachers' decisions to use ICT in the…
Afshari, Mojgan; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Luan, Wong Su; Samah, Bahaman Abu; Fooi, Foo Say
This paper summarizes an ongoing examination of the primary factors that affect sensitivity of marine embayment responses to nitrogen loading. Included is a discussion of two methods for using these factors: classification of embayments into discrete sensitivity classes and norma...
Evidence suggests that social and economic factors are important determinants of health. Yet, despite higher poverty rates, less education, and worse access to health care, health outcomes of many Hispanics living in the United States today are equal to, or better than, those of non-Hispanic whites. This paradox is described in the literature as the epidemiological paradox or Hispanic health paradox. In this paper, the authors selectively review data and research supporting the existence of the epidemiological paradox. They find substantial support for the existence of the epidemiological paradox, particularly among Mexican Americans. Census undercounts of Hispanics, misclassification of Hispanic deaths, and emigration of Hispanics do not fully account for the epidemiological paradox. Identifying protective factors underlying the epidemiological paradox, while improving access to care and the economic conditions among Hispanics, are important research and policy implications of this review.
MORALES, LEO S.; LARA, MARIELENA; KINGTON, RAYNARD S.; VALDEZ, ROBERT O.; ESCARCE, JOSE J.
A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students dropouts'' whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.
A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students ``dropouts`` whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.
Data collected in a nationwide study on natural radiation exposure in UK dwellings (Wrixon et al. 1988) were re-analyzed to investigate the effects of rock type and various building and lifestyle characteristics, taken into account simultaneously, on indoor radon concentrations. A multiplicative model which takes into consideration the outdoor radon concentration is used. Indoor radon concentrations were found to be influenced by type of rock underlying the dwelling, double glazing, house type, floor level of rooms in which measurements were taken, window opening habits in the main bedroom, building materials used in the construction of the walls, floor type, and draught proofing. However, these eight factors together account for only 22% of the variation between dwellings. Estimates of the size of the effect associated with each factor are given. PMID:8416211
Gunby, J A; Darby, S C; Miles, J C; Green, B M; Cox, D R
Background. Sleeve lobectomy is a parenchyma-sparing procedure that is particularly valuable in patients with cardiac or pulmonary contraindications to pneumonectomy. The purpose of this study is to report our experience with sleeve lobectomy for bronchogenic cancer and to investigate factors associated with long-term survival.Methods. Between January 1981 and June 2001, 169 patients underwent sleeve lobectomy for non-small-cell lung cancer (n
Elie Fadel; Bedrettin Yildizeli; Alain R Chapelier; Isabelle Dicenta; Sacha Mussot; Philippe G Dartevelle
Displays commonly used for testing heading judgments in the presence of rotations are ambiguous to observers. They can be\\u000a interpreted equally well as motion in a straight line while rotating the eyes or as motion on a curved path. This has led\\u000a to conflicting results from studies that use these displays. In this study, we tested several factors that might
Constance S. Royden; James M. Cahill; Daniel M. Conti
We developed a standardized protocol for comparing the sensitivities of the embryos of different bird species to methylmercury\\u000a when methylmercury was injected into their eggs. During the course of developing this protocol, we investigated the effects\\u000a of various factors on the toxicity of the injected methylmercury. Most of our experiments were done with chicken (Gallus domesticus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and
G. H. Heinz; D. J. Hoffman; S. L. Kondrad; C. A. Erwin
Isocitrate lyase crystals have been grown by the hanging drop vapor equilibration method in both 1-g and microgravity and by vapor equilibrium in small capillaries. The crystal morphologies obtained have ranged from dendritic to 'octagonal' prisms. Theoretical evaporation models have been applied to these growth regimes. The results of these analyses along with other experimental results, indicate the factors which must be controlled to produce good growth morphologies.
Demattei, Robert C.; Feigelson, Robert S.; Weber, Patricia C.
Purpose: To evaluate the role of age, Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), PSA doubling time (PSADT), and PSA half-time (PSAT1\\/2) as prognostic factors in metastatic prostate cancer to predict long-term outcome. Patients and Methods: 412 patients with metastatic prostate cancer diagnosed after January 1995, with at least 6 months of follow-up, were enrolled. Serum PSA was determined at diagnosis and
The combustion efficiency of wood-fired spreader-stoker boilers is limited primarily by carry-over of unburned char from the furnace. This carry-over is caused by incomplete combustion of entrained fuel particles. Data from four experimental studies and one computer study of wood-particle entrainment and combustion are brought together to investigate the factors that cause char carry-over in these units. Single-particle data on
ObjectiveHealth information exchange (HIE) is the process of electronically sharing patient-level information between providers. However, where implemented, reports indicate HIE system usage is low. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with different types of HIE usage.DesignCross-sectional analysis of clinical data from emergency room encounters included in an operational HIE effort linked to system user logs
Joshua R Vest; Hongwei Zhao; Jon Jaspserson; Larry D Gamm; Robert L Ohsfeldt
Background.In longitudinal smoking prevention studies, a difficulty in evaluating treatment effects is understanding whether bias is associated with those who do not complete the study. This study presents the significant predictors of attrition and suggests how to reduce attrition bias in evaluating program effects.Methods.Survival analysis methods were used to assess factors associated with attrition at different time points of the
The purpose of this resource is to have students use GLOBE data and graphing tools to compare the influence of latitude, elevation, and geography on seasonal patterns. Students analyze the graph of the past year's maximum and minimum temperatures at their site. They compare this graph to similar graphs for two other sites and list which factors that might cause the patterns to be different and investigate one in depth.
The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)
Based on the 3D-GBSB (three-dimensional Geometrically Based Single-Bounce) model and MIMO channel capacity function, by geometric analysis, it is analyzed that transceiver antenna arrays, antenna spacing, antenna array angle, SNR and Rician K-factor and so on impact on the frequency-nonselective fading MIMO channel capacity. Monte Carlo method can be applied to stimulate the wireless fading channel and demonstrate Cumulative Distribution Function of above.
The use of elemental sulfur (S0) to alleviate widespread S deficiencies in agricultural soils is limited by the unpredictability of its oxidation to plant\\u000a available sulfate. Here we review the biological, fertilizer and soil-related factors that control S0 oxidation. Sulfur oxidation in soil is mediated primarily by microorganisms, and thus it is the size, composition and activity\\u000a of the microbial
Past studies have shown that the surface energy of a polymer coating has an important effect on the sticking of insects to the surface. However, mechanical properties of polymer coatings such as elasticity may also be important. A further study is suggested using polymer coatings of known surface energy and modulus so that a better understanding of the mechanism of the sticking of insects to surfaces can be achieved. As the first step for the study, surface analysis and road tests were performed using elastomers having different energies and different moduli. The number of insects sticking to each elastomer was counted and compared from sample to sample and with a control (aluminum). An average height moment was also calculated and comparisons made between samples.
Yi, O.; Chitsaz-Z, M. R.; Eiss, N. S.; Wightman, J. P.
With increasing health service cutbacks, cost-effectiveness is a central issue in many wound care decisions. Clinicians are frequently required to justify clinical decision making in terms of health benefits obtained and the cost to health service providers. However, few clinicians have the skills to accurately interpret cost in more than local health economic terms, and the disjointed structures that exist in healthcare provision mean that even those who monitor health expenditure have little concept of the global cost of care provision. This article focuses on the pressures placed on healthcare providers to achieve cost-effectiveness in care, specifically in relation to wound care and the effect that pain at dressing change has on the cost of care. PMID:24779844
Temperature is the best known variable affecting the distribution of the archaeal glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in marine and freshwater systems. Other variables such as pH, ionic strength, or bicarbonate concentration may also affect archaeal GDGTs in terrestrial systems. Studies of pure cultures can help us pinpoint the specific effects these variables may have on archaeal lipid distribution in natural environments. In this study, three Sulfolobus species (HG4, HB5-2, HB9-6) isolated from Tengchong hot springs (pH 2-3, temperature 73-90°C) in China were used to investigate the effects of temperature, pH, substrate, and type of strain on the composition of GDGTs. Results showed that increase in temperature had negative effects on the relative contents of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), GDGT-1 (one cyclopentyl ring), GDGT-2 and GDGT-3 but positive effects on GDGT-4, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5'. Increase in pH, on the other hand, had negative effects on GDGT-0, GDGT-1, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5', and positive effects on GDGT-3 and GDGT-4. GDGT-2 remained relatively constant with changing pH. When the HG4 was grown on different substrates, GDGT-5 was five time more abundant in sucrose-grown cultures than in yeast extract- or sulfur- grown cultures, suggesting that carbohydrates may stimulate the production of GDGT-5. For all three species, the ring index (average number of rings) of GDGTs correlated positively with incubation temperature. In HG4, ring index was much lower at optimal pH (3.5) than at other pH values. Ring index of HB5-2 or HB9-6 is higher than that of HG4, suggesting that speciation may affect the degree of cyclization of GDGT of the Sulfolobus. These results indicate that individual archaeal lipids respond differently to changes in environmental variables, which may be also species specific.
The shrinkage of fly ash geopolymers was studied in the present study. Fly ash was used as the source material for making the geopolymers. The effects of the concentration of NaOH, sodium silicate-to-NaOH ratio, liquid-to-ash ratio, curing temperature, and curing time on shrinkage were investigated. The geopolymers were cured at 25, 40, and 60°C, respectively. The results indicate that the shrinkage of geopolymers is strongly dependent on curing temperature and liquid-to-ash ratio. The increase in shrinkage is associated with the low strength development of geopolymers. It is also found that NaOH concentration and sodium silicate-to-NaOH ratio also affect the shrinkage of geopolymers but to a lesser extent.
