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Factors affecting hydrolysis of condensed phosphates in soils  

E-print Network

(1975), employing corn as the test crop with 30C days and 20C nights, found that in a slightly acid soil both OP and polyphosphate effectively supplied P for plant growth, while in an alkaline-calcareous soil polyphosphate was significantly less... calcareous soils. Most likely the high alkalinity of the calcareous soils obscured any differences in hydrolysis of PP due to texture. The interaction between soil texture and sterilization was also significant (Table 5). Under nonsterile con- ditions...

Stewart, William M.



Xylan as limiting factor in enzymatic hydrolysis of nanocellulose.  


The role of xylan as a limiting factor in the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was studied by hydrolysing nanocellulose samples prepared by mechanical fibrillation of birch pulp with varying xylan content. Analyzing the nanocelluloses and their hydrolysis residues with dynamic FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that a certain fraction of xylan remained tightly attached to cellulose fibrils despite partial hydrolysis of xylan with xylanase prior to pulp fibrillation and that this fraction remained in the structure during the hydrolysis of nanocellulose with cellulase mixture as well. Thus, a loosely bound fraction of xylan was predicted to have been more likely removed by purified xylanase. The presence of loosely bound xylan seemed to limit the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose, indicated by an increase in cellulose crystallinity and by preserved crystal width measured with wide-angle X-ray scattering. Removing loosely bound xylan led to a proportional hydrolysis of xylan and cellulose with the cellulase mixture. PMID:23238342

Penttilä, Paavo A; Várnai, Anikó; Pere, Jaakko; Tammelin, Tekla; Salmén, Lennart; Siika-aho, Matti; Viikari, Liisa; Serimaa, Ritva



Factors impeding enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis at high solid concentrations.  


Enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis at high solid concentrations is advantageous from an environmental and economic point of view. However, increased wheat gluten concentrations result in a concentration effect with a decreased hydrolysis rate at constant enzyme-to-substrate ratios and a decreased maximum attainable degree of hydrolysis (DH%). We here identified the underlying factors causing the concentration effect. Wheat gluten was hydrolyzed at solid concentrations from 4.4% to 70%. The decreased hydrolysis rate was present at all solid concentrations and at any time of the reaction. Mass transfer limitations, enzyme inhibition and water activity were shown to not cause this hydrolysis rate limitation up to 50% solids. However, the hydrolysis rate limitation can be, at least partly, explained by a second-order enzyme inactivation process. Furthermore, mass transfer impeded the hydrolysis above 60% solids. Addition of enzyme after 24 h at high solid concentrations scarcely increased the DH%, suggesting that the maximum attainable DH% decreases at high solid concentrations. Reduced enzyme activities caused by low water activities can explain this DH% limitation. Finally, a possible influence of the plastein reaction on the DH% limitation is discussed. PMID:24474643

Hardt, N A; Janssen, A E M; Boom, R M; van der Goot, A J



Factors Affecting Photosynthesis!  

E-print Network

4/21/13 1 Factors Affecting Photosynthesis! Temperature Eppley (1972) Light Sverdrup transporters (nutrients) It slows down (curves) because the dark reactions can't process fast enough Light controlled by light and is linear Critical Depth! Given the previous assumptions, the Critical Depth (Zcr

Kudela, Raphael M.


Factors Affecting Photosynthesis!  

E-print Network

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis! Temperature Eppley (1972) Light Sverdrup's Critical Depth-493, but the general concept is still valid! ! #12;PB opt & Temperature! #12;Photosynthesis & Temperature! Remember: in the laboratory, we can measure photosynthesis versus irradiance (PvsE) and calculate Ek, Pmax, and alpha

Kudela, Raphael M.


Affective Factors: Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Affective factors seem to play a crucial role in success or failure in second language acquisition. Negative attitudes can reduce learners' motivation and harm language learning, while positive attitudes can do the reverse. Discovering students' attitudes about language will help both teacher and student in teaching learning process. Anxiety is…

Tasnimi, Mahshad



Alcohol fermentation of sweet potato. 1. Acid hydrolysis and factors involved  

SciTech Connect

Factors affecting acid hydrolysis of sweet potato powder (SPP) to fermentable sugars were examined. These include HCl concentration, temperature, time, and levels of SPP. Maximum reducing sugar, reported as dextrose equivalent (DE), was detected after 24 min hydrolysis (1% SPP) in 0.034N HCl heated at 154 degrees celcius. These samples also had 3.43% hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) based on dry weight. A high level of HMF (9.2%) was detected in 1% SPP heated at 154 degrees C in 0.10N HCl for 18 min. The lowest concentration of HMF formed (1.8%), at maximal DE of 61%, was established in samples containing 5% SPP and heated at 154 degrees C in 0.034N HCl for 48 min. Aqueous extracts of uncured SPP, examined by HPLC, contained glucose, fructose and sucrose, butdegreaded SPP had only glucose and fructose. Products of degraded SPP, under appropriate conditions, could be used for alcohol fermentation. (Refs. 18).

Azhar, A.; Hamdy, M.K.



Factors Affecting Students' Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determinants of students' performance have been the subject of ongoing debate among educators, academics, and policy makers. There have been many studies that sought to examine this issue and their findings point out to hard work, previous schooling, parents’ education, family income and self motivation as factors that have a significant effect on the students GPA. Most of those studies

Nasri Harb; Ahmed El-Shaarawi



Factors limiting the hydrolysis of casein by subtilisin DY.  


It was shown that during the subtilisin DY-induced hydrolysis of casein relatively stable polypeptide structures are formed. In their interior these structures contain peptide bonds which are susceptible to the enzyme used. Heating (up to 100 degrees C) and/or application of ultrasound (25 kHz, 60 W) results in their unfolding. Data are provided, which show that under the enzyme-substrate complex formation does not lead to an enzyme conformation more susceptible to autolysis. Taking into account the described phenomena a higher degree of hydrolysis was attained in comparison to those obtained by standard enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:3322321

Nedkov, P; Lilova, A; Tchorbanov, B



Factors affecting running economy.  


Running economy, defined as the steady-state VO2 for a given running velocity, has been shown to account for a large and significant proportion of variation in distance-running performance among runners roughly comparable in VO2 max. Despite this recognition, relatively little is known regarding the potpourri of physiological, environmental, structural and mechanical factors potentially associated with a lower aerobic demand of running. Early attempts at quantifying the energy expenditure of exhaustive runs incorporated measurements of oxygen consumption before, during, and after exercise. The validity of this approach has been questioned, however, since recent evidence has demonstrated that only a moderate relationship exists between postexercise VO2 and anaerobic metabolism. The energy demands for submaximal running (i.e. running economy) can be quantified by calculating the steady-state VO2, expressed with respect to body mass and time, for a standardised, submaximal running speed. Since this variable represents the aerobic demand of running, the generation of energy must derive wholly from cell respiration and not from substantial protein catabolism. Research has indicated that at low to moderate work rates, the steady-state energy condition is attained in about 3 minutes. Trained individuals reach steady-state sooner than unfit subjects. While limited by methodological constraints, the existence of a steady-state has also been verified by the lack of blood lactate accumulation and the presence of a respiratory exchange ratio of less than 1.00. The ability of economy, either singly or in combination with VO2 max, to account for a substantial portion of performance variation among trained distance runners and untrained subjects of comparable ability and fitness level has been demonstrated in recent cross-sectional studies. Limited data from short and long term longitudinal research also suggests that endurance running success is linked to training and growth-related improvements in economy. Intraindividual variation in economy has been shown to vary between 2% and 11% for a given speed. Most of this variation can probably be attributed to biological error. While the majority of evidence does not support a gender difference in running economy, data from some studies suggest that males may be more economical than women. Prepubescent children are less economical than older children and adults, whereas older adults exhibit the same trend when compared to younger counterparts. Because of air and wind resistance, the aerobic demands of indoor treadmill running significantly underestimate the cost of overground running, especially at higher speeds.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2662320

Morgan, D W; Martin, P E; Krahenbuhl, G S



Barley grain constituents, starch composition, and structure affect starch in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis.  


The relationship between starch physical properties and enzymatic hydrolysis was determined using ten different hulless barley genotypes with variable carbohydrate composition. The ten barley genotypes included one normal starch (CDC McGwire), three increased amylose starches (SH99250, SH99073, and SB94893), and six waxy starches (CDC Alamo, CDC Fibar, CDC Candle, Waxy Betzes, CDC Rattan, and SB94912). Total starch concentration positively influenced thousand grain weight (TGW) (r(2) = 0.70, p < 0.05). Increase in grain protein concentration was not only related to total starch concentration (r(2) = -0.80, p < 0.01) but also affected enzymatic hydrolysis of pure starch (r(2) = -0.67, p < 0.01). However, an increase in amylopectin unit chain length between DP 12-18 (F-II) was detrimental to starch concentration (r(2) = 0.46, p < 0.01). Amylose concentration influenced granule size distribution with increased amylose genotypes showing highly reduced volume percentage of very small C-granules (<5 ?m diameter) and significantly increased (r(2) = 0.83, p < 0.01) medium sized B granules (5-15 ?m diameter). Amylose affected smaller (F-I) and larger (F-III) amylopectin chains in opposite ways. Increased amylose concentration positively influenced the F-III (DP 19-36) fraction of longer DP amylopectin chains (DP 19-36) which was associated with resistant starch (RS) in meal and pure starch samples. The rate of starch hydrolysis was high in pure starch samples as compared to meal samples. Enzymatic hydrolysis rate both in meal and pure starch samples followed the order waxy > normal > increased amylose. Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) increased with a decrease in amylose concentration. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis revealed a higher polydispersity index of amylose in CDC McGwire and increased amylose genotypes which could contribute to their reduced enzymatic hydrolysis, compared to waxy starch genotypes. Increased ?-glucan and dietary fiber concentration also reduced the enzymatic hydrolysis of meal samples. An average linkage cluster analysis dendrogram revealed that variation in amylose concentration significantly (p < 0.01) influenced resistant starch concentration in meal and pure starch samples. RS is also associated with B-type granules (5-15 ?m) and the amylopectin F-III (19-36 DP) fraction. In conclusion, the results suggest that barley genotype SH99250 with less decrease in grain weight in comparison to that of other increased amylose genotypes (SH99073 and SH94893) could be a promising genotype to develop cultivars with increased amylose grain starch without compromising grain weight and yield. PMID:21462932

Asare, Eric K; Jaiswal, Sarita; Maley, Jason; Båga, Monica; Sammynaiken, Ramaswami; Rossnagel, Brian G; Chibbar, Ravindra N



Factors Affecting Willingness to Mentor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents a survey among 300 employees in Northern Italy to assess the willingness to mentor and identify the factors that affect it. Men and respondents with previous mentoring experience indicate a higher willingness to be a mentor. Willingness is affected by personal characteristics that are perceived as necessary for a mentor and the…

Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Quaglino, Gian Piero



Particle size distribution of rice flour affecting the starch enzymatic hydrolysis and hydration properties.  


Rice flour is becoming very attractive as raw material, but there is lack of information about the influence of particle size on its functional properties and starch digestibility. This study evaluates the degree of dependence of the rice flour functional properties, mainly derived from starch behavior, with the particle size distribution. Hydration properties of flours and gels and starch enzymatic hydrolysis of individual fractions were assessed. Particle size heterogeneity on rice flour significantly affected functional properties and starch features, at room temperature and also after gelatinization; and the extent of that effect was grain type dependent. Particle size heterogeneity on rice flour induces different pattern in starch enzymatic hydrolysis, with the long grain having slower hydrolysis as indicated the rate constant (k). No correlation between starch digestibility and hydration properties or the protein content was observed. It seems that in intact granules interactions with other grain components must be taken into account. Overall, particle size fractionation of rice flour might be advisable for selecting specific physico-chemical properties. PMID:23987363

de la Hera, Esther; Gomez, Manuel; Rosell, Cristina M



Alcohol fermentation of sweet potato - 1. Acid hydrolysis and factors involved  

SciTech Connect

Factors affecting acid hydrolysis of sweet potato powder (SPP) to fermentable sugars were examined. These include HCl concentration, temperature, time, and levels of SPP. Maximum reducing sugar, reported as dextrose equivalent (DE), was detected after 24 min hydrolysis (1% SPP) in 0.034N HCl heated at 154/degree/C. These samples also had 3.43% hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) based on dry weight. A high level of HMF (9.2%) was detected in 1% SPP heated at 154/degree/C in 0.10N HCl for 18 min. The lowest concentration of HMF formed (1.8%), at maximal DE of 61%, was established in samples containing 5% SPP and heated at 154/degree/C in 0.034N HCl for 48 min. Aqueous extracts of uncured SPP, examined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography, contained glucose, fructose and sucrose, but degraded SPP had only glucose and fructose. Products of degraded SPP, Under appropriate conditions, could be used for alcohol fermentation. 18 refs.

Azhar, A.; Hamdy, M.K.



Factors limiting the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat gluten.  


The enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat gluten for the production of seasonings using mixtures of endo- and exopeptidases results in yields typically below 40%. Possible limiting parameters, such as an increasing product inhibition, autopeptidolysis of the enzymes, and lack of cleavage sites, were studied using novel peptidases from Flammulina velutipes or the commercial Flavourzyme preparation. Seven intermittent electrodialysis steps (10 g/L gluten and 10 kaU/mL) for the in situ removal of amino acids minimized the product inhibition. During 16 h, hydrolysis progressed nearly linearly. Compared to the batch control, a 3-fold yield of amino acids released was obtained indicating that an integrated product removal alleviates the problem of product inhibition. Autopeptidolysis, as shown using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and enzyme activity assays, was suppressed with increasing concentrations of competing gluten substrate. Peptidases of F. velutipes showed product inhibition only, whereas a combined effect of product inhibition and lack of cleavage sites was observed for Flavourzyme. PMID:24787755

Giesler, L; Linke, D; Berger, R G



Factors affecting rotator cuff healing.  


Several studies have noted that increasing age is a significant factor for diminished rotator cuff healing, while biomechanical studies have suggested the reason for this may be an inferior healing environment in older patients. Larger tears and fatty infiltration or atrophy negatively affect rotator cuff healing. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, double-row repairs, performing a concomitant acromioplasty, and the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) do not demonstrate an improvement in structural healing over mini-open rotator cuff repairs, single-row repairs, not performing an acromioplasty, or not using PRP. There is conflicting evidence to support postoperative rehabilitation protocols using early motion over immobilization following rotator cuff repair. PMID:24806015

Mall, Nathan A; Tanaka, Miho J; Choi, Luke S; Paletta, George A



Factors affecting reciprocating compressor performance  

SciTech Connect

A reciprocating compressor is a positive displacement machine and, in principal, its capacity and horsepower can be calculated very easily. In practice, however, several loss mechanisms act to decrease capacity and increase horsepower from the ideal predicted values. Many of these effects are quite difficult to predict accurately and the only effective way of developing reciprocating compressor performance prediction methods is to run a large number of tests on different compressors under different operating conditions. Combined with an understanding of the physics controlling the losses, experimental results allow good empirical models of losses to be developed. However, without the benefit of a good understanding of the physics of the loss mechanisms, it is impossible to interpret test results. Some factors affecting the magnitude of losses are compressor design, compressor speed, suction and discharge pressure and temperature, gas composition, suction and discharge piping design, and valve design. Losses that are important in some applications may be negligible in others so it is essential that a wide range of compressor designs, valve designs, gas molecular weight and operating conditions be tested when developing a performance prediction model. The paper discusses the effects of clearance and pressure ratio; the primary losses affecting capacity and power, including valve and port pressure loss, valve springing, valve inertia, piston ring leakage, packing leakage, discharge valve leakage, suction valve leakage, pulsations, heat transfer in the suction passage, and heat transfer in the cylinder; heat transfer in compressor cylinders; performance prediction methods; and compressor diagnosis.

Woollatt, D. (Dresser-Rand Co., Painted Post, NY (United States))



Effects of Environmental Factors on 1,3-Dichloropropene Hydrolysis in Water and Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

water and soil were evaluated based on its residual amount and Cl Effects of environmental factors such as pH, photo irra- release, respectively. 1,3-D hydrolyzed rapidly in deionized water, diation, presence of suspended particles, soil moisture, with a half-life of 9.8 d at 20C. The hydrolysis was pH dependent, particle size, mineralogy, and microorganisms on the with low pH inhibiting

Mingxin Guo; Sharon K. Papiernik; Wei Zheng; Scott R. Yates



Hydrolysis of GTP by elongation factor G drives tRNA movement on the ribosome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elongation factor G (EF-G) is a GTPase that is involved in the translocation of bacterial ribosomes along messenger RNA during protein biosynthesis. In contrast to current models, EF-G-dependent GTP hydrolysis is shown to precede, and greatly accelerate, the rearrangement of the ribosome that leads to translocation. Domain IV of the EF-G structure is crucial for both rapid translocation and subsequent

Marina V. Rodnina; Andreas Savelsbergh; Vladimir I. Katunin; Wolfgang Wintermeyer



The rapid hydrolysis of chlordiazepoxide to demoxepam may affect the outcome of chronic osmotic minipump studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  In chronic studies, the classical benzodiazepine chlordiazepoxide (CDP) is often the preferred drug because, unlike other\\u000a benzodiazepines, it is soluble in water. However, rapid CDP hydrolysis in solution has been described. This would diminish\\u000a plasma levels in chronic minipump studies and introduce the corelease of active compounds.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Therefore, the present study aimed to explore the putative hydrolysis of CDP in

Christiaan H. Vinkers; Gerdien A. H. Korte-Bouws; Javier Sastre Toraño; Naheed R. Mirza; Elsebet Ø. Nielsen; Philip K. Ahring; Gerhardus J. de Jong; Berend Olivier



Factors affecting leachate quality. Technical note  

SciTech Connect

This technical note describes factors affecting leachate quality for dredged material in confined disposal facilities (CDFs). Factors evaluated include desorption kinetics, sediment concentration, and association of PCBs with soluble and colloidal organic matter.

Brannon, J.M.; Pennington, J.C.; Myers, T.E.; Price, C.B.



Factors Affecting Onset of Puberty  

Microsoft Academic Search

In humans, foetal and early postnatal growth failure may have persistent consequences for growth and pubertal development in later life. During this period, the developing organs are still plastic to change their function, which may have long-lasting effects. At the time of onset of puberty, acute factors may also interfere with pubertal development. Malnutrition, as seen in anorexic patients, and

Henriette A. Delemarre-van de Waal; Silvia C. C. M. van Coeverden; Mia J. T. Engelbregt



Ecological Factors Affecting Community Invasibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

What makes a community invasible? For over a century ecologists have sought to understand the relative importance of biotic\\u000a and abiotic factors that determine community composition. The fact that we are still exploring this topic today hints at both\\u000a its importance and complexity. As the impacts from harmful non-native species accumulate, it has become increasingly urgent\\u000a to find answers to

Suzanne V. Olyarnik; Matthew E. S. Bracken; Jarrett E. Byrnes; A. Randall Hughes; Kristin M. Hultgren; John J. Stachowicz


EFL teachers' factors and students' affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual learners' affective factors are very important for foreign language learning. In China foreign language learning mainly happens in classroom. Foreign language teachers are the organizers and carriers of language classes, and thus they inevitably influence the students ' affection. This study explores how EFL teachers influence students ' affect, what the teachers should do to develop and make good




Factors affecting outcomes in colonoscopy.  


There are many factors that influence successful outcomes in colonoscopy. The aims of this study were to evaluate these factors and determine ways to improve outcomes. All participants (N=229) who underwent planned colonoscopy between July and September 2004 were retrospectively included. Participants included 118 men and 111 women with a mean age of 59 years. Completion rate was 92%. Reasons of failure included poor bowel preparation (2.2%, p< .025), bowel looping (2.2%, p< .025), participant discomfort (1.3%), and obstructing lesion (1.3%). Mean midazolam dose was 3.8 mg. Three participants (1.3%) had midazolam alone, and all had complete colonoscopy. One hundred thirty-three participants (60.7%) had additional meperidine, with a completion rate of 94%. Eighty three participants (37.9%) had additional meperidine and Buscopan, with a completion rate reduced to 89.2%. There was no correlation between sedatives used and completion rate. Completion rate of colonoscopy in our unit was acceptable at 92%. A combination of midazolam and meperidine gave the best completion rates (94%). The two main reasons for incompletion were poor bowel preparation and excessive bowel looping. PMID:18300826

Selehi, Seema; Leung, Edmund; Wong, Ling



Factors Affecting Students' Retention at Kuwait University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the factors that affect students' retention at Kuwait University. Five hundred seventy students participated in the study. A survey of 22 retention factors was designed to measure student perceptions. Students presented their agreement on factors which included: achieving personal aspiration, getting jobs, free-of-charge…

AlKandari, Nabila



Factors affecting calculation of L  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detectable extraterrestrial civilization can be modeled as a series of successive regimes over time each of which is detectable for a certain proportion of its lifecycle. This methodology can be utilized to produce an estimate for L. Potential components of L include quantity of fossil fuel reserves, solar energy potential, quantity of regimes over time, lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and downtime between regimes. Relationships between these components provide a means of calculating the lifetime of communicative species in a detectable state, L. An example of how these factors interact is provided, utilizing values that are reasonable given known astronomical data for components such as solar energy potential while existing knowledge about the terrestrial case is used as a baseline for other components including fossil fuel reserves, quantity of regimes over time, and lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and gaps of time between regimes due to recovery from catastrophic war or resource exhaustion. A range of values is calculated for L when parameters are established for each component so as to determine the lowest and highest values of L. roadmap for SETI research at the SETI Institute for the next few decades. Three different approaches were identified. 1) Continue the radio search: build an affordable array incorporating consumer market technologies, expand the search frequency, and increase the target list to 100,000 stars. This array will also serve as a technology demonstration and enable the international radio astronomy community to realize an array that is a hundred times larger and capable (among other things) of searching a million stars. 2) Begin searches for very fast optical pulses from a million stars. 3) As Moore's Law delivers increased computational capacity, build an omni-directional sky survey array capable of detecting strong, transient, radio signals from billions of stars. SETI could succeed tomorrow, or it may be an endeavor for multiple generations. We are a very young technology in a very old galaxy. While our own leakage radiation continues to outshine the Sun at many frequencies, we remain detectable to others. When our use of the spectrum becomes more efficient, it will be time to consider deliberate transmissions and the really tough questions: Who will speak for Earth? What will they say?

Ciotola, Mark P.




EPA Science Inventory

Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility Suzanne. E. Fenton US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...


Factors affecting mother-child play  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING MOTHER-CHILD PLAY A Thesis by JENNIFER COLLEEN WELCH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject...: Psychology FACTORS AFFECTING MOTHER-CHILD PLAY A Thesis by JENNIFER COLLEEN WELCH Submitted to Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content bg: T' othy A. Cavell...

Welch, Jennifer Colleen



EFL Teachers' Factors and Students' Affect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual learners' affective factors are very important for foreign language learning. In China foreign language learning mainly happens in the classroom. Foreign language teachers are the organizers and carriers of language classes, and thus they inevitably influence the students' affection. This study explores how EFL teachers influence…

Qin, Lei



Factors affecting outcomes young patients with diverticulitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Young age has been identified in the literature as a risk factor for complications and emergency surgery among patients with acute diverticulitis. Our objective was to determine whether or not factors such as (1) duration of symptoms before admission to the hospital, (2) body mass index (BMI), and (3) smoking affected their outcome. Materials and methods. After IRB approval,

L. S. Miranda; K. Lee



Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis




Microsoft Academic Search

Many factors affect the number of birds detected on point count surveys of breeding songbirds. The magnitude and importance of these factors are not well understood. We used a bird song simulation system to quantify the effects of detection distance, singing rate, species differences, and observer differences on detection probabilities of birds detected by ear. We simulated 40 point counts

Mathew W. Alldredge; Theodore R. Simons; Kenneth H. Pollock



Economic and Cultural Factors Affecting University Excellence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…

Jabnoun, Naceur



Factors affecting persistence of Deaf college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of attrition after the first year of college was conducted with the 1984 entry class of the National Technical Institute for the Deaf. A path-analytic model of 9 factors affecting student persistence was tested using LISREL (N = 233). The results indicate that social integration is an important factor in college persistence. Grade point average is not a

Michael S. Stinson; Marcia J. Scherer; Gerard G. Walter



Factors That Affect Chinese EFL Learner's Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is concerned with factors affecting Chinese English-as-Second-Language (ESL) learner's acquisition in the Department of Foreign Languages at Tianjin Institute of Technology. These factors, which include language shock, culture differences, culture background knowledge, motivation, and ego permeability, create psychological distance…

Wang, Zhigang


Glycosaminoglycans affect the action of human plasma kallikrein on kininogen hydrolysis and inflammation.  


Human plasma kallikrein (huPK) is a serine proteinase involved in many biological processes including those of the kallikrein-kinin system. The action of huPK on kininogen results in bradykinin (BK) release, a potent mediator of inflammatory responses. BK generation may be influenced by several agents, and the aim of this work was to investigate the effect of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) on human high-molecular-weight kininogen (HK) hydrolysis by huPK and on inflammation. huPK was pre-incubated in the absence and presence of different GAGs, followed by the addition of kininogen. Bradykinin released at different times was measured by radioimmunoassay, and KM and kcat were calculated. Tuna and bovine dermatan sulfates, the most potent GAGs studied, reduced by 80% and 68%, respectively, the catalytic efficiency of huPK (control = 4. x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) in BK release. The effect of bovine dermatan sulfate (BDS) on inflammatory response was studied in rat paw edema induced by carrageenin and hourly determined (1-4 h) by plethysmography. BDS significantly reduced the inflammatory response in the first and second hours of measurements (24% and 28%, respectively), p < 0.05. GAGs were shown to reduce bradykinin release "in vitro" and in an inflammation model. This reduction may play a role in the control or maintenance of some pathological and physiological processes. PMID:12489800

Gozzo, Andrezza J; Nunes, Viviane A; Carmona, Adriana K; Nader, Helena B; von Dietrich, Carl Peter; Silveira, Vera L F; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Ura, Nobuyuki; Sampaio, Misako U; Sampaio, Claudio A M; Araújo, Mariana S



Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers’ Motor Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence\\u000a of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development.\\u000a The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status, mother’s educational level, and\\u000a the existence of siblings

Fotini Venetsanou; Antonis Kambas



Factors Affecting ASR Model Self-Training  

E-print Network

1 Factors Affecting ASR Model Self-Training Scott Novotney Richard Schwartz BBN Technologies CUED Model Unlabeled Audio Automatic Transcriptions Confidence Selection / Weighting Labeled Audio 1. Build of untranscribed audio data. 3. Use word confidence from ASR system to select or weight observations. 4. Train new


Factors Affecting Motivation to Transfer Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of trainees (n=88) in a competency-based occupational safety and health training program found that environmental factors (opportunities to use skills, peer/supervisor support, and supervisor sanctions) were most influential on motivation to transfer training. Training attitudes may be affected by prior experiences when the use of training…

Seyler, Dian L.; Holton, Elwood F., III; Bates, Reid A.; Burnett, Michael F.; Carvalho, Manuel A.



Critical Factors Affecting Personal Software Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personal software process quality helps determine the success of software projects and organizations. Although encouraging, previous studies treated the Personal Software Process approach as a black-box tool for personal process improvement. We dig deeper into the factors affecting personal processes. It is concluded that A\\/FR (appraisal to failure ratio) and Yield (percentage of defects removed before first compile) are two

Xiaoming Zhong; Nazim H. Madhavji; Khaled El Emam



Factors affecting nurses' perceptions of patient safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Nurses heavily influence patient care quality and safety. This paper aims to examine socioeconomic and organizational\\/system factors affecting patient safety and quality perceptions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire was constructed to gather demographic, managerial support, information technology implementation and integration information. Data were collected from nurses in five Riyadh hospitals, Saudi Arabia. Registered nurses working in hospital departments participated

Ari Mwachofi; Stephen L. Walston; Badran A. Al-Omar



Affecting Factors in Second Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the influence of sex, handedness, level in second language (L2) and Faculty choice on the performance of phonological, syntactical and semantic tasks in L2. Level in L2 and sex were the most affecting factors. Subjects who achieved higher scores on L2 tasks had strong second language aptitude skills since they were…

Andreou, G.; Vlachos, F.; Andreou, E.



Identification of Factors That Affect Software Complexity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of computer scientists was conducted to identify factors that affect software complexity. A total of 160 items were selected from the literature to include in a questionnaire sent to 425 individuals who were employees of computer-related businesses in Lawrence and Kansas City. The items were grouped into nine categories called system…

Kaiser, Javaid


Factors Affecting the Speed of Free Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factors affecting the free writing speed of 11-year-old students were investigated using the Group and Individual Assessment of Handwriting Speed. Intelligence, gender, legibility and whether the student has special educational needs or speaks English as an additional language were all found to impact on writing speed to a significant extent. In…

Ferrier, Jonathan; Horne, Joanna; Singleton, Chris



Remote sensing of environmental factors affecting health  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research to identify, by satellite imagery, parameters of the environment affecting health on Earth. Thus, we suggest expanding the application of space technology to preventive medicine, as a new field in the peaceful uses of outer space. The scope of the study includes all parts of the environment, natural and man-made, and all kinds of protection of life: human, animal and vegetation health. The general objective is to consider and classify those factors, detectable from space, that affect or are relevant to health and may be found in the air, water, sea, soil, land, vegetation, as well as those linked to climate, industry, energy production, development works, irrigation systems, and human settlements. The special objective is the classification of environmental factors detectable from space, that are linked to communicable or chronic endemic diseases or health problems. The method of identifying the factors affecting health was the parallel study of environmental epidemiological and biological parameters. The role of environmental factors common to both human and animal populations is discussed. Conclusive findings are formulated and possible applications, both scientific and practical, in other sectors are also discussed.

Jovanovic, Petar


Factors affecting the cost effectiveness of antibiotics.  


In an era of spiraling health care costs and limited resources, policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the cost effectiveness of antibiotics. The aim of this study is to draw on published economic evaluations with a view to identify and illustrate the factors affecting the cost effectiveness of antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections. The findings indicate that the cost effectiveness of antibiotics is influenced by factors relating to the characteristics and the use of antibiotics (i.e., diagnosis, comparative costs and comparative effectiveness, resistance, patient compliance with treatment, and treatment failure) and by external factors (i.e., funding source, clinical pharmacy interventions, and guideline implementation interventions). Physicians need to take into account these factors when prescribing an antibiotic and assess whether a specific antibiotic treatment adds sufficient value to justify its costs. PMID:22312550

Simoens, Steven



Factors Affecting the Cost Effectiveness of Antibiotics  

PubMed Central

In an era of spiraling health care costs and limited resources, policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the cost effectiveness of antibiotics. The aim of this study is to draw on published economic evaluations with a view to identify and illustrate the factors affecting the cost effectiveness of antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections. The findings indicate that the cost effectiveness of antibiotics is influenced by factors relating to the characteristics and the use of antibiotics (i.e., diagnosis, comparative costs and comparative effectiveness, resistance, patient compliance with treatment, and treatment failure) and by external factors (i.e., funding source, clinical pharmacy interventions, and guideline implementation interventions). Physicians need to take into account these factors when prescribing an antibiotic and assess whether a specific antibiotic treatment adds sufficient value to justify its costs. PMID:22312550

Simoens, Steven



Factors Affecting Intensive Care Units Nursing Workload  

PubMed Central

Background: The nursing workload has a close and strong association with the quality of services provided for the patients. Therefore, paying careful attention to the factors affecting nursing workload, especially those working in the intensive care units (ICUs), is very important. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the factors affecting nursing workload in the ICUs of the hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional and analytical-descriptive study that has done in Iran. All nurses (n = 400) who was working in the ICUs of the hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2014 were selected and studied using census method. The required data were collected using a researcher–made questionnaire which its validity and reliability were confirmed through getting the opinions of experts and using composite reliability and internal consistency (? = 0.89). The collected data were analyzed through exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and using SPSS 18.0 and AMOS 18.0. Results: Twenty-five factors were divided into three major categories through EFA, including structure, process, and activity. The following factors among the structure, process and activity components had the greatest importance: lack of clear responsibilities and authorities and performing unnecessary tasks (by a coefficient of 0.709), mismatch between the capacity of wards and the number of patients (by a coefficient of 0.639), and helping the students and newly employed staff (by a coefficient of 0.589). Conclusions: The nursing workload is influenced by many factors. The clear responsibilities and authorities of nurses, patients' admission according to the capacity of wards, use of the new technologies and equipment, and providing basic training for new nurses can decrease the workload of nurses.

Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ravangard, Ramin; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Mosavi, Seyed Masod; Gholami Fesharaki, Mohammad; Mehrabian, Fardin



Factors affecting the determination of cerebrovascular reactivity  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), measures the ability of the cerebrovasculature to respond to vasoactive stimuli such as CO2. CVR is often expressed as the ratio of cerebral blood flow change to CO2 change. We examine several factors affecting this measurement: blood pressure, stimulus pattern, response analysis and subject position. Methods Step and ramp increases in CO2 were implemented in nine subjects, seated and supine. Middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were determined breath-by-breath. Cerebrovascular conductance (MCAc) was estimated as MCAv/MAP. CVR was calculated from both the relative and absolute measures of MCAc and MCAv responses. Results MAP increased with CO2 in some subjects so that relative CVR calculated from conductance responses were less than those calculated from CVR calculated from velocity responses. CVR measured from step responses were affected by the response dynamics, and were less than those calculated from CVR measured from ramp responses. Subject position did not affect CVR. Conclusions (1) MAP increases with CO2 and acts as a confounding factor for CVR measurement; (2) CVR depends on the stimulus pattern used; (3) CVR did not differ from the sitting versus supine in these experiments; (4) CVR calculated from absolute changes of MCAv was less than that calculated from relative changes. PMID:25328852

Regan, Rosemary E; Fisher, Joseph A; Duffin, James



Factors Affecting Auction Market Operating Costs.  

E-print Network

Factors Affecting Auction Market Operating Costs Texas Summary and Conclusions T THE TIME THE DATA for this study were collected A there were 178 livestock auctions operating in Texas; 140 were included in this analysis. They ranyed in size... from just over 5,000 animal units per year to alinost 350,000. It has been sl~own that opera- - tional efficiency, measured in terms of average cost per unit marketed, increases directly with firm size and that efficiency gains were most marked...

Wootan, Charley V.; McNeely, John G.



Reappraising factors affecting mourning dove perch coos  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Results confirmed pairing as the primary factor influencing perch-cooing rates of wild mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). Marked unmated males cooed at substantially higher rates (6.2x) than mated males, had greater probability of cooing (2.3x) during 3-minute periods, and continued cooing longer each morning than mated males. Population density was not a major factor affecting cooing. Unmated males cooed more frequently in the presence of other cooing doves (P < 0.05) than when alone, but the number of additional doves above 1 was unimportant. Cooing rates of both mated and unmated males on areas with dissimilar dove densities were not significantly different. Within limits of standard call-count procedure, weather exerted no detectable influence on cooing.

Sayre, M.W.; Atkinson, R.D.; Baskett, T.S.; Haas, G.H.



Factors affecting contraceptive use in Pakistan.  


This study postulates that contraceptive use in Pakistan is affected by the usual demographic factors as well as husband-wife communication, female autonomy, son preference, religious beliefs, and family planning service supply. Analysis is based on data obtained from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey of 1990-91. Findings indicate that 74% of women never talked in the past year with their husbands about family planning. Almost 60% believed that family size was "up to God." About 47% knew where to obtain contraception; only 20.4% had easy access to a source of supplies. Current use was 14% and ever use was 22.4%. Analysis is based on three basic models. Model 1 includes the control variables and son preference. Model 2 includes husband-wife communication, religious attitudes, and female autonomy. Model 3 includes the addition of family planning to model 2 variables. Urban residence increases the odds of contraceptive use considerably only in Model 1. The influence of urban residence in the other models is reduced. Husband's education is significant only in Models 1 and 2 and insignificant in Model 3 when the family planning variable is included. Increased women's age is also insignificant in Model 3. Of the supply factors in Model 3, knowledge of a source and easy access to a source were highly significant, while mass media exposure was not important. Knowledge of a source was the most important predictor. Model 3 explained 90% of use. Among urban women, lack of husband-wife communication and fatalistic beliefs reduce the log-odds of contraceptive use. For rural women, age and women's secondary education were key predictors. Findings confirm that demographic and socio-cultural factors affect contraceptive use in Pakistan. All the theorized variables exerted a strong influence on contraceptive use, which can be counteracted by improved supply and service strategies. PMID:12292564

Mahmood, N; Ringheim, K



Factors affecting aural detections of songbirds.  


Many factors affect the number of birds detected on point count surveys of breeding songbirds. The magnitude and importance of these factors are not well understood. We used a bird song simulation system to quantify the effects of detection distance, singing rate, species differences, and observer differences on detection probabilities of birds detected by ear. We simulated 40 point counts consisting of 10 birds per count for five primary species (Black-and-white Warbler Mniotilta varia, Black-throated Blue Warbler Dendroica caerulescens, Black-throated Green Warbler Dendroica virens, Hooded Warbler Wilsonia citrina, and Ovenbird Seiurus aurocapillus) over a range of 15 distances (34-143 m). Songs were played at low (two songs per count) and high (13-21 songs per count) singing rates. Detection probabilities averaged across observers ranged from 0.60 (Black-and-white Warbler) to 0.83 (Hooded Warbler) at the high singing rate and 0.41 (Black-and-white Warbler) to 0.67 (Hooded Warbler) at the low singing rate. Logistic regression analyses indicated that species, singing rate, distance, and observer were all significant factors affecting detection probabilities. Singing rate x species and singing rate X distance interactions were also significant. Simulations of expected counts, based on the best logistic model, indicated that observers detected between 19% (for the worst observer, lowest singing rate, and least detectable species) and 65% (for the best observer, highest singing rate, and most detectable species) of the true population. Detection probabilities on actual point count surveys are likely to vary even more because many sources of variability were controlled in our experiments. These findings strongly support the importance of adjusting measures of avian diversity or abundance from auditory point counts with direct estimates of detection probability. PMID:17494409

Alldredge, Mathew W; Simons, Theodore R; Pollock, Kenneth H



Assisted suicide: factors affecting public attitudes.  


Public support for assisted suicide has been growing despite the ethical questions raised by members of the medical profession. Previous research suggests that age, gender, experience, and religiosity are factors affecting individuals' attitudes. This study examines the effect of demographic and ideological factors, as well as individuals' caregiving experiences, on attitudes toward assisted suicide. Random-digit-dialing procedures produced a sample of 156 residents of Denton, Texas, in March 1998. T-tests were conducted to measure significance, while gamma values were used to measure level of association and percent reduction in error. The data indicate that age, gender, and caregiving experience were not significant predictors of attitudes. Situational factors, including whether a physician or friend/family member should assist and whether a child or a terminally ill patient experiencing no pain should receive assistance, all were highly significant and positively associated with attitudes toward assisted suicide. Respondents were most likely to support physician-assisted suicide for individuals experiencing no pain. The data also indicated that the depth of commitment to the beliefs that suffering has meaning, that life belongs to God, and that physician-assisted suicide is murder, were highly significant and negatively associated with attitudes toward assisted suicide. PMID:12557886

Worthen, L T; Yeatts, D E


Factors Affecting Informal Economy of Rural Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the informal economy in the rural areas of Turkey has been measured and factors affecting the informal economy have been analyzed. The informal economy has been discussed with regards to three main issues, namely unpaid household labor force usage, own consumption of crop and animal products and informal sales. Although the household labor force is mainly used in farms for agricultural and off-farm activities, the rate of idle labor has been found to be highly significant. It has been found that milk has the largest share of animal produce values consumed by the household, while particularly processed milk products are sold informally and that the consumption and sales values of animal produce processed in the households are required to be added to the unrecorded value calculation. Consumption of crops varies depending on the type of product. The own consumption ratio of crops is affected by the size of the enterprise, the number of individuals in the households and particularly the access to the markets of the enterprises in each region. An average informal value of 6,400.04 USD has been calculated per household, which is higher than the farm income, accounting for 4/5 of total household income. This can be attributed to the fact that the farms are generally small family enterprises with limited market-access opportunities.

