Sample records for factors affecting hydrolysis

  1. Factors affecting hydrolysis of condensed phosphates in soils

    E-print Network

    Stewart, William M.

    1983-01-01

    under the various treatments LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page I Effect of soil temperature on hydrolysis of pyrophosphate 2 Effect of soil pH on hydrolysis of pyrophosphate 30 3 Pyrophosphate hydrolysis plotted accot. ding to first order kinetics 34... 4 Effect of soil temperature on hydrolysis of tripolyphosphate . . . . . . . ~ . ~ ~ 37 5 Effect of soil pH on hydrolysis of tripolyphosphate 38 6 Tripolyphosphate hydrolysis plotted according to first order kinetics 4l INTRODUCTION Phosphorous...

  2. Factors affecting hydrolysis of condensed phosphates in soils 

    E-print Network

    Stewart, William M.

    1983-01-01

    in two soils (pH 8. 40 and 7. 56) 24 to 96 hours after application of 2 x 10 4 M sodium PP. This increase in OP concentration was attributed to hydrolysis of the sodium PP. As previously mentioned, the half-life of TPP in soils has been found to range..., found PP to be less effective than OP on an acid soil (pH 4. 0), while there were only very slight differences i. n the effectiveness of the two sources in a soil with a pH value of 7. 2. Reported results have shown that increasing the pH of acid...

  3. Xylan as limiting factor in enzymatic hydrolysis of nanocellulose.

    PubMed

    Penttilä, Paavo A; Várnai, Anikó; Pere, Jaakko; Tammelin, Tekla; Salmén, Lennart; Siika-aho, Matti; Viikari, Liisa; Serimaa, Ritva

    2013-02-01

    The role of xylan as a limiting factor in the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was studied by hydrolysing nanocellulose samples prepared by mechanical fibrillation of birch pulp with varying xylan content. Analyzing the nanocelluloses and their hydrolysis residues with dynamic FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that a certain fraction of xylan remained tightly attached to cellulose fibrils despite partial hydrolysis of xylan with xylanase prior to pulp fibrillation and that this fraction remained in the structure during the hydrolysis of nanocellulose with cellulase mixture as well. Thus, a loosely bound fraction of xylan was predicted to have been more likely removed by purified xylanase. The presence of loosely bound xylan seemed to limit the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose, indicated by an increase in cellulose crystallinity and by preserved crystal width measured with wide-angle X-ray scattering. Removing loosely bound xylan led to a proportional hydrolysis of xylan and cellulose with the cellulase mixture. PMID:23238342

  4. Factors Affecting Photosynthesis!

    E-print Network

    Kudela, Raphael M.

    Factors Affecting Photosynthesis! Temperature Eppley (1972) Light Sverdrup's Critical Depth-493, but the general concept is still valid! ! #12;PB opt & Temperature! #12;Photosynthesis & Temperature! Remember: in the laboratory, we can measure photosynthesis versus irradiance (PvsE) and calculate Ek, Pmax, and alpha

  5. Factors Affecting Gummy Butter.

    E-print Network

    Leighton, R. E. (Rudolph Elmo); Moore, A. V.

    1952-01-01

    LIBRARY A. & M. COLLEGE OF TEXAS Factors Affecting Gummy Butter DIGEST Among the Southcentral States, Texas ranks next to Oklahoma and Kentucky in creamery butter production; in farm butter production Texas is third in the nation...-following Alabama and North Carolina. Second only to flavor in the importance of eating quality is the body of butter. Body is evaluated by the consumer by the manner in which the butter melts or spreads. It is often considered that cows eating cottonseed...

  6. How recombinant swollenin from Kluyveromyces lactis affects cellulosic substrates and accelerates their hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In order to generate biofuels, insoluble cellulosic substrates are pretreated and subsequently hydrolyzed with cellulases. One way to pretreat cellulose in a safe and environmentally friendly manner is to apply, under mild conditions, non-hydrolyzing proteins such as swollenin - naturally produced in low yields by the fungus Trichoderma reesei. To yield sufficient swollenin for industrial applications, the first aim of this study is to present a new way of producing recombinant swollenin. The main objective is to show how swollenin quantitatively affects relevant physical properties of cellulosic substrates and how it affects subsequent hydrolysis. Results After expression in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis, the resulting swollenin was purified. The adsorption parameters of the recombinant swollenin onto cellulose were quantified for the first time and were comparable to those of individual cellulases from T. reesei. Four different insoluble cellulosic substrates were then pretreated with swollenin. At first, it could be qualitatively shown by macroscopic evaluation and microscopy that swollenin caused deagglomeration of bigger cellulose agglomerates as well as dispersion of cellulose microfibrils (amorphogenesis). Afterwards, the effects of swollenin on cellulose particle size, maximum cellulase adsorption and cellulose crystallinity were quantified. The pretreatment with swollenin resulted in a significant decrease in particle size of the cellulosic substrates as well as in their crystallinity, thereby substantially increasing maximum cellulase adsorption onto these substrates. Subsequently, the pretreated cellulosic substrates were hydrolyzed with cellulases. Here, pretreatment of cellulosic substrates with swollenin, even in non-saturating concentrations, significantly accelerated the hydrolysis. By correlating particle size and crystallinity of the cellulosic substrates with initial hydrolysis rates, it could be shown that the swollenin-induced reduction in particle size and crystallinity resulted in high cellulose hydrolysis rates. Conclusions Recombinant swollenin can be easily produced with the robust yeast K. lactis. Moreover, swollenin induces deagglomeration of cellulose agglomerates as well as amorphogenesis (decrystallization). For the first time, this study quantifies and elucidates in detail how swollenin affects different cellulosic substrates and their hydrolysis. PMID:21943248

  7. Factors affecting soil cohesion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erodibility is a measure of a soil’s resistance against erosive forces and is affected by both intrinsic (or inherent) soil property and the extrinsic condition at the time erodibility measurement is made. Since soil erodibility is usually calculated from results obtained from erosion experimen...

  8. Amylolytic hydrolysis of native starch granules affected by granule surface area.

    PubMed

    Kim, J C; Kong, B W; Kim, M J; Lee, S H

    2008-11-01

    Initial stage of hydrolysis of native starch granules with various amylolytic enzymes, alpha-amylase from Bacillus subtilis, glucoamylase I (GA-I) and II (GA-II) from Aspergillus niger, and beta-amylase from sweet potato showed that the reaction was apparently affected by a specific surface area of the starch granules. The ratios of the reciprocal of initial velocity of each amylolytic hydrolysis for native potato and maize starch to that for rice with the amylolytic enzymes were nearly equivalent to the ratio of surface area per mass of the 2 starch granules to that of rice, that is, 6.94 and 2.25, respectively. Thus, the reciprocal of initial velocity of each enzymatic hydrolysis as expressed in a Lineweaver-Burk plot was a linear function of the reciprocal of surface area for each starch granule. As a result, it is concluded that amylolytic hydrolysis of native starch granules is governed by the specific surface area, not by the mass concentration, of each granule. PMID:19021791

  9. Factors Affecting Option Premium Values 

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Jason; Smith, Jackie; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.; Waller, Mark L.

    1999-06-23

    Factors Affecting Option Premium Values Jason Johnson, Jackie Smith, Kevin Dhuyvetter and Mark Waller* Put Options Hedging in the futures market with options is much like buying an insurance policy to protect commodity sellers against declining...

  10. Factors Affecting Willingness to Mentor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Quaglino, Gian Piero

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a survey among 300 employees in Northern Italy to assess the willingness to mentor and identify the factors that affect it. Men and respondents with previous mentoring experience indicate a higher willingness to be a mentor. Willingness is affected by personal characteristics that are perceived as necessary for a mentor and the…

  11. Factors affecting dystocia in cattle.

    PubMed

    Zaborski, D; Grzesiak, W; Szatkowska, I; Dybus, A; Muszynska, M; Jedrzejczak, M

    2009-06-01

    The paper reviews the various factors affecting dystocia in cattle. It is based mainly on the recent studies found in the literature of the subject but refers occasionally to some older papers as well. The factors are grouped into four main categories: direct factors, phenotypic factors related to calf and cow, non-genetic and genetic factors. The first group includes malpresentations and uterine torsion. The second one includes: calf birth weight, multiple calvings, perinatal mortality, cow pelvic area, cow body weight and body condition at calving, gestation length. The non-genetic factors are: cow age and parity, year and season of calving, place of calving, maintenance practises, disorders, calf sex and nutrition. Other non-genetic factors are the level of hormones in the periparturient period, in vitro production of embryos and embryo cloning. Finally, the genotypes of cow, bull and calf, inbreeding, muscular hypertrophy, selection and quantitative trait loci form the fourth group of genetic factors. PMID:19055561

  12. Factors affecting supplier quality performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. B. Forker

    1997-01-01

    The interest among practitioners and researchers in quality management and other factors that may affect quality performance reflects the understanding that a firm's output (i.e., performance) can be only as good as the quality of its inputs. However, studies of the quality management-quality performance relationship have led to mixed results regarding the existence of a positive correlation between the two.

  13. Factors Affecting Illegal Hacking Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randall Young; Lingling Zhang

    2005-01-01

    The damage caused by illegal hacking has become one of the serious problems facing society. Based on general deterrence theory, social bond theory and social learning theory, the paper proposes a model which examines the factors affecting the likelihood an individual will engage in illegal hacking behavior. Data was gathered from a survey of 127 individuals who attended a hacker’s

  14. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality

    PubMed Central

    MOSADEGHRAD, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran. Results Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhibit the quality of medical services. Quality of medical services depends on the personal factors of the physician and patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare setting and the broader environment. Conclusion Differences in internal and external factors such as availability of resources, patient cooperation and collaboration among providers affect the quality of medical services and patient outcomes. Supportive leadership, proper planning, education and training and effective management of resources and processes improve the quality of medical services. This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework for understanding factors that influence medical services quality.

  15. Thyroid hormone affects the hydrolysis of inositol phospholipids in the rat hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Iriuchijima, T; Mizuma, H; Michimata, T; Ogiwara, T; Yamada, M; Murakami, M; Mori, M

    1992-01-01

    We have attempted to elucidate the effect of thyroid hormone on phospholipase C-linked inositol phospholipid hydrolysis in the rat hypothalamus. Hypothalamic slices of each animal, euthyroid control, hypothyroid, and thyroxine (T4)-supplemented hypothyroid rats were labeled with [3H]myoinositol in the presence of 5 mM LiCl, and then incubated for 60 min in KHG buffer containing either vehicle or 1 mM ouabain, a Na-K ATPase inhibitor. Hypothyroidism caused a significant increase in both basal and ouabain-stimulated accumulation of [3H]inositol phosphate ([3H]IP) in hypothalamic slices, whereas supplement with T4 to hypothyroid rats resulted in a complete restoration of hypothalamic [3H]IP formation to the value of euthyroid control. The present results indicate that thyroid hormone affects phospholipase C-linked inositol phospholipid hydrolysis in the hypothalamus, suggesting that negative feedback action of thyroid hormone may occur at a post-receptor site in the hypothalamus. PMID:1317027

  16. Factors Affecting the Earth's Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Classroom Connectors lesson plan discusses factors affecting the weather on Earth. Students learn about solar radiation, wind circulation, precipitation, and biomes that result from weather patterns. The site provides goals, objectives, an outline, time required, materials, activities, and closure ideas for the lesson. The Classroom Connectors address content with an activity approach while incorporating themes necessary to raise the activity to a higher cognition level. The major motivation is to employ instructional strategies that bring the students physically and mentally into touch with the science they are studying.

  17. Conversion factors for carbohydrate analysis by hydrolysis and 1 H-NMR spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soo-Jeong Shin; Nam-Seok Cho

    2008-01-01

    Conversion factor to calibrate the lower xylan content in carbohydrate compositional analysis in wood by 1H-NMR spectroscopy was investigated. During acid hydrolysis, xylan monomer was dehydrated as furfural, and that furfural was\\u000a further degraded or condensed in acidic reaction condition. Anomeric hydrogen peaks integration in 1H-NMR spectroscopic method excluded xylose reacted products (such as furfural and their condensed or degraded

  18. Factors Affecting Onset of Puberty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henriette A. Delemarre-van de Waal; Silvia C. C. M. van Coeverden; Mia J. T. Engelbregt

    2002-01-01

    In humans, foetal and early postnatal growth failure may have persistent consequences for growth and pubertal development in later life. During this period, the developing organs are still plastic to change their function, which may have long-lasting effects. At the time of onset of puberty, acute factors may also interfere with pubertal development. Malnutrition, as seen in anorexic patients, and

  19. Demographic Factors Affecting Faculty Salary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allen L. Webster

    1995-01-01

    This study identifies specific demographic attributes that influence salary at institutions of higher education. Data were obtained for all business faculty at nine public universities. A log-linear model with salary as the regressand serves as the functional form of estimation. Variance inflation factors are employed to reduce any aberrations that are due to the presence of multicollinearity. Additional diagnostic tests

  20. Pharmacologic Factors Affecting Glycemic Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lillian F. Lien

    Among many challenges to achieving and maintaining glycemic control, the impact of pharmacologic agents on glycemia is a significant,\\u000a but often overlooked factor. Numerous medications have been implicated in the development of drug-induced hyperglycemia and\\u000a type 2 diabetes mellitus. Of these, the atypical antipsychotics (for the management of depression and psychosis), the protease-inhibitor\\u000a anti retroviral agents (for the management of

  1. Age Learning Factors Affecting Pilot Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbert, Brison

    This document, intended for pilot education and flight safety specialists, consists chiefly of a review of the literature on physiological factors that affect pilot education and an examination of environmental factors that should be scrutinized in order to improve the effectiveness of aviation learning facilities. The physiological factors

  2. Factors Affecting Employment of Welfare Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrissinger, Marlene Sonju

    1980-01-01

    Examined the relationship between the length of time worked by mothers receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children and three categories of variables. Only economic factors appeared to significantly affect the mothers' decision whether to work. (Author)

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility Suzanne. E. Fenton US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  4. Factors Affecting the Difficulty of Verbal Analogies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roccas, Sonia; Moshinsky, Avital

    2003-01-01

    Examined factors affecting the difficulty of verbal analogies in a psychometric examination by characterizing 104 analogies using 5 defined attributes. Both knowledge and process attributes were found to contribute to the difficulty of verbal analogies assessed by 10 judges. (SLD)

  5. Factors affecting mother-child play 

    E-print Network

    Welch, Jennifer Colleen

    1993-01-01

    FACTORS AFFECTING MOTHER-CHILD PLAY A Thesis by JENNIFER COLLEEN WELCH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject...: Psychology FACTORS AFFECTING MOTHER-CHILD PLAY A Thesis by JENNIFER COLLEEN WELCH Submitted to Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content bg: T' othy A. Cavell...

  6. Factors affecting consumer perceptions on product safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Ching Biu Tse

    1999-01-01

    Examines how perceived product safety may be affected by such product-related factors as price, brand name, store name, promotion channels, source credibility, country of origin, nature of product testing authority and warranty. Shows that perceived product safety was significantly affected by all of the variables mentioned above. Implies that, by carefully manipulating these variables in formulating marketing strategies, managers can

  7. Factors Affecting Course Outcomes in Introductory Programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah LaBelle; Vennila N. R. Kain

    Learning to program is difficult for many students. Although several factors that affect learning to program have been identified over the years, we are still far from a full understanding of why some students learn to program easily and quickly while others flounder. Two constructs that may affect learning to program are self-efficacy and mental models. Self-efficacy is the individual's

  8. Economic and Cultural Factors Affecting University Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabnoun, Naceur

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…

  9. Fluorescein. Physiochemical factors affecting its fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Romanchuk, K G

    1982-01-01

    Fluorescein's property of fluorescence is reviewed. Of the many factors which affect its fluorescence, concentration is probably the most important and it best explains why leaking aqueous turns fluorescein bright green during Seidel's test. The intensity and pattern of fluorescein staining of corneal lesions is probably due to the concentration and distribution of fluorescein in the cornea. The concentration of fluorescein achieved in the retinal blood vessels during fluorescein angiography affects its fluorescence. PMID:7046118

  10. Factors Affecting the Speed of Free Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrier, Jonathan; Horne, Joanna; Singleton, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Factors affecting the free writing speed of 11-year-old students were investigated using the Group and Individual Assessment of Handwriting Speed. Intelligence, gender, legibility and whether the student has special educational needs or speaks English as an additional language were all found to impact on writing speed to a significant extent. In…

  11. Factors affecting the bacteria heterotrophic nanoflagellate

    E-print Network

    Jacquet, Stéphan

    Factors affecting the bacteria­ heterotrophic nanoflagellate relationship in oligo´ DU QUE´BEC A` MONTRE´AL, CP 8888, SUCC. CENTRE VILLE, MONTRE´AL, QC, H3C 3P8, 1 GRIL ­ DE´ PARTEMENT DE SCIENCES BIOLOGIQUES, UNIVERSITE´ DE MONTRE´ AL, CP 6128, SUCC. CENTRE VILLE, MONTRE´ AL, QC, H3C

  12. Identification of Factors That Affect Software Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Javaid

    A survey of computer scientists was conducted to identify factors that affect software complexity. A total of 160 items were selected from the literature to include in a questionnaire sent to 425 individuals who were employees of computer-related businesses in Lawrence and Kansas City. The items were grouped into nine categories called system…

  13. Factors Affecting Faculty Web Portal Usability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…

  14. Factors Affecting Smoking Tendency and Smoking Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Nissim Ben; Zion, Uri Ben

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to measure the relative effect of relevant explanatory variable on smoking tendency and smoking intensity. Design/methodology/approach: Using survey data collected by the Israeli Bureau of Statistics in 2003-2004, a probit procedure is estimated for analyzing factors that affect the probability of being a…

  15. Factors affecting growth factor activity in goat milk.

    PubMed

    Wu, F Y; Tsao, P H; Wang, D C; Lin, S; Wu, J S; Cheng, Y K

    2006-06-01

    Growth factors that are present in goat milk may be responsible for its beneficial effects on the digestive system as described in ancient Chinese medical texts. To develop a nutraceutical product rich in growth factors for promoting gastrointestinal health, it is essential to collect milk with consistently high growth factor activity. Therefore, we investigated the factors affecting growth factor activity in goat milk. Among the 5 breeds of dairy goats tested, milk from Nubian goats had the highest growth factor activity. Tight-junction leakage induced by a 24-h milking interval did not increase growth factor activity in the milk. Milk collected from pregnant does had a significantly higher growth factor activity than milk collected postpartum. Growth factor activity decreased during the first 8 wk of lactation, fluctuated thereafter, and then increased dramatically after natural mating. During wk 1 to 8, growth factor activity was inversely correlated with milk yield and week of lactation. No correlation was observed during wk 9 to 29. After natural mating of the goats, the growth factor activity in the milk correlated significantly with somatic cell count and conductivity (a measure of membrane permeability), and correlated inversely with milk yield. Based on the above data, goat milk with higher growth factor activity could be selectively collected from Nubian pregnant does. PMID:16702258

  16. Factors Affecting Intensive Care Units Nursing Workload

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ravangard, Ramin; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Mosavi, Seyed Masod; Gholami Fesharaki, Mohammad; Mehrabian, Fardin

    2014-01-01

    Background: The nursing workload has a close and strong association with the quality of services provided for the patients. Therefore, paying careful attention to the factors affecting nursing workload, especially those working in the intensive care units (ICUs), is very important. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the factors affecting nursing workload in the ICUs of the hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional and analytical-descriptive study that has done in Iran. All nurses (n = 400) who was working in the ICUs of the hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2014 were selected and studied using census method. The required data were collected using a researcher–made questionnaire which its validity and reliability were confirmed through getting the opinions of experts and using composite reliability and internal consistency (? = 0.89). The collected data were analyzed through exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and using SPSS 18.0 and AMOS 18.0. Results: Twenty-five factors were divided into three major categories through EFA, including structure, process, and activity. The following factors among the structure, process and activity components had the greatest importance: lack of clear responsibilities and authorities and performing unnecessary tasks (by a coefficient of 0.709), mismatch between the capacity of wards and the number of patients (by a coefficient of 0.639), and helping the students and newly employed staff (by a coefficient of 0.589). Conclusions: The nursing workload is influenced by many factors. The clear responsibilities and authorities of nurses, patients' admission according to the capacity of wards, use of the new technologies and equipment, and providing basic training for new nurses can decrease the workload of nurses. PMID:25389493

  17. Ubiquitin Ser65 phosphorylation affects ubiquitin structure, chain assembly and hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Wauer, Tobias; Swatek, Kirby N; Wagstaff, Jane L; Gladkova, Christina; Pruneda, Jonathan N; Michel, Martin A; Gersch, Malte; Johnson, Christopher M; Freund, Stefan MV; Komander, David

    2015-01-01

    The protein kinase PINK1 was recently shown to phosphorylate ubiquitin (Ub) on Ser65, and phosphoUb activates the E3 ligase Parkin allosterically. Here, we show that PINK1 can phosphorylate every Ub in Ub chains. Moreover, Ser65 phosphorylation alters Ub structure, generating two conformations in solution. A crystal structure of the major conformation resembles Ub but has altered surface properties. NMR reveals a second phosphoUb conformation in which ?5-strand slippage retracts the C-terminal tail by two residues into the Ub core. We further show that phosphoUb has no effect on E1-mediated E2 charging but can affect discharging of E2 enzymes to form polyUb chains. Notably, UBE2R1- (CDC34), UBE2N/UBE2V1- (UBC13/UEV1A), TRAF6- and HOIP-mediated chain assembly is inhibited by phosphoUb. While Lys63-linked poly-phosphoUb is recognized by the TAB2 NZF Ub binding domain (UBD), 10 out of 12 deubiquitinases (DUBs), including USP8, USP15 and USP30, are impaired in hydrolyzing phosphoUb chains. Hence, Ub phosphorylation has repercussions for ubiquitination and deubiquitination cascades beyond Parkin activation and may provide an independent layer of regulation in the Ub system. PMID:25527291

  18. Ubiquitin Ser65 phosphorylation affects ubiquitin structure, chain assembly and hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Wauer, Tobias; Swatek, Kirby N; Wagstaff, Jane L; Gladkova, Christina; Pruneda, Jonathan N; Michel, Martin A; Gersch, Malte; Johnson, Christopher M; Freund, Stefan M V; Komander, David

    2015-02-01

    The protein kinase PINK1 was recently shown to phosphorylate ubiquitin (Ub) on Ser65, and phosphoUb activates the E3 ligase Parkin allosterically. Here, we show that PINK1 can phosphorylate every Ub in Ub chains. Moreover, Ser65 phosphorylation alters Ub structure, generating two conformations in solution. A crystal structure of the major conformation resembles Ub but has altered surface properties. NMR reveals a second phosphoUb conformation in which ?5-strand slippage retracts the C-terminal tail by two residues into the Ub core. We further show that phosphoUb has no effect on E1-mediated E2 charging but can affect discharging of E2 enzymes to form polyUb chains. Notably, UBE2R1- (CDC34), UBE2N/UBE2V1- (UBC13/UEV1A), TRAF6- and HOIP-mediated chain assembly is inhibited by phosphoUb. While Lys63-linked poly-phosphoUb is recognized by the TAB2 NZF Ub binding domain (UBD), 10 out of 12 deubiquitinases (DUBs), including USP8, USP15 and USP30, are impaired in hydrolyzing phosphoUb chains. Hence, Ub phosphorylation has repercussions for ubiquitination and deubiquitination cascades beyond Parkin activation and may provide an independent layer of regulation in the Ub system. PMID:25527291

  19. Factors affecting the determination of cerebrovascular reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Rosemary E; Fisher, Joseph A; Duffin, James

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), measures the ability of the cerebrovasculature to respond to vasoactive stimuli such as CO2. CVR is often expressed as the ratio of cerebral blood flow change to CO2 change. We examine several factors affecting this measurement: blood pressure, stimulus pattern, response analysis and subject position. Methods Step and ramp increases in CO2 were implemented in nine subjects, seated and supine. Middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were determined breath-by-breath. Cerebrovascular conductance (MCAc) was estimated as MCAv/MAP. CVR was calculated from both the relative and absolute measures of MCAc and MCAv responses. Results MAP increased with CO2 in some subjects so that relative CVR calculated from conductance responses were less than those calculated from CVR calculated from velocity responses. CVR measured from step responses were affected by the response dynamics, and were less than those calculated from CVR measured from ramp responses. Subject position did not affect CVR. Conclusions (1) MAP increases with CO2 and acts as a confounding factor for CVR measurement; (2) CVR depends on the stimulus pattern used; (3) CVR did not differ from the sitting versus supine in these experiments; (4) CVR calculated from absolute changes of MCAv was less than that calculated from relative changes. PMID:25328852

  20. Chemical structures of corn stover and its residue after dilute acid prehydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis: Insight into factors limiting enzymatic hydrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advanced solid-state NMR techniques and wet chemical analyses were applied to investigate untreated corn stover (UCS) and its residues after dilute acid prehydrolysis (DAP) and enzymatic hydrolysis (RES) to provide evidence for the limitations to the effectiveness of enzyme hydrolysis. Advanced soli...

  1. Factors affecting practical nursing student attrition.

    PubMed

    Stickney, Margaret Christine

    2008-09-01

    This study investigated factors that affect student attrition for 151 students in a practical nursing program. The academic variables studied were scores on preadmission tests and grades in required prerequisite courses. The demographic variables included age, gender, and race. The analysis of the data obtained from student records revealed a statistically significant difference between the retention and attrition student groups for the variables of race, preadmission test scores, and prerequisite course grades. Recommendations for a retention program to reduce attrition were made based on the findings of this study. PMID:18792710

  2. Factors affecting static seat cushion comfort.

    PubMed

    Ebe, K; Griffin, M J

    2001-08-15

    To improve the understanding of factors affecting automobile seat cushion comfort in static conditions (i.e. without vibration), relationships between the static physical characteristics of a seat cushion and seat comfort have been investigated. The static seat comfort of four automobile cushions, with the same foam hardness but different foam compositions, was investigated using Scheffe's method of paired comparisons. The comfort judgements were correlated with sample stiffness, given by the gradient of a force-deflection curve at 490 N (= 50 kgf). Samples with lower stiffness were judged to be more comfortable than samples with greater stiffness. A similar comfort evaluation was conducted using five rectangular foam samples of the same composition but different foam hardness (and a wider range than in the first experiment). There was no linear relationship between the sample stiffness and seat comfort for these samples. Static seat cushion comfort seemed to be affected by two factors, a 'bottoming feeling' and a 'foam hardness feeling'. The bottoming feeling was reflected in the sample stiffness when loaded to 490 N, while the foam hardness feeling was reflected in foam characteristics at relatively low forces. The pressures underneath the buttocks of subjects were compared with the comfort judgements. The total pressure over a 4 cm x 4 cm area beneath the ischial bones was correlated with static seat comfort, even when the differences among samples were great; samples with less total pressure in this area were judged to be more comfortable than samples with greater total pressure. It is concluded that the pressure beneath the ischial bones may reflect both comfort factors: the bottoming feeling and the foam hardness feeling. PMID:11681792

  3. Influence of clay minerals on the hydrolysis of carbamate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Wei, J; Furrer, G; Kaufmann, S; Schulin, R

    2001-06-01

    Using batch experiments, we investigated the influence of clay minerals (montmorillonite, beidellite, illite, and vermiculite) on the hydrolysis of five carbamate pesticides: carbosulfan, carbofuran, aldicarb, pirimicarb, and chlorpropham. Compared to the other minerals, montmorillonite had the strongest influence on the hydrolysis of these carbamates. Montmorillonite enhanced the hydrolysis of carbosulfan and aldicarb. In contrast, the hydrolysis of chlorpropham was inhibited by montmorillonite, probably because of its strong adsorption on montmorillonite. The hydrolysis of pirimicarb was not affected by montmorillonite. The presence of organic substances, phosphate, and fluoride in suspensions decreased the catalytic activity of montmorillonite. Surface acidity of montmorillonite and/or formation of surface chelates are probably the key factors of surface catalysis in the case of the hydrolysis of carbosulfan. PMID:11414023

  4. Factors affecting the quality of bottled water.

    PubMed

    Diduch, Malwina; Polkowska, ?aneta; Namie?nik, Jacek

    2013-03-01

    The ever-increasing popularity of bottled water means that it is important to analyze not only its mineral content but also, above all, its content of possible contaminants, especially the organic ones. In this respect, bottled waters are a special case, because apart from organic chemical contaminants derived from the well from which they were acquired, their secondary contamination is always possible, during treatment or storage or transport in unsuitable conditions (sunlight and elevated temperature). This paper describes how various factors, from the area around the well, and the method of drawing and treating water, to the manner in which the finished product is stored and transported may affect the quality of bottled waters. It also summarizes literature information on the levels of organic contaminants in various kinds of bottled water samples. PMID:23093103

  5. Factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Sanaa Abd El Azim

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses. The study was carried out at Faculty of Nursing, Port-Said University, on 207 student nurses from four different grades. Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, consisted of 30 items, was used to measure the students' assertiveness level and a 12-item scale developed by Spreitzer was used to measure students' psychological empowerment. The study results showed that 60.4% of the students were assertive, while about half of the students were empowered. A positive relation between student assertiveness and psychological empowerment was detected. Moreover, positive relations regarding family income and students' assertiveness and psychological empowerment were determined. The study recommended introduction of specific courses aiming at enhancing the acquisition of assertiveness skills, in addition, nurse educators must motivate their students to express their opinion and personal rights and also they must pay attention for students' empowerment and enhance students' autonomy. PMID:20696504

  6. Factors Affecting Informal Economy of Rural Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonenc, Sertac; Tanrivermis, Harun

    In this study, the informal economy in the rural areas of Turkey has been measured and factors affecting the informal economy have been analyzed. The informal economy has been discussed with regards to three main issues, namely unpaid household labor force usage, own consumption of crop and animal products and informal sales. Although the household labor force is mainly used in farms for agricultural and off-farm activities, the rate of idle labor has been found to be highly significant. It has been found that milk has the largest share of animal produce values consumed by the household, while particularly processed milk products are sold informally and that the consumption and sales values of animal produce processed in the households are required to be added to the unrecorded value calculation. Consumption of crops varies depending on the type of product. The own consumption ratio of crops is affected by the size of the enterprise, the number of individuals in the households and particularly the access to the markets of the enterprises in each region. An average informal value of 6,400.04 USD has been calculated per household, which is higher than the farm income, accounting for 4/5 of total household income. This can be attributed to the fact that the farms are generally small family enterprises with limited market-access opportunities.

  7. Factors Affecting Growers' Willingness to Adopt Sustainable Floriculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer H. Dennis; Roberto G. Lopez; Maria I. Marshall

    In June to Oct. 2008, a U.S. floriculture survey was conducted to examine the factors affecting growers' willingness to adopt sustainable practices. The factors affecting adoption of sustainable practices were evaluated in five areas: environmental regulations, customer value, growers' attitudes toward sustainability, age, and operation size. A logistic regression model was used to examine factors affecting growers' adoption of sustainable

  8. Factors affecting water quality in Cherokee Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Iwanski, M.L.; Higgins, J.M.; Kim, B.R.; Young, R.C.

    1980-07-01

    The purpose was to: (1) define reservoir problems related to water quality conditions; (2) identify the probable causes of these problems; and (3) recommend procedures for achieving needed reservoir water quality improvements. This report presents the project findings to date and suggests steps for upgrading the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section II presents background information on the characteristics of the basin, the reservoir, and the beneficial uses of the reservoir. Section III identifies the impacts of existing reservoir water quality on uses of the reservoir for water supply, fishery resources, recreation, and waste assimilation. Section IV presents an assessment of cause-effect relationships. The factors affecting water quality addressed in Section IV are: (1) reservoir thermal stratification and hydrodynamics; (2) dissolved oxygen depletion; (3) eutrophication; (4) toxic substances; and (5) reservoir fisheries. Section V presents a preliminary evaluation of alternatives for improving the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section VI presents preliminary conclusions and recommendations for developing and implementing a reservoir water quality management plan. 7 references, 22 figures, 21 tables.

  9. Review of critical factors affecting crude corrosivity

    SciTech Connect

    Tebbal, S.; Kane, R.D. [CLI International, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Lower quality opportunity crudes are now processed in most refineries and the source of the crudes may vary daily. These feedstocks, if not properly handled, can result in reduction in service life of equipment as well as costly failure and downtime. Analytical tools are needed to predict their high temperature corrosivity toward distillation units. Threshold in total sulfur and total acid number (TAN) have been used for many years as rules of thumb for predicting crude corrosivity, However, it is now realized that they are not accurate in their predictive ability. Crudes with similar composition and comparable with respect to process considerations have been found to be entirely different in their impact on corrosion. Naphthenic acid content, sulfur content, velocity, temperature, and materials of construction are the main factors affecting the corrosion process, Despite progress made in elucidating the role of the different parameters on the crude corrosivity process, the main problem is in calculating their combined effect, especially when the corroding stream is such a complex mixture. The TAN is usually related directly to naphthenic acid content. However, discrepancies between analytical methods and interference of numerous components of the crude itself lead to unreliable reported content of naphthenic acid. The sulfur compounds, with respect to corrosivity, appear to relate more to their decomposition at elevated temperature to form hydrogen sulfide than to their total content in crude. This paper reviews the present situation regarding crude corrosivity in distillation units, with the aim of indicating the extent of available information, and areas where further research is necessary.

  10. Factors Affecting Ejection Risk in Rollover Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Funk, James R.; Cormier, Joseph M.; Bain, Charles E.; Wirth, Jeffrey L.; Bonugli, Enrique B.; Watson, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 – 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size. PMID:23169130

  11. Nerve growth factor stimulates the hydrolysis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol in PC-12 cells: a mechanism of protein kinase C regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, B L; Chao, M V; Saltiel, A R

    1989-01-01

    Treatment of PC-12 pheochromocytoma cells with nerve growth factor (NGF) results in the differentiation of these cells into a sympathetic neuron-like phenotype. Although the initial intracellular signals elicited by NGF remain unknown, some of the cellular effects of NGF are similar to those of other growth factors, such as insulin. We have investigated the involvement of a newly identified inositol-containing glycolipid in signal transduction for the actions of NGF. NGF stimulates the rapid generation of a species of diacylglycerol that is labeled with [3H]myristate but not with [3H]arachidonate. NGF stimulates [3H]myristate- or [32P]phosphate-labeled phosphatidic acid production over the same time course. Although NGF alone has no effect on the turnover of inositol phospholipids, it does stimulate the hydrolysis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol. The NGF-dependent cleavage of this lipid is accompanied by an increase in the accumulation of its polar head group, an inositol phosphate glycan, which is generated within 30-60 sec of NGF treatment. In an unresponsive PC-12 mutant cell line, neither the diacylglycerol nor inositol phosphate glycan response is detected. A possible role for the NGF-stimulated diacylglycerol is suggested by the inhibition of NGF-dependent c-fos induction by staurosporin, a potent inhibitor of protein kinase C. These results suggest that, like insulin, some of the cellular effects of NGF may be mediated by the phospholipase C-catalyzed hydrolysis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol. Images PMID:2538812

  12. The role of affective factors on perceived cruise vacation value

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teoman Duman; Anna S. Mattila

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we expanded the perceived value literature by demonstrating the role of selected affective factors (i.e., hedonics, control and novelty) on value in the context of cruise vacation experiences. We also examined the role of customer satisfaction in the affect–value relationship. Our results indicate that affective factors are important determinants of the perceived value of cruise services. In

  13. The Factors Affecting Bone Density in Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Hajiabbasi, Asghar; Shafaghi, Afshin; Fayazi, Haniyeh Sadat; Shenavar Masooleh, Irandokht; Hedayati Emami, Mohammad Hassan; Ghavidel Parsa, Pooneh; Amir Maafi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bone loss is common in cirrhosis. However, the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis has been heterogeneous in different reports. Reduction in bone formation with or without increase in bone resorption appears to be responsible for bone loss in these patients. Objectives: We aimed to investigate bone loss in patients with cirrhosis at different anatomical sites and key factors that might affect it. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 97 patients with cirrhosis who were referred to Razi Hospital, Rasht, Iran, from 2008 to 2010, were studied. Cirrhosis was diagnosed using biopsy and/or clinical and paraclinical findings. Bone mineral densitometry was done in L2 through L4 lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN), using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) (QDR 1000, Hologic DEXA Inc, Waltham, Massachusetts, the United States). Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 18. A P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 97 patients with cirrhosis (55.7% male) and the mean age of 51 ± 13 years and median body mass index (BMI) of 22.7 kg/m2 were recruited over a two-year period. Etiologies of cirrhosis were hepatitis C (40.2%), hepatitis B (26.8%), cryptogenic (21.6%), and other causes (11.4%). Child A, B, and C, were seen in 16.5%, 47.4%, and 36.1% of patients, respectively. The DEXA results were abnormal in 78.4% of our participants (osteopenia, 45.4%; osteoporosis, 33%). BMI and calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFRc) had moderate positive and Child score had moderate negative significant correlation with T score in both anatomical sites. There was no significant association between abnormal DEXA and the causes of cirrhosis. The univariate analysis showed that the risk of abnormal results in DEXA was significantly higher in those with low BMI, current smoking, higher Child score, and low GFRc; however, in multivariate analysis, the abnormal results were more frequent in those with lower vitamin D, higher Child score, and less GFRc. Conclusions: Abnormal DEXA was highly prevalent among patients with cirrhosis. The risk of this finding was increased by lower vitamin D levels, advanced disease, and impaired renal function. PMID:25977695

  14. Characterization of the New AmpC ?-Lactamase FOX-8 Reveals a Single Mutation, Phe313Leu, Located in the R2 Loop That Affects Ceftazidime Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Llarena, Francisco José; Kerff, Frédéric; Zamorano, Laura; Fernández, María Carmen; Nuñez, Maria Luz; Miró, Elisenda; Oliver, Antonio; Navarro, Ferran

    2013-01-01

    A novel class C ?-lactamase (FOX-8) was isolated from a clinical strain of Escherichia coli. The FOX-8 enzyme possessed a unique substitution (Phe313Leu) compared to FOX-3. Isogenic E. coli strains carrying FOX-8 showed an 8-fold reduction in resistance to ceftazidime relative to FOX-3. In a kinetic analysis, FOX-8 displayed a 33-fold reduction in kcat/Km for ceftazidime compared to FOX-3. In the FOX family of ?-lactamases, the Phe313 residue located in the R2 loop affects ceftazidime hydrolysis and alters the phenotype of E. coli strains carrying this variant. PMID:23877692

  15. An Activity on Factors Affecting Blood Flow

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Glenn Soltes

    2012-06-28

    This lesson is designed to explore the relationship between pressure and vessel diameter and to create a model that represents how high blood pressure may affect weakened vessels. A collaborative work of Melvin Flores, Larie Laudato and Glenn Soltes

  16. Some factors affecting ink transfer in gravure printing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Elsayad; F. Morsy; S. El-Sherbiny; E. Abdou

    2002-01-01

    Many factors affect the print quality and ink transfer. These are either machine factors, paper factors, or Ink factors. The aim of this work was to find out to what extent are the amount of ink transferred influenced by the previously mentioned factors. Atomic absorption was used for quantitatively measuring the amount of ink transferred. Copper phthalocyanine pigment was chosen.

  17. Yield-determining factors in high-solids enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Jan B; Felby, Claus; Jørgensen, Henning

    2009-01-01

    Background Working at high solids (substrate) concentrations is advantageous in enzymatic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass as it increases product concentrations and plant productivity while lowering energy and water input. However, for a number of lignocellulosic substrates it has been shown that at increasing substrate concentration, the corresponding yield decreases in a fashion which can not be explained by current models and knowledge of enzyme-substrate interactions. This decrease in yield is undesirable as it offsets the advantages of working at high solids levels. The cause of the 'solids effect' has so far remained unknown. Results The decreasing conversion at increasing solids concentrations was found to be a generic or intrinsic effect, describing a linear correlation from 5 to 30% initial total solids content (w/w). Insufficient mixing has previously been shown not to be involved in the effect. Hydrolysis experiments with filter paper showed that neither lignin content nor hemicellulose-derived inhibitors appear to be responsible for the decrease in yields. Product inhibition by glucose and in particular cellobiose (and ethanol in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation) at the increased concentrations at high solids loading plays a role but could not completely account for the decreasing conversion. Adsorption of cellulases was found to decrease at increasing solids concentrations. There was a strong correlation between the decreasing adsorption and conversion, indicating that the inhibition of cellulase adsorption to cellulose is causing the decrease in yield. Conclusion Inhibition of enzyme adsorption by hydrolysis products appear to be the main cause of the decreasing yields at increasing substrate concentrations in the enzymatic decomposition of cellulosic biomass. In order to facilitate high conversions at high solids concentrations, understanding of the mechanisms involved in high-solids product inhibition and adsorption inhibition must be improved. PMID:19505292

  18. Luminal hydrolysis of recombinant human epidermal growth factor in the rat gastrointestinal tract: segmental and developmental differences

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, J.R.; George-Nascimento, C.; Koldovsky, O.

    1988-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), present in high concentrations in the milk of various species, is biologically active following oral administration to young animals. To characterize the luminal metabolism of dietary EGF in the developing gastrointestinal tract, the authors incubated human recombinant /sup 125/I-EGF in vitro at 37/sup 0/ with luminal fluid from the stomach and various segments of the small intestine of 12 day old suckling and 31 day old weanling rats and analyzed the resulting reaction products. The rate of EGF hydrolysis as determined by generation of acid soluble material was greater in weanling small intestine than in suckling, with maximal hydrolytic capacity observed in the mid-jejunum and ilium. Minimal hydrolysis was observed with stomach fluid from both age groups, and EGF retained its ability to elute as a single species on Sephadex G-25 columns and to bind to monospecific affinity columns and placental membrane receptors. Incubation with suckling small intestinal fluid produced little change in the chromatographic profile on Sephadex G-25, but a reduction in antibody and receptor binding was observed. In contrast, incubation with weanling small intestinal fluid yielded both a more pronounced loss of EGF-like material on G-25 columns and a greater reduction in receptor and antibody binding.

  19. Factors Affecting Retention in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berling, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to expand what is known regarding the factors that relate to successful completion of online, undergraduate college courses. It addressed 13 student factors available through archival data at Northern Kentucky University based on 1,493 students enrolled in fully online courses in fall 2008. It included programmatic…

  20. Preharvest factors affecting physiological disorders of fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Ferguson; Richard Volz; Allan Woolf

    1999-01-01

    Development of disorders during postharvest ripening and storage of fruit depends on a range of preharvest factors. The most obvious of these is maturity of fruit at harvest. However, a number of other factors may be just as important in ripening-related disorders and in determining how fruit respond to low temperatures or other imposed postharvest conditions. Fruiting position on the

  1. Factors Affecting Turkish Students' Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Ibrahim; Kilic, Serpil; Depren, Ozer

    2009-01-01

    Following past researches, student background, learning strategies, self-related cognitions in mathematics and school climate variables were important for achievement. The purpose of this study was to identify a number of factors that represent the relationship among sets of interrelated variables using principal component factor analysis and…

  2. Factors affecting robust retail energy markets

    SciTech Connect

    Michelman, T.S.

    1999-04-01

    This paper briefly defines an active retail market, details the factors that influence market activity and their relative importance, compares activity in various retail energy markets to date, and predicts future retail energy market activity. Three primary factors translate into high market activity: supplier margins, translated into potential savings for actively shopping customers; market size; and market barriers. The author surveys activity nationwide and predicts hot spots for the coming year.

  3. Maternal biosocial factors affecting low birth weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sushma Malik; Radha G. Ghidiyal; Rekha Udani; Prasad Waingankar

    1997-01-01

    The causes of low birth weight (LBW) are multifactoral with genetic, placental, fetal and maternal factors interplaying with\\u000a each other. To assess the influence of some of the maternal bio-social factors on the variance of birth weight, this study\\u000a was undertaken. A total of 984 consecutive live births delivered at an urban hospital were analysed. The rate of LBW was

  4. Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

  5. Factors That Affect Performance in Accounting Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Mateo Coll., CA.

    This study determined (1) effect of high school bookkeeping on college accounting performance, (2) relationship of performance to potential measured by SCAT, (3) influence of first on subsequent study. For number one, five factors were studied: (1) whether bookkeeping was taken in high school, (2) at which high school, (3) how many courses, (4)…

  6. Factors affecting career retention among naval aviators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald D. Gibb; Daniel L. Dolgin

    1988-01-01

    Typically, retention studies have emphasized those who separate rather than those who choose a naval career. The present study examined factors that contribute to career satisfaction and aviators' decisions to remain in naval aviation. Primary reasons for remaining in naval aviation were the enjoyment of flying, coupled with the self-esteem associated with being a naval aviator. Career satisfaction for aviators

  7. Factors Affecting Student Choices of Instructional Methodologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Ben K.