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of several explanatory factors: anthropometry, buoyancy, passive underwater torque, drag and swimming technique on the energy cost of swimming front crawl in children and adults. Submaximal V(.)O(2) was measured in ten children (age 12) and 13 adults (age 21), as well as body length (BL), body mass, arm length, propelling size, active drag, hydrostatic lift, passive torque, intracyclic velocity fluctuation, hand slip, stroke length and body angle. The results show that body length ( r=0.74), body mass ( r=0.86) propelling size ( r=0.61), arm length ( r=0.66), distance between the center of mass and the center of volume (Delta d, r=0.74) and body angle during swimming ( r=-0.56) all showed significant linear relationships with the cost of swimming at 1.0 m x s(-1) (CS(1.0)). When normalizing the cost of swimming to body size (CS(1.0) x BL(-1)) there were no differences between the two groups. The conclusions of this study are that the combination of BL, body mass, active drag factor, passive torque, drag efficiency and hydrostatic lift were able to explain 97% of the variation in the cost of swimming for the whole group of swimmers. The size-independent factors of torque and floating abilities (density and Delta d in % of BL), together with swimming technique and active drag were found to explain 75% of the variations in CS(1.0) x BL(-1). The identical values for CS(1.0) x BL(-1) for children and adults are explained through the opposing effects of a better swimming technique in the adults, and a better passive torque in the children. PMID:15243747
Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Ingjer, Frank; Stallman, Robert Keig; Stray-Gundersen, James
Problems associated with aircraft operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from investigations conducted at the Langley Aircraft Landing Loads and Traction Facility and from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.
The historical background of the technology and economics of aircraft replacement and retirement in the prejet era is reviewed in order to determine whether useful insights can be obtained applicable to the jet era. Significant differences between the two periods are noted. New factors are identified and examined. Topics discussed include concern over current policies regarding deregulation, regulatory reform, and retroactive noise regulations; financing and compliance legislation; aging; economic environment and inflation; technological progress; fuel efficiency and cost; and a financial perspective of replacement decisions.
Many viruses are capable of infecting the human respiratory tract to cause disease. These viruses display various transmission patterns among humans; however, they all share the ability to transmit from person to person, and their human transmissibility is influenced by the environment in which pathogen and host meet. This review aims to summarize recent and significant observations regarding the impact of environmental factors such as weather and climate, humidity, temperature, and airflow on the transmission of human respiratory viruses. Where possible, knowledge gaps that require further scientific study will be identified.
Peripheral blood stem cells are widely used as stem cell source for allografting. Progenitor cells can be effectively mobilized into peripheral blood in majority of healthy donors with a brief administration of G-CSF. A mobilization course in 111 donors (median age 40years) was retrospectively studied and the factors influencing the efficacy of mobilization were analyzed. The median number of CD34+ cells per kg recipient weight 5.1x10(6) was obtained after a median of two aphereses. The target cell dose (4.0x10(6)/kg) was reached in 69% of donors. Circulating CD34+ count and CD34+ yield were negatively associated with donor's age. Other independent factors associated with superior yield were precollection platelet and WBC counts. In multivariate analysis only CD34+ precount predicted for CD34+ yield. G-CSF had an acceptable short-term safety profile. Our data confirm that apheresis is a safe procedure in healthy including aged donors and suggest that older donors could be poorer mobilizers than younger. PMID:16209935
Introduction Data availability has forced researchers to examine separately the role of alcohol among drivers who crashed and drivers who did not crash. Such a separation fails to account fully for the transition from impaired driving to an alcohol-related crash. Method In this study, we analyzed recent data to investigate how traffic-related environments, conditions, and drivers’ demographics shape the likelihood of a driver being either involved in a crash (alcohol impaired or not) or not involved in a crash (alcohol impaired or not). Our data, from a recent case–control study, included a comprehensive sampling of the drivers in nonfatal crashes and a matched set of comparison drivers in two U.S. locations. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to investigate the likelihood that a driver would crash or would not crash, either with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC)=.00 or with a BAC?.05. Conclusions To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine how different driver characteristics and environmental factors simultaneously contribute to alcohol use by crash-involved and non-crash-involved drivers. This effort calls attention to the need for research on the simultaneous roles played by all the factors that may contribute to motor vehicle crashes.
Romano, Eduardo O.; Peck, Raymond C.; Voas, Robert B.
The combustion efficiency of wood-fired spreader-stoker boilers is limited primarily by carry-over of unburned char from the furnace. This carry-over is caused by incomplete combustion of entrained fuel particles. Data from four experimental studies and one computer study of wood-particle entrainment and combustion are brought together to investigate the factors that cause char carry-over in these units. Single-particle data on entrainment and combustion are first presented, followed by data for multiple-particle combustion. This information is then used in a model of the processes occurring in a wood-fired furnace. It is shown that for typical fuel size distribution, the fraction of fuel entrained can be as little as 10% but is typically greater than 50%. The state of the largest particle entrained is that of dry wood. Under typical furnace conditions, the volatile fraction of the wood is approximately 90%, so that char will constitute only about 10% of the original dry wood mass. Devolatilization is very rapid for the entrained particles, so that the char combustion rate will be the most important factor in determining carry-over. Because particles smaller than about 1 mm usually burn out in the furnace, char carry-over is attributable to the fraction of the fuel that is initially larger than 1mm but smaller than the largest particle entrained. (Refs. 4).
Background The relative age effect (RAE) has been reported for a number of different activities. The RAE is the phenomena whereby players born in the first few months of a competition year are advantaged for selection to elite sports. Much of the literature has identified elite male athletics, such as the National Hockey League (NHL), as having consistently large RAEs. We propose that RAE may be lessened in the NHL since the last examination. Methods We examined demographic and selection factors to understand current NHL selection biases. Results We found that RAE was weak and was only evident when birth dates were broken into year halves. Players born in the first half of the year were relatively advantaged for entry into the NHL. We found that the RAE is smaller than reported in previous studies. Intraplayer comparisons for multiple factors, including place of birth, country of play, type of hockey played, height and weight, revealed no differences. Players who were not drafted (e.g., free agents) or who played university hockey in North America had no apparent RAE. Conclusion We found little evidence of an RAE in the current NHL player rosters. A larger study of all Canadian minor hockey intercity teams could help determine the existence of an RAE.
Parent-Harvey, Caroline I.; Desjardins, Christophe; Harvey, Edward J.
Fluoride is considered important for health because of its beneficial effect on the prevention of dental caries and on bone development in the child population. However, excessive intake has negative effects. The main pathway for exposure is oral, through consumption of drinking water, and some food products. Therefore its bioaccessibility (quantity of the element solubilized during the digestive process) is a parameter to be considered when estimating the risk/benefit associated with this element. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the digestion phase, gastrointestinal digestion factors (pH, pepsin and bile salt concentrations) and the presence of cations on the bioaccessibility of fluoride from seafood products. The results show that the solubilization of fluoride takes place entirely during the gastric phase. Its bioaccessibility is strongly influenced by conditions that favor the formation of insoluble complexes of fluoride with other elements present in the matrix. The factors that are most influential in reducing its bioaccessibility are the increase in pH in the gastric phase, the presence of cations, especially in the intestinal phase, and a low concentration of bile salts. PMID:23747712
Rocha, R A; de la Fuente, B; Clemente, M J; Ruiz, A; Vélez, D; Devesa, V
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations have been determined for sediments and associated pore waters collected at 2 sites (11 stations) in Puget Sound, Washington (northwest U.S.A.). These sediments have been contaminated to varying degrees by hydrocarbons from a creosote plant and from various combustion sources. PAH were not detected in pore waters of sediments whose PAH were primarily derived from combustion and natural sources, even though pore water concentrations predicted from sediment concentrations and two-phase equilibrium partitioning models were above detection limits from most PAH. Equilibrium partition coefficients calculated from field aqueous and solid phase data from an area contaminated with creosote agreed with laboratory-derived coefficients to within a factor of ± 4. Pore water concentrations of creosote-derived aliphatic hydrocarbons increase with increasing concentration in bulk sediments. However, pore water concentrations of natural and contaminant aliphatic hydrocarbons are much higher than predicted by solubility data, possibly due to association with nonfilterable dissolved organic matter and colloids. Other major factors controlling hydrocarbon pore water concentrations include differential hydrocarbon sources, specific particle associations and solubility.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations have been determined for sediments and associated pore waters collected at 2 sites (11 stations) in Puget Sound, Washington (northwest U.S.A.). These sediments have been contaminated to varying degrees by hydrocarbons from a creosote plant and from various combustion sources. PAH were not detected in pore waters of sediments whose PAH were primarily derived from combustion and natural sources, even though pore water concentrations predicted from sediment concentrations and two-phase equilibrium partitioning models were above detection limits from most PAH. Equilibrium partition coefficients calculated from field aqueous and solid phase data from an area contaminated with creosote agreed with laboratory-derived coefficients to within a factor of +/- 4. Pore water concentrations of creosote-derived aliphatic hydrocarbons increase with increasing concentration in bulk sediments. However, pore water concentrations of natural and contaminant aliphatic hydrocarbons are much higher than predicted by solubility data, possible due to association with nonfilterable dissolved organic matter and colloids. Other major factors controlling hydrocarbon pore water concentrations include differential hydrocarbon sources, specific particle associations and solubility.