Gonenc, Sertac; Tanrivermis, Harun


Factors Affecting Growers' Willingness to Adopt Sustainable Floriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In June to Oct. 2008, a U.S. floriculture survey was conducted to examine the factors affecting growers' willingness to adopt sustainable practices. The factors affecting adoption of sustainable practices were evaluated in five areas: environmental regulations, customer value, growers' attitudes toward sustainability, age, and operation size. A logistic regression model was used to examine factors affecting growers' adoption of sustainable

Jennifer H. Dennis; Roberto G. Lopez; Maria I. Marshall


Dissertationes Forestales 130 Factors affecting perceptions of corporate social  

E-print Network

Dissertationes Forestales 130 Factors affecting perceptions of corporate social responsibility: Factors affecting perceptions of corporate social responsibility implementation: an emphasis on values:// #12;3 Wang, L. 2011. Factors Affecting Perceptions of Corporate Social Responsibility Implementation


Factors affecting water quality in Cherokee Reservoir  

SciTech Connect

The purpose was to: (1) define reservoir problems related to water quality conditions; (2) identify the probable causes of these problems; and (3) recommend procedures for achieving needed reservoir water quality improvements. This report presents the project findings to date and suggests steps for upgrading the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section II presents background information on the characteristics of the basin, the reservoir, and the beneficial uses of the reservoir. Section III identifies the impacts of existing reservoir water quality on uses of the reservoir for water supply, fishery resources, recreation, and waste assimilation. Section IV presents an assessment of cause-effect relationships. The factors affecting water quality addressed in Section IV are: (1) reservoir thermal stratification and hydrodynamics; (2) dissolved oxygen depletion; (3) eutrophication; (4) toxic substances; and (5) reservoir fisheries. Section V presents a preliminary evaluation of alternatives for improving the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section VI presents preliminary conclusions and recommendations for developing and implementing a reservoir water quality management plan. 7 references, 22 figures, 21 tables.

Iwanski, M.L.; Higgins, J.M.; Kim, B.R.; Young, R.C.



Factors Affecting Arctic Weather and Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The factors discussed in this section are building blocks to understanding arctic weather and climate. Each factor plays an important role alone and in interaction with other factors. The "Arctic Energy Budget" ties all the factors together in a description of the Arctic as a climate system. The different factors are given detailed explanations and examples, and include topics like latitude, land/see distributions, solar radiation, air temperature, Air pressure, winds, humidity, clouds, precipitations, and Arctic energy budgets.



Factors Affecting Transfer of Training in Thailand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To begin the validation process for the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) in Thailand, research replicating Holton, Bates, and Ruona's study (2000) was conducted in Thailand. The LTSI was administered to 1,029 employees. Exploratory factor analysis and MANOVA were used to identify factors. A factor structure almost identical to that of…

Yamnill, Siriporn; McLean, Gary N.



Nerve growth factor stimulates the hydrolysis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol in PC-12 cells: A mechanism of protein kinase C regulation  

SciTech Connect

Treatment of PC-12 pheochromocytoma cells with nerve growth factor (NGF) results in the differentiation of these cells into a sympathetic neuron-like phenotype. Although the initial intracellular signals elicited by NGF remain unknown, some of the cellular effects of NGF are similar to those of other growth factors, such as insulin. The authors have investigated the involvement of a newly identified inositol-containing glycolipid in signal transduction for the actions of NGF. NGF stimulates the rapid generation of a species of diacylglycerol that is labeled with ({sup 3}H)myristate but not with ({sup 3}H)arachidonate. NGF stimulates ({sup 3}H)myristate- or ({sup 32}P)phosphate-labeled phosphatidic acid production over the same time course. Although NGF alone has no effect on the turnover of inositol phospholipids, it does stimulate the hydrolysis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol. The NGF-dependent cleavage of this lipid is accompanied by an increase in the accumulation of its polar head group, an inositol phosphate glycan, which is generated within 30-60 sec of NGF treatment. In an unresponsive PC-12 mutant cell line, neither the diacylglycerol nor inositol phosphate glycan response is detected. A possible role for the NGF-stimulated diacylglycerol is suggested by the inhibition of NGF-dependent c-fos induction by staurosporin, a potent inhibitor of protein kinase C. These results suggest that, like insulin, some of the cellular effects of NGF may be mediated by the phospholipase C-catalyzed hydrolysis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol.

Chan, B.L.; Saltiel, A.R. (Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (USA)); Chao, M.V. (Cornell Univ. Medical School, New York, NY (USA))



Nerve growth factor stimulates the hydrolysis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol in PC-12 cells: a mechanism of protein kinase C regulation.  

PubMed Central

Treatment of PC-12 pheochromocytoma cells with nerve growth factor (NGF) results in the differentiation of these cells into a sympathetic neuron-like phenotype. Although the initial intracellular signals elicited by NGF remain unknown, some of the cellular effects of NGF are similar to those of other growth factors, such as insulin. We have investigated the involvement of a newly identified inositol-containing glycolipid in signal transduction for the actions of NGF. NGF stimulates the rapid generation of a species of diacylglycerol that is labeled with [3H]myristate but not with [3H]arachidonate. NGF stimulates [3H]myristate- or [32P]phosphate-labeled phosphatidic acid production over the same time course. Although NGF alone has no effect on the turnover of inositol phospholipids, it does stimulate the hydrolysis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol. The NGF-dependent cleavage of this lipid is accompanied by an increase in the accumulation of its polar head group, an inositol phosphate glycan, which is generated within 30-60 sec of NGF treatment. In an unresponsive PC-12 mutant cell line, neither the diacylglycerol nor inositol phosphate glycan response is detected. A possible role for the NGF-stimulated diacylglycerol is suggested by the inhibition of NGF-dependent c-fos induction by staurosporin, a potent inhibitor of protein kinase C. These results suggest that, like insulin, some of the cellular effects of NGF may be mediated by the phospholipase C-catalyzed hydrolysis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol. Images PMID:2538812

Chan, B L; Chao, M V; Saltiel, A R



An Activity on Factors Affecting Blood Flow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to explore the relationship between pressure and vessel diameter and to create a model that represents how high blood pressure may affect weakened vessels. A collaborative work of Melvin Flores, Larie Laudato and Glenn Soltes

Soltes, Glenn



Modelling global risk factors affecting construction cost performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the core issues of global risk factors modelling, assessment and management. The research reported upon forms part of a larger study that aims to develop a fuzzy decision framework for contractors to handle global risk factors affecting construction cost performance at a project level. Major global risk factors affecting cost performance were identified through an extensive literature

Daniel Baloi; Andrew D. F. Price



Factors Affecting Retention in Online Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to expand what is known regarding the factors that relate to successful completion of online, undergraduate college courses. It addressed 13 student factors available through archival data at Northern Kentucky University based on 1,493 students enrolled in fully online courses in fall 2008. It included programmatic…

Berling, Victoria L.



Yield-determining factors in high-solids enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose  

PubMed Central

Background Working at high solids (substrate) concentrations is advantageous in enzymatic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass as it increases product concentrations and plant productivity while lowering energy and water input. However, for a number of lignocellulosic substrates it has been shown that at increasing substrate concentration, the corresponding yield decreases in a fashion which can not be explained by current models and knowledge of enzyme-substrate interactions. This decrease in yield is undesirable as it offsets the advantages of working at high solids levels. The cause of the 'solids effect' has so far remained unknown. Results The decreasing conversion at increasing solids concentrations was found to be a generic or intrinsic effect, describing a linear correlation from 5 to 30% initial total solids content (w/w). Insufficient mixing has previously been shown not to be involved in the effect. Hydrolysis experiments with filter paper showed that neither lignin content nor hemicellulose-derived inhibitors appear to be responsible for the decrease in yields. Product inhibition by glucose and in particular cellobiose (and ethanol in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation) at the increased concentrations at high solids loading plays a role but could not completely account for the decreasing conversion. Adsorption of cellulases was found to decrease at increasing solids concentrations. There was a strong correlation between the decreasing adsorption and conversion, indicating that the inhibition of cellulase adsorption to cellulose is causing the decrease in yield. Conclusion Inhibition of enzyme adsorption by hydrolysis products appear to be the main cause of the decreasing yields at increasing substrate concentrations in the enzymatic decomposition of cellulosic biomass. In order to facilitate high conversions at high solids concentrations, understanding of the mechanisms involved in high-solids product inhibition and adsorption inhibition must be improved. PMID:19505292

Kristensen, Jan B; Felby, Claus; Jørgensen, Henning



Factors Affecting the Power of Patent Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we identify three policy instruments governments have at their disposal to affect the power of patent rights to prevent imitation: the size of the inventive step used to make the patent granting decision, the rigour of the patent examination process and the predisposition of the courts to affirm the patent office’s decision. We develop a simple framework

Paul H. Jensen; Elizabeth Webster



INTRODUCTION Understanding factors that affect roost selection  

E-print Network

in the study of biology, ecology and conservation of bats. Roosting habits influence local and global). The thermo-physical characteristics of roosts also affect bat physiology (Altringham, 1996; Kerth et al., 2001). Almost two-thirds of the European bat species use tree cavities to roost in during part

Richner, Heinz


Situational factors affecting Preschoolers' responses to advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of advertising directed at preschool children was investigated. An experimental design, crossing program\\u000a type, social condition of viewing, and frequency of exposure to commercials was utilized. Results indicate the possibility\\u000a that young children's preferences are only affected under special circumstances.

T. K. Clarke




E-print Network

CHAPTER XVIII ENVffiONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING OYSTER POPULATIONS Paae PosItive factors worms________________________ __ 421 Oyster crab_____________________ _ 426 Bplrochaetes, and miscellaneous objects. These aggregations of live oysters and empty shells are called oyster bottoms, oyster


Factors Affecting Students' Medicine-Taking Habits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines college students' beliefs about health, prescriptions, doctors, and the influence those beliefs have on adherence to prescribed medication regimens. After a brief review of attitudinal factors that influence adherence to prescription medicine directions, the authors discuss measurement issues and explain the reasons for their…

Labig, Chalmer E., Jr.; Zantow, Kenneth; Peterson, Tim O.



Evaluation of fixed factors affecting hoof health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hoof trimming data were collected from the University of Illinois dairy farm. Normality transformed scores for six traits (corkscrew claw (CC), heel erosion (HE), interdigital dermatitis (ID), laminitis (LA), sole ulcers (SU) and white line separation (WLS)) were tested for fixed factors (breed, year, season, age, trimming interval and months postpartum) by an animal model. Ayrshires and Jerseys had ‘better’

Y. C. Huang; R. D. Shanks; G. C. McCoy



Factors affecting Chinese enterprises' hedging decision making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to find factors that explain why some enterprises hedge but others do not. The authors' analysis relies on Heckman model (a probit and Tobit model) with the data obtained from questionnaires collected from Chinese enterprises. Given the fact that only a small portion of Chinese agribusinesses hedge, this paper provides some initial

Shi Zheng; Pei Xu; Zhigang Wang



Factors Affecting Student Choices of Instructional Methodologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To identify factors that caused the majority of students at Los Angeles City College to prefer the traditional lecture-discussion approach to the media approach, questionnaires were administered to students in three courses--three media and two traditional. Over 200 usable questionnaires were returned. Because of scheduling variations and other…

Gold, Ben K.


Factors Affecting Hotel Industry Development in Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is essential to adapt and improve tourism supply in order to respond to new tourist demand dynamics. An empirical research was carried out to find out the factors which, in the view of Portuguese hoteliers, were of importance to the development and progress of the activity. Hotel managers and owners' attitudes related to different aspects such as: the role

Minoo Farhangmehr; Cláudia Simões



Human element factors affecting reliability and safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many system reliability prediction methods are based solely on equipment failures, neglecting the human component of man-machine systems (MMS). These methods do not consider the identification of the root causes of human errors. The reliability and safety of industrial and commercial power systems and processes (i.e., MMS) are dependent upon human characteristics and many dependent and dynamic interactive factors. The

Don O. Koval; H. Landis Floyd



Human element factors affecting reliability and safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many system reliability predictive methods are based solely on equipment failures neglecting the human component of man-machine systems. These methods do not consider the identification of the root causes of human errors. The reliability and safety of industrial and commercial power systems and processes are dependent upon human characteristics and many dependent and dynamic interactive factors. The consequences of human

D. O. Koval



Serotonin as a Major Serum Factor Inducing the Phospholipase C-mediated Hydrolysis of Phosphoinositides in Normal Rat Kidney Cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calf serum induced the phospholipase C-mediated hydrolysis of phos- phoinositides in normal rat kidney (NRK) cells transformed by a temper ature-sensitive Kirsten murine sarcoma virus (tsK-NRK cells). Various growth factors known to induce the phospholipase C reactions in other cell types, such as platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, thrombin, vasopressin, Immln-sm.cholecysto- kinin, and prostaglandin i'<...did not

Yasuo Hamamori; Masahiko Hoshijima; Toshihiko Ohmori; Takashi Ueda; Yoshimi Takai





A related series of studies, most of which have been published previously, is described. These studies form a coherent whole and demonstrate the development of a theme, namely, the identification of factors in the student and the medical school which, in their interaction, influenced undergraduate academic performance at one medical school. In the population concerned no reliable positive or negative correlation could be demonstrated between cognitive ability and academic performance, when the former was measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Medical College Admission Test, and the latter by the current assessment methods of the medical school. Other factors, including socioeconomic and individual personality variables, are at present under investigation as to their effect on academic achievement. It is emphasized that the results of these studies cannot be regarded as valid for all medical schools, but the methods employed can be generalized. PMID:14278025




Factors that Affect the Lung Deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lung is an external organ forming the site of unwanted material or particles. In order to protect it, the airways have to be highly effective filters and if the particle deposit they need to be cleared. Inhaled particles can cause a variety of diseases. There are various factors on which the prediction of depositing particles depends, such as age, particle size, flow rate gender, the physics of the particles, the anatomy of the respiratory tract etc.

Sankhala, Shweta; Singh, H. S.; Singh, S. K.; Lalwani, Gautam



Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of e-commerce, opportunities have arisen for students to obtain course textbooks from sources other than the traditional campus bookstore(s). This research seeks to understand the factors motivating students to select e-commerce or traditional vendors for their textbook purchases. It surveys student perceptions of e-commerce textbook purchases from the perspectives of product perception, shopping experience, customer service, and

Harry Reif; Thomas W. Dillon


Fatherhood across Two Generations: Factors Affecting Early Family Roles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the determinants of men's early parental roles, distinguishing factors that affect being a father versus being childless, and factors that affect being a resident versus a nonresident father, in the context of having a partner or not. We also consider whether these patterns have changed between 1985 and 2004. The data come…

Goldscheider, Frances; Hofferth, Sandra; Spearin, Carrie; Curtin, Sally



Batchwise hydrolysis of olive oil by lipase in AOT-isooctane reverse micelles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Olive oil was almost completely hydrolyzed by lipase in reverse micelles. R value and initial water content were found to be the most important factors that determine the hydrolyzing rate and degree of hydrolysis, respectively. The hydrolysis rate and the stability of the enzyme were affected by stirring and addition of histidine or glycerol.

Daeseok Han; Joon Shick Rhee



Factors Affecting Industrial Cogeneration of Electricity.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research addresses the need to understand the conditions under which industrial firms will generate their own electricity. Utility companies need this information to plan their future expansion. Equipment manufacturers need this information to plan their production and industrial firms need it to help make decisions. The specific purpose of this research was to determine which factors are good determinates of industrial cogeneration. This research used a two-pronged triangulation approach. The first approach was a statistical analysis of levels of cogeneration and selected production variables for industrial firms. The second approach was a survey of industrial firms, energy consultants and utility personnel. The statistical analysis found most of the variance in on-site cogeneration is explained using variables that directly impact the economics of cogeneration. These variables included the cost of energy sources, steam usage, and the use of other fuels. The survey confirmed these results and added the cost of the cogeneration equipment as an another important factor in explaining on-site cogeneration.

Richardson, Ronny Lee


Factors affecting the MTW zeolite cristallization process  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis mechanism of the high silica zeolite types other than MFI is rarely studied in the open literature. This work is devoted to the role of different parameters governing the zeolite MTW crystallization process. The influence of the most important factors: the nature of the silica and alumina source, the type of the organic cation, the alkalinity of the reaction mixture and the crystallization temperature, was studied. The molar composition of the initial hydrogel was varied in other to determine the crystallization field of the zeolite MTW. The observed morphology and particle size of the crystallites are related to the corresponding reaction conditions. The competitive formation of the other zeolite types (prevalently MFI and BEA) is discussed.

Katovic, A.; Giordano, G. [Universita della Calabria, Rende (Italy)



[The psychological factors affecting athletic performance].  


The physical and mental health complex is claimed as achievement of the XXI. century, whereby also among the sportsmen and sportswomen, beside the somatic medicine, growing attention is devoted to the psyche as well. The sports psychiatry was dragged in and put into service to enhance performance after all biological weapons run out of ammunition, and the long-awaited results still failed to come about. Moreover, despite the energy increasingly invested it was going from bad to worse. Among athletes many psychiatric disorders call attention, either by the high prevalence or by the development of a specific syndrome. Symptoms of depression (depression after the competition, depression following the failure at the competition), chronic stress, anxiety, fatigue syndrome of overtraining, enervation, sleep disturbances, eating problems, burnout, eating disorders (anorexia athletics, athlete triad), personality factors and the chemical addiction are all extremely important. The present study is the first to summarize the most crucial psychiatric disorders that may have great significance in the athlete population, in varying degrees according to the individual sports. PMID:20442052

Resch, Mária



Factors affecting chromatin stability of bovine spermatozoa.  


The structural stability of transcriptionally inert paternal chromatin is of vital importance for the fertilization process and early embryonic development. Accordingly, a series of eight experiments were conducted during a 7-month period to investigate: (1) effects of bull breed, individuality, successive ejaculations, semen quality characteristics (SQC), semen dilution rates and hypothermic storage of semen in a Tris-egg yolk extender on incidence of sperm nuclear chromatin instability (NCI), and (2) effects of the interaction between variation of NCI within a frozen ejaculate and variation of oocytes quality due to maturation time and/or season on the efficiency of in vitro embryo production (IVEP). Semen samples were collected once a week from six bulls using an AV and only ejaculates (n=220) of >0.30x10(9) sperm/ml and >or=60% motility were used. NCI was measured by: (1) detection of lysine-rich histones in sperm chromatin using aniline blue staining, (2) sperm susceptibility to acid-induced nuclear DNA denaturation in situ using acridine orange test, and (3) sperm susceptibility to nuclear chromatin decondensation (NCD). Bovine oocytes (n=695) were matured in vitro for 18 or 24 h, fertilized after sperm selection through a swim-up procedure and cultured for 72 h. The results showed that the 2nd ejaculates were superior to the 1st ones with respect to chromatin stability. Dilution of semen to 49.67+/-8.56x10(6) sperm/ml (1:19) decreased resistance of sperm to NCD. Cooling of semen had no significant effect on chromatin stability. Cryopreservation of semen augmented sperm vulnerability to DNA denaturation. Improvement of SQC (semen volume, sperm motility, velocity, viability and morphological normalcy) was generally concomitant with increase of sperm resistance to NCI. While Blonde d'Aquitaine bulls had a resistance to NCD higher than Limousine bulls in fresh semen, the former showed a greater susceptibility to DNA denaturation than the latter in cooled semen. Individuality significantly influenced NCI. The variability of NCI within a frozen ejaculate affected efficiency of IVEP. Significant negative correlations were observed between incidence of NCI and both fertilization rate and developmental capacity of embryos after maturation of oocytes for 18 h. The significant variation in IVEP traits due to season was independent of the effect of sperm chromatin instability. PMID:17398042

Khalifa, T A A; Rekkas, C A; Lymberopoulos, A G; Sioga, A; Dimitriadis, I; Papanikolaou, Th



Motivational Factors Affecting Advanced Literacy Learning of Community College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the possible intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors that community college students may bring with them into the classroom. It examines how these motivational factors affect students' learning inside and outside the community college classroom walls. The motivational factors such as mastery, self-determination, belongingness, and social responsibility that drive first language learners to achieve a level of advanced

Rebecca J. Dean; Lorraine Dagostino



Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Tutorials: Factors Affecting Students' Preferences and Choices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to determine the factors that affect students' preferences regarding tutorial modes. A learning-habit inclinations questionnaire (LHIQ) was constructed and administered to 288 students. Factor analysis revealed four factors: "time management," "ease of access" to learning materials, "positive aspects of interaction," and "negative…

Beyth-Marom, Ruth; Saporta, Kelly; Caspi, Avner



FEBS Letters 360 (1995) 242-246 FEBS 15186 Epidermal growth factor stimulates hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol  

E-print Network

, pertussis toxin did not affect the EGF-induced formation of DAG or exocytosis, ruling out the involvement]. Stimulation with ZP also triggers the activation of a pertussis toxin (PTX)- sensitive G-protein (Gi class) [9: ZP, zona pellucida; PTX, pertussis toxin; PIC, phospho- inositidase C; DAG, 1,2-diacylglycerol; EGF

Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales


Nitrite-induced methemoglobinaemia affects blood ionized and total magnesium level by hydrolysis of plasma adenosine triphosphate in rat.  


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium nitrite (NaNO(2))-induced methemoglobinaemia on plasma ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and corresponding changes of blood-ionized magnesium (iMg(2+)) as well as total magnesium (tMg(2+)) in a time-dependent manner. This study was performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats to which NaNO(2) was injected (10 mg/kg i.p.) to induce methemoglobinaemia. Methemoglobin (MetHb) in blood was measured before (0 min.) and after 10, 30, 60 and 120 min. of NaNO(2) injection. At respective time points, the tMg(2+), blood ions and gases were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry and ion selective electrode, respectively. Haematological parameters were checked by automatic blood cell count, and blood films were observed under light microscope. Plasma ATP was measured by bioluminescence assay using a luminometer, and plasma proteins were measured by an automatic analyser. Blood cell count (RBC, WBC and platelet), haematocrit, and haemoglobin were found to be decreased with the advancement of MetHb concentration. With the gradual increase of MetHb concentration, the plasma ATP decreased and blood iMg(2+) and plasma tMg(2+) increased significantly as time passed by in comparison with the pre-drug values. A significant decrease of the ratio of ionized calcium to iMg(2+), Na(+) and increase of K(+) was observed. In conclusion, NaNO(2)-induced methemoglobinaemia is a cause of hydrolysis of plasma ATP which is responsible for the increase of blood iMg(2+) and plasma tMg(2+) in rats. PMID:19671050

Rahman, Md Mizanur; Kim, Shang-Jin; Kim, Gi-Beum; Hong, Chul-Un; Lee, Young-Up; Kim, Sung-Zoo; Kim, Jin-Shang; Kang, Hyung-Sub



REVIEW PAPER Factors and processes affecting plant biodiversity  

E-print Network

productivity, disturbances induced by farming practices, and landscape heteroge- neity on plant diversity. Last biodiversity. Farming practices . Landscape pattern . Plant community. Plant functional traits . Seed bankREVIEW PAPER Factors and processes affecting plant biodiversity in permanent grasslands. A review

Boyer, Edmond


Analysis of Factors Affecting Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) Image Formation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Image reconstruction for positron emission mammography (PEM) with the breast positioned between two parallel, planar detectors is usually performed by backprojection to image planes. Three important factors affecting PEM image reconstruction by backprojec...

M. F. Smith, S. Majewski, A. G. Weisenberger, D. A. Kieper, R. R. Raylman



Factors affecting sleep disturbances in children and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine factors affecting sleep disturbances in children.Background: Factors affecting sleep disturbances have been studied extensively in adults, but relatively few studies have been done in children.Methods: As part of the twelfth survey of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study of Obstructive Airways Disease (TESOAD, 1991–1992), children, ages 3–14, of adult cohort members were administered a health questionnaire which contained items

Sharon L Camhi; Wayne J Morgan; Natalie Pernisco; Stuart F Quan



Factors in Validating Affective Scales: An Applied Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of claims to the contrary, affective factors related to teaching and learning can be measured. Recent development of affective scales in reading attest to this, yet caution must be observed that as new-scales are developed, they are adequately validated so that the research emanating from their use can be regarded with a high degree of credibility. In that

Joseph Vaughan; Darrell Sabers



Factors affecting plant absorption, transport and fate of plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined the extent to which several agricultural plants control plutonium (Pu) uptake and provides a general understanding of the fate and behavior of Pu in plants after absorption. Investigations were directed toward variables affecting the accumulation of Pu by plants from soils, transport of Pu within the plant, factors affecting transport with plant age, effects of different plant

T. R. Garland; D. A. Cataldo; K. M. McFadden; R. E. Wildung



Factors affecting evaluation of e-business projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2003 survey among Slovenian companies was studying the factors affecting the formal evaluation of e-business projects. The corresponding causal model revealed that the perceptions and the attitudes towards e-business strongly affect the corresponding evaluation practice. In particular, the recognition of the needs for corresponding evaluation had the strongest effect. On the other hand, the high occurrence of problem related

Dusan Lesjak; Vasja Vehovar




EPA Science Inventory

Field and laboratory studies were conducted to examine factors affecting metal movement in subsurface materials to groundwater and how these factors interact. Subsoil pH as with surface soils was found to be the property that most influenced metal immobilization. The inclusion of...


Age as an Affective Factor in Second Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the relationship of age factor to second language acquisition. Age as an affective factor brings about different performance stages in second as well as first language learning. Traditionally, research in Critical Period Hypothesis and other variables has derived two major aspects of language learning--the younger = the better…

Bista, Krishna K.



Exploring Factors that Affect Purchase Intention of Athletic Team Merchandise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…

Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.



Key risk factors affecting electrical safety in hazardous (classified) locations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key risk factors affecting electrical safety in hazardous locations, with emphasis on human and environmental factors are discussed. The results of a survey that provides a user view of the reliability of area classification, product specification, installation, maintenance, documentation, and practice are presented and discussed

Richard J. Buschart; Joseph H. Kuczka



Analysis of factors affecting color distribution of white LEDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The color uniformity is a critical index in the evaluation of high quality white light emitting diodes (LEDs). The main factor affecting the color distribution is the state of the phosphor. The secondary factor is the optical structure. This paper analyzes two parameters of the phosphor layer (thickness and concentration) and six optical structures. Results indicate that the structures with

Zongyuan Liu; Sheng Liu; Kai Wang; Xiaobing Luo



Examining thrombin hydrolysis of the factor XIII activation peptide segment leads to a proposal for explaining the cardioprotective effects observed with the factor XIII V34L mutation.  


In the blood coagulation cascade, thrombin cleaves fibrinopeptides A and B from fibrinogen revealing sites for fibrin polymerization that lead to insoluble clot formation. Factor XIII stabilizes this clot by catalyzing the formation of intermolecular cross-links in the fibrin network. Thrombin activates the Factor XIII a(2) dimer by cleaving the Factor XIII activation peptide segment at the Arg(37)-Gly(38) peptide bond. Using a high performance liquid chromatography assay, the kinetic constants K(m), k(cat), and k(cat)/K(m) were determined for thrombin hydrolysis of fibrinogen Aalpha-(7-20), Factor XIII activation peptide-(28-41), and Factor XIII activation peptide-(28-41) with a Val(34) to Leu substitution. This Val to Leu mutation has been correlated with protection from myocardial infarction. In the absence of fibrin, the Factor XIII activation peptide-(28-41) exhibits a 10-fold lower k(cat)/K(m) value than fibrinogen Aalpha-(7-20). With the Factor XIII V34L mutation, decreases in K(m) and increases in k(cat) produce a 6-fold increase in k(cat)/K(m) relative to the wild-type Factor XIII sequence. A review of the x-ray crystal structures of known substrates and inhibitors of thrombin leads to a hypothesis that the new Leu generates a peptide with more extensive interactions with the surface of thrombin. As a result, the Factor XIII V34L is proposed to be susceptible to wasteful conversion of zymogen to activated enzyme. Premature depletion may provide cardioprotective effects. PMID:10801785

Trumbo, T A; Maurer, M C



Stochastic molecular model of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose for ethanol production  

PubMed Central

Background During cellulosic ethanol production, cellulose hydrolysis is achieved by synergistic action of cellulase enzyme complex consisting of multiple enzymes with different mode of actions. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is one of the bottlenecks in the commercialization of the process due to low hydrolysis rates and high cost of enzymes. A robust hydrolysis model that can predict hydrolysis profile under various scenarios can act as an important forecasting tool to improve the hydrolysis process. However, multiple factors affecting hydrolysis: cellulose structure and complex enzyme-substrate interactions during hydrolysis make it diffucult to develop mathematical kinetic models that can simulate hydrolysis in presence of multiple enzymes with high fidelity. In this study, a comprehensive hydrolysis model based on stochastic molecular modeling approch in which each hydrolysis event is translated into a discrete event is presented. The model captures the structural features of cellulose, enzyme properties (mode of actions, synergism, inhibition), and most importantly dynamic morphological changes in the substrate that directly affect the enzyme-substrate interactions during hydrolysis. Results Cellulose was modeled as a group of microfibrils consisting of elementary fibrils bundles, where each elementary fibril was represented as a three dimensional matrix of glucose molecules. Hydrolysis of cellulose was simulated based on Monte Carlo simulation technique. Cellulose hydrolysis results predicted by model simulations agree well with the experimental data from literature. Coefficients of determination for model predictions and experimental values were in the range of 0.75 to 0.96 for Avicel hydrolysis by CBH I action. Model was able to simulate the synergistic action of multiple enzymes during hydrolysis. The model simulations captured the important experimental observations: effect of structural properties, enzyme inhibition and enzyme loadings on the hydrolysis and degree of synergism among enzymes. Conclusions The model was effective in capturing the dynamic behavior of cellulose hydrolysis during action of individual as well as multiple cellulases. Simulations were in qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental data. Several experimentally observed phenomena were simulated without the need for any additional assumptions or parameter changes and confirmed the validity of using the stochastic molecular modeling approach to quantitatively and qualitatively describe the cellulose hydrolysis. PMID:23638989



Is glucose tolerance factor an artifact produced by acid hydrolysis of low-molecular-weight chromium-binding substance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-molecular-weight chromium-binding substance (LMWCr) has been isolated and purified from porcine kidney and porcine kidney powder and characterized. The oligopeptide is biologically active, has a molecular weight ofca 1500 daltons, and is comprised of cysteine, glycine, glutamate, aspartate, and CrIII. Porcine kidney LMWRCr is also susceptible to hydrolysis, especially under the conditions for the acid hydrolysis used in the

K. Heather Sumrall; John B. Vincent



Physical environmental factors affecting factors affecting patients' stress in the accident and emergency department  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is concerned with the physical environment of our Accident and Emergency (A & E) departments, with reference to added stressors that may affect our clients' overall experience of A & E. It will hopefully highlight an awareness of the environment and what we, as nurses, can do to enhance a therapeutic, humanised department that will not only help

R. P. Gulrajani



Factors affecting the porridge quality of sorghum and pearl millet  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING THE PORRIDGE QUALITY OF SORGHUM AND PEARL MILLET A Thesis by ASSA KANTE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1987... Major Subject: Food Science and Technology FACTORS AFFECTING THE PORRIDGE QUALITY OF SORGHUM AND PEARL MILLET A Thesis by ASSA KANTE Approved as to style and content by: oyd . o y (Chairman of Commr ee) Ra p D. Wants a (Member) C ar es W. Drl...

Kante, Assa



Hemolymph factors affecting respiratory pumping in Aplysia californica  

E-print Network

HEMOLYMPH FACTORS AFFECTING RESPIRATORY PUMPING IN ~~( ~~~I A Thesis by SUSAN JILL TIGERT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1991 Major Subject: Biology HEMOLYMPH FACTORS AFFECTING RESPIRATORY PUMPING I A A Thesis by SUSAN JILL TIGERT Approved as to style and content by: Jam s E. Kanz (Co- r of Committee) I Duncan acKenzie (Co-Chair of Committee) Schwarz...

Tigert, Susan Jill



Scale Development: Factors Affecting Diet, Exercise, and Stress Management (FADESM)  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to develop scales measuring personal and environmental factors that affect dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income mothers. Methods FADESM (factors affecting diet, exercise, and stress management) scales were developed using the Social Cognitive Theory to measure personal (outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, emotional coping response) and environmental (physical environment, social environment, situation) factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management. Low-income African American and white mothers were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in three counties in Michigan. In Phase one, 45 mothers completed individual cognitive interviews. Content analyses were performed. In Phase two, items modified from the cognitive interviews were administered to 216 mothers. Factor analysis and multiple indicators/multiple causes were performed. Results Results of cognitive interviews were used to revise items for the instrument that was tested in Phase two. The factor solution revealed 19 dimensions to measure personal and environmental factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior (three dimensions), physical activity (eight dimensions), and stress management (eight dimensions). Results of multiple indicators/multiple causes model showed scale invariance. Of 19 dimensions, 15 had Cronbach alpha between 0.76 and 0.94 and four were between 0.66 and 0.69. All dimensions had composite construct reliability scores between 0.74 to 0.97 and satisfactory construct and discriminant validities. Conclusion The theory-based FADESM scales have documented good validity and reliability for measuring factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income women. Results of this study support the use of these scales with low-income African American and white mothers in community settings. PMID:18302762

Chang, Mei-Wei; Brown, Roger; Nitzke, Susan



Factors Affecting Role Stress and Burnout among School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to determine factors affecting role stress and burnout among practicing school counselors as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES) and the Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scale. The MBI-ES utilizes three subscales to measure burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal…

Willingham, Wendy Elizabeth



Some factors affecting the formation of furan in heated foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of furan in various foods were measured before and after heating under heating and laboratory conditions. The effect of contact with can coatings, sealing gaskets and the epoxidized oils used in gasket manufacture on furan formation was studied. The objective was to identify factors affecting furan formation. Furan present in heat-processed food samples persisted during cooking. Furan was shown

S. Hasnip; C. Crews; L. Castle



Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

Kwenda, Maxwell



Students' Views on Factors Affecting Empathy in Medical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Empathy is a prominent goal of medical education that is too often underachieved. Using concept mapping, the authors constructed a student-generated conceptual model of factors viewed as affecting empathy during medical education. Methods: During the 2005-2006 academic year, 293 medical students and interns answered a brainstorming…

Winseman, Jeffrey; Malik, Abid; Morison, Julie; Balkoski, Victoria



A Causal Model of Academic Factors Affecting Student Persistence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A causal model of academic factors affecting undergraduate student persistence at a large, urban, commuter university was tested. The effects of academic variables on persistence from fall to spring semester were also assessed for transfer and native students. The model accounted for 49% of the total variance in persistence, while separate models…

Johnson, Naomi T.; Richardson, Richard C., Jr.



Microsoft Academic Search

HROUGH the spring and early summer of 1964, 11 Ring-necked Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) nests were discovered in Toledo, Lucas County, Ohio. The determinate factors affecting nesting success, including interesting behavioral patterns in response to different stimuli, are reported. The earliest nest was located on 3 May and the latest on 15 June. The habitat varied considerably; nests were found in



Motivational Factors Affecting Online Learning by Japanese MBA Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Japan, Internet based learning is still at an early stage. However, adult learners in Japanese society expect the development of flexible e-learning programs. This case study examines motivational factors affecting online learning in a Japanese and Australian MBA program, using observations, interviews and a questionnaire survey. The data were…

Kikuchi, Hisayo



The Synergistic Effect of Affective Factors on Student Learning Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates how affective and self-related factors impact participation in science learning and environmental awareness and responsibility. Using PISA 2006 datasets from Taiwan and Canada having similar level of science competency, the model for this study verifies and expands an earlier model by examining the relationships among…

Jack, Brady Michael; Lin, Huann-shyang; Yore, Larry D.



Factors Affecting Fatty Acid Composition in Forage and Milk  

E-print Network

Factors Affecting Fatty Acid Composition in Forage and Milk Katarina Arvidsson Faculty of Natural in Forage and Milk Abstract The aims of the studies underlying this thesis were to evaluate variations on the FA contents of the milk. Initially, samples of timothy (Phleum pratense L.) were subjected


Factors Affecting the Development and Use of Learning Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored barriers and facilitating factors affecting the development and use of learning objects in developing instructional materials and their use in supporting individualized learning. Over a two-month period, students in a graduate-level instructional design course developed instructional materials incorporating learning objects or…

Moisey, Susan D.; Ally, Mohamed; Spencer, Bob



Developing Worksheet Based on Science Process Skills: Factors Affecting Solubility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…

Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem



RESEARCH ARTICLE Social and Reproductive Factors Affecting Cortisol  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Social and Reproductive Factors Affecting Cortisol Levels in Wild Female Golden cortisol has been associated with different levels of ``stress'' as well as different reproductive conditions in many primates. In callitrichids, cortisol has more often been reflective of female reproduc

French, Jeffrey A.


Factors Affecting Environmental Knowledge and Attitudes among Lebanese College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study aimed at assessing the variables that would positively affect the knowledge and attitude of a group of Lebanese college students regarding the environment, namely such factors as gender, age, previous hiking experience and living abroad. A purposeful sample of students attending the Lebanese American University, was asked to fill out a questionnaire that assesses four major domains

Ahmad Oweini; Ahmad Houri



Pneumonectomy for malignant disease: Factors affecting early morbidity and mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this report is to analyze factors affecting morbidity and mortality after pneumonectomy for malignant disease. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the cases of all patients who underwent pneumonectomy for malignancy at the Mayo Clinic. Between January 1, 1985, and September 30, 1998, 639 patients (469 men and 170 women) were identified. Median age was 64 years (range

Alain Bernard; Claude Deschamps; Mark S. Allen; Daniel L. Miller; Victor F. Trastek; Gregory D. Jenkins; Peter C. Pairolero



Factors affecting forest cooperative's participation in forestry in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyses forest cooperative's participation in forestry in Turkey. The study was carried out with 71 forest cooperatives in the Kastamonu province, located in the Western Black Sea Region. By using a principal component analysis it was found that the most important factors affecting forest cooperative's participation in forestry are: (1) member involvement, (2) forest ownership and administration, and

Erdo?an Atmi?; H. Batuhan Gün?en; Banu Bayramo?lu Lise; Wietze Lise



Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…

Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.



Understanding Factors that Affect Response Rates in Twitter  

E-print Network

Understanding Factors that Affect Response Rates in Twitter Giovanni Comarela Federal University in Twitter. We ap- proach this problem in two stages. First, we perform an extensive characterization of a very large Twitter dataset which includes all users, social relations, and messages posted from

Crovella, Mark


Factors Affecting Workers' Retirement Confidence: A Gender Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the factors affecting male and female workers' retirement confidence. Retirement confidence in this study was measured with series of questions on confidence about retirement income prospects. Using the 1999 Retirement Confidence Survey, it was found that working men compared to women; who were younger; had higher levels of education; higher levels of

So-Hyun Jooi; Vanda W. Pauwelsii


Factors affecting couples' adjustment to recurrent breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify factors that affect the adjustment of women and their husbands to recurrent breast cancer and to examine the mutual effect that partners have on one another. An exploratory study was designed to determine the relationship between four predictor variables (support, uncertainty, symptom distress, hopelessness) and women's and husbands' adjustments. The sample consisted

Laurel L. Northouse; Geraldine Dorris; Carol Charron-Moore



Factors Affecting the Comprehension of Global and Local Main Idea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated factors that would affect a reader's understanding of the main idea at the global level and explicit and implicit main ideas at the local level. Fifty-seven first-year university students taking a college reading course took a comprehension test on an expository text. Statistical analyses revealed that text structure had a…

Wang, Danhua



Industry Training: The Factors that Affect Demand. Discussion Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted in Australia, to determine the factors that affect demand for job training. The study consisted of 30 detailed industry case studies, an industry analysis, and a literature review. Each case study examined current training practices, training decision making in the business, and the determinants of training for the…

Smith, A.; Roberts, P.; Noble, C.; Hayton, G.; Thorne, E.



Microsoft Academic Search

I NTEREST in the factors affecting birth weight grows out of its known association with postnatal viability and rate of gain (Kuhlman, 1928; Vestal, 1936; and others). The maternal contribution to variability in birth weight of the offspring is of greater importance than the paternal contri- bution in several species of mammals. Wright (1922) estimated that about 75% of the



ORIGINAL PAPER Factors affecting otter (Lutra lutra) abundance and breeding  

E-print Network

tributaries of the Ebro River, with the aims to understand spatial and temporal changes in otter abundanceORIGINAL PAPER Factors affecting otter (Lutra lutra) abundance and breeding success in freshwater online: 19 February 2011 # Springer-Verlag 2011 Abstract Otters are elusive semi-aquatic mammals

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Infants in foster care: relational and environmental factors affecting attachment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the effect of relational and environmental factors affecting attachment security in 46 infants placed in foster homes. The study found that a majority of infants (67%) in the participant group were securely attached. Additionally, of the insecurely attached, a larger percentage of infants than anticipated displayed disorganized\\/disoriented patterns of attachment. The study found that organization of

S. A. Cole



Mothers, Fathers, Families, and Circumstances: Factors Affecting Children's Adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burgeoning empirical literature exploring the factors accounting for individual differences in psychological adjustment is reviewed. Many studies have shown that adjustment is largely affected by differences in the quality of parenting and parent–child relationships, the quality of the relationships between the parents, and the richness of the economic and social resources available to the family; more recent research signals

Michael E. Lamb



Factors affecting the protein quality of pigeonpea ( Cajanus cajan L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pigeonpea occupies an important place in human nutrition as a source of dietary proteins in several countries. Some of the important factors that affect the protein quality of pigeonpea have been reviewed and summarised in this paper. Among important food legumes, pigeonpea contained the lowest amount of limiting sulphur amino acids, methionine and cystine implicating the importance of these amino

U. SINGtt; B. O. Eggum



Which Factors Affect Software Projects Maintenance Cost More?  