    To identify factors that caused the majority of students at Los Angeles City College to prefer the traditional lecture-discussion approach to the media approach, questionnaires were administered to students in three courses--three media and two traditional. Over 200 usable questionnaires were returned. Because of scheduling variations and other…

  8. Dietary factors that affect carotenoid bioavailability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hof van het K

    1999-01-01

    Carotenoids are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of increased vegetable consumption. To better understand the potential benefits of carotenoids, we investigated the bioavailability of carotenoids from vegetables and dietary factors which might influence carotenoid bioavailability.In a four weeks intervention trial, we found that the increases in plasma concentrations of?-carotene and lutein after consumption of a high vegetable diet

  9. Factors Affecting Performance of Soil Termiticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Applying liquid insecticide to soil under and around structures is one of the most widely used methods of subterranean termite prevention and control. Failure of soil termiticide treatments is often related to factors other than the active ingredient. Efficacy and longevity of soil treatments vary g...

  10. Factors Affecting Information Literacy Perception and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehner, Drusilla Charlene Beecher

    2009-01-01

    Information literacy, defined as, "the set of skills needed to find, retrieve, analyze, and use information" (American Library Association, 2003, paragraph 1), is necessary for success in life. The present study will examine whether the factors of gender, race, and/or socioeconomic status impact information literacy performance and information…

  11. Factors Affecting Students' Medicine-Taking Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labig, Chalmer E., Jr.; Zantow, Kenneth; Peterson, Tim O.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines college students' beliefs about health, prescriptions, doctors, and the influence those beliefs have on adherence to prescribed medication regimens. After a brief review of attitudinal factors that influence adherence to prescription medicine directions, the authors discuss measurement issues and explain the reasons for their…

  12. Factors affecting the design of computer icons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shih-Miao Huang; Kong-King Shieh; Chai-Fen Chi

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and investigate the main factors involved in the design of computer graphic user interfaces (GUI), commonly known as computer icons. Nineteen elements related to icon design were extracted from the principles, criteria and guidelines for GUI design. Forty-three Taiwanese designers working in computer GUI design were recruited to rate the importance of

  13. Factors affecting customer relationship management practices in Thai academic libraries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piyawan Siriprasoetsin; Kulthida Tuamsuk; Cholabhat Vongprasert

    This study investigates and analyzes the factors affecting customer relationship management (CRM) practices in Thai academic libraries. The research conceptual framework focuses on factors affecting CRM practices was developed using Combe (2004)’s study on assessing CRM strategies. Mixed methods, qualitative, and quantitative approaches were used as a research methodology. Data was collected by using the interview and survey techniques with

  14. ORIGINAL PAPER Biotic and abiotic factors affecting the genetic structure

    E-print Network

    ORIGINAL PAPER Biotic and abiotic factors affecting the genetic structure and diversity. To manage the remaining pop- ulations effectively, information regarding how butternut's population genetic structure is affected by environmental and historical factors is needed. In this study, we assessed genetic

  15. The Demographic Factors Affecting University Students' Intention to Pirate Software

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The Demographic Factors Affecting University Students' Intention to Pirate Software Linda Spark in South Africa to investigate the reasons why students pirate software. This paper reports on a study on the demographic factors affecting students' intention to pirate software. The study was carried out on students

  16. Fatherhood across Two Generations: Factors Affecting Early Family Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldscheider, Frances; Hofferth, Sandra; Spearin, Carrie; Curtin, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the determinants of men's early parental roles, distinguishing factors that affect being a father versus being childless, and factors that affect being a resident versus a nonresident father, in the context of having a partner or not. We also consider whether these patterns have changed between 1985 and 2004. The data come…

  17. Factors affecting residual wetting phase saturation

    SciTech Connect

    AlFossail, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to clarify the relation between the residual wetting phase and the ratio of viscous to capillary forces. The effect of viscous forces and capillary forces on residual water saturation were investigated. The viscous forces were varied by either changing the flow rate of increasing the viscosity of the displacing phase. The capillary forces were reduced by lowering the interfacial tension. The experimental results show that the residual water saturation is independent of flow rate when low viscosity oil displaced water in either high or low tension systems. However, it was found to be a function of flow rate when viscous oil displaced water. The results also show the residual water saturation was affected by the oil viscosity in both high and low tension systems. The effect of viscosity and the flow rate on the residual water saturation suggests that the residual water saturation was affected by the pressure drop across the core. The higher the pressure drop, the lower the residual water saturation. The correlation between the capillary number and the residual water saturation indicates that high capillary numbers are required to mobilize the trapped water in low tension systems. Therefore, a new dimensionless number has been developed to include the effects of oil viscosity, flow rate and the interfacial tension. Finally, the experimental results show that the drainage relative permeabilities are affected by the viscosity of the displacing phase (the pressure drop across the core). Higher pressure drop resulted in lower oil relative permeability and higher water relative permeability at a given water saturation.

  18. Political and institutional factors affecting systems engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yardley, John F.

    1993-01-01

    External groups have a significant impact on NASA's programs. Ten groups affecting NASA are identified, and examples are given for some of the them. Methods of dealing with these external inputs are discussed, the most important being good and open two way communications and an objective attitude on the part of the NASA participants. The importance of planning ahead, of developing rapport with these groups, and of effective use of NASA contractors is covered. The need for an overall strategic plan for the U.S. space program is stressed.

  19. Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART): factors affecting success.

    PubMed

    Mickenautsch, Steffen; Grossman, Elly

    2006-01-01

    The success of tooth restorations rendered according to principles of the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach is dependant on various clinical factors. The most common failures, due to these factors, are partial material loss; complete material loss; caries related to restoration margin and material wear > 0.5mm. The main reason for clinical ART failures are related to operator skills and performance. The prevention and management of ART failures includes emphasis on correct clinical indication and the repair of failed restorations. A new caries classification may provide guidance for clinical indication. The classification combines site and size of a lesion, which is reflected in a dual coding system. In addition, ART training and diligence during ART application are important for clinical success. PMID:19089085

  20. Factors which affect fatigue strength of fasteners

    SciTech Connect

    Skochko, G.W.; Herrmann, T.P.

    1992-11-01

    Axial load cycling fatigue tests of threaded fasteners are useful in determining fastener fatigue failure or design properties. By using appropriate design factors between the failure and design fatigue strengths, such tests are used to establish fatigue failure and design parameters of fasteners for axial and bending cyclic load conditions. This paper reviews the factors which influence the fatigue strength of low Alloy steel threaded fasteners, identifies those most significant to fatigue strength, and provides design guidelines based on the direct evaluation of fatigue tests of threaded fasteners. Influences on fatigue strength of thread manufacturing process (machining and rolling of threads), effect of fastener membrane and bending stresses, thread root radii, fastener sizes, fastener tensile strength, stress relaxation, mean stress, and test temperature are discussed.

  1. Factors that Affect the Lung Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankhala, Shweta; Singh, H. S.; Singh, S. K.; Lalwani, Gautam

    The lung is an external organ forming the site of unwanted material or particles. In order to protect it, the airways have to be highly effective filters and if the particle deposit they need to be cleared. Inhaled particles can cause a variety of diseases. There are various factors on which the prediction of depositing particles depends, such as age, particle size, flow rate gender, the physics of the particles, the anatomy of the respiratory tract etc.

  2. Factors Affecting Psychosocial Adjustment of Deaf Students.

    PubMed

    Polat, Filiz

    2003-01-01

    Deafness is more than a medical condition. Recent theories have emphasized the importance of environmental factors on the psychosocial development of deaf children. As part of a larger scale study, this article aims to investigate the impact of the following variables on deaf students' psychosocial adjustment in Turkey: student-related background and experiential characteristics, parent-related variables, school-related factors, and teacher-related variables. The sample of 1,097 deaf students enrolled in the elementary, secondary, and high schools was drawn from 34 schools in 24 cities on a national geographical spread. The multiple regression analysis revealed that degree of hearing loss, additional handicap, and age at onset of deafness were negatively related to psychosocial adjustment of deaf students. However, there was a positive relationship between psychosocial variables and some of the independent variables, such as use of hearing aids, speech intelligibility, academic achievement, parental hearing status, and communication methods used at school. The findings of the study do not support a "pathological" view of deafness, suggesting that it was not deafness per se but that some environmental factors were also influential on the psychosocial adjustment of deaf students. PMID:15448056

  3. Factors affecting membership in specialty nursing organizations.

    PubMed

    White, Mary Joe; Olson, Rhonda S

    2004-01-01

    A discouraging trend in many specialty nursing organizations is the stagnant or declining membership. The research committee of the Southeast Texas Chapter of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses (ARN) collected data and studied this trend to determine what changes would be necessary to increase membership. Using Herzberg's motivational theory as a framework, a review of the literature was initiated. There were few current studies on this issue, but relevant information was found about nursing's emerging workforce, as well as implications of the growth of magnet hospitals, which affect whether nurses join specialty nursing organizations. A multifaceted data-collection approach using convenience samples was designed. First, relevant literature was reviewed. Second, a survey was sent by e-mail to other ARN chapters. Third, a telephone survey on other specialty organizations in the geographic region was completed. Finally, members of the local ARN chapter and four other specialty organizations, as well staff nurses in the geographic area, were given questionnaires to complete. Descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were used to determine why nurses do and do not join specialty organizations (N = 81). The most frequent reasons for joining an organization were to increase knowledge, benefit professionally, network, and earn continuing education units. Reasons for choosing not to participate were family responsibilities, lack of information about these organizations, and lack of time. Ways to reverse the decline in membership are discussed. PMID:15222095

  4. Environmental factors affecting chemoreceptors: an overview.

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, B P

    1982-01-01

    Vertebrate olfactory and gustatory receptors are necessarily exposed to the fluid which contains their relevant chemosensory environment. In terrestrial mammals, the nasal airways serve as protective accessory tissues for the olfactory receptors, but tastes receptors in all vertebrates and olfactory receptors in fish are directly exposed to the liquids which bring chemosensory stimuli to them. The differentiated epithelial cells which form taste buds and the specialized neurons which are the vertebrate olfactory receptors are constantly replaced in normal adult animals, suggesting that chemosensory function per se is damaging to the receptors. Organic and sulfur-containing air pollutants may be among those which adversely affect olfactory receptors, but adequate data are not available. Surfactants and heavy metals can produce physiological and/or morphological damage in gustatory receptors. Some heavy metals are concentrated in saliva, a liquid which interacts closely with taste receptors. A failure to evaluate human chemosensory function in relation to potential chemosensory toxicants accounts for the present inability to specify the incidence of the problem. PMID:7044771

  5. Factors affecting the biotransformation of TNT

    SciTech Connect

    Wilber, G.G.; Li, J.; Clarkson, W.W.

    1999-07-01

    Experiments were performed investigating several of the factors the effect the biotransformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in soils and groundwater. Three different electron acceptor conditions (nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and fermentative) were tested, as were several other variables in the reactor medium. All three anaerobic conditions were found favorable for TNT transformation, though nitrate-reducing conditions appeared to be fastest. Under nitrate-reducing conditions, TNT transformation rates were directly proportionally to primary substrate (acetate) concentrations. In the presence of bisulfide, TNT reacted rapidly in an abiotic reaction. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in the fermentative reactors were inhibited by TNT concentrations above 100 mg/L. The pattern on nitro-group reduction was reasonably predictable, with the more reduced products degrading fastest under nitrate-reducing conditions.

  6. Factors affecting calcium balance in Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jing; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Ailing; Du, Weijing; Wang, Xiaoyan; Hu, Xiaoqi; Ma, Guansheng

    2010-01-01

    Chinese dietary reference intakes (DRIs) for calcium were developed mainly from studies conducted amongst Caucasians, yet a recent review showed that reference calcium intakes for Asians are likely to be different from those of Caucasians (Lee and Jiang, 2008). In order to develop calcium DRIs for Chinese adolescents, it is necessary to explore the characteristics and potential influencing factors of calcium metabolic balance in Chinese adolescents. A total of 80 students (15.1+/-0.8 years) were recruited stratified by gender from a 1-year calcium supplementation study. Subjects were randomly designed to four groups and supplemented with calcium carbonate tablets providing elemental calcium at 63, 354, 660, and 966 mg/day, respectively. Subjects consumed food from a 3-day cycle menu prepared by staff for 10 days. Elemental calcium in samples of foods, feces, and urine was determined in duplicates by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The total calcium intake ranged from 352 to 1323 mg/day. The calcium apparent absorption efficiency and retention in boys were significantly higher than that in girls (68.7% vs. 46.4%, 480 mg/day vs. 204 mg/day, P<0.05). Calcium retention increased with calcium intakes, but did not reach a plateau. Calcium absorption efficiency in boys increased with calcium intake up to 665 mg/day, and decreased after that. In girls, calcium absorption efficiency decreased with calcium intake. Calcium absorption efficiency increased within 1 year after first spermatorrhea in boys, but decreased with pubertal development in girls. Sex, calcium intake, age, and pubertal development were the most important determinants of calcium absorption (R(2)=0.508, P<0.01) and retention (R(2)=0.745, P<0.05). This study indicates that sex, calcium intake, age, and pubertal development are important factors for calcium retention and absorption during growth, which should be considered for the development of calcium DRIs for Chinese adolescents. PMID:19796716

  7. Factors Affecting the Occurrence of Faculty-Doctoral Student Coauthorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Michelle A.; Timmerman, Briana Crotwell; Feldon, David F.; Strickland, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Using faculty narratives, this study identifies factors affecting the occurrence of faculty-doctoral student coauthorship. Norms of the discipline, resources, faculty goals for students, faculty goals for themselves, and institutional expectations emerged as dominant factors. Each factor is explored separately and as part of an interlocking…

  8. Factors Affecting Penetrating Captive Bolt Gun Performance.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Troy J; Mason, Charles W; Spence, Jade Y; Barker, Heather; Gregory, Neville G

    2015-01-01

    Captive bolt stunning is used for rendering livestock insensible at slaughter. The mechanical factors relating to performance of 6 penetrating captive bolt gun (CBG) models were examined. The Matador Super Sécurit 3000 and the .25 Cash Euro Stunner had the highest kinetic energy values (443 J and 412 J, respectively) of the CBGs tested. Ninety percent (27/30) of CBGs held at a government gun repository (United Kingdom) were found to have performed at a normal standard for the model, while 53% (10/19) of commercial contractor CBGs tested were found to underperform for the gun model. When the .22 Cash Special was fired 500 times at 4 shots per min, the gun reached a peak temperature of 88.8°C after 2.05 hr. Repeat firing during extended periods significantly reduced the performance of the CBG. When deciding on the appropriate CBG/cartridge combination, the kinetic energy delivered to the head of the nonhuman animal, bolt penetration depth, and species/animal type must be considered. It is recommended that CBGs are routinely checked for wear to the bolt and barrel if they are repeatedly fired in a session. PMID:25415241

  9. Factors Affecting Perceptual Thresholds in Epiretinal Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    de Balthasar, Chloé; Patel, Sweta; Roy, Arup; Freda, Ricardo; Greenwald, Scott; Horsager, Alan; Mahadevappa, Manjunatha; Yanai, Douglas; McMahon, Matthew J.; Humayun, Mark S.; Greenberg, Robert J.; Weiland, James D.; Fine, Ione

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The goal was to evaluate how perceptual thresholds are related to electrode impedance, electrode size, the distance of electrodes from the retinal surface, and retinal thickness in six subjects blind as a result of retinitis pigmentosa, who received epiretinal prostheses implanted monocularly as part of a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved clinical trial. Methods The implant consisted of an extraocular unit containing electronics for wireless data, power recovery, and generation of stimulus current, and an intraocular unit containing 16 platinum stimulating electrodes (260- or 520-?m diameter) arranged in a 4 × 4 pattern. The electrode array was held onto the retina by a small tack. Stimulation was controlled by a computer-based external system that allowed independent control over each electrode. Perceptual thresholds (the current necessary to see a percept on 79% of trials) and impedance were measured for each electrode on a biweekly basis. The distance of electrodes from the retinal surface and retinal thickness were measured by optical coherence tomography on a less regular basis. Results Stimulation thresholds for detecting phosphenes correlated with the distance of the electrodes from the retinal surface, but not with electrode size, electrode impedance, or retinal thickness. Conclusions Maintaining close proximity between the electrode array and the retinal surface is critical in developing a successful retinal implant. With the development of chronic electrode arrays that are stable and flush on the retinal surface, it is likely that the influence of other factors such as electrode size, retinal degeneration, and subject age will become more apparent. PMID:18515576

  10. Stochastic molecular model of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose for ethanol production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During cellulosic ethanol production, cellulose hydrolysis is achieved by synergistic action of cellulase enzyme complex consisting of multiple enzymes with different mode of actions. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is one of the bottlenecks in the commercialization of the process due to low hydrolysis rates and high cost of enzymes. A robust hydrolysis model that can predict hydrolysis profile under various scenarios can act as an important forecasting tool to improve the hydrolysis process. However, multiple factors affecting hydrolysis: cellulose structure and complex enzyme-substrate interactions during hydrolysis make it diffucult to develop mathematical kinetic models that can simulate hydrolysis in presence of multiple enzymes with high fidelity. In this study, a comprehensive hydrolysis model based on stochastic molecular modeling approch in which each hydrolysis event is translated into a discrete event is presented. The model captures the structural features of cellulose, enzyme properties (mode of actions, synergism, inhibition), and most importantly dynamic morphological changes in the substrate that directly affect the enzyme-substrate interactions during hydrolysis. Results Cellulose was modeled as a group of microfibrils consisting of elementary fibrils bundles, where each elementary fibril was represented as a three dimensional matrix of glucose molecules. Hydrolysis of cellulose was simulated based on Monte Carlo simulation technique. Cellulose hydrolysis results predicted by model simulations agree well with the experimental data from literature. Coefficients of determination for model predictions and experimental values were in the range of 0.75 to 0.96 for Avicel hydrolysis by CBH I action. Model was able to simulate the synergistic action of multiple enzymes during hydrolysis. The model simulations captured the important experimental observations: effect of structural properties, enzyme inhibition and enzyme loadings on the hydrolysis and degree of synergism among enzymes. Conclusions The model was effective in capturing the dynamic behavior of cellulose hydrolysis during action of individual as well as multiple cellulases. Simulations were in qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental data. Several experimentally observed phenomena were simulated without the need for any additional assumptions or parameter changes and confirmed the validity of using the stochastic molecular modeling approach to quantitatively and qualitatively describe the cellulose hydrolysis. PMID:23638989

  11. A critical evaluation of factors affecting reservoir yield estimates 

    E-print Network

    Bergman, Carla Elaine

    1987-01-01

    A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING RESERVOIR YIELD ESTIMATES A Thesis by CARLA ELAINE BERGMAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1987 Major Subject: Civil Engineering A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING RESERVOIR YIELD ESTIMATES A Thesis by CARLA ELAINE BERGMAN Approved as to style and content by: Ralph A . Wurbs (Chair of Committee) James Member) Wa h R...

  12. Factors affecting embryo donor performance in Brahman cows 

    E-print Network

    Bastidas, Pedro Segundo

    1986-01-01

    FACTORS AFFECTING EMBRYO DONOR PERFORMANCE IN BRAHMAN COWS A Thesis by PEDRO SEGUNDO BASTIDAS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1986... Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction FACTORS AFFECTING EMBRYO DONOR PERFORMANCE IN BRAHMAN COWS A Thesis by PEDRO SEGUNDO BASTIDAS Approved as to style and content by: R. D. Randel (Chairman of Committee) P. G. Harms (Committee Member) D...

  13. Identification of factors affecting the palatability of goat meat 

    E-print Network

    Pike, Merritt Ivan

    1974-01-01

    Copyright by MERRITT IVAN PIKE 1975 IDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PALATABILITY OF GOAT MEAT A Thesis by MERRITT IVAN PIKE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1974 Major Subject: Animal Science (Meat Science) IDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PALATABILITY OF GOAT MEAT A Thesis by MERRITT IVAN PIKE Approved as to style and content by: Co- an of Committee Co...

  14. Factors affecting the reading habits of secondary school students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Ogunrombi; Gboyega Adio

    1995-01-01

    Surveys factors affecting the reading habits of secondary school students in Ogbomoso State in Nigeria and discusses the results. Highlights the following inhibiting factors: the family background of students where few homes are conducive to reading owing to noise and lack of reading materials; the lack of functional libraries in most of the schools surveyed and a similar lack of

  15. Key risk factors affecting electrical safety in hazardous (classified) locations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J. Buschart; Joseph H. Kuczka

    1993-01-01

    The key risk factors affecting electrical safety in hazardous locations, with emphasis on human and environmental factors are discussed. The results of a survey that provides a user view of the reliability of area classification, product specification, installation, maintenance, documentation, and practice are presented and discussed

  16. Age as an Affective Factor in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bista, Krishna K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of age factor to second language acquisition. Age as an affective factor brings about different performance stages in second as well as first language learning. Traditionally, research in Critical Period Hypothesis and other variables has derived two major aspects of language learning--the younger = the better…

  17. FACTORS ADVERSELY AFFECTING AMPHIBIAN POPULATIONS IN THE US

    EPA Science Inventory

    Factors known or suspected to be adversely affecting native amphibian populations in the US were identified using information from species accounts written in a standardized format by multiple authors in a forthcoming book. Specific adverse factors were identified for 53 (58%) of...

  18. Factors Affecting Student Performance in the Introductory Finance Course

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hussein A. Hassan Al-Tamimi; Abdel Rahman Al-Shayeb

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate some factors affecting student performance in the fundamentals of financial management course (BUSA 2402) at United Arab Emirates University. We analyzed a sample of 256 students, consisting of 146 female and 110 male students. Using ordinary least square (OLS) multiple regression, factors, which significantly explained variation in the student performance, were identified.

  19. Exploring Factors that Affect Purchase Intention of Athletic Team Merchandise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…

  20. Factors Affecting Acceptance of Smartphone Application for Management of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Eunjoo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The factors affecting the acceptance of mobile obesity-management applications (apps) by the public were analyzed using a mobile healthcare system (MHS) technology acceptance model (TAM). Methods The subjects who participated in this study were Android smartphone users who had an intent to manage their weight. They used the obesity-management app for two weeks, and then completed an 18-item survey designed to determine the factors influencing the acceptance of the app. Three questions were asked pertaining to each of the following six factors: compatibility, self-efficacy, technical support and training, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and behavior regarding intention to use. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess the reliability of the scales. Pathway analysis was also performed to evaluate the MHS acceptance model. Results A total of 94 subjects participated in this study. The results indicate that compatibility, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use significantly affected the behavioral intention to use the mobile obesity-management app. Technical support and training also significantly affected the perceived ease of use; however, the hypotheses that self-efficacy affects perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use were not supported in this study. Conclusions This is the first attempt to analyze the factors influencing mobile obesity-management app acceptance using a TAM. Further studies should cover not only obesity but also other chronic diseases and should analyze the factors affecting the acceptance of apps among healthcare consumers in general. PMID:25995959

  1. Ranking factors affecting emissions of GHG from incubated agricultural soils

    PubMed Central

    García-Marco, S; Ravella, S R; Chadwick, D; Vallejo, A; Gregory, A S; Cárdenas, L M

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture significantly contributes to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and there is a need to develop effective mitigation strategies. The efficacy of methods to reduce GHG fluxes from agricultural soils can be affected by a range of interacting management and environmental factors. Uniquely, we used the Taguchi experimental design methodology to rank the relative importance of six factors known to affect the emission of GHG from soil: nitrate (NO3?) addition, carbon quality (labile and non-labile C), soil temperature, water-filled pore space (WFPS) and extent of soil compaction. Grassland soil was incubated in jars where selected factors, considered at two or three amounts within the experimental range, were combined in an orthogonal array to determine the importance and interactions between factors with a L16 design, comprising 16 experimental units. Within this L16 design, 216 combinations of the full factorial experimental design were represented. Headspace nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were measured and used to calculate fluxes. Results found for the relative influence of factors (WFPS and NO3? addition were the main factors affecting N2O fluxes, whilst glucose, NO3? and soil temperature were the main factors affecting CO2 and CH4 fluxes) were consistent with those already well documented. Interactions between factors were also studied and results showed that factors with little individual influence became more influential in combination. The proposed methodology offers new possibilities for GHG researchers to study interactions between influential factors and address the optimized sets of conditions to reduce GHG emissions in agro-ecosystems, while reducing the number of experimental units required compared with conventional experimental procedures that adjust one variable at a time. PMID:25177207

  2. The Factors Affecting Pain Pattern after Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang-Wan; Kim, Dong-Gyun

    2014-01-01

    Background We evaluated the factors that affect pain pattern after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Methods From June 2009 to October 2010, 210 patients underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair operations. Of them, 84 patients were enrolled as subjects of the present study. The evaluation of postoperative pain was conducted by visual analog scale (VAS) scores during postoperative outpatient interviews at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. The factors that were thought to affect postoperative pain were evaluated by dividing into three categories: preoperative, operative, and postoperative. Results Pain after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair surgery showed a strictly decreasing pain pattern. In single analysis and multiple regression tests for factors influencing the strictly decreasing pain pattern, initial VAS and pain onset were shown to be statistically significant factors (p = 0.012, 0.012, 0.044 and 0.028, respectively). With regard to the factors influencing lower than average intensity pain pattern for each period, the stiffness of internal rotation at 3 months postoperatively was shown to be a statistically significant factor in single and multiple regression tests (p = 0.017 and p = 0.004, respectively). Conclusions High initial VAS scores and the acute onset of pain affected the strictly decreasing postoperative pain pattern. Additionally, stiffness of internal rotation at postoperative 3 months affected the higher than average intensity pain pattern for each period after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. PMID:25436062

  3. Affective factors and student achievement: a quantitative and qualitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leo F. Denton; Dawn McKinney

    2004-01-01

    The affective domain can be used to support the internalization of cognitive content and foster the development of curriculum and industry-related interests, attitudes, values, and practices. During a two-year period, using validated instruments, the authors measured student interest, value, effort, perceived competence, lack of pressure, student-peer belonging, and student-faculty belonging. Initial findings included a positive correlation between each affective factor

  4. Factors Affecting the Quality of Southern Short Cure Cheddar Cheese.

    E-print Network

    Shepardson, C. N. (Charles Noah); Arbuckle, W. S. (Wendel Sherwood); Hanson, F. E. (Frank Edwin)

    1944-01-01

    TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR, College Station, Texas BULLETIN NO. 646 FEBRUARY 1944 FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF SOUTHERN SHORT CURE CHEDDAR CHEESE F. E. HANSON, W. S. ARBUCKLE and C. N. SHEPARDSON... AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF SOUTHERN SHORT CURE CHEDDAR CHEESE F. E. Hanson,' W. S. Arbuckle,' and C. N. Shepardson" Cheddar cheese has been made for many years, but no work was at- tempted to scientifically explain the ripening of cheese until fifty years...

  5. Directed evolution induces tributyrin hydrolysis in a virulence factor of Xylella fastidiosa using a duplicated gene as a template

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Basuthkar J.; Asgeirsson, Bjarni; Dandekar, Abhaya

    2014-01-01

    Duplication of genes is one of the preferred ways for natural selection to add advantageous functionality to the genome without having to reinvent the wheel with respect to catalytic efficiency and protein stability. The duplicated secretory virulence factors of Xylella fastidiosa (LesA, LesB and LesC), implicated in Pierce's disease of grape and citrus variegated chlorosis of citrus species, epitomizes the positive selection pressures exerted on advantageous genes in such pathogens. A deeper insight into the evolution of these lipases/esterases is essential to develop resistance mechanisms in transgenic plants. Directed evolution, an attempt to accelerate the evolutionary steps in the laboratory, is inherently simple when targeted for loss of function. A bigger challenge is to specify mutations that endow a new function, such as a lost functionality in a duplicated gene. Previously, we have proposed a method for enumerating candidates for mutations intended to transfer the functionality of one protein into another related protein based on the spatial and electrostatic properties of the active site residues (DECAAF). In the current work, we present in vivo validation of DECAAF by inducing tributyrin hydrolysis in LesB based on the active site similarity to LesA. The structures of these proteins have been modeled using RaptorX based on the closely related LipA protein from Xanthomonas oryzae. These mutations replicate the spatial and electrostatic conformation of LesA in the modeled structure of the mutant LesB as well, providing in silico validation before proceeding to the laborious in vivo work. Such focused mutations allows one to dissect the relevance of the duplicated genes in finer detail as compared to gene knockouts, since they do not interfere with other moonlighting functions, protein expression levels or protein-protein interaction. PMID:25717364

  6. Factors Affecting the Clearance and Biodistribution of Polymeric Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) drug delivery systems (5?250 nm) have the potential to improve current disease therapies because of their ability to overcome multiple biological barriers and releasing a therapeutic load in the optimal dosage range. Rapid clearance of circulating nanoparticles during systemic delivery is a critical issue for these systems and has made it necessary to understand the factors affecting particle biodistribution and blood circulation half-life. In this review, we discuss the factors which can influence nanoparticle blood residence time and organ specific accumulation. These factors include interactions with biological barriers and tunable nanoparticle parameters, such as composition, size, core properties, surface modifications (pegylation and surface charge), and finally, targeting ligand functionalization. All these factors have been shown to substantially affect the biodistribution and blood circulation half-life of circulating nanoparticles by reducing the level of nonspecific uptake, delaying opsonization, and increasing the extent of tissue specific accumulation. PMID:18672949

  7. CAPTAN HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Captan (N-(trichloromethylthio)-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximide) undergoes hydrolysis readily in water with a maximum half-life of 710 min. Over the pH range 2-6, the reaction is pH independent and the pseudo-first-order rate constant is (1.8 + or - 0.1) x 10 to the -5th power/s....

  8. Factors Affecting Employment and Job Satisfaction of Vietnamese Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anh, Nguyen T.; Healy, Charles C.

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed 210 Vietnamese refugees to determine factors affecting employment and job satisfaction. Results showed Vietnamese subjects reporting job satisfaction had been in the U.S. longer. They were more proficient in speaking English than dissatisfied refugees but not more positive about job-seeking resources. (Author/BH)

  9. Students' Application of a Biological Concept: Factors Affecting Consistency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, David

    1996-01-01

    Investigates factors affecting students' ability to consistently apply the concept of adaptations. Individual interviews were conducted with 74 Year 10 students in Australia, of whom only 47% showed an understanding of the concept. It was found that the students were more likely to apply the concept to vertebrates. (AIM)

  10. RESEARCH ARTICLE Social and Reproductive Factors Affecting Cortisol

    E-print Network

    French, Jeffrey A.

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Social and Reproductive Factors Affecting Cortisol Levels in Wild Female Golden cortisol has been associated with different levels of ``stress'' as well as different reproductive conditions in many primates. In callitrichids, cortisol has more often been reflective of female reproduc

  11. Factors Affecting the Effectiveness and Use of Moodle: Students' Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damnjanovic, Vesna; Jednak, Sandra; Mijatovic, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper is to identify the factors affecting the effectiveness of Moodle from the students' perspective. The research hypotheses derived from the suggested extended Seddon model have been empirically validated using the responses to a survey on e-learning usage among 255 users. We tested the model across higher education…

  12. Factors Affecting Educational Innovation with in Class Electronic Response Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Mark; Bell, Amani; Comerton-Forde, Carole; Pickering, Joanne; Blayney, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the use of Rogers' diffusion of innovation perspective to understand the factors affecting educational innovation decisions, specifically in regard to in class electronic response systems. Despite decreasing costs and four decades of research showing strong student support, academic adoption is limited. Using data collected from…

  13. Teaching the Factors Affecting Resistance Using Pencil Leads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Küçüközer, Asuman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a way of teaching the factors that affect resistance using mechanical pencil leads and the brightness of the light given out by a light bulb connected to an electrical circuit. The resistance of a conductor is directly proportional to its length (L) and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area (A).…

  14. Factors affecting the service of large-diameter wire rope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beeman

    1978-01-01

    Service life of large-diameter wire rope is a major concern in the surface coal mining industry. Differences in rope construction may play an important role in service life and performance. Many of the factors affecting large rope service life could be economically studied and remedial proposals evaluated using small rope if results from small rope tests could be reliably projected

  15. Principals' Perception regarding Factors Affecting the Performance of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akram, Muhammad Javaid; Raza, Syed Ahmad; Khaleeq, Abdur Rehman; Atika, Samrana

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the perception of principals on how the factors of subject mastery, teaching methodology, personal characteristics, and attitude toward students affect the performance of teachers at higher secondary level in the Punjab. All principals of higher secondary level in the Punjab were part of the population of the study. From…

  16. Factors affecting DNA damage caused by lipid hydroperoxides and aldehydes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Hua Yang; Karen M. Schaich

    1996-01-01

    Single (SSB) and double strand breaks (DSB) in supercoiled plasmid DNA pBR322 reacted with linoleic acid hydroperoxides (LOOH) were followed by agarose gel electrophoresis to obtain definitive information about factors affecting LOOH interaction with DNA. In water, LOOH induced extensive DSB, which were metal mediated and increased with incubation time. Adventitious metal bound to DNA was sufficient to decompose LOOH

  17. Factors Affecting the Demand for Congregate Meals at Nutrition Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhardt, Jon E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined factors affecting attendance by elderly persons at 660 congregate meal sites. Results showed that measures of the quality of services provided (method of food preparation, type of building used, presence of other nutrition programs in the community) predicted attendance more than conventional demographic measures of need. (WAS)

  18. Factors affecting the protein quality of pigeonpea ( Cajanus cajan L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. SINGtt; B. O. Eggum

    1984-01-01

    Pigeonpea occupies an important place in human nutrition as a source of dietary proteins in several countries. Some of the important factors that affect the protein quality of pigeonpea have been reviewed and summarised in this paper. Among important food legumes, pigeonpea contained the lowest amount of limiting sulphur amino acids, methionine and cystine implicating the importance of these amino

  19. Factors Affecting the Technology Readiness of Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Stephanie E.

    2010-01-01

    Federal government policies are promoting diffusion of technologies into the healthcare system. If health professionals reject the new technologies planned for the healthcare system, it could result in costly failures, delays, and workforce problems. There is a lack of knowledge about factors that affect technology readiness (TR), defined as the…

  20. FACTORS AFFECTING SURVIVAL IN YOUNG ALPACAS (Lama pacos) x,2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Bustinza; P. J. Burfening; R. L. Blackwell

    Factors affecting survival of young from birth to weaning (7 too) in alpacas (Lama pacos) were evaluated in data collected at the Estacion Experimental de Camelidos Sudamericanos La Raya in the Altiplano region of Peru. Age of dam effects on survival rate were curvilinear; survival rate increased from approximately 78% for offspring of 3-yr-old dams to about 91% for those

  1. Understanding Factors that Affect Response Rates in Twitter

    E-print Network

    Crovella, Mark

    Understanding Factors that Affect Response Rates in Twitter Giovanni Comarela Federal University in Twitter. We ap- proach this problem in two stages. First, we perform an extensive characterization of a very large Twitter dataset which includes all users, social relations, and messages posted from

  2. Children in Foster Care: Possible factors affecting permanency planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric C. Albers; Thom Reilly; Barbara Rittner

    1993-01-01

    This is a study of Children in Foster Care to determine possible factors affecting permanency planning. Several issues were determined to be of importance, cultural diversity, economics, and family support services. Areas needing additional study were determined to be the different treatment given to African-American and poor children, and the influence of economic and social problems on placement needs and

  3. Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…

  4. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  5. Students' Views on Factors Affecting Empathy in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winseman, Jeffrey; Malik, Abid; Morison, Julie; Balkoski, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Empathy is a prominent goal of medical education that is too often underachieved. Using concept mapping, the authors constructed a student-generated conceptual model of factors viewed as affecting empathy during medical education. Methods: During the 2005-2006 academic year, 293 medical students and interns answered a brainstorming…

  6. The Synergistic Effect of Affective Factors on Student Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Brady Michael; Lin, Huann-shyang; Yore, Larry D.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how affective and self-related factors impact participation in science learning and environmental awareness and responsibility. Using PISA 2006 datasets from Taiwan and Canada having similar level of science competency, the model for this study verifies and expands an earlier model by examining the relationships among…

  7. Developing Worksheet Based on Science Process Skills: Factors Affecting Solubility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…

  8. FACTORS AFFECTING NESTING SUCCESS OF RING-NECKED PHEASANTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LARRY C. HOLCOMB

    HROUGH the spring and early summer of 1964, 11 Ring-necked Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) nests were discovered in Toledo, Lucas County, Ohio. The determinate factors affecting nesting success, including interesting behavioral patterns in response to different stimuli, are reported. The earliest nest was located on 3 May and the latest on 15 June. The habitat varied considerably; nests were found in

  9. Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maxwell Kwenda

    2011-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting students’ performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's overall grade point average (GPA) and the number of class days missed are

  10. Factors affecting Iran`s future. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sinai, J.

    1993-05-28

    This study examines the factors affecting Iran`s future by focusing on the demographic, economic, and military trends in Iran and their impact on the country`s national security objectives in the next decade. The paper also assesses the implications of an economic embargo on Iran and potential Iranian threats to regional and United States national interests.

  11. Visual Factors Affecting Reading: The Big Three Gordon Legge

    E-print Network

    Zanibbi, Richard

    Visual Factors Affecting Reading: The Big Three Gordon Legge Chair, Psychology Dept. Director for Imaging Science Speaker Biography: Dr. Gordon Legge received aBachelor's degree in Physics from MIT. Gordon Legge was born in Toronto. He now livse in Minneapolis with his wife Wendy, and their three cats

  12. REVIEW PAPER Factors and processes affecting plant biodiversity

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    REVIEW PAPER Factors and processes affecting plant biodiversity in permanent grasslands. A review delivered convincing findings on the effect of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning and humankind. Indeed evaluation of biodiversity benefits remains challenging. This issue is due to valuation methods, subjective

  13. Understanding Correlation: Factors that Affect the Size of r

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Laura D.; Leech, Nancy L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe and illustrate 6 factors that affect the size of a Pearson correlation: (a) the amount of variability in the data, (b) differences in the shapes of the 2 distributions, (c) lack of linearity, (d) the presence of 1 or more "outliers," (e) characteristics of the sample, and (f) measurement error. Also discussed are ways to…

  14. Factors affecting butterfly use of filter strips in Midwestern USA

    E-print Network

    Debinski, Diane M.

    Factors affecting butterfly use of filter strips in Midwestern USA Kathleen F. Reeder, Diane M between agricultural fields and streams. In 2002 and 2003, the butterfly community in filter strips butterfly abundance and diversity and measured vegetative variables in conjunction with each butterfly

  15. Genetic and environmental factors that affect gestation length

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic and environmental factors that might affect gestation length (GL) were investigated so that more accurate predictions of calving dates could be provided to dairy producers. Data from >8 million calvings from 1999 through 2005 for 5 dairy breeds were assembled from lactation, reproduction, an...

  16. Factors affecting teachers’ participation in professional learning activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kitty Kwakman

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes two studies into teacher workplace learning. The first study aimed at developing a definition of teacher learning at the workplace and at exploring factors that may affect teacher learning at the workplace. Based on a conceptualization of teacher workplace learning as participation in professional learning activities, the second study addressed two research questions to be answered by

  17. Factors Affecting Soil Microbial Community Structure in Tomato Cropping Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil and rhizosphere microbial communities in agroecosystems may be affected by soil, climate, plant species, and management. We identified some of the most important factors controlling microbial biomass and community structure in an agroecosystem utilizing tomato plants with the following nine tre...

  18. Factors affecting intestinal absorption of cholesterol and plant sterols and stanols.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Various factors affect intestinal absorption of cholesterol and plant sterols and stanols. Plant sterols and stanols are generally less absorptive than cholesterol. Differential absorption rates among various plant sterols and stanols have been also reported. Although it was suggested that differential absorption among cholesterol and various plant sterols was determined by difference in excretion rates of sterols and stanols through ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) G5/ABCG8 of intestinal cells, our study suggests that affinity for and solubility in bile salt micelles can be important determinants for differential absorption of plant sterols and stanols. It was also suggested that plant sterols were transiently incorporated into intestinal cells and then excreted to intestinal lumen through ABCG5/ABCG8. However, in a rat study, transient incorporation of sitosterol into intestinal cells was not observed, suggesting that sitosterol is differentiated from cholesterol at the incorporation site of intestinal cells. It is well established that plant sterols inhibit intestinal absorption of cholesterol and exert a hypocholesterolemic activity. Plant sterols are solubilized in bile salt micelles as cholesterol. Our study clearly showed that because the sterol-solubilizing capacity of bile salt micelles was limited, plant sterols solubilized in micelles reduced the solubility of cholesterol. This can be the major cause of inhibition of cholesterol absorption by plant sterols. Pancreatic cholesterol esterase accelerates intestinal absorption of unesterified cholesterol. Although it was suggested that cholesterol esterase accelerated esterification of cholesterol incorporated into intestinal cells and acted as a transporter at the surface of intestinal cells, our research revealed that the accelerated cholesterol absorption was caused by hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine in bile salt micelles. It is thought that hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine reduces the affinity of cholesterol for the micelles and accelerates the incorporation of cholesterol released from the micelles into intestinal cells. PMID:25742922

  19. Arsenic in drinking water in bangladesh: factors affecting child health.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Sonia N; Aziz, Khwaja M S; Boyle, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people's individuals' time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children's health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  20. Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  1. Enzymatic fat hydrolysis and synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warner M. Linfield; Robert A. Barauskas; Lorraine Sivieri; Samuel Serota; Robert W. Stevenson

    1984-01-01

    The hydrolysis of tallow, coconut oil and olive oil, by lipase fromCandida rugosa, was studied. The reaction approximates a firstorder kinetics model. Its rate is unaffected by temperature in the range of\\u000a 26–46 C. Olive oil is more rapidly hydrolyzed compared to tallow and coconut oil. Hydrolysis is adversely affected by hydrocarbon\\u000a solvents and a nonionic surfactant. Since amounts of

  2. Factors affecting corticosteroid concentrations in yellow-bellied marmots.

    PubMed

    Armitage, K B

    1991-01-01

    1. Bound and total corticosteroid concentrations of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) were lowest in May after emergence from hibernation and peaked in August prior to immergence. 2. Total corticosteroids were affected by age but not by sex or reproductive status. 3. There was no consistent relationship between measures of population density and concentrations of corticosteroids; when a significant relationship occurred, only 22-34% of the variation was explained. 4. Social status and social behavior were the major factors affecting corticosteroid concentrations. PMID:1673377

  3. Factors affecting the development of adverse drug reactions (Review article)

    PubMed Central

    Alomar, Muaed Jamal

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To discuss the effect of certain factors on the occurrence of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs). Data Sources A systematic review of the literature in the period between 1991 and 2012 was made based on PubMed, the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, EMBASE and IDIS. Key words used were: medication error, adverse drug reaction, iatrogenic disease factors, ambulatory care, primary health care, side effects and treatment hazards. Summary Many factors play a crucial role in the occurrence of ADRs, some of these are patient related, drug related or socially related factors. Age for instance has a very critical impact on the occurrence of ADRs, both very young and very old patients are more vulnerable to these reactions than other age groups. Alcohol intake also has a crucial impact on ADRs. Other factors are gender, race, pregnancy, breast feeding, kidney problems, liver function, drug dose and frequency and many other factors. The effect of these factors on ADRs is well documented in the medical literature. Taking these factors into consideration during medical evaluation enables medical practitioners to choose the best drug regimen. Conclusion Many factors affect the occurrence of ADRs. Some of these factors can be changed like smoking or alcohol intake others cannot be changed like age, presence of other diseases or genetic factors. Understanding the different effects of these factors on ADRs enables healthcare professionals to choose the most appropriate medication for that particular patient. It also helps the healthcare professionals to give the best advice to patients. Pharmacogenomics is the most recent science which emphasizes the genetic predisposition of ADRs. This innovative science provides a new perspective in dealing with the decision making process of drug selection. PMID:24648818

  4. Factors affecting water quality in the releases from hydropower reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Ruane, R.J.; Hauser, G.E. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States))

    1990-01-01

    Typical water quality concerns with releases from hydropower reservoirs include low dissolved oxygen, inappropriate temperature for downstream uses, supersaturation of total dissolved gases, and water quality constituents associated with low dissolved oxygen. Except for supersaturation of total dissolved gases, which is usually caused by by-passing turbines and spilling water, all of these concerns are related to the limnology of the upstream reservoir. Various limnological factors affect water quality, particularly dissolved oxygen (DO) in turbine releases. This paper describes three groups of reservoirs, thermal stratification characteristics for each group, DO effects for each group, the main factors that affect DO in TVA turbine releases, and other water quality constituents that are related to low DO.

  5. Factors affecting the noise from small propeller driven aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maglieri, D. J.; Hubbard, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    The factors affecting noise from small propeller driven airplanes are reviewed to quantify their affects where possible, and to indicate the potential for noise reduction. The main sources of external noise are noted to be the propellers and engines; the airframe being of less importance for both aural detection and community annoyance. Propeller noise is a strong function of tip speed and is affected adversely by nonuniform inflows. Reciprocating engine exhausts are noisier than those of comparably rated turboshaft engines, but their noise can be reduced by the use of flight certified exhaust mufflers. Presently, there are no generally accepted engineering methods for development of optimized propellers and exhaust muffler designs from weight and performance penalty standpoints. Flight demonstration results, however, suggest that required noise reductions for future certification should be possible with potentially small penalties.