Previous work showed that the total number of insects sticking to an aluminum surface was reduced by coating the aluminum surface with elastomers. Due to a large number of possible experimental errors, no correlation between the modulus of elasticity, the elastomer, and the total number of insects sticking to a given elastomer was obtained. One of the errors assumed to be introduced during the road test is a variable insect flux so the number of insects striking one surface might be different from that striking another sample. To eliminate this source of error, the road test used to collect insects was simulated in a laboratory by development of an insect impacting technique using a pipe and high pressure compressed air. The insects are accelerated by a compressed air gun to high velocities and are then impacted with a stationary target on which the sample is mounted. The velocity of an object exiting from the pipe was determined and further improvement of the technique was achieved to obtain a uniform air velocity distribution.
Yi, O.; Chitsaz-Z, M. R.; Eiss, N. S.; Wightman, J. P.
Wood-derived cellulosic fibers prepared in different ways were successfully employed to absorb simulated crude oil, demonstrating their possible use as absorbents in the case of oil spills. When dry fibers were used, the highest sorption capacity (six parts of oil per unit mass of fiber) was shown by bleached softwood kraft fibers, compared to hardwood bleached kraft and softwood chemithermomechanical pulp(CTMP) fibers. Increased refining of CTMP fibers decreased their oil uptake capacity. When the fibers were soaked in water before exposure to the oil, the ability of the unmodified kraft fibers to sorb oil was markedly reduced, whereas the wet CTMP fibers were generally more effective than the wet kraft fibers. Predeposition of lignin onto the surfaces of the bleached kraft fibers improved their ability to take up oil when wet. Superior ability to sorb oil in the wet state was achieved by pretreating the kraft fibers with a hydrophobic sizing agent, alkenylsuccinic anhydride (ASA). Contact angle tests on a model cellulose surface showed that some of the sorption results onto wetted fibers could be attributed to the more hydrophobic nature of the fibers after treatment with either lignin or ASA. PMID:22724888
Payne, Katharine C; Jackson, Colby D; Aizpurua, Carlos E; Rojas, Orlando J; Hubbe, Martin A
Stable Pickering emulsions were prepared using only graphene oxide (GO) as a stabilizer, and the effects of the type of oil, the sonication time, the GO concentration, the oil/water ratio, and the pH value on the stability, type, and morphology of these emulsions were investigated. In addition, the effects of salt and the extent of GO reduction on emulsion formation and stability were studied and discussed. The average droplet size decreased with sonication time and with GO concentration, and the emulsions tended to achieve good stability at intermediate oil/water ratios and at low pH values. In all solvents, the emulsions were of the oil-in-water type, but interestingly, some water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) multiple emulsion droplets were also observed with low GO concentrations, low pH values, high oil/water ratios, high salt concentrations, or moderately reduced GO in the benzyl chloride-water system. A Pickering emulsion stabilized by Ag/GO was also prepared, and its catalytic performance for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol was investigated. This research paves the way for the fabrication of graphene-based functional materials with novel nanostructures and microstructures. PMID:23647467
Dopamine agonists, particularly nonergot dopamine agonists such as pramipexole, have become the mainstay of therapy for patients with symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS). This study was designed to evaluate the factorsaffecting the efficacy of pramipexole in patients with RLS. Fifty-nine eligible RLS patients referred to neurology clinic of Rasoul-e-Akram Hospital (Tehran, Iran) were recruited in this study. All of the patients received an oral dose of 0.18 mg pramipexole. The severity of RLS symptoms were evaluated including sleep disorder, symptomatic days per week and symptomatic hours per day, both at the beginning and at the end of follow-up time. Different baseline and follow-up variables were also recorded and their relationships with the outcomes were assessed. The mean severity values of different symptoms significantly decreased after treatment with pramipexole (P<0.001). Female gender (P<0.05) and duration of treatment (P<0.05) were significant factors to achieve >50% reduction in symptomatic days per week and symptomatic hours per day. Moreover, the cutoff point of 3.5 mo for duration of treatment could potentially differentiate >50% reduction in severity of sleep disorder from the ones with <50% reduction with sensitivity and specificity of 56.8% and 78.6%, respectively. Our findings show that female gender and duration of treatment were the factorsaffecting the effectiveness of pramipexole in RLS patients. If tolerated by the patients, a longer duration of treatment with pramipexole is more effective in RLS. PMID:23852842
This study tested five confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models of the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) to provide validity evidence based on its internal structure. A sample of 223 club sport athletes indicated their emotions during the past week. Results revealed that an orthogonal two-factor CFA model, specifying error…
Tuccitto, Daniel E.; Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Leite, Walter L.
The variability of factorsaffecting landscape reflectance are of interest for remote sensing validation experiments, remote sensing parameter retrieval efforts, and plant canopy simulation studies among others. Leaf optical properties and foliage density, expressed as leaf area index (LAI) are significant factorsaffecting canopy reflectance. Canopy height can be important when using a 3-dimensional simulation model. Variations in these elements
C. L. Walthall; C. S. T. Daughtry; S. E. Loechel; W. P. Dulaney; D. Timlin
There are limited studies in the literature on the factors that affect the academic success of foreign students in the United States. This ex post facto mixed method study investigated the factors that affect the academic success of foreign students at Cardinal Stitch University (CSU), a medium size, private university located in the Midwestern…
The relationship between the temperature at which germination of 50% of the seeds is inhibited in the light (GT(50) Light) and secondary dormancy was investigated in three cultivars of Lactuca sativa L. Seeds were incubated for varying periods under non-germinating conditions and subsequent germination in response to red light (R) was determined over a wide range of temperatures. Dark incubation at 32 C reduced the GT(50) Light of cv. New York but did not affect germination at temperatures below 24 C. Dark, 32 C incubation had no effect on the GT(50) Light of cv. Great Lakes. In cv. Grand Rapids, dark incubation at 15, 24, 32, or 35 C initially reduced the GT(50) Light. However, longer incubations induced a secondary dormancy, i.e., the seeds became unable to germinate at all temperatures in response to R given after the high temperature incubation. A single exposure to R at the beginning of a 32 C incubation slowed the induction of secondary dormancy. Repeated exposures to R prevented the induction of secondary dormancy, but did not prevent a decline in the GT(50) Light. GA(3) mimicked the effect of repeated R.The differences in the germination behavior of the three cultivars suggest that there may be qualitative differences in the germination mechanism of these cultivars. This research demonstrates the significance of monitoring germination at a range of temperatures to avoid misinterpretation of the data. PMID:16661841
Snakebite is an important cause of mortality among rural dwellers in the savannah region of West Africa. We conducted a retrospective review of snakebite patients managed by experienced medical staff at Kaltungo in north-eastern Nigeria to determine the cause of death. During a 36 month period there were 94 deaths among 6687 victims (1.41%). Relative risk (RR) of mortality increased to 2.29 (95% CI 1.35-3.89) during a period when source of antivenom became unreliable. The increase was not due to seasonal variation. In a logistic regression model predictors of mortality were new central nervous system (CNS) features (Odds ratio (OR) = 24.61; 95% CI 6.93-87.41) and delay from bite to hospitalization (OR for every 1 h delay = 1.01; 95% CI 1.00-1.02). Treatment with antivenom was protective (OR = 0.17; 95% CI 0.03-0.96). Relationship of anaemia and shock to mortality were not maintained following adjustment. Effort should be made to provide regionally appropriate, affordable and effective antivenoms in addition to enforcement of continuous regulatory control measures. Antivenoms should be distributed to affected areas and treatment access points of care expanded to communities to diminish travel time. The populations at risk should be educated on avoiding unnecessary delays and on prevention of bites. PMID:24038050
The magnetic properties of wound cores constructed from electrical steel strips have been found to be affected by their geometry, in particular the inner and outer diameters, the strip width and the build-up thickness of the toroids. Assessment of the effect of aspect ratio and winding ratio have been carried out in various sizes of toroid. An increase in aspect ratio resulted in better magnetic performance, whereas increase in winding ratio degraded the original magnetic properties. However, when the inner and outer diameters are varied with constant build-up and strip width, better performance is obtained by increasing the winding ratio. The initial rate of rise of temperature technique using thermistors has been used to measured power loss on the inner and outer wraps of a wound toroid. The power loss of a 60 × 44 × 40mm toroid at 1.0 T before stress relief annealing was 0.88 and 0.52 W kg-1 at the inner and outer layers respectively. After stress relief annealing, the power loss fell to 0.44 and 0.43 W kg-1 at the inner and outer layers respectively. This indicates the higher stress produced by small diameter wrapping can be reduced by normal stress relief annealing.