PubMed Central

Introduction The software industry has had significant progress in recent years. The entire life of software includes two phases: production and maintenance. Software maintenance cost is increasingly growing and estimates showed that about 90% of software life cost is related to its maintenance phase. Extraction and considering the factors affecting the software maintenance cost help to estimate the cost and reduce it by controlling the factors. Methods In this study, the factors affecting software maintenance cost were determined then were ranked based on their priority and after that effective ways to reduce the maintenance costs were presented. This paper is a research study. 15 software related to health care centers information systems in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and hospitals function were studied in the years 2010 to 2011. Results and discussion Among Medical software maintenance team members, 40 were selected as sample. After interviews with experts in this field, factors affecting maintenance cost were determined. In order to prioritize the factors derived by AHP, at first, measurement criteria (factors found) were appointed by members of the maintenance team and eventually were prioritized with the help of EC software. Based on the results of this study, 32 factors were obtained which were classified in six groups. “Project” was ranked the most effective feature in maintenance cost with the highest priority. By taking into account some major elements like careful feasibility of IT projects, full documentation and accompany the designers in the maintenance phase good results can be achieved to reduce maintenance costs and increase longevity of the software. PMID:23572866

Dehaghani, Sayed Mehdi Hejazi; Hajrahimi, Nafiseh



Factors affecting corticosteroid concentrations in yellow-bellied marmots.  


1. Bound and total corticosteroid concentrations of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) were lowest in May after emergence from hibernation and peaked in August prior to immergence. 2. Total corticosteroids were affected by age but not by sex or reproductive status. 3. There was no consistent relationship between measures of population density and concentrations of corticosteroids; when a significant relationship occurred, only 22-34% of the variation was explained. 4. Social status and social behavior were the major factors affecting corticosteroid concentrations. PMID:1673377

Armitage, K B



[Relationship between congenital heart disease and various factors affecting pregnancy].  


In a prospective epidemiological study data of 24,732 pregnancies were analysed by computer programmes for the incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD) and its relationship to various factors affecting pregnancy (age and weight of mother, smoking, alcohol-, and coffee-consumption, usage of oral contraception). Frequency of CHD was 0.9%. Data showed that CHD could be associated with alcohol consumption, smoking, maternal age. Other factors like coffee consumption or taking oral contraceptive tablets did not influence the frequency of CHD. Authors conclude that in the prevention of CHD, reduction or even omission of both alcohol consumption and smoking are highly justified. PMID:1734344

Pejtsik, B; Pintér, J; Horváth, M; Hadnagy, J



The Fibroblast Growth Factor Family: Neuromodulation of Affective Behavior  

PubMed Central

In this review we propose a broader view of the role of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family in modulating brain function. We suggest that some of the FGF ligands together with the FGF receptors are altered in individuals with affective disorder and modulate emotionality in animal models. Thus, we propose that members of the FGF family may be genetic predisposing factors for anxiety, depression or substance abuse; that they play a key organizing role during early development but continue to play a central role in neuroplasticity in adulthood; and that they work not only over extended time frames, but also via rapid signaling mechanisms, allowing them to exert an “on-line” influence on behavior. Therefore, the FGF family appears to be a prototype of “switch genes” that are endowed with organizational and modulatory properties across the lifespan, and that may represent molecular candidates as biomarkers and treatment targets for affective and addictive disorders. PMID:23040813

Turner, Cortney A.; Watson, Stanley J.; Akil, Huda



An Examination of Factors Affecting Perception of Workplace Discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates perceptions of workplace discrimination among racial minorities in Canada. Specifically, the study\\u000a examines how objective experiences of disadvantage and expectations for equity influence racial minorities’ perceptions of\\u000a discrimination. The results indicate that while both of these factors affect perceptions of discrimination, expectations for\\u000a equity may be especially important. Although new immigrants are among the most disadvantaged groups

Rupa Banerjee



Factors affecting members’ evaluation of agri-business ventures’ effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents work to identify factors affecting effectiveness of agri-business ventures (A-BVs) on the side of providers as perceived by their members. A survey was conducted among 95 members of A-BVs in Zanjan province, Iran. To collect data, a questionnaire was designed. Two distinct groups of A-BVs with low (group 1) and high (group 2) perceived (evaluated) levels of

Seyyed Mahmoud Hashemi; Yousef Hedjazi



Factors affecting uptake of measles, mumps, and rubella immunisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To study factors affecting uptake of measles, mumps, and rubella immunisation. DESIGN--Cohort study using data from computerised child health systems. SETTING--10 health districts in North East Thames and North West Thames regions. SUBJECTS--7841 children born in January to March 1990 and resident in the districts up till the end of October 1991. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Overall uptake of measles, mumps, and

J Li; B Taylor



Factors Affecting Cotton Producers' Choice of Marketing Outlet  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING COTTON PRODUCERS? CHOICE OF MARKETING OUTLET A Thesis by JASON DEAN PACE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, John R.C. Robinson Committee Members, Dmitry Vedenov Calvin Parnell Head of Department, Parr Rosson December 2012 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics Copyright 2012 Jason...

Pace, Jason 1979-



Affective and physiological factors predicting maternal response to infant crying  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated physiological, affective, and perceptual factors hypothesized to predict how quickly 45 primiparous mothers of 7–9-month-old infants would respond to non-distressed infant crying. Aversiveness ratings of the non-distressed cries of one's “own” infant and physiological reactivity to one's “own” infant crying accounted for a significant amount of the variance in a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis of speed

Tamara Del Vecchio; Abbe Walter; Susan G. O’Leary



Factors Affecting the Amount of Puffing in Tomatoes.  

E-print Network

by crossings involving four varieties the first generations of which developed less puffing than those involving any two varieties. Pactors found to affect the proportion of tomato fruits puffed involve variety and strain (hereditary), pollination, available...-------------------------------------------- 4 0 Southern blight 40 Blossom end rot 41 Pollination 41 Position of fruit 42 Hereditary factors 4 4 Varieties and strains 4 4 Selections -----------1---------------------------- 5 5 Crosses 5 7 Discussion 6 0 Summary 6 1 Literature cited...

Wood, J. F. (John Fielding); Yarnell, S. H. (Sidney Howe); Friend, W. H. (William Heartsill)



Factors affecting the use and non use of contraception.  


Data from the 1982 Jakarta Modular Survey were used to study the factors affecting the use and nonuse of contraception. Specific study objectives were: to present some characteristics of contraceptors and noncontraceptors; to identify the major factors affecting contraceptive use; to determine the causal structure between the factors and contraceptive use; and to understand the relationship among these factors. The data collected were organized into 4 modules: socioeconomic and migration module; contraceptive prevalence and fertility module; mortality, morbidity, nutrition, and health practice module; and contraceptive continuation module. The first 3 modules were used for collecting information from all currently married women aged 15-49 years. The last module was used for collecting information from women who used some contraceptive method through the services of a family planning clinic during the 1977-82 period. Data on 2727 women were analyzed. Users and nonusers distributed differently depending on their characteristics. The characteristics selected included age, respondent's education, husband's education, working status of the respondent, age at 1st marriage, number of living children, and experience of abortion. These variables were considered to be associated with use and nonuse of contraceptives. Compared to the nonusers, the current users were slightly older in age more educated (and had husbands who were more educated), were older when 1st married, had more living children, and had more experience in abortion. Log-linear analysis was performed on 2 groups of women. Group I included all currently married women aged 15-49 years; Group II included only "high risk" women, i.e., currently married women aged 15-34 years, not pregnant, not in menopausal stage, and have had at least 1 live birth. Contraceptive use rates were lower in Group I than in Group II. Within both groups, the users rates differed significantly according to age, age at marriage, number of living children, education, and media exposure. There were no significant differences in contraceptive use rates according to experience of abortion and working status. The analysis on the selection of a model suggests that there were 4 independent major factors affecting the use and nonuse of contraception: number of living children, frequency of exposure to mass media, level of education, and current age. There also was a relationship among the following factors: age with number of living children and with media exposure; number of living children with level of education; and education with media exposure and with age. Although the experience of abortion did not affect contraceptive use, it was strongly associated with age. Among these 4 factors, education had the strongest effects, followed consecutively by number of living children, current age, and media exposure. PMID:12280177

Utomo, B; Alimoeso, S; Park, C B



Factors Affecting Sleep Quality of Patients in Intensive Care Unit  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Sleep disturbance is a frequently overlooked complication of intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Aim: To evaluate sleep quality among patients admitted to ICU and investigate environmental and non-environmental factors that affect sleep quality in ICU. Methods: Over a 22-month period, we consecutively recruited patients who spent ? 2 nights post-endotracheal extubation in ICU and who were orientated to time, place, and person on the day of discharge. Self-reported sleep quality, according to a modified Freedman questionnaire, which provided data on self-reported ICU sleep quality in ICU and environmental factors affecting sleep quality in the ICU, were collected. We also investigated non-environmental factors, such as severity of illness, ICU interventions, and medications that can affect sleep quality. Results: Fifty males and 50 females were recruited with a mean (± SD) age of 65.1 ± 15.2 years. APACHE II score at admission to ICU was 18.1 ± 7.5 with duration of stay 6.7 ± 6.5days. Self-reported sleep quality score at home (1 = worst; 10 = best) was 7.0 ± 2.2; this decreased to 4.0 ± 1.7 during their stay in ICU (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis with APACHE III as severity of illness (R2 = 0.25), factors [exp(b)(95% CI), p value] which significantly affected sleep in ICU were sex [0.37(0.19-0.72), p < 0.01], age and sex interaction [1.02(1.01-1.03), p < 0.01], bedside phone [0.92(0.87-0.97), p < 0.01], prior quality of sleep at home [1.30(1.05-1.62), p = 0.02], and use of steroids [0.82(0.69-0.98), p = 0.03] during the stay in ICU. Conclusion: Reduced sleep quality is a common problem in ICU with a multifactorial etiology. Citation: Bihari S; McEvoy RD; Kim S; Woodman RJ; Bersten AD. Factors affecting sleep quality of patients in intensive care unit. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(3):301-307. PMID:22701388

Bihari, Shailesh; Doug McEvoy, R.; Matheson, Elisha; Kim, Susan; Woodman, Richard J.; Bersten, Andrew D.



Factors affecting growth and pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum.  


Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg and the trace metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn on yellow color formation, metabolite production and mold growth. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the most important factor affecting yellow color formation was pH. The most pronounced formation of yellow color, supported by highest amount of colored metabolites, appeared at low pH (pH 4). Mold growth was not correlated to the yellow color formation. Salt concentration was the most important factor affecting mold growth and length of lag phase. Production of secondary metabolites was strongly influenced by both pH and salt concentration. The screening results were used to divide the metabolites into the following three groups: 1) correlated to growth, 2) correlated to color formation, and 3) formed at high pH. Subsequently, a full factorial experiment with factors P, Mg and Cu, showed that low P concentrations (2,000 mg/kg) induced yellow color formation. Among the factors contributing to yellow color formation, pH and salt concentration are easy to control for the cheesemaker, while the third factor, P-concentration, is not. Naturally occurring variations in the P-concentration in milk delivered to Blue Cheese plants, could be responsible for the yellow discoloration phenomenon observed in the dairy industry. PMID:12487445

Suhr, K I; Haasum, I; Steenstrup, L D; Larsen, T O



Factors affecting the prescribing patterns of antibiotics and injections.  


There are serious problems concerning the inadequate prescription of antibiotics and overuse of injections in primary care. However, the determinants of prescription patterns in Korea are not well-documented. To examine the area characteristics affecting the prescription of antibiotics and injections in primary care practices in the treatment of respiratory tract infections (RTIs), a nationwide cross-sectional study was performed in all 250 administrative districts of Korea. The outcome was modeled as a binary variable: over-prescription or not compared with the nation-wide average. Over-prescription of antibiotics was associated with the ratio of specialists to general physicians and over-prescription in previous years in the area (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-14.8; and aOR, 12.0; 95% CI 5.5-25.9, respectively). Over-use of injections was associated with younger population, urban living and the number of hospital beds in the area (aOR, 0.2; 95% CI 0.1-0.4; aOR, 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.8; and aOR, 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.9; respectively). There were differences in the prescribing patterns in different districts; prescription patterns were affected more by supply factors than by demand factors. Highly competitive medical environment associated with supply factors is a significant determinant of prescription patterns in Korea. PMID:22323857

Choi, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Sang-Min; Lee, Ju-Hyun; Kwon, Soonman



Factors Affecting Survival of Bacteriophage on Tomato Leaf Surfaces?  

PubMed Central

The ability of bacteriophage to persist in the phyllosphere for extended periods is limited by many factors, including sunlight irradiation, especially in the UV zone, temperature, desiccation, and exposure to copper bactericides. The effects of these factors on persistence of phage and formulated phage (phage mixed with skim milk) were evaluated. In field studies, copper caused significant phage reduction if applied on the day of phage application but not if applied 4 or 7 days in advance. Sunlight UV was evaluated for detrimental effects on phage survival on tomato foliage in the field. Phage was applied in the early morning, midmorning, early afternoon, and late evening, while UVA plus UVB irradiation and phage populations were monitored. The intensity of UV irradiation positively correlated with phage population decline. The protective formulation reduced the UV effect. In order to demonstrate direct effects of UV, phage suspensions were exposed to UV irradiation and assayed for effectiveness against bacterial spot of tomato. UV significantly reduced phage ability to control bacterial spot. Ambient temperature had a pronounced effect on nonformulated phage but not on formulated phages. The effects of desiccation and fluorescent light illumination on phage were investigated. Desiccation caused a significant but only slight reduction in phage populations after 60 days, whereas fluorescent light eliminated phages within 2 weeks. The protective formulation eliminated the reduction caused by both of these factors. Phage persistence was dramatically affected by UV, while the other factors had less pronounced effects. Formulated phage reduced deleterious effects of the studied environmental factors. PMID:17259361

Iriarte, F. B.; Balogh, B.; Momol, M. T.; Smith, L. M.; Wilson, M.; Jones, J. B.



[Psychological factors affecting medical conditions--a method of measurement].  


Improving the way of diagnosing diseases is reflected in changes which are being introduced into the existing systems of classifications. Researchers aim to create such a system that will be free of assumptions that are controversial and difficult to approve on the medical basis. Currently completed works associated with the preparation and introduced the DSM-5, in which they prepared criteria for the assessment psychological factors affecting medical conditions and their method of measurement. An interview which is presented in this article has been created for the evaluation of those groups of syndromes and has been translated into the Polish language. PMID:25344974

Basi?ska, Malgorzata A; Wo?niewicz, Agnieszka



Risk factors affecting morbidity in typhoid enteric perforation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Typhoid enteric perforation is a cause of high morbidity and mortality. This study aim is to determine the factors affecting\\u000a morbidity in patients with typhoid enteric perforation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Ninety-six patients with typhoid enteric perforation were reviewed. The variables are defined as follows: Age, gender, complaints,\\u000a perforation–operation interval, typhoid fever treatment before the perforation or not, white blood cell (WBC)

E. Gedik; S. Girgin; I. H. Taçy?ld?z; Y. Akgün



Human Factors Affecting the Patient's Acceptance of Wireless Biomedical Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In monitoring arrhythmia, the quality of medical data from the ECG sensors may be enhanced by being based on everyday life situations. Hence, the development of wireless biomedical sensors is of growing interest, both to diagnose the heart patient, as well as to adjust the regimen. However, human factors such as emotional barriers and stigmatization, may affect the patient's behavior while wearing the equipment, which in turn may influence quality of data. The study of human factors and patient acceptance is important both in relation to the development of such equipment, as well as in evaluating the quality of data gathered from the individual patient. In this paper, we highlight some important aspects in patient acceptance by comparing results from a preliminary clinical trial with patients using a wireless ECG sensor for three days out-of-hospital service, to available published results from telehomecare projects, and discuss important aspects to be taken into account in future investigations.

Fensli, Rune; Boisen, Egil


Factors that affect electric-utility stranded commitments  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of stranded commitments for U.S. investor-owned utilities range widely, with many falling in the range of $100 to $200 billion. These potential losses exist because some utility-owned power plants, long-term power-purchase contracts and fuel-supply contracts, regulatory assets, and expenses for public-policy programs have book values that exceed their expected market values under full competition. This report quantifies the sensitivity of stranded- commitment estimates to the various factors that lead to these above- market-value estimates. The purpose of these sensitivity analyses is to improve understanding on the part of state and federal regulators, utilities, customers, and other electric-industry participants about the relative importance of the factors that affect stranded- commitment amounts.

Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.; Baxter, L.



Predictive factors affecting cecal intubation failure in colonoscopy trainees  

PubMed Central

Background Successful cecal intubation (SCI) is not only a quality indicator but also an important marker in a colonoscopy trainee’s progress. We conducted this study to determine factors predicting SCI in colonoscopy trainees, and to compare these factors before and after trainees achieve technical competence. Methods Design of this study was a cross-sectional studies of two time series design for one year at a single center. From March 2011 to February 2012, a total 2,050 subjects who underwent colonoscopy by four first-year gastrointestinal fellows were enrolled at Christian hospital, Wonju, Republic of Korea. Four gastrointestinal fellows have filled out the colonoscopic documentation. Main outcome measurement was predictive factors affecting cecal intubation failure and learning curves. Results Colonoscopy was successfully completed to the cecum in 1,720 patients (83.9%). Success rates gradually increased as trainees performed more colonoscopies: the rate of SCI was 62% in the first 50 cases, and grew to 93% by the 250th case. Logistic regression analysis of factors affecting cecal intubation failure showed that female gender, low BMI (BMI < 18.5?kg/m2), poor bowel preparation, and past history of stomach surgery were more often associated with cecal intubation failure, particularly before the trainees achieved technical competence. Conclusion Several patient characteristics were identified that may predict difficulty of cecal intubation in colonoscopy trainees. Particularly, low BMI, inadequate bowel cleansing, and previous stomach operation were predictors of cecal intubation failure before the trainees have reached technical competency. The results could be informative so that trainees enhance the success rate regarding better colonoscopy training programs. PMID:23331720



Soil biotransformation of thiodiglycol, the hydrolysis product of mustard gas: understanding the factors governing remediation of mustard gas contaminated soil.  


Thiodiglycol (TDG) is both the precursor for chemical synthesis of mustard gas and the product of mustard gas hydrolysis. TDG can also react with intermediates of mustard gas degradation to form more toxic and/or persistent aggregates, or reverse the pathway of mustard gas degradation. The persistence of TDG have been observed in soils and in the groundwater at sites contaminated by mustard gas 60 years ago. The biotransformation of TDG has been demonstrated in three soils not previously exposed to the chemical. TDG biotransformation occurred via the oxidative pathway with an optimum rate at pH 8.25. In contrast with bacteria isolated from historically contaminated soil, which could degrade TDG individually, a consortium of three bacterial strains isolated from the soil never contaminated by mustard gas was able to grow on TDG in minimal medium and in hydrolysate derived from an historical mustard gas bomb. Exposure to TDG had little impacts on the soil microbial physiology or on community structure. Therefore, the persistency of TDG in soils historically contaminated by mustard gas might be attributed to the toxicity of mustard gas to microorganisms and the impact to soil chemistry during the hydrolysis. TDG biodegradation may form part of a remediation strategy for mustard gas contaminated sites, and may be enhanced by pH adjustment and aeration. PMID:22752796

Li, Hong; Muir, Robert; McFarlane, Neil R; Soilleux, Richard J; Yu, Xiaohong; Thompson, Ian P; Jackman, Simon A



Multiple Weather Factors Affect Apparent Survival of European Passerine Birds  

PubMed Central

Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for phenotypic and microevolutionary adaptations. PMID:23593131

Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fiedler, Wolfgang



Factors affecting expanded electricity trade in North America  

SciTech Connect

The authors explore factors that affect electricity trade between enterprises in the US and Canada and the US and Mexico. They look to those underlying policy and institutional factors that affect the relative costs of producing electricity in the three countries. In particular, they consider six factors that appear to have a significant impact on electricity trade in North America: differences in the types of economic regulation of power leading to differences in cost recovery for wholesale and retail power and wheeling charges; changing regulatory attitudes, placing more emphasis on demand-side management and environmental concerns; differences in energy and economic policies; differences in national and subnational environmental policies; changing organization of electric power industries which may foster uncertainty, change historical relationships, and provide other potentially important sources of power for distribution utilities; and differences in the ability of enterprises to gain access to electric power markets because of restrictions placed on transmission access. In Section 2, the authors discuss the regulation of electricity trade in North America and provide an overview of the recent trading experience for electricity between Canada and the US and between Mexico and the US, including the volume of that trade over the past decade and existing transmission capacity between regions of the three countries. In Section 3, they look at the benefits that accrue to trading counties and what those benefits are likely to be for the three countries. The discussion in Section 4 centers on the relevant provisions of the Canada Free Trade Agreement and the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement. In Section 5, they set the stage for the discussion of policy and institutional differences presented in Section 6 by outlining differences in the organization of the electric power sectors of Canada, the US, and Mexico. The study is synthesized in Section 7.

Hill, L.J.



Study of factors affecting the appearance of colors under microscopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variation of colors in microscopy systems can be quite critical for some users. To address this problem, a study is conducted to analyze how different factors such as size of the sample, intensity of the microscope's light source and the characteristics of the material like chroma and saturation can affect the color appearance through the eyepiece of the microscope. To study the changes in colors considering these factors, the spectral reflectance of 24 colors of GretagMacbeth Classic ColorChecker® and Mini ColorChecker® which are placed under a Nikon ECLIPSE MA200 microscope®2 using dark filed and bright field illuminations which result in different intensity levels, is measured using a spectroradiometer®3 which was placed in front of the eyepiece of the microscope. The results are compared with the original data from N. Ohta1. The evaluation is done by observing the shift in colors in the CIE 1931 Chromaticity Diagram and the CIELAB space, also by applying a wide set of color-difference formulas, namely: CIELAB, CMC, BFD, CIE94, CIEDE2000, DIN99d and DIN99b. Furthermore, to emphasize on the color regions in which the highest difference is observed, the authors have obtained the results from another microscope; Olympus SZX10®4, which in this case the measurement is done by mounting the spectroradiometer to the camera port of the microscope. The experiment leads to some interesting results, among which is the consistency in the highest difference observed considering different factors or how the change in saturation of the samples of the same hue can affect the results.

Zakizadeh, Roshanak; Martinez-Garcia, Juan; Raja, Kiran B.; Siakidis, Christos



Factors affecting intraocular light scattering from different color straylight sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Important optical parameter of the eye is intraocular light scattering. Straylight can reduce visual acuity, contrast sensitivity. It is one of the main factors for glare, especially for drivers at night, when there is light source some distance away from the fixation point. There are many factors, which can affect amount of light scattering in the eye. To assess the effect of the color of the straylight source on retinal image quality at different light scattering levels, retinal straylight was measured with and without light scattering occluder. Red, green and blue colors were choosed for straylight source. Psychophysical and electrophysiological methods were used to evaluate light scattering effect on perception on different color stimuli. Results show that straylight values are the greatest for blue color with and without light scattering occluder. In measurements without light scattering occluder ratio of straylight values for red and green color are different between subjects. Using light scattering occluder straylight values for green color are greater than for red color. Optical and anatomical factors which can induce these spectral variations are discussed. Psychophysical and electrophysiological methods showed the similar changes in results with straylight values when light scattering were increased.

Ikaunieks, Gatis; Ozolinsh, Maris



Factors affecting characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors  

SciTech Connect

Three major factors affect the characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors in terms of their levitation properties during interaction with permanent magnets. First, the appropriate parameter for the permanent magnet is internal magnetization, not the value of the magnetic field measured at the magnet`s surface. Second, although levitation force grows with superconductor thickness and surface area, for a given permanent magnet size, comparison of levitation force between samples is meaningful when minimum values are assigned to the superconductor size parameters. Finally, the effect of force creep must be considered when time-averaging the force measurements. In addition to levitational force, the coefficient of friction of a levitated rotating permanent magnet may be used to characterize the superconductor.

Hull, J.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.



Multilevel factors affecting quality: examples from the cancer care continuum.  


The complex environmental context must be considered as we move forward to improve cancer care and, ultimately, patient and population outcomes. The cancer care continuum represents several care types, each of which includes multiple technical and communication steps and interfaces among patients, providers, and organizations. We use two case scenarios to 1) illustrate the variability, diversity, and interaction of factors from multiple levels that affect care quality and 2) discuss research implications and provide hypothetical examples of multilevel interventions. Each scenario includes a targeted literature review to illustrate contextual influences upon care and sets the stage for theory-informed interventions. The screening case highlights access issues in older women, and the survivorship case illustrates the multiple transition challenges faced by patients, families, and organizations. Example interventions show the potential gains of implementing intervention strategies that work synergistically at multiple levels. While research examining multilevel intervention is a priority, it presents numerous study design, measurement, and analytic challenges. PMID:22623591

Zapka, Jane; Taplin, Stephen H; Ganz, Patricia; Grunfeld, Eva; Sterba, Katherine



Factors affecting tuberculosis retreatment defaults in Nanded, India.  


This study was carried out to determine factors affecting tuberculosis retreatment defaults in Nanded, India. All patients registered as tuberculosis retreatment cases (n = 107 excluding deaths during treatment) were interviewed by home visits. Their sociodemographic characteristics and treatment history were recorded and later compared with their treatment outcomes. Among the patients registered for re-treatment of tuberculosis (n = 112), 24 (21.4%) defaulted on treatment. The rate of default was 25.8% among those who had previously defaulted on treatment. Those who were employed, illiterate and alcoholics were 3.5, 3.5 and 3.4 times more likely to default, respectively, than others; these differences were significant. PMID:21073036

Bhagat, Vijay Manohar; Gattani, Prakash Laxminarayan



Factors Affecting Furfural as a Nematicide on Turf  

PubMed Central

Recently a furfural nematicide Multiguard Protect EC was launched for use on turfgrasses in the United States. A series of greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the concentration and exposure time required for this formulation to irreversibly affect Belonolaimus longicaudatus, and to study factors that might affect the practicality of furfural use in turfgrass systems. One experiment exposed B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural (0 to 990 ppm) in vitro for either 24 or 48 hr, followed by inoculation onto bermudagrass. A second experiment evaluated effects of exposure of B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural in soil solution on bermudagrass with or without an organic thatch layer. A third experiment evaluated effects on B. longicaudatus of increasing concentrations of furfural applied as a spray treatment to creeping bentgrass. Results from the in vitro exposure experiment found decreasing numbers of B. longicaudatus with increasing furfural concentration beginning with the lowest concentration tested (270 ppm). Belonolaimus longicaudatus were virtually eliminated with furfural concentrations ? 720 ppm. Similarly, exposure to increasing concentration of furfural in soil solution resulted in increasing reduction in numbers of B. longicaudatus. Presence of thatch slightly reduced the population density of B. longicaudatus. Spray application of furfural only reduced numbers of B. longicaudatus at the two highest rates (3,600 and 4,950 ppm). PMID:24379484

Luc, J. E.; Crow, W. T.



Factors affecting furfural as a nematicide on turf.  


Recently a furfural nematicide Multiguard Protect EC was launched for use on turfgrasses in the United States. A series of greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the concentration and exposure time required for this formulation to irreversibly affect Belonolaimus longicaudatus, and to study factors that might affect the practicality of furfural use in turfgrass systems. One experiment exposed B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural (0 to 990 ppm) in vitro for either 24 or 48 hr, followed by inoculation onto bermudagrass. A second experiment evaluated effects of exposure of B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural in soil solution on bermudagrass with or without an organic thatch layer. A third experiment evaluated effects on B. longicaudatus of increasing concentrations of furfural applied as a spray treatment to creeping bentgrass. Results from the in vitro exposure experiment found decreasing numbers of B. longicaudatus with increasing furfural concentration beginning with the lowest concentration tested (270 ppm). Belonolaimus longicaudatus were virtually eliminated with furfural concentrations ? 720 ppm. Similarly, exposure to increasing concentration of furfural in soil solution resulted in increasing reduction in numbers of B. longicaudatus. Presence of thatch slightly reduced the population density of B. longicaudatus. Spray application of furfural only reduced numbers of B. longicaudatus at the two highest rates (3,600 and 4,950 ppm). PMID:24379484

Luc, J E; Crow, W T



Environmental factors affecting Galaxy Morphology - a study using COSMOS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to our current understanding, galaxy shapes and morphologies should depend on various factors such as the local environment. Realistic image simulations for calibration of weak lensing analysis methods that use training samples from the Hubble Space Telescope can therefore be affected by these trends, due to the limited volume of the universe that has been surveyed by Hubble. I will show how redshift slices in a volume-limited subsample of COSMOS can be classified as overdense or underdense (or neither), and how the statistical properties of various morphological parameters such as ellipticity, Sersic n, bulge-to-total ratio and color differ in these bins. This study requires a careful distinction between environment effects from large-scale structure, which we do not wish to include in simulations, and general trends in the galaxy population with redshift. We conclude with some guidance for how upcoming surveys can use COSMOS data as the basis for weak lensing simulations without having their conclusions overly affected by cosmic variance.

Jayaraman, Arun; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Lackner, Claire



Investigation of factors affecting asphalt pavement recycling and asphalt compatibility  

SciTech Connect

Both economic and environmental factors dictate that asphalt pavement be recycled. Many recycling projects have been completed using a variety of recycling additives, but little work has been done on the physiochemical aspects of pavement recycling. The present exploratory study was undertaken to better define the physiochemical variables of recycling. Objectives of the present study include: (1) to determine if molecular structuring in the asphalt binder could be observed in oxidized (air-aged) asphalt-aggregate briquets, and if so, how was structuring affected during briquits, and if so, how was structuring affected during briquet recycling and (2) to determine if recycling agents penetrate the strongly adsorbed asphalt layer on the aggregate surface. Differences were seen in asphalt component compatibility as judged by the state of peptization parameters. In extreme cases the values of the parameters correlated with properties of asphalts of known compatibility; however, a relationship between the parameters determined on a series of asphalts in pavements was not established. The parameters might be useful in evaluating additives for pavement recycling; however, more systems need to be studied to fully assess their potential usefulness. Finally, the parameters need to be correlated with performance-related measurements such as asphalt rheological and mix properties. Examination of the parameters and their changes on asphalt oxidative aging may also be informative with regard to asphalt durability inasmuch as oxidation-induced changes are a major cause of asphalt pavement failure.

Venable, R.L.; Petersen, J.C.; Robertson, R.E.; Plancher, H.



Renovascular hypertension: factors affecting the outcome following surgical revascularisation.  


This study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan to evaluate factors that affect outcome following revascularisation in patients with renovascular hypertension. We included all the patients diagnosed to have renovascular hypertension, confirmed by renal angiography, between July 1997 and September 2000. Of the total 15 patients, nine were males and six were females. Eleven patients received venous grafts, three received polytetraflouroethyline (PTFE) grafts while one patient underwent angioplasty and stenting. All were followed-up for a period of nine months (median) with the range from 2 to 84 months. A total of 33.3% of the study patients were completely cured, as they became normotensive without anti-hypertensive therapy after operation, while 27% showed marked improvement in blood pressure control post-operatively. Thus, extended cure or improvement of renovascular hypertension was achieved in 60% of patients. Normal pre-operative serum creatinine level, high pre-operative unstimulated peripheral renin levels and renal vein renin ratio of at least 1.75:1 were the most significant predictive factors for favorable outcome (p < 0.012). The pre-operative severity and duration of hypertension as well as degree of disparity in kidney sizes did not predict the post-operative improvement in renal function and blood pressure control. PMID:17657118

Rabbani, Malik Anas; Zaidi, Alia; Ali, Syed Sohail; Anas, Bushra; Younus, Asmooni; Shah, Syed Mansoor Ahmad



Factors Affecting Mortality in Elderly Patients Hospitalized for Nonmalignant Reasons  

PubMed Central

Elderly population is hospitalized more frequently than young people, and they suffer from more severe diseases that are difficult to diagnose and treat. The present study aimed to investigate the factors affecting mortality in elderly patients hospitalized for nonmalignant reasons. Demographic data, reason for hospitalization, comorbidities, duration of hospital stay, and results of routine blood testing at the time of first hospitalization were obtained from the hospital records of the patients, who were over 65 years of age and hospitalized primarily for nonmalignant reasons. The mean age of 1012 patients included in the study was 77.8 ± 7.6. The most common reason for hospitalization was diabetes mellitus (18.3%). Of the patients, 90.3% had at least a single comorbidity. Whilst 927 (91.6%) of the hospitalized patients were discharged, 85 (8.4%) died. Comparison of the characteristics of the discharged and dead groups revealed that the dead group was older and had higher rates of poor general status and comorbidity. Differences were observed between the discharged and dead groups in most of the laboratory parameters. Hypoalbuminemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypopotassemia, hypernatremia, hyperuricemia, and high TSH level were the predictors of mortality. In order to meet the health necessities of the elderly population, it is necessary to well define the patient profiles and to identify the risk factors. PMID:25147737

Ayaz, Teslime; Rak?c?, Halil



Factors affecting couples' adjustment to recurrent breast cancer.  


The purpose of this study was to identify factors that affect the adjustment of women and their husbands to recurrent breast cancer and to examine the mutual effect that partners have on one another. An exploratory study was designed to determine the relationship between four predictor variables (support, uncertainty, symptom distress, hopelessness) and women's and husbands' adjustments. The sample consisted of 155 subjects; 81 women, who had a first recurrence of breast cancer, and 74 husbands. Multiple standardized instruments with established reliability and validity were used to measure the study variables. The independent variables were measured with the Social Support Questionnaire, the Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale, McCorkle Symptom Distress Scale and the Beck Hopelessness Scale. The dependent variable, psychosocial adjustment, was measured with the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale. The results indicated that the independent variables accounted for 43% of the variance in women's distress and 32% of the variance in husbands' distress; they also explained 66% of the variance in women's role adjustment problems and 57% of the variance in husbands' role problems. Symptom distress and hopelessness accounted for the most variance in women's and husbands' levels of adjustment. A significant and positive relationship was found between women's and husbands' adjustment scores, indicating that partners have a mutual influence on one another. The findings suggest that there are multiple factors that influence couples' adjustment to recurrent breast cancer, and that these factors need to be taken into consideration when planning care for women and their partners. PMID:7667674

Northouse, L L; Dorris, G; Charron-Moore, C



Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

Pyo, Katrina A.


Factors Affecting Prostate Volume Estimation in Computed Tomography Images  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to investigate how apex-localizing methods and the computed tomography (CT) slice thickness affected the CT-based prostate volume estimation. Twenty-eight volunteers underwent evaluations of prostate volume by CT, where the contour segmentations were performed by three observers. The bottom of ischial tuberosities (ITs) and the bulb of the penis were used as reference positions to locate the apex, and the distances to the apex were recorded as 1.3 and 2.0 cm, respectively. Interobserver variations to locate ITs and the bulb of the penis were, on average, 0.10 cm (range 0.03-0.38 cm) and 0.30 cm (range 0.00-0.98 cm), respectively. The range of CT slice thickness varied from 0.08-0.48 cm and was adopted to examine the influence of the variation on volume estimation. The volume deviation from the reference case (0.08 cm), which increases in tandem with the slice thickness, was within {+-} 3 cm{sup 3}, regardless of the adopted apex-locating reference positions. In addition, the maximum error of apex identification was 1.5 times of slice thickness. Finally, based on the precise CT films and the methods of apex identification, there were strong positive correlation coefficients for the estimated prostate volume by CT and the transabdominal ultrasonography, as found in the present study (r > 0.87; p < 0.0001), and this was confirmed by Bland-Altman analysis. These results will help to identify factors that affect prostate volume calculation and to contribute to the improved estimation of the prostate volume based on CT images.

Yang, Cheng-Hsiu [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shyh-Jen [Divisions of Experimental Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Alex Tong-Long [Divisions of Urology, Department of Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chao-An, E-mail: [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)



Factors affecting the diffusion of online end user literature searching.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify factors that affect diffusion of usage of online end user literature searching. Fifteen factors clustered into three attribute sets (innovation attributes, organizational attributes, and marketing attributes) were measured to study their effect on the diffusion of online searching within institutions. METHODS: A random sample of sixty-seven academic health sciences centers was selected and then 1,335 library and informatics staff members at those institutions were surveyed by mail with electronic mail follow-up. Multiple regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: The survey yielded a 41% response rate with electronic mail follow-up being particularly effective. Two dependent variables, internal diffusion (spread of diffusion) and infusion (depth of diffusion), were measured. There was little correlation between them, indicating they measured different things. Fifteen independent variables clustered into three attribute sets were measured. The innovation attributes set was significant for both internal diffusion and infusion. Significant individual variables were visibility for internal diffusion and image enhancement effects (negative relation) as well as visibility for infusion (depth of diffusion). Organizational attributes were also significant predictors for both dependent variables. No individual variables were significant for internal diffusion. Communication, management support (negative relation), rewards, and existence of champions were significant for infusion. Marketing attributes were not significant predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Successful diffusion of online end user literature searching is dependent on the visibility of the systems, communication among, rewards to, and peers of possible users who promote use (champions). Personal image enhancement effects have a negative relation to infusion, possibly because the use of intermediaries is still seen as the more luxurious way to have searches done. Management support also has a negative relation to infusion, perhaps indicating that depth of diffusion can increase despite top-level management actions. PMID:9934530

Ash, J S



Factors affecting the estimate of primary production from space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing of primary production in the euphotic zone has been based mostly on visible-band and water-leaving radiance measured with the coastal zone color scanner. There are some robust, simple relationships for calculating integral production based on surface measurements, but they also require knowledge for photoadaptive parameters such as maximum photosynthesis which currently cannot be obtained from spave. A 17,000-station data set is used to show that space-based estimates of maximum photosynthesis could improve predictions of psi, the water column light utiliztion index, which is an important term in many primary productivity models. Temperature is also examined as a factor for predicting hydrographic structure and primary production. A simple model is used to relate temperature and maximum photosynthesis; the model incorporates (1) the positive relationship between maximum photosynthesis and temperature and (2) the strongly negative relationship between temperature and nitrate in the ocean (which directly affects maximum growth rates via nitrogen limitation). Since these two factors relate to carbon and nitrogen, 'balanced carbon/nitrogen assimilation' was calculated using the Redfield ratio, It is expected that the relationship between maximum balanced carbon assimilation versus temperature is concave-down, with the peak dependent on nitrate uptake kinetics, temperature-nitrate relationships,a nd the carbon chlorophyll ration. These predictions were compared with the sea truth data. The minimum turnover time for nitrate was also calculated using this approach. Lastly, sea surface temperature gradients were used to predict the slope of isotherms (a proxy for the slope of isopycnals in many waters). Sea truth data show that at size scales of several hundred kilometers, surface temperature gradients can provide information on the slope of isotherms in the top 200 m of the water column. This is directly relevant to the supply of nutrients into the surface mixed layer, which is useful for predicting integral biomass and primary production.

Balch, W. M.; Byrne, C. F.



Elimination of error factors, affecting EM and seismic inversions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EM or seismic data inversions are affected by many factors, which may conceal the responses from target objects. We address here the contributions from the following effects: 1) Pre-survey spectral sensitivity factor. Preliminary information about a target layer can be used for a pre-survey estimation of the required frequency domain and signal level. A universal approach allows making such estimations in real time, helping the survey crew to optimize an acquisition process. 2) Preliminary velocities' identification and their dispersions for all the seismic waves, arising in a stratified media became a fast working tool, based on the exact analytical solution. 3) Vertical gradients effect. For most layers the log data scatter, requiring an averaging pattern. A linear gradient within each representative layer is a reasonable compromise between required inversion accuracy and forward modeling complexity. 4) An effect from the seismic source's radial component becomes comparable with vertical part for explosive sources. If this effect is not taken into account, a serious modeling error takes place. This problem has an algorithmic solution. 5) Seismic modeling is often based on different representations for a source formulated either for a force or to a potential. The wave amplitudes depend on the formulation, making an inversion result sensitive to it. 6) Asymmetrical seismic waves (modified Rayleigh) in symmetrical geometry around liquid fracture come from S-wave and merge with the modified Krauklis wave at high frequencies. A detail analysis of this feature allows a spectral range optimization for the proper wave's extraction. 7) An ultrasonic experiment was conducted to show different waves appearance for a super-thin water-saturated fracture between two Plexiglas plates, being confirmed by comparison with theoretical computations. 8) A 'sandwich effect' was detected by comparison with averaged layer's effect. This opens an opportunity of the shale gas direct identification from the surface measurements.

Magomedov, M.; Zuev, M. A.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.



Hydrologic and geologic factors affecting land subsidence near Eloy, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At an extensometer site near Eloy, Arizona, 1.09 m of land subsidence caused by groundwater withdrawal were measured by leveling in 1965-83. The extensometer, which partially penetrates the compressible sediments, recorded 0.82 m of compaction during the same period. By use of a one-dimensional model, cumulative daily compaction values were simulated to within an average of 0.0038 m of the actual values. Land subsidence was simulated to within an average of 0.011 m using the same model in conjunction with geohydrologic data of the sediments below the extensometer. A highly compressible clay layer that is 24.38 m thick was partially penetrated by the extensometer. The simulation indicated that the layer was driving compaction and land subsidence linearly with respect to time, despite the presence of other compacting layers. Because of its thickness and compressibility, this layer can be expected to continue to compact after applied vertical stresses have stopped increasing and other layers have stopped compacting. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the compressibility of fine-grained sediments (expressed as specific storage) is one of the factors to which compact is most sensitive. Preconsolidation stress and hydraulic conductivity also affect land subsidence near Eloy, Arizona. (Author 's abstract)

Epstein, V. J.



Knowledge Elecitation for Factors Affecting Taskforce Productivity using a Questionnaire  

E-print Network

In this paper we present the process of Knowledge Elicitation through a structured questionnaire technique. This is an effort to depict a problem domain as Investigation of factors affecting taskforce productivity. The problem has to be solved using the expert system technology. This problem is the very first step how to acquire knowledge from the domain experts. Knowledge Elicitation is one of the difficult tasks in knowledge base formation which is a key component of expert system. The questionnaire was distributed among 105 different domain experts of Public and Private Organizations (i.e. Education Institutions, Industries and Research etc) in Pakistan. A total 61 responses from these experts were received. All the experts were well qualified, highly experienced and has been remained the members for selection committees a number of times for different posts. Facts acquired were analyzed from which knowledge was extracted and elicited. A standard shape was given to the questionnaire for further research as a knowledge learning tool. This tool may be used as a standard document for selection and promotion of employees.

Muhammad Sohail; Abdur Rashid Khan



Factors Affecting Fiber Design and Selection for Advanced Ceramic Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structural Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) have the potential for application in the hot sections of a variety of advanced propulsion and power systems. It is therefore necessary to have a general understanding of the key properties of CMC and Reinforcing Fibers. This need is complicated by the wide variety of application conditions and structural requirements for which CMC's will be used, and the proprietary concerns of the design engineers. CMC's, to be successful, must display properties which are competitive with the currently used high temperature structural materials: (i.e., Iron and Nickel based superalloys, tough monolithic ceramics, and carbon/carbon composites.) Structural CMC offers several areas of competition: (1) performance, (i.e., strength and strength retention, creep resistance, and thermal conductivity), (2) reliability (i.e., environmental durability, and damage tolerance) and (3) processing (i.e., capability for varying sizes and shapes, and cost effective fabrication). The presentation further discusses, and illustrates with fiber and CMC data the key fiber properties and processes which strongly affect each CMC area of competition. The presentation further discusses the current knowledge of the important factors which control the key fiber properties. A design guidelines for the optimum fiber characteristics is developed, and the currently available fibers are compared against those guidelines.

DiCarlo, James A.



Factors affecting recruitment to an observational multicentre palliative care study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify those factors which adversely affected recruitment to a large multicentre palliative care study. Methods Patient accrual to a multicentre, observational, palliative care study was monitored at three critical junctures in the research process. (1) Eligibility—did the patient fulfil the study entry criteria? (2) Accessibility—was it possible to access the patient to be able to inform them about the study? (3) Consent—did the patient agree to participate in the study? The reasons why patients were ineligible, inaccessible or refused consent were recorded. Results 12?412 consecutive referrals to participating clinical services were screened for study inclusion of whom 5394 (43%) were deemed to be ineligible. Of the remaining patients 4617/7018 (66%) were inaccessible to the research team. The most common reasons being precipitous death, ‘gatekeeping’ by clinical staff or rapid discharge. Of the 2410 patients who were visited by the research team and asked to participate in the study 1378 (57%) declined. Overall 8.2% (1018/12?412) of patients screened participated in the study. There were significant differences in recruitment patterns between hospice inpatient units, hospital support and community palliative care teams. Conclusions Systematic monitoring and analysis of patient flows through the clinical trial accrual process provided valuable insights about the reasons for failure to recruit patients to a clinical trial and may help to improve recruitment in future studies. PMID:24644750

Stone, Patrick C; Gwilliam, Bridget; Keeley, Vaughan; Todd, Chris; Kelly, Laura C; Barclay, Stephen



[Factors affecting young mothers' social and family relations after pregnancy].  


This study aimed to analyze factors affecting social and family relations of young mothers in the two-year postpartum period. This was a cross-sectional study of 464 young mothers in Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil, who gave birth during the first four months of 2006 in six maternity hospitals. Data were collected from May to December 2008 after identifying the young women in the maternity hospital records. Multivariate analysis used multinomial logistic regression. Married young women (including those in common-law marriages) were 80% less likely to have negative relations with their partners. Participants 20 to 22 years of age related 2.4 times better with their mothers than those 17 to 19 years of age. Young women not attending school showed 97% higher odds of negative changes in relations with friends, and Catholics were 50% less likely to have worse relations with friends following childbirth. Measures are needed to orient individuals living with young mothers (especially their partners and mothers) concerning the importance of support in this phase of life, particularly encouraging them to stay in school. PMID:24936816

Maranhão, Thatiana Araújo; Gomes, Keila Rejane Oliveira; Silva, José Mário Nunes da



Factors Affecting Hemodialysis Patients' Satisfaction with Their Dialysis Therapy  

PubMed Central

Aim. To assess the degree of satisfaction among hemodialysis patients and the factors influencing this satisfaction. Methods. Patients were recruited from 3 Saudi dialysis centers. Demographic data was collected. Using 1 to 10 Likert scale, the patients were asked to rate the overall satisfaction with, and the overall impact of, their dialysis therapy on their lives and to rate the effect of the dialysis therapy on 15 qualities of life domains. Results. 322 patients were recruited (72.6% of the total eligible patients). The mean age was 51.7 years (±15.4); 58% have been on dialysis for >3 years. The mean Charlson Comorbidity Index was 3.2 (±2), and Kt/V was 1.3 (±0.44). The mean satisfaction score was (7.41 ± 2.75) and the mean score of the impact of the dialysis on the patients' lives was 5.32 ± 2.55. Male patients reported worse effect of dialysis on family life, social life, energy, and appetite. Longer period since the commencement of dialysis was associated with adverse effect on finances and energy. Lower level of education was associated with worse dialysis effect on stress, overall health, sexual life, hobbies, and exercise ability. Conclusion. The level of satisfaction is affected by gender, duration on dialysis, educational level, and standard of care given. PMID:21152200

Al Eissa, M.; Al Sulaiman, M.; Jondeby, M.; Karkar, A.; Barahmein, M.; Shaheen, F. A. M.; Al Sayyari, A.



Factors affecting the bacteriological contamination of commercial washing machines.  


Wash water from self-service washing machines in three commercial launderettes of Bologna (Italy) were examined to verify which factors affect their bacterial contamination and to determine which procedures in the laundering process have the most significant effects on the removal of bacteria. Four washing formulas were compared: a delicates cycle (programmed temperature 25-30 degrees C; actual temperature: 28-31 degrees C); a whites cycle (programmed temperature: 80-90 degrees C; actual temperature: 50-57.5 degrees C); a delicates cycle with the addition of an oxygen-based bleach safe for delicate fabrics and a whites cycle with the addition of an oxygen-based bleach. Bacterial contamination of washing machines was higher in the launderette most heavely used, and, furthermore, it was in relation with the washing temperature and the use of bleaches. The low temperature laundering cycle (20-30 degrees C) did not guarantee elimination of bacterial content from either the inside of the washing machine or from the fabric being washed. Washing with water at a higher temperature, of about 55 degrees C, or adding an oxygen-based bleach to the low temperature cycle did ensure a significant reduction in bacterial recovery from water samples and fabrics, but did not prevent bacteria such as P. aeruginosa from surviving inside the washing machine. Only the addition of bleaches to the hot water program ensured the almost total elimination of bacteria and also guaranteed their elimination from protected parts of the drum. PMID:9638885

Legnani, P P; Leoni, E




EPA Science Inventory

Factors that influence the collection and measurement of atmospheric sulfate were investigated. Special emphasis was given to those factors that cause the formation of extraneous sulfate during the sampling process. The factors considered were filter type and composition, ambient...


Urban vs. rural factors that affect adult asthma.  


In this review, our aim was to examine the influence of geographic variations on asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults, which is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity. Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The disparities in asthma prevalence and morbidity among the world's geographic locations are more likely to be associated with environmental exposures than genetic differences. In writing this article, we found that the indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, and that difference correlated with environmental risk exposures, SES, and healthcare access. Environmental risk factors to which urban adults were more frequently exposed than rural adults were dust mites,high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle.Exposure to indoor biological contaminants in the urban environment is common.The main risk factors for developing asthma in urban areas are atopy and allergy to house dust mites, followed by allergens from animal dander. House dust mite exposure may potentially explain differences in diagnosis of asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults in urban vs. rural areas. In addition, the prevalence of asthma morbidity increases with urbanization. High levels of vehicle emissions,Western lifestyles and degree of urbanization itself, may affect outdoor and thereby indoor air quality. In urban areas, biomass fuels have been widely replaced by cleaner energy sources at home, such as gas and electricity, but in most developing countries, coal is still a major source of fuel for cooking and heating, particularly in winter. Moreover, exposure to ETS is common at home or at work in urban areas.There is evidence that asthma prevalence and morbidity is less common in rural than in urban areas. The possible reasons are that rural residents are exposed early in life to stables and to farm milk production, and such exposures are protective against developing asthma morbidity. Even so, asthma morbidity is disproportionately high among poor inner-city residents and in rural populations. A higher proportion of adult residents of nonmetropolitan areas were characterized as follows:aged 55 years or older, no previous college admission, low household income, no health insurance coverage, and could not see a doctor due to healthcare service availability, etc. In rural areas, biomass fuels meet more than 70% of the rural energy needs. Progress in adopting modern energy sources in rural areas has been slow. The most direct health impact comes from household energy use among the poor, who depend almost entirely on burning biomass fuels in simple cooking devices that are placed in inadequately ventilated spaces. Prospective studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of biomass smoke on lung health among adults in rural areas.Geographic differences in asthma susceptibility exist around the world. The reason for the differences in asthma prevalence in rural and urban areas may be due to the fact that populations have different lifestyles and cultures, as well as different environmental exposures and different genetic backgrounds. Identifying geographic disparities in asthma hospitalizations is critical to implementing prevention strategies,reducing morbidity, and improving healthcare financing for clinical asthma treatment. Although evidence shows that differences in the prevalence of asthma do exist between urban and rural dwellers in many parts of the world, including in developed countries, data are inadequate to evaluate the extent to which different pollutant exposures contribute to asthma morbidity and severity of asthma between urban and rural areas. PMID:23625129

Jie, Yu; Isa, Zaleha Md; Jie, Xu; Ju, Zhang Long; Ismail, Noor Hassim



Demanding Affecting Factors Analysis for Personal Financial Management Business: An Empirical Approach Based on Factor Analysis Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the demanding affecting factors for financial management business by using factor analysis model and logistic regression through the data obtained from the survey questionnaires. It is found that the main factors that affecting financial management business are the special life cycle stages the residents are in and the external information environment for residents to purchase financial products.

Jianqiong Peng; Dehong Lu



Factors Affecting Perceptual Threshold in Argus II Retinal Prosthesis Subjects  

PubMed Central

Purpose The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis has been developed to provide partial restoration of vision to subjects blinded from outer retinal degenerative disease. Participants were surgically implanted with the system in the United States and Europe in a single arm, prospective, multicenter clinical trial. The purpose of this investigation was to determine which factors affect electrical thresholds in order to inform surgical placement of the device. Methods Electrode–retina and electrode–fovea distances were determined using SD-OCT and fundus photography, respectively. Perceptual threshold to electrical stimulation of electrodes was measured using custom developed software, in which current amplitude was varied until the threshold was found. Full field stimulus light threshold was measured using the Espion D-FST test. Relationships between electrical threshold and these three explanatory variables (electrode–retina distance, electrode–fovea distance, and monocular light threshold) were quantified using regression. Results Regression analysis showed a significant correlation between electrical threshold and electrode–retina distance (R2 = 0.50, P = 0.0002; n = 703 electrodes). 90.3% of electrodes in contact with the macula (n = 207) elicited percepts at charge densities less than 1 mC/cm2/phase. These threshold data also correlated well with ganglion cell density profile (P = 0.03). A weaker, but still significant, inverse correlation was found between light threshold and electrical threshold (R2 < 0.52, P = 0.01). Multivariate modeling indicated that electrode–retina distance and light threshold are highly predictive of electrode threshold (R2 = 0.87; P < 0.0005). Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that while light threshold should be used to inform patient selection, macular contact of the array is paramount. Translational Relevance Reported Argus II clinical study results are in good agreement with prior in vitro and in vivo studies, and support the development of higher-density systems that employ smaller diameter electrodes. ( identifier: NCT00407602) PMID:24049718

Ahuja, A. K.; Yeoh, J.; Dorn, J. D.; Caspi, A.; Wuyyuru, V.; McMahon, M. J.; Humayun, M. S.; Greenberg, R. J.; daCruz, L.



Analysis of factors that affect DQE in digital mammography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The international standard IEC 62220-1 about DQE measurement of digital X-ray equipment was published in 2003, but mammography systems aren"t applied to this IEC standard because the factor affect measurement is complicated. Especially, the influence to the pre-sampling MTF by edge method when X-ray beam is oblique to detector. The influence of nonuniformity of x-ray intensity by the heel effect on digital Wiener spectrum (WS) doesn"t become clear. A 0.1mm-thick tungsten edge was imaged in the position where X-ray beam was perpendicular to detector plane and in 6cm from chest wall, respectively. And the pre-sampling MTFs were obtained from these edge images. The calculation area of the digital WS within irradiation area was moved in parallel direction to X-ray tube axis, and the digital WS were calculated. The pre-sampling MTFs and the digital WS are calculated by the method based on the IEC proposal. We used MAMMOMAT3000(SIEMENS), MGU-100B(TOSHIBA), M-IV(LORAD) and Senographe DMR+(GE) as X-ray generator. Images were obtained by FCR PROFECT CS (Fujifilm medical). In all equipments and both arrangement directions of the edge test device, pre-sampling MTFs are almost the same, even if the arrangement places of the edge test device varied. In all equipments, when the calculation area was moved about 10cm, the digital WS of the anode side was higher 7.2-17.9% than those of the cathode side. It was found that the dose of anode side was lower about 20% than cathode side from the profile of an exposure image. We think that digital WS modified the nonuniformity of the dose by the heel effect is obtained by multiplying the digital WS by the compensation coefficient obtained by the dose profile, in low spatial frequency.

Takamura, Miho; Higaki, Akiko; Kodera, Yoshie



Dietary and environmental factors affecting skin strength in broiler chickens.  


Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dietary and environmental factors involved in skin tensile strength of commercial broilers. In Experiment 1 the effect of added dietary fat (4 or 7%), environmental temperature (25 or 20.5 C after 21 d), and anticoccidial drug (halofuginone or salinomycin fed continuously) were examined factorially using male and female chicks. Skin tensile strength was measured at 21, 35, and 40 d of age. Thickness of the dermal layers was measured from skin taken at Day 35. In Experiment 2, the effect of added dietary fat (0 or 7%), environmental temperature (25 or 18.5 C after 21 d), and anticoccidial drug (halofuginone or salinomycin) were examined factorially using female chicks. Skin strength and collagen content of the skin were measured at 21, 38, and 42 d of age. Skin tensile strength increased with age in both experiments, but female skin strength was subject to periodic decline. Males had significantly strong skin than females. Levels of added fat or environmental temperature did not affect skin strength in either experiment. Continuous feeding of halofuginone significantly (P < .0001) decreased skin strength compared with that of birds fed salinomycin in both experiments. Halofuginone reduced skin strength in females more than males (25 and 9%, respectively). Dermis thickness was correspondingly reduced in the birds consuming halofuginone. In Experiment 2, soluble collagen contents were reduced at all ages in birds consuming halofuginone; insoluble collagen was significantly decreased at 21 d of age. Birds with weakened skin exhibited increased incidence of skin tears during slaughter in a commercial processing plant (P < or = .0043). These results suggest that halofuginone interferes with collagen synthesis, causing decreased collagen formation and reduced skin strength. Neither added dietary fat nor ambient temperature were involved. PMID:8146070

Christensen, K D; Zimmermann, N G; Wyatt, C L; Goodman, T N; Buhr, R J; Twining, P



Hydrolysis of the chlorophosphazenes: cyclic trimer and linear polymer  

E-print Network

Products of the Chlorophosphazene Cyclic Trimer (t). . 30 2. P NMR Spectroscopic Properties of Hydrolyzed Poly(dichlorophosphazene). 46 LIST OP PIGURES FIGURE Page Selected P NMR spectra from a representative hydrolysis study using 1 eq of water... additional peaks tenatively associated with the hydrolyzed species cis-4, trans-4 and 5. Hydrolysis affected with 12 eq water, spectra obtained after 16 hours. 27 Mole fractions of various hydrolysis products of t vs time for a representative hydrolysis...

Gabler, Douglas G



Characterization of titanium dioxide: Factors affecting photocatalytic performance  

SciTech Connect

Titanium dioxide is being evaluated as a photocatalyst in the destruction of contaminants in aqueous waste streams. Commercial samples of TiO{sub 2} powder have been obtained for base line studies of the photocatalytic destruction of salicylic acid standards. These commercial samples have been prepared by flame hydrolysis and aerosol or spray pyrolysis. Additional samples of TiO{sub 2} have been prepared in house by precipitation from TiCl{sub 4} in aqueous solution, some with the addition of dopants. X-ray powder diffraction data analysis indicates the predominate phase of these commercial and prepared powders to be anatase. A minor amount of the rutile crystalline phase of TiO{sub 2} was observed at various levels in some of these catalysts. The broadness of the x-ray diffraction bands varied among the samples analyzed and indicated the primary particle size to be within the 500 to 1,000 angstrom range with the product produced in house having the smallest crystallite size. Experiments were then performed to assess the photocatalytic performance of these various types of catalyst in the destruction of 30 ppm salicylic acid in deionized water.

Presley, R.W. [New Mexico Highlands Univ., Las Vegas, NM (United States)



Literature Review of Cross-Cultural Factors Affecting Polygraph Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the results of a literary review of cultural factors which could influence the validity of polygraph examinations. Five general cultural factors were selected for study. For the purpose of this review, culture is defined by geographic...

R. E. Doll, J. G. Law, C. Piotrowski



Factors Affecting Characteristics, Composition, and Quality of Skimmilk Cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a comprehensive study of fac- tors affecting development of a skimmilk cheese are described. The study included variables relating to milk processing, ci~eese- making procedures, use of supplemental starters, milk treatment with animal and microbial enzymes, and the use of food additives, stabilizers, condiments, and fla- vor-enhancing substances. Flavor and tex- ture of experimental cheeses were markedly affected

R. E. Hargrove; F. E. McDonough; R. P. Tittsler




Microsoft Academic Search

Research studies in the past decade have shown that computer technology is an effective means for widening educational opportunities, but most teachers neither use technology as an instructional delivery system nor integrate technology into their curriculum. Studies reveal a number of factors influencing teachers' decisions to use ICT in the classroom: non-manipulative and manipulative school and teacher factors. These factors

Mojgan Afshari; Kamariah Abu Bakar; Wong Su Luan; Bahaman Abu Samah; Foo Say Fooi



Environmental Factors Affecting Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Have We Made Progress?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is only partially understood; various environmental and host (e.g. genetic, epithelial, immune, and nonimmune) factors are involved. The critical role for environmental factors is strongly supported by recent worldwide trends in IBD epidemiology. One important environmental factor is smoking. A meta-analysis partially confirms previous findings that smoking was found to be protective against

Peter Laszlo Lakatos



Calcite and Picocyanobacteria in Lakes: Factors Affecting Their Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcites build large deposits which have been observed in the rock record throughout geological time at various localities around the globe. Carbonate deposits have affected atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. As it has been generally accepted, inorganic precipitation represents a source of carbon dioxide on short geological time scales and a sink of inorganic carbon at long time scales from millions to thousands of millions years. However, recent research indicates that calcite deposits may result from microbial calcification instead of inorganic precipitation. In this case the process may reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide on geologically short time scales. Thus the effect of carbonate sediment deposition on global carbon cycling depends on the origin of carbonate. Thus it is essential to understand the cause and the key parameters affecting calcite precipitation. The role of algae and bacteria in calcite formation in lakes has not been evaluated in detail. Some evidence, however, exists supporting precipitation of calcium carbonate by microbes as the origin of whiting. Several field studies on lakes have also produced puzzling results: The peaks of algal blooms were often not found at the same time as precipitation events of calcite. We suspect that parts of the discrepancies in the interpretation of field observations are due to the activity of autotrophic picoplankton. The unicellular autotrophic picoplankton (APP) is a ubiquitous component of pelagic ecosystems. But it has often been overlooked due to its small cell size of 0.2 - 2 ? m in diameter. Coccoid picocyanobacteria of the Synechococcus-type dominate the picoplankton community in most oligotrophic systems. Recently, laboratory experiments and field observations suggested that APP may play an important role in calcite precipitation. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of environmental factors such as saturation state, concentration of different dissolved ions and characteristics of the surface of cells on interaction between calcite and picocyanobacteria under both laboratory and field conditions. Laboratory experiments were performed with a picocyanobacteria strain Synechococcus-type. Using ion selective electrodes we monitored calcite precipitation induced by bacteria in the solutions of a different composition (calcium 0.7 - 48 mM, inorganic carbonate 6 - 35 ? M). Electron and atomic force microscopy measurements provided insight into the cell-mineral interface. Furthermore, quantitative investigations of the types and densities of proton binding sites on a bacterial surface will be reported from the acid-base titrations on bacteria. Results of these initial experiments are encouraging and demonstrate by direct measurements the potential of picocyanobacteria to precipitate calcite. The amount of the precipitated calcite varied in experiments with a different ratio of dissolved inorganic carbon and calcium. The microscopic observations provide some evidence that the cell walls of cyanobacteria act as a substrate of nucleation of calcite. Temporal and spatial correlations of cyanobacteria and calcite, as well as images of bacterial shape particles indicated that picoplankton plays an important role in calcite precipitation in Lake Lucerne. This class of phytoplankton has to be considered in studying the biogeochemical cycling of oligotrophic hardwater lakes.

Dittrich, M.; Obst, M.; Mavrocordatos, D.



Factors affecting the solubility of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals.  

PubMed Central

The solubility of triclinic calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals was measured under varying conditions using 45Ca-labeled crystals, expressing solubility as micromoles per liter of 45Ca in solution. In a 0.1-M Tris-HC1 buffer pH 7.4, the solubility of accurately sized CPPD crystals (37-20mum) was 60muM with maximal solubility being attained after about 8 h incubation at 37degreeC. Reduction in crystal size, decrease in pH, increase in ionic strength, Mg++, citrate, and albumin all increased solubility. The most marked effects on solubility occurred when changing the calcium concentration or by enzymatic hydrolysis of inoganic pyrophosphate to orthophosphate. It was found that decreasing the ionized calcium level below 5 mg/100 ml resulted in a progressive enhancement of solubility. The observed solubility-enhancing effects of albumin could be explained solely on its calcium-binding ability and thereby, altered ionized calcium level. Diffusible calcium in synovial fluid was only 40% of the total calcium concentration, which means most joint fluids are normally near the critical concentration of 5 mg/100 ml of ionized calcium, below which solubility is enhanced. During surgery, especially parathyroidectomy, calcium levels fall, favoring dissolution of CPPD crystals. We speculate that the slight decrease in crystal size during dissolution frees them from their cartilaginous mold, resulting in a dose-dependent inflammatory reaction as they are "shed" into the joint space. Crystal shedding may be reinforced by the modest fall in joint fluid pH accompanying the inflammatory response. PMID:423

Bennett, R M; Lehr, J R; McCarty, D J



Factors Affecting Plant Absorption, Transport and Fate of Plutonium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study determined the extent to which several agricultural plants control plutonium (Pu) uptake and provides a general understanding of the fate and behavior of Pu in plants after absorption. Investigations were directed toward variables affecting the...

T. R. Garland, D. A. Cataldo, K. M. McFadden, R. E. Wildung



Utility & Regulatory Factors Affecting Cogeneration & Independent Power Plant Design & Operation  

E-print Network

considerations which could significantly affect the plant definition and, as a result, its attendant business and financing structure. Finally, suggestions are also made for facilitating the process of integration with the electric utility. INTRODUCTION... be seen from the recently encountered examples in Table I, many utility or regulatory preferences can have a significant affect on both conceptual and detailed plant design. In some instances, -they can even change the entire basic definition...

Felak, R. P.


Dietary factors that affect the bioavailability of carotenoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotenoids are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of increased vegetable consumption. Various dietary factors have an effect on the bioavailability of carotenoids. The type of food matrix in which carotenoids are located is a major factor. The bioavailability of ß-carotene from vegetables in particular has been shown to be low (14?rom mixed vegetables) compared with that of purified

Hof van het K. H; C. E. West; J. A. Weststrate; J. G. A. J. Hautvast



Factors Affecting Survival of Bacteriophage on Tomato Leaf Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of bacteriophage to persist in the phyllosphere for extended periods is limited by many factors, including sunlight irradiation, especially in the UV zone, temperature, desiccation, and exposure to copper bactericides. The effects of these factors on persistence of phage and formulated phage (phage mixed with skim milk) were evaluated. In field studies, copper caused significant phage reduction if

F. B. Iriarte; B. Balogh; M. T. Momol; L. M. Smith; M. Wilson; J. B. Jones



Cognitive Factors Affecting Student Understanding of Geologic Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a model that describes how students reconstruct geological transformations over time. Defines the critical factors influencing reconstructive thinking: (1) the transformation scheme, which influences the other diachronic schemes; (2) knowledge of geological processes; and (3) extracognitive factors. (Author/KHR)

Dodick, Jeff; Orion, Nir



Factors That Affect Academic Performance Among Pharmacy Students  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to examine factors such as academic competence, test competence, time management, strategic studying, and test anxiety, and identify whether these factors could distinguish differences among students, based on academic performance and enrollment in the experiential program. Methods A cross-sectional study design utilizing questionnaires measuring previously validated constructs was used to evaluate the effect of these factors on students with low and high cumulative grade point averages (GPAs). Pharmacy students (N = 198) enrolled at the University of Houston participated in the study. Results Academic performance was significantly associated with factors such as academic competence and test competence. Students with a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or greater significantly differed in their level of test competence than those with a GPA of less than 3.0. Students enrolled in their experiential year differed from students enrolled in their second year of curriculum on factors such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, and time management skills. Conclusion Test competence was an important factor to distinguish students with low vs. high academic performance. Factors such as academic competence, test competence, test anxiety and time management improve as students' progress in their experiential year. PMID:17149433

Sansgiry, Sujit S.; Bhosle, Monali; Sail, Kavita



Early career development in the sport industry: factors affecting employment  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study is to identify the processes and factors contributing to employment in the sport industry. In order to completely address the sport industry as a whole, sport management has been pragmatically divided into five sub...

Hutchinson, Michael Daniel



Factors affecting minority population proximity to hazardous facilities  

SciTech Connect

Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range of facility types and explores the effects of urban and income factors. A statistically significant inverse relationship is found between the percentage of non-Hispanic Whites and virtually all facility categories in all regions. Except for Hispanics in the South, all such associations for minority groups show a direct relationship, though some are nonsignificant. The geographic concentration of facilities is more closely tied to urbanization than to economic factors. Controlling for both urban and economic factors, minority population concentration is still a significant explanatory variable for some facility types in some regions. This finding is most consistent for African-Americans.

Nieves, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nieves, A.L. [Wheaton Coll., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)



Factors affecting fruit and seed production in Dactylorhiza maculata (Orchidaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been argued that some of resources needed for fruit and seed production in terrestrial orchids originate from storage in underground biomass. Resources for female reproductive traits may also originate from current photosynthesis. Orchid mycorrhiza may also influence fruit and seed production. The extent to which current photosynthetic activity and nutrient uptake via mycorrhizal fungi affect fruit and seed




Social cognition in schizophrenia: Cognitive and affective factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Social cognition refers to how people conceive, perceive, and draw inferences about mental and emotional states of others in the social world. Previous studies suggest that the concept of social cognition involves several abilities, including those related to affect and cognition. The present study analyses the deficits of individuals with schizophrenia in two areas of social cognition: Theory of

Ido Ziv; David Leiser; Joseph Levine



Factors affecting employee knowledge acquisition and application capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to analyze the influences of organizational context and information technology (IT) applications on employees' perceptions of knowledge acquisition and application capabilities in five public and five private sector organizations in South Korea. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper analyzes how employees' perceptions of organizational context and IT affect employee knowledge acquisition and application capabilities in five public

Soonhee Kim; Hyangsoo Lee



Factors Affecting Science Teaching Efficacy of Preservice Elementary Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preservice elementary teachers entering the specialized coursework designed to prepare them for science teaching responsibilities have a broad range of efficacy beliefs about their success as future science teachers. As they progress through science methods and practicum courses, and on to complete their student teaching, their efficacy beliefs may change. Knowing the variables that affect the development of positive efficacy

Pamela Cantrell; Suzanne Young; Alan Moore



Beyond Random AssignmentFactors Affecting Evaluation Integrity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article draws on the experience gained from conducting a true experiment in the criminal justice field to discuss practical problems in maintaining the integrity of evaluation studies. Issues revolving around budgeting, randomization, data collectors, interview payments, and evaluation of black box treatments are addressed. While these nontechnical aspects of evaluation can significantly affect the validity and meaningfulness of research

Eva Lantos Rezmovic; Thomas J. Cook; L. Douglas Dobson



Factors Affecting Sea Lamprey Egg Survival STEPHEN J. SMITH  

E-print Network

is a nuisance parasitic fish in Lake Champlain that negatively affects important sport fish populations lamprey abundance (Marsden et al. 2003). Lake Champlain is 193 km long, has a maximum width of 19 km nontarget mortality in regularly treated tributaries. A population model of sea lampreys in Lake Champlain

Marsden, Ellen


External Factors Affecting Gifted Girls' Academic and Career Achievements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the unique position that teachers have for observing the environmental influences affecting the career choices of gifted girls. It suggests ways for teachers to educate parents on the family's role in education and career achievement and to create an educational environment that promotes the development of talent. (Contains…

Nelson, Mary Ann; Smith, Stephen W.



Factors affecting quality of life in postmenopausal women, Isfahan, 2011  

PubMed Central

Context: Various studies have shown that quality of life in women after menopause undergoes radical changes. Several factors such as psycho-social factors are associated with the quality of life during menopausal period. Aims: The present study surveyed the factors associated with quality of life of postmenopausal women in Isfahan, based on Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted through stratified random sampling among 200 healthy postmenopausal women in Isfahan in 2011. Subjects and Methods: Data were collected by two valid and reliable questionnaires (one to assess the quality of life and the other to survey the factors associated with the Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model). Data analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 18) and analytical and descriptive statistics. Results: Pearson correlation indicated a positive and significant correlation between the quality of life and attitude toward menopause, perceived self-efficacy, and enabling and reinforcing factors, but there was no significant relationship between the quality of life and knowledge about menopause. Also, the quality of life in postmenopausal women had significant correlation with their age, education level, marital status, and employment status. Conclusion: Based on the present study, attitude, perceived self-efficacy, perceived social support, and enabling factors are associated with the quality of life in postmenopausal women. So, attention to these issues is essential for better health planning of women. PMID:24520556

Norozi, Ensiyeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hasanzadeh, Akbar; Moodi, Mitra; Sharifirad, Gholamreza



Multiscale Factors Affecting Human Attitudes toward Snow Leopards and Wolves.  


The threat posed by large carnivores to livestock and humans makes peaceful coexistence between them difficult. Effective implementation of conservation laws and policies depends on the attitudes of local residents toward the target species. There are many known correlates of human attitudes toward carnivores, but they have only been assessed at the scale of the individual. Because human societies are organized hierarchically, attitudes are presumably influenced by different factors at different scales of social organization, but this scale dependence has not been examined. We used structured interview surveys to quantitatively assess the attitudes of a Buddhist pastoral community toward snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis lupus). We interviewed 381 individuals from 24 villages within 6 study sites across the high-elevation Spiti Valley in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. We gathered information on key explanatory variables that together captured variation in individual and village-level socioeconomic factors. We used hierarchical linear models to examine how the effect of these factors on human attitudes changed with the scale of analysis from the individual to the community. Factors significant at the individual level were gender, education, and age of the respondent (for wolves and snow leopards), number of income sources in the family (wolves), agricultural production, and large-bodied livestock holdings (snow leopards). At the community level, the significant factors included the number of smaller-bodied herded livestock killed by wolves and mean agricultural production (wolves) and village size and large livestock holdings (snow leopards). Our results show that scaling up from the individual to higher levels of social organization can highlight important factors that influence attitudes of people toward wildlife and toward formal conservation efforts in general. Such scale-specific information can help managers apply conservation measures at appropriate scales. Our results reiterate the need for conflict management programs to be multipronged. Factores Multi-Escala que Afectan las Actitudes Humanas hacia Leopardos de las Nieves y Lobos. PMID:25039397

Suryawanshi, Kulbhushansingh R; Bhatia, Saloni; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Redpath, Stephen; Mishra, Charudutt




EPA Science Inventory

This paper summarizes an ongoing examination of the primary factors that affect sensitivity of marine embayment responses to nitrogen loading. Included is a discussion of two methods for using these factors: classification of embayments into discrete sensitivity classes and norma...


Factors affecting gene delivery by particle bombardment of Dendrobium orchids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Five parameters were examined for their effect on transformation ofDendrobium tissues by microprojectile bombardment. The superpromoter in pBI426 produced at least 1.5 times as many transient transformants\\u000a as the single cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in pBI121 (37 to 69% vs. 0 to 44%) with dark and frequent GUS (?-glucuronidase) staining. Tissue, genotype, and type of microparticle significantly affected transient

Guo-Ling Nan; Adelheid R. Kuehnle



Metallurgical factors affecting fracture toughness of aluminum alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crack extension in commercial aluminum alloys proceeds by the “ductile” or fibrous mode. The process involves the large, ~1\\u000a ?m to ~10?m, Fe-, Si-, and Cu-bearing inclusions which break easily, and the growth of voids at the cracked particles. The\\u000a linking-up of the voids is accomplished by the rupture of the intervening ligaments, and this is affected by the fine,

G. T. Hahn; A. R. Rosenfield



Investigation on latent factors affecting route diversion intentions  

SciTech Connect

Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) have the potential to mitigate freeway congestion. The success of ATIS depends to a great extent on understanding drivers` route switching behavior. This route diversion behavior is a complex process that depends on situational constraints, socioeconomic characteristics of motorists, and latent individual characteristics. Three latent factors, namely risk acceptance, trust in traffic information provided, and expectation level of quality of information provided, were identified in this study. These latent factors, as well as socioeconomic characteristics and situational constraints, were incorporated in a binary logit model of stated route diversion intentions. It is observed that the latent factors were statistically significant explanatory variables of the drivers` stated route diversion intentions.

Pal, R. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Civil Engineering



The factors affecting effectiveness of treatment in phages therapy  

PubMed Central

In recent years, the use of lytic bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents controlling pathogenic bacteria has appeared as a promising new alternative strategy in the face of growing antibiotic resistance which has caused problems in many fields including medicine, veterinary medicine, and aquaculture. The use of bacteriophages has numerous advantages over traditional antimicrobials. The effectiveness of phage applications in fighting against pathogenic bacteria depends on several factors such as the bacteriophages/target bacteria ratio, the mode and moment of treatment, environmental conditions (pH, temperature...), the neutralization of phage and accessibility to target bacteria, amongst others. This report presents these factors and the challenges involved in developing phage therapy applications. PMID:24600439

Ly-Chatain, Mai Huong



Investigating Factors that Affect Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes activities that demonstrate the effects of factors such as wind velocity, water temperature, convection currents, intensity of light, rate of photosynthesis, atmospheric pressure, humidity, numbers of decomposers, presence of oxidizable ions, and respiration by plants and animals on the dissolved oxygen concentration in water. (MA)

Jantzen, Paul G.



Historic Factors Affecting Educational Administration in Korean Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An official of the Korean Education Department Institute analyzes the effect of historic factors on current educational administration in Korea. He suggests that Confucianism, Shinto-Confucianism, Christianity, and Western ideas mainly dominate current Korean educational administration's organizational structure, culture, and leadership, while…

Lee, Jeong-Kyu



Factors that Affect Nontraditional Vocational Enrollment among Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocational training program females (N=470) completed a questionnaire assessing the role of personality and social support factors in nontraditional training enrollment. Results revealed differences in the amount of support and encouragement received from others, with nontraditional students receiving more support from female friends, family…

Houser, Betsy Bosak; Garvey, Chris



Factors Affecting the Misperception of Friendliness Cues in Initial Interactions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some researchers have found men to attribute more sexual meaning to heterosexual interactions than do women. This study was conducted to examine factors which may enhance or diminish this gender difference on perceptions of sexual intent by considering the three variables of physical attractiveness of target, similarity of target's personality to…

Harnish, Richard J.; And Others


Factors Affecting Growth and Pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elu- cidate factors contributing to yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experi- ment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg and the trace metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn on yellow

K. I. Suhr; I. Haasum; L. D. Steenstrup; T. O. Larsen



Factors That Affect Initial Enrollment of Working Adult, Graduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What factors lead working adults to initially enroll in graduate programs? Is the undergraduate degree no longer enough to sustain a rewarding career? Little is known as to why this segment of graduate students are building careers and pursuing advanced degrees simultaneously. Traditional institutions of higher learning have primarily focused on…

Adrignola, Matt Nolan



Factors Affecting Horseshoe Crab Limulus polyphemus Trawl Survey Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently a lack of abundance information for effectively managing horseshoe crabs Limulus polyphemus. A trawl survey program that specifically targets horseshoe crabs would provide that information. We conducted a study to examine the factors that would influence the trawl survey design. Depth, topography, and time of day were examined as potential survey design influences. Horseshoe crab catches were

David Hata; Jim Berkson



Factors Affecting Recreation Preferences and Expectations of Disabled Adult Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Generalizing recreation services, one of the essential well-being sources of disabled persons who experience deprivation in many dimensions of life and which fulfill their learning needs, is a social responsibility. The present study aims to determine factors effective on recreation preferences and expectations of the disabled individuals who…

Arslan, Sibel




Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which individual factors influence the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices is estimated using a logit model and data from a 1990 survey of West Virginia producers. The results are, as expected, different than those for conventional agricultural technologies. For example, the effects of human capital characteristics are significant, while those for structural and institutional characteristics are not.

Gerard E. DSouza; Douglas Cyphers; Tim T. Phipps



Guiding Teacher Development towards STL Teaching: Identifying Factors Affecting Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the effectiveness of an intervention training and draws attention to the most important factors to be considered in developing inservice programs for the promotion of Science and Technological Literacy (STL) teaching skills. Concludes that teachers who acknowledged the need for teaching social skills in conjunction with science concepts…

Ranniknae, Miia



Factors Affecting the Future Enrollment of Students in Vocational Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine how to reverse the downward trend in high school vocational agriculture enrollments in Iowa. The study sought to describe student perception of the agriculture program and what factors are involved in this perception; the length and names of the curriculum offerings within the agriculture department and how they…

Doese, Ellen Kae; Miller, W. Wade


Factors Affecting Social Workers' Inclusion of Animals in Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors

Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E.; Kawam, Elisa



Factors Affecting the Success of Hmong College Students in America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores barriers and success factors of Hmong students in American colleges by interviewing five Hmong graduate students from refugee families in the US. Emerging themes revolve around academic, cultural and financial barriers. Professors, advisors, classmates, academic support programmes, family, financial aid and their own…

Xiong, Soua; Lam, Sarah K. Y.




Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the effects of microhabitat, year, weather, time of season, stage of the nesting cycle, and brood parasitism on nest predation from a 7-year dataset on field sparrows (Spizella pusilla) and indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea) in-central Missouri, USA. Year, site, and the interaction of species and 2-week interval of the sea- son were important factors explaining nest predation. The



Whether space weather factors affect the occurrence of aviation accidents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on a statistical analysis of the database of the US National Transportation Safety Board, we show that space weather factors have no effect on aviation occurrences. We consider typical logical and methodological errors arising in this type of studies and bring facts to show the futility of further research regarding this problem.

Lyakhov, A. N.; Kozlov, S. L.



A Quantitative Assessment of Factors Affecting College Sports' Team Unity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The competitiveness of National Collegiate Association (NCAA) schools increases in intensity each year. With the increased pressure on college sport staffs to be undefeated season after season, coaches have to find ways to keep players happy; to do this, they have to find factors that contribute to unify the players. It is nearly impossible to…

Aghazadeh, Seyed-Mahmoud; Kyei, Kwasi



Factors affecting livestock predation by lions in Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interviews were carried out in six villages south-west of Waza National Park, Cameroon, to investigate the impact of factors related to the occurrence of livestock raiding by lions. Data were analysed at the village and individual level. Livestock losses (cattle, sheep and\\/or goats) caused by lions differed between villages, ranging from eight to 232 animals per village per year, or

L. Van Bommel; M. D. Bij de Vaate; W. F. De Boer; H. H. De Iongh



School-Related Factors Affecting High School Seniors' Methamphetamine Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future survey were used to examine relationships between school-related factors and high school seniors' lifetime methamphetamine use. The study applied logistic regression techniques to evaluate effects of social bonding variables and social learning variables on likelihood of lifetime methamphetamine use. The…

Stanley, Jarrod M.; Lo, Celia C.



Factors Affecting Habitat Use by Appalachian Ruffed Grouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

A goal of many resource selection studies is to identify those habitats selected by a species. However, favorability of a particular habitat feature is likely contingent on such factors as landscape composition, predation risk, and an individual's resource needs. Thus, habitat selection may vary depending on context, and identifying causes of variability in habitat use could increase our understanding of




Environmental factors that can affect sleep and breathing: allergies.  


Allergic rhinitis and associated symptomatic nasal obstruction negatively affect sleep through a variety of mechanisms and may contribute to persistent symptoms and poor adherence with medical device therapy for sleep apnea. A history of sinonasal symptoms, particularly those that occur at night or in the supine position, is the cornerstone of the medical evaluation. Further research into the relationship between allergic rhinitis and sleep disturbance would benefit from improved anatomic and pathophysiologic phenotyping as well as more advanced outcome measures such as spectral electroencephalogram analysis or other polysomnography variables beyond the apnea-hypopnea index. PMID:25156773

Kent, David T; Soose, Ryan J



Factors Affecting Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Rice Agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments have shown that a few factors control the emissions of methane from rice fields. Among the most significant factors are water management and soil amendments. Continuous flooding and organic fertilizers result in the highest emissions of methane while intermittent flooding and use of nitrogen fertilizers produce more nitrous oxide. We measured fluxes of methane and nitrous oxide from tubs planted with rice grown in a greenhouse at Portland State University. We used classical factorial experimental design to calculate interactions between water management, nitrogen fertilizer application, and organic matter (chopped rice straw) for emission of methane and nitrous oxide. We will discuss the results of three years of experiments. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), US Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02- 04ER63913.

Shearer, M. J.; Xiong, Z.; Khalil, M. K.



Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs  

SciTech Connect

A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students dropouts'' whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

Pelham, J.



Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs  

SciTech Connect

A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students ``dropouts`` whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

Pelham, J.



Animal factors affecting the meat quality of Australian lamb meat.  


This paper integrates the key industry findings from the twelve preceding papers in this special edition of Meat science. In so doing, various animal factors important for the quality of Australian lamb meat are highlighted for sensory, visual appeal and human health attributes. Intramuscular fat concentration (IMF) was found to be a key element of eating quality that interacts both positively and negatively with a range of other factors. Shear force, IMF, colour stability and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) will likely respond to genetic selection whilst other omega-3 fatty acids require nutritional intervention. Australian lamb meat can generally be regarded as a good source of the minerals iron and zinc; and a source of omega 3 fatty acids when finished on green pasture. Breeding priorities for meat quality will likely depend on breed type with improvement of meat colour stability more important for the wool focused Merino breed and improvement of sensory quality for the terminal sire breeds. PMID:24268675

Jacob, R H; Pethick, D W




PubMed Central

Evidence suggests that social and economic factors are important determinants of health. Yet, despite higher poverty rates, less education, and worse access to health care, health outcomes of many Hispanics living in the United States today are equal to, or better than, those of non-Hispanic whites. This paradox is described in the literature as the epidemiological paradox or Hispanic health paradox. In this paper, the authors selectively review data and research supporting the existence of the epidemiological paradox. They find substantial support for the existence of the epidemiological paradox, particularly among Mexican Americans. Census undercounts of Hispanics, misclassification of Hispanic deaths, and emigration of Hispanics do not fully account for the epidemiological paradox. Identifying protective factors underlying the epidemiological paradox, while improving access to care and the economic conditions among Hispanics, are important research and policy implications of this review. PMID:12407964




What Factors Affect Macroinvertebrate Life in Big Darby Creek?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Darby Creek watershed encompasses an area of approximately 550 square miles in central Ohio. The Big and Little Darby Creeks are well known for their vast diversity and abundance of aquatic and terrestrial plants and animals. They are home to eighty-six species of fish, five of which are endangered. Forty-one species of freshwater mollusks live in these waters, eight of which are on the Ohio endangered list. In this lesson, students will identify trends and make predictions about the possible influence of climatic factors and vegetative growth on macroinvertebrates. Using three different sets of scientific data from an internet database (Live Access Server), they will generate and interpret line graphs. They will compare the graphs to identify correlations among factors investigated and make a prediction based on patterns in the data.


A biomechanical review of factors affecting rowing performance.  


This review analyses rowing by linking the biological and mechanical systems that comprise the rowing system. Blade force was found to be the only propulsive force to counter the drag forces, consisting of both air drag and hydrodynamic drag, acting on the system. Vertical oscillations of the shell are shown to have minimal impact on system dynamics. The oar acts as the link between the force generated by the rower and the blade force and transmits this force to the rowing shell through the oarlock. Blade dynamics consist of both lift and drag mechanisms. The force on the oar handle is the result of a phased muscular activation of the rower. Oar handle force and movement are affected by the joint strength and torque-velocity characteristics of the rower. Maximising sustainable power requires a matching of the rigging setup and blade design to the rower's joint torque-velocity characteristics. Coordination and synchrony between rowers in a multiple rower shell affects overall system velocity. Force-time profiles should be better understood to identify specific components of a rower's biomechanics that can be modified to achieve greater force generation. PMID:12453833

Baudouin, A; Hawkins, D



Work-family programs: factors affecting employee knowledge and accuracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to analyze the factors contributing to employee professed knowledge of work-family practices offered by employers and the accuracy of their knowledge. Designed\\/methodology\\/approach – Survey data from four studies (ns=276, 2,877, 2,810, and 310) were used to relate employee demographics to their professed knowledge regarding the availability from their employing organizations of work-family practices. For a

David J. Prottas; Cynthia A. Thompson; Richard E. Kopelman; Eileen W. Jahn



Factors affecting attitudinal patterns toward education in the Dominican Republic  

E-print Network

The general objective of this thesis was to determine the attitude toward education of people in the Dominican Republic. Subsequent objectives included establishing the effect the following factors might have in relation to attitude toward education: age.... Narrowing the focus even further led to the problem centered around how the Dominican people think, feel, and react toward education, in other words, attitude toward education. There were 380 interviews conducted by trained interviewers in the northern...

Carpenter, Edwin Hugh



Agricultural factors affecting Verticillium wilt in olive orchards in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the spread of Verticillium wilt in olive orchards, caused by the soil-borne pathogen Verticillium dahliae, is often related to intensive modern farming of highly productive cultivars, planted at high densities, usually irrigated,\\u000a and under a mechanised system. The effects of agricultural factors associated with olive orchards were investigated in an\\u000a important olive-growing area in southern Spain, as

E. Rodríguez; J. M. García-garrido; P. A. García; M. Campos



Factors Affecting the Toxicity of Methylmercury Injected into Eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a standardized protocol for comparing the sensitivities of the embryos of different bird species to methylmercury\\u000a when methylmercury was injected into their eggs. During the course of developing this protocol, we investigated the effects\\u000a of various factors on the toxicity of the injected methylmercury. Most of our experiments were done with chicken (Gallus domesticus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and

G. H. Heinz; D. J. Hoffman; S. L. Kondrad; C. A. Erwin



Israeli women entrepreneurs: An examination of factors affecting performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines individual factors influencing performance of 200 Israeli women-owned businesses. Whereas research on women entrepreneurs is extensive in developed countries, especially in the United States and Europe, there are comparatively few studies of performance of women-owned businesses in non-OECD countries. There is evidence that social structures (work, family, and organized social life) vary among developed and developing countries

Robert Hisrich; Candida Brush



Factors affecting nurses’ decision to get the flu vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to identify factors that influence the decision whether or not to get the influenza (flu)\\u000a vaccine among nurses in Israel by using the health belief model (HBM). A questionnaire distributed among 299 nurses in Israel\\u000a in winter 2005\\/2006 included (1) socio-demographic information; (2) variables based on the HBM, including susceptibility,\\u000a seriousness, benefits, barriers and

Shosh Shahrabani; Uri Benzion; Gregory Yom Din



Faculty self-actualization: Factors affecting career success  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined the degree of relationship between four personal factors related to faculty growth and development, two environmental indices, and career success and satisfaction. Maslow's notion of self-actualization guided the construction of the personal indices of self-democraticness, support, tolerance, and trust; McGregor and Likert provided the theoretical bases for the environmental indices. The data came from the American Council

Robert C. Cares; Robert T. Blackburn



Factors affecting statistical power in the detection of genetic association  

PubMed Central

The mapping of disease genes to specific loci has received a great deal of attention in the last decade, and many advances in therapeutics have resulted. Here we review family-based and population-based methods for association analysis. We define the factors that determine statistical power and show how study design and analysis should be designed to maximize the probability of localizing disease genes. PMID:15931375

Gordon, Derek; Finch, Stephen J.



Environmental factors affecting song control and song perception in songbirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In songbirds, the differentiation of song and the song control system in the brain is mediated by the action of gonadal steroid\\u000a hormones that are influenced by environmental factors such as day length, food availability, and social relationships. In\\u000a particular, the Canary (Serinus canaria) and the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) have become widely used animal models to study these brain

Stefan Leitner



Looking good: factors affecting the likelihood of having cosmetic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined various factors associated with the likelihood of having cosmetic surgery in a community sample\\u000a of Austrian participants. One-hundred and sixty-eight women and 151 men completed a questionnaire measuring how likely they\\u000a were to consider common cosmetic procedures. The results showed that women were more likely than men to consider most cosmetic\\u000a procedures. Path analysis revealed that

Viren Swami; Adriane Arteche; Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic; Adrian Furnham; Stefan Stieger; Tanja Haubner; Martin Voracek



Factors affecting the species composition of arable field boundary vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. In recent decades the botanical diversity of arable field boundaries has declined drastically. To determine the most important factors related to the species composition of arable field boundaries, the vegetation composition of 105 herbaceous boundaries, 1-m wide, in the central and eastern Netherlands was surveyed. Biomass samples of the boundary were taken at 0-33, 34-66 and 67-100 cm from

David Kleijn; Marein Verbeek



Factors affecting weaning weights of Santa Gertrudis calves  

E-print Network

for diverse breed types. Age of dam correction factors specifically for Santa Gertrudis cattle were developed and have been generally accepted for use within the breed. However, no subsequent studies have been made to examine the appropriateness... there was evidence of disproportionate representation of sires brought about by biased matings of certain sires to specific age of dam groups. 21 TABLE 3. EFFECTS AND LEVELS CONSIDERED IN THE LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS FOR BULLS Effect 1966 1967 1968 1969 Total...

Farris, James Willis



Factors Affecting Antigen Uptake by Human Intestinal Epithelial Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the role of size, solubility, and prophagocytic cytokines interferon-? (IFN-?), and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulatory factor (GM-CSF) in antigen uptake and kinetics by intestinal epithelial cells using keyhole limpet hemocyanin and ovalbumin. Both fluoresceinated keyhole limpet hemocyanin (3000–7500 kDa) and fluoresceinated ovalbumin (45 kDa) were internalized by human colonic epithelial cell lines, with kinetics similar to those of fluoresceinated

AgnesLaiping So; Gillian Small; Kirk Sperber; Kai Becker; Erwin Oei; Max Tyorkin; Lloyd Mayer



Factors affecting colony attendance by Ancient Murrelets (Synthliboramphus antiquus) IANL. JONES'  

E-print Network

Factors affecting colony attendance by Ancient Murrelets (Synthliboramphus antiquus) IANL. JONES., and FALLS,J. B. 1990. Factors affecting colony attendance by Ancient Murrelets (Synthliboram- phus antiquus- phus antiquus). Can. J. Zool. 68 : 433-441. Nous avons CtudiC les facteurs de variation de I

Jones, Ian L.


Factors Affecting the Production of Vietnamese Tones: A Study of American Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates factors that affect the accuracy of tone production by American students of Vietnamese as a second language (L2). Nine hypotheses are examined, each of which isolates a factor expected to affect production accuracy: (a) task type, (b) the position of a tone in a clause, (c) discourse distance between a model provided by a…

Nguyen, Hanh thi; Macken, Marlys A.




E-print Network


McMaster University


Factors affecting the Distribution of Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) Loans across Household Income Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the paper is to understand the soci-economic factors affecting the distribution of community reinvestment act loans across four income groups using county level information from 1996-2004 for the delta region. The specific objectives of the paper 1) Estimate an seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) to examine the factors affecting the distribution of loan across income groups 2) Prior

Rachael M. Carter; Saleem Shaik; Alan Barefield



Factors Affecting Diurnal Activity of Fishers in North-Central British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mustelids, with their long, thin bodies and poor fat storage capabilities, perform an energetic balancing act when making decisions about energy expenditure. Activity rates provide vital insights into the factors that may affect these energy balances. Using radiotelemetry, we examined factors that affected the likelihood of diurnal activity of fishers (Martes pennanti) in north-central British Columbia, Canada. We assessed the

Richard D. Weir; Fraser B. Corbould



Factors That Affect the Academic Success of Foreign Students at Cardinal Stritch University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are limited studies in the literature on the factors that affect the academic success of foreign students in the United States. This ex post facto mixed method study investigated the factors that affect the academic success of foreign students at Cardinal Stitch University (CSU), a medium size, private university located in the Midwestern…

Annor, Peter



Hydrostatic factors affect the gravity responses of algae and roots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hypothesis of Wayne et al. (1990) that plant cells perceive gravity by sensing a pressure differential between the top and the bottom of the cell was tested by subjecting rice roots and cells of Caracean algae to external solutions of various densities. It was found that increasing the density of the external medium had a profound effect on the polar ratio (PR, the ratio between velocities of the downwardly and upwardly streaming cytoplasm) of the Caracean algae cells. When these cells were placed in solutions of denser compound, the PR decreased to less than 1, as the density of the external medium became higher than that of the cell; thus, the normal gravity-induced polarity was reversed, indicating that the osmotic pressure of the medium affects the cell's ability to respond to gravity. In rice roots, an increase of the density of the solution inhibited the rate of gravitropism. These results agree with predictions of a hydrostatic model for graviperception.

Staves, Mark P.; Wayne, Randy; Leopold, A. C.



Factors affecting intellectual outcome in pediatric brain tumor patients  

SciTech Connect

A prospective study utilizing repeated intellectual testing was undertaken in 73 children with brain tumors consecutively admitted to Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles over a 3-year period to determine the effect of tumor location, extent of surgical resection, hydrocephalus, age of the child, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy on cognitive outcome. Forty-three patients were followed for at least two sequential intellectual assessments and provide the data for this study. Children with hemispheric tumors had the most general cognitive impairment. The degree of tumor resection, adequately treated hydrocephalus, and chemotherapy had no bearing on intellectual outcome. Age of the child affected outcome mainly as it related to radiation. Whole brain radiation therapy was associated with cognitive decline. This was especially true in children below 7 years of age, who experienced a very significant loss of function after whole brain radiation therapy.

Ellenberg, L.; McComb, J.G.; Siegel, S.E.; Stowe, S.



Factors affecting the retirement of commercial transport jet aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The historical background of the technology and economics of aircraft replacement and retirement in the prejet era is reviewed in order to determine whether useful insights can be obtained applicable to the jet era. Significant differences between the two periods are noted. New factors are identified and examined. Topics discussed include concern over current policies regarding deregulation, regulatory reform, and retroactive noise regulations; financing and compliance legislation; aging; economic environment and inflation; technological progress; fuel efficiency and cost; and a financial perspective of replacement decisions.

Spencer, F. A.



Factors affecting computer-mediated instruction in medical education.  


Although computer technology has progressed rapidly in the last decade, the use of computer mediated instruction as an adjunct to medical education has made only limited progress. This paper will attempt to analyze some of the major factors bearing on this limitation will review those areas where computer based instruction is potentially of greatest use, and will suggest means by which medical education can make greater use of the rapidly evolving information technologies. The Medical PLATO project at the University of Illinois will be used as an example to illustrate many of the points relating to the development of this field. PMID:2695775

Levy, A H



Factors Affecting Price Differences of Cattle in the Southwest.  

E-print Network

determined. The estimates shr be useful as basic information for other rese---l .. extension projects. Regression equations were utilized to esti extent to which selected factors contribute to the , variation of feeder and slaughter cattle in the Sc... difference due to grades '0: slaughter cattle was about $1.50 per 100 pounds r' Choice over Good steers and about $1.30 for Choice 1 ' ' r7:r Good heifers. Price difference due to vary- -: neights for the same grade was small; for example, -:Ice...

James, J. B.; Farris, D. E.



Cellulase hydrolysis of unsorted MSW.  


A recent development in waste management and engineering has shown that the cellulase can be used for the liquefaction of organic fractions in household waste. The focus of this study was to optimize the enzyme hydrolysis of thermally treated municipal solid waste (MSW) by the addition of surfactant. Concurrently, the enzyme performance was analysed on pure cellulose in a solution of MSW wastewater. Results showed no effect of surfactant addition to the hydrolysis media as measured by viscosity and particle size distribution. MSW treatment wastewater was found to contain a high amount of calcium, potassium, sodium, chloride and others that may affect cellulolytic enzymes. Cellulase performance showed no effect of adding the metal ion-chelating agent EDTA to the solution. The cellulases were stable, tolerated and functioned in the presence of several contaminants. PMID:21989799

Jensen, Jacob Wagner; Felby, Claus; Jørgensen, Henning



Factors affecting proppant flowback with resin coated proppants  

SciTech Connect

Resin coated proppants (RCPs) have been used to prevent proppant flowback for several years in the hydraulic fracturing of oil and gas wells. Proppant flowback problems, however, still exist with the commercially available RCPs and several operators report failures around the world under a variety of well conditions. To date, a clear explanation of the RCP failure mechanisms and the conditions under which failure occurs has not been presented in the industry. A correlation between the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of RCP materials and the proppant flowback potential has been previously presented by Vreeburg, et al. This paper will present the results of a study on a variety of factors which effect the proppant flowback of a number of commercially available RCP materials. These factors include (1) the effect of fluid pH (7 to 12) and fluid type (KCL, seawater and a HPG/Borate fracturing fluid), (2) the effect of fluid/proppant slurry shear, (3) the effect of closure pressure during RCP curing, (4) the effect of stress cycling and (5) the effect of downhole flow conditions on proppant flowback.

Almond, S.W.; Penny, G.S.; Conway, M.W. [Stim-Lab, Inc., Duncan, OK (United States)



Factors affecting outcome of depressive symptoms in alcoholics.  


Eighty-eight patients consecutively admitted to an alcohol treatment program were studied to determine the amount of depressive symptoms on entry to the program and after 4 weeks of treatment. The degree of symptoms was in turn related to various aspects of their drinking behavior. Twenty-two of the patients were classified as having moderate to marked depressive symptoms, 40 had mild symptoms, and 26 had no significant symptoms at the time of entry into the program. Factors in drinking behavior that best characterized those with moderate to marked symptoms were addiction, sleep disturbance, hangover incapacitation, loss of control, neurological signs, and organicity/toxicity. At the end of treatment, only four patients could actually be diagnosed as depressed, while 12 had mild residual symptoms and 72 no longer had significant symptoms. The one factor that clearly distinguished those patients with residual depressive symptoms was the use of drinking for social facilitation. For such individuals, bars and drinking were the focus of social life. The favorable course of depressive symptoms in alcoholics soon after they stop drinking suggests that they are more likely the consequence of drinking than the cause of it. The fact that patients who drink primarily to facilitate social aspects of their lives were the most likely to have residual symptoms suggests that treatment of such individuals should involve development of alternative mechanisms of social interaction. PMID:6346922

Nakamura, M M; Overall, J E; Hollister, L E; Radcliffe, E



Factors affecting formation and rupture of intracranial saccular aneurysms.  


Unruptured intracranial aneurysms represent a decisional challenge. Treatment risks have to be balanced against an unknown probability of rupture. A better understanding of the physiopathology is the basis for a better prediction of the natural history of an individual patient. Knowledge about the possible determining factors arises from a careful comparison between ruptured versus unruptured aneurysms and from the prospective observation and analysis of unbiased series with untreated, unruptured aneurysms. The key point is the correct identification of the determining variables for the fate of a specific aneurysm in a given individual. Thus, the increased knowledge of mechanisms of formation and eventual rupture of aneurysms should provide significant clues to the identification of rupture-prone aneurysms. Factors like structural vessel wall defects, local hemodynamic stress determined also by peculiar geometric configurations, and inflammation as trigger of a wall remodeling are crucial. In this sense the study of genetic modifiers of inflammatory responses together with the computational study of the vessel tree might contribute to identify aneurysms prone to rupture. The aim of this article is to underline the value of a unifying hypothesis that merges the role of geometry, with that of hemodynamics and of genetics as concerns vessel wall structure and inflammatory pathways. PMID:24306170

Bacigaluppi, S; Piccinelli, M; Antiga, L; Veneziani, A; Passerini, T; Rampini, P; Zavanone, M; Severi, P; Tredici, G; Zona, G; Krings, T; Boccardi, E; Penco, S; Fontanella, M



Ecological Factors Affecting Efficiency and Health in Warships*  

PubMed Central

The environment of those who live and work in warships is closely related to the way the ships are built and employed. In stating the requirements for the atmosphere between decks the emphasis has swung during the past 50 years from the need for controlling the chemical constituents to the control of the factors which comprise the thermal environment, and now, with the advent of the nuclear-powered submarine, to the need for achieving, as nearly as possible, complete physical, chemical, and microbiological control. Between 1944 and 1953 the thermal factors between decks were investigated in a series of studies carried out in H.M. Ships. The average effective temperatures on the mess decks and in the work places of 11 ships in the Eastern Fleet in 1944 exceeded 84°F. (28·9°C.). In compartments where radiant heat was an added factor the average corrected effective temperature levels were 1° or 2°F. (0·55-1·1°C.) higher than the corresponding effective temperatures. The effects of climatic conditions on naval personnel were investigated by psychological studies to determine the levels of warmth at which performance deteriorated; by physiological experiments to show the levels of warmth at which the collapse of men working at different work rates might be expected; by comfort surveys in ships and on shore to determine the levels of warmth at which the majority enjoyed optimum comfort; and by relating the monthly incidence of the common causes of ill-health to the average monthly upper-deck temperature as recorded at noon each day in order to determine the temperature level above which sickness increased. It was concluded that the upper desirable level of warmth to consider when designing ships for hot climates was an effective temperature of 78°F. (25·5°C.). As it is usually impracticable in many compartments to achieve temperatures below 78°F. (25·5°C.) in the tropics without the generous application of air cooling, attention was then directed to the associated effects on the chemical and bacterial constituents of restricting air supplies, an unavoidable feature of most air conditioning systems, and to defining the permissible lower limits for fresh air requirements. The nuclear submarine with its capacity for remaining submerged for very long periods raises new problems relating to life in a confined space and involving very prolonged exposure to the submarine environment. These problems have still to be investigated. PMID:13726470

Ellis, F. P.



Factors Affecting Junior High School Students' Interest in Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of a study on students' interest in physics at the end of their compulsory schooling in Israel carried out in the framework of the ROSE Project. Factors studied were their opinions about science classes, their out-of-school experiences in physics, and their attitudes toward science and technology. Students' overall interest in physics was "neutral" (neither positive nor negative), with boys showing a higher interest than girls. We found a strong correlation between students' "neutral" interest in physics and their negative opinions about science classes. These findings raise serious questions about the implementation of changes made in the Israeli science curriculum in primary and junior high school, especially if the goal is to prepare the young generation for life in a scientific-technological era. A more in-depth analysis of the results led us to formulate curricular, behavioral, and organizational changes needed to reach this goal.

Trumper, Ricardo



LPN perspectives of factors that affect nurse mobility in Canada.  


Although the licensed practical nurse (LPN) workforce represents an ever-growing and valuable human resource, very little is known about reasons for practical nurse mobility. The purpose of this study was to describe LPN perspectives regarding motives for inter-provincial/territorial (P/T) movement in Canada. Participants included 200 LPNs from nine P/T, and data were analyzed using a qualitative descriptive approach. Three primary themes were identified regarding motivators for LPN migration, including (a) scope of practice, (b) education and advancement opportunities and (c) professional respect and recognition. Although current economic forces have a strong influence on nurse mobility, these findings emphasize that there are other equally important factors influencing LPNs to move between jurisdictions. As such, policy makers, administrators and researchers should further explore and address these themes in order to strengthen Canada's nursing workforce. PMID:24863722

Harris, Alexandra; Hall, Linda McGillis; Price, Sheri; Lalonde, Michelle; Andrews, Gavin; MacDonald-Rencz, Sandra



Factors affecting successful endoscopic sclerotherapy for oesophageal varices.  

PubMed Central

Forty patients with bleeding oesophageal varices were studied during treatment by endoscopic sclerotherapy to discover what factors determine successful outcome. Large varices required more injections than small varices for obliteration, and rebleeding during treatment occurred only in patients with large varices. Radiological studies with sclerosant contrast mixture showed that in two groups of varices of comparable size, intravenous sclerosant was significantly more effective, leading to thrombosis in 8/10 as opposed to only 3/10 after paravasal injection (p less than 0.05). Intravenous contrast was rapidly cleared upwards, whereas paravasal contrast formed a rounded opacity alongside the vein that persisted for approximately 90 minutes, responsible for the complications of oesophageal ulceration and stenosis. PMID:6352422

Rose, J D; Crane, M D; Smith, P M



Factors affecting plasma aluminum concentrations in nonexposed workers  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the distribution and determinants of plasma aluminum concentrations were examined in 71 office employees not occupationally exposed to aluminum. The samples were analyzed by Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy and were found to be log normally distributed. After using the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) recommended procedure for removal of likely aberrant values, the 95th percentile value was 198 nmol/L (90% CI:165-238); when those using antacids were also excluded, the 95th percentile value fell to 175 nmol/L (90% CI:147-208). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors most predictive of log plasma aluminum were the batch in which the sample was analyzed and the use of antacids containing aluminum. The statistical significance of the batch variable likely indicates the well-recognized problem of contamination in sampling and analyzing aluminum.35 references.

House, R.A. (Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, St Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))



Factors affecting skin tannin extractability in ripening grapes.  


The acetone-extractable (70% v/v) skin tannin content of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon grapes was found to increase during late-stage ripening. Conversely, skin tannin content determined following ethanol extraction (10, 20, and 50% v/v) did not consistently reflect this trend. The results indicated that a fraction of tannin became less extractable in aqueous ethanol during ripening. Skin cell walls were observed to become more porous during ripening, which may facilitate the sequestering of tannin as an adsorbed fraction within cell walls. For ethanol extracts, tannin molecular mass increased with advancing ripeness, even when extractable tannin content was constant, but this effect was negligible in acetone extracts. Reconstitution experiments with isolated skin tannin and cell wall material indicated that the selectivity of tannin adsorption by cell walls changed as tannin concentration increased. Tannin concentration, tannin molecular mass, and cell wall porosity are discussed as factors that may influence skin tannin extractability. PMID:24432763

Bindon, Keren A; Madani, S Hadi; Pendleton, Phillip; Smith, Paul A; Kennedy, James A



Factors that affect women's attitudes toward domestic violence in Turkey.  


This article examines the attitudes of Turkish women toward justification of intimate partner violence. The data were gathered from the 2003 Turkey Demographic and Health Survey. A random sample of 8,075, aged 15-49, participated in the survey. The findings underline the importance of patriarchal beliefs and the associated practice of brides-money in addition to rural residence, large household, illiteracy, lack of wealth, and younger age at marriage as the sources of acceptance of violence among women. The study provides a theoretical explanation for how patriarchal ideology is translated into an accepting attitude toward violence and also discusses the factors that serve as mechanisms that help women resist patriarchal hegemony and not justify domestic violence against women. The final section of the article addresses policy implications. PMID:20514820

Marshall, Gul Aldikacti; Furr, L Allen



Factors affecting the formulation of sustained release potassium chloride tablets.  


In this study, influence of several formulation factors on the release kinetics of potassium chloride from directly compressed matrices are investigated. Formulations containing hydrophilic (methylcellulose, carbomer), plastic (polyvinyl chloride), and wax (glycerol palmitostearate) matrix materials at concentrations of 10, 15 and 20%, incorporated with potassium chloride as active ingredient and insoluble excipients were prepared and studied in vitro using the USP XXI/NF XVI rotating paddle method. Hardness had no markedly effect on the release characteristics of formulations except for wax matrix material formulation. Results of goodness of fit analysis applied to release data had shown that the release mechanism was described by the Higuchi diffusion controlled model. Positive deviations from Higuchi equation might be due to the erosion of gel layer. Analysis of in vitro release mechanisms indicated that the most suitable results were obtained by methylcellulose and glycerol palmitostearate. PMID:1811230

Senel, S; Capan, Y; Hincal, A A



Factors affecting PEG-mediated stable transformation of maize protoplasts.  


Factors influencing the frequency of stable transformation and co-transformation of maize protoplasts utilizing a polyethylene glycol (PEG) mediated DNA uptake procedure have been investigated. Protoplast plating conditions, pre-treatment buffer composition, PEG concentration, and DNA concentration were all found to be important. Carrier DNA was not beneficial when transforming with circular plasmid DNA. The effect of linearizing plasmid DNA was inconsistent across experiments, and may be dependent on the presence of carrier DNA. Functional co-transformation of an unlinked marker gene (hygromycin phosphotransferase) was increased by increasing the ratio of nonselected:selected DNA, and varied from 39% at a 1?1 ratio to 65% at a 100?1 ratio. Under optimum conditions, up to 300 transformed calli were recovered per million input protoplasts. The protocol is simple, inexpensive, and effective, and is useful for studies in maize requiring large numbers of stably transformed or co-transformed cell lines. PMID:24226946

Armstrong, C L; Petersen, W L; Buchholz, W G; Bowen, B A; Sulc, S L



Factors that affect social cue recognition in schizophrenia.  


Earlier research (Corrigan and Green, Am. J. Psychiatry, 150 (1993) 589-594) showed fairly symptomatic persons with schizophrenia give more false-positive responses when answering questions about abstract cues in a social situation (i.e. affect, rules, and goals inferred about an interpersonal situation) than concrete cues (i.e. actions and dialogue observed in a situation). It is unclear, however, whether differential cue recognition is due to schizophrenia per se, or some aspect of the illness commensurate with significant symptoms and in-patient care. Moreover, the abstract and concrete dimension in the earlier study had not been independently validated. In this study, the 288 items of the Social Cue Recognition Test (SCRT) were divided into three sets based on abstraction ratings provided by 38 college students. The SCRT was then completed by 48 participants with DSM-III-R diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Participants with schizophrenia were divided into low and high symptom groups using scores from the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Results showed both low symptom and high symptom groups exhibited a differential deficit in cue recognition. False positives were greater for items rated as more abstract. Implications for understanding the social cognitive deficits of persons with schizophrenia are discussed. PMID:9657423

Corrigan, P W; Nelson, D R



Factors affecting floral herbivory in a limestone grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amount of herbivore damage to the petals of 41 species of herbaceous plant was surveyed from April to September in a limestone grassland in central England. Damage was recorded as the percentage of the petal area removed. Most damage was caused by invertebrates, particularly slugs. The amount of invertebrate damage differed significantly between plant species and with time of year. The mean damage across all species was only 2 %, ranging from an average of 0 % in Galium sterneri to 8 % in Primula vulgaris. In most species, less than a quarter of flowers received any damage, so those that were damaged were often severely affected. Species flowering early or late in the season received more damage, possibly because of greater slug activity. Hypotheses to explain the inter-specific variation in the amount of herbivory were examined by testing for correlations with a range of plant variables. No correlations with flower-stem length, flower-stem thickness or the longevity of flowers were apparent. The amount of petal damage correlated strongly with flower size and petal thickness. This appeared to result from the prevalence of large-flowered species early and late in the season rather than from a preference for flower size and petal thickness per se. The evolutionary significance of floral herbivory is discussed.

Breadmore, Karen N.; Kirk, William D. J.



Factors affecting mechanical properties of biomass pellet from compost.  


Effectiveness of a densification process to create strong and durable bonding in pellets can be determined by testing the mechanical properties such as compressive strength (CS) and durability. Mechanical properties of pellet from composted municipal solid waste were determined at different raw material and densification conditions. Ground compost samples were compressed with three levels of moisture content (35%, 40% and 45% (wb)), piston compaction speed (2, 6 and 10 mm/s), die length (8, 10 and 12mm) and raw material particle size (0.3, 0.9 and 1.5mm) into cylindrical pellets utilizing opened-end dies under axial stress from a vertical piston applied by a hydraulic press. The effects of independent variables on mechanical properties were determined using response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design (BBD). All independent variables affected the durability significantly. However, different piston speed and die length not produce any significant difference on CS of pellets. Also in this research the electron photography method was used to identify the binding mechanism of compost particles. PMID:24600888

Zafari, A; Kianmehr, M H



Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the groundwater quality in Serbia.  


Various chemometric techniques were used to analyze the quality of groundwater data sets. Seventeen water quality parameters: the cations Na, K, Ca, Mg, the anions Cl, SO4, NO3, HCO3 and nine trace elements Pb, As, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn and Cr were measured at 66 different key sampling sites in ten representative areas (low land-Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina and central Serbia) for the summer period of 2009. HCA grouped the sample sites into four clusters based on the similarities of the characteristics of the groundwater quality. DA showed two parameters, HCO3 and Zn, affording more than 90% correct assignments in the spatial analysis of four/three different regions in Serbia. Factor analysis was applied on the log-transformed data sets and allowed the identification of a reduced number of factors with hydrochemical meaning. The results showed severe pollution with Mn, As, NO3, Ni, Pb whereby anthropogenic origin of these contaminants was indicated. The pollution comes from both scattered point sources (industrial and urban effluent) and diffuse source agricultural activity. These samples may not be suitable for human consumption; the water quality belongs to class III/IV (contaminated). The Fe anomalies (7.1mg/L) in the water from the Vetrnica site can be attributed to natural sources, such as the dissolution of rock masses and rock fragments. The serious groundwater contamination with As (25.7-137.8 ?g/L) in the area of Banat (Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina) and a sample No. 9 at the Great Morava River requires urgent attention. PMID:24080418

Devic, Gordana; Djordjevic, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja



Temperature can interact with landscape factors to affect songbird productivity.  


Increased temperatures and more extreme weather patterns associated with global climate change can interact with other factors that regulate animal populations, but many climate change studies do not incorporate other threats to wildlife in their analyses. We used 20 years of nest-monitoring data from study sites across a gradient of habitat fragmentation in Missouri, USA, to investigate the relative influence of weather variables (temperature and precipitation) and landscape factors (forest cover and edge density) on the number of young produced per nest attempt (i.e., productivity) for three species of songbirds. We detected a strong forest cover × temperature interaction for the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) on productivity. Greater forest cover resulted in greater productivity because of reduced brood parasitism and increased nest survival, whereas greater temperatures reduced productivity in highly forested landscapes because of increased nest predation but had no effect in less forested landscapes. The Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) exhibited a similar pattern, albeit with a marginal forest cover × temperature interaction. By contrast, productivity of the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) was not influenced by landscape effects or temperature. Our results highlight a potential difficulty of managing wildlife in response to global change such as habitat fragmentation and climate warming, as the habitat associated with the greatest productivity for flycatchers was also that most negatively influenced by high temperatures. The influence of high temperatures on nest predation (and therefore, nest predators) underscores the need to acknowledge the potential complexity of species' responses to climate change by incorporating a more thorough consideration of community ecology in the development of models of climate impacts on wildlife. PMID:23504884

Cox, W Andrew; Thompson, Frank R; Reidy, Jennifer L; Faaborg, John



"Receptivity": an important factor affecting supportive care provision.  


The research on psychosocial need provides the foundation informing the drive for the provision of supportive care services for patients and their families. The work on patient access, barriers to participation, and service evaluation are providing some insights that can help guide practitioners in their efforts to ensure that services designed to meet psychosocial need reach and involve the appropriate individuals. However, this direction is presently in its infancy leaving many questions unanswered. This article makes a contribution to advancing and strengthening this line of research through a fresh perspective on the topic provided by consumer research with individuals diagnosed with a hematological malignancy. The research was initiated and funded by the Leukaemia Foundation of Queensland (LFQ) with the aim of exploring the experience of survivorship for individuals diagnosed with a hematological malignancy to inform supportive care service provision and development. The findings from the research posit the notion of "receptivity" as an important new concept that can contribute to the deepening of our understanding of the myriad of factors associated with effectively engaging with individuals in supportive care service provision. PMID:23311970

McGrath, Pamela



Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Local Support for Black Bear Recovery Strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is global interest in recovering locally extirpated carnivore species. Successful efforts to recover Louisiana black bear in Louisiana have prompted interest in recovery throughout the species’ historical range. We evaluated support for three potential black bear recovery strategies prior to public release of a black bear conservation and management plan for eastern Texas, United States. Data were collected from 1,006 residents living in proximity to potential recovery locations, particularly Big Thicket National Preserve. In addition to traditional logistic regression analysis, we used conditional probability analysis to statistically and visually evaluate probabilities of public support for potential black bear recovery strategies based on socioeconomic characteristics. Allowing black bears to repopulate the region on their own (i.e., without active reintroduction) was the recovery strategy with the greatest probability of acceptance. Recovery strategy acceptance was influenced by many socioeconomic factors. Older and long-time local residents were most likely to want to exclude black bears from the area. Concern about the problems that black bears may cause was the only variable significantly related to support or non-support across all strategies. Lack of personal knowledge about black bears was the most frequent reason for uncertainty about preferred strategy. In order to reduce local uncertainty about possible recovery strategies, we suggest that wildlife managers focus outreach efforts on providing local residents with general information about black bears, as well as information pertinent to minimizing the potential for human-black bear conflict.

Morzillo, Anita T.; Mertig, Angela G.; Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Garner, Nathan; Liu, Jianguo



Upper extremity physical factors affecting tennis serve velocity.  


Forty tournament-level tennis players with expert serve technique volunteered to have their serve evaluated to determine relationships between anthropometric data, extremity strength, and functional serve velocity. All players underwent a complete physical examination, a video taped serve analysis, a radar measurement of serve velocity, and a series of upper extremity strength measurements. Statistical analysis was performed to determine which factors were related to serve velocity. Statistically significant relationships were found between serve velocity and several flexibility measurements including increased dominant wrist flexion (P < 0.05), increased dominant shoulder flexion (P < 0.05), and increased dominant shoulder internal rotation at 0 degrees of abduction (P < 0.05). Several strength measurements were also related to serve velocity including elbow extension torque production (P < 0.01) and the ratios of internal to external rotational torque production for both low- and high-speed measurements (P < 0.01 concentrically and P < 0.05 eccentrically). These findings relate strength and flexibility to serve velocity, suggesting that it may be possible to increase a tennis player's serve velocity through specifically directed muscular strengthening or stretching regimens. However, prospective studies must be undertaken to demonstrate these possibilities. PMID:7856797

Cohen, D B; Mont, M A; Campbell, K R; Vogelstein, B N; Loewy, J W



Experimental and environmental factors affect spurious detection of ecological thresholds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Threshold detection methods are increasingly popular for assessing nonlinear responses to environmental change, but their statistical performance remains poorly understood. We simulated linear change in stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities and evaluated the performance of commonly used threshold detection methods based on model fitting (piecewise quantile regression [PQR]), data partitioning (nonparametric change point analysis [NCPA]), and a hybrid approach (significant zero crossings [SiZer]). We demonstrated that false detection of ecological thresholds (type I errors) and inferences on threshold locations are influenced by sample size, rate of linear change, and frequency of observations across the environmental gradient (i.e., sample-environment distribution, SED). However, the relative importance of these factors varied among statistical methods and between inference types. False detection rates were influenced primarily by user-selected parameters for PQR (?) and SiZer (bandwidth) and secondarily by sample size (for PQR) and SED (for SiZer). In contrast, the location of reported thresholds was influenced primarily by SED. Bootstrapped confidence intervals for NCPA threshold locations revealed strong correspondence to SED. We conclude that the choice of statistical methods for threshold detection should be matched to experimental and environmental constraints to minimize false detection rates and avoid spurious inferences regarding threshold location.

Daily, Jonathan P.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Smith, David R.; Snyder, Craig D.



Factors affecting social workers' inclusion of animals in practice.  


Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors contribute to this inclusion, especially because there is a lack of attention in social work education and research to animal-human relationships. This study used logistical regression to examine the impact of certain demographic, knowledge, and practice variables on the inclusion of animals in social work practice. Findings include that knowing other social workers who include animals in practice and primary client population served were significant for inclusion of animals in assessment, animal-assisted intervention, and treating clients for animal abuse or loss of an animal. Although practitioners' having a companion animal was positively related to including animals in interventions and treating clients for loss of an animal, contributing to animal welfare through volunteering at shelters or financially contributing to animal groups did not have an effect on inclusion of animals in practice. Implications for these and other findings are discussed, and recommendations for social work research, education, and practice are offered. PMID:23724578

Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E; Kawam, Elisa



Organisational factors affecting the quality of hospital clinical coding.  


The influence of organisational factors on the quality of hospital coding using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems, 10th Revision, Australian Modification (ICD-10-AM) was investigated using a mixed quantitative-qualitative approach. The organisational variables studied were: hospital specialty; geographical locality; structural characteristics of the coding unit; education, training and resource supports for Clinical Coders; and quality control mechanisms. Baseline data on the hospitals' coding quality, measured by the Performance Indicators for Coding Quality tool, were used as an independent index measure. No differences were found in error rates between rural and metropolitan hospitals, or general and specialist hospitals. Clinical Coder allocation to "general" rather than "specialist" unit coding resulted in fewer errors. Coding Managers reported that coding quality can be improved by: Coders engaging in a variety of role behaviours; improved Coder career opportunities; higher staffing levels; reduced throughput; fewer time constraints on coding outputs and associated work; and increased Coder interactions with medical staff. PMID:18245862

Santos, Suong; Murphy, Gregory; Baxter, Kathryn; Robinson, Kerin M



Oxytocin and Psychological Factors Affecting Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of oxytocin with trait and state psychological factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods. OXT and psychological variables were analyzed from 86 controlled diabetic patients (glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) < 7%) from 45 uncontrolled diabetic patients (HbA1c ? 7). Psychological characteristics were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), while state psychological characteristics were measured with the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL 90-R). Blood samples were taken for measuring oxytocin in both subgroups during the initial phase of the study. One year later, the uncontrolled diabetic patients were reevaluated with the use of the same psychometric instruments. Results. During the first evaluation of the uncontrolled diabetic patients, a statistically significant positive relationship between the levels of OXT and psychoticism in EPQ rating scale (P < 0.013) was observed. For controlled diabetic patients, a statistically significant negative relationship between oxytocin and somatization (P < 0.030), as well as obsessive-compulsive scores (P < 0.047) in SCL-90 rating scale, was observed. During the second assessment, the values of OXT decreased when the patients managed to control their metabolic profile. Conclusions. The OXT is in association with psychoticism, somatization, and obsessionality may be implicated in T2DM. PMID:22997507

Kontoangelos, K.; Raptis, A. E.; Papageorgiou, C. C.; Tsiotra, P. C.; Papadimitriou, G. N.; Rabavilas, A. D.; Dimitriadis, G.; Raptis, S. A.



Risk Factors Affecting Clinical Outcome of Ruptured Vertebrobasilar Saccular Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Objective Ruptured vertebrobasilar (VB) saccular aneurysm is a difficult lesion to treat, and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to investigate the risk factors associated with the clinical outcome of ruptured VB aneurysms. Methods A retrospective review of 29 patients with ruptured VB saccular aneurysms between 2002 and 2010 was conducted between Jan 2002 and Dec 2010. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed for determination of the statistical significance of the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) at three months, according to age, initial Hunt-Hess grade, the presence of acute hydrocephalus, and treatment modality. Results The study included 24 (82.7%) females and five (17.3%) males, with a mean age of 59 years (range, 22-78 years). Seventeen patients were treated with surgical clipping and 12 patients were treated with endovascular coil embolization. No statistical significance was observed between clinical outcome and treatment modalities (clipping or coiling; p = 0.803). Seventeen (58.6%) patients achieved favorable outcome, defined as GOS score of 4-5, at 3 months. Procedure-related complications occurred in seven patients (24.1%). Results of multivariate analysis indicated that initial Hunt-Hess grade and the presence of acute hydrocephalus were independent predictors of unfavorable outcome, defined as GOS score of 1-3 (Odds ratio (OR) = 8.63, Confidence interval (CI) [95%] 1.11-66.84, p = 0.039 and OR = 36.64, CI [95%] 2.23-599.54, p = 0.012, respectively). Conclusion The present study suggests that the clinical outcomes are related to the initial Hunt-Hess grade and the presence of acute hydrocephalus in ruptured saccular VB aneurysms. PMID:23210044

Kang, Mun Soo; Kang, Hee In; Moon, Byung Gwan; Lee, Seung Jin; Kim, Joo Seung



Meteorological factors affecting ozone profiles over the North Atlantic ocean  

SciTech Connect

Ozone measurements taken by an instrumented aircraft over the western North Atlantic in the summer of 1992 revealed numerous profiles that consisted of two principal layers with different, nearly constant mixing ratios in each layer. The lower layer was characterized by relatively small mixing ratios (<25-30 ppb), while the upper layer had values a factor of two or more higher. The depth of the lower layer frequently corresponded to the depth of the mixed layer over the ocean as estimated from potential temperature observations. The upper layer with relatively uniform ozone distribution extended at least to the maximum sampling height of the aircraft on these flights, approximately 2.5 km. A three-dimensional mesoscale model is used to simulate the meteorology over the area for a representative case study day. Trajectory analysis shows that the air in the sampling region originated over relatively pristine areas of northern and eastern Canada, followed a path that avoided major anthropogenic sources of ozone precursors over land, and eventually moved out over the ocean. Because of inhomogeneities in the sea surface temperatures in the observation area, the spatial and temporal evolution of the boundary layer over the ocean differed significantly over distances of only a few hundred kilometers. These differences are identified as mechanisms responsible for the development of the characteristic shapes of ozone and potential temperature profiles. These findings indicate the critical role played by meteorological processes irrespective of the details of the photochemical reactions. The results also imply that a failure to incorporate detailed descriptions of meteorology in photochemical models may lead to erroneous interpretations of the data.

Doran, J.C.; Zhong, S.; Berkowitz, C.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)



Factors Affecting Teachers' Perceived Readiness for Online Collaborative Learning: A Case Study in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates factors affecting the perceived readiness for online collaborative learning (OCL) of a sample of 86 mathematics teachers from 12 secondary schools. Descriptive analysis, factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structure equation modeling were used to analyze the data. A moderately fit model was generated and able to inform that time constraint and insufficient access to technology such

Ah-choo Koo



Factors Affecting Placement Failure: An Analysis Of Sacramento County Juvenile Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an analysis of factors that affect failure probabilities for juvenile offenders sentenced to placement programs in Sacramento County, California. The application of regression analysis facilitates the examination of the relationship between placemen t failure and the theorized explanatory factors: criminal history, conduct and personality, family background, substance abuse, and personal characteristics. The identification of statistically significant factors

Catherine J. Burnette



E-print Network

A MULTI-YEAR STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING FRUIT PRODUCTION IN ARISTOLOCHIA PAUCINERVIS-pollination seems to be a decisive factor in fruit production because the number of germinated pollen and the fruit can be the first factor limiting fruit production (Schemske, 1980; Howell and Roth, 1981; Arista et al

Herrera, Carlos M.


How psychopathological factors affect both the onset of and recovery from Transient Global Amnesia  

E-print Network

1 How psychopathological factors affect both the onset of and recovery from Transient Global Amnesia Short title: Role of psychopathological factors in TGA Audrey Noël, Peggy Quinette, Bérengère measures of psychopathological factors (anxiety and depression), in 38 patients (28 included in our

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Factors affecting the catalytic oligomerization of methane via microwave heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catalytic microwave heating has been used as a method for the oligomerization of methane to higher hydrocarbons. Many catalysts were tested in this reaction. Nickel powder, raney nickel, iron powder and activated carbon were the most active and efficient catalysts for the production of higher hydrocarbons. When helium was used as a diluent gas and the applied power was optimized, the selectivities were controlled to the most desired products. In general, the most abundant products for all the experiments were C2s. Iron powder was active only at high power (1130 W). At these conditions acetylene was avoided and ethylene and ethane were produced in the same proportion. Activated carbon catalysts with helium as diluent led to a selectivity towards benzene up to 33%. Some manganese oxides such as OMS-1, OMS-2 and MnO2 (dielectric constant, epsilon ? 104) were not active in these reactions. These data suggest that the dielectric constant is not the most important factor in the oligomerization of methane via microwave heating. Conversion and activities of these materials are not proportionally related to the surface area of the catalysts. Higher catalytic activity was observed for Raney nickel than for regular nickel powder. The maximum conversion obtained was 24% at 400 W and 10 min of irradiation time. For regular nickel powder that conversion can be achieved only after 700 W of power and more than 20 min of reaction. BET surface area, Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Temperature-Programmed Desorption and Reduction analysis were performed to characterize the catalyst before and after reaction. Deactivation of Raney nickel by fouling and sintering was observed after 500 W and/or 15 min of reaction. The effect of microwave radiation frequency on activity and product distribution for methane oligomerization has been studied. Nickel, iron, and activated carbon catalysts were used in these studies. Experiments were done with pure methane and using He as diluent. Changes in product distribution due to changes in frequency have been observed, and might be related to different transverse magnetic modes at different frequencies. Different transient heating may occur at different values of frequency.

Conde, Luis Daniel


Factors affecting the toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs.  


We developed a standardized protocol for comparing the sensitivities of the embryos of different bird species to methylmercury when methylmercury was injected into their eggs. During the course of developing this protocol, we investigated the effects of various factors on the toxicity of the injected methylmercury. Most of our experiments were done with chicken (Gallus domesticus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) eggs, all of which were purchased in large numbers from game farms. A smaller amount of work was done with double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs collected from the wild. Several solvents were tested, and corn oil at a rate of 1 microl/g egg contents was selected for the final standardized protocol because it had minimal toxicity to embryos and because methylmercury dissolved in corn oil yielded a dose-response curve in a range of egg concentrations that was similar to the range that causes reproductive impairment when the mother deposits methylmercury into her own eggs. The embryonic stage at which eggs were injected with corn oil altered mercury toxicity; at early stages, the corn oil itself was toxic. Therefore, in the final protocol we standardized the time of injection to occur when each species reached the morphologic equivalent of a 3-day-old chicken embryo. Although solvents can be injected directly into the albumen of an egg, high embryo mortality can occur in the solvent controls because of the formation of air bubbles in the albumen. Our final protocol used corn oil injections into the air cell, which are easier and safer than albumen injections. Most of the methylmercury, when dissolved in corn oil, injected into the air cell passes through the inner shell membrane and into the egg albumen. Most commercial incubators incubate eggs in trays with the air cell end of the egg pointing upward, but we discovered that mercury-induced mortality was too great when eggs were held in this orientation. In addition, some species of bird eggs require incubation on their sides with the eggs being rolled 180 degrees for them to develop normally. Therefore, we adopted a procedure of incubating the eggs of all species on their sides and rolling them 180 degrees every hour. Little has been published about the conditions of temperature, humidity, and the movements to which eggs of wild birds need to be subjected for them to hatch optimally under artificial incubation. Not unexpectedly, hatching success in an artificial incubator is generally less than what natural incubation by the parents can achieve. However, the survival of control embryos of most wild bird species was good (generally > or = 80%) up to within 1 or 2 days of hatching when we incubated the eggs at 37.5 degrees C (or 37.6 degrees C for gallinaceous species) at a relative humidity that resulted in an approximate 15% to 16% loss in egg weight by the end of incubation and by incubating the eggs on their sides and rolling them 180 degrees /h. To improve statistical comparisons, we used survival through 90% of incubation as our measurement to compare survival of controls with survival of eggs injected with graded concentrations of mercury. PMID:16307214

Heinz, G H; Hoffman, D J; Kondrad, S L; Erwin, C A



Progressing batch hydrolysis process  


A progressive batch hydrolysis process is disclosed for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock. It comprises passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with feed stock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feed stock to glucose. The cooled dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, serially fed through a plurality of pre-hydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose. The dilute acid stream containing glucose is cooled after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

Wright, J.D.



Acid hydrolysis of chitosans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrolysis of the O-glycosidic linkages (depolymerization) and the N-acetyl linkage (de-N-acetylation) of partially N-acetylated chitosans were studied in dilute and concentrated HCl. The rate of hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkages was found to be equal to the rate of de-N-acetylation in dilute acid, while the glycosidic linkages was hydrolysed more than 10 times faster than the N-acetyl linkage in

K. M. Vårum; M. H. Ottøy; O. Smidsrød



Bioaccumulation of Organic Contaminants by Diporeia spp.: Kinetics and Factors Affecting Bioavailability  

E-print Network

Bioaccumulation of Organic Contaminants by Diporeia spp.: Kinetics and Factors Affecting (PAH) by Diporeia , a major benthic food web component in the Great Lakes, suggests of sediment, water, sediment-trap material and Diporeia were collected monthly from two stations


Factors affecting the permanence of livestock projects undertaken by Heifer International-Mexico  

E-print Network

in the state of Durango, Mexico. This study identified and analyzed the factors affecting the permanence of hog and dairy cow projects in four communities in the state of Durango, Mexico. The researcher interviewed seven project managers and 35 beneficiaries...

Arispe, Sergio Adrian



Factors Affecting the Reactvity of Granular Iron in contact with Chlorinated Solvents  

E-print Network

This study investigates, at various scales, the factors that affect the reactivity of granular iron (GI) toward chlorinated solvents and link these scale-specific processes with each other. The Kinetic Iron Model (KIM), ...

Firdous, Rubina



Factors affecting the within-river spawning migration of Atlantic salmon, with emphasis on human impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review factors affecting the within-river spawning migration of Atlantic salmon. With populations declining across the\\u000a entire distribution range, it is important that spawners survive in the last phase of the spawning migration. Knowledge on\\u000a the factors affecting migration is essential for the protection of populations, and to increase the success of reintroduction\\u000a programmes. A number of studies have documented

Eva B. Thorstad; Finn Økland; Kim Aarestrup; Tor G. Heggberget



Pearl millet: parboiling methods and factors affecting the process and cooked product  

E-print Network

PEARL MILLET: PARBOILING METHODS AND FACTORS AFFECTING THE PROCESS AND COOKED PRODUCT A Thesis by CHALLY JOEL CLEGG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies Texas A8 M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1991 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology PEARL MILLET: PARBOILING METHODS AND FACTORS AFFECTING THE PROCESS AND COOKED PRODUCT A Thesis by CHALLY JOEL CLEGG Approved as to style and content by: LI d W. Roon...

Clegg, Chally Joel



Factors affecting the cooking and extrusion properties of sorghum for noodle production  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING THE COOKING AND EXTRUSION PROPERTIES OF SORGHUM FOR NOODLE PRODUCTION A Thesis by ROSEMARY IKALAFENG LEKALAKE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology FACTORS AFFECTING THE COOKING AND EXTRUSION PROPERTIES OF SORGHUM FOR NOODLE PRODUCTION A Thesis by ROSEMARy IKALAFENG LEKALAKE Approved as to style and content by...

Lekalake, Rosemary Ikalafeng



Factors affecting the coagulation properties of skimmilk and characteristics of cultured buttermilk  

E-print Network

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES. INTRODUCTION REVIEW OF LITERATURE Effect of Mastitis on Milk. Composition. Properties . Dairy products Factors Affecting Milk Coagulation. Heat treatment . Homogenization Starter culture. Added solids...-not-fat Protein. Calcium chloride Mastitis Minerals I'age V V111 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 6 7 8 9 Factors Affecting Properties of Cultured Pasteurization . Milk solids. Homogenization Starter culture. Ripening temperature . Aci di ty. Treatment...

Bollinger, Dean Herman



Factors Affecting Texas Farm Commodity Prices and Index Computation Methods, 1910-58.  

E-print Network

Factors Affecting Texas Farm Commodity Prices and Index Computation Methods, 1910-58 I. A. Kincannon and G. B. strong* RICE RELATIONSHIPS GREATLY CONCERN THE shown graphically. Figures 1 through 3 illustrate P farmer. Each farmer produces a product... Factors Affecting Texas Farm Commodity Prices and Index Computation Methods, 1910-58 I. A. Kincannon and G. B. strong* RICE RELATIONSHIPS GREATLY CONCERN THE shown graphically. Figures 1 through 3 illustrate P farmer. Each farmer produces a product...

Strong, G. B.; Kincannon, J. A.



Factors affecting persistent pinkness and premature browning of ground beef patties  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING PERSISTENT PINKNESS AND PREMATURE BROWNING OF GROUND BEEF PATTIES A Thesis by ERIN ANN CUREINGTON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2000 Major Subject: Animal Science FACTORS AFFECTING PERSISTENT PINKNESS AND PREMATURE BROWNING OF GROUND BEEF PATTIES A Thesis by ERIN ANN CUREINGTON Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

Cureington, Erin Ann



Genetic and environmental factors affecting growth characters of Charolais cattle in Southeastern Brazil  

E-print Network


Barbosa, Pedro Franklin



Genetic and environmental factors affecting growth and reproduction characters of Morada Nova sheep in Northeastern Brazil  

E-print Network


Fernandes, Antonio Amaury Oria



Factors affecting birth weight, gestation length and dystocia in Charolais cattle  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING BIRTH WEIGHT, GESTATION LENGTH AND DYSTOCIA IN CHAROLAIS CATTLE A Thesis by CHARLES SCHROEDER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A!N University in partial fulfillment of the requirement of the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1979 Major Subject: Animal Science FACTORS AFFECTING BIRTH 4IFIGHT, GESTATION LENGTH Al'JD OYSTOCIA IN CHAPOLAIS CATTLE A Thesis by CHARLES SCHROEDER Approved as to style and content by: ( ( (Chairman of Committe (Head of Departm t...

Schroeder, Charles



Factors affecting calf and dam weights and their effects on breeding programs  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING CALF AND DAM WEIGHTS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON BREEDING PROGRAMS A Thesis By LAMRENCE ALLEN MADDOX, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulf illment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May, 1964 Major Subject: Animal Breeding FACTORS AFFECTING CALF AND DAM WEIGHTS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON BREEDING PROGRAMS A Thesis By IAWRENCE ALLEN MADDOX, JR Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Commit ee) (Head...

Maddox, Lawrence Allen



Safe Science Facilities: Reviewing Factors that Affect Classroom Environment, Curriculum, and Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science teachers often have two different curricula--the ideal framework on paper and the real, day-to-day instructional program that occurs in the classroom. A number of factors can affect how much of that ideal framework is accomplished. For example, how a facility is designed and how space is used can affect student achievement, classroom…

Texley, Juliana




Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract InIndonesia, despite the fact that some SMEs have been declining or stagnant, some others have been successful and growing. What factors affect business success among SMEs? The recent study aims toanswer this main question. Based onsurvey to 100 SMEs, the study discloses that marketing, technology and capital access affect the business success in a positive way significantly, while legality

Nurul Indarti; Marja Langenberg


Hydrolysis of whey protein isolate using subcritical water.  


Hydrolyzed whey protein isolate (WPI) is used in the food industry for protein enrichment and modification of functional properties. The purpose of the study was to determine the feasibility of subcritical water hydrolysis (SWH) on WPI and to determine the temperature and reaction time effects on the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and the production of peptides and free amino acids (AAs). Effects of temperature (150 to 320 °C) and time (0 to 20 min) were initially studied with a central composite rotatable design followed by a completely randomized factorial design with temperature (250 and 300 °C) and time (0 to 50 min) as factors. SWH was conducted in an electrically heated, 100-mL batch, high pressure vessel. The DH was determined by a spectrophotometric method after derivatization. The peptide molecular weights (MWs) were analyzed by gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, and AAs were quantified by high-performance liquid chromotography. An interaction of temperature and time significantly affected the DH and AA concentration. As the DH increased, the accumulation of lower MW peptides also increased following SWH (and above 10% DH, the majority of peptides were <1000 Da). Hydrolysis at 300 °C for 40 min generated the highest total AA concentration, especially of lysine (8.894 mg/g WPI). Therefore, WPI was successfully hydrolyzed by subcritical water, and with adjustment of treatment parameters there is reasonable control of the end-products. PMID:22122092

Espinoza, Ashley D; Morawicki, Rubén O; Hager, Tiffany



The study of influenced factors affecting to quality of cylindrical grinding harden AISI 4140 steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to study factors, which were affected on surface roughness and roundness in cylindrical grinding of harden AISI 4140 steel. Specimen used in the experiment was AISI 4140 steel that hardening at 51±3 HRC. Studied factors were consisted of revolution speed of workpiece, feed rate, and depth of cut. Full factorial experimental design was conducted

Komson Jirapatarasilp; Sittichai Kaewkuekool; P. Klahan



Risk factors affecting metaphyseal irregularities in the radius and ulna of growing Newfoundland dogs 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study was to study risk factors affecting metaphyseal irregularities (MI) in the distal radius and ulna of growing Newfound- land dogs. Risk factors studied included the genetic effects, effects of litters, BW, circumferences of the dis- tal radius and ulna (CDRU), and total serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations. The study included 118 Newfoundland dogs (60

C. Trangerud; T. Meuwissen; E. Ropstad; A. Indrebø; J. Grøndalen; L. Moe




Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation of the factors affecting academic performance with the performance levels of adults in adult and continuing education in Nkulumane-Emganwini area. These factors were arbitrarily selected from the literature review. The research design selected was the empirical approach .A sample of 40 students was randomly selected from a population of 420

Precious Ndlovu; Wisdom Moyo



Factors Affecting the Supply of Recent College Graduates in New England. Policy Brief 09-1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This policy brief investigates factors affecting New England's supply of recent college graduates and how those factors have changed over time, and suggests steps that states might take to expand this source of skilled labor. (Contains 3 figures.) [This brief summarizes analysis in NEPPC research report 08-1: "The Future of the Skilled Labor Force…

Sasser, Alicia



Factors Affecting Change in the Clothing Patterns of the Adolescent Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is always imperative to determine and explain the factors responsible for the change in clothing patterns of the adolescent girls, that are yet not clearly defined but are unignorable. In order to find out the affect of various factors like social status, education, mass media and peer pressure on the clothing patterns of young girls, a survey was conducted



Factors affecting pouring ready mix concrete production rate using tower cranes in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor productivity of construction industry is one of the causes of cost and time overruns in construction projects. The first stage to control this problem is to identify factors affecting productivity and analyse them in order to control their effect in productivity. In Egypt, construction productivity is influenced by several factors that vary from project to project as well as

Emad El-Maghraby; Jan Frick; Christopher Irgens



A Review of Foreign Researches on Influential Factors Affecting Students' Engagement in English Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' active engagement constitutes the core of the process of learning and teaching in the student-oriented classroom. The paper centers on a review of foreign researches on influential factors affecting students' engagement in English classroom. It is expected to figure out the relevant factors in order to promote students' active engagement.

Zhou, Chun-hong



Factors affecting postharvest preservation of safou (Dacryodes edulis (G. Don) H.J. Lam) fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of five factors including fruit size, ripeness stage, picking mode, packaging mode, and storage temperature on safou softening was investigated. Temperature, packaging mode, and fruit size were the only factors that significantly affected safou softening during storage. Low temperature (18 °C) associated with storage without packaging or with perforated packaging improved safou postharvest shelf life. Under these conditions,

Bayi Reine Dossou; Crépin Ella Missang; Alain Baron; Catherine M. G. C. Renard; Thomas Silou



Environmental and genetic factors affecting udder characters and milk production in Chios sheep  

E-print Network

Environmental and genetic factors affecting udder characters and milk production in Chios sheep A environmental and genetic factors influencing udder characteristics and milk production in Chios sheep. All. Seasonal effects were significant for udder circumference, test-day milk and total milk production

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Factors Affecting the Vocational Choice of Women of Different Ages Selecting Clerical and Secretarial Occupations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An attempt was made to examine the factors affecting women of different ages in their selection of clerical and secretarial occupations. The factors considered were: health, intelligence, interests, previous work experience, stated reasons for present occupational choice, knowledge of employment opportunities and job requirements, influence of…

Willmarth, John Gary


Engendered Analysis of the Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Smallholder Dairy Productivity: Experience from Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existing gap between potential and actual milk yield in Kenyan dairy farming and the need to bridge it led to the formulation of this study. The objective was to determine the socioeconomic factors including the gender variable affecting smallholder dairy productivity. The aim of incorporating gender was to capture in detail the factors peculiar to male and female smallholder

J. M. Chengole; L. N. Kimenye; S. G. Mbogoh



Factors Affecting the Full Use of Library and Information Management Systems by Library Personnel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To provide a general list of factors that affects and determines the full use of library information management systems (LIMS) by library staff. Design/methodology/approach: The factors, which were identified mainly during participation in the implementation of automation projects in Greece, are listed and briefly analysed in categories…

Skretas, Georgios



Factors that Affect Synergies in Mergers, at Banking Sector: Simulation with a Dynamic Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article examines the factors that affect the intended synergy following an M&A, as they have emerged from the study of the M&A's that have taken place as yet in the Bank Sector of an EU country. On the basis of quality research, dynamic simulation models have been created for two out of the five factors.

Yiannis, Triantafyllopoulos; Sakas, Damianos P.; Konstantopoulos, Nikolaos



Bacillus cereus Spores in Raw Milk: Factors Affecting the Contamination of Milk During the Grazing Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus is a limiting factor for the shelf-life of pasteurized milk, particularly dur- ing the grazing season. Potential sources of contami- nation and factors that might affect the spore content of milk were studied in detail for a group of eight cows during three 2-wk study periods from June to September over 2 yr. The spore content of

A. Christiansson; J. Bertilsson; B. Svensson



Effects of microtubule mechanics on hydrolysis and catastrophes  

E-print Network

We introduce a model for microtubule mechanics containing lateral bonds between dimers in neighboring protofilaments, bending rigidity of dimers, and repulsive interactions between protofilaments modeling steric constraints to investigate the influence of mechanical forces on hydrolysis and catastrophes. We use the allosteric dimer model, where tubulin dimers are characterized by an equilibrium bending angle, which changes from $0^\\circ$ to $22^\\circ$ by hydrolysis of a dimer. This also affects the lateral interaction and bending energies and, thus, the mechanical equilibrium state of the microtubule. As hydrolysis gives rise to conformational changes in dimers, mechanical forces also influence the hydrolysis rates by mechanical energy changes modulating the hydrolysis rate. The interaction via the microtubule mechanics then gives rise to correlation effects in the hydrolysis dynamics, which have not been taken into account before. Assuming a dominant influence of mechanical energies on hydrolysis rates, we investigate the most probable hydrolysis pathways both for vectorial and random hydrolysis. Investigating the stability with respect to lateral bond rupture, we identify initiation configurations for catastrophes along the hydrolysis pathways and values for a lateral bond rupture force. If we allow for rupturing of lateral bonds between dimers in neighboring protofilaments above this threshold force, our model exhibits avalanche-like catastrophe events.

Nina Müller; Jan Kierfeld



Hydrologic, diel and lunar factors affecting fishes on artificial reefs off Panama City, Florida  

E-print Network

noon (ATFN) and moon phase were tested. via multiple regression to determine which factor(s) affected fish community abundance and abundance of common taxa. In addition, seasonal trends of fishes present on these reefs were reported. Water.... Seasonal trends reinforced regres- sion findings, as most common taxa's abundance declined during winter-spring. lnN and abundance of several common taxa increased with increasing visibility. Moon phase was an important factor in community index...

Sanders, Richard Morgan



76 FR 30195 - Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-524] Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales...Commission) instituted investigation No. 332-524, Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting...



77 FR 18862 - Brazil: Competitive Factors Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected Third...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-524] Brazil: Competitive Factors Affecting U.S. and Brazilian...the Committee in investigation No. 332-524, Brazil: Competitive Factors In Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural...



Acid hydrolysis of cellulose  

SciTech Connect

One of the alternatives to increase world production of etha nol is by the hydrolysis of cellulose content of agricultural residues. Studies have been made on the types of hydrolysis: enzimatic and acid. Data obtained from the sulphuric acid hydrolysis of cellulose showed that this process proceed in two steps, with a yield of approximately 95% glucose. Because of increases in cost of alternatives resources, the high demand of the product and the more economic production of ethanol from cellulose materials, it is certain that this technology will be implemented in the future. At the same time further studies on the disposal and reuse of the by-products of this production must be undertaken.

Salazar, H.



High temperature aqueous ammonia pretreatment and post-washing enhance the high solids enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover.  


Aqueous ammonia pretreatment was optimized and the limiting factors in high solids enzymatic hydrolysis were assessed. The recommended pretreatment condition to achieve high enzymatic yield was: 180 °C, 20% (w/w) ammonia, 30 min, and 20% solids content. FT-IR and GC-MS results indicated that most of the lignin was degraded to soluble fragments after pretreatment. The pretreated solids after post-washing showed higher enzymatic digestibility at high solids loading than that without washing. The washed solids required lower cellulase and xylanase dosage than unwashed solids to achieve high sugar yield. Enzymatic conversions were declined with the increased solids loading of pretreated solids, pretreated-washed solids, and filter papers. The results indicated that solids loading in enzymatic hydrolysis was an important factor affecting sugar yield. The increasing concentration of glucose and ligno-phenolics mainly inhibited the enzymatic hydrolysis of aqueous ammonia pretreated corn stover. PMID:23968841

Qin, Lei; Liu, Zhi-Hua; Jin, Mingjie; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin



Nurses' Experiences of Nonpatient Factors That Affect Nursing Workload: A Study of the PAONCIL Instrument's Nonpatient Factors.  


In the RAFAELA patient classification system, the professional assessment of optimal nursing care intensity level (PAONCIL) instrument is used to assess the optimal nursing intensity level per unit. The PAONCIL instrument contains an overall assessment of the actual nursing intensity level and an additional list of central nonpatient factors that may increase or decrease the total nursing workload (NWL). The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess and determine which nonpatient factors affect nurses' experiences of their total NWL in both outpatient settings and hospitals, as captured through the PAONCIL instrument. The data material consisted of PAONCIL questionnaires from 38 units and 37 outpatient clinics at 11 strategically selected hospitals in Finland, and included nurses' answers (n = 1307) to the question of which factors, other than nursing intensity, affect total NWL. The methods for data analyses were qualitative content analyses. The nonpatient factors that affected nurses' experiences of total NWL are "organization of work," "working conditions," "self-control," and "cooperation." The actual list of nonpatient factors in the PAONCIL instrument is to a reasonable extent relevant, but the list should be improved to include nurses' actual working conditions and self-control. PMID:25050179

Fagerström, Lisbeth; Vainikainen, Paula



Factors affecting users' choice of words in speech-based interaction with public technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contains three studies of factors which affect the choice of words in simple speech-based interactions. It is shown\\u000a that choice of words is affected by the level of constraint imposed on users, such that variability is much higher when no\\u000a constraint is applied than when some form of constraint is used and that variability can be reduced by

C. Baber; G. I. Johnson; D. Cleaver



[Research progress in seegrass seed dormancy, germination, and seedling growth and related affecting factors].  


Seagrass bed is the main primary producer in coastal areas, having highly ecological and economical values, and being one of the most important shallow-marine ecosystems. This paper reviewed the research progress in the seed dormancy, germination, and seedling growth of seagrass and related affecting factors, summarized the seed dormancy modes and durations and their affecting factors, and discussed the effects of water salinity, temperature, transparency, hormone, dissolved oxygen, and population structure on the seed germination and the seedling survival and growth. Some issues in related researches and several research directions in the future were prospected. PMID:22303688

Zhang, Pei-Dong; Sun, Yan; Niu, Shu-Na; Zhang, Xiu-Mei



Hydrolysis of CL-20.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Energetics and Warheads Division of the U.S. Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center has been involved in the development of CL-20. An aqueous hydrolysis study was performed to better understand the fate and transport of CL-20 throu...

J. Pavlov, M. Sidhoum, C. Christodoulatos, W. Balas, S. Nicolich



Factors that affect reliability of nondestructive detection of flaws in structural ceramics  

SciTech Connect

The factors that affect reliability of nondestructive detection of flaws in structural ceramics by microfocus radiography and scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM) were investigated. Reliability of void detection in silicon nitride and silicon carbide by microfocus X-rays was affected by photon energy level, material chemistry in the immediate vicinity of the void, and the presence of loose powder aggregates inside the void cavity. The sensitivity of SLAM to voids was affected by material microstructure, the level of porosity, and the condition of the specimen surfaces. Statistical results are presented in the form of probability of detection as a function of void diameter for green compacts and sintered materials.

Klima, S.J.; Baaklini, G.Y.; Roth, D.J.



Factors Affecting the Elicitation of Sesquiterpenoid Phytoalexin Accumulation by Eicosapentaenoic and Arachidonic Acids in Potato 1  

PubMed Central

Eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic acids in extracts of Phytophthora infestans mycelium were identified as the most active elicitors of sesquiterpenoid phytoalexin accumulation in potato tuber slices. These fatty acids were found free or esterified in all fractions with elicitor activity including cell wall preparations. Yeast lipase released a major portion of eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic acids from lyophilized mycelium. Concentration response curves comparing the elicitor activity of the polyunsaturated fatty acids to a cell-free sonicate of P. infestans mycelium indicated that the elicitor activity of the sonicated mycelium exceeded that which would be obtained by the amount of eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic acids (free and esterified) present in the mycelium. Upon acid hydrolysis of lyophilized mycelium, elicitor activity was obtained only from the fatty acid fraction. However, the fatty acids accounted for only 21% of the activity of the unhydrolyzed mycelium and the residue did not enhance their activity. Centrifugation of the hydrolysate, obtained from lyophilized mycelium treated with 2n NaOH, 1 molarity NaBH4 at 100°C, yielded a supernatant fraction with little or no elicitor activity. Addition of this material to the fatty acids restored the activity to that which was present in the unhydrolyzed mycelium. The results indicate that the elicitor activity of the unsaturated fatty acids is enhanced by heat and base-stable factors in the mycelium. PMID:16662691

Bostock, Richard M.; Laine, Roger A.; Kuc, Joseph A.



The role of product inhibition as a yield-determining factor in enzymatic high-solid hydrolysis of pretreated corn stover.  


Industrially, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose at high solid content is preferable over low solids due to a reduction in processing costs. Unfortunately, the economic benefits are counteracted by a linear decrease in yield with solid content, referred to as the "solid effect" in the literature. In the current study, we investigate the contribution of product inhibition to the solid effect (7-33 % solids). Product inhibition was measured directly by adding glucose to high-solid hydrolysis samples and indirectly through variation of water content and beta-glucosidase concentration. The results suggest that the solid effect is mainly controlled by product inhibition under the given experimental conditions (washed pretreated corn stover as substrate). Cellobiose was found to be approximately 15 times more inhibitory than glucose on a molar scale. However, considering that glucose concentrations are at least 100 times higher than cellobiose concentrations under industrial conditions, glucose inhibition of cellulases is suggested to be the main cause of the solid effect. PMID:25028248

Olsen, S N; Borch, K; Cruys-Bagger, N; Westh, P



Risk factors affecting metaphyseal irregularities in the radius and ulna of  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: The main,objective of this study was to study,risk factors affecting metaphyseal,irregularities (MI) in the distal radius and ulna of growing,Newfound- land,dogs. Risk factors studied,included,the genetic effects, effects of litters, BW, circumferences of the dis- tal radius and ulna (CDRU), and total serum alkaline phosphatase,(ALP) concentrations.,The study included 118 Newfoundland dogs (60 females, 58 males), derived from 32 litters. Body

C. Trangerud; T. Meuwissen; E. Ropstad; A. Indrebø; J. Grøndalen; L. Moe



Factors affecting the progression of renal disease in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors affecting the progression of renal disease in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease. Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease results in renal failure at a varying age from childhood to old age. We postulated that factors other than the culprit gene alone contribute to the course of progression of the renal failure. We studied 580 subjects with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease and 194

Patricia A Gabow; Ann M Johnson; William D Kaehny; William J Kimberling; Dennis C Lezotte; Irene T Duley; Richard H Jones



Human factors with nonhumans - Factors that affect computer-task performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are two general strategies that may be employed for 'doing human factors research with nonhuman animals'. First, one may use the methods of traditional human factors investigations to examine the nonhuman animal-to-machine interface. Alternatively, one might use performance by nonhuman animals as a surrogate for or model of performance by a human operator. Each of these approaches is illustrated with data in the present review. Chronic ambient noise was found to have a significant but inconsequential effect on computer-task performance by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Additional data supported the generality of findings such as these to humans, showing that rhesus monkeys are appropriate models of human psychomotor performance. It is argued that ultimately the interface between comparative psychology and technology will depend on the coordinated use of both strategies of investigation.

Washburn, David A.



Factors affecting collaboration between general practitioners and community pharmacists: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Although general practitioners (GPs) and community pharmacists (CPs) are encouraged to collaborate, a true collaborative relationship does not exist between them. Our objective was to identify and analyze factors affecting GP-CP collaboration. Methods This was a descriptive-exploratory qualitative study carried out in two Spanish regions: Catalonia (Barcelona) and Balearic Islands (Mallorca). Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs and CPs from Barcelona and Mallorca (January 2010-February 2011). Analysis was conducted using Colaizzi’s method. Results Thirty-seven interviews were conducted. The factors affecting the relationship were different depending on timing: 1) Before collaboration had started (prior to collaboration) and 2) Once the collaboration had been initiated (during collaboration). Prior to collaboration, four key factors were found to affect it: the perception of usefulness; the Primary Care Health Center (PCHC) manager’s interest; the professionals’ attitude; and geography and legislation. These factors were affected by economic and organizational aspects (i.e. resources or PCHC management styles) and by professionals’ opinions and beliefs (i.e. perception of the existence of a public-private conflict). During collaboration, the achievement of objectives and the changes in the PCHC management were the key factors influencing continued collaboration. The most relevant differences between regions were due to the existence of privately-managed PCHCs in Barcelona that facilitated the implementation of collaboration. In comparison with the group with experience in collaboration, some professionals without experience reported a skeptical attitude towards it, reporting that it might not be necessary. Conclusions Factors related to economic issues, management and practitioners’ attitudes and perceptions might be crucial for triggering collaboration. Interventions and strategies derived from these identified factors could be applied to achieve multidisciplinary collaboration. PMID:22769570



Affecting Factors and Outcome on Intermittent Internet Pulling Behavior in Taiwan's Undergraduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nowadays people's lives heavily rely on Internet facilities. Internet users generally have constant Internet connectivity and intermittently click on sites they want to access even amidst studying or working. In this study, we sought to examine the factors affecting intermittent Internet pulling behavior on undergraduate students. Furthermore, the…

Yang, Hui-Jen; Lay, Yun-Long



Factors Affecting Survival and Growth of Juvenile Freshwater Mussels Cultured in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal differences in glochidial maturity, substrate, and diet were studied to determine how these factors affect the survival and growth of juvenile freshwater mussels. Comparisons were made between juveniles produced in the fall and spring of the year; cultured in sediment, sand, or without substrate; and fed either of two species of small (5–10-?m) green algae. The survival and growth

Jess W. Jones; Rachel A. Mair; Richard J. Neves



Factors affecting the performance of the optical plankton counter in large lakes: Insights from Lake Michigan  

E-print Network

Factors affecting the performance of the optical plankton counter in large lakes: Insights from] There has been a question as to whether the optical plankton counter (OPC) accurately measures zooplankton­2000 often revealed poor agreement between the OPC-2T and 153-mm mesh plankton net samples. The most serious


The study of affecting factors in the use of network media based on system dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract----This thesis used the method of system dynamics to draw the affecting factors archetype of network media use, determine three key variables of the cost of media use, education gap and the quality of information, propose the integrated management measurement including financial subsidies and computer skills training and media literacy education based on the analysis of the mechanisms of

Hong Li; Chen Dong You



A Study of Factors Affecting the Utility of Implicit Relevance Feedback  

E-print Network

Descriptors H.3.3 [Information Search and Retrieval] General Terms Experimentation, Human Factors. Keywords for different search activities, such as selecting the terms to present to the system or choosing which search of and perceived quality of terms generated by IRF affected by the search task? (ii) is the use of and perceived

Jose, Joemon M.


An empirical analysis of factors affecting adolescent attachment in adoptive families with homosexual and straight parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data were collected on 154 adoptive families with gay\\/lesbian and straight adoptive parents (154 parent respondents and 210 adolescent respondents). This study was principally interested in factors affecting adolescent attachment including parent sexual orientation, adolescent and parent life satisfaction, and parent level of relationship satisfaction with their adopted child as well as other key parent, child and adoption characteristics. The

Stephen Erich; Heather Kanenberg; Kim Case; Theresa Allen; Takis Bogdanos



Understanding factors affecting perceived sociability of social software Qin Gao *, Yusen Dai, Zao Fan, Ruogu Kang  

E-print Network

Understanding factors affecting perceived sociability of social software Qin Gao *, Yusen Dai, Zao t i c l e i n f o Article history: Available online 14 August 2010 Keywords: Sociability Computer-mediated communication Social software a b s t r a c t Sociability is considered to be important to the success of social

Mankoff, Jennifer


Environmental Factors Affecting Large-Bodied Coral Reef Fish Assemblages in the Mariana Archipelago  

E-print Network

and Atmospheric Administration's Coral Reef Conservation Program provided funding for this work. The funders hadEnvironmental Factors Affecting Large-Bodied Coral Reef Fish Assemblages in the Mariana Archipelago and ecologically important segment of the coral reef fish assemblage. Many of these individuals supply the bulk


Some factors which affect the generation of flaky particles by a cone crusher  

Microsoft Academic Search

The products from a series of pilot scale tests have been analysed for size and flakiness to evaluate some of the factors affecting the generation of flaky material in a cone crusher. Two different feed sources characterised in terms of resistance to crushing and tensile failure were used to evaluate the influence of crusher set, feed rate and of material

A. C. Apling; N. B. Barrett



The Fox News Factor: How the Spread of Fox News Affects Position Taking in Congress  

E-print Network

! ! The Fox News Factor: How the Spread of Fox News Affects Position Taking in Congress ! ! Joshua to the US House take more conservative positions once Fox News begins broadcasting in their congressional that the Fox News Channel was launched in October 1996 and it gradually spread across congressional districts

Bordenstein, Seth


Nonlanguage factors affecting undergraduates' judgments of nonnative English-speaking teaching assistants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to dramatic changes in the demographics of graduate education, considerable effort is being deveoted to training teaching assistants who are nonnative speakers of English (NNSTAs). Three studies extend earlier research that showed the potency of nonlanguage factors such as ethnicity in affecting undergraduates' reactions to NNSTAs. Study 1 examined effects of instructor ethnicity, even when the instructor's language

Donald L. Rubin



Factors affecting survival and recruitment of unionid mussels in small midwestern streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to investigate natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the survival and recruitment of unionid mussels in small midwestern streams. Unionid mussels have been undergoing a decline in many places, and it is thought that the juvenile is the most sensitive life stage. Because most studies have focused on larger rivers, the status of mussels

Melody Lynn Myers-Kinzie



Basic Factors that Affect General Academic Motivation Levels of Candidate Preschool Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to investigate some personal and familial factors that affect overall academic motivation levels of candidate preschool teachers. The study group of this research consists of 285 students attending the child development and preschool education department at Selcuk University Faculty of Vocational Education in the…

Celikoz, Nadir



Basic factors that affect general academic motivation levels of candidate preschool teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to investigate some personal and familial factors that affect overall academic motivation levels of candidate preschool teachers. The study group of this research consists of 285 students (candidate teachers) attending the child development and preschool education department at Selcuk University Faculty of Vocational Education in the 2007-2008 academic year. General Academic Motivation Scale was

Nadir Çeliköz



Factors affecting elementary principals' and teachers' decisions to support outdoor field trips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outdoor field trips are recommended in science education reform, yet they are not frequently taken. Barriers may prevent elementary public school teachers from participating in outdoor field trips (Mirka, 1973; Falk & Balling, 1979; Ham, 1988; Orion, 1993). To determine what would increase students' attendance at a nature preserve, factors that may affect elementary private and public school principals' and

Michael Joseph Kaspar



Factors Affecting the Link between Physical Discipline and Child Externalizing Problems in Black and White Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined contextual factors that may affect the impact of physical discipline on later child behavior problems among high-risk Black and White families. We examined race, parental warmth, and early child problems as potential moderators of the discipline-behavior problem link. The sample included 442 White and Black children and their…

Lau, Anna S.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Newton, Rae R.; Black, Maureen M.; Everson, Mark D.



Identifying the Key Factors Affecting Warning Message Dissemination in VANET Real Urban Scenarios  

PubMed Central

In recent years, new architectures and technologies have been proposed for Vehicular Ad Hoc networks (VANETs). Due to the cost and complexity of deploying such networks, most of these proposals rely on simulation. However, we find that most of the experiments made to validate these proposals tend to overlook the most important and representative factors. Moreover, the scenarios simulated tend to be very simplistic (highways or Manhattan-based layouts), which could seriously affect the validity of the obtained results. In this paper, we present a statistical analysis based on the 2k factorial methodology to determine the most representative factors affecting traffic safety applications under real roadmaps. Our purpose is to determine which are the key factors affecting Warning Message Dissemination in order to concentrate research tests on such parameters, thus avoiding unnecessary simulations and reducing the amount of simulation time required. Simulation results show that the key factors affecting warning messages delivery are the density of vehicles and the roadmap used. Based on this statistical analysis, we consider that VANET researchers must evaluate the benefits of their proposals using different vehicle densities and city scenarios, to obtain a broad perspective on the effectiveness of their solution. Finally, since city maps can be quite heterogeneous, we propose a roadmap profile classification to further reduce the number of cities evaluated. PMID:23604026

Fogue, Manuel; Garrido, Piedad; Martinez, Francisco J.; Cano, Juan-Carlos; Calafate, Carlos T.; Manzoni, Pietro



A Prospective Study Investigating the Impact of School Belonging Factors on Negative Affect in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School belonging, measured as a unidimensional construct, is an important predictor of negative affective problems in adolescents, including depression and anxiety symptoms. A recent study found that one such measure, the Psychological Sense of School Membership scale, actually comprises three factors: Caring Relations, Acceptance, and Rejection.…

Shochet, Ian M.; Smith, Coral L.; Furlong, Michael J.; Homel, Ross



Factors that Affect Emergent Literacy Development When Engaging with Electronic Books  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews extant literature with the purpose of identifying factors that affect the potential efficacy of electronic books to support literacy development during early childhood. Selection criteria include experimental, quasi-experimental, and observational studies from peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to 2013 with a target population…

Salmon, Lynda G.



Psychosocial and cultural factors affecting the perceived riskof genetically modified food: an overview of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid globalization of the world economy has increased the need for an astute understanding of cultural differences in perceptions, values, and ways of thinking about new food technologies. In this paper, we describe how socio-psychological and cultural factors may affect public perceptions of the riskof genetically modified (GM) food. We present psychological, sociological, and anthropological research on riskperception as

Melissa L. Finucane; Joan L. Holup


Analysis of Factors Affecting the Accuracy, Reproducibility, and Interpretation of Microbial Community Carbon Source Utilization Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined factors that affect responses of bacterial isolates and model bacterial communities to the 95 carbon substrates in Biolog microtiter plates. For isolates and communities of three to six bacterial strains, substrate oxidation rates were typically nonlinear and were delayed by dilution of the inoculum. When inoculum density was controlled, patterns of positive and negative responses exhibited by microbial




Laboratory study of the clogging process and factors affecting clogging in a tailings dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory simulation of clogging in the Lixi tailings dam (Shaanxi Province, China) is urgently required because clogging is an important factor affecting the dam stability. This work firstly presents the results of ferrous iron oxidation experiments using buffer solution. The results indicate that the ferrous iron oxidation follows first order kinetics, and the oxidation process is strongly dependent on pH,

Jun Wu; Yanqing Wu; Jian Lu



Factors Affecting Catch-and-Release Mortality of Bluefish MARY C. FABRIZIO*  

E-print Network

Fisheries Service, Fisheries Statistics Division, unpublished data). This pattern of increasing recreationalFactors Affecting Catch-and-Release Mortality of Bluefish MARY C. FABRIZIO* Department of Fisheries and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries, Northeast Fisheries Science Center, Woods Hole Laboratory, 166 Water

Scharf, Fred



Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to determine factors that affect social work students' willingness to work with the growing number of elders with Alzheimer's disease. An in-class survey of 333 BSW and MSW students at three Florida universities throughout 1996 produced data on measures of the dependent variable (willingness to work with elders with Alzheimer's disease) and 16 independent variables (potential influences).

Michael N. Kane



Environmental Factors Affecting Computer Assisted Language Learning Success: A Complex Dynamic Systems Conceptual Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conceptual, interdisciplinary inquiry explores Complex Dynamic Systems as the concept relates to the internal and external environmental factors affecting computer assisted language learning (CALL). Based on the results obtained by de Rosnay ["World Futures: The Journal of General Evolution", 67(4/5), 304-315 (2011)], who observed…

Marek, Michael W.; Wu, Wen-Chi Vivian



Spatial factors affecting primary succession on the Muddy River Lahar, Mount St. Helens, Washington  

E-print Network

Spatial factors affecting primary succession on the Muddy River Lahar, Mount St. Helens, Washington eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington spawned a massive lahar that now supports a mosaic of vegeta- tion hundred and fifty one 200-m2 plots. We classified these plots into nine community types (CTs) that were

del Moral, Roger


Dispositional Factors Affecting Motivation during Learning in Adult Basic and Secondary Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that about a quarter of adult students separate from formal adult basic and secondary education (ABE/ASE) programs before completing one educational level. This retrospective study explores individual dispositional factors that affect motivation during learning, particularly students' goals, goal-directed thinking and action…

Mellard, Daryl F.; Krieshok, Thomas; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari



An examination of the factors affecting the teaching and learning of evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors affecting the teaching and learning of evolution were examined in the public schools of Puerto Rico. The study explored (1) the extent and nature of evolution education; (2) the role of teacher's attitudes, knowledge and beliefs in the teaching of evolution; (3) the nature and sources of student misconceptions; and (4) the extent to which conceptual change teaching

Jose Gabriel Maldonado-Rivera



Assessing Achievement of Primary Grader Students and Factors Affecting Achievement in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to focus on achievement level of primary grade students in different subjects taught at primary level and the factors affecting the student achievement in this regard. Design/methodology/approach: The study was carried out on a sample of 1,080 students of grade 3 and 5 drawn from randomly selected 36 primary/elementary…

Saeed, Muhammad; Gondal, Muhammad Bashir; Bushra



Factors Affecting the Diffusion of Solar Water Disinfection: A Field Study in Bolivia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines a broad array of theory-based factors derived from diffusion research that affect the current and intended use of solar water disinfection (SODIS), a simple, low-cost technology for treating drink- ing water at the household level. The perceived attributes of an innovation, the nature of the social system in which it is diffused, the extent of change agents'

Simone Heri; Hans-Joachim Mosler



Factors Affecting the Diffusion of Solar Water Disinfection: A Field Study in Bolivia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines a broad array of theory-based factors derived from diffusion research that affect the current and intended use of solar water disinfection (SODIS), a simple, low-cost technology for treating drinking water at the household level. The perceived attributes of an innovation, the nature of the social system in which it is diffused, the extent of change agents' promotional

Simone Heri; Hans-Joachim Mosler



Affective Factors Influencing Plurilingual Students' Acquisition of Catalan in a Catalan-Spanish Bilingual Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the affective factors influencing students' learning of Catalan across different year levels in a multilingual school community in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). Questionnaires were distributed to 176 students, from 12 to 17 years of age, registered in a public secondary school, the majority of whom were not born in Catalonia.…

Bernaus, Merce; Moore, Emilee; Azevedo, Adriana Cordeiro



Factors Affecting Cigarette Smoking and Intention to Smoke Among Puerto Rican-American High School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from a survey of Puerto Rican adolescents in Boston and Hartford, a cross-sectional analysis was conducted of factors affecting recent cigarette smoking status and intentions to smoke in the next 5 years. Among Puerto Rican-American high school students between the ages of 14 and 20 years, nearly 12% of the males and 10% of the females had smoked

Kevin W. Smith; Sarah A. McGraw; J. Emilio Carrillo



Factors Affecting Sensitivity to Frequency Change in School-Age Children and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The factors affecting frequency discrimination in school-age children are poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to evaluate developmental effects related to memory for pitch and the utilization of temporal fine structure. Method: Listeners were 5.1- to 13.6-year-olds and adults, all with normal hearing. A subgroup of…

Buss, Emily; Taylor, Crystal N.; Leibold, Lori J.



Who Should Mark What? A Study of Factors Affecting Marking Accuracy in a Biology Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accurate marking is crucial to the reliability and validity of public examinations, in England and internationally. Factors contributing to accuracy have been conceptualised as affecting either marking task demands or markers' personal expertise. The aim of this empirical study was to develop this conceptualisation through investigating the…

Suto, Irenka; Nadas, Rita; Bell, John



Genetic factors affect the tendency to develop cancer. Predisposing mutations often influence DNA repair,cell-  

E-print Network

Genetic factors affect the tendency to develop cancer. Predisposing mutations often influence DNA is known about genetic predisposition to cancer.The key facts fall into four cat- egories.First,major (that of the genetic tendency to develop cancer, at least in the late-onset epithelial cancers such as breast and colon

Frank, Steven A.


Factors that Affect Classification Performance in EEG based Brain-Computer Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, some of the factors that affect classification performance of EEG based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) is studied. Study is specified on P300 speller system which is also an EEG based BCI system. P300 is a physiological signal that represents a response of brain to a given stimulus which occurs right 300 ms after the stimulus onset. When this

A. O. Argunsah; A. B. Curuklu; M. Cetin; A. Ercil



Media Factors Affecting the Performance of Upflow Anaerobic Packed-Bed Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have demonstrated that anaerobic packed-bed reactors (APBRs) containing media such as clay chip, small stone, and porous plastic modules are effective for treating a variety of organic wastes. Most of these studies focused on the treatment capabilities of the processes, yet little work was done about the factors affecting their designs and performance. This paper presents the results

Tay Joo-Hwa; Show Kuan-Yeow; S. Jeyaseelan



Factors Affecting on Mechanical Properties of Soft Martensitic Stainless Steel Castings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details the factors affecting mechanical properties of soft martensitic stainless steel castings that have lower carbon contents and increased nickel contents of up to 6% compared with normal martensitic stainless steel castings. The effect of alloying elements and impurities on the microstructural features and tempering characteristics was considered in detail, with special reference to reverted austenite and temper

Yoshitaka Iwabuchi



Factors Affecting Training Transfer: Participants' Motivation to Transfer Training, Literature Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates factors that motivate participants in learning and training activities to transfer skills, knowledge and attitude from the learning setting to the workplace. Based on training transfer theories hypothesized by Holton (1996), one of the major theories that affect an organization's learning is motivation to transfer theory.…

Alawneh, Muhammad K.



An Investigation of Factors Affecting the Degree of Naive Impetus Theory Application  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates factors affecting the degree of novice physics students application of the naive impetus theory. Six hundred and fourteen first-year university engineering physics students answered the Force Concept Inventory as a pre-test for their calculus-based course. We examined the degree to which students consistently applied the…

Liu, Xiufeng; MacIsaac, Dan



Factors Affecting the Frequency of Transformation of Rat Embryo Cells by Simian Virus 40  

E-print Network

Factors Affecting the Frequency of Transformation of Rat Embryo Cells by Simian Virus 40 REX RISSER virus40 has been monitared using the different restrictive assays of colony formation in sparse culture- The transformation of m a m m a h fibro- blasts by simian virus 40 involvesthe inter- actionof

Pollack, Robert


UNCORRECTED 2 Large-scale stress factors affecting coral reefs: open ocean sea  

E-print Network

UNCORRECTED PROOF REPORT1 2 Large-scale stress factors affecting coral reefs: open ocean sea 3-Verlag 2011 8 Abstract One-third of the world's coral reefs have dis- 9 appeared over the last 30 years on coral reefs have been identified as changes 12 in sea surface temperature (SST) and changes in surface

Gupta, Alex Sen



EPA Science Inventory

Black-band disease affects many species of tropical reef-building corals, but it is unclear what factors contribute to the disease-susceptibility of individual corals or how the disease is transmitted between colonies. Studies have suggested that the ability of black-band disease...



E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING THE ACCEPTANCE OF FOREIGN DRONES INTO HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA L.) COLONIES R SUMMARY Studies on drone management could aid in honey bee breeding programs by improving the efficiency and quality of mating. In this study the effects of introducing foreign drones into honey bee colonies were

Boyer, Edmond


Factors that Affect Treatment Expectations of Outpatients with Substance Use Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study assessed treatment expectations (TE) of outpatients with substance use problems as well as factors that affect their TE. Participants were 200 outpatients presenting at three community based substance abuse treatment services. Results of general linear modelling analyses showed that outpatients with substance use problems have higher…

Raylu, Namrata; Kaur, Inderjit



Factors Affecting the Job Satisfaction and Retention of Nurses in Community/Migrant Health Centers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the factors affecting the job satisfaction and retention of nurses at community and migrant health centers (C/MHCs), in light of the nursing shortage that existed at the time of the study. Literature reviews, the use of a questionnair...

D. C. Jones, N. P. Rizzo, C. Mullinix



Factors Affecting the Happiness of Urban Elementary School Students: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this transformative mixed methods study was to examine the school happiness of upper elementary students in three Connecticut urban demonstration schools. The study examined the differences in students' happiness based on ethnicity, gender, and their interaction. It also investigated the factors that affect students' happiness in…

Tenney, Jodiann K.



A study of factors affecting highway accident rates using the random-parameters tobit model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large body of previous literature has used a variety of count-data modeling techniques to study factors that affect the frequency of highway accidents over some time period on roadway segments of a specified length. An alternative approach to this problem views vehicle accident rates (accidents per mile driven) directly instead of their frequencies. Viewing the problem as continuous data

Panagiotis Ch. Anastasopoulos; Fred L. Mannering; Venky N. Shankar; John E. Haddock


Factors Affecting Accident Severity Inside and Outside Urban Areas in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This research aims to identify and analyze the factors affecting accident severity through a macroscopic analysis, with focus on the comparison between inside and outside urban areas. Disaggregate road accident data for year 2008 in Greece were used.Methods: Two models were developed, one for inside and one for outside urban areas. Since the dependent variable had two categories, Killed\\/Severely

Athanasios Theofilatos; Daniel Graham; George Yannis



Analysis of Factors Affecting the Human Behavior Safety in Metal Underground Mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the fact that human behavior is determined by both miners' intrinsic characteristics and external environment, the factors that may affect human behavior safety in metal underground mining are analyzed. Based on the analysis, countermeasures such as choose eligible miners and optimize environment are proposed, consequently to minimize the adverse effect and maximize the efficiency of miners matching the requirements

Zhenhua Lv; Nailian Hu; Guoqing Li



Sociocultural and Motivational Factors Affecting Asian American Females Studying Physics and Engineering in High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quantitative study investigated whether and to what extent the motivational and sociocultural factors affect female Asian American high school physics students' achievement, their intended major in college, and their planned career goals at work fields. A survey of 62 questions, extracted from subscales of AAMAS,STPQ and PSE, were…

Sha, Saliha L.



Identifying the key factors affecting warning message dissemination in VANET real urban scenarios.  


In recent years, new architectures and technologies have been proposed for Vehicular Ad Hoc networks (VANETs). Due to the cost and complexity of deploying such networks, most of these proposals rely on simulation. However, we find that most of the experiments made to validate these proposals tend to overlook the most important and representative factors. Moreover, the scenarios simulated tend to be very simplistic (highways or Manhattan-based layouts), which could seriously affect the validity of the obtained results. In this paper, we present a statistical analysis based on the 2k factorial methodology to determine the most representative factors affecting traffic safety applications under real roadmaps. Our purpose is to determine which are the key factors affecting Warning Message Dissemination in order to concentrate research tests on such parameters, thus avoiding unnecessary simulations and reducing the amount of simulation time required. Simulation results show that the key factors affecting warning messages delivery are the density of vehicles and the roadmap used. Based on this statistical analysis, we consider that VANET researchers must evaluate the benefits of their proposals using different vehicle densities and city scenarios, to obtain a broad perspective on the effectiveness of their solution. Finally, since city maps can be quite heterogeneous, we propose a roadmap profile classification to further reduce the number of cities evaluated. PMID:23604026

Fogue, Manuel; Garrido, Piedad; Martinez, Francisco J; Cano, Juan-Carlos; Calafate, Carlos T; Manzoni, Pietro



The Quality of Our Nation's Waters Factors Affecting Public-Supply-Well  

E-print Network

. 1. Water quality--United States. 2. Water--Pollution potential--United States. 3. Well waterThe Quality of Our Nation's Waters Factors Affecting Public-Supply-Well Vulnerability to Contamination: Understanding Observed Water Quality and Anticipating Future Water Quality National Water


Grandchild, Grandparent, and Parent Coresidence from 1970 to 1990: Structural Factors Affecting State Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzes structural forces affecting state patterns of parental presence within grandparent-grandchild coresidence by testing demographic, social change, policy environment, and social problems models. The project combines published state-level data with the 1970, 1980, and 1990 Census Public Use Microdata Samples. While factors

Hill, Twyla J.



Some Factors that Affect the Deposition Rates of Sulfur Dioxide and Similar Gases on Vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deposition of sulfur dioxide on growing vegetation is affected by diverse environmental factors, many of which undergo large diurnal and spatial variations. The aerodynamic resistance to vertical transfer in the surface boundary layer can be formulated in terms of the friction velocity, height of observation, vertical heat flux, and surface roughness. Also important are the resistance in the air

M. L. Wesely; B. B. Hicks



Factors affecting the emulsifying and rheological properties of gum acacia in beverage emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gum acacia, a natural hydrocolloid, is extensively used as an emulsifier\\/stabilizer in beverage emulsions. Factors that may affect emulsion formation, emulsion stability and viscosity of the emulsion concentrate were studied to assess their significance, including proximal composition of the gum (protein content and mineral content), gum processing prior to emulsion preparation (pasteurization and demineralization), and pH of the dilute emulsion.

R. A Buffo; G. A Reineccius; G. W Oehlert



Factors Affecting Literacy Achievement of Eighth Grade Middle School Instrumental Music Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this pretest-posttest comparative efficacy study was to analyze factors affecting literacy achievement of eighth grade middle school instrumental music students (n = 38) including (a) socioeconomic status (SES), (b) gender, (c) grade point average (GPA), (d) music motivation, (e) music involvement, and (f) instrument section. The…

Kurt, Johnny T.



Factors affecting plant uptake and phytotoxicity of cadmium added to soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smelting and electroplating of metals, motor oils, motor vehicle tires, and fungicide sprays are sources of cadmium in the environment. The factors affecting plant uptake and phytotoxicity of cadmium added to soils were investigated. For a set of 30 surface soils, the addition of 50 mg Cd (from CdClâ) to 500 g of soil reduced yield and sharply increased Cd

Matt K. John; Cornelis J. VanLaerhoven; Hong H. Chuah




E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING THE FORMATION OF ORGANIC BY-PRODUCTS DURING WATER CHLORINATION: A BENCH conditions in water treatment plants is a critical issue that should take into account the influence, 2001; Christman et al., 1983; Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 159: 357­371, 2004. C 2004 Kluwer Academic

Arhonditsis, George B.


Behind anemone lines: factors affecting division of labour in the social cnidarian Anthopleura elegantissima  

E-print Network

Behind anemone lines: factors affecting division of labour in the social cnidarian Anthopleura of the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima expand and encounter other clones they can form distinctive anemone-free zones, several centimetres across. Contact between isolated pairs of nonclonemate polyps

Grosberg, Rick


A Modeling Study about the Factors Affecting Assessment Preferences of Pre-Service Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a correlation study which aims to assess the theoretical model about the factors affecting assessment preferences of pre-service teachers. In the model the relations among the "alternative assessment methods", "critical thinking learning strategy", "Elaboration learning strategy", "self-efficacy about…

Dogan, C. Deha



Social-Cognitive Factors Affecting Clients' Career and Life Satisfaction after Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines factors affecting clients' career and life satisfaction in the first 6 months after having participated in career counseling. In particular, we tested a large subset of the recent social-cognitive model of work satisfaction of Lent and Brown using a longitudinal data set of 195 former counseling clients. Our results showed that…

Verbruggen, Marijke; Sels, Luc



Factors Affecting Self-Referral to Counselling Services in the Workplace: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The benefits of psychological support in the workplace (also known as workplace counselling) are well documented. Most large organisations in the UK have staff counselling schemes. However, it is unclear what, if any, factors affect employee decisions to use such schemes. This study has used a qualitative methodology to explore the reasons that…

Athanasiades, Chrysostomos; Winthrop, Allan; Gough, Brendan



Critical Success Factors Affecting Knowledge Management Adoption: A Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge management and CSFs are important issues in today's organisational world. Knowledge is understood as one of the crucial driving forces for business success and competitiveness. This study points out a number of success factors that were determined to be critical and affect knowledge management in all organisations. This paper is particularly helpful for further research on knowledge management-related issues,

Khalid Al-Mabrouk



Assessing achievement of primary grader students and factors affecting achievement in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to focus on achievement level of primary grade students in different subjects taught at primary level and the factors affecting the student achievement in this regard. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study was carried out on a sample of 1,080 students of grade 3 and 5 drawn from randomly selected 36 primary\\/ elementary schools from nine districts

Muhammad Saeed; Muhammad Bashir Gondal; Bushra



Factors Affecting the Identification of Hispanic English Language Learners in Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative phenomenological study revealed factors affecting the overrepresentation of Hispanic English language learners (ELLs) in special education. An analysis of the lived experiences of school professionals indicate multiple causes that determine students to be disabled often in violation of state and federal guidelines. Child study…

Becker, Gail I.



Organizational and environmental factors that affect worker health and safety and patient outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews organizational factors that influence the satisfaction, health, safety, and well-being of health care workers and ultimately, the satisfaction, safety, and quality of care for patients. The impact of the work environment on working conditions and the effects on health care workers and patients are also addressed. Studies focusing on worker health and safety concerns affected by the

Tammy Lundstrom; Gina Pugliese; Judene Bartley; Jack Cox; Carol Guither



An Investigation of Factors Affecting Student Participation Level in an Online Discussion Forum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed the factors that affect student participation in discussion forum under the two main purposes. The first purpose was to examine the relationship between the students' individual demographics and categories of students' participation level (inactive, moderate, and active) in discussion forum of an online course. The second…

Yukselturk, Erman




Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the factors affecting recruitment of black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus in four small lakes in west-central Minnesota. Recruitment to age 2+ was relatively consistent across years (1992-2001) in Brophy and Louise lakes, but was much more variable in Blackwell and Freeborn lakes. The only year with a very weak year class in all four lakes was 1992, which was

Bradford G. Parsons; Jeffrey R. Reed; Howard G. Fullhart; Vaughn A. Snook; Jodene K. Hirsch


Knowledge sharing in Chinese construction project teams and its affecting factors : An empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore knowledge sharing in a Chinese context and to examine the impact of some key contextual factors that affect knowledge sharing within project teams in the Chinese construction sector. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Self-administered questionnaires were used in this study. Data were collected by surveying 222 managerial employees from different project teams in

Zhenzhong Ma; Liyun Qi; Keyi Wang



Factors Affecting the Involvement of Teachers in Guidance and Counselling as a Whole-School Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores factors affecting the involvement of regular secondary school teachers in the whole-school approach to guidance and counselling by interviewing 12 secondary school teachers in Hong Kong. Emerging themes include teachers' ownership of their role in student guidance and counselling, the alignment of their disposition with…

Lam, Sarah K. Y.; Hui, Eadaoin K. P.



From message posting to learning dialogues: Factors affecting learner participation in asynchronous discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generating true learning dialogue as opposed to a collection of loosely affiliated posted messages on a class discussion board can be challenging. This paper presents the results of a cross?case analysis of nine naturalistic case studies of online classes, looking at how activity design and facilitation factors affected various dimensions of student participation. Findings show that use of guidelines, deadlines

Vanessa Paz Dennen



Factors affecting strategy commitment to community-oriented policing (COP) among South Korean police officers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Prior studies examining the relationship between organizational commitment and organizational behavior contain several limitations, such as mixed levels of measurement and lack of empirical study in different social contexts. Using Mowday, Porter, and Steers's approach, this study aims to investigate individual demographic, personal, departmental and community characteristics as factors affecting police officers' levels of strategy commitment. Design\\/methodology\\/approach –

Chang-Hun Lee; Chang-Bae Lee



Factors Affecting Length of Stay on Maximum Security in a Forensic Psychiatric Hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic hospitals are responsible for both the custody and treatment of patients, including treatment that will minimize the risk of future violence to the community. This study examined factors that affected length of stay (LOS) in Maryland’s only maximum-security forensic hospital for mentally ill patients who were adjudicated not criminally responsible (NCR) for serious violent crimes. The current study focused

Marianne J. Moran; M. Richard Fragala; Beverly F. Wise; Tammy Lynn Novak



Factors affecting captures of male citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, in pheromone-baited traps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillar- iidae), is an important world-wide pest of citrus. Larval mining within leaf flush impacts yield and predisposes trees to infection by citrus can- ker, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. The present series of studies sought to identify factors affecting male P. citrella catch in pheromone-baited traps with the intent of developing effective monitoring.

L. L. Stelinski; M. E. Rogers



Factors that Affect Student Motivation in a Dairy Products Elective Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student motivation is influenced by instructional approach. Motivation is a function of initiating and sustaining goal-directed behavior. The objective of this study was to identify factors (positive and negative) that affect motivation in a junior-level dairy products elective course. Student attitudes were surveyed each year half-way through the…

Ismail, Baraem; Hayes, Kirby



An Investigation of the Factors Affecting Moral Judgment of Marital Status and Family Size. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a study of how certain factors influence peoples' attitudes about other peoples' marital status and family size. For the study, stories were prepared describing single or married persons and families with different numbers of children. The stories contained information believed likely to affect the readers' attitudes or moral…

Drucker, Eugene H.


Environmental and stressful factors affecting the occurrence of kidney stones and the kidney colic.  


The first renal disease described from Hippocrates is nephrolithiasis with renal colic, which is the pain of stone passage and is also a common renal problem with easily recognizable characteristics. There has been much written about dietary factors, which have unequivocally been proved to play an important role in the formation of kidney stones. In this regard, it is of interest that the contribution of factors such as stressful events, life style, or occupation in the formation of kidney stones has not been well studied. This review examines the clinical evidence of the stressful events and other environmental factors affecting the occurrence of kidney stones. PMID:24927933

Kalaitzidis, Rigas G; Damigos, Dimitrios; Siamopoulos, Kostas C



Assessment of economic factors affecting the satellite power system. Volume 1: System cost factors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The factors relevant to SPS costing and selection of preferred SPS satellite configurations were studied. The issues discussed are: (1) consideration of economic factors in the SPS system that relate to selection of SPS satellite configuration; (2) analysis of the proper rate of interest for use in SPS system definition studies; and (3) the impacts of differential inflation on SPS system definition costing procedures. A cost-risk comparison of the SPS satellite configurations showed a significant difference in the levelized cost of power from them. It is concluded, that this difference is the result more of differences in the procedures for assessing costs rather than in the satellite technologies required or of any advantages of one satellite configuration over the other. Analysis of the proper rate of interest for use in SPS system is 4 percent. The major item of differential inflation to be expected over this period of time is the real cost of labor. This cost is likely to double between today and the period of SPS construction.

Hazelrigg, G. A., Jr.



Factors affecting Bluetongue serotype 8 spread in Northern Europe in 2006: the geographical epidemiology.  


In 2006, Bluetongue serotype 8 was notified for the first time in north-western Europe, more specifically in Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxemburg, Germany and France. The disease spread very rapidly, affecting mainly cattle and sheep farms. In this paper, we examined risk factors affecting the spatial incidence of reported Bluetongue events during the first outbreak in 2006. Previous studies suggested that the Bluetongue incidence was enhanced by environmental factors, such as temperature and wind speed and direction, as well as by human interventions, such as the transport of animals. In contrast to the previous studies, which were based on univariable analyses, a multivariable epidemiological analysis describing the spatial relationship between Bluetongue incidence and possible risk factors is proposed in this paper. This disentangles the complex interplay between different risk factors. Our model shows that wind is the most important factor affecting the incidence of the disease. In addition, areas with high precipitation are slightly more sensitive to the spread of the infection via the wind. Another important risk factor is the land cover; high-risk areas for infection being characterized by a fragmentation of the land cover, especially the combination of forests and urban areas. Precipitation and temperature are also significant risk factors. High precipitation in areas with a large coverage of forests and/or pasture increases the risk whereas high temperature increases the risk considerably in municipalities covered mainly with pasture. Local spread via the vector is strongest in areas with a large coverage of forests and smallest in highly urbanized areas. Finally, the transport of animals from infected areas is a risk factor. PMID:23273733

Faes, Christel; van der Stede, Yves; Guis, Hélène; Staubach, Christoph; Ducheyne, Els; Hendrickx, Guy; Mintiens, Koen



Factors affecting defaulting from DOTS therapy under the national programme of tuberculosis control in Alexandria, Egypt.  


This unmatched case-control study aimed to identify factors affecting default from therapy under the national programme of TB control in Alexandria, Egypt. Record reviews and structured interviews were made with 57 defaulters and 187 randomly selected controls. Univariate analysis showed 13 out of 54 factors, investigated were significantly associated with defaulting and, after stepwise logistic regression, 5 factors remained in the model: younger age (adjusted OR = 0.16), rural area of residence (OR = 12.9), long waiting times (OR = 5.81), poor physician-patient communication (OR = 3.06) and fear of information leakage (OR = 3.62). Reasons cited by defaulters included long distance to the clinic, unsuitable clinic times and long waiting times. The main factors associated with defaulting from the national programme of TB control in Alexandria, Egypt were service-related factors, which are amenable to improvement. PMID:23516818

El-Din, M Nour; Elhoseeny, T; Mohsen, A M M A



Increase in Fluorescence upon the Hydrolysis of Tyrosine Peptides: Application to Proteinase Assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intrinsic fluorescence of tyrosine increases by a factor of approximately two when the carboxy group is liberated from a peptide bond by hydrolysis. The increase in fluorescence provides a novel way to monitor the hydrolysis of native tyrosine peptides that contain only proteinogenic amino acids. Thus, for example, the hydrolysis by HIV-1 proteinase of a heptapeptide viral protein fragment

A. G. Peranteau; P. Kuzmic; Y. Angell; C. Garciaecheverria; D. H. Rich



Progressing Batch Hydrolysis Reactor  

SciTech Connect

In all dilute acid hydrolysis processes for glucose production, conditions severe enough to hydrolyze crystalline cellulose to glucose are also severe enough to degrade the glucose into undesirable compounds such as hydroxy-methylfurfural (HMF), levulinic acid, and formic acid. One way to minimize the sugar degradation is to remove the sugars from the reaction zone before substantial degradation occurs. Sugars are most efficiently removed by a reactor system that uses countercurrent flow of liquids and solids, which allows simultaneous achievement of high yields and high sugar concentrations. The progressing batch hydrolysis process, invented and now under development at SERI, uses several percolation reactors in series to simulate countercurrent flow of liquids and solids. In this way, the advantages of countercurrent flow are achieved, and the mechanical and operational simplicity of the percolation reactor is retained. This paper describes the theory and operation of the progressing batch hydrolysis reactor and presents the results of our mathematical modeling of the system. 25 refs., 7 figs.

Wright, J.D.; Bergeron, P.W.; Werdene, P.J.



Factors, correlates, and problem areas affecting career decision making of a cross-sectional sample of students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the self-reported impact of 6 general factors affecting career decision making and specifically tested the validity of the Career Factor Checklist (CFC) developed from a model of the lst author et al (1978). 1,436 high school, undergraduate, and graduate students completed the CFC and reported the degree to which 6 general factors and 22 subfactors affected their career decision

James M ONeil



Variation of NEE and its affecting factors in a vineyard of arid region of northwest China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand the variation of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) in orchard ecosystem and it's affecting factors, carbon flux was measured using eddy covariance system in a wine vineyard in arid northwest China during 2008-2010. Results show that vineyard NEE was positive value at the early growth stage, higher negative value at the mid-growth stage, and lower negative value at the later growth stage. Diurnal variation of NEE was "W" shaped curve in sunny day, but "U" shaped curve in cloudy day. Irrigation and pruning did not affect diurnal variation shape of NEE, however, irrigation reduced the difference between maximal and minimal value of NEE and pruning reduced the carbon sink capacity. The main factors affecting hourly NEE were canopy conductance (gc) and net radiation (Rn). The hourly NEE increased with the increase of gc or Rn when gc was less than 0.02 m·s-1 or Rn was between 0 and 200 W·m-2. The main factors affecting both daily and seasonal NEE were gc, air temperature (Ta), atmospheric CO2 density, vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and soil moisture content.

Guo, W. H.; Kang, S. Z.; Li, F. S.; Li, S. E.



[Suitable distribution area of Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann) in China and related affecting factors].  


Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann) is an important quarantine insect of apple tree, and usually causes serious economic losses in apple production area every year. To predict the suitable distribution area of E. lanigerum and the environmental factors affecting the insect' s colonization and dispersal could provide references for the forecast of the insect's distribution area, the constitution of effective quarantine measures, and the control decisions. In this study, niche model MaxEnt and ArcGIS were applied to analyze and predict the suitable distribution area of E. lanigerum, ROC was used to evaluate the prediction model and the prediction results, and Jackknife analysis was made to analyze the most important environmental factors affecting the occurrence of E. lanigerum. The results showed that E. lanigerum had a wide distribution area in China, its suitable distribution index was the highest in Liaoning, Shandong, Henan, Hebei, Anhui, Jiangsu, and Shaanxi provinces, and the most important environmental factors affecting the occurrence of E. lanigerum were temperature-dependent factors. PMID:22803484

Hong, Bo; Wang, Ying-Lun; Zhao, Hui-Yan



Factors affecting the adoption of home-heating energy-conservation measures: a behavioral approach  

SciTech Connect

The basic aim of this research is to better understand homeowners' adoption of home-heating energy-conservation measures by analyzing a number of factors that are thought to be underlying determinants of adoption behavior. The basic approach is behavioral drawing on the knowledge built up in behavioral geography through studies on natural hazards and innovation diffusion, and borrowing from psychological theories of attitude formation and decision making. In particular, six factors (information, environmental personality, socio-economic and demographic factors, dwelling unit characteristics, psychological variables, and past experience) are shown to directly and indirectly affect adoption behavior. By this means, differences between adopters and nonadopters in the underlying cognitive structures and in the situational factors that affect their decisions are identified. The study focuses on the adoption of three measures: reducing winter night-time thermostat settings, changing or cleaning furnace filters, and installing an automatic setback thermostat. Personal interviews with a random sample of 159 homeowners in Decatur, Illinois serve as the main data base. Results indicate that adoption behavior is determined more by past experience, than by intention. Beliefs, attitudes, and social influences affect behavior indirectly through intention. These psychological variables also act as mediators between information, knowledge, environmental personality, situational variables and behavior. In particular, respondent's age, previous home ownership, and length of residence act indirectly on adoption behavior. Each of these reflects the amount of past experience the respondent is likely to have.

Macey, S.M.



Factors affecting adherence to a quality improvement checklist on an inpatient hepatology service  

PubMed Central

Given the increasing emphasis on measuring quality indicators such as adherence to practice guidelines, we sought to determine the factors and address the barriers affecting guideline adherence on an academic inpatient hepatology service. We performed a single-center, prospective observational study. Physicians were given a handheld checklist to complete daily. We first measured the adherence rate and studied factors affecting adherence by performing surveys. We then modified the program to address the factors affecting adherence and reassessed the adherence rate. There was a baseline 46% checklist adherence rate. Reasons given for nonadherence fell into two categories: ease of task and physician commitment from both attending physicians and housestaff. Specific reasons given were that the attending did not prompt (39%), the adherence sheet was not in the chart (35%), the individual forgot (12%), as well as lack of time, unclear protocol, “too difficult,” and “didn—t pay attention” (4% each). Each of these factors was addressed with a multimodal approach. Thereafter, the adherence rate rose from 46% to 83% (P < 0.001). Maintaining checklist adherence is time intensive and requires commitment from the whole medical team. PMID:24688186

Lai, Michelle



Factors affecting mutational specificity induced by ionizing radiation and oxidizing radicals  

SciTech Connect

We propose to analyze the factors affecting the specificity of mutational change as induced by ionizing radiation and oxidizing radicals. We want to understand not only the rules that affect base substitution, but also the mechanism(s) by which additions and deletions are produced, since detections are a common consequence of radiation. We wish to carry out this analysis in an in vitro mutation system that permits us to analyze the role of base sequence, of polymerase and of mutagenic agent. Our system is designed to screen out most direct breaks as a cause of mutation and should indicate the changes resulting from base damage to the DNA.

Strauss, B.S.



A review of modifying factors affecting usage of diagnostic rating scales in concussion management.  


Sport-related concussion has gained increasing recognition as a result of recent legislation, public health initiatives and media coverage. Moreover, there have been substantial paradigm shifts in the management of concussion. This article will discuss the variables that affect the use of diagnostic rating scales such as ImPACT and SCAT in the current management of concussed individuals. Specifically, patient-specific modifying factors affecting test interpretation, including age, gender, fitness level, psychiatric conditions, learning disorders and other components of medical history will be addressed, as well as methodological concerns with baseline testing. PMID:24908218

Dessy, Alexa; Rasouli, Jonathan; Gometz, Alex; Choudhri, Tanvir




EPA Science Inventory

SPARC chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate hydrolysis rate constants for carboxylic acid esters from molecular structure. The energy differences between the initial state and the transition state for a molecule of interest are factored into internal and external...


Expression of dominant-negative mutants to study host factors affecting plant virus infections.  


Our increasing understanding of virus-host interactions is revealing a complex role for host factors during virus replication. Besides the role of some host proteins in defense against viruses, it is becoming clear that viruses also hijack several host functions to utilize them for their multiplication. Genome-wide screens using high-throughput methods are being conducted to identify most of the host factors affecting virus replication in a number of host-virus systems. For selected plant viruses, such as bromo- and tombusviruses, yeast has been developed as a model host, thus greatly accelerating genome-wide systematic approaches to identify critical host factors of virus multiplication. In plants, gene knock out T-DNA libraries and virus-induced RNA silencing, among other strategies, can be utilized to identify and characterize host factors involved in virus replication. An additional strategy to study the role of host factors is the use of dominant-negative (DN) mutants, which are mutant versions of host proteins capable of interfering with the function of the wild-type protein without the need of knocking out the given gene from the chromosome. This method allows one to study the relevance of host factors for virus replication in wild-type plants and may overcome some limitations of other methods. Here, we provide guidelines to the use of a DN mutant strategy for the study of host factors and compare the advantages and limitations with other methods. The use of more diverse methods to study gene function in plants is increasing the probability of successfully identifying and characterizing host factors affecting virus replication in plant systems. PMID:22678592

Barajas, Daniel; Nagy, Peter D



Factors affecting regional per-capita carbon emissions in China based on an LMDI factor decomposition model.  


China is considered to be the main carbon producer in the world. The per-capita carbon emissions indicator is an important measure of the regional carbon emissions situation. This study used the LMDI factor decomposition model-panel co-integration test two-step method to analyze the factors that affect per-capita carbon emissions. The main results are as follows. (1) During 1997, Eastern China, Central China, and Western China ranked first, second, and third in the per-capita carbon emissions, while in 2009 the pecking order changed to Eastern China, Western China, and Central China. (2) According to the LMDI decomposition results, the key driver boosting the per-capita carbon emissions in the three economic regions of China between 1997 and 2009 was economic development, and the energy efficiency was much greater than the energy structure after considering their effect on restraining increased per-capita carbon emissions. (3) Based on the decomposition, the factors that affected per-capita carbon emissions in the panel co-integration test showed that Central China had the best energy structure elasticity in its regional per-capita carbon emissions. Thus, Central China was ranked first for energy efficiency elasticity, while Western China was ranked first for economic development elasticity. PMID:24353753

Dong, Feng; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Qingliang



Factors affecting adequate prenatal care and the prenatal care visits of immigrant women to Taiwan.  


This paper investigates prenatal care utilization, identifies factors affecting the adequacy of prenatal care, and explores the effect of adequate initial timing of prenatal care on total prenatal care visits among Taiwan new immigrant females. Data was obtained from the 2008 Prenatal Care Utilization among Taiwan New Immigrant Females Survey on women who either had at least one preschool-aged child or had delivered their infants but were still hospitalized (N = 476). The Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index was applied to rate the prenatal care adequacy. The logistic regression model was used to investigate factors associated with the adequacy of prenatal care utilization, and the linear regression model was estimated to identify the impact of influential factors on the prenatal care usage. Females' nationality, employment, and transportation convenience increased the likelihood of receiving adequate prenatal care. Having adequate initial timing of prenatal care was found to be positively related to the frequency of prenatal care visits. Prenatal care utilization can be affected by factors within the health care system and by characteristics of the population; therefore, a measure of prenatal care utilization cannot distinguish these factors but reflects the result of all of them in varying combinations. PMID:23065308

Liang, Yia-Wun; Chang, Hua-Pin; Lin, Yu-Hsiu; Lin, Long-Yau; Chen, Wen-Yi



Factors Affecting the Development of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos in Cattle  

PubMed Central

Nuclear transfer is a complex multistep procedure that includes oocyte maturation, cell cycle synchronization of donor cells, enucleation, cell fusion, oocyte activation and embryo culture. Therefore, many factors are believed to contribute to the success of embryo development following nuclear transfer. Numerous attempts to improve cloning efficiency have been conducted since the birth of the first sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer. However, the efficiency of somatic cell cloning has remained low, and applications have been limited. In this review, we discuss some of the factors that affect the developmental ability of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in cattle. PMID:25341701

AKAGI, Satoshi; MATSUKAWA, Kazutsugu; TAKAHASHI, Seiya



Factors affecting waste generation: a study in a waste management program in Dhaka City, Bangladesh.  


Information on waste generation, socioeconomic characteristics, and willingness of the households to separate waste was obtained from interviews with 402 respondents in Dhaka city. Ordinary least square regression was used to determine the dominant factors that might influence the waste generation of the households. The results showed that the waste generation of the households in Dhaka city was significantly affected by household size, income, concern about the environment, and willingness to separate the waste. These factors are necessary to effectively improve waste management, growth and performance, as well as to reduce the environmental degradation of the household waste. PMID:21046234

Afroz, Rafia; Hanaki, Keisuke; Tudin, Rabaah



Factors affecting herbicide yields in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, June 1994  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Median concentrations and instantaneous yields of alachlor, metolachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and simazine were generally highest at sites in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin and in agricultural subbasins. Instantaneous herbicide yields are related to land use, hydrogeologic setting, streamflow yield, and agricultural row cropping practices. The significance of these relations may be affected by the interdependence of the factors. The percentage of basin area planted in corn is the most influential factor in the prediction of herbicide yield. Instantaneous yields of all five herbicides measured in June 1994 related poorly to averaged 199094 herbicide use. Annually averaged herbicide-use data are too general to use as a predictor for short-term herbicide yields. An evaluation of factors affecting herbicide yields could be refined with more-current land use and land cover information and a more accurate estimate of the percentage of basin area planted in corn. Factors related to herbicide yields can be used to predict herbicide yields in other basins within the Chesapeake Bay watershed and to develop an estimate of herbicide loads to Chesapeake Bay.Median concentrations and instantaneous yields of alachlor, metolachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and simazine were generally highest at sites in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin and in agricultural subbasins. Instantaneous herbicide yields are related to land use, hydrogeologic setting, streamflow yield, and agricultural row cropping practices. The significance of these relations may be affected by the interdependence of the factors. The percentage of basin area planted in corn is the most influential factor in the prediction of herbicide yield. Instantaneous yields of all five herbicides measured in June 1994 related poorly to averaged 1990-94 herbicide use. Annually averaged herbicide-use data are too general to use as a predictor for short-term herbicide yields. An evaluation of factors affecting herbicide yields could be refined with more-current land use and land cover information and a more accurate estimate of the percentage of basin area planted in corn. Factors related to herbicide yields can be used to predict herbicide yields in other basins within the Chesapeake Bay watershed and to develop an estimate of herbicide loads to Chesapeake Bay.

Hainly, R.A.; Kahn, J.M.



Factors that affect Li mobility in layered lithium transition metal oxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffusion constant of Li in electrode materials is a key aspect of the rate capability of rechargeable Li batteries. The factors that affect Li mobility in layered lithium transition metal oxides are systematically studied in this paper by means of first-principles calculations. In close packed oxides octahedral ions diffuse by migrating through intermediate tetrahedral sites. Our results indicate that the activation barrier for Li hopping is strongly affected by the size of the tetrahedral site and the electrostatic interaction between Li+ in that site and the cation in the octahedron that shares a face with it. The size of the tetrahedral site is determined by the c -lattice parameter which has a remarkably strong effect on the activation barrier for Li migration. The effect of other factors such as cation mixing and doping with nontransition metal ions can be interpreted quantitatively in terms of the size and electrostatic effect. A general strategy to design high rate electrode materials is discussed.

Kang, Kisuk; Ceder, Gerbrand



Factors Affecting Hospital Employees' Knowledge Sharing Intention and Behavior, and Innovation Behavior  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the factors affecting employees' knowledge sharing intention, knowledge sharing behavior, and innovation behavior of the four top-ranked university hospitals in South Korea. Methods Data were collected from employees at three university hospitals in Seoul, Korea and one university hospital in Gyeonggi-Do, Korea through self-administered questionnaires. The survey was conducted from May 29, 2013 to July 17, 2013. A total of 779 questionnaires were analyzed by SPSS version 18.0 and AMOS version 18.0. Results Factors affecting hospital employees' knowledge sharing intention, knowledge sharing behavior, and innovation behavior are reciprocity, behavioral control, and trust. Conclusion It is important to select employees who have a propensity for innovation and continuously educate them about knowledge management based on trust. PMID:25180147

Lee, Hyun Sook; Hong, Seong Ae



Factors that affect college students' perceptions of rape: what is the role of gender and other situational factors?  


Prior research has shown that various situational factors and behaviors can affect one's perception of whether a rape has occurred. Moreover, some hold false beliefs about rape. This can also affect one's perception of ambiguous situations. This study included the administration of a survey to 584 college students; the survey examined the prevalence of rape myths and responses to vignettes of potential rape scenarios. It was found that although the majority of this sample did not support rape myths, male students were significantly more likely than female students to support rape myths. Furthermore, approximately 20% of students did support one subscale of the rape myth scale: He didn't mean to [commit rape]. The results also revealed an interaction effect between the observer's sex and the victim's sex, suggesting a complex gender relationship. PMID:22436736

Vandiver, Donna M; Dupalo, Jessica Rager



Learning style as a factor which affects the quality of e-learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aid of the Internet, many organizations and schools have adopted the idea of applying the e-learning system, which\\u000a is considered as one of the most important services provided by the Internet. The purpose of this paper is to investigate\\u000a the factors affecting the acceptance and use of e-learning system. There are a number of implicit and explicit frameworks

Suzana Markovi?; Nenad Jovanovi?


Factors affecting breeding habitat selection in a cliff-nesting peregrine Falco peregrinus population  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied factors affecting breeding habitat selection in a population of cliff-nesting peregrines Falco peregrinus across multiple spatial levels (cliff site, cliff context and land-use of the surrounding landscape), over a 2,100 km2 study area in the Alps (Italy and Switzerland). We detected 30 breeding pairs (density: 1.43 territorial pairs\\/100 km2), whose territories were uniformly distributed over the study area. We compared

Mattia Brambilla; Diego Rubolini; Franca Guidali



An Analysis of Factors Affecting the Oxygen Consumption of the Isopod Ligia oceanica  

E-print Network

AN ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF THE ISOPOD LIGIA OCEANICA1 R. C. NEWELL, A. ROY, AND K. B. ARMITAGE Institute of Biology, University of Odense, 5000 Odense, Denmark;2 Department des Sciences Biologiques, Universit& de... temperature, starvation time, lipid content, acclimation time, and body size. The isopod Ligia oceanica was selected because it lives well in the laboratory and was available in a wide variety of sizes. There is also some information in the literature...

Newell, R. C.; Roy, A.; Armitage, Kenneth



Early environmental and social factors affecting adult aggressiveness in inbred mice  

E-print Network

of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1971 Major Subject: Psychology EARLY ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL FACTORS AFFECTING ADULT AGGRESSIVENESS IN INBRED MICE A Thesis by MICHAEL LYNN ALLENDER Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Commi ee) (Member... behavioral system which allows animals to adjust to situations involving physical conflict between members of the same species. In defining the limits of agonistic behavior, Scott lists behaioral patterns which are not so easily interpreted...

Allender, Michael Lynn



Factors affecting seed germination of Eleocharis cellulosa and Rhyncospora tracyi from the northern Everglades  

Microsoft Academic Search

The re-establishment of native plant communities, in particular the re-creation of ridge (sawgrass dominated; Cladium jamaicense) and slough (Eleocharis spp. and Nymphaea odorata) habitat, is a significant component of Everglades restoration. Two wetland species indicative of pristine slough habitats\\u000a are Eleocharis cellulosa and Rhynchospora tracyi. This study conducted controlled experiments to examine three factors affecting seed germination of native slough

Jennifer A. Leeds; Susan Newman; Stephen M. Smith



Factors affecting the severity of motor vehicle traffic crashes involving elderly drivers in Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted to examine factors affecting the severity of motor vehicle traffic crashes (MVTCs) involving elderly drivers in Ontario. The study population included drivers aged 65 and over involved in injury-producing MVTCs between 1988 and 1993 on Ontario public roads. Information was obtained from the Canadian Traffic Accident Information Databank (TRAID) compiled from police reports. The

Jun Zhang; Joan Lindsay; Kathy Clarke; Glenn Robbins; Yang Mao



Factors affecting membrane coalescence of stable oil-in-water emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results on membrane coalescence of stable oil-in-water emulsions. The method involves a two-stage process in which the membranes are used to enlarge oil droplets such that a traditional gravity settler can be used for oil phase separation. Several factors that affect the performance of the membrane coalescer have been studied. In particular, the effect of membrane pore

A Hong; A. G Fane; R Burford



Factors that affect tomato bruise development as a result of mechanical impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

External and internal factors that affect tomato bruise susceptibility such as impact- and fruit-related properties were investigated. Logistic regression was used to establish a relationship between tomato loading conditions and the resulting damage. Impact-specific models were built for a more precise determination of the bruise risk related to a narrow range of impact energies, being low (23mJ), medium (71mJ), high

Veerle Van linden; Nico Scheerlinck; Michèle Desmet; Josse De Baerdemaeker



Some Factors Affecting the Utilization of Phosphoric Acid in Soils by Plants in Pot Experiments.  

E-print Network

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, Director College Station, Texas BULLETIN NO. 647 APRIL, 1944 SOME FACTORS AFFECTING THE UTILIZATION OF PHOSPHORIC ACID IN SOILS BY PLANTS IN POT EXPERIMENTS G. S. FRAPS and J. F. FUDGE...] The relations between the quantities of phosphoric acid re- moved by corn and milo or kafir and the composition and other characteristics of Texas soils was ascertained from the data of 375 pot experiments. acid acid crol nhn! =---, Wit pho; tota DL...

Fudge, J. F. (Joseph Franklin); Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)



Nerve Growth Factor and Its Monocyte Receptors Are Affected in Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays a critical role in both physiological and pathological conditions. Their biological effects are mediated by two receptors (NGF-R): TrkA and p75. We previously reported NGF and NGF-R overexpression in various renal disorders. The aim of the study was to determinate NGF levels and NGF-R expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects affected by glomerulonephritis

Maria Teresa Antonucci; Renzo Bonofiglio; Teresa Papalia; Francesco Caruso; Maria Cristina Caroleo; Domenico Mancuso; Luigi Aloe



Study on affecting factors of collaborative product development based on collaboration hierarchy model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming at the levels of collaborative degree in web-based product development, a collaboration hierarchy model of this product\\u000a development is developed in this paper. Based on the model, the affecting factors on collaboration levels are analyzed systematically\\u000a from many aspects, such as technology, organization and business. A gap analysis method is studied in detail, and is applied\\u000a in a real

Xiaodong Zhang; Yingzi Li; Zhiqiang Zhang



Biological and physical factors affecting the body burden of organic contaminants in freshwater mussels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological and physical factors affecting the body burdens of hexachlorobenzene, octachlorostyrene, and four polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) congeners in freshwater mussels from Lake St. Clair, Ontario, Canada were investigated. Specimens ofLampsilis radiata (Barnes) and the non-nativeElliptio complanata (Lightfoot) were deployed for forty days at four Lake St. Clair sites, to investigate whether the water or the sediment phase represented the primary source

B. W. Muncaster; P. D. N. Hebert; R. Lazar



Factors Affecting the Agrobacterium -Mediated Transient Transformation of the Wetland Monocot, Typha latifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system, using transient transformation assays, was used to evaluate conditions influencing transformation for the wetland monocot Typha latifolia. These studies were aimed at the long-term objective of evaluating candidate genes for phytoremediation. The binary plasmid vector pCAMBIA1301\\/EHA105, containing the ß-glucuronidase coding sequence, was used in combination with factors known to affect transformation. These included callus age at

Rangaraj Nandakumar; Li Chen; Suzanne M. D. Rogers



Up, Up and Away: Testing Factors that Affect Helium Balloon Lift  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What factors affect the amount of weight a helium balloon is able to lift? Was there enough helium in the balloon that drifted over Colorado last week to lift a 6-year-old boy? In this lesson, students conduct experiments to test the relationship between volume of helium balloons and their âlifting power.â They then apply their learning to the Heene case.

Hutchings, Catherine; Ojalvo, Holly E.



Risk factors affecting the severity of single vehicle traffic accidents in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population-based case–control study was conducted to examine factors affecting the severity of single vehicle traffic accidents in Hong Kong. In particular, single vehicle accident data of three major vehicle types, namely private vehicles, goods vehicles and motorcycles, which contributed to over 80% of all single vehicle accidents during the 2-year-period 1999–2000, were considered. Data were obtained from the newly

Kelvin K. W. Yau



Clinical Factors that May Affect Outcome in Lumbar Total Disc Replacement. What Is the Evidence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The role of artificial disc replacement in the treatment of disorders of the lumbar spine remains unclear. The strength of\\u000a the available evidence concerning a variety of factors that might affect outcomes needs to be assessed when evaluating the\\u000a scientific merit of the new technology. Only lower level studies with conflicting results assess the effect on outcomes of\\u000a single vs.

Michael R. Zindrick; Mark Lorenz; Leonard I. Voronov; Michael N. Tzermiadianos; Alexander Hadjipavlou


Factors affecting Agrobacterium -mediated transformation and regeneration of sweet orange and citrange  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epicotyl explants of sweet orange and citrange were infected with Agrobacterium strain EHA101 harboring binary vector pGA482GG, and factors affecting the plant regeneration and transformation efficiency were evaluated. Increasing the wounded area of explants by cutting longitudinally into two halves, and optimization of inoculation density, dramatically enhanced both regeneration and transformation frequency. Inclusion of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in the explant

Changhe Yu; Shu Huang; Chunxian Chen; Zhanao Deng; Paul Ling; Fred G. Gmitter



Soil penetrability as a key factor affecting the nesting of burrowing birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil penetrability resistance was found to be crucial for nest site selection of all three Central European burrowing bird\\u000a species—Sand Martins (Riparia riparia), European Bee-eaters (Merops apiaster), and Eurasian Kingfishers (Alcedo atthis). Soil penetrability resistance measurements were used to find out whether increased hardness of unexcavated banks is the\\u000a key factor affecting the presence of burrowing birds. All three species

Petr Heneberg



Subinhibitory Concentrations of Perilla Oil Affect the Expression of Secreted Virulence Factor Genes in Staphylococcus aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe pathogenicity of staphylococcus aureus is dependent largely upon its ability to secrete a number of virulence factors, therefore, anti-virulence strategy to combat S. aureus-mediated infections is now gaining great interest. It is widely recognized that some plant essential oils could affect the production of staphylococcal exotoxins when used at subinhibitory concentrations. Perilla [Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton], a natural medicine

Jiazhang Qiu; Xiaoran Zhang; Mingjing Luo; Hongen Li; Jing Dong; Jianfeng Wang; Bingfeng Leng; Xiaoliang Wang; Haihua Feng; Wenzhi Ren; Xuming Deng; Ramy K. Aziz



Factors affecting the distribution of Sorex samniticus , an endemic Italian shrew, in an heterogeneous landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the factors affecting the distribution of an endemic shrewSorex samniticus Altobello, 1926 in the Province of Siena, central Italy. Distribution data were obtained by examining pellets from 31 barn\\u000a owlTyto alba sites (roosts) over a period spanning from 1974 to 2005. We constructed a model using logistic regression analysis on presence\\/absence\\u000a data. Results show that an increase in

Alessio Mortelliti; Giovanni Amori; Giampiero Sammuri; Luigi Boitani



Factors affecting Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated genetic transformation of Lycium barbarum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Using the system for genetic transformation and transgenic plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis (SE) of Lycium barbarum established in this laboratory, this study reports the optimization of the factors affecting the efficiency of transformation,\\u000a including pre-culture period, leaf explant source, use of acetosyringone, strains and density of Agrobacterium, and temperature of co-cultivation. The optimized transformation protocol for L. barbarum included

Zhong Hu; Yi-Rui Wu; Wei Li; Huan-Huan Gao



Vibrational spectroscopic studies of N,N'-dimethylpropyleneurea-water system: affected solvent spectra and factor analysis.  


FT-IR spectra of N,N'-dimethylpropyleneurea (DMPU)-water system have been measured in the 4000-500 cm(-1) range by Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) technique in the entire composition range. The hydration of DMPU in diluted aqueous solutions has been additionally studied with transmission FT-IR spectroscopy of isotopically diluted HDO in H(2)O, used as a probe of solute hydration. The spectra have been analysed with the quantitative version of the difference spectra method that leads to isolation of the spectrum of solvent affected by the presence of the solute. DMPU-affected HDO spectra provide information about the energetic state of water molecules in the hydration shell, while affected H(2)O spectra additionally reflect the structural state of the water hydrogen bond network. The CO stretching band of DMPU has been used to obtain also the H(2)O-affected DMPU spectrum. The affected H(2)O and DMPU spectra have been determined in infinite dilution approximation, as well as for increasing concentrations of the solute. These results are confronted with factor analysis of ATR spectra, which shows the presence of three well-defined intermolecular complexes in the studied system. Presumable structures of these complexes have been proposed on the basis of Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations of optimal cluster geometries. PMID:20869300

?miechowski, Maciej



Factors of a noninfectious nature affecting fertility after artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows. A review.  


After 80 years of the commercial application of artificial insemination (AI) in the cow, the method still has numerous benefits over natural insemination including worldwide gene improvement. The efficiency of insemination depends, among many other factors, on the delivery of an appropriate number of normal spermatozoa to the appropriate reproductive tract site at the appropriate time of estrus. The metabolic clearance of steroid hormones and pregnancy associated glycoproteins and the negative effects of different types of stress related to high milk production makes the high-producing dairy cow a good animal model for addressing factors affecting fertility. Nevertheless, extensive studies have shown a positive link between high milk production in an individual cow and high fertility. When a cow becomes pregnant, the effect of pregnancy loss on its reproductive cycle is also a topic of interest. This paper reviews the factors of a noninfectious nature that affect the fertility of lactating dairy cows following AI. Special attention is paid to factors related to the cow and its environment and to estrus confirmation at insemination. Pregnancy maintenance during the late embryonic/early fetal period is discussed as a critical step. Finally, the use of Doppler ultrasonography is described as an available research tool for improving our current understanding of the health of the genital structures and conceptus. PMID:22153267

López-Gatius, F



Factors affecting the diffusion of solar water disinfection: a field study in Bolivia.  


This study examines a broad array of theory-based factors derived from diffusion research that affect the current and intended use of solar water disinfection (SODIS), a simple, low-cost technology for treating drinking water at the household level. The perceived attributes of an innovation, the nature of the social system in which it is diffused, the extent of change agents' promotional efforts in diffusing it, and the nature of the communication channels used were operationalized by 16 variables. The aim of the study is to determine the influence of each factor and its predictive power. Eight areas in Bolivia were visited, and 644 families were interviewed on the basis of a structured questionnaire. Simultaneous multiple regression analysis showed that 9 of the 16 factors derived from diffusion research contributed significantly to predicting the current use of SODIS. The implications of the findings for customizing future SODIS diffusion activities are outlined. PMID:18678886

Heri, Simone; Mosler, Hans-Joachim



Making myself understood: perceived factors affecting the intelligibility of sung text.  


Singing is universal, and understanding sung words is thought to be important for many listeners' enjoyment of vocal and choral music. However, this is not a trivial task, and sung text intelligibility is probably affected by many factors. A survey of musicians was undertaken to identify the factors believed to have most impact on intelligibility, and to assess the importance of understanding sung words in familiar and unfamiliar languages. A total of 143 professional and amateur musicians, including singers, singing teachers, and regular listeners to vocal music, provided 394 statements yielding 851 references to one or more of 43 discrete factors in four categories: performer-related, listener-related, environment-related and words/music-related. The factors mentioned most frequently in each of the four categories were, respectively: diction; hearing ability; acoustic; and genre. In more than a third of references, the extent to which sung text is intelligible was attributed to the performer. Over 60% of respondents rated the ability to understand words in familiar languages as "very important," but only 17% when the text was in an unfamiliar language. Professional musicians (47% of the sample) rated the importance of understanding in both familiar and unfamiliar languages significantly higher than amateurs but listed fewer factors overall and fewer listener-related factors. The more important the respondents rated understanding, the more performer-related and environment-related factors they tended to list. There were no significant differences between the responses of those who teach singing and those who do not. Enhancing sung text intelligibility is thus perceived to be within the singer's control, at least to some extent, but there are also many factors outside their control. Empirical research is needed to explore some of these factors in greater depth, and has the potential to inform pedagogy for singers, composers, and choral directors. PMID:25249987

Fine, Philip A; Ginsborg, Jane



Making myself understood: perceived factors affecting the intelligibility of sung text  

PubMed Central

Singing is universal, and understanding sung words is thought to be important for many listeners’ enjoyment of vocal and choral music. However, this is not a trivial task, and sung text intelligibility is probably affected by many factors. A survey of musicians was undertaken to identify the factors believed to have most impact on intelligibility, and to assess the importance of understanding sung words in familiar and unfamiliar languages. A total of 143 professional and amateur musicians, including singers, singing teachers, and regular listeners to vocal music, provided 394 statements yielding 851 references to one or more of 43 discrete factors in four categories: performer-related, listener-related, environment-related and words/music-related. The factors mentioned most frequently in each of the four categories were, respectively: diction; hearing ability; acoustic; and genre. In more than a third of references, the extent to which sung text is intelligible was attributed to the performer. Over 60% of respondents rated the ability to understand words in familiar languages as “very important,” but only 17% when the text was in an unfamiliar language. Professional musicians (47% of the sample) rated the importance of understanding in both familiar and unfamiliar languages significantly higher than amateurs but listed fewer factors overall and fewer listener-related factors. The more important the respondents rated understanding, the more performer-related and environment-related factors they tended to list. There were no significant differences between the responses of those who teach singing and those who do not. Enhancing sung text intelligibility is thus perceived to be within the singer’s control, at least to some extent, but there are also many factors outside their control. Empirical research is needed to explore some of these factors in greater depth, and has the potential to inform pedagogy for singers, composers, and choral directors. PMID:25249987

Fine, Philip A.; Ginsborg, Jane



Critical processing factors affecting rheological behavior of a wax based formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a wax-based vehicle is one approach to stabilize a drug which is susceptible to hydrolysis and\\/or oxidation. The drug used in the study, as a microfine powder, is dispersed in the wax mixture and encapsulated in a soft gelatin capsule. To ensure reproducibility of drug content uniformity and encapsulability of the soft gelatin capsule dosage form, optimal

W Phuapradit; N. H Shah; Y Lou; S Kundu; M. H Infeld



Factors affecting loss of tympanic membrane mobility in acute otitis media model of chinchilla.  


Recently we reported that middle ear pressure (MEP), middle ear effusion (MEE), and ossicular changes each contribute to the loss of tympanic membrane (TM) mobility in a guinea pig model of acute otitis media (AOM) induced by Streptococcus pneumoniae (Guan and Gan, 2013). However, it is not clear how those factors vary along the course of the disease and whether those effects are reproducible in different species. In this study, a chinchilla AOM model was produced by transbullar injection of Haemophilus influenzae. Mobility of the TM at the umbo was measured by laser vibrometry in two treatment groups: 4 days (4D) and 8 days (8D) post inoculation. These time points represent relatively early and later phases of AOM. In each group, the vibration of the umbo was measured at three experimental stages: unopened, pressure-released, and effusion-removed ears. The effects of MEP and MEE and middle ear structural changes were quantified in each group by comparing the TM mobility at one stage with that of the previous stage. Our findings show that the factors affecting TM mobility do change with the disease time course. The MEP was the dominant contributor to reduction of TM mobility in 4D AOM ears, but showed little effect in 8D ears when MEE filled the tympanic cavity. MEE was the primary factor affecting TM mobility loss in 8D ears, but affected the 4D ears only at high frequencies. After the release of MEP and removal of MEE, residual loss of TM mobility was seen mainly at low frequencies in both 4D and 8D ears, and was associated with middle ear structural changes. Our findings establish that the factors contributing to TM mobility loss in the chinchilla ear were similar to those we reported previously for the guinea pig ears with AOM. Outcomes did not appear to differ between the two major bacterial species causing AOM in these animal models. PMID:24406734

Guan, Xiying; Chen, Yongzheng; Gan, Rong Z



Evaluation of factors affecting stakeholder risk perception of contaminated sediment disposal in Oslo harbor.  


The management of environmental pollution has changed considerably since the growth of environmental awareness in the late 1960s. The general increased environmental concern and involvement of stakeholders in today's environmental issues may enhance the need to consider risk in a much broader social context rather than just as an estimate of ecological hazard. Risk perception and the constructs and images of risks held by stakeholders and society are important items to address in the management of environmental projects, including the management of contaminated sediments. Here we present a retrospective case study that evaluates factors affecting stakeholder risk perception of contaminated sediment disposal that occurred during a remediation project in Oslo harbor, Norway. The choice to dispose dredged contaminated sediments in a confined aquatic disposal (CAD) site rather than at a land disposal site has received a lot of societal attention, attracted large media coverage, and caused many public discussions. A mixed method approach is used to investigate how risk perceptive affective factors (PAF), socio-demographic aspects, and participatory aspects have influenced the various stakeholders' preferences for the two different disposal options. Risk perceptive factors such as transparency in the decision making process and controllability of the disposal options have been identified as important for risk perception. The results of the study also support the view that there is no sharp distinction in risk perception between experts and other parties and emphasizes the importance of addressing risk perceptive affective factors in similar environmental decision-making processes. Indeed, PAFs such as transparency, openness, and information are fundamental to address in sensitive environmental decisions, such as sediment disposal alternatives, in order to progress to more technical questions such as the controllability and safety. PMID:20809566

Sparrevik, Magnus; Ellen, Gerald Jan; Duijn, Mike



Factors Affecting the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Stay Duration in Very Low Birth Weight Premature Infants  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Improved survival of very low birth weight (VLBW) premature infants requires urgent intensive care, professional nursing and medical care. On the other hand, long hospital stay period imposes emotional and economic burdens on the family and society. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the most important factors affecting their hospitalization duration to lessen unwanted outcomes of premature birth and to eliminate or relieve the problems. Methods: In a descriptive-analytical study, 170 low birth weight premature infants were assessed in a regular daily follow-up in Alzahra Hospital, Tabriz, Iran. Probable factors affecting NICU (neonatal intensive care unit) stay, such as birth age and weight, time of trophic feeding initiation, time of regain birth weight, and duration of parenteral nutrition, were evaluated. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and linier regression model in SPSS14. Statistical significance was considered at 0.05. Results: Mean birth weight and age of infants were 1310.26 ± 804.26 g and 30.51 ± 0.34 weeks, respectively. Duration of NICU stay was 14.51 ± 10.12 days. Intrauterine growth retardation, positive C-reactive protein (CRP) and blood culture during hospitalization stay, bloody or bile stained gastric remnants, days to regain birth weight, and total enteral nutrition intolerance were the most important factors affecting NICU stay among the studied infants. Conclusion: It seems that eliminating risk factors of intrauterine growth retardation during pregnancy, preventing perinatal and nosocomial infections and taking suitable and tolerable feeding strategies will be effective on NICU stay duration in low birth weight premature infants. Therefore, required policies, especially early trophic feeding, are suggested to eliminate the existing difficulties.

Niknajad, Akram; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Sattarzadeh, Niloufar; Bashar Hashemi, Fazileh; Dezham Khoy Shahgholi, Farid



Factors Affecting Nitrate Delivery to Streams from Shallow Ground Water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An analysis of data collected at five flow-path study sites between 1997 and 2006 was performed to identify the factors needed to formulate a comprehensive program, with a focus on nitrogen, for protecting ground water and surface water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Water-quality protection in the Coastal Plain requires the identification of factors that affect the transport of nutrients from recharge areas to streams through the shallow ground-water system. Some basins process or retain nitrogen more readily than others, and the factors that affect nitrogen processing and retention were the focus of this investigation to improve nutrient management in Coastal Plain streams and to reduce nutrient loads to coastal waters. Nitrate reduction in ground water was observed at all five flow-path study sites in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, although the extent of reduction at each site was influenced by various environmental, hydrogeologic, and geochemical factors. Denitrification was the most common factor responsible for decreases in nitrate along the ground-water flow paths. Specific factors, some of which affect denitrification rates, that appeared to influence ground-water nitrate concentrations along the flow paths or in the streams include soil drainage, presence or absence of riparian buffers, evapotranspiration, fertilizer use, ground-water recharge rates and residence times, aquifer properties, subsurface tile drainage, sources and amounts of organic matter, and hyporheic processes. The study data indicate that the nitrate-reducing capacity of the buffer zone combined with that of the hyporheic zone can substantially lower the amount of ground-water nitrate discharged to streams in agricultural settings of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. At the watershed scale, the effects of ground-water discharge on surface-water quality appear to be greatly influenced by streamflow conditions and the presence of extensive riparian vegetation. Streamflow statistics that reflect base flow and the general hydrologic dynamics of a stream are important in understanding nutrient transport from a watershed and may be useful indicators of watersheds that are likely to have higher yields of nutrients and water. Combining streamflow statistics with information on such factors as land use, soil drainage, extent of riparian vegetation, geochemical conditions, and subsurface tile drainage in the Coastal Plain can be useful in identifying watersheds that are most likely to export excessive nitrogen due to nonpoint-source loadings and watersheds that are effective in processing nitrogen.

Harden, Stephen L.; Spruill, Timothy B.



Who Is Unemployed? Factors Affecting Unemployment among Individuals with Doctoral Degrees in Science and Engineering. An SRS Special Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports on the state of employment among individuals holding doctoral degrees in science and engineering. Definition of key terms, an executive summary, discussion of trends in doctoral science and engineering unemployment, examination of factors affecting unemployment in 1993, an exploration of changes in factors affecting

Shettle, Carolyn F.


Work in progress - cognitive, affective and social factors contributing to the success in undergraduate computer science and engineering education  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-year research project is proposed whose overall goal is to look at how cognitive, affective and social factors determine success for undergraduate students and how this varies across 1) major, 2) year of study, 3) campus culture (geographic location, size), 4) gender and 5) race. The proposed research will explore cognitive, affective and social factors that contribute to success

Karina V. Assiter; Barbara A. Karanian



Factors affecting the study pace of first-year law students: in search of study counselling tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores factors affecting the study pace of law students during their first academic year. The participants comprised two student groups: those whose number of study credits were the lowest and highest. Altogether, 25 students (11 with a slow and 14 with a fast study pace) were interviewed. The factors affecting study pace mentioned by the students were the

Mirja Ruohoniemi



Factors affecting European badger (Meles meles) capture numbers in one county in Ireland.  


Understanding factors affecting the number of badgers captured at and around badger setts (burrows) is of considerable applied importance. These factors could be used to estimate probable badger densities for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) control and also for monitoring badger populations from a conservation perspective. Furthermore, badger management and vaccination programs would benefit by increasing the probability of efficiently capturing the target badger populations. Within this context, it was investigated whether badger capture numbers can be estimated from field signs and previous capture histories. Badger capture records (initial and repeated capture numbers at a sett) from a large-scale removal program (405 km(2), 643 setts) were used. Univariable count models indicated that there were a number of significant potential predictors of badger numbers, during initial capture attempts. Using a multivariable zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) model of initial captures we found that badger capture numbers were significantly affected by sett type, season, year, and the number of sett entrances in active use. Badger capture numbers were also affected by the total previous catch during repeated capture events and by the number of previous capture attempts. There was a significant negative trend in badger captures across events. Measures of the ability of these models to estimate badger captures suggested that the models might be useful in estimating badger numbers across a population; however the confidence intervals associated with these predictions were large. PMID:22995474

Byrne, Andrew W; O'Keeffe, James; Sleeman, D Paddy; Davenport, John; Martin, S Wayne



Test-and behavior-specific genetic factors affect WKY hypoactivity in tests of emotionality  

PubMed Central

Inbred Wistar–Kyoto rats consistently display hypoactivity in tests of emotional behavior. We used them to test the hypothesis that the genetic factors underlying the behavioral decision-making process will vary in different environmental contexts. The contexts used were the open-field test (OFT), a novel environment with no explicit threats present, and the defensive-burying test (DB), a habituated environment into which a threat has been introduced. Rearing, a voluntary behavior was measured in both tests, and our study was the first to look for genetic loci affecting grooming, a relatively automatic, stress-responsive stereotyped behavior. Quantitative trait locus analysis was performed on a population of 486 F2 animals bred from reciprocal intercrosses. The genetic architectures of DB and OFT rearing, and of DB and OFT grooming, were compared. There were no common loci affecting grooming behavior in both tests. These different contexts produced the stereotyped behavior via different pathways, and genetic factors seem to influence the decision-making pathways and not the expression of the behavior. Three loci were found that affected rearing behavior in both tests. However, in both contexts, other loci had greater effects on the behavior. Our results imply that environmental context’s effects on decision-making vary depending on the category of behavior. PMID:16490266

Baum, Amber E.; Solberg, Leah C.; Churchill, Gary A.; Ahmadiyeh, Nasim; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Redei, Eva E.



The correlation of factors affecting the endometrial thickness with pregnancy outcome in the IUI cycles  

PubMed Central

Background: Many studies have been carried out to understand the effect of endometrial thickness on the reproductive outcome while the factors affecting the pattern itself are still unknown. Objective: To determine the factors such as age and the number of follicles that could affect the endometrial thickness Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a retrospective study on 680 infertile women considered for intrauterine insemination (IUI). IUI protocol was sequential regimen of clomid and gonadotropin. Endometrial thickness measurement was done on the day of HCG administration. Correlation between endometrial thickness and factors such as age, total follicle numbers, dominant follicle numbers, gonadotropine ampule numbers and pregnancy rate were assessed. Results: The mean endometrial thickness was 7.2±1.8 mm. The endometrium was thinner in older patients compared with younger ones. But in all age ranges pregnancy rate was higher in endometrial thickness 6< ET?10 mm (p<0.05). Conclusion: We did not find any correlation between age, number of follicles and gonadotropine ampoules with endometrial thickness but in all age ranges, there is a possibility of higher chance of pregnancy in endometrial thickness 6 < ET?10 mm.

Habibzadeh, Victoria; Nematolahi Mahani, Sayed Noureddin; Kamyab, Hadiss



Identifying the factors affecting phytoplankton abundance dynamics in Shihmen Reservoir, Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations of multiple temporal distributions of phytoplankton dynamics through environmental variables in water bodies over extensive areas remain relatively scarce. This study focused on the determination of the key factors regulating temporal and spatial variations of phytoplankton abundance at three monitoring sites in Shihmen Reservoir within five years (2006-2010). Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a dimension-reduction technique, was designed to identify the underlying latent effects in multiple time series and interactions between explanatory variables (i.e., environmental variables) and the response variable (phytoplankton abundance). The optimal DFA model successfully described the dynamics of phytoplankton abundance in the Shihmen Reservoir. The results demonstrated that water temperature, water level, COD, BOD, and DO considerably affected phytoplankton abundance at most of the monitoring sites. Among them, water temperature, water level, and COD significantly affected phytoplankton abundance at all three sites, indicating that these variables contributed more to the long-term dynamics of phytoplankton abundance than other variables at the surface water of Shihmen Reservoir. The influx and efflux of Reservoir altering hydrological conditions in Shihmen Reservoir may attenuate the nutrients effects on phytoplankton abundance. In this study, BOD and DO are the other crucial water quality factors that control variations of phytoplankton. The explanatory variables mainly explain the dynamics of phytoplankton abundance than common trends do. In the future, the water manager may consider these variables to propose strategies to manage water quality in Shihmen Reservoir.

Kuo, Yi-Ming; Chuang, Illy; Chu, Hone-Jay; Wu, Jiunn-Tzong; Jang, Cheng-Shin



Arginine methyltransferase affects interactions and recruitment of mRNA processing and export factors.  


Hmt1 is the major type I arginine methyltransferase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and facilitates the nucleocytoplasmic transport of mRNA-binding proteins through their methylation. Here we demonstrate that Hmt1 is recruited during the beginning of the transcriptional elongation process. Hmt1 methylates Yra1 and Hrp1, two mRNA-binding proteins important for mRNA processing and export. Moreover, loss of Hmt1 affects interactions between mRNA-binding proteins and Tho2, a component of the TREX (transcription/export) complex that is important for transcriptional elongation and recruitment of mRNA export factors. Furthermore, RNA in situ hybridization analysis demonstrates that loss of Hmt1 results in slowed release of HSP104 mRNA from the sites of transcription. Genome-wide location analysis shows that Hmt1 is bound to specific functional gene classes, many of which are also bound by Tho2 and other mRNA-processing factors. These data suggest a model whereby Hmt1 affects transcriptional elongation and, as a result, influences recruitment of RNA-processing factors. PMID:15314027

Yu, Michael C; Bachand, François; McBride, Anne E; Komili, Suzanne; Casolari, Jason M; Silver, Pamela A