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1

Factors affecting the composition of oligosaccharides produced in chitosan hydrolysis using immobilized chitosanases.  

PubMed

The hydrolysis reaction of chitosan using immobilized chitosanases with regard to the composition of its products and the yield of the intermediate target products, pentamer and hexamer of chitosan oligosaccharides, was investigated. Chitosanase was immobilized onto agar or agarose gel particles by the multipoint attachment method. In batch experiments, surface enzyme density, support particle size, temperature, agitator speed, and initial substrate concentration significantly affected the composition of the oligosaccharides produced. It was believed that these factors all related to the reaction rate and mass transfer rate at the surface of the support materials immobilizing the enzymes. These effects were summarized as a correlation with Damköhler number (Da), defined as the ratio of the maximum reaction rate to the maximum mass transfer rate. The result showed that the reaction conditions that give a low value of Da provide a high yield of pentamer and hexamer oligosaccharides. PMID:12363347

Kuroiwa, Takashi; Ichikawa, Sosaku; Hiruta, Osamu; Sato, Seigo; Mukataka, Sukekuni

2

Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid in lab-scale precipitate reactor studies  

SciTech Connect

Removing aromatic carbon from an aqueous slurry of cesium-137 and other alkali tetraphenylborates by acid hydrolysis will be an important step in preparing high-level radioactive waste for vitrification at the Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Kinetic data obtained in bench-scale precipitate hydrolysis reactors suggest changes in operating parameters to improve product quality in the future plant-scale radioactive operation. The rate-determining step is the removal of the fourth phenyl group, i.e. hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid. Efforts to maximize this rate have established the importance of several factors in the system, including the ratio of copper(II) catalyst to formic acid, the presence of nitrite ion, reactions of diphenylmercury, and the purge gas employed in the system.

Bannochie, C.J.; Marek, J.C.; Eibling, R.E.; Baich, M.A.

1992-01-01

3

Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid in lab-scale precipitate reactor studies  

SciTech Connect

Removing aromatic carbon from an aqueous slurry of cesium-137 and other alkali tetraphenylborates by acid hydrolysis will be an important step in preparing high-level radioactive waste for vitrification at the Savannah River Site`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Kinetic data obtained in bench-scale precipitate hydrolysis reactors suggest changes in operating parameters to improve product quality in the future plant-scale radioactive operation. The rate-determining step is the removal of the fourth phenyl group, i.e. hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid. Efforts to maximize this rate have established the importance of several factors in the system, including the ratio of copper(II) catalyst to formic acid, the presence of nitrite ion, reactions of diphenylmercury, and the purge gas employed in the system.

Bannochie, C.J.; Marek, J.C.; Eibling, R.E.; Baich, M.A.

1992-10-01

4

CSTR-hollow fiber system for continuous hydrolysis of proteins. Factors affecting long-term stability of the reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors affecting the long-term operational stability of a CSTR-hollow-fiber reactor for continuous hydrolysis of proteins were studied. The activity declined in a stepwise manner during a run, declining from 92% conversion to 60% conversion in about ten hours at a space time of four minutes. Initial decay appears to be due to leakage of small active fragments of the enzyme

W. David Deeslie; Munir Cheryan

1982-01-01

5

The study of factors affecting the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose after ionic liquid pretreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose resource has got much attention as a promising replacement of fossil fuel. The hydrolysis of cellulose is the key step to chemical product and liquid transportation fuel. In this paper a serials of chloride, acetate, and formate based ionic liquids were used as solvents to dissolve cellulose. The cellulose regenerated from ILs was characterized by FTIR and X-ray powder

Wenwen Xiao; Wang Yin; Shuqian Xia; Peisheng Ma

6

Affective Factors in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of the role of affective factors in reading within the framework of the substrata factor theory is presented. The substrata factor theory and theories of the intellect are briefly discussed, and the absence of affective factors in these theories is pointed out. These affective factors are seen as influential in the individual's…

Athey, Irene

7

Xylan as limiting factor in enzymatic hydrolysis of nanocellulose.  

PubMed

The role of xylan as a limiting factor in the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was studied by hydrolysing nanocellulose samples prepared by mechanical fibrillation of birch pulp with varying xylan content. Analyzing the nanocelluloses and their hydrolysis residues with dynamic FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that a certain fraction of xylan remained tightly attached to cellulose fibrils despite partial hydrolysis of xylan with xylanase prior to pulp fibrillation and that this fraction remained in the structure during the hydrolysis of nanocellulose with cellulase mixture as well. Thus, a loosely bound fraction of xylan was predicted to have been more likely removed by purified xylanase. The presence of loosely bound xylan seemed to limit the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose, indicated by an increase in cellulose crystallinity and by preserved crystal width measured with wide-angle X-ray scattering. Removing loosely bound xylan led to a proportional hydrolysis of xylan and cellulose with the cellulase mixture. PMID:23238342

Penttilä, Paavo A; Várnai, Anikó; Pere, Jaakko; Tammelin, Tekla; Salmén, Lennart; Siika-aho, Matti; Viikari, Liisa; Serimaa, Ritva

2012-11-19

8

Factors affecting sample preparation in the gas chromatographic determination of plant sterols in whole wheat flour  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fractional factorial experimental design was applied to study factors affecting sample preparation prior to a gas chromatographic determination of total plant sterols in cereal samples. Whole wheat flour was chosen for the representative matrix. Altogether six factors were studied at two levels. The most affecting factors were a type of hydrolysis (combined acid hydrolysis and alkaline hydrolysis over alkaline

Jari Toivo; Anna-Maija Lampi; Satu Aalto; Vieno Piironen

2000-01-01

9

Hydrolysis of platelet-activating factor by human serum paraoxonase.  

PubMed Central

Human serum paraoxonase (human PON1) has been shown to be important in the metabolism of phospholipid and cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides, thereby preventing the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and retarding atherogenesis. However, the exact substrate specificity of PON1 has not been established. In the present study we show that purified PON1 hydrolyses platelet-activating factor (PAF). We could find no evidence for contamination of our preparation with authentic platelet-activating-factor acetylhydrolase (PAFAH) by immunoblotting with a PAFAH monoclonal antibody or by sequencing the purified protein. In addition the specific PAFAH inhibitor SB-222657 did not affect the ability of PON1 to hydrolyse PAF (30.1+/-2.8 micromol/min per mg of protein with no inhibitor; 31.4+/-2.2 micromol/min per mg of protein with 100 nM inhibitor) or phenyl acetate (242.6+/-30.8 versus 240.8+/-31.5 micromol/min per mg of protein with and without inhibitor respectively). SB-222657 was also unable to inhibit PAF hydrolysis by isolated human high-density lipoprotein (HDL), but completely abolished the activity of human LDL. Ostrich (Struthio camelus) HDL, which does not contain PON1, was unable to hydrolyse PAF. These data provide evidence that PON1 may limit the action of this bioactive pro-inflammatory phospholipid.

Rodrigo, L; Mackness, B; Durrington, P N; Hernandez, A; Mackness, M I

2001-01-01

10

Factors Affecting Wound Healing  

PubMed Central

Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds.

Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

2010-01-01

11

Factors affecting tanker safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major factors influencing tanker safety are discussed. For the discussion information has been gleaned from maritime labour officials, industry experts and a recent United States Coast Guard study on tanker safety. Results of other tanker safety studies and\\/or accident reports are also utilized. Some of the factors analysed are the size and age of vessel, licence qualifications for mates

Craig J. Forsyth

1991-01-01

12

Factors Affecting New Product Developments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fourteen commercial and 13 Department of Defense (DoD) new product developments are reviewed and analyzed to understand the factors responsible for reducing development times. The major groupings of factors affecting new product developments were found to...

J. T. Shields

1994-01-01

13

Factors Affecting Internal Blast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internal blast refers to explosion effects in confined spaces, which are dominated by the heat output of the explosive. Theoretical temperatures and pressures may not be reached due to heat losses and incomplete gas mixing. Gas mixing can have the largest effect, potentially reducing peak quasi-static pressure by a factor of two due to lack of thermal equilibrium between products

R. H. Granholm; H. W. Sandusky; J. E. Felts

2007-01-01

14

FACTORS AFFECTING INTERNAL BLAST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internal blast refers to explosion effects in confined spaces, which are dominated by the heat output of the explosive. Theoretical temperatures and pressures may not be reached due to heat losses and incomplete gas mixing. Gas mixing can have the largest effect, potentially reducing peak quasi-static pressure by a factor of two due to lack of thermal equilibrium between products

R. H. Granholm; H. W. Sandusky; J. E. Felts

2007-01-01

15

Factors Affecting Students' Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determinants of students' performance have been the subject of ongoing debate among educators, academics, and policy makers. There have been many studies that sought to examine this issue and their findings point out to hard work, previous schooling, parents’ education, family income and self motivation as factors that have a significant effect on the students GPA. Most of those studies

Nasri Harb; Ahmed El-Shaarawi

2006-01-01

16

How recombinant swollenin from Kluyveromyces lactis affects cellulosic substrates and accelerates their hydrolysis  

PubMed Central

Background In order to generate biofuels, insoluble cellulosic substrates are pretreated and subsequently hydrolyzed with cellulases. One way to pretreat cellulose in a safe and environmentally friendly manner is to apply, under mild conditions, non-hydrolyzing proteins such as swollenin - naturally produced in low yields by the fungus Trichoderma reesei. To yield sufficient swollenin for industrial applications, the first aim of this study is to present a new way of producing recombinant swollenin. The main objective is to show how swollenin quantitatively affects relevant physical properties of cellulosic substrates and how it affects subsequent hydrolysis. Results After expression in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis, the resulting swollenin was purified. The adsorption parameters of the recombinant swollenin onto cellulose were quantified for the first time and were comparable to those of individual cellulases from T. reesei. Four different insoluble cellulosic substrates were then pretreated with swollenin. At first, it could be qualitatively shown by macroscopic evaluation and microscopy that swollenin caused deagglomeration of bigger cellulose agglomerates as well as dispersion of cellulose microfibrils (amorphogenesis). Afterwards, the effects of swollenin on cellulose particle size, maximum cellulase adsorption and cellulose crystallinity were quantified. The pretreatment with swollenin resulted in a significant decrease in particle size of the cellulosic substrates as well as in their crystallinity, thereby substantially increasing maximum cellulase adsorption onto these substrates. Subsequently, the pretreated cellulosic substrates were hydrolyzed with cellulases. Here, pretreatment of cellulosic substrates with swollenin, even in non-saturating concentrations, significantly accelerated the hydrolysis. By correlating particle size and crystallinity of the cellulosic substrates with initial hydrolysis rates, it could be shown that the swollenin-induced reduction in particle size and crystallinity resulted in high cellulose hydrolysis rates. Conclusions Recombinant swollenin can be easily produced with the robust yeast K. lactis. Moreover, swollenin induces deagglomeration of cellulose agglomerates as well as amorphogenesis (decrystallization). For the first time, this study quantifies and elucidates in detail how swollenin affects different cellulosic substrates and their hydrolysis.

2011-01-01

17

Factors Affecting Willingness to Mentor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper presents a survey among 300 employees in Northern Italy to assess the willingness to mentor and identify the factors that affect it. Men and respondents with previous mentoring experience indicate a higher willingness to be a mentor. Willingness is affected by personal characteristics that are perceived as necessary for a mentor and the…

Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Quaglino, Gian Piero

2009-01-01

18

Factors Affecting Willingness to Mentor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents a survey among 300 employees in Northern Italy to assess the willingness to mentor and identify the factors that affect it. Men and respondents with previous mentoring experience indicate a higher willingness to be a mentor. Willingness is affected by personal characteristics that are perceived as necessary for a mentor and the…

Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Quaglino, Gian Piero

2009-01-01

19

Factors limiting the hydrolysis of casein by subtilisin DY.  

PubMed

It was shown that during the subtilisin DY-induced hydrolysis of casein relatively stable polypeptide structures are formed. In their interior these structures contain peptide bonds which are susceptible to the enzyme used. Heating (up to 100 degrees C) and/or application of ultrasound (25 kHz, 60 W) results in their unfolding. Data are provided, which show that under the enzyme-substrate complex formation does not lead to an enzyme conformation more susceptible to autolysis. Taking into account the described phenomena a higher degree of hydrolysis was attained in comparison to those obtained by standard enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:3322321

Nedkov, P; Lilova, A; Tchorbanov, B

1987-10-01

20

Distant and New Mutations in CTX-M-1 ?-Lactamase Affect Cefotaxime Hydrolysis?  

PubMed Central

The CTX-M ?-lactamases are an increasingly prevalent group of extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBL). Point mutations in CTX-M ?-lactamases are considered critical for enhanced hydrolysis of cefotaxime. In order to clarify the structural determinants of the activity against cefotaxime in CTX-M ?-lactamases, screening for random mutations was carried out to search for decreased activity against cefotaxime, with the CTX-M-1 gene as a model. Thirteen single mutants with a considerable reduction in cefotaxime MICs were selected for biochemical and stability studies. The 13 mutated genes of the CTX-M-1 ?-lactamase were expressed, and the proteins were purified for kinetic studies against cephalothin and cefotaxime (as the main antibiotics). Some of the positions, such as Val103Asp, Asn104Asp, Asn106Lys, and Pro107Ser, are located in the 103VNYN106 loop, which had been described as important in cefotaxime hydrolysis, although this has not been experimentally confirmed. There are four mutations located close to catalytic residues—Thr71Ile, Met135Ile, Arg164His, and Asn244Asp—that may affect the positioning of these residues. We show here that some distant mutations, such as Ala219Val, are critical for cefotaxime hydrolysis and highlight the role of this loop at the top of the active site. Other distant substitutions, such as Val80Ala, Arg191, Ala247Ser, and Val260Leu, are in hydrophobic cores and may affect the dynamics and flexibility of the enzyme. We describe here, in conclusion, new residues involved in cefotaxime hydrolysis in CTX-M ?-lactamases, five of which are in positions distant from the catalytic center.

Perez-Llarena, Francisco Jose; Kerff, Frederic; Abian, Olga; Mallo, Susana; Fernandez, Maria Carmen; Galleni, Moreno; Sancho, Javier; Bou, German

2011-01-01

21

Particle size distribution of rice flour affecting the starch enzymatic hydrolysis and hydration properties.  

PubMed

Rice flour is becoming very attractive as raw material, but there is lack of information about the influence of particle size on its functional properties and starch digestibility. This study evaluates the degree of dependence of the rice flour functional properties, mainly derived from starch behavior, with the particle size distribution. Hydration properties of flours and gels and starch enzymatic hydrolysis of individual fractions were assessed. Particle size heterogeneity on rice flour significantly affected functional properties and starch features, at room temperature and also after gelatinization; and the extent of that effect was grain type dependent. Particle size heterogeneity on rice flour induces different pattern in starch enzymatic hydrolysis, with the long grain having slower hydrolysis as indicated the rate constant (k). No correlation between starch digestibility and hydration properties or the protein content was observed. It seems that in intact granules interactions with other grain components must be taken into account. Overall, particle size fractionation of rice flour might be advisable for selecting specific physico-chemical properties. PMID:23987363

de la Hera, Esther; Gomez, Manuel; Rosell, Cristina M

2013-06-21

22

Alcohol fermentation of sweet potato - 1. Acid hydrolysis and factors involved  

SciTech Connect

Factors affecting acid hydrolysis of sweet potato powder (SPP) to fermentable sugars were examined. These include HCl concentration, temperature, time, and levels of SPP. Maximum reducing sugar, reported as dextrose equivalent (DE), was detected after 24 min hydrolysis (1% SPP) in 0.034N HCl heated at 154/degree/C. These samples also had 3.43% hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) based on dry weight. A high level of HMF (9.2%) was detected in 1% SPP heated at 154/degree/C in 0.10N HCl for 18 min. The lowest concentration of HMF formed (1.8%), at maximal DE of 61%, was established in samples containing 5% SPP and heated at 154/degree/C in 0.034N HCl for 48 min. Aqueous extracts of uncured SPP, examined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography, contained glucose, fructose and sucrose, but degraded SPP had only glucose and fructose. Products of degraded SPP, Under appropriate conditions, could be used for alcohol fermentation. 18 refs.

Azhar, A.; Hamdy, M.K.

1981-04-01

23

Psychological factors affecting equine performance.  

PubMed

For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective. PMID:23016987

McBride, Sebastian D; Mills, Daniel S

2012-09-27

24

Psychological factors affecting equine performance  

PubMed Central

For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

2012-01-01

25

Factors Affecting the Earth's Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Classroom Connectors lesson plan discusses factors affecting the weather on Earth. Students learn about solar radiation, wind circulation, precipitation, and biomes that result from weather patterns. The site provides goals, objectives, an outline, time required, materials, activities, and closure ideas for the lesson. The Classroom Connectors address content with an activity approach while incorporating themes necessary to raise the activity to a higher cognition level. The major motivation is to employ instructional strategies that bring the students physically and mentally into touch with the science they are studying.

26

Factors affecting ostrich egg hatchability.  

PubMed

Ostrich eggs often have low hatchability (HATCH) rates because they do not lose sufficient weight during incubation. Because egg size, eggshell porosity and thickness (THICK), and length of preincubation egg storage are known to affect egg weight loss during incubation (EWL) and HATCH of chicken eggs, these factors were examined using ostrich eggs. The effects of eggshell porosity (number of large pores per cm2 of shell; LP); and THICK on EWL and HATCH were assessed by categorizing the eggs as having either low, intermediate, or high LP or low, intermediate, or high THICK. Mean EWL was higher (P<0.05) in eggs of the high LP group when compared with eggs in either the low or intermediate LP groups that lost similar amounts of weight during incubation. Mean HATCH was also higher (more than 25%; P<0.10) in eggs with high LP when compared with the HATCH found in eggs having low LP. Eggs from the intermediate LP group had an intermediate HATCH response. Moreover, numbers of LP were positively correlated to both EWL (r2 = 0.64; P<0.0001) and HATCH (r2 = 0.25; P<0.03). Inverse relationships existed between THICK and EWL and between THICK and HATCH according to the order (P< 0.05): eggs of low THICK, highest mean EWL and HATCH > eggs of intermediate THICK, intermediate mean EWL and HATCH > eggs of highest THICK, lowest mean EWL and HATCH. Shell thickness was not correlated to either EWL or HATCH. The influence of egg size on mean LP, THICK, EWL, HATCH, and chick weight (CWT) was assessed. Although THICK was unaffected by egg size, higher LP (P<0.10), EWL (P<0.05), and HATCH (P<0.10) were found in medium-sized eggs when compared with either small or large eggs. The CWT was associated with egg size (P<0.05) according to the order: large eggs, highest CWT > medium eggs, intermediate CWT > small eggs, lowest CWT. Neither EWL nor HATCH was affected by length of preincubation egg storage. Collectively, our findings suggest that 1) ostrich eggs that possess low LP and increased THICK hatched poorly, 2) intermediate-sized eggs hatch best, 3) large eggs produced large chicks, and 4) ostrich eggs can be stored under conditions typically used in the poultry industry for a minimum of 10 d without negatively impacting HATCH. PMID:10515354

Gonzalez, A; Satterlee, D G; Moharer, F; Cadd, G G

1999-09-01

27

Psychosocial Factors Affecting Dissertation Completion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews the psychosocial factors associated with doctoral dissertation completion or delay. Examines the effects of two factors, procrastination and perfectionism, in greater detail and reports on a study of 142 education doctoral students and 97 graduates. Notes that educators should consider the role of these psychosocial factors as they help…

Green, Kathy E.

1997-01-01

28

Topochemistry, Porosity and Chemical Composition Affecting Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosic Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Lignocellulosic materials such as sugarcane bagasse represent a lowcost source of carbon for biofuel and chemical production,\\u000a including cellulosic ethanol. Despite its low cost and availability, bagasse presents several technical challenges for its\\u000a conversion to monomeric sugars suitable for fermentation processes. It is highly recalcitrant, which requires efficient pretreatment\\u000a for enzymatic hydrolysis. Both pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis have frequently been

Adriane M. F. Milagres; Walter Carvalho; Andre Ferraz

29

Factors affecting leachate quality. Technical note  

SciTech Connect

This technical note describes factors affecting leachate quality for dredged material in confined disposal facilities (CDFs). Factors evaluated include desorption kinetics, sediment concentration, and association of PCBs with soluble and colloidal organic matter.

Brannon, J.M.; Pennington, J.C.; Myers, T.E.; Price, C.B.

1989-12-01

30

Factors Affecting Onset of Puberty  

Microsoft Academic Search

In humans, foetal and early postnatal growth failure may have persistent consequences for growth and pubertal development in later life. During this period, the developing organs are still plastic to change their function, which may have long-lasting effects. At the time of onset of puberty, acute factors may also interfere with pubertal development. Malnutrition, as seen in anorexic patients, and

Henriette A. Delemarre-van de Waal; Silvia C. C. M. van Coeverden; Mia J. T. Engelbregt

2002-01-01

31

Pharmacologic Factors Affecting Glycemic Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among many challenges to achieving and maintaining glycemic control, the impact of pharmacologic agents on glycemia is a significant,\\u000a but often overlooked factor. Numerous medications have been implicated in the development of drug-induced hyperglycemia and\\u000a type 2 diabetes mellitus. Of these, the atypical antipsychotics (for the management of depression and psychosis), the protease-inhibitor\\u000a anti retroviral agents (for the management of

Lillian F. Lien

32

Factors affecting ballasted flocculation reactions.  

PubMed

Ballasted flocculation represents a relatively new technology that shows promise of bringing improvements to the field of water and wastewater treatment. Ballasted flocculation involves the addition of a ballasting agent (high-density microsand, sp gr = 2.65) to a chemically stabilized and coagulated suspension of particulate solids. Tests were conducted to determine the effect of eight independent parameters on the settling velocity of the resulting floc. Measurements showed settling velocities ranging from approximately 100 m/h for 0.5-mm diameter particles to as high as 380 m/h for particles having effective diameters up to 7 mm. Settling velocities for discrete microsand particles and discrete ballasted flocs were found to fit conventional settling theory with reasonable accuracy. The most important factors contributing to the benefits of ballasted flocculation are the large floc sizes that can be maintained, the greater roundness of the floc particles, and a lower shape factor for the ballasted floc, which all contribute to higher settling rates. Higher settling rates allow for substantially smaller sedimentation units and decreased capital costs. PMID:12837033

Young, James C; Edwards, Findlay G

33

Factors affecting outcomes in colonoscopy.  

PubMed

There are many factors that influence successful outcomes in colonoscopy. The aims of this study were to evaluate these factors and determine ways to improve outcomes. All participants (N=229) who underwent planned colonoscopy between July and September 2004 were retrospectively included. Participants included 118 men and 111 women with a mean age of 59 years. Completion rate was 92%. Reasons of failure included poor bowel preparation (2.2%, p< .025), bowel looping (2.2%, p< .025), participant discomfort (1.3%), and obstructing lesion (1.3%). Mean midazolam dose was 3.8 mg. Three participants (1.3%) had midazolam alone, and all had complete colonoscopy. One hundred thirty-three participants (60.7%) had additional meperidine, with a completion rate of 94%. Eighty three participants (37.9%) had additional meperidine and Buscopan, with a completion rate reduced to 89.2%. There was no correlation between sedatives used and completion rate. Completion rate of colonoscopy in our unit was acceptable at 92%. A combination of midazolam and meperidine gave the best completion rates (94%). The two main reasons for incompletion were poor bowel preparation and excessive bowel looping. PMID:18300826

Selehi, Seema; Leung, Edmund; Wong, Ling

34

Analysis of Factors Affecting Employee's Occupational Commitment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research mainly examines the factors that affect an employee's occupational commitment. Respondents of the questionnaire were all insurance agents, and a total of 246 valid questionnaires were completed. After going through correlation and regression analysis of the collected data, it is implied that insurance agents' affective occupational commitment, is higher than their affective organizational commitment. Also, their organizational commitment

C. C. Chen; Y. H. Yang; S. T. Hsiung

2009-01-01

35

Factors affecting grip strength testing.  

PubMed

The rodent grip strength test was developed decades ago and is a putative measure of muscular strength. This test has been included in the functional observational battery (FOB) to screen for neurobehavioral toxicity, and changes in grip strength have been interpreted as evidence of motor neurotoxicity. Despite its widespread use, questions remain about what the grip strength test actually measures. In this study, potential confounders of the grip strength test were identified and tested, including operational parameters, disruption of peripheral sensory function and changes in body weight. Operational parameters (sampling rate, system type and trial angle but not trial speed) had dramatic effects on grip strength data. Doxorubicin (DX, 10 mg/kg iv) was used to cause sensory impairment. It decreased forelimb and hindlimb grip strength (by 27% and 32%, respectively, compared with controls), an effect that was correlated with degeneration of peripheral and central sensory components (distal tibial and sural nerves, dorsal funiculus of the spinal cord and dorsal, but not ventral, spinal roots). Feed restriction-induced loss of body weight (26% compared with controls) and muscle mass (20% compared with controls) reversibly decreased both forelimb and hindlimb grip strength (18% and 17%, respectively, compared with controls). Ignoring these confounding factors could potentially lead to increased data variability and inconsistency within single studies, across studies and in historical control data sets. To assist in data interpretation and evaluation of grip strength results, it is suggested that exact conditions of application of the test be reported in greater detail. Furthermore, given that the grip strength test can be influenced by factors other than true muscular strength, use of the term grip performance is proposed to better reflect the apical nature of this test. PMID:12972067

Maurissen, Jacques P J; Marable, Brian R; Andrus, Amanda K; Stebbins, Kenneth E

36

Codon-dependent conformational change of elongation factor Tu preceding GTP hydrolysis on the ribosome.  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms by which elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) promotes the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the A site of the ribosome and, in particular, how GTP hydrolysis by EF-Tu is triggered on the ribosome, are not understood. We report steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements, performed in the Escherichia coli system, in which the interaction of the complex EF-Tu.GTP.Phe-tRNAPhe with the ribosomal A site is monitored by the fluorescence changes of either mant-dGTP [3'-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-2-deoxyguanosine triphosphate], replacing GTP in the complex, or of wybutine in the anticodon loop of the tRNA. Additionally, GTP hydrolysis is measured by the quench-flow technique. We find that codon-anticodon interaction induces a rapid rearrangement within the G domain of EF-Tu around the bound nucleotide, which is followed by GTP hydrolysis at an approximately 1.5-fold lower rate. In the presence of kirromycin, the activated conformation of EF-Tu appears to be frozen. The steps following GTP hydrolysis--the switch of EF-Tu to the GDP-bound conformation, the release of aminoacyl-tRNA from EF-Tu to the A site, and the dissociation of EF-Tu-GDP from the ribosome--which are altogether suppressed by kirromycin, are not distinguished kinetically. The results suggest that codon recognition by the ternary complex on the ribosome initiates a series of structural rearrangements resulting in a conformational change of EF-Tu, possibly involving the effector region, which, in turn, triggers GTP hydrolysis.

Rodnina, M V; Fricke, R; Kuhn, L; Wintermeyer, W

1995-01-01

37

Investigating lignin and hemicellulose in white rot fungus-pretreated wood that affect enzymatic hydrolysis.  

PubMed

Selective delignification and hemicellulose removal were performed on white rot fungus-pretreated residues to investigate the effects of lignin and hemicellulose removal on enzymatic hydrolysis. 43.66-77% of lignin with small part of hemicellulose were degraded by chlorite treatment, while 79.97-95.09% of hemicellulose with little lignin were degraded by dilute acid treatment, indicating that cross effect between lignin and hemicellulose was minimized. In subsequent enzymatic digestion, regardless of the cellulase loading, residues from series-grade delignification released more glucose and xylose than that from hemicellulose removal, suggesting that lignin rather than hemicellulose in fungi-pretreated residues played a dominant role in hindering enzymatic hydrolysis. Based on the fundamental mechanisms of acidic/alkaline pretreatments in literature, it is proposed that fungal pretreatment prefers to integrate with alkaline pretreatment rather than acidic pretreatment to maximize the synergy. This indication would be helpful to optimize and renovate the integrated pretreatment. PMID:23489565

Wang, Wei; Yuan, Tongqi; Cui, Baokai; Dai, Yucheng

2013-02-21

38

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility Suzanne. E. Fenton US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

39

Factors Affecting the Quality of Health Care.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Quality assurance is discussed as a health planning objective, and structural and process factors affecting the quality of care are examined. Quality assurance and health planning are explored in relation to the rising cost of health care and the evidence...

A. D. Spiegel B. Backhaut

1977-01-01

40

EFL Teachers' Factors and Students' Affect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual learners' affective factors are very important for foreign language learning. In China foreign language learning mainly happens in the classroom. Foreign language teachers are the organizers and carriers of language classes, and thus they inevitably influence the students' affection. This study explores how EFL teachers influence…

Qin, Lei

2007-01-01

41

Economic and cultural factors affecting university excellence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper first identifies the number of universities ranked among the first 300 in

Naceur Jabnoun

2009-01-01

42

Economic and Cultural Factors Affecting University Excellence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…

Jabnoun, Naceur

2009-01-01

43

Affecting Factors in Second Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study investigated the influence of sex, handedness, level in second language (L2) and Faculty choice on the performance of phonological, syntactical and semantic tasks in L2. Level in L2 and sex were the most affecting factors. Subjects who achieved higher scores on L2 tasks had strong second language aptitude skills since they were…

Andreou, G.; Vlachos, F.; Andreou, E.

2005-01-01

44

Factors Affecting Smoking Tendency and Smoking Intensity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to measure the relative effect of relevant explanatory variable on smoking tendency and smoking intensity. Design/methodology/approach: Using survey data collected by the Israeli Bureau of Statistics in 2003-2004, a probit procedure is estimated for analyzing factors that affect the probability of being a…

David, Nissim Ben; Zion, Uri Ben

2009-01-01

45

Factors Affecting Instructional Television Utilization in Alabama.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study was conducted of the factors affecting the utilization of educational television in elementary and secondary schools in the 127 school districts in the state of Alabama. Based upon the results of previous studies, five variables were investigated: (1) percentage of K-12 students in the total student population, (2) ratio of students to…

Turner, Philip M.; Simpson, William

46

Factors Affecting Children's Attention on TV Viewing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated what and how preschool children view children's television programs, with a focus on cultural and ecological factors which might affect their visual attention and the nature of their immediate recall of content. The secondary task method (in which an individual is required to perform two tasks simultaneously) was applied…

Wu, Sophia T.

47

Factors affecting nurses' perceptions of patient safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Nurses heavily influence patient care quality and safety. This paper aims to examine socioeconomic and organizational\\/system factors affecting patient safety and quality perceptions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire was constructed to gather demographic, managerial support, information technology implementation and integration information. Data were collected from nurses in five Riyadh hospitals, Saudi Arabia. Registered nurses working in hospital departments participated

Ari Mwachofi; Stephen L. Walston; Badran A. Al-Omar

2011-01-01

48

Factors Affecting Sea Lamprey Egg Survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors that affect recruitment of sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus are not well understood; for example, the majority (85%) of sea lamprey eggs are washed out of the nest, and the survival rate of these eggs is unknown. We examined the role of predation and substrate on egg survival in the laboratory and egg predation and dispersion of eggs outside the

Stephen J. Smith; J. Ellen Marsden

2009-01-01

49

Factors Affecting Faculty Web Portal Usability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…

Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.

2011-01-01

50

Relevant factors that affect service recovery performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the factors that affect employees' service recovery performance from the perspectives of internal management. In addition, this paper combines the techniques of linear multi-variable statistical analysis and nonlinear fuzzy neural network methodology to analyse data and validate hypotheses. This paper selects travel agents who have frequent interactions with customers and provide intangible services. The empirical finding indicates

Wen-Bao Lin

2010-01-01

51

Factors Affecting Motivation to Transfer Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study of trainees (n=88) in a competency-based occupational safety and health training program found that environmental factors (opportunities to use skills, peer/supervisor support, and supervisor sanctions) were most influential on motivation to transfer training. Training attitudes may be affected by prior experiences when the use of…

Seyler, Dian L.; Holton, Elwood F., III; Bates, Reid A.; Burnett, Michael F.; Carvalho, Manuel A.

1998-01-01

52

FACTORS AFFECTING MITOGENIC RESPONSE OF TURKEY LYMPHOCYTES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loa C. C., T. L. Lin, C. C. W u: Factors Affecting Mitogenic Response of Turkey Lymphocytes. Acta Vet. Brno 2001, 70: 433-442. The objective of the present study was to determine the parameters and conditions for measuring mitogenic response of turkey whole blood and spleen lymphocytes that may be useful in studying cellular immunity of turkeys. Heparinized whole blood

C. C. LOA; T. L. LIN; C. C. WU

2001-01-01

53

Psychological factors affecting a medical condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The criteria for scientific validation of the entities currently subsumed under the DSM-IV category of “Psychological Factors Affecting a Medical Condition” have never been clearly enumerated. Historically, its precursor category (“Psychophysiological Disorder”) was rarely used, and predicated upon clinical observation of personality styles among patients with specific physical illnesses, or clinical observations relating psychosocial events and symptom exacerbation. Because of

Mark W Ketterer; Gregory Mahr; A. David Goldberg

2000-01-01

54

Surface potential and osteoblast attraction to calcium phosphate compounds is affected by selected alkaline hydrolysis processing.  

PubMed

This study examines the link(s) between the suspension behavior of calcium deficient apatites (CDAs) and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), as measured by the zeta-potential, with respect to both whole bone and osteoblasts. CDA is fabricated by hydrolyzing an acidic CaP such as dicalcium diphosphate dihydrate (DCPD; CaHPO4.2H2O) and has a structure and composition close to bone apatite. Sintering CDA results in the formation of BCP ceramics consisting of mixtures of hydroxyapatite (HA) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP), with the HA/beta-TCP weight ratio proportional to the Ca/P ratio of CDA. The choice of the base for the DCPD hydrolysis allows various ionic partial substitution of the formed CDA. Na for Ca partial substitution is of interest because of the resulting improvement in mechanical properties of the resulting BCP ceramics and NH4OH was used as a negative control. The zeta-potential was measured for these materials and the stability of the ceramic to bone interaction calculated. zeta-potential values decrease for CDA(NH4OH) versus CDA(NaOH) and increase for BCP(NH4OH) versus BCP(NaOH). While results of these analyses indicate that NH4OH and NaOH processed CDA and BCP will likely yield osteoblast attachment in vivo, differences in the zeta-potentials may explain varying degrees of cell attachment. PMID:15477734

Smith, I O; Baumann, M J; Obadia, L; Bouler, J-M

2004-08-01

55

Arginines 29 and 59 of elongation factor G are important for GTP hydrolysis or translocation on the ribosome  

PubMed Central

GTP hydrolysis by elongation factor G (EF-G) is essential for the translocation step in protein elongation. The low intrinsic GTPase activity of EF-G is strongly stimulated by the ribosome. Here we show that a conserved arginine, R29, of Escherichia coli EF-G is crucial for GTP hydrolysis on the ribosome, but not for GTP binding or ribosome interaction, suggesting that it may be directly involved in catalysis. Another conserved arginine, R59, which is homologous to the catalytic arginine of G? proteins, is not essential for GTP hydrolysis, but influences ribosome binding and translocation. These results indicate that EF-G is similar to other GTPases in that an arginine residue is required for GTP hydrolysis, although the structural changes leading to GTPase activation are different.

Mohr, Dagmar; Wintermeyer, Wolfgang; Rodnina, Marina V.

2000-01-01

56

Remote sensing of environmental factors affecting health  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research to identify, by satellite imagery, parameters of the environment affecting health on Earth. Thus, we suggest expanding the application of space technology to preventive medicine, as a new field in the peaceful uses of outer space. The scope of the study includes all parts of the environment, natural and man-made, and all kinds of protection of life: human, animal and vegetation health. The general objective is to consider and classify those factors, detectable from space, that affect or are relevant to health and may be found in the air, water, sea, soil, land, vegetation, as well as those linked to climate, industry, energy production, development works, irrigation systems, and human settlements. The special objective is the classification of environmental factors detectable from space, that are linked to communicable or chronic endemic diseases or health problems. The method of identifying the factors affecting health was the parallel study of environmental epidemiological and biological parameters. The role of environmental factors common to both human and animal populations is discussed. Conclusive findings are formulated and possible applications, both scientific and practical, in other sectors are also discussed.

Jovanovic, Petar

57

Factors affecting the outcome in subdural empyema  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case reports of 102 patients with subdural empyema, diagnosed in the years 1935-83, were reviewed to determine the factors affecting the outcome. Statistical analysis (likelihood ratio tests with chi square approximation and logistic regression) showed that year of diagnosis (p less than 0.01) and level of consciousness at the moment of diagnosis (p less than 0.01) had a significant

H W Mauser; H C Van Houwelingen; C A Tulleken

1987-01-01

58

Biomechanics of cycling and factors affecting performance.  

PubMed

Cycling performance in human powered vehicles is affected by the interaction of a number of variables, including environment, mechanical and human factors. Engineers have generally focused on the design and development of faster, more efficient human-powered vehicles based on minimising aerodynamic drag, neglecting the human component. On the other hand, kinesiologists have examined cycling performance from a human perspective, but have been constrained by the structure of a standard bicycle. Therefore, a gap exists between research in the various disciplines. To maximise/optimise cycling performance in human-powered vehicles requires a bridging of this gap through interdisciplinary research. Changes in different variables can affect the energy requirements of cycling. These variables include: (a) changes in body position, configuration, and orientation; (b) changes in seat to pedal distance; and (c) the interaction of workload, power output, and pedalling rate. Changes in these variables alter joint angles, muscle lengths, and muscle moment arm lengths, thus affecting the tension-length, force-velocity-power relationships of multi-joint muscles and the effectiveness of force production. This is ultimately manifested as a change in the energetics of cycling. A large number of factors affect cycling performance in human-powered vehicles and a gap still exists between cycling research in various disciplines. To bridge this gap, if not completely close it, requires cooperation between disciplines and further interdisciplinary research. PMID:2263797

Too, D

1990-11-01

59

Reappraising factors affecting mourning dove perch coos  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Results confirmed pairing as the primary factor influencing perch-cooing rates of wild mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). Marked unmated males cooed at substantially higher rates (6.2x) than mated males, had greater probability of cooing (2.3x) during 3-minute periods, and continued cooing longer each morning than mated males. Population density was not a major factor affecting cooing. Unmated males cooed more frequently in the presence of other cooing doves (P < 0.05) than when alone, but the number of additional doves above 1 was unimportant. Cooing rates of both mated and unmated males on areas with dissimilar dove densities were not significantly different. Within limits of standard call-count procedure, weather exerted no detectable influence on cooing.

Sayre, M.W.; Atkinson, R.D.; Baskett, T.S.; Haas, G.H.

1978-01-01

60

Factors affecting ice nucleation in plant tissues.  

PubMed

Factors affecting the ice nucleation temperature of plants and plant tissues were examined. The mass of a sample had a marked effect on ice nucleation temperature. Small tissue samples supercooled to -10 degrees C and were not accurate predictors of the nucleation temperature of intact plants in either laboratory or field experiments. This effect was not unique to plant tissues and was observed in autoclaved and control soil samples. Ice nucleation temperatures of bean, corn, cotton, and soybean seedlings were influenced by the length of subzero exposure, presence of ice nucleation active bacteria, and leaf surface wetness. The number of factors influencing ice nucleation temperature suggested that predicting the freezing behavior of plants in the field will be complex. PMID:16664524

Ashworth, E N; Davis, G A; Anderson, J A

1985-12-01

61

Prognostic factors in radical cystectomy affecting survival  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic factors in radical cystectomy affecting survival. Material and methods A total of 100 hundred patients were included in the study. Incontinent diversion was applied to 73 of these, and continent diversion to 27. Prospective and retrospective data of the patients were examined. The prognostic value for survival was evaluated for of lymph node involvement, tumor grade (low grade: grade 0-II, high grade: ? III or epidermoid carcinoma), tumor stage (low stage: stage pT0-2, high stage: stage ? 3a pT3a), presence of preoperative unilateral of bilateral hydronephrosis, presence of preoperative uremia (serum urea value: ? 60), and age (> 70 and ? 70 years of age) on survival were investigated. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Log-Rank statistical methods were used in the study. Results Grade, stage, uremia, and lymph node involvement had significant effects on survival (p values 0.0002, 0.03, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively). Presence of preoperative hydronephrosis and age had no statistically significant effects on survival (p values 0.8 and 0.2, respectively). Conclusions Tumor grade, tumor stage, preoperative uremia, and lymph node involvement are prognostic factors affecting survival. Advanced age and presence of preoperative hydronephrosis have no prognostic value for survival. The presence of uremia in the preoperative assessment of the patients is more important than hydronephrosis.

Aglamis, Erdogan; Toktas, Gokhan; Unluer, Erdinc; Ceylan, Cavit

2012-01-01

62

Factors affecting choice of health care plans.  

PubMed Central

The research reported here examined the factors which affected the decision to remain with either Blue Cross of Washington and Alaska or Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, or to change to an independent practice association (IPA) in which the primary care physicians control all care. The natural setting allowed examination of the characteristics of families with experience in structurally different plans; a decision not influenced by premium differentials; the importance of the role of usual provider; and a family-based decision using multivariate techniques. An expected utility model implied that factors affecting preferences included future need for medical care; access to care; financial resources to meet the need for care; and previous level of experience with plan and provider. Analysis of interview and medical record abstract data from 1,497 families revealed the importance of maintaining a satisfactory relationship with the usual sources of care in the decision to change plans. Adverse selection into the new IPA as measured by health status and previous utilization of medical services was not noted.

Grazier, K L; Richardson, W C; Martin, D P; Diehr, P

1986-01-01

63

MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF STARCH: APPLICATION TO FUEL ETHANOL PRODUCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch in corn is an important step that determines fermentation efficiency. Corn genetics, post harvest handling and process conditions are factors that affect starch hydrolysis. There is a lack of mathematical models for starch hydrolysis in the dry grind corn process tha...

64

Factors affecting the outcome in subdural empyema.  

PubMed Central

The case reports of 102 patients with subdural empyema, diagnosed in the years 1935-83, were reviewed to determine the factors affecting the outcome. Statistical analysis (likelihood ratio tests with chi square approximation and logistic regression) showed that year of diagnosis (p less than 0.01) and level of consciousness at the moment of diagnosis (p less than 0.01) had a significant bearing on the chance to survive and that these same two factors (each factor p less than 0.01) and extent of subdural pus accumulation at the moment of diagnosis (p less than 0.05) had a significant bearing on the chance of survival without severe disability. Among others the duration of the disease up to the moment of diagnosis and the mode of the first surgical procedure had no significant bearing on the outcome. These results together with those in the literature are discussed and it is concluded that diagnosis and treatment before the patient lapses into stupor or coma, increases the chance of survival and that with adequate management a mortality rate of 10% or lower is to be expected.

Mauser, H W; Van Houwelingen, H C; Tulleken, C A

1987-01-01

65

Factors affecting the outcome of corneal transplantation.  

PubMed Central

Corneal grafting has been attempted for 200 years. Greatly improved results in recent years have been attributed to developments in anaesthesia, asepsis, and immunological and anti-inflammatory therapy. The important factors affecting the outcome of corneal grafting today are the degree of vascularisation of the cornea before surgery, the inflammatory status at the time of surgery, and the number of antigenic determinants shared by donor and host. Allograft rejection is the most common cause of corneal graft failure. Animal experiments suggest that cyclosporin A given at the time of surgery is likely to prove the most effective means available for preventing corneal graft rejection. Although the introduction of more specific immunosuppressive agents is important, the development of techniques to improve the environment of the outer eye demands the highest priority. Corneal disease is the commonest cause of blindness on a world scale, but many patients are unacceptable for grafting with the currently accepted criteria for operability. Images Fig. 1

Coster, D. J.

1981-01-01

66

Factors affecting the quality of bottled water.  

PubMed

The ever-increasing popularity of bottled water means that it is important to analyze not only its mineral content but also, above all, its content of possible contaminants, especially the organic ones. In this respect, bottled waters are a special case, because apart from organic chemical contaminants derived from the well from which they were acquired, their secondary contamination is always possible, during treatment or storage or transport in unsuitable conditions (sunlight and elevated temperature). This paper describes how various factors, from the area around the well, and the method of drawing and treating water, to the manner in which the finished product is stored and transported may affect the quality of bottled waters. It also summarizes literature information on the levels of organic contaminants in various kinds of bottled water samples. PMID:23093103

Diduch, Malwina; Polkowska, ?aneta; Namie?nik, Jacek

2012-10-24

67

Factors Affecting Informal Economy of Rural Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the informal economy in the rural areas of Turkey has been measured and factors affecting the informal economy have been analyzed. The informal economy has been discussed with regards to three main issues, namely unpaid household labor force usage, own consumption of crop and animal products and informal sales. Although the household labor force is mainly used in farms for agricultural and off-farm activities, the rate of idle labor has been found to be highly significant. It has been found that milk has the largest share of animal produce values consumed by the household, while particularly processed milk products are sold informally and that the consumption and sales values of animal produce processed in the households are required to be added to the unrecorded value calculation. Consumption of crops varies depending on the type of product. The own consumption ratio of crops is affected by the size of the enterprise, the number of individuals in the households and particularly the access to the markets of the enterprises in each region. An average informal value of 6,400.04 USD has been calculated per household, which is higher than the farm income, accounting for 4/5 of total household income. This can be attributed to the fact that the farms are generally small family enterprises with limited market-access opportunities.

Gonenc, Sertac; Tanrivermis, Harun

68

[Wilson disease - factors affecting clinical presentation].  

PubMed

Wilson disease (WD) is a genetic disorder with copper metabolism disturbances leading to copper accumulation in many organs with their secondary damage. It is caused by mutation in the ATP7B gene on chromosome 13, which encodes ATP-ase 7B involved in copper transport. The age of neurologic symptom onset in WD is 20-30 years, but there is a wide spectrum of disease including: age at onset, clinical signs and treatment efficacy. More than 500 mutations of ATP7B have been described so far, but the WD genotype does not explain the disease variability. Several other factors are suspected to influence WD presentation, including polymorphisms in the genes encoding: apolipoprotein E, prion-related protein, methyltenetetrahydrofolate reductase, Murr1, antioxidant-1, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis as well as iron metabolism disturbances, gender impact, inflammatory reactions and oxidative stress. The explanation of their significance can change the therapy of WD. The aim of our study was to review and assess the clinical significance of the factors affecting WD presentation. PMID:23650006

Litwin, Tomasz; Cz?onkowska, Anna

69

Environmental factors affecting Burkholderia pseudomallei biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Melioidosis is highly prevalent in Northeast Thailand which is associated with high incidence of Burkholderia pseudomallei present in the soil of this region. B. pseudomallei when present in biofilm becomes resistant to numerous environmental factors and also to certain antibiotics. In this study, we examined the effects of several environmentally relevant factors (salinity, iron, manganese and temperature) on biofilm formation of four clinical ribotypes of B. pseudomallei commonly found in Northeast Thailand. The results showed that biofilm formation increased when B. pseudomallei were grown in modified Vogel and Bonner's medium containing 0.85-1.7 M NaCl or 100-500 microM iron (FeSO4). Low temperature (20 degrees C) also induced more biofilm formation than 30 degrees C or 37 degrees C. On the other hand, protease production and bacterial motility were adversely affected but not in the case of low temperature. Results from this study should be useful in the development of prevention measures or controlling B. pseudomallei biofilm formation in the environment. PMID:23682440

Kamjumphol, Watcharaporn; Chareonsudjai, Sorujsiri; Chareonsudjai, Pisit; Wongratanacheewin, Surasak; Taweechaisupapong, Suwimol

2013-01-01

70

Factors affecting codon usage in Yersinia pestis.  

PubMed

The complete genome of Yersinia pestis which was the causative agent of the systemic invasive infectious disease classically referred as plague, had been recently sequenced. In order to have a further insight into the synonymous codon usage evolution, factors shaping synonymous codon usage pattern of Yersinia pestis were analyzed in this paper. The coding sequences larger than or equal to 300 bp were used in codon usage analysis. Though "G"+"C" content in Y. pestis genome was slightly lower (47.64%), the highly expressed genes tended to use "C" or "G" at synonymous sites compared with lowly expressed genes. Conversely, lowly expressed genes tended to prefer "A" or "T" at synonymous positions. Gene expression level was strongly correlated with the first axis of the correspondence analysis (COA) (R=0.63, P<0.0001). By the analyses of the codon usage pattern of highly and lowly expressed genes, it was confirmed that gene expression level was partially responsible for the codon usage bias. GC-skew analysis showed that codon usage suffered replication-transcriptional selection. Codon adaptation index (CAI), frequency of "C"+"G" at the synonymous third position of codon (GC3s) and the effective number of codons (Nc) values showed some differences among different gene length groups. "G"+"C" content of genes was strongly correlated with the first axis of the COA (R=0.72, P<0.0001). It could be concluded that gene expressivity, replication-transcriptional selection, gene length and gene composition constraints were the main affecting factors of codon usage variation in Y. pestis. PMID:12796821

Hou, Zhuo-Cheng; Yang, Ning

2003-06-01

71

Factors affecting coastal wetland loss and restoration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Opening paragraph: Tidal and nontidal wetlands in the Chesapeake Bay watershed provide vital hydrologic, water-quality, and ecological functions. Situated at the interface of land and water, these valuable habitats are vulnerable to alteration and loss by human activities including direct conversion to non-wetland habitat by dredge-and-fill activities from land development, and to the effects of excessive nutrients, altered hydrology and runoff, contaminants, prescribed fire management, and invasive species. Processes such as sea-level rise and climate change also impact wetlands. Although local, State, and Federal regulations provide for protection of wetland resources, the conversion and loss of wetland habitats continue in the Bay watershed. Given the critical values of wetlands, the Chesapeake 2000 Agreement has a goal to achieve a net gain in wetlands by restoring 25,000 acres of tidal and nontidal wetlands by 2010. The USGS has synthesized findings on three topics: (1) sea-level rise and wetland loss, (2) wetland restoration, and (3) factors affecting wetland diversity.

Cahoon, D.R.

2007-01-01

72

A Central Interdomain Protein Joint in Elongation Factor G Regulates Antibiotic Sensitivity, GTP Hydrolysis, and Ribosome Translocation*  

PubMed Central

The antibiotic fusidic acid potently inhibits bacterial translation (and cellular growth) by lodging between domains I and III of elongation factor G (EF-G) and preventing release of EF-G from the ribosome. We examined the functions of key amino acid residues near the active site of EF-G that interact with fusidic acid and regulate hydrolysis of GTP. Alanine mutants of these residues spontaneously hydrolyzed GTP in solution, bypassing the normal activating role of the ribosome. A conserved phenylalanine in the switch II element of EF-G was important for suppressing GTP hydrolysis in solution and critical for catalyzing translocation of the ribosome along mRNA. These experimental results reveal the multipurpose roles of an interdomain joint in the heart of an essential translation factor that can both promote and inhibit bacterial translation.

Ticu, Cristina; Murataliev, Marat; Nechifor, Roxana; Wilson, Kevin S.

2011-01-01

73

ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by human replication factor C requires participation of multiple subunits.  

PubMed

Human replication factor C (hRFC) is a five-subunit protein complex (p140, p40, p38, p37, and p36) that acts to catalytically load proliferating cell nuclear antigen onto DNA, where it recruits DNA polymerase delta or epsilon to the primer terminus at the expense of ATP, leading to processive DNA synthesis. We have previously shown that a subcomplex of hRFC consisting of three subunits (p40, p37, and p36) contained DNA-dependent ATPase activity. However, it is not clear which subunit(s) hydrolyzes ATP, as all five subunits include potential ATP binding sites. In this report, we introduced point mutations in the putative ATP-binding sequences of each hRFC subunit and examined the properties of the resulting mutant hRFC complex and the ATPase activity of the hRFC or the p40.p37.p36 complex. A mutation in any one of the ATP binding sites of the p36, p37, p40, or p140 subunits markedly reduced replication activity of the hRFC complex and the ATPase activity of the hRFC or the p40.p37.p36 complex. A mutation in the ATP binding site of the p38 subunit did not alter the replication activity of hRFC. These findings indicate that the replication activity of hRFC is dependent on efficient ATP hydrolysis contributed to by the action of four hRFC subunits. PMID:9751713

Cai, J; Yao, N; Gibbs, E; Finkelstein, J; Phillips, B; O'Donnell, M; Hurwitz, J

1998-09-29

74

Factors Affecting Transformation of Bacillus licheniformis  

PubMed Central

Thorne, Curtis B. (Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.), and Harold B. Stull. Factors affecting transformation of Bacillus licheniformis. J. Bacteriol. 91:1012–1020. 1966.—Transformation systems involving two types of transformable mutants of Bacillus licheniformis 9945A were compared. Each system required its specific growth medium, but a single transformation medium could be used for both. Cells from a culture of optimal age were not competent, at least to any great extent, but they developed competence during incubation in a transformation medium. With each system, 3 to 5% of the recipient cells were transformed upon exposure to wild-type deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) for 2 to 3 hr. When competent cells were exposed to DNA for 30 min, 1 to 2% of them were transformed. The data are interpreted to mean that cells were heterogeneous with respect to development of competence, and when properly grown cells were incubated in transformation medium some of them gained competence, whereas others lost it. If DNA was present during the entire period, the cells were transformed as they became competent and the transformants accumulated. However, during any short period of exposure to DNA, only those cells that were competent at the time were potential transformants. The high frequencies of transformation obtained in these studies made it feasible to prepare marked strains by transforming markers into recipient cells. These experiments demonstrated that the characteristics of the two transformation systems could not be attributed to specific nutritional markers. Presumably, each of the two series of highly transformable auxotrophic mutants also carried at least one other mutation that resulted in development of competence under the specific conditions.

Thorne, Curtis B.; Stull, Harold B.

1966-01-01

75

Factors Affecting Ejection Risk in Rollover Crashes  

PubMed Central

Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 – 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size.

Funk, James R.; Cormier, Joseph M.; Bain, Charles E.; Wirth, Jeffrey L.; Bonugli, Enrique B.; Watson, Richard A.

2012-01-01

76

Factors affecting ejection risk in rollover crashes.  

PubMed

Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 - 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size. PMID:23169130

Funk, James R; Cormier, Joseph M; Bain, Charles E; Wirth, Jeffrey L; Bonugli, Enrique B; Watson, Richard A

2012-01-01

77

Factors affecting reproductive performance of Holstein heifers.  

PubMed

The objectives were to evaluate factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy heifers. Holstein heifers (6389) were housed in a feed lot located in Parma, ID. Each week heifers weighing > or =290 kg were initiated in the reproductive program, which consisted of one injection of PGF(2alpha) and AI on detection of estrus. Heifers not inseminated by 11 days after the initiation of the breeding program received a second injection of PGF(2alpha). Pregnancy was diagnosed at 40+/-3 and 90+/-3 days after AI. Average daily minimum temperature (ADMnT), average daily maximum temperature (ADMxT), and average daily rainfall (ARF) were recorded between 15 days prior to and 15 days after the day of AI or the day of initiation of the breeding program. Exposure to air temperature was classified as: cold stress (CS=ADMnT< or =4 degrees C), no stress (NS=ADMnT>4 degrees C and ADMxT<29 degrees C), and heat stress (HS=ADMxT> or =29 degrees C). Exposure to rainfall was classified as above (HRF) or below (LRF) the mean for the period in question. Heifers were classified according to body weight at initiation of the breeding program as thin (TH<340 kg); moderate (MD=340-365 kg); and heavy (HY>365 kg). Service sire was associated with conception rate at 40 and 90 days after first AI. Although exposure to air temperature was not correlated with conception rate at 40 days after first AI, heifers exposed to cold stress had smaller conception rates at 90 days after first AI because they were more likely to lose pregnancy between 40 and 90 days of gestation. The proportion of heifers inseminated after initiation of the breeding program was correlated with body weight and exposure to cold stress. Exposure to cold stress was also correlated with the proportion of heifers conceiving within 11 and 22 days after initiation of the breeding program. From this study a correlation was established between body weight and rate of insemination and between the exposure to cold stress and reproductive efficiency of Holstein heifers. PMID:17045427

Chebel, Ricardo C; Braga, Fernando A; Dalton, Joseph C

2006-09-10

78

Sugar fatty acid ester surfactants: Base-catalyzed hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rate constants for the base-catalyzed hydrolysis of sucrose laurate, sucrose ?-sulfonyl laurate, and sucrose ?-ethyl laurate\\u000a were measured at several temperatures in pH 11 buffer. Activation energies and Arrhenius factors for the hydrolysis reactions\\u000a were determined. At 27C, sucrose laurate hydrolyzed fastest and sucrose ?-ethyl laurate slowest. Activation energies and\\u000a Arrhenius factors showed that both steric and electronic factors affect

Irene J. A. Baker; D. Neil Furlong; Franz Grieser; Calum J. Drummond

2000-01-01

79

Hydrolysis of tocopheryl and retinyl esters by porcine carboxyl ester hydrolase is affected by their carboxylate moiety and bile acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro hydrolysis of vitamin E esters (?-tocopheryl acetate, ?-tocopheryl succinate and ?-tocopheryl nicotinate) by pancreatic carboxyl ester hydrolase (CEH) at the concurrent presence of different bile acids at different concentrations. The assay was performed by measuring the amount of ?-tocopherol released by porcine pancreatic juice upon addition to different solutions

Charlotte Lauridsen; Mette S. Hedemann; Søren K. Jensen

2001-01-01

80

TECHNIQUES AFFECTING PRECISION AND ACCURACY IN HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANT DETERMINATIONS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING JEFFERS' ZERO HEADSPACE REACTION BULBS  

EPA Science Inventory

A recently published method for measurement of hydrolysis rate constants for volatile organic compounds in aqueous samples was adapted for use in our laboratory. n applying the method, we developed the capability to make the zero-headspace reaction bulbs and used them to measure ...

81

Factors Affecting Academic Achievement Of Adult Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Article is an excerpt from Mrs. Beagle's original analysis and includes such considerations as increases in enrollment, university admission policies, counseling, study skills, study facilities, and financial policies and practices affecting adult students. References. (RB)|

Beagle, Peggy; Melnyk, W. T.

1971-01-01

82

Factors Affecting Academic Achievement Of Adult Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Article is an excerpt from Mrs. Beagle's original analysis and includes such considerations as increases in enrollment, university admission policies, counseling, study skills, study facilities, and financial policies and practices affecting adult students. References. (RB)

Beagle, Peggy; Melnyk, W. T.

1971-01-01

83

The role of affective factors on perceived cruise vacation value  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we expanded the perceived value literature by demonstrating the role of selected affective factors (i.e., hedonics, control and novelty) on value in the context of cruise vacation experiences. We also examined the role of customer satisfaction in the affect–value relationship. Our results indicate that affective factors are important determinants of the perceived value of cruise services. In

Teoman Duman; Anna S. Mattila

2005-01-01

84

Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Dispersants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Factors which limit the effectiveness of dispersants applied to oil spilt at sea have been studied in the laboratory using a simple test to measure the ability of added dispersant to form an oil-in-water emulsion with the oil under test. The factors which...

F. N. Martinelli B. W. J. Lynch

1980-01-01

85

Preharvest factors affecting physiological disorders of fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of disorders during postharvest ripening and storage of fruit depends on a range of preharvest factors. The most obvious of these is maturity of fruit at harvest. However, a number of other factors may be just as important in ripening-related disorders and in determining how fruit respond to low temperatures or other imposed postharvest conditions. Fruiting position on the

Ian Ferguson; Richard Volz; Allan Woolf

1999-01-01

86

ATP hydrolysis by a domain related to translation factor GTPases drives polymerization of a static bacterial morphogenetic protein.  

PubMed

The assembly of static supramolecular structures is a culminating event of developmental programs. One such structure, the proteinaceous shell (called the coat) that surrounds spores of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis, is composed of about 70 different proteins and represents one of the most durable biological structures known. The coat is built atop a basement layer that contains an ATPase (SpoIVA) that forms a platform required for coat assembly. Here, we show that SpoIVA belongs to the translation factors class of P-loop GTPases and has evolutionarily lost the ability to bind GTP; instead, it uses ATP hydrolysis to drive its self-assembly into static filaments. We demonstrate that ATP hydrolysis is required by every subunit for incorporation into the growing polymer by inducing a conformational change that drives polymerization of a nucleotide-free filament. SpoIVA therefore differs from other self-organizing polymers (dynamic cytoskeletal structures and static intermediate filaments) in that it uses ATP hydrolysis to self-assemble, not disassemble, into a static polymer. We further show that polymerization requires a critical concentration that we propose is only achieved once SpoIVA is recruited to the surface of the developing spore, thereby ensuring that SpoIVA polymerization only occurs at the correct subcellular location during spore morphogenesis. PMID:23267091

Castaing, Jean-Philippe; Nagy, Attila; Anantharaman, Vivek; Aravind, L; Ramamurthi, Kumaran S

2012-12-24

87

Political and Institutional Factors Affecting Systems Engineering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

External groups have a significant impact on NASA's programs. Ten groups affecting NASA are identified, and examples are given for some of them. Methods of dealing with these external inputs are discussed, the most important being good and open two way co...

J. F. Yardley

1993-01-01

88

Situational factors affecting Preschoolers' responses to advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of advertising directed at preschool children was investigated. An experimental design, crossing program\\u000a type, social condition of viewing, and frequency of exposure to commercials was utilized. Results indicate the possibility\\u000a that young children's preferences are only affected under special circumstances.

T. K. Clarke

1984-01-01

89

Factors Affecting Nitrification in Iowa Rivers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project investigated the effects of physical and chemical factors, other than temperature, on the nitrification process. A series of laboratory studies using pure cultures of nitrifying bacteria were conducted. The effects of changes in the carbonate...

D. B. McDonald J. Huey

1982-01-01

90

Factors affecting the retrieval of famous names.  

PubMed

Tests of famous faces are used to study language and memory. Yet, the effect of stimulus properties on performance has not been fully investigated. To identify factors influencing proper name retrieval and to probe stimulus-specific parameters within proper name lexicon, we analysed the results obtained by 300 healthy participants on a test of famous faces that includes 74 personalities. A factor analysis yielded five main factors that were characterized by language (national or foreign names), epoch of peak popularity (current, recent or past) and occupation (politicians, entertainment and sports) of the personalities. Multiple regression analysis showed that participants' education, age and gender accounted for 10-32% of the variance in factor scores. These results indicate that there are variables of the stimulus and participants' that must be taken into account in proper name testing and in designing tests aimed to differentiate age-associated difficulties from cognitive decline. PMID:19904486

Martins, Isabel Pavão; Loureiro, Clara; Rodrigues, Susana; Dias, Beatriz; Slade, Peter

2009-11-11

91

Factors affecting the tightening characteristics of bolts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on the tightening characteristics of bolt-nut-washer assemblies was undertaken after a preliminary literature survey showed different opinions to exist on the effect of several commonly encountered factors on the torque-tension relationship.The test program included tightening bolts up to the yield point under a planned series of combination of factors, and recording nut-tightening torque, bolt torque and tension.The main

A. Bray; R. Levi

1966-01-01

92

Factors Affecting Student Choices of Instructional Methodologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To identify factors that caused the majority of students at Los Angeles City College to prefer the traditional lecture-discussion approach to the media approach, questionnaires were administered to students in three courses--three media and two traditional. Over 200 usable questionnaires were returned. Because of scheduling variations and other…

Gold, Ben K.

93

Factors Affecting the Design of DC Magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines some of the factors which should be considered in the design of d-c magnets. The usual types of steel used are briefly discussed, including their influence on ``sticking'' or residual forces. Calculated curves are presented which show the influence of pole-face area on the force developed by the magnet. Flux measurements on a number of magnets show

L. T. Rader

1943-01-01

94

Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

2008-01-01

95

How ageing and social factors affect memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Objectives: to explore the relationships between lifestyle and memory, and determine whether social factors influence memory. Methods: the relationship between memory and lifestyle was examined in 497 adults aged 25-80 years, using the Metamemory in Adulthood questionnaire. We asked about sports activity and perceived activity, participation in voluntary organizations and social contacts. Results: activity and frequent contact with friends

Fred C. J. Stevens; C Harles D. Kaplan; J Oseph P. M. Diederiks; Jellemer Jolles

96

Factors Affecting Student Choices of Instructional Methodologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To identify factors that caused the majority of students at Los Angeles City College to prefer the traditional lecture-discussion approach to the media approach, questionnaires were administered to students in three courses--three media and two traditional. Over 200 usable questionnaires were returned. Because of scheduling variations and other…

Gold, Ben K.

97

Factors Affecting Hits in Japanese Popular Music  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the hit chart period of Japanese popular music between January and March in 1990 and in 2004, using the survival model, and examines the factors involved in producing a hit. First, the results showed that fame of the artist, ties with other media, and compilation albums featuring several artists prolonged the hits chart period. Second, the music's

Sumiko Asai

2008-01-01

98

Factors Affecting Students' Medicine-Taking Habits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines college students' beliefs about health, prescriptions, doctors, and the influence those beliefs have on adherence to prescribed medication regimens. After a brief review of attitudinal factors that influence adherence to prescription medicine directions, the authors discuss measurement issues and explain the reasons for their…

Labig, Chalmer E., Jr.; Zantow, Kenneth; Peterson, Tim O.

2005-01-01

99

Factors affecting property tax reliance: Additional evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contributes to the understanding of the variation in property tax reliance. Factors thought to underlie the relative use of property taxes in financing local public services are examined. Because of the importance of external debt and tax limits in determining both tax policies and local government organization, particular attention is paid to local government structure and the impact

David L. Chicoine; Norman Walzer

1986-01-01

100

Continuing education: factors which affect cognitive benefits.  

PubMed

A 16-week continuing education course in clinical chemistry provided for a group of laboratory professionals was evaluated in terms of those factors in the participants' backgrounds which influenced their performance on precourse and postcourse examinations. Work setting, facility size, educational background, and sex influenced precourse scores. Educational background and occupational function influenced postcourse test scores. PMID:425980

Parker, S L; Davis, S H

1979-01-01

101

Controlling external factors affecting accounts receivable.  

PubMed

External factors such as complex billing arrangements, decreasing healthcare benefits, and increasing numbers of uninsured workers contribute to a hospital's outstanding accounts receivable. Instituting measures for getting payment in full and as soon as possible can help control for outside influences and reduce outstanding receivables. PMID:10113048

Ramey, N; Bradley, L

1991-08-01

102

Factors affecting calcium balance in Chinese adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese dietary reference intakes (DRIs) for calcium were developed mainly from studies conducted amongst Caucasians, yet a recent review showed that reference calcium intakes for Asians are likely to be different from those of Caucasians (Lee and Jiang, 2008). In order to develop calcium DRIs for Chinese adolescents, it is necessary to explore the characteristics and potential influencing factors of

Jing Yin; Qian Zhang; Ailing Liu; Weijing Du; Xiaoyan Wang; Xiaoqi Hu; Guansheng Ma

2010-01-01

103

Factors Affecting Blue Oak Sapling Recruitment1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used logistic regression to identify environmental and management history factors associated with blue oak (Quercus douglasii) sapling recruitment. Recent canopy gaps caused by natural mortality or clearing were positively associated with sapling recruitment. Plots with very high or low levels of tree canopy cover were less likely to have saplings than those with intermediate canopy cover levels. Across all

Tedmund J. Swiecki; Elizabeth A. Bernhardt; Christiana Drake

104

Environmental factors affecting immune responses in Crustacea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to review and evaluate existing information about the effects of environmental changes on the immune response in Crustacea. Emphasis has been placed on natural environment variations, chemical contaminants and physico-chemical changes, especially with regard to reared shrimp. Studies on the effects of environmental factors on immune function in marine Crustacea have concentrated, predominantly, on total and differential

Gilles Le Moullac; Philippe Haffner

2000-01-01

105

Factors Affecting Thermally Induced Furan Formation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Furan, a potential carcinogen, can be induced by heat from sugars and fatty acids. However, factors that contribute to its formation in foods are unclear. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of pH, presence of phosphate, heating time and heating temperature on furan forma...

106

Factors affecting body temperatures of toads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors influencing levels and rates of variation of body temperature (Tb) in montane Bufo boreas boreas and in lowland Bufo boreas halophilus were investigated as an initial step toward understanding the role of natural thermal variation in the physiology and energetics of these ectothermic animals. Body temperatures of boreas can vary 25–30° C over 24-h periods. Such variation is primarily

Cynthia Carey

1978-01-01

107

Factors Affecting Patients' Compliance With Doctors' Advice  

PubMed Central

To what extent, and with what success, are family physicians advising patients to diet, exercise and reduce smoking? A study of 24 family physicians in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick and 66 patients with cardiovascular problems showed that two-thirds of the patients received some such advice during the audiotaped visit. Of those who did receive such advice, 29% reported at a home interview ten days later that they remembered the advice. The doctor's behavior in the interaction was found to influence the patient's memory of the advice. However, the patient's attitudes and problems were the only variables shown to affect whether or not he followed the advice.

Stewart, Moira

1982-01-01

108

Factors affecting triadimefon degradation in soils.  

PubMed

The degradation of triadimefon [1-(4-chlorophenoxy)-3,3-dimethyl-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butan-2-one] was studied in two soils, mollisol and inseptisol, under varying conditions of moisture and temperature, and the role of cow manure amendment and soil sterilization on fungicide degradation was ascertained. The soil moisture content affected the pathway followed for triadimefon degradation. In nonflooded soils (60% water-holding capacity), triadimefon was reduced to triadimenol, and in flooded soils, it was metabolized to the diol derivative [1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-3,3-dimethylbutan-2-one-1,4-diol]. In nonflooded soils, triadimefon was more persistent in soil having more organic carbon content (mollisol), and the amendment of cow manure (5%) further enhanced its persistence. On the contrary, in flooded soil systems, the higher the soil organic carbon content was, the less persistent was the fungicide, and amendment of cow manure further enhanced its degradation. Triadimefon degradation was faster at 35 degrees C than at 27 degrees C. Triadimefon degradation in soils was mediated by the microorganisms, and no triadimefon degradation was observed in sterile soils. Triadimefon (1 mg/kg) did not affect soil phosphatase activity in either of the soils; however, soil dehydrogenase activity was significantly reduced, especially in mollisol soil. PMID:15631511

Singh, Neera

2005-01-12

109

Factors which affect fatigue strength of fasteners  

SciTech Connect

Axial load cycling fatigue tests of threaded fasteners are useful in determining fastener fatigue failure or design properties. By using appropriate design factors between the failure and design fatigue strengths, such tests are used to establish fatigue failure and design parameters of fasteners for axial and bending cyclic load conditions. This paper reviews the factors which influence the fatigue strength of low Alloy steel threaded fasteners, identifies those most significant to fatigue strength, and provides design guidelines based on the direct evaluation of fatigue tests of threaded fasteners. Influences on fatigue strength of thread manufacturing process (machining and rolling of threads), effect of fastener membrane and bending stresses, thread root radii, fastener sizes, fastener tensile strength, stress relaxation, mean stress, and test temperature are discussed.

Skochko, G.W.; Herrmann, T.P.

1992-11-01

110

Factors that affect the young female athlete.  

PubMed

The past 35 years have seen a tremendous increase in the number of female athletes at all ages and abilities. Recent research has shown a myriad of benefits for girls and women who participate in sports. Physical activity positively influences almost every aspect of a young woman's health, from her physiology to her social interactions and mental health. As the level of girls' participation in sports increases, it is important to examine their risk factors for sports-related injuries. PMID:17678757

Lal, Sophia; Hoch, Anne Z

2007-08-01

111

Environmental factors affecting elite young athletes.  

PubMed

To date, much of the research concerning the performance of elite young athletes has focused on physical and physiological factors and how these relate to age and maturation. Little attention has been paid to other factors which might limit performance such as nutrition or environmental stressors. The paucity of research on the environmental effects on performance in young athletes is unsurprising given the need for experimental studies, the ethics of which would generally be untenable. As an outcome, there is a reliance on observational and case study data, e.g. observing the stressors which occur during jet lag and effects on sleep patterns, altitude and pollution. The effects of environmental factors have been predominantly researched from a health context in youngsters rather than a performance context. However, the evidence of those few empirical studies combined with coach and/or sports science support teams' experience have provided professionals with some guidelines. These applied guidelines include sleep patterns, jet lag, pollution and altitude research, to aid those preparing young athletes for training and competition in environments that present potential challenges to performance. The limitations of data extrapolated from adults are acknowledged and in all cases it is emphasised that recommendations and implementing practice should be based on data collected from young people. PMID:21178372

Williams, Craig

2010-12-21

112

Factors affecting residents' sleep in care homes.  

PubMed

Aim The aim of this study was to undertake a detailed exploration of sleep in the context of 24 hours in a care home environment, exploring the subjective experience of residents and the perceptions of staff. Method Qualitative research in four care homes for older people consisting of semi-structured interviews and ethnographic observations. Interviews were conducted with 38 residents and 39 staff, and were analysed using a grounded theory approach. Findings The findings have highlighted some challenges and opportunities for developing practice in care homes to improve residents' sleep. In addition to pain and physical disabilities, the physical environment and practices in care homes can affect residents' sleep and night-time experience. Conclusion Improving our understanding of residents' and staff's experiences at night in care homes can inform the development of good practice in night-time care and contribute to a positive culture of person-centred care. PMID:24067045

Ellmers, Theresa; Arber, Sara; Luff, Rebekah; Eyers, Ingrid; Young, Emma

2013-10-01

113

Factors affecting bony impingement in hip arthroplasty.  

PubMed

Computer modeling of 10 patients' computed tomographic scans was used to study the variables affecting hip arthroplasty range of motion before bony impingement (ROMBI) including acetabular offset and height, femoral offset, height and anteversion, and osteophyte removal. The ROMBI was compared with the ROM before component impingement and the native hip ROM. The ROMBI decreased with decreased total offset and limb shortening. Acetabular offset and height had a greater effect on ROMBI than femoral offset and height. The ROMBI lost with decreased acetabular offset was not fully recoverable with an increase in femoral offset or osteophyte removal. Bony impingement increased and component impingement decreased with decreased acetabular offset and increased head diameter. PMID:19559561

Kurtz, William B; Ecker, Timo M; Reichmann, William M; Murphy, Stephen B

2009-06-25

114

Factors Affecting Growth Factor Activity in Goat Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth factors that are present in goat milk may be responsible for its beneficial effects on the digestive system as described in ancient Chinese medical texts. To develop a nutraceutical product rich in growth fac- tors for promoting gastrointestinal health, it is essen- tial to collect milk with consistently high growth factor activity.Therefore,weinvestigatedthefactorsaffecting growth factor activity in goat milk. Among

F. Y. Wu; P. H. Tsao; D. C. Wang; S. Lin; J. S. Wu; Y. K. Cheng

2006-01-01

115

Factors Affecting Learners' Discourse Participation in a Computer Conferencing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research examined what factors affect learners' discourse participation in a Web-conferencing environment operated in a graduate course. Subjects were nine master's degree students, majoring in Educational Technology at a women's university in Seoul, Korea. Results suggest seven factors that affect students' discourse in the following ways:…

Lee, In-Sook

116

Fatherhood Across Two GenerationsFactors Affecting Early Family Roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the determinants of men's early parental roles, distinguishing factors that affect being a father versus being childless, and factors that affect being a resident versus a nonresident father, in the context of having a partner or not. We also consider whether these patterns have changed between 1985 and 2004. The data come from the linked Child-Mother and

Frances Goldscheider; Sandra Hofferth; Carrie Spearin; Sally Curtin

2009-01-01

117

Application of fuzzy cognitive maps to factors affecting slurry rheology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose fuzzy cognitive maps, a branch of fuzzy logic, to study interaction of factors affecting processes and details of the approach are discussed. Application of the technique to discriminate between factors affecting slurry rheology is demonstrated. It has been shown that hydrodynamic interaction, effective particle concentration, shape and size, temperature and shear rate have a significant influence on the

G. A. Banini; R. A. Bearman

1998-01-01

118

Fatherhood across Two Generations: Factors Affecting Early Family Roles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines the determinants of men's early parental roles, distinguishing factors that affect being a father versus being childless, and factors that affect being a resident versus a nonresident father, in the context of having a partner or not. We also consider whether these patterns have changed between 1985 and 2004. The data come…

Goldscheider, Frances; Hofferth, Sandra; Spearin, Carrie; Curtin, Sally

2009-01-01

119

Factors affecting customer relationship management practices in Thai academic libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates and analyzes the factors affecting customer relationship management (CRM) practices in Thai academic libraries. The research conceptual framework focuses on factors affecting CRM practices was developed using Combe (2004)’s study on assessing CRM strategies. Mixed methods, qualitative, and quantitative approaches were used as a research methodology. Data was collected by using the interview and survey techniques with

Piyawan Siriprasoetsin; Kulthida Tuamsuk; Cholabhat Vongprasert

120

Factors affecting family size in rural Bangladesh.  

PubMed

This was a cross sectional study which was conducted to estimate the family size and to identify the factors influencing family size in rural areas of Bangladesh. Respondents of 150 households were interviewed through interview schedule and in-depth questionnaires. The size of the family was observed as 4.59 persons where nearly half of the respondents (48%) having less than five members. Age of the respondent, number of children, age of the first and last child, average monthly income, number of rooms in the house, persons living in the main dwelling houses, number of earning persons having audio-visual assets had statistically significant association with the size of the family and all were with higher percentage in big family. Middle-income group was more in the small and big family category (75% and 65.40% respectively). The higher income group was more common in big family than small one (23.10% and 8.30% respectively). There was significant association between family size & average monthly income (p < 0.05). Number of earning persons, housing type, number of rooms in the house and persons living in the main dwelling houses were also interdependent with average monthly income and proved to be a factor for family size determination. The study emphasises that family planning activities should be intensified with modification of educational programs in mass media to attract the rural population regarding family size. PMID:16240982

Begum, M

2004-12-01

121

Factors affecting the severity of necrotizing enterocolitis.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: The severity of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) ranges from mild to rapidly fatal. However, the factors determining the severity are not known. Our objective was to identify statistical associations with NEC severity using a large database. Method: We conducted a retrospective, multi-institutional, multiyear, study of neonates with confirmed NEC. Results: Two-hundred-twenty neonates with Bell's stage???II NEC had 225 NEC episodes (157 stage II and 68 stage III). In the 3?d before NEC was diagnosed, those who went on to stage III disease were more likely to have elevations in C - reactive protein (p?factors best predicting death from NEC were; (1) a low pH (p?=?0.0005) and (2) lack of early colostrum (p?=?0.003). Conclusions: Strategies that reduce the severity of NEC would lower costs and improve outcomes. This study suggests that testable theories to accomplish this include means of; (1) reducing transfusions and (2) assuring early colostrum feedings. PMID:23611502

Miner, Cheryl A; Fullmer, Susan; Eggett, Dennis L; Christensen, Robert D

2013-05-15

122

Nerve growth factor stimulates the hydrolysis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol in PC-12 cells: A mechanism of protein kinase C regulation  

SciTech Connect

Treatment of PC-12 pheochromocytoma cells with nerve growth factor (NGF) results in the differentiation of these cells into a sympathetic neuron-like phenotype. Although the initial intracellular signals elicited by NGF remain unknown, some of the cellular effects of NGF are similar to those of other growth factors, such as insulin. The authors have investigated the involvement of a newly identified inositol-containing glycolipid in signal transduction for the actions of NGF. NGF stimulates the rapid generation of a species of diacylglycerol that is labeled with ({sup 3}H)myristate but not with ({sup 3}H)arachidonate. NGF stimulates ({sup 3}H)myristate- or ({sup 32}P)phosphate-labeled phosphatidic acid production over the same time course. Although NGF alone has no effect on the turnover of inositol phospholipids, it does stimulate the hydrolysis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol. The NGF-dependent cleavage of this lipid is accompanied by an increase in the accumulation of its polar head group, an inositol phosphate glycan, which is generated within 30-60 sec of NGF treatment. In an unresponsive PC-12 mutant cell line, neither the diacylglycerol nor inositol phosphate glycan response is detected. A possible role for the NGF-stimulated diacylglycerol is suggested by the inhibition of NGF-dependent c-fos induction by staurosporin, a potent inhibitor of protein kinase C. These results suggest that, like insulin, some of the cellular effects of NGF may be mediated by the phospholipase C-catalyzed hydrolysis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol.

Chan, B.L.; Saltiel, A.R. (Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (USA)); Chao, M.V. (Cornell Univ. Medical School, New York, NY (USA))

1989-03-01

123

Factors affecting seal life in downhole motors  

SciTech Connect

The life expectancy of rotary seals in downhole motors depends on temperature generated by sliding friction as well as ambient temperature. Heat transfer calculations show that sliding friction can produce a significant rise in temperature across seal assemblies, great enough to deteriorate the seal material and cause premature failure. Thermal conductivities of seal materials and thicknesses of shaft, sleeve, and housing are major design factors influencing steady state temperature profiles across seal assemblies. In general, smaller dimensions and higher thermal conductivities allow the friction generated heat to dissipate at a lower temperature. A parameter study led to an improved rotary seal configuration which will significantly lower peak seal temperatures in downhole motors. The design will channel drilling mud near the sliding friction surface for better dissipation of the friction generated heat. Plans are being made to incorporate this improvement into the bearing seal test assembly. It is doubtful that seals made of Buna-N will perform successfully on downhole motors, even when used in the improved design. On the other hand, calculated maximum temperatures are within material limitations of Grafoil.

Dareing, D.W.

1980-01-01

124

Factors affecting the survival of Neisseria sicca.  

PubMed

Cultures of Neisseria sicca incubated at 37 degrees C died rapidly (within 36 h) after growth ceased. Re-suspending cells in a brain heart infusion broth and storing at 4 degrees C greatly reduced the rate of decline in viability (decimal reduction time 6 days). An important factor in maintaining viability was apparently the presence of external energy source(s). Survival comparable to that in broth was obtained by incubation in Ringer's solution with pyruvate plus glucose (but not with pyruvate or glucose alone). Medium pH had little effect on survival in the range pH 7.0 to 8.5. Energy sources also promoted survival of cells in Ringer's solution or a buffered salts solution at 37 degrees C. Highest levels of survival (up to 30% at 24 h) were obtained with pyruvate, lactate, proline and glutamate. A number of other amino acids and the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, isocitrate, oxoglutarate, succinate, fumarate, malate and oxaloacetate, enhanced survival to a lesser extent. PMID:3374398

Fung, C; Glenister, D; Miles, R J; Nafi, B M

1988-01-01

125

Factors affecting mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the stability and repeatability of measures of mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets and to examine potentially confounding factors when using a hand held algometer. Study design Descriptive, prospective cohort. Animals Forty-four piglets from four litters, weighing 4.6 ± 1.0 kg (mean ± SD) at 2 weeks of age. Methods Mechanical thresholds were measured twice on each of 2 days during the first and second week of life. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures design to test the effects of behavior prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, and repetition within day. The effect of body weight and the interaction between piglet weight and behaviour were also tested. Piglet was entered into the model as a random effect as an additional test of repeatability. The effect of repeated testing was used to test the stability of measures. Pearson correlations between repeated measures were used to test the repeatability of measures. Variance component analysis was used to describe the variability in the data. Results Variance component analysis indicated that piglet explained only 17% of the variance in the data. All variables in the model (behaviour prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, repetition within day, body weight, the interaction between body weight and behaviour, piglet identity) except sex had a significant effect (p < 0.04 for all). Correlations between repeated measures increased from the first to the second week. Conclusions and Clinical relevance Repeatability was acceptable only during the second week of testing and measures changed with repeated testing and increased with increasing piglet weight, indicating that time (age) and animal body weight should be taken into account when measuring mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets. Mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds can be used both for testing the efficacy of anaesthetics and analgesics, and for assessing hyperalgesia in chronic pain states in research and clinical settings.

Janczak, Andrew M; Ranheim, Birgit; Fosse, Torunn K; Hild, Sophie; Nordgreen, Janicke; Moe, Randi O; Zanella, Adroaldo J

2012-01-01

126

Macro-micro factors affecting real estate demand analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real estate demand is an important factor to affect the real estate balanced and healthy development, an accurate analysis of the macro factors and the real estate demand relationship could give the government, land agents and house purchasers more effective services. In this paper, it uses factor analysis, system dynamics feedback diagram and multiple regression methods of econometrics. By use

Wan Li-jun; Zhang Yan; Wang Guang-xue

2009-01-01

127

Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Tutorials: Factors Affecting Students' Preferences and Choices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to determine the factors that affect students' preferences regarding tutorial modes. A learning-habit inclinations questionnaire (LHIQ) was constructed and administered to 288 students. Factor analysis revealed four factors: "time management," "ease of access" to learning materials, "positive aspects of interaction," and "negative…

Beyth-Marom, Ruth; Saporta, Kelly; Caspi, Avner

2005-01-01

128

Differential effects of platelet-derived growth factor, serum and bombesin on phospholipase D-mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidylethanolamine in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts.  

PubMed Central

In previous studies, activators of protein kinase C, sphingosine, ATP and various oncogenes were each found to enhance phospholipase D-mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Here I examined possible stimulation of PtdEtn hydrolysis by various growth-stimulatory agents, including serum, bombesin, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and insulin. Treatment of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, prelabelled with [14C]Etn or [32P]PtdEtn, with PDGF-BB resulted in enhanced formation of [14C]Etn or [32P]phosphatidic acid from the respective labelled cellular pools of PtdEtn. A maximal effect (approximately 3-fold stimulation) on PtdEtn hydrolysis was obtained with 50 ng of PDGF/ml after 5 min of treatment. Phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) was also hydrolysed, although less extensively than PtdEtn, in PDGF-stimulated cells. PDGF-stimulate hydrolysis of both PtdEtn and PtdCho was prevented by prolonged (30 h) treatment of cells with 400 nM-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Similar to PDGF, fetal calf serum (1-10%) also stimulated PtdEtn hydrolysis. However, in contrast to PDGF, the effect of serum on PtdEtn hydrolysis (i) was not diminished by pretreatment with PMA, and (ii) was synergistic with that of PMA after a 1 h incubation. Compared with PDGF and serum, bombesin had less effect on PtdEtn hydrolysis, while FGF and insulin had no effects at all. In contrast to PDGF or serum, bombesin inhibited the effect of PMA on PtdEtn hydrolysis.

Kiss, Z

1992-01-01

129

Factors Affecting the Retention Decisions of Female Surface Warfare Officers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis delineates factors affecting the retention decisions of female Surface Warfare Officers. The data were obtained from in-depth interviews conducted with 12 female senior officers and 15 female junior officers. The transcripts from the interview...

E. A. Clifton

2003-01-01

130

Initial Investigation of Factors Affecting Multi-Task Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of the first in a series of investigations designed to increase fundamental knowledge and understanding of the factors affecting multi-task performance in a military environment. The primary objective of this laboratory ex...

J. C. Swoboda L. T. Fatkin T. A. Branscome

2007-01-01

131

Analysis of Factors Affecting Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) Image Formation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Image reconstruction for positron emission mammography (PEM) with the breast positioned between two parallel, planar detectors is usually performed by backprojection to image planes. Three important factors affecting PEM image reconstruction by backprojec...

M. F. Smith S. Majewski A. G. Weisenberger D. A. Kieper R. R. Raylman

2001-01-01

132

Determining the Representative Factors Affecting Warning Message Dissemination in VANETs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a statistical analysis based on the 2k factorial methodology to determine the representative factors\\u000a affecting traffic safety applications in Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). Our purpose is to determine what are the key factors affecting Warning Message Dissemination (WMD) in order to concentrate on such parameters, thus reducing the amount of required simulation time when

Francisco J. Martinez; Chai Keong Toh; Juan-Carlos Cano; Carlos T. Calafate; Pietro Manzoni

133

Factors in Validating Affective Scales: An Applied Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of claims to the contrary, affective factors related to teaching and learning can be measured. Recent development of affective scales in reading attest to this, yet caution must be observed that as new-scales are developed, they are adequately validated so that the research emanating from their use can be regarded with a high degree of credibility. In that

Joseph Vaughan; Darrell Sabers

1977-01-01

134

Factors affecting the pharmacokinetics of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  There is significant inter-patient variability in the pharmacokinetics of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD). Identification\\u000a of factors affecting the pharmacokinetics of PLD would enable personalization of therapy. We previously reported that age,\\u000a gender, body composition, and monocytes affect the clearance of other liposomal agents. Therefore, we evaluated how these\\u000a factors affect the pharmacokinetics of PLD.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Pharmacokinetic studies of PLD were performed

Ninh M. La-Beck; Beth A. Zamboni; Alberto Gabizon; Hilary Schmeeda; Michael Amantea; Paola A. Gehrig; William C. Zamboni

135

Age as an Affective Factor in Second Language Acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This paper examines the relationship of age factor to second language acquisition. Age as an affective factor brings about different performance stages in second as well as first language learning. Traditionally, research in Critical Period Hypothesis and other variables has derived two major aspects of language learning--the younger = the better and the older = the better. However, more

Krishna K. Bista

136

Age as an Affective Factor in Second Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the relationship of age factor to second language acquisition. Age as an affective factor brings about different performance stages in second as well as first language learning. Traditionally, research in Critical Period Hypothesis and other variables has derived two major aspects of language learning--the younger = the better…

Bista, Krishna K.

2008-01-01

137

Factors Affecting Vacation Destination Choices of College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting destination choice decisions of college students. The study reports the results of a factor analysis and discusses some marketing implications. Results suggest that college students are mostly concerned with the cost of the vacation and convenience, local hospitality and services, entertainment and drinking opportunities, recreation and sporting activities available, and

ERCAN SIRAKAYA; ROBERT W. MCLELLAN

1997-01-01

138

Study of Factors Affecting Acrylamide Levels in Model Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

CIESAROVÁ Z., KISS E., KOLEK E. (2006): Study of factors affecting acrylamide levels in model systems. Czech J. Food Sci., 24: 133-137. The factors important for the acrylamide formation in model systems were studied. The effects of two starch matrices (potato, wheat), the share of two monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) on the formation of acrylamide, and the im- pact of

ZUZANA CIESAROVÁ; EUGEN KISS; EMIL KOLEK

139

FACTORS AFFECTING CONSUMER NEGATIVE PERCEPTIONS ABOUT BEEF IRRADIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has identified several important factors affecting consumer negative perceptions about beef irradiation. The effects of these factors boil down to two main points: lack of trust in the adequacy and enforcement effectiveness of food safety regulations and consumer ignorance about the irradiation process. This implies dissemination of information about food irradiation and enhancement of consumer trust in the

Senhui He; Stanley M. Fletcher; Arbindra Rimal

2004-01-01

140

Factors affecting the productivity of loaders in surface mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheel loaders are deployed as primary loading machines in surface mines due to their mobility and low operating cost. The productivity of wheel loaders or any other loading machine is affected by several factors. One of the most significant factors is the characteristic of the muck being loaded. A study was conducted to examine the effects of the looseness, angle

S. P. Singh; R. Narendrula

2006-01-01

141

Psychosocial Factors That Affect the Survival of Adult Cancer Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors reviewed articles published from 1960 to 1996 that focused on research on psychosocial interventions and factors that affect survival from cancer. In general, they concluded that psychosocial interventions are most effective in the early stages of disease, the strongest predictors of survival are biological, the effects of psychological factors on survival are inconsistent in early stage disease and

Julie G. Cwikel; Lynn C. Behar; James R. Zabora

1998-01-01

142

Factors affecting the reading habits of secondary school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys factors affecting the reading habits of secondary school students in Ogbomoso State in Nigeria and discusses the results. Highlights the following inhibiting factors: the family background of students where few homes are conducive to reading owing to noise and lack of reading materials; the lack of functional libraries in most of the schools surveyed and a similar lack of

S. A. Ogunrombi; Gboyega Adio

1995-01-01

143

Factors affecting librarians' attitudes toward IT application in libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting librarians' attitudes toward IT application in libraries. It also aims to identify common underlying factors, which could be used to predict the probable behavior of librarians toward IT innovation in their libraries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Primary data were collected through a questionnaire survey of 288 (sample of 682)

Muhammad Ramzan; Diljit Singh

2010-01-01

144

Hydrolysis of factor VIII mediated by catalytic antibodies occurs in haemophilia A patients with or without factor VIII inhibitors.  

PubMed

The major complication of the substitutive treatment of haemophilia A (HA) is the development of antifactor VIII (FVIII) antibodies. Most of these antibodies neutralize FVIII procoagulant activity, and are identified as FVIII inhibitor. A subgroup of these antibodies, 'catalytic antibodies', catalyses the FVIII hydrolysis. We investigated the frequency and the activity of catalytic antibodies, according to the phenotype of HA and the presence or absence of FVIII inhibitor. IgG from 16 patients with inhibitor and 17 patients without inhibitor were purified. Rates of FVIII hydrolysis and inhibitor titres were evaluated. Anti-FVIII catalytic antibodies were detected in 63.6% of patients with HA, irrespective of the HA phenotype and the presence of FVIII inhibitor. The frequency was significantly higher for severe HA patients (73.3%) and patients with inhibitor (87.5%), but their FVIII-proteolytic activity was not significantly different from patients with mild or moderate HA and patients without inhibitor. The evolution of both catalytic and inhibitory activities was studied for 11 patients with FVIII inhibitor. We observed two profiles. In the profile 1, 18.2% of patients, the catalytic activity and the inhibitor titre coevolved. In contrast, a dissociated evolution of these two parameters was observed in 72.8% patients in profile 2. These data confirm the importance of anti-FVIII catalytic activity in patients with severe, moderate and mild HA. Interestingly, most of the patients presented a dissociated profile, suggesting that anti-FVIII antibodies might not systematically act as FVIII inhibitors. PMID:23216758

Grosbois, S S; Brionne, M F; de Longcamp, A L F; Gautier, P; V Kaveri, S; Borel-Derlon, A; Repessé, Y

2012-12-06

145

Factors affecting breastfeeding practices: applying a conceptual framework.  

PubMed

Knowledge about factors affecting breastfeeding can be developed by further research on underlying factors and by drawing out the implications and lessons from intervention research. The use of a conceptual framework to guide this research and the interpretation of results can help us to understand the relative importance of different factors, and how they interact, in turn, helping us to design effective interventions. PMID:16106273

Hector, Debra; King, Lesley; Webb, Karen; Heywood, Peter

146

Scale Development: Factors Affecting Diet, Exercise, and Stress Management (FADESM)  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to develop scales measuring personal and environmental factors that affect dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income mothers. Methods FADESM (factors affecting diet, exercise, and stress management) scales were developed using the Social Cognitive Theory to measure personal (outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, emotional coping response) and environmental (physical environment, social environment, situation) factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management. Low-income African American and white mothers were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in three counties in Michigan. In Phase one, 45 mothers completed individual cognitive interviews. Content analyses were performed. In Phase two, items modified from the cognitive interviews were administered to 216 mothers. Factor analysis and multiple indicators/multiple causes were performed. Results Results of cognitive interviews were used to revise items for the instrument that was tested in Phase two. The factor solution revealed 19 dimensions to measure personal and environmental factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior (three dimensions), physical activity (eight dimensions), and stress management (eight dimensions). Results of multiple indicators/multiple causes model showed scale invariance. Of 19 dimensions, 15 had Cronbach alpha between 0.76 and 0.94 and four were between 0.66 and 0.69. All dimensions had composite construct reliability scores between 0.74 to 0.97 and satisfactory construct and discriminant validities. Conclusion The theory-based FADESM scales have documented good validity and reliability for measuring factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income women. Results of this study support the use of these scales with low-income African American and white mothers in community settings.

Chang, Mei-Wei; Brown, Roger; Nitzke, Susan

2008-01-01

147

Factors affecting recurrence after surgery for Crohn's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Although in Crohn's disease post-operative recurrence is common, the determinants of disease recurrence remain speculative. The aim of this study was to examine factors affecting post-operative recurrence of Crohn's disease. A Medline-based literature review was carried out. The following factors were investigated: age at onset of disease, sex, family history of Crohn's disease, smoking, duration of

Takayuki Yamamoto

148

Opposing effects of a ras oncogene on growth factor-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis: desensitization to platelet-derived growth factor and enhanced sensitivity to bradykinin  

SciTech Connect

Expression of a transforming Harvey or Kirsten ras gene caused opposing effects in the ability of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and bradyknin to activate phospholipase C-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis. In (/sup 3/H)inositol-labeled rat-1 fibroblasts, PDGF resulted in a 2-fold increase in the level of (/sup 3/H)inositol trisphosphate (InsP/sub 3/) after 2 min and, in the presence of LiCl, a 3- to 8-fold increase in the level of (/sup 3/H)inositol monophosphate (InsP/sub 1/) after 30 min. However, in EJ-ras-transfected rat-1 cells, which exhibit near normal levels of PDGF receptors, PDGF resulted in little or no accumulation of either (/sup 3/H)InsP/sub 3/ or (/sup 3/H)InsP/sub 1/. Similarly, marked stimulations by PDGF were observed in NIH 3T3 cells, as well as in v-src-transformed 3T3 cells, but not in 3T3 cells transformed by Kirsten sarcoma virus or by transfection with v-Ha-ras DNA. This diminished phosphoinositide response in ras-transformed cells was associated with a markedly attenuated mitogenic response to PDGF. On the other hand, both phosphoinositide metabolism and DNA synthesis in ras-transformed fibroblasts were stimulated several-fold by serum. In NIH 3T3 cells carrying a glucocorticoid-inducible v-Ha-ras gene, a close correlation was found between the expression of p21/sup ras/ and the loss of PDGF-stimulated (/sup 3/H)InsP/sub 1/ accumulation. The authors propose that a ras gene product (p21) can, directly or indirectly, influence growth factor-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis, as well as DNA synthesis, via alterations in the properties of specific growth factor receptors.

Parries, G.; Hoebel, R.; Racker, E.

1987-05-01

149

The Crystal Structure of Human Eukaryotic Release Factor eRF1—Mechanism of Stop Codon Recognition and Peptidyl-tRNA Hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release factor eRF1 terminates protein biosynthesis by recognizing stop codons at the A site of the ribosome and stimulating peptidyl-tRNA bond hydrolysis at the peptidyl transferase center. The crystal structure of human eRF1 to 2.8 Å resolution, combined with mutagenesis analyses of the universal GGQ motif, reveals the molecular mechanism of release factor activity. The overall shape and dimensions

Haiwei Song; Pierre Mugnier; Amit K Das; Helen M Webb; David R Evans; Mick F Tuite; Brian A Hemmings; David Barford

2000-01-01

150

Factors affecting characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three major factors affect the characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors in terms of their levitation properties during interaction with permanent magnets. First, the appropriate parameter for the permanent magnet is internal magnetization, not the value of the magnetic field measured at the magnet`s surface. Second, although levitation force grows with superconductor thickness and surface area, for a given permanent magnet

1997-01-01

151

Investigation of factors affecting crosstalk in a rotary transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the main cause of crosstalk in a cylindrical type rotary transformer by using the electromagnetic field analysis taking account of both the eddy current and the displacement current. Factors affecting the crosstalk of the rotary transformer are also discussed, namely, the permeability and permittivity of core, the conductivity of short-circuited ring and the number of windings per

Hiroto Inoue; Hirotsugu Fusayasu; N. Takahashi

1997-01-01

152

Factors affecting the kinetics of disulfide bond reduction in hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis The kinetics of hair disulfide bond reduction by dihydrolipoic acid (DHL), dithiothreitol (DTT), and 1,3 dithiopropanol (DTP) and their analogs have been investigated using a single-fiber technique. Structure- activity relationships are described, and it is shown that the overall rate of reduction may be altered by factors that affect the equilibrium constant of the reaction between the reducing agent

R. RANDALL WICKETT; BRUCE G. BARMAN

153

Mothers, Fathers, Families, and Circumstances: Factors Affecting Children's Adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burgeoning empirical literature exploring the factors accounting for individual differences in psychological adjustment is reviewed. Many studies have shown that adjustment is largely affected by differences in the quality of parenting and parent–child relationships, the quality of the relationships between the parents, and the richness of the economic and social resources available to the family; more recent research signals

Michael E. Lamb

2012-01-01

154

Factors affecting retention of early pregnancy in dairy cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential factors affecting retention of pregnancy during weeks 5–9 of gestation were studied in dairy cows and heifers (N=211) on two farms. Cows were examined by ultrasonography for presence of a viable embryo, and sizes of the corpus luteum (CL) and of follicles ?5mm were recorded. Blood samples were taken at each examination and assayed for progesterone and estradiol. Overall

Melanie J Starbuck; Robert A Dailey; E. Keith Inskeep

2004-01-01

155

Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini

2010-01-01

156

Factors affecting biology lesseon motivation of high school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research is to evaluate the factors affecting biology lesson motivation of high school students. The data of this research are collected by using “Biology Lesson Motivation Questionnaire” and “Personal Information Form”. At the end of the research, there is a significant difference between the level of students’ biology lesson motivation and students’ sex. On the other

Gülay Ekici

2010-01-01

157

Organizational and Cultural Factors Affecting International Transfer of Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the results of a study of a global company that examined the effect of training design and work environment on the transfer of human resources development training. Presents a model of international transfer of training and discusses organizational factors and cultural differences that affected the transfer of training. (LRW)|

Lim, Doo H.

1999-01-01

158

Factors Affecting the Relative Efficiency of General Acid Catalysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factors affecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.|

Kwan, Eugene E.

2005-01-01

159

Factors affecting DNA damage caused by lipid hydroperoxides and aldehydes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single (SSB) and double strand breaks (DSB) in supercoiled plasmid DNA pBR322 reacted with linoleic acid hydroperoxides (LOOH) were followed by agarose gel electrophoresis to obtain definitive information about factors affecting LOOH interaction with DNA. In water, LOOH induced extensive DSB, which were metal mediated and increased with incubation time. Adventitious metal bound to DNA was sufficient to decompose LOOH

Ming-Hua Yang; Karen M. Schaich

1996-01-01

160

Factors Affecting Use of Environmental Services by the Elderly.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The ability to function independently in the later years has been defined as a combination of capability and support. To examine factors affecting older adults' use of services provided in an accommodating environment, 52 physically independent residents of an Arizona apartment complex for the elderly were surveyed. Time spent living in the…

Hartwigsen, Gail

161

Exploring the Factors that Affect Reading Comprehension of EAP Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As far as academic reading comprehension is concerned, a network of linguistic skills and strategies operate in a complex and integrated matter. Since it is impossible to examine all the factors affecting reading comprehension all at once, it is more reasonable to compare and contrast the predictive effects of specific variables against each…

Nergis, Aysegul

2013-01-01

162

Factors Affecting the Service of Large-Diameter Wire Rope.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Service life of large-diameter wire rope is a major concern in the surface coal mining industry. Differences in rope construction may play an important role in service life and performance. Many of the factors affecting large rope service life could be ec...

G. H. Beeman

1978-01-01

163

Factors affecting Iran`s future. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the factors affecting Iran`s future by focusing on the demographic, economic, and military trends in Iran and their impact on the country`s national security objectives in the next decade. The paper also assesses the implications of an economic embargo on Iran and potential Iranian threats to regional and United States national interests.

Sinai, J.

1993-05-28

164

Understanding Correlation: Factors that Affect the Size of r  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors describe and illustrate 6 factors that affect the size of a Pearson correlation: (a) the amount of variability in the data, (b) differences in the shapes of the 2 distributions, (c) lack of linearity, (d) the presence of 1 or more "outliers," (e) characteristics of the sample, and (f) measurement error. Also discussed are ways to…

Goodwin, Laura D.; Leech, Nancy L.

2006-01-01

165

Factors Affecting the Technology Readiness of Health Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Federal government policies are promoting diffusion of technologies into the healthcare system. If health professionals reject the new technologies planned for the healthcare system, it could result in costly failures, delays, and workforce problems. There is a lack of knowledge about factors that affect technology readiness (TR), defined as the…

Myers, Stephanie E.

2010-01-01

166

AFFECTIVE FACTORS FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the affective factors from the point of view of clinical psychology. Our scheme of personality description places sense feelings and instinct feelings at the first level of complexity. An attempt should be made, in regard to sense feelings, to show what the person does because his feeling of pleasure or displeasure is unusually strong in connection with

Edward M. Westburgh

1936-01-01

167

Principals' Perception regarding Factors Affecting the Performance of Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the perception of principals on how the factors of subject mastery, teaching methodology, personal characteristics, and attitude toward students affect the performance of teachers at higher secondary level in the Punjab. All principals of higher secondary level in the Punjab were part of the population of the study. From…

Akram, Muhammad Javaid; Raza, Syed Ahmad; Khaleeq, Abdur Rehman; Atika, Samrana

2011-01-01

168

Factors Affecting the Outcomes of School Bond Elections in Iowa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In spite of a nationwide concern for the crumbling infrastructure of school buildings, the prospects of passing bond issues to repair or replace buildings are elusive. This study examined positive and negative factors that affected the outcomes of school bond elections in four purposefully-selected school districts in Iowa. Variables that…

Lode, Marlin D.

169

Factors affecting internship satisfaction: Based on organizational socialization theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internship is not only the learning tools but also a good chance for college students to understand the workplace culture and his or her future working role within the organization. Based on organizational socialization theory, this empirical study analyzes the factors affecting college students' internship satisfaction. The major finding is that: the organizational socialization tactics adopted by the organizations and

He Huang; Jia Jia

2010-01-01

170

Rheometric Measurement of Dough Rheological Characteristics and Factors Affecting It  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bread is one of the most important foods consumed all over the world. This review focuses on the use of rheometer for the measurement of dough rheological properties and factors affecting them. Rheological properties of dough are very important in bread baking quality. Knowledge of the rheological behavior of bread dough is very important to understand mechanical properties of the

HOSSEIN MIRSAEEDGHAZI; ZAHRA EMAM-DJOMEH; SAYED MOHAMMAD ALI MOUSAVI

171

Factors Affecting Consumers' Fluid Milk Purchasing Patterns in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates product attributes, advertising, and demographic factors that influence purchasing patterns of fresh milk, flavored milk, and yogurt drinks in Taiwan. Results indicate that freshness is the most important product attribute when consumers purchase fluid milk products. Product prices and brands affect purchasing quantities of flavored milk products but have no effects on fresh milk or yogurt drinks.

Jane Lu Hsu; Jui-Sheng Kao

2001-01-01

172

Factors Affecting the Development and Use of Learning Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explored barriers and facilitating factors affecting the development and use of learning objects in developing instructional materials and their use in supporting individualized learning. Over a two-month period, students in a graduate-level instructional design course developed instructional materials incorporating learning objects or…

Moisey, Susan D.; Ally, Mohamed; Spencer, Bob

2006-01-01

173

Factors affecting secondary sex ratio in Iranian Holsteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors affecting secondary sex ratio (SSR) in Iranian Holsteins. Data of 942,941 Holstein calving events from the Animal Breeding Center of Iran, recorded between January 1996 and December 2007, were used in the analysis. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to model the logit of the probability of a male

Navid Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh

174

Reproductive Factors Affecting the Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OZDEMIR, F., DEMIRBAG, D. and RODOPLU, M. Reproductive Factors Affecting the Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 2005, 205 (3), 277-285 ?? Osteoporosis has been defined as a metabolic bone disease characterized by a loss of bone mineral density (BMD) greater than 2.5 standard deviations below young adult peak bone mass or the presence of fracture.

Ferda Ozdemir; Derya Demirbag; Meliha Rodoplu

2005-01-01

175

Factors affecting Internet use in a saturated-access population  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a large body of literature that focuses on technology and innovation adoption. Much of that deals with the factors that affect adoption at different stages. Some research deals with early adoption, such as that by Rogers (1995). Other research looks at innovations as they begin to penetrate the general population, such as Lin’s (1998) study of personal computer

Rick Busselle; Joey Reagan; Bruce Pinkleton; Kim Jackson

1999-01-01

176

Communication and Related Factors Affecting Academic Success Among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzed varying factors affecting college student’s graduation intentions. To predict intention, an Elaborated Theory of Planned Behavior model was used to study the effects of attitude, normative, normative communication, and perceived control beliefs while accounting for past classroom experiences with university faculty and administrators. While further analysis must be conducted to test the elaborated model, regression analysis revealed

Disraelly Cruz

2005-01-01

177

Industry Training: The Factors that Affect Demand. Discussion Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted in Australia, to determine the factors that affect demand for job training. The study consisted of 30 detailed industry case studies, an industry analysis, and a literature review. Each case study examined current training practices, training decision making in the business, and the determinants of training for the…

Smith, A.; Roberts, P.; Noble, C.; Hayton, G.; Thorne, E.

178

Factors Affecting Environmental Knowledge and Attitudes among Lebanese College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study aimed at assessing the variables that would positively affect the knowledge and attitude of a group of Lebanese college students regarding the environment, namely such factors as gender, age, previous hiking experience and living abroad. A purposeful sample of students attending the Lebanese American University, was asked to fill out a questionnaire that assesses four major domains

Ahmad Oweini; Ahmad Houri

2006-01-01

179

Factors affecting infection of citrus with Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri (Xac) causes citrus canker and is now considered endemic in Florida. Factors affecting dispersal and infection of the bacteria need to be understood to help optimize disease management strategies. Wind (0-18 m/sec) was simulated outdoors using a fan to study infection...

180

Principals' Perception regarding Factors Affecting the Performance of Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the perception of principals on how the factors of subject mastery, teaching methodology, personal characteristics, and attitude toward students affect the performance of teachers at higher secondary level in the Punjab. All principals of higher secondary level in the Punjab were part of the population of the study. From…

Akram, Muhammad Javaid; Raza, Syed Ahmad; Khaleeq, Abdur Rehman; Atika, Samrana

2011-01-01

181

Factors Affecting Environmental Knowledge and Attitudes among Lebanese College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This exploratory study aimed at assessing the variables that would positively affect the knowledge and attitude of a group of Lebanese college students regarding the environment, namely such factors as gender, age, previous hiking experience and living abroad. A purposeful sample of students attending the Lebanese American University, was asked…

Oweini, Ahmad; Houri, Ahmad

2006-01-01

182

FACTORS AFFECTING THERMAL SHOCK RESISTANCE OF POLYPHASE CERAMIC BODIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of the factors which affect the thermal shock ; resistance of polyphase ceramic systems was conducted using the model system ; zirconium carbide-graphite. The effect of graphite on the physical properties of ; the zirconium carbide is to increase the strain at fracture, thermal ; conductivity, and thermal diffusivity thereby increasing thermal shock resistance. ; Of significance is

D. P. H. Hasselman; P. T. B. Shaffer

1962-01-01

183

Factors affecting compliance with depot injection treatment in the community  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated aspects of the community psychiatric care of psychotic patients living in inner city areas, and especially those of Afro-Caribbean ethnicity. Ethnicity was not found to be a major factor affecting complicance with depot injections. More important were variables such as time since first treatment and sex. Defaulters from treatment were more likely to be subsequently admitted to

S. Tunnicliffe; G. Harrison; P. J. Standen

1992-01-01

184

Factors Affecting Technology Uses in Schools: An Ecological Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why is technology not used more in schools? Many researchers have tried to solve this persistent puzzle. The authors of this article report on their study of technology uses in 19 schools. They suggest an ecological metaphor, using the example of the introduction of the zebra mussel into the Great Lakes, to integrate and organize sets of factors that affect

Yong Zhao; Kenneth A. Frank

2003-01-01

185

Factors affecting coliform bacteria growth in distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory studies were carried out to determine which factors influence the survival and growth of coliforms, particularly Klebsiella pneumoniae, in drinking water distribution systems. Tubercle material scraped from the lumen of distribution pipes adversely affected the maintenance of a free available chlorine residual and supported K. pneumoniae growth. The pH of the water markedly influenced the survival of bacteria; 50

R. S. Martin; W. H. Gates; R. S. Tobin; D. Grantham; R. Sumarah; P. Wolfe; P. Forestall

1982-01-01

186

Factors Affecting Latent Infection of Prune Fruit by Monilinia fructicola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Luo, Y., and Michailides, T. J. 2001. Factors affecting latent infection of prune fruit by Monilinia fructicola. Phytopathology 91:864-872. Experiments were conducted in three prune orchards in California. In each orchard, inoculations with Monilinia fructicola, the causal agent of brown rot of stone fruits, were performed on branches of trees at bloom and fruit developmental stages. Five inoculum concentrations were

Yong Luo; Themis J. Michailides

2001-01-01

187

Factors Affecting Educational Innovation with in Class Electronic Response Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports the use of Rogers' diffusion of innovation perspective to understand the factors affecting educational innovation decisions, specifically in regard to in class electronic response systems. Despite decreasing costs and four decades of research showing strong student support, academic adoption is limited. Using data collected…

Freeman, Mark; Bell, Amani; Comerton-Forde, Carole; Pickering, Joanne; Blayney, Paul

2007-01-01

188

Factors Affecting Coefficient Alpha: A Mini Monte Carlo Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factors affecting a lower-bound estimate of internal consistency reliability, Cronbach's coefficient alpha, are explored. Theoretically, coefficient alpha is an estimate of the correlation between two tests drawn at random from a pool of items like the items in the test under consideration. As a practical matter, coefficient alpha can be an index…

Reinhardt, Brian M.

189

Factors affecting fluid milk purchasing sources in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated main factors affecting fluid milk purchasing sources of households in Turkey. From the collected household survey data, a multinomial logit model was estimated to analyze households’ choices among unpacked, processed and processed-unpacked fluid milk alternatives within the utility maximization framework. The results indicated that number of children, household size, educational level and income were among the important

Selim Adem Hatirli; Burhan Ozkan; Ali Riza Aktas

2004-01-01

190

Factors Affecting the Relative Efficiency of General Acid Catalysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factors affecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.

Kwan, Eugene E.

2005-01-01

191

Factors affecting the division of labor in households  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on the division of household labor in 108 Australian married-couple households and the factors which affect it. The data confirm the persistence of a very segregated division of household labor within Australian families and thus support L. Bryson's (“Thirty Years of Research on the Division of Labor in Australian Families,” Australian Journal of Sex, Marriage & Family,

John K. Antill; Sandra Cotton

1988-01-01

192

Reactive oxygen species affect ATP hydrolysis by targeting a highly conserved amino acid cluster in the thylakoid ATP synthase ? subunit.  

PubMed

The vast majority of organisms produce ATP by a membrane-bound rotating protein complex, termed F-ATP synthase. In chloroplasts, the corresponding enzyme generates ATP by using a transmembrane proton gradient generated during photosynthesis, a process releasing high amounts of molecular oxygen as a natural byproduct. Due to its chemical properties, oxygen can be reduced incompletely which generates several highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are able to oxidize a broad range of biomolecules. In extension to previous studies it could be shown that ROS dramatically decreased ATP synthesis in situ and affected the CF1 portion in vitro. A conserved cluster of three methionines and a cysteine on the chloroplast ? subunit could be identified by mass spectrometry to be oxidized by ROS. Analysis of amino acid substitutions in a hybrid F1 assembly system indicated that these residues were exclusive catalytic targets for hydrogen peroxide and singlet oxygen, although it could be deduced that additional unknown amino acid targets might be involved in the latter reaction. The cluster was tightly integrated in catalytic turnover since mutants varied in MgATPase rates, stimulation by sulfite and chloroplast-specific ? subunit redox-modulation. Some partial disruptions of the cluster by mutagenesis were dominant over others regarding their effects on catalysis and response to ROS. PMID:22727877

Buchert, Felix; Schober, Yvonne; Römpp, Andreas; Richter, Mark L; Forreiter, Christoph

2012-06-19

193

Are Affective Factors a Good Predictor of Science Achievement? Examining the Role of Affective Factors Based on PISA 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated how affective factors like attitude and motivation contribute to science achievement in PISA 2006 using linear structural modeling. The data set of PISA 2006 collected from 4942 fifteen-year-old Turkish students (2290 females, 2652 males) was used for the statistical analyses. A total of 42 selected items on a four point…

Ozel, Murat; Caglak, Serdar; Erdogan, Mehmet

2013-01-01

194

Factors affecting receipt of chemotherapy in women with breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Aims: To review literature describing factors associated with receipt of chemotherapy for breast cancer, to better understand what factors are most relevant to women’s health and whether health disparities are apparent, and to assess how these factors might affect observational studies and outcomes research. Patterns of care for metastatic breast cancer, for which no standard-of-care exists, were of particular interest. Methods: Relevant studies written in English, Italian, French, or Spanish, published in 2000 or later, were identified through MEDLINE and reviewed. Review articles and clinical trials were excluded; all observational studies and surveys were considered. Articles were reviewed for any discussion of patient characteristics, hospital/physician/insurance characteristics, psychosocial characteristics, and clinical characteristics affecting receipt of chemotherapy by breast cancer patients. Results: In general, factors associated with increased likelihood of receiving chemotherapy included younger age, being Caucasian, having good general health and few co-morbidities, having more severe clinical disease, having responded well to previous treatment, and having breast cancer that is estrogen- or progesterone-receptor-negative. Many of the clinical factors found to increase the likelihood of receiving chemotherapy were consistent with current oncology guidelines. Of the relevant 19 studies identified, only six (32%) reported data specific to metastatic cancer; most studies aggregated women with stage I–IV for purposes of analysis. Conclusion: Studies of patterns of care in breast cancer treatment can help identify challenges in health care provided to particular subgroups of women and can aid researchers in designing studies that account for such factors in clinical and outcomes research. Although scarce, studies evaluating only women with metastatic breast cancer indicate that factors affecting decisions related to receipt of chemotherapy are similar across stage for this disease.

Morimoto, Libby; Coalson, Jenna; Mowat, Fionna; O'Malley, Cynthia

2010-01-01

195

Physician-Related Factors Affecting Cardiac Rehabilitation Referral  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite the positive impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on quality of life and mortality, the majority of people who could benefit from this program fail to participate in it. The lack of referral from the physician is a common reason that patients give for not seeking CR. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral by cardiologists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 122 cardiologists, including 89 general cardiac specialists and 33 fellows in cardiology from 11 major cardiology training centers in Iran, was done in 2010. They responded to the 14- item investigator-generated survey, examining the physician’s attitudinal and knowledge factors affecting CR referral. Results: 47.9% of the subjects reported having available CR centers but only 6.6% reported continuous medical education on the topic. 90.7% of the physicians reported that less than 15% of patients are referred to CR centers. The main factor affecting the low referral rate was limited general knowledge about CR programs (79.5%) such as program attributes and benefits, methods of reimbursement. Lack of insurance coverage, unavailability of CR centers in the community and low physicians’ fee were other factors reported by the physicians. Conclusion: Cardiologists’ inadequate general knowledge of and attitude toward CR programs seem to be a potential threat for cardiac prevention and rehabilitation in some societies.

Moradi, Bahieh; Maleki, Majid; Esmaeilzadeh, Maryam; Abkenar, Hooman Bakhshandeh

2011-01-01

196

Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens  

SciTech Connect

The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

Daniel P. Molloy

2004-02-24

197

Single-tooth replacement: factors affecting different prosthetic treatment modalities  

PubMed Central

Background The choice between several treatment options for replacing a single missing tooth is influenced by clinical, dentist- and patient-immanent factors. This study aimed to determine the patient factors that would affect the treatment decision to replace a single missing tooth and to assess the satisfaction with several options. Method 200 volunteers involved (121 females and 79 males) divided into four groups, Group A: consisted of patients with conventional fixed partial dentures or patients with resin bonded fixed partial dentures. Group B: consisted of patients who received removable partial dentures while Group C: consisted of patients who received a single implant supported crown, and a control group D: consisted of patients who received no treatment. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Results The highest percentage of males within groups (58%) was within the removable prostheses category. The majority of the subjects in the study reported that the main reason for replacing a missing tooth was for esthetic and function. Most important factor affecting the choice between treatment modalities was damaging the neighboring teeth. Pain, post operative sensitivity and dental phobia were important factors in choosing the prosthesis type and affected the control group patients not to have any treatment. The highest satisfaction percentage among groups studied was recorded for dental implants then FPD groups, while the least percentage were in both the control and RPD groups, for all aspects of function, esthetic and speech efficiency. Conclusions The final choice between FPD, RPD and implant depended on several factors which affected the decision making; among these is cost and patients' awareness of the different treatment options.

2011-01-01

198

76 FR 35912 - Business Jet Aircraft Industry: Structure and Factors Affecting Competitiveness; Institution of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...332-526] Business Jet Aircraft Industry: Structure and Factors Affecting Competitiveness...332-526, Business Jet Aircraft Industry: Structure and Factors Affecting Competitiveness...investigation and prepare a report on the structure and factors affecting the...

2011-06-20

199

Factors affecting the adsorption of trichloroethylene onto activated carbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, an experimental study aimed at the assessment of the factors affecting the adsorption of trichloroethylene (TCE) from water solutions onto activated carbons is presented. The influence of sorbent properties, such as B.E.T. surface area, micropore volume, chemical composition and acid\\/basic surface functional groups on TCE adsorption capacity is experimentally assessed by testing a set of 12 sorbents.

A. Erto; R. Andreozzi; A. Lancia; D. Musmarra

2010-01-01

200

Factors Affecting Cataloging Time: An In-House Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a survey sheet devised in-house in the spring of 2001, cataloging staff at Carnegie Mellon University Libraries monitored the amount of time required to catalog materials from receipt in the Acquisitions Department to shelf-ready status and the factors affecting cataloging time. Monographs, music scores, videos, and theses were among the materials cataloged by a combined total of 7 1\\/2

Terry Hurlbert; Linda L. Dujmic

2004-01-01

201

Legal factors affecting the financing of small scale hydroelectric projects  

SciTech Connect

An introduction to the major business organizational options open to small-scale hydroelectric (SSH) projects is given. The major federal income tax treatments of these options are compared. Significant general federal income tax factors affecting SSH projects are reintroduced and explained. Some of the special federal income tax problem areas in SSH development are isolated. Tax benefit flow through or transfer mechanisms are discussed. Tax exempt financing opportunities for private SSH projects are reviewed. (MHR)

Wilson, W.H.; Ringo, M.J.; Forgione, N.

1983-09-01

202

Factors affecting the nutritional quality of soya products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional quality of soya products is determined not only by the quantity and availability of the amino acids which\\u000a make up the protein of such products, but is also markedly affected by the processing conditions which are employed in their\\u000a manufacture. The most important factor in this regard is the application of some form of heat treatment which serves

I. E. Liener; M. Swaminathan; V. Subrahmanyan

1981-01-01

203

Factors affecting mechanical properties of silicon oxynitride ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of additives and impurities on the mechanical properties of silicon oxynitride ceramics was investigated. The toughening of the ceramics was affected by three factors: (1) the thermal tensile stress in the intergranular glassy phase and the compressive stress in Si2N2O grains, developed by a thermal expansion mismatch between Si2N2O grains and the intergranular glassy phase; (2) the large

Masayoshi Ohashi; Kazuo Nakamura; Kiyoshi Hirao; Motohiro Toriyama; Shuzo Kanzaki

1997-01-01

204

Factors Affecting Exhalation of Radon From a Gravelly Sandy Loam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of radon exhalation from a gravely sandy loam have been made in a semi-arid climate by using a combination of closed accumulation, flow-through accumulation, and 222Rn and 2Xøpb soil profiles. The meteorological factors that most affected the instantaneous value of exhalation of 222Rn were atmospheric pressure and rain. Effects due to other parameters such as wind or temperature were

S. D. Schery; D. H. Gaeddert; M. H. Wilkening

1984-01-01

205

Environmental factors affecting indole production in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria produce large quantities of indole as an intercellular signal in microbial communities. Biosynthesis of indole is well-studied, and while carbon sources and amino acids are important environmental cues for indole production in Escherichia coli, other environmental factors affecting indole production for this strain are less clear. This study demonstrates that the environmental

Thi Hiep Han; Jin-Hyung Lee; Moo Hwan Cho; Thomas K. Wood; Jintae Lee

2011-01-01

206

Experimental determination of the factors affecting zinc electrowinning efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the factors affecting the efficiency of zinc electrowinning. The experiments were conducted in 10-1 cells using a high purity industrial zinc sulphate solution. The lowest specific energy consumption achieved in the cells was 2637 kWh t-1 Zn under the following conditions:\\u000a$$\\\\begin{gathered} 70 g1^{ - 1} Zn in cell solution \\\\hfill \\\\\\\\

A. C. Scott; R. M. Pitblado; G. W. Barton; A. R. Ault

1988-01-01

207

Factors affecting chromate reduction in Enterobacter cloacae strain HO1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors affecting chromate reduction by cultures of Enterobacter cloacae HO1 were investigated. The reduction was sensitive to oxygen stress and E. cloacae strain HO1 could reduce chromate only under anaerobic conditions. Rates of reduction of chromate were proportional to cell number. The optimal pH was between 7.0 and 7.8, and the optimal temperature was 30°–37°C. High rates of reduction were

Kohya Komori; Pi-chao Wang; Kiyoshi Toda; Hisao Ohtake

1989-01-01

208

Factors Affecting the Crevice Corrosion Susceptibility of Alloy 22  

SciTech Connect

The susceptibility or Alloy 22 (N06022) to crevice corrosion may depend on environmental or external factors and metallurgical or internal factors. Some of the most important environmental factors are chloride concentration, inhibitors, temperature and potential. The presence of a weld seam or second phase precipitation in the alloy are classified as internal factors. The localized corrosion resistance of Alloy 22 has been extensively investigated in the last five years, however not all affecting factors were considered in the studies. This paper discusses the current findings regarding the effect of many of these variables on the susceptibility (or resistance) of Alloy 22 to crevice corrosion. The effect of variables such as temperature, chloride concentration and nitrate are rather well understood. However there are only limited or no data regarding effect of other factors such as pH, other inhibitive or deleterious species and type of crevicing material and crevice geometry. There are contradictory results regarding the effect of metallurgical factors such as solution heat treatment.

Rebak, R B

2004-11-24

209

Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and maintenance; existence of fund for operation and maintenance; willingness to contribute money; existence of a user's committee; participation in the initial planning and design of the water scheme; and coordination between the local leaders and user's committee. The main factors which made the schemes unsustainable were: long fetching time; non-involvement in decision making; lack of willingness to contribute funds; absence of users committee; and lack of cooperation between local leaders and the users committee. Water service providers should address the technical, social, financial and institutional factors identified affecting sustainability in their planning and implementation of rural water schemes.

Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.

210

Factors Affecting Sleep Quality of Patients in Intensive Care Unit  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Sleep disturbance is a frequently overlooked complication of intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Aim: To evaluate sleep quality among patients admitted to ICU and investigate environmental and non-environmental factors that affect sleep quality in ICU. Methods: Over a 22-month period, we consecutively recruited patients who spent ? 2 nights post-endotracheal extubation in ICU and who were orientated to time, place, and person on the day of discharge. Self-reported sleep quality, according to a modified Freedman questionnaire, which provided data on self-reported ICU sleep quality in ICU and environmental factors affecting sleep quality in the ICU, were collected. We also investigated non-environmental factors, such as severity of illness, ICU interventions, and medications that can affect sleep quality. Results: Fifty males and 50 females were recruited with a mean (± SD) age of 65.1 ± 15.2 years. APACHE II score at admission to ICU was 18.1 ± 7.5 with duration of stay 6.7 ± 6.5days. Self-reported sleep quality score at home (1 = worst; 10 = best) was 7.0 ± 2.2; this decreased to 4.0 ± 1.7 during their stay in ICU (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis with APACHE III as severity of illness (R2 = 0.25), factors [exp(b)(95% CI), p value] which significantly affected sleep in ICU were sex [0.37(0.19-0.72), p < 0.01], age and sex interaction [1.02(1.01-1.03), p < 0.01], bedside phone [0.92(0.87-0.97), p < 0.01], prior quality of sleep at home [1.30(1.05-1.62), p = 0.02], and use of steroids [0.82(0.69-0.98), p = 0.03] during the stay in ICU. Conclusion: Reduced sleep quality is a common problem in ICU with a multifactorial etiology. Citation: Bihari S; McEvoy RD; Kim S; Woodman RJ; Bersten AD. Factors affecting sleep quality of patients in intensive care unit. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(3):301-307.

Bihari, Shailesh; Doug McEvoy, R.; Matheson, Elisha; Kim, Susan; Woodman, Richard J.; Bersten, Andrew D.

2012-01-01

211

75 FR 62634 - Proposed Information Collection (Obligation to Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection (Obligation to Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity: Comment...technology. Title: Obligation to Report Factors Affecting Entitlement (38 CFR 3.204...must report changes in their entitlement factors. Individual factors such as...

2010-10-12

212

78 FR 46418 - Proposed Information Collection (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity; Comment...technology. Title: Obligation to Report Factors Affecting Entitlement (38 CFR 3.204...must report changes in their entitlement factors. Individual factors such as...

2013-07-31

213

75 FR 80114 - Agency Information Collection (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity Under...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity Under...INFORMATION: Title: Obligation to Report Factors Affecting Entitlement (38 CFR 3.204...must report changes in their entitlement factors. Individual factors such as...

2010-12-21

214

Factors affecting the digestibility of raw and gelatinized potato starches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzymatic digestibilities of raw and gelatinized starches in various potato starches, as well as sweet potato, cassava, and yam starches, were estimated, along with other starch properties, such as the phosphorus content, median granule size, and rapid visco analyzer (RVA) pasting properties. Furthermore, correlation coefficients were calculated between the hydrolysis rates (HR) by amylase and other starch quality parameters.

T. Noda; S. Takigawa; C. Matsuura-Endo; T. Suzuki; N. Hashimoto; N. S. Kottearachchi; H. Yamauchi; I. S. M. Zaidul

2008-01-01

215

Factors affecting the prescribing patterns of antibiotics and injections.  

PubMed

There are serious problems concerning the inadequate prescription of antibiotics and overuse of injections in primary care. However, the determinants of prescription patterns in Korea are not well-documented. To examine the area characteristics affecting the prescription of antibiotics and injections in primary care practices in the treatment of respiratory tract infections (RTIs), a nationwide cross-sectional study was performed in all 250 administrative districts of Korea. The outcome was modeled as a binary variable: over-prescription or not compared with the nation-wide average. Over-prescription of antibiotics was associated with the ratio of specialists to general physicians and over-prescription in previous years in the area (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-14.8; and aOR, 12.0; 95% CI 5.5-25.9, respectively). Over-use of injections was associated with younger population, urban living and the number of hospital beds in the area (aOR, 0.2; 95% CI 0.1-0.4; aOR, 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.8; and aOR, 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.9; respectively). There were differences in the prescribing patterns in different districts; prescription patterns were affected more by supply factors than by demand factors. Highly competitive medical environment associated with supply factors is a significant determinant of prescription patterns in Korea. PMID:22323857

Choi, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Sang-Min; Lee, Ju-Hyun; Kwon, Soonman

2012-01-27

216

Factors Affecting the Prescribing Patterns of Antibiotics and Injections  

PubMed Central

There are serious problems concerning the inadequate prescription of antibiotics and overuse of injections in primary care. However, the determinants of prescription patterns in Korea are not well-documented. To examine the area characteristics affecting the prescription of antibiotics and injections in primary care practices in the treatment of respiratory tract infections (RTIs), a nationwide cross-sectional study was performed in all 250 administrative districts of Korea. The outcome was modeled as a binary variable: over-prescription or not compared with the nation-wide average. Over-prescription of antibiotics was associated with the ratio of specialists to general physicians and over-prescription in previous years in the area (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-14.8; and aOR, 12.0; 95% CI 5.5-25.9, respectively). Over-use of injections was associated with younger population, urban living and the number of hospital beds in the area (aOR, 0.2; 95% CI 0.1-0.4; aOR, 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.8; and aOR, 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.9; respectively). There were differences in the prescribing patterns in different districts; prescription patterns were affected more by supply factors than by demand factors. Highly competitive medical environment associated with supply factors is a significant determinant of prescription patterns in Korea.

Choi, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Sang-Min; Lee, Ju-Hyun

2012-01-01

217

Factors Affecting Survival of Bacteriophage on Tomato Leaf Surfaces?  

PubMed Central

The ability of bacteriophage to persist in the phyllosphere for extended periods is limited by many factors, including sunlight irradiation, especially in the UV zone, temperature, desiccation, and exposure to copper bactericides. The effects of these factors on persistence of phage and formulated phage (phage mixed with skim milk) were evaluated. In field studies, copper caused significant phage reduction if applied on the day of phage application but not if applied 4 or 7 days in advance. Sunlight UV was evaluated for detrimental effects on phage survival on tomato foliage in the field. Phage was applied in the early morning, midmorning, early afternoon, and late evening, while UVA plus UVB irradiation and phage populations were monitored. The intensity of UV irradiation positively correlated with phage population decline. The protective formulation reduced the UV effect. In order to demonstrate direct effects of UV, phage suspensions were exposed to UV irradiation and assayed for effectiveness against bacterial spot of tomato. UV significantly reduced phage ability to control bacterial spot. Ambient temperature had a pronounced effect on nonformulated phage but not on formulated phages. The effects of desiccation and fluorescent light illumination on phage were investigated. Desiccation caused a significant but only slight reduction in phage populations after 60 days, whereas fluorescent light eliminated phages within 2 weeks. The protective formulation eliminated the reduction caused by both of these factors. Phage persistence was dramatically affected by UV, while the other factors had less pronounced effects. Formulated phage reduced deleterious effects of the studied environmental factors.

Iriarte, F. B.; Balogh, B.; Momol, M. T.; Smith, L. M.; Wilson, M.; Jones, J. B.

2007-01-01

218

Factors affecting quality of dried low-rank coals  

SciTech Connect

The chemical and physical properties of coal are strongly affected by the upgrading process employed. For high-moisture coals, upgrading involves thermal dehydration to improve the calorific value of the coal on mass basis. This study evaluates the feasibility of upgrading a low-rank/grade coal using the oven drying method. The objective of this research work is to study the drying characteristics of low-rank coals and to understand the factors affecting the quality of dried low-rank coals. This article describes laboratory experiments conducted on the characterization of the low-rank coals before and after the drying process. The results on drying kinetics, re-absorption of coal samples, and proximate analysis of coal samples before and after drying are discussed. It was found that the upgrading process produced coal with better heating value and combustion characteristics than those of the raw coal samples.

Karthikeyan, M.; Kuma, J.V.M.; Hoe, C.S.; Ngo, D.L.Y. [National University of Singapore, (Singapore)

2007-07-01

219

Factors Affecting Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells Performance and Reproducibility  

SciTech Connect

Development of fuel cells is often based on small-scale laboratory studies. Due to limited time and budgets, a minimum number of cells are usually prepared and tested, thus, conclusions about improved performance are often drawn from studies of a few cells. Generally, statistics showing the significance of an effect are seldom reported. In this work a simple PEM fuel cell electrode optimization experiment is used as an example to illustrate the importance of statistical evaluation of factors affecting cell performance. The use of fractional factorial design of experiments to reduce the number of cells that have to be studied is also addressed.

Moller-Holst S.

1998-11-01

220

Tumour lysis as a factor affecting blood levels of CEA.  

PubMed Central

A hypothesis is proposed that tumour lysis may be an important factor affecting blood levels of CEA. This has been explored in an experimental study with a model tumour system, consisting of immune-deprived mice bearing human CEA-producing tumours. Using agents such as irradiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, diphtheria toxin and techniques such as cryosurgery, it has been shown that tumour lysis is important when it is both rapid and extensive. The extent to which this may occur in patients remains uncertain, except in rare instances of dramatic response of malignant disease to treatment.

Quayle, J. B.

1982-01-01

221

Factors affecting clinical assessment of insulin sensitivity in horses.  

PubMed

Insulin resistance is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of many equine conditions such as pars intermedia dysfunction, equine metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipaemia, laminitis, endotoxaemia and osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD); whereas polysaccharide storage myopathy in Quarter Horses and equine motor neuron disease (EMD) have been associated with increased insulin sensitivity. However, it is clear that there is not one ideal test, in terms of both practicality and accuracy, for evaluating insulin sensitivity in horses and improved diagnostic techniques are required. This review sets out the background to the subject and identifies current knowledge regarding the measurement of insulin sensitivity by tolerance testing and clamping techniques. Factors affecting insulin sensitivity, such as breed, pregnancy, lactation, obesity and nutritional factors are discussed. In addition, the relationship with training, nutritional supplementation and drug administration are considered. PMID:18065318

Firshman, A M; Valberg, S J

2007-11-01

222

Factors affecting pulsatile ocular blood flow in normal subjects  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—The factors that influence pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) were evaluated in normal subjects.?METHODS—POBF was measured in 80 normal subjects using Langham OBF computerised tonometry. The effect of age, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, refractive error, intraocular pressure, and axial length on POBF was evaluated using multiple regression analysis.?RESULTS—The mean (SD) POBF value was 593.3 (203.6) µl/min (range 290.7-1201.6). Of all the independent variables in the model, only the axial length was statistically significant (p=0.008). The regression coefficient was negative, indicating that the axial length decreased with increasing POBF.?CONCLUSIONS—These data suggest that, in normal subjects, the POBF decreases as axial length increases. Choroidal blood flow may decrease as the axial length increases. The axial length may therefore be a major factor affecting POBF.??

Mori, F; Konno, S; Hikichi, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Ishiko, S; Yoshida, A

2001-01-01

223

Factors that affect electric-utility stranded commitments  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of stranded commitments for U.S. investor-owned utilities range widely, with many falling in the range of $100 to $200 billion. These potential losses exist because some utility-owned power plants, long-term power-purchase contracts and fuel-supply contracts, regulatory assets, and expenses for public-policy programs have book values that exceed their expected market values under full competition. This report quantifies the sensitivity of stranded- commitment estimates to the various factors that lead to these above- market-value estimates. The purpose of these sensitivity analyses is to improve understanding on the part of state and federal regulators, utilities, customers, and other electric-industry participants about the relative importance of the factors that affect stranded- commitment amounts.

Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.; Baxter, L.

1996-07-01

224

Factors Affecting the Sensitivity of Permafrost to Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permafrost aggradation and degradation are affected by numerous geomorphological and ecological properties of the landscape that confound our ability to accurately predict the response of permafrost to climate change. Permafrost can persist at mean annual air temperatures (MAAT) of +2 °C and can degrade at MAAT of -15 °C with the help of surface water. Permafrost is decoupled from the atmosphere by the active layer, thus, its thermal regime is mediated by numerous factors such as topography, soil texture, organic-matter accumulation, vegetation, snow, surface water, groundwater movement, and disturbance. Topography affects the amount of solar radiation to the soil surface, causing permafrost in the discontinuous zone to occur generally on north-facing slopes that receive less direct radiation and on flat, low- lying areas where vegetation and organic soils have a greater insulating effect and where air temperatures tend to be colder during winter inversions. Soil texture affects soil moisture and thermal properties. For instance, gravelly soils tend to be well-drained with little difference between thermal conductivities when frozen or thawed. In contrast, surface organic soils, as well as clayey and silty soils, in lowland areas tend to be poorly drained and have much higher thermal conductivities when frozen in winter than unfrozen in summer. In well- drained upland sites, however, organic soils typically are well below saturation. Differences in frozen and unfrozen thermal conductivities lead to more rapid heat loss in winter, depending on snow, and slower heat penetration in summer. Vegetation has important effects through interception of solar radiation, growth of mosses, accumulation of organic matter, and interception of snow by trees and shrubs. Snow protects soil from cooling in winter. Thus, the seasonality (e.g., timing of snowfall in early winter) and depth of snow are very important. Surface water provides an important positive feedback that enhances degradation when water is impounded in sinking depressions. Thus, the amount of ground ice and potential thaw settlement greatly affects permafrost sensitivity. Water bodies (lakes, ponds, rivers) have a warming effect on permafrost and often create thawing zones for which their geometry is defined by water depth, sediment texture, and climate. Convective heat transfer associated with groundwater movement can create an unfrozen zone on top or within permafrost. Surface and groundwater flow, and surface impoundment, in turn are affected by topography and soil texture. Because permafrost is greatly affected by these ecological components, permafrost properties evolve along with the successional patterns of ecosystem development, which in turn affects the sensitivity of permafrost to degradation. We explore the relative effects of these factors through modeling and comparison of field measurements. Because there is no single model available that can include all these disparate factors, we evaluate factors separately and use differences in mean annual ground temperatures at the surface and at 2-m depth to compare the magnitude of each effect.

Jorgenson, T.; Romanovsky, V.; Harden, J.; Shur, Y.; Hinzman, L.; Marchenko, S.; Bolton, R.; O'Donnell, J.

2009-05-01

225

Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce.  

PubMed

The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail. PMID:22530712

Francis, G A; Gallone, A; Nychas, G J; Sofos, J N; Colelli, G; Amodio, M L; Spano, G

2012-01-01

226

Factors Affecting the Weaning from Nasal CPAP in Preterm Neonates  

PubMed Central

Objective. Identification of the weight and postmenstrual age (PMA) at successful weaning of NCPAP in preterm neonates and the factors influencing the successful wean. Study Design. Retrospective review of 454 neonates ?32 weeks of gestational age (GA) who were placed on NCPAP and successfully weaned to room air was performed. Results. Neonates had a mean birth weight (BW) of 1357 ± 392 grams with a mean GA of 29.3 ± 2.2 weeks. Neonates were weaned off NCPAP at mean weight of 1611 ± 432 grams and mean PMA of 32.9 ± 2.4 weeks. Univariate analysis showed that chorioamnionitis, intubation, surfactant use, PDA, sepsis/NEC, anemia, apnea, GER and IVH were significantly associated with the time to NCPAP wean. On multivariate analysis, among neonates that were intubated, BW was the only significant factor (P < 0.001) that was inversely related to time to successful NCPAP wean. Amongst non-intubated neonates, along with BW (P < 0.01), chorioamnionitis (P < 0.01), anemia (P < 0.0001), and GER (P < 0.02) played a significant role in weaning from NCPAP. Conclusion. Neonates were weaned off NCPAP at mean weight of 1611 ± 432 grams and mean PMA of 32.9 ± 2.4 weeks. BW significantly affects weaning among intubated and non-intubated neonates, though in neonates who were never intubated chorioamnionitis, anemia and GER also significantly affected the duration on NCPAP.

Rastogi, Shantanu; Rajasekhar, Hariprem; Gupta, Anju; Bhutada, Alok; Rastogi, Deepa; Wung, Jen-Tien

2012-01-01

227

Multiple Weather Factors Affect Apparent Survival of European Passerine Birds  

PubMed Central

Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for phenotypic and microevolutionary adaptations.

Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fiedler, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

228

Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.  

PubMed

Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for phenotypic and microevolutionary adaptations. PMID:23593131

Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M; Fiedler, Wolfgang

2013-04-08

229

Factors affecting intraocular light scattering from different color straylight sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Important optical parameter of the eye is intraocular light scattering. Straylight can reduce visual acuity, contrast sensitivity. It is one of the main factors for glare, especially for drivers at night, when there is light source some distance away from the fixation point. There are many factors, which can affect amount of light scattering in the eye. To assess the effect of the color of the straylight source on retinal image quality at different light scattering levels, retinal straylight was measured with and without light scattering occluder. Red, green and blue colors were choosed for straylight source. Psychophysical and electrophysiological methods were used to evaluate light scattering effect on perception on different color stimuli. Results show that straylight values are the greatest for blue color with and without light scattering occluder. In measurements without light scattering occluder ratio of straylight values for red and green color are different between subjects. Using light scattering occluder straylight values for green color are greater than for red color. Optical and anatomical factors which can induce these spectral variations are discussed. Psychophysical and electrophysiological methods showed the similar changes in results with straylight values when light scattering were increased.

Ikaunieks, Gatis; Ozolinsh, Maris

2008-11-01

230

Factors affecting economies of scale in combined sewer systems.  

PubMed

A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factors affecting the cost structure for water infrastructures. PMID:20595751

Maurer, Max; Wolfram, Martin; Anja, Herlyn

2010-01-01

231

Environmental factors affecting indole production in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

A variety of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria produce large quantities of indole as an intercellular signal in microbial communities. Biosynthesis of indole is well-studied, and while carbon sources and amino acids are important environmental cues for indole production in Escherichia coli, other environmental factors affecting indole production for this strain are less clear. This study demonstrates that the environmental cue pH is an important factor for indole production that further controls biofilm formation of E. coli. Moreover, E. coli produced a higher level of extracellular indole in the presence of the antibiotics ampicillin and kanamycin, and the increased indole enhanced cell survival during antibiotic stress. Additionally, we found here that temperature is another important factor for indole production; E. coli produces and accumulates a large amount of indole at 50 °C, even at low cell densities. Overall, our results suggest that indole is a stable biological compound, and E. coli may utilize indole to protect itself against other microorganisms. PMID:21145393

Han, Thi Hiep; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Cho, Moo Hwan; Wood, Thomas K; Lee, Jintae

2010-12-08

232

Environmental Factors Affecting Indole Production in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

A variety of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria produce large quantities of indole as an intracellular signal in microbial communities. Biosynthesis of indole is well-studied, and while carbon sources and amino acids are important environmental cues for indole production in Escherichia coli, other environmental factors affecting indole production for this strain are less clear. This study demonstrates that the environmental cue pH is an important factor for indole production that further controls biofilm formation of E. coli. Moreover, E. coli produced a higher level of extracellular indole in the presence of the antibiotics ampicillin and kanamycin, and the increased indole enhanced cell survival during antibiotic stress. Additionally, we found here that temperature is another important factor for indole production; E. coli produces and accumulates a large amount of indole at 50°C, even at low cell densities. Overall, our results suggest that indole is a stable biological compound, and E. coli may utilize indole to protect itself against other microorganisms.

Han, Thi Hiep; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Cho, Moo Hwan; Wood, Thomas K.; Lee, Jintae

2011-01-01

233

Enzymatic fat hydrolysis and synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrolysis of tallow, coconut oil and olive oil, by lipase fromCandida rugosa, was studied. The reaction approximates a firstorder kinetics model. Its rate is unaffected by temperature in the range of\\u000a 26–46 C. Olive oil is more rapidly hydrolyzed compared to tallow and coconut oil. Hydrolysis is adversely affected by hydrocarbon\\u000a solvents and a nonionic surfactant. Since amounts of

Warner M. Linfield; Robert A. Barauskas; Lorraine Sivieri; Samuel Serota; Robert W. Stevenson

1984-01-01

234

Factors affecting calf mortality in Iranian Holstein dairy herds.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to document mortality reasons and risk factors for mortality in dairy calves in the northeast of Iran. This was a prospective cohort study of calves born on ten commercial dairy herds from 21 March 2009 to 20 March 2010. A total of 4097 live calves were followed for 90 days after birth. For each calf details of sex, parity of the dam, type of parturition and season of birth were recorded. The interval (in days) from the date of birth to the date of death and the reason for death was recorded for those calves that died before 90 days of age. A Cox proportional hazards model, including a frailty term to account for unmeasured herd-level effects was developed to quantify the effect of factors associated with time to death. Two hundred and sixty-six (6.5%, 95% CI: 5.8-7.3%) of the 4097 live-born calves died or were euthanised before 90 days of age. The most important reasons for death were digestive tract disorders (58% of all deaths, 95% CI: 52-64%) followed by respiratory diseases (13% of all deaths, 95% CI: 9-17%). Calves exposed to dystocia at birth had 2.09 (95% CI: 1.49-2.92) times the daily hazard of death compared with calves born from a normal calving. The daily hazard of death for calves born in the summer was 1.93 (95% CI: 1.41-2.64) times greater than the hazard for those calves born in the autumn. Inclusion of the herd-level frailty term had a significant effect on hazard estimates indicating that the study herds were heterogeneous in the distribution of unmeasured herd-level factors influencing calf survival. Our results show that diarrhoea is the most important cause of calf mortality in dairy herds in this area of Iran and that environmental and management factors affect calf mortality rate. PMID:22230657

Azizzadeh, Mohammad; Shooroki, Hadi Fazeli; Kamalabadi, Ali Shafiee; Stevenson, Mark A

2012-01-09

235

Factors affecting characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors  

SciTech Connect

Three major factors affect the characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors in terms of their levitation properties during interaction with permanent magnets. First, the appropriate parameter for the permanent magnet is internal magnetization, not the value of the magnetic field measured at the magnet`s surface. Second, although levitation force grows with superconductor thickness and surface area, for a given permanent magnet size, comparison of levitation force between samples is meaningful when minimum values are assigned to the superconductor size parameters. Finally, the effect of force creep must be considered when time-averaging the force measurements. In addition to levitational force, the coefficient of friction of a levitated rotating permanent magnet may be used to characterize the superconductor.

Hull, J.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

1997-11-01

236

FACTORS AFFECTING THE UPTAKE OF LISSAMINE GREEN BY SERUM PROTEINS  

PubMed Central

Eight physicochemical factors which affect the uptake of lissamine green on filter paper impregnated with serum proteins have been examined, and their relevance to the staining of electrophoretically separated protein fractions is discussed. It is shown that grade of paper, weight of protein applied, separate and combined denaturation and staining time, temperature and concentration of staining solution, concentration of denaturant, and type of protein all influence the weight of dye absorbed per unit weight of applied protein, and must be rigidly standardized if valid quantitative results are to be obtained. Five sets of conditions are obtained for optimal staining and it is found that separation of denaturant from dye yields the best procedure. It is concluded that lissamine green is an excellent dye for the staining and quantitative estimation of separated protein fractions in paper electrophoresis, and that conditions can usually be arranged to produce a linear relation between dye uptake and protein concentration in an experimentally efficient manner.

Brackenridge, C. J.

1960-01-01

237

Multilevel factors affecting quality: examples from the cancer care continuum.  

PubMed

The complex environmental context must be considered as we move forward to improve cancer care and, ultimately, patient and population outcomes. The cancer care continuum represents several care types, each of which includes multiple technical and communication steps and interfaces among patients, providers, and organizations. We use two case scenarios to 1) illustrate the variability, diversity, and interaction of factors from multiple levels that affect care quality and 2) discuss research implications and provide hypothetical examples of multilevel interventions. Each scenario includes a targeted literature review to illustrate contextual influences upon care and sets the stage for theory-informed interventions. The screening case highlights access issues in older women, and the survivorship case illustrates the multiple transition challenges faced by patients, families, and organizations. Example interventions show the potential gains of implementing intervention strategies that work synergistically at multiple levels. While research examining multilevel intervention is a priority, it presents numerous study design, measurement, and analytic challenges. PMID:22623591

Zapka, Jane; Taplin, Stephen H; Ganz, Patricia; Grunfeld, Eva; Sterba, Katherine

2012-05-01

238

Institutional factors affecting DOE waste management and environmental restoration planning  

SciTech Connect

The magnitude and impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) waste management and environmental restoration program requires a drastic change in DOE's culture to include the participation of all levels of government, public forum representatives, and the public. Early in the process of developing a new, comprehensive five-year plan for environmental restoration and waste management, Secretary Watkins invited affected States, Indian Nations, and organizations of elected officials to form the State and Tribal Government Working Group to comment on two formulative drafts of the plan. Management Systems Laboratories of Virginia Tech was asked to help plan and facilitate two review sessions in the spring and summer of 1989, based on perception of impartiality, experience with similar groups, and active affiliations with State governments. A third session in the fall was devoted to reviewing the draft applied R D plan and guiding institutional factors affecting DOE's future: the need for ongoing, pervasive culture change; the need to display this change through truly cooperative planning; and the need to involve the regulatory community in the process of technology development so innovative solutions can be applied with the least possible delay.

Walker, J. A.; Middleman, L. I.

1990-01-01

239

Factors affecting jail detention of defendants adjudicated incompetent to proceed.  

PubMed

The movement of defendants through the legal process who have been adjudicated incompetent to proceed is little studied, yet it is important. The purpose of this study was to provide empirical data regarding factors that affected the amount of time defendants adjudicated incompetent to proceed and ordered to undergo hospitalization remained in jail while awaiting transfer to a state hospital. Statewide data collected in Florida between July 2005 and June 2008 were used to determine the lengths of time incompetent defendants spent at certain stages in the legal process. The addition of forensic bed capacity following media attention and litigation resulted in a significant decrease in the amount of time defendants adjudicated incompetent to proceed waited in jail for transfer to a state hospital for treatment. The amount of time it took for completed commitment orders to be submitted to the state mental health authority by the Clerks of Court of each county accounted for a meaningful portion of days defendants spent in jail awaiting transfer to a state hospital, with considerable variation across counties with respect to waiting times. These findings reflect how various stakeholders can affect the amount of time defendants spend in jail while awaiting hospitalization. These issues are discussed in the context of controversy related to Florida's forensic mental health system, as well as issues related to the political process and funding of the state's mental health authority. PMID:20957691

Christy, Annette; Otto, Randy; Finch, Jacquelyn; Ringhoff, Daniel; Kimonis, Eva R

240

A comparative study on the phenolic acids identified and quantified in dry beans using HPLC as affected by different extraction and hydrolysis methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high performance liquid chromatography procedure was used to assess the phenolic acid content in three different varieties of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in Canada. The majority of phenolic acids were extracted from the base hydrolysed fraction of the sequential hydrolysis regime. There was a protective effect of ascorbic acid (AA) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) when added to

K. A. Ross; T. Beta; S. D. Arntfield

2009-01-01

241

Factors affecting the absorption of vitamin K-1 in vitro.  

PubMed Central

Factors which might affect the absorption of vitamin K of dietary origin were investigated using everted small bowel sacs. Increasing the bile salt concentration to 20 mM or the addition of long chain fatty acids, monoolein, or lecithin all resulted in significant (P less than 0-05) decrease in the absorption rate of the vitamin. The addition of 2-5 mM short and medium chain fatty acids did not change the absorption rate of vitamin K-1 (P greater than 0-05). The absorption rate of vitamin K-1 appears to be modified by the presence of compounds in the incubation medium which either alter the partition of the vitamin between the micelle and the cell membrane or which change the permeation characteristics of the compound through the unstirred water layer or modify the physical characteristics of the cell membrane itself. It is possible that some of the above factors modify the absorption of lipid soluble compounds in general.

Hollander, D; Rim, E

1976-01-01

242

Factors affecting decision making in Hispanics experiencing myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

It was estimated that 785,000 new myocardial infarctions (MIs), 470,000 recurrent MIs, and 195,000 silent MIs will occur during 2010 in the United States. Cardiovascular disease, including heart disease and stroke, is the cause of death for 27% of Hispanic males and 31.5% of Hispanic females. There has been an increasing discrepancy between Hispanic knowledge in recognition of MI symptoms compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Only 5.6 % to 27.4 % of Hispanics know all MI symptoms and the need to immediately activate emergency medical services, compared with 11.9% to 45.8% of non-Hispanic Whites. The health belief model is used to explore the factors affecting decision making in Hispanics experiencing MI. Modifying factors explored include acculturation, language spoken, education, socioeconomic status, and access to health care. The results include recommendations for future research and clinical practice to assist in planning targeted interventions in Hispanic populations nationwide. PMID:23341409

Sanderson, Jennifer D M

2013-01-22

243

Spatial factors affecting statistical power in testing marine fauna displacement.  

PubMed

Impacts of offshore wind farms on marine fauna are largely unknown. Therefore, one commonly adheres to the precautionary principle, which states that one shall take action to avoid potentially damaging impacts on marine ecosystems, even when full scientific certainty is lacking. We implement this principle by means of a statistical power analysis including spatial factors. Implementation is based on geostatistical simulations, accommodating for zero-inflation in species data. We investigate scenarios in which an impact assessment still has to be carried out. Our results show that the environmental conditions at the time of the survey is the most influential factor on power. This is followed by survey effort and species abundance in the reference situation. Spatial dependence in species numbers at local scales affects power, but its effect is smaller for the scenarios investigated. Our findings can be used to improve effectiveness of the economical investment for monitoring surveys. In addition, unnecessary extra survey effort, and related costs, can be avoided when spatial dependence in species abundance is present and no improvement on power is achieved. PMID:22073657

Pérez Lapeña, B; Wijnberg, K M; Stein, A; Hulscher, S J M H

2011-10-01

244

The science of cycling: factors affecting performance - part 2.  

PubMed

This review presents information that is useful to athletes, coaches and exercise scientists in the adoption of exercise protocols, prescription of training regimens and creation of research designs. Part 2 focuses on the factors that affect cycling performance. Among those factors, aerodynamic resistance is the major resistance force the racing cyclist must overcome. This challenge can be dealt with through equipment technological modifications and body position configuration adjustments. To successfully achieve efficient transfer of power from the body to the drive train of the bicycle the major concern is bicycle configuration and cycling body position. Peak power output appears to be highly correlated with cycling success. Likewise, gear ratio and pedalling cadence directly influence cycling economy/efficiency. Knowledge of muscle recruitment throughout the crank cycle has important implications for training and body position adjustments while climbing. A review of pacing models suggests that while there appears to be some evidence in favour of one technique over another, there remains the need for further field research to validate the findings. Nevertheless, performance modelling has important implications for the establishment of performance standards and consequent recommendations for training. PMID:15831060

Faria, Erik W; Parker, Daryl L; Faria, Irvin E

2005-01-01

245

Intrinsic factors that affect amino acid geochronology: protein diagenesis  

SciTech Connect

Use of alloisoleucine/isoleucine ratios as a geochronological tool has been the basis of many stratigraphic studies of the Quaternary. In a number of these studies, the amino acid dates have been remarkably good, allowing chronologies to be established and sequences checked, at least in limited geographic locations. However, in other studies the variability and scatter of dates have obscured or confounded interpretation of the geochronology. A number of extrinsic and intrinsic factors may contribute to this variability. One intrinsic factor may be the varying rates of epimerization and breakdown of the many proteins within the shell matrix of the organism that is being analyzed; the shell matrix of planktonic foraminifera contains at least two classes, or types, of proteins and up to 40 protein components. Individual proteins differ in stability based on differences of structure. This stability will have direct ramifications on racemization rates. Traditionally, amino acid ratios have been analyzed from the remnants of the total organic material of shells, such as mollusk or planktonic foraminifera. To examine how the diagenetic breakdown of specific proteins may affect allisoleucine/isoleucine ratios of the total organic matrix, different classes of proteins from fossil planktonic foraminifera were analyzed and compared. Although planktonic foraminifera were used as a model system, the molluscan shell is analogous.

Robbins, L.L.

1989-03-01

246

Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period (2005--2009) for a network of permanent sample plots in Pinus radiata plantations in Chile. In 2009, we calculated LAI from ground measurements using LI-COR LAI-2000 and TRAC instruments on each one hectare plot. These values of LAI were regressed against Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Reduced Simple Ratio (RSR), derived from the TM 2009 data. Linear relationships were strong with R2 values of 0.65 for SR, 0.61 for NDVI and 0.67 for RSR. Using the RSR relationship, LAI values were estimated for the network of permanent sample plots of Pinus radiata plantations over the whole period. For project 3, we examined environmental factors affecting growth rates of Pinus radiata in Chile. Water availability (as affected by precipitation, soil water holding capacity, and potential evapotranspiration) appeared to be the factor most limiting to leaf area and growth. Maximum growing season temperature also negatively affected growth. Sites with highest productivities had the lowest annual water deficits and the most productive sites used water and light more efficiently. Good sites produced 1.6 as compared to 0.49 kg of wood per m3 of evapotranspired water for less productive sites. In addition, productive stands produced 0.5 as compared to 0.31 g of wood per MJ for less productive sites.

Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

247

Factors affecting outdoor exposure in winter: population-based study.  

PubMed

The extent of outdoor exposure during winter and factors affecting it were examined in a cross-sectional population study in Finland. Men and women aged 25-74 years from the National FINRISK 2002 sub-study (n=6,591) were queried about their average weekly occupational, leisure-time and total cold exposure during the past winter. The effects of gender, age, area of residence, occupation, ambient temperature, self-rated health, physical activity and education on cold exposure were analysed. The self-reported median total cold exposure time was 7 h/week (8 h men, 6 h women),<1 h/week (2 h men, 0 h women) at work, 4 h/week (5 h men, 4 h women) during leisure time and 1 h/week (1 h men, 1.5 h women) while commuting to work. Factors associated with increased occupational cold exposure among men were: being employed in agriculture, forestry and industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being less educated and being aged 55-64 years. Factors associated with increased leisure-time cold exposure among men were: employment in industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being a pensioner or unemployed, reporting at least average health, being physically active and having college or vocational education. Among women, being a housewife, pensioner or unemployed and engaged in physical activity increased leisure-time cold exposure, and young women were more exposed than older ones. Self-rated health was positively associated with leisure time cold exposure in men and only to a minor extent in women. In conclusion, the subjects reported spending 4% of their total time under cold exposure, most of it (71%) during leisure time. Both occupational and leisure-time cold exposure is greater among men than women. PMID:16788837

Mäkinen, Tiina M; Raatikka, Veli-Pekka; Rytkönen, Mika; Jokelainen, Jari; Rintamäki, Hannu; Ruuhela, Reija; Näyhä, Simo; Hassi, Juhani

2006-06-21

248

Factors affecting detection of burrowing owl nests during standardized surveys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Identifying causes of declines and evaluating effects of management practices on persistence of local populations of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) requires accurate estimates of abundance and population trends. Moreover, regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada typically require surveys to detect nest burrows prior to approving developments or other activities in areas that are potentially suitable for nesting burrowing owls. In general, guidelines on timing of surveys have been lacking and surveys have been conducted at different times of day and in different stages of the nesting cycle. We used logistic regression to evaluate 7 factors that could potentially affect probability of a surveyor detecting a burrowing owl nest. We conducted 1,444 detection trials at 323 burrowing owl nests within 3 study areas in Washington and Wyoming, USA, between February and August 2000-2002. Detection probability was highest during the nestling period and increased with ambient temperature. The other 5 factors that we examined (i.e., study area, time of day, timing within the breeding season, wind speed, % cloud cover) interacted with another factor to influence detection probability. Use of call-broadcast surveys increased detection probability, even during daylight hours when we detected >95% of owls visually. Optimal timing of surveys will vary due to differences in breeding phenology and differences in nesting behavior across populations. Nevertheless, we recommend ???3 surveys per year: one that coincides with the laying and incubation period, another that coincides with the early nestling period, and a third that coincides with the late nestling period. In northern latitudes, surveys can be conducted throughout the day.

Conway, C. J.; Garcia, V.; Smith, M. D.; Hughes, K.

2008-01-01

249

Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

Pyo, Katrina A.

250

Factors Affecting Prostate Volume Estimation in Computed Tomography Images  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to investigate how apex-localizing methods and the computed tomography (CT) slice thickness affected the CT-based prostate volume estimation. Twenty-eight volunteers underwent evaluations of prostate volume by CT, where the contour segmentations were performed by three observers. The bottom of ischial tuberosities (ITs) and the bulb of the penis were used as reference positions to locate the apex, and the distances to the apex were recorded as 1.3 and 2.0 cm, respectively. Interobserver variations to locate ITs and the bulb of the penis were, on average, 0.10 cm (range 0.03-0.38 cm) and 0.30 cm (range 0.00-0.98 cm), respectively. The range of CT slice thickness varied from 0.08-0.48 cm and was adopted to examine the influence of the variation on volume estimation. The volume deviation from the reference case (0.08 cm), which increases in tandem with the slice thickness, was within {+-} 3 cm{sup 3}, regardless of the adopted apex-locating reference positions. In addition, the maximum error of apex identification was 1.5 times of slice thickness. Finally, based on the precise CT films and the methods of apex identification, there were strong positive correlation coefficients for the estimated prostate volume by CT and the transabdominal ultrasonography, as found in the present study (r > 0.87; p < 0.0001), and this was confirmed by Bland-Altman analysis. These results will help to identify factors that affect prostate volume calculation and to contribute to the improved estimation of the prostate volume based on CT images.

Yang, Cheng-Hsiu [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shyh-Jen [Divisions of Experimental Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Alex Tong-Long [Divisions of Urology, Department of Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chao-An, E-mail: calin@pme.nthu.edu.t [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

2011-04-01

251

Factors affecting soil P dynamics in temperate volcanic soils of southern Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

During volcanic soil development, factors controlling plant-available P shift from hydrolysis of P bound to primary Ca compounds to mineralization of organic P, and an increasing role of amorphous materials in P retention. Monospecific forests of the Andean–Patagonian region are distributed in a narrow strip characterized by young volcanic soils and decreasing west–east precipitation. We analyzed sequential P fractionation, P

Patricia Satti; María Julia Mazzarino; Lucía Roselli; Paula Crego

2007-01-01

252

Interaction Between Optical and Neural Factors Affecting Visual Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human eye suffers from higher order aberrations, in addition to conventional spherical and cylindrical refractive errors. Advanced optical techniques have been devised to correct them in order to achieve superior retinal image quality. However, vision is not completely defined by the optical quality of the eye, but also depends on how the image quality is processed by the neural system. In particular, how neural processing is affected by the past visual experience with optical blur has remained largely unexplored. The objective of this thesis was to investigate the interaction of optical and neural factors affecting vision. To achieve this goal, pathological keratoconic eyes were chosen as the ideal population to study since they are severely afflicted by degraded retinal image quality due to higher order aberrations and their neural system has been exposed to that habitually for a long period of time. Firstly, we have developed advanced customized ophthalmic lenses for correcting the higher order aberration of keratoconic eyes and demonstrated their feasibility in providing substantial visual benefit over conventional corrective methodologies. However, the achieved visual benefit was significantly smaller than that predicted optically. To better understand this, the second goal of the thesis was set to investigate if the neural system optimizes its underlying mechanisms in response to the long-term visual experience with large magnitudes of higher order aberrations. This study was facilitated by a large-stroke adaptive optics vision simulator, enabling us to access the neural factors in the visual system by manipulating the limit imposed by the optics of the eye. Using this instrument, we have performed a series of experiments to establish that habitual exposure to optical blur leads to an alteration in neural processing thereby alleviating the visual impact of degraded retinal image quality, referred to as neural compensation. However, it was also found that chronic exposure to poor optics caused neural insensitivity to fine spatial detail thus adversely limiting the achievable visual benefit when improving the eye's optical quality. Finally, we demonstrated that the altered, but plastic visual system could be re-adapted to improved optics such that it partially recovers its normal mechanism. These findings not only provide vast clinical implications for advanced customized vision correction methodologies for normal, pathologic and presbyopic eyes but also vital scientific insight into the neural processing of the visual system in response to the aberrated optics of the eye.

Sabesan, Ramkumar

253

Factors affecting the estimate of primary production from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing of primary production in the euphotic zone has been based mostly on visible-band water-leaving radiance measured with the coastal zone color scanner. There are some robust, simple relationships for calculating integral production based on surface measurements, but they also require knowledge of photoadaptive parameters such as maximum photosynthesis which currently cannot be obtained from space. A 17,000-station data set is used to show that space-based estimates of maximum photosynthesis could improve predictions of ?, the water column light utilization index, which is an important term in many primary productivity models. Temperature is also examined as a factor for predicting hydrographic structure and primary production. A simple model is used to relate temperature and maximum photosynthesis; the model incorporates (1) the positive relationship between maximum photosynthesis and temperature and (2) the strongly negative relationship between temperature and nitrate in the ocean (which directly affects maximum growth rates via nitrogen limitation). Since these two factors relate to carbon and nitrogen, "balanced carbon/nitrogen assimilation" was calculated assuming the Redfield ratio. It is expected that the relationship between maximum balanced carbon assimilation versus temperature is concave-down, with the peak dependent on nitrate uptake kinetics, temperature-nitrate relationships, and the carbon/chlorophyll ratio. These predictions were compared with sea truth data. The minimum turnover time for nitrate was also calculated using this approach. Lastly, sea surface temperature gradients were used to predict the slope of isotherms (a proxy for the slope of isopycnals in many waters). Sea truth data show that at size scales of several hundred kilometers, surface temperature gradients can provide information on the slope of isotherms in the top 200 m of the water column. This is directly relevant to the supply of nutrients into the surface mixed layer, which is useful for predicting integral biomass and primary production.

Balch, W. M.; Byrne, C. F.

1994-04-01

254

Factors affecting survival in young alpacas (Lama pacos).  

PubMed

Factors affecting survival of young from birth to weaning (7 mo) in alpacas (Lama pacos) were evaluated in data collected at the Estacion Experimental de Camelidos Sudamericanos La Raya in the Altiplano region of Peru. Age of dam effects on survival rate were curvilinear; survival rate increased from approximately 78% for offspring of 3-yr-old dams to about 91% for those from 9- to 11-yr-old dams, then declined to about 85% for 15-yr-old dams. Weight of dam measured 2 mo prior to parturition was associated negatively with survival of the young (b = -.7%/kg). Alpaca born early in the season of birth had a higher survival rate than those born late; the regression of survival on birth date was -.2%/d. Survival rates were curvilinearly related with birth weight and were highest at weights of 9 to 11 kg (90%) and lowest at weights of 4 to 5 kg (20% to 40%). The estimated heritabilities of survival and birth weight were .10 +/- .17 and .34 +/- .23, weight was -.18 +/- .82; the corresponding environmental and phenotypic correlations were positive (.37 and .26, respectively). PMID:3397341

Bustinza, A V; Burfening, P J; Blackwell, R L

1988-05-01

255

[Factors that affect adult men's decisions to hire a prostitute].  

PubMed

The present study analyzed demographic and psychological factors that affect adult men's decisions to solicit a prostitute. We administered a questionnaire to 1400 randomly sampled men aged 20 to 59, who live in the Tokyo metropolitan area (obtaining 664 valid responses). The results revealed that 14.6 percent of respondents have had the experience of being a client in prostitution at some point over the past four to five years. Men in their 50s, who spent their adolescence before the enforcement of anti-prostitution laws, had high prostitution acceptability. Those in their 20s and 30s, who spent their adolescence in the 1990s when "Enjyo-Kousai" (Japanese amateur prostitution) gained topicality, also showed high rates. These findings are considered to be birth cohort effects. In addition, those men who reported greater sexual drive and desire for intimate contact with others, as well as those who reported fewer attitudes of gender egalitarianism, had higher rates of prostitution solicitation. Finally, those men who reported less emotional family bonds also showed higher rates. PMID:18939442

Ui, Miyoko; Matsui, Yutaka; Fukutomi, Mamoru; Narita, Ken'ichi; Kamise, Yumiko; Yashiro, Kaoru

2008-08-01

256

Factors affecting recruitment to an observational multicentre palliative care study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify those factors which adversely affected recruitment to a large multicentre palliative care study. Methods Patient accrual to a multicentre, observational, palliative care study was monitored at three critical junctures in the research process. (1) Eligibility—did the patient fulfil the study entry criteria? (2) Accessibility—was it possible to access the patient to be able to inform them about the study? (3) Consent—did the patient agree to participate in the study? The reasons why patients were ineligible, inaccessible or refused consent were recorded. Results 12?412 consecutive referrals to participating clinical services were screened for study inclusion of whom 5394 (43%) were deemed to be ineligible. Of the remaining patients 4617/7018 (66%) were inaccessible to the research team. The most common reasons being precipitous death, ‘gatekeeping’ by clinical staff or rapid discharge. Of the 2410 patients who were visited by the research team and asked to participate in the study 1378 (57%) declined. Overall 8.2% (1018/12?412) of patients screened participated in the study. There were significant differences in recruitment patterns between hospice inpatient units, hospital support and community palliative care teams. Conclusions Systematic monitoring and analysis of patient flows through the clinical trial accrual process provided valuable insights about the reasons for failure to recruit patients to a clinical trial and may help to improve recruitment in future studies.

Stone, Patrick C; Gwilliam, Bridget; Keeley, Vaughan; Todd, Chris; Kelly, Laura C; Barclay, Stephen

2013-01-01

257

Factors affecting medication adherence in patients with hypertension.  

PubMed

The aim of this study descriptive study was to evaluate concordance with medication and those factors that affect the use of medicine in patients with hypertension. Data were collected using a questionnaire completed by 750 patients with hypertension between December 25, 2003, and April 30, 2004, in an outpatient hypertension clinic in Erzincan, Turkey. It was found that 57.9% of the patients did not use their medicines as prescribed. Forgetfulness, aloneness, and negligence were ranked as the top three reasons for this non-concordance, accounting for almost half (49.3%) of all patients with hypertension studied; price (expensive medicines) accounted for another quarter (26.5%). A statistically significant relationship with non-concordance was found for age, education level and profession. Patients' lack of knowledge related to the complications of hypertension was also found to have a statistically significant relationship with not taking medicines as prescribed. Gender, location of residence and salary were not found to be statistically related to concordance. These results indicate the need to educate patients with hypertension on how to use their medicine regularly and indicate also the target populations for this. PMID:23127428

Karakurt, Papatya; Ka?ikçi, Ma?firet

2012-12-01

258

Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

2013-10-01

259

Factors affecting the whiteness of optically brightened material.  

PubMed

The whiteness of fluorescent white materials is in part due to the absorption of ultraviolet (UV) light and subsequent emission of visible blue light. The UV content of light sources in viewing booths and in spectrophotometers can thus significantly affect the perceived whiteness (PW) and measured sum of reflected and emitted light of fluorescent materials. The effect of UV content on the spectral radiance factor of fluorescent white materials containing different amounts of a fluorescent brightening agent and the subsequent assessment of their PW were evaluated. The UV content of sources in two calibrated viewing booths that simulated D65 and D75 illuminants, separately, was changed by selectively blocking UV emission of the source by approximately 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. The radiance spectra of a series of white fabrics were also obtained using a reflectance spectrophotometer at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% UV transmittance. The CIE and Uchida whiteness indices (WIs) were calculated for white samples and compared to perceptual results under varying illumination and UV conditions. Results indicate relatively modest agreement between perceptual assessments of fluorescent samples and whiteness metrics examined. Results also show that when the UV content of sources used in the viewing booths is adjusted to be similar to that used in measurements, improved correlations between perceptual and calculated results are obtained. The CIE WI was found to outperform the Uchida index under both sources. PMID:23201789

Lin, Juan; Shamey, Renzo; Hinks, David

2012-11-01

260

Study on some factors affecting survivability of airborne fungi.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of some air pollutants and meteorological parameters on the survivability of airborne fungi. Fungi were collected by using a slit impactor sampler calibrated to draw 20 L/min, for 3 min. Nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), particulate matter (PM), relative humidity (RH %), temperature (T °C) and wind speed (WS) were also measured. Air samples were taken during the period from March 2006 to February 2007. Fungal concentrations ranged between 45 and 451 CFU/m(3) with an annual mean concentration of 216 CFU/m(3). The lowest fungal concentration was found in the summer, however the highest one was found in the autumn. NO(2,) SO(2) and PM averaged 83.66 ?g/m(3), 67.01 ?g/m(3), and 237.69 ?g/m(3), respectively. T °C was positively and negatively correlated with Aspergillus (P = 0.000) and Penicillium (P = 0.007), respectively. RH% was positively correlated with total fungi (P = 0.001), Aspergillus (P = 0.002) and Cladosporium (P = 0.047). Multiple regression analysis showed that T °C and RH% were the most predicted variants. Non-significant correlations were found between fungal concentrations and air pollutants. Meteorological parameters were the critical factors affecting fungal survivability. PMID:22137479

Abdel Hameed, A A; Khoder, M I; Ibrahim, Y H; Saeed, Y; Osman, M E; Ghanem, S

2011-12-01

261

FACTORS AFFECTING THE COLLECTION EFFICIENCY OF ATMOSPHERIC SULFATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Factors that influence the collection and measurement of atmospheric sulfate were investigated. Special emphasis was given to those factors that cause the formation of extraneous sulfate during the sampling process. The factors considered were filter type and composition, ambient...

262

Urban vs. rural factors that affect adult asthma.  

PubMed

In this review, our aim was to examine the influence of geographic variations on asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults, which is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity. Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The disparities in asthma prevalence and morbidity among the world's geographic locations are more likely to be associated with environmental exposures than genetic differences. In writing this article, we found that the indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, and that difference correlated with environmental risk exposures, SES, and healthcare access. Environmental risk factors to which urban adults were more frequently exposed than rural adults were dust mites,high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle.Exposure to indoor biological contaminants in the urban environment is common.The main risk factors for developing asthma in urban areas are atopy and allergy to house dust mites, followed by allergens from animal dander. House dust mite exposure may potentially explain differences in diagnosis of asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults in urban vs. rural areas. In addition, the prevalence of asthma morbidity increases with urbanization. High levels of vehicle emissions,Western lifestyles and degree of urbanization itself, may affect outdoor and thereby indoor air quality. In urban areas, biomass fuels have been widely replaced by cleaner energy sources at home, such as gas and electricity, but in most developing countries, coal is still a major source of fuel for cooking and heating, particularly in winter. Moreover, exposure to ETS is common at home or at work in urban areas.There is evidence that asthma prevalence and morbidity is less common in rural than in urban areas. The possible reasons are that rural residents are exposed early in life to stables and to farm milk production, and such exposures are protective against developing asthma morbidity. Even so, asthma morbidity is disproportionately high among poor inner-city residents and in rural populations. A higher proportion of adult residents of nonmetropolitan areas were characterized as follows:aged 55 years or older, no previous college admission, low household income, no health insurance coverage, and could not see a doctor due to healthcare service availability, etc. In rural areas, biomass fuels meet more than 70% of the rural energy needs. Progress in adopting modern energy sources in rural areas has been slow. The most direct health impact comes from household energy use among the poor, who depend almost entirely on burning biomass fuels in simple cooking devices that are placed in inadequately ventilated spaces. Prospective studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of biomass smoke on lung health among adults in rural areas.Geographic differences in asthma susceptibility exist around the world. The reason for the differences in asthma prevalence in rural and urban areas may be due to the fact that populations have different lifestyles and cultures, as well as different environmental exposures and different genetic backgrounds. Identifying geographic disparities in asthma hospitalizations is critical to implementing prevention strategies,reducing morbidity, and improving healthcare financing for clinical asthma treatment. Although evidence shows that differences in the prevalence of asthma do exist between urban and rural dwellers in many parts of the world, including in developed countries, data are inadequate to evaluate the extent to which different pollutant exposures contribute to asthma morbidity and severity of asthma between urban and rural areas. PMID:23625129

Jie, Yu; Isa, Zaleha Md; Jie, Xu; Ju, Zhang Long; Ismail, Noor Hassim

2013-01-01

263

Factors Affecting Online Advertising Recall: A Study of Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we examine factors that might impact on web advertising recall and recognition. These factors include the viewing mode, duration of page viewing, and web page context factors, including text and page background complexity and the style of the banner advertisement. Via an experimental design conducted on a student sample, we manipulate these factors over several levels. The

PETER J. DANAHER; GUY W. MULLARKEY

2003-01-01

264

Factors affecting secondary sex ratio in Iranian Holsteins.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors affecting secondary sex ratio (SSR) in Iranian Holsteins. Data of 942,941 Holstein calving events from the Animal Breeding Center of Iran, recorded between January 1996 and December 2007, were used in the analysis. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to model the logit of the probability of a male calf being born. Male births accounted for 49.6% of the total observations. The ratio of males to females varied from 52.5:47.5 in calving year 1996-1999 (odds ratio (OR)=1.18; P<0.0001), to 48.5:51.5 in calving year 2004-2007. The greatest occurrence of male births was observed in spring (OR=1.02; P<0.0001), and the lowest incidence of male births was for summer or fall calvings. Also, the frequency of male births decreased from parity 1 to parity 4 and beyond (P<0.0001; OR=1.11). The greatest number of sires had the SSR equal to 0.5 with a minimum SSR of 32% while the maximum was 97%. Among cows that had a male birth, the chance of delivering a male calf again was 25.5% when cows had delivered a male once (OR=1.14; P<0.0001), and 12.7% if a male calf was delivered twice by a cow. This indicated that characteristics peculiar to the dam influence the sex of her offspring and suggests some degree of repeatability of calf sex within cows. PMID:21924467

Hossein-Zadeh, Navid Ghavi

2011-09-14

265

Factors Affecting Perceptual Threshold in Argus II Retinal Prosthesis Subjects  

PubMed Central

Purpose The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis has been developed to provide partial restoration of vision to subjects blinded from outer retinal degenerative disease. Participants were surgically implanted with the system in the United States and Europe in a single arm, prospective, multicenter clinical trial. The purpose of this investigation was to determine which factors affect electrical thresholds in order to inform surgical placement of the device. Methods Electrode–retina and electrode–fovea distances were determined using SD-OCT and fundus photography, respectively. Perceptual threshold to electrical stimulation of electrodes was measured using custom developed software, in which current amplitude was varied until the threshold was found. Full field stimulus light threshold was measured using the Espion D-FST test. Relationships between electrical threshold and these three explanatory variables (electrode–retina distance, electrode–fovea distance, and monocular light threshold) were quantified using regression. Results Regression analysis showed a significant correlation between electrical threshold and electrode–retina distance (R2 = 0.50, P = 0.0002; n = 703 electrodes). 90.3% of electrodes in contact with the macula (n = 207) elicited percepts at charge densities less than 1 mC/cm2/phase. These threshold data also correlated well with ganglion cell density profile (P = 0.03). A weaker, but still significant, inverse correlation was found between light threshold and electrical threshold (R2 < 0.52, P = 0.01). Multivariate modeling indicated that electrode–retina distance and light threshold are highly predictive of electrode threshold (R2 = 0.87; P < 0.0005). Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that while light threshold should be used to inform patient selection, macular contact of the array is paramount. Translational Relevance Reported Argus II clinical study results are in good agreement with prior in vitro and in vivo studies, and support the development of higher-density systems that employ smaller diameter electrodes. (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00407602)

Ahuja, A. K.; Yeoh, J.; Dorn, J. D.; Caspi, A.; Wuyyuru, V.; McMahon, M. J.; Humayun, M. S.; Greenberg, R. J.; daCruz, L.

2013-01-01

266

Factors Affecting the Sustainability of Groundwater-Source Cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of groundwater in thermal applications has grown in popularity due to increases in environmental awareness and rising energy costs. While this source of energy is generally seen as beneficial to the environment, changes in subsurface temperatures resulting from thermal development and other factors may make this practice unsustainable. An example of such changes in subsurface temperatures has been observed in Winnipeg, Manitoba, where groundwater is extensively used for cooling applications. Temperatures in a regional aquifer beneath the city were found to be as much as ten degrees Celsius greater than those measured in surrounding rural areas. Numerical modeling indicates increases in temperature of up to 5 degrees Celsius can be attributed to downward heat flow originating in buildings in many cases. Areas where increases in temperature were found to be greater corresponded to areas where water is being injected into the aquifer. This water is being produced in the process of using groundwater for cooling applications, such as air conditioning and industrial cooling, and is being injected back into the aquifer to maintain hydraulic head and reduce the demand on Winnipeg's sewer system. In most cases, the heat introduced by injecting this water is significantly affecting temperatures at the production well of the same system and numerical modeling indicates that this is inevitable with the current method of development. The combination of heat loss from buildings and injection of heated water is largely responsible for a reduction in the efficiency of groundwater as a coolant and may eventually make the use of groundwater in cooling applications unsustainable.

Ferguson, G. A.; Woodbury, A. D.

2004-12-01

267

Analysis of factors that affect DQE in digital mammography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The international standard IEC 62220-1 about DQE measurement of digital X-ray equipment was published in 2003, but mammography systems aren"t applied to this IEC standard because the factor affect measurement is complicated. Especially, the influence to the pre-sampling MTF by edge method when X-ray beam is oblique to detector. The influence of nonuniformity of x-ray intensity by the heel effect on digital Wiener spectrum (WS) doesn"t become clear. A 0.1mm-thick tungsten edge was imaged in the position where X-ray beam was perpendicular to detector plane and in 6cm from chest wall, respectively. And the pre-sampling MTFs were obtained from these edge images. The calculation area of the digital WS within irradiation area was moved in parallel direction to X-ray tube axis, and the digital WS were calculated. The pre-sampling MTFs and the digital WS are calculated by the method based on the IEC proposal. We used MAMMOMAT3000(SIEMENS), MGU-100B(TOSHIBA), M-IV(LORAD) and Senographe DMR+(GE) as X-ray generator. Images were obtained by FCR PROFECT CS (Fujifilm medical). In all equipments and both arrangement directions of the edge test device, pre-sampling MTFs are almost the same, even if the arrangement places of the edge test device varied. In all equipments, when the calculation area was moved about 10cm, the digital WS of the anode side was higher 7.2-17.9% than those of the cathode side. It was found that the dose of anode side was lower about 20% than cathode side from the profile of an exposure image. We think that digital WS modified the nonuniformity of the dose by the heel effect is obtained by multiplying the digital WS by the compensation coefficient obtained by the dose profile, in low spatial frequency.

Takamura, Miho; Higaki, Akiko; Kodera, Yoshie

2005-04-01

268

Factors affecting therapeutic compliance: A review from the patient's perspective  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore and evaluate the most common factors causing therapeutic non-compliance. Methods A qualitative review was undertaken by a literature search of the Medline database from 1970 to 2005 to identify studies evaluating the factors contributing to therapeutic non-compliance. Results A total of 102 articles was retrieved and used in the review from the 2095 articles identified by the literature review process. From the literature review, it would appear that the definition of therapeutic compliance is adequately resolved. The preliminary evaluation revealed a number of factors that contributed to therapeutic non-compliance. These factors could be categorized to patient-centered factors, therapy-related factors, social and economic factors, healthcare system factors, and disease factors. For some of these factors, the impact on compliance was not unequivocal, but for other factors, the impact was inconsistent and contradictory. Conclusion There are numerous studies on therapeutic noncompliance over the years. The factors related to compliance may be better categorized as “soft” and “hard” factors as the approach in countering their effects may differ. The review also highlights that the interaction of the various factors has not been studied systematically. Future studies need to address this interaction issue, as this may be crucial to reducing the level of non-compliance in general, and to enhancing the possibility of achieving the desired healthcare outcomes.

Jin, Jing; Sklar, Grant Edward; Min Sen Oh, Vernon; Chuen Li, Shu

2008-01-01

269

FACTORS AFFECTING THE PHOTOCHEMICAL TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The photochemical treatment of hazardous waste can be optimized by taking into account various factors that influence the rates of photochemical reactions. Physical factors that facilitate photochemical treatment include: (1) maximizing the irradiated surface to volume ratio of t...

270

FACTORS AFFECTING THE PHOTOCHEMICAL TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The photochemical treatment of hazardous waste can be optimized by taking into account several factors that influence the rates of photochemical reactions. Physical factors that facilitate photochemical treatment include: (1) maximizing the irradiated surface to volume ratio of t...

271

Factors Affecting Nurse Supply and Demand: An Exploration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article addresses the nursing shortage from an economic standpoint by exploring supply and demand factors that influence the availability of nurses. Demand factors include payment mechanisms, cost containment, and availability of substitutes. Supply factors include the women's movement, labor force participation, and entry-level preparation.…

Rose, Mary Ann

1982-01-01

272

FACTORS AFFECTING TEACHERS' USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research studies in the past decade have shown that computer technology is an effective means for widening educational opportunities, but most teachers neither use technology as an instructional delivery system nor integrate technology into their curriculum. Studies reveal a number of factors influencing teachers' decisions to use ICT in the classroom: non-manipulative and manipulative school and teacher factors. These factors

Mojgan Afshari; Kamariah Abu Bakar; Wong Su Luan; Bahaman Abu Samah; Foo Say Fooi

2009-01-01

273

Factors Affecting Students' Choice of Science and Engineering in Portugal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents the results of a study undertaken in Portugal to determine the influence of different factors on students' (n=499) decisions to study or refuse to study in one of the physical sciences or engineering. Some influencing factors are related to what goes on in school and during science lessons, and other factors are related to the…

de Almeida, Maria Jose B. M.; Leite, Maria Salete S. C. P.; Woolnough, Brian E.

274

Factors affecting the solubility of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals.  

PubMed Central

The solubility of triclinic calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals was measured under varying conditions using 45Ca-labeled crystals, expressing solubility as micromoles per liter of 45Ca in solution. In a 0.1-M Tris-HC1 buffer pH 7.4, the solubility of accurately sized CPPD crystals (37-20mum) was 60muM with maximal solubility being attained after about 8 h incubation at 37degreeC. Reduction in crystal size, decrease in pH, increase in ionic strength, Mg++, citrate, and albumin all increased solubility. The most marked effects on solubility occurred when changing the calcium concentration or by enzymatic hydrolysis of inoganic pyrophosphate to orthophosphate. It was found that decreasing the ionized calcium level below 5 mg/100 ml resulted in a progressive enhancement of solubility. The observed solubility-enhancing effects of albumin could be explained solely on its calcium-binding ability and thereby, altered ionized calcium level. Diffusible calcium in synovial fluid was only 40% of the total calcium concentration, which means most joint fluids are normally near the critical concentration of 5 mg/100 ml of ionized calcium, below which solubility is enhanced. During surgery, especially parathyroidectomy, calcium levels fall, favoring dissolution of CPPD crystals. We speculate that the slight decrease in crystal size during dissolution frees them from their cartilaginous mold, resulting in a dose-dependent inflammatory reaction as they are "shed" into the joint space. Crystal shedding may be reinforced by the modest fall in joint fluid pH accompanying the inflammatory response.

Bennett, R M; Lehr, J R; McCarty, D J

1975-01-01

275

Factors affecting the radii of close-in transiting exoplanets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The radius of an exoplanet may be affected by various factors, including irradiation received from the host star, the mass of the planet and its heavy element content. A significant number of transiting exoplanets have now been discovered for which the mass, radius, semi-major axis, host star metallicity and stellar effective temperature are known. Aims: We use multivariate regression models to determine the power-law dependence of planetary radius on planetary equilibrium temperature Teq, planetary mass Mp, stellar metallicity [Fe/H], orbital semi-major axis a, and tidal heating rate Htidal, for 119 transiting planets in three distinct mass regimes. Methods: We fit models initially to all 119 planets, resulting in fairly high scatter between fitted and observed radii, and subsequently to three subsets of these planets: Saturn-mass planets, Jupiter-mass planets, and high-mass planets. Results: We find models for each subset that fit the observed planetary radii well and show the importance of the various environmental parameters on each subset. Conclusions: We determine that heating leads to larger planet radii, as expected, increasing mass leads to increased or decreased radii of low-mass (<0.5 RJ) and high-mass (>2.0 RJ) planets, respectively (with no mass effect on Jupiter-mass planets), and increased host-star metallicity leads to smaller planetary radii, indicating a relationship between host-star metallicity and planet heavy element content. For Saturn-mass planets, a good fit to the radii may be obtained from log(Rp/RJ) = -0.077 + 0.450 log(Mp/MJ) - 0.314 [Fe/H] + 0.671 log(a/AU) + 0.398 log(Teq/K). The radii of Jupiter-mass planets may be fit by log(Rp/RJ) = - 2.217 + 0.856 log(Teq/K) + 0.291 log(a/AU). High-mass planets' radii are best fit by log(Rp/RJ) = -1.067 + 0.380 log(Teq/K) - 0.093 log(Mp/MJ) - 0.057 [Fe/H] + 0.019 log(Htidal/1 × 1020). These equations produce a very good fit to the observed radii, with a mean absolute difference between fitted and observed radius of 0.11 RJ, compared to the mean reported uncertainty in observed radius of 0.07 RJ. A clear distinction is seen between the core-dominated Saturn-mass (0.1-0.5 MJ) planets, whose radii are determined almost exclusively by their mass and heavy element content, and the gaseous envelope-dominated Jupiter-mass (0.5-2.0 MJ) planets, whose radii increase strongly with irradiating flux, partially offset by a power-law dependence on orbital separation.

Enoch, B.; Collier Cameron, A.; Horne, K.

2012-04-01

276

Factors Affecting Teachers' Student-Centered Classroom Computer Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study aims at investigating which factors are relevant to induce teachers' student-centered classroom computer use. Survey data were collected from 361 teachers at comprehensive schools. Based on a systemic view of technology use in schools, different individual teacher characteristics and school contextual factors were examined.…

Friedrich, Helmut Felix; Hron, Aemilian

2011-01-01

277

Factors affecting infiltration rate in steep hillslope conifer plantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infiltration rate is greatly related to vegetation cover in various areas because it can prevent large raindrop impact from producing surface sealing and crusting. In forested area, the infiltration rate has been shown to vary with understory vegetation. Spatial variabilities of litter layer or surface soil properties on forest floor can be also major factors determining the infiltration rate, however, the relationship between the infiltration rate and these factors has not been documented sufficiently. The objective of this study is to elucidate the factors controlling infiltration capacity on forest floor in steep (>35°) Japanese cypress plantation. We conducted the field experiment of artificial rainfall simulation and statistic analysis for controlling factors. Maximum final infiltration rate (FIRmax) at thirty four sites ranged from 5 to 322 mm h-1. From multiple regression analysis, only dry weight of understory vegetation was found to be significant to the FIRmax. This result indicates understory vegetation is the most important factors to increase the infiltration capacity in the steep hillslope. However, under the 50 g m-2 in the dry weight of understory vegetation, the FIRmax varied significantly and bulk density of A-horizon was found to be significant as the controlling factor. This suggests that the FIRmax may decrease with bulk density of A-horizon on forest floor without understory vegetation. These results suggested that the most effective factor is the understory vegetation preventing raindrop impact, and on the bare surface, the bulk density, which may enhance the infiltration, can be a controlling factor in steep forested hillslope.

Hiraoka, M.; Onda, Y.

2010-12-01

278

Factors Affecting the Use of Instructional Television in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study of 36 factors which could possibly limit the use of instructional television (ITV) in elementary schools consisted of an analysis of the responses to a questionnaire administered to 318 teachers who taught in kindergarten through grade six. Chi-square tests were computed for each factor in relationship to the average frequency of…

Broussard, E. Joseph

279

Cognitive Factors Affecting Student Understanding of Geologic Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a model that describes how students reconstruct geological transformations over time. Defines the critical factors influencing reconstructive thinking: (1) the transformation scheme, which influences the other diachronic schemes; (2) knowledge of geological processes; and (3) extracognitive factors. (Author/KHR)|

Dodick, Jeff; Orion, Nir

2003-01-01

280

Factors Affecting Teacher Satisfaction in an Urban School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to distinguish factors that influence the satisfaction levels of teachers in urban school districts. This work also distinguished factors that directly impacted teachers' level of satisfaction towards their work and their attitude towards the administration of their schools. Forty-one teachers from two kindergarten…

Halpert, Michael A.

2011-01-01

281

Factors affecting the implementation and success of TQM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of tailoring TQM to the specific needs of organizations is well known. Shows the findings of a research programme that investigated which organizational factors are important to consider when implementing TQM. Questionnaires and structured interviews, involving the participation of over 200 companies, were used as the main tools for the investigation. Identifies as a result, seven prime factors

Robin Mann; Dennis Kehoe

1995-01-01

282

Factors that Affect Perceived Susceptibility to Cardiovascular Disease in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To identify CVD risk factors that are related to perceived susceptibility for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in West Virginia women.Although risk factors for CVD in women have been identified, it is not clear to what extent that information has reached women in West Virginia, or whether women's beliefs about susceptibility to CVD are in accordance with that knowledge. As

D. Humphries; D. Krummel; S. Rye; K. Simon

1997-01-01

283

Factors Affecting Survival of Bacteriophage on Tomato Leaf Surfaces  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ability of bacteriophage to persist in the phyllosphere for extended periods is limited by many factors, including sunlight irradiation, especially in the UV zone, temperature, desiccation, and exposure to copper bactericides. The effects of these factors on persistence of phage and formulated p...

284

A discussion of the factors affecting surge in centrifugal compressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of surge in a centrifugal compressor has been studied and found to be dependent on a number of complex and often interrelated factors. A major factor defining surge in high-speed, vaned diffuser designs appears to be the flow in the semivaneless space. By developing work initiated by others it has been possible to propose some explanation of previously

R. L. Elder; M. E. Gill

1984-01-01

285

Supplementary report: Further factors affecting the probability of changing responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study the effects of response-contingent probabilities upon response change were studied. 2 factors were identified: changes are conditioned upon (a) repetition not being reinforced and (b) the probability that a change results in reinforcement. The present study indicates that factors influencing changing responses need to be considered in predicting rate of learning.

1960-01-01

286

Factors Affecting Affiliate Station Loyalty towards Broadcast Television Networks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines factors that may influence future ties between television networks and their affiliate stations. Surveys by mail affiliate general managers for the three commercial networks, asking programming questions and questions about level of loyalty to the networks. Finds that organization factors appear to be more essential in network-affiliate…

Lin, Carolyn A.

1996-01-01

287

Factors affecting the success of Hmong college students in America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores barriers and success factors of Hmong students in American colleges by interviewing five Hmong graduate students from refugee families in the US. Emerging themes revolve around academic, cultural and financial barriers. Professors, advisors, classmates, academic support programmes, family, financial aid and their own psychological resources were identified as supportive factors in addressing their academic, cultural and financial

Soua Xiong; Sarah K. Y. Lam

2012-01-01

288

Factors Affecting Survival of Bacteriophage on Tomato Leaf Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of bacteriophage to persist in the phyllosphere for extended periods is limited by many factors, including sunlight irradiation, especially in the UV zone, temperature, desiccation, and exposure to copper bactericides. The effects of these factors on persistence of phage and formulated phage (phage mixed with skim milk) were evaluated. In field studies, copper caused significant phage reduction if

F. B. Iriarte; B. Balogh; M. T. Momol; L. M. Smith; M. Wilson; J. B. Jones

2007-01-01

289

Factors affecting investment bank initial public offering market share  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effect of several factors on the market share of investment banks that act as book managers in initial public offerings (IPOs) between 1984 and 1995. For established banks, IPO first-day returns, one-year abnormal performance, abnormal compensation, industry specialization, analyst reputation, and association with withdrawn offers have a significant impact on changes in market share. These factors

Craig G. Dunbar

2000-01-01

290

Factors Affecting the Real Estate Prices in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examines the effect of factors influencing the prices of real estate in Quetta city. Hypothetically, this study is based upon five observed factors(urbanization, refugees’ influx, monetary, lack of investment alternatives and inflow of foreign remittances) in relation to the prices of real estate. Questionnaire developed on the basis of above variables were administered to a heterogeneous sample

Mehmood khan kakar; M. Ali kakar

2011-01-01

291

Factors Affecting Postoperative Morbidity and Mortality in Destroyed Lung  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The presence of specific risk factors can increase the postoperative complication rate of pneumonectomy for destroyed lung.Methods. Our experience in 118 consecutive patients who underwent pneumonectomy for destroyed lung over a 10-year period was retrospectively analyzed to evaluate the effect of specific risk factors on postoperative complications. The significance of tuberculosis, right pneumonectomy, preoperative empyema, and duration of illness

Semih Halezeroglu; Murat Keles; Aziz Uysal; Muharrem Celik; Canan Senol; Gokhan Haciibrahimoglu; Bulent Arman

1997-01-01

292

Factors affecting the photochemical treatment of hazardous waste (journal version)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photochemical treatment of hazardous waste can be optimized by taking into account various factors that influence the rates of photochemical reactions. Physical factors that facilitate photochemical treatment include: (1) maximizing the irradiated surface to volume ratio of the system; (2) selecting a light source with a spectrum that strongly overlaps the absorption spectrum of the chromophore; and (3) vigorously

Zepp

1988-01-01

293

Factors affecting the photochemical treatment of hazardous waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photochemical treatment of hazardous waste can be optimized by taking into account several factors that influence the rates of photochemical reactions. Physical factors that facilitate photochemical treatment include: (1) maximizing the irradiated surface-to-volume ratio of the system, (2) selecting a light source with a spectrum that strongly overlaps the absorption spectrum of the chromophore, (3) vigorously mixing the reactants.

Richard G. Zepp

1988-01-01

294

Factors affecting the success of non-majors in learning to program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introductory programming course is difficult for many university students, especially students who have little prior exposure to programming. Many factors affecting student success have been identified, but there is still a dearth of knowledge about how key factors combine to affect course outcomes. In this study we develop and empirically test a model integrating three factors of importance in

Susan Wiedenbeck

2005-01-01

295

Factors Affecting Quality Enhancement Procedures for E-Learning Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This paper reports on an empirical study exploring the way in which campus-based higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK apply their internal quality assurance and enhancement (QA/QE) procedures to their e-learning courses. The purpose of this paper is to identify those characteristics of e-learning courses which affected the…

Jara, Magdalena; Mellar, Harvey

2009-01-01

296

Factors affecting employee knowledge acquisition and application capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to analyze the influences of organizational context and information technology (IT) applications on employees' perceptions of knowledge acquisition and application capabilities in five public and five private sector organizations in South Korea. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper analyzes how employees' perceptions of organizational context and IT affect employee knowledge acquisition and application capabilities in five public

Soonhee Kim; Hyangsoo Lee

2010-01-01

297

Factors affecting the magnetic properties of consolidated amorphous powder cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that it is possible to produce high density amorphous metal compacts on a routine basis, that have interesting soft magnetic properties. A study of some of the parameters determining their magnetic properties has been made. As expected, interparticle insulation and compact thickness affect the a.c. properties. Surprisingly, the magnetic properties were found to be relatively independent

D. Raybould; K. S. Tan

1985-01-01

298

FACTORS AFFECTING ACCUMULATION OF DEICING SALTS IN SOILS AROUND TREES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkways, street tree planter boxes, and high- way medians and roadsides are locations where soil accu- mulation of deicing salts is highest. Sodium chloride is the most common deicer applied in the United States. Sodium chloride and other salts accumulating in the root zone may instigate and exacerbate street tree decline. Salts affect soil aggregate stability, porosity, and water and

R. G. Hootman; P. D. Kelsey; R. Reid

299

Cognitive and Affective Factors of TV Advertising's Influence on Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews the research on children's understanding of the intent of advertising, the persuasive impact of television commercials, and children's cognitive defenses and resistance to such persuasion. Concludes that any model which tries to account for advertising's influence on children must incorporate affective as well as cognitive components.…

Wartella, Ellen

1984-01-01

300

Dimensional factors affecting magnetic properties of wound cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic properties of wound cores constructed from electrical steel strips have been found to be affected by their geometry, in particular the inner and outer diameters, the strip width and the build-up thickness of the toroids. Assessment of the effect of aspect ratio and winding ratio have been carried out in various sizes of toroid. An increase in aspect

A J Moses; P C Y Ling

1989-01-01

301

Calcite and Picocyanobacteria in Lakes: Factors Affecting Their Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcites build large deposits which have been observed in the rock record throughout geological time at various localities around the globe. Carbonate deposits have affected atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. As it has been generally accepted, inorganic precipitation represents a source of carbon dioxide on short geological time scales and a sink of inorganic carbon at long time scales from millions

M. Dittrich; M. Obst; D. Mavrocordatos

2003-01-01

302

Institutional factors affecting DOE waste management and environmental restoration planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitude and impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) waste management and environmental restoration program requires a drastic change in DOE's culture to include the participation of all levels of government, public forum representatives, and the public. Early in the process of developing a new, comprehensive five-year plan for environmental restoration and waste management, Secretary Watkins invited affected

J. A. Walker; L. I. Middleman

1990-01-01

303

Cognitive and Affective Factors of TV Advertising's Influence on Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the research on children's understanding of the intent of advertising, the persuasive impact of television commercials, and children's cognitive defenses and resistance to such persuasion. Concludes that any model which tries to account for advertising's influence on children must incorporate affective as well as cognitive components. (PD)

Wartella, Ellen

1984-01-01

304

Institutional Factors Affecting Biophysical Outcomes in Forest Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although there is considerable interest in the impact of diverse policies affecting the biophysical outcomes in forests, gaining a substantial sample over time of forests under different institutional arrangements has been difficult. This article analyzes data from 46 forests located in six countries over time. In forests where policies have been…

Coleman, Eric A.

2009-01-01

305

Factors Affecting Students' Self-Efficacy in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Researchers working in educational settings are increasingly paying attention to the role students' thoughts and beliefs play in the learning process. Self-efficacy, a key element of social cognitive theory, appears to be an important variable because it affects students' motivation and learning. This article investigates empirical literature…

van Dinther, Mart; Dochy, Filip; Segers, Mien

2011-01-01

306

Factors that affect the flow of patients through triage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To use observational methods to objectively evaluate the organisation of triage and what issues may affect the effectiveness of the process.Design: A two-phase study comprising observation of 16 h of triage in a London hospital emergency department and interviews with the triage staff to build a qualitative task analysis and study protocol for phase 2; observation and timing in

Melinda Lyons; Ruth Brown; Robert Wears

2007-01-01

307

The influence of affective factors on conceptualization in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 groups of schizophrenics, distinguished as to their capacity for abstract thinking (see ^W15:^n 3039), and normals were presented with stimuli composed of groupings of words constructed so that affect-laden words could be placed in the figure or ground of a gestalt. Schizophrenics characterized as demonstrating \\

M. H. Feffer

1961-01-01

308

FACTORS AFFECTING THE EFFICIENT FLOCCULATION OF TAILINGS BY POLYACRYLAMIDES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flocculation of coal preparation plant tailings is an established technology, and the scientific basis of flocculation is well understood, Nevertheless, conditions specific to the preparation plant affect the efficiency of the process. The sedimentation rate obtained with flocculated tailings depends on the molecular size of the polyacrylamide. Modern flocculants are very high molecular weight polymers and the size of

J. M. HENDERSON; A. D. WHEATLEY

1987-01-01

309

Factors Affecting Quality Enhancement Procedures for E-Learning Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper reports on an empirical study exploring the way in which campus-based higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK apply their internal quality assurance and enhancement (QA/QE) procedures to their e-learning courses. The purpose of this paper is to identify those characteristics of e-learning courses which affected the…

Jara, Magdalena; Mellar, Harvey

2009-01-01

310

ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING METHANE GAS RECOVERY FROM SIX LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a pilot study of six U.S. landfills that have methane (CH4) gas recovery systems. NOTE: The study was a first step in developing a field testing program to gather data to identify key variables that affect CH4 generation and to develop an empirical mod...

311

Factors affecting lignin degradation in lignocellulose by Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural conditions affecting lignin degradation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in various lignocellulosic materials were studied in comparison to an isolated lignin preparation. With shallow mycelial cultures, the degradation of lignin in wood proceeded more slowly in a 100% O2-atmosphere than in an air atmosphere, indicating that pure oxygen was toxic to the fungus. The organism was able to degrade lignin efficiently

Matti S. A. Leisola; Duane C. Ulmer; Armin Fiechter

1984-01-01

312

Factors affecting minority population proximity to hazardous facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ''environmental racism'' by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differenc...

L. A. Nieves A. L. Nieves

1995-01-01

313

Factors affecting minority population proximity to hazardous facilities  

SciTech Connect

Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range of facility types and explores the effects of urban and income factors. A statistically significant inverse relationship is found between the percentage of non-Hispanic Whites and virtually all facility categories in all regions. Except for Hispanics in the South, all such associations for minority groups show a direct relationship, though some are nonsignificant. The geographic concentration of facilities is more closely tied to urbanization than to economic factors. Controlling for both urban and economic factors, minority population concentration is still a significant explanatory variable for some facility types in some regions. This finding is most consistent for African-Americans.

Nieves, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nieves, A.L. [Wheaton Coll., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-04-01

314

[The Factors which Affect the Neurological Condition in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage].  

PubMed

The factors which were related to the neurological condition were analyzed in 233 cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Bivariate analysis and multiple(binomial)logistic regression analysis were performed as for Hunt & Kosnik grade, modified Rankin Scale at discharge and modified Rankin Scale in the out-patient department to detect the factors which were related to the neurological condition. Hematoma-filled intraventricular hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage with midline shift, acute subdural hematoma and aneurysm of the vertebrobasilar system were the representative factors which caused poor neurological condition. Hunt & Kosnik grade was poor when rebleeding occurred or hematoma was formed in the sylvian fissure. Hunt & Kosnik grade and modified Rankin Scale at discharge tended to be poor in the cases with acute hydrocephalus. The elevation of intracranial pressure was the major factor in neurological deterioration. PMID:24091459

Oyama, Hirofumi; Wada, Kentaro; Kito, Akira; Maki, Hideki; Noda, Tomoyuki

2013-10-01

315

Factors Affecting Animal Protein Adequacy among the Rural Egypt Population.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Soliman's study documented the extent of the protein gap among Egypt's rural poor and found the inadequacy particularly pronounced in animal protein. To learn more about the relationship between animal protein deficiency and other factors, a multiple regr...

S. Lane

1982-01-01

316

Factors Affecting the Reporting of Sexual Harassment in the Navy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Only a small fraction of Navy members who experience sexual harassment use the Navy's formal grievance channels to report it. This study was conducted to identify factors associated with reporting of sexual harassment and with the filing of formal sexual ...

S. Booth-Kewley

1995-01-01

317

Factors affecting teachers’ student-centered classroom computer use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims at investigating which factors are relevant to induce teachers’ student-centered classroom computer use. Survey data were collected from 361 teachers at comprehensive schools. Based on a systemic view of technology use in schools, different individual teacher characteristics and school contextual factors were examined. Results from a four-step hierarchical regression reveal that student-centered classroom computer use could

Helmut Felix Friedrich; Aemilian Hron

2011-01-01

318

Transcription factor HNF1? and novel partners affect nephrogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterozygous mutations of the tissue-specific transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)1?, cause maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY5) and kidney anomalies including agenesis, hypoplasia, dysplasia and cysts. Because of these renal anomalies, HNF1? is classified as a CAKUT (congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract) gene. We searched for human fetal kidney proteins interacting with the N-terminal region

Karin Dudziak; Nima Mottalebi; Sabine Senkel; Emma L Edghill; Stefan Rosengarten; Magdalena Roose; Coralie Bingham; Sian Ellard; Gerhart U Ryffel

2008-01-01

319

Factors affecting the strength of alkali-activated slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of several factors on the strength of alkali activated slags has been investigated. The most important factors were found to be: the type of alkaline activator, the means of adding activator, the dosage of alkali, the type and fineness of slag, SiO[sub 2]\\/Na[sub 2]O ratio (modulus, Ms) when using waterglass solution, curing temperature, liquid\\/slag or water\\/slag ratio and

S. D. Wang; K. L. Scrivener; P. L. Pratt

1994-01-01

320

Synopsis of discussion session on physicochemical factors affecting toxicity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The paper documents the workshop discussion regarding the role of these factors in altering toxicity. For each factor, the nature, magnitude, and uncertainty of its empirical relation to the toxicity of various chemicals or chemical classes is discussed. Limitations in the empirical database regarding the variety of species and endpoints tested were addressed. Possible mechanisms underlying the empirical relations are identified. Finally, research needed to better understand these effects is identified.

Erickson, R. J.; Bills, T. D.; Clark, J. R.; Hansen, D. J.; Knezovich, J.

1994-01-01

321

Factors affecting placement of a child with intellectual disability.  

PubMed

Parents of disabled children often face the question whether or not to keep the child at home or to place them. The choice between the two alternatives resides with the parents and various factors influence their decision. Several researchers have identified these factors, which include child-related parameters, family and parental attitudes, the influence of the social environment, and the external assistance provided to the family. In a pilot study, we attempted to isolate the main factors involved in the parental decision either to keep the child at home or place the child by examining a sample comprised of 50 parents of children suffering severe intellectual disability studying in a special education school and 48 parents of adults with intellectual disability working in sheltered workshops. Each parent filled out a questionnaire used in a study in the United States and results of the research indicated parental-related factors as the dominant factors that delayed the placement of their child in residential care; guilt feelings were the main factor. PMID:15915290

Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav

2005-05-01

322

[Factors affecting the response to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents].  

PubMed

Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) has transformed the management chronic renal failure (CKD) and considerably improved the outcome of patients on regular chronic dialysis. However, a significant number of patients fail to respond to high of Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and several causes of inadequate response to epoetin therapy have been identified. Some factors, such as gender, age, length of time on dialysis, type of dialysis and co-morbidities such as hemoglobinopathy, are not susceptible to clinical intervention. However, many other factors can be adjusted. Iron deficiency, whether functional or absolute, is the most common factor that limits the response to rHuEPO. Monitoring of iron parameters and a large use of iron supplementation result in an efficient epoetin response. Infection and inflammation have been shown to reduce responsiveness to ESAs by disrupting iron metabolism and increasing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that inhibit erythropoiesis. Increase dialysis dose is associated with improvements in anemia correction and reduced requirements for ESAs. Severe hyperparathyroidism and aluminum overload lead to a reduced number of responsive erythroid progenitor cells. Finally, a number of nutritional factors, such as deficiencies of carnitine, vitamin B12, folic acid, and vitamin C, are susceptible to alter erythropoiesis. Optimizing patient response to ESAs therefore requires consideration of many of well-established factors and is important for both patient outcomes and cost of treatment. PMID:17373270

Jauréguy, Maïté; Choukroun, Gabriel

2006-09-01

323

Factors affecting perceived tumor volumes in magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irregularly structured brain tumors, such as glioblastomas, challenge attempts to visualize and quantify their three-dimensional\\u000a structure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents one tool for attempting to noninvasively track tumor size. MR images\\u000a demonstrate widely varying perceived tumor margins. In addition, adjunct therapies, such as the administration of steroids,\\u000a greatly affect the volumes perceived in images formed by certain pulse sequences.

Robert L. Galloway; Robert J. Maciunas; Ann L. Failinger

1993-01-01

324

Metallurgical factors affecting the crack growth resistance of a superalloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

During creep loading of IN-792, grain boundary morphology in conjunction with grain size strongly affected crack propagation.\\u000a Compositional variations and fabrication techniques showed no significant effect. A primary requirement for materials to be\\u000a used in gas turbine engine discs is satisfactory resistance to crack growth resistance in the 650 to 760?C range. Both conventional\\u000a smooth and machine notched stress-rupture samples

J. M. Larson; S. Floreen

1977-01-01

325

Rotating biological contactors: a review on main factors affecting performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotating biological contactors (RBCs) constitute a very unique and superior alternative for biodegradable matter and nitrogen\\u000a removal on account of their feasibility, simplicity of design and operation, short start-up, low land area requirement, low\\u000a energy consumption, low operating and maintenance cost and treatment efficiency. The present review of RBCs focus on parameters\\u000a that affect performance like rotational speed, organic and

S. Cortez; P. Teixeira; R. Oliveira; M. Mota

2008-01-01

326

Factors affecting intention to quit among IT professionals in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of stressors (role ambiguity, role conflict, work-overload, work-family conflict), job stress, job satisfaction and organizational commitment on the information technology (IT) professionals' intention to quit their jobs in Turkey. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A structural equation modeling approach was employed to identify the variables that significantly affect the decision to

Fethi Calisir; Cigdem A. Gumussoy; Ibrahim Iskin

2011-01-01

327

Factors affecting slab surface roughness of siliceous dimension stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sawing of granite blocks using multi-blade gangsaws and an abrasive mixture is one of the most complex operations in the\\u000a rock transformation industry. The surface quality of the finished slabs is the main determinant of the volume of material\\u000a to be removed in subsequent polishing operations, thus affecting the product’s final cost. Measurements carried out on five\\u000a types of

Rogério Pinto Ribeiro; Antenor Braga Paraguassú; Sérgio Trajano Franco Moreiras

328

Metallurgical factors affecting fracture toughness of aluminum alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crack extension in commercial aluminum alloys proceeds by the “ductile” or fibrous mode. The process involves the large, ~1\\u000a ?m to ~10?m, Fe-, Si-, and Cu-bearing inclusions which break easily, and the growth of voids at the cracked particles. The\\u000a linking-up of the voids is accomplished by the rupture of the intervening ligaments, and this is affected by the fine,

G. T. Hahn; A. R. Rosenfield

1975-01-01

329

Mechanstic Factors Affecting Fenton Oxidations in Natural Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of Fenton’s reagent (Fe(II) + H2O2 yields hydroxyl radical) has been applied to remediation of contaminated soil sites and treatment of industrial waste streams. However, degradation of dissolved organic pollutants by Fenton’s reagent is strongly affected by thepresence of other dissolved\\u000a species. Natural organic matter (NOM) exerts three main influences on hydroxyl radical mediated oxidation of pollutants: 1)

Matthew A. Tarr; Michele E. Lindsey

330

Neighborhood Factors Affecting Rates of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Chicago  

Microsoft Academic Search

High rates of gonorrhea have been shown to be associated with high rates of incarceration in the prior year. One hypothesized\\u000a chain of events is that there is a negative effect of incarceration on neighborhood social characteristics, which in turn\\u000a affect behaviors facilitating transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). This study examined whether neighborhood\\u000a characteristics were associated with the incidence

James C. Thomas; Elizabeth A. Torrone; Christopher R. Browning

2010-01-01

331

Factors affecting parenting stress among biologically vulnerable toddlers.  

PubMed

Parenting a child with, or at risk for, a developmental delay or disability can be stressful. Abidin's parenting stress model was used as a framework to examine how several maternal, child, and family factors predict parent stress outcomes. Stepwise regression models revealed that maternal and child factors were significant contributors to parenting stress. However, family factors (income and family functioning) were not retained. Parenting stress was lower when child (cognitive and adaptive ability) and maternal (depression and child care competence) characteristics were more positive. Child cognitive ability was a strong contributor to total parenting stress and two parenting stress subscales. Findings suggest that these parents need stress lowering interventions such as supportive child care, respite relief, and a child behaviour-focused program. PMID:16923678

Loretta Secco, M; Askin, D; Yu, C T; Garinger, Jennifer; Mulaire-Cloutier, Carole; Scharf, Lisa; Schwartzman, Lisa; Konyk, Debra; Feldman, Maurice A

332

A discussion of the factors affecting surge in centrifugal compressors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of surge in a centrifugal compressor has been studied and found to be dependent on a number of complex and often interrelated factors. A major factor defining surge in high-speed, vaned diffuser designs appears to be the flow in the semivaneless space. By developing work initiated by others it has been possible to propose some explanation of previously presented apparently conflicting data. In addition, a more complex mathematical model capable of assessing additional factors is proposed. Using this model good agreement with experimental surge has been obtained. This model takes into consideration pressure losses in the impeller, diffuser, and collector, and by using this model it was possible to identify the stalling elements that are responsible for overall compressor instability.

Elder, R. L.; Gill, M. E.

1984-06-01

333

Factors affecting university women's basketball coaches' timeout decisions.  

PubMed

This study investigated the criteria that coaches of university women's basketball teams used when calling a timeout. Thirty-five of Canada's university coaches of women's basketball responded to Likert scale questions rating the importance of six factors in calling a timeout. Differences due to sex, coaching experience, and team success indicated that some factors were perceived to influence timeout decisions more than others. Specifically, responses from female coaches, coaches with less than 5 years of experience, and coaches whose teams were ranked in the CIAU's top 10 within the last 3 years indicated that they used offensive game events more frequently than their counterparts did. Interactions were also found for Experience x Gender and Experience x Gender x Success in the way that offensive game events were perceived, and for gender and success for the factor attentional state of players. PMID:1330273

Duke, A; Corlett, J

1992-12-01

334

Acid Hydrolysis of Wood.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of investigations into the acid hydrolysis of pinus radiata (Monterey pine) and the results therefrom are described. Main objectives of the investigation were to establish, using the most promising routes, the conditions of hydrolysis that would ...

A. L. Titchener B. K. Guha

1981-01-01

335

Hydrolysis of Bromodifluoromethyltriphenylphosphonium Bromide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hydrolysis of Ph3P(+)CFBr2Br(-) afforded a high yield of dibromofluoromethane and triphenylphosphine oxide. Hydrolysis in the presence of a radioactive isotope of bromine gave evidence that the mechanism of this reaction proceeds via the dibromofluorometh...

R. M. Flynn R. G. Manning R. M. Kessler

1981-01-01

336

Factors affecting engorgement behavior in the salt marsh horse fly, Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart (Diptera: Tabanidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Female Tabanus nigrovittatus were field collected and used in laboratory experimentation to further elucidate the physiological and behavioral factors that affect engorgement. Previous studies have shown that sulfakinins are feeding satiety factors in invertebrates. This study demonstrates that sulf...

337

FACTORS AFFECTING SENSITIVITY OF CHEMICAL AND ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF MARINE EMBAYMEMTS TO NITROGEN LOADING  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper summarizes an ongoing examination of the primary factors that affect sensitivity of marine embayment responses to nitrogen loading. Included is a discussion of two methods for using these factors: classification of embayments into discrete sensitivity classes and norma...

338

An Investigation of the Factors Affecting Moral Judgment of Marital Status and Family Size.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research was conducted to determine (a) how various factors influence the moral judgments of marital status and family size and (b) how these factors affect social pressures and interpersonal perceptions. Stories were prepared describing single or married...

E. H. Drucker

1975-01-01

339

Factors affecting magnetic properties of evaporated iron films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors determining the magnetic properties of iron films evaporated from an evaporation source positioned around a novel rotating cryostat (RC) system have been discussed. Results show all films exhibit isotropic behaviour when the RC system is stationary irrespective of the types of substrates used. However, when the RC is rotated, the films produced on kapton™ generally show a slight

Hakan Kockar; Turgut Meydan

2002-01-01

340

Factors affecting instant properties of powdered cocoa beverages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing number of small and medium scale manufacturers of powder cocoa beverages (PCBs) in Nigeria requires relevant technical data useful in designing new and value added products from cocoa powder. This paper reports a preliminary study carried out to determine how some physical and chemical factors relate to the instant properties of some commercial samples of PCBs produced in

T. A. Shittu; M. O. Lawal

2007-01-01

341

Factors Affecting the Fate of Ciprofloxacin in Aquatic Field Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ciprofloxacin (cipro) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used in human and veterinary medicine that is readily transported into the environment via domestic wastewaters and through direct runoff. Although factors governing cipro fate are becoming understood, an integrated evaluation of disappearance mechanisms in aquatic systems has not been performed. Here we examined cipro disappearance rate in surface waters using both laboratory and

L. A. Cardoza; C. W. Knapp; C. K. Larive; J. B. Belden; M. Lydy; D. W. Graham

2005-01-01

342

Factors affecting money laundering: lesson for developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The primary objective of this paper is to examine the factors that underpin the pervasiveness of money laundering. An empirical method was used to study the relationship between technology (information and communication technology infrastructure), quality of human capital, efficiency of the legal framework, ethical behavior of firms (corporate governance) and capacity for innovation on the pervasiveness of money

Santha Vaithilingam; Mahendhiran Nair

2007-01-01

343

A Quantitative Assessment of Factors Affecting College Sports' Team Unity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The competitiveness of National Collegiate Association (NCAA) schools increases in intensity each year. With the increased pressure on college sport staffs to be undefeated season after season, coaches have to find ways to keep players happy; to do this, they have to find factors that contribute to unify the players. It is nearly impossible to…

Aghazadeh, Seyed-Mahmoud; Kyei, Kwasi

2009-01-01

344

FACTORS AFFECTING THE ADOPTION OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which individual factors influence the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices is estimated using a logit model and data from a 1990 survey of West Virginia producers. The results are, as expected, different than those for conventional agricultural technologies. For example, the effects of human capital characteristics are significant, while those for structural and institutional characteristics are not.

Gerard E. DSouza; Douglas Cyphers; Tim T. Phipps

1993-01-01

345

Factors Affecting Principal Turnover: A Study of Three Midwestern Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose. This dissertation addresses the problem of principal turnover. Using state and city level administrative data, a study of principals and their schools in greater Kansas City, Missouri, St. Louis, Missouri, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, was conducted with the goal of discovering themes that emerge regarding the factors associated with…

Belt, Charles M.

2009-01-01

346

Factors Affecting Long-Term Abstinence from Substances Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes of abstainers from drug use that relate to the factors leading to long-term abstinence. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Amal Hospital to examine, which attitudes of abstainers related to long-term abstinence. A random survey was conducted on 62…

Elsheikh, Salah Elgaily

2008-01-01

347

FACTORS AFFECTING ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN BENGHAZI, LIBYA  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the factors responsible for road traffic accidents in Benghazi. Material and Methods: Retrospective and descriptive studies were done in the years 2006-2007. The data was collected from Traffic and License Department, Benghazi. The data were analyzed, based on fatalities, the severely handicapped, hit and run victims and were correlated with age, sex, time, environmental factors, type of roads, etc. Results: One-Thousand-Two-Hundred-Sixty-Five accidents occurred between the years 2006-2007 within the Benghazi city limits; 11.14% of the injuries were fatal; 67.35% of the victims had severe injuries and 21.51% escaped with minor injuries. Table 1 shows that 73.04% lost their lives within the city limits, 13.47% on the fly-over, and 2.12% on minor roads connected to main roads within the city limits. The mean of the accidents and its standard deviation were 16.66± 25.67 with a variance of fatality of 1.54. Conclusion: It is concluded from the studies that major road traffic accidents occur because of environmental stress factors. In addition, fatalities and the seriousness of the accidents depend on a number of factors such as the age of the vehicle, safety measures, human error and time and place of accident.

Al-Ghaweel, Ibrahim; Mursi, Saleh A.; Jack, Joel P.; Joel, Irene

2009-01-01

348

Factors Affecting Drug Abuse in Adolescent Females in Rural Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores factors influencing adolescent female substance use in rural communities. Self-reported data gathered from females 12 to 15 years of age in two northwestern communities in the United States showed an association among gender identity, peer and parental relationships, and substance use. Aggressive masculinity had the…

Renes, Susan L.; Strange, Anthony T.

2009-01-01

349

Sociological Factors Affecting Agricultural Price Risk Management in Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The highly volatile auction system in Australia accounts for 85 percent of ex-farm wool sales, with the remainder sold by forward contract, futures, and other hedging methods. In this article, against the background of an extensive literature on price risk strategies, we investigate the behavioral factors associated with producers' adoption of…

Jackson, Elizabeth; Quaddus, Mohammed; Islam, Nazrul; Stanton, John

2009-01-01

350

Factors affecting the performance of entrepreneurial service firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current climate, the importance of the role played by entrepreneurship as a palpable reality that enables economic growth at a macroeconomic level, and as a factor that favours the progress of companies at a microeconomic level, has made it the subject of continual analyses from many different perspectives and in a variety of contexts by researchers from around

SeongBae Lim; Domingo Ribeiro; Sang M. Lee

2008-01-01

351

Caregiver Support Groups: Factors Affecting Use of Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined effects of factors on support group attendance among family caregivers to frail elderly relatives. Found that attendance by primary caregivers was greater for those who were older, who had secondary informal caregiver involved in providing care, or who had significant health problems. Attendance was greater for those caring for…

Monahan, Deborah J.; And Others

1992-01-01

352

Factors Affecting Technology Uses in Schools: An Ecological Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Why is technology not used more in schools? Many researchers have tried to solve this persistent puzzle. The authors of this article report on their study of technology uses in 19 schools. They suggest an ecological metaphor, using the example of the introduction of the zebra mussel into the Great Lakes, to integrate and organize sets of factors

Zhao, Yong; Frank, Kenneth A.

2003-01-01

353

Factors affecting performance in first-year computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performances are analysed over successive semesters for a cohort of first-year students doing computer programming. Attainment is related to performance in other studies. However, many factors have roles. Learning style and problem-solving skills are important in information technology in Semester I. Gender and secondary school outcomes matter in introductory programming, also in Semester I. Dislike of programming influences outcomes in

Annagret Goold; Russell Rimmer

2000-01-01

354

Analysis of Factors Affecting Least-Cost Size of Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general model used to analyze the effects of assembly and distribution factors and economies of scale in processing on least-cost size of plant and on cost components is described. This model is applied to empirical data from fluid milk plants and country elevators. In both cases, it appears that total per unit cost (combined assembly, processing and distribution cost)

E. M. Babb; T. H. Yu

1970-01-01

355

Factors affecting the interpretation of figurative language uses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relations among three general language competency factors ? word knowledge, comprehension, and paradigmatic\\/syntagmatic reasoning ? and college developmental readers’ ability to interpret two text formats designed to elicit either a literal or figurative interpretation. The two formats were: a) an embedded format where different target expressions were included as the last statement in a context that

David G. OBrien; Bonnie Higginson; G. Michael Miller

1986-01-01

356

Factors Affecting the Misperception of Friendliness Cues in Initial Interactions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some researchers have found men to attribute more sexual meaning to heterosexual interactions than do women. This study was conducted to examine factors which may enhance or diminish this gender difference on perceptions of sexual intent by considering the three variables of physical attractiveness of target, similarity of target's personality to…

Harnish, Richard J.; And Others

357

Factors affecting webpage's visual interface design and style  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, many researches of web interface were focused on usability and technical aspects. Instead, this research takes the visual communication-oriented approach to see how much the visual interface style adds to its rating. The main purpose of this study is to understand the design criteria and major factors that influenced different web visual interface styles. First of all,

Chun-Cheng Hsu

2011-01-01

358

Environmental and Management Factors Affecting Estrous Activity in Dairy Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

One thousand periods of estrus of Hol- stein and Jersey cows and heifers of breeding age during 27 mo were used to evaluate environmental and management factors related to estrous behavior during twice-daily heat checks. Mounting activ- ity at the first observation of estrus was influenced by sire within genetic selection group fog milk yield, lactation number, primary housing location,

F. C. Gwazdauskas; J. A. Lineweaver; M. L. McGilliard

1983-01-01

359

Children in Research: Informed Consent and Critical Factors Affecting Mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-three mothers whose ill children had been enrolled in clinical trials were interviewed about their experiences giving informed consent. The qualitative data from mothers of children with cancer and mothers of children with diabetes were compared and contrasted using narrative analysis techniques. Results suggest four critical factors that differentiated and defined their informed consent experiences: immediacy of the threat to

Pamela K. Pletsch; Patricia E. Stevens

2001-01-01

360

Caregiver Support Groups: Factors Affecting Use of Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined effects of factors on support group attendance among family caregivers to frail elderly relatives. Found that attendance by primary caregivers was greater for those who were older, who had secondary informal caregiver involved in providing care, or who had significant health problems. Attendance was greater for those caring for…

Monahan, Deborah J.; And Others

1992-01-01

361

Factors Affecting Epilepsy Development and Epilepsy Prognosis in Cerebral Palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted between November 2006 and October 2009 to determine the factors predicting the presence and prognosis of epilepsy in patients with cerebral palsy. We enrolled 2 groups of patients: 42 with cerebral palsy in group 1 and 56 patients with cerebral palsy and epilepsy in group 2. The subjects in group 2 were considered to have good

Gulen Gul Mert; Faruk Incecik; Sakir Altunbasak; Ozlem Herguner; Mustafa Kurthan Mert; Nurcihan Kiris; Ilker Unal

2011-01-01

362

Factors Affecting Social Workers' Inclusion of Animals in Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors

Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E.; Kawam, Elisa

2013-01-01

363

Individual Differences: Factors Affecting Employee Utilization of Flexible Work Arrangements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated individual and organizational factors that predict an individual's choice to use flexible work arrangements (FWAs). Survey data was collected from 144 employees in two different organizations. The results revealed several significant predictors of FWAs: tenure, hours worked per week, supervisory responsibilities,…

Lambert, Alysa D.; Marler, Janet H.; Gueutal, Hal G.

2008-01-01

364

Upper Extremity Physical Factors Affecting Tennis Serve Velocity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty1 tournament-level tennis players with expert serve technique volunteered to have their serve evaluated to determine relationships between anthropometric data, extremity strength, and functional serve velocity. All players underwent a complete physical examination, a video taped serve analysis, a radar measurement of serve velocity, and a series of upper extremity strength measurements. Statistical analysis was performed to determine which factors

David B. Cohen; Michael A. Mont; Kevin R. Campbell; Barry N. Vogelstein; John W. Loewy

1994-01-01

365

Factors affecting children's enjoyment of a frightening film sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment examined the factors that contribute to children's enjoyment of frightening mass media, in an effort to extend recent research with adults. The study focused on suspense (indexed by worry and fear) and character liking as mediators of enjoyment. Children at two age levels viewed a scary program that concluded with either a successful resolution of a threat or

Cynthia Hoffner; Joanne Cantor

1991-01-01

366

Social Life Factors Affecting Suicide in Japanese Men and Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined relationship between social and demographic indicators and age-adjusted suicide mortality in 46 prefectures in Japan. Rural residence was the major factor for male mortality in 1970 and 1975. In 1970, home help for the elderly, depopulation by social mobility, and urban residence were positively associated with male mortality. In women,…

Araki, Shunichi; Murata, Katsuyuki

1986-01-01

367

Factors Affecting Individual Persistence Rates in Undergraduate College Programs1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses a sample drawn from the National Longitudinal Surveys of young men attending college in the 1960's. Some of the principal conclusions of the multivariate analyses are: (1) Factors determining persistence vary widely with the stage of the undergraduate career; (2) race and parental SES bear no net relation to dropping out; (3) the impact of ability declines

Andrew I. Kohen; Gilbert Nestel; Constantine Karmas

1978-01-01

368

FACTORS AFFECTING DISINFECTION AND STABILIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Effective disinfection and stabilization of sewage sludge prior to land application is essential to not only protect human health, but also to convince the public of its benefits and safety. A basic understanding of the key factors involved in producing a stable biosolid product ...

369

Factors affecting the concentration of testosterone in poultry litter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poultry litter used as cattle feed can contain high levels of testosterone (>400 ng\\/g) and estrogen (>300 ng\\/g) which can interfere with reproduction. However such high levels of testosterone are not usually found in broiler chicken litter (< 6% of samples). We tested the following parameters to determine what factors could be responsible for highly elevated concentrations of testosterone: sex,

Laurence S. Shore; Michael Gurevich; Mordechai Shemesh

1993-01-01

370

Factors Affecting Mathematically Talented Females' Enrollment in High School Calculus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study involving 1,244 eighth-grade females who were high achievers in algebra, investigated characteristics of those who ended up taking calculus (n=474). Results showed differences between the two groups in mother's education, socioeconomic status, and educational aspirations. However, when applying all factors together, they did not predict…

Reynolds, Nancy G.; Conaway, Betty J.

2003-01-01

371

Factors Affecting Horseshoe Crab Limulus polyphemus Trawl Survey Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently a lack of abundance information for effectively managing horseshoe crabs Limulus polyphemus. A trawl survey program that specifically targets horseshoe crabs would provide that information. We conducted a study to examine the factors that would influence the trawl survey design. Depth, topography, and time of day were examined as potential survey design influences. Horseshoe crab catches were

David Hata; Jim Berkson

2004-01-01

372

School-Related Factors Affecting High School Seniors' Methamphetamine Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future survey were used to examine relationships between school-related factors and high school seniors' lifetime methamphetamine use. The study applied logistic regression techniques to evaluate effects of social bonding variables and social learning variables on likelihood of lifetime methamphetamine use. The…

Stanley, Jarrod M.; Lo, Celia C.

2009-01-01

373

Socioeconomic, Cultural, and Behavioral Factors Affecting Hispanic Health Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests that social and economic factors are important determinants of health. Yet, despite higher poverty rates, less education, and worse access to health care, health outcomes of many Hispanics living in the United States today are equal to, or better than, those of non-Hispanic whites. This paradox is described in the literature as the epidemiological paradox or Hispanic health

2002-01-01

374

Socioeconomic, Cultural, and Behavioral Factors Affecting Hispanic Health Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Evidence suggests that social and economic factors are important determinants of health. Yet, despite higher poverty rates, less education, and worse access to health care, health outcomes of many Hispanics living in the United States today are equal to, or better than, those of non-Hispanic whites. This paradox is described in the literature as the epidemiological paradox or Hispanic health

Leo S. Morales; Marielena Lara; Raynard S. Kington; Robert O. Valdez

2002-01-01

375

Analysis of Factors Affecting the Career Plans of Military Nurses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis analyzes factors influencing a military nurse's decision to stay in or leave the service. Data used were from the 1985 Department of Defense Officer and Enlisted Personnel Survey conducted for the Office of the Secretary of Defense by the Defe...

E. Shigley

1988-01-01

376

Investigating Factors that Affect Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes activities that demonstrate the effects of factors such as wind velocity, water temperature, convection currents, intensity of light, rate of photosynthesis, atmospheric pressure, humidity, numbers of decomposers, presence of oxidizable ions, and respiration by plants and animals on the dissolved oxygen concentration in water. (MA)|

Jantzen, Paul G.

1978-01-01

377

Historic Factors Affecting Educational Administration in Korean Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An official of the Korean Education Department Institute analyzes the effect of historic factors on current educational administration in Korea. He suggests that Confucianism, Shinto-Confucianism, Christianity, and Western ideas mainly dominate current Korean educational administration's organizational structure, culture, and leadership, while…

Lee, Jeong-Kyu

1999-01-01

378

An evaluation of factors affecting duration of orthodontic treatment.  

PubMed

One of the first questions asked by new orthodontic patients is: How long will I need to wear my braces? A multitude of factors have the potential to influence the answer to this question. The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify some of the primary factors that influence orthodontic treatment duration. Few studies have attempted to evaluate these factors. Data were gathered from 140 consecutively completed, comprehensive treatment patient records in five orthodontic offices. Thirty-one variables related to patient characteristics, diagnostic factors, modality of treatment, and patient cooperation were evaluated. Average treatment time was 28.6 months with a range of 23.4 to 33.4 months among the five offices. Nearly half (46.9%) of the variation in treatment duration was explained by a five-step multiple regression analysis. Included in the regression equation were the number of missed appointments, the number of replaced brackets and bands, the number of treatment phases, the number of negative chart entries regarding oral hygiene, and the prescription of headgear wear during treatment. An additional 6.7% of the variance was explained by variation among the five offices. Six of the 31 variables examined made a statistically significant (alpha =.01) contribution to the explanation of variation in treatment time. The quality of the finished cases and the appropriateness of the original diagnosis and treatment plan were not evaluated. Developing an objective assessment to evaluate these areas may be important for increasing our understanding of treatment time variation. PMID:10194290

Beckwith, F R; Ackerman, R J; Cobb, C M; Tira, D E

1999-04-01

379

Sociological Factors Affecting Agricultural Price Risk Management in Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The highly volatile auction system in Australia accounts for 85 percent of ex-farm wool sales, with the remainder sold by forward contract, futures, and other hedging methods. In this article, against the background of an extensive literature on price risk strategies, we investigate the behavioral factors associated with producers' adoption of…

Jackson, Elizabeth; Quaddus, Mohammed; Islam, Nazrul; Stanton, John

2009-01-01

380

Factors Affecting Stream Transport of Combined Sewer Overflow Sediments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Combined sewer overflow (CSO) sediments are composed of wastewater and surface runoff, typically from urbanized areas. The relative amounts of these two types of flows will depend on a variety of factors such as the intensity of rainfall and the time of d...

S. L. Klemetson

1985-01-01

381

FACTORS AFFECTING STREAM TRANSPORT OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Combined sewer overflow (CSO) sediments are composed of wastewater and surface runoff, typically from urbanized areas. The relative amounts of these two types of flows will depend on a variety of factors such as the intensity of rainfall and the time of day and year. Because the ...

382

Factors affecting hand tremor and postural sway in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  It is crucial to consider covariates relevant for outcome variables in developing dose-effect relations of environmental hazardous\\u000a toxins. The aim of this study was to clarify the covariates affecting hand tremor and postural sway in children.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Hand tremor and postural sway, as well as hair mercury concentrations, were measured in 155 boys and 148 girls at age 7 years.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Current

Toyoto Iwata; Kunihiko Nakai; Mineshi Sakamoto; Miwako Dakeishi; Hiroshi Satoh; Katsuyuki Murata

2006-01-01

383

Factors affecting physician communication and parent-physician dialogues.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study reported here was to determine whether improvement in medical knowledge affects medical students' interviewing skills in each, or any, of the four years of medical school. Nineteen first-year students, 21 second-year students, 18 third-year students, and 20 fourth-year students at the University of Iowa College of Medicine were randomly assigned to an experimental or a control group. The experimental group observed a 45-minute videotape lecture that discussed the practical issues of the diagnosis and management of children with meningomyelocele. All subjects in both groups then completed a multiple-choice examination on meningomyelocele. The interviews were videotaped and then blindly rated. The results of the ratings show that there was no group effect but there was a significant class difference in that the first-year class was less sophisticated than the three other classes. The results suggest that interview skills are not affected by increasing knowledge about medical conditions but do improve with training in interview skills. PMID:7097736

Wolraich, M L; Albanese, M; Reiter-Thayer, S; Barratt, W

1982-08-01

384

Host Factors That Affect Ty3 Retrotransposition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The retrovirus-like element Ty3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae integrates at the transcription initiation region of RNA polymerase III. To identify host genes that affect transposition, a collection of insertion mutants was screened using a genetic assay in which insertion of Ty3 activates expression of a tRNA suppressor. Fifty-three loci were identified in this screen. Corresponding knockout mutants were tested for the ability to mobilize a galactose-inducible Ty3, marked with the HIS3 gene. Of 42 mutants tested, 22 had phenotypes similar to those displayed in the original assay. The proteins encoded by the defective genes are involved in chromatin dynamics, transcription, RNA processing, protein modification, cell cycle regulation, nuclear import, and unknown functions. These mutants were induced for Ty3 expression and assayed for Gag3p protein, integrase, cDNA, and Ty3 integration upstream of chromosomal tDNAVal(AAC) genes. Most mutants displayed differences from the wild type in one or more intermediates, although these were typically not as severe as the genetic defect. Because a relatively large number of genes affecting retrotransposition can be identified in yeast and because the majority of these genes have mammalian homologs, this approach provides an avenue for the identification of potential antiviral targets.

Aye, Michael; Irwin, Becky; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Chen, Eric; Garrus, Jennifer; Sandmeyer, Suzanne

2004-01-01

385

Factors affecting indoor radon concentrations in the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

Data collected in a nationwide study on natural radiation exposure in UK dwellings (Wrixon et al. 1988) were re-analyzed to investigate the effects of rock type and various building and lifestyle characteristics, taken into account simultaneously, on indoor radon concentrations. A multiplicative model which takes into consideration the outdoor radon concentration is used. Indoor radon concentrations were found to be influenced by type of rock underlying the dwelling, double glazing, house type, floor level of rooms in which measurements were taken, window opening habits in the main bedroom, building materials used in the construction of the walls, floor type, and draught proofing. However, these eight factors together account for only 22% of the variation between dwellings. Estimates of the size of the effect associated with each factor are given. PMID:8416211

Gunby, J A; Darby, S C; Miles, J C; Green, B M; Cox, D R

1993-01-01

386

What Factors Affect Macroinvertebrate Life in Big Darby Creek?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Darby Creek watershed encompasses an area of approximately 550 square miles in central Ohio. The Big and Little Darby Creeks are well known for their vast diversity and abundance of aquatic and terrestrial plants and animals. They are home to eighty-six species of fish, five of which are endangered. Forty-one species of freshwater mollusks live in these waters, eight of which are on the Ohio endangered list. In this lesson, students will identify trends and make predictions about the possible influence of climatic factors and vegetative growth on macroinvertebrates. Using three different sets of scientific data from an internet database (Live Access Server), they will generate and interpret line graphs. They will compare the graphs to identify correlations among factors investigated and make a prediction based on patterns in the data.

387

Factors affecting the NQR line width in nitramine explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of factors associated with crystal quality contribute to the nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) line width. Imperfections\\u000a such as dislocations, voids, strain and impurities can be electrical sources that distort the electric field gradient at nearby\\u000a quadrupolar nuclei and broaden the observed NQR line. We measured the14N NQR line widths in powdered samples of the nitramine explosives hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine (RDX),

M. L. Buess; S. M. Caulder

2004-01-01

388

Biologics formulation factors affecting metal leachables from stainless steel.  

PubMed

An area of increasing concern and scientific scrutiny is the potential contamination of drug products by leachables entering the product during manufacturing and storage. These contaminants may either have a direct safety impact on the patients or act indirectly through the alteration of the physicochemical properties of the product. In the case of biotherapeutics, trace amounts of metal contaminants can arise from various sources, but mainly from contact with stainless steel (ss). The effect of the various factors, buffer species, solution fill volume per unit contact surface area, metal chelators, and pH, on metal leachables from contact with ss over time were investigated individually. Three major metal leachables, iron, chromium, and nickel, were monitored by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry because they are the major components of 316L ss. Iron was primarily used to evaluate the effect of each factor since it is the most abundant. It was observed that each studied factor exhibited its own effect on metal leachables from contact with ss. The effect of buffer species and pH exhibited temperature dependence over the studied temperature range. The metal leachables decreased with the increased fill volume (mL) per unit contact ss surface area (cm(2)) but a plateau was achieved at approximately 3 mL/cm(2). Metal chelators produced the strongest effect in facilitating metal leaching. In order to minimize the metal leachables and optimize biological product stability, each formulation factor must be evaluated for its impact, to balance its risk and benefit in achieving the target drug product shelf life. PMID:21360314

Zhou, Shuxia; Schöneich, Christian; Singh, Satish K

2011-03-01

389

Sleeve lobectomy for bronchogenic cancers: factors affecting survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Sleeve lobectomy is a parenchyma-sparing procedure that is particularly valuable in patients with cardiac or pulmonary contraindications to pneumonectomy. The purpose of this study is to report our experience with sleeve lobectomy for bronchogenic cancer and to investigate factors associated with long-term survival.Methods. Between January 1981 and June 2001, 169 patients underwent sleeve lobectomy for non-small-cell lung cancer (n

Elie Fadel; Bedrettin Yildizeli; Alain R Chapelier; Isabelle Dicenta; Sacha Mussot; Philippe G Dartevelle

2002-01-01

390

Factors affecting the concentrations of PM 10 in central Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the synoptic weather types that have high probability and low probability of producing PM10 episode are referred to as HPE and LPE, respectively. Multiple linear regressions analysis showed that NO2 was the most important contributor (35.61%) to the concentrations of PM10 for HPE weather. For LPE weather, the season factor had the greatest contribution (48.11%) to the

Chung-Yih Kuo; Po-Tso Chen; Yu-Chi Lin; Chuan-Yao Lin; Hsin-Hong Chen; Jeng-Fu Shih

2008-01-01

391

Factors affecting curved versus straight path heading perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Displays commonly used for testing heading judgments in the presence of rotations are ambiguous to observers. They can be\\u000a interpreted equally well as motion in a straight line while rotating the eyes or as motion on a curved path. This has led\\u000a to conflicting results from studies that use these displays. In this study, we tested several factors that might

Constance S. Royden; James M. Cahill; Daniel M. Conti

2006-01-01

392

Looking good: factors affecting the likelihood of having cosmetic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined various factors associated with the likelihood of having cosmetic surgery in a community sample\\u000a of Austrian participants. One-hundred and sixty-eight women and 151 men completed a questionnaire measuring how likely they\\u000a were to consider common cosmetic procedures. The results showed that women were more likely than men to consider most cosmetic\\u000a procedures. Path analysis revealed that

Viren Swami; Adriane Arteche; Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic; Adrian Furnham; Stefan Stieger; Tanja Haubner; Martin Voracek

2008-01-01

393

Factors affecting Irish potato pollen germination in an artificial environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The purpose of these studies has been to stress that certain factors of an artificial environment (such as, the ingredients\\u000a and pH of the culture medium, temperature, humidity,etc.) definitely influence the behavior of pollens; and, furthermore, that in an understanding of the reactions of pollens to handling\\u000a (in terms of viability), it must not be overlooked that proper handling methods

J. R. King; Titus M. Johnston

1958-01-01

394

Israeli women entrepreneurs: An examination of factors affecting performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines individual factors influencing performance of 200 Israeli women-owned businesses. Whereas research on women entrepreneurs is extensive in developed countries, especially in the United States and Europe, there are comparatively few studies of performance of women-owned businesses in non-OECD countries. There is evidence that social structures (work, family, and organized social life) vary among developed and developing countries

Robert Hisrich; Candida Brush

1997-01-01

395

Factors affecting influenza vaccine uptake among health care workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results Of 203 nurses working in elderly care units 76(37%) were immunized and 127(63%) declined. Almost 70% of those not immunized perceived themselves to be 'healthy' and gave this reason for declining immunization. Nurses were more likely to be immunized by a factor of four if they believed there was benefit for healthy HCWs, three if they felt at-risk of

F. W. O'Reilly; G. W. Cran; A. B. Stevens

2005-01-01

396

Factors Affecting HIV Contraceptive Decision-Making Among Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined contraceptive decision-making among African American, Latina, and European American women ages 18–50 years. Logistic regressions examined relationships between demographic and religious factors, unintended pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), reasons for sex, and contraceptive decision-making. Women who were older, single, African American, used pregnancy prevention, and had histories of STDs and unintended pregnancies made contraceptive decisions alone. Older and

Gail E. Wyatt; JenniferVargas Carmona; TamraBurns Loeb; Donald Guthrie; Dorothy Chin; Gwen Gordon

2000-01-01

397

Factors affecting survival of hospitalised patients with COPD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors determining in-hospital mortality and long-term survival of patients hospitalised with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are not precisely understood. The aim of the present study was to assess the parameters related to in-hospital mortality and long-term survival after hospitalisation of patients with AECOPD. Clinical and epidemiological parameters on admission in 205 consecutive patients hospitalised with AECOPD

H. Gunen; S. S. Hacievliyagil; F. Kosar; L. C. Mutlu; G. Gulbas; E. Pehlivan; I. Sahin; O. Kizkin

2005-01-01

398

Factors Affecting the Toxicity of Methylmercury Injected into Eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a standardized protocol for comparing the sensitivities of the embryos of different bird species to methylmercury\\u000a when methylmercury was injected into their eggs. During the course of developing this protocol, we investigated the effects\\u000a of various factors on the toxicity of the injected methylmercury. Most of our experiments were done with chicken (Gallus domesticus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and

G. H. Heinz; D. J. Hoffman; S. L. Kondrad; C. A. Erwin

2006-01-01

399

FACTORS AFFECTING NITRITE BUILD-UP IN NITRIFYING BIOFILM REACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrite build-up in a nitrifying biofilm reactor for direct denitrification from the nitrite stage was investigated. At least three factors were found to influence the nitrite build-up: (i) the relative specific growth rates of Nitrosomonas to Nitrobacter, ?Ns\\/ ?Nb in the biofilm; (ii) the relative initial ratio between Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter on the support surface, (Mao)Ns\\/(Mao)Nb; (iii) the level of

Yu Liu; Joo-Hwa Tay

2001-01-01

400

Factors affecting nurses’ decision to get the flu vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to identify factors that influence the decision whether or not to get the influenza (flu)\\u000a vaccine among nurses in Israel by using the health belief model (HBM). A questionnaire distributed among 299 nurses in Israel\\u000a in winter 2005\\/2006 included (1) socio-demographic information; (2) variables based on the HBM, including susceptibility,\\u000a seriousness, benefits, barriers and

Shosh Shahrabani; Uri Benzion; Gregory Yom Din

2009-01-01

401

Factors motivating and affecting health information exchange usage  

PubMed Central

Objective Health information exchange (HIE) is the process of electronically sharing patient-level information between providers. However, where implemented, reports indicate HIE system usage is low. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with different types of HIE usage. Design Cross-sectional analysis of clinical data from emergency room encounters included in an operational HIE effort linked to system user logs using crossed random-intercept logistic regression. Measurements Independent variables included factors indicative of information needs. System usage was measured as none, basic usage, or a novel pattern of usage. Results The system was accessed for 2.3% of all encounters (6142 out of 271?305). Novel usage patterns were more likely for more complex patients. The odds of HIE usage were lower in the face of time constraints. In contrast to expectations, system usage was lower when the patient was unfamiliar to the facility. Limitations Because of differences between HIE efforts and the fact that not all types of HIE usage (ie, public health) could be included in the analysis, results are limited in terms of generalizablity. Conclusions This study of actual HIE system usage identifies patients and circumstances in which HIE is more likely to be used and factors that are likely to discourage usage. The paper explores the implications of the findings for system redesign, information integration across exchange partners, and for meaningful usage criteria emerging from provisions of the Health Information Technology for Economic & Clinical Health Act.

Zhao, Hongwei; Jaspserson, 'Jon; Gamm, Larry D; Ohsfeldt, Robert L

2011-01-01

402

Study of Factors Affecting the Surface Quality in Ultra-Precision Diamond Turning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with an investigation of the process factors and the material factors affecting the surface roughness in ultra-precision diamond turning. The process factors involve cutting conditions, tool geometry, and relative tool-work vibration which are related to the cutting geometry and the dynamic characteristics of the cutting process. The material factors considered are material anisotropy, swelling, and crystallographic orientation

C. F. Cheung; W. B. Lee

2000-01-01

403

Factors affecting Archaeal Lipid Compositions of the Sulfolobus Species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature is the best known variable affecting the distribution of the archaeal glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in marine and freshwater systems. Other variables such as pH, ionic strength, or bicarbonate concentration may also affect archaeal GDGTs in terrestrial systems. Studies of pure cultures can help us pinpoint the specific effects these variables may have on archaeal lipid distribution in natural environments. In this study, three Sulfolobus species (HG4, HB5-2, HB9-6) isolated from Tengchong hot springs (pH 2-3, temperature 73-90°C) in China were used to investigate the effects of temperature, pH, substrate, and type of strain on the composition of GDGTs. Results showed that increase in temperature had negative effects on the relative contents of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), GDGT-1 (one cyclopentyl ring), GDGT-2 and GDGT-3 but positive effects on GDGT-4, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5'. Increase in pH, on the other hand, had negative effects on GDGT-0, GDGT-1, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5', and positive effects on GDGT-3 and GDGT-4. GDGT-2 remained relatively constant with changing pH. When the HG4 was grown on different substrates, GDGT-5 was five time more abundant in sucrose-grown cultures than in yeast extract- or sulfur- grown cultures, suggesting that carbohydrates may stimulate the production of GDGT-5. For all three species, the ring index (average number of rings) of GDGTs correlated positively with incubation temperature. In HG4, ring index was much lower at optimal pH (3.5) than at other pH values. Ring index of HB5-2 or HB9-6 is higher than that of HG4, suggesting that speciation may affect the degree of cyclization of GDGT of the Sulfolobus. These results indicate that individual archaeal lipids respond differently to changes in environmental variables, which may be also species specific.

He, L.; Han, J.; Wei, Y.; Lin, L.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, C.

2010-12-01

404

Factors affecting intellectual outcome in pediatric brain tumor patients  

SciTech Connect

A prospective study utilizing repeated intellectual testing was undertaken in 73 children with brain tumors consecutively admitted to Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles over a 3-year period to determine the effect of tumor location, extent of surgical resection, hydrocephalus, age of the child, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy on cognitive outcome. Forty-three patients were followed for at least two sequential intellectual assessments and provide the data for this study. Children with hemispheric tumors had the most general cognitive impairment. The degree of tumor resection, adequately treated hydrocephalus, and chemotherapy had no bearing on intellectual outcome. Age of the child affected outcome mainly as it related to radiation. Whole brain radiation therapy was associated with cognitive decline. This was especially true in children below 7 years of age, who experienced a very significant loss of function after whole brain radiation therapy.

Ellenberg, L.; McComb, J.G.; Siegel, S.E.; Stowe, S.

1987-11-01

405

Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate activates Slo3 currents and its hydrolysis underlies the epidermal growth factor-induced current inhibition.  

PubMed

The Slo3 gene encodes a high conductance potassium channel, which is activated by both voltage and intracellular alkalinization. Slo3 is specifically expressed in mammalian sperm cells, where it gives rise to pH-dependent outwardly rectifying K(+) currents. Sperm Slo3 is the main current responsible for the capacitation-induced hyperpolarization, which is required for the ensuing acrosome reaction, an exocytotic process essential for fertilization. Here we show that in intact spermatozoa and in a heterologous expression system, the activation of Slo3 currents is regulated by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)). Depletion of endogenous PIP(2) in inside-out macropatches from Xenopus oocytes inhibited heterologously expressed Slo3 currents. Whole-cell recordings of sperm Slo3 currents or of Slo3 channels co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes with epidermal growth factor receptor, demonstrated that stimulation by epidermal growth factor (EGF) could inhibit channel activity in a PIP(2)-dependent manner. High concentrations of PIP(2) in the patch pipette not only resulted in a strong increase in sperm Slo3 current density but also prevented the EGF-induced inhibition of this current. Mutation of positively charged residues involved in channel-PIP(2) interactions enhanced the EGF-induced inhibition of Slo3 currents. Overall, our results suggest that PIP(2) is an important regulator for Slo3 activation and that receptor-mediated hydrolysis of PIP(2) leads to inhibition of Slo3 currents both in native and heterologous expression systems. PMID:20392696

Tang, Qiong-Yao; Zhang, Zhe; Xia, Jingsheng; Ren, Dejian; Logothetis, Diomedes E

2010-04-14

406

Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate Activates Slo3 Currents and Its Hydrolysis Underlies the Epidermal Growth Factor-induced Current Inhibition*  

PubMed Central

The Slo3 gene encodes a high conductance potassium channel, which is activated by both voltage and intracellular alkalinization. Slo3 is specifically expressed in mammalian sperm cells, where it gives rise to pH-dependent outwardly rectifying K+ currents. Sperm Slo3 is the main current responsible for the capacitation-induced hyperpolarization, which is required for the ensuing acrosome reaction, an exocytotic process essential for fertilization. Here we show that in intact spermatozoa and in a heterologous expression system, the activation of Slo3 currents is regulated by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Depletion of endogenous PIP2 in inside-out macropatches from Xenopus oocytes inhibited heterologously expressed Slo3 currents. Whole-cell recordings of sperm Slo3 currents or of Slo3 channels co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes with epidermal growth factor receptor, demonstrated that stimulation by epidermal growth factor (EGF) could inhibit channel activity in a PIP2-dependent manner. High concentrations of PIP2 in the patch pipette not only resulted in a strong increase in sperm Slo3 current density but also prevented the EGF-induced inhibition of this current. Mutation of positively charged residues involved in channel-PIP2 interactions enhanced the EGF-induced inhibition of Slo3 currents. Overall, our results suggest that PIP2 is an important regulator for Slo3 activation and that receptor-mediated hydrolysis of PIP2 leads to inhibition of Slo3 currents both in native and heterologous expression systems.

Tang, Qiong-Yao; Zhang, Zhe; Xia, Jingsheng; Ren, Dejian; Logothetis, Diomedes E.

2010-01-01

407

Factors affecting results of treatment of Hypopharyngeal Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Objective: A retrospective review of patients with malignant neoplasms of the hypopharynx treated with combined surgery and radiotherapy is presented to highlight the results of treatment and the factors of treatment success for this malignant disease. Patients and Methods: Between 1995 and 2004 at the University ORL Clinic Nis 89 patients with malignant neoplasms of hypopharynx (85 males, 4 females, and age ranging from 44 to 77 years) were treated. In the 89 patients (stage I, n = 4; stage II, n = 3; stage III, n = 34; stage IV, n = 48), the sites of origin were pyriform sinus (n = 75), postcrycoid (n = 8), posterior pharyngeal wall (n = 3) and superior hypopharynx (n = 3). Results: Laryngeal preservation surgery was achieved in 11.2% of patients, while 88.8% had laryngectomy with partial or total pharyngectomy. Pyriform sinus was the most common site of origin of hypopharyngeal carcinoma in 84.3%. Totally 93% of patients had neck metastases, and tumors extended beyond the hypopharynx in 41.6% of patients. TNM stage was highly significant parameter of outcome. Five year survival was 100% for stage I, 66.6% for stage II, 53.9% for stage III, and 33.3% for stage IV. Residual disease (5.6%) and recurrent disease (2.2%) were low. Postoperative fistula developed in 16.8% of patients, and in 60% it was closed successfully using local flaps, while in 40% pectoralis flap was needed. Localization of disease was also an important factor of survival. Retrocrycoid carcinoma resulted in very poor survival rate (12.5%), high residual disease, lymph node metastasis, and pharyngocutaneous fistula formation. Conclusion: Localization and TNM stage are highly significant factors for clinical course, treatment, and outcome of hypopharyngeal carcinoma.

Milisavljevic, D; Stankovic, M; Zivic, M; Popovic, M; Radovanovic, Z

2009-01-01

408

Factors affecting swimming economy in children and adults.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the influence of several explanatory factors: anthropometry, buoyancy, passive underwater torque, drag and swimming technique on the energy cost of swimming front crawl in children and adults. Submaximal V(.)O(2) was measured in ten children (age 12) and 13 adults (age 21), as well as body length (BL), body mass, arm length, propelling size, active drag, hydrostatic lift, passive torque, intracyclic velocity fluctuation, hand slip, stroke length and body angle. The results show that body length ( r=0.74), body mass ( r=0.86) propelling size ( r=0.61), arm length ( r=0.66), distance between the center of mass and the center of volume (Delta d, r=0.74) and body angle during swimming ( r=-0.56) all showed significant linear relationships with the cost of swimming at 1.0 m x s(-1) (CS(1.0)). When normalizing the cost of swimming to body size (CS(1.0) x BL(-1)) there were no differences between the two groups. The conclusions of this study are that the combination of BL, body mass, active drag factor, passive torque, drag efficiency and hydrostatic lift were able to explain 97% of the variation in the cost of swimming for the whole group of swimmers. The size-independent factors of torque and floating abilities (density and Delta d in % of BL), together with swimming technique and active drag were found to explain 75% of the variations in CS(1.0) x BL(-1). The identical values for CS(1.0) x BL(-1) for children and adults are explained through the opposing effects of a better swimming technique in the adults, and a better passive torque in the children. PMID:15243747

Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Ingjer, Frank; Stallman, Robert Keig; Stray-Gundersen, James

2004-07-08

409

Factors Affecting Long-term Abstinence from Substances Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes of abstainers from drug use that relate to the factors leading to long-term\\u000a abstinence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods  Cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Amal Hospital to examine, which attitudes of abstainers related to long-term abstinence.\\u000a A random survey was conducted on 62 subjects from extended care units. All participants were male

Salah Elgaily Elsheikh

2008-01-01

410

Environmental factors affecting the transmission of respiratory viruses.  

PubMed

Many viruses are capable of infecting the human respiratory tract to cause disease. These viruses display various transmission patterns among humans; however, they all share the ability to transmit from person to person, and their human transmissibility is influenced by the environment in which pathogen and host meet. This review aims to summarize recent and significant observations regarding the impact of environmental factors such as weather and climate, humidity, temperature, and airflow on the transmission of human respiratory viruses. Where possible, knowledge gaps that require further scientific study will be identified. PMID:22440971

Pica, Natalie; Bouvier, Nicole M

2012-01-04

411

Motility in Oscillatoria salina as affected by different factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

All 3–10-d-oldOscillatoria salina filaments glide with the speed of 323–330 µm\\/min (BG 11 medium, pH 7.5, 21±2 °C, continuous light intensity of ?30 µmol m?2 s?1) in a culture chamber. However, a time bound progressive decrease in gliding speed and in percentage of gliding filaments\\u000a occurred, depending upon the severity of different stress factors studied,viz. water stress (2–8 % agarized

S. Gupta; S. C. Agrawal

2006-01-01

412

Environmental Factors Affecting the Transmission of Respiratory Viruses  

PubMed Central

Many viruses are capable of infecting the human respiratory tract to cause disease. These viruses display various transmission patterns among humans; however, they all share the ability to transmit from person to person, and their human transmissibility is influenced by the environment in which pathogen and host meet. This review aims to summarize recent and significant observations regarding the impact of environmental factors such as weather and climate, humidity, temperature, and airflow on the transmission of human respiratory viruses. Where possible, knowledge gaps that require further scientific study will be identified.

Pica, Natalie; Bouvier, Nicole M.

2012-01-01

413

Factors That Affect the Academic Success of Foreign Students at Cardinal Stritch University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There are limited studies in the literature on the factors that affect the academic success of foreign students in the United States. This ex post facto mixed method study investigated the factors that affect the academic success of foreign students at Cardinal Stitch University (CSU), a medium size, private university located in the Midwestern…

Annor, Peter

2010-01-01

414

Factors Affecting User Reassurance When Handling Information in a Public Work Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a basic study on design guidelines for a public work environment where personal information might be handled. In this study, we conducted a user survey to extract factors that affect reassurance and performed an experiment to evaluate the effect of partition size on reassurance. First, from the user survey, we extracted personal-information and work-environment factors that affect

Shigeyoshi Iizuka; Katsuhiko Ogawa; Shinya Nakajima

2007-01-01

415

Factors That Affect the Academic Success of Foreign Students at Cardinal Stritch University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are limited studies in the literature on the factors that affect the academic success of foreign students in the United States. This ex post facto mixed method study investigated the factors that affect the academic success of foreign students at Cardinal Stitch University (CSU), a medium size, private university located in the Midwestern…

Annor, Peter

2010-01-01

416

An Assessment of Factors Affecting Dropout of Students Enrolled in University Online Courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

As online education becomes more popular and the field is maturing, attention is being focused on factors affecting completion of distance education since rates of non-completion as high as 50% are commonly reported in literature. Factors which have been reported in literature as affecting completion have been categorized into the areas of environment, design, technology, and learner motivation. This study

Jeff Hoyer

417

The Internal Structure of Positive and Negative Affect: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the PANAS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested five confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models of the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) to provide validity evidence based on its internal structure. A sample of 223 club sport athletes indicated their emotions during the past week. Results revealed that an orthogonal two-factor CFA model, specifying error…

Tuccitto, Daniel E.; Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Leite, Walter L.

2010-01-01

418

Factors affecting members' trust belief and behaviour intention in virtual communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research we investigate whether antecedent factors of participant trust and institutional trust significantly influence members' trust belief towards virtual communities. Further, we investigate how members' trust levels affect their behaviour intention. A model of factors that affect members' trust in virtual communities is constructed. We analysed 625 valid online questionnaires obtained from virtual communities related to travel, games,

Jyh-jeng Wu; Alex S. L. Tsang

2008-01-01

419

The Internal Structure of Positive and Negative Affect: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the PANAS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study tested five confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models of the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) to provide validity evidence based on its internal structure. A sample of 223 club sport athletes indicated their emotions during the past week. Results revealed that an orthogonal two-factor CFA model, specifying error…

Tuccitto, Daniel E.; Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Leite, Walter L.

2010-01-01

420

Factors affecting pore water hydrocarbon concentrations in Puget Sound sediments  

SciTech Connect

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations have been determined for sediments and associated pore waters collected at 2 sites (11 stations) in Puget Sound, Washington (northwest U.S.A.). These sediments have been contaminated to varying degrees by hydrocarbons from a creosote plant and from various combustion sources. PAH were not detected in pore waters of sediments whose PAH were primarily derived from combustion and natural sources, even though pore water concentrations predicted from sediment concentrations and two-phase equilibrium partitioning models were above detection limits from most PAH. Equilibrium partition coefficients calculated from field aqueous and solid phase data from an area contaminated with creosote agreed with laboratory-derived coefficients to within a factor of +/- 4. Pore water concentrations of creosote-derived aliphatic hydrocarbons increase with increasing concentration in bulk sediments. However, pore water concentrations of natural and contaminant aliphatic hydrocarbons are much higher than predicted by solubility data, possible due to association with nonfilterable dissolved organic matter and colloids. Other major factors controlling hydrocarbon pore water concentrations include differential hydrocarbon sources, specific particle associations and solubility.

Socha, S.B.; Carpenter, R.

1987-05-01

421

Ecological Factors Affecting Efficiency and Health in Warships*  

PubMed Central

The environment of those who live and work in warships is closely related to the way the ships are built and employed. In stating the requirements for the atmosphere between decks the emphasis has swung during the past 50 years from the need for controlling the chemical constituents to the control of the factors which comprise the thermal environment, and now, with the advent of the nuclear-powered submarine, to the need for achieving, as nearly as possible, complete physical, chemical, and microbiological control. Between 1944 and 1953 the thermal factors between decks were investigated in a series of studies carried out in H.M. Ships. The average effective temperatures on the mess decks and in the work places of 11 ships in the Eastern Fleet in 1944 exceeded 84°F. (28·9°C.). In compartments where radiant heat was an added factor the average corrected effective temperature levels were 1° or 2°F. (0·55-1·1°C.) higher than the corresponding effective temperatures. The effects of climatic conditions on naval personnel were investigated by psychological studies to determine the levels of warmth at which performance deteriorated; by physiological experiments to show the levels of warmth at which the collapse of men working at different work rates might be expected; by comfort surveys in ships and on shore to determine the levels of warmth at which the majority enjoyed optimum comfort; and by relating the monthly incidence of the common causes of ill-health to the average monthly upper-deck temperature as recorded at noon each day in order to determine the temperature level above which sickness increased. It was concluded that the upper desirable level of warmth to consider when designing ships for hot climates was an effective temperature of 78°F. (25·5°C.). As it is usually impracticable in many compartments to achieve temperatures below 78°F. (25·5°C.) in the tropics without the generous application of air cooling, attention was then directed to the associated effects on the chemical and bacterial constituents of restricting air supplies, an unavoidable feature of most air conditioning systems, and to defining the permissible lower limits for fresh air requirements. The nuclear submarine with its capacity for remaining submerged for very long periods raises new problems relating to life in a confined space and involving very prolonged exposure to the submarine environment. These problems have still to be investigated.

Ellis, F. P.

1960-01-01

422

Factors affecting sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus 196E to polyphosphates.  

PubMed Central

The effect of polyphosphates (eight compounds) on growth of Staphylococcus aureus 196E in brain heart infusion broth was studied. The organism was sensitive (in decreasing order) to chain polyphosphates with 21, 3, 13, and 15 PO4 groups, and bactericidal effects were observed with 0.5% of these compounds. No inhibition was effected by PPi or a metaphosphate. The inhibitory effects were pH dependent, and bacterial sensitivity was highest at pH greater than 7.4. Initial populations affected the number of survivors. No growth was observed after 24 h at 35 degrees C when the initial cell population was less than 10(4) CFU/ml, and a 100- to 1,000-fold decline in cell numbers occurred when initial populations were higher than 10(4) CFU/ml. Sodium tripolyphosphate produced less inhibition after heat sterilization (15 min, 121 degrees C) than after filter sterilization, whereas sodium hexametaphosphate (n = 21) retained most of its antimicrobial activity after heat sterilization. Supplementation of broth with Mg2+ was effective in overcoming inhibition by 0.5% sodium tripolyphosphate, and an addition of 0.25 to 1.0 mM cation restored most of the growth. Inhibition was partially eliminated by Ca2+ and Fe2+, but not by Zn2+ or Mn2+.

Jen, C M; Shelef, L A

1986-01-01

423

Factors affecting floral herbivory in a limestone grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amount of herbivore damage to the petals of 41 species of herbaceous plant was surveyed from April to September in a limestone grassland in central England. Damage was recorded as the percentage of the petal area removed. Most damage was caused by invertebrates, particularly slugs. The amount of invertebrate damage differed significantly between plant species and with time of year. The mean damage across all species was only 2 %, ranging from an average of 0 % in Galium sterneri to 8 % in Primula vulgaris. In most species, less than a quarter of flowers received any damage, so those that were damaged were often severely affected. Species flowering early or late in the season received more damage, possibly because of greater slug activity. Hypotheses to explain the inter-specific variation in the amount of herbivory were examined by testing for correlations with a range of plant variables. No correlations with flower-stem length, flower-stem thickness or the longevity of flowers were apparent. The amount of petal damage correlated strongly with flower size and petal thickness. This appeared to result from the prevalence of large-flowered species early and late in the season rather than from a preference for flower size and petal thickness per se. The evolutionary significance of floral herbivory is discussed.

Breadmore, Karen N.; Kirk, William D. J.

1998-12-01

424

Factors affecting growth of foodborne pathogens on minimally processed apples.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria innocua increased by more than 2 log(10) units over a 24 h period on fresh-cut 'Golden Delicious' apple plugs stored at 25 and 20 degrees C. L. innocua reached the same final population level at 10 degrees C meanwhile E. coli and Salmonella only increased 1.3 log(10) units after 6 days. Only L. innocua was able to grow at 5 degrees C. No significant differences were observed between the growth of foodborne pathogens on fresh-cut 'Golden Delicious', 'Granny Smith' and 'Shampion' apples stored at 25 and 5 degrees C. The treatment of 'Golden Delicious' and 'Granny Smith' apple plugs with the antioxidants, ascorbic acid (2%) and NatureSeal (6%), did not affect pathogen growth. The effect of passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the growth of E. coli, Salmonella and L. innocua on 'Golden Delicious' apple slices was also tested. There were no significant differences in growth of pathogens in MAP conditions compared with air packaging of 'Golden Delicious' apple plugs, but the growth of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms was inhibited. These results highlight the importance of avoiding contamination of fresh-cut fruit with foodborne pathogens and the maintenance of the cold chain during storage until consumption. PMID:19913695

Alegre, Isabel; Abadias, Maribel; Anguera, Marina; Oliveira, Marcia; Viñas, Inmaculada

2009-08-27

425

Factors affecting the formulation of sustained release potassium chloride tablets.  

PubMed

In this study, influence of several formulation factors on the release kinetics of potassium chloride from directly compressed matrices are investigated. Formulations containing hydrophilic (methylcellulose, carbomer), plastic (polyvinyl chloride), and wax (glycerol palmitostearate) matrix materials at concentrations of 10, 15 and 20%, incorporated with potassium chloride as active ingredient and insoluble excipients were prepared and studied in vitro using the USP XXI/NF XVI rotating paddle method. Hardness had no markedly effect on the release characteristics of formulations except for wax matrix material formulation. Results of goodness of fit analysis applied to release data had shown that the release mechanism was described by the Higuchi diffusion controlled model. Positive deviations from Higuchi equation might be due to the erosion of gel layer. Analysis of in vitro release mechanisms indicated that the most suitable results were obtained by methylcellulose and glycerol palmitostearate. PMID:1811230

Senel, S; Capan, Y; Hincal, A A

1991-11-01

426

Factors affecting the academic progression of associate degree graduates.  

PubMed

The Oregon Consortium for Nursing Education (OCNE) is a coalition of community colleges and the campuses of the Oregon Health & Sciences University (OHSU), created to share a competency-based curriculum by which associate degree graduates from an OCNE campus are eligible to complete requirements for the bachelor's degree after 1 year of additional full-time study. Since 2006, three graduating classes from consortium community college programs have graduated 760 students eligible for direct transfer to OHSU; however, only 228 (30%) have actually transferred. This study aimed to explore the factors that influenced the 208 graduates in the class of 2010 not to transfer. The primary reasons for discontinuing their nursing education, in ranked order, were financial concerns, conflict with time and energy for work, and conflict with time and energy for family. This study has implications for achieving the academic progression goals recommended in the Institute of Medicine's The Future of Nursing report. PMID:22356360

Munkvold, Julia; Tanner, Christine A; Herinckx, Heidi

2012-02-24

427

Factors affecting plasma aluminum concentrations in nonexposed workers  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the distribution and determinants of plasma aluminum concentrations were examined in 71 office employees not occupationally exposed to aluminum. The samples were analyzed by Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy and were found to be log normally distributed. After using the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) recommended procedure for removal of likely aberrant values, the 95th percentile value was 198 nmol/L (90% CI:165-238); when those using antacids were also excluded, the 95th percentile value fell to 175 nmol/L (90% CI:147-208). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors most predictive of log plasma aluminum were the batch in which the sample was analyzed and the use of antacids containing aluminum. The statistical significance of the batch variable likely indicates the well-recognized problem of contamination in sampling and analyzing aluminum.35 references.

House, R.A. (Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, St Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

1992-10-01

428

Meteorological factors affecting daily urticaceae pollen counts in southwest Spain.  

PubMed

The influence of meteorological factors on daily Urticaceae pollen counts were studied in Córdoba (southwest Spain) in 1996 and 1997. The daily Urticaceae pollen concentrations were obtained by using a Hirst-type volumetric sampler, and meteorological data were obtained from the Córdoba airport, located near the sampling site. The highest correlation between pollen concentration and meteorological parameters was obtained during non-rainy seasons. Temperature was found to be the most important meteorological parameter influencing pollen counts in spring, as temperature is the main reason for the increase of pollen concentration in the atmosphere. In autumn, humidity was another important parameter influencing pollen counts. Rain, however, did not appear to be significant. The influence of the pollen concentration of the 2 previous days and the pollen concentration of the previous day has been studied. During periods with low precipitation, the pollen concentration of the previous day was a useful predictor of Urticaceae pollen concentrations for the following day. PMID:10789922

Galán, C; Alcázar, P; Cariñanos, P; Garcia, H; Domínguez-Vilches, E

2000-03-01

429

[Wound healing as affected by constitutional immunity factors].  

PubMed

The authors examined 52 patients with gunshot wounds of various localization. Besides the type of wound healing, they determined the ABO system blood groups, the value of phagocytosis intensity and the value of connective tissue saturation with ascorbic acid, which, as it was shown earlier, are unrelated to the current condition of the wound process and may serve for predicting the risk of wound purulent complications. The distribution features of the studied values in patients with gunshot wounds were compared with those in individuals with gunshot-inflicted wounds. It is shown that such signs of constitutional immunity as the B blood group, weak phagocytosis intensity, and low saturation of the connective tissue with ascorbic acid are risk factors of purulent complications in both traumatic and gunshot wounds. PMID:1921192

Shaposhnikov, Iu G; Tabatadze, K G; Zhukova, O V; Kondrat'eva, I E; Filianin, A M; Rychkov, Iu G

1991-07-01

430

Temperature can interact with landscape factors to affect songbird productivity.  

PubMed

Increased temperatures and more extreme weather patterns associated with global climate change can interact with other factors that regulate animal populations, but many climate change studies do not incorporate other threats to wildlife in their analyses. We used 20 years of nest-monitoring data from study sites across a gradient of habitat fragmentation in Missouri, USA, to investigate the relative influence of weather variables (temperature and precipitation) and landscape factors (forest cover and edge density) on the number of young produced per nest attempt (i.e., productivity) for three species of songbirds. We detected a strong forest cover × temperature interaction for the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) on productivity. Greater forest cover resulted in greater productivity because of reduced brood parasitism and increased nest survival, whereas greater temperatures reduced productivity in highly forested landscapes because of increased nest predation but had no effect in less forested landscapes. The Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) exhibited a similar pattern, albeit with a marginal forest cover × temperature interaction. By contrast, productivity of the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) was not influenced by landscape effects or temperature. Our results highlight a potential difficulty of managing wildlife in response to global change such as habitat fragmentation and climate warming, as the habitat associated with the greatest productivity for flycatchers was also that most negatively influenced by high temperatures. The influence of high temperatures on nest predation (and therefore, nest predators) underscores the need to acknowledge the potential complexity of species' responses to climate change by incorporating a more thorough consideration of community ecology in the development of models of climate impacts on wildlife. PMID:23504884

Cox, W Andrew; Thompson, Frank R; Reidy, Jennifer L; Faaborg, John

2013-01-25

431

Factors affecting the decline of ventilatory function in chronic bronchitis.  

PubMed Central

Ninety six middle aged male patients with chronic bronchitis with relatively well preserved ventilatory function who were resident in Queensland, New South Wales, or Victoria took part in a prospective study to determine the relationship of various factors to the rate of decline of the FEV1. Thirty of the subjects withdrew, leaving 66 to be followed for four to six years. The mean rate of decline of the FEV1 was 58.6 (SD 51.4) ml/year. The subjects' ventilatory responses to bronchodilator and to methacholine (measures of bronchial lability) were significantly related to each other and to sputum eosinophilia. With a linear model for the data on 57 patients who had methacholine and skin tests the rate of decline of the FEV1 was found, after adjustment had been made for other variables, to be significantly related to State of residence, current smoking, response to bronchodilator, age, and occupational exposure to dust. Response to bronchodilator was interchangeable with response to methacholine. With the five variables in the model none of the following factors was related to the rate of decline of the FEV1:FEV1 on entry, FEV1% predicted normal, FEV1/VC%, skin test reaction, occupation on entry, history of sinusitis and rhinitis, and height. When data from all 66 subjects were introduced into the model, in addition to the five significant individual variables (FEV1/VC% X response to bronchodilator) was significantly related to the rate of decline of the FEV1. Of these prognostic indices, response to bronchodilator was independent of the initial FEV1, FEV/VC%, and FEV1% predicted. The difference between States, which was not explained by differences due to sampling or withdrawal of subjects, was due to a low rate of decline in Queensland.

Campbell, A H; Barter, C E; O'Connell, J M; Huggins, R

1985-01-01

432

DEHP Impairs Zebrafish Reproduction by Affecting Critical Factors in Oogenesis  

PubMed Central

Public concerns on phthalates distributions in the environment have been increasing since they can cause liver cancer, structural abnormalities and reduce sperm counts in male reproductive system. However, few data are actually available on the effects of Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) in female reproductive system. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of DEHP on zebrafish oogenesis and embryo production. Female Danio rerio were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of DEHP and a significant decrease in ovulation and embryo production was observed. The effects of DEHP on several key regulators of oocyte maturation and ovulation including bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP15), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 (ptgs2) were determined by real time PCR. The expressions of BMP15 and mPR proteins were further determined by Western analyses to strengthen molecular findings. Moreover, plasma vitellogenin (vtg) titers were assayed by an ELISA procedure to determine the estrogenic effects of DEHP and its effects on oocyte growth. A significant reduction of fecundity in fish exposed to DEHP was observed. The reduced reproductive capacity was associated with an increase in ovarian BMP15 levels. This rise, in turn, was concomitant with a significant reduction in LHR and mPR? levels. Finally, ptgs2 expression, the final trigger of ovulation, was also decreased by DEHP. By an in vitro maturation assay, the inhibitory effect of DEHP on germinal vesicle breakdown was further confirmed. In conclusion, DEHP affecting signals involved in oocyte growth (vtg), maturation (BMP15, LHR, mPRs,) and ovulation (ptgs2), deeply impairs ovarian functions with serious consequences on embryo production. Since there is a significant genetic similarity between D.rerio and humans, the harmful effects observed at oocyte level may be relevant for further molecular studies on humans.

Carnevali, Oliana; Tosti, Luca; Speciale, Claudia; Peng, Chun; Zhu, Yong; Maradonna, Francesca

2010-01-01

433

Socioeconomic factors affecting local support for black bear recovery strategies.  

PubMed

There is global interest in recovering locally extirpated carnivore species. Successful efforts to recover Louisiana black bear in Louisiana have prompted interest in recovery throughout the species' historical range. We evaluated support for three potential black bear recovery strategies prior to public release of a black bear conservation and management plan for eastern Texas, United States. Data were collected from 1,006 residents living in proximity to potential recovery locations, particularly Big Thicket National Preserve. In addition to traditional logistic regression analysis, we used conditional probability analysis to statistically and visually evaluate probabilities of public support for potential black bear recovery strategies based on socioeconomic characteristics. Allowing black bears to repopulate the region on their own (i.e., without active reintroduction) was the recovery strategy with the greatest probability of acceptance. Recovery strategy acceptance was influenced by many socioeconomic factors. Older and long-time local residents were most likely to want to exclude black bears from the area. Concern about the problems that black bears may cause was the only variable significantly related to support or non-support across all strategies. Lack of personal knowledge about black bears was the most frequent reason for uncertainty about preferred strategy. In order to reduce local uncertainty about possible recovery strategies, we suggest that wildlife managers focus outreach efforts on providing local residents with general information about black bears, as well as information pertinent to minimizing the potential for human-black bear conflict. PMID:20401658

Morzillo, Anita T; Mertig, Angela G; Hollister, Jeffrey W; Garner, Nathan; Liu, Jianguo

2010-04-18

434

Environmental factors affecting indole metabolism under anaerobic conditions.  

PubMed Central

The influence of physiological and environmental factors on the accumulation of oxindole during anaerobic indole metabolism was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Under methanogenic conditions, indole was temporarily converted to oxindole in stoichiometric amounts in media inoculated with three freshwater sediments and an organic soil. In media inoculated with methanogenic sewage sludge, the modest amounts of oxindole detected at 35 degrees C reached higher concentrations and persisted longer when the incubation temperature was decreased from 35 to 15 degrees C. Also, decreasing the concentration of sewage sludge used as an inoculum from 50 to 1% caused an increase in the accumulation of oxindole from 10 to 75% of the indole added. Under denitrifying conditions, regardless of the concentration or source of the inoculum, oxindole appeared in trace amounts but did not accumulate during indole metabolism. In addition, denitrifying consortia which previously metabolized indole degraded oxindole with no lag period. Our data suggest that oxindole accumulation under methanogenic, but not under denitrifying conditions is caused by differences between relative rates of oxindole production and destruction.

Madsen, E L; Francis, A J; Bollag, J M

1988-01-01

435

Factors affecting social workers' inclusion of animals in practice.  

PubMed

Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors contribute to this inclusion, especially because there is a lack of attention in social work education and research to animal-human relationships. This study used logistical regression to examine the impact of certain demographic, knowledge, and practice variables on the inclusion of animals in social work practice. Findings include that knowing other social workers who include animals in practice and primary client population served were significant for inclusion of animals in assessment, animal-assisted intervention, and treating clients for animal abuse or loss of an animal. Although practitioners' having a companion animal was positively related to including animals in interventions and treating clients for loss of an animal, contributing to animal welfare through volunteering at shelters or financially contributing to animal groups did not have an effect on inclusion of animals in practice. Implications for these and other findings are discussed, and recommendations for social work research, education, and practice are offered. PMID:23724578

Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E; Kawam, Elisa

2013-04-01

436

Experimental and environmental factors affect spurious detection of ecological thresholds.  

PubMed

Threshold detection methods are increasingly popular for assessing nonlinear responses to environmental change, but their statistical performance remains poorly understood. We simulated linear change in stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities and evaluated the performance of commonly used threshold detection methods based on model fitting (piecewise quantile regression [PQR]), data partitioning (nonparametric change point analysis [NCPA]), and a hybrid approach (significant zero crossings [SiZer]). We demonstrated that false detection of ecological thresholds (type I errors) and inferences on threshold locations are influenced by sample size, rate of linear change, and frequency of observations across the environmental gradient (i.e., sample-environment distribution, SED). However, the relative importance of these factors varied among statistical methods and between inference types. False detection rates were influenced primarily by user-selected parameters for PQR (tau) and SiZer (bandwidth) and secondarily by sample size (for PQR) and SED (for SiZer). In contrast, the location of reported thresholds was influenced primarily by SED. Bootstrapped confidence intervals for NCPA threshold locations revealed strong correspondence to SED. We conclude that the choice of statistical methods for threshold detection should be matched to experimental and environmental constraints to minimize false detection rates and avoid spurious inferences regarding threshold location. PMID:22486082

Daily, Jonathan P; Hitt, Nathaniel P; Smith, David R; Snyder, Craig D

2012-01-01

437

Motility in Oscillatoria salina as affected by different factors.  

PubMed

All 3-10-d-old Oscillatoria salina filaments glide with the speed of 323-330 microm/min (BG 11 medium, pH 7.5, 21 +/- 2 degrees C, continuous light intensity of approximately 30 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) in a culture chamber. However, a time bound progressive decrease in gliding speed and in percentage of gliding filaments occurred, depending upon the severity of different stress factors studied, viz. water stress (2-8% agarized media, liquid media with 0.2-1 mol/L NaCl, blot-dryness of filaments for > or = 5 min), temperature shock (5, 40 degrees C for > or = 5 min; 35 degrees C for > or = 15 min), darkness and low light intensity (2, 10 micromol m(-2) s(-1)), UV exposure (0.96-3.84 kJ/m2), pH extremes (< or = 6.5 and > or = 9.5), lack of all nutrients from liquid medium (double distilled water), presence of 'heavy' metals (1, 25 ppm Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, Hg) or organic substances in liquid medium (25, 250 ppm 2,4-D, captan, urea, DDT, thiourea). This feature of the alga (i.e. reduction in speed and percentage of gliding filaments depending upon severity of stress conditions) may thus be suggested to be used in assessing water quality. PMID:17455793

Gupta, S; Agrawal, S C

2006-01-01

438

Factors Affecting Blood Glucose Monitoring: Sources of Errors in Measurement  

PubMed Central

Glucose monitoring has become an integral part of diabetes care but has some limitations in accuracy. Accuracy may be limited due to strip manufacturing variances, strip storage, and aging. They may also be due to limitations on the environment such as temperature or altitude or to patient factors such as improper coding, incorrect hand washing, altered hematocrit, or naturally occurring interfering substances. Finally, exogenous interfering substances may contribute errors to the system evaluation of blood glucose. In this review, I discuss the measurement of error in blood glucose, the sources of error, and their mechanism and potential solutions to improve accuracy in the hands of the patient. I also discuss the clinical measurement of system accuracy and methods of judging the suitability of clinical trials and finally some methods of overcoming the inaccuracies. I have included comments about additional information or education that could be done today by manufacturers in the appropriate sections. Areas that require additional work are discussed in the final section.

Ginsberg, Barry H.

2009-01-01

439

Oxytocin and Psychological Factors Affecting Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of oxytocin with trait and state psychological factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods. OXT and psychological variables were analyzed from 86 controlled diabetic patients (glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) < 7%) from 45 uncontrolled diabetic patients (HbA1c ? 7). Psychological characteristics were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), while state psychological characteristics were measured with the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL 90-R). Blood samples were taken for measuring oxytocin in both subgroups during the initial phase of the study. One year later, the uncontrolled diabetic patients were reevaluated with the use of the same psychometric instruments. Results. During the first evaluation of the uncontrolled diabetic patients, a statistically significant positive relationship between the levels of OXT and psychoticism in EPQ rating scale (P < 0.013) was observed. For controlled diabetic patients, a statistically significant negative relationship between oxytocin and somatization (P < 0.030), as well as obsessive-compulsive scores (P < 0.047) in SCL-90 rating scale, was observed. During the second assessment, the values of OXT decreased when the patients managed to control their metabolic profile. Conclusions. The OXT is in association with psychoticism, somatization, and obsessionality may be implicated in T2DM.

Kontoangelos, K.; Raptis, A. E.; Papageorgiou, C. C.; Tsiotra, P. C.; Papadimitriou, G. N.; Rabavilas, A. D.; Dimitriadis, G.; Raptis, S. A.

2012-01-01

440

A review of factors affecting fat absorption in hot chips.  

PubMed

Consumption of hot chips is a convenience food in most countries. Unfortunately, these are high in fat and contribute to fat-related diseases in societies with a high fat consumption. There is substantial scope through best-practice deep-frying techniques for producing lower fat, high-quality chips. From a review of the literature, the main factors associated with a lower-fat content of chips are thick (>12 mm), straight cut chips; cryogenic freezing methods; low moisture content of potatoes (specific gravity >1.1); frying fat: chip volume ratio of 6:1; frying at optimal temperature (180 to 185 degrees C) during cooking and turning the temperature down (approximately 140 degrees C) and covering the vats during slack periods; vigorously shaking the basket and hanging it over the deep fryer to drain after frying; maintaining the quality of the frying fat by regularly skimming the cracklings, filtering the fat, and topping up the fryer with fresh fat; keeping the fat turnover <5 days; regular cleaning of frying equipment. It is important that all deep frying operators are adequately trained in these techniques. It is also important that the frying medium is low in saturated and trans fatty acids (<20%) because of their effects on blood lipids and low in linolenic acid (<3%) because it is readily degraded. The widespread implementation of best-practice deep-frying would reduce fat content of hot chips and thus lower overall fat consumption. PMID:11214763

Mehta, U; Swinburn, B

2001-01-01

441

Factors affecting storage stability of various commercial phytase sources.  

PubMed

A 360-d study was performed to evaluate the effects of different environmental conditions on storage stability of exogenous phytases. Coated and uncoated products from 3 phytase sources [Ronozyme P (DSM Nutritional Products, Basel, Switzerland), OptiPhos (Phytex LLC, Sheridan, IN), and Phyzyme (Danisco Animal Nutrition, Marlborough, UK)] were stored as pure forms, in a vitamin premix, or in a vitamin and trace mineral (VTM) premix. Pure products were stored at -18, 5, 23, and 37°C (75% humidity). Premixes were stored at 23 and 37°C. Sampling was performed on d 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 270, and 360. Sampling of the pure products stored at -18 (lack of sample) and 5°C (because of mold growth) was discontinued after d 120. Stability was reported as the residual phytase activity (% of initial) at each sampling point. For the stability of the pure forms, all interactive and main effects of the phytase product, coating, time, and storage temperature were significant (P < 0.01), except for the time × coating interaction. When stored at 23°C or less, pure phytases retained at least 91, 85, 78, and 71% of their initial phytase activity at 30, 60, 90, and 120 d of storage, respectively. However, storing pure products at 37°C reduced (P < 0.01) phytase stability, with OptiPhos retaining the most (P < 0.01) activity. Coating mitigated (P < 0.01) the negative effects of high storage temperature for Ronozyme and OptiPhos (from d 90 onward), but not for Phyzyme. For the stability of phytase in different forms of storage, all interactive and main effects of phytase product, form, coating, time, and temperature of storage were significant (P < 0.01). When stored at room temperature (23°C), retained phytase activities for most the phytase sources were more than 85, 73, and 60% of the initial activity up to 180 d when stored as pure products, vitamin premixes, or VTM premixes, respectively. When stored at 37°C, pure phytase products had greater (P < 0.01) retention of initial phytase activity than when phytases were mixed with the vitamin or VTM premixes. Coated phytases stored in any form had greater (P < 0.01) activity retention than the uncoated phytases at all sampling periods. Results indicate that storage stability of commercially available phytases is affected by duration of storage, temperature, product form, coating, and phytase source. Pure products held at 23°C or less were the most stable. In premixes, longer storage times and higher temperatures reduced phytase activity, but coating mitigated some of these negative effects. PMID:21890502

Sulabo, R C; Jones, C K; Tokach, M D; Goodband, R D; Dritz, S S; Campbell, D R; Ratliff, B W; DeRouchey, J M; Nelssen, J L

2011-09-02

442

Analysis of the factors affecting the magnetic characteristics of nano-Fe 3 O 4 particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prepared Fe3O4 nanoparticles using chemical coprecipitation and studied the factors affecting the magnetic characteristics of nano-Fe3O4 particles. We identified four factors and three levels of an orthogonal experiment and investigated these four factors that\\u000a affect the magnetic characteristics of the Fe3O4 particles. We obtained important information from this investigation. The Fe3+ to Fe2+ molar ratio, the iron precursor salt,

JianLing Li; DeCai Li; ShaoLan Zhang; HongChao Cui; Cui Wang

2011-01-01

443

The Caribbean Amblyomma Program: some ecologic factors affecting its success.  

PubMed

The Caribbean Amblyomma Program has been operational for 8 years. However, owing to funding availability, some islands did not commence eradication activities until late 1997. During the past 2 years, 6 of the 9 islands (St. Kitts, St. Lucia, Anguilla, Montserrat, Barbados, and Dominica) under the program have attained the status of provisional freedom from the tropical bont tick (TBT). There are several administrative and technical reasons why the attainment of the program goals took longer than originally anticipated. This paper examines some of the ecologic factors that necessitated the prolongation of the treatment period and the recrudescence of TBT infestation in some islands. The introduction and subsequent spread of the cattle egret, Bulbucus ibis, in the 1960s and 1970s was most likely closely associated with the dissemination of the TBT in the region. At the national or island level, variations in land use are believed to have had a major impact on the eradication efforts in the different islands. Two islands, Antigua and Nevis, both opted out of sugar production several decades ago for economic reasons. Unfortunately, however, land from former sugar estates was not developed for other agricultural purposes and it became "unimproved free-grazing" areas for livestock. Thus, in both Antigua and Nevis, large numbers of livestock tend to become feral or free-ranging, making compliance with the mandatory treatment schedules impossible. In contrast, St. Lucia has large tracts of land allocated to banana plantations and St. Kitts to sugar plantations. Thus, feral or free-ranging livestock were rarely a problem in these islands. These differences in land use management are compared and discussed in relation to their perceived profound impact on TBT eradication efforts in the region. PMID:15604510

Pegram, Rupert; Indar, Lisa; Eddi, Carlos; George, John

2004-10-01

444

Factors affecting the levels of hydrogen peroxide in rainwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) and several meteorological and chemical parameters were made for 34 rain events which occurred in Miami, Florida between April, 1995 and October, 1996. The measured H 2O 2 concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 38.6 ?M with an average concentration of 6.9 ?M. A strong seasonal dependence for H 2O 2 concentrations was observed during this period, with highest concentrations in the summer and lower levels in the winter, which corresponds to the stronger solar radiation and higher vaporization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the summer and fall, and the weaker sunlight and lower vaporization in the winter and spring. Measurements also showed a significant increase trend of H 2O 2 with increasing ambient rainwater temperature. Rains that were out from lower latitude were exposed to higher solar irradiation and contained relatively higher levels of H 2O 2 than those from the north. All these observations indicate that photochemical reactions that involved volatile organic compounds are the predominant source of H 2O 2 observed in rainwater. During several individual rainstorms, H 2O 2 concentration was found to increase as a function of time due to electrical storm activities. This finding suggests that lightning could be an important factor that determines the level of H 2O 2 during thunderstorms. Statistical data showed that the highest concentrations of H 2O 2 were observed only in rains containing low levels of nonsea-salt sulfate (NSS), nitrate and hydrogen ion. H 2O 2 concentrations in continental originated rains were much lower than marine originated ones, indicating that air pollutants in continental rains could significantly deplete the H 2O 2 concentration in atmospheric gas-phase, clouds and rainwater.

Deng, Yiwei; Zuo, Yuegang

445

Factors Affecting Organic Acid Production by Sourdough (San Francisco) Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Previous workers from this laboratory observed considerable variation in the proportions of acetic and lactic acids produced in pure broth culture as compared to consistently high proportions of acetic acid produced in the sourdough and flour suspension systems. In the latter the proportion of acetic acid was always in the range of 20 to 35% of the total, whereas in pure broth culture frequently less than 5% acetic acid was produced. In the natural environment, the sourdough bacteria, tentatively identified as lactobacilli, coexist with a yeast, Saccharomyces exiguus, and this study was undertaken to determine whether this yeast or flour ingredients including glucose or other factors were involved in this variable production of acetic acid. The proportion of acetic acid produced in broth culture on maltose, the preferred carbohydrate source, was found to depend almost entirely on the degree of aeration. Essentially anaerobic conditions, as obtained by thorough evacuation and flushing with CO2 or N2, resulted in very low (5% or less) proportions of acetic acid. Aerobic conditions, achieved by continuous shaking in cotton-plugged flasks, yielded high levels (23 to 39% of the total) of acetic acid. Similar effects of aeration were observed with glucose as the substrate, although growth was considerably slower, or in nonsterile flour suspension systems. It is theorized that, under aerobic conditions, the reduced pyridine nucleotides generated in the dissimilation of carbohydrate are oxidized directly by molecular oxygen, thereby becoming unavailable for the reduction of the acetyl phosphate intermediate to ethyl alcohol, the usual product of anaerobic dissimilation of glucose by heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria. Comparative studies with known strains of homo- and heterofermentative lactobacilli showed similar effects of aeration only on the heterofermentative strains, lending additional support to the tentative grouping by previous workers from this laboratory of the sourdough bacteria with the heterofermentative lactobacilli.

Ng, Henry

1972-01-01

446

Factors affecting the presence of dissolved glutathione in estuarine waters.  

PubMed

We investigated factors influencing the presence of the thiol glutathione (GSH) in estuarine waters. Our study addressed thiol phase-association, the biological release from algal cultures, and the role of copper in both thiol release and preservation. Our measurements in three diverse estuaries in the continental United States (San Diego Bay, Cape Fear Estuary, and Norfolk Estuary) show that dissolved GSH, present at sub-nanomolar levels, is preferentially partitioned into the ultra-filtrate fraction (<1 kDa) in comparison with dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Concentrations of GSH generally increased with increases in total copper (Cu)levels, although large variability was observed among estuaries. In 30-h exposure experiments, release of dissolved GSH from the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii into organic ligand-free experimental media was a strong function of added Cu concentration. The released GSH increased from about 0.02 to 0.27 fmol/cell as Cu was increased from the background level (0.5 nM) to 310 nM in the modified Aquil media. However, excretion of GSH was lower (up to 0.13 fmol/cell) when cells were grown in surface waters of San Diego Bay, despite much higher total Cu concentrations. Experiments conducted in-situ in San Diego Bay water indicated that high concentrations of added Cu destabilized GSH, while both Mn(II) and natural colloids promoted GSH stability. In contrast, laboratory experiments in synthetic media indicated that moderate levels of added Cu enhanced GSH stability. PMID:15382849

Tang, Degui; Shafer, Martin M; Karner, Dawn A; Overdier, Joel; Armstrong, David E

2004-08-15

447

Factors affecting insulin adherence to type I glass bottles  

SciTech Connect

Some physicochemical factors that could account for insulin adherence to type I glass bottles from admixtures of insulin with 5% dextrose (D5W) and 0.9% sodium chloride (NS) injections were studied. Samples of three volumes of NS or D5W containing insulin /sup 125/I were mixed in three sizes of bottles to test the effect of surface area and volume. Appropriate volumes of insulin were combined with insulin /sup 125/I and D5W or NS to yield solutions containing nine concentrations of insulin to test the effect of insulin concentration. Appropriate volumes of KCl injection to yield six concentrations were combined with insulin /sup 125/I and NS or D5W to test the effect of KCl concentration. All samples were assayed by gamma scintillation. In general, there was a direct relationship between the percentage of insulin adhering and the container surface area. In D5W admixtures, as the fill volume at constant insulin /sup 125/I concentration was doubled and quadrupled, the adherence of insulin decreased in all three bottle sizes (200, 250, and 500 ml). In NS admixtures, however, this effect was seen only with the 250-ml bottle. Increasing insulin concentrations over the range of 50-300 units/liter in D5W and 0-50 units/liter in NS resulted in decreased adherence. The addition of 1-60 meq/liter of KCl resulted in a significant decrease of insulin adhering from D5W and an insignificant decrease from NS admixtures. The percentage of insulin adhering to type I glass surfaces may be reduced to 25% or less by preparing i.v. admixtures in full bottles of D5W or NS at insulin concentrations of 25 to 300 units/liter. The addition of KCl, when therapeutically appropriate, will further decrease the extent of insulin adherence.

Mitrano, F.P.; Newton, D.W.

1982-09-01

448

Factors affecting the catalytic oligomerization of methane via microwave heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catalytic microwave heating has been used as a method for the oligomerization of methane to higher hydrocarbons. Many catalysts were tested in this reaction. Nickel powder, raney nickel, iron powder and activated carbon were the most active and efficient catalysts for the production of higher hydrocarbons. When helium was used as a diluent gas and the applied power was optimized, the selectivities were controlled to the most desired products. In general, the most abundant products for all the experiments were C2s. Iron powder was active only at high power (1130 W). At these conditions acetylene was avoided and ethylene and ethane were produced in the same proportion. Activated carbon catalysts with helium as diluent led to a selectivity towards benzene up to 33%. Some manganese oxides such as OMS-1, OMS-2 and MnO2 (dielectric constant, epsilon ? 104) were not active in these reactions. These data suggest that the dielectric constant is not the most important factor in the oligomerization of methane via microwave heating. Conversion and activities of these materials are not proportionally related to the surface area of the catalysts. Higher catalytic activity was observed for Raney nickel than for regular nickel powder. The maximum conversion obtained was 24% at 400 W and 10 min of irradiation time. For regular nickel powder that conversion can be achieved only after 700 W of power and more than 20 min of reaction. BET surface area, Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Temperature-Programmed Desorption and Reduction analysis were performed to characterize the catalyst before and after reaction. Deactivation of Raney nickel by fouling and sintering was observed after 500 W and/or 15 min of reaction. The effect of microwave radiation frequency on activity and product distribution for methane oligomerization has been studied. Nickel, iron, and activated carbon catalysts were used in these studies. Experiments were done with pure methane and using He as diluent. Changes in product distribution due to changes in frequency have been observed, and might be related to different transverse magnetic modes at different frequencies. Different transient heating may occur at different values of frequency.

Conde, Luis Daniel

449

Factors affecting unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background In the developing countries millions of women in the reproductive age who don’t use contraceptives prefer to postpone or limit their birth. This indicates their failure to take necessary decision to prevent and avoid unwanted pregnancy. Methods A community-based cross sectional household survey was conducted to investigate unmet need for family planning and associated factors and total demand for family planning in Kassala, Eastern Sudan between 1st May and 31st July 2012. Results A total of 812 married women were enrolled in this study. Their mean age and parity was 31.8 (7.3) and 3.4 (1.8) respectively. Ever use of contraception was 25.4% (206/812) and 26.2% (213/812) were currently using contraception. Unmet need for spacing was 15.1% while unmet need for limiting was 0.7%. The pregnant and amenorrheic women whose the pregnancy or birth was unwanted and mistimed were 105 (13%) and 130 (16%) respectively. Using Westoff model the total unmet need was estimated as 44.8%. The total demand for family planning was 71%. In logistic regression model, while age, age at marriage, parity, residence and experience of child death were not associated with total unmet need for family planning, women education < secondary level (OR=7.8; CI=5.6-10.9; P=0.00), husband education < secondary level (OR=1.9; CI=1.3-2.6, P = 0.00) and woman’s occupation; housewife (OR=4.3; CI=2.5-7.2; P=0.00) were associated with the total unmet need. Conclusions Unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan was significantly higher among women with less than secondary education. Also; it is influenced by couple’s educational status and woman’s occupation. The results of this study necessitate the need for the programme managers to take into account the concept of reproductive health education.

2013-01-01

450

Fuzzy ordering of the factors affecting the implementation of construction projects in Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper authors present the set of data on the factors affecting the implementation of construction projects in Poland. To develop that data, surveys were conducted among companies and engineers working in construction industry. The result of the paper is classification of the factors affecting the implementation of construction projects, due to the degree of significance. Elements of the fuzzy sets theory were applied, to order those factors, and to develop their formal description. Authors also describe possibility of using ordered factors, to determine the potential risk of variability of the implementation factors. This could be the basis for the design of construction projects in Polish conditions.

Ibadov, Nabi; Kulejewski, Janusz; Krzemi?ski, Micha?

2013-10-01

451

FACTORS AFFECTING SOIL RESPIRATION IN REFERENCE WITH TEMPERATURE' S ROL E IN THE GLOBAL SCAL E  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil respiration is CO2 evolution process from soil to at mosp here , mainly produced by soil micro2organism and plant roots. It is affected not only by biological factors (vegetation , micro2or2 ganism , etc. ) and environmental factors ( temperature , moisture , p H , etc. ) , but also more and more strongly by man2made factors. Based

Liu Shaohui; Zhao Kun

452

Analysis of the Factors Affecting the Career Orientation of Federal Civilian Engineers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was conducted to analyze the factors that affect the career orientation of federal civilian engineers at the Naval Avionics Center in Indianapolis, Indiana. One hundred and sixty-seven scientists and engineers from several engineering divisions...

B. J. Roberts K. W. Thomas M. E. Davis

1990-01-01

453

Behavioral Factors Affecting the Integration of Women into Air Force Craft Skills.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research analyzed data collected during February 1977 from 1730 Air Force women in traditionally all male AFSCs. The objective was to determine the behavioral factors which affected socialization into the job, and to define in detail the stereotypes ...

G. S. Caron L. W. Emmelhainz

1979-01-01

454

14 CFR Appendix B to Part 1215 - Factors Affecting Standard Charges  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Appendix B to Part 1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM (TDRSS) Pt. 1215, App. B Appendix B to Part 1215âFactors Affecting Standard Charges Charges for...

2013-01-01

455

Affective Factors in Mathematics Learning: Comments on a Paper by Neale and a Plan for Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternate hypotheses are given for Neale's findings that attitudes toward mathematics have little effect on achievement. A schemata of proposed research on affective factors in mathematics learning is presented. (JG)

Aiken, Lewis R., Jr.

1970-01-01

456

Factors Affecting Product Lifetime. A Study in Support of Policy Development for Waste Reduction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An exploratory study has examined factors affecting the lifetime of selected small electrical appliances, to assist in the development of policies to extend these life-times (for the purpose of conserving resources, protecting the environment, and reducin...

W. D. Conn

1978-01-01

457

Factors Affecting Product Lifetime. A Study in Support of Policy Development for Waste Reduction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A search for new approaches to control resource depletion, environmental damage, and the costs of solid wastes disposal led to this study. One approach is the extension of the lifetime of durable products. Factors affecting product lifetime are examined t...

W. D. Conn

1978-01-01

458

Factors Affecting Product Lifetime. A Study in Support of Policy Development for Waste Reduction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An exploratory study has examined factors affecting the lifetimes of selected small electrical appliances, to assist in the development of policies to extend these lifetimes (for the purposes of conserving resources, protecting the environment, and reduci...

W. D. Conn

1978-01-01

459

Economic Development and Factors Affecting Industrial Location on the Texas Gulf Coast.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines the major economic characteristics of five regions within the 36-county Texas Gulf Coast Area to determine the influence of major factors which affect the location decisions of firms recently settling within the area. Also, the resourc...

A. L. Wright W. T. Matthews

1971-01-01

460

Factors affecting the within-river spawning migration of Atlantic salmon, with emphasis on human impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review factors affecting the within-river spawning migration of Atlantic salmon. With populations declining across the\\u000a entire distribution range, it is important that spawners survive in the last phase of the spawning migration. Knowledge on\\u000a the factors affecting migration is essential for the protection of populations, and to increase the success of reintroduction\\u000a programmes. A number of studies have documented

Eva B. Thorstad; Finn Økland; Kim Aarestrup; Tor G. Heggberget

2008-01-01

461

Modeling intrinsic kinetics of enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis.  

PubMed

A multistep approach was taken to investigate the intrinsic kinetics of the cellulase enzyme complex as observed with hydrolysis of noncrystalline cellulose (NCC). In the first stage, published initial rate mechanistic models were built and critically evaluated for their performance in predicting time-course kinetics, using the data obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis experiments performed on two substrates: NCC and alpha-cellulose. In the second stage, assessment of the effect of reaction intermediates and products on intrinsic kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using NCC hydrolysis experiments, isolating external factors such as mass transfer effects, physical properties of substrate, etc. In the final stage, a comprehensive intrinsic kinetics mechanism was proposed. From batch experiments using NCC, the time-course data on cellulose, cello-oligosaccharides (COS), cellobiose, and glucose were taken and used to estimate the parameters in the kinetic model. The model predictions of NCC, COS, cellobiose, and glucose profiles show a good agreement with experimental data generated from hydrolysis of different initial compositions of substrate (NCC supplemented with COS, cellobiose, and glucose). Finally, sensitivity analysis was performed on each model parameter; this analysis provides some insights into the yield of glucose in the enzymatic hydrolysis. The proposed intrinsic kinetic model parametrized for dilute cellulose systems forms a basis for modeling the complex enzymatic kinetics of cellulose hydrolysis in the presence of limiting factors offered by substrate and enzyme characteristics. PMID:17465526

Peri, Suma; Karra, Srinivas; Lee, Y Y; Karim, M Nazmul

2007-04-28

462

Affective Factors and the Problem of Age in Second Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a synopsis of research studies, the relationship of second language learning to affective factors, such as language shock, attitude motivation, ego permeability, etc., is examined. Also, it is suggested that affective variables may be more important than maturation in the problems of adults in learning a second language. (MS)

Schumann, John H.

1975-01-01

463

Safe Science Facilities: Reviewing Factors that Affect Classroom Environment, Curriculum, and Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Science teachers often have two different curricula--the ideal framework on paper and the real, day-to-day instructional program that occurs in the classroom. A number of factors can affect how much of that ideal framework is accomplished. For example, how a facility is designed and how space is used can affect student achievement, classroom…

Texley, Juliana

2005-01-01

464

Factors Affecting the Adoption of Telemedicine—A Multiple Adopter Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper utilizes the diffusion of innovation framework to discuss factors affecting adoption of telemedicine. Empirical and anecdotal findings are organized across five attributes affecting innovation adoption rates for the following four adopter groups: physicians, patients, hospital administrators, and payers. A discussion of the implications is included.

Nir Menachemi; Darrell E. Burke; Douglas J. Ayers

2004-01-01

465

The corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-1 pathway mediates the negative affective states of opiate withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The negative affective symptoms of opiate withdrawal powerfully motivate drug-seeking behavior and may trigger relapse to heroin abuse. To date, no medications exist that effectively relieve the negative affective symptoms of opiate withdrawal. The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system has been hypothesized to mediate the motivational effects of drug dependence. The CRF signal is transmitted by two distinct receptors named CRF

Angelo Contarino; Francesco Papaleo; L. L. Iversen

2005-01-01

466

Factors affecting mutational specificity induced by ionizing radiation and oxidizing radicals. Progress report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We propose to analyze the factors affecting the specificity of mutational change as induced by ionizing radiation and oxidizing radicals. We want to understand not only the rules the affect base substitution but also the mechanisms(s) by which additions a...

B. Strauss

1992-01-01

467

Safe Science Facilities: Reviewing Factors that Affect Classroom Environment, Curriculum, and Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science teachers often have two different curricula--the ideal framework on paper and the real, day-to-day instructional program that occurs in the classroom. A number of factors can affect how much of that ideal framework is accomplished. For example, how a facility is designed and how space is used can affect student achievement, classroom…

Texley, Juliana

2005-01-01

468

Factors affecting infant mortality rates: evidence from cross-sectional data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper empirically tests for factors affecting infant mortality rates. Based on a crosssectional model (covering 117 countries for the year 1993) that corrects for heteroscedasticity, the results show that fertility rates, female participation in the labour force, per capita GNP, and female literacy rates significantly affect infant mortality rates. Surprisingly, government expenditure on health-care, as a percentage of GNP,

Mohammed Zakir; PHANINDRA V. WUNNAVA

1999-01-01

469

Circulating Platelet-activating Factor is Primarily Cleared by Transport, not Intravascular Hydrolysis by Lipoprotein-associated Phospholipase A2 / PAF Acetylhydrolase  

PubMed Central

Rationale The phospholipid Platelet-activating Factor (PAF) stimulates all cells of the innate immune system, and numerous cardiovascular cells. A single enzyme [plasma PAF acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) or Lipoprotein-associated Phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2)] in plasma hydrolyzes PAF, but significant controversy exists whether its action is pro- or anti-inflammatory and accordingly whether its inhibition will slow cardiovascular disease. Objective We sought to define how PAF and related short chain oxidized phospholipids turnover in vivo and the role of PAF acetylhydrolase/Lp-PLA2 in this process. Methods and Results [3H-acetyl]PAF was hydrolyzed by murine or human plasma (t1/2 3 and 7 min, respectively), but injected [3H-acetyl]PAF disappeared from murine circulation more quickly (t1/2 < 30 sec). [3H]PAF clearance was unchanged in PAF receptor?/? animals, or over the 1st two half-lives in PAF-AH?/? animals. [3H]PAF turnover was reduced by co-injecting excess unlabeled PAF or an oxidatively truncated phospholipid, and [3H]PAF clearance was slowed in hyperlipidemic apoE?/? mice with excess circulating oxidatively truncated phospholipids. [3H]PAF, fluorescent NBD-PAF, or fluorescent oxidatively truncated phospholipid were primarily accumulated by liver and lung, and were transported into endothelium as intact phospholipids through a common mechanism involving TMEM30a. Conclusions Circulating PAF and oxidized phospholipids are continually and rapidly cleared, and hence continually and rapidly produced. Saturable PAF receptor-independent transport, rather than just intravascular hydrolysis, controls circulating inflammatory and pro-apoptotic oxidized phospholipid mediators. Intravascular PAF has access to intracellular compartments. Inflammatory and pro-apoptotic phospholipids may accumulate in the circulation as transport is overwhelmed by substrates in hyperlipidemia.

Liu, Jinbo; Chen, Rui; Marathe, Gopal K.; Febbraio, Maria; Zou, Weilin; McIntyre, Thomas M.

2011-01-01

470

Cellulase hydrolysis of unsorted MSW.  

PubMed

A recent development in waste management and engineering has shown that the cellulase can be used for the liquefaction of organic fractions in household waste. The focus of this study was to optimize the enzyme hydrolysis of thermally treated municipal solid waste (MSW) by the addition of surfactant. Concurrently, the enzyme performance was analysed on pure cellulose in a solution of MSW wastewater. Results showed no effect of surfactant addition to the hydrolysis media as measured by viscosity and particle size distribution. MSW treatment wastewater was found to contain a high amount of calcium, potassium, sodium, chloride and others that may affect cellulolytic enzymes. Cellulase performance showed no effect of adding the metal ion-chelating agent EDTA to the solution. The cellulases were stable, tolerated and functioned in the presence of several contaminants. PMID:21989799

Jensen, Jacob Wagner; Felby, Claus; Jørgensen, Henning

2011-10-12

471

Factors Affecting the Supply of Recent College Graduates in New England. Policy Brief 09-1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This policy brief investigates factors affecting New England's supply of recent college graduates and how those factors have changed over time, and suggests steps that states might take to expand this source of skilled labor. (Contains 3 figures.) [This brief summarizes analysis in NEPPC research report 08-1: "The Future of the Skilled Labor…

Sasser, Alicia

2009-01-01

472

FACTORS AFFECTING THE SUCCESS RATE OF HEAT GENERATION IN CF CELLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of low cost, low precision experiments were conducted to screen for factors which may affect the successful observation of heat from palladium\\/ heavy water electrolytic cells. Critical factors include the selection of the palladium and the experimental protocol during the initial loading to the beta phase. It was found that bubble patterns, volume expansion, and surface appearance can

Dennis Cravens

473

Factors affecting the survival of implants placed in grafted maxillary sinuses: A clinical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many factors affect the survival rate of osseointegrated implants placed in grafted maxillary sinuses. This clinical report describes the retrospective evaluation of 60 patients with 228 implants placed in 84 grafted maxillary sinuses at the Loma Linda University School of Dentistry. The factors used to determine the survival rates of these implants were implant type, simultaneous\\/delayed implant placement, pretreatment bone

Joseph Y. K. Kan; Kitichai Rungcharassaeng; Jay Kim; Jaime L. Lozada; Charles J. Goodacre

2002-01-01

474

Factors affecting shared decision making at end of life in korean adults.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore the factors affecting shared decision making among Korean adults. Attitudes toward advance directives and withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment explained 45.0% of shared decision making, suggesting that these 2 factors influence shared decision making in end-of-life care. PMID:24121697

Kae-Hwa, Jo; Gyeong-Ju, An

475

Push and pull factors affecting the retention of university students in a climate of civil war  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite over 70 years of research, the retention of university students remains a major issue. In countries ravaged by long-term strife, the failure of universities to retain students has both immediate and long- term catastrophic consequences. Tinto (2005) identifies five factors that institutions can influence to increase retention. Somasundaram (2002) identifies psycho-social push and pull factors that affect the behaviour

Daya Somasundaram; Ratnajeevan Hoole; Arjuna Somasundaram