A prospective study of postoperative wounds was carried out in West Dorset to determine the incidence of infection, describe the time distribution of presentation before and after discharge from hospital and identify possible contributory factors. There were 702 consecutive patients admitted to the study (600 in-patients and 102 day cases). Fifty one became infected (47 in-patients and 4 day cases), corresponding to an overall infection rate of 7.3%. Over 50% of infections presented during the first week after operation, and almost 90% were diagnosed within 2 weeks of surgery Twenty-eight (55%) wounds that became infected presented after hospital discharge. Of 23 specific aetiological variables studied, four (age, preoperative stay, shaving and the surgeon) were shown to have a statistically significant association with the development of wound infection. A strong association between the individual surgeon and the development of a wound infection was demonstrated and this supports the need for routine surgical audit. PMID:1979572
The aim was to determine experimentally the factors that increase the risk of venous occlusion by applying a standardised tightening force to isolated perfused umbilical cords tied in a true knot in vitro. Umbilical cords were collected from patients undergoing Caesarean section. Cords were clamped, isolated and studied within 15 min. The umbilical vein was cannulated, the cord tied in a true knot and traction was applied using standard weights. The umbilical vein was perfused with modified Krebs solution at a constant pressure of 40 mmHg and the attached weight increased until perfusion ceased. The cord mass index (weight/length), hydration index/100-[(dry weight/wet weight)x100], and coiling index (coils/length) were determined. Cord morphometric analysis was performed on 193 cords. Intra uterine growth restriction was associated with decreased cord mass index (p=0.002) and increased coiling index (p=0.002). Venous perfusion experiments were performed on 75 cords. Using multivariate regression analysis, cord morphometric factors that increased the risk of cord occlusion were decreased cord mass index (p=0.008), decreased cord hydration index (p=0.004), and low venous flow capacity (p=0.001). During experimental cord knotting with applied traction, the susceptibility to venous occlusion was increased with low cord mass index, low cord hydration index and low venous flow capacity. These cord characteristics were associated with low fetal body weight and intrauterine growth restriction. An increased susceptibility to cord occlusion may contribute to the higher perinatal morbidity and mortality in growth restricted pregnancies. PMID:16226125
Tuxen, A J; Permezel, M; Walker, S P; Georgiou, H M
In order to design more effective recruitment strategies, 419 junior students in 38 coordinated dietetics programs completed self-administered questionnaires to identify factors that attracted them to the profession. The majority (43.9%) first became interested in a dietetics career while in college; 24.9% became interested before or during secondary school; and 17.7% were making a career change. Factors that most frequently led to a career in dietetics were a course in nutrition (32.9%), a friend or relative other than parent (31.0%), and a dietitian (30.3%). Students rated the opportunity to help others (95.2%) and the relationship of nutrition to health (94.0%) as characteristics of the profession that had a highly positive influence on their decision. Interests in health, disease, and health care (70.5%); teaching and health promotion (42.7%); sports and fitness (40.7%); counseling and behavior change (35.6%); and food and cooking (35.4%) were most frequently cited as influencing the choice of a dietetics career. Students were most interested in practicing dietetics as a consultant or in private practice (37.5%) or as a clinical dietitian (34.8%). New and innovative recruitment strategies should target high school and college students and pay special attention to second-career students. Interests such as health, disease, and health care and health promotion and characteristics of the profession such as the opportunity to help others attracted present dietetics students and should be emphasized in recruiting. The best marketing tools may be the practicing dietitian and a course in nutrition. PMID:1640034
Increased temperatures and more extreme weather patterns associated with global climate change can interact with other factors that regulate animal populations, but many climate change studies do not incorporate other threats to wildlife in their analyses. We used 20 years of nest-monitoring data from study sites across a gradient of habitat fragmentation in Missouri, USA, to investigate the relative influence of weather variables (temperature and precipitation) and landscape factors (forest cover and edge density) on the number of young produced per nest attempt (i.e., productivity) for three species of songbirds. We detected a strong forest cover × temperature interaction for the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) on productivity. Greater forest cover resulted in greater productivity because of reduced brood parasitism and increased nest survival, whereas greater temperatures reduced productivity in highly forested landscapes because of increased nest predation but had no effect in less forested landscapes. The Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) exhibited a similar pattern, albeit with a marginal forest cover × temperature interaction. By contrast, productivity of the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) was not influenced by landscape effects or temperature. Our results highlight a potential difficulty of managing wildlife in response to global change such as habitat fragmentation and climate warming, as the habitat associated with the greatest productivity for flycatchers was also that most negatively influenced by high temperatures. The influence of high temperatures on nest predation (and therefore, nest predators) underscores the need to acknowledge the potential complexity of species' responses to climate change by incorporating a more thorough consideration of community ecology in the development of models of climate impacts on wildlife. PMID:23504884
Cox, W Andrew; Thompson, Frank R; Reidy, Jennifer L; Faaborg, John
Immunization coverage is measured to assess the performance of the Expanded Programme on Immunization. In 1988 we conducted a coverage survey among 12-23 month-old children in the North Arcot District (population 5,007,746) in southern India. In each of the 12 towns a 30-cluster sample survey was conducted. In the 35 rural blocks with 1590 panchayats, 159 were selected systematically and all children (n = 7300) were surveyed. In the towns, coverage ranged for measles vaccine from 29 to 53%, BCG from 65 to 91% and OPV and DPT third dose from just over 60% to just over 80%. In the rural areas, coverage ranged for measles vaccine from 10.8 to 19.3%, BCG 25.1-34.1%, DPT third dose 42.2-50.4% and OPV third dose 39.6-48%. In the towns, 25, 66, 67 and 59% of BCG, DPT, OPV and measles vaccines had been provided by private agencies showing that availability of vaccines throughout the week and easy access even in payment terms played an important role in achieving higher levels of coverage compared with rural areas where all vaccines are given by Government agencies, free of charge. In the rural areas, significantly large variations in coverage were seen among panchayats--large and peri-urban panchayats had significantly better coverage than small and more rural panchayats. Within any given block (the population unit consisting of 30-40 panchayats served by a Primary Health Centre), there were large variations in the levels of immunization coverage between panchayats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8144298
To expand the breeding flock of Poll Dorset sheep in China, multiple ovulation and embryo transfer breeding program was applied to the limited number of imported Australian Poll Dorset sheep. This study investigated the effects of FSH from three different manufacturers, parity (nulliparous vs multiparous), repeated superovulation, oestrus induction, corpus luteum regression and oestrus delay on Poll Dorset superovulation. The results showed that gonadotropin FSH from Canada Folltropin-V (Ca-FSH) was successfully used for superovulatory treatment with 160 mg-200 mg dosage per ewe and recovered 12.91 ± 7.80 embryos. Multiparous ewes for superovulation treatment were significantly better nulliparous ewes (p<0.05). The successive superovalution treatment reduced significantly embryo collection but did not affect transferable embryo number. Ewes with natural oestrus resulted in significantly higher number of embryos (13.83 ± 4.64) and of transferable embryos (12.00 ± 5.76) than ewes with induced oestrus (7.00 ± 4.92; 4.22 ± 3.42) and unknown oestrus cycle (5.94 ± 3.38; 3.19 ± 2.56, p<0.05). The delayed oestrus ewes at 24 h after superovulatory treatment produced significantly fewer embryos and transferable embryos (0.92 ± 1.51 vs 0.42 ± 0.90) than those with normal oestrus (p<0.01). Furthermore, the more transferable embryos were recovered from ewes with normal corpus luteum than those with corpus luteum regression (5.88 ± 5.09 vs 3.59 ± 4.30 and 8.83 ± 5.75 vs. 6.66 ± 5.41, p<0.01). These results suggest that in our farm practice, a comprehensive treatment method by using the Canadian FSH (Folltropin-V), plus choosing multiparous and natural oestrus ewes with normal corpus luteum might obtain an optimum embryo collection and embryos transfer in sheep. PMID:19968834
Quan, F; Zhang, Z; An, Z; Hua, S; Zhao, X; Zhang, Y
The aim of this study was to investigate the cutting ability of sonic files. A model system was developed and the following variables evaluated: file type. Heliosonic or Shaper; file length, 21 or 29 mm; power, air inlet ring opening of half or fully open; stroke length, 2 or 4 mm; stroke rate, one or two cycles per second; and load 50 or 100 g. A 2(6) full-factorial analysis with two replications into the effect of the above variables on the cutting ability of the MM1500 sonic instrument was performed. A new size 25 file was used for each cut, together with water irrigation, and the substrate used was 1-mm thick sections of bovine bone. The differences between the variables were significant (ANOVA, P < 0.001). However, examination of the F-values showed that the most significant variable to affect cutting was load, followed by power, file type, stroke length and stroke rate, with the least significant variable being file length. The most significant interaction was between rate and length of stroke. An increase in stroke rate from one to two cycles per second at a stroke length of 2 mm produced an increase in cutting for both the Heliosonic and Shaper files. However, at the longer stroke length of 4 mm, the same increase in rate resulted in a decrease in cutting for the Shaper files. Therefore, it is suggested that operators should press the file against the canal wall and move it slowly to maximise cutting. PMID:9206423
Lumley, P J; Harrington, E; Aspinwall, E; Blunt, L; Walmsley, A D; Marquis, P M
This study examined the effects of multiple risk, promotive, and protective factors on three achievement-related measures (i.e., grade point average, number of absences, and math achievement test scores) for African American 7th-grade students (n = 837). There were 3 main findings. First, adolescents had lower grade point averages, more absences, and lower achievement test scores as their exposure to risk
Leslie Morrison Gutman; Arnold J. Sameroff; Jacquelynne S. Eccles
To evaluate the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of environmental mycobacteria, viable counts of mycobacteria were measured in samples of brook water collected from 53 drainage areas located in a linear belt crossing Finland at 63° north latitude. The numbers of mycobacteria were correlated with characteristics of the drainage area, climatic parameters, chemical and physical characteristics of the water, and counts of other heterotrophic bacteria in the water. The numbers of mycobacteria in the water ranged from 10 to 2,200 CFU/liter. The counts correlated positively (P < 0.001) with the presence of peatlands, precipitation data, chemical oxygen demand, water color, and concentrations of Fe, Al, Cu, Co, and Cr. The mycobacterial counts correlated negatively (P < 0.001) with water pH, whereas other heterotrophic bacterial counts lacked any correlation with pH. A linear regression model with four independent variables (i.e., peatlands in the drainage area, chemical oxygen demand, concentration of potassium, and pH) explained 83% of the variation in mycobacterial counts in brook waters. Our results suggest that acidification may enhance the growth of environmental mycobacteria.
Iivanainen, E. K.; Martikainen, P. J.; Vaananen, P. K.; Katila, M.-L.