  6. Factors Affecting Exhalation of Radon From a Gravelly Sandy Loam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Schery; D. H. Gaeddert; M. H. Wilkening

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of radon exhalation from a gravely sandy loam have been made in a semi-arid climate by using a combination of closed accumulation, flow-through accumulation, and 222Rn and 2Xøpb soil profiles. The meteorological factors that most affected the instantaneous value of exhalation of 222Rn were atmospheric pressure and rain. Effects due to other parameters such as wind or temperature were

  7. Factors affecting blood pressure responses to diet: the Vanguard study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence M. Resnick; Suzanne Oparil; Alan Chait; R. Brian Haynes; Penny Kris-Etherton; Judith S. Stern; Sharon Clark; Scott Holcomb; Daniel C. Hatton; Jill A. Metz; Margaret McMahon; F. Xavier Pi-Sunyer; David A. McCarron

    2000-01-01

    To study physiologic factors affecting the blood pressure (BP) response to nonpharmacologic maneuvers, fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipid and mineral levels, urinary mineral excretion, and the calcium regulating hormones parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25 (OH)2D) were measured in 71 unmedicated hypertensive (26 hypertensive only [HT], 45 hypertensive hyperlipidemic [HTHL]), and 87 normotensive hyperlipidemic (NTHL) control subjects before

  8. Factors Affecting the ${Z}$Width of a Haptic Display

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Edward Colgate; J. Michael Brown

    1994-01-01

    This paper addresses the performance of force-reflecting interfaces (“haptic displays”). The authors suggest that an important measure of performance is the dynamic range of achievable impedances-“Z-Width”-and that an impedance is achievable if it satisfies a robustness property such as passivity. Several factors affecting Z-Width-sample-and-hold, inherent interface dynamics, displacement sensor quantization, and velocity filtering-are discussed. A set of experiments designed to

  9. Factors affecting analytical values of beeswax and detection of adulteration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Tulloch

    1973-01-01

    Various factors that could affect analytical values for beeswax, and so also detection of adulteration, have been investigated.\\u000a Ester value determination was checked using synthetic monoesters. Gas liquid chromatographic analysis of overheated wax confirmed\\u000a that free acids decreased on heating and also showed loss of unsaturated hydrocarbons and of monoesters. The saponification\\u000a cloud point detected as little as 1% of

  10. Substrate and bond coat compositions: factors affecting alumina scale adhesion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A Pint; I. G Wright; W. Y Lee; Y Zhang; K Prüßner; K. B Alexander

    1998-01-01

    Thermally grown oxide scales that form beneath ZrO2 top coats play an important role in determining the performance of thermal barrier coatings. Numerous factors, including the composition of both the alloy substrate and the bond coat, affect adhesion of the ?-Al2O3 scale. Three areas of focus in the formation of an `ideal', adherent scale encompass: (1) migration of Al and

  11. Do organic solvents affect the catalytic properties of lipase? Intrinsic kinetic parameters of lipases in ester hydrolysis and formation in various organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Tol, J.B.A. van; Stevens, R.M.M.; Veldhuizen, W.J.; Jongejan, J.A.; Duine, J.A. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1995-07-05

    When it is assumed that organic solvents do not interfere with the binding process nor with the catalytic mechanism, the contribution of substrate-solvent interactions to enzyme kinetics can be accounted for by just replacing substrate concentrations in the equations by thermodynamic activities. It appears from the transformation that only the affinity parameters (K{sub m},k{sub sp}) are affected by this. Thus, in theory, the values of these corrected, intrinsic parameters (K{sub m}{sup int}, k{sub sp}{sup int}) and the maximal rate (V{sub 1}) should be equal for all media. This was tested for hydrolysis, transesterification, and esterification reactions catalyzed by pig pancreas lipase and Pseudomonas cepacia lipase in various organic solvents. Correction was carried out via experimentally determined activity coefficients for the substrates in these solvents or, if not feasible, from values in data bases. However, although the kinetic performances of each enzyme in the solvents became much more similar after correction, differences still remained. Analysis of the enzyme suspensions revealed massive particles, which explains the low activity of enzymes in organic solvents. However, no correlation was found between estimates of the amount of catalytically available enzyme (present at the surface of suspended particles or immobilized on beads) and the maximal rates observed. Moreover, the solvents had similar effects on the intrinsic parameters of suspended and immobilized enzyme. The possible causes for the effects of the solvents on the catalytic performance of the enzymes, remaining after correction for solvent-substrate interactions and the amount of participating enzyme, are discussed with respect to the premises on which the correction method is based.

  12. Factors Affecting the Crevice Corrosion Susceptibility of Alloy 22

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B

    2004-11-24

    The susceptibility or Alloy 22 (N06022) to crevice corrosion may depend on environmental or external factors and metallurgical or internal factors. Some of the most important environmental factors are chloride concentration, inhibitors, temperature and potential. The presence of a weld seam or second phase precipitation in the alloy are classified as internal factors. The localized corrosion resistance of Alloy 22 has been extensively investigated in the last five years, however not all affecting factors were considered in the studies. This paper discusses the current findings regarding the effect of many of these variables on the susceptibility (or resistance) of Alloy 22 to crevice corrosion. The effect of variables such as temperature, chloride concentration and nitrate are rather well understood. However there are only limited or no data regarding effect of other factors such as pH, other inhibitive or deleterious species and type of crevicing material and crevice geometry. There are contradictory results regarding the effect of metallurgical factors such as solution heat treatment.

  13. Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.

    The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and maintenance; existence of fund for operation and maintenance; willingness to contribute money; existence of a user’s committee; participation in the initial planning and design of the water scheme; and coordination between the local leaders and user’s committee. The main factors which made the schemes unsustainable were: long fetching time; non-involvement in decision making; lack of willingness to contribute funds; absence of users committee; and lack of cooperation between local leaders and the users committee. Water service providers should address the technical, social, financial and institutional factors identified affecting sustainability in their planning and implementation of rural water schemes.

  14. Lengths of Orthologous Prokaryotic Proteins Are Affected by Evolutionary Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tatarinova, Tatiana; Dien Bard, Jennifer; Cohen, Irit

    2015-01-01

    Proteins of the same functional family (for example, kinases) may have significantly different lengths. It is an open question whether such variation in length is random or it appears as a response to some unknown evolutionary driving factors. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate existence of factors affecting prokaryotic gene lengths. We believe that the ranking of genomes according to lengths of their genes, followed by the calculation of coefficients of association between genome rank and genome property, is a reasonable approach in revealing such evolutionary driving factors. As we demonstrated earlier, our chosen approach, Bubble-sort, combines stability, accuracy, and computational efficiency as compared to other ranking methods. Application of Bubble Sort to the set of 1390 prokaryotic genomes confirmed that genes of Archaeal species are generally shorter than Bacterial ones. We observed that gene lengths are affected by various factors: within each domain, different phyla have preferences for short or long genes; thermophiles tend to have shorter genes than the soil-dwellers; halophiles tend to have longer genes. We also found that species with overrepresentation of cytosines and guanines in the third position of the codon (GC3 content) tend to have longer genes than species with low GC3 content.

  15. Factors that affect acceptance of HIV microbicides among women.

    PubMed

    Domanska, Catherine A; Teitelman, Anne M

    2012-01-01

    Globally, women make up more than half of those infected with HIV. For women in nearly every region around the world, the primary mode of HIV transmission is through heterosexual sex. However, over thirty years into the HIV/AIDS epidemic women still lack sufficient means of protecting themselves against HIV. Vaginal HIV microbicides (VHMs) are a promising new method to prevent HIV infection. VHMs are chemical substances that can destroy HIV, block its entry into or fusion with the target cell or inhibit HIV replication once the virus has entered a target cell. They can be applied through various delivery methods intravaginally. VHMs are designed to be used by women and to that end it is crucial to understand women's preferences for formulation, use and other characteristics in order to determine how to increase adherence and acceptability. Of particular consideration is how relationship dynamics will affect microbicide usage. The purpose of this review is to examine the most recent body of literature regarding male and female perceptions of VHMs to prevent male to female transmission of HIV in order to gain a greater understanding of the factors that affect adherence and acceptability of VHM usage among women. A greater understanding of the factors that affect adherence and acceptance of VHMs will have an impact on the uptake of VHMs, allow nurses and other health care providers to counsel clients more effectively about their use and point to new directions needed on the research and development of future microbicides. PMID:22482279

  16. Multifactorial analysis of factors affecting recurrence of stroke in Japan.

    PubMed

    Omori, Toyonori; Kawagoe, Masahiro; Moriyama, Michiko; Yasuda, Takeshi; Ito, Yasuhiro; Hyakuta, Takeshi; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2015-03-01

    Data on factors affecting stroke recurrence are relatively limited. The authors examined potential factors affecting stroke recurrence, retrospectively. The study participants were 1087 patients who were admitted to stroke centers suffering from first-ever ischemic stroke and returned questionnaires with usable information after discharge. The authors analyzed the association between clinical parameters of the patients and their prognosis. Recurrence rate of during an average of 2 years after discharge was 21.3%, and there were differences among stroke subtypes. It was found that the disability level of the patients after discharge correlated well with the level at discharge (r s = 0.66). Multivariate logistic regression analysis of the data shows that modified Rankin Scale score, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score, gender, age, and family history had statistically significant impacts on stroke recurrence, and the impact was different depending on subtypes. These findings suggest that aggressive and persistent health education for poststroke patients and management of risk factors are essential to reduce stroke recurrence. PMID:22500031

  17. Risk factors affecting morbidity in typhoid enteric perforation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Gedik; S. Girgin; I. H. Taçy?ld?z; Y. Akgün

    2008-01-01

    Introduction  Typhoid enteric perforation is a cause of high morbidity and mortality. This study aim is to determine the factors affecting\\u000a morbidity in patients with typhoid enteric perforation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Ninety-six patients with typhoid enteric perforation were reviewed. The variables are defined as follows: Age, gender, complaints,\\u000a perforation–operation interval, typhoid fever treatment before the perforation or not, white blood cell (WBC)

  18. Factors affecting the pursuit of academic careers among dermatology residents.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Lisa L; Wen, Ge; Wu, Jashin J

    2015-04-01

    There is a shortage of academic dermatologists in the United States. This study aimed to examine characteristics of US dermatology residency programs that affect the odds of producing academic dermatologists. Data regarding program size, faculty, grants, alumni residency program attended, lectures, and publications for all accredited US dermatology residency programs were collected; these data were correlated with the ratio of graduating full-time faculty members to estimated total number of graduates for each respective program. Results emphasize that the ratio of faculty to residents and the number of full-time faculty publications may represent key factors by which residency programs can increase their graduation of academic dermatologists. PMID:25942025

  19. Factors affecting the binding of lectins to normal human skin.

    PubMed

    Bell, C M; Skerrow, C J

    1984-11-01

    Factors affecting the binding of a wide range of lectins to normal human skin were examined in order to evaluate current discrepancies in the literature. The profile of specific binding characteristic for each lectin was found to be variously influenced by the source of conjugate, tissue-processing method, the effectiveness of saccharide inhibitors, and by individual and minor body site variations. Most significantly, the use of routine histological processing not only greatly reduced binding intensity overall but also altered the binding pattern. PMID:6548640

  20. Teaching the Factors Affecting Resistance Using Pencil Leads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küçüközer, Asuman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a way of teaching the factors that affect resistance using mechanical pencil leads and the brightness of the light given out by a light bulb connected to an electrical circuit. The resistance of a conductor is directly proportional to its length (L) and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area (A). Additionally, the resistance depends on the type of conductor. Resistance R can be thus be expressed as R = ?L/A, where ? is the resistivity of the conductor.

  1. Factors affecting clinical assessment of insulin sensitivity in horses.

    PubMed

    Firshman, A M; Valberg, S J

    2007-11-01

    Insulin resistance is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of many equine conditions such as pars intermedia dysfunction, equine metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipaemia, laminitis, endotoxaemia and osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD); whereas polysaccharide storage myopathy in Quarter Horses and equine motor neuron disease (EMD) have been associated with increased insulin sensitivity. However, it is clear that there is not one ideal test, in terms of both practicality and accuracy, for evaluating insulin sensitivity in horses and improved diagnostic techniques are required. This review sets out the background to the subject and identifies current knowledge regarding the measurement of insulin sensitivity by tolerance testing and clamping techniques. Factors affecting insulin sensitivity, such as breed, pregnancy, lactation, obesity and nutritional factors are discussed. In addition, the relationship with training, nutritional supplementation and drug administration are considered. PMID:18065318

  2. Factors affecting individual injury experience among petroleum drilling workers.

    PubMed

    Mueller, B A; Mohr, D L; Rice, J C; Clemmer, D I

    1987-02-01

    To identify factors affecting the number of injuries experienced by petroleum drilling workers, we carried out a 44-month incidence density study on a cohort employed in January 1979 on mobile drilling units in the Gulf of Mexico. To control for job-related hazards, we computed a standardized ratio of observed to expected injuries for each worker based on his job history. The effect of personal and work history factors was then examined using analysis of variance. Age, rate of job changes, and rate of rig transfers had independent effects on injury rates. Length of service had little effect when age was controlled. The findings suggest that younger workers under stress such as job change may be more susceptible to injury than older workers, regardless of job. If so, targeted changes in procedures and environment which protect workers of all ages are important alternatives to reliance on supervision and experience in injury reduction. PMID:3819892

  3. Common factors affecting psychotherapy outcomes: some implications for teaching psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Robert; Heiman, Noa; Yager, Joel

    2015-05-01

    The number of psychotherapies classified as "empirically supported treatments" has increased significantly. As the number and scope of empirically supported treatments multiply, it has become impossible to train therapists in all of these specific modalities. Although the current Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requirements for psychiatric residents follow an approach based on specific schools of psychotherapy (emphasizing competency in cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychodynamic therapy, and supportive treatments), evidence suggests that we are failing even in these efforts. In developing a specialized Psychotherapy Scholars Track in the residency program at the University of Colorado School of Medicine, we opted to focus initially on teaching the common factors in psychotherapy that positively affect psychotherapy outcomes. This article reviews 6 such broad common factors. PMID:25955260

  4. The Factors that Affect Science Teachers' Participation in Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, Judi Ann

    Scientific literacy for our students and the possibilities for careers available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas are important topics for economic growth as well as global competitiveness. The achievement of students in science learning is dependent upon the science teachers' effectiveness and experienced science teachers depend upon relevant professional development experiences to support their learning. In order to understand how to improve student learning in science, the learning of science teachers must also be understood. Previous research studies on teacher professional development have been conducted in other states, but Minnesota science teachers comprised a new and different population from those previously studied. The purpose of this two-phase mixed methods study was to identify the current types of professional development in which experienced, Minnesota secondary science teachers participated and the factors that affect their participation in professional development activities. The mixed-methods approach s utilized an initial online survey followed by qualitative interviews with five survey respondents. The results of the quantitative survey and the qualitative interviews indicated the quality of professional development experiences and the factors which affected the science teachers' participation in professional development activities. The supporting and inhibiting factors involved the availability of resources such as time and money, external relationships with school administrators, teacher colleagues, and family members, and personal intrinsic attributes such as desires to learn and help students. This study also describes implications for science teachers, school administrators, policymakers, and professional development providers. Recommendations for future research include the following areas: relationships between and among intrinsic and extrinsic factors, science-related professional development activities within local school districts, the use of formal and informal professional development, and the needs of rural science teachers compared to urban and suburban teachers.

  5. Predictive factors affecting cecal intubation failure in colonoscopy trainees

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Successful cecal intubation (SCI) is not only a quality indicator but also an important marker in a colonoscopy trainee’s progress. We conducted this study to determine factors predicting SCI in colonoscopy trainees, and to compare these factors before and after trainees achieve technical competence. Methods Design of this study was a cross-sectional studies of two time series design for one year at a single center. From March 2011 to February 2012, a total 2,050 subjects who underwent colonoscopy by four first-year gastrointestinal fellows were enrolled at Christian hospital, Wonju, Republic of Korea. Four gastrointestinal fellows have filled out the colonoscopic documentation. Main outcome measurement was predictive factors affecting cecal intubation failure and learning curves. Results Colonoscopy was successfully completed to the cecum in 1,720 patients (83.9%). Success rates gradually increased as trainees performed more colonoscopies: the rate of SCI was 62% in the first 50 cases, and grew to 93% by the 250th case. Logistic regression analysis of factors affecting cecal intubation failure showed that female gender, low BMI (BMI < 18.5?kg/m2), poor bowel preparation, and past history of stomach surgery were more often associated with cecal intubation failure, particularly before the trainees achieved technical competence. Conclusion Several patient characteristics were identified that may predict difficulty of cecal intubation in colonoscopy trainees. Particularly, low BMI, inadequate bowel cleansing, and previous stomach operation were predictors of cecal intubation failure before the trainees have reached technical competency. The results could be informative so that trainees enhance the success rate regarding better colonoscopy training programs. PMID:23331720

  6. Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce.

    PubMed

    Francis, G A; Gallone, A; Nychas, G J; Sofos, J N; Colelli, G; Amodio, M L; Spano, G

    2012-01-01

    The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail. PMID:22530712

  7. Factors affecting expanded electricity trade in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    The authors explore factors that affect electricity trade between enterprises in the US and Canada and the US and Mexico. They look to those underlying policy and institutional factors that affect the relative costs of producing electricity in the three countries. In particular, they consider six factors that appear to have a significant impact on electricity trade in North America: differences in the types of economic regulation of power leading to differences in cost recovery for wholesale and retail power and wheeling charges; changing regulatory attitudes, placing more emphasis on demand-side management and environmental concerns; differences in energy and economic policies; differences in national and subnational environmental policies; changing organization of electric power industries which may foster uncertainty, change historical relationships, and provide other potentially important sources of power for distribution utilities; and differences in the ability of enterprises to gain access to electric power markets because of restrictions placed on transmission access. In Section 2, the authors discuss the regulation of electricity trade in North America and provide an overview of the recent trading experience for electricity between Canada and the US and between Mexico and the US, including the volume of that trade over the past decade and existing transmission capacity between regions of the three countries. In Section 3, they look at the benefits that accrue to trading counties and what those benefits are likely to be for the three countries. The discussion in Section 4 centers on the relevant provisions of the Canada Free Trade Agreement and the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement. In Section 5, they set the stage for the discussion of policy and institutional differences presented in Section 6 by outlining differences in the organization of the electric power sectors of Canada, the US, and Mexico. The study is synthesized in Section 7.

  8. [Response surface method optimize of nano-silica solid dispersion technology assistant enzymatic hydrolysis preparation genistein].

    PubMed

    Jin, Xin; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Zhu, Jing; Sun, E; Yu, Dan-Hong; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Liu, Qi-Yuan; Ning, Qing; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2012-04-01

    This article reports that nano-silica solid dispersion technology was used to raise genistein efficiency through increasing the enzymatic hydrolysis rate. Firstly, genistin-nano-silica solid dispersion was prepared by solvent method. And differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to verify the formation of solid dispersion, then enzymatic hydrolysis of solid dispersion was done by snailase to get genistein. With the conversion of genistein as criteria, single factor experiments were used to study the different factors affecting enzymatic hydrolysis of genistin and its solid dispersion. And then, response surface method was used to optimize of nano-silica solid dispersion technology assistant enzymatic hydrolysis. The optimum condition to get genistein through enzymatic hydrolysis of genistin-nano-silica solid dispersion was pH 7.1, temperature 52.2 degrees C, enzyme concentration 5.0 mg x mL(-1) and reaction time 7 h. Under this condition, the conversion of genistein was (93.47 +/- 2.40)%. Comparing with that without forming the genistin-nano-silica solid dispersion, the conversion increased 2.62 fold. At the same time, the product of hydrolysis was purified to get pure genistein. The method of enzymatic hydrolysis of genistin-nano-silica solid dispersion by snailase to obtain genistein is simple, efficiency and suitable for the modern scale production. PMID:22799038

  9. Dietary Factors Affecting Thyroid Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young Ae; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-07-01

    Some dietary factors are proposed to affect thyroid carcinogenesis, but previous studies have reported inconsistent findings. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis, including 18 eligible studies, to clarify the role of dietary factors in the risk of thyroid cancer. The relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated to assess the association and heterogeneity tests and subgroup and sensitivity analyses, and bias assessments were performed. When the results from all studies were combined, dietary iodine, fish, and cruciferous vegetable intake were not associated with thyroid cancer. However, when the data were divided by geographic location based on iodine availability, a slight increase in the risk of thyroid cancer was observed among those consuming a high total amount of fish in iodine nondeficient areas (RR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.03-1.35; P for heterogeneity = 0.282). When excluding the studies examining a single food item and hospital-based controls, a high intake of cruciferous vegetables was associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer in iodine-deficient areas (RR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.18-1.74; P for heterogeneity = 0.426). This meta-analysis implies that the role of dietary factors, such as fish and cruciferous vegetables, in thyroid cancer risk can differ based on iodine availability. PMID:25996474

  10. Enhancing vitamin E bioaccessibility: factors impacting solubilization and hydrolysis of ?-tocopherol acetate encapsulated in emulsion-based delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Decker, Eric Andrew; Xiao, Hang; McClements, David Julian

    2015-01-01

    Oil-soluble vitamins are often encapsulated within emulsion-based delivery systems to facilitate their incorporation into aqueous-based products. We have examined the influence of carrier oil type and simulated small intestinal fluid (SSIF) composition on the bioaccessibility of emulsified vitamin E using a gastrointestinal model. Oil-in-water emulsions containing vitamin E acetate were prepared using bile salts as emulsifier, and either long chain triacylglycerols (glyceryl trioleate, LCT) or medium chain triacylglycerols (glyceryl trioctanoate, MCT) as carrier oils. The addition of calcium (CaCl2) to the SSIF increased the extent of lipid digestion in LCT-emulsions, but had little impact in MCT-emulsions. The bioaccessibility of vitamin E increased in the presence of calcium and phospholipids (DOPC) in LCT-emulsions, but decreased in MCT-emulsions. The highest bioaccessibility (?66%) was achieved for LCT-emulsions when the SSIF contained both calcium and phospholipids. The conversion of ?-tocopherol acetate to ?-tocopherol after in vitro digestion was considerably higher for LCT-emulsions when calcium ions were present in the SSIF, but was not strongly affected by SSIF composition for MCT-emulsions. In general, this research provides important information about the factors influencing the bioaccessibility of emulsified vitamin E, which could be used to design more effective emulsion-based delivery systems for increasing the oral bioavailability of this important bioactive component. PMID:25312787

  11. Factors affecting the implementation of clinical pharmacy services in China.

    PubMed

    Penm, Jonathan; Moles, Rebekah; Wang, Holly; Li, Yan; Chaar, Betty

    2014-03-01

    New policies in China have recently led to the implementation of clinical pharmacy services in hospitals. We explored the views of hospital administrators, pharmacy directors, clinical pharmacists, and dispensing pharmacists about the factors affecting clinical pharmacy services in China, using the framework approach and organizational theory. We conducted 30 interviews with 130 participants at 29 hospitals (both secondary and tertiary) in Beijing, Zhengzhou, Luoyang, and Shanghai. We found that the barriers to and facilitators of implementation of clinical pharmacy services slotted into the environment and participant dimensions of Scott's adapted version of Leavitt's organizational model. External support from government was perceived as crucial to promoting pharmacy services. It is proposed that the internationally recognized Basel Statements of the International Pharmaceutical Federation also provide a strong foundation for guiding China in implementing clinical pharmacy services. PMID:24562375

  12. Major factors affecting severity of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Won; Kim, Boo-Young; Han, Jung Ju; Hwang, Jae Hyung; Jung, Kihwan; Kim, Min; Kim, Soo Whan

    2015-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has become a common method for evaluating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between CT parameters and clinical parameters in OSA patients to determine major factors affecting the severity of OSA. The records of 128 consecutive snoring patients (98 males, 30 females) diagnosed with OSA were retrospectively reviewed. Polysomnography was performed for each patient. On CT scans, airway areas were measured at the level of the hard palate, the soft palate, and the base of the tongue. Polysomnographic parameters were compared by gender and age using the Mann-Whitney U test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to analyze relationships between variables and the AHI in each age group. The women were significantly older than the men (p < 0.01). The AHI and apnea index were significantly higher in men than in women. Stage 1 sleep and rapid eye movement sleep were more frequent in men than in women. The area at the base of the tongue was significantly smaller in women than in men (p = 0.027). In the 50-60 age group, the AHI was significantly higher in men (41.47 ± 19.67) than in women (17.14 ± 15.63) (p = 0.001). OSA severity varies with age, gender, and upper airway area. The OSA prognosis could be improved by evaluating the major factors and treating OSA patients according to epidemiological characteristics and anatomical structures. PMID:25621265

  13. Factors affecting strain gauge selection for smart structure applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Stephen R.

    1998-07-01

    This review and orientation to strain gage technology presents the historical development of the bonded foil resistance strain gage as well as modern design and selection criteria for the successful use of strain gages in smart structure technology. Discovered in 1865 by Lord Kelvin, the principle of using resistance change in conductors to measure strain has existed in its present form of the foil strain gage since the late 1950s. Since then, advances in manufacturing and applications techniques have made the bonded foil resistance strain gage one of the most economical and easy to use sensors available for direct measurement and transducer applications alike. Millions are produced and use each year throughout the world. The factors affecting strain gage design and construction include of foil alloy, backing, pattern, and temperature characteristics. Over 250,000 unique strain gage constructions are possible, each particularly suited to a specific set of application conditions. The effect of each of these factors on smart structure performance is considered.

  14. Factors affecting detection of burrowing owl nests during standardized surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conway, C.J.; Garcia, V.; Smith, M.D.; Hughes, K.

    2008-01-01

    Identifying causes of declines and evaluating effects of management practices on persistence of local populations of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) requires accurate estimates of abundance and population trends. Moreover, regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada typically require surveys to detect nest burrows prior to approving developments or other activities in areas that are potentially suitable for nesting burrowing owls. In general, guidelines on timing of surveys have been lacking and surveys have been conducted at different times of day and in different stages of the nesting cycle. We used logistic regression to evaluate 7 factors that could potentially affect probability of a surveyor detecting a burrowing owl nest. We conducted 1,444 detection trials at 323 burrowing owl nests within 3 study areas in Washington and Wyoming, USA, between February and August 2000-2002. Detection probability was highest during the nestling period and increased with ambient temperature. The other 5 factors that we examined (i.e., study area, time of day, timing within the breeding season, wind speed, % cloud cover) interacted with another factor to influence detection probability. Use of call-broadcast surveys increased detection probability, even during daylight hours when we detected >95% of owls visually. Optimal timing of surveys will vary due to differences in breeding phenology and differences in nesting behavior across populations. Nevertheless, we recommend ???3 surveys per year: one that coincides with the laying and incubation period, another that coincides with the early nestling period, and a third that coincides with the late nestling period. In northern latitudes, surveys can be conducted throughout the day.

  15. Factors Affecting Prostate Volume Estimation in Computed Tomography Images

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Cheng-Hsiu [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shyh-Jen [Divisions of Experimental Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Alex Tong-Long [Divisions of Urology, Department of Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chao-An, E-mail: calin@pme.nthu.edu.t [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how apex-localizing methods and the computed tomography (CT) slice thickness affected the CT-based prostate volume estimation. Twenty-eight volunteers underwent evaluations of prostate volume by CT, where the contour segmentations were performed by three observers. The bottom of ischial tuberosities (ITs) and the bulb of the penis were used as reference positions to locate the apex, and the distances to the apex were recorded as 1.3 and 2.0 cm, respectively. Interobserver variations to locate ITs and the bulb of the penis were, on average, 0.10 cm (range 0.03-0.38 cm) and 0.30 cm (range 0.00-0.98 cm), respectively. The range of CT slice thickness varied from 0.08-0.48 cm and was adopted to examine the influence of the variation on volume estimation. The volume deviation from the reference case (0.08 cm), which increases in tandem with the slice thickness, was within {+-} 3 cm{sup 3}, regardless of the adopted apex-locating reference positions. In addition, the maximum error of apex identification was 1.5 times of slice thickness. Finally, based on the precise CT films and the methods of apex identification, there were strong positive correlation coefficients for the estimated prostate volume by CT and the transabdominal ultrasonography, as found in the present study (r > 0.87; p < 0.0001), and this was confirmed by Bland-Altman analysis. These results will help to identify factors that affect prostate volume calculation and to contribute to the improved estimation of the prostate volume based on CT images.

  16. Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyo, Katrina A.

    2011-07-01

    A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

  17. 29 CFR 784.118 - The exemption is intended for work affected by natural factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...exemption is intended for work affected by natural factors. 784.118 Section 784...exemption is intended for work affected by natural factors. As indicated by the legislative...are controlled or materially affected by natural factors or elements, such as the...

  18. Elimination of error factors, affecting EM and seismic inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magomedov, M.; Zuev, M. A.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.

    2013-12-01

    EM or seismic data inversions are affected by many factors, which may conceal the responses from target objects. We address here the contributions from the following effects: 1) Pre-survey spectral sensitivity factor. Preliminary information about a target layer can be used for a pre-survey estimation of the required frequency domain and signal level. A universal approach allows making such estimations in real time, helping the survey crew to optimize an acquisition process. 2) Preliminary velocities' identification and their dispersions for all the seismic waves, arising in a stratified media became a fast working tool, based on the exact analytical solution. 3) Vertical gradients effect. For most layers the log data scatter, requiring an averaging pattern. A linear gradient within each representative layer is a reasonable compromise between required inversion accuracy and forward modeling complexity. 4) An effect from the seismic source's radial component becomes comparable with vertical part for explosive sources. If this effect is not taken into account, a serious modeling error takes place. This problem has an algorithmic solution. 5) Seismic modeling is often based on different representations for a source formulated either for a force or to a potential. The wave amplitudes depend on the formulation, making an inversion result sensitive to it. 6) Asymmetrical seismic waves (modified Rayleigh) in symmetrical geometry around liquid fracture come from S-wave and merge with the modified Krauklis wave at high frequencies. A detail analysis of this feature allows a spectral range optimization for the proper wave's extraction. 7) An ultrasonic experiment was conducted to show different waves appearance for a super-thin water-saturated fracture between two Plexiglas plates, being confirmed by comparison with theoretical computations. 8) A 'sandwich effect' was detected by comparison with averaged layer's effect. This opens an opportunity of the shale gas direct identification from the surface measurements.

  19. Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

    2013-10-01

    This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

  20. [Aerodynamic parameters and their affecting factors over Panjin reed wetland].

    PubMed

    He, Qi-Jin; Zhou, Guang-Sheng; Zhou, Li; Wang, Yun-Long

    2008-03-01

    Based on the observation data from eddy covariance tower and meteorological gradient tower in Panjin reed wetland observation plot, and by the method combined eddy covariance with microclimate gradient observation, two fundamental aerodynamic parameters, i. e., zero-plane displacement (d) and roughness length (z0), were evaluated, with their affecting factors analyzed. The results showed that the method adopted was suitable for estimating the aerodynamic parameters. There existed obvious seasonal variations in d and z0, with the maximum (1.85 and 0.24 m) in September and the minimum (0.02 and 0.03 m) in December, respectively. The seasonal variations were closely related to vegetation characteristics, plant height (h) and leaf area index (LAI). There was a close linear relationship between d and h, and a conic relationship between z0 and h. Both d/h and d/z0 had power relationships with LAI, and the R2 values were 0.99 and 0.78, respectively. PMID:18533513

  1. Knowledge Elecitation for Factors Affecting Taskforce Productivity using a Questionnaire

    E-print Network

    Muhammad Sohail; Abdur Rashid Khan

    2009-07-30

    In this paper we present the process of Knowledge Elicitation through a structured questionnaire technique. This is an effort to depict a problem domain as Investigation of factors affecting taskforce productivity. The problem has to be solved using the expert system technology. This problem is the very first step how to acquire knowledge from the domain experts. Knowledge Elicitation is one of the difficult tasks in knowledge base formation which is a key component of expert system. The questionnaire was distributed among 105 different domain experts of Public and Private Organizations (i.e. Education Institutions, Industries and Research etc) in Pakistan. A total 61 responses from these experts were received. All the experts were well qualified, highly experienced and has been remained the members for selection committees a number of times for different posts. Facts acquired were analyzed from which knowledge was extracted and elicited. A standard shape was given to the questionnaire for further research as a knowledge learning tool. This tool may be used as a standard document for selection and promotion of employees.

  2. Factors affecting treatment and recurrence of Clostridium difficile infections.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kazuaki; Kanazawa, Naoko; Shigemi, Akari; Ikawa, Kazuro; Morikawa, Norifumi; Koriyama, Toyoyasu; Orita, Michiyo; Kawamura, Hideki; Tokuda, Koichi; Nishi, Junichiro; Takeda, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial agents vancomycin and metronidazole have been used to treat Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs). However, it remains unclear why patients are at risk of treatment failure and recurrence. Therefore, this study retrospectively examined 98 patients with CDIs who were diagnosed based on the detection of toxin-positive C. difficile to determine the risk factors affecting drug treatment responses and the recurrence of CDI. No significant difference was observed in the cure rate or dosage between the vancomycin and metronidazole groups. The 90-d mortality rate and total number of drugs associated with CDIs, including antiinfective agents used within 2 months before the detection of toxin-positive C. difficile, were significantly lower in the treatment success group than in the failure group. The total number of antiinfective agents and gastric acid-suppressive agents used during CDI therapy was also significantly lower in the success group than in the failure group. The period from the completion of CDI therapy to restarting the administration of anticancer agents and steroids was significantly longer in patients without than in patients with recurrence. These results indicate that the total number of drugs associated with CDIs should be minimized to reduce the risk of CDIs, that not only antibiotics but also gastric acid-suppressive agents should be discontinued during CDI therapy to increase therapeutic efficacy, and that the use of anticancer agents and steroids should be delayed as long as possible after patients are cured by CDI therapy to prevent recurrence. PMID:25366486

  3. Hydrologic and geologic factors affecting land subsidence near Eloy, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Epstein, V.J.

    1987-01-01

    At an extensometer site near Eloy, Arizona, 1.09 m of land subsidence caused by groundwater withdrawal were measured by leveling in 1965-83. The extensometer, which partially penetrates the compressible sediments, recorded 0.82 m of compaction during the same period. By use of a one-dimensional model, cumulative daily compaction values were simulated to within an average of 0.0038 m of the actual values. Land subsidence was simulated to within an average of 0.011 m using the same model in conjunction with geohydrologic data of the sediments below the extensometer. A highly compressible clay layer that is 24.38 m thick was partially penetrated by the extensometer. The simulation indicated that the layer was driving compaction and land subsidence linearly with respect to time, despite the presence of other compacting layers. Because of its thickness and compressibility, this layer can be expected to continue to compact after applied vertical stresses have stopped increasing and other layers have stopped compacting. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the compressibility of fine-grained sediments (expressed as specific storage) is one of the factors to which compact is most sensitive. Preconsolidation stress and hydraulic conductivity also affect land subsidence near Eloy, Arizona. (Author 's abstract)

  4. Factors Affecting Hemodialysis Patients' Satisfaction with Their Dialysis Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Al Eissa, M.; Al Sulaiman, M.; Jondeby, M.; Karkar, A.; Barahmein, M.; Shaheen, F. A. M.; Al Sayyari, A.

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To assess the degree of satisfaction among hemodialysis patients and the factors influencing this satisfaction. Methods. Patients were recruited from 3 Saudi dialysis centers. Demographic data was collected. Using 1 to 10 Likert scale, the patients were asked to rate the overall satisfaction with, and the overall impact of, their dialysis therapy on their lives and to rate the effect of the dialysis therapy on 15 qualities of life domains. Results. 322 patients were recruited (72.6% of the total eligible patients). The mean age was 51.7 years (±15.4); 58% have been on dialysis for >3 years. The mean Charlson Comorbidity Index was 3.2 (±2), and Kt/V was 1.3 (±0.44). The mean satisfaction score was (7.41 ± 2.75) and the mean score of the impact of the dialysis on the patients' lives was 5.32 ± 2.55. Male patients reported worse effect of dialysis on family life, social life, energy, and appetite. Longer period since the commencement of dialysis was associated with adverse effect on finances and energy. Lower level of education was associated with worse dialysis effect on stress, overall health, sexual life, hobbies, and exercise ability. Conclusion. The level of satisfaction is affected by gender, duration on dialysis, educational level, and standard of care given. PMID:21152200

  5. Factors affecting development of a motion imagery quality metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, John M.; Fenimore, Charles; Cannon, David; Roberts, John; Israel, Steven A.; Simon, Larry; Watts, Charles; Miller, James D.; Aviles, Ana I.; Tighe, Paul F.; Behrens, Richard J.; Haverkamp, Donna

    2005-05-01

    The motion imagery community would benefit from the availability of standard measures for assessing image interpretability. The National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS) has served as a community standard for still imagery, but no comparable scale exists for motion imagery. Several considerations unique to motion imagery indicate that the standard methodology employed in the past for NIIRS development may not be applicable or, at a minimum, require modifications. Traditional methods for NIIRS development rely on a close linkage between perceived image quality, as captured by specific image interpretation tasks, and the sensor parameters associated with image acquisition. The dynamic nature of motion imagery suggests that this type of linkage may not exist or may be modulated by other factors. An initial study was conducted to understand the effects target motion, camera motion, and scene complexity have on perceived image interpretability for motion imagery. This paper summarizes the findings from this evaluation. In addition, several issues emerged that require further investigation: - The effect of frame rate on the perceived interpretability of motion imagery - Interactions between color and target motion which could affect perceived interpretability - The relationships among resolution, viewing geometry, and image interpretability - The ability of an analyst to satisfy specific image exploitation tasks relative to different types of motion imagery clips Plans are being developed to address each of these issues through direct evaluations. This paper discusses each of these concerns, presents the plans for evaluations, and explores the implications for development of a motion imagery quality metric.

  6. Factors affecting the color of corn tortillas and tortilla chips 

    E-print Network

    Mireles, Raquel C

    1995-01-01

    immediately compared to chips equilibrated for longer periods. Thus, equilibration time affects the oil absorption, texture and color of the finished chip. Variations in minor components of corn significantly affect color of white tortillas and tortilla chips....

  7. FACTORS AFFECTING THE COLLECTION EFFICIENCY OF ATMOSPHERIC SULFATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Factors that influence the collection and measurement of atmospheric sulfate were investigated. Special emphasis was given to those factors that cause the formation of extraneous sulfate during the sampling process. The factors considered were filter type and composition, ambient...

  8. Urban vs. rural factors that affect adult asthma.

    PubMed

    Jie, Yu; Isa, Zaleha Md; Jie, Xu; Ju, Zhang Long; Ismail, Noor Hassim

    2013-01-01

    In this review, our aim was to examine the influence of geographic variations on asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults, which is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity. Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The disparities in asthma prevalence and morbidity among the world's geographic locations are more likely to be associated with environmental exposures than genetic differences. In writing this article, we found that the indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, and that difference correlated with environmental risk exposures, SES, and healthcare access. Environmental risk factors to which urban adults were more frequently exposed than rural adults were dust mites,high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle.Exposure to indoor biological contaminants in the urban environment is common.The main risk factors for developing asthma in urban areas are atopy and allergy to house dust mites, followed by allergens from animal dander. House dust mite exposure may potentially explain differences in diagnosis of asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults in urban vs. rural areas. In addition, the prevalence of asthma morbidity increases with urbanization. High levels of vehicle emissions,Western lifestyles and degree of urbanization itself, may affect outdoor and thereby indoor air quality. In urban areas, biomass fuels have been widely replaced by cleaner energy sources at home, such as gas and electricity, but in most developing countries, coal is still a major source of fuel for cooking and heating, particularly in winter. Moreover, exposure to ETS is common at home or at work in urban areas.There is evidence that asthma prevalence and morbidity is less common in rural than in urban areas. The possible reasons are that rural residents are exposed early in life to stables and to farm milk production, and such exposures are protective against developing asthma morbidity. Even so, asthma morbidity is disproportionately high among poor inner-city residents and in rural populations. A higher proportion of adult residents of nonmetropolitan areas were characterized as follows:aged 55 years or older, no previous college admission, low household income, no health insurance coverage, and could not see a doctor due to healthcare service availability, etc. In rural areas, biomass fuels meet more than 70% of the rural energy needs. Progress in adopting modern energy sources in rural areas has been slow. The most direct health impact comes from household energy use among the poor, who depend almost entirely on burning biomass fuels in simple cooking devices that are placed in inadequately ventilated spaces. Prospective studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of biomass smoke on lung health among adults in rural areas.Geographic differences in asthma susceptibility exist around the world. The reason for the differences in asthma prevalence in rural and urban areas may be due to the fact that populations have different lifestyles and cultures, as well as different environmental exposures and different genetic backgrounds. Identifying geographic disparities in asthma hospitalizations is critical to implementing prevention strategies,reducing morbidity, and improving healthcare financing for clinical asthma treatment. Although evidence shows that differences in the prevalence of asthma do exist between urban and rural dwellers in many parts of the world, including in developed countries, data are inadequate to evaluate the extent to which different pollutant exposures contribute to asthma morbidity and severity of asthma between urban and rural areas. PMID:23625129

  9. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Powdered Drug Reconstitution in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Grant; Johnston, Smith; Marshburn, Tom

    1999-01-01

    Owing to the high cost of transporting mass into space, and the small volume available for equipment in the Space Shuttle Orbiter and the International Space Station, refrigeration space is extremely limited. For this reason, there exists strong motivation for transporting certain drugs in powdered form so that they do not require refrigeration. When needed, the powdered drug will be mixed with saline to obtain a liquid form that may be injected intravenously. While this is a relatively simple task in a 1-G environment, there are some difficulties that may be encountered in 0-G. In non-accelerated spaceflight, gravitational and inertial forces are eliminated allowing other smaller forces, such as capillary forces and surface tension, to dominate the behavior of fluids. For instance, water slowly ejected from a straw will tend to form a sphere, while fluid in a container will tend to wet the inside surface forming a highly rounded meniscus. Initial attempts at mixing powdered drugs with saline in microgravity have shown a tendency toward forming foamy emulsions instead of the desired homogeneous solution. The predominance of adhesive forces between the drug particles and the interface tensions at the gas/liquid and solid/liquid interfaces drastically reduce the rate of deaggregation of the drug powder and also reduce the rate of absorption of saline by the powder mass. In addition, the capillary forces cause the saline to wet the inside of the container, thus trapping air bubbles within the liquid. The rate of dissolution of a powder drug is directly proportional to the amount of surface area of the solid that is exposed to liquid solvent. The surface area of drug that is in contact with the liquid is greatly reduced in microgravity and, as a result, the dissolution rate is reduced as well. The KC-135 research described here was aimed at evaluating the extent to which it is possible to perform drug reconstitution in the weightlessness of parabolic flight using standard pharmacological supplies. The experiment included a parametric assessment of possible factors affecting the reconstitution process. The specific questions that we wished to answer were: (1) Is it possible to reconstitute powdered drugs in weightlessness using standard pharmacological equipment? (2) What are the differences between drug reconstitution in a 1-G and a 0-G environment? (3) What techniques of mixing the drug powder and diluent are more successful? (4) What physical and chemical factors play a role in determining the success of mixing and dissolution? (5) Is it necessary to employ crewmember and equipment restraints during the reconstitution process?