Series of ternary glass systems namely, Na2O, B2O3, and RO (R=Ba or Mg) doped with TiO2 are synthesized. The present glasses are dictated by requirement for a small refractive index and a small nonlinear coefficient needed for waveguide and laser fabrication requirements. The effect of MgO and BaO as alkaline earth metals on the optical properties of the glass systems is investigated. The dependence of the refractive index and extinction coefficient dispersion curves on composition is carried out over a wavelength range of 0.3 2.5?m. Applying a genetic algorithm technique, the parameters of Sellmeier dispersion formula that fit index data to accuracy consistent well with the measurements are given. The zero material dispersion-wavelength (ZMDW) and group velocity are also determined using the refractive index data. The Fermi level is calculated exploiting the extinction coefficient dispersion curves. The absorption coefficient, both direct and indirect optical energy gaps, and Urbach energy are evaluated using the absorption edge calculations. The different factors that play a role for controlling the refractive indices such as coordination number, electronic polarizability, field strength of cations, bridging and nonbridging oxygen, and optical basicity are discussed in accordance with the obtained index data. IR spectroscopy is used as a structural probe of the nearest-neighbor environment in the glass network.
Abdel-Baki, Manal; Abdel-Wahab, F. A.; Radi, Amr; El-Diasty, Fouad
This experiment examines the relative contribution of two factors, intonation and articulation errors, on the perception of foreign accent in Korean-accented American English. Ten native speakers of Korean and ten native speakers of American English were asked to read ten English sentences. These sentences were then modified using high-quality speech resynthesis techniques [STRAIGHT Kawahara et al., Speech Commun. 27, 187-207 (1999)] to generate four sets of stimuli. In the first two sets of stimuli, the intonation patterns of the Korean speakers and American speakers were switched with one another. The articulatory errors for each speaker were not modified. In the final two sets, the sentences from the Korean and American speakers were resynthesized without any modifications. Fifteen listeners were asked to rate all the stimuli for the degree of foreign accent. Preliminary results show that, for native speakers of American English, articulation errors may play a greater role in the perception of foreign accent than errors in intonation patterns. [Work supported by KAIM.
Threshold detection methods are increasingly popular for assessing nonlinear responses to environmental change, but their statistical performance remains poorly understood. We simulated linear change in stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities and evaluated the performance of commonly used threshold detection methods based on model fitting (piecewise quantile regression [PQR]), data partitioning (nonparametric change point analysis [NCPA]), and a hybrid approach (significant zero crossings [SiZer]). We demonstrated that false detection of ecological thresholds (type I errors) and inferences on threshold locations are influenced by sample size, rate of linear change, and frequency of observations across the environmental gradient (i.e., sample-environment distribution, SED). However, the relative importance of these factors varied among statistical methods and between inference types. False detection rates were influenced primarily by user-selected parameters for PQR (tau) and SiZer (bandwidth) and secondarily by sample size (for PQR) and SED (for SiZer). In contrast, the location of reported thresholds was influenced primarily by SED. Bootstrapped confidence intervals for NCPA threshold locations revealed strong correspondence to SED. We conclude that the choice of statistical methods for threshold detection should be matched to experimental and environmental constraints to minimize false detection rates and avoid spurious inferences regarding threshold location. PMID:22486082
Daily, Jonathan P; Hitt, Nathaniel P; Smith, David R; Snyder, Craig D
Glucose monitoring has become an integral part of diabetes care but has some limitations in accuracy. Accuracy may be limited due to strip manufacturing variances, strip storage, and aging. They may also be due to limitations on the environment such as temperature or altitude or to patient factors such as improper coding, incorrect hand washing, altered hematocrit, or naturally occurring interfering substances. Finally, exogenous interfering substances may contribute errors to the system evaluation of blood glucose. In this review, I discuss the measurement of error in blood glucose, the sources of error, and their mechanism and potential solutions to improve accuracy in the hands of the patient. I also discuss the clinical measurement of system accuracy and methods of judging the suitability of clinical trials and finally some methods of overcoming the inaccuracies. I have included comments about additional information or education that could be done today by manufacturers in the appropriate sections. Areas that require additional work are discussed in the final section.
The interaction between human neutrophils and wild-type Bordetella pertussis or mutants expressing altered lipopolysaccharide or lacking virulence factors—pertussis toxin, adenylate cyclase toxin, dermonecrotic toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin, or BrkA—was examined. In the absence of antibodies, the wild-type strain and the mutants, with the exception of mutants lacking FHA, attached efficiently to neutrophils. The addition of opsonizing antibodies caused a significant reduction (approximately 50%) in attachment of the wild-type strain and most of the mutants expressing FHA, suggesting that bacterium-mediated attachment is more efficient than Fc-mediated attachment. Phagocytosis was also examined. In the absence of antibodies, about 12% of the wild-type bacteria were phagocytosed. Opsonization caused a statistically significant reduction in phagocytosis (to 3%), possibly a consequence of reduced attachment. Phagocytosis of most of the mutants was similar to that of the wild type, with the exception of the mutants lacking adenylate cyclase toxin. About 70% of the adenylate cyclase toxin mutants were phagocytosed, but only in the presence of opsonizing antibody, suggesting that Fc receptor-mediated signaling may be needed for phagocytosis. These studies indicate that FHA mediates attachment of B. pertussis to neutrophils, but adenylate cyclase toxin blocks phagocytosis.
Preimplantation stage mouse embryos have been used to examine the response of a simple multicellular system to cryopreservation by the complete vitrification of the suspension. Successful vitrification requires the use of a solution of cryoprotectants that is sufficiently concentrated to supercool and solidify into a glass at practicable cooling rates. Factors that influence the survival of embryos include the concentration and composition of the vitrification solution, the procedure used to equilibrate embryos in this solution, the cooling and warming conditions, and the procedure used to dilute embryos from the vitrification solution. High rates of survival are obtained when embryos are dehydrated prior to vitrification in solutions composed of saline plus multimolar concentrations of either mixtures of permeating cryoprotectants (e.g. dimethyl sulphoxide-acetamide-propylene glycol) or single permeating cryoprotectants (propylene glycol or glycerol). Full permeation of cryoprotectants into the cells is not necessary and may lead to chemical toxicity and osmotic injury. Partial permeation and osmotic shrinkage concentrates the endogenous cytoplasmic macromolecules and greatly increases the likelihood of intracellular vitrification. Vitrification is a practical approach for embryo cryopreservation and offers new opportunities to examine fundamental aspects of cryoprotection and cryoinjury in the absence of freezing. PMID:3652721
] This study was conducted to investigate efficient, systematic management of the Korean police and to examine the status and prevention of musculoskeletal disorders in Korean police officers. [Subjects and Methods] A survey of police officers (353 subjects) who visited the National Police Hospital from March 2013 to May 2013 was conducted using a structured questionnaire. [Results] The incidence of pain was 44.2% in the shoulder, 41.4% in the waist, 31.2% in the neck, 26.1% in the legs/foot, 16.7% in the hand/wrist/finger, and 14.7% in the arm/elbow. The comparative risk of the relevant part factors was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. The shoulder had a 4.87 times higher risk in police lieutenants compared with those under the rank of corporal and a 1.78 times higher risk in people with chronic diseases than those without chronic diseases. The arm/elbow had a 2.37 times higher risk in people who exercised than those who did not exercise and a 1.78 times higher risk in people with a chronic disease than those without chronic diseases. Generally, people with a chronic disease showed a higher risk than those without chronic diseases. [Conclusion] The results of this study could be useful as basic data for improvement of police welfare, specialized treatment for the health safety of the police, and efficient management of police resources.
This paper updates the influence of environmental and source factors of shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that are likely to influence the solar energetic particle (SEP) events. The intensity variation due to CME interaction reported that is confirmed by expanding the investigation to all the large SEP events of solar cycle 23. The large SEP events are separated into two groups, one associated with CMEs running into other CMEs, and the other with CMEs running into the ambient solar wind. SEP events with CME interaction generally have a higher intensity. New possibilities such as the influence of coronal holes on the SEP intensity are also discussed. For example, the presence of a large coronal hole between a well-connected eruption and the solar disk center may render the shock poorly connected because of the interaction between the CME and the coronal hole. This point is illustrated using the 2004 December 3 SEP event delayed by about 12 hours from the onset of the associated CME. There is no other event at the Sun that can be associated with the SEP onset. This event is consistent with the possibility that the coronal hole interaction influences the connectivity of the CMEs that produce SEPs, and hence the intensity of the SEP event.
The influence of physiological and environmental factors on the accumulation of oxindole during anaerobic indole metabolism was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Under methanogenic conditions, indole was temporarily converted to oxindole in stoichiometric amounts in media inoculated with three freshwater sediments and an organic soil. In media inoculated with methanogenic sewage sludge, the modest amounts of oxindole detected at 35 degrees C reached higher concentrations and persisted longer when the incubation temperature was decreased from 35 to 15 degrees C. Also, decreasing the concentration of sewage sludge used as an inoculum from 50 to 1% caused an increase in the accumulation of oxindole from 10 to 75% of the indole added. Under denitrifying conditions, regardless of the concentration or source of the inoculum, oxindole appeared in trace amounts but did not accumulate during indole metabolism. In addition, denitrifying consortia which previously metabolized indole degraded oxindole with no lag period. Our data suggest that oxindole accumulation under methanogenic, but not under denitrifying conditions is caused by differences between relative rates of oxindole production and destruction.
In our thalassemic (T) cohort, 45% of them had height standard deviation score (HtSDS) less than -2 and 56% of them had growth velocity standard deviation score (GVSDS) less than -1. Their mid-arm circumference and triceps skin-fold thickness were decreased versus normal controls. Their circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations were significantly lower than normal children. Growth hormone (GH) response to provocation with clonidine and glucagon was defective in half of the short T children (peak GH < 7 ng/dL). Some of the short T children, with normal GH response to provocation, had defective spontaneous nocturnal GH secretion. IGF-I generation after one GH injection was reduced in T children than those with GH deficiency (GHD) and constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP). GH therapy for a year significantly increased IGF-I concentrations, GV, and HtSDS in T children but to a lower level compared to those with GHD or CDGP, suggesting partial GH insensitivity. Pubertal induction with human chorionic gonadotropin in T adolescents was associated with increased IGF-I concentrations, GV, and HtSDS. PMID:20001614
Since the ACTD (Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations) program was started in 1994, a wide range of products have been tested by technology experts and military operators in realistic settings-from unmanned aerial vehicles, to friend-or-foe detection systems, to biological agent detection systems, to advanced simulation technology designed to enhance joint training. Many of these have successfully delivered new technologies to users. Though the majority of the projects that were examined, transitioned technologies to users, there are factors that hamper the ACTD process. For example: Technology has been too immature to be tested in a realistic setting, leading to cancellation of the demonstration. Military services and defense agencies have been reluctant to fund acquisition of ACTD-proven technologies, especially those focusing on joint requirements, because of competing priorities. ACTD's military utility may not have been assessed consistently. Some of the barriers identified can be addressed through efforts DOD (Department of Defense) now has underway, including an evaluation of how the ACTD process can be improved; adoption of criteria to be used to ensure technology is sufficiently mature; and placing of more attention on the end phase of the ACTD process. Other barriers, however, will be much more difficult to address in view of cultural resistance to joint initiatives and the requirements of DOD's planning and funding process.
Threshold detection methods are increasingly popular for assessing nonlinear responses to environmental change, but their statistical performance remains poorly understood. We simulated linear change in stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities and evaluated the performance of commonly used threshold detection methods based on model fitting (piecewise quantile regression [PQR]), data partitioning (nonparametric change point analysis [NCPA]), and a hybrid approach (significant zero crossings [SiZer]). We demonstrated that false detection of ecological thresholds (type I errors) and inferences on threshold locations are influenced by sample size, rate of linear change, and frequency of observations across the environmental gradient (i.e., sample-environment distribution, SED). However, the relative importance of these factors varied among statistical methods and between inference types. False detection rates were influenced primarily by user-selected parameters for PQR (?) and SiZer (bandwidth) and secondarily by sample size (for PQR) and SED (for SiZer). In contrast, the location of reported thresholds was influenced primarily by SED. Bootstrapped confidence intervals for NCPA threshold locations revealed strong correspondence to SED. We conclude that the choice of statistical methods for threshold detection should be matched to experimental and environmental constraints to minimize false detection rates and avoid spurious inferences regarding threshold location.
Daily, Jonathan P.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Smith, David R.; Snyder, Craig D.
Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) is still the treatment of choice for most renal and upper ureteric stones; however the outcome depends on multiple factors. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of stone density, as measured by Hounsfield Units (H.U) by non-contrast Computerized Tomography (CT), stone size and stone location on ESWL treatment outcome of urinary calculi in Jordanian patients. 65 patients underwent clinical, biochemical and radiological assessments followed by ESWL treatment. Statistical analyses including chi-square, analysis of variance (ANOVA), correlation, regression were performed for statistical significance between ESWL treatment, stone fragmentation and stone density, size and location in the renal pelvis. ESWL success rate was high (94%) for low density stones (< 500 Hounsfield units). In general CT densities of 750 Hounsfield units or less were almost always successfully treated by ESWL. An inverse association between ESWL treatment outcome and stone size was also documented. CT stone density and stone size combined account for nearly 73% of the variation in the number of shock waves required to attain fragmentation. Stones located in lower calyceal area had less success rates. In conclusion, stones with higher density, large size and lower location may better be managed by percutaneous nephrolithotomy. PMID:20587869
This study aims at estimating the performance of the Bacillus atrophaeus spores inactivation by the UV treatment with addition of H2O2. The effect of factorsaffecting the inactivation was investigated, including initial H2O2 dose, UV irradiance, initial cell density, initial solution pH and various inorganic anions. Under the experimental conditions, the B. atrophaeus spores inactivation followed both the modified Hom Model and the Chick's Model. The results revealed that the H2O2 played dual roles in the reactions, while the optimum reduction of 5.88lg was received at 0.5mM H2O2 for 10min. The inactivation effect was affected by the UV irradiance, while better inactivation effect was achieved at higher irradiance. An increase in the initial cell density slowed down the inactivation process. A slight acid condition at pH 5 was considered as the optimal pH value. The inactivation effect within 10min followed the order of pH 5>pH 7>pH 9>pH 3>pH 11. The effects of three added inorganic anions were investigated and compared, including sulfate (SO4(2)(-)), nitrate (NO3(-)) and carbonate (CO3(2)(-)). The sequence of inactivation effect within 10min followed the order of control group>SO4(2)(-)>NO3(-)>CO3(2)(-). PMID:24792469
Arthroscopic subacromial decompression was performed on 114 patients with rotator cuff impingement who had not responded to nonoperative measures. None of the patients had a full-thickness cuff tear. Patients with associated instability, symptomatic acromioclavicular joint disease, or ruptures of the long head of biceps were not included. Results were determined by questioning patients about their satisfaction with the outcome of surgery and by functional assessment of the shoulder with the parameters of pain, ability to perform daily activities, and range of motion according to the Constant scoring system. When reviewed at a mean interval of 19 months after surgery, 85 patients (75%) were satisfied with the outcome. Pain scores improved by an average of 8.6 points; "activities of daily living" scores improved by an average of 5.8 points; range-of-motion scores improved by an average of 3.6 points. The improvements in all 3 parameters scored were significant (P < .05). The following variables were statistically analyzed to assess their influence on final outcome: age, sex, occupation, duration of symptoms before surgery, dominance of the affected shoulder, outcome of the impingement test, state of the cuff, and experience of the surgeon performing the operation. The duration of symptoms before surgery was the most significant predictor of outcome. Symptoms of prolonged duration were associated with an unsatisfactory subjective results (P < .01) and with smaller improvements in the parameters of the Constant score (P < .001). Recovery after arthroscopic subacromial decompression and eventual outcome were related to the extent of cuff damage. Patients with partial thickness tears or fraying of the cuff had a delayed return to work (P < .001) and were found to have smaller increases in the pain and range-of-motion scores (P < .05). A satisfactory subjective result was most often associated with a positive impingement test (P < .05). Unsatisfactory outcomes were associated with a questionable diagnosis and lack of clear evidence of impingement at arthroscopy, inadequate decompression of the subacromial space, or the presence of calcium deposits in the rotator cuff. PMID:10389078
The rate of isolation of organisms resembling Haemophilus vaginalis (Corynebacterium vaginale) from vaginal specimens was not significantly affected by anaerobic versus carbon dioxide incubation atmospheres or whether specimens were inoculated on isolation media immediately after collection or after a delay of 6 h. Forty-one clinically isolated strains were provisionally divided into 30 H. vaginalis strains and 11 H. vaginalis-like (HVL) strains based on morphological and growth characteristics. The H. vaginalis strains were less reactive in API-20A identification test strips, (Analytab Products, Inc.) using Lombard-Dowell broth, than in a modified basal medium that contained proteose peptone no. 3 (Difco). The numbers and kinds of substrates fermented by 30 clinical and 2 reference strains of H. vaginalis varied among conventional, API, Minitek (Baltimore Biological Laboratory), and rapid buffered substrate fermentation systems. A greater number and variety of carbohydrates were fermented by the 11 HVL strains more consistently in all four test systems. Analysis of volatile and nonvolatile fermentation end products by gas-liquid chromatography did not reveal significant differences between the H. vaginalis and HVL strains. However, the latter group grew in peptone-yeast extract-glucose broth, whereas the H. vaginalis strains did not grow without the addition of starch to peptone-yeast extract-glucose. All of the reference and clinical strains were similar in their susceptibilities to a variety of antimicrobial compounds except sulfonamides, which inhibited the HVL strains and bifidobacteria but not the H. vaginalis strains. Sulfonamide susceptibility or resistance corresponded in part to the H. vaginalis and HVL-bifidobacteria strain reactions on selected conventional fermentation substrates. Susceptibility or resistance to sulfonamides and metronidazole in conjunction with fermentation tests is described to aid in the separation of H. vaginalis from other possibly unrecognized biotypes of H. vaginalis or other vaginal bacteria that presumptively resemble the organism. A human blood medium known as V agar was also of considerable value in distinguishing H. vaginalis from HVL strains, because only the H. vaginalis strains produced diffuse beta-hemolysis on V agar.
Bailey, Robert K.; Voss, Jack L.; Smith, Rodney F.
Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most frequent cause of peritonitis complicating continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. We studied factors that might influence the growth of S. epidermidis in commercially available peritoneal dialysis solution (PDS). Test strains were inoculated into PDS and incubated overnight at 37 degrees C. Samples were removed at appropriate intervals, bacterial counts were performed, and growth curves were constructed. We studied the effects of various osmolarities, the neutralization and acidification of fresh and spent PDS, and the effect of intraperitoneal dwell time on the ability PDS to support growth of S. epidermidis. In fresh PDS, numbers of bacteria remained constant after 24 h. No significant differences in growth were observed among PDS with 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, and 4.25% glucose. Neutralizing acidic fresh PDS had no effect on bacterial growth. However, growth did occur in spent PDS. PDS which was recovered after only 2 h in the peritoneal cavity supported growth to the same extent as did PDS recovered after 4 to 6 h. Mean log10 changes after 24 h of incubation were as follows: for fresh PDS, -1.3; after 2 h dwell time, 2.9; after 4 h dwell time, 1.9; and after 6 h dwell time, 1.3. Acidification of spent PDS to less than pH 6.35 produced less rapid growth; mean log10 increases after 24 h of incubation were 1.9 for pH 7.75, 1.6 for pH 6.35, 0.6 for pH 5.75, and 0.7 for pH 4.95. Fresh PDS of all available osmolarities neither supported the growth of S. epidermidis nor was bactericidal. Spent PDS supported bacterial growth, and this growth was partly independent of the neutralization which occurred during the dialysis.
Two first-order factors influencing the petroleum potential of large accretionary prisms are (1) their structural contact (backstop) with the margin's bedrock framework, and (2) that beneath a master decollement, the volume of the sediment that has underthrust the prism and passed through the petroleum-generation window (PGW). In the Aleutian prism, the backstop contact slopes landward because the accretionary body has underrun and elevated the seaward edge of the ridge's arc massif. Within the thickened landward part of the prism, the overlying lid of the underrun bedrock slab and its mantle of thick (2-4 km) forearc deposits has served to constrain vertical fluid movements and enhance the thermal environment and circumstances that favor the generation of hydrocarbons and their channelized migration toward higher structural levels. The thickness of the underthrusting or subdecollement section commonly is greater than 1.0 km. Most of this sequence of fine-grained sediment is transported below the landward-dipping slab or forearc basement to depths in excess of 8 km. A substantial mass is transported farther landward and deeper, and is subducted beneath the base of the arc massif. Deeply underthrust and subducted sedimentary deposits thus are transported through the PGW - a circumstance that should sustain the continuous generation of petroleum from deep within and below the accreted pile. During the past 5-6 m.y., more than 50% of the 1 to 3-m-thick sedimentary section entering the subduction zone (at roughly 80 km/m.y.) has been subducted and, therefore, passed through the PGW. Evidently, since the late Miocene, larger volumes of hydrocarbons have been produced and possibly entrapped in high-level structures within either the accretionary complex or the forearc section mantling the underthrust basement slab.
Scholl, D.W.; Stevenson, A.J. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))
The primary purpose of this study was to identify the principal degradation products produced by Pu(IV) loading in 30% tributyl phosphate/dodecane (TBP-DD) solutions and to determine the formation rates of these species as a function of temperature. Experiments were also conducted to evaluate HNO/sub 3/ hydrolysis of TBP as a function of temperature and to compare the effects resulting from plutonium solvent loading with effects due to loading with uranium and zirconium. The results indicate that four factors are of particular significance: (1) dibutyl phosphate (DBP) is the principal plutonium-complexing species formed at temperatures of 50/sup 0/C or lower, while significant concentrations of monobutyl phosphate (MBP) are also formed at higher temperatures; (2) the TBP degradation rate due to alpha radiolysis or chemical hydrolysis is strongly dependent on temperature; (3) plutonium promotes TBP hydrolysis by two mechanisms, alpha radiolysis and metal-ion-induced hydrolysis, and, of these, metal-ion-induced hydrolysis can be the major effect; and (4) small amounts of an unidentified plutonium-complexing species are formed in experiments using plutonium of high specific activity (about 4 x 10/sup 8/ counts per minute per milligram (c/min dot mg)). This species cannot be removed from 30% TBP-DD by Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ washing or other solvent cleanup procedures. The TBP degradation rates (determined as grams of plutonium complexed by degradation products) increased from 0.125 mg Pu/L dot h at 25/sup 0/C to 47.9 mg Pu/L dot h at 80/sup 0/C in 30% TBP-DD solutions that contained only 0.68 M HNO/sub 3/. In solutions that additionally contained approx.20 g/L of plutonium (specific activity = 9 x 10/sup 7/ c/min dot mg) TBP degradation rates increased from 2.46 mg Pu/L dot h at 25/sup 0/C to 127.1 mg Pu/L dot h at 80/sup 0/C. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.
Background In the developing countries millions of women in the reproductive age who don’t use contraceptives prefer to postpone or limit their birth. This indicates their failure to take necessary decision to prevent and avoid unwanted pregnancy. Methods A community-based cross sectional household survey was conducted to investigate unmet need for family planning and associated factors and total demand for family planning in Kassala, Eastern Sudan between 1st May and 31st July 2012. Results A total of 812 married women were enrolled in this study. Their mean age and parity was 31.8 (7.3) and 3.4 (1.8) respectively. Ever use of contraception was 25.4% (206/812) and 26.2% (213/812) were currently using contraception. Unmet need for spacing was 15.1% while unmet need for limiting was 0.7%. The pregnant and amenorrheic women whose the pregnancy or birth was unwanted and mistimed were 105 (13%) and 130 (16%) respectively. Using Westoff model the total unmet need was estimated as 44.8%. The total demand for family planning was 71%. In logistic regression model, while age, age at marriage, parity, residence and experience of child death were not associated with total unmet need for family planning, women education < secondary level (OR=7.8; CI=5.6-10.9; P=0.00), husband education < secondary level (OR=1.9; CI=1.3-2.6, P = 0.00) and woman’s occupation; housewife (OR=4.3; CI=2.5-7.2; P=0.00) were associated with the total unmet need. Conclusions Unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan was significantly higher among women with less than secondary education. Also; it is influenced by couple’s educational status and woman’s occupation. The results of this study necessitate the need for the programme managers to take into account the concept of reproductive health education.
Background The use of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) to treat calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) renal calculi gives excellent fragmentation results. However, the retention of post-ESWL fragments within the kidney remains an important health problem. This study examined the effect of various urinary conditions and crystallization inhibitors on the regrowth of spontaneously-passed post-ESWL COD calculi fragments. Methods Post-ESWL COD calculi fragments were incubated in chambers containing synthetic urine varying in pH and calcium concentration: pH = 5.5 normocalciuria (3.75 mM), pH = 5.5 hypercalciuria (6.25 mM), pH = 6.5 normocalciuria (3.75 mM) or pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria (6.25 mM). Fragment growth was evaluated by measuring increases in weight. Fragment growth was standardized by calculating the relative mass increase. Results Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals formed on COD renal calculi fragments under all conditions. Under pH = 5.5 normocalciuria conditions, only COM crystals formed (growth rate = 0.22 ± 0.04 ?g/mg·h). Under pH = 5.5 hypercalciuria and under pH = 6.5 normocalciuria conditions, COM crystals and a small number of new COD crystals formed (growth rate = 0.32 ± 0.03 ?g/mg·h and 0.35 ± 0.05 ?g/mg·h, respectively). Under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions, large amounts of COD, COM, hydroxyapatite and brushite crystals formed (growth rate = 3.87 ± 0. 34 ?g/mg·h). A study of three crystallization inhibitors demonstrated that phytate completely inhibited fragment growth (2.27 ?M at pH = 5.5 and 4.55 ?M at pH = 6.5, both under hypercalciuria conditions), while 69.0 ?M pyrophosphate caused an 87% reduction in mass under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions. In contrast, 5.29 mM citrate did not inhibit fragment mass increase under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions. Conclusion The growth rate of COD calculi fragments under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions was approximately ten times that observed under the other three conditions. This observation suggests COD calculi residual fragments in the kidneys together with hypercalciuria and high urinary pH values may be a risk factor for stone growth. The study also showed the effectiveness of specific crystallization inhibitors in slowing calculi fragment growth.
Costa-Bauza, A; Perello, J; Isern, B; Sanchis, P; Grases, F
The purpose of this study was to examine whether gifted achievers and gifted underachievers differ in their general academic self-perceptions, attitudes toward school, attitudes toward teachers, motivation and self-regulation, and goal valuation. The sample consisted of 56 gifted underachievers and 122 gifted achievers from 28 high schools nationwide. Gifted achievers and gifted underachievers differed in their attitudes toward school, attitudes
Objective To evaluate factorsaffecting antiretroviral therapy (ART) start time when triggered by a CD4 count < 350 cells/?l while monitoring counts over time. Measurement frequency, requirement for confirmatory counts, and precision and accuracy of CD4 enumeration technology were considered. Methods Using a model of CD4 count trajectories among seroconverters in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, sequences of counts were simulated for a large hypothetical population monitored for 5 years from seroconversion. Time of first count < 350 cells/?l was defined as ART start time. The simulation was adapted to evaluate the effect of the above factors on these times. ART initiation was considered “very late” among patients whose underlying trajectory declined below 200 cells/?l during the period simulated if no previous observed count was < 350 cells/?l. Results For 12-, 6-, 4- and 3-monthly measurements, median start time was 48, 36, 32 and 30 months after seroconversion and proportion of patients starting ART very late was 11.5%, 1.6%, 0.2% and 0.1%. For 6-monthly measurements, requiring confirmation increased the median to 49 months and proportion to 8.9%. Changes in standard deviation of short-term variability in counts of 25% and measurement bias for a novel technology of ± 10% changed median time by ± 6 months with modest change in the proportion very late (range 0.5% to 3.2%). Conclusion 6-monthly measurements appear adequate in achieving low rates of very late ART whereas confirmation affects rates adversely. Studies comparing new versus standard measurement technologies should focus on ruling out modest bias, particularly proximal to important thresholds for treatment management.
There are many factors that affect the e-learning process. Instructor, assessment and evaluation, communication, and technical support are among the leading factors. It is obvious that these factors influence the effectiveness of e-learning and may be related to different expectations of e-learners. Therefore, this study focuses on examining the…
Kilic-Cakmak, Ebru; Karatas, Sercin; Ocak, Mehmet Akif
This study utilized data from the 2006 Programme for International Student Assessment Hong Kong sample to investigate the factors that impact the science achievement of 15-year-old students. A multilevel model was used to examine the factors from both student and school perspectives. At the student level, the results indicated that male students,…
This article reports results of an exploratory study examining factors that might be associated with achievement in mathematics and participation in advanced mathematics courses in Canada, Norway, and the United States of America (USA). These factors, which were not directly related to schooling accounted for large degrees of variability, 24% to…
A monosyllabic word test was administered to 114 postlingually-deaf adult cochlear implant (CI) recipients at numerous intervals from two weeks to two years post-initial CI activation. Biographic/audiologic information, electrode position, and cognitive ability were examined to determine factorsaffecting CI outcomes. Results revealed that Duration of Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss, Age at Implantation, CI Sound-field Threshold Levels, Percentage of Electrodes in Scala Vestibuli, Medio-lateral Electrode Position, Insertion Depth, and Cognition were among the factors that affected performance. Knowledge of how factorsaffect performance can influence counseling, device fitting, and rehabilitation for patients and may contribute to improved device design.
Holden, Laura K.; Finley, Charles C.; Firszt, Jill B.; Holden, Timothy A.; Brenner, Christine; Potts, Lisa G.; Gotter, Brenda D.; Vanderhoof, Sallie S.; Mispagel, Karen; Heydebrand, Gitry; Skinner, Margaret W.
Amid debates about the continued salience of gender in mathematics, this report summarizes an IES-funded investigation of gender-related patterns in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K). Girls' and boys' mathematics achievement, confidence, and interest were examined, along with experiences at…
Lubienski, Sarah T.; Robinson, Joseph P.; Crane, Corinna C.; Ganley, Colleen M.
This report provides an audit of state policies in Connecticut affecting access to, and success in, community colleges for students of color and low-income students. It was commissioned by Lumina Foundation for Education as part of a series of policy audits of the states involved in Achieving the Dream. Lumina Foundation is the primary funder of…
This report provides an audit of state policies in Ohio affecting access to, and success in, community colleges for students of color and low-income students. It was commissioned by Lumina Foundation for Education as part of a series of policy audits of the states involved in Achieving the Dream. Lumina Foundation is the primary funder of the…
Dougherty, Kevin J.; Marshall, James; Soonachan, Andrea
We investigated the extent to which perceived structure and personal achievement goals could explain students' effective learning strategies and affect-related experiences in a sample of Greek adolescent students (N = 606; 45.4% males; mean age: M = 15.05, SD = 1.43). Having controlled for students' social desirability responses, we used…
Background In esthetic surgery, understanding the factors that influence patient satisfaction is important for successful practice. We hypothesize that the factors that influence patient satisfaction include not only aesthetic and functional outcomes, but also personal factors such as the level of familiarity with factorsaffecting wound healing and expectations regarding aesthetic outcome. Methods One hundred patients who underwent esthetic closure after thyroidectomy were included in this study. In order to evaluate the individual characteristics of the patients, a preoperative survey was administered to the patients. We estimated the patient satisfaction six months postoperatively and assessed the aesthetic and functional outcomes using the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale. Results According to the results of correlation analysis, level of familiarity with wound healing factors had a positive correlation with satisfaction. High expectations, pain, itching, and high observer scale score had negative correlations with satisfaction. The factors that were correlated with satisfaction were included in the multiple regression analysis. Level of familiarity with wound healing factors was found to have a positive relationship with satisfaction, while itching and observer scale were found to have a negative relationship with satisfaction. After excluding 10 patients who had hypertrophic scars, only level of familiarity with wound healing factors and expectations affected satisfaction. Conclusions The level of familiarity with factorsaffecting wound healing and expectations were found to independently affect satisfaction. Improving patients' level of familiarity with wound healing factors and reducing their expectations by providing suitable preoperative education has the potential to improve patient satisfaction.
Kim, Hyo Young; Kim, Jung Won; Park, Jin Hyung; Kim, Jung Hun
The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between the length of superintendent tenure, longevity, and continuity relative to student achievement as evidenced by the 2008-2009 3rd Grade New Jersey Assessment of Skills and Knowledge (NJASK) in language arts. Achievement in the study was defined as those students who…
This study blends elements from two South Carolina Technical College System initiatives--Achieving the Dream and a workforce cluster strategy. Achieving the Dream is a national non-profit organization created to help technical and community college students succeed, particularly low-income students and students of color. This initiative, combined…
D'Amico, Mark M.; Morgan, Grant B.; Robertson, Thashundray C.
Examines the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and a number of cognitive and noncognitive variables, and explores whether gender differences existed for any of these relationships. Concludes that general chemistry grade, ACT-math score, and motivation are significant predictors of organic chemistry achievement. Indicates gender…
The study examines the effects of classroom achievement grouping (AG) practices on the early mathematics performance of language-minority students and compares their mathematics achievement to that of English-speaking majority students. Using a nationally representative database of the USA, both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were done.…
This work considers factorsaffecting the design of an effective and versatile furniture calorimeter hood and exhaust system. The purpose of the furniture calorimeter, design functions, and inherent limitations of a particular design are discussed. The in...
In Chapter 2, we identify those factorsaffecting the industrial product mix - taste, relative output prices, and relative input prices - and isolate several determinants which have not been adequately accounted for to date in industrial electricity deman...
This research identifies major factors that affect the viability of rural hospitals by correlating net gain or loss on operations with a number of organizational, operating, and financial variables. Characteristics such as hospital size (number of license...
D. Stumbo M. J. D. Good B. J. Good D. Johnson F. Harland
This report details a metallurgical analysis which identifies the factorsaffecting the strength and toughness behavior of newly developed low carbon welding consumables. It was found that the 50% transformation temperature (T50) was a good indicator of t...
... Appendix B to Part 1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM (TDRSS) Pt. 1215, App. B Appendix B to Part 1215âFactorsAffecting Standard Charges Charges for...
We review factorsaffecting the within-river spawning migration of Atlantic salmon. With populations declining across the\\u000a entire distribution range, it is important that spawners survive in the last phase of the spawning migration. Knowledge on\\u000a the factorsaffecting migration is essential for the protection of populations, and to increase the success of reintroduction\\u000a programmes. A number of studies have documented
Eva B. Thorstad; Finn Økland; Kim Aarestrup; Tor G. Heggberget
ABSRACT: We determined the factorsaffecting trout production in the Black Sea Region, Turkey, on 55 trout farms. The factorsaffecting trout production were studied using the Cobb-Douglas production function. The explanatory variables in the model explained 99.4% of the variation in trout production. The partial percentage of the feed-use variable was 99%, whereas that of all other variables was
A facultative osmophilic bacterium able to produce lipases (isolated from bee honey) was identified as Bacillus circulans. Factorsaffecting lipases production by such isolate were studied. Dox's liquid medium supplied with 2 and/or 30% sucrose was used as a basal medium, under static culture condition, for such a purpose. Results have showed that the optimal sucrose concentration at which the isolate produced its maximal yield of lipases was 30% after an incubation period of 24 hours at 40 degrees C, and this was corresponding to an incubation period of 48 hours at 40 degrees C in presence of 2% sucrose. The optimal pH value was 7 in the first case while, 6.5 in the second. Furthermore production of extracellular lipases by such isolate was achieved in presence and absence of tributyrin as a carbon source instead of sucrose when supplied to Dox's liquid medium. Also the production of extracellular lipases by such isolate was not enhanced in presence of tributyrin as a supplement to Dox's liquid medium when supplied with 2 and/or 30% sucrose as carbon sources. This might suggest that the extracellular lipases of such isolate is constitutive in nature. PMID:6681018
Elwan, S H; el-Hoseiny, M M; Ammar, M S; Mostafa, S A
The minimum target specificatons of EUV resist material are the resolution < 30nm half pitch C/H, CDU < 3.0nm, and sensitivity < 20mJ. The major pending issue of EUV resist is how to simultaneously achieve high sensitivity, high resolution and low CD Uniformity (CDU). Thus, we have studied that which factors such as acid diffusion, solvents, polymer platform and film density etc are affecting to improve CDU, sensitivity and resolution. Especially, CDU and sensitivity are the main issues among above these performances. With the results of these experiments, we could determine polymer blend PAG as polymer platform for EUV resist material. We have also researched polymer to improve the sensitivity and CDU with variation of molecular weight, poly dispersity and monomer feed ratio. Additionally, we have studied the effects of resist solvents and film density. And we have measured the outgas of our EUV resist. In this paper, we will discuss the results of these studies obtained by EUV tools of SEMATECH.
Han, Joonhee; Lim, Hyun Soon; Kim, Jin Ho; Choi, Sumi; Shin, Jin Bong; Bae, Chang Wan; Yoo, In Young; Shin, Bong Ha; Lee, Eun Kyo; Joo, Hyun Sang; Seo, Dong Chul; Chun, Jun Sung
This study blends elements from two South Carolina Technical College System initiatives—Achieving the Dream and a workforce cluster strategy. Achieving the Dream is a national non-profit organization created to help technical and community college students succeed, particularly low-income students and students of color. This initiative, combined with a recent strategy that places particular emphasis on five workforce clusters (advanced manufacturing,
Mark M. DAmico; Grant B. Morgan; Thashundray C. Robertson