  10. Factors potentially affecting fertility of lactating dairy cow recipients.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, J L M; Demétrio, D G B; Santos, R M; Chiari, J R; Rodrigues, C A; Sá Filho, O G

    2006-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to evaluate factors that could affect pregnancy rate after embryo transfer (ET) in lactating dairy cow recipients. The trial was conducted at a dairy farm located in Descalvado, SP, Brazil from October 2003 to September 2004. From 1037 cows with CL that were treated with an injection of PGF2alpha, 43.3% were detected in heat; 263 were previously assigned at day of PGF2alpha injection for AI and 186 for ET. Ovulation rate was 85.7% (385/449). Pregnancy rate for cows with CL for AI and embryo transfer recipients were 36.5% (84/230) and 58.7% (91/155) at day 25 and 33.0% (76/230) and 45.8% (71/155) at day 46, respectively. Embryonic loss were 9.5% (8/84) for the AI group and 21.9% (20/91) for the ET group. Average milk production was 31.4 L/day/cow. Average daily milk production from 7 days before PGF2alpha injection to 7 days after ET tended (P < 0.10) to influence pregnancy rate on days 25 and 46. Average daily milk production from the day of embryo transfer to 7 days after influenced embryonic loss (P < 0.05). Cows with higher milk production had lower probability of pregnancy and higher probability of embryonic loss. Cows with higher days in milk had higher probability of pregnancy. Cows with higher rectal body temperature had lower probability of pregnancy and higher probability of embryonic loss. The influence of high milk yield and body temperature on fertility in lactating dairy cow recipients suggests that these effects can occur also after embryo reaches the blastocyst stage. PMID:16290259

  11. Factors affecting in vitro maturation of alpaca (Lama paco) oocytes.

    PubMed

    Leisinger, Ca; Coffman, Ea; Coutinho da Silva, Ma; Forshey, Bs; Pinto, Crf

    2014-11-10

    The present study utilized a 2×2×2 factorial design examining age (old vs. young), follicle size (?2mm vs. <2mm) and media supplementation (with or without fetal bovine serum [FBS]) to determine factors that might affect in vitro maturation of alpaca oocytes. We hypothesized that oocytes collected from follicles ?2mm from young alpacas and incubated in maturation media supplemented with FBS would have greater maturation rates than those incubated in any other factorial combination. Oocytes were collected from the ovaries of 11 young alpacas (<10 years old) and 14 old alpacas (>11 years old). Oocytes were classified as morphologically normal oocytes (MNO) and deemed suitable for incubation if ?3 compact layers of cumulus cells and a homogeneous, evenly granulated cytoplasm were observed. Oocytes from each group of follicle sizes were incubated separately and halves of each group were randomly divided and incubated 24h in chemically defined maturation media with or without 10% FBS. Maturation was defined as the visualization of a polar body at the end of the incubation period. Overall, a greater proportion of MNO were collected from follicles ?2mm than that obtained from smaller follicles, 55% (136/247) vs. 29.6% (162/547), respectively (P<0.05). A greater proportion of oocytes reached maturation when collected from ?2mm follicles 36% (49/136) than from <2mm follicles 8% (13/162) (P<0.05). For oocytes obtained from ?2mm follicles of old alpacas, a greater proportion reached maturation when incubated in media supplemented with FBS than when incubated without FBS; 57.6% (19/33) vs. 18.2% (6/33), respectively (P<0.05). PMID:25261077

  12. Factors affecting members' evaluation of agri-business ventures' effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Seyyed Mahmoud; Hedjazi, Yousef

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents work to identify factors affecting effectiveness of agri-business ventures (A-BVs) on the side of providers as perceived by their members. A survey was conducted among 95 members of A-BVs in Zanjan province, Iran. To collect data, a questionnaire was designed. Two distinct groups of A-BVs with low (group 1) and high (group 2) perceived (evaluated) levels of effectiveness were revealed. The study showed that there were significant differences between the two groups on important characteristics of A-BVs and their members. The study also found that there were statistically significant relationships between A-BVs' governance structure and capacity, management and organization characteristics and the perceived effectiveness, whereas there were no statistically significant relationships between A-BVs' advisory methods characteristic applied by members and the perceived effectiveness. Logistic regression results also showed that level of application of rules encouraging members' active participation in important decision makings, clear terms of reference to guide contracting procedures, roles, and responsibilities of parties involved, type of people served and geographical area of program coverage, and members' ability to use Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) were predictors of the perceived (evaluated) effectiveness of A-BVs. The study showed that evaluation of members of effectiveness of A-BVs would not be the same. It is suggested that Iranian public agricultural extension organization, as responsible organization for monitoring and evaluating services conducted by A-BVs, considered these differences between members with different levels of some important variables. PMID:20708268

  13. Factors affecting surgical wait times for breast reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Kirsty U; Temple, Claire LF; Ross, Douglas C

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine factors that affect wait times for women seeking breast reconstruction at a Canadian academic centre. METHODS: A retrospective audit of 57 women seeking breast reconstruction over a three-year period was completed. Comparisons of wait times were made considering the surgical pathology, timing of reconstruction (immediate versus delayed), urgency of pathology, method of reconstruction (implant versus autologous) and the number of surgeons involved. Specifically, the wait times from referral to specialist consultation, consultation to surgery, and referral to surgery were examined. RESULTS: Women with active cancer (ductal carcinoma in situ: 43 days, invasive cancer: 40 days) had shorter wait times compared with those who had no active cancer (benign/high risk: 242 days, previously treated cancer: 343 days) (P<0.05). Women seeking delayed reconstruction had longer wait times (359 days) from referral to surgery than women seeking immediate reconstruction (98 days) (P<0.0001). Women seeking reconstruction at the time of mastectomy, with benign/high-risk disease, waited longer (242 days) than those with ductal carcinoma in situ (43 days) or invasive cancer (40 days) (P<0.001). Wait times for autologous free tissue transfer (213 days) were not significantly longer compared with implant reconstruction (116 days) (P=0.27). Women with acute cancer experienced similar wait times for implant reconstruction (44 days) as for a free tissue transfer (56 days) (P=0.46). Women with no acute cancer had similar wait times for implant (239 days) as free tissue transfer (369 days) (P=0.25). Patients requiring only plastic surgeons involved in the reconstructive effort waited longer (one surgeon: 299 days, two surgeons: 550 days) than patients requiring either two plastic surgeons and one general surgeon (130 days) or one plastic surgeon and one general surgeon (82 days) (P<0.05). Although more coordination is required with three surgeons, this is frequently associated with a diagnosis of acute cancer and, therefore, wait times are shorter. PMID:21886436

  14. Factors affecting nutritional status of Malaysian primary school children.

    PubMed

    Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers. PMID:16425649

  15. The Affectional Component of Sexual Permissiveness: A Factor-Analytic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kathleen M.; Houlihan, John

    1978-01-01

    The Reiss Premarital Sexual Permissiveness Scale was administered to 51 male and 54 female undergraduates. Factor analysis revealed three major factors: intercourse with affection, kissing with affection, and nonaffectional sexual activity. It is suggested that permissiveness be defined as lack of affection. (Author)

  16. FACTORS AFFECTING THE PHOTOCHEMICAL TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The photochemical treatment of hazardous waste can be optimized by taking into account several factors that influence the rates of photochemical reactions. Physical factors that facilitate photochemical treatment include: (1) maximizing the irradiated surface to volume ratio of t...

  17. FACTORS AFFECTING THE PHOTOCHEMICAL TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The photochemical treatment of hazardous waste can be optimized by taking into account various factors that influence the rates of photochemical reactions. Physical factors that facilitate photochemical treatment include: (1) maximizing the irradiated surface to volume ratio of t...

  18. Environmental and genetic factors affecting cow survival of Israeli Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Weller, J I; Ezra, E

    2015-01-01

    The objectives were to investigate the effects of various environmental factors that may affect herd-life of Israeli Holsteins, including first-calving age and season, calving ease, number of progeny born, and service sire for first calving in complete and truncated records; and to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations between herd-life and the other traits included in the Israeli breeding index. The basic data set consisted of 590,869 cows in milk recording herds with first freshening day between 1985 and at least 8 yr before the cut-off date of September 15, 2013. Herd-life was measured as days from first calving to culling. The phenotypic and genetic trends for herd-life were 5.7 and 16.8d/yr. The genetic trend was almost linear, whereas the phenotypic trend showed 4 peaks and 3 valleys. Cows born in February and March had the shortest herd-life, whereas cows born in September had the longest herd-life. Herd-life was maximal with calving age of 23mo, which is 1mo less than the mean calving age, and minimal at 19 and 31mo of calving age. Dystocia and twinning on first-parity calving reduced herd-life by approximately180 and 120d, but the interaction effect increased herd-life by 140d. Heritability for herd-life was 0.14. Despite the fact that the service sire effect was significant in the fixed model analysis, service sire effect accounted for <0.05% of the total variance. In the analysis of 1,431,938 truncated records, the effects of dystocia and twinning rate were very similar but less than 50% of the effects found in the analysis of complete records. Pregnancy at the truncation date increased expected herd-life by 432d. The correlation between actual herd-life and predicted herd-life based on truncated records was 0.44. Genetic correlations between the truncated records and actual herd-life were 0.75 for records truncated after 6mo but approached unity for records truncated after 3 yr. The genetic correlations of herd-life with first-parity milk, fat, and protein production, somatic cell score (SCS), and female fertility were all positive, except for SCS, in which negative values are economically favorable. The highest correlations with herd-life in absolute value were with female fertility and SCS. PMID:25468704

  19. Factors that Affect Yield and Composition of Goat Milk: A Bibliographic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro Salvador; Gonzalo Martínez

    A review of the literature on several factors that affect the production and composition of goat milk was done. The search was based on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The intrinsic factors involved were classified as: genetic, taking into consideration the difference in milk production and composition among breeds and groups as well as the different polymorphisms that affect milk's

  20. Factors affecting the success of non-majors in learning to program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Wiedenbeck

    2005-01-01

    The introductory programming course is difficult for many university students, especially students who have little prior exposure to programming. Many factors affecting student success have been identified, but there is still a dearth of knowledge about how key factors combine to affect course outcomes. In this study we develop and empirically test a model integrating three factors of importance in

  1. A study of some factors affecting reproductive performance in gilts 

    E-print Network

    Fowler, Stewart Hampton

    1954-01-01

    Major Subject Physiology of Reproduction ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author is indebted to Dr. J . C . Miller, Head of the Depart? ment of Animal Husbandry, who made this study possible through con? tributions from departmental funds. Sincere appreciation... in which nutrition affects the fertility of farm animals. At present, practically nothing is known about how nutrition affects reproductive phenomena such as attainment of puberty, ovulation rates, fertilization rates, and embryonic death rates...

  2. ACCURACY OF PESTICIDE REFERENCE STANDARD SOLUTIONS. PART I. FACTORS AFFECTING ORGANIC SOLVENT EVAPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A gravimetric experiment was undertaken to identify the factors affecting solvent evaporation from analytical reference standard solutions and to establish the magnitude of the resultant solvent evaporation. The evaporation of organic solvent from standard solutions is affected b...

  3. Cultural factors affecting urban Mexican male homosexual behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph M. Carrier

    1976-01-01

    Some aspects of the mestizoized urban culture in Mexico are linked to male homosexuality in support of the theory that cultural factors play an important role in the kind of life styles and sex practices of males involved in homosexual behavior. The following factors are considered relevant: the sharp dichotomization of gender roles, dual categorization of females as good or

  4. Factors Affecting EWS-FLI1 Activity in Ewing's Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Herrero-Martin, David; Fourtouna, Argyro; Niedan, Stephan; Riedmann, Lucia T.; Schwentner, Raphaela; Aryee, Dave N. T.

    2011-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT) are characterized by specific chromosomal translocations, which give rise to EWS-ETS chimeric proteins. These aberrant transcription factors are the main pathogenic drivers of ESFT. Elucidation of the factors influencing EWS-ETS expression and/or activity will guide the development of novel therapeutic agents against this fatal disease. PMID:22135504

  5. Examining Factors That Affect Students' Knowledge Sharing within Virtual Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Jinxia; Gunter, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that might impact student knowledge sharing within virtual teams through online discussion boards. These factors include: trust, mutual influence, conflict, leadership, and cohesion. A path model was developed to determine whether relationships exist among knowledge sharing from asynchronous group…

  6. Factors Affecting Teachers' Student-Centered Classroom Computer Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Helmut Felix; Hron, Aemilian

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims at investigating which factors are relevant to induce teachers' student-centered classroom computer use. Survey data were collected from 361 teachers at comprehensive schools. Based on a systemic view of technology use in schools, different individual teacher characteristics and school contextual factors were examined.…

  7. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS AFFECT HIPPOCAMPAL MICROVASCULATURE IN EARLY AD

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Elizabeth; Wicinski, Bridget; Schmeidler, James; Haroutunian, Vahram; Hof, Patrick R.

    2011-01-01

    There is growing clinical and neuropathologic evidence suggesting that cognitive decline in early Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is aggravated by a synergistic relationship between AD and cerebrovascular disease associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes and hypertension. Here we used the stereologic “Space Balls” method to investigate the relationships between AD pathology and cardiovascular risk factors in postmortem human brains of patients with hypertension and diabetes in two groups – one consisting of cases with AD diagnosis and one of cases without. Hippocampal CA1 and CA3 microvasculature length density estimates were generated to characterize quantitatively the contribution of cardiovascular risk factors to the severity of neuropathologic changes. Our main finding is that the mean and variance of length density values in the AD group were significantly increased from the non-AD group, regardless of the absence or presence of a cardiovascular risk factor. An additional finding is that in the AD group without a risk factor, dementia severity correlated with amount of length density change in the CA1 field—this correlation did not exist in the AD groups with risk factors. Our findings suggest a role for cardiovascular risk factors in quantifiable change of hippocampal CA1 field microvasculature, as well as suggest a possible role of cardiovascular risk factors in altering microvasculature pathology in the presence of AD. PMID:21331351

  8. Factors Affecting Teacher Satisfaction in an Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpert, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to distinguish factors that influence the satisfaction levels of teachers in urban school districts. This work also distinguished factors that directly impacted teachers' level of satisfaction towards their work and their attitude towards the administration of their schools. Forty-one teachers from two kindergarten…

  9. Factors That Affect Academic Performance Among Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Sansgiry, Sujit S.; Bhosle, Monali; Sail, Kavita

    2006-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine factors such as academic competence, test competence, time management, strategic studying, and test anxiety, and identify whether these factors could distinguish differences among students, based on academic performance and enrollment in the experiential program. Methods A cross-sectional study design utilizing questionnaires measuring previously validated constructs was used to evaluate the effect of these factors on students with low and high cumulative grade point averages (GPAs). Pharmacy students (N = 198) enrolled at the University of Houston participated in the study. Results Academic performance was significantly associated with factors such as academic competence and test competence. Students with a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or greater significantly differed in their level of test competence than those with a GPA of less than 3.0. Students enrolled in their experiential year differed from students enrolled in their second year of curriculum on factors such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, and time management skills. Conclusion Test competence was an important factor to distinguish students with low vs. high academic performance. Factors such as academic competence, test competence, test anxiety and time management improve as students' progress in their experiential year. PMID:17149433

  10. Factors affecting weaning weights of Santa Gertrudis calves 

    E-print Network

    Farris, James Willis

    1972-01-01

    12 Correction Factors Developed from this Study and General Factors. 47 13 Overall Means of Weaning Weights Ad)usted by Different Age of Dam Correction Factors. 48 14 An Independent Set of Weaning Weights Corrected for Age of Dam by Different... for known sources of environ- mental variation. The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of age of dam, month of birth, and year of birth on weaning weight in Santa Gertrudis calves. It is generally accepted that younger cows "The citations...

  11. Gene Risk Factors for Age-Related Brain Disorders May Affect Immune System Function

    MedlinePLUS

    ... factors for age-related brain disorders may affect immune system function June 17, 2014 Scientists have discovered gene ... risk factors for age-related neurological disorders to immune system functions, such as inflammation, offers new insights into ...

  12. FACTORS AFFECTING SENSITIVITY OF CHEMICAL AND ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF MARINE EMBAYMEMTS TO NITROGEN LOADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes an ongoing examination of the primary factors that affect sensitivity of marine embayment responses to nitrogen loading. Included is a discussion of two methods for using these factors: classification of embayments into discrete sensitivity classes and norma...

  13. The hydrolysis of polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoagland, P. D.; Fox, S. W.

    1973-01-01

    Thermal polymerization of aspartic acid produces a polysuccinimide (I), a chain of aspartoyl residues. An investigation was made of the alkaline hydrolysis of the imide rings of (I) which converts the polyimide to a polypeptide. The alkaline hydrolysis of polyimides can be expected to be kinetically complex due to increasing negative charge generated by carboxylate groups. For this reason, a diimide, phthaloyl-DL-aspartoyl-beta-alanine (IIA) was synthesized for a progressive study of the hydrolysis of polyimides. In addition, this diimide (IIA) can be related to thalidomide and might be expected to exhibit similar reactivity during hydrolysis of the phthalimide ring.

  14. Factors Affecting Willingness to Communicate in a Spanish University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahuerta, Ana Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the relationships among the variables believed to affect Spanish undergraduates' willingness to communicate in English. The participants were 195 students majoring in several degrees at the University of Oviedo. A questionnaire and a standardized English Test were administered to the students in February-March 2013.…

  15. Light and Temperature: Key Factors Affecting Walleye Abundance and Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nigel P. Lester; Alan J. Dextrase; Robert S. Kushneriuk; Michael R. Rawson; Phil A. Ryan

    2004-01-01

    We used published information to determine optimum light and temperature conditions for walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) and then applied this simple niche definition to predict how water clarity, temperature, and bathymetry affect walleye habitat availability. Our model calculated thermal–optical habitat area (TOHA), the benthic area of a lake that supplies optimum light, and temperature conditions for walleye during

  16. Cognitive and Affective Factors of TV Advertising's Influence on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wartella, Ellen

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the research on children's understanding of the intent of advertising, the persuasive impact of television commercials, and children's cognitive defenses and resistance to such persuasion. Concludes that any model which tries to account for advertising's influence on children must incorporate affective as well as cognitive components. (PD)

  17. Beyond Random AssignmentFactors Affecting Evaluation Integrity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Lantos Rezmovic; Thomas J. Cook; L. Douglas Dobson

    1981-01-01

    This article draws on the experience gained from conducting a true experiment in the criminal justice field to discuss practical problems in maintaining the integrity of evaluation studies. Issues revolving around budgeting, randomization, data collectors, interview payments, and evaluation of black box treatments are addressed. While these nontechnical aspects of evaluation can significantly affect the validity and meaningfulness of research

  18. Preliminary assessment of factors affecting DOD facility energy management capabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Drezner; B. Lachman; M. Bradley

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Defense has a facility energy conservation goal of reducing energy consumption per square foot of facility floor area by 20 percent by the year 2000, measured from a 1985 baseline. However, shrinking defense budgets, downsizing and restructuring, and various management reforms are affecting the emphasis placed on energy management at DoD installations. At the same time, DoD

  19. ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING METHANE GAS RECOVERY FROM SIX LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a pilot study of six U.S. landfills that have methane (CH4) gas recovery systems. NOTE: The study was a first step in developing a field testing program to gather data to identify key variables that affect CH4 generation and to develop an empirical mod...

  20. Factors affecting the machinability of GFR\\/epoxy composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. El-Sonbaty; U. A. Khashaba; T. Machaly

    2004-01-01

    Drilling is an essential operation in the assembly of the structural frames of automobiles and aircrafts. The life of the joint can be critically affected by the quality of the drilled holes. The main objective of the present paper is to investigate the influence of some parameters on the thrust force, torque and surface roughness in drilling processes of fiber-reinforced

  1. Factors affecting minority population proximity to hazardous facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nieves, A.L. [Wheaton Coll., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range of facility types and explores the effects of urban and income factors. A statistically significant inverse relationship is found between the percentage of non-Hispanic Whites and virtually all facility categories in all regions. Except for Hispanics in the South, all such associations for minority groups show a direct relationship, though some are nonsignificant. The geographic concentration of facilities is more closely tied to urbanization than to economic factors. Controlling for both urban and economic factors, minority population concentration is still a significant explanatory variable for some facility types in some regions. This finding is most consistent for African-Americans.

  2. Factors that affect the fatigue strength of power transmission shafting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.

  3. Synopsis of discussion session on physicochemical factors affecting toxicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, R.J.; Bills, T.D.; Clark, J.R.; Hansen, D.J.; Knezovich, J.

    1994-01-01

    The paper documents the workshop discussion regarding the role of these factors in altering toxicity. For each factor, the nature, magnitude, and uncertainty of its empirical relation to the toxicity of various chemicals or chemical classes is discussed. Limitations in the empirical database regarding the variety of species and endpoints tested were addressed. Possible mechanisms underlying the empirical relations are identified. Finally, research needed to better understand these effects is identified.

  4. [Factors affecting the response to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents].

    PubMed

    Jauréguy, Maïté; Choukroun, Gabriel

    2006-09-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) has transformed the management chronic renal failure (CKD) and considerably improved the outcome of patients on regular chronic dialysis. However, a significant number of patients fail to respond to high of Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and several causes of inadequate response to epoetin therapy have been identified. Some factors, such as gender, age, length of time on dialysis, type of dialysis and co-morbidities such as hemoglobinopathy, are not susceptible to clinical intervention. However, many other factors can be adjusted. Iron deficiency, whether functional or absolute, is the most common factor that limits the response to rHuEPO. Monitoring of iron parameters and a large use of iron supplementation result in an efficient epoetin response. Infection and inflammation have been shown to reduce responsiveness to ESAs by disrupting iron metabolism and increasing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that inhibit erythropoiesis. Increase dialysis dose is associated with improvements in anemia correction and reduced requirements for ESAs. Severe hyperparathyroidism and aluminum overload lead to a reduced number of responsive erythroid progenitor cells. Finally, a number of nutritional factors, such as deficiencies of carnitine, vitamin B12, folic acid, and vitamin C, are susceptible to alter erythropoiesis. Optimizing patient response to ESAs therefore requires consideration of many of well-established factors and is important for both patient outcomes and cost of treatment. PMID:17373270

  5. Factors Affecting Price Differences of Cattle in the Southwest. 

    E-print Network

    James, J. B.; Farris, D. E.

    1971-01-01

    calves and should not affect thp F. mates of price difference associated with the characteristics.1 Prices differed by about 5 percent between v : #1 and #2 and between Okie #2 and #3 gr:! Prices differed about 12 percent between Okie 5.... west. Under a given level of prices, variations in cr prices would be expected to result from two print- sources: (1) Variations in animal characteristics - grade, market class and breed type; (2) Variations in non-animal characte market location...

  6. Factors affecting color stability of vinegar pickled meat products 

    E-print Network

    Ploch, Carol Ann

    1978-01-01

    . Smith Four replications of eight treatment combinations in model vinegar pickles were made (50 or 150 ppm sodium nitrite; 200 or 600 ppm sodium erythoxbate; 30 or 50 grain vinegar; 10 ppm FDIC Red No. 40 or Stange red shade). All pickles contained 7... 150 ppm nitrite and 600 ppm erythorbate. Visual color scores decreased (P& . 05) with increasing storage intervals. pH values were signifi- cantly (P &. 05) affected by color additive, vinegar strength, nitrite level, erythorbate level and storage...

  7. Metallurgical factors affecting fracture toughness of aluminum alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. T. Hahn; A. R. Rosenfield

    1975-01-01

    Crack extension in commercial aluminum alloys proceeds by the “ductile” or fibrous mode. The process involves the large, ~1\\u000a ?m to ~10?m, Fe-, Si-, and Cu-bearing inclusions which break easily, and the growth of voids at the cracked particles. The\\u000a linking-up of the voids is accomplished by the rupture of the intervening ligaments, and this is affected by the fine,

  8. A human soluble suppressor factor affecting lymphocyte responses in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Shou, L; Schwartz, S A; Good, R A; Peng, R; Chen, C L

    1980-01-01

    A soluble suppressor factor (SSF) has been demonstrated in the supernatant of normal human peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures that exhibits suppressive activity toward the proliferative response of normal lymphocytes to concanavalin A or alloantigens in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) or toward pokeweed mitogen-stimulated immunoglobulin synthesis and secretion in vitro. Suppression of the proliferative response in MLC reached maximal levels when added SSF-containing supernatant approximated 20% by volume of the culture medium. Suppression in the MLC was found to act at the proliferative stage. SSF acts independently of cytotoxicity and is stable at 56 degrees C for 30 min but is inactivated at higher temperatures. Addition of SSF to the MLC as late as day 4 after initiation of the culture results in suppression of transformation. This factor(s) may regulate the magnitude of several immune responses in humans. PMID:6449702

  9. The factors affecting effectiveness of treatment in phages therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ly-Chatain, Mai Huong

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the use of lytic bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents controlling pathogenic bacteria has appeared as a promising new alternative strategy in the face of growing antibiotic resistance which has caused problems in many fields including medicine, veterinary medicine, and aquaculture. The use of bacteriophages has numerous advantages over traditional antimicrobials. The effectiveness of phage applications in fighting against pathogenic bacteria depends on several factors such as the bacteriophages/target bacteria ratio, the mode and moment of treatment, environmental conditions (pH, temperature...), the neutralization of phage and accessibility to target bacteria, amongst others. This report presents these factors and the challenges involved in developing phage therapy applications. PMID:24600439

  10. Cellulase hydrolysis of unsorted MSW.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jacob Wagner; Felby, Claus; Jørgensen, Henning

    2011-12-01

    A recent development in waste management and engineering has shown that the cellulase can be used for the liquefaction of organic fractions in household waste. The focus of this study was to optimize the enzyme hydrolysis of thermally treated municipal solid waste (MSW) by the addition of surfactant. Concurrently, the enzyme performance was analysed on pure cellulose in a solution of MSW wastewater. Results showed no effect of surfactant addition to the hydrolysis media as measured by viscosity and particle size distribution. MSW treatment wastewater was found to contain a high amount of calcium, potassium, sodium, chloride and others that may affect cellulolytic enzymes. Cellulase performance showed no effect of adding the metal ion-chelating agent EDTA to the solution. The cellulases were stable, tolerated and functioned in the presence of several contaminants. PMID:21989799

  11. Factors Affecting the Probability of Default: Student Loans in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Jennie H.

    2002-01-01

    Linked a database of California student borrowers with background financial and demographic information and post-college employment data to examine factors that predict default for borrowers in the federal Family Education Loan program. Found that background demographic and financial characteristics, leaving school without a degree, having low…

  12. Factors Affecting Location Decisions of Food Processing Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turhan, Sule; Canan Ozbag, Basak; Cetin, Bahattin

    The main aim of this study is to examine the determinants of location choices for food processing plants using the results of 59 personal surveys. The 61.3% of the food processing plants that were interviewed are small scale plants, 9.1% are large scale plants and 29.6% are medium scale plants. Sixteen of the firms process vegetables, 12 process poultry, 12 process dairy and 9 process seafood products. Business climate factors are divided into six categories (market, infrastructure, raw material, labor, personal and environmental) and 17 specific location factors are considered. The survey responses are analyzed by types of raw materials processed and by plant size. 43.7, 55.3 and 42.2% of the respondents cited categories of Market, Raw Material and Infrastructure respectively as important, while 44.3, 50.7 and 74.4% of the respondents cited, labor, personal and environmental regulation categories of as not important. Thus survey findings indicate that plant location choices are mainly driven by market, raw material and infra structural factors. Environmental factors such as environmental regulations and permissions are relatively insignificant.

  13. Factors affecting money laundering: lesson for developing countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santha Vaithilingam; Mahendhiran Nair

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The primary objective of this paper is to examine the factors that underpin the pervasiveness of money laundering. An empirical method was used to study the relationship between technology (information and communication technology infrastructure), quality of human capital, efficiency of the legal framework, ethical behavior of firms (corporate governance) and capacity for innovation on the pervasiveness of money

  14. Restorative Factors That Affect the Biomechanics of the Dental Implant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linish Vidyasagar; Peteris Apse

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY Dental implants have become a significant aspect of tooth replacement in prosthodontic treatment. Despite of high success rates, complications and failures still occur. One factor that is increasingly being implicated with dental implant failure is occlusal overloading. Overloading of dental implants during functional and parafunctional activity has been extensively discussed from an empirical point of view but with sparse

  15. Factors Affecting Technology Uses in Schools: An Ecological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yong; Frank, Kenneth A.

    2003-01-01

    Why is technology not used more in schools? Many researchers have tried to solve this persistent puzzle. The authors of this article report on their study of technology uses in 19 schools. They suggest an ecological metaphor, using the example of the introduction of the zebra mussel into the Great Lakes, to integrate and organize sets of factors

  16. Factors affecting performance in first-year computing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annagret Goold; Russell Rimmer

    2000-01-01

    Performances are analysed over successive semesters for a cohort of first-year students doing computer programming. Attainment is related to performance in other studies. However, many factors have roles. Learning style and problem-solving skills are important in information technology in Semester I. Gender and secondary school outcomes matter in introductory programming, also in Semester I. Dislike of programming influences outcomes in

  17. FACTORS AFFECTING THE ADOPTION OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerard E. DSouza; Douglas Cyphers; Tim T. Phipps

    1993-01-01

    The extent to which individual factors influence the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices is estimated using a logit model and data from a 1990 survey of West Virginia producers. The results are, as expected, different than those for conventional agricultural technologies. For example, the effects of human capital characteristics are significant, while those for structural and institutional characteristics are not.

  18. Regulatory Factors of Bordetella pertussis Affecting Virulence Gene Expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen Konig; Andreas Bock; Anne-Laure Perraud; Thilo M. Fuchs; Dagmar Beier; Roy Gross

    2002-01-01

    Most pathogenic bacteria encounter changing growth conditions during their infectious cycle and, accordingly, have to modulate gene expres- sion to enable the efficient colonization of different environments outside or within their host organ- isms. In Bordetella pertussis the transcription of most virulence factors including several toxins and adhesins is regulated coordinately by the BvgAS two-component system. The molecular characterization of

  19. FACTORS AFFECTING STREAM TRANSPORT OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combined sewer overflow (CSO) sediments are composed of wastewater and surface runoff, typically from urbanized areas. The relative amounts of these two types of flows will depend on a variety of factors such as the intensity of rainfall and the time of day and year. Because the ...

  20. A Quantitative Assessment of Factors Affecting College Sports' Team Unity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghazadeh, Seyed-Mahmoud; Kyei, Kwasi

    2009-01-01

    The competitiveness of National Collegiate Association (NCAA) schools increases in intensity each year. With the increased pressure on college sport staffs to be undefeated season after season, coaches have to find ways to keep players happy; to do this, they have to find factors that contribute to unify the players. It is nearly impossible to…

  1. Factors Affecting Principal Turnover: A Study of Three Midwestern Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belt, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. This dissertation addresses the problem of principal turnover. Using state and city level administrative data, a study of principals and their schools in greater Kansas City, Missouri, St. Louis, Missouri, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, was conducted with the goal of discovering themes that emerge regarding the factors associated with turnover…

  2. Factors Affecting Women's Perceptions of Folate-Containing Foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Russell; S. P. Parker; G. E. Gates

    1999-01-01

    Many women of childbearing age are not consuming the recommended intake of folate to prevent neural tube defects. To promote healthy dietary change, it is important to understand factors that influence food choices Seven focus group discussions were conducted with 57 women of childbearing age to determine their attitudes about foods containing folate and their perceptions of influences on their

  3. Factors Affecting the Misperception of Friendliness Cues in Initial Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnish, Richard J.; And Others

    Some researchers have found men to attribute more sexual meaning to heterosexual interactions than do women. This study was conducted to examine factors which may enhance or diminish this gender difference on perceptions of sexual intent by considering the three variables of physical attractiveness of target, similarity of target's personality to…

  4. Study of Factors That Affect Complications After Renal Transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. De Jesús-Gómez; E. A. Santiago-Delp??n; Z. González-Caraballo; L. Morales-Otero

    2006-01-01

    There are no multifactorial studies of complications after renal transplant in the Hispanic population. The objective of this study was to identify which factors are associated with the development of complications after renal transplantation. This retrospective study was performed on all patients transplanted in the Puerto Rico Transplant Program during 2002. Independent variables included preoperative albumin, white blood cell (WBC)

  5. Investigating Factors that Affect Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantzen, Paul G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes activities that demonstrate the effects of factors such as wind velocity, water temperature, convection currents, intensity of light, rate of photosynthesis, atmospheric pressure, humidity, numbers of decomposers, presence of oxidizable ions, and respiration by plants and animals on the dissolved oxygen concentration in water. (MA)

  6. Factors Affecting Bromus Tectorum Seed Bank Carryover in Western Utah

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duane C. Smith; Susan E. Meyer; V. J. Anderson

    2008-01-01

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is a winter annual weed that presents a serious obstacle to rangeland restoration in the Intermountain West. The objective of this study was to evaluate factors regulating the size and persistence of cheatgrass carryover seed banks on semiarid sites in western Utah. We prevented current-year seed production in each of four habitats, then tallied emerging seedlings

  7. Initial solidification phenomena: Factors affecting heat transfer in strip casting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Nolli

    2007-01-01

    In the last few years a few companies have announced the final stage of the commercial development of strip casting of steels. In strip casting heat extraction and productivity are limited by the thermal resistance at the interface between processed material and moving mold (rolls for twin-roll strip casters). Among many factors influencing interfacial heat transfer, films of various composition,

  8. FACTORS AFFECTING PREDATION AT SONGBIRD NESTS IN OLD FIELDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DIRK E. BURHANS; DONALD DEARBORN; FRANK R. THOMPSON; JOHN FAABORG

    We determined the effects of microhabitat, year, weather, time of season, stage of the nesting cycle, and brood parasitism on nest predation from a 7-year dataset on field sparrows (Spizella pusilla) and indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea) in-central Missouri, USA. Year, site, and the interaction of species and 2-week interval of the sea- son were important factors explaining nest predation. The

  9. A Study of Factors Affecting Tip Size in Restaurants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Connie Mok; Sebastian Hansen

    1999-01-01

    This study was undertaken to gain understanding of the tipping phenomenon in restaurants. The study reviews the phenomenon of tipping and the accompanying characteristics that determine the gratuity amount of consumers. An understanding of the relationship between tip size and factors such as food quality and level of service will help to determine what areas restaurant personnel should focus on

  10. Factors Affecting Income Smoothing Among Listed Companies in Singapore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nasuhiyah Ashari; Hian Chye Koh; Soh Leng Tan; Wei Har Wong

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the factors associated with the incidence of income smoothing. The sample comprises 153 companies listed in the Singapore stock exchange during the period 1980 to 1990. Descriptive statistics indicate that income smoothing is practised and that operational income is the most common income smoothing objective. Four hypotheses relating income smoothing to company

  11. Factors Affecting Junior High School Students' Interest in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    We report the results of a study on students' interest in physics at the end of their compulsory schooling in Israel carried out in the framework of the ROSE Project. Factors studied were their opinions about science classes, their out-of-school experiences in physics, and their attitudes toward science and technology. Students' overall interest…

  12. Factors Affecting Mathematically Talented Females' Enrollment in High School Calculus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Nancy G.; Conaway, Betty J.

    2003-01-01

    A study involving 1,244 eighth-grade females who were high achievers in algebra, investigated characteristics of those who ended up taking calculus (n=474). Results showed differences between the two groups in mother's education, socioeconomic status, and educational aspirations. However, when applying all factors together, they did not predict…

  13. School-Related Factors Affecting High School Seniors' Methamphetamine Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Jarrod M.; Lo, Celia C.

    2009-01-01

    Data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future survey were used to examine relationships between school-related factors and high school seniors' lifetime methamphetamine use. The study applied logistic regression techniques to evaluate effects of social bonding variables and social learning variables on likelihood of lifetime methamphetamine use. The…

  14. An Analysis of Factors That Affect the Educational Performance of Agricultural Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenway, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Many factors contribute to student achievement. This study focuses on three areas: how students learn, how student personality type affects performance, and how course format affects performance outcomes. The analysis sought to improve understanding of the direction and magnitude with which each of these factors impacts student success. Improved…

  15. Examining the Factors Affecting Student Dropout in an Online Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yukselturk, Erman; Inan, Fethi Ahmet

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the factors affecting student dropouts in an online certificate program. In this research, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Online Course Dropout Survey was developed and used to determine which factors affect student attrition from the program. The dropout survey was sent by e-mail to 98 students…

  16. The Internal Structure of Positive and Negative Affect: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the PANAS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuccitto, Daniel E.; Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Leite, Walter L.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested five confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models of the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) to provide validity evidence based on its internal structure. A sample of 223 club sport athletes indicated their emotions during the past week. Results revealed that an orthogonal two-factor CFA model, specifying error…

  17. Attitudes to and Factors Affecting Unauthorized Copying of Computer Software in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siponen, M.T.; Vartiainen, T.

    2005-01-01

    Several quantitative studies have sought to determine the factors affecting the unauthorized copying of software, particularly in North America. However, we find no statistically reliable studies on the situation in Europe. In order to address this gap in the literature, we explored the attitudes to and factors affecting the unauthorized copying…

  18. Factors Affecting Diurnal Activity of Fishers in North-Central British Columbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard D. Weir; Fraser B. Corbould

    2007-01-01

    Mustelids, with their long, thin bodies and poor fat storage capabilities, perform an energetic balancing act when making decisions about energy expenditure. Activity rates provide vital insights into the factors that may affect these energy balances. Using radiotelemetry, we examined factors that affected the likelihood of diurnal activity of fishers (Martes pennanti) in north-central British Columbia, Canada. We assessed the

  19. Comparing Faculty and Student Perceptions Regarding Factors That Affect Student Retention in Online Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaytan, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study compared faculty and student perceptions regarding factors that affect student retention in online courses in an attempt to more effectively address the problem of attrition. A grounded study method was used to interview students taking online courses, analyze their responses related to the critical factors that affect

  20. Attitudes to and factors affecting unauthorized copying of computer software in Finland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikko T. Siponen; Tero Vartiainen

    2005-01-01

    Several quantitative studies have sought to determine the factors affecting the unauthorized copying of software, particularly in North America. However, we find no statistically reliable studies on the situation in Europe. In order to address this gap in the literature, we explored the attitudes to and factors affecting the unauthorized copying of computer software of 249 Finnish university students: nine

  1. Factors affecting colony attendance by Ancient Murrelets (Synthliboramphus antiquus) IANL. JONES'

    E-print Network

    Jones, Ian L.

    Factors affecting colony attendance by Ancient Murrelets (Synthliboramphus antiquus) IANL. JONES., and FALLS,J. B. 1990. Factors affecting colony attendance by Ancient Murrelets (Synthliboram- phus antiquus- phus antiquus). Can. J. Zool. 68 : 433-441. Nous avons CtudiC les facteurs de variation de I

  2. Factors Affecting Hispanic Women's Participation in Screening for Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Moore de Peralta, Arelis; Holaday, Bonnie; McDonell, James R

    2015-06-01

    Hispanic women's cervical cancer rates are disproportionately high. The Health Belief Model (HBM) was used as a theoretical framework to explore beliefs, attitudes, socio-economic, and cultural factors influencing Hispanic women's decisions about cervical cancer screening. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Hispanic women 18-65 years old (n = 205) in the Upstate of South Carolina. Generalized Linear Modeling was used. Across all models, perceived threats (susceptibility and severity), self-efficacy, and the interaction of benefits and barriers were significant predictors. Significant covariates included age, marital status, income, regular medical care, and familism. A modified HBM was a useful model for examining cervical cancer screening in this sample of Hispanic women. The inclusion of external, or social factors increased the strength of the HBM as an explanatory model. The HBM can be used as a framework to design culturally appropriate cervical cancer screening interventions. PMID:24578156

  3. Factors affecting nurses’ decision to get the flu vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shosh Shahrabani; Uri Benzion; Gregory Yom Din

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that influence the decision whether or not to get the influenza (flu)\\u000a vaccine among nurses in Israel by using the health belief model (HBM). A questionnaire distributed among 299 nurses in Israel\\u000a in winter 2005\\/2006 included (1) socio-demographic information; (2) variables based on the HBM, including susceptibility,\\u000a seriousness, benefits, barriers and

  4. Israeli women entrepreneurs: An examination of factors affecting performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Hisrich; Candida Brush

    1997-01-01

    This article examines individual factors influencing performance of 200 Israeli women-owned businesses. Whereas research on women entrepreneurs is extensive in developed countries, especially in the United States and Europe, there are comparatively few studies of performance of women-owned businesses in non-OECD countries. There is evidence that social structures (work, family, and organized social life) vary among developed and developing countries

  5. Bordetella pertussis Virulence Factors Affect Phagocytosis by Human Neutrophils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHRISTINE L. WEINGART; ALISON A. WEISS

    2000-01-01

    The interaction between human neutrophils and wild-type Bordetella pertussis or mutants expressing altered lipopolysaccharide or lacking virulence factors—pertussis toxin, adenylate cyclase toxin, dermonecrotic toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin, or BrkA—was examined. In the absence of antibodies, the wild- type strain and the mutants, with the exception of mutants lacking FHA, attached efficiently to neutrophils. The addition of opsonizing antibodies caused

  6. MMTV accessory factor Naf affects cellular gene expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Metzner; Brian Salmons; Walter H. Gunzburg; Manfred Gemeiner; Ingrid Miller; Bernd Gesslbauer; Andreas Kungl; John A. Dangerfield

    2006-01-01

    Mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV) encodes a viral superantigen (Sag) and a negative acting factor (Naf) which share parts of their coding sequence. Using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), we could show that at least 10 different cellular proteins were differentially expressed in Naf positive cells. Also, luciferase reporter expression was down-regulated in Naf expressing cells independent of the promoter used

  7. Factors affecting the species composition of arable field boundary vegetation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Kleijn; Marein Verbeek

    2000-01-01

    1. In recent decades the botanical diversity of arable field boundaries has declined drastically. To determine the most important factors related to the species composition of arable field boundaries, the vegetation composition of 105 herbaceous boundaries, 1-m wide, in the central and eastern Netherlands was surveyed. Biomass samples of the boundary were taken at 0-33, 34-66 and 67-100 cm from

  8. Factors Affecting Attrition in a Longitudinal Smoking Prevention Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ohidul Siddiqui; Brian R. Flay; Frank B. Hu

    1996-01-01

    Background.In longitudinal smoking prevention studies, a difficulty in evaluating treatment effects is understanding whether bias is associated with those who do not complete the study. This study presents the significant predictors of attrition and suggests how to reduce attrition bias in evaluating program effects.Methods.Survival analysis methods were used to assess factors associated with attrition at different time points of the

  9. Factors Affecting Junior High School Students' Interest in Physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Trumper

    2006-01-01

    We report the results of a study on students' interest in physics at the end of their compulsory schooling in Israel carried\\u000a out in the framework of the ROSE Project. Factors studied were their opinions about science classes, their out-of-school experiences\\u000a in physics, and their attitudes toward science and technology. Students' overall interest in physics was “neutral” (neither\\u000a positive nor

  10. What Are Some Factors That Affect Seasonal Patterns?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this resource is to have students use GLOBE data and graphing tools to compare the influence of latitude, elevation, and geography on seasonal patterns. Students analyze the graph of the past year's maximum and minimum temperatures at their site. They compare this graph to similar graphs for two other sites and list which factors that might cause the patterns to be different and investigate one in depth.

  11. Review of factors affecting sustainability in the universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajilian, Hosna

    Understanding the factors which influence adopting sustainability practices in IHE is an important issue to develop more effective sustainability's methods and policies. The focus of this research is to find out a meaningful relationship between adopting sustainability practices and some of the characteristics of institutions of higher education (IHE). IHE can be considered as the best place to promote sustainability and develop the culture of sustainability in society. Thus, this research is conducted to help developing sustainability in IHE which have significant direct and indirect impact on society and the environment. First, the sustainability letter grades were derived from "Greenreportcard.org" which have been produced based on an evaluation of each school in nine main categories including: Administration, Climate Change & Energy, Food & Recycling, etc. In the next step, the characteristics of IHE as explanatory variables were chosen from "The Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System" (IPEDS) and respective database was implemented in STATA Software. Finally, the "ordered-Probit Model" is used through STATA to analyze the impact of some IHE's factor on adopting sustainability practices on campus. The results of this analysis indicate that variables related to "Financial support" category are the most influential factors in determining the sustainability status of the university. "The university features" with two significant variables for "Selectivity" and "Top 50 LA" can be classified as the second influential category in this table, although the "Student influence" is also eligible to be ranked as the second important factor. Finally, the "Location feature" of university was determined with the least influential impact on the sustainability of campuses.

  12. Normative Beliefs about Factors That Affect Health and Longevity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Beth Love; Quint Thurman

    1991-01-01

    Since the release of the Surgeon General's report, Healthy People,1 the general public has been barraged with health information and advice by the popular media. Accordingly, this article introduces a method for examining the public's beliefs about the importance of behavioral risk factors associated with health and longevity. The factorial survey approach—a technique appropriate for studying normative beliefs—seems uniquely suited

  13. Factors Affecting Dynamic Populations (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan teaches students that populations are dynamic with identifiable characteristics and measurable growth patterns. Factors of population survival that are taught include immigration and emigration, environmental resistance, carrying capacity, and homeostasis. The lesson plan provides objectives, skills, time needed, a content outline, materials, and significant terms. The overarching goal is for students to develop an understanding of the interdependence of all organisms and the need for conserving natural resources.

  14. Factors Affecting the Toxicity of Methylmercury Injected into Eggs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. H. Heinz; D. J. Hoffman; S. L. Kondrad; C. A. Erwin

    2006-01-01

    We developed a standardized protocol for comparing the sensitivities of the embryos of different bird species to methylmercury\\u000a when methylmercury was injected into their eggs. During the course of developing this protocol, we investigated the effects\\u000a of various factors on the toxicity of the injected methylmercury. Most of our experiments were done with chicken (Gallus domesticus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and

  15. Hydrostatic factors affect the gravity responses of algae and roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staves, Mark P.; Wayne, Randy; Leopold, A. C.

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis of Wayne et al. (1990) that plant cells perceive gravity by sensing a pressure differential between the top and the bottom of the cell was tested by subjecting rice roots and cells of Caracean algae to external solutions of various densities. It was found that increasing the density of the external medium had a profound effect on the polar ratio (PR, the ratio between velocities of the downwardly and upwardly streaming cytoplasm) of the Caracean algae cells. When these cells were placed in solutions of denser compound, the PR decreased to less than 1, as the density of the external medium became higher than that of the cell; thus, the normal gravity-induced polarity was reversed, indicating that the osmotic pressure of the medium affects the cell's ability to respond to gravity. In rice roots, an increase of the density of the solution inhibited the rate of gravitropism. These results agree with predictions of a hydrostatic model for graviperception.

  16. Factors affecting interstate use of inpatient care by Medicare beneficiaries.

    PubMed Central

    Buczko, W

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which interstate inflow and outflow of patients affects their observed use of Medicare Part A inpatient care. Interstate patient flow can bias utilization rates and may be due to seasonal migration, interstate inpatient care market areas, or purposive seeking of specialized/high-quality care. Examination of state level patient flow data drawn from 1987 Medicare discharge indicate that most interstate patient flow occurs between adjacent states probably as an outgrowth of interstate markets. Regression analyses of patient flow data suggest that while seasonal migration is an important determinant of patient flow, its importance is secondary to that of indicators of the availability of specialized services. These findings suggest research questions that may be best answered in detailed analyses of inpatient utilization in interstate market areas and seasonal migration. PMID:1500288

  17. Factors affecting the morphology of benzoyl peroxide microsponges.

    PubMed

    Nokhodchi, Ali; Jelvehgari, Mitra; Siahi, M Reza; Mozafari, M Reza

    2007-01-01

    Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) is primarily used in the treatment of mild to moderate acne. However, its application is associated with skin irritation. It has been shown that encapsulation and controlled release of BPO could reduce the side effect while also reducing percutaneous absorption when administered to the skin. The aim of the present investigation was to design and formulate an appropriate encapsulated form of BPO, using microsponge technology, and explore the parameters affecting the morphology and other characteristics of the resultant products employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Benzoyl peroxide particles were prepared using an emulsion solvent diffusion method by adding an organic internal phase containing benzoyl peroxide, ethyl cellulose and dichloromethane into a stirred aqueous phase containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Different concentrations of BPO microsponges were incorporated in lotion formulations and the drug release from these formulations were studied. The SEM micrographs of the BPO microsponges enabled measurement of their size and showed that they were spherical and porous. Results showed that the morphology and particle size of microsponges were affected by drug:polymer ratio, stirring rate and the amount of emulsifier used. The results obtained also showed that an increase in the ratio of drug:polymer resulted in a reduction in the release rate of BPO from the microsponges. The release data showed that the highest and the lowest release rates were obtained from lotions containing plain BPO particles and BPO microsponges with the drug:polymer ratio of 13:1, respectively. The kinetics of release study showed that the release data followed Peppas model and the main mechanism of drug release from BPO microsponges was diffusion. PMID:17692528

  18. Factors affecting the retirement of commercial transport jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    The historical background of the technology and economics of aircraft replacement and retirement in the prejet era is reviewed in order to determine whether useful insights can be obtained applicable to the jet era. Significant differences between the two periods are noted. New factors are identified and examined. Topics discussed include concern over current policies regarding deregulation, regulatory reform, and retroactive noise regulations; financing and compliance legislation; aging; economic environment and inflation; technological progress; fuel efficiency and cost; and a financial perspective of replacement decisions.

  19. Traffic environment and demographic factors affecting impaired driving and crashes

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Eduardo O.; Peck, Raymond C.; Voas, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Data availability has forced researchers to examine separately the role of alcohol among drivers who crashed and drivers who did not crash. Such a separation fails to account fully for the transition from impaired driving to an alcohol-related crash. Method In this study, we analyzed recent data to investigate how traffic-related environments, conditions, and drivers’ demographics shape the likelihood of a driver being either involved in a crash (alcohol impaired or not) or not involved in a crash (alcohol impaired or not). Our data, from a recent case–control study, included a comprehensive sampling of the drivers in nonfatal crashes and a matched set of comparison drivers in two U.S. locations. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to investigate the likelihood that a driver would crash or would not crash, either with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC)=.00 or with a BAC?.05. Conclusions To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine how different driver characteristics and environmental factors simultaneously contribute to alcohol use by crash-involved and non-crash-involved drivers. This effort calls attention to the need for research on the simultaneous roles played by all the factors that may contribute to motor vehicle crashes. PMID:22385743

  20. Factors affecting the relative age effect in NHL athletes

    PubMed Central

    Parent-Harvey, Caroline I.; Desjardins, Christophe; Harvey, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The relative age effect (RAE) has been reported for a number of different activities. The RAE is the phenomena whereby players born in the first few months of a competition year are advantaged for selection to elite sports. Much of the literature has identified elite male athletics, such as the National Hockey League (NHL), as having consistently large RAEs. We propose that RAE may be lessened in the NHL since the last examination. Methods We examined demographic and selection factors to understand current NHL selection biases. Results We found that RAE was weak and was only evident when birth dates were broken into year halves. Players born in the first half of the year were relatively advantaged for entry into the NHL. We found that the RAE is smaller than reported in previous studies. Intraplayer comparisons for multiple factors, including place of birth, country of play, type of hockey played, height and weight, revealed no differences. Players who were not drafted (e.g., free agents) or who played university hockey in North America had no apparent RAE. Conclusion We found little evidence of an RAE in the current NHL player rosters. A larger study of all Canadian minor hockey intercity teams could help determine the existence of an RAE. PMID:24869606

  1. Ecological Factors Affecting Efficiency and Health in Warships*

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, F. P.

    1960-01-01

    The environment of those who live and work in warships is closely related to the way the ships are built and employed. In stating the requirements for the atmosphere between decks the emphasis has swung during the past 50 years from the need for controlling the chemical constituents to the control of the factors which comprise the thermal environment, and now, with the advent of the nuclear-powered submarine, to the need for achieving, as nearly as possible, complete physical, chemical, and microbiological control. Between 1944 and 1953 the thermal factors between decks were investigated in a series of studies carried out in H.M. Ships. The average effective temperatures on the mess decks and in the work places of 11 ships in the Eastern Fleet in 1944 exceeded 84°F. (28·9°C.). In compartments where radiant heat was an added factor the average corrected effective temperature levels were 1° or 2°F. (0·55-1·1°C.) higher than the corresponding effective temperatures. The effects of climatic conditions on naval personnel were investigated by psychological studies to determine the levels of warmth at which performance deteriorated; by physiological experiments to show the levels of warmth at which the collapse of men working at different work rates might be expected; by comfort surveys in ships and on shore to determine the levels of warmth at which the majority enjoyed optimum comfort; and by relating the monthly incidence of the common causes of ill-health to the average monthly upper-deck temperature as recorded at noon each day in order to determine the temperature level above which sickness increased. It was concluded that the upper desirable level of warmth to consider when designing ships for hot climates was an effective temperature of 78°F. (25·5°C.). As it is usually impracticable in many compartments to achieve temperatures below 78°F. (25·5°C.) in the tropics without the generous application of air cooling, attention was then directed to the associated effects on the chemical and bacterial constituents of restricting air supplies, an unavoidable feature of most air conditioning systems, and to defining the permissible lower limits for fresh air requirements. The nuclear submarine with its capacity for remaining submerged for very long periods raises new problems relating to life in a confined space and involving very prolonged exposure to the submarine environment. These problems have still to be investigated. PMID:13726470

  2. Factors affecting the rheology and processability of highly filled suspensions.

    PubMed

    Kalyon, Dilhan M; Akta?, Seda

    2014-01-01

    Suspensions filled with rigid particles at volume-loading levels that approach their maximum packing fraction are widely encountered, especially in the energetics, ceramics, pharmaceutical, magnetics, composites, food, and personal care industries. Highly filled suspensions, regardless of industrial application, exhibit a number of common rheological and processability traits, including viscoplasticity and wall slip, that necessitate special rheometers and appropriate characterization and numerical simulation methods. Furthermore, various factors, including the dispersion and distribution of the particles and their agglomerates, the entrainment of air, the filtration-based migration of the binder phase, and the shear-induced migration of particles, play important roles and must be considered in the design and optimization of manufacturing operations for processing of highly filled suspensions. PMID:24910916

  3. Factors affecting the academic progression of associate degree graduates.

    PubMed

    Munkvold, Julia; Tanner, Christine A; Herinckx, Heidi

    2012-04-01

    The Oregon Consortium for Nursing Education (OCNE) is a coalition of community colleges and the campuses of the Oregon Health & Sciences University (OHSU), created to share a competency-based curriculum by which associate degree graduates from an OCNE campus are eligible to complete requirements for the bachelor's degree after 1 year of additional full-time study. Since 2006, three graduating classes from consortium community college programs have graduated 760 students eligible for direct transfer to OHSU; however, only 228 (30%) have actually transferred. This study aimed to explore the factors that influenced the 208 graduates in the class of 2010 not to transfer. The primary reasons for discontinuing their nursing education, in ranked order, were financial concerns, conflict with time and energy for work, and conflict with time and energy for family. This study has implications for achieving the academic progression goals recommended in the Institute of Medicine's The Future of Nursing report. PMID:22356360

  4. Factors affecting plasma aluminum concentrations in nonexposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    House, R.A. (Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, St Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1992-10-01

    In this study, the distribution and determinants of plasma aluminum concentrations were examined in 71 office employees not occupationally exposed to aluminum. The samples were analyzed by Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy and were found to be log normally distributed. After using the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) recommended procedure for removal of likely aberrant values, the 95th percentile value was 198 nmol/L (90% CI:165-238); when those using antacids were also excluded, the 95th percentile value fell to 175 nmol/L (90% CI:147-208). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors most predictive of log plasma aluminum were the batch in which the sample was analyzed and the use of antacids containing aluminum. The statistical significance of the batch variable likely indicates the well-recognized problem of contamination in sampling and analyzing aluminum.35 references.

  5. Social factors affecting use of immunization in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Streatfield, K; Singarimbun, M

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of certain social and demographic factors in the acceptance of child immunization in rural Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The major findings concern the importance of the role of the community (hamlet) leader in motivating or instructing parents to seek immunization for their children. While these leaders can be effective in conveying information about availability of immunization services, they are not in a position to provide education on immunization function or procedure. The survey results also show that knowledge of the disease-prevention function of the specific vaccines is important, and it is recommended that vaccines be given names which incorporate the name of the disease which they prevent. PMID:3206254

  6. Factors affecting the regulation of pacing: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mauger, Alexis R

    2014-01-01

    During prolonged dynamic and rhythmic exercise, muscular pain and discomfort arises as a result of an increased concentration of deleterious metabolites. Sensed by peripheral nociceptors and transmitted via afferent feedback to the brain, this provides important information regarding the physiological state of the muscle. These sensations ultimately contribute to what is termed “exercise-induced pain”. Despite being well recognized by athletes and coaches, and suggested to be integral to exercise performance, this construct has largely escaped attention in experimental work. This perspective article highlights the current understanding of pacing in endurance performance, and the causes of exercise-induced pain. A new perspective is described, which proposes how exercise-induced pain may be a contributing factor in helping individuals to regulate their work rate during exercise and thus provides an important construct in pacing. PMID:25228823

  7. Factors affecting selectivity of inorganic anions in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lucy, C A

    1999-07-30

    Capillary zone electrophoretic separations of inorganic anions are largely governed by the intrinsic (infinite dilution) mobility of the anion. This in turn is a function of the hydrodynamic friction caused by the size of the ion and the dielectric friction caused by the charge density of the anion re-orienting the surrounding solvent. The influence of these factors on the mobility of anions is examined in both water and nonaqueous solvents. The influence of other experimental parameters, such as ionic strength, ion association, electroosmotic flow modifier concentration, and the addition of complexing agents such as polymeric cations, cyclodextrins, crown ethers and cryptands are also reviewed. From this discussion, some rules of thumb as to when different approaches will be most effective are drawn. PMID:10457494

  8. Factors affecting use of contraception in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, M A

    1996-07-01

    This study examines the relationship between family planning, perceived availability of contraceptives, and sociodemographic factors in rural Bangladesh. Data are from the 1990 KAP survey in the Matlab treatment and comparison areas, using a sample of about 8500 married women of reproductive age. The contraceptive prevalence rate was 57% in the treatment area but substantially lower in the comparison area where mainly traditional methods of family planning were used by women who did not know of a source of supply of contraceptives. Education has no effect on contraceptive use in the treatment area but in the comparison area, modest but consistent differentials in use by level of education were found. Number of living children is the best predictor for contraceptive use, followed by number of living sons, and the attitude of respondents and their husbands towards family planning. PMID:8698707

  9. Factors Affecting Junior High School Students' Interest in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2006-03-01

    We report the results of a study on students' interest in physics at the end of their compulsory schooling in Israel carried out in the framework of the ROSE Project. Factors studied were their opinions about science classes, their out-of-school experiences in physics, and their attitudes toward science and technology. Students' overall interest in physics was "neutral" (neither positive nor negative), with boys showing a higher interest than girls. We found a strong correlation between students' "neutral" interest in physics and their negative opinions about science classes. These findings raise serious questions about the implementation of changes made in the Israeli science curriculum in primary and junior high school, especially if the goal is to prepare the young generation for life in a scientific-technological era. A more in-depth analysis of the results led us to formulate curricular, behavioral, and organizational changes needed to reach this goal.

  10. Factors affecting the healing of the perineum following surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jones, M; Bassett, P; Phillips, R

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to establish patient and procedural factors associated with the development of an unhealed perineum in patients undergoing a proctectomy or excision of an ileoanal pouch. Methods A review of 194 case notes for procedures performed between 1997 and 2009 was carried out. All patients had at least 12 months’ follow-up. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed in 16 parameters. For those patients who developed an unhealed perineum, Cox regression analysis was performed to establish healing over a 12-month period. Results Two hundred patients were included in the study, of which six had unknown wound status and were subsequently excluded. This left 194 study patients. Of these, 86 (44%) achieved primary wound healing with a fully healed perineum and 108 (56%) experienced primary wound failure. With reference to the latter, 63 (58%) healed by 12 months. Comparing patients with an initially intact perineum with those with initial wound failure showed pre-existing sepsis was highly relevant (odds ratio: 4.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.16–8.62, p<0.001). In patients who had an unhealed perineum initially, perineal sepsis and surgical treatment were both significantly associated with time to healing (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.31–0.93, p=0.03; and HR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.21–0.84, p=0.01). Conclusions The presence of pre-existing perineal sepsis is associated with an unhealed perineum following proctectomy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and non-IBD surgery. Further studies are indicated to establish perineal sepsis as a causative factor. PMID:23676808

  11. Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the groundwater quality in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Devic, Gordana; Djordjevic, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja

    2014-01-15

    Various chemometric techniques were used to analyze the quality of groundwater data sets. Seventeen water quality parameters: the cations Na, K, Ca, Mg, the anions Cl, SO4, NO3, HCO3 and nine trace elements Pb, As, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn and Cr were measured at 66 different key sampling sites in ten representative areas (low land-Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina and central Serbia) for the summer period of 2009. HCA grouped the sample sites into four clusters based on the similarities of the characteristics of the groundwater quality. DA showed two parameters, HCO3 and Zn, affording more than 90% correct assignments in the spatial analysis of four/three different regions in Serbia. Factor analysis was applied on the log-transformed data sets and allowed the identification of a reduced number of factors with hydrochemical meaning. The results showed severe pollution with Mn, As, NO3, Ni, Pb whereby anthropogenic origin of these contaminants was indicated. The pollution comes from both scattered point sources (industrial and urban effluent) and diffuse source agricultural activity. These samples may not be suitable for human consumption; the water quality belongs to class III/IV (contaminated). The Fe anomalies (7.1mg/L) in the water from the Vetrnica site can be attributed to natural sources, such as the dissolution of rock masses and rock fragments. The serious groundwater contamination with As (25.7-137.8 ?g/L) in the area of Banat (Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina) and a sample No. 9 at the Great Morava River requires urgent attention. PMID:24080418

  12. Risk factors affecting the Barrett's metaplasia-dysplasia-neoplasia sequence.

    PubMed

    Brown, Craig S; Ujiki, Michael B

    2015-05-16

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma has the fastest growing incidence rate of any cancer in the United States, and currently carries a very poor prognosis with 5 years relative survival rates of less than 15%. Current curative treatment options are limited to esophagectomy, a procedure that suffers from high complication rates and high mortality rates. Metaplasia of the esophageal epithelium, a condition known as Barrett's esophagus (BE), is widely accepted as the precursor lesion for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Recently, radio-frequency ablation has been shown to be an effective method to treat BE, although there is disagreement as to whether radio-frequency ablation should be used to treat all patients with BE or whether treatment should be reserved for those at high risk for progressing to esophageal adenocarcinoma while continuing to endoscopically survey those with low risk. Recent research has been targeted towards identifying those at greater risk for progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma so that radio-frequency ablation therapy can be used in a more targeted manner, decreasing the total health care cost as well as improving patient outcomes. This review discusses the current state of the literature regarding risk factors for progression from BE through dysplasia to esophageal adenocarcinoma, as well as the current need for an integrated scoring tool or risk stratification system capable of differentiating those patients at highest risk of progression in order to target these endoluminal therapies. PMID:25992184

  13. Substrate stiffness together with soluble factors affects chondrocyte mechanoresponses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Xie, Jing; Deng, Linhong; Yang, Liu

    2014-09-24

    Tissue cells sense and respond to differences in substrate stiffness. In chondrocytes, it has been shown that substrate stiffness regulates cell spreading, proliferation, chondrogenic gene expression, and TGF-? signaling. But how the substrate stiffness together with soluble factors influences the mechanical properties of chondrocyte is still unclear. In this study, we cultured goat articular chondrocytes on polyacrylamide gels of 1, 11, and 90 kPa (Young's modulus), and measured cellular stiffness, traction force, and response to stretch in the presence of TGF-?1 or IL-1?. We found that TGF-?1 increased cellular stiffness and traction force and enhanced the response to stretch, while IL-1? increased cellular stiffness, but lowered traction force and weakened the response to stretch. Importantly, the effects of TGF-?1 on chondrocyte mechanics were potent in cells cultured on 90 kPa substrates, while the effects of IL-1? were potent on 1 kPa substrates. We also demonstrated that such changes of chondrocyte mechanoresponse were due to not only the changes of actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion, but also the alteration of chondrocyte extracellular matrix synthesis. Taken together, these results provide insights into how chondrocytes integrate physical and biochemical cues to regulate their biomechanical behavior, and thus have implications for the design of optimized mechanical and biochemical microenvironments for engineered cartilage. PMID:25162787

  14. A review of factors affecting fat absorption in hot chips.

    PubMed

    Mehta, U; Swinburn, B

    2001-01-01

    Consumption of hot chips is a convenience food in most countries. Unfortunately, these are high in fat and contribute to fat-related diseases in societies with a high fat consumption. There is substantial scope through best-practice deep-frying techniques for producing lower fat, high-quality chips. From a review of the literature, the main factors associated with a lower-fat content of chips are thick (>12 mm), straight cut chips; cryogenic freezing methods; low moisture content of potatoes (specific gravity >1.1); frying fat: chip volume ratio of 6:1; frying at optimal temperature (180 to 185 degrees C) during cooking and turning the temperature down (approximately 140 degrees C) and covering the vats during slack periods; vigorously shaking the basket and hanging it over the deep fryer to drain after frying; maintaining the quality of the frying fat by regularly skimming the cracklings, filtering the fat, and topping up the fryer with fresh fat; keeping the fat turnover <5 days; regular cleaning of frying equipment. It is important that all deep frying operators are adequately trained in these techniques. It is also important that the frying medium is low in saturated and trans fatty acids (<20%) because of their effects on blood lipids and low in linolenic acid (<3%) because it is readily degraded. The widespread implementation of best-practice deep-frying would reduce fat content of hot chips and thus lower overall fat consumption. PMID:11214763

  15. Factors affecting the erosion of jets penetrating high explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Haselman, L.C.; Winer, K.A.

    1995-05-01

    It has been observed in various experiments with shaped charge jets penetrating high explosives that the erosion of the jet can be considerably greater than that expected from analytical theory or from two dimensional hydrodynamic computer simulations. In a previous study, we found that the initial penetration of the jet agreed with theory, and that the erosion of the jet happened subsequent to the initial penetration. This additional erosion can be the dominant factor in the total length of jet that is eroded. We also found that in one experiment the jet did not show any excess erosion and that the penetration could be predicted from theory. We also found a rough correlation of the amount of excess erosion with the diameter of the jet, with larger jet diameters giving less erosion. A problem with previous experiments was that a wide variety of shaped charges, target shapes, and target thicknesses were used. This made it difficult to isolate the effect of a particular parameter. For the current study we chose to isolate the effects of scale and target thickness. For this purpose we used well characterized jets and carefully chosen targets. We also did computer calculations to help elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the excess erosion.

  16. Does prothymosin alpha affect the phosphorylation of elongation factor 2?

    PubMed

    Enkemann, S A; Pavur, K S; Ryazanov, A G; Berger, S L

    1999-06-25

    Prothymosin alpha is a small, acidic, essential nuclear protein that plays a poorly defined role in the proliferation and survival of mammalian cells. Recently, Vega et al. proposed that exogenous prothymosin alpha can specifically increase the phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF-2) in extracts of NIH3T3 cells (Vega, F. V., Vidal, A., Hellman, U., Wernstedt, C., and Domínguez, F. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 10147-10152). Using similar lysates prepared by four methods (detergent lysis, Dounce homogenization, digitonin permeabilization, and sonication) and three preparations of prothymosin alpha, one of which was purified by gentle means (the native protein, and a histidine-tagged recombinant prothymosin alpha expressed either in bacteria or in COS cells), we failed to find a response. A reconstituted system composed of eEF-2, recombinant eEF-2 kinase, calmodulin, and calcium was also unaffected by prothymosin alpha. However, unlike our optimized buffer, Vega's system included a phosphatase inhibitor, 50 mM fluoride, which when evaluated in our laboratories severely reduced phosphorylation of all species. Under these conditions, any procedure that decreases the effective fluoride concentration will relieve the inhibition and appear to activate. Our data do not support a direct relationship between the function of prothymosin alpha and the phosphorylation of eEF-2. PMID:10373476

  17. Risk factors affecting the Barrett's metaplasia-dysplasia-neoplasia sequence

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Craig S; Ujiki, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma has the fastest growing incidence rate of any cancer in the United States, and currently carries a very poor prognosis with 5 years relative survival rates of less than 15%. Current curative treatment options are limited to esophagectomy, a procedure that suffers from high complication rates and high mortality rates. Metaplasia of the esophageal epithelium, a condition known as Barrett’s esophagus (BE), is widely accepted as the precursor lesion for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Recently, radio-frequency ablation has been shown to be an effective method to treat BE, although there is disagreement as to whether radio-frequency ablation should be used to treat all patients with BE or whether treatment should be reserved for those at high risk for progressing to esophageal adenocarcinoma while continuing to endoscopically survey those with low risk. Recent research has been targeted towards identifying those at greater risk for progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma so that radio-frequency ablation therapy can be used in a more targeted manner, decreasing the total health care cost as well as improving patient outcomes. This review discusses the current state of the literature regarding risk factors for progression from BE through dysplasia to esophageal adenocarcinoma, as well as the current need for an integrated scoring tool or risk stratification system capable of differentiating those patients at highest risk of progression in order to target these endoluminal therapies. PMID:25992184

  18. Factors affecting social workers' inclusion of animals in practice.

    PubMed

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E; Kawam, Elisa

    2013-04-01

    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors contribute to this inclusion, especially because there is a lack of attention in social work education and research to animal-human relationships. This study used logistical regression to examine the impact of certain demographic, knowledge, and practice variables on the inclusion of animals in social work practice. Findings include that knowing other social workers who include animals in practice and primary client population served were significant for inclusion of animals in assessment, animal-assisted intervention, and treating clients for animal abuse or loss of an animal. Although practitioners' having a companion animal was positively related to including animals in interventions and treating clients for loss of an animal, contributing to animal welfare through volunteering at shelters or financially contributing to animal groups did not have an effect on inclusion of animals in practice. Implications for these and other findings are discussed, and recommendations for social work research, education, and practice are offered. PMID:23724578

  19. Factors Affecting Isolation and Identification of Haemophilus vaginalis (Corynebacterium vaginale)

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Robert K.; Voss, Jack L.; Smith, Rodney F.

    1979-01-01

    The rate of isolation of organisms resembling Haemophilus vaginalis (Corynebacterium vaginale) from vaginal specimens was not significantly affected by anaerobic versus carbon dioxide incubation atmospheres or whether specimens were inoculated on isolation media immediately after collection or after a delay of 6 h. Forty-one clinically isolated strains were provisionally divided into 30 H. vaginalis strains and 11 H. vaginalis-like (HVL) strains based on morphological and growth characteristics. The H. vaginalis strains were less reactive in API-20A identification test strips, (Analytab Products, Inc.) using Lombard-Dowell broth, than in a modified basal medium that contained proteose peptone no. 3 (Difco). The numbers and kinds of substrates fermented by 30 clinical and 2 reference strains of H. vaginalis varied among conventional, API, Minitek (Baltimore Biological Laboratory), and rapid buffered substrate fermentation systems. A greater number and variety of carbohydrates were fermented by the 11 HVL strains more consistently in all four test systems. Analysis of volatile and nonvolatile fermentation end products by gas-liquid chromatography did not reveal significant differences between the H. vaginalis and HVL strains. However, the latter group grew in peptone-yeast extract-glucose broth, whereas the H. vaginalis strains did not grow without the addition of starch to peptone-yeast extract-glucose. All of the reference and clinical strains were similar in their susceptibilities to a variety of antimicrobial compounds except sulfonamides, which inhibited the HVL strains and bifidobacteria but not the H. vaginalis strains. Sulfonamide susceptibility or resistance corresponded in part to the H. vaginalis and HVL-bifidobacteria strain reactions on selected conventional fermentation substrates. Susceptibility or resistance to sulfonamides and metronidazole in conjunction with fermentation tests is described to aid in the separation of H. vaginalis from other possibly unrecognized biotypes of H. vaginalis or other vaginal bacteria that presumptively resemble the organism. A human blood medium known as V agar was also of considerable value in distinguishing H. vaginalis from HVL strains, because only the H. vaginalis strains produced diffuse beta-hemolysis on V agar. PMID:372217

  20. Factors affecting intradiscal pressure measurement during in vitro biomechanical tests

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the reliability of intradiscal pressure measurement during in vitro biomechanical testing. In particular, the variability of measurements will be assessed for repeated measures by considering the effect of specimens and of freezing/thawing cycles. Methods Thirty-six functional units from 8 porcine spines (S1: T7-T8, S2: T9-T10, S3: T12-T11, S4: T14-T13, S5: L1-L2 and S6: L3-L4) have been used. The intervertebral discs were measured to obtain the frontal and sagittal dimensions. These measurements helped locate the center of the disc where a modified catheter was positioned. A fiber optic pressure sensor (measuring range: -0.1 to 17 bar) (360HP, SAMBA Sensors, Sweden) was then inserted into the catheter. The specimens were divided into 3 groups: 1) fresh (F), 2) after one freeze/thaw cycle (C1) and 3) after 2 freeze/thaw cycles (C2). These groups were divided in two, depending on whether specimens were subjected to 400 N axial loading or not. Ten measurements (insertion of the sensor for a period of one minute, then removal) were taken for each case. Statistical analyses evaluated the influence of porcine specimen and the vertebral level using a MANOVA. The effect of repeated measurements was evaluated with ANOVA. The difference between freeze/thaw cycles were analysed with U Mann-Whitney test (P?0.05). Results Without axial loading, the F group showed 365 mbar intradiscal pressure, 473 mbar for the C1 group, and 391 mbar for the C2 group. With 400N axial load, the F group showed intradiscal pressure of 10610 mbar, the C1 group 10132 mbar, the C2 group 12074 mbar. The statistical analysis shows a significant influence of the porcine specimen (p<0.001), with or without axial loading and of the vertebral level with (p=0.048) and without load (p<0.001). The results were also significantly different between the freeze/thaw cycles, with (p<0.001) and without load (p=0.033). Repeated measurement (without load p = 0.82 and with p = 0.56) did not show significant influence. Conclusions The results tend to support that freezing/thawing cycles can affect intradiscal pressure measurement with significant inter-specimen variability. The use of the same specimen as its own control during in vitro biomechanical testing could be recommended. PMID:25810751

  1. Factors Affecting Open-Set Word Recognition in Adults with Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Laura K.; Finley, Charles C.; Firszt, Jill B.; Holden, Timothy A.; Brenner, Christine; Potts, Lisa G.; Gotter, Brenda D.; Vanderhoof, Sallie S.; Mispagel, Karen; Heydebrand, Gitry; Skinner, Margaret W.

    2012-01-01

    A monosyllabic word test was administered to 114 postlingually-deaf adult cochlear implant (CI) recipients at numerous intervals from two weeks to two years post-initial CI activation. Biographic/audiologic information, electrode position, and cognitive ability were examined to determine factors affecting CI outcomes. Results revealed that Duration of Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss, Age at Implantation, CI Sound-field Threshold Levels, Percentage of Electrodes in Scala Vestibuli, Medio-lateral Electrode Position, Insertion Depth, and Cognition were among the factors that affected performance. Knowledge of how factors affect performance can influence counseling, device fitting, and rehabilitation for patients and may contribute to improved device design. PMID:23348845

  2. Genetic and Clinical Factors Affecting Plasma Clozapine Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Edman, Gunnar; Bertilsson, Leif; Hukic, Dzana Sudic; Lavebratt, Catharina; Eriksson, Sven V.; Ösby, Urban

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess (1) the variance of plasma clozapine levels; (2) the relative importance of sex, smoking habits, weight, age, and specific genetic variants of cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A4 (UGT1A4), and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) on plasma levels of clozapine; and (3) the relation between plasma clozapine levels, fasting glucose levels, and waist circumference. Method: There were 113 patients on clozapine treatment recruited from psychosis outpatient clinics in Stockholm County, Sweden. Patients had genotype testing for single nucleotide polymorphisms: 2 in MDR1, 3 in CYP1A2, and 1 in UGT1A4. Multiple and logistic regression were used to analyze the relations. Results: There was a wide variation in plasma concentrations of clozapine (mean = 1,615 nmol/L, SD = 1,354 nmol/L), with 37% of the samples within therapeutic range (1,100–2,100 nmol/L). Smokers had significantly lower plasma clozapine concentrations than nonsmokers (P ? .03). There was a significant association between the rs762551 A allele of CYP1A2 and lower plasma clozapine concentration (P ? .05). Increased fasting glucose level was 3.7-fold more frequent in CC and CA genotypes than AA genotype (odds ratio = 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.10–0.72). There was no significant relation between higher fasting glucose levels, larger waist circumference, and higher clozapine levels. Conclusions: It is difficult to predict plasma clozapine concentration, even when known individual and genetic factors are considered. Therefore, therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended in patients who are treated with clozapine.

  3. Meteorological factors affecting ozone profiles over the North Atlantic ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C.; Zhong, S.; Berkowitz, C.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Ozone measurements taken by an instrumented aircraft over the western North Atlantic in the summer of 1992 revealed numerous profiles that consisted of two principal layers with different, nearly constant mixing ratios in each layer. The lower layer was characterized by relatively small mixing ratios (<25-30 ppb), while the upper layer had values a factor of two or more higher. The depth of the lower layer frequently corresponded to the depth of the mixed layer over the ocean as estimated from potential temperature observations. The upper layer with relatively uniform ozone distribution extended at least to the maximum sampling height of the aircraft on these flights, approximately 2.5 km. A three-dimensional mesoscale model is used to simulate the meteorology over the area for a representative case study day. Trajectory analysis shows that the air in the sampling region originated over relatively pristine areas of northern and eastern Canada, followed a path that avoided major anthropogenic sources of ozone precursors over land, and eventually moved out over the ocean. Because of inhomogeneities in the sea surface temperatures in the observation area, the spatial and temporal evolution of the boundary layer over the ocean differed significantly over distances of only a few hundred kilometers. These differences are identified as mechanisms responsible for the development of the characteristic shapes of ozone and potential temperature profiles. These findings indicate the critical role played by meteorological processes irrespective of the details of the photochemical reactions. The results also imply that a failure to incorporate detailed descriptions of meteorology in photochemical models may lead to erroneous interpretations of the data.

  4. Modulation of Factors Affecting Optic Nerve Head Astrocyte Migration

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Haixi; Crabb, Andrea W.; Hernandez, M. Rosario

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The authors investigated the role of myosin light chain kinase (MYLK) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF?) receptor pathways in optic nerve head (ONH) astrocyte migration. They further investigated how the expression of these genes is altered by elevated hydrostatic pressure (HP). Methods. PCR was used to determine the isoforms of MYLK expressed in ONH astrocytes. siRNAs against MYLK (all isoforms) and TGF? receptor 2 (TGFBR2) were prepared and tested for effects on the migration of cultured ONH astrocytes. Finally, the effects of elevated HP (24–96 hours) on the expression of MYLK isoforms and selected TGF? pathway components were measured. Results. Multiple isoforms of MYLK are present in ONH astrocytes from Caucasian (CA) and African American (AA) donors. Both populations express the short form (MYLK-130) and the long form (MYLK-210) of MYLK and a splicing variant within MYLK-210. MYLK-directed siRNA decreased MYLK expression and cell migration compared with control siRNA. siRNA directed against TGF? receptor 2 also decreased cell migration compared with control and decreased extracellular matrix genes regulated by TGF? signaling. Elevated HP increased the expression of MYLK-130 and MYLK-210 in both populations of astrocytes. However, TGF?2 was uniquely upregulated by exposure to elevated HP in CA compared with AA astrocytes. Conclusions. Differential expression of TGF? pathway genes and MYLK isoforms observed in populations of glaucomatous astrocytes applies to the elevated HP model system. MYLK may be a new target for intervention in glaucoma to alter reactive astrocyte migration in the ONH. PMID:20375339

  5. The Caribbean Amblyomma Program: some ecologic factors affecting its success.

    PubMed

    Pegram, Rupert; Indar, Lisa; Eddi, Carlos; George, John

    2004-10-01

    The Caribbean Amblyomma Program has been operational for 8 years. However, owing to funding availability, some islands did not commence eradication activities until late 1997. During the past 2 years, 6 of the 9 islands (St. Kitts, St. Lucia, Anguilla, Montserrat, Barbados, and Dominica) under the program have attained the status of provisional freedom from the tropical bont tick (TBT). There are several administrative and technical reasons why the attainment of the program goals took longer than originally anticipated. This paper examines some of the ecologic factors that necessitated the prolongation of the treatment period and the recrudescence of TBT infestation in some islands. The introduction and subsequent spread of the cattle egret, Bulbucus ibis, in the 1960s and 1970s was most likely closely associated with the dissemination of the TBT in the region. At the national or island level, variations in land use are believed to have had a major impact on the eradication efforts in the different islands. Two islands, Antigua and Nevis, both opted out of sugar production several decades ago for economic reasons. Unfortunately, however, land from former sugar estates was not developed for other agricultural purposes and it became "unimproved free-grazing" areas for livestock. Thus, in both Antigua and Nevis, large numbers of livestock tend to become feral or free-ranging, making compliance with the mandatory treatment schedules impossible. In contrast, St. Lucia has large tracts of land allocated to banana plantations and St. Kitts to sugar plantations. Thus, feral or free-ranging livestock were rarely a problem in these islands. These differences in land use management are compared and discussed in relation to their perceived profound impact on TBT eradication efforts in the region. PMID:15604510

  6. Phenotypic factors affecting coagulation properties of milk from Sarda ewes.

    PubMed

    Pazzola, M; Dettori, M L; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G; Vacca, G M

    2014-11-01

    In this study, milk-coagulation properties (MCP) were characterized in the Sarda sheep breed. Milk composition and MCP [rennet-coagulation time (RCT), curd-firming time [time to reach a curd firmness of 20mm (k20)], and curd firmness (a30), (a45), and (a60)] were obtained extending the lactodynamographic analysis from 30 to 60 min from a population of 1,121 ewes from 23 different farms. Managerial characteristics of farms and parity, individual daily milk yields and stage of lactation of ewes were recorded. Data were analyzed using a mixed-model procedure with fixed effects of days in milk, parity, daily milk yield, and flock size and the random effect of the flock/test day nested within flock size. Sampled farms were classified as small (<300 ewes) and medium (300 to 600 ewes), and these were kept by family operations, or as large (>600 ewes), often operated through hired workers. Daily milk yield was, on average, 1.58 ± 0.79 L/d and variability for this trait was very high. The average content of fat, protein, and casein was respectively 6.41, 5.39, and 4.20%. The class of flock size had a significant effect only on curd firmness, whereas days in milk affected RCT and k20. The flock test day, parity, and daily milk yield were important sources of variation for all MCP. The mean value of RCT (8.6 min) and the low occurrence of noncoagulating samples (0.44%) confirmed the excellent coagulation ability of sheep milk compared with cattle milk. A more rapid coagulation was observed in mid-lactating, primiparous, and high-yielding ewes. The k20 was usually reached in less than 2 min after gelation, with the most favorable values at mid lactation. The mean value of curd firmness 30 min after rennet addition (a30) was, on average, 50mm and decreased to 46 and 42 mm respectively after 45 (a45) and 60 min (a60). The decreasing value of curd-firmness traits was likely to be caused by curd syneresis and whey expulsion. The correlation between RCT and a30 was much lower than in dairy cows and about null for a45 and a60. This means that curd firmness in dairy ewes is almost independent of gelation time and this can provide specific information for this species. In conclusion, this study showed that milk from Sarda sheep is characterized by an earlier gelation, a faster increase in curd firmness with time, and greater curd firmness after 30 min compared with dairy cows. Furthermore, correlations between MCP in sheep are much lower than in bovines and some of the assumptions and interpretations related to cows cannot be applied to sheep. PMID:25151884

  7. Factors affecting bargaining outcomes between pharmacies and insurers.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, J M; Doucette, W; Sorofman, B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To model the bargaining power of pharmacies and insurers in price negotiations and test whether it varies with characteristics of the pharmacy, insurer, and pharmacy market. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Data from four sources. Pharmacy/insurer transactions were taken from Medstat's universe of 6.8 million pharmacy claims in their 1994 Marketscan database. Sources Informatics, Inc. supplied a three-digit zip code-level summary database containing pharmacy payments and self-reported costs for retail (cash-paying) customers for the top 200 pharmaceutical products by prescription size in 1994. The National Council of Prescription Drug Programs supplied their 1994 pharmacy database. Zip code-level socioeconomic and commercial information was taken from Bureau of the Census' 1990 Summary Tape File 3B and 1994 Zip Code Business Patterns database. STUDY DESIGN: The provider/insurer bargaining model first employed in Brooks, Dor, and Wong (1997, 1998) was adapted to the circumstances surrounding pharmacy and insurer bargaining. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: The units of observation in this study were single Medstat claims for each unique insurer/pharmacy combination in the database for selected pharmaceutical products. The four products selected varied in the conditions they treat, whether they are used to treat chronic or acute conditions, and by their sales volume. Used in the analysis were 9,758 Zantac, 2,681 Humulin, 3,437 Mevacor, and 1,860 Dilantin observations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We find statistically significant variation in pharmacy bargaining power. Pharmacy bargaining power varies significantly across markets, insurers, and pharmacy types. With respect to market structure, pharmacy bargaining power is negatively related to pharmacies per capita and pharmacies per employer and positively related to pharmacy concentration at higher concentration levels. In addition, the higher the percentage of independent pharmacies in an area, the lower the pharmacy bargaining power. With respect to socioeconomic conditions, pharmacy bargaining power is higher in areas with lower per capita income and higher rates of public assistance. CONCLUSIONS: The bargaining power of pharmacies in contract negotiations with insurers varies considerably with exogenous factors. Local area pharmacy ownership concentration enhances pharmacy bargaining. As a result, anti-trust law prohibiting the collective bargaining of independent pharmacies with insurers leaves independents at a disadvantage with respect to chains. PMID:10199687

  8. Initial solidification phenomena: Factors affecting heat transfer in strip casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolli, Paolo

    In the last few years a few companies have announced the final stage of the commercial development of strip casting of steels. In strip casting heat extraction and productivity are limited by the thermal resistance at the interface between processed material and moving mold (rolls for twin-roll strip casters). Among many factors influencing interfacial heat transfer, films of various composition, either formed during casting or deposited before casting on the surface of the rolls, melt superheat and gas atmosphere composition can have a significantly positive or negative effect on the achieved heat transfer rate. From an industrial point view, methods to improve interfacial heat transfer rates must be found, in order to increase productivity. The objective of this research project is to assess if it is feasible to improve heat transfer rates during solidification of steel in direct contact with a copper mold: (1) by the application of thin coatings on the mold surface; (2) by adding a reactive gas species containing sulfur in the gas shrouding where casting is performed. To address the former, solidification experiments were performed with the mold surface either kept uncoated or coated with coatings of different compositions. To address the latter, the experiments were performed in gas shrouding atmospheres with or without sulphydric acid. It was observed that the resulting heat extraction rates were improved by the application of certain coatings and by the addition of H2S to the gas atmosphere. These findings prove that the application of coatings and the use of small amounts of reactive gaseous species containing sulfur may be methods to increase productivity in strip casting. The effect of superheat and the effect of naturally deposited oxides (Mn-oxide) were also evaluated experimentally. A numerical study of the effect of the critical undercooling on the productivity of a twin-roll strip caster showed that the maximum allowable casting speed can be increased by increasing the critical undercooling, which in turns can be changed by changing the composition of the coating applied on the roll surface; this increase is significant when casting thicknesses are small (less than 1 mm). Finally, a procedure, based on Scheill's method, vaporization and liquation, to predict the composition of films depositing naturally during solidification, starting from the steel composition, is proposed.

  9. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, J.D.

    1985-01-10

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process is disclosed for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock. It comprises passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with feed stock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feed stock to glucose. The cooled dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, serially fed through a plurality of pre-hydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose. The dilute acid stream containing glucose is cooled after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  10. Factors affecting the toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs.

    PubMed

    Heinz, G H; Hoffman, D J; Kondrad, S L; Erwin, C A

    2006-02-01

    We developed a standardized protocol for comparing the sensitivities of the embryos of different bird species to methylmercury when methylmercury was injected into their eggs. During the course of developing this protocol, we investigated the effects of various factors on the toxicity of the injected methylmercury. Most of our experiments were done with chicken (Gallus domesticus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) eggs, all of which were purchased in large numbers from game farms. A smaller amount of work was done with double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs collected from the wild. Several solvents were tested, and corn oil at a rate of 1 microl/g egg contents was selected for the final standardized protocol because it had minimal toxicity to embryos and because methylmercury dissolved in corn oil yielded a dose-response curve in a range of egg concentrations that was similar to the range that causes reproductive impairment when the mother deposits methylmercury into her own eggs. The embryonic stage at which eggs were injected with corn oil altered mercury toxicity; at early stages, the corn oil itself was toxic. Therefore, in the final protocol we standardized the time of injection to occur when each species reached the morphologic equivalent of a 3-day-old chicken embryo. Although solvents can be injected directly into the albumen of an egg, high embryo mortality can occur in the solvent controls because of the formation of air bubbles in the albumen. Our final protocol used corn oil injections into the air cell, which are easier and safer than albumen injections. Most of the methylmercury, when dissolved in corn oil, injected into the air cell passes through the inner shell membrane and into the egg albumen. Most commercial incubators incubate eggs in trays with the air cell end of the egg pointing upward, but we discovered that mercury-induced mortality was too great when eggs were held in this orientation. In addition, some species of bird eggs require incubation on their sides with the eggs being rolled 180 degrees for them to develop normally. Therefore, we adopted a procedure of incubating the eggs of all species on their sides and rolling them 180 degrees every hour. Little has been published about the conditions of temperature, humidity, and the movements to which eggs of wild birds need to be subjected for them to hatch optimally under artificial incubation. Not unexpectedly, hatching success in an artificial incubator is generally less than what natural incubation by the parents can achieve. However, the survival of control embryos of most wild bird species was good (generally > or = 80%) up to within 1 or 2 days of hatching when we incubated the eggs at 37.5 degrees C (or 37.6 degrees C for gallinaceous species) at a relative humidity that resulted in an approximate 15% to 16% loss in egg weight by the end of incubation and by incubating the eggs on their sides and rolling them 180 degrees /h. To improve statistical comparisons, we used survival through 90% of incubation as our measurement to compare survival of controls with survival of eggs injected with graded concentrations of mercury. PMID:16307214

  11. Personal Factors that Affect the Satisfaction of Female Patients Undergoing Esthetic Suture after Typical Thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo Young; Kim, Jung Won; Park, Jin Hyung; Kim, Jung Hun

    2013-01-01

    Background In esthetic surgery, understanding the factors that influence patient satisfaction is important for successful practice. We hypothesize that the factors that influence patient satisfaction include not only aesthetic and functional outcomes, but also personal factors such as the level of familiarity with factors affecting wound healing and expectations regarding aesthetic outcome. Methods One hundred patients who underwent esthetic closure after thyroidectomy were included in this study. In order to evaluate the individual characteristics of the patients, a preoperative survey was administered to the patients. We estimated the patient satisfaction six months postoperatively and assessed the aesthetic and functional outcomes using the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale. Results According to the results of correlation analysis, level of familiarity with wound healing factors had a positive correlation with satisfaction. High expectations, pain, itching, and high observer scale score had negative correlations with satisfaction. The factors that were correlated with satisfaction were included in the multiple regression analysis. Level of familiarity with wound healing factors was found to have a positive relationship with satisfaction, while itching and observer scale were found to have a negative relationship with satisfaction. After excluding 10 patients who had hypertrophic scars, only level of familiarity with wound healing factors and expectations affected satisfaction. Conclusions The level of familiarity with factors affecting wound healing and expectations were found to independently affect satisfaction. Improving patients' level of familiarity with wound healing factors and reducing their expectations by providing suitable preoperative education has the potential to improve patient satisfaction. PMID:23898441

  12. Early environmental and social factors affecting adult aggressiveness in inbred mice 

    E-print Network

    Allender, Michael Lynn

    1971-01-01

    EARLY ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL FACTORS AFFECTING ADULT AGGRESSIVENESS IN INBRED MICE A Thesis by MICHAEL LYNN ALLENDER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1971 Major Subject: Psychology EARLY ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL FACTORS AFFECTING ADULT AGGRESSIVENESS IN INBRED MICE A Thesis by MICHAEL LYNN ALLENDER Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Commi ee) (Member...

  13. A national comparison of structural factors affecting participation in selected wildlife-related activities

    E-print Network

    Knowles, William Roy

    1989-01-01

    A NATIONAL COMPARISON OF STRUCTURAL FACTORS AFFECTING PARTICIPATION IN SELECTED WILDLIFE-RELATED ACTIVITIES A Thesis by WILLIAM ROY KNOWLES, JR. Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1989 Major- Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences A NATIONAL COMPARISON OF STRUCTURAL FACTORS AFFECTING PARTICIPATION IN SELECTED WILDLIFE-RELATED ACTIVITIES A Thesis by WILLIAM ROY KNOWLES...

  14. Hydrologic, diel and lunar factors affecting fishes on artificial reefs off Panama City, Florida 

    E-print Network

    Sanders, Richard Morgan

    1983-01-01

    HYDROLOGIC, DIEL AND LUNAR FACTORS AFFECTING FISHES ON ARTIFICIAL REEFS OFF PANAMA CITY, FLORIDA A Thesis RICHARD MORGAN SANDERS, Jr. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1983 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences HYDROLOGIC, DIEL AND LUNAR FACTORS AFFECTING FISHES ON ARTIFICIAL REEFS OFF PANAMA CITY, FLORIDA A Thesis RICHARD MORGAN SANDERS, Jr. Approved as to style...

  15. Factors affecting the permanence of livestock projects undertaken by Heifer International-Mexico

    E-print Network

    Arispe, Sergio Adrian

    2003-01-01

    FACTORS AFFECTING THE PERMANENCE OF LIVESTOCK PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN BY HEIFER INTERNATIONAL-MEXICO A Thesis by SERGIO ADRIAN ARISPE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2003 Major Subject: Agricultural Education FACTORS AFFECTING THE PERMANENCE OF LIVESTOCK PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN BY HEIFER INTERNATIONAL-MEXICO A Thesis by SERGIO ADRIAN ARISPE Submitted to Texas A&M University...

  16. Factors affecting birth weight, gestation length and dystocia in Charolais cattle

    E-print Network

    Schroeder, Charles

    1979-01-01

    FACTORS AFFECTING BIRTH WEIGHT, GESTATION LENGTH AND DYSTOCIA IN CHAROLAIS CATTLE A Thesis by CHARLES SCHROEDER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A!N University in partial fulfillment of the requirement of the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1979 Major Subject: Animal Science FACTORS AFFECTING BIRTH 4IFIGHT, GESTATION LENGTH Al'JD OYSTOCIA IN CHAPOLAIS CATTLE A Thesis by CHARLES SCHROEDER Approved as to style and content by: ( ( (Chairman of Committe (Head of Departm t...

  17. An investigation of factors affecting intersection control by volume density actuated equipment

    E-print Network

    Radke, Milton L

    1966-01-01

    AN INVESTIGATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING INTERSECTION CONTROL BY VOLUME DENSITY ACTUATED EQUIPMENT A Thesis By MILTON LAVERNE RADKE Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1966 Major Subject: Civil Engine e ring AN INVESTIGATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING INTERSECTION CONTROL BY VOLUME DENSITY ACTUATED EQUIPMENT A Thesis By MILTON LAVERNE RADKE Approved as to style and content by...

  18. Genetic and environmental factors affecting growth characters of Charolais cattle in Southeastern Brazil 

    E-print Network

    Barbosa, Pedro Franklin

    1982-01-01

    G=NETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING GROWTH CHARACTERS OF CHAROLAIS CATTLE IN SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL A Thesis by PEDRO FRANKLIN BARBOSA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1982 Major Subject: Animal Breeding GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING GROWTH CHARACTERS OF CHAROLAIS CATTLE IN SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL A Thesis by PEDRO FRANKLIN BARBOSA Approved as to style and content...

  19. Genetic and environmental factors affecting growth and reproduction characters of Morada Nova sheep in Northeastern Brazil 

    E-print Network

    Fernandes, Antonio Amaury Oria

    1985-01-01

    GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION CHARACTERS OF MORADA NOVA SHEEP IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL A Thesis by ANTONIO AMAURV ORIA FERNANDES Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1985 Major Subject: Animal Breeding GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION CHARACTERS OF MORADA NOVA SHEEP IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL A Thesis by ANTONIO...

  20. Factors affecting the coagulation properties of skimmilk and characteristics of cultured buttermilk 

    E-print Network

    Bollinger, Dean Herman

    1972-01-01

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES. INTRODUCTION REVIEW OF LITERATURE Effect of Mastitis on Milk. Composition. Properties . Dairy products Factors Affecting Milk Coagulation. Heat treatment . Homogenization Starter culture. Added solids...-not-fat Protein. Calcium chloride Mastitis Minerals I'age V V111 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 6 7 8 9 Factors Affecting Properties of Cultured Pasteurization . Milk solids. Homogenization Starter culture. Ripening temperature . Aci di ty. Treatment...

  1. Factors affecting calf and dam weights and their effects on breeding programs 

    E-print Network

    Maddox, Lawrence Allen

    1964-01-01

    FACTORS AFFECTING CALF AND DAM WEIGHTS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON BREEDING PROGRAMS A Thesis By LAMRENCE ALLEN MADDOX, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulf illment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May, 1964 Major Subject: Animal Breeding FACTORS AFFECTING CALF AND DAM WEIGHTS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON BREEDING PROGRAMS A Thesis By IAWRENCE ALLEN MADDOX, JR Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Commit ee) (Head...

  2. Growth as affected by general hormonal factors and hormonal balances, and the limitations of such studies

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Growth as affected by general hormonal factors and hormonal balances, and the limitations France. Summary. Many elements are implicated in fetal and postnatal growth ; the hormonal factors are discussed in this review. In the first section, general hormonal effects on the growth of domestic animals

  3. A Review of Foreign Researches on Influential Factors Affecting Students' Engagement in English Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Chun-hong

    2010-01-01

    Students' active engagement constitutes the core of the process of learning and teaching in the student-oriented classroom. The paper centers on a review of foreign researches on influential factors affecting students' engagement in English classroom. It is expected to figure out the relevant factors in order to promote students' active engagement.

  4. Critical Factors Affecting the Evaluation of Information Control Systems with the COBIT Framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fengyi Lin; Liming Guan; Wenchang Fang

    2010-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the factors affecting auditors in evaluating information technology (IT) control structures by employing the COBIT framework, a popular IT internal control with integrated platform, and examines the relationship between monitoring function and other COBIT dimensions. The results of our empirical analysis indicate that key factors of IT governance endorsed by certified public accountants (CPAs) in Taiwan

  5. A Review of Published Quantitative Experimental Studies on Factors Affecting Laboratory Fume Hood Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwangseog Ahn; Susan Woskie; Louis DiBerardinis; Michael Ellenbecker

    2008-01-01

    This study attempted to identify the important factors that affect the performance of a laboratory fume hood and the relationship between the factors and hood performance under various conditions by analyzing and generalizing the results from other studies that quantitatively investigated fume hood performance. A literature search identified 43 studies that were published from 1966 to 2006. For each of

  6. FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE OF ADULTS IN ADULT AND CONTINUING EDUCATION IN NKULUMANE-EMGANWINI AREA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Precious Ndlovu; Wisdom Moyo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation of the factors affecting academic performance with the performance levels of adults in adult and continuing education in Nkulumane-Emganwini area. These factors were arbitrarily selected from the literature review. The research design selected was the empirical approach .A sample of 40 students was randomly selected from a population of 420

  7. Ageing Human Bone: Factors Affecting its Biomechanical Properties and the Role of Collagen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Zioupos

    2001-01-01

    The incidence of fractures increases with age. This is partly due to extraosseous factors and partly to the increased fragility of the bone material itself. Ageing adversely affects the “quality” of human bone material, its elastic and ultimate properties. The hypothesis here is that these effects are caused by factors such as architectural changes, compositional changes, physicochemical changes, changes at

  8. A Quantitative Study of Factors Affecting Learner Acceptance of a Computer-Based Training Support Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, G. Dale; Flannery, Daniele D.

    2004-01-01

    This study identifies and empirically tests factors that may influence learners' use of a computer-based training support system (TSS). The areas of research and theory were drawn from human-computer interaction, information and business management, and adult education. The factors suggested in the literature that may affect learner's use of a TSS…

  9. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, John D. (Denver, CO)

    1986-01-01

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock, comprising passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feedstock to glucose; cooling said dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, then feeding said dilute acid stream serially through a plurality of prehydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose; and cooling the dilute acid stream containing glucose after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  10. [Greenhouse tomato transpiration and its affecting factors: correlation analysis and model simulation].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yong-Zhe; Li, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Rong; Sun, San-Jie; Chen, Kai-Li

    2012-07-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the correlations between the daily transpiration of greenhouse tomato and the related affecting factors such as total leaf area per plant, soil relative moisture content, air temperature, relative humidity, and solar radiation under different treatments of supplementary irrigation. A regression model for the daily transpiration of greenhouse tomato was established. There existed significant linear correlations between the daily transpiration and the test affecting factors, and the affecting factors had complicated mutual effects. Soil relative moisture content was the main decision factor of the transpiration, with the decision coefficient being 27.4%, and daily minimum relative humidity was the main limiting factor, with the decision coefficient being -119.7%. The square value of the regression coefficient (R2) between the predicted and measured tomato daily transpiration was 0.81, root mean squared error (RMSE) was 68.52 g, and relative prediction error (RE) was 19.4%, suggesting that the regression model established by using the main affecting factors selected through path analysis could better simulate the daily transpiration of greenhouse tomato. PMID:23173461

  11. Nurses' Experiences of Nonpatient Factors That Affect Nursing Workload: A Study of the PAONCIL Instrument's Nonpatient Factors

    PubMed Central

    Fagerström, Lisbeth; Vainikainen, Paula

    2014-01-01

    In the RAFAELA patient classification system, the professional assessment of optimal nursing care intensity level (PAONCIL) instrument is used to assess the optimal nursing intensity level per unit. The PAONCIL instrument contains an overall assessment of the actual nursing intensity level and an additional list of central nonpatient factors that may increase or decrease the total nursing workload (NWL). The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess and determine which nonpatient factors affect nurses' experiences of their total NWL in both outpatient settings and hospitals, as captured through the PAONCIL instrument. The data material consisted of PAONCIL questionnaires from 38 units and 37 outpatient clinics at 11 strategically selected hospitals in Finland, and included nurses' answers (n = 1307) to the question of which factors, other than nursing intensity, affect total NWL. The methods for data analyses were qualitative content analyses. The nonpatient factors that affected nurses' experiences of total NWL are “organization of work,” “working conditions,” “self-control,” and “cooperation.” The actual list of nonpatient factors in the PAONCIL instrument is to a reasonable extent relevant, but the list should be improved to include nurses' actual working conditions and self-control. PMID:25050179

  12. Social and ecological factors affecting paternity allocation in American robins with overlapping broods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen M. C. Rowe; Patrick J. Weatherhead

    2007-01-01

    Factors that affect extra-pair mating in birds are likely to vary across the breeding season. Changing densities of active\\u000a nests may alter the opportunities for extra-pair mating, and parental duties may alter a male’s opportunity to guard his mate\\u000a from extra-pair mating. The latter affects species with multiple broods, where males care for fledglings from first nests\\u000a while females initiate

  13. Effects of situational factors, sex, and attitude on affective self-disclosure and anxiety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela S. Highlen; Sheila F. Gillis

    1978-01-01

    Examined the effects of sex of S and the situational factors of S role, type of feeling, and sex of best friend in relation to affective self-disclosure and self-reported anxiety of 20 male and 20 female undergraduates in simulated dyadic interactions. The relationship between attitude toward expressing feelings and affective self-disclosure behavior was also explored. The 2–4 repeated measures ANOVA

  14. Individual and school factors affecting students’ participation and success in higher education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boaz Shulruf; John Hattie; Sarah Tumen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify school factors that affect students’ achievements at the secondary and tertiary levels\\u000a of education. The analysis included data of 9,894 students who studied in Auckland regional secondary schools in 2004. The\\u000a results indicate that, although student demographic characteristics are associated with students’ pathways and achievements,\\u000a schools’ demographic composition did not affect student

  15. Factors that affect reliability of nondestructive detection of flaws in structural ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, S. J.; Baaklini, G. Y.; Roth, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    The factors that affect reliability of nondestructive detection of flaws in structural ceramics by microfocus radiography and scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM) were investigated. Reliability of void detection in silicon nitride and silicon carbide by microfocus X-rays was affected by photon energy level, material chemistry in the immediate vicinity of the void, and the presence of loose powder aggregates inside the void cavity. The sensitivity of SLAM to voids was affected by material microstructure, the level of porosity, and the condition of the specimen surfaces. Statistical results are presented in the form of probability of detection as a function of void diameter for green compacts and sintered materials.

  16. Ten Factors that Affect the Severity of Environmental Impacts of Visitors in Protected Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Marina Pickering

    2010-01-01

    Protected areas represent the major method for conserving biodiversity. However, visitor use can threaten their conservation\\u000a value. Based on a review of recent research, I have categorized factors that affect the severity of environmental impacts\\u000a of visitor use. These factors need to be considered or evaluated when assessing visitor use of sites in protected areas. They\\u000a are: (i) the conservation

  17. FACTORS AFFECTING THE ADOPTION OF VALUE-ADDED PRODUCTION ON COW-CALF FARMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael P. Popp; Merle D. Faminow; Lucas D. Parsch

    1999-01-01

    Factors that affect the decision to feed or sell calves at weaning are analyzed for Arkansas cow-calf operators. A discrete choice logit model is used to analyze the adoption of value-added cattle production. Farm size, human capital, perception of risk\\/returns and enterprise diversification are hypothesized to explain this decision. Regional factors and land quality are also accounted for. Operator perceptions

  18. Factors Affecting Engorgement Behavior in the Salt Marsh Horse Fly, Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart (Diptera: Tabanidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Downer; R. J. Nachman; J. G. Stoffolano Jr

    2007-01-01

    Female Tabanus nigrovittatus were field collected and used in laboratory experimentation to explore physiological and behavioral factors that affect engorgement.\\u000a Previous studies showed sulfakinins act as feeding satiety factors in insects. This study demonstrates that sulfakinins have\\u000a differing effects on engorgement that is dependent on the feeding technique used in the laboratory. The satiety effect of\\u000a sulfakinin on flies engorging

  19. Developmental and environmental factors affecting level of self-incompatibility response in Brassica rapa L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atsushi Horisaki; Satoshi Niikura

    2008-01-01

    We performed artificial self-pollination throughout the period of sexual reproduction in six inbred lines of Brassica rapa, a plant with sporophytic self-incompatibility (SI). The level of SI changed between each pollination date in all lines,\\u000a suggesting the effects of both internal and external factors. To further investigate the potential factors affecting the changes\\u000a in the level of SI, multiple regression

  20. Factors affecting the selection of search tactics: Tasks, knowledge, process, and systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iris Xie; Soohyung Joo

    This study investigated whether and how different factors in relation to task, user-perceived knowledge, search process, and system affect users’ search tactic selection. Thirty-one participants, representing the general public with their own tasks, were recruited for this study. Multiple methods were employed to collect data, including pre-questionnaire, verbal protocols, log analysis, diaries, and post-questionnaires. Statistical analysis revealed that seven factors

  1. Regional variation in nonmedical factors affecting family physicians' decisions about referral for consultation

    PubMed Central

    Langley, G R; Minkin, S; Till, J E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is regional variation in environmental (non-medical) factors affecting referral decisions of family physicians (FPs). DESIGN: Cross-sectional interview survey. SETTING: Nova Scotia. PARTICIPANTS: A random sample of 125 FPs grouped into 1 of 5 functionally defined geographic regions of Nova Scotia (25 in each group). Groupings were based on access to general hospital beds through active staff hospital appointments or to specialist consultants in the community, or both. Participants were personally interviewed on site. No physician refused an interview. In 9 cases the physician indicated that he or she did not fit the profile of the assigned group; the physician was excluded from the study and the next doctor on the list was substituted. OUTCOME MEASURES: The questionnaire was designed to test several hypotheses about factors known to potentially influence decisions about referral. Geographic differences in factors affecting referral and in decisions about 5 hypothetical cases were assessed with the use of significance tests for proportions that were sensitive to specific orders across groups. RESULTS: Three factors affecting referral showed unequivocal variation across the 5 groups. Access to hospital facilities and remoteness from specialist care, leading to local styles of practice or treatment policies, and the FP's relationship with specialist consultants appeared to be important nonmedical factors affecting referral decisions. For similar case scenarios the physicians living in rural areas would refer only half as often overall as those living in urban areas with tertiary care hospitals; for some cases, such as a severe asthma attack, the difference was more than 7-fold. CONCLUSIONS: Significant differences in nonmedical factors affecting referral, and in referral decisions about hypothetical cases, were found between the groups of FPs. Differences in access to resources, creating local styles of practice, appeared to explain most of the variation. The results may account for previously observed differences in actual rates of referral for these particular groups. PMID:9269196

  2. Human factors with nonhumans - Factors that affect computer-task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.

    1992-01-01

    There are two general strategies that may be employed for 'doing human factors research with nonhuman animals'. First, one may use the methods of traditional human factors investigations to examine the nonhuman animal-to-machine interface. Alternatively, one might use performance by nonhuman animals as a surrogate for or model of performance by a human operator. Each of these approaches is illustrated with data in the present review. Chronic ambient noise was found to have a significant but inconsequential effect on computer-task performance by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Additional data supported the generality of findings such as these to humans, showing that rhesus monkeys are appropriate models of human psychomotor performance. It is argued that ultimately the interface between comparative psychology and technology will depend on the coordinated use of both strategies of investigation.

  3. Factors Affecting Mothers' Healthcare-Seeking Behaviour for Childhood Illnesses in a Rural Nigerian Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulraheem, I. S.; Parakoyi, D. B.

    2009-01-01

    Appropriate healthcare-seeking behaviour could prevent a significant number of child deaths and complications due to ill health. Improving mothers' care-seeking behaviour could also contribute in reducing a large number of child morbidity and mortality in developing countries. This article aims to determine factors affecting healthcare-seeking…

  4. Dispositional Factors Affecting Motivation during Learning in Adult Basic and Secondary Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Krieshok, Thomas; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that about a quarter of adult students separate from formal adult basic and secondary education (ABE/ASE) programs before completing one educational level. This retrospective study explores individual dispositional factors that affect motivation during learning, particularly students' goals, goal-directed thinking and action…

  5. An Investigation of Factors Affecting Student Participation Level in an Online Discussion Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yukselturk, Erman

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the factors that affect student participation in discussion forum under the two main purposes. The first purpose was to examine the relationship between the students' individual demographics and categories of students' participation level (inactive, moderate, and active) in discussion forum of an online course. The second…

  6. Soybean phytophthora root rot: {\\\\it Phytophthora sojae\\\\\\/} races in Indiana and factors affecting disease resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose Cristino Melgar

    1997-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot of soybeans caused by Phytophthora sojae has been one of the most important diseases throughout the soybean growing areas of the United States and Canada since the 1950's. Documenting the current physiological diversity of P. sojae and the role of factors affecting disease resistance are important in reducing yield losses due to this disease. Prevalence and distribution

  7. Gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) concentrations in humans and factors affecting endogenous production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon P Elliott

    2003-01-01

    The endogenous nature of the drug of abuse gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has caused various interpretative problems for toxicologists. In order to obtain data for the presence of endogenous GHB in humans and to investigate any factors that may affect this, a volunteer study was undertaken. The GHB concentrations in 119 urine specimens from GHB-free subjects and 25 urine specimens

  8. Using focus groups to identify factors affecting healthy weight maintenance in college men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer R. Walsh; Adrienne A. White; Mary L. Greaney

    2009-01-01

    Healthful eating and physical activity are important for healthy weight maintenance. The hypothesis for this study was that college-aged men would perceive factors affecting eating and physical activity as both contributing to and inhibiting healthy weight maintenance. The overall objective was to explore how men view weight maintenance in the context of these aspects. Subjects (n = 47, mean age

  9. Reactions of amides with organoaluminum compounds: factors affecting the coordination mode of aluminum amidates.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bor-Hunn; Yu, Te-Liang; Huang, Yi-Lun; Ko, Bao-Tsan; Lin, Chu-Chieh

    2002-06-01

    Factors affecting the coordination mode of an amidato group on aluminum will be presented. The reaction of N-tert-butylalkylacetamide ((t)BuNHCR([double bond]O)) with 1.1 molar equiv of Me(3)Al in refluxing hexane affords a pentacoordinated, dimeric compound [Me(2)Al[eta(2)-(t)BuNC(R)(mu(2)-O)

  10. Factors that affect Li mobility in layered lithium transition metal oxides Kisuk Kang and Gerbrand Ceder*

    E-print Network

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    Factors that affect Li mobility in layered lithium transition metal oxides Kisuk Kang and Gerbrand in layered lithium transition metal oxides are systematically studied in this paper by means of first, and the nature of the metal ion in the transition metal layer have all been proposed to influence the Li mobility

  11. Factors that affect Li mobility in layered lithium transition metal oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kisuk Kang; Gerbrand Ceder

    2006-01-01

    The diffusion constant of Li in electrode materials is a key aspect of the rate capability of rechargeable Li batteries. The factors that affect Li mobility in layered lithium transition metal oxides are systematically studied in this paper by means of first-principles calculations. In close packed oxides octahedral ions diffuse by migrating through intermediate tetrahedral sites. Our results indicate that

  12. American Journal of Botany 90(7): 10541063. 2003. FACTORS AFFECTING PHENOLOGICAL PATTERNS OF

    E-print Network

    Quesada Avendaño, Mauricio

    1054 American Journal of Botany 90(7): 1054­1063. 2003. FACTORS AFFECTING PHENOLOGICAL PATTERNS´n, Me´xico 58089 We compared phenological patterns of tree species of the family Bombacaceae in three were to (1) determine intraspecific variation in phenology between sites in different geographic

  13. Factors that Affect Student Motivation in a Dairy Products Elective Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Baraem; Hayes, Kirby

    2005-01-01

    Student motivation is influenced by instructional approach. Motivation is a function of initiating and sustaining goal-directed behavior. The objective of this study was to identify factors (positive and negative) that affect motivation in a junior-level dairy products elective course. Student attitudes were surveyed each year half-way through the…

  14. Synthesis of hydrogels via ring-opening metathesis polymerization: factors affecting gelation

    E-print Network

    Tew, Gregory N.

    Synthesis of hydrogels via ring-opening metathesis polymerization: factors affecting gelation Ahmad initial molar ratios of cross-linker to initiator. At low monomer concentration, gelation occurred primary polymer chain. Higher levels of EGDMA (1.1 mol per primary chain) led to gelation. Similarly

  15. Factors affecting the efficiency of embryo transfer in the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

    E-print Network

    Engelhardt, John F.

    Factors affecting the efficiency of embryo transfer in the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo 19 July 2005; accepted 30 October 2005 Abstract Embryo transfer (ET) to recipient females of transferred embryo were investigated. Unilateral and bilateral transfer of zygotes or blastocysts

  16. Factors Affecting Individuals' Decisions to Enter Music Teacher Education Doctoral Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachout, David J.

    2004-01-01

    The present study is one of the first investigations into the music teacher educator shortage. The purpose was to identify factors that affect music teachers' decisions about entering music education doctoral programs. Practicing music educators, identified as being outstanding candidates for doctoral studies (PME) (n = 22), and recent doctoral…

  17. Evaluation of factors affecting nitrous oxide emission and N transformation in a sandy loam soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A better understanding of the complex factors affecting nitrous oxide (N2O) emission and potential mitigation practices will assist in developing strategies to improve the sustainability of agricultural production systems. Using surface soil collected from a pomegranate orchard, a series of laborato...

  18. Factors Affecting Individual Education Demand at the Entrance to University: Adnan Menderes University Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarpkaya, Ruhi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the factors affecting individual education demands at the entrance to university. The research is in survey model. The universe of the study consists of 1630 freshmen at the faculties and vocational schools of Adnan Menderes University, Aydin. 574 students from 7 schools were included in the sample. The…

  19. Factors Which Affect Students' Attitudes towards the Use of Living Animals in Learning Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberstein, Moshe; Tamir, Pinchas

    1981-01-01

    Identifies factors which affect students' attitudes toward the use of animals in research and in learning biology. Responses of students (N=577) in grades 5, 7, 9, and 11 to questionnaires were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance by grade level and sex. Results and implications are discussed. (CS)

  20. Who Should Mark What? A Study of Factors Affecting Marking Accuracy in a Biology Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suto, Irenka; Nadas, Rita; Bell, John

    2011-01-01

    Accurate marking is crucial to the reliability and validity of public examinations, in England and internationally. Factors contributing to accuracy have been conceptualised as affecting either marking task demands or markers' personal expertise. The aim of this empirical study was to develop this conceptualisation through investigating the…

  1. The Transcription Factor DBP Affects Circadian Sleep Consolidation and Rhythmic EEG Activity

    E-print Network

    Halazonetis, Thanos

    The Transcription Factor DBP Affects Circadian Sleep Consolidation and Rhythmic EEG Activity Paul clock out- puts. We studied the role of DBP in the circadian and homeo- static aspects of sleep as the consolidation of sleep episodes, was reduced in dbp / under both LD and DD conditions. Quantitative EEG analysis

  2. Spatial factors affecting primary succession on the Muddy River Lahar, Mount St. Helens, Washington

    E-print Network

    del Moral, Roger

    Spatial factors affecting primary succession on the Muddy River Lahar, Mount St. Helens, Washington eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington spawned a massive lahar that now supports a mosaic of vegeta- tion analysis Á Vegetation gradients Introduction Mount St. Helens is a unique setting to explore primary

  3. Detailed Analysis of Factors Affecting Team Success and Failure in the America's Army Game *

    E-print Network

    Detailed Analysis of Factors Affecting Team Success and Failure in the America's Army Game * CASOS data trace of the on­line multi­player first­person­shooter game America's Army to understand's Army players' distinct behaviors, the optimum size of an America's Army team, the importance of fire

  4. Detailed Analysis of Factors Affecting Team Success and Failure in the America's Army Game*

    E-print Network

    Detailed Analysis of Factors Affecting Team Success and Failure in the America's Army Game* CASOS data trace of the on-line multi-player first-person-shooter game America's Army to understand's Army players' distinct behaviors, the optimum size of an America's Army team, the importance of fire

  5. Factors that affect the degradation of naphthenic acids in oil sands wastewater by indigenous microbial communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    June W. S. Lai; Linda J. Pinto; Eberhard Kiehlmann; Leah I. Bendell-Young

    1996-01-01

    The acute toxicity of wastewater generated during the extraction of bitumen from oil sands is believed to be due to naphthenic acids (NAs). To determine the factors that affect the rate of degradation of representative NAs in microcosms containing wastewater and the acute toxicity of treated and untreated wastewater, the effects of temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, and phosphate addition on

  6. Personal and Situational Factors Affecting Exercise Involvement: The Importance of Enjoyment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wankel, Leonard M.

    1985-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with participants and dropouts of a male employee fitness program in order to investigate factors affecting involvement. A combination of items pertaining to reactions to the program, initial goals for joining, and social support for the program could effectively discriminate between participants and dropouts. (Author/MT)

  7. Factors Affecting the Functional Properties of Whey Protein Products: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Abd El-Salam; Safinaz El-Shibiny; Aida Salem

    2009-01-01

    Numerous why protein products (WPP) have been developed as excellent food ingredients with unique functional properties. However, the functional properties of WPP are affected by several compositional and processing factors. Recently, novel processing technologies such as high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound, extrusion and tribomechanical activation have been used to modify the functional properties of WPP. Also, WPP have been used as

  8. Euro Working Group on Transportation 2014 Isolating Different Factors Affecting Travel Time Reliability in an

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Euro Working Group on Transportation 2014 Isolating Different Factors Affecting Travel Time Newton 77447 Champs sur Marne France Abstract It is increasingly recognized that travel time reliability for average travel time (congestion) and for variability of that travel time (reliability). The impacts

  9. Factors affecting the yields of emerging market issuers: Evidence from the Asia-Pacific region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan A. Batten; Thomas A. Fetherston; Pongsak Hoontrakul

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the yield spread between the sovereign bonds issued in international markets by major Asia-Pacific issuers (China, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand) and matched with near maturity benchmark U.S. Treasury bonds (2, 5, 10 year maturities) to determine the extent that various factors affect changes in credit spreads. The results suggest that the credit spreads of these sovereign bonds

  10. Recent research on navigation has been particularly notable for the increased understanding of the factors affecting

    E-print Network

    Burgess, Neil

    of the factors affecting human navigation and the neural networks supporting it. The use of virtual reality brain imaging, combined with the use of virtual environments, has revealed strong parallels between-mail: e.maguire@fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology and Institute

  11. University physics students' conceptualizations of factors affecting the speed of sound propagation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cedric J. Linder

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses university physics students’ conceptualizations of the factors affecting the speed of sound propagation. The data source consists of a set of detailed explanations which Canadian and South African physics graduates provided during the course of clinical?like interviews dealing with their understanding of sound. The analysis of the students’ explanations was set in the phenomenographic tradition: their categorization

  12. Factors affecting survival and recruitment of unionid mussels in small midwestern streams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melody Lynn Myers-Kinzie

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the survival and recruitment of unionid mussels in small midwestern streams. Unionid mussels have been undergoing a decline in many places, and it is thought that the juvenile is the most sensitive life stage. Because most studies have focused on larger rivers, the status of mussels

  13. FACTORS AFFECTING THE ACCEPTANCE OF FOREIGN DRONES INTO HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA L.) COLONIES

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    FACTORS AFFECTING THE ACCEPTANCE OF FOREIGN DRONES INTO HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA L.) COLONIES R SUMMARY Studies on drone management could aid in honey bee breeding programs by improving the efficiency and quality of mating. In this study the effects of introducing foreign drones into honey bee colonies were

  14. Factors Affecting the Implementation of Argument in the Elementary Science Classroom. A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Anita M.; Hand, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal case study describes the factors that affect an experienced teacher's attempt to shift her pedagogical practices in order to implement embedded elements of argument into her science classroom. Research data was accumulated over 2 years through video recordings of science classes. The Reformed Teacher Observation Protocol (RTOP)…

  15. Organizational and environmental factors that affect worker health and safety and patient outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tammy Lundstrom; Gina Pugliese; Judene Bartley; Jack Cox; Carol Guither

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews organizational factors that influence the satisfaction, health, safety, and well-being of health care workers and ultimately, the satisfaction, safety, and quality of care for patients. The impact of the work environment on working conditions and the effects on health care workers and patients are also addressed. Studies focusing on worker health and safety concerns affected by the

  16. Identifying the key factors affecting warning message dissemination in VANET real urban scenarios.

    PubMed

    Fogue, Manuel; Garrido, Piedad; Martinez, Francisco J; Cano, Juan-Carlos; Calafate, Carlos T; Manzoni, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, new architectures and technologies have been proposed for Vehicular Ad Hoc networks (VANETs). Due to the cost and complexity of deploying such networks, most of these proposals rely on simulation. However, we find that most of the experiments made to validate these proposals tend to overlook the most important and representative factors. Moreover, the scenarios simulated tend to be very simplistic (highways or Manhattan-based layouts), which could seriously affect the validity of the obtained results. In this paper, we present a statistical analysis based on the 2k factorial methodology to determine the most representative factors affecting traffic safety applications under real roadmaps. Our purpose is to determine which are the key factors affecting Warning Message Dissemination in order to concentrate research tests on such parameters, thus avoiding unnecessary simulations and reducing the amount of simulation time required. Simulation results show that the key factors affecting warning messages delivery are the density of vehicles and the roadmap used. Based on this statistical analysis, we consider that VANET researchers must evaluate the benefits of their proposals using different vehicle densities and city scenarios, to obtain a broad perspective on the effectiveness of their solution. Finally, since city maps can be quite heterogeneous, we propose a roadmap profile classification to further reduce the number of cities evaluated. PMID:23604026

  17. Identifying the Key Factors Affecting Warning Message Dissemination in VANET Real Urban Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Fogue, Manuel; Garrido, Piedad; Martinez, Francisco J.; Cano, Juan-Carlos; Calafate, Carlos T.; Manzoni, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, new architectures and technologies have been proposed for Vehicular Ad Hoc networks (VANETs). Due to the cost and complexity of deploying such networks, most of these proposals rely on simulation. However, we find that most of the experiments made to validate these proposals tend to overlook the most important and representative factors. Moreover, the scenarios simulated tend to be very simplistic (highways or Manhattan-based layouts), which could seriously affect the validity of the obtained results. In this paper, we present a statistical analysis based on the 2k factorial methodology to determine the most representative factors affecting traffic safety applications under real roadmaps. Our purpose is to determine which are the key factors affecting Warning Message Dissemination in order to concentrate research tests on such parameters, thus avoiding unnecessary simulations and reducing the amount of simulation time required. Simulation results show that the key factors affecting warning messages delivery are the density of vehicles and the roadmap used. Based on this statistical analysis, we consider that VANET researchers must evaluate the benefits of their proposals using different vehicle densities and city scenarios, to obtain a broad perspective on the effectiveness of their solution. Finally, since city maps can be quite heterogeneous, we propose a roadmap profile classification to further reduce the number of cities evaluated. PMID:23604026

  18. Affective Factors Influencing Plurilingual Students' Acquisition of Catalan in a Catalan-Spanish Bilingual Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernaus, Merce; Moore, Emilee; Azevedo, Adriana Cordeiro

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the affective factors influencing students' learning of Catalan across different year levels in a multilingual school community in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). Questionnaires were distributed to 176 students, from 12 to 17 years of age, registered in a public secondary school, the majority of whom were not born in Catalonia.…

  19. Assessment of some factors affecting fatigue endurance of welded cruciform joints using statistical techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Balasubramanian; B. Guha

    1999-01-01

    Three statistical techniques have been used to optimise some of the factors affecting fatigue life of Flux Cored Arc Welded (FCAW) cruciform joints containing Lack of Penetration (LOP) defects. High strength, quenched and tempered steel (ASTM 517 ‘F’ Grade) has been used as the base material throughout the investigation. Design of Experiments (DoE) concept has been used to optimise the

  20. Factors Affecting Training Transfer: Participants' Motivation to Transfer Training, Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alawneh, Muhammad K.

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates factors that motivate participants in learning and training activities to transfer skills, knowledge and attitude from the learning setting to the workplace. Based on training transfer theories hypothesized by Holton (1996), one of the major theories that affect an organization's learning is motivation to transfer theory.…

  1. Factors Affecting Teachers' Adoption of Educational Computer Games: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kebritchi, Mansureh

    2010-01-01

    Even though computer games hold considerable potential for engaging and facilitating learning among today's children, the adoption of modern educational computer games is still meeting significant resistance in K-12 education. The purpose of this paper is to inform educators and instructional designers on factors affecting teachers' adoption of…

  2. vol. 171, no. 2 the american naturalist february 2008 Factors Affecting the Evolution of Bleaching

    E-print Network

    Day, Troy

    of Bleaching Resistance in Corals Troy Day,1,2,* Laura Nagel,3, Madeleine J. H. van Oppen,3, and M. Julian understand factors affecting the potential evo- lution of bleaching resistance in corals in response-offs among fitness components, (ii) different proximate mechanisms of coral bleaching, (iii) the genetic

  3. Factors Affecting the Link between Physical Discipline and Child Externalizing Problems in Black and White Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Anna S.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Newton, Rae R.; Black, Maureen M.; Everson, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    We examined contextual factors that may affect the impact of physical discipline on later child behavior problems among high-risk Black and White families. We examined race, parental warmth, and early child problems as potential moderators of the discipline-behavior problem link. The sample included 442 White and Black children and their…

  4. HumanWildlife Interactions 5(2):321332, Fall 2011 Factors affecting white-tailed deer-

    E-print Network

    Human­Wildlife Interactions 5(2):321­332, Fall 2011 Factors affecting white-tailed deer- browsing-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginanus) damage to soybean crops is a concern for soybean producers. Although researchers have documented decreases in the intensity of deer-browse on soybean plants as the growing season

  5. FACTORS AFFECTING THE FORMATION OF ORGANIC BY-PRODUCTS DURING WATER CHLORINATION

    E-print Network

    Arhonditsis, George B.

    by-products have been reported to result from the use of chlorine for drinking water disinfection classification and qualitative target levels set by the WHO and the European Union for chlorination byFACTORS AFFECTING THE FORMATION OF ORGANIC BY-PRODUCTS DURING WATER CHLORINATION: A BENCH

  6. Approaching the Affective Factors of Information Seeking: The Viewpoint of the Information Search Process Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savolainen, Reijo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The article contributes to the conceptual studies of affective factors in information seeking by examining Kuhlthau's information search process model. Method: This random-digit dial telephone survey of 253 people (75% female) living in a rural, medically under-serviced area of Ontario, Canada, follows-up a previous interview study…

  7. Affecting Factors and Outcome on Intermittent Internet Pulling Behavior in Taiwan's Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hui-Jen; Lay, Yun-Long

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays people's lives heavily rely on Internet facilities. Internet users generally have constant Internet connectivity and intermittently click on sites they want to access even amidst studying or working. In this study, we sought to examine the factors affecting intermittent Internet pulling behavior on undergraduate students. Furthermore, the…

  8. Exploring Factors Affecting Students' Continued Wiki Use for Individual and Collaborative Learning: An Extended UTAUT Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yueh, Hsiu-Ping; Huang, Jo-Yi; Chang, Chueh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what factors affect students' adaptation and continued use of a Wiki system for collaborative writing tasks through an extension of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). This study was conducted in a general education course in a university in northern Taiwan. Data were…

  9. School Factors Explaining Achievement on Cognitive and Affective Outcomes: Establishing a Dynamic Model of Educational Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creemers, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic model of educational effectiveness defines school level factors associated with student outcomes. Emphasis is given to the two main aspects of policy, evaluation, and improvement in schools which affect quality of teaching and learning at both the level of teachers and students: a) teaching and b) school learning environment. Five…

  10. Factors Affecting Student Retention in Online Courses: Overcoming This Critical Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaytan, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what a panel of 15 experts would identify as critical factors affecting student retention in online courses that will serve as implications for educational leaders to guide their student retention strategies, online organizational structures, institutional policies, and online instructional activities. A…

  11. FACTORS AFFECTING SOCIAL WORK STUDENTS' WILLINGNESS TO WORK WITH ELDERS WITH ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael N. Kane

    1999-01-01

    This study sought to determine factors that affect social work students' willingness to work with the growing number of elders with Alzheimer's disease. An in-class survey of 333 BSW and MSW students at three Florida universities throughout 1996 produced data on measures of the dependent variable (willingness to work with elders with Alzheimer's disease) and 16 independent variables (potential influences).

  12. The Quality of Our Nation's Waters Factors Affecting Public-Supply-Well

    E-print Network

    The Quality of Our Nation's Waters Factors Affecting Public-Supply-Well Vulnerability to Contamination: Understanding Observed Water Quality and Anticipating Future Water Quality National Water-Quality: Understanding Observed Water Quality and Anticipating Future Water Quality By Sandra M. Eberts, Mary Ann Thomas

  13. Factors affecting leech parasitism on four turtle species in St. Lawrence Islands National Park

    E-print Network

    Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

    Factors affecting leech parasitism on four turtle species in St. Lawrence Islands National Park Islands National Park and their associated leeches. During the months of May to August 2008, leeches were), Common Musk Turtles (Sternotherus odoratus) and Painted Turtles (Chrysemys picta). Leech prevalence

  14. Investigation of factors affecting the success of facility energy conservation at Air Force installations. Master's thesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morrill

    1985-01-01

    This thesis studied factors affecting facility energy conservation at Air Force installations. As of 30 Sept 1984, the Air Force has collectively achieved a 14.1% reduction in facility energy consumption, far short of the 20% goal set for FY85. A clear understanding is needed as to why certain bases have successful energy conservation programs and others do not. The study

  15. Factors Affecting Sensitivity to Frequency Change in School-Age Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buss, Emily; Taylor, Crystal N.; Leibold, Lori J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The factors affecting frequency discrimination in school-age children are poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to evaluate developmental effects related to memory for pitch and the utilization of temporal fine structure. Method: Listeners were 5.1- to 13.6-year-olds and adults, all with normal hearing. A subgroup of…

  16. Factors Affecting the Quality of Texas Butter as Revealed by a Statewide Survey.

    E-print Network

    Shepardson, C. N. (Charles Noah); Arbuckle, W. S. (Wendell Sherwood); Hanson, F. E. (Frank Edwin)

    1945-01-01

    , ,XAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION C. H. McDOWELL, Acting Director College Station, Texas I I 1 BULLETIN NO. 670 MAY 19jK " FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY 01 TEXA i BUTTER AS REVEALED BY A STATEWIDE SURVEY ']BY F. E. Hanson, W. S...

  17. Factors affecting the occurrence and distribution of entomopathogenic fungi in natural and cultivated soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrique Quesada-Moraga; Juan A. Navas-Cortés; Elizabeth A. A. Maranhao; Almudena Ortiz-Urquiza; Cándido Santiago-Álvarez

    2007-01-01

    Factors affecting the occurrence and distribution of entomopathogenic fungi in 244 soil samples collected from natural and cultivated areas in Spain were studied using an integrated approach based on univariate and multivariate analyses. Entomopathogenic fungi were isolated from 175 of the 244 (71.7%) soil samples, with only two species found, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Of the 244 soil samples,

  18. Factors Affecting Problem Finding Depending on Degree of Structure of Problem Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyejoo; Cho, Younsoon

    2007-01-01

    The authors identified factors affecting problem finding depending on degree of structure of problem situation--either ill or moderately structured. Fifth-grade students (N = 115) were randomly assigned to 2 groups: Group 1 (n = 60) accomplished the ill-structured task; Group 2 (n = 55) performed the moderately structured task. Results indicated…

  19. The Fox News Factor: How the Spread of Fox News Affects Position Taking in Congress

    E-print Network

    Bordenstein, Seth

    ! ! The Fox News Factor: How the Spread of Fox News Affects Position Taking in Congress ! ! Joshua to the US House take more conservative positions once Fox News begins broadcasting in their congressional that the Fox News Channel was launched in October 1996 and it gradually spread across congressional districts

  20. FACTORS AFFECTING THE DEMOGRAPHY OF A LEK-MATING BIRD: THE GREATER PRAIRIE-CHICKEN

    E-print Network

    Sandercock, Brett K.

    FACTORS AFFECTING THE DEMOGRAPHY OF A LEK-MATING BIRD: THE GREATER PRAIRIE-CHICKEN by JACQUELINE behavioral observations of greater prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus cupido) at five lek sites over a 5-year at greater prairie- chicken leks with 18.5% of males obtaining 87.2% of all successful copulations (n = 108

  1. The Effect of Differentiation Approach Developed on Creativity of Gifted Students: Cognitive and Affective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altintas, Esra; Özdemir, Ahmet S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to develop a differentiation approach for the mathematics education of gifted middle school students and to determine the effect of the differentiation approach on creative thinking skills of gifted students based on both cognitive and affective factors. In this context, the answer to the following question was searched:…

  2. Factors Affecting Bachelor's Degree Completion among Black Males with Prior Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews-Whetstone, Rayna; Scott, Joyce A.

    2015-01-01

    Black males lag behind their female counterparts in bachelor's degree completion. This study examined why Black males leave higher education, eventually return, and complete their degrees. Researchers are aware of some of the challenges that Black males encounter in higher education, but there is little information factors affecting successful…

  3. Factors that Affect Treatment Expectations of Outpatients with Substance Use Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raylu, Namrata; Kaur, Inderjit

    2012-01-01

    The study assessed treatment expectations (TE) of outpatients with substance use problems as well as factors that affect their TE. Participants were 200 outpatients presenting at three community based substance abuse treatment services. Results of general linear modelling analyses showed that outpatients with substance use problems have higher…

  4. Factors affecting attitude towards seeking professional help for mental illness: a UK Arab perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aseel Hamid; Adrian Furnham

    2012-01-01

    This study examined various factors affecting attitude towards seeking professional psychological help (ATSPPH) in Arabs living in the UK: causal beliefs, shame-focused attitudes, confidentiality concerns, ethnic identity and demographic variables. Participants completed an online questionnaire and results indicated that Arabs showed significantly less positive ATSPPH and had stronger causal beliefs in supernatural and non-Western physiology than British Caucasians. Confidentiality concerns,

  5. Factors affecting intention to access psychological services amongst British Muslims of South Asian origin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aneela Pilkington; Rachel Maria Msetfi; Ruth Watson

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine factors that affect intention to access psychological services in a sample of British Muslims of South Asian origin. It was hypothesised that the level of shame\\/izzat associated with mental health would predict intention to access services when controlling for other, more established, predictors. Ninety-four participants were recruited from community UK centres and

  6. Factors affecting intention to access psychological services amongst British Muslims of South Asian origin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aneela Pilkington; Rachel Maria Msetfi; Ruth Watson

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine factors that affect intention to access psychological services in a sample of British Muslims of South Asian origin. It was hypothesised that the level of shame\\/izzat associated with mental health would predict intention to access services when controlling for other, more established, predictors. Ninety-four participants were recruited from community UK centres and

  7. Factors Affecting the Pores of the Inner Wall Endothelium of Schlemm's Canal

    E-print Network

    Ottino, Julio M.

    Factors Affecting the Pores of the Inner Wall Endothelium of Schlemm's Canal Arthur J. Sit, Fides M in the inner wall of Schlemm's canal and aqueous outflow facility has been reported previously in a study conditions, microdissected to expose the inner wall of Schlemm's canal, and prepared for scanning electron

  8. Factors Affecting Student Participation in the Online Learning Environment at the Open University of Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, May Sok Ching; Waugh, Russell

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the factors that affect students' participation in the online learning environment (OLE) for distance learning students of mathematics at the Open Learning University of Hong Kong (OUHK) and to find out the suggestions that can improve students' use of the OLE. A questionnaire was designed to survey to…

  9. A study of the factors affecting the use of task analysis in the design of instruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terence Cobb Hallamon

    2001-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine those factors affecting the use of task analysis by expert instructional designers. Five types of task analysis were examined in this study: (a) Job\\/Procedural Task Analysis, (b) Cognitive Task Analysis, (c) Learning Task Analysis, (d) Activity Task Analysis, and (e) Topic\\/Content Task Analysis. Different task analysis types provide methods of retrieving

  10. Factors Affecting Self-Referral to Counselling Services in the Workplace: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasiades, Chrysostomos; Winthrop, Allan; Gough, Brendan

    2008-01-01

    The benefits of psychological support in the workplace (also known as workplace counselling) are well documented. Most large organisations in the UK have staff counselling schemes. However, it is unclear what, if any, factors affect employee decisions to use such schemes. This study has used a qualitative methodology to explore the reasons that…

  11. Factors that Affect Emergent Literacy Development When Engaging with Electronic Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Lynda G.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews extant literature with the purpose of identifying factors that affect the potential efficacy of electronic books to support literacy development during early childhood. Selection criteria include experimental, quasi-experimental, and observational studies from peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to 2013 with a target population…

  12. Genetic and environmental factors affecting growth and reproduction characters of Morada Nova sheep in Northeastern Brazil

    E-print Network

    Fernandes, Antonio Amaury Oria

    1985-01-01

    of Morada Nova sheep. Data were obtained from 1, 338 ewes and 989 lambs sired by 50 rams at the Iracema Farm ? EPACE ? Quixada, Ceaza, Brazil from 1979 to 1984. The growth traits studied were birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), and yearling weight... (YW). Environmental factors con- sidered were year and location of birth, age of dam, sex of lamb, and type of birth and rearing. All environmental factors significantly affected (P & . 01) BW, WW and YW. Some factors, such as age of dam, had great...

  13. Environmental and stressful factors affecting the occurrence of kidney stones and the kidney colic.

    PubMed

    Kalaitzidis, Rigas G; Damigos, Dimitrios; Siamopoulos, Kostas C

    2014-09-01

    The first renal disease described from Hippocrates is nephrolithiasis with renal colic, which is the pain of stone passage and is also a common renal problem with easily recognizable characteristics. There has been much written about dietary factors, which have unequivocally been proved to play an important role in the formation of kidney stones. In this regard, it is of interest that the contribution of factors such as stressful events, life style, or occupation in the formation of kidney stones has not been well studied. This review examines the clinical evidence of the stressful events and other environmental factors affecting the occurrence of kidney stones. PMID:24927933

  14. Factors Affecting 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration in Response to Vitamin D Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Mazahery, Hajar; von Hurst, Pamela R

    2015-01-01

    Sun exposure is the main source of vitamin D. Due to many lifestyle risk factors vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is becoming a worldwide health problem. Low 25(OH)D concentration is associated with adverse musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal health outcomes. Vitamin D supplementation is currently the best approach to treat deficiency and to maintain adequacy. In response to a given dose of vitamin D, the effect on 25(OH)D concentration differs between individuals, and it is imperative that factors affecting this response be identified. For this review, a comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify those factors and to explore their significance in relation to circulating 25(OH)D response to vitamin D supplementation. The effect of several demographic/biological factors such as baseline 25(OH)D, aging, body mass index(BMI)/body fat percentage, ethnicity, calcium intake, genetics, oestrogen use, dietary fat content and composition, and some diseases and medications has been addressed. Furthermore, strategies employed by researchers or health care providers (type, dose and duration of vitamin D supplementation) and environment (season) are other contributing factors. With the exception of baseline 25(OH)D, BMI/body fat percentage, dose and type of vitamin D, the relative importance of other factors and the mechanisms by which these factors may affect the response remains to be determined. PMID:26121531

  15. Non-ionic surfactants do not consistently improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of pure cellulose.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Chen, Hongmei; Qi, Feng; Zhao, Xuebing; Liu, Dehua

    2015-04-01

    Non-ionic surfactants have been frequently reported to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass and pure cellulose. However, how the hydrolysis condition, substrate structure and cellulase formulation affect the beneficial action of surfactants has not been well elucidated. In this work, it was found that the enzymatic hydrolysis of pure cellulose was not consistently improved by surfactants. Contrarily, high surfactant concentration, e.g. 5 g/L, which greatly improved the hydrolysis of dilute acid pretreated substrates, actually showed notable inhibition to pure cellulose conversion in the late phase of hydrolysis. Under an optimal hydrolysis condition, the improvement by surfactant was limited, but under harsh conditions surfactant indeed could enhance cellulose conversion. It was proposed that non-ionic surfactants could interact with substrates and cellulases to impact the adsorption behaviors of cellulases. Therefore, the beneficial action of surfactants on pure cellulose hydrolysis is influenced by hydrolysis condition, cellulose structural features and cellulase formulation. PMID:25689307

  16. Perceptions and management of psychosocial factors affecting type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese Americans.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Juliana; Halperin, Lucila; Ritholz, Marilyn D; Hsu, William C

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes has become a global pandemic and Chinese Americans are at least 60% more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than White Americans, despite having lower body weight, due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Because of the increased risk, it is vitally important to address the issues of treatment adherence and diabetes self-management in the Chinese American population. Many factors affect an individual's ability to manage diabetes, including cultural beliefs, immigration experience, language abilities/health literacy, educational background, employment, and accessibility of healthcare services. In treating Chinese American patients, these factors must be considered to determine appropriate treatment. Eastern cultural and individual beliefs differ greatly from Western beliefs and, therefore, may affect the presentation of the patients. If left unacknowledged, these differences might be misinterpreted by healthcare providers as merely treatment non-adherence or unwillingness to change. Suggestions for providing culturally competent healthcare are discussed. PMID:23545465

  17. Integrated urban and rural water affairs management reform in China: Affecting factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Dajun; Liu, Bin

    The institutional evolution is often induced by some factors. This paper intends to analyze the affecting factors in integrated urban and rural water affairs management reform in China. The integrated urban and rural water affairs management reform is to restructure the governmental organizational setting in water management by forms of water affair bureau or re-designing functions of current water resources bureau to incorporate part or all functions of resources management, service regulation and environment management in water sector. The analyses selected some natural and socio-economic factors. The results point out that the integrated urban and rural water affairs management reform is a factor-induced institutional evolution. The factors promoting this reform include occasional drought events, higher central water investment percentage; but the data from the urban sector do not provide the support to the reform.

  18. ESTIMATION OF CARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate hydrolysis rate constants for carboxylic acid esters from molecular structure. The energy differences between the initial state and the transition state for a molecule of interest are factored into internal and external...

  19. Understanding Factors Affecting Success of Information Security Risk Assessment: The Case of an Australian Higher Educational Institution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ai Cheo Yeo; Leon Miri

    2007-01-01

    To protect information technology assets, effective risk management strategies need to be implemented. However, there is little empirical evidence on the factors that affect the successful undertaking of risk assessment. It is also not clearly known exactly how various factors affect the different stages of risk assessment and whether all factors are equally important across all stages. This research examines

  20. Factors affecting survival in patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy for periampullary cancers

    PubMed Central

    ?eren, Temel Deniz; Topgül, Koray; Koca, Bülent; Erzurumlu, Kenan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the factors affecting survival in patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy for periampullary cancers and to discuss the outcomes of our findings. Material and Methods: This retrospective study included 79 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy for periampullary cancers between September 1987 and October 2011 in the Department of General Surgery at Ondokuz Mayis University School of Medicine. The factors of age, tumor localization, tumor size, lymphovascular invasion, status of lymph node metastasis, tumor differentiation, preoperative CA 19-9 levels, preoperative total bilirubin levels, preoperative albumin levels, and preoperative biliary drainage were investigated to determine their influence on survival. The survival periods were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank test was used for comparison of the prognostic factors. The independent prognostic factors affecting survival were determined by Cox hazard regression analysis and hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. P<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The following were identified as independent prognostic factors adversely affecting survival: tumor size ?2 cm (HR: 2.0, 95% CI: 0.27–0.90), lymphovascular invasion (HR: 2.9, 95% CI: 0.18–0.60), CA 19-9 levels ?100 U/mL (HR: 2.0, 95% CI: 0.26–0.90), and albumin levels <2.5 mg/dL (HR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.14–6.66). Conclusion: The independent prognostic factors identified in this study can be used for selection of patients for whom pancreaticoduodenectomy should be applied for periampullary cancers. These factors could help us to estimate survival rates.

  1. Factors Affecting the Distribution Pattern of Wild Plants with Extremely Small Populations in Hainan Island, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yukai; Yang, Xiaobo; Yang, Qi; Li, Donghai; Long, Wenxing; Luo, Wenqi

    2014-01-01

    Understanding which factors affect the distribution pattern of extremely small populations is essential to the protection and propagation of rare and endangered plant species. In this study, we established 108 plots covering the entire Hainan Island, and measured the appearance frequency and species richness of plant species with extremely small populations, as well as the ecological environments and human disturbances during 2012–2013. We explored how the ecological environments and human activities affected the distribution pattern of these extremely small populations. Results showed that the extremely small populations underwent human disturbances and threats, and they were often found in fragmental habitats. The leading factors changing the appearance frequency of extremely small populations differed among plant species, and the direct factors making them susceptible to extinction were human disturbances. The peak richness of extremely small populations always occurred at the medium level across environmental gradients, and their species richness always decreased with increasing human disturbances. However, the appearance frequencies of three orchid species increased with the increasing human disturbances. Our study thus indicate that knowledge on how the external factors, such as the ecological environment, land use type, roads, human activity, etc., affect the distribution of the extremely small populations should be taken for the better protecting them in the future. PMID:24830683

  2. Statistical Analysis of Factors Affecting Landslides Triggered by the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, C.; Liao, H.; Lee, C.

    2002-12-01

    A large number of landslides were triggered by the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake (Mw 7.6) and subsequent aftershocks. They were mapped from SPOT images and recently checked by using aerial photo-pairs. Some omitted landslides due to the limitation of satellite images resolution were added to the dataset. Deposit area that previously recognized as landslide was also removed. The new dataset was then re-examined to sieve out some exceptional cases of landslide not intended in statistical analysis, for example, structural-controlled landslides of the Tsao-ling and the Jiou-Fen-Er-Shan. To better characterize the factors affecting earthquake triggered landslides, we divided the study area into several homogenous zones according to the geomorphologic and geologic characteristics. Finally, statistical analysis was performed on each zone. Results shows: (1) Closest distant to fault-rupture is the most important factor affecting landslides in the mountainous region. (2) PGA of E-W horizontal component presents good correlation to landslide-area to total-area ratio (landslide ratio). Most landslides concentrated in the region exceeding 250 gal. (3) Closest distance to ridge-crest also plays an important role in the occurrence of landslides. (4) Slope angle is the most important factor affecting landslides in each homogeneous zone. (5) Slope aspect also shows some correlations to landslide ratio in each homogeneous zone. (6) Goodness of correlation for each factor shows some differences among different homogeneous zones.

  3. A review of modifying factors affecting usage of diagnostic rating scales in concussion management.

    PubMed

    Dessy, Alexa; Rasouli, Jonathan; Gometz, Alex; Choudhri, Tanvir

    2014-07-01

    Sport-related concussion has gained increasing recognition as a result of recent legislation, public health initiatives and media coverage. Moreover, there have been substantial paradigm shifts in the management of concussion. This article will discuss the variables that affect the use of diagnostic rating scales such as ImPACT and SCAT in the current management of concussed individuals. Specifically, patient-specific modifying factors affecting test interpretation, including age, gender, fitness level, psychiatric conditions, learning disorders and other components of medical history will be addressed, as well as methodological concerns with baseline testing. PMID:24908218

  4. Do Risk Factors for Suicidal Behavior Differ by Affective Disorder Polarity?

    PubMed Central

    Fiedorowicz, Jess G.; Leon, Andrew C.; Keller, Martin B.; Solomon, David A.; Rice, John P.; Coryell, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Suicide is a leading cause of death and has been strongly associated with affective disorders. The influence of affective disorder polarity on subsequent suicide attempts or completions and any differential effect of suicide risk factors by polarity were assessed in a prospective cohort. Methods Participants with major affective disorders in the National Institute of Mental Health Collaborative Depression Study were followed prospectively for up to twenty-five years. A total of 909 participants meeting prospective diagnostic criteria for major depressive and bipolar disorders were followed through 4,204 mood cycles. Suicidal behavior was defined as suicide attempts or completions. Mixed-effects, grouped-time survival analysis assessed risk of suicidal behavior and differential effects of risk factors for suicidal behavior by polarity. In addition to polarity, the main effects of age, gender, hopelessness, married status, prior suicide attempts, and active substance abuse were modeled with mood cycle as the unit of analysis. Results After controlling for age of onset, there were no differences in prior suicide attempts by polarity though bipolar participants had more prior severe attempts. During follow-up, forty cycles ended in suicide and 384 cycles contained at least one suicide attempt. Age, hopelessness, and active substance abuse but not polarity predicted suicidal behavior. The effects of risk factors did not differ by polarity. Conclusions Bipolarity does not independently influence risk of suicidal behavior or the influence of well-established suicide risk factors within affective disorders. Suicide risk assessment strategies may continue to appraise these common risk factors without regard to mood polarity. PMID:18667100

  5. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose pretreated with ionic liquids and N-methyl Morpholine N-Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau Li, Elizabeth

    The effect of N-methyl Morpholine N-Oxide (NMMO), 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate ([Emim]Ac) and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium diethyl phosphate ([Emim]DEP) on pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of dissolving pulp was studied. X-ray diffraction measurements of regenerated cellulose from these solvents showed that solvent pretreatment reduces the crystallinity of cellulose. However, crystallinity might not be a major factor affecting the in-situ enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in these solvents. Although regenerated cellulose from [Emim]DEP showed the lowest crystallinity index (˜15%), in-situ enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose dissolved in NMMO showed the highest cellulose conversion (68% compared to 65% for [Emim]Ac and 37% for [Emim]DEP at enzyme loading of 122 FPU/g). Moreover, results showed that enzymes could tolerate up to NMMO concentration of 100 g/L and still yield full conversion of cellulose. Since it is not necessary to remove all the NMMO, less amount of water will be required for the washing step and thus the process will be more economical. The HCH-1 model was used in an attempt to model the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in NMMO. With the incorporation of NMMO inhibition and a factor to account for unreacted cellulose, the model was able to correlate the experimental data of the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose (6.68 g/L) at various NMMO concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150 and 250 g/L). However, the experimental results also suggest that NMMO might be deactivating the enzymes rather than inhibiting them. More studies need to be done at varying cellulose, NMMO and enzyme concentrations to find the exact nature of this deactivation of NMMO.

  6. Organizational Factors that Affect the Implementation of Information Technology: Perspectives of Middle Managers in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Barzekar, Hosein; Karami, Mahtab

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to examine the organizational factors affecting the application of information technology in hospitals. Since the organizational factors are one of the most important determinants of successful projects, by understanding their impact and identifying them it can help planning a systematic IT implementation. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study 110 middle managers were chosen from teaching hospitals. Structured questionnaire was used for the data collection. Results: There was a significant relationship between organization resource, organizational knowledge, process, management structure and values and goals with implementation of information technology. Conclusion: Findings showed that organizational factors had a considerable impact on implementation of information technology. Top managers must consider the important aspects of effective organizational factors. PMID:25568582

  7. Factors affecting regional per-capita carbon emissions in China based on an LMDI factor decomposition model.

    PubMed

    Dong, Feng; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Qingliang

    2013-01-01

    China is considered to be the main carbon producer in the world. The per-capita carbon emissions indicator is an important measure of the regional carbon emissions situation. This study used the LMDI factor decomposition model-panel co-integration test two-step method to analyze the factors that affect per-capita carbon emissions. The main results are as follows. (1) During 1997, Eastern China, Central China, and Western China ranked first, second, and third in the per-capita carbon emissions, while in 2009 the pecking order changed to Eastern China, Western China, and Central China. (2) According to the LMDI decomposition results, the key driver boosting the per-capita carbon emissions in the three economic regions of China between 1997 and 2009 was economic development, and the energy efficiency was much greater than the energy structure after considering their effect on restraining increased per-capita carbon emissions. (3) Based on the decomposition, the factors that affected per-capita carbon emissions in the panel co-integration test showed that Central China had the best energy structure elasticity in its regional per-capita carbon emissions. Thus, Central China was ranked first for energy efficiency elasticity, while Western China was ranked first for economic development elasticity. PMID:24353753

  8. Factors Affecting Regional Per-Capita Carbon Emissions in China Based on an LMDI Factor Decomposition Model

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Feng; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Qingliang

    2013-01-01

    China is considered to be the main carbon producer in the world. The per-capita carbon emissions indicator is an important measure of the regional carbon emissions situation. This study used the LMDI factor decomposition model–panel co-integration test two-step method to analyze the factors that affect per-capita carbon emissions. The main results are as follows. (1) During 1997, Eastern China, Central China, and Western China ranked first, second, and third in the per-capita carbon emissions, while in 2009 the pecking order changed to Eastern China, Western China, and Central China. (2) According to the LMDI decomposition results, the key driver boosting the per-capita carbon emissions in the three economic regions of China between 1997 and 2009 was economic development, and the energy efficiency was much greater than the energy structure after considering their effect on restraining increased per-capita carbon emissions. (3) Based on the decomposition, the factors that affected per-capita carbon emissions in the panel co-integration test showed that Central China had the best energy structure elasticity in its regional per-capita carbon emissions. Thus, Central China was ranked first for energy efficiency elasticity, while Western China was ranked first for economic development elasticity. PMID:24353753

  9. Factors affecting adequate prenatal care and the prenatal care visits of immigrant women to Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yia-Wun; Chang, Hua-Pin; Lin, Yu-Hsiu; Lin, Long-Yau; Chen, Wen-Yi

    2014-02-01

    This paper investigates prenatal care utilization, identifies factors affecting the adequacy of prenatal care, and explores the effect of adequate initial timing of prenatal care on total prenatal care visits among Taiwan new immigrant females. Data was obtained from the 2008 Prenatal Care Utilization among Taiwan New Immigrant Females Survey on women who either had at least one preschool-aged child or had delivered their infants but were still hospitalized (N = 476). The Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index was applied to rate the prenatal care adequacy. The logistic regression model was used to investigate factors associated with the adequacy of prenatal care utilization, and the linear regression model was estimated to identify the impact of influential factors on the prenatal care usage. Females' nationality, employment, and transportation convenience increased the likelihood of receiving adequate prenatal care. Having adequate initial timing of prenatal care was found to be positively related to the frequency of prenatal care visits. Prenatal care utilization can be affected by factors within the health care system and by characteristics of the population; therefore, a measure of prenatal care utilization cannot distinguish these factors but reflects the result of all of them in varying combinations. PMID:23065308

  10. Factors affecting waste generation: a study in a waste management program in Dhaka City, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Rafia; Hanaki, Keisuke; Tudin, Rabaah

    2011-08-01

    Information on waste generation, socioeconomic characteristics, and willingness of the households to separate waste was obtained from interviews with 402 respondents in Dhaka city. Ordinary least square regression was used to determine the dominant factors that might influence the waste generation of the households. The results showed that the waste generation of the households in Dhaka city was significantly affected by household size, income, concern about the environment, and willingness to separate the waste. These factors are necessary to effectively improve waste management, growth and performance, as well as to reduce the environmental degradation of the household waste. PMID:21046234

  11. Factors Affecting Hospital Employees' Knowledge Sharing Intention and Behavior, and Innovation Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Sook; Hong, Seong Ae

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the factors affecting employees' knowledge sharing intention, knowledge sharing behavior, and innovation behavior of the four top-ranked university hospitals in South Korea. Methods Data were collected from employees at three university hospitals in Seoul, Korea and one university hospital in Gyeonggi-Do, Korea through self-administered questionnaires. The survey was conducted from May 29, 2013 to July 17, 2013. A total of 779 questionnaires were analyzed by SPSS version 18.0 and AMOS version 18.0. Results Factors affecting hospital employees' knowledge sharing intention, knowledge sharing behavior, and innovation behavior are reciprocity, behavioral control, and trust. Conclusion It is important to select employees who have a propensity for innovation and continuously educate them about knowledge management based on trust. PMID:25180147

  12. Dispositional factors affecting motivation during learning in adult basic and secondary education programs

    PubMed Central

    Krieshok, Thomas; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that about a quarter of adult students separate from formal adult basic and secondary education (ABE/ASE) programs before completing one educational level. This retrospective study explores individual dispositional factors that affect motivation during learning, particularly students’ goals, goal-directed thinking and action based on hope theory and attendance behaviors, and self-perceptions of competency based on affective domain attributions about external and internal obstacles to learning and employment, and demographic factors. Among 274 ABE/ASE students, those learners who made an education gain in 1 year significantly differed from those who did not in only a few dispositional or demographic variables; and by educational level they significantly differed in a wide variety of dispositional and demographic variables. These findings suggest researchable questions and programmatic considerations that may lead to future innovations that improve learner persistence. PMID:23734069

  13. Dispositional factors affecting motivation during learning in adult basic and secondary education programs.

    PubMed

    Mellard, Daryl F; Krieshok, Thomas; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari

    2013-04-01

    Research indicates that about a quarter of adult students separate from formal adult basic and secondary education (ABE/ASE) programs before completing one educational level. This retrospective study explores individual dispositional factors that affect motivation during learning, particularly students' goals, goal-directed thinking and action based on hope theory and attendance behaviors, and self-perceptions of competency based on affective domain attributions about external and internal obstacles to learning and employment, and demographic factors. Among 274 ABE/ASE students, those learners who made an education gain in 1 year significantly differed from those who did not in only a few dispositional or demographic variables; and by educational level they significantly differed in a wide variety of dispositional and demographic variables. These findings suggest researchable questions and programmatic considerations that may lead to future innovations that improve learner persistence. PMID:23734069

  14. Factors affecting plasticity in whole-organism thermal tolerance in common killifish ( Fundulus heteroclitus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy M. Healy; Patricia M. Schulte

    We characterized the degree of plasticity in thermal tolerance (assessed as critical thermal maxima; CTMax) and the relationship\\u000a between thermal tolerance and underlying physiological and biochemical factors in two subspecies of a teleost fish, Fundulus heteroclitus. CTMax was not affected by repeated daily heat shock, but increased within a few days in response to warm acclimation. Loss\\u000a of tolerance with

  15. Factors Affecting the Agrobacterium -Mediated Transient Transformation of the Wetland Monocot, Typha latifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rangaraj Nandakumar; Li Chen; Suzanne M. D. Rogers

    2004-01-01

    An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system, using transient transformation assays, was used to evaluate conditions influencing transformation for the wetland monocot Typha latifolia. These studies were aimed at the long-term objective of evaluating candidate genes for phytoremediation. The binary plasmid vector pCAMBIA1301\\/EHA105, containing the ß-glucuronidase coding sequence, was used in combination with factors known to affect transformation. These included callus age at

  16. Factors Affecting the Fragmentation of Peptide Ions: Metal Cationization and Fragmentation Timescale 

    E-print Network

    Kmiec, Kevin

    2012-10-19

    of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY August 2012 Major Subject: Chemistry Factors Affecting the Fragmentation of Peptide Ions: Metal Cationization and Fragmentation Timescale Copyright 2011... group as he showed me the ropes of one of the more difficult experiments in the Russell Group, photodissociation tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Jody inspired me to become more interested in mass spectrometry instrument development...

  17. Factors Affecting the Severity of Injuries Among Young Motorcyclists—A Swedish Nationwide Cohort Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Zambon; Marie Hasselberg

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. To determine factors affecting the severity of motorcycle injuries, considering variables related to the individual, the environment, the vehicle, and the crash.Methods. This is a register-based retrospective cohort study. All individuals born in 1970–1972 (n = 334,070) were extracted from the Swedish Population and Housing Census of 1985 and followed up from 1988 to 2000, when aged 16–30. All

  18. Measuring Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin by Direct Immunoassay: Factors Affecting Diagnostic Sensitivity for Excessive Alcohol Intake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John B. Whitfield; Veronica Dy; Pamela A. F. Madden; Andrew C. Heath; Nicholas G. Martin; Grant W. Montgomery

    BACKGROUND: Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a marker of alcohol intake that is used for detecting or monitoring alcohol-use disorders. The introduction of a newdirectimmunoassayforCDTjustifiesreevaluationof test performance and reexamination of factors affecting test diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. METHODS: Individuals enrolled in twin\\/family studies ofalcoholuseanddependenceprovidedbloodsamples and information on recent alcohol use. Serum CDT concentration was measured in 2 088 people with the

  19. Factors affecting Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated genetic transformation of Lycium barbarum L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhong Hu; Yi-Rui Wu; Wei Li; Huan-Huan Gao

    2006-01-01

    Summary  Using the system for genetic transformation and transgenic plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis (SE) of Lycium barbarum established in this laboratory, this study reports the optimization of the factors affecting the efficiency of transformation,\\u000a including pre-culture period, leaf explant source, use of acetosyringone, strains and density of Agrobacterium, and temperature of co-cultivation. The optimized transformation protocol for L. barbarum included

  20. An Investigation of Factors Affecting the Degree of Naïve Impetus Theory Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiufeng Liu; Dan MacIsaac

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates factors affecting the degree of novice physics students’ application of the naïve impetus theory. Six hundred and fourteen first-year university engineering physics students answered the Force Concept Inventory as a pre-test for their calculus-based course. We examined the degree to which students consistently applied the naïve impetus theory across different items. We used a 2-way repeated measures

  1. Subinhibitory Concentrations of Perilla Oil Affect the Expression of Secreted Virulence Factor Genes in Staphylococcus aureus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiazhang Qiu; Xiaoran Zhang; Mingjing Luo; Hongen Li; Jing Dong; Jianfeng Wang; Bingfeng Leng; Xiaoliang Wang; Haihua Feng; Wenzhi Ren; Xuming Deng; Ramy K. Aziz

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundThe pathogenicity of staphylococcus aureus is dependent largely upon its ability to secrete a number of virulence factors, therefore, anti-virulence strategy to combat S. aureus-mediated infections is now gaining great interest. It is widely recognized that some plant essential oils could affect the production of staphylococcal exotoxins when used at subinhibitory concentrations. Perilla [Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton], a natural medicine

  2. Factors affecting the adoption of electronic signature: Executives' perspective of hospital information department

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I-chiu Chang; Hsin-ginn Hwang; Ming-chien Hung; Ming-hui Lin; David C. Yen

    2007-01-01

    The healthcare industry is experiencing a major transformation towards e-healthcare, which delivers and enhances related information through the Internet among healthcare stakeholders and makes the electronic signature (e-signature) more and more important. This paper uses a mature framework, Technology–Organization–Environment (TEO), in information system discipline to identify factors that affect hospitals in adopting e-signature. A survey was conducted on regional hospitals

  3. Phlorotannins versus other factors affecting epiphyte abundance on the kelp Ecklonia radiata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Jennings; P. D. Steinberg

    1997-01-01

    We examined factors affecting the abundance and distribution of epiphytes (fouling) on the sublittoral kelp Ecklonia radiata. We first assessed the importance of phlorotannins as chemical defences against epiphytes by (a) correlating epiphyte loads\\u000a on different parts of the thallus with the phlorotannin content of those tissues, and (b) experimentally testing the effects\\u000a of variation in phlorotannin concentration against the

  4. Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation of Campanula carpatica : factors affecting transformation and regeneration of transgenic shoots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sridevy Sriskandarajah; Stefan Frello; Kirsten Jørgensen; Margrethe Serek

    2004-01-01

    An efficient transformation system for Campanula carpatica was developed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains LBA4404 (harbouring the plasmid pBI121), and AGL0 (harbouring the plasmid pBEO210). This is the first report on the transformation of C. carpatica. Various factors affecting the transformation efficiency and subsequent regeneration were identified. The age of seedlings from which the explants for transformation studies were taken, and

  5. Long-term follow-up after bowel resection for necrotizing enterocolitis: Factors affecting outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan P Ladd; Frederick J Rescorla; Karen W West; L. R Scherer; Scott A Engum; Jay L Grosfeld

    1998-01-01

    Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common surgical emergency among newborns and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates the long-term survival of infants requiring surgical intervention for NEC and factors affecting outcome.Methods: A retrospective review of infants requiring surgery for complications of NEC at a tertiary care, pediatric hospital over a 16-year period was

  6. Factors Affecting Body Weight of Aardi Goat Kids in Saudi Arabia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Al-Shaikh; H. H. Mogawer

    2001-01-01

    Al-Shaikh, M.A. and Mogawer, H.H. 2001. Factors affecting body weight of Aardi goat kids in Saudi Arabia. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 20: 233–238.To study the effects of dam weight, litter size and kid sex on birth weight and weight gain from birth to weaning, 31 male and 3G female Aardi goat, kids, from 40 dams were reared under identical conditions.

  7. Factors Affecting Al Depletion During Cyclic Oxidation of Fe-Base Alumina-Forming Alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce A Pint; Larry R Walker; Ian G Wright

    2009-01-01

    In order to develop an improved oxidation-limited lifetime model, experiments are being conducted to assess the critical factors that affect the rate of Al loss from Fe-base alumina-forming alloys during cyclic oxidation. Both wrought and dispersion strengthened ferritic and intermetallic Fe-Al {+-} Cr alloys are being investigated at exposure temperatures from 1100-1300 C. Higher temperatures, thinner specimens and cycle frequency

  8. Computational Evaluation of the Compositional Factors in Fracture Healing Affecting Ultrasound Axial Transmission Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christiano Bittencourt Machado; Wagner Coelho de Albuquerque Pereira; Maryline Talmant; Frédéric Padilla; Pascal Laugier

    2010-01-01

    This work aimed at computationally evaluating the compositional factors in fracture healing affecting ultrasound axial transmission (UAT), using four numerical daily-changing healing models, representing more realistic clinical conditions. Using two-dimensional (2-D) simulations, a 1-MHz source and a receiver were positioned parallel to the bone surface to detect the first arriving signal (FAS). The time-of-flight of the FAS (TOFFAS) was found

  9. Isolation of protoplasts from Fucus serratus and F. vesiculosus (Fucales, Phaeophyceae): factors affecting protoplast yield

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Mussio; Anne-Marie Rusig

    2006-01-01

    Protoplasts were isolated enzymatically from meristematic tissues of the brown algae, Fucus serratus, using a combination of 2% cellulase R-10 Onozuka, 0.5% macerozyme and 1% crude extract of gland gut of Aplysia\\u000a vaccaria. The main factors affecting protoplast yield were identified. Protoplasts were produced in large quantities from apical region of thallus and from plantlets compared to mature explants. Yields

  10. Meteorological factors affecting the length of the postestrus-preovulatory period in the dairy cow 

    E-print Network

    Williams, Robert Lawton

    1973-01-01

    follow the style of the Journa1 of Animal Science. immediate postestrous period. It is not suggested that these meteorological factors should be controlled to enhance reproductive efficiency. The cost of "hot house calves" would be prohibitive... breeders, it is not the daylight length itself that affects the animal's reproductive period, but rather the direction of change of daylight length (increasing or de- creasing). But Thibault's (1966) work with artificial light on sheep strongly suggests...

  11. Genotypic and exogenous factors affecting shoot regeneration from anther callus of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Nichterlein; Helga Umbach; Wolfgang Friedt

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate factors affecting the regeneration capacity of linseed anther culture. Four different environmental conditions in a phytotron were tested with regard to their effects on anther donor plants of cv. ‘Hella’. Anther response and shoot regeneration from anther callus was maximal when donor plants were grown in a 16 hrs-day at 14°C day\\/8°C

  12. Critical factors affecting biological phosphorus removal in dairy wastewater treatment plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang Hoon Ahn; Jae Kwang Park

    2008-01-01

    Operational data from nine dairy wastewater plants (DWTPs) in Wisconsin were collected and analyzed to determine reasons for\\u000a poor enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) efficiency. Several factors affecting EBPR performances in dairy were identified.\\u000a Since many dairies operate five days a week, DWTPs suffer low F\\/M ratios during off-days, leading to sludge bulking and unstable EBPR efficiency. The most pronounced

  13. Soil penetrability as a key factor affecting the nesting of burrowing birds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petr Heneberg

    2009-01-01

    Soil penetrability resistance was found to be crucial for nest site selection of all three Central European burrowing bird\\u000a species—Sand Martins (Riparia riparia), European Bee-eaters (Merops apiaster), and Eurasian Kingfishers (Alcedo atthis). Soil penetrability resistance measurements were used to find out whether increased hardness of unexcavated banks is the\\u000a key factor affecting the presence of burrowing birds. All three species

  14. Risk and protective factors for internalizing and externalizing outcomes among HIV-affected youth in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Li, Michelle; Betancourt, Theresa; Eustache, Eddy; Oswald, Catherine; Louis, Ermaze; Mukherjee, Joia; Surkan, Pamela J; Fawzi, Mary C Smith

    2015-08-01

    The present study aims to: (1) estimate the levels of internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors among youth affected by HIV in central Haiti; and (2) examine the risk and protective factors associated with these outcomes to identify potential areas of intervention for HIV-affected youth. Baseline data for 492 youth affected by HIV (ages 10-17) and their 330 caregivers were collected for a pilot study of a psychosocial support intervention. Participants were recruited from a list of HIV-positive patients receiving care at Partners In Health/Zanmi Lasante clinic sites. Internalizing and externalizing behaviors were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Demographic, economic, and social indicators were collected using a structured questionnaire administered by trained social workers. Youth affected by HIV in central Haiti displayed high levels of internalizing and, to a lesser degree, externalizing symptoms. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated risk factors most strongly associated with internalizing symptoms (socioeconomic status, parental depressive symptoms) and externalizing behaviors (household living arrangements, such as living with a stepparent). Social support had a protective effect on externalizing behaviors for both caregiver (? = -0.03, p = 0.01) and self-report (? = -0.05, p < 0.0001). High levels of psychological distress were observed in this population, especially with respect to internalizing outcomes. Interventions should address the economic security, mental health, and access to antiretroviral therapy for families affected by HIV, as well as emphasize the importance of building supportive caregiver-child relationships to decrease the psychological symptoms and impact of other life stressors experienced by youth affected by HIV in Haiti and similar resource-limited settings. PMID:25950916

  15. Universal and culture-specific factors in the recognition and performance of musical affect expressions.

    PubMed

    Laukka, Petri; Eerola, Tuomas; Thingujam, Nutankumar S; Yamasaki, Teruo; Beller, Grégory

    2013-06-01

    We present a cross-cultural study on the performance and perception of affective expression in music. Professional bowed-string musicians from different musical traditions (Swedish folk music, Hindustani classical music, Japanese traditional music, and Western classical music) were instructed to perform short pieces of music to convey 11 emotions and related states to listeners. All musical stimuli were judged by Swedish, Indian, and Japanese participants in a balanced design, and a variety of acoustic and musical cues were extracted. Results first showed that the musicians' expressive intentions could be recognized with accuracy above chance both within and across musical cultures, but communication was, in general, more accurate for culturally familiar versus unfamiliar music, and for basic emotions versus nonbasic affective states. We further used a lens-model approach to describe the relations between the strategies that musicians use to convey various expressions and listeners' perceptions of the affective content of the music. Many acoustic and musical cues were similarly correlated with both the musicians' expressive intentions and the listeners' affective judgments across musical cultures, but the match between musicians' and listeners' uses of cues was better in within-cultural versus cross-cultural conditions. We conclude that affective expression in music may depend on a combination of universal and culture-specific factors. PMID:23398579

  16. Examining the Factor Structure of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in a Multiethnic Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villodas, Feion; Villodas, Miguel T.; Roesch, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule were examined in a multiethnic sample of adolescents. Results from confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the original two-factor model did not adequately fit the data. Exploratory factor analyses revealed that four items were not pure markers of the factors. (Contains 1…

  17. Risk factors affecting chemical and bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk in Kerman, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri-Najand, Ladan; Rezaii, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Milk is often described as a complete food because it contains protein, sugar, fat, vitamins, and minerals. This study was performed to investigate risk factors affecting chemical and bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk. According to the following conducted experiments, the milk was divided into two standard and non-standard groups. Then, effect of risk factors on making the samples non-standard was studied. Risk factors such as type of milk delivery unit, distance of cattle farm from plant, size of herd, education level of stockbreeders, capacity of milk transport tank, capacity of cooler device, and number of workers employed in cattle farms were evaluated in this study. Microbial and chemical evaluations were performed. Beta-lactam antibiotic residues and somatic cell count were specified. At the same time, the stockbreeders who referred to the plant were given some questionnaires and the mentioned primary questions were asked. After collecting the data, logistic regression model was used. According to the obtained results and comparison with Iran’s national standard, 26 out of 109 samples were determined to be at standard level and 83 ones had at least one out-of-standard factor. The results obtained from the model demonstrated significant effect of education of stockbreeders and capacity of cooler devices on the milk quality. Education of stockbreeders could greatly affect management of a cattle farm unit. PMID:25992256

  18. Factors affecting longitudinal functional decline and survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hazuki; Atsuta, Naoki; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Ito, Mizuki; Senda, Jo; Katsuno, Masahisa; Izumi, Yuishin; Morita, Mitsuya; Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Akira; Aiba, Ikuko; Abe, Koji; Mizoguchi, Kouichi; Oda, Masaya; Kano, Osamu; Okamoto, Koichi; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Imai, Takashi; Aoki, Masashi; Tsuji, Shoji; Nakano, Imaharu; Kaji, Ryuji; Sobue, Gen

    2015-06-01

    Our objective was to elucidate the clinical factors affecting functional decline and survival in Japanese amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. We constructed a multicenter prospective ALS cohort that included 451 sporadic ALS patients in the analysis. We longitudinally utilized the revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) as the functional scale, and determined the timing of introduction of a tracheostomy for positive-pressure ventilation and death. A joint modelling approach was employed to identify prognostic factors for functional decline and survival. Age at onset was a common prognostic factor for both functional decline and survival (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively). Female gender (p = 0.019) and initial symptoms, including upper limb weakness (p = 0.010), lower limb weakness (p = 0.008) or bulbar symptoms (p = 0.005), were related to early functional decline, whereas neck weakness as an initial symptom (p = 0.018), non-use of riluzole (p = 0.030) and proximal dominant muscle weakness in the upper extremities (p = 0.01) were related to a shorter survival time. A decline in the ALSFRS-R score was correlated with a shortened survival time (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the factors affecting functional decline and survival in ALS were common in part but different to some extent. This difference has not been previously well recognized but is informative in clinical practice and for conducting trials. PMID:25548957

  19. Oral environmental factors affecting number of microbes in saliva of complete denture wearers.

    PubMed

    Ryu, M; Ueda, T; Saito, T; Yasui, M; Ishihara, K; Sakurai, K

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify which oral environmental factors affected number of microbes in saliva in an edentulous environment. We enrolled 68 edentulous subjects in the study. Numbers of total anaerobic bacteria and Candida species in saliva were determined. Age, sex, un-stimulated salivary flow rate, pH and viscosity of saliva, histatin level in saliva, tongue coating status, tongue pressure, denture plaque status, material of denture base, duration of edentulism, frequency of self oral health care and number of cigarettes per day were also investigated as oral environmental factors. Correlation between number of total anaerobic bacteria or Candida species and each oral environmental factor was determined with the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to identify which factors were significantly associated with level of total anaerobic bacteria and Candida species. Correlation and stepwise logistic regression analyses revealed associations between un-stimulated salivary flow rate, tongue coating status, denture plaque status or frequency of self oral health care and number of total anaerobic bacteria. The correlation analysis showed a significant correlation between age and number of total anaerobic bacteria. Stepwise logistic analysis revealed associations between pH of saliva or viscosity of saliva and level of anaerobic bacteria; it also revealed associations between histatin level in saliva or un-stimulated salivary flow rate and level of Candida species. We conclude that salivary flow rate, in particular, affects number of salivary microbes in an edentulous environment. PMID:20050985

  20. Factors Affecting the Occurrence of Out-of-Hospital Sudden Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Bartkiewicz, Wies?aw; Sowizdraniuk, Jaros?aw; Rosi?czuk, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This paper aims to discover the risk factors for sudden cardiac arrest (out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest (OHSCA)) which significantly affect the decision about prioritizing emergency interventions before dispatching medical emergency teams, risk of deterioration of the patient's condition at the scene, and emergency procedures. Methods. A retrospective study taking into account the international classification of diseases ICD-10 based on an analysis of medical records of Emergency Medical Service in Wroclaw (Poland). Results. The main risk factor of OHSCA is coexistence of external cause leading to illness or death (ICD Group V-10) as well as the occurrence of diseases from the group of endocrine disorders (group E), in particular diabetes. The increase in the risk of OHSCA incidence is affected by nervous system diseases (group G), especially epilepsy of various etiologies, respiratory diseases (group J), mainly COPD, and bronchial asthma or mental and behavioral disorders (group F), with particular emphasis on the drugs issue. The procedure for receiving calls for Emergency Notification Centre does not take into account clinical risk factors for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). Conclusion. Having knowledge of OHSCA risk factors can increase the efficiency of rescue operations from rapid assessment and provision of appropriate medical team, through effective performance of medical emergency treatment and prevention of SCA or finally reducing the costs. PMID:25705520

  1. Enzymatic hydrolysis of molasses.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Ghasem D; Shan, Cheong Poi

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic studies of the enzymatic hydrolysis of molasses were conducted using glucoamylase. Central Sugar Refinery SDN BHD contains 13-20% glucose. The molasses was diluted and the kinetic experiments were conducted at 67 degrees C with 100-1000 mg/l of glucoamylase. The glucose contents of the molasses were enhanced after hydrolysis of molasses solution with 1000 mg/l glucoamylase. A Lineweaver-Burk plot was obtained based on enzyme kinetic data. The rate constant, Km and maximum reaction rate, Vmax for 500 mg/l of glucoamylase were 100 mmol/l (18 g/l) and 5 mmol/l min (0.9 g/l min), respectively. The maximum reaction rate, Vmax for 1000 mg/l of glucoamylase was doubled, to 100 mmol/l (18 g/l) and the rate constant, Km was the same for 500 mg/l of glucoamylase. The substrate inhibition model was noncompetitive based on the resulting Lineweaver-Burk plot for enzyme concentration of 500 and 1000 mg/l. PMID:12421015

  2. Factors affecting birth preparedness and complication readiness in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia: a multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    Debelew, Gurmesa Tura; Afework, Mesganaw Fantahun; Yalew, Alemayehu Worku

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Birth preparedness and complication readiness have been considered as comprehensive strategy aimed at promoting the timely utilization of skilled maternal health care. However, its status and affecting factors have not been well studied at different levels in the study area. Thus, this study was aimed to fill this gap by conducting community based study. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected 3612 pregnant women from June-September 2012. The data were collected by interviewer-administered structured questionnaire and analyzed by SPSS V.20.0 and STATA 13. Mixed-effects multilevel logistic regression model was used to identify factors affecting birth preparedness and complication readiness. Results The status of birth preparedness and complication readiness was 23.3% (95% CI: 21.8%, 24.9%). Being in urban residence and having health center within two hours distance were among the higher level factors increasing birth preparedness and complication readiness. Educational status of primary or above, husband's occupation of employed or merchant, third or above wealth quintiles, knowledge of key danger signs during labor, attitude and frequency of antenatal care visits were among the lower level factors found to increase the likelihood of preparation for birth and its complications. Conclusion The status of birth preparedness and complication readiness was low in the study area. Both community level and individual level factors had important program implications. Socio demographic, economic, knowledge of key danger signs, attitude and antenatal care use were identified as associated factors. Improving antenatal care, giving special emphasis to danger signs and community based health education are recommended. PMID:25870727

  3. Factors Affecting Loss of Tympanic Membrane Mobility in Acute Otitis Media Model of Chinchilla

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Xiying; Chen, Yongzheng; Gan, Rong Z.

    2014-01-01

    Recently we reported that middle ear pressure (MEP), middle ear effusion (MEE), and ossicular changes each contribute to the loss of tympanic membrane (TM) mobility in a guinea pig model of acute otitis media (AOM) induced by S. pneumoniae (Guan and Gan, 2013). However, it is not clear how those factors vary along the course of the disease and whether those effects are reproducible in different species. In this study, a chinchilla AOM model was produced by transbullar injection of Haemophilus influenzae. Mobility of the TM at the umbo was measured by laser vibrometry in two treatment groups: 4 days (4D) and 8 days (8D) post inoculation. These time points represent relatively early and later phases of AOM. In each group, the vibration of the umbo was measured at three experimental stages: unopened, pressure-released, and effusion-removed ears. The effects of MEP and MEE and middle ear structural changes were quantified in each group by comparing the TM mobility at one stage with that of the previous stage. Our findings show that the factors affecting TM mobility do change with the disease time course. The MEP was the dominant contributor to reduction of TM mobility in 4D AOM ears, but showed little effect in 8D ears when MEE filled the tympanic cavity. MEE was the primary factor affecting TM mobility loss in 8D ears, but affected the 4D ears only at high frequencies. After the release of MEP and removal of MEE, residual loss of TM mobility was seen mainly at low frequencies in both 4D and 8D ears, and was associated with middle ear structural changes. Our findings establish that the factors contributing to TM mobility loss in the chinchilla ear were similar to those we reported previously for the guinea pig ears with AOM. Outcomes did not appear to differ between the two major bacterial species causing AOM in these animal models. PMID:24406734

  4. Factors affecting loss of tympanic membrane mobility in acute otitis media model of chinchilla.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiying; Chen, Yongzheng; Gan, Rong Z

    2014-03-01

    Recently we reported that middle ear pressure (MEP), middle ear effusion (MEE), and ossicular changes each contribute to the loss of tympanic membrane (TM) mobility in a guinea pig model of acute otitis media (AOM) induced by Streptococcus pneumoniae (Guan and Gan, 2013). However, it is not clear how those factors vary along the course of the disease and whether those effects are reproducible in different species. In this study, a chinchilla AOM model was produced by transbullar injection of Haemophilus influenzae. Mobility of the TM at the umbo was measured by laser vibrometry in two treatment groups: 4 days (4D) and 8 days (8D) post inoculation. These time points represent relatively early and later phases of AOM. In each group, the vibration of the umbo was measured at three experimental stages: unopened, pressure-released, and effusion-removed ears. The effects of MEP and MEE and middle ear structural changes were quantified in each group by comparing the TM mobility at one stage with that of the previous stage. Our findings show that the factors affecting TM mobility do change with the disease time course. The MEP was the dominant contributor to reduction of TM mobility in 4D AOM ears, but showed little effect in 8D ears when MEE filled the tympanic cavity. MEE was the primary factor affecting TM mobility loss in 8D ears, but affected the 4D ears only at high frequencies. After the release of MEP and removal of MEE, residual loss of TM mobility was seen mainly at low frequencies in both 4D and 8D ears, and was associated with middle ear structural changes. Our findings establish that the factors contributing to TM mobility loss in the chinchilla ear were similar to those we reported previously for the guinea pig ears with AOM. Outcomes did not appear to differ between the two major bacterial species causing AOM in these animal models. PMID:24406734

  5. Patient Related Factors Affecting Adherence to Antimalarial Medication in an Urban Estate in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Amponsah, Alexandria O.; Vosper, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to measure the adherence to Artemisinin based Combination Therapy and to determine patient related factors that affect adherence. Three hundred (300) patients receiving ACT treatment dispensed from the community pharmacy were randomly selected and followed up on the fourth day after the start of their three-day therapy to assess adherence. Adherence was measured by pill count. Quantitative interviews using a semistructured questionnaire were used to assess patients' knowledge and beliefs on malaria and its treatment. Adherence levels to the ACTs were 57.3%. Patient related factors that affected adherence to ACTs were patients' knowledge on the dosage (P = 0.007; v = 0.457), efficacy (P = 0.009; v = 0.377), and side effects (P = 0.000; v = 0.403) of the ACTs used for the management of malaria, patients' awareness of the consequences of not completing the doses of antimalarial dispensed (P = 0.001; v = 0.309), and patients' belief that “natural remedies are safer than medicines” and “prescribers place too much trust in medicines.” There was no significant relationship between adherence and patients' knowledge on the causes, signs, and symptoms of malaria. There is the need for pharmacy staff to stress on these variables when counseling patients on antimalarials as these affect adherence levels. PMID:25767736

  6. Complete chemical hydrolysis of cellulose into fermentable sugars through ionic liquids and antisolvent pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Morales-delaRosa, Silvia; Campos-Martin, Jose M; Fierro, Jose L G

    2014-12-01

    This work describes a relatively simple methodology for efficiently deconstructing cellulose into monomeric glucose, which is more easily transformed into a variety of platform molecules for the production of chemicals and fuels. The approach undertaken herein first involves the dissolution of cellulose in an ionic liquid (IL), followed by a second reconstruction step aided by an antisolvent. The regenerated cellulose exhibited strong structural and morphological changes, as revealed by XRD and SEM analyses. These changes dramatically affect the hydrolytic reactivity of cellulose with dilute mineral acids. As a consequence, the glucose yield obtained from the deconstructed-reconstructed cellulose was substantially higher than that achieved through hydrolysis of the starting cellulose. Factors that affect the hydrolysis reaction include the type of cellulose substrate, the type of IL used in pretreatment, and the type of acid used in the hydrolysis step. The best results were obtained by treating cellulose with IL and using phosphotungstic acid (0.067?mol?L(-1) ) as a catalyst at 413?K. Under these conditions, the conversion of cellulose was almost complete (>99%), with a glucose yield of 87% after only 5?h of reaction. PMID:25256641

  7. Determining the Pain-Affecting Factors of University Students with Nonspecific Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Taspinar, Ferruh; Taspinar, Betul; Cavlak, Ugur; Celik, Erdal

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted on university students with nonspecific low back pain in order to determine the independent variables that affect their pain. [Methods] A total of 514 students were included in this study. Pain was evaluated using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). A special form was prepared in order to evaluate the following independent variables: gender, weight, height, Body Mass Index (BMI), working periods sitting straight (television, computer, seminar, etc.), working periods bending at a table (reading, writing, etc.), using lumbar support while sitting, the mean duration of pain within the last one year, type of pain, time of the pain, faculty, class, physical activity habits and smoking. The collected data were evaluated using the CHAID (Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection) analysis method. [Results] The working hours bending at a table, physical activity, height, weight, BMI and educational departments were found not to affect the severity of the pain. The pain severity was affected by the duration of pain complaints within the last one year, the duration of working staying upright, smoking, classes, usage of lumbar support and age variables. [Conclusions] The results of this study show that nonspecific low back pain of university students is affected by many factors such as smoking, class, age, using a computer and lumbar support. PMID:24409020

  8. Factors Affecting Groundwater Chemistry in Abandoned Terraced Paddy Fields on Sado Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyanagi, Nobuhiro; Nakata, Makoto; Matsuyama, Keiko; Tsujii, Norie; Tsuchida, Takeyoshi

    The factors affecting the groundwater level and chemistry in abandoned terraced paddy fields on Sado Island, Japan, were investigated. Seasonal changes of the groundwater level in site A, which is on the bottom of the slope, was slight throughout the year compared with that in site B, which is on the middle part of the gentle slope. EC, pH, and some components involved in mineral weathering (Na+, Ca2+ and alkalinity) in the groundwater from site A were higher than those from site B. These results showed that the infiltrating water from the upper part of the slope was the main source of the groundwater in site A. On the other hand, the impact of sea salt components (Na+ and Cl-) was evident in site B, because the concentration of these components increased during winter. Groundwater chemistry was also affected by other factors such as the dilution of groundwater caused by rainfall, sulfur redox, and nutrient uptake by vegetation. The effects of each factor on groundwater chemistry differed between sites because the topography of the two adjacent sites was different. The characteristics of water environment, such as the groundwater level and chemistry, should be considered in the management of abandoned terraced paddy fields on Sado Island.

  9. Factors affecting satisfaction with treatment in European women with chronic constipation: An internet survey

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, Eamonn MM; Simrén, Magnus; Feng, Yue; Müller-Lissner, Stefan; Urbain, Daniel; Tack, Jan; Bredenoord, Albert J; Sabaté, Jean-Marc; Yiannakou, Yan; Andresen, Viola; Cuomo, Rosario; Rey, Enrique; Gryp, Renate Specht; Vandeplassche, Lieve; Solomon, Dory

    2013-01-01

    Background Data on factors affecting treatment satisfaction in European women with chronic constipation are limited. Objective To assess factors associated with treatment satisfaction among European women with chronic constipation. Methods A 2011–2012 internet survey was conducted in men and women from 12 European countries. Respondents analysed were female with self-reported chronic constipation (?1 symptoms for ?6 months of lumpy/hard stools, feeling of incomplete evacuation, and pain during defecation, as well as <3 bowel movements/week). For laxative users, satisfaction with treatment, factors affecting satisfaction, and interactions with healthcare professionals were collected. Results and conclusions In total, 4805/50,319 participants fulfilled the inclusion criteria (female with chronic constipation). Of the laxative users (1575/4805), 57% (n?=?896) were satisfied with their treatment, while 26% were neutral, and 17% dissatisfied. Dissatisfied respondents visited their GP less frequently in the past 12 months, were more likely to obtain over-the-counter laxatives, and took a dose higher than recommended more frequently than those satisfied. Respondents were most satisfied with ease of use of treatment and least satisfied with relief from bloating. Newer treatments aimed at alleviating symptoms, particularly bloating, are required for respondents neutral or dissatisfied with their current treatment. PMID:24917986

  10. Factors affecting infant's transition from neonatal intensive care unit to home: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Valizadeh, Leila; Namnabati, Mahboobeh; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Badiee, Zohreh

    2013-01-01

    Background: The infants, hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), engage with problems from admission to discharge, exploring of which ensures their safe transition. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that influence infant's transition from the NICU to home. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was used for identifying the factors that affect infant's transition. Data were gathered by interviewing 16 nurses and physicians in NICUs of university hospitals in Iran; and were analyzed by qualitative content analysis method. MAXQDA, MAX Qualitative Data Analysis, is a software which has been developed in Berlin, Germany. software, the qualitative data analysis package, was used for coding and categorizing. Results: There are 10 categories that affect infant's transition, as revealed in data analysis. These categories were delineated into three themes: Cognition of infant's needs, effectiveness of trainings, and organizational context. Conclusion: The results of this study further disclosed the factors that facilitate or hinder infant's transition from the NICU to home. The aspects of correct cognition along with more effective trainings must be fully introduced to the staff to meet infant's needs. Also, authorities are better to make policies to decrease organizational barriers. Therefore, it is suggested that applying developmental care can ease infant's transition. PMID:23983732

  11. What factors affect life satisfaction (LS) among the oldest-old?

    PubMed

    Enkvist, Asa; Ekström, Henrik; Elmståhl, Sölve

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined the association between LS in the oldest-old and not only health-related, but also psychological and socio-economical factors. The aim of this study was to examine LS in relation to functional capacity, locus of control (LoC) health status and other factors previously known to influence LS in the oldest-old. The study population consisted of 681 individuals aged 78-98 years, drawn from the longitudinal population study "Good Aging in Skåne" (GÅS), part of a national survey (SNAC) who fulfilled a questionnaire. In a regression model was shown that the number of symptoms, marital status, LoC, especially internal and powerful others, depressive mood and age significantly could predict life satisfaction three years later. Specific diagnoses like stroke, dementia and cardiac disease were not related to LS. Independence in physical functioning was related to unchanged LS, stratified for age and gender during a 3-year follow-up. The clinical implications of this study are that attention should be paid to recognizing and treating factors that affect LS and are reachable for medical intervention. Relieving symptoms and paying attention to personality factors that modify LS seem to be key-factors in the care of elderly. PMID:21555158

  12. Stress and other environmental factors affecting fertility in men and women: overview.

    PubMed Central

    Negro-Vilar, A

    1993-01-01

    To understand how environmental factors contribute to fertility or infertility in humans, it is first necessary to define environment. A view that will guide this review is that environment represents the "external milieu," analogous to the well-defined concept of "internal milieu" first introduced by Claude Bernard. Within this context, the environment provides both positive and adverse influences on reproductive health and development. Environmental factors can then be classified into categories such as physical, chemical, biological, behavioral, and socioeconomic. In many circumstances, multiple environmental factors may contribute to adversely modify human health. It has been suspected and in some cases demonstrated that stress can adversely affect reproductive function. Both animal and human data support this contention; however, the human data are clear in extreme situations (e.g., inmates of concentration camps) but less so under less drastic conditions. In recent years many advances have been made concerning the neurochemical mechanisms that mediate the effects of stress on reproductive functions and on the identification of "stress hormones" that may not only be involved in the stress response but also serve as biochemical markers to identify and correlate stress with different fertility parameters. Nutrition also plays an important role in infertility, and undernutrition or nutrition disorders are associated with stress in infertility. Environmental factors are often invoked as contributing to many cases of unexplained infertility. However, the direct causal relationship between those factors and the ensuing infertility of the couple are seldom well established and remain largely anecdotal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8243408

  13. Factors Affecting the Communication Competence in Iranian Nursing Students: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Jouzi, Mina; Vanaki, Zohreh; Mohammadi, Easa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Communication competence in nursing students is one of the nursing education requirements, especially during the internship period, the final stage of the bachelor nursing education in Iran. Several factors can influence this competence and identifying them could help provide safe care by nursing students in the future. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate factors that influence nursing students' communication competence. Patients and Methods: A purposeful sampling technique was used to select 18 nursing students who had completed their internship. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and data were analyzed by the conventional qualitative content analysis method. Results: After data analysis, three main categories were achieved: organizational factors, humanistic factors and socio-cultural factors. The main and latent theme that affected the students' communication competence was not being accepted as a caregiver in the clinical environment. Conclusions: With regards to students not being accepted in health care environments, it is recommended to plan special programs for empowering students to acquire better social state and acceptance by the health care team. PMID:26019902

  14. Factors affecting the moisture permeability of lipid-based edible films: a review.

    PubMed

    Morillon, Valérie; Debeaufort, Frédéric; Blond, Geneviève; Capelle, Martine; Voilley, Andrée

    2002-01-01

    Moisture transfers inside food products could be controlled or limited by the use of edible films. These are usually based on hydrophobic substances such as lipids to improve barrier efficiency. Water permeability of films is affected by many factors, depending on both the nature of barrier components, the film structure (homogeneous, emulsion, multilayer, etc.), crystal type, shape, size and distribution of lipids, and thermodynamics such as temperature, vapor pressure, or the physical state of water in contact to the films. After a brief presentation of lipids and hydrophobic substances used as moisture barrier, cited in the scientific literature, this article reviews all of the parameters affecting barrier performances of edible films and coatings. PMID:11833637

  15. Factors affecting the fertility of high producing dairy herds in northeastern Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Ispierto, I; López-Gatius, F; Santolaria, P; Yániz, J L; Nogareda, C; López-Béjar, M

    2007-02-01

    Infertility has been often correlated to a rising milk yield in high producing dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, using logistic regression procedures, the effects of several management indicators on the fertility of four dairy herds in northeastern Spain. Data derived from 10,965 artificial insemination (AI). The factors examined were: herd, milking frequency (three versus two milkings per day), lactation number, previous twinning and disorders such as placenta retention and pyometra, milk production at AI, the inseminating bull, season (warm versus cool period) and year effects, AI technician and repeat breeding syndrome (cows undergoing four or more AI). Our findings indicated no effects on fertility of the herd, year of AI, previous twining, placenta retention and pyometra and milk production at AI. Based on the odds ratios, the likelihood of pregnancy decreased: in cows milked three times per day (by a factor of 0.62); for each one unit increase in lactation number (by a factor of 0.92); for inseminations performed during the warm period (by a factor of 0.67); in repeat breeder cows (by a factor of 0.73); and when 3 of the 45 inseminating bulls included in the study were used (by factors of 0.35, 0.43 and 0.44, respectively). Of the 13 AI technicians participating in the study, 3 were related to a fertility rate improved by odds ratios of 1.86, 1.84 and 1.30, respectively, whereas 2 technicians gave rise to fertility rates reduced by odds ratios of 0.64 and 0.49, respectively. Under our study conditions, management practices were able to compensate for the effects of previous twining and reproductive disorders such as placenta retention and pyometra. However, fertility was significantly affected by the factors milking frequency, AI technician, inseminating bull, repeat breeding syndrome, lactation number and AI season. PMID:17118434

  16. Factors affecting the repeatability of gamma camera calibration for quantitative imaging applications using a sealed source.

    PubMed

    Anizan, N; Wang, H; Zhou, X C; Wahl, R L; Frey, E C

    2015-02-01

    Several applications in nuclear medicine require absolute activity quantification of single photon emission computed tomography images. Obtaining a repeatable calibration factor that converts voxel values to activity units is essential for these applications. Because source preparation and measurement of the source activity using a radionuclide activity meter are potential sources of variability, this work investigated instrumentation and acquisition factors affecting repeatability using planar acquisition of sealed sources. The calibration factor was calculated for different acquisition and geometry conditions to evaluate the effect of the source size, lateral position of the source in the camera field-of-view (FOV), source-to-camera distance (SCD), and variability over time using sealed Ba-133 sources. A small region of interest (ROI) based on the source dimensions and collimator resolution was investigated to decrease the background effect. A statistical analysis with a mixed-effects model was used to evaluate quantitatively the effect of each variable on the global calibration factor variability. A variation of 1?cm in the measurement of the SCD from the assumed distance of 17?cm led to a variation of 1-2% in the calibration factor measurement using a small disc source (0.4?cm diameter) and less than 1% with a larger rod source (2.9?cm diameter). The lateral position of the source in the FOV and the variability over time had small impacts on calibration factor variability. The residual error component was well estimated by Poisson noise. Repeatability of better than 1% in a calibration factor measurement using a planar acquisition of a sealed source can be reasonably achieved. The best reproducibility was obtained with the largest source with a count rate much higher than the average background in the ROI, and when the SCD was positioned within 5?mm of the desired position. In this case, calibration source variability was limited by the quantum noise. PMID:25592130

  17. Factors that affect the efficiency of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide transfection by insonated gas-filled lipid microbubbles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying-Zheng Zhao; Cui-Tao Lu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the factors that affect the efficiency of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide(AS-ODNs) transfection by insonated\\u000a gas-filled lipid microbubbles. Methods: Lipid microbubbles filled with two types of gases–air and C3F8, were prepared respectively. An AS-ODNs sequence HA824 and a breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3 were used to define the various\\u000a operating variables determining the transfection efficiency of insonated microbubbles. Two mixing

  18. Viral protease inhibitors affect the production of virulence factors in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Sidrim, J J C; Perdigão-Neto, L V; Cordeiro, R A; Brilhante, R S N; Leite, J J G; Teixeira, C E C; Monteiro, A J; Freitas, R M F; Ribeiro, J F; Mesquita, J R L; Gonçalves, M V F; Rocha, M F G

    2012-07-01

    The effects of the protease inhibitors saquinavir, darunavir, ritonavir, and indinavir on growth inhibition, protease and phospholipase activities, as well as capsule thickness of Cryptococcus neoformans were investigated. Viral protease inhibitors did not reduce fungal growth when tested in concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 1.000 mg/L. A tendency toward increasing phospholipase activity was observed with the highest tested drug concentration in a strain-specific pattern. However, these drugs reduced protease activity as well as capsule production. Our results confirm a previous finding that antiretroviral drugs affect the production of important virulence factors of C. neoformans. PMID:22716223

  19. Environmental Factors Affecting Asthma and Allergies: Predicting and Simulating Downwind Exposure to Airborne Pollen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey; Estes, Sue; Sprigg, William A.; Nickovic, Slobodan; Huete, Alfredo; Solano, Ramon; Ratana, Piyachat; Jiang, Zhangyan; Flowers, Len; Zelicoff, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the environmental factors that affect asthma and allergies and work to predict and simulate the downwind exposure to airborne pollen. Using a modification of Dust REgional Atmosphere Model (DREAM) that incorporates phenology (i.e. PREAM) the aim was to predict concentrations of pollen in time and space. The strategy for using the model to simulate downwind pollen dispersal, and evaluate the results. Using MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), to get seasonal sampling of Juniper, the pollen chosen for the study, land cover on a near daily basis. The results of the model are reviewed.

  20. Factors affecting the accurate determination of cerebrovascular blood flow using high-speed droplet imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudin, Stephen; Divani, Afshin; Wakhloo, Ajay K.; Lieber, Baruch B.; Granger, William; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Yang, Chang-Ying J.

    1998-07-01

    Detailed cerebrovascular blood flow can be more accurately determined radiographically from the new droplet tracking method previously introduced by the authors than from standard soluble contrast techniques. For example, arteriovenous malformation (AVM) transit times which are crucial for proper glue embolization treatments, were shown to be about half when using droplets compared to those measured using soluble contrast techniques. In this work, factors such as x-ray pulse duration, frame rate, system spatial resolution (focal spot size), droplet size, droplet and system contrast parameters, and system noise are considered in relation to their affect on the accurate determination of droplet location and velocity.

  1. An Analysis of Factors Affecting Teacher Attrition in High Performing and Low Performing Elementary Rural Schools in South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter-Blocker, Vickie R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factors impacting teacher attrition in high-performing and low-performing elementary rural schools in South Carolina. Several factors were identified that interfered with teachers returning to the teaching profession. School districts in rural areas need to be better informed of the factors that affect

  2. Factors affecting the regeneration of northern white cedar in lowland forests of the Upper Great Lakes region, USA

    E-print Network

    Waller, Donald M.

    Factors affecting the regeneration of northern white cedar in lowland forests of the Upper Great which factors limit regeneration in lowland swamp forests at a regional scale. We investigated patterns approach to examine which factors Forest Ecology and Management 163 (2002) 119­130 * Corresponding author

  3. Assessment of cultivation factors that affect biomass and geraniol production in transgenic tobacco cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Vasilev, Nikolay; Schmitz, Christian; Grömping, Ulrike; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale statistical experimental design was used to determine essential cultivation parameters that affect biomass accumulation and geraniol production in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN) cell suspension cultures. The carbohydrate source played a major role in determining the geraniol yield and factors such as filling volume, inoculum size and light were less important. Sucrose, filling volume and inoculum size had a positive effect on geraniol yield by boosting growth of plant cell cultures whereas illumination of the cultures stimulated the geraniol biosynthesis. We also found that the carbohydrates sucrose and mannitol showed polarizing effects on biomass and geraniol accumulation. Factors such as shaking frequency, the presence of conditioned medium and solubilizers had minor influence on both plant cell growth and geraniol content. When cells were cultivated under the screened conditions for all the investigated factors, the cultures produced ? 5.2 mg/l geraniol after 12 days of cultivation in shaking flasks which is comparable to the yield obtained in microbial expression systems. Our data suggest that industrial experimental designs based on orthogonal arrays are suitable for the selection of initial cultivation parameters prior to the essential medium optimization steps. Such designs are particularly beneficial in the early optimization steps when many factors must be screened, increasing the statistical power of the experiments without increasing the demand on time and resources. PMID:25117009

  4. Factors affecting community-agency trust before, during and after a wildfire: an Australian case study.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Emily A; Thwaites, Rik; Curtis, Allan; Millar, Joanne

    2013-11-30

    Trust has been identified as a critical relationship component in contexts of high uncertainty and complexity such as wildfire management, and as a primary factor in public support for wildland fire management strategies. However, little attention has been paid to identifying and comparing factors across fire management stages (i.e. before, during, after a fire) that may influence trust between community members and fire management agencies. This paper attempts to address this gap by exploring factors affecting community-agency trusting relationships before, during and after a wildfire event. We draw upon 26 semi-structured interviews with 38 residents of a community directly impacted by fires in December 2006 and January 2007 in Victoria, Australia. Communication, cooperation, trustworthiness, and integration of local concerns and knowledge influenced trust in more than one fire management stage. Institutional structures and reduction of uncertainty were particularly strong influences during a fire. After a fire, resolving negative outcomes and immediately meeting perceived needs arising from the fire were factors unique to this stage. PMID:24050960

  5. Factors affecting disclosure among Israeli children in residential care due to domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Gottfried, Ruth; Eisikovits, Zvi; First, Maya

    2014-04-01

    Disclosure of child abuse may enable initiating interventions to end maltreatment and mediate its negative physical and psychological consequences. The present study reviews the field of disclosure and examines factors affecting disclosure among a service population of abused children who were placed in residential care due to various forms of abuse (e.g., physical, sexual, emotional, neglect and witnessing domestic violence). The sample consisted of 286 Israeli (Hebrew and Arabic speaking) children aged 12-17 (mean=14±1). Following approval of the Ethics committee of the University and parents' written consent, participants were administered a self-report questionnaire that included the following measures: a Socio-Demographic Questionnaire, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ), and the Disclosure of Trauma Questionnaire (DTQ). Results indicated that the three key factors enhancing the likelihood of disclosure were: moral factors, external initiatives and intolerable physical pain. The three key factors inhibiting disclosure were feelings of shame, fear of losing social support and uncertainty as to how and to whom to disclose. Results also showed that children preferred to disclose to their nuclear family members (parents and siblings) in comparison with professionals. PMID:24631415

  6. Gender Differences In Social And Developmental Factors Affecting Puerto Rican Adolescents During The Early Stage

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Cosme, Wanda I.; Miranda, Christine; Fernandez, Diana M.; Maysonet, Johanna; Ramon, Raul O.

    2011-01-01

    Background Adolescence is associated with risky behaviors related with social and developmental factors. Objectives were to describe social and developmental factors affecting Puerto Rican early adolescent by gender and type of school at study entry. Methods Cross-sectional study design. The study group was composed by 168 seventh grade adolescents from private and public schools. Descriptive and non-parametric comparisons were performed. Results Significance differences among proportions for gender by type of school were found in the following variables: self-esteem and HIV/AIDS attitudes in public school and peer pressure and sensation seeking in private school Discussion Our study revealed that public school adolescents are characterized by males with higher self-esteem and less attitude for HIV/AIDS, while in private school the males has more peer pressure and seeking sensation than females. Future studies could analyze factors related with changes in developmental factors, this step is important to evaluate the effectiveness of ASUMA interventions. PMID:23875519

  7. Clinical factors affecting pathological fracture and healing of unicameral bone cysts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Unicameral bone cyst (UBC) is the most common benign lytic bone lesion seen in children. The aim of this study is to investigate clinical factors affecting pathological fracture and healing of UBC. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 155 UBC patients who consulted Nagoya musculoskeletal oncology group hospitals in Japan. Sixty of the 155 patients had pathological fracture at presentation. Of 141 patients with follow-up periods exceeding 6 months, 77 were followed conservatively and 64 treated by surgery. Results The fracture risk was significantly higher in the humerus than other bones. In multivariate analysis, ballooning of bone, cyst in long bone, male sex, thin cortical thickness and multilocular cyst were significant adverse prognostic factors for pathological fractures at presentation. The healing rates were 30% and 83% with observation and surgery, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that fracture at presentation and history of biopsy were good prognostic factors for healing of UBC in patients under observation. Conclusion The present results suggest that mechanical disruption of UBC such as fracture and biopsy promotes healing, and thus watchful waiting is indicated in these patients, whereas patients with poor prognostic factors for fractures should be considered for surgery. PMID:24884661

  8. Factors Affecting the Attractiveness of Medical Tourism Destination: An Empirical Study on India- Review Article

    PubMed Central

    SULTANA, Seyama; HAQUE, Ahasanul; MOMEN, Abdul; YASMIN, Farzana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background In this edge, medical tourism is not a new idea. Medical treatment is one of the essential demands of human beings and it requires high quality and intensive care. Beside western world, few developing countries are playing key roles as medical tourism destinations. India is one of the leading names among these countries. The purpose of the paper is to find the factors influencing the attractiveness of India as a health tourism destination. Methods The study has found the major contributing factors and their relative importance in the attractiveness of the health tourism destination that is India from consumers’ perspectives by conducting survey with an application of structural equation modelling approach. Results In Indian context, medical tourists consider service quality and cost mostly to select any medical destination. In addition they also give value to the destination competitiveness but tourist attitude is less important in comparison with other factors affecting their destination choice. Since the study has used structural equation modelling approach to test the hypothesis and figure out the relative importance of the factors, the fundamental indices such as Normed Chi square(less than 3), RMSEA (less than 0.08) and CFI (more than 0.90) values show the overall model fit of the proposed model. Conclusion In order to transform a country such as India as an attractive and competitive medical tourist destination in this time of globalization, a step should be taken to control cost ensuring the quality of services. PMID:25909055

  9. Proximate factors affecting the larval life history of Acanthocephalus lucii (Acanthocephala).

    PubMed

    Benesh, Daniel P; Valtonen, E Tellervo

    2007-08-01

    The growth and eventual size of larval helminths in their intermediate hosts presumably has a variety of fitness consequences. Therefore, elucidating the proximate factors affecting parasite development within intermediate hosts should provide insight into the evolution of parasite life histories. An experimental infection that resulted in heavy intensities of an acanthocephalan (Acanthocephalus lucii) in its isopod intermediate host (Asellus aquaticus) permitted the examination of parasite developmental responses to variable levels of resource availability and intraspecific competition. Isopods were infected by exposure to egg-containing fish feces, and larval infrapopulations were monitored throughout the course of A. lucii development. The relative rate of parasite growth slowed over time, and indications of resource constraints on developing parasites, e.g., crowding effects, were only observed in late infections. Consequently, the factors likely representative of resource availability to larval parasites (host size and molting rate) primarily affected parasite size in late infections. Moreover, at this stage of infection, competitive interactions, gauged by variation in worm size, seemed to be alleviated by greater resources, i.e., larger hosts that molted more frequently. The relatively rapid, unconstrained growth of young parasites may be worse for host viability than the slower, resource-limited growth of larger parasites. PMID:17918351

  10. Cigarette use frequency and the affecting factors in primary and high school students in Diyarbakir.

    PubMed

    Palanci, Yilmaz; Saka, Günay; Tanrikulu, Abdullah Cetin; Acemo?lu, Hamit

    2009-01-01

    Cigarette, alcohol and substance use is a worldwide threat which especially affects young people and a preventable public health problem. Aim of the study is to investigate the prevalence of substance use and the factors affecting this prevalence among the students of primary and high school students in Diyarbakir. 62% of the students were males, and 38% were females. The age range was from 11 to 20 and the mean age was 15.2 + 2.0. The smoking prevalence was a total of 14.8% (6.0% in females and 20.2% in males), 5.8% in primary school students, 23.7% in high school students. The mean first-smoking age was found as 12.6 + 2.3 years. Smoking were more common among male students than girls. Close friends and teachers were source of imitation to smoke cigarettes. Other associated factors were age, buying cigarettes from the corner shops for parents, usage of other addictive substances. Cigarette use among students attending to schools in Diyarbakir is significant health problem and preventive interventions should be employed without delay. Interventions which will be implemented in this context not only should comprise the young, but also the all society. Families, teachers and primary school students are the groups which are of priority for intervention. The law about cigarette smoking should be fully enforced. PMID:19714504

  11. Factors affecting public-supply well vulnerability in two karst aquifers.

    PubMed

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Katz, Brian G; Fahlquist, Lynne S; Crandall, Christy A; Lindgren, Richard J

    2014-09-01

    Karst aquifers occur in a range of climatic and geologic settings. Nonetheless, they are commonly characterized by their vulnerability to water-quality impairment. Two karst aquifers, the Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas and the Upper Floridan aquifer in western Florida, were investigated to assess factors that control the movement of contaminants to public-supply wells (PSWs). The geochemistry of samples from a selected PSW or wellfield in each aquifer was compared with that from nearby monitoring wells and regional PSWs. Geochemistry results were integrated with age tracers, flow modeling, and depth-dependent data to refine aquifer conceptual models and to identify factors that affect contaminant movement to PSWs. The oxic Edwards aquifer is vertically well mixed at the selected PSW/wellfield, although regionally the aquifer is geochemically variable downdip. The mostly anoxic Upper Floridan aquifer is affected by denitrification and also is geochemically variable with depth. In spite of considerable differences in geology and hydrogeology, the two aquifers are similarly vulnerable to anthropogenic contamination. Vulnerability in studied PSWs in both aquifers is strongly influenced by rapid karst flowpaths and the dominance of young (<10 years) groundwater. Vulnerability was demonstrated by the frequent detection of similar constituents of concern in both aquifers (nitrate, atrazine, deethylatrazine, tetrachloroethene, and chloroform). Specific consideration of water-quality protection efforts, well construction and placement, and aquifer response times to land-use changes and contaminant loading are discussed, with implications for karst groundwater management. PMID:24841501

  12. [Spatiotemporal distribution of negative air ion concentration in urban area and related affecting factors: a review].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiang-Hua; Wang, Jian; Zeng, Hong-Da; Chen, Guang-Shui; Zhong, Xian-Fang

    2013-06-01

    Negative air ion (NAI) concentration is an important indicator comprehensively reflecting air quality, and has significance to human beings living environment. This paper summarized the spatiotemporal distribution features of urban NAI concentration, and discussed the causes of these features based on the characteristics of the environmental factors in urban area and their effects on the physical and chemical processes of NAI. The temporal distribution of NAI concentration is mainly controlled by the periodic variation of solar radiation, while the spatial distribution of NAI concentration along the urban-rural gradient is mainly affected by the urban aerosol distribution, underlying surface characters, and urban heat island effect. The high NAI concentration in urban green area is related to the vegetation life activities and soil radiation, while the higher NAI concentration near the water environment is attributed to the water molecules that participate in the generation of NAI through a variety of ways. The other environmental factors can also affect the generation, life span, component, translocation, and distribution of NAI to some extent. To increase the urban green space and atmospheric humidity and to maintain the soil natural attributes of underlying surface could be the effective ways to increase the urban NAI concentration and improve the urban air quality. PMID:24066568

  13. [Sizes of soil macropores and related main affecting factors on a vegetated basalt slope].

    PubMed

    Guan, Qi; Xu, Ze-Min; Tian, Lin

    2013-10-01

    The landslide on vegetated slopes caused by extreme weather has being increased steadily, and the preferential flow in soil macropores plays an important role in the landslide. By using water breakthrough curve and Poiseuille equation, this paper estimated the radius range, amount, and average volume of soil macropores on a vegetated basalt slope of Maka Mountain, Southwest China, and analyzed the distribution of the soil macropores and the main affecting factors. In the study area, the radius of soil macropores ranged from 0.3 to 1.8 mm, mainly between 0.5 and 1.2 mm. The large-radius macropores (1.4-1.8 mm) were lesser, while the small-radius macropores (< 1.4 mm) were more. With the development of soil profile, soil macropores were more in upper layers and lesser in deeper layers. The average volume of the macropores contributed 84.7% to the variance of steady effluent rate. Among the factors affecting the average volume of the large macropores, vegetations root mass had a linear relationship, with the correlation coefficient being 0.70, and soil organic matter content also had a linear relationship, with the correlation coefficient being 0.64. PMID:24483084

  14. Factors affecting public-supply well vulnerability in two karst aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Katz, Brian G.; Fahlquist, Lynne S.; Crandall, Christy A.; Lindgren, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Karst aquifers occur in a range of climatic and geologic settings. Nonetheless, they are commonly characterized by their vulnerability to water-quality impairment. Two karst aquifers, the Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas and the Upper Floridan aquifer in western Florida, were investigated to assess factors that control the movement of contaminants to public-supply wells (PSWs). The geochemistry of samples from a selected PSW or wellfield in each aquifer was compared with that from nearby monitoring wells and regional PSWs. Geochemistry results were integrated with age tracers, flow modeling, and depth-dependent data to refine aquifer conceptual models and to identify factors that affect contaminant movement to PSWs. The oxic Edwards aquifer is vertically well mixed at the selected PSW/wellfield, although regionally the aquifer is geochemically variable downdip. The mostly anoxic Upper Floridan aquifer is affected by denitrification and also is geochemically variable with depth. In spite of considerable differences in geology and hydrogeology, the two aquifers are similarly vulnerable to anthropogenic contamination. Vulnerability in studied PSWs in both aquifers is strongly influenced by rapid karst flowpaths and the dominance of young (<10 years) groundwater. Vulnerability was demonstrated by the frequent detection of similar constituents of concern in both aquifers (nitrate, atrazine, deethylatrazine, tetrachloroethene, and chloroform). Specific consideration of water-quality protection efforts, well construction and placement, and aquifer response times to land-use changes and contaminant loading are discussed, with implications for karst groundwater management.

  15. Factors affecting virus dynamics and microbial host-virus interactions in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Mojica, Kristina D A; Brussaard, Corina P D

    2014-09-01

    Marine microorganisms constitute the largest percentage of living biomass and serve as the major driving force behind nutrient and energy cycles. While viruses only comprise a small percentage of this biomass (i.e., 5%), they dominate in numerical abundance and genetic diversity. Through host infection and mortality, viruses affect microbial population dynamics, community composition, genetic evolution, and biogeochemical cycling. However, the field of marine viral ecology is currently limited by a lack of data regarding how different environmental factors regulate virus dynamics and host-virus interactions. The goal of the present minireview was to contribute to the evolution of marine viral ecology, through the assimilation of available data regarding the manner and degree to which environmental factors affect viral decay and infectivity as well as influence latent period and production. Considering the ecological importance of viruses in the marine ecosystem and the increasing pressure from anthropogenic activity and global climate change on marine systems, a synthesis of existing information provides a timely framework for future research initiatives in viral ecology. PMID:24754794

  16. Factors affecting mutational specificity induced by ionizing radiation and oxidizing radicals. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, B.

    1992-07-01

    We propose to analyze the factors affecting the specificity of mutational change as induced by ionizing radiation and oxidizing radicals. We want to understand not only the rules the affect base substitution but also the mechanisms(s) by which additions and deletions are produced, since deletions are a common consequence of radiation. We wish to carry out this analysis in an in vitro mutation system that permits us to analyze the role of base sequence, of polymerase and of mutagenic agent. Our system is designed to screen out most direct breaks as a cause of mutation and should indicate the changes resulting from base damage to the DNA. Questions addressed include: 1. What types of base substitution mutations are induced by ionizing radiation and oxidizing radicals? 2. Are deletions and/or additions produced? 3. Is there a difference in type of mutation produced dependent on the polymerase used? Do mammalian polymerase plus their accessory factors result in different patterns of mutation. 4. What is the mechanism by which base damage is converted to mutation. Our proposal was based on utilization of an in vitro system in which mutations generated by the in vitro copying of a reporter gene sequence could be readily scored.

  17. Factors affecting mutational specificity induced by ionizing radiation and oxidizing radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, B.

    1992-01-01

    We propose to analyze the factors affecting the specificity of mutational change as induced by ionizing radiation and oxidizing radicals. We want to understand not only the rules the affect base substitution but also the mechanisms(s) by which additions and deletions are produced, since deletions are a common consequence of radiation. We wish to carry out this analysis in an in vitro mutation system that permits us to analyze the role of base sequence, of polymerase and of mutagenic agent. Our system is designed to screen out most direct breaks as a cause of mutation and should indicate the changes resulting from base damage to the DNA. Questions addressed include: 1. What types of base substitution mutations are induced by ionizing radiation and oxidizing radicals 2. Are deletions and/or additions produced 3. Is there a difference in type of mutation produced dependent on the polymerase used Do mammalian polymerase plus their accessory factors result in different patterns of mutation. 4. What is the mechanism by which base damage is converted to mutation. Our proposal was based on utilization of an in vitro system in which mutations generated by the in vitro copying of a reporter gene sequence could be readily scored.

  18. Mechanisms and factors affecting the adsorption of sodium alginate onto modified clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yongxin; Cao, Xihua; Song, Xiuxian; Wang, Nan; Yu, Zhiming

    2013-07-01

    Algal organic materials (AOMs) are one critical factor affecting the efficiency of modified clays used for the mitigation of harmful algal blooms (HABs). This study was conducted to develop a deeper understanding of the mechanisms and factors affecting the adsorption of AOMs onto modified clays. Sodium alginate (polysaccharide) and kaolinite modified with polyaluminium chloride (PACl) were used as AOMs and modified clay model substances, respectively, and the effects of modifier dosage, contact time, solution pH and ionic strength were investigated through batch adsorption experiments. Kinetics revealed that the alginate adsorption rate was described well by a pseudo-second order model. PACl effectively enhanced the adsorption capacity of kaolinite and increased the adsorption rate, and the optimum additive amount of PACl was 5%. The experimental data fitted both the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption equations well. The adsorption thermodynamics for alginate onto modified clays suggests that alginate adsorption is a spontaneous process. The adsorption of alginate onto modified clays was highly dependent on pH, with a decrease in adsorption observed with increased pH to 9.48, but the opposite was true above pH 9.48. Finally, adsorption increased with increasing ionic strength.

  19. Assessment of factors affecting industrial electricity demand. Final report (revision version)

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1983-07-01

    In Chapter 2, we identify those factors affecting the industrial product mix - taste, relative output prices, and relative input prices - and isolate several determinants which have not been adequately accounted for to date in industrial electricity demand forecasts. We discuss how the lower energy prices of foreign producers affect domestic producers and how the growth in the number of substitutes for intermediate products such as steel and aluminum with plastics and composites affects the composition of production and, hence, the demand for electricity. We also investigate how the changing age structure of the population brought on by the baby boom could change the mix of outputs produced by the industrial sector. In Chapter 3, we review the history of the 1970s with regard to changes in output mix and the manufacturing demand for electricity, and with regard to changes in the use of electricity vis-a-vis the other inputs in the production process. In Chapter 4, we generate forecasts using two models which control for efficiency changes, but in different ways. In this chapter we present the sensitivity of these projections using three sets of assumptions about product mix. The last chapter summarizes our results and draw from those results implications regarding public policy and industrial electricity demand. Two appendices present ISTUM2 results from selected electricity intensive industries, describes the ISTUM and ORIM models.

  20. Factors That Affect the Rehabilitation Duration in Patients With Congenital Muscular Torticollis

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ah Young; Lee, Sung Hoon; Nam, Doo Hyeon; Cheon, Ji Hwan; Kim, Hyo Jung

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine which factors affect the rehabilitation duration in patients with congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) and to predict the duration of rehabilitation and prognosis. Methods One hundred and eighteen patients (79 males and 39 females) who were diagnosed with CMT and received physical therapy were enrolled in this study. We retrospectively reviewed the information in terms of sex, gestational age, birth weight, methods of delivery, fetal presentation, age at diagnosis, the affected sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle site, SCM muscle thickness, ratio of muscle thickness on the affected side to that on the unaffected side (called the 'abnormal/normal [A/N] ratio'), and range of motion for cervical rotation and side bending. Results The SCM muscle thickness and A/N ratio had a positive linear relationship with the rehabilitation duration. Patients who were in the breech position needed longer rehabilitation. The birth weight and age at diagnosis were negatively correlated with the rehabilitation duration. However, the cervical range of motion, mass site, sex, gestational age, and methods of delivery were not correlated with the rehabilitation duration. Conclusion Patients with a thicker SCM, lower birth weight, and history of breech delivery had a longer rehabilitation duration. PMID:25